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Sample records for palmoplantar pustulosis ppp

  1. Successful treatment of palmoplantar pustulosis with isotretinoin.

    PubMed

    Wilken, Reason; Sharma, Ajay; Patel, Forum; Maverakis, Emanual

    2015-08-15

    Variably considered as a localized subtype of pustular psoriasis, palmoplantar pustulosis (PPP) is commonly treated with topical steroids, acitretin, and local phototherapy with oral or topical psoralen (PUVA). The utility of acitretin for PPP is limited by adverse effects such as myalgias and an extended risk of teratogenicity in female patients. Isotretinoin is a more tolerable retinoid with a shorter teratogenic window, but to date its effectiveness in PPP has not been reported. Herein we present two patients with PPP who responded well to isotretinoin treatment. Two patients with PPP refractory to topical therapies were started on acitretin. Both patients developed adverse effects (including headache, myalgias, and mood alterations) leading to acitretin discontinuation. Isotretinoin monotherapy was started in one patient resulting in significant clearing of palmar plaques and scale, and the addition of isotretinoin to UVA therapy resulted in near-complete clearing of recalcitrant plantar plaques in the second patient. Acitretin represents an important treatment for PPP, but is limited by adverse effects and extended teratogenicity. Our experience supports the utility of isotretinoin as a potential therapeutic alternative, which may be particularly beneficial in patients who are poor candidates for or unable to tolerate acitretin therapy.

  2. PUVA therapy for palmoplantar pustulosis.

    PubMed

    Agren-Jonsson, S; Tegner, E

    1985-01-01

    Forty patients suffering from pustulosis palmoplantaris were treated with PUVA therapy. Thirty-six patients had palmar lesions which cleared in 31 cases; in 18 cases after an initial course of 3 sessions of treatment per week during an average period of 10 weeks, and in another 13 only after additional, less frequent continuation of the PUVA therapy. The average total UVA dose at clearing of the palmar lesions was 191 and the final UVA dose 7.3 J/cm2. After 2 years, 9 out of the 31 cases of palmar lesions were still completely healed, and the average duration of remission was greater than or equal to 15 months. For plantar lesions the results of PUVA therapy, using essentially the same procedure, were less satisfactory: healing being obtained in only 5 out of 34 cases. However, for palmar and plantar lesions alike, most patients have reported long-standing improvement from PUVA therapy. A surprisingly high frequency of nausea was noted as a side-effect.

  3. Palmoplantar pustulosis and sternocostoclavicular arthro-osteitis.

    PubMed Central

    Edlund, E; Johnsson, U; Lidgren, L; Pettersson, H; Sturfelt, G; Svensson, B; Theander, J; Willén, H

    1988-01-01

    Seventeen patients with shoulder pain and radiographic involvement of the sternoclavicular or sternocostal joints, or both, are described. Eleven of these patients also had palmoplantar pustulosis. Histological examination of the joints showed chronic and subacute inflammation, increased osteoblastic activity, and cartilage degeneration. Propionibacterium acnes was cultured in tissue samples from seven of the 15 biopsied patients, a finding at variance with those of previous reports. The possibility that sternoclavicular arthro-osteitis is of infectious origin should be the subject of further investigation. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may provide pain relief, possibly owing to their inhibitory action on osteoblasts. In cases of severely restricted movement or severe pain resection of the medial clavicle may be considered. Images PMID:3058054

  4. Somatostatin receptors are strongly expressed in palmoplantar sweat glands and ducts: studies of normal and palmoplantar pustulosis skin.

    PubMed

    Hagforsen, E; Michaëlsson, G; Stridsberg, M

    2011-07-01

    The acrosyringium is the target for inflammation in the chronic and intensely inflammatory skin disease palmoplantar pustulosis (PPP). The sweat-gland apparatus seems to be an immunocompetent structure that probably contributes to skin defence. Furthermore, the sweat gland and duct may be a hitherto unrecognized neuroendocrine organ. To obtain further information about the neuroendocrine properties of the sweat-gland apparatus by examining expression of the somatostatin receptors (SSTRs) 1-5 in healthy palmar skin and in PPP skin. Biopsy specimens were taken from 25 patients with PPP and 25 healthy controls. Immunohistochemical analysis was used to investigate expression of SSTRs 1-5. SSTRs 1-5 were expressed in both epidermal and endothelial structures. The staining intensity of the sweat-gland apparatus was more pronounced than that of the epidermis. Expression differed significantly between lesional PPP and normal plantar skin, with increased expression of SSTRs 3 and 4 in ducts in epidermis, and decreased expression of SSTR 1 in ducts in both papillary and reticular dermis. In specimens with pronounced inflammation, numerous dendritic cells with strong expression of SSTRs 1, 2 and 4 were seen, especially in the papillary dermis. The presence of SSTRs in palmoplantar skin, and specifically at high density in the sweat glands and ducts, might be of particular importance in skin neuroimmunoendocrinology. Although the relevance of the changes in SSTR expression in PPP skin compared with normal skin is unclear, our hypothesis is that these differences might influence the function of both the neuroendocrine and neuroimmunological properties of palmoplantar skin, especially in the sweat-gland apparatus. © The Author(s). CED © 2011 British Association of Dermatologists.

  5. Normal and PPP-affected palmoplantar sweat gland express neuroendocrine markers chromogranins and synaptophysin differently.

    PubMed

    Hagforsen, Eva; Michaëlsson, Gerd; Stridsberg, Mats

    2010-11-01

    Earlier findings indicate the acrosyringium as the target for the inflammation in the chronic and intensely inflammatory skin disease palmoplantar pustulosis (PPP). The sweat gland apparatus seems to be an immune-competent structure that probably contributes to the defence of the skin. Furthermore, the sweat gland and duct may be a hitherto unrecognized neuroendocrine organ because it expresses cholineacetyl-transferase and acetylcholinesterase, nicotinic receptors, beta-adrenergic and angiotensin receptors. The aim of this study was to obtain further information about neuroendocrine properties of the sweat gland apparatus by examining the expression of common neuroendocrine markers synaptophysin and chromogranins A and B in healthy palmar skin and in PPP skin. Synaptophysin and chromogranins were expressed in the sweat glands and ducts with some variation in the pattern and intensity of the expression. In PPP skin the expression differed, being higher and lower, depending on the part of the sweat duct. Chromogranins were further expressed in the epidermis, endothelium and inflammatory cells, but its intensity was weaker in epidermis than in the sweat gland apparatus. In most cases, chromogranins in epidermis in involved PPP were weakly expressed compared to healthy controls. The presence of synaptophysin and chromogranins in palmoplantar skin may have marked neuroendocrine effects, and the palmoplantar skin is likely to have important neuroimmuno-endocrine properties. Moreover, the altered chromogranin expression in PPP skin might influence both the neuroendocrine and neuroimmunologic properties of palmoplantar skin in these patients. These results indicate important neuroendocrine properties of the palmoplantar skin.

  6. Vesicular LL-37 Contributes to Inflammation of the Lesional Skin of Palmoplantar Pustulosis

    PubMed Central

    Murakami, Masamoto; Kaneko, Takaaki; Nakatsuji, Teruaki; Kameda, Kenji; Okazaki, Hidenori; Dai, Xiuju; Hanakawa, Yasushi; Tohyama, Mikiko; Ishida-Yamamoto, Akemi; Sayama, Koji

    2014-01-01

    Pustulosis palmaris et plantaris”, or palmoplantar pustulosis (PPP), is a chronic pustular dermatitis characterized by intraepidermal palmoplantar pustules. Although early stage vesicles (preceding the pustular phase) formed in the acrosyringium contain the antimicrobial peptides cathelicidin (hCAP-18/LL-37) and dermcidin, the details of hCAP-18/LL-37 expression in such vesicles remain unclear. The principal aim of the present study was to clarify the manner of hCAP-18/LL-37 expression in PPP vesicles and to determine whether this material contributed to subsequent inflammation of lesional skin. PPP vesicle fluid (PPP-VF) induced the expression of mRNAs encoding IL-17C, IL-8, IL-1α, and IL-1β in living skin equivalents, but the level of only IL-8 mRNA decreased significantly upon stimulation of PPP vesicle with depletion of endogenous hCAP-18/LL-37 by affinity chromatography (dep-PPP-VF). Semi-quantitative dot-blot analysis revealed higher concentrations of hCAP-18/LL-37 in PPP-VF compared to healthy sweat (2.87±0.93 µM vs. 0.09±0.09 µM). This concentration of hCAP-18/LL-37 in PPP-VF could upregulate expression of IL-17C, IL-8, IL-1α, and IL-1β at both the mRNA and protein levels. Recombinant hCAP-18 was incubated with dep-PPP-VF. Proteinase 3, which converts hCAP-18 to the active form (LL-37), was present in PPP-VF. Histopathological and immunohistochemical examination revealed that early stage vesicles contained many mononuclear cells but no polymorphonuclear cells, and the mononuclear cells were CD68-positive. The epidermis surrounding the vesicle expresses monocyte chemotactic chemokine, CCL2. In conclusion, PPP-VF contains the proteinase required for LL-37 processing and also may directly upregulate IL-8 in lesional keratinocytes, in turn contributing to the subsequent inflammation of PPP lesional skin. PMID:25330301

  7. Epidemiology of psoriasis and palmoplantar pustulosis: a nationwide study using the Japanese national claims database

    PubMed Central

    Kubota, Kiyoshi; Kamijima, Yukari; Sato, Tsugumichi; Ooba, Nobuhiro; Koide, Daisuke; Iizuka, Hajime; Nakagawa, Hidemi

    2015-01-01

    Objective The primary objective was to estimate the national prevalence of psoriasis and palmoplantar pustulosis (PPP) in Japan. Secondary objectives were to determine (1) whether psoriasis and PPP disease activity varies by season, and (2) whether disease severity is associated with concurrent diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidaemia and hypertension. Settings Patients with a psoriasis or PPP diagnosis code between April 2010 and March 2011 were identified using a Japanese national database. Participants 565 903 patients with psoriasis or PPP were identified. No patient was excluded. Primary and secondary outcome measures National prevalence was calculated using census data. We estimated the difference in the proportion of patients who used healthcare services, as a proxy for disease activity, between the hot and cold seasons and the difference in the standardised prevalence of comorbidities between severe and mild disease. The measures were estimated separately for the two broad disease categories of psoriasis and PPP but not in all patients as planned because the two disease categories had major differences. Results The national prevalence of psoriasis and PPP was 0.34% (95% CI 0.34% to 0.34%) and 0.12% (0.12% to 0.12%), respectively. The difference in the proportion of patients who used healthcare services in the hot compared to the cold season was −0.3% (−0.5% to −0.1%) for psoriasis and 10.0% (9.8% to 10.3%) for PPP. The difference in the standardised prevalence between severe and mild psoriasis was 3.1% (2.7% to 3.4%), 3.2% (2.8% to 3.6%) and 5.1% (4.7% to 5.6%) for concurrent diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidaemia and hypertension, respectively. No significant difference in the prevalence of comorbidity was observed for PPP. Conclusions The national prevalence, seasonal variation in disease activity and prevalence of comorbidities in Japanese patients with psoriasis and PPP estimated in this descriptive study may be used as basic information for future

  8. Interleukin (IL)-8 and IL-36γ but not IL-36Ra are related to acrosyringia in pustule formation associated with palmoplantar pustulosis.

    PubMed

    Xiaoling, Y; Chao, W; Wenming, W; Feng, L; Hongzhong, J

    2018-06-12

    Palmoplantar pustulosis (PPP) is a refractory, nonbacterial impetigo confined to the palms and soles. Its pathogenesis is still obscure, but it may be associated with the large eccrine sweat glands and pores of palmoplantar skin. PPP is considered to be a localized pustular psoriasis. Interleukin (IL)-8, IL-36γ and IL-36Ra play important roles in the pathogenesis of pustular psoriasis, but their role in PPP is unclear. To evaluate IL-8, IL-36γ and IL-36Ra expression in PPP, and their relationship with acrosyringia and pustule formation. mRNA expression was quantified in skin samples from patients with PPP (n = 7), patients with psoriasis vulgaris (PSV; n = 8) and healthy controls (HCs) (n = 6) by reverse-transcription-real-time PCR. Protein expression was characterized by immunohistochemistry (PPP, n = 17; PSV, n = 14; HCs, n = 12). Sweat ducts, including acrosyringia, were stained for epithelial membrane antigen (EMA). IL-8 mRNA and protein were markedly increased in PPP lesions compared with PSV lesions or HC skin. IL-36γ mRNA and protein were significantly more abundant in PPP lesions than in HC skin. IL-36Ra mRNA was significantly overexpressed in PPP lesions compared with HC skin, but there was no difference in IL-36Ra protein between PPP, PSV and HCs. IL-8 was abundantly expressed by neutrophils in PPP pustules, while IL36Ra was localized in the keratinocytes of PPP, PSV and HC skin. IL-36γ and EMA were colocalized in cells surrounding PPP pustules, and IL-36γ was also expressed in sweat duct cells in the dermis. IL-8, IL-36γ and IL-36Ra are overexpressed in PPP lesions. IL-8, IL-36γ and acrosyringia, rather than IL-36Ra, are associated with pustule formation in PPP. © 2018 British Association of Dermatologists.

  9. Insulin resistance, diabetes mellitus and thyroid dysfunction in patients with palmoplantar pustulosis: a case-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Ataş, Hatice; Gönül, Müzeyyen

    2017-06-01

    Palmoplantar pustulosis (PPP) is a chronic pustular inflammatory skin disease; however, its pathogenesis is not well understood. Several factors, such as genetics, tobacco use and autoimmune issues, may contribute to this disease. This research was conducted to investigate the relationships between insulin resistance, thyroid disease and PPP. Thirty-three patients with PPP and 27 age- and gender-matched controls were analysed for their smoking histories, thyroid function tests, anti-thyroid peroxidase antibody (anti-TPO) levels, fasting glucose, fasting insulin levels and the homeostatic model assessment (HOMA) index for insulin resistance. We found significant differences between the PPP and control groups according to their tobacco use and anti-TPO levels ( p = 0.009 and p = 0.009, respectively). The proportion of tobacco use was 90% in the PPP patients and 63% in the controls. Gender and tobacco use were predictive risk factors for PPP in the multivariate analysis ( OR = 141.7, p < 0.0001 and OR = 147.6, p = 0.006, respectively). An anti-TPO level > 35 U/ml and the presence of a thyroid abnormality were independent risk factors in the univariate, but not the multivariate analysis ( OR = 4.2, p = 0.025 and OR = 5.4, p = 0.004, respectively). A moderate correlation between the gender and anti-TPO level was found ( r = 0.361, p = 0.039); however, the fasting glucose, insulin and HOMA index were not significant between the PPP and control groups. Female gender and smoking were the most important risk factors for PPP; however, the increase in the anti-TPO level may be related to the predominance of females afflicted with this disease. Additional studies are necessary to clarify the relationships between PPP, thyroid disease and diabetes mellitus.

  10. Clinical Features, Etiologic Factors, Associated Disorders, and Treatment of Palmoplantar Pustulosis: The Mayo Clinic Experience, 1996-2013.

    PubMed

    Olazagasti, Jeannette M; Ma, Janice E; Wetter, David A

    2017-09-01

    To further characterize clinical characteristics, etiologic factors, associated disorders, and treatment of palmoplantar pustulosis (PPP). We conducted a retrospective review of patients with PPP at Mayo Clinic between January 1, 1996, and December 31, 2013. Of 215 patients with PPP identified, 179 (83%) were female, and the mean age at onset was 45.3 years. Most patients (n=165, 77%) were current or former smokers. At diagnosis, 15 patients (7%) had an anxiety diagnosis and 9 (4%) had an infection. Nineteen cases (9%) were drug induced. Comorbid conditions included thyroid disease in 18 patients (8%), gluten sensitivity in 3 (1%), and type 2 diabetes mellitus in 21 (10%). In all, 194 patients (90%) received topical corticosteroids, 55 (26%) received phototherapy, and 54 (25%) received systemic agents. More than three-fourths of the patients in this study had a history of smoking, which is considered a triggering or aggravating factor for PPP. Regarding comorbid conditions, gluten sensitivity and thyroid disease were found less frequently than previously reported in the literature. Treatment regimens and responses in this cohort varied considerably. Copyright © 2017 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Manifestation of palmoplantar pustulosis during or after infliximab therapy for plaque-type psoriasis: report on five cases

    PubMed Central

    Thaci, Diamant; Mohr, Johannes; Pätzold, Sylvie; Bertsch, Hans Peter; Krüger, Ullrich; Reich, Kristian

    2008-01-01

    Infliximab is a monoclonal antibody directed against TNF-α. It has been approved for use in rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, inflammatory bowel disease, psoriatic arthritis and plaque-type psoriasis. In case reports, positive effects on pustular variants of psoriasis have also been reported. However, paradoxically, manifestation of pustular psoriasis and plaque-type psoriasis has been reported in patients treated with TNF antagonists including infliximab for other indications. Here, we report on 5 patients with chronic plaque-type psoriasis who developed palmoplantar pustulosis during or after discontinuation of infliximab therapy. In two of the five cases, manifestation of palmoplantar pustulosis was not accompanied by worsening of plaque-type psoriasis. Possibly, site-specific factors or a differential contribution of immunological processes modulated by TNF inhibitors to palmoplantar pustulosis and plaque-type psoriasis may have played a role. PMID:18239925

  12. Recalcitrant eosinophilic pustular folliculitis of Ofuji with palmoplantar pustulosis: dramatic response to narrowband UVB phototherapy.

    PubMed

    Lim, Hua Liang; Chong, Wei-Sheng

    2012-08-01

    Eosinophilic pustular folliculitis of Ofuji is a recalcitrant disease typified by non-infective eosinophilic spongiosis involving the infundibular region of the hair follicle. We present a case of a 49-year-old Chinese man with known palmoplantar pustulosis and acrodermatitis continua of Hallopeau which was promptly resolved with methotrexate therapy. He returned with an erythematous papulopustular eruption with coalescence to annular plaques, occurring over the face, chest and back with active palmoplantar pustulation. Histology from skin biopsy of the palmar lesion was in keeping with palmoplantar psoriasis, while biopsy of the facial and truncal lesions revealed florid perifollicular eosinophilic congregation diagnostic of eosinophilic pustular folliculitis of Ofuji. Indomethacin was initiated with partial improvement of lesions with cyclical flares. A trial of narrowband ultraviolet-B phototherapy at a frequency of thrice weekly achieved sustained clearance of both eosinophilic pustular folliculitis and palmoplantar lesions. Indomethacin was tailed down and eventually discontinued with maintenance of narrowband ultraviolet-B therapy; this achieved successful control of the disease. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  13. Pustular Palmoplantar Psoriasis Successfully Treated with Nb-UVB Monochromatic Excimer Light: A Case-Report.

    PubMed

    Gianfaldoni, Serena; Tchernev, Georgi; Wollina, Uwe; Lotti, Torello

    2017-07-25

    Barber's palmoplantar pustulosis (PPP) is a form of localised pustular psoriasis, affecting the palmar and plantar surfaces. It is a chronic disease, with a deep impact on the patients' quality of life. The Authors discuss a case of Baber Psoriasis successfully treated with monochromatic excimer light.

  14. Pustular Palmoplantar Psoriasis Successfully Treated with Nb-UVB Monochromatic Excimer Light: A Case-Report

    PubMed Central

    Gianfaldoni, Serena; Tchernev, Georgi; Wollina, Uwe; Lotti, Torello

    2017-01-01

    Barber’s palmoplantar pustulosis (PPP) is a form of localised pustular psoriasis, affecting the palmar and plantar surfaces. It is a chronic disease, with a deep impact on the patients’ quality of life. The Authors discuss a case of Baber Psoriasis successfully treated with monochromatic excimer light. PMID:28785333

  15. Presence of keratin-specific antibody-forming cells in palatine tonsils of patients with pustulosis palmaris et plantaris (PPP) and its correlation with prognosis after tonsillectomy.

    PubMed

    Tanimoto, Yoichiro; Fukuyama, Satoshi; Tanaka, Norimitsu; Ohori, Jun-Ichiro; Tanimoto, Yukari; Kurono, Yuichi

    2014-01-01

    Keratin-specific immune responses in tonsils may be associated with the pathogenesis of pustulosis palmaris et plantaris (PPP). Evaluation of keratin-specific immune responses in tonsils might be useful to predict the effectiveness of tonsillectomy for patients with PPP. The aim of the present study was to clarify the role of keratin-specific immune responses in the pathogenesis of PPP in tonsils. It has been reported that anti-keratin antibodies in serum were higher in patients with PPP and decreased after tonsillectomy, indicating that anti-keratin antibodies might be generated in tonsils. In order to demonstrate the presence of keratin-specific immune responses in tonsils, the numbers of keratin-specific antibody-forming cells (AFCs) in tonsillar and peripheral blood lymphocytes were examined by enzyme-linked immunospot assay. The prognosis of PPP was compared after tonsillectomy. The numbers of keratin-specific IgM and IgG AFCs in tonsils and of IgG AFCs in peripheral blood were significantly increased in patients with PPP. The numbers of keratin-specific IgG AFCs in peripheral blood correlated positively with tonsil and serum IgG antibodies specific to keratin. Our data show that a good prognosis in patients with PPP depended on the numbers of keratin-specific IgG and IgM AFCs in peripheral blood and the levels of keratin-specific IgG antibodies in serum being significantly decreased 6 months after tonsillectomy.

  16. Expression of cutaneous lymphocyte-associated antigen (CLA) in tonsillar T-cells and its induction by in vitro stimulation with alpha-streptococci in patients with pustulosis palmaris et plantaris (PPP).

    PubMed

    Nozawa, Hayabusa; Kishibe, Kan; Takahara, Miki; Harabuchi, Yasuaki

    2005-07-01

    Pustulosis palmaris et plantaris (PPP) is known to be a one of the tonsil-related diseases because tonsillectomy is quite effective in curing this condition. However etiological association between tonsils and PPP have not fully clarified yet. Cutaneous lymphocyte-associated antigen (CLA) is known to be a specific homing receptor that facilitates T-cell migration into skin. In this study, we investigated the expression of CLA on T-cells in tonsil, peripheral blood, and skin from patients with PPP. Two-color flow cytometric and two-color immunohistological analyses revealed that the numbers of CLA/CD3 double-positive cells in freshly isolated tonsillar mononuclear cells (TMC) and in tonsillar tissues were significantly higher in patients with PPP than in patients without PPP (P<0.01, each). In vitro stimulus with alpha-streptococcal antigens enhanced CLA expression of tonsillar T-cells and TGF-beta production of TMC in patients with PPP (P<0.01, each), but did not in patients without PPP. In peripheral blood from PPP patients, the number of the CLA/CD3 double-positive cells significantly decreased at 6 months after tonsillectomy (P<0.05). The CLA/CD3 double-positive cells and the postcapillary venule that expressed with a ligand of CLA, E-selectin, were found more frequently in the plantar skin from patients with PPP as compared to that from healthy volunteers (P<0.01, each). These data suggest that a novel immune response to alpha-streptococci may enhance CLA expression on tonsillar T-cells through TGF-beta production in patients with PPP, resulting in moving of CLA-positive tonsillar T-cells to skin and tissue damages. This may play a key role in pathogenesis of PPP.

  17. Alefacept is safe and efficacious in the treatment of palmar plantar pustulosis.

    PubMed

    Guenther, Lyn C

    2007-01-01

    Alefacept blocks T-cell activation and induces apoptosis of memory T cells. It improves psoriasis vulgaris and may induce prolonged remissions. Experience with alefacept in palmar plantar pustulosis (PPP) is limited. The objective of the study was to observe the effectiveness and safety of alefacept in the treatment of PPP. Alefacept was administered weekly for 16 weeks by intramuscular (IM) injection of 15 mg to 15 patients with moderate to very severe PPP. Patients were followed for an additional 12 weeks. Four weeks after 16 weeks of treatment, there was a 49.6% reduction in the Palmoplantar Pustulosis Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PPPASI) and a 38.6% and a 64.5% reduction in total and fresh pustules, respectively. Eight weeks after dosing, 53.3% achieved PPPASI 50, 26.7% achieved PPPASI 75, and one patient was clear. The mean percent reduction in total pustules and fresh pustules was 46.1% and 61.2%, respectively; 73% had no pain, 53% had no itching, and 80% had no functional impairment. The palms responded better than the soles. This pilot showed that 16 weeks of once-weekly alefacept 15 mg IM was safe, led to improvement in PPP in all 15 treated patients, and induced a remission in one patient. Larger double-blind studies are warranted.

  18. Thyroid disease in pustulosis palmoplantaris.

    PubMed

    Agner, T; Sindrup, J H; Høier-Madsen, M; Hegedüs, L

    1989-10-01

    An increased frequency of thyroid autoantibodies has been reported in patients with palmar and plantar pustulosis (PPP). This study was undertaken to determine the frequency and type of thyroid disease in 32 patients with this disease compared with a control group. Thyroid disease was demonstrated in 53% of the patients with PPP as compared to 16% in the matched control group. Fourteen patients with PPP had an enlarged thyroid and in six there were thyroid autoantibodies. There appears to be an increased incidence of goitre and thyroid autoantibodies in PPP with a decrease in the level of the thyroid hormones.

  19. Contact sensitivities in palmar plantar pustulosis (acropustulosis).

    PubMed

    Yiannias, J A; Winkelmann, R K; Connolly, S M

    1998-09-01

    Acropustulosis, or chronic palmar plantar pustulosis (PPP), is a phenomenon of recurrent sterile pustules, erythema, and scaling affecting the palms and soles. Its pathogenesis is unclear, and it is difficult to treat. The purpose of this study was to elucidate further the factors involved in causing PPP, thereby enhancing the ability to manage this disease. All cases of PPP seen at Mayo Clinic Scottsdale from 1987 to 1993 were reviewed. 21 patients with PPP were identified, 15 of whom had been patch tested. 9 of the 15 patients (60%) showed positive patch test results. Fragrance was the most common sensitivity, but nickel, formaldehyde, para-phenylenediamine, thiuram, neomycin, mercury, balsam of Peru, and cinnamic aldehyde sensitivities were demonstrated. Less important factors included atopy, fungal and bacterial infections, and irritation. Although the mechanism of this sterile pustulosis response does not depend solely on delayed hypersensitivity mechanisms, we believe that we have demonstrated such a large number of positive patch tests in this chronic pustular dermatosis that patch testing should be considered in the routine work-up of these patients.

  20. Acute generalised exanthematous pustulosis.

    PubMed

    Criton, S; Sofia, B

    2001-01-01

    Acute generalised exanthernatous pustulosis (AGEP) is a condition characterised by sudden onset of non-follicular aseptic pustules all over the body. It is distinct from pustular psoriasis with characteristic morphology, histopathology and evolution.

  1. A case of synovitis, acne, pustulosis, hyperostosis, and osteitis (SAPHO) syndrome presenting with hypertrophic pachymeningitis.

    PubMed

    Shiraishi, Wataru; Hayashi, Shintaro; Iwanaga, Yasutaka; Murai, Hiroyuki; Yamamoto, Akifumi; Kira, Jun-ichi

    2015-02-15

    A 43-year-old woman with a 3-year history of headache, fever, and swelling of the forehead, presented to our hospital. A general examination revealed palmar and plantar pustules. Blood analyses showed an elevated white blood cell count, C-reactive protein level, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate. Brain MRI revealed a partially thickened cranial bone with gadolinium enhancement, and also abnormally enhanced dura mater. Bone scintigraphy showed involvement of the cranial bone and bilateral sternoclavicular joints. Palmar skin biopsy indicated palmoplantar pustulosis. From these results, SAPHO (synovitis, acne, pustulosis, hyperostosis and osteitis) syndrome with associated hypertrophic pachymeningitis was diagnosed. After corticosteroid therapy and tonsillectomy, the clinical symptoms and radiological abnormalities were improved. Clinicians should be aware of SAPHO as a potential unusual cause of hypertrophic pachymeningitis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Improvement of pustulosis palmaris et plantaris by periodontal infection control in a patient with chronic periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Murai, Osamu; Sasaki, Daisuke; Ando, Yoshinori; Fujimura, Akira; Oikawa, Hiromi; Suwa, Nagisa; Watabe, Daisuke; Maeda, Fumihiko; Endo, Kohki; Yaegashi, Takashi; Akasaka, Toshihide; Naruishi, Koji

    2012-01-01

    Pustulosis palmaris et plantaris (PPP) is a chronic, inflammatory, autoimmune-type disease characterized by sterile pustules of skin. The skin inflammation is influenced by several factors such as drugs, sunlight, metabolic and psychogenic factors as well as metal allergy. Here, we report a rare case that intensive periodontal treatment might have contributed to the improvement of skin inflammation. Skin inflammation regressed 1 month after intensive periodontal treatment. Both CD4/CD8 ratio and % of B cells in the blood sample were slightly decreased corresponding to the improvement of periodontal inflammation. Infection control of periodontal lesions might be one of attractive therapeutic targets in management of PPP.

  3. Ustekinumab in der Therapie der Pustulosis palmoplantaris - Eine Fallserie mit neun Patienten.

    PubMed

    Buder, Valeska; Herberger, Katharina; Jacobi, Arnd; Augustin, Matthias; Radtke, Marc Alexander

    2016-11-01

    Die Pustulosis palmoplantaris ist eine chronisch entzündliche Hauterkrankung, die mit bedeutenden Einschränkungen der Lebensqualität und der Belastbarkeit einhergeht. Aufgrund von Zulassungsbeschränkungen und einem häufig therapierefraktären Verlauf sind die Behandlungsmöglichkeiten limitiert. Nach zuvor frustranen Therapien erhielten 9 Patienten mit Pustulosis palmoplantaris nach Ausschluss einer latenten Tuberkulose Ustekinumab (45 mg Ustekinumab bei < 100 kg Körpergewicht [KG], 90 mg Ustekinumab > 100 kg KG) in Woche 0, 4, 12 und 24. Reguläre Visiten erfolgten nach 4 und 12 Wochen, im weiteren Verlauf alle 12 Wochen. Das Durchschnittsalter bei Therapiebeginn betrug 48 Jahre. Drei Patienten waren männlich. Bei n  =  4 Patienten (44,4 %) wurde eine Verbesserung um 75 % des Palmoplantar-Psoriasis-Area-Severity-Index (PPPASI) erreicht. Insgesamt verbesserte sich der PPPASI nach 24 Wochen durchschnittlich um 71,6 %. Eine komplette Abheilung zeigte sich bei n  =  2 Patienten nach 24 Wochen. Bis auf lokale Injektionsreaktionen und leichte Infekte wurden keine unerwünschten Wirkungen beobachtet. Die Fallserie ist ein weiterer Beleg für die Wirksamkeit und Verträglichkeit von Ustekinumab in der Therapie der Pustulosis palmoplantaris. Zur Beurteilung der Langzeitwirkung und -sicherheit sowie der Wirksamkeit einer intermittierenden Therapie sind kontrollierte Studiendaten sowie Beobachtungen im Rahmen von Patientenregistern notwendig. © 2016 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Genetics Home Reference: palmoplantar keratoderma with deafness

    MedlinePlus

    ... 26 in cells, and may interfere with the function of other connexin proteins. This disruption could affect skin growth and also impair hearing by disturbing the conversion of sound waves to nerve impulses. Palmoplantar keratoderma with deafness can ...

  5. Efalizumab in the Treatment of Scalp, Palmoplantar and Nail Psoriasis: Results of a 24-Week Latin American Study

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, María Denise; Chouela, Edgardo Néstor; Dorantes, Gladys Leon; Roselino, Ana Maria; Santamaria, Jesùs; Allevato, Miguel Angel; Cestari, Tania; de Aillaud, Maria Eugenia Manzanera; Stengel, Fernando Miguel; Licu, Daiana

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Plaque-type psoriasis affecting the nails, scalp, hands or feet can often be difficult to treat; for example, topical treatments and phototherapy may not penetrate the nail plate or scalp. The objective of this large, international, multicentre study was to investigate the efficacy of efalizumab in a Latin American population of adult patients with moderate-to-severe chronic plaque psoriasis who were candidates for systemic therapy or phototherapy. Methods Eligible patients were enrolled in a 24-week, open-label, single-arm, Phase IIIb/IV study of continuous treatment with subcutaneous efalizumab, 1.0 mg/kg/wk. Involvement of the nails, scalp, or hands or feet was assessed using the Nail Psoriasis Severity Index (NAPSI), the Psoriasis Scalp Severity Index (PSSI), or the Palmoplantar Pustulosis Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PPPASI), respectively. Missing data were handled using a last observation carried forward or nonresponder imputation approach. Results Of the 189 patients who received treatment, 112 patients had nail involvement, 172 had scalp involvement, and 19 had palmoplantar disease at baseline. At Week 24, ≥50% improvement on the NAPSI, PSSI and PPPASI was observed in 31%, 71% and 68% of patients, respectively, whereas ≥75% improvement on these scores was observed in 17%, 52% and 63%, respectively. Descriptive statistics showed lower NAPSI-75 and higher PSSI-75 and -50 response rates among patients with higher baseline scores. Conclusions This open-label, uncontrolled study provides supportive evidence of the potential of efalizumab as a treatment for nail, scalp and palmoplantar psoriasis. PMID:20428227

  6. Hyperkeratotic Palmoplantar Lichen Planus in a child

    PubMed Central

    Madke, Bhushan; Gutte, Rameshwar; Doshi, Bhavana; Khopkar, Uday

    2013-01-01

    Lichen planus (LP) is a common idiopathic inflammatory disorder that affects the flexor aspect of the wrists, the legs, and the oral and genital mucosa. Depending upon the site of involvement, LP can be divided into mucosal, nail, scalp, or palmoplantar types. Palmoplantar LP can pose a diagnostic problem to the clinician as it resembles common dermatoses like psoriasis, verruca, corn, calluses, lichenoid drug eruption, and papular syphilide of secondary syphilis. In this case report, we describe a 4-year-old male child who presented with highly pruritic erythematous to violaceous hyperkeratotic papules and plaques on his palms and soles. Typical LP papules were noted on the upper back. Histopathology of the papular lesion showed features of LP. Dermatoscopy of a papule from the back showed the characteristic Wickham striae. We report this rare involvement of palm and soles in a case of childhood LP. PMID:24082195

  7. Acute Generalized Exanthematous Pustulosis Due to Insect Bites?

    PubMed

    Bhat, Yasmeen J; Hassan, Iffat; Sajad, Peerzada; Yaseen, Atiya; Wani, Rohi

    2015-01-01

    Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis is a rare severe cutaneous adverse reaction pattern that is mostly caused by the intake of drugs and rarely associated with viral infections, food allergens or toxins. Here we present the report of three patients who got admitted in our hospital for generalized pustulosis and fever after insect bites. The diagnosis of acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis was made by EuroSCAR scoring. The drug etiology was excluded and spider bite was implicated as the etiological agent in these cases of AGEP which are the first such reported cases in India.

  8. Acute Generalized Exanthematous Pustulosis Due to Insect Bites?

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Yasmeen J; Hassan, Iffat; Sajad, Peerzada; Yaseen, Atiya; Wani, Rohi

    2015-01-01

    Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis is a rare severe cutaneous adverse reaction pattern that is mostly caused by the intake of drugs and rarely associated with viral infections, food allergens or toxins. Here we present the report of three patients who got admitted in our hospital for generalized pustulosis and fever after insect bites. The diagnosis of acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis was made by EuroSCAR scoring. The drug etiology was excluded and spider bite was implicated as the etiological agent in these cases of AGEP which are the first such reported cases in India. PMID:26288442

  9. Up-regulation of CC chemokine receptor 6 on tonsillar T cells and its induction by in vitro stimulation with α-streptococci in patients with pustulosis palmaris et plantaris

    PubMed Central

    Yoshizaki, T; Bandoh, N; Ueda, S; Nozawa, H; Goto, T; Kishibe, K; Takahara, M; Harabuchi, Y

    2009-01-01

    Pustulosis palmaris et plantaris (PPP) is a tonsil-related disease; tonsillectomy is somewhat effective in treating the condition. However, the aetiological association between the tonsils and PPP has not yet been elucidated fully. Recently, some chemokines and chemokine receptors, including CC chemokine receptor (CCR) 4, CCR6 and CX chemokine receptor (CXCR) 3, have been reported to play important roles in the development of psoriasis, a disease related closely to PPP. In this study, we found that CCR6 expression on both tonsillar and peripheral blood T cells was up-regulated more intensively in PPP patients than in non-PPP patients (P < 0·001 for both), but CCR4 and CXCR3 expressions were not. In vitro stimulation with α-streptococcal antigen enhanced CCR6 expression significantly on tonsillar T cells in PPP patients (P < 0·05), but this was not observed in non-PPP patients. The chemotactic response of tonsillar T cells to the CCR6 ligand CC chemokine ligand (CCL) 20 was significantly higher in PPP patients than in non-PPP patients (P < 0·05). The percentage of CCR6-positive peripheral blood T cells decreased after tonsillectomy in PPP patients (P < 0·01); this decrease correlated with an improvement of skin lesions (P < 0·05, r = −0·63). The numbers of CCR6-positive cells and the expression of CCL20 were increased significantly in pathological lesions compared with non-pathological lesions in PPP skin (P < 0·01, P < 0·05 respectively). These results suggest that a novel immune response to α-streptococci may enhance CCR6 expression on T cells in tonsils and that CCR6-positive T cells may move to peripheral blood circulation, resulting in recruitment to target skin lesions expressing CCL20 in PPP patients. This may be one of the key roles in pathogenesis of the tonsil-related disease PPP. PMID:19659772

  10. Palmar and plantar pustulosis elicited by Candida antigen.

    PubMed

    Uehara, M

    1978-05-01

    Intracutaneous injection of Candida albicans was done on the forearm of 30 patients with palmar and plantar pustulosis. This induced an aggravation of pustular eruptions on the palms and soles in 11 (37%) of the 30 patients. The aggravation occurred only in those patients who had a positive delayed skin reaction to the Candida antigen. It is suggested that a delayed hypersensitivity inflammatory reaction somewhere in the body is attended with an aggravation of palmar plantar pustulosis.

  11. Palmoplantar peeling secondary to sirolimus therapy.

    PubMed

    Liu, L S; McNiff, J M; Colegio, O R

    2014-01-01

    Sirolimus (rapamycin) is an immunosuppressive agent commonly used in transplant recipients. Although sirolimus has less renal toxicity than calcineurin inhibitors, its use has been limited by its side effects. The most common cutaneous pathologies associated with sirolimus are inflammatory acneiform eruptions, lymphedema and aphthous ulcers. We present a novel cutaneous manifestation of sirolimus therapy that limited its use in at least one transplant recipient. Upon commencing sirolimus therapy, four solid organ transplant recipients developed tender, nonpruritic palmoplantar peeling within the first month of therapy. The peeling clinically resembled a mild form of hand-foot syndrome, yet none of the patients had been treated with chemotherapeutics. Desquamation presented on the palms and soles with dry vesicles and minor peeling extending to the dorsal aspects of the hands and feet. Histologically, the lesions were noninflammatory; the epidermis showed subtle separation between keratinocytes, suggesting either spongiosis or a defect in intercellular adhesion. One patient opted to discontinue treatment because of the tenderness associated with the palmoplantar peeling, which resulted in complete resolution within 2 weeks. © Copyright 2013 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  12. Treatment modalities of palmoplantar lichen planus: a brief review.

    PubMed

    Feily, Amir; Yaghoobi, Reza; Nilforoushzadeh, Mohammad Ali

    2016-12-01

    Palmoplantar lichen planus is a localized and uncommon variant of lichen planus which is mostly resistant to treatment. Our purpose was to discuss all treatment modalities proposed and tested for palmoplantar lichen planus in the literature. A systematic review of the literature was conducted to evaluate evidence regarding all treatment modalities proposed and tested for palmoplantar lichen planus in the literature. Two major databases (PubMed, Google scholar) were searched. The review included all case reports, letters and original articles reporting any treatment for palmoplantar lichen planus but not treatment used in the other type of lichen planus, generalized lichen planus or other type of palmoplantar dermatoses. We have gone over more than 50 articles. There are many drugs that have been used in the treatment of lichen planus and generalized lichen planus but the palmoplantar type is a rare variety of lichen planus. That is why we could not find any clinical trial on the subject and just case reports have been described in this manuscript. In spite of plentiful investigations carried out on lichen planus, there is no treatment modality that has proved to be utterly satisfactory in treatment of palmoplantar lichen planus.

  13. Lapatinib-induced acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis

    PubMed Central

    Lakshmi, Chembolli; Pillai, Suma; Srinivas, C. R.

    2010-01-01

    Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP) is a pustular eruption, mainly drug induced often accompanied by fever and neutrophilic leukocytosis presenting as scarlatiniform erythema over the flexures evolving into numerous tiny non follicular pustules. We present a case report of a 56-year old woman, who had undergone mastectomy, treated with lapatinib for metastatic disease, and who presented with multiple erythematous papules and plaques with peripheral pustules. She also developed painful pyogenic granuloma-like lesions over the pulp of toe and over the proximal nail folds.All the lesions subsided following withdrawal of lapatinib. Although AGEP has been reported with imatinib (a multikinase inhibitor), there have been no reports of serious reactions with lapatinib, an EGFR inhibitor. This case could represent the first case report of AGEP to the EGFR inhibitor, lapatinib. PMID:23130185

  14. Acute Generalised Exanthematous Pustulosis: An Update.

    PubMed

    De, Abhishek; Das, Sudip; Sarda, Aarti; Pal, Dayamay; Biswas, Projna

    2018-01-01

    Acute generalised exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP) is a severe cutaneous adverse reaction and is attributed to drugs in more than 90% of cases. It is a rare disease, with an estimated incidence of 1-5 patients per million per year. The clinical manifestations characterised by the rapid development of sterile pustular lesions, fever and leucocytosis. Number of drugs has been reported to be associated with AGEP, most common being the antibiotics. Histopathologically there is intraepidermal pustules and papillary dermal oedema with neutrophilic and eosinophilic infiltrations. Systemic involvement can be present in more severe cases. Early diagnosis with withdrawal of the causative drug is the most important step in the management. Treatment includes supportive care, prevention of antibiotics and use of a potent topical steroid.

  15. Acute Generalised Exanthematous Pustulosis: An Update

    PubMed Central

    De, Abhishek; Das, Sudip; Sarda, Aarti; Pal, Dayamay; Biswas, Projna

    2018-01-01

    Acute generalised exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP) is a severe cutaneous adverse reaction and is attributed to drugs in more than 90% of cases. It is a rare disease, with an estimated incidence of 1–5 patients per million per year. The clinical manifestations characterised by the rapid development of sterile pustular lesions, fever and leucocytosis. Number of drugs has been reported to be associated with AGEP, most common being the antibiotics. Histopathologically there is intraepidermal pustules and papillary dermal oedema with neutrophilic and eosinophilic infiltrations. Systemic involvement can be present in more severe cases. Early diagnosis with withdrawal of the causative drug is the most important step in the management. Treatment includes supportive care, prevention of antibiotics and use of a potent topical steroid. PMID:29527022

  16. Diltiazem-induced acute generalised exanthematous pustulosis.

    PubMed

    Wakelin, S H; James, M P

    1995-07-01

    Pustulation is a major feature in several different dermatoses, and it may also occur as a manifestation of drug hypersensitivity. Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP) is an uncommon eruption characterized by acute, extensive formation of sterile pustules, fever and peripheral blood leucocytosis. It shares several clinical and histological features in common with pustular psoriasis. Most reported cases have been triggered by ingestion of broad spectrum antibiotics, particularly betalactams and macrolides. There is usually rapid resolution of the eruption on drug withdrawal. We report the case of a 58 year-old woman who developed AGEP shortly after commencing treatment with the calcium channel blocker diltiazem hydrochloride. The eruption followed a biphasic course, and improved following treatment with systemic corticosteroids and methotrexate. AGEP appears to be a rare adverse cutaneous reaction to diltiazem, whereas a wide range of other skin eruptions have been reported more commonly with this drug.

  17. Palmoplantar Dermatoses- A Clinical Study of 300 Cases

    PubMed Central

    Rajashekhar, Nadiga; Gejje, Somashekar

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Dermatoses affecting palms and soles are among the most difficult of all dermatological therapeutic problems. Many previous studies have focused on the specific diseases of palmoplantar dermatoses. However, none of them have included a comprehensive study of palmoplantar dermatoses. Aims: To study the epidemiological aspects like age distribution, sex distribution, the dermatoses affecting the palms & soles and the frequency of involvement of palms, soles or both palms & soles, in patient with palmoplantar dermatoses. Materials and Methods This cross sectional study was conducted in the Department of Dermatology between October 2011 to September 2013. First 300 cases attending the department of dermatology primarily with complaints pertaining to palms and soles were enrolled in the study. After taking consent a detailed history and clinical examination pertaining to the aim of the study was recorded and analysed, which included inspection of morphology and distribution of lesions and palpation of any swelling. Direct microscopic examination of scrapings, wet mounted with 10% potassium hydroxide was done for cases with scaly lesions. Those who had a pustule, gram staining was done. Patch testing using Indian Standard Battery Series was done for those cases of eczema. A sample for biopsy was taken when diagnosis could not be arrived clinically, and subjected to histopathological examination. Results In our study of 300 patients with palmoplantar dermatoses, 164 were females and 136 were males, the ratio observed being 1.2:1. The peak incidence was found in the age group 21-30 years, with 41 females (25%) and 35 males (25.7%). Most frequently affected individuals in this study were housewives (30%). The most common five diseases of palmoplantar dermatoses were palmoplantar psoriasis (20.7%), moniliasis (19%), palmoplantar hyperhidrosis (7%), keratolysis exfoliativa (6%) and pitted keratolysis (6%). Majority of patients had involvement of both palms and

  18. Partial clinical response to anakinra in severe palmoplantar pustular psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Tauber, M; Viguier, M; Alimova, E; Petit, A; Lioté, F; Smahi, A; Bachelez, H

    2014-09-01

    Palmoplantar pustular psoriasis is a clinical psoriasis variant characterised by a high impact on quality of life and poor response to biologics approved for plaque type psoriasis.The recombinant interleukin-1 (IL-1) receptor antagonist anakinra has been recently used for the treatment of isolated refractory cases of generalised pustular psoriasis with contrasted results. To report the clinical response in two patients treated with anakinra as salvage therapy in two patients with severe palmoplantar pustular psoriasis refractory to currently available antipsoriatic systemic therapies. Anakinra was given subcutaneously at the daily dose of 100 mg, and clinical response was evaluated using the palmoplantar psoriasis area and severity index (PPPASI). Only partial and transient responses were observed in both patients, who had to stop anakinra due to lack of efficacy and to side effects. Anakinra appears to provide only partial clinical improvement in refractory palmoplantar pustular psoriasis. Prospective clinical studies on larger populations are warranted to investigate more accurately both efficacy and safety of IL-1-inhibiting strategies in pustular psoriasis. © 2014 British Association of Dermatologists.

  19. Acute Generalized Exanthematous Pustulosis Due to Oral Use of Blue Dyes

    PubMed Central

    Sener, Osman; Kose, Ösman; Safali, Mukerrem

    2011-01-01

    Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis is a rare severe pustular cutaneous adverse reaction characterized by a rapid clinical course with typical histological findings. It is accompanied by fever and acute eruption of non-follicular pustules overlying erythrodermic skin. The causative agents are most frequently antibacterial drugs. We present a patient with acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis caused by methylene blue and indigotin dyes. PMID:22016599

  20. Mutations in AAGAB underlie autosomal dominant punctate palmoplantar keratoderma.

    PubMed

    Dinani, N; Ali, M; Liu, L; McGrath, J; Mellerio, J

    2017-04-01

    Punctate palmoplantar keratoderma type 1 (PPPK1) is a rare autosomal dominant inherited skin disease, characterized by multiple hyperkeratotic lesions on the palms and soles. The causative gene for PPPK1 has been identified as AAGAB, which encodes α- and γ-adaptin-binding protein p34. We describe the clinical features in three unrelated families with PPPK1, and report three recurrent causative mutations in AAGAB. © 2017 British Association of Dermatologists.

  1. Palmoplantar keratoderma with progressive gingivitis and recurrent pyodermas.

    PubMed

    Moss, Tyler A; Spillane, Anne P; Almquist, Sam F; McCleskey, Patrick E; Wisco, Oliver J

    2014-04-01

    Papillon-Lefèvre syndrome (PLS) is a rare inherited palmoplantar keratoderma (PPK) that is associated with progressive gingivitis and recurrent pyodermas. We present a case exhibiting classic features of this autosomal-recessive condition and review the current understanding of its pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment. Additionally, a review of pertinent transgredient PPKs is undertaken, with key and distinguishing features of each syndrome highlighted.

  2. Unique autosomal recessive variant of palmoplantar keratoderma associated with hearing loss not caused by known mutations*

    PubMed Central

    Hegazi, Moustafa Abdelaal; Manou, Sommen; Sakr, Hazem; Camp, Guy Van

    2017-01-01

    Inherited Palmoplantar Keratodermas are rare disorders of genodermatosis that are conventionally regarded as autosomal dominant in inheritance with extensive clinical and genetic heterogeneity. This is the first report of a unique autosomal recessive Inherited Palmoplantar keratoderma - sensorineural hearing loss syndrome which has not been reported before in 3 siblings of a large consanguineous family. The patients presented unique clinical features that were different from other known Inherited Palmoplantar Keratodermas - hearing loss syndromes. Mutations in GJB2 or GJB6 and the mitochondrial A7445G mutation, known to be the major causes of diverse Inherited Palmoplantar Keratodermas -hearing loss syndromes were not detected by Sanger sequencing. Moreover, the pathogenic mutation could not be identified using whole exome sequencing. Other known Inherited Palmoplantar keratoderma syndromes were excluded based on both clinical criteria and genetic analysis. PMID:29267478

  3. Carbamazepine-Induced Acute Generalized Exanthematous Pustulosis: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Skalli, Saadia; Barret, Pierre; Villier, Céline; Bussières, Jean-François

    2011-01-01

    A 15-year-old adolescent was admitted to the hospital for management of a generalized pruritic skin rash, which had appeared 10 days prior to admission. Carbamazepine (CBZ) and insulin were initiated 44 and 23 days prior to the onset of the skin rash (day 44), respectively. Clinical examination showed bluish lesions on the tongue and bilateral keratoconjunctivitis. His skin was very erythematous and pruritic without edema and covered with hundreds of nonfollicular pustules mainly on the trunk and skin folds. Laboratory assessment revealed leukocytosis, hypereosinophilia, and thrombocytopenia. A sample of superficial pus from a pustule on the trunk showed a significant number of leukocytes as well as a significant number of Staphylococcus aureus and Lancefield Group B β-hemolytic streptococci strains. An abdominal skin biopsy revealed acute to subacute folliculocentric spongiotic dermatitis with subcorneal pustules. All of these observations were consistent with a diagnosis of acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP). Although we could not exclude with certainty the role of insulin initiated on day 21 and discontinued on day 55 with substitution to oral metformin and repaglinide, no cases of AGEP have ever been published with insulin, and skin lesions were not related to injection sites. This article describes a probable case of CBZ-induced acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis in a 15-year-old adolescent. PMID:22477826

  4. 40 CFR Table 1 of Subpart Ppp of... - Applicability of General Provisions to Subpart PPP Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Subpart PPP Affected Sources 1 Table 1 of Subpart PPP of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Polyether Polyols Production Pt. 63, Subpt. PPP, Table 1 Table 1 of Subpart PPP of Part 63—Applicability of General Provisions to Subpart PPP Affected Sources Reference Applies tosubpart PPP Explanation 63.1(a)(1...

  5. 40 CFR Table 1 of Subpart Ppp of... - Applicability of General Provisions to Subpart PPP Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Subpart PPP Affected Sources 1 Table 1 of Subpart PPP of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Emissions for Polyether Polyols Production Pt. 63, Subpt. PPP, Table 1 Table 1 of Subpart PPP of Part 63—Applicability of General Provisions to Subpart PPP Affected Sources Reference Applies tosubpart PPP Explanation...

  6. 40 CFR Table 1 of Subpart Ppp of... - Applicability of General Provisions to Subpart PPP Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Subpart PPP Affected Sources 1 Table 1 of Subpart PPP of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Polyether Polyols Production Pt. 63, Subpt. PPP, Table 1 Table 1 of Subpart PPP of Part 63—Applicability of General Provisions to Subpart PPP Affected Sources Reference Applies tosubpart PPP Explanation 63.1(a)(1...

  7. 40 CFR Table 2 of Subpart Ppp of... - Applicability of General Provisions to Subpart PPP Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Subpart PPP Affected Sources 2 Table 2 of Subpart PPP of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Emissions for Polyether Polyols Production Pt. 63, Subpt. PPP, Table 2 Table 2 of Subpart PPP of Part 63—Applicability of General Provisions to Subpart PPP Affected Sources Reference Applies to subpart PPP Explanation...

  8. 40 CFR Table 2 of Subpart Ppp of... - Applicability of HON Provisions to Subpart PPP Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Subpart PPP Affected Sources 2 Table 2 of Subpart PPP of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Emissions for Polyether Polyols Production Pt. 63, Subpt. PPP, Table 2 Table 2 of Subpart PPP of Part 63—Applicability of HON Provisions to Subpart PPP Affected Sources Reference Applies to subpart PPP Explanation...

  9. 40 CFR Table 1 of Subpart Ppp of... - Applicability of General Provisions to Subpart PPP Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Subpart PPP Affected Sources 1 Table 1 of Subpart PPP of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Emissions for Polyether Polyols Production Pt. 63, Subpt. PPP, Table 1 Table 1 of Subpart PPP of Part 63—Applicability of General Provisions to Subpart PPP Affected Sources Reference Applies tosubpart PPP Explanation...

  10. 40 CFR Table 2 of Subpart Ppp of... - Applicability of General Provisions to Subpart PPP Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Subpart PPP Affected Sources 2 Table 2 of Subpart PPP of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Polyether Polyols Production Pt. 63, Subpt. PPP, Table 2 Table 2 of Subpart PPP of Part 63—Applicability of General Provisions to Subpart PPP Affected Sources Reference Applies to subpart PPP Explanation Applicable...

  11. 40 CFR Table 2 of Subpart Ppp of... - Applicability of General Provisions to Subpart PPP Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Subpart PPP Affected Sources 2 Table 2 of Subpart PPP of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Polyether Polyols Production Pt. 63, Subpt. PPP, Table 2 Table 2 of Subpart PPP of Part 63—Applicability of General Provisions to Subpart PPP Affected Sources Reference Applies to subpart PPP Explanation Applicable...

  12. 40 CFR Table 1 of Subpart Ppp of... - Applicability of General Provisions to Subpart PPP Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Subpart PPP Affected Sources 1 Table 1 of Subpart PPP of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Polyether Polyols Production Pt. 63, Subpt. PPP, Table 1 Table 1 of Subpart PPP of Part 63—Applicability of General Provisions to Subpart PPP Affected Sources Reference Applies tosubpart PPP Explanation 63.1(a)(1...

  13. 40 CFR Table 2 of Subpart Ppp of... - Applicability of General Provisions to Subpart PPP Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Subpart PPP Affected Sources 2 Table 2 of Subpart PPP of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Polyether Polyols Production Pt. 63, Subpt. PPP, Table 2 Table 2 of Subpart PPP of Part 63—Applicability of General Provisions to Subpart PPP Affected Sources Reference Applies to subpart PPP Explanation Applicable...

  14. Nagashima-type palmoplantar keratosis in a Chinese Han population

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jia; Zhang, Guolong; Ni, Cheng; Cheng, Ruhong; Liang, Jianying; Li, Ming; Yao, Zhirong

    2016-01-01

    Nagashima-type palmoplantar keratosis (NPPK) is an autosomal recessive form of palmoplantar keratoderma (PPK), which is caused by mutations in the SERPINB7 gene. NPPK has only been reported in Japanese and Chinese populations. The present study was conducted on 12 unrelated Chinese patients who were clinically predicted to suffer from NPPK. Mutation screening was performed by direct sequencing of the entire coding regions of SERPINB7, SLURP1, AQP5, CSTA, KRT1 and KRT9 genes. Direct sequencing of SERPINB7 revealed five homozygous founder mutations (c.796C>T) and four compound heterozygous mutations in nine patients, including one novel mutation (c.122_127delTGGTCC). Nine out of the 12 patients were diagnosed with NPPK due to SERPINB7 pathogenic mutations, and the results expanded the known mutation spectrum of NPPK. Taking the other seven reported Chinese patients, who had been definitively diagnosed with NPPK by genetic testing, into account, the present study further demonstrated that NPPK is a common entity in Mainland China, and c.796C>T is the most prevalent mutation and exerts a founder effect. Furthermore, the NPPK cases described in the current study presented a consistently mild phenotype, as compared with the degrees of phenotypic variability associated with other types of relatively severe PPK, including Mal de Meleda and Olmsted syndrome. PMID:27666198

  15. Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis associated with terbinafine: a case report.

    PubMed

    Turan, Hakan; Acer, Ersoy; Erdem, Havva; Uslu, Esma; Aliagaoglu, Cihangir

    2013-10-01

    A 27-year-old male patient who has used oral terbinafine for two weeks was admitted to our outpatient clinic for non-follicular millimetric pustules on erythematous and edematous different-sized plaques on his trunk and flexural areas. He was diagnosed with acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP) because of terbinafine use in the light of history, clinical and histopathological findings. An AGEP is a rare and severe pustular reaction usually triggered by systemic drug intake. Approximately, 2.3% of the patients having oral terbinafine have been reported to develop cutaneous adverse effects. Although terbinafine is a commonly used medicine, it must be considered that it may cause severe adverse reactions.

  16. Modeling PPP Economic Benefits for Lunar ISRU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blair, B.

    2017-10-01

    A new tool is needed for selecting the PPP strategy that could maximize the rate of lunar commercialization by attracting private capital into the development of critical infrastructure and robust capability. A PPP model under development for NASA-ESO will be described.

  17. Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis induced by hydroxychloroquine: a case with atypical clinical presentation.

    PubMed

    Duman, Hatice; Topal, Ilteris Oguz; Kocaturk, Emek; Cure, Kubra; Mansuroglu, Ilknur

    2017-01-01

    Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis is a rare drug-induced eruption that is characterized by acute, nonfollicular sterile pustules on an erythematous and edematous base. The most frequently implicated drugs are beta-lactam antibiotics. Hydroxychloroquine has been widely used to treat dermatologic and rheumatologic diseases and has been reported as a rare cause of acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis. A 42-year-old female presented with pustular lesions on the skin surface with erythema, facial edema, and occasional atypical target-like lesions after 21 days of treatment with 200mg/day hydroxychloroquine for rheumatoid arthritis, diagnosed one month previously. We report a case with acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis induced by hydroxychloroquine and treated with dapsone and systemic corticosteroid.

  18. Life-Threatening Atypical Case of Acute Generalized Exanthematous Pustulosis.

    PubMed

    Tajmir-Riahi, Azadeh; Wörl, Petra; Harrer, Thomas; Schliep, Stefan; Schuler, Gerold; Simon, Miklos

    2017-01-01

    Antibiotics are known to cause severe cutaneous adverse reactions, such as the rare acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP). Unlike Stevens-Johnson syndrome or toxic epidermal necrolysis, AGEP is rarely life-threatening. Systemic involvement is not typical, and if present usually coincides with a mild elevation of the hepatic enzymes and a decrease in renal function. Hence, AGEP is known to have a good prognosis and to be life-threatening only in elderly patients or patients with chronic diseases. Herein, we report a case of AGEP in a young healthy male leading to systemic inflammatory response syndrome and to treatment in an intensive care unit after being treated with 5 different antibiotics. Initial symptoms were not indicative for AGEP and the patient's course of disease led promptly to critical cardiorespiratory symptoms and systemic inflammatory response syndrome. We assume that the administration of the 5 different antibiotics resulted in type IV allergy as well as secondary infection with Enterococcus faecium and Staphylococcus aureus, while the underlying periodontitis also contributed to the severity of this case. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Diffuse Palmoplantar Keratoderma, Onychodystrophy, universal Hypotrichosis and Cysts.

    PubMed

    Arif, Tasleem; Amin, Syed Suhail; Adil, Mohammad; Mohtashim, Mohd

    2017-07-01

    Dear Editor, Clouston syndrome, also called hidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (HED), is an autosomal dominant ectodermal dysplasia characterized by a clinical triad of onychodystrophy, generalized hypotrichosis, and palmoplantar keratoderma (1). Herein we report the case of a 24-year-old male with the distinctive clinical triad associated with multiple epidermoid cysts, which probably reflects the phenotype of Clouston syndrome. A 24-year-old male presented to our Department with diffuse thickening of the skin of his palms and soles since infancy. He also complained of sparsity to near absence of body hair and also reported thickening of the nails and multiple swellings involving the genitals and head since childhood. There was no history of consanguinity or of recurrent painful paronychia or abnormality in sweating. The patient denied any history of deafness, diminution of vision, redness, or watering of the eyes. On examination, diffuse hyperkeratosis of the palms and soles was observed (Figure 1 a, b) However, there was no extension of this hyperkeratosis to the dorsal aspects of the hands and feet or any proximal extension to the forearms or legs. Extensor aspects of the elbows and knees did not reveal any hyperkeratotic skin lesions. The nails were yellowish-brown, thickened, and hyperconvex, which was more pronounced in the finger nails than the toe nails (Figure 1 c, d). There was no associated paronychia. The scalp hair was very sparse, fine, and pale in color, reaching just a length of 3-4 mm in some places while totally absent in other places. The hair from the beard, eyebrows, eyelashes, moustaches, and pubic and axillary regions was very sparse to nearly absent (Figure 2 a, b, c). General body hair was also absent. In the left pre-auricular area there was a 3×2.5 cm swelling, soft to firm in consistency, non-tender, and non-pulsatile with no sinus or scar over it (Figure 2c). Multiple similar swellings of variable size measuring 0.6 to 1.3 cm were present

  20. Probable fenofibrate-induced acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis.

    PubMed

    Power, Anna E; Graudins, Linda V; McLean, Catriona A; Hopper, Ingrid

    2015-12-01

    The case of a patient who experienced a severe adverse reaction requiring emergency treatment after a single dose of fenofibrate is described. A 58-year-old woman with type 1 diabetes was hospitalized for treatment of an extensive blistering rash on the buttocks and trunk accompanied by fever, hypotension, tachycardia, neutrophilia, impaired renal function, and liver enzyme abnormalities. She reported that two days previously she had developed fever and vomiting four hours after taking her first dose of fenofibrate (145 mg). The patient required vasopressor support and was initially treated with broad-spectrum antibiotics for 3 days and a course of immune globulin. On hospital day 4, histopathology returned results consistent with acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP), and the patient was subsequently treated with topical steroids. Gradual resolution of AGEP was noted at the time of her discharge from the hospital on day 7 and at one-week follow-up. Analysis of the case using the adverse drug reaction probability scale of Naranjo et al. yielded a score of 5, indicating a probable association between fenofibrate use and AGEP development. AGEP is a predominantly drug-induced condition but is not typically associated with fenofibrate use. Cutaneous eruptions in AGEP are often accompanied by systemic symptoms (e.g., fever, leukocytosis), and the disorder can also be associated with impaired creatinine clearance and elevated aminotransaminase levels. A woman with type 1 diabetes developed AGEP after taking a single dose of fenofibrate. Her cutaneous symptoms began to resolve within days of discontinuation of fenofibrate use. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Hydroxychloroquine-induced acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis with positive patch-testing.

    PubMed

    Charfi, Ons; Kastalli, Sarrah; Sahnoun, Rym; Lakhoua, Ghozlane

    2015-01-01

    Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP) is a severe cutaneous adverse reaction, mostly induced by drugs. Hydroxychloroquine have been rarely reported in literature as a causative drug of this reaction. We report a case of AGEP induced by hydroxychloroquine with systemic involvement and confirmed by positive patch testing.

  2. Prevalence and treatment of palmoplantar keratoderma and tinea pedis in patients with Sézary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Martin, Stephanie J; Duvic, Madeleine

    2012-10-01

    Mycosis fungoides (MF) and the Sézary syndrome (SS) are non-Hodgkin's lymphomas that present with cutaneous lesions. Sézary syndrome is characterized by blood involvement, exfoliative eryrthroderma, lymphadenopathy, pruritus, keratoderma, and immunosuppression. This study was to estimate the prevalence of palmoplantar keratoderma and tinea pedis in Sézary syndrome and to analyze the effectiveness of anti-fungal treatment. We conducted a retrospective review of 1562 prospectively collected patients at the MD Anderson Cancer Center Cutaneous Lymphoma Clinic over sixteen years. All patients' palms and soles were evaluated for clinical evidence of keratoderma (hyperkeratosis) and for dermatophytosis (tinea pedis or unguum) by examining scales under 10% potassium hydroxide by light microscopy for hyphae. Of 138 Sézary syndrome patients (88 men, 50 women, median age at diagnosis 64 years), 85 (61.6%) had palmoplantar keratoderma; 45 of the 85 Sézary syndrome patients (52.9%) also had coexisting tinea pedis. Only 14 (10.1%) had tinea pedis without keratoderma. Treatment for tinea pedis resulted in microscopy cure of keratoderma in 12 of 45 (26.7%) patients and clinical improvement. The prevalence of palmoplantar keratoderma in Sézary syndrome is 61.6%, with co-existing tinea pedis found in 52.9%. Palmoplantar keratoderma with tinea pedis showed clinical improvement with fungicidal therapy suggesting that tinea often contributes to the pathogenesis and severity of Sézary syndrome-related keratoderma. © 2012 The International Society of Dermatology.

  3. Prolonged pustular eruption from hydroxychloroquine: an unusual case of acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Kelly C; Morrell, Dean S; Runge, Susan R; Jolly, Puneet

    2016-03-01

    Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP) is a rare cutaneous eruption that often is a reaction to medications, most commonly antibiotics. Clinically, AGEP closely mimics pustular psoriasis and also is similar to subcorneal pustular dermatosis and IgA pemphigus. For clinicians, it is important to differentiate AGEP from pustular psoriasis. Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis will have an acute drug association. Few cases have been known to be caused by hydroxychloroquine (HCQ). Proper therapeutic management of AGEP includes withdrawal of the offending agent, and resolution typically occurs within 15 days. We report a case of AGEP after HCQ administration that did not follow the usual course of resolution after medication cessation. The patient continued to experience cutaneous eruptions that waxed and waned for 81 days. Hydroxychloroquine has a particularly long half-life and is a known cause of AGEP; therefore, it is possible that HCQ-induced AGEP may not follow the typical rapid recovery time.

  4. Treatment of palmoplantar warts with a diphencyprone and salicylic acid ointment.

    PubMed

    Armour, Katherine; Orchard, David

    2006-08-01

    We report on 50 consecutive suitable patients with one or more palmoplantar warts who were treated with a patient-applied ointment comprising 0.1% diphencyprone and 15% salicylic acid in white soft paraffin. All patients sensitized to diphencyprone were followed up clinically and assessed by patient questionnaire. The intention to treat success rate in this series was 88%. The time to wart clearance ranged from less than 4 weeks to 4 months. In our patient group, 90% rated their treatment as 'excellent' or 'good', whereas 10% stated that the reaction induced by diphencyprone was 'too severe'. Our results are compared with those previously published using diphencyprone in the treatment of palmoplantar warts.

  5. Exuberant clinical picture of Buschke-Fischer-Brauer palmoplantar keratoderma in bedridden patient.

    PubMed

    Antonio, João Roberto; Oliveira, Guilherme Bueno de; Rossi, Natalia Cristina Pires; Pires, Laiza Gabriela Garcia

    2014-01-01

    Buschke-Fisher-Brauer keratoderma is a rare hereditary autosomal dominant disease of incomplete penetrance. Important differential diagnoses include other palmoplantar keratinization disorders, acquired or hereditary, which is done based on the histopathological findings. This diagnosis alerts especially about the possibility of associated neoplasms. Treatment involves topical keratolytic agents, usually with little efficacy, or with long-term systemic retinoids with follow-up of exuberant collateral effects.

  6. Herpetiform keratitis and palmoplantar hyperkeratosis: warning signs for Richner-Hanhart syndrome.

    PubMed

    Soares, Diogo C; Stroparo, Mariana N; Lian, Yu C; Takakura, Cristina Y; Wolf, Sabrina; Betz, Regina; Kim, Chong A

    2017-05-01

    Richner-Hanhart syndrome (RHS, tyrosinemia type II) is a rare, autosomal recessive inborn error of tyrosine metabolism caused by tyrosine aminotransferase deficiency. It is characterized by photophobia due to keratitis, painful palmoplantar hyperkeratosis, variable mental retardation, and elevated serum tyrosine levels. Patients are often misdiagnosed with herpes simplex keratitis. We report on a a boy from Brazil who presented with bilateral keratitis secondary to RHS, which had earlier been misdiagnosed as herpes simplex keratitis.

  7. Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis to amoxicillin associated with parvovirus B19 reactivation.

    PubMed

    Calistru, Ana Maria; Lisboa, Carmen; Cunha, Ana Paula; Bettencourt, Herberto; Azevedo, Filomena

    2012-09-01

    We report the case of a 22-year-old male patient with 2 episodes, 4 months apart, of acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP) associated with oral intake of amoxicillin and simultaneous reactivation of parvovirus B19 infection proven by positive polymerase chain reaction test in the skin fragment and blood sample and elevation of the IgG antibodies titer. To our knowledge, this is the first report of AGEP resulting from the interaction between drug hypersensitivity and the reactivation of parvovirus B19. A combination of an immunological reaction to the drug and virus infection could be responsible for the clinical picture.

  8. Importance of exfoliatin toxin A production by Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from clustered epidemics of neonatal pustulosis.

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, M H; Chmel, H; Hsieh, H C; Stephens, A; Brinsko, V

    1986-01-01

    Clustered epidemics of pustulosis due to Staphylococcus aureus occurred in two geographically distant newborn nurseries. In nurseries A and B an attack rate of pustulosis of 0.8 and 2.0 cases per 100 live births occurred, respectively. Experimental phage type 1046/1116 belonging to phage group II dominated clustered epidemics in nursery A, while group II phage type 3A/3C/55/71 and 3A/3C/55 occurred in nursery B. Other group II strains also occasionally produced clustered epidemics. These epidemic strains were found to be making heat-stable dermal exfoliatin toxin A (ETA) which had a pI of 6.8 and a molecular weight of 32,000 and 33,000. ETA-bearing strains did not make bacteriocin. Children infected with ETA-producing strains developed extensive bullous pustulosis. Surveillance cultures of personnel revealed an ETA-bearing strain in only one person. This strain was not the same phage type as the epidemic cluster. In contrast, ETA-bearing epidemic strains were found in the inanimate environment of both nurseries. ETA protein acts as an important virulence factor in the production of neonatal pustulosis infection and appears to be linked with the ability of S. aureus organisms to stick to the inanimate environment. Images PMID:3700612

  9. Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Deficiency Presenting as Infantile Pustulosis Mimicking Infantile Pustular Psoriasis

    PubMed Central

    Minkis, Kira; Aksentijevich, Ivona; Goldbach-Mansky, Raphaela; Magro, Cynthia; Scott, Rachelle; Davis, Jessica G.; Sardana, Niti; Herzog, Ronit

    2012-01-01

    Background Deficiency of interleukin 1 receptor antagonist (DIRA) is a recently described autoinflammatory syndrome of skin and bone caused by recessive mutations in the gene encoding the interleukin 1 receptor antagonist. Few studies have been published about this debilitating condition. Early identification is critical for targeted lifesaving intervention. Observations A male infant, born to nonconsanguineous Puerto Rican parents, was referred for management of a pustular eruption diagnosed as pustular psoriasis. At 2 months of age, the infant developed a pustular eruption. After extensive evaluation, he was confirmed to be homozygous for a 175-kb genomic deletion on chromosome 2 that includes the IL1RN gene, commonly found in Puerto Ricans. Therapy with anakinra was initiated, with rapid clearance of skin lesions and resolution of systemic inflammation. Conclusions Recent identification of DIRA as a disease entity, compounded by the limited number of reported cases, makes early identification difficult. It is critical to consider this entity in the differential diagnosis of infantile pustulosis. Targeted therapy with the recombinant human interleukin 1 receptor antagonist anakinra can be lifesaving if initiated early. A high carrier frequency of the 175-kb DIRA-associated genomic deletion in the Puerto Rican population strongly supports testing infants presenting with unexplained pustulosis in patients from this geographic region. PMID:22431714

  10. PPP effectiveness study. [automatic procedures recording and crew performance monitoring system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arbet, J. D.; Benbow, R. L.

    1976-01-01

    This design note presents a study of the Procedures and Performance Program (PPP) effectiveness. The intent of the study is to determine manpower time savings and the improvements in job performance gained through PPP automated techniques. The discussion presents a synopsis of PPP capabilities and identifies potential users and associated applications, PPP effectiveness, and PPP applications to other simulation/training facilities. Appendix A provides a detailed description of each PPP capability.

  11. Recessive palmoplantar keratodermas: a tale of wings, hands, hair and cancer.

    PubMed

    Van Steensel, M A M

    2010-12-01

    The palmoplantar keratodermas (PPKs) are a heterogeneous group of disorders of cornification affecting the palms and soles. Of late, a number of rare, recessive PPKs such as odonto-onycho-dermal dysplasia have been elucidated. Surprisingly, these results indicate that correct palmoplantar keratinization depends on intact Wingless (WNT) signalling. WNT was originally discovered in the fruit fly where it is required for wing morphogenesis. This ancient signalling pathway is now emerging as a master regulator of differentiation in a variety of tissues, including the intestine and the hair follicle. It is also becoming increasingly clear that deregulation of WNT signalling is involved in neoplasia. Thus, a single pathway unites several seemingly disparate processes and disorders. The keratodermas are emerging as model systems in which to study WNT signalling. Moreover, as agents that are in the dermatological arsenal can modulate WNT signalling, some insight into its workings is of importance to the practicing dermatologist. In this review, I outline how WNT signalling is involved in epidermal differentiation and skin cancer and what these new insights mean for everyday dermatology.

  12. Analysing the Zenith Tropospheric Delay Estimates in On-line Precise Point Positioning (PPP) Services and PPP Software Packages.

    PubMed

    Mendez Astudillo, Jorge; Lau, Lawrence; Tang, Yu-Ting; Moore, Terry

    2018-02-14

    As Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) signals travel through the troposphere, a tropospheric delay occurs due to a change in the refractive index of the medium. The Precise Point Positioning (PPP) technique can achieve centimeter/millimeter positioning accuracy with only one GNSS receiver. The Zenith Tropospheric Delay (ZTD) is estimated alongside with the position unknowns in PPP. Estimated ZTD can be very useful for meteorological applications, an example is the estimation of water vapor content in the atmosphere from the estimated ZTD. PPP is implemented with different algorithms and models in online services and software packages. In this study, a performance assessment with analysis of ZTD estimates from three PPP online services and three software packages is presented. The main contribution of this paper is to show the accuracy of ZTD estimation achievable in PPP. The analysis also provides the GNSS users and researchers the insight of the processing algorithm dependence and impact on PPP ZTD estimation. Observation data of eight whole days from a total of nine International GNSS Service (IGS) tracking stations spread in the northern hemisphere, the equatorial region and the southern hemisphere is used in this analysis. The PPP ZTD estimates are compared with the ZTD obtained from the IGS tropospheric product of the same days. The estimates of two of the three online PPP services show good agreement (<1 cm) with the IGS ZTD values at the northern and southern hemisphere stations. The results also show that the online PPP services perform better than the selected PPP software packages at all stations.

  13. [Effect of T4 thoracoscopic sympathectomy on 
plantar hyperhidrosis in patients with 
primary palmoplantar hyperhidrosis].

    PubMed

    Xiao, Peng; Liu, Aizhong; Liu, Wenliang

    2016-03-28

    To evaluate the effect of video-assisted thoracoscopic sympathectomy at the T4 level on plantar hyperhidrosis in the treatment of palmoplantar hyperhidrosis.
 The clinical data of 28 patients with primary palmoplantar hyperhidrosis, who were admited in our hospital from June 2009 to May 2014, was analyzed. All patients were qualified to bilateral thoracoscopic transaction of the sympathetic chain at the thoracic level T4. Patients completed a self-administered hyperhidrosis questionnaire and scoring before and after procedure. Follow-up data were obtained at 1 and 6 months after the surgery.
 Endoscopic thoracic sympathectomy at the thoracic level T4 was performed successfully for all cases. Palmar hyperhidrosis was completely alleviated after the operation and no recurrence was observed during follow-up. The ratio for initial improvement of plantar hyperhidrosis was 28.6% (8/28) at 1 month after the surgery followed by a recurrence of plantar hyperhidrosis. No case continued to show the improvement of palmoplantar hyperhidrosis at 6 months after the sympathectomy. Twenty-seven patients (96.4%) were very satisfied with the outcome of the operation, 1 patient (3.6%) satisfied and no patient regretted the surgical procedure.
 T4 thoracoscopic sympathectomy could initialliy alleviate plantar hyperhidrosis in some patients with palmoplantar hyperhidrosis, but the improvement was not sustained over a long period. It could not be used to treat plantar hyperhidrosis.

  14. Familial leuconychia, knuckle pads, hearing loss, and palmoplantar hyperkeratosis: an additional family with Bart-Pumphrey syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ramer, J C; Vasily, D B; Ladda, R L

    1994-01-01

    A family with five members who have variable findings of leuconychia, knuckle pads, hearing loss, and palmoplantar hyperkeratosis is described. The findings in these subjects are compared with those noted in previously reported patients with Bart-Pumphrey syndrome. The range of disorders which include knuckle pads as part of the phenotype is reviewed.

  15. Familial leuconychia, knuckle pads, hearing loss, and palmoplantar hyperkeratosis: an additional family with Bart-Pumphrey syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Ramer, J C; Vasily, D B; Ladda, R L

    1994-01-01

    A family with five members who have variable findings of leuconychia, knuckle pads, hearing loss, and palmoplantar hyperkeratosis is described. The findings in these subjects are compared with those noted in previously reported patients with Bart-Pumphrey syndrome. The range of disorders which include knuckle pads as part of the phenotype is reviewed. Images PMID:8151643

  16. Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis induced by the essential oil of Pistacia lentiscus.

    PubMed

    Zaraa, I; Ben Taazayet, S; Trojjet, S; El Euch, D; Chelly, I; Haouet, S; Mokni, M; Ben Osman, A

    2012-06-01

    Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP) is an uncommon pustular eruption characterized by small nonfollicular pustules on an erythematous background, sometimes associated with fever and neutrophilia. Over 90% of cases are drug-induced; however, it can be caused in rare cases by other agents. We report two cases of AGEP secondary to ingestion of Pistacia lentiscus essential oil, the first two such cases to our knowledge. The cutaneous morphology, disease course and histological findings were consistent with a definite diagnosis of AGEP, based on the criteria of the EuroSCAR study group. These two cases highlight the need to consider herbal extracts as a potential rare cause of AGEP and to ensure the safety of herbal medicines. © The Author(s). CED © 2012 British Association of Dermatologists.

  17. Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis and polyarthritis associated with a novel CARD14 mutation.

    PubMed

    Podlipnik, Sebastian; Castellanos-Moreira, Raul; Florez-Enrich, Helena; Arostegui, Juan Ignacio; Mascaró, José Manuel

    2018-02-01

    Acute generalised exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP) is a rare toxicoderma characterised by an acute onset rash, with many sterile pustules on the surface, high fever and increased acute phase reactants. We report the case of a patient who presented to the dermatology department with an AGEP and polyarthritis, in which a novel CARD14 mutation was identified. The pathophysiological mechanism of AGEP remains unclear, although mutations in the IL36RN gene have been identified in a small subset of AGEP patients. Similarly, mutations in the CARD14 gene have been linked to pustular types of psoriasis and familiar cases of pityriasis rubra pilaris; however, there are no reports associating mutations in the CARD14 gene with AGEP. © 2017 The Australasian College of Dermatologists.

  18. T cell-mediated acute localized exanthematous pustulosis caused by finasteride.

    PubMed

    Tresch, Sandra; Cozzio, Antonio; Kamarashev, Jivko; Harr, Thomas; Schmid-Grendelmeier, Peter; French, Lars E; Feldmeyer, Laurence

    2012-02-01

    A 21-year-old man presented with multiple erythematous nonfollicular papules partially confluent to plaques on his breast and lower abdomen that had been present for 1 month. Grouped pustules were present under the right breast. The patient had been taking finasteride over the past 3 months for androgenetic alopecia. His medical history was negative for psoriasis. Our initial differential diagnosis included dyskeratosis follicularis Darier, allergic contact dermatitis, infectious folliculitis, varicella zoster virus infection, fixed drug eruption, and IgA pemphigus. The white blood cell count and differential were within the normal limits. Results of viral cultures and PCR, as well as bacterial and fungal cultures of skin lesions proved negative. A lesional biopsy specimen showed a slight psoriasiform acanthosis in association with spongiosis and infiltration of both the epidermis and dermis by neutrophils and eosinophils, resulting in formation of subcorneal, intraepidermal, and subepidermal pustules. The results of direct immunofluorescence were negative, excluding an IgA pemphigus. The result of a lymphocyte transformation test was positive for finasteride. On the basis of the time relationship between the administration of finasteride and the development of the skin disease in combination with symptoms resolution on cessation of the drug, the histologic findings, and the positive lymphocyte transformation test result, we consider this to be an unusual type of acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis defined as acute localized exanthematous pustulosis caused by finasteride. Within 4 weeks after withdrawal of finasteride, the rash resolved without any specific therapy. Transient discrete residual hyperpigmentation and scaling were present. The patient refused an oral provocation challenge. Copyright © 2011 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Methotrexate iontophoresis versus coal tar ointment in palmoplantar psoriasis: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Haseena, K; George, Sandhya; Riyaz, Najeeba; Sasidharanpillai, Sarita; Puthussery, Paul V

    2017-01-01

    Palmoplantar psoriasis is often disabling and refractory to conventional therapy. Systemic drugs are indicated in its severe form, but side effects are a concern with their use. Methotrexate is one such systemic drug which is effective and cheap. To reduce systemic toxicity, methotrexate has been tried topically but results have been inconsistent due to poor drug penetration into the skin by passive diffusion. Iontophoresis may enhance its absorption and efficacy. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of topical methotrexate iontophoresis in comparison with coal tar ointment in the treatment of palmoplantar psoriasis. Thirty-one patients with palmar and/or plantar psoriasis were selected for the study and 28 patients completed it. The side having more severe involvement was treated while the other palm/sole served as a control. Iontophoresis using methotrexate solution was carried out on the study palm/sole with the injectable preparation of methotrexate (50 mg/2 ml) once a week for the first 4 weeks and subsequently every two weeks, for a total of six sittings. The control palm/sole was treated with coal tar ointment on other days. Erythema, scaling, induration and fissuring scores were noted in both groups before and after treatment. Both study and control groups showed decreases in scores but the reduction was more in the study group, the difference being statistically significant. Drawbacks of our study include the small sample size and the lack of follow-up. The study and control arms were not exactly matched and the study was not blinded. Methotrexate iontophoresis was safe and more effective than coal tar ointmentin palmoplantarpsoriasis.

  20. Widespread presence of "bacterial-like" PPP phosphatases in eukaryotes.

    PubMed

    Andreeva, Alexandra V; Kutuzov, Mikhail A

    2004-11-19

    In eukaryotes, PPP (protein phosphatase P) family is one of the two known protein phosphatase families specific for Ser and Thr. The role of PPP phosphatases in multiple signaling pathways in eukaryotic cell has been extensively studied. Unlike eukaryotic PPP phosphatases, bacterial members of the family have broad substrate specificity or may even be Tyr-specific. Moreover, one group of bacterial PPPs are diadenosine tetraphosphatases, indicating that bacterial PPP phosphatases may not necessarily function as protein phosphatases. We describe the presence in eukaryotes of three groups of expressed genes encoding "non-conventional" phosphatases of the PPP family. These enzymes are more closely related to bacterial PPP phosphatases than to the known eukaryotic members of the family. One group, found exclusively in land plants, is most closely related to PPP phosphatases from some alpha-Proteobacteria, including Rhizobiales, Rhodobacterales and Rhodospirillaceae. This group is therefore termed Rhizobiales / Rhodobacterales / Rhodospirillaceae-like phosphatases, or Rhilphs. Phosphatases of the other group are found in Viridiplantae, Rhodophyta, Trypanosomatidae, Plasmodium and some fungi. They are structurally related to phosphatases from psychrophilic bacteria Shewanella and Colwellia, and are termed Shewanella-like phosphatases, or Shelphs. Phosphatases of the third group are distantly related to ApaH, bacterial diadenosine tetraphosphatases, and are termed ApaH-like phosphatases, or Alphs. Patchy distribution of Alphs in animals, plants, fungi, diatoms and kinetoplasts suggests that these phosphatases were present in the common ancestor of eukaryotes but were independently lost in many lineages. Rhilphs, Shelphs and Alphs form PPP clades, as divergent from "conventional" eukaryotic PPP phosphatases as they are from each other and from major bacterial clades. In addition, comparison of primary structures revealed a previously unrecognised (I/L/V)D(S/T)G motif

  1. T-cell involvement in drug-induced acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis

    PubMed Central

    Britschgi, Markus; Steiner, Urs C.; Schmid, Simone; Depta, Jan P.H.; Senti, Gabriela; Bircher, Andreas; Burkhart, Christoph; Yawalkar, Nikhil; Pichler, Werner J.

    2001-01-01

    Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP) is an uncommon eruption most often provoked by drugs, by acute infections with enteroviruses, or by mercury. It is characterized by acute, extensive formation of nonfollicular sterile pustules on erythematous background, fever, and peripheral blood leukocytosis. We present clinical and immunological data on four patients with this disease, which is caused by different drugs. An involvement of T cells could be implied by positive skin patch tests and lymphocyte transformation tests. Immunohistochemistry revealed a massive cell infiltrate consisting of neutrophils in pustules and T cells in the dermis and epidermis. Expression of the potent neutrophil-attracting chemokine IL-8 was elevated in keratinocytes and infiltrating mononuclear cells. Drug-specific T cells were generated from the blood and skin of three patients, and phenotypic characterization showed a heterogeneous distribution of CD4/CD8 phenotype and of T-cell receptor Vβ-expression. Analysis of cytokine/chemokine profiles revealed that IL-8 is produced significantly more by drug-specific T cells from patients with AGEP compared with drug-specific T cells from patients that had non-AGEP exanthemas. In conclusion, our data demonstrate the involvement of drug-specific T cells in the pathomechanism of this rather rare and peculiar form of drug allergy. In addition, they indicate that even in some neutrophil-rich inflammatory responses specific T cells are engaged and might orchestrate the immune reaction. PMID:11390425

  2. PPP Sliding Window Algorithm and Its Application in Deformation Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Song, Weiwei; Zhang, Rui; Yao, Yibin; Liu, Yanyan; Hu, Yuming

    2016-05-31

    Compared with the double-difference relative positioning method, the precise point positioning (PPP) algorithm can avoid the selection of a static reference station and directly measure the three-dimensional position changes at the observation site and exhibit superiority in a variety of deformation monitoring applications. However, because of the influence of various observing errors, the accuracy of PPP is generally at the cm-dm level, which cannot meet the requirements needed for high precision deformation monitoring. For most of the monitoring applications, the observation stations maintain stationary, which can be provided as a priori constraint information. In this paper, a new PPP algorithm based on a sliding window was proposed to improve the positioning accuracy. Firstly, data from IGS tracking station was processed using both traditional and new PPP algorithm; the results showed that the new algorithm can effectively improve positioning accuracy, especially for the elevation direction. Then, an earthquake simulation platform was used to simulate an earthquake event; the results illustrated that the new algorithm can effectively detect the vibrations change of a reference station during an earthquake. At last, the observed Wenchuan earthquake experimental results showed that the new algorithm was feasible to monitor the real earthquakes and provide early-warning alerts.

  3. Pustulotic Arthro-Osteitis (Sonozaki Syndrome): A Case Report and Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Kose, Reyhan; Senturk, Taskin; Sargin, Gokhan; Cildag, Songul; Kara, Yasemin

    2018-01-01

    Pustulotic arthro-osteitis (PAO) is a rare chronic inflammatory disease, which has now been classified as a seronegative spondyloarthritis. The sternoclavicular and sternocostal joints, pelvis, vertebra, hip, and long bones are affected. Skin findings of the disease are accepted as a variant of pustular psoriasis, but some authors have suggested that palmoplantar pustulosis (PPP) is a different entity. The synovitis, acne, pustulosis, hyperostosis, and osteitis (SAPHO) syndrome should be considered in the differential diagnosis. PAO differs from SAPHO by the absence of hyperostosis and the difference in skin manifestations. Here, we aimed to present a 34-year-old female patient with a diagnosis of PAO with typical skin findings and joint involvement. PMID:29531495

  4. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart Ppp of... - Known Organic HAP From Polyether Polyol Products

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Known Organic HAP From Polyether Polyol Products 4 Table 4 to Subpart PPP of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Production Pt. 63, Subpt. PPP, Table 4 Table 4 to Subpart PPP of Part 63—Known Organic HAP From Polyether...

  5. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart Ppp of... - Known Organic HAP From Polyether Polyol Products

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Known Organic HAP From Polyether Polyol Products 4 Table 4 to Subpart PPP of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Polyether Polyols Production Pt. 63, Subpt. PPP, Table 4 Table 4 to Subpart PPP of Part 63—Known Organic HAP...

  6. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart Ppp of... - Known Organic HAP From Polyether Polyol Products

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Known Organic HAP From Polyether Polyol Products 4 Table 4 to Subpart PPP of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Polyether Polyols Production Pt. 63, Subpt. PPP, Table 4 Table 4 to Subpart PPP of Part 63—Known Organic HAP...

  7. A New Education Scheme for Japan: Importing Education PPP Structures from England and Scotland (Part 1)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tachioka, Hiroshi; Campbell, Joel R.

    2006-01-01

    Public Private Partnerships (PPPs) play a very important role in the development of social, health, welfare and education worldwide. Most PPP projects have been in the social, welfare and health fields. However, in recent years, PPP projects also play more active role in education. PPP projects in education have evolved from the mere sponsoring of…

  8. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart Ppp of... - Known Organic HAP From Polyether Polyol Products

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Known Organic HAP From Polyether Polyol Products 4 Table 4 to Subpart PPP of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Pt. 63, Subpt. PPP, Table 4 Table 4 to Subpart PPP of Part 63—Known Organic HAP From Polyether Polyol...

  9. Palmoplantar psoriasis is associated with greater impairment of health-related quality of life compared to moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Jina; Duffin, Kristina Callis; Takeshita, Junko; Shin, Daniel B.; Krueger, Gerald G.; Robertson, Andrew D.; Troxel, Andrea B.; Van Voorhees, Abby S.; Edson-Heredia, Emily; Gelfand, Joel M.

    2014-01-01

    Background The impact of palmoplantar psoriasis on health-related quality of life (QoL) is largely unknown. Objective To compare clinical characteristics and patient-reported outcomes between patients with palmoplantar psoriasis and moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study of patients with plaque psoriasis (N=1,153) and palmoplantar psoriasis (N=66) currently receiving systemic or light treatment for psoriasis. Results Patients with palmoplantar psoriasis were more likely to report Dermatology Life Quality Index scores that correspond to at least a moderate impact on QoL (odds ratio [OR] 2.08; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.20-3.61); problems with mobility (OR 1.98; 95% CI, 1.10-3.58), self-care (OR 3.12; 95% CI, 1.24-7.86), and usual activities (OR 2.47; 95% CI, 1.44-4.22) on the European Quality of Life-5 Dimensions questionnaire; and heavy topical prescription use of at least twice daily in the preceding week (OR 2.81; 95% CI, 1.63-4.85) than those with plaque psoriasis. Limitations Our assessment tools may not account for all dimensions of health-related QoL affected by palmoplantar disease, and these results may not be generalizable to patients with milder forms of psoriasis. Conclusion Patients with palmoplantar psoriasis suffer from greater health-related QoL impairment and are more likely to report heavy use of topical prescriptions than those with moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis. PMID:24894455

  10. Evaluation on the impact of IMU grades on BDS + GPS PPP/INS tightly coupled integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Zhouzheng; Ge, Maorong; Shen, Wenbin; Li, You; Chen, Qijin; Zhang, Hongping; Niu, Xiaoji

    2017-09-01

    The unexpected observing environments in dynamic applications may lead to partial and/or complete satellite signal outages frequently, which can definitely impact on the positioning performance of the Precise Point Positioning (PPP) in terms of decreasing available satellite numbers, breaking the continuity of observations, and degrading PPP's positioning accuracy. Generally, both the Inertial Navigation System (INS) and the multi-constellation Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) can be used to enhance the performance of PPP. This paper introduces the mathematical models of the multi-GNSS PPP/INS Tightly Coupled Integration (TCI), and investigates its performance from several aspects. Specifically, it covers (1) the use of the BDS/GPS PPP, PPP/INS, and their combination; (2) three positioning modes including PPP, PPP/INS TCI, and PPP/INS Loosely Coupled Integration (LCI); (3) the use of four various INS systems named navigation grade, tactical grade, auto grade, and Micro-Electro-Mechanical-Sensors (MEMS) one; (4) three PPP observation scenarios including PPP available, partially available, and fully outage. According to the statistics results, (1) the positioning performance of the PPP/INS (either TCI or LCI) mode is insignificantly depended on the grade of inertial sensor, when there are enough available satellites; (2) after the complete GNSS outages, the TCI mode expresses both higher convergence speed and more accurate positioning solutions than the LCI mode. Furthermore, in the TCI mode, using a higher grade inertial sensor is beneficial for the PPP convergence; (3) under the partial GNSS outage situations, the PPP/INS TCI mode position divergence speed is also restrained significantly; and (4) the attitude determination accuracy of the PPP/INS integration is highly correlated with the grade of inertial sensor.

  11. The Lesotho Hospital PPP experience: catalyst for integrated service delivery.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Carla Faustino; O'Farrell, Catherine Commander

    2011-01-01

    For many years, Lesotho urgently needed to replace its main public hospital, Queen Elizabeth II. The project was initially conceived as a single replacement hospital, but eventually included the design and construction of a new 425 bed public hospital and adjacent primary care clinic, the renovation and expansion of three strategically located primary care clinics in the region and the management of all facilities, equipment and delivery of all clinical services in the health network by a private operator under contract for 18 years. The project's design was influenced by the recognition that a new facility alone would not address the underlying issues in service provision. The creation of this PPP health network and the contracting mechanism has increased accountability for service quality, shifted Government to a more strategic role and may also benefit other public facilities and providers in Lesotho. The county is considering the PPP approach for other health facilities.

  12. Osteomyelitis: A rare complication of pancreatitis and PPP-syndrome.

    PubMed

    Langenhan, Ronny; Reimers, Niklas; Probst, Axel

    2016-03-01

    Pancreatic diseases can be accompanied by periarthritis with bone necrosis and panniculitis (PPP-syndrome). It is postulated that this is caused by systemic activity of pancreatic enzymes leading to microcirculatory disturbances and fat necrosis. The morbidity and mortality of the PPP-syndrome is high. Successful treatment of pancreatitis can lead to resolution of accompanying panniculitis and periarthritis without adverse sequelae, but weeks or months after pancreatitis, asymptomatic necrosis of the bone may become symptomatic by fracturing spontaneously. In this report, we also describe osteomyelitis as a severe septic complication of bone necrosis caused by pancreatitis, in one case as acute tissue necrosis and in another case months after pancreatitis spread haematogenously. Copyright © 2015 Société française de rhumatologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Comparison between multi-constellation ambiguity-fixed PPP and RTK for maritime precise navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tegedor, Javier; Liu, Xianglin; Ørpen, Ole; Treffers, Niels; Goode, Matthew; Øvstedal, Ola

    2015-06-01

    In order to achieve high-accuracy positioning, either Real-Time Kinematic (RTK) or Precise Point Positioning (PPP) techniques can be used. While RTK normally delivers higher accuracy with shorter convergence times, PPP has been an attractive technology for maritime applications, as it delivers uniform positioning performance without the direct need of a nearby reference station. Traditional PPP has been based on ambiguity-­float solutions using GPS and Glonass constellations. However, the addition of new satellite systems, such as Galileo and BeiDou, and the possibility of fixing integer carrier-phase ambiguities (PPP-AR) allow to increase PPP accuracy. In this article, a performance assessment has been done between RTK, PPP and PPP-AR, using GNSS data collected from two antennas installed on a ferry navigating in Oslo (Norway). RTK solutions have been generated using short, medium and long baselines (up to 290 km). For the generation of PPP-AR solutions, Uncalibrated Hardware Delays (UHDs) for GPS, Galileo and BeiDou have been estimated using reference stations in Oslo and Onsala. The performance of RTK and multi-­constellation PPP and PPP-AR are presented.

  14. Not all pustules are infective in nature: acute generalised exanthematous pustulosis causing pustular eruptions in an elderly woman.

    PubMed

    Kwah, Y C; Leow, Y H

    2005-07-01

    Acute generalised exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP) is an adverse drug reaction that can occur in any age group. It is commonly mistaken as pustular psoriasis or cutaneous infection, resulting in unnecessary commencement of medications such as methotrexate and antibiotics that can cause harm to the patient or interact and adversely affect the efficacy of other medications. Early diagnosis of AGEP avoids unnecessary investigations and treatment, which not only can harm the patient but also escalate health care, as the condition is self-limiting. This case report illustrates AGEP secondary to Cefaclor occurring in a 72-year-old Chinese woman. Although the literature has documented the occurrence of AGEP with Cefaclor, the unique feature of this case is the occurrence of AGEP following repeated uneventful courses of Cefaclor. This case highlights that AGEP must never be forgotten in the work-up for pustular eruptions in an elderly patient.

  15. Variation of Static-PPP Positioning Accuracy Using GPS-Single Frequency Observations (Aswan, Egypt)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farah, Ashraf

    2017-06-01

    Precise Point Positioning (PPP) is a technique used for position computation with a high accuracy using only one GNSS receiver. It depends on highly accurate satellite position and clock data rather than broadcast ephemeries. PPP precision varies based on positioning technique (static or kinematic), observations type (single or dual frequency) and the duration of collected observations. PPP-(dual frequency receivers) offers comparable accuracy to differential GPS. PPP-single frequency receivers has many applications such as infrastructure, hydrography and precision agriculture. PPP using low cost GPS single-frequency receivers is an area of great interest for millions of users in developing countries such as Egypt. This research presents a study for the variability of single frequency static GPS-PPP precision based on different observation durations.

  16. POD and PPP with multi-frequency processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roldán, Pedro; Navarro, Pedro; Rodríguez, Daniel; Rodríguez, Irma

    2017-04-01

    Precise Orbit Determination (POD) and Precise Point Positioning (PPP) are methods for estimating the orbits and clocks of GNSS satellites and the precise positions and clocks of user receivers. These methods are traditionally based on processing the ionosphere-free combination. With this combination, the delay introduced in the signal when passing through the ionosphere is removed, taking advantage of the dependency of this delay with the square of the frequency. It is also possible to process the individual frequencies, but in this case it is needed to properly model the ionospheric delay. This modelling is usually very challenging, as the electron content in the ionosphere experiences important temporal and spatial variations. These two options define the two main kinds of processing: the dual-frequency ionosphere-free processing, typically used in the POD and in certain applications of PPP, and the single-frequency processing with estimation or modelisation of the ionosphere, mostly used in the PPP processing. In magicGNSS, a software tool developed by GMV for POD and PPP, a hybrid approach has been implemented. This approach combines observations from any number of individual frequencies and any number of ionosphere-free combinations of these frequencies. In such a way, the observations of ionosphere-free combination allow a better estimation of positions and orbits, while the inclusion of observations from individual frequencies allows to estimate the ionospheric delay and to reduce the noise of the solution. It is also possible to include other kind of combinations, such as geometry-free combination, instead of processing individual frequencies. The joint processing of all the frequencies for all the constellations requires both the estimation or modelisation of ionospheric delay and the estimation of inter-frequency biases. The ionospheric delay can be estimated from the single-frequency or dual-frequency geometry-free observations, but it is also possible

  17. The effectiveness of tap water iontophoresis for palmoplantar hyperhidrosis using a Monday, Wednesday, and Friday treatment regime.

    PubMed

    Siah, Tee Wei; Hampton, Philip J

    2013-03-15

    Primary focal hyperhidrosis is a benign condition of unknown etiology. Tap water iontophoresis has long been known to inhibit sweat production. The mechanism of reduced hyperhidrosis by iontophoresis is not completely clear. For operational convenience, our patients received their treatments at different intervals to those recommended by the manufacturer of the iontophoresis unit. We performed a retrospective audit to evaluate the effectiveness of tap water iontophoresis using this regimen. This new treatment regimen was effective at controlling palmoplantar hyperhidrosis. Minimal undesirable effects such as mild skin irritation and erythema were noted but none were severe enough to necessitate discontinuation of treatment. In conclusion, tap water iontophoresis is a safe and effective treatment of palmar and plantar hyperhidrosis when used on Monday, Wednesday, and Friday for 4 weeks. Continued treatment is needed to maintain the effect and many patients go on to purchase their own machines. This technique should be considered prior to systemic or aggressive surgical intervention.

  18. The PPP Simulator: User’s Manual and Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-11-01

    simulator: Script started on Thu Aug 28 09:16:15 1986 1 ji] -> ppp -d Benchmarks/Par/ccon6.w pau load /a/hprg’fagin/ PPPl /Benchmarks/Par,’concatOP .w Capace...EOF ) putc( c, stdout ) #else if(( fp = fopen("/a/hprg/fagin/ PPPl /notes’, fir" ))!NULL) while(( c = getc(fp)) != EOF ) putc( c, stdout ) #erndif if...hprg/fagin/ PPPl /bitl.d’, fir" ) =NULL) lddsptbl( fp, bi-tbl ); while((--argc > 0) && ((*.+argv)[0]= -I for( s =argv[0]+l; *s!=’\\0’ s++ A -A Aug 18 16

  19. Real-time kinematic PPP GPS for structure monitoring applied on the Severn Suspension Bridge, UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Xu; Roberts, Gethin Wyn; Li, Xingxing; Hancock, Craig Matthew

    2017-09-01

    GPS is widely used for monitoring large civil engineering structures in real time or near real time. In this paper the use of PPP GPS for monitoring large structures is investigated. The bridge deformation results estimated using double differenced measurements is used as the truth against which the performance of kinematic PPP in a real-time scenario for bridge monitoring is assessed. The towers' datasets with millimetre level movement and suspension cable dataset with centimetre/decimetre level movement were processed by both PPP and DD data processing methods. The consistency of tower PPP time series indicated that the wet tropospheric delay is the major obstacle for small deflection extraction. The results of suspension cable survey points indicate that an ionospheric-free linear measurement is competent for bridge deformation by PPP kinematic model, the frequency domain analysis yields very similar results using either PPP or DD. This gives evidence that PPP can be used as an alternative method to DD for large structure monitoring when DD is difficult or impossible because of large baseline lengths, power outages or natural disasters. The PPP residual tropospheric wet delays can be applied to improve the capacity of small movement extraction.

  20. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart Ppp of... - Known Organic HAP From Polyether Polyol Products

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Known Organic HAP From Polyether Polyol... CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions for Polyether Polyols Production Pt. 63, Subpt. PPP, Table 4 Table 4 to Subpart PPP of Part 63—Known Organic HAP From Polyether Polyol...

  1. Real-time Kinematic Positioning of INS Tightly Aided Multi-GNSS Ionospheric Constrained PPP

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Zhouzheng; Shen, Wenbin; Zhang, Hongping; Niu, Xiaoji; Ge, Maorong

    2016-01-01

    Real-time Precise Point Positioning (PPP) technique is being widely applied for providing precise positioning services with the significant improvement on satellite precise products accuracy. With the rapid development of the multi-constellation Global Navigation Satellite Systems (multi-GNSS), currently, about 80 navigation satellites are operational in orbit. Obviously, PPP performance is dramatically improved with all satellites compared to that of GPS-only PPP. However, the performance of PPP could be evidently affected by unexpected and unavoidable severe observing environments, especially in the dynamic applications. Consequently, we apply Inertial Navigation System (INS) to the Ionospheric-Constrained (IC) PPP to overcome such drawbacks. The INS tightly aided multi-GNSS IC-PPP model can make full use of GNSS and INS observations to improve the PPP performance in terms of accuracy, availability, continuity, and convergence speed. Then, a set of airborne data is analyzed to evaluate and validate the improvement of multi-GNSS and INS on the performance of IC-PPP. PMID:27470270

  2. Real-time Kinematic Positioning of INS Tightly Aided Multi-GNSS Ionospheric Constrained PPP.

    PubMed

    Gao, Zhouzheng; Shen, Wenbin; Zhang, Hongping; Niu, Xiaoji; Ge, Maorong

    2016-07-29

    Real-time Precise Point Positioning (PPP) technique is being widely applied for providing precise positioning services with the significant improvement on satellite precise products accuracy. With the rapid development of the multi-constellation Global Navigation Satellite Systems (multi-GNSS), currently, about 80 navigation satellites are operational in orbit. Obviously, PPP performance is dramatically improved with all satellites compared to that of GPS-only PPP. However, the performance of PPP could be evidently affected by unexpected and unavoidable severe observing environments, especially in the dynamic applications. Consequently, we apply Inertial Navigation System (INS) to the Ionospheric-Constrained (IC) PPP to overcome such drawbacks. The INS tightly aided multi-GNSS IC-PPP model can make full use of GNSS and INS observations to improve the PPP performance in terms of accuracy, availability, continuity, and convergence speed. Then, a set of airborne data is analyzed to evaluate and validate the improvement of multi-GNSS and INS on the performance of IC-PPP.

  3. Chronic mandibular osteomyelitis with suspected underlying synovitis, acne, pustulosis, hyperostosis, and osteitis (SAPHO) syndrome: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Mochizuki, Yumi; Omura, Ken; Hirai, Hideaki; Kugimoto, Takuma; Osako, Toshimitu; Taguchi, Takahide

    2012-01-01

    Chronic mandibular osteomyelitis is an intractable disease. In recent years, some case reports have related this disease process to synovitis, acne, pustulosis, hyperostosis, and osteitis (SAPHO) syndrome, which is chronic with frequent remissions and exacerbations. This report describes a case of chronic mandibular osteomyelitis suspected to be SAPHO syndrome. A 68-year-old woman presented with pain on the left side of the mandible. On the basis of clinical and radiological findings, chronic mandibular diffuse sclerosing osteomyelitis was initially diagnosed. We administrated oral clarithromycin (400 mg daily) and levofloxacin (500 mg daily), and her pain subsequently resolved. On 99mTc-labeled methylene diphosphonate scintigraphy, tracer uptake in the asymptomatic mandible was unchanged, but there was increasing tracer uptake in the sternocostal and sternoclavicular joints, compared with 99mTc-labeled methylene diphosphonate scintigraphic findings of the first visit. We diagnosed SAPHO syndrome and administrated oral sodium risedronate hydrate (2.5 mg daily). Although there has been no pain or swelling in the area of the left mandibular lesion, we have followed up on other skin and osteoarticular manifestations in conjunction with other medical departments. PMID:22427727

  4. Risk factors for acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP)-results of a multinational case-control study (EuroSCAR).

    PubMed

    Sidoroff, A; Dunant, A; Viboud, C; Halevy, S; Bavinck, J N Bouwes; Naldi, L; Mockenhaupt, M; Fagot, J-P; Roujeau, J-C

    2007-11-01

    Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP) is a disease characterized by the rapid occurrence of many sterile, nonfollicular pustules usually arising on an oedematous erythema often accompanied by leucocytosis and fever. It is usually attributed to drugs. To evaluate the risk for different drugs of causing AGEP. A multinational case-control study (EuroSCAR) conducted to evaluate the risk for different drugs of causing severe cutaneous adverse reactions; the study included 97 validated community cases of AGEP and 1009 controls. Results Strongly associated drugs, i.e. drugs with a lower bound of the 95% confidence interval (CI) of the odds ratio (OR) > 5 were pristinamycin (CI 26-infinity), ampicillin/amoxicillin (CI 10-infinity), quinolones (CI 8.5-infinity), (hydroxy)chloroquine (CI 8-infinity), anti-infective sulphonamides (CI 7.1-infinity), terbinafine (CI 7.1-infinity) and diltiazem (CI 5.0-infinity). No significant risk was found for infections and a personal or family history of psoriasis (CI 0.7-2.2). Medications associated with AGEP differ from those associated with Stevens-Johnson syndrome or toxic epidermal necrolysis. Different timing patterns from drug intake to reaction onset were observed for different drugs. Infections, although possible triggers, played no prominent role in causing AGEP and there was no evidence that AGEP is a variant of pustular psoriasis.

  5. Two cases of acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis related to oral terbinafine and an analysis of the clinical reaction pattern.

    PubMed

    Eyler, Jennifer T; Squires, Stephen; Fraga, Garth R; Liu, Deede; Kestenbaum, Thelda

    2012-11-15

    Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP) is a clinical reaction pattern characterized by the rapid appearance of widespread sterile, nonfollicular pustules arising within edematous erythematous skin. This aseptic pustular eruption is commonly accompanied by leukocytosis and fever and usually follows recent administration of oral or parenteral drugs. We report two cases of terbinafine-induced AGEP in male patients. Both patients developed a generalized erythroderma with scaling and pruritic pustules 7 and 14 days following initiation of oral terbinafine. With immediate discontinuation of terbinafine and various treatment protocols, both patients demonstrated recovery followed by skin desquamation during the subsequent weeks. Terbinafine is the most frequently used systemic antimycotic and antifungal medication, reflecting its superior efficacy for dermatophyte infections. Despite the appealing drug profile, an awareness of terbinafine-induced AGEP is important given the 5 percent mortality associated with AGEP. Additionally, distinguishing the characteristics of AGEP from those associated with toxic epidermal necrolysis, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, and generalized pustular psoriasis allows for prompt dermatologic evaluation, accurate diagnosis, and appropriate treatment.

  6. First report of mesalamine (5-aminosalicylic acid) as the causative agent in a case of acute generalized exanthamous pustulosis.

    PubMed

    Rocci, Erin; Park, Kelly; Hutchens, Kelli; Winterfield, Laura

    2017-01-15

    Acute generalized exanthamous pustulosis (AGEP)is a rare eruption of non-follicular sterile pustuleson a diffuse background of erythema and edema,commonly associated with fever and leukocytosis.Antibiotics are implicated in most cases; however,other drugs have been reported to cause AGEP. Wereport a case of a 73-year-old man with a historyof ulcerative colitis who presented with a diffusepustular rash, renal failure, elevated liver functiontests, and leukocytosis with neutrophilia. A week priorto admission, the patient was started on mesalamineto treat colitis. Upon admission, a workup includinga skin biopsy was performed and was consistentwith AGEP. Mesalamine was discontinued, and thepatient's skin eruption, renal function, liver functiontests, and leukocytosis subsequently improved.Mesalamine has an unknown mechanism of action.However, it is thought to be an anti-inflammatoryagent that blocks the production of leukotrienesand prostaglandins and is an immunosuppressantthat increases the release of adenosine, whichinterferes with leukocyte function. The decrease inprostaglandin synthesis or deregulation of leukocytefunction caused by mesalamine may be the etiologyin this case. Discontinuation of the offending agentleads to resolution of AGEP, as it did in this patient.

  7. Waltz Mill testing of 345-kV PPP cable

    SciT

    Burghardt, R.R.

    1991-09-01

    A 345-kV PPP-insulated cable was subjected to a two-year accelerated life test program at the EPRI Waltz Mill Cable Test Facility. Testing started in November 1985 and was successfully completed in September 1988. The program included conductor temperatures ranging from 85{degrees}C to 105{degrees}C and line-to-line voltages from 362 kV to 474 kV. Cyclic testing was performed during 17 of the 24 months. Dissipation factor measurements were made throughout the program. The measurements indicated no deterioration of the cable or splices as a consequence of the high temperatures and voltages applied to them in this test program. 2 refs., 24 figs.

  8. Selective ablation of Ppp1cc gene in testicular germ cells causes oligo-teratozoospermia and infertility in mice.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Nilam; Puri, Pawan; Nairn, Angus C; Vijayaraghavan, Srinivasan

    2013-11-01

    The four isoforms of serine/threonine phosphoprotein phosphatase 1 (PP1), derived from three genes, are among the most conserved proteins known. The Ppp1cc gene encodes two alternatively spliced variants, PP1 gamma1 (PPP1CC1) and PP1 gamma2 (PPP1CC2). Global deletion of the Ppp1cc gene, which causes loss of both isoforms, results in male infertility due to impaired spermatogenesis. This phenotype was assumed to be due to the loss of PPP1CC2, which is abundant in testis. While PPP1CC2 is predominant, other PP1 isoforms are also expressed in testis. Given the significant homology between the four PP1 isoforms, the lack of compensation by the other PP1 isoforms for loss of one, only in testis, is surprising. Here we document, for the first time, expression patterns of the PP1 isoforms in postnatal developing and adult mouse testis. The timing and sites of testis expression of PPP1CC1 and PPP1CC2 in testis are nonoverlapping. PPP1CC2 is the only one of the four PP1 isoforms not detected in sertoli cells and spermatogonia. Conversely, PPP1CC2 may be the only PP1 isoform expressed in postmeiotic germ cells. Deletion of the Ppp1cc gene in germ cells at the differentiated spermatogonia stage of development and beyond in Stra8 promoter-driven Cre transgenic mice results in oligo-terato-asthenozoospermia and male infertility, thus phenocopying global Ppp1cc null (-/-) mice. Taken together, these results confirm that spermatogenic defects observed in the global Ppp1cc knockout mice and in mice expressing low levels of PPP1CC2 in testis are due to compromised functions of PPP1CC2 in meiotic and postmeiotic germ cells.

  9. The perforator pedicled propeller (PPP) flap method: report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Hyakusoku, Hiko; Ogawa, Rei; Oki, Koichiro; Ishii, Nobuaki

    2007-10-01

    Perforator flaps are thin free-tissue transfers consisting of skin and subcutaneous tissue which have the advantage of decreasing donor site morbidity. We have reconstructed postburn scar contractures using "propeller flaps" of the remaining healthy skin around the recipient sites. In this paper, we report on two cases and describe the concept of using "perforator flaps" and "propeller flaps" together as what are called "perforator pedicled propeller (PPP) flaps." Patient 1 was an 18-year-old man with a sacral pressure ulcer. The soft tissue defect was reconstructed with a rotated superior gluteal artery PPP flap. Patient 2 was a 53-year-old woman who presented with an open fracture of the right elbow. The skin defect over the fracture was covered with a rotated deep brachial artery PPP flap raised on the lateral upper arm. The PPP flaps are useful for burn reconstruction and repairing various types of wound. Moreover, microsurgery is unnecessary. The PPP flap may be classified into two types: the central axis type and the acentric axis type. The central axis PPP flap is significant when used as a 90-degree-rotation island flap, and the acentric axis PPP flap is significant when used as a 180-degree-rotation island flap. Both types are easy to harvest and useful for repairing various kinds of wound.

  10. Picropodophyllin (PPP) is a potent rhabdomyosarcoma growth inhibitor both in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Tarnowski, Maciej; Tkacz, Marta; Zgutka, Katarzyna; Bujak, Joanna; Kopytko, Patrycja; Pawlik, Andrzej

    2017-08-09

    Insulin-like growth factors and insulin are important factors promoting cancer growth and metastasis. The molecules act through IGF1 (IGF1R) and insulin (InsR) receptors. Rhambodmyosarcomas (RMS) overproduce IGF2 - a potent ligand for IGF1R and, at the same time, highly express IGF1 receptor. The purpose of the study was to evaluate possible application of picropodophyllin (PPP) - a potent IGF1R inhibitor. In our study we used a number of in vitro assays showing influence of IGF1R blockage on RMS cell lines (both ARMS and ERMS) proliferation, migration, adhesion, cell cycling and signal transduction pathways. Additionally, we tested possible concomitant application of PPP with commonly used chemotherapeutics (vincristine, actinomycin-D and cisplatin). Moreover, we performed an in vivo study where PPP was injected intraperitoneally into RMS tumor bearing SCID mice. We observed that PPP strongly inhibits RMS proliferation, chemotaxis and adhesion. What is more, application of the IGF1R inhibitor attenuates MAPK phosphorylation and cause cell cycle arrest in G2/M phase. PPP increases sensitivity of RMS cell lines to chemotherapy, specifically to vincristine and cisplatin. In our in vivo studies we noted that mice treated with PPP grew smaller tumors and displayed significantly decreased seeding into bone marrow. The cyclolignan PPP effectively inhibits RMS tumor proliferation and metastasis in vitro and in an animal model.

  11. Autosomal-recessive SASH1 variants associated with a new genodermatosis with pigmentation defects, palmoplantar keratoderma and skin carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Courcet, Jean- Benoît; Elalaoui, Siham Chafai; Duplomb, Laurence; Tajir, Mariam; Rivière, Jean-Baptiste; Thevenon, Julien; Gigot, Nadège; Marle, Nathalie; Aral, Bernard; Duffourd, Yannis; Sarasin, Alain; Naim, Valeria; Courcet-Degrolard, Emilie; Aubriot-Lorton, Marie- Hélène; Martin, Laurent; Abrid, Jamal Eddin; Thauvin, Christel; Sefiani, Abdelaziz; Vabres, Pierre; Faivre, Laurence

    2015-01-01

    SASH1 (SAM and SH3 domain-containing protein 1) is a tumor suppressor gene involved in the tumorigenesis of a spectrum of solid cancers. Heterozygous SASH1 variants are known to cause autosomal-dominant dyschromatosis. Homozygosity mapping and whole-exome sequencing were performed in a consanguineous Moroccan family with two affected siblings presenting an unclassified phenotype associating an abnormal pigmentation pattern (hypo- and hyperpigmented macules of the trunk and face and areas of reticular hypo- and hyperpigmentation of the extremities), alopecia, palmoplantar keratoderma, ungueal dystrophy and recurrent spinocellular carcinoma. We identified a homozygous variant in SASH1 (c.1849G>A; p.Glu617Lys) in both affected individuals. Wound-healing assay showed that the patient's fibroblasts were better able than control fibroblasts to migrate. Following the identification of SASH1 heterozygous variants in dyschromatosis, we used reverse phenotyping to show that autosomal-recessive variants of this gene could be responsible for an overlapping but more complex phenotype that affected skin appendages. SASH1 should be added to the list of genes responsible for autosomal-dominant and -recessive genodermatosis, with no phenotype in heterozygous patients in the recessive form, and to the list of genes responsible for a predisposition to skin cancer. PMID:25315659

  12. Autosomal-recessive SASH1 variants associated with a new genodermatosis with pigmentation defects, palmoplantar keratoderma and skin carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Courcet, Jean-Benoît; Elalaoui, Siham Chafai; Duplomb, Laurence; Tajir, Mariam; Rivière, Jean-Baptiste; Thevenon, Julien; Gigot, Nadège; Marle, Nathalie; Aral, Bernard; Duffourd, Yannis; Sarasin, Alain; Naim, Valeria; Courcet-Degrolard, Emilie; Aubriot-Lorton, Marie-Hélène; Martin, Laurent; Abrid, Jamal Eddin; Thauvin, Christel; Sefiani, Abdelaziz; Vabres, Pierre; Faivre, Laurence

    2015-07-01

    SASH1 (SAM and SH3 domain-containing protein 1) is a tumor suppressor gene involved in the tumorigenesis of a spectrum of solid cancers. Heterozygous SASH1 variants are known to cause autosomal-dominant dyschromatosis. Homozygosity mapping and whole-exome sequencing were performed in a consanguineous Moroccan family with two affected siblings presenting an unclassified phenotype associating an abnormal pigmentation pattern (hypo- and hyperpigmented macules of the trunk and face and areas of reticular hypo- and hyperpigmentation of the extremities), alopecia, palmoplantar keratoderma, ungueal dystrophy and recurrent spinocellular carcinoma. We identified a homozygous variant in SASH1 (c.1849G>A; p.Glu617Lys) in both affected individuals. Wound-healing assay showed that the patient's fibroblasts were better able than control fibroblasts to migrate. Following the identification of SASH1 heterozygous variants in dyschromatosis, we used reverse phenotyping to show that autosomal-recessive variants of this gene could be responsible for an overlapping but more complex phenotype that affected skin appendages. SASH1 should be added to the list of genes responsible for autosomal-dominant and -recessive genodermatosis, with no phenotype in heterozygous patients in the recessive form, and to the list of genes responsible for a predisposition to skin cancer.

  13. A controlled study of comparative efficacy of oral retinoids and topical betamethasone/salicylic acid for chronic hyperkeratotic palmoplantar dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Capella, Giovanni Luigi; Fracchiolla, Claudio; Frigerio, Elena; Altomare, Gianfranco

    2004-04-01

    Chronic hyperkeratotic dermatitis of the palms and soles represents a severe multi-etiological problem, too often faced with ineffective or tedious topical remedies. A single-blind, matched-sample design investigation was carried out of 42 patients with chronic hyperkeratotic palmoplantar dermatitis, who were administered acitretin 25-50 mg/day for 1 month, which was controlled versus a conventional topical treatment (betamethasone/salicylic acid ointment). Therapeutic improvement was expressed with the reduction of severity score (expressed on a 0-10 scale). Acitretin was significantly better than the conventional treatment after 30 days (two sided p<0.0001). Moreover, improvement significantly persisted 5 months after suspension of acitretin (p<0.0001), while this was not the case after suspension of the control treatment (p=0.3019). Lesions improved more rapidly with acitretin than with the control treatment (p<0.0002). Some cases of loss of sensitization in patch-test-positive patients were observed. Side effects were minimal or absent, and patients expressed overtly their preference for acitretin treatment. After evaluating the former literature, the risks and the benefits, as well as the overt superiority of retinoid treatment, the authors conclude that acitretin should be considered a first choice treatment for this fastidious condition.

  14. MSE-impact of PPP-RTK ZTD estimation strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, K.; Khodabandeh, A.; Teunissen, P. J. G.

    2018-06-01

    In PPP-RTK network processing, the wet component of the zenith tropospheric delay (ZTD) cannot be precisely modelled and thus remains unknown in the observation equations. For small networks, the tropospheric mapping functions of different stations to a given satellite are almost equal to each other, thereby causing a near rank-deficiency between the ZTDs and satellite clocks. The stated near rank-deficiency can be solved by estimating the wet ZTD components relatively to that of the reference receiver, while the wet ZTD component of the reference receiver is constrained to zero. However, by increasing network scale and humidity around the reference receiver, enlarged mismodelled effects could bias the network and the user solutions. To consider both the influences of the noise and the biases, the mean-squared errors (MSEs) of different network and user parameters are studied analytically employing both the ZTD estimation strategies. We conclude that for a certain set of parameters, the difference in their MSE structures using both strategies is only driven by the square of the reference wet ZTD component and the formal variance of its solution. Depending on the network scale and the humidity condition around the reference receiver, the ZTD estimation strategy that delivers more accurate solutions might be different. Simulations are performed to illustrate the conclusions made by analytical studies. We find that estimating the ZTDs relatively in large networks and humid regions (for the reference receiver) could significantly degrade the network ambiguity success rates. Using ambiguity-fixed network-derived PPP-RTK corrections, for networks with an inter-station distance within 100 km, the choices of the ZTD estimation strategy is not crucial for single-epoch ambiguity-fixed user positioning. Using ambiguity-float network corrections, for networks with inter-station distances of 100, 300 and 500 km in humid regions (for the reference receiver), the root

  15. Development of optimized PPP insulated pipe-cable systems in the commercial voltage range

    SciT

    Allam, E.M.; McKean, A.L.

    1992-05-01

    The primary objectives of this project included the development of an alternate domestic source of Paper-Polypropylene-Paper (PPP) laminate and the development of optimized designs for PPP-insulated pipe-type cable systems in the commercial voltage range. The development of a domestic source of PPP laminate was successfully completed. This laminate was utilized throughout the program for fabrication of full-size prototype cables submitted for laboratory qualification tests. Selected cables at rated voltages of 138, 230 and 345kV have been designed, fabricated and subjected to the series of qualification tests leading to full laboratory qualification. An optimized design of 2000 kcmil, 345kV cable insulatedmore » with 600 mils of domestic PPP laminate was fabricated and successfully passed all laboratory qualification tests. This cable design was subsequently installed at Waltz Mill to undergo the series of field tests leading to full commercial qualification.« less

  16. Development of optimized PPP insulated pipe-cable systems in the commercial voltage range. Final report

    SciT

    Allam, E.M.; McKean, A.L.

    1992-05-01

    The primary objectives of this project included the development of an alternate domestic source of Paper-Polypropylene-Paper (PPP) laminate and the development of optimized designs for PPP-insulated pipe-type cable systems in the commercial voltage range. The development of a domestic source of PPP laminate was successfully completed. This laminate was utilized throughout the program for fabrication of full-size prototype cables submitted for laboratory qualification tests. Selected cables at rated voltages of 138, 230 and 345kV have been designed, fabricated and subjected to the series of qualification tests leading to full laboratory qualification. An optimized design of 2000 kcmil, 345kV cable insulatedmore » with 600 mils of domestic PPP laminate was fabricated and successfully passed all laboratory qualification tests. This cable design was subsequently installed at Waltz Mill to undergo the series of field tests leading to full commercial qualification.« less

  17. Internet-delivered, preoperative, preparation program (I-PPP): Development and examination of effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Wright, Kristi D; Raazi, Mateen; Walker, Kirstie L

    2017-06-01

    Limited evidence-based, interactive, Internet-delivered preoperative preparation programs for children and their parents exist. The purpose of this investigation was to develop and examine the effectiveness of the Internet-delivered, preoperative program (I-PPP) in alleviating prepoperative anxiety in children undergoing outpatient surgery. In Study 1, the I-PPP was developed and then evaluated by parent/child dyads and health care professionals. In Study 2, the effectiveness of I-PPP was examined. This study was a development and effectiveness study. For Study 1, participants were recruited from the community. For Study 2, participants were recruited from the Royal University Hospital. In Study 1, participants were 9 parent/child dyads and 5 health care professionals. In Study 2, participants were 32 children (3-7years) scheduled for outpatient surgery and one parent for each child. In Study 1, I-PPP modules were created and parent/child dyads and health care professionals evaluated I-PPP modules and treatment credibility. In Study 2, child patients and their parents completed the I-PPP prior to day of surgery. Observer-rated anxiety of child participants was measured during the day surgery experience. Parent state anxiety was measured prior to completing I-PPP, pre- and post-surgery. Post-surgery parents provided comments regarding the I-PPP. Post-surgery child behaviour change was assessed. For Study 1, ratings for I-PPP components and treatment credibility surpassed our acceptability criterion. Minor changes were made to I-PPP. For Study 2, mYPAS scores were stable across day surgery. mYPAS scores in current study at induction did not differ significantly from benchmark studies. Significant reduction in parent anxiety was observed pre- to post-surgery. Parents positively endorsed the program. Negative post-operative behaviours were observed in a proportion of children. Our findings suggest that I-PPP represents a viable option for preoperative preparation for

  18. Statistical Constraints on Station Clock Parameters in the NRCAN PPP Estimation Process

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    e.g., Two-Way Satellite Time and Frequency Transfer ( TWSTFT ), GPS Common View (CV), and GPS P3 [9]. Finally, PPP shows a 2- times improvement in...the collocated Two-Way Satellite Time and Frequency Technique ( TWSTFT ) estimates for the same baseline. The TWSTFT estimates are available every 2...periodicity is due to the thermal variations described in the previous section, while the divergence between both PPP solutions and TWSTFT estimates is due

  19. Allocation of control rights in the PPP Project: a cooperative game model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yunhua; Feng, Jingchun; Yang, Shengtao

    2017-06-01

    Reasonable allocation of control rights is the key to the success of Public-Private Partnership (PPP) projects. PPP are services or ventures which are financed and operated through cooperation between governmental and private sector actors and which involve reasonable control rights sharing between these two partners. After professional firm with capital and technology as a shareholder participating in PPP project firms, the PPP project is diversified in participants and input resources. Meanwhile the allocation of control rights of PPP project tends to be complicated. According to the diversification of participants and input resources of PPP projects, the key participants are divided into professional firms and pure investors. Based on the cost of repurchase of different input resources in markets, the cooperative game relationship between these two parties is analyzed, on the basis of which the allocation model of the cooperative game for control rights is constructed to ensure optimum allocation ration of control rights and verify the share of control rights in proportion to the cost of repurchase.

  20. Structural basis for viral 5′-PPP-RNA recognition by human IFIT proteins

    PubMed Central

    Abbas, Yazan M.; Pichlmair, Andreas; Górna, Maria W.; Superti-Furga, Giulio; Nagar, Bhushan

    2016-01-01

    IFIT proteins are interferon-inducible, innate immune effector molecules that are thought to confer antiviral defence through disruption of protein-protein interactions in the host translation initiation machinery. However, recently it was discovered that IFITs could directly recognize viral RNA bearing a 5′-triphosphate group (PPP-RNA), which is a molecular signature that distinguishes it from host RNA. Here, we report crystal structures of human IFIT5, its complex with PPP-RNAs, and an N-terminal fragment of IFIT1. The structures reveal a new helical domain that houses a positively charged cavity designed to specifically engage only single stranded PPP-RNA, thus distinguishing it from the canonical cytosolic sensor of double stranded viral PPP-RNA, RIG-I. Mutational analysis, proteolysis and gel-shift assays reveal that PPP-RNA is bound in a non-sequence specific manner and requires approximately a 3-nucleotide 5′-overhang. Abrogation of PPP-RNA binding in IFIT1 and IFIT5 were found to cause a defect in the anti-viral response by HEK cells. These results demonstrate the mechanism by which IFIT proteins selectively recognize viral RNA and lend insight into their downstream effector function. PMID:23334420

  1. Dopamine agonist 3-PPP fails to protect against MPTP-induced toxicity.

    PubMed

    Muralikrishnan, Dhanasekaran; Ebadi, Manuchair; Brown-Borg, Holly M

    2004-02-01

    We investigated the neuroprotective effect of the dopamine agonist, 3-PPP [3-(3-hydroxyphenyl)-N-propylpiperidine] against 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced neurotoxicity. MPTP (30 mg/kg, i.p., twice, 16 h apart) causes significant dopamine depletion in nucleus caudatus putamen (NCP) by 1 week. 3-PPP had no effect on the monoamine oxidase-B activity (MAO-B) activity in NCP. 3-PPP did not affect dopamine uptake, whereas mazindol significantly blocked the uptake of dopamine dose dependently. MPTP-induced behavioral changes in mice were not reduced by pretreatment with 3-PPP. This dopamine agonist did not prevent dopamine depletion caused by MPTP. MPP+ (20 microM) significantly inhibited the cell proliferation of SH-SY5Y dopaminergic neuronal cells. 3-PPP had no effect on the SH-SY5Y neuronal cell growth in culture and did not block the MPP(+)-induced cytotoxicity. This study shows that the dopamine agonist 3-PPP failed to protect against MPTP-induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity.

  2. Structural basis for viral 5'-PPP-RNA recognition by human IFIT proteins.

    PubMed

    Abbas, Yazan M; Pichlmair, Andreas; Górna, Maria W; Superti-Furga, Giulio; Nagar, Bhushan

    2013-02-07

    Interferon-induced proteins with tetratricopeptide repeats (IFITs) are innate immune effector molecules that are thought to confer antiviral defence through disruption of protein-protein interactions in the host translation-initiation machinery. However, it was recently discovered that IFITs can directly recognize viral RNA bearing a 5'-triphosphate group (PPP-RNA), which is a molecular signature that distinguishes it from host RNA. Here we report crystal structures of human IFIT5, its complex with PPP-RNAs, and an amino-terminal fragment of IFIT1. The structures reveal a new helical domain that houses a positively charged cavity designed to specifically engage only single-stranded PPP-RNA, thus distinguishing it from the canonical cytosolic sensor of double-stranded viral PPP-RNA, retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I, also known as DDX58). Mutational analysis, proteolysis and gel-shift assays reveal that PPP-RNA is bound in a non-sequence-specific manner and requires a 5'-overhang of approximately three nucleotides. Abrogation of PPP-RNA binding in IFIT1 and IFIT5 was found to cause a defect in the antiviral response by human embryonic kidney cells. These results demonstrate the mechanism by which IFIT proteins selectively recognize viral RNA, and lend insight into their downstream effector function.

  3. Novel Treatment Approach for Deep Palmoplantar Warts Using Long-Pulsed 1064-nm Nd:YAG Laser and a Moisturizing Cream Without Prior Paring of the Wart Surface.

    PubMed

    Alshami, Mohammad Ali; Mohana, Mona Jameel

    2016-10-01

    The present study aimed to assess the safety and efficacy of palmoplantar wart removal using long-pulsed 1064-nm Nd:YAG laser after application of a moisturizing cream. Previously described laser treatments for wart removal are associated with negative side effects and need to pare the warts before laser treatment. Two hundred forty patients (142 males, 98 females) were treated for 1-40 palmoplantar warts by long-pulsed 1064-nm Nd:YAG laser (spot size 4-6 mm, pulse duration 20 msec, fluence 200 J/cm 2 ) after covering the wart surface with a thin film of a moisturizing cream. The endpoint was lesion graying or whitening with or without development of a hemorrhagic bulla beneath the treated wart. Color photographs were taken before and immediately after each laser session and at 1, 4, and 16 weeks after the last session. The overall clearance rate was 97%, with 90% of treated patients cured after one session, 4% after two, and 3% after three. Clearance rate after three laser sessions decreased linearly with the number of warts from 100% to 95%. Less accessible wart location in interdigital spaces also decreased the cure rate after three sessions from 100% to 95%. Additionally, warts became more difficult to eradicate as they aged. Remission lasted up to 6 years, and complications were mild and infrequent (17.5%). This novel method is effective in removing palmoplantar warts. It is easier, time-saving, and safer than other methods described in previous studies conducted with ablative or nonablative lasers.

  4. Fast-PPP assessment in European and equatorial region near the solar cycle maximum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rovira-Garcia, Adria; Juan, José Miguel; Sanz, Jaume

    2014-05-01

    The Fast Precise Point Positioning (Fast-PPP) is a technique to provide quick high-accuracy navigation with ambiguity fixing capability, thanks to an accurate modelling of the ionosphere. Indeed, once the availability of real-time precise satellite orbits and clocks is granted to users, the next challenge is the accuracy of real-time ionospheric corrections. Several steps had been taken by gAGE/UPC to develop such global system for precise navigation. First Wide-Area Real-Time Kinematics (WARTK) feasibility studies enabled precise relative continental navigation using a few tens of reference stations. Later multi-frequency and multi-constellation assessments in different ionospheric scenarios, including maximum solar-cycle conditions, were focussed on user-domain performance. Recently, a mature evolution of the technique consists on a dual service scheme; a global Precise Point Positioning (PPP) service, together with a continental enhancement to shorten convergence. A end to end performance assessment of the Fast-PPP technique is presented in this work, focussed in Europe and in the equatorial region of South East Asia (SEA), both near the solar cycle maximum. The accuracy of the Central Processing Facility (CPF) real-time precise satellite orbits and clocks is respectively, 4 centimetres and 0.2 nanoseconds, in line with the accuracy of the International GNSS Service (IGS) analysis centres. This global PPP service is enhanced by the Fast-PPP by adding the capability of global undifferenced ambiguity fixing thanks to the fractional part of the ambiguities determination. The core of the Fast-PPP is the capability to compute real-time ionospheric determinations with accuracies at the level or better than 1 Total Electron Content Unit (TECU), improving the widely-accepted Global Ionospheric Maps (GIM), with declared accuracies of 2-8 TECU. This large improvement in the modelling accuracy is achieved thanks to a two-layer description of the ionosphere combined with

  5. Assessment Study of Using Online (CSRS) GPS-PPP Service for Mapping Applications in Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abd-Elazeem, Mohamed; Farah, Ashraf; Farrag, Farrag

    2011-09-01

    Many applications in navigation, land surveying, land title definitions and mapping have been made simpler and more precise due to accessibility of Global Positioning System (GPS) data, and thus the demand for using advanced GPS techniques in surveying applications has become essential. The differential technique was the only source of accurate positioning for many years, and remained in use despite of its cost. The precise point positioning (PPP) technique is a viable alternative to the differential positioning method in which a user with a single receiver can attain positioning accuracy at the centimeter or decimeter scale. In recent years, many organizations introduced online (GPS-PPP) processing services capable of determining accurate geocentric positions using GPS observations. These services provide the user with receiver coordinates in free and unlimited access formats via the internet. This paper investigates the accuracy of the Canadian Spatial Reference System (CSRS) Precise Point Positioning (PPP) (CSRS-PPP) service supervised by the Geodetic Survey Division (GSD), Canada. Single frequency static GPS observations have been collected at three points covering time spans of 60, 90 and 120 minutes. These three observed sites form baselines of 1.6, 7, and 10 km, respectively. In order to assess the CSRS-PPP accuracy, the discrepancies between the CSRS-PPP estimates and the regular differential GPS solutions were computed. The obtained results illustrate that the PPP produces a horizontal error at the scale of a few decimeters; this is accurate enough to serve many mapping applications in developing countries with a savings in both cost and experienced labor.

  6. Occurrence of the regulatory nucleotides ppGpp and pppGpp following induction of the stringent response in staphylococci.

    PubMed Central

    Cassels, R; Oliva, B; Knowles, D

    1995-01-01

    The stringent response in Escherichia coli and many other organisms is regulated by the nucleotides ppGpp and pppGpp. We show here for the first time that at least six staphylococcal species also synthesize ppGpp and pppGpp upon induction of the stringent response by mupirocin. Spots corresponding to ppGpp and pppGpp on thin-layer chromatograms suggest that pppGpp is the principal regulatory nucleotide synthesized by staphylococci in response to mupirocin, rather than ppGpp as in E. coli. PMID:7665499

  7. Oral picropodophyllin (PPP) is well tolerated in vivo and inhibits IGF-1R expression and growth of uveal melanoma.

    PubMed

    Economou, Mario A; Andersson, Sandra; Vasilcanu, Diana; All-Ericsson, Charlotta; Menu, Eline; Girnita, Ada; Girnita, Leonard; Axelson, Magnus; Seregard, Stefan; Larsson, Olle

    2008-11-01

    The cyclolignan picropodophyllin (PPP) efficiently blocks the activity of insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) and inhibits growth of uveal melanoma cells in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we aimed to investigate the efficiency of orally administered PPP on growth of uveal melanoma xenografts. Further, we focused on the effect of PPP on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in vivo and evaluated its effects in combination with other established anti-tumor agents in vitro. Four different uveal melanoma cell lines (OCM-1, OCM-3, OCM-8, 92-1) were treated with PPP alone and in combination with imatinib mesylate, cisplatin, 5-FU and doxorubicin. Cell viability was determined by XTT assay. SCID mice xenografted with uveal melanoma cells were used to determine anti-tumor efficacy of oral PPP in vivo. Tumor samples obtained from the in vivo experiments were analyzed for VEGF and IGF-1R expression by western blotting. PPP was found to be superior to the other anti-tumor agents in killing uveal melanoma cells. Oral PPP inhibited uveal melanoma growth in vivo and was well tolerated by the animals. PPP decreased VEGF expression in the tumors. Oral PPP is well tolerated in vivo and caused total growth inhibition of uveal melanoma xenografts as well as it decreased the levels of VEGF in the tumors.

  8. Positioning stability improvement with inter-system biases on multi-GNSS PPP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Byung-Kyu; Yoon, Hasu

    2018-07-01

    The availability of multiple signals from different Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) constellations provides opportunities for improving positioning accuracy and initial convergence time. With dual-frequency observations from the four constellations (GPS, GLONASS, Galileo, and BeiDou), it is possible to investigate combined GNSS precise point positioning (PPP) accuracy and stability. The differences between GNSS systems result in inter-system biases (ISBs). We consider several ISB values such as GPS-GLONASS, GPS-Galileo, and GPS-BeiDou. These biases are compliant with key parameters defined in the multi-GNSS PPP processing. In this study, we present a unified PPP method that sets ISB values as fixed or constant. A comprehensive analysis that includes satellite visibility, position dilution of precision, position accuracy is performed to evaluate a unified PPP method with constrained cut-off elevation angles. Compared to the conventional PPP solutions, our approach shows more stable positioning at a constrained cut-off elevation angle of 50 degrees.

  9. Review of issues and challenges for public private partnership (PPP) project performance in Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashim, H.; Che-Ani, A. I.; Ismail, K.

    2017-10-01

    Public Private Partnership (PPP) in Malaysia aims to stimulate economic growth and overcome the weakness of conventional system. Over the years, many critics have been reported along the massive growth of PPP project development. Within that context, this study provides a review of issues and challenges for PPP pertaining to project performance in Malaysia. The study also attempts to investigate four performance measurement models around the globe as a basis for improvement of PPP in Malaysia. A qualitative method was used to analyse literature review from previous published literatures while comparative analysis was carried out within the models to identify their advantages and disadvantages. The findings show that the issues and challenges occurred were related to human, technical and financial factor that could hinder the implementation of PPP project in Malaysia. From the analysis, KPIs, guideline / framework, risk allocation, efficiency & flexibility are perceived as dominant issues. Finally, the findings provide an informed basis on the opportunity areas to be considered for improvement in order to achieved project effectiveness.

  10. Okadaic acid and microcystin insensitive PPP-family phosphatases may represent novel biotechnology targets.

    PubMed

    Uhrig, R Glen; Moorhead, Greg B

    2011-12-01

    Reversible protein phosphorylation is of central importance to the proper cellular functioning of all living organisms. Catalyzed by the opposing reactions of protein kinases and phosphatases, dysfunction in reversible protein phosphorylation can result in a wide variety of cellular aberrations. In eukaryotic organisms there exists four classes of protein phosphatases, of which the PPP-family protein phosphatases have documented susceptibility to a range of protein and small molecule inhibitors. These inhibitors have been of great importance to the biochemical characterization of PPP-family protein phosphatases since their discovery, but also maintain in natura biological significance with their endogenous regulatory properties (protein inhibitors) and toxicity (small molecule inhibitors). Recently, two unique PPP-family protein phosphatases, named the Shewanella-like protein phosphatases (SLP phosphatases), from Arabidopsis thaliana were characterized and found to be phylogenetically similar to the PPP-family protein phosphatases protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) and protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), while completely lacking sensitivity to the classic PPP-family phosphatase small molecule inhibitors okadaic acid and microcystin-LR. SLP phosphatases were also found to be absent in metazoans, but present in a wide range of bacteria, fungi and protozoa responsible for human disease. The unique biochemical properties and evolutionary heritage of SLP phosphatases suggests they could not only be potential biotechnology targets for agriculture, but may also prove to be of interest for future therapeutic drug development. © 2011 Landes Bioscience

  11. Risk management of PPP project in the preparation stage based on Fault Tree Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Yuanzhi; Guan, Qiuling

    2017-03-01

    The risk management of PPP(Public Private Partnership) project can improve the level of risk control between government departments and private investors, so as to make more beneficial decisions, reduce investment losses and achieve mutual benefit as well. Therefore, this paper takes the PPP project preparation stage venture as the research object to identify and confirm four types of risks. At the same time, fault tree analysis(FTA) is used to evaluate the risk factors that belong to different parts, and quantify the influencing degree of risk impact on the basis of risk identification. In addition, it determines the importance order of risk factors by calculating unit structure importance on PPP project preparation stage. The result shows that accuracy of government decision-making, rationality of private investors funds allocation and instability of market returns are the main factors to generate the shared risk on the project.

  12. Arabidopsis PPP family of serine/threonine protein phosphatases: many targets but few engines.

    PubMed

    Uhrig, R Glen; Labandera, Anne-Marie; Moorhead, Greg B

    2013-09-01

    The major plant serine/threonine protein phosphatases belong to the phosphoprotein phosphatase (PPP) family. Over the past few years the complement of Arabidopsis thaliana PPP family of catalytic subunits has been cataloged and many regulatory subunits identified. Specific roles for PPPs have been characterized, including roles in auxin and brassinosteroid signaling, in phototropism, in regulating the target of rapamycin pathway, and in cell stress responses. In this review, we provide a framework for understanding the PPP family by exploring the fundamental role of the phosphatase regulatory subunits that drive catalytic engine specificity. Although there are fewer plant protein phosphatases compared with their protein kinase partners, their function is now recognized to be as dynamic and as regulated as that of protein kinases. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Potent inhibitory effect of the cyclolignan picropodophyllin (PPP) on human adrenocortical carcinoma cells proliferation.

    PubMed

    Doghman, Mabrouka; Axelson, Magnus; Lalli, Enzo

    2011-01-01

    Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a very aggressive tumor with a poor prognosis. Available treatments for this type of cancer are far from being satisfactory. The IGF signalling pathway represents an important mechanism for ACT growth and constitutes a relevant therapeutic target. We investigated the effect of picropodophyllin (PPP), a member of the cyclolignan family and a new inhibitor of IGF-1R, on proliferation of human adrenocortical cell lines H295R and SW-13. PPP inhibits proliferation and induces an important accumulation in G2/M phase and apoptosis of H295R and SW-13 cells. Our data suggest that PPP may be a promising candidate for drug development for adrenocortical carcinoma.

  14. Ppp Analisys with GPS and Glonass Integration in Periods Under Ionospheric Scintillation Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marques, H. A. S.

    2015-12-01

    The GNSS is widely used nowadays either for geodetic positioning or scientific purposes. The GNSS currently includes GPS, GLONASS, Galileo among other emerging systems. The GPS and GLONASS are currently operational with a full satellite constellation. The GPS is still the most used nowadays and both GPS and GLONASS are under a modernization process. The geodetic positioning by using data from multi-constellation can provide better accuracy in positioning and also more reliability. The PPP is benefited once the satellite geometry is crucial in this method, mainly for kinematic scenarios. The satellite geometry can change suddenly for data collected in urban areas or in conditions of strong atmospheric effects such as Ionospheric Scintillation (IS) that causes weakening of signals with cycle slips and even loss of lock. The IS is caused by small irregularities in the ionosphere layer and is characterized by rapid change in amplitude and phase of the signal being stronger in equatorial and high latitudes regions. In this work the PPP is evaluated with GPS and GLONASS data collected by monitoring receivers from Brazilian CIGALA/CALIBRA network under IS conditions. The PPP processing was accomplished by using the GPSPPP software provided by Natural Resources Canadian (NRCAN). The IS effects were analyzed taking account the S4 and PHI60 indices. Considering periods with moderate IS effects, the use of only GPS data in the PPP presented several peaks in the coordinate time series due to cycle slips and loos of lock. In cycle slip conditions the ambiguity parameter are reinitialized by GPSPPP and considering loss of lock few satellites can be available in some epochs affecting the positioning geometry and consequently decreasing accuracy. In such situations, the PPP using GPS and GLONASS data presented improvements in positioning accuracy of the order to 70% in height component when compared with PPP using only GPS data. Analyses of GDOP and ambiguities parameters were

  15. A Comparative Study of Precise Point Positioning (PPP) Accuracy Using Online Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malinowski, Marcin; Kwiecień, Janusz

    2016-12-01

    Precise Point Positioning (PPP) is a technique used to determine the position of receiver antenna without communication with the reference station. It may be an alternative solution to differential measurements, where maintaining a connection with a single RTK station or a regional network of reference stations RTN is necessary. This situation is especially common in areas with poorly developed infrastructure of ground stations. A lot of research conducted so far on the use of the PPP technique has been concerned about the development of entire day observation sessions. However, this paper presents the results of a comparative analysis of accuracy of absolute determination of position from observations which last between 1 to 7 hours with the use of four permanent services which execute calculations with PPP technique such as: Automatic Precise Positioning Service (APPS), Canadian Spatial Reference System Precise Point Positioning (CSRS-PPP), GNSS Analysis and Positioning Software (GAPS) and magicPPP - Precise Point Positioning Solution (magicGNSS). On the basis of acquired results of measurements, it can be concluded that at least two-hour long measurements allow acquiring an absolute position with an accuracy of 2-4 cm. An evaluation of the impact on the accuracy of simultaneous positioning of three points test network on the change of the horizontal distance and the relative height difference between measured triangle vertices was also conducted. Distances and relative height differences between points of the triangular test network measured with a laser station Leica TDRA6000 were adopted as references. The analyses of results show that at least two hours long measurement sessions can be used to determine the horizontal distance or the difference in height with an accuracy of 1-2 cm. Rapid products employed in calculations conducted with PPP technique reached the accuracy of determining coordinates on a close level as in elaborations which employ Final products.

  16. Pregnancy-related pelvic girdle pain (PPP), I: Terminology, clinical presentation, and prevalence.

    PubMed

    Wu, W H; Meijer, O G; Uegaki, K; Mens, J M A; van Dieën, J H; Wuisman, P I J M; Ostgaard, H C

    2004-11-01

    Pregnancy-related lumbopelvic pain has puzzled medicine for a long time. The present systematic review focuses on terminology, clinical presentation, and prevalence. Numerous terms are used, as if they indicated one and the same entity. We propose "pregnancy-related pelvic girdle pain (PPP)", and "pregnancy-related low back pain (PLBP)", present evidence that the two add up to "lumbopelvic pain", and show that they are distinct entities (although underlying mechanisms may be similar). Average pain intensity during pregnancy is 50 mm on a visual analogue scale; postpartum, pain is less. During pregnancy, serious pain occurs in about 25%, and severe disability in about 8% of patients. After pregnancy, problems are serious in about 7%. The mechanisms behind disabilities remain unclear, and constitute an important research priority. Changes in muscle activity, unusual perceptions of the leg when moving it, and altered motor coordination were observed but remain poorly understood. Published prevalence for PPP and/or PLBP varies widely. Quantitative analysis was used to explain the differences. Overall, about 45% of all pregnant women and 25% of all women postpartum suffer from PPP and/or PLBP. These values decrease by about 20% if one excludes mild complaints. Strenuous work, previous low back pain, and previous PPP and/or PLBP are risk factors, and the inclusion/exclusion of high-risk subgroups influences prevalence. Of all patients, about one-half have PPP, one-third PLBP, and one-sixth both conditions combined. Overall, the literature reveals that PPP deserves serious attention from the clinical and research communities, at all times and in all countries.

  17. The skin in psoriasis: assessment and challenges.

    PubMed

    Oji, Vinzenz; Luger, Thomas A

    2015-01-01

    The coexistence of psoriasis arthritis (PsA) and psoriasis vulgaris in about 20% of patients with psoriasis leads to a need for rheumatologic-dermatologic team work. We summarise the role of dermatologists in assessment of the skin in psoriasis. Chronic plaque psoriasis must be differentiated from other subtypes such as generalised pustular psoriasis (GPP) or palmoplantar pustulosis (PPP). Therapeutic management is based on the evaluation of the disease severity. Quantitative scoring of skin severity includes calculation of the Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI), body surface area (BSA) as well as the Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI). These scoring systems do not replace the traditional dermatologic medical history and physical examination of the patient. The skin should be examined for additional skin diseases; moreover, patients should be monitored for comorbidity, most importantly PsA and cardiovascular comorbidity.

  18. Combination of GPS and GLONASS IN PPP algorithms and its effect on site coordinates determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hefty, J.; Gerhatova, L.; Burgan, J.

    2011-10-01

    Precise Point Positioning (PPP) approach using the un-differenced code and phase GPS observations, precise orbits and satellite clocks is an important alternative to the analyses based on double differences. We examine the extension of the PPP method by introducing the GLONASS satellites into the processing algorithms. The procedures are demonstrated on the software package ABSOLUTE developed at the Slovak University of Technology. Partial results, like ambiguities and receiver clocks obtained from separate solutions of the two GNSS are mutually compared. Finally, the coordinate time series from combination of GPS and GLONASS observations are compared with GPS-only solutions.

  19. The PPP model of alternant cyclic polyenes with modified boundary conditions

    SciT

    Bendazzoli, G.L.; Evangelisti, S.

    1995-08-15

    The extension of the PPP Hamiltonian for alternant cyclic polyenes to noninteger values of the pseudomomentum by imposing modified boundary conditions is discussed in detail. It is shown that a computer program for periodic boundary conditions can be easily adapted to the new boundary conditions. Full CI computations are carried out for some low-lying states of the PPP model of alternant cyclic polyenes (CH){sub N} (N even) at half-filling. The energy values obtained by using periodic (Bloch) and antiperiodic (Moebius) orbitals are used to perform energy extrapolations for N {yields} {infinity}. 38 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  20. Molecular Characterization of Acquired Tolerance of Tumor Cells to Picropodophyllin (PPP)

    PubMed Central

    Hashemi, Jamileh; Worrall, Claire; Vasilcanu, Daiana; Fryknäs, Mårten; Sulaiman, Luqman; Karimi, Mohsen; Weng, Wen-Hui; Lui, Weng-Onn; Rudduck, Christina; Axelson, Magnus; Jernberg-Wiklund, Helena; Girnita, Leonard; Larsson, Olle; Larsson, Catharina

    2011-01-01

    Background Picropodophyllin (PPP) is a promising novel anti-neoplastic agent that efficiently kills tumor cells in vitro and causes tumor regression and increased survival in vivo. We have previously reported that PPP treatment induced moderate tolerance in two out of 10 cell lines only, and here report the acquired genomic and expression alterations associated with PPP selection over 1.5 years of treatment. Methodology/Principal Findings Copy number alterations monitored using metaphase and array-based comparative genomic hybridization analyses revealed largely overlapping alterations in parental and maximally tolerant cells. Gain/ amplification of the MYC and PVT1 loci in 8q24.21 were verified on the chromosome level. Abnormalities observed in connection to PPP treatment included regular gains and losses, as well as homozygous losses in 10q24.1-q24.2 and 12p12.3-p13.2 in one of the lines and amplification at 5q11.2 in the other. Abnormalities observed in both tolerant derivatives include amplification/gain of 5q11.2, gain of 11q12.1-q14.3 and gain of 13q33.3-qter. Using Nexus software analysis we combined the array-CGH data with data from gene expression profilings and identified genes that were altered in both inputs. A subset of genes identified as downregulated (ALDH1A3, ANXA1, TLR4 and RAB5A) or upregulated (COX6A1, NFIX, ME1, MAPK and TAP2) were validated by siRNA in the tolerant or parental cells to alter sensitivity to PPP and confirmed to alter sensitivity to PPP in further cell lines. Conclusions Long-term PPP selection lead to altered gene expression in PPP tolerant cells with increase as well as decrease of genes involved in cell death such as PTEN and BCL2. In addition, acquired genomic copy number alterations were observed that were often reflected by altered mRNA expression levels for genes in the same regions. PMID:21423728

  1. Molecular characterization of acquired tolerance of tumor cells to picropodophyllin (PPP).

    PubMed

    Hashemi, Jamileh; Worrall, Claire; Vasilcanu, Daiana; Fryknäs, Mårten; Sulaiman, Luqman; Karimi, Mohsen; Weng, Wen-Hui; Lui, Weng-Onn; Rudduck, Christina; Axelson, Magnus; Jernberg-Wiklund, Helena; Girnita, Leonard; Larsson, Olle; Larsson, Catharina

    2011-03-14

    Picropodophyllin (PPP) is a promising novel anti-neoplastic agent that efficiently kills tumor cells in vitro and causes tumor regression and increased survival in vivo. We have previously reported that PPP treatment induced moderate tolerance in two out of 10 cell lines only, and here report the acquired genomic and expression alterations associated with PPP selection over 1.5 years of treatment. Copy number alterations monitored using metaphase and array-based comparative genomic hybridization analyses revealed largely overlapping alterations in parental and maximally tolerant cells. Gain/amplification of the MYC and PVT1 loci in 8q24.21 were verified on the chromosome level. Abnormalities observed in connection to PPP treatment included regular gains and losses, as well as homozygous losses in 10q24.1-q24.2 and 12p12.3-p13.2 in one of the lines and amplification at 5q11.2 in the other. Abnormalities observed in both tolerant derivatives include amplification/gain of 5q11.2, gain of 11q12.1-q14.3 and gain of 13q33.3-qter. Using Nexus software analysis we combined the array-CGH data with data from gene expression profilings and identified genes that were altered in both inputs. A subset of genes identified as downregulated (ALDH1A3, ANXA1, TLR4 and RAB5A) or upregulated (COX6A1, NFIX, ME1, MAPK and TAP2) were validated by siRNA in the tolerant or parental cells to alter sensitivity to PPP and confirmed to alter sensitivity to PPP in further cell lines. Long-term PPP selection lead to altered gene expression in PPP tolerant cells with increase as well as decrease of genes involved in cell death such as PTEN and BCL2. In addition, acquired genomic copy number alterations were observed that were often reflected by altered mRNA expression levels for genes in the same regions.

  2. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Ppp of... - Group 1 Storage Vessels at Existing and New Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Group 1 Storage Vessels at Existing... Polyether Polyols Production Pt. 63, Subpt. PPP, Table 3 Table 3 to Subpart PPP of Part 63—Group 1 Storage...) 75 ≤ capacity 1 capacity ≥ 151 ≥ 5.2 a Maximum true vapor pressure of total organic HAP at...

  3. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Ppp of... - Group 1 Storage Vessels at Existing and New Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Group 1 Storage Vessels at Existing and... Polyether Polyols Production Pt. 63, Subpt. PPP, Table 3 Table 3 to Subpart PPP of Part 63—Group 1 Storage Vessels at Existing and New Affected Sources Vessel capacity(cubic meters) Vapor Pressure a (kilopascals...

  4. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Ppp of... - Group 1 Storage Vessels at Existing and New Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Group 1 Storage Vessels at Existing and... Polyether Polyols Production Pt. 63, Subpt. PPP, Table 3 Table 3 to Subpart PPP of Part 63—Group 1 Storage Vessels at Existing and New Affected Sources Vessel capacity(cubic meters) Vapor Pressure a (kilopascals...

  5. Kinematic-PPP using Single/Dual Frequency Observations from (GPS, GLONASS and GPS/GLONASS) Constellations for Hydrography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farah, Ashraf

    2018-03-01

    Global Positioning System (GPS) technology is ideally suited for inshore and offshore positioning because of its high accuracy and the short observation time required for a position fix. Precise point positioning (PPP) is a technique used for position computation with a high accuracy using a single GNSS receiver. It relies on highly accurate satellite position and clock data that can be acquired from different sources such as the International GNSS Service (IGS). PPP precision varies based on positioning technique (static or kinematic), observations type (single or dual frequency) and the duration of observations among other factors. PPP offers comparable accuracy to differential GPS with safe in cost and time. For many years, PPP users depended on GPS (American system) which considered the solely reliable system. GLONASS's contribution in PPP techniques was limited due to fail in maintaining full constellation. Yet, GLONASS limited observations could be integrated into GPS-based PPP to improve availability and precision. As GLONASS reached its full constellation early 2013, there is a wide interest in PPP systems based on GLONASS only and independent of GPS. This paper investigates the performance of kinematic PPP solution for the hydrographic applications in the Nile river (Aswan, Egypt) based on GPS, GLONASS and GPS/GLONASS constellations. The study investigates also the effect of using two different observation types; single-frequency and dual frequency observations from the tested constellations.

  6. Mutations in the PP2A regulatory subunit B family genes PPP2R5B, PPP2R5C and PPP2R5D cause human overgrowth.

    PubMed

    Loveday, Chey; Tatton-Brown, Katrina; Clarke, Matthew; Westwood, Isaac; Renwick, Anthony; Ramsay, Emma; Nemeth, Andrea; Campbell, Jennifer; Joss, Shelagh; Gardner, McKinlay; Zachariou, Anna; Elliott, Anna; Ruark, Elise; van Montfort, Rob; Rahman, Nazneen

    2015-09-01

    Overgrowth syndromes comprise a group of heterogeneous disorders characterised by excessive growth parameters, often in association with intellectual disability. To identify new causes of human overgrowth, we have been undertaking trio-based exome sequencing studies in overgrowth patients and their unaffected parents. Prioritisation of functionally relevant genes with multiple unique de novo mutations revealed four mutations in protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) regulatory subunit B family genes protein phosphatase 2, regulatory Subunit B', beta (PPP2R5B); protein phosphatase 2, regulatory Subunit B', gamma (PPP2R5C); and protein phosphatase 2, regulatory Subunit B', delta (PPP2R5D). This observation in 3 related genes in 111 individuals with a similar phenotype is greatly in excess of the expected number, as determined from gene-specific de novo mutation rates (P = 1.43 × 10(-10)). Analysis of exome-sequencing data from a follow-up series of overgrowth probands identified a further pathogenic mutation, bringing the total number of affected individuals to 5. Heterozygotes shared similar phenotypic features including increased height, increased head circumference and intellectual disability. The mutations clustered within a region of nine amino acid residues in the aligned protein sequences (P = 1.6 × 10(-5)). We mapped the mutations onto the crystal structure of the PP2A holoenzyme complex to predict their molecular and functional consequences. These studies suggest that the mutations may affect substrate binding, thus perturbing the ability of PP2A to dephosphorylate particular protein substrates. PP2A is a major negative regulator of v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog 1 (AKT). Thus, our data further expand the list of genes encoding components of the phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT signalling cascade that are disrupted in human overgrowth conditions. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.

  7. A Potted History of PPP with the Help of "ELT Journal"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Jason

    2017-01-01

    This article charts the chequered history of the PPP model (Presentation, Practice, Production) in English language teaching, told partly through reference to articles in "ELT Journal." As well as documenting its origins at the dawn of communicative language teaching (and not in audiolingual approaches, as some have suggested), I chart…

  8. Teaching Spoken Discourse Markers Explicitly: A Comparison of III and PPP

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Christian; Carter, Ronald

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on mixed methods classroom research carried out at a British university. The study investigates the effectiveness of two different explicit teaching frameworks, Illustration--Interaction--Induction (III) and Present--Practice--Produce (PPP) used to teach the same spoken discourse markers (DMs) to two different groups of…

  9. Novel RSPO1 mutation causing 46,XX testicular disorder of sex development with palmoplantar keratoderma: A review of literature and expansion of clinical phenotype.

    PubMed

    Tallapaka, Karthik; Venugopal, Vineeth; Dalal, Ashwin; Aggarwal, Shagun

    2018-04-01

    Palmoplantar hyperkeratosis with squamous cell carcinoma of skin and sex reversal (MIM # 610644) is a clinically distinctive form of SRY-negative 46,XX disorder of sex development. It is a rare autosomal recessive disorder caused due to biallelic loss of function mutations in RSPO1 gene. RSPO1 acts by activating the canonical β-catenin pathway and is one of the most important genes controlling female gonadal differentiation. RSPO1-associated disorders of sex development have been described only in three instances in the past. We report fourth such case with additional findings and perform a comparative review of previous phenotypic descriptions, thereby expanding the clinical phenotype of this syndrome. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Multi-GNSS phase delay estimation and PPP ambiguity resolution: GPS, BDS, GLONASS, Galileo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xingxing; Li, Xin; Yuan, Yongqiang; Zhang, Keke; Zhang, Xiaohong; Wickert, Jens

    2017-10-01

    This paper focuses on the precise point positioning (PPP) ambiguity resolution (AR) using the observations acquired from four systems: GPS, BDS, GLONASS, and Galileo (GCRE). A GCRE four-system uncalibrated phase delay (UPD) estimation model and multi-GNSS undifferenced PPP AR method were developed in order to utilize the observations from all systems. For UPD estimation, the GCRE-combined PPP solutions of the globally distributed MGEX and IGS stations are performed to obtain four-system float ambiguities and then UPDs of GCRE satellites can be precisely estimated from these ambiguities. The quality of UPD products in terms of temporal stability and residual distributions is investigated for GPS, BDS, GLONASS, and Galileo satellites, respectively. The BDS satellite-induced code biases were corrected for GEO, IGSO, and MEO satellites before the UPD estimation. The UPD results of global and regional networks were also evaluated for Galileo and BDS, respectively. As a result of the frequency-division multiple-access strategy of GLONASS, the UPD estimation was performed using a network of homogeneous receivers including three commonly used GNSS receivers (TRIMBLE NETR9, JAVAD TRE_G3TH DELTA, and LEICA). Data recorded from 140 MGEX and IGS stations for a 30-day period in January in 2017 were used to validate the proposed GCRE UPD estimation and multi-GNSS dual-frequency PPP AR. Our results show that GCRE four-system PPP AR enables the fastest time to first fix (TTFF) solutions and the highest accuracy for all three coordinate components compared to the single and dual system. An average TTFF of 9.21 min with 7{°} cutoff elevation angle can be achieved for GCRE PPP AR, which is much shorter than that of GPS (18.07 min), GR (12.10 min), GE (15.36 min) and GC (13.21 min). With observations length of 10 min, the positioning accuracy of the GCRE fixed solution is 1.84, 1.11, and 1.53 cm, while the GPS-only result is 2.25, 1.29, and 9.73 cm for the east, north, and vertical

  11. Multi-GNSS phase delay estimation and PPP ambiguity resolution: GPS, BDS, GLONASS, Galileo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xingxing; Li, Xin; Yuan, Yongqiang; Zhang, Keke; Zhang, Xiaohong; Wickert, Jens

    2018-06-01

    This paper focuses on the precise point positioning (PPP) ambiguity resolution (AR) using the observations acquired from four systems: GPS, BDS, GLONASS, and Galileo (GCRE). A GCRE four-system uncalibrated phase delay (UPD) estimation model and multi-GNSS undifferenced PPP AR method were developed in order to utilize the observations from all systems. For UPD estimation, the GCRE-combined PPP solutions of the globally distributed MGEX and IGS stations are performed to obtain four-system float ambiguities and then UPDs of GCRE satellites can be precisely estimated from these ambiguities. The quality of UPD products in terms of temporal stability and residual distributions is investigated for GPS, BDS, GLONASS, and Galileo satellites, respectively. The BDS satellite-induced code biases were corrected for GEO, IGSO, and MEO satellites before the UPD estimation. The UPD results of global and regional networks were also evaluated for Galileo and BDS, respectively. As a result of the frequency-division multiple-access strategy of GLONASS, the UPD estimation was performed using a network of homogeneous receivers including three commonly used GNSS receivers (TRIMBLE NETR9, JAVAD TRE_G3TH DELTA, and LEICA). Data recorded from 140 MGEX and IGS stations for a 30-day period in January in 2017 were used to validate the proposed GCRE UPD estimation and multi-GNSS dual-frequency PPP AR. Our results show that GCRE four-system PPP AR enables the fastest time to first fix (TTFF) solutions and the highest accuracy for all three coordinate components compared to the single and dual system. An average TTFF of 9.21 min with 7{°} cutoff elevation angle can be achieved for GCRE PPP AR, which is much shorter than that of GPS (18.07 min), GR (12.10 min), GE (15.36 min) and GC (13.21 min). With observations length of 10 min, the positioning accuracy of the GCRE fixed solution is 1.84, 1.11, and 1.53 cm, while the GPS-only result is 2.25, 1.29, and 9.73 cm for the east, north, and vertical

  12. Metabolism of the new designer drug alpha-pyrrolidinopropiophenone (PPP) and the toxicological detection of PPP and 4'-methyl-alpha-pyrrolidinopropiophenone (MPPP) studied in rat urine using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Springer, Dietmar; Fritschi, Giselher; Maurer, Hans H

    2003-11-05

    R,S-alpha-pyrrolidinopropiophenone (PPP) is a new designer drug with assumed amphetamine-like effects which has appeared on the illicit drug market. The aim of this study was to identify the PPP metabolites using solid-phase extraction, ethylation or acetylation as well as to develop a toxicological detection procedure in urine using solid-phase extraction, trimethylsilylation and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Analysis of urine samples of rats treated with PPP revealed that PPP was extensively metabolized by hydroxylation of the pyrrolidine ring with subsequent dehydrogenation to the corresponding lactam, hydroxylation of the aromatic ring in position 4' or double dealkylation of the pyrrolidine ring to the corresponding primary amine (cathinone) partly followed by reduction of the keto group to the corresponding secondary alcohol (norephedrines). As cathinone and the norephedrine diastereomers are also formed after intake of other drugs of abuse or medicaments, special attention must be paid to the detection of the unequivocal metabolite 2"-oxo-PPP as an unambiguous proof for the intake of PPP. The hydroxy groups were found to be partly conjugated. Based on these data, PPP could be detected in urine via its metabolites by full-scan GC-MS using mass chromatography for screening and library search for identification by comparison of the spectra with reference spectra. The same toxicological detection procedure can be applied to other designer drugs of the pyrrolidinophenone type, like MOPPP, MDPPP, MPHP, and MPPP. The detection of the latter will also be presented here.

  13. GPS Satellite Orbit Prediction at User End for Real-Time PPP System

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hongzhou; Gao, Yang

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposed the high-precision satellite orbit prediction process at the user end for the real-time precise point positioning (PPP) system. Firstly, the structure of a new real-time PPP system will be briefly introduced in the paper. Then, the generation of satellite initial parameters (IP) at the sever end will be discussed, which includes the satellite position, velocity, and the solar radiation pressure (SRP) parameters for each satellite. After that, the method for orbit prediction at the user end, with dynamic models including the Earth’s gravitational force, lunar gravitational force, solar gravitational force, and the SRP, are presented. For numerical integration, both the single-step Runge–Kutta and multi-step Adams–Bashforth–Moulton integrator methods are implemented. Then, the comparison between the predicted orbit and the international global navigation satellite system (GNSS) service (IGS) final products are carried out. The results show that the prediction accuracy can be maintained for several hours, and the average prediction error of the 31 satellites are 0.031, 0.032, and 0.033 m for the radial, along-track and cross-track directions over 12 h, respectively. Finally, the PPP in both static and kinematic modes are carried out to verify the accuracy of the predicted satellite orbit. The average root mean square error (RMSE) for the static PPP of the 32 globally distributed IGS stations are 0.012, 0.015, and 0.021 m for the north, east, and vertical directions, respectively; while the RMSE of the kinematic PPP with the predicted orbit are 0.031, 0.069, and 0.167 m in the north, east and vertical directions, respectively. PMID:28867771

  14. GPS Satellite Orbit Prediction at User End for Real-Time PPP System.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hongzhou; Gao, Yang

    2017-08-30

    This paper proposed the high-precision satellite orbit prediction process at the user end for the real-time precise point positioning (PPP) system. Firstly, the structure of a new real-time PPP system will be briefly introduced in the paper. Then, the generation of satellite initial parameters (IP) at the sever end will be discussed, which includes the satellite position, velocity, and the solar radiation pressure (SRP) parameters for each satellite. After that, the method for orbit prediction at the user end, with dynamic models including the Earth's gravitational force, lunar gravitational force, solar gravitational force, and the SRP, are presented. For numerical integration, both the single-step Runge-Kutta and multi-step Adams-Bashforth-Moulton integrator methods are implemented. Then, the comparison between the predicted orbit and the international global navigation satellite system (GNSS) service (IGS) final products are carried out. The results show that the prediction accuracy can be maintained for several hours, and the average prediction error of the 31 satellites are 0.031, 0.032, and 0.033 m for the radial, along-track and cross-track directions over 12 h, respectively. Finally, the PPP in both static and kinematic modes are carried out to verify the accuracy of the predicted satellite orbit. The average root mean square error (RMSE) for the static PPP of the 32 globally distributed IGS stations are 0.012, 0.015, and 0.021 m for the north, east, and vertical directions, respectively; while the RMSE of the kinematic PPP with the predicted orbit are 0.031, 0.069, and 0.167 m in the north, east and vertical directions, respectively.

  15. Further characterization of the time transfer capabilities of precise point positioning (PPP): the Sliding Batch Procedure.

    PubMed

    Guyennon, Nicolas; Cerretto, Giancarlo; Tavella, Patrizia; Lahaye, François

    2009-08-01

    In recent years, many national timing laboratories have installed geodetic Global Positioning System receivers together with their traditional GPS/GLONASS Common View receivers and Two Way Satellite Time and Frequency Transfer equipment. Many of these geodetic receivers operate continuously within the International GNSS Service (IGS), and their data are regularly processed by IGS Analysis Centers. From its global network of over 350 stations and its Analysis Centers, the IGS generates precise combined GPS ephemeredes and station and satellite clock time series referred to the IGS Time Scale. A processing method called Precise Point Positioning (PPP) is in use in the geodetic community allowing precise recovery of GPS antenna position, clock phase, and atmospheric delays by taking advantage of these IGS precise products. Previous assessments, carried out at Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca Metrologica (INRiM; formerly IEN) with a PPP implementation developed at Natural Resources Canada (NRCan), showed PPP clock solutions have better stability over short/medium term than GPS CV and GPS P3 methods and significantly reduce the day-boundary discontinuities when used in multi-day continuous processing, allowing time-limited, campaign-style time-transfer experiments. This paper reports on follow-on work performed at INRiM and NRCan to further characterize and develop the PPP method for time transfer applications, using data from some of the National Metrology Institutes. We develop a processing procedure that takes advantage of the improved stability of the phase-connected multi-day PPP solutions while allowing the generation of continuous clock time series, more applicable to continuous operation/monitoring of timing equipment.

  16. Ablation of PPP1R3G reduces glycogen deposition and mitigates high-fat diet induced obesity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yongxian; Gu, Jin; Wang, Lin; Zhao, Zilong; Pan, Yi; Chen, Yan

    2017-01-05

    Glycogen and triglyceride are two major forms of energy storage in the body and provide the fuel during different phases of food deprivation. However, how glycogen metabolism is linked to fat deposition in adipose tissue has not been clearly characterized. We generated a mouse model with whole-body deletion of PPP1R3G, a glycogen-targeting subunit of protein phosphatase-1 required for glycogen synthesis. Upon feeding with high-fat diet, the body weight and fat composition are significantly reduced in the PPP1R3G -/- mice compared to the wild type controls. The metabolic rate of the mice as measured by O 2 consumption and CO 2 production is accelerated by PPP1R3G deletion. The high-fat diet-induced liver steatosis is also slightly relieved by PPP1R3G deletion. The glycogen level in adipose tissue is reduced by PPP1R3G deletion. In 3T3L1 cells, overexpression of PPP1R3G leads to increases of both glycogen and triglyceride levels. In conclusion, our study indicates that glycogen is actively involved in fat accumulation in adipose tissue and obesity development upon high-fat diet. Our study also suggests that PPP1R3G is an important player that links glycogen metabolism to lipid metabolism in vivo. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Assessment of the Contribution of BeiDou GEO, IGSO, and MEO Satellites to PPP in Asia-Pacific Region.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qile; Wang, Chen; Guo, Jing; Liu, Xianglin

    2015-12-01

    In contrast to the US Global Positioning System (GPS), the Russian Global Navigation Satellite System (GLONASS) and the European Galileo, the developing Chinese BeiDou satellite navigation system (BDS) consists of not only Medium Earth Orbit (MEO), but also Geostationary Orbit (GEO) as well as Inclined Geosynchronous Orbit (IGSO) satellites. In this study, the Precise Point Positioning (PPP) and PPP with Integer Ambiguity Resolution (IAR) are obtained. The contributions of these three different types of BDS satellites to PPP in Asia-Pacific region are assessed using data from selected 20 sites over more than four weeks. By using various PPP cases with different satellite combinations, in general, the largest contribution of BDS IGSO among the three kinds of BDS satellites to the reduction of convergence time and the improvement of positioning accuracy, particularly in the east direction, is identified. These PPP cases include static BDS only solutions and static/kinematic ambiguity-float and -fixed PPP with the combination of GPS and BDS. The statistical results demonstrate that the inclusion of BDS GEO and MEO satellites can improve the observation condition and result in better PPP performance as well. When combined with GPS, the contribution of BDS to the reduction of convergence time is, however, not as significant as that of GLONASS. As far as the positioning accuracy is concerned, GLONASS improves the accuracy in vertical component more than BDS does, whereas similar improvement in horizontal component can be achieved by inclusion of BDS IGSO and MEO as GLONASS.

  18. Assessment of the Contribution of BeiDou GEO, IGSO, and MEO Satellites to PPP in Asia–Pacific Region

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Qile; Wang, Chen; Guo, Jing; Liu, Xianglin

    2015-01-01

    In contrast to the US Global Positioning System (GPS), the Russian Global Navigation Satellite System (GLONASS) and the European Galileo, the developing Chinese BeiDou satellite navigation system (BDS) consists of not only Medium Earth Orbit (MEO), but also Geostationary Orbit (GEO) as well as Inclined Geosynchronous Orbit (IGSO) satellites. In this study, the Precise Point Positioning (PPP) and PPP with Integer Ambiguity Resolution (IAR) are obtained. The contributions of these three different types of BDS satellites to PPP in Asia–Pacific region are assessed using data from selected 20 sites over more than four weeks. By using various PPP cases with different satellite combinations, in general, the largest contribution of BDS IGSO among the three kinds of BDS satellites to the reduction of convergence time and the improvement of positioning accuracy, particularly in the east direction, is identified. These PPP cases include static BDS only solutions and static/kinematic ambiguity-float and -fixed PPP with the combination of GPS and BDS. The statistical results demonstrate that the inclusion of BDS GEO and MEO satellites can improve the observation condition and result in better PPP performance as well. When combined with GPS, the contribution of BDS to the reduction of convergence time is, however, not as significant as that of GLONASS. As far as the positioning accuracy is concerned, GLONASS improves the accuracy in vertical component more than BDS does, whereas similar improvement in horizontal component can be achieved by inclusion of BDS IGSO and MEO as GLONASS. PMID:26633406

  19. Oral picropodophyllin (PPP) is well tolerated in vivo and inhibits IGF-1R expression and growth of uveal melanoma.

    PubMed

    Economou, Mario A; Andersson, Sandra; Vasilcanu, Diana; All-Ericsson, Charlotta; Menu, Eline; Girnita, Ada; Girnita, Leonard; Axelson, Magnus; Seregard, Stefan; Larsson, Olle

    2008-06-01

    The cyclolignan picropodophyllin (PPP) efficiently blocks the activity of insulinlike growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) and inhibits the growth of uveal melanoma cells in vitro and in vivo. In this study, the authors investigated the efficiency of orally administered PPP on the growth of uveal melanoma xenografts. In addition, they focused on the effect of PPP on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in vivo and evaluated its effects in combination with other established antitumor agents in vitro. Four different uveal melanoma cell lines (OCM-1, OCM-3, OCM-8, 92-1) were treated with PPP alone and in combination with imatinib mesylate, cisplatin, 5-fluorouracil, and doxorubicin. Cell viability was determined by XTT assay. SCID mice that underwent xenografting with uveal melanoma cells were used to determine antitumor efficacy of oral PPP in vivo. Five mice were used per group. Tumor samples obtained from the in vivo experiments were analyzed for VEGF and IGF-1R expression by Western blotting. PPP was found to be superior to the other antitumor agents in killing uveal melanoma cells in all four cell lines (IC50 < 0.05 microM). Oral PPP inhibited uveal melanoma growth in vivo in OCM-3 (P = 0.03) and OCM-8 (P = 0.01) xenografts and was well tolerated by the animals. PPP decreased VEGF expression in the OCM-1 (P = 0.006) and OCM-8 (P = 0.01) tumors. Oral PPP was well tolerated in vivo, caused total growth inhibition of uveal melanoma xenografts, and decreased VEGF levels in the tumors.

  20. Satellite clock corrections estimation to accomplish real time ppp: experiments for brazilian real time network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marques, Haroldo; Monico, João; Aquino, Marcio; Melo, Weyller

    2014-05-01

    The real time PPP method requires the availability of real time precise orbits and satellites clocks corrections. Currently, it is possible to apply the solutions of clocks and orbits available by BKG within the context of IGS Pilot project or by using the operational predicted IGU ephemeris. The accuracy of the satellite position available in the IGU is enough for several applications requiring good quality. However, the satellites clocks corrections do not provide enough accuracy (3 ns ~ 0.9 m) to accomplish real time PPP with the same level of accuracy. Therefore, for real time PPP application it is necessary to further research and develop appropriated methodologies for estimating the satellite clock corrections in real time with better accuracy. Currently, it is possible to apply the real time solutions of clocks and orbits available by Federal Agency for Cartography and Geodesy (BKG) within the context of IGS Pilot project. The BKG corrections are disseminated by a new proposed format of the RTCM 3.x and can be applied in the broadcasted orbits and clocks. Some investigations have been proposed for the estimation of the satellite clock corrections using GNSS code and phase observable at the double difference level between satellites and epochs (MERVAT, DOUSA, 2007). Another possibility consists of applying a Kalman Filter in the PPP network mode (HAUSCHILD, 2010) and it is also possible the integration of both methods, using network PPP and observables at double difference level in specific time intervals (ZHANG; LI; GUO, 2010). For this work the methodology adopted consists in the estimation of the satellite clock corrections based on the data adjustment in the PPP mode, but for a network of GNSS stations. The clock solution can be solved by using two types of observables: code smoothed by carrier phase or undifferenced code together with carrier phase. In the former, we estimate receiver clock error; satellite clock correction and troposphere, considering

  1. Patient derived mutation W257G of PPP2R1A enhances cancer cell migration through SRC-JNK-c-Jun pathway

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Ae Lee; Han, Sora; Lee, Sunyi; Su Park, Jeong; Lu, Yiling; Yu, Shuangxing; Li, Jane; Chun, Kyung-Hee; Mills, Gordon B.; Yang, Young

    2016-01-01

    Mutation of PPP2R1A has been observed at high frequency in endometrial serous carcinomas but at low frequency in ovarian clear cell carcinoma. However, the biological role of mutation of PPP2R1A in ovarian and endometrial cancer progression remains unclear. In this study, we found that PPP2R1A expression is elevated in high-grade primary tumor patients with papillary serous tumors of the ovary. To determine whether increased levels or mutation of PPP2R1A might contribute to cancer progression, the effects of overexpression or mutation of PPP2R1A on cell proliferation, migration, and PP2A phosphatase activity were investigated using ovarian and endometrial cancer cell lines. Among the mutations, PPP2R1A-W257G enhanced cell migration in vitro through activating SRC-JNK-c-Jun pathway. Overexpression of wild type (WT) PPP2R1A increased its binding ability with B56 regulatory subunits, whereas PPP2R1A-mutations lost the ability to bind to most B56 subunits except B56δ. Total PP2A activity and PPP2R1A-associated PP2Ac activity were significantly increased in cells overexpressing PPP2R1A-WT. In addition, overexpression of PPP2R1A-WT increased cell proliferation in vitro and tumor growth in vivo. PMID:27272709

  2. GPR used in combination with other NDT methods for assessing pavements in PPP projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loizos, Andreas; Plati, Christina

    2014-05-01

    In the recent decades, Public-Private Partnerships (PPP) has been adopted for highway infrastructure procurement in many countries. PPP projects typically take the form of a section of highway and connecting roadways which are to be construction and managed for a given concession period. Over the course of the highway concession period, the private agency takes over the pavement maintenance and rehabilitation duties. On this purpose, it is critical to find the most cost effective way to maintain the infrastructure in compliance with the agreed upon performance measures and a Pavement Management Systems (PMS) is critical to the success of this process. For the prosperous operation of a PMS it is necessary to have appropriate procedures for pavement monitoring and evaluation, which is important in many areas of pavement engineering. Non Destructive Testing (NDT) has played a major role in pavement condition monitoring, assessments and evaluation accomplishing continuous and quick collection of pavement data. The analysis of this data can lead to indicators related to trigger values (criteria) that define the pavement condition based on which the pavement "health" is perceived helping decide whether there is the need or not to intervene in the pavement. The accomplished perception appoints required management activities for preserving pavements in favor not only of the involved highway/road agencies but also of users' service. Amongst NDT methods Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) seems to be a very powerful toll, as it provides a range of condition and construction pavement information. It can support effectively the implementation of PMS activities in the framework of pavement monitoring and evaluation. Given that, the present work aims to the development and adaptation of a protocol for the use of GPR in combination with other NDT methods, such as Falling Weight Deflectometer (FWD), for assessing pavements in PPP projects. It is based on the experience of Laboratory of

  3. Integrity Analysis of Real-Time Ppp Technique with Igs-Rts Service for Maritime Navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Diasty, M.

    2017-10-01

    Open sea and inland waterways are the most widely used mode for transporting goods worldwide. It is the International Maritime Organization (IMO) that defines the requirements for position fixing equipment for a worldwide radio-navigation system, in terms of accuracy, integrity, continuity, availability and coverage for the various phases of navigation. Satellite positioning systems can contribute to meet these requirements, as well as optimize marine transportation. Marine navigation usually consists of three major phases identified as Ocean/Coastal/Port approach/Inland waterway, in port navigation and automatic docking with alert limit ranges from 25 m to 0.25 m. GPS positioning is widely used for many applications and is currently recognized by IMO for a future maritime navigation. With the advancement in autonomous GPS positioning techniques such as Precise Point Positioning (PPP) and with the advent of new real-time GNSS correction services such as IGS-Real-Time-Service (RTS), it is necessary to investigate the integrity of the PPP-based positioning technique along with IGS-RTS service in terms of availability and reliability for safe navigation in maritime application. This paper monitors the integrity of an autonomous real-time PPP-based GPS positioning system using the IGS real-time service (RTS) for maritime applications that require minimum availability of integrity of 99.8 % to fulfil the IMO integrity standards. To examine the integrity of the real-time IGS-RTS PPP-based technique for maritime applications, kinematic data from a dual frequency GPS receiver is collected onboard a vessel and investigated with the real-time IGS-RTS PPP-based GPS positioning technique. It is shown that the availability of integrity of the real-time IGS-RTS PPP-based GPS solution is 100 % for all navigation phases and therefore fulfil the IMO integrity standards (99.8 % availability) immediately (after 1 second), after 2 minutes and after

  4. An international comparison of PPP in road projects and prospects for Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onaka, Takafumi; Morichi, Sigeru; Inoue, Satoshi; Hibino, Naohiko

    Japanese PFI Law was enacted in Japan in 1999. In these eleven years almost all PFI projects were for buildings, while the infrastructure projects were only about 5% in total. Regarding to the road projects that have been managed by the government, there are various bottlenecks for the implementation of PFI. The purposes of this paper are firstly to investigate the time series trend of the PPP projects in the wor ld, secondly to make international comparative study of the PPP-related institutions, and thirdly to propose the desirable improvements of the Japanese institution in many countries. The key issues of the proposal are the support systems for the risk management by the government which squares the rationale and transparence and the deregulation. Finally introduction of PFI scheme into the toll roads which managed by the public corporations of local governments are proposed as a first step in Japan.

  5. Effect of donor-acceptor chromophores on photophysical properties of newly synthesized pyrazolo-pyrrolo-pyrimidines (PPP).

    PubMed

    Rote, Ramhari V; Shelar, Deepak P; Patil, Sandeep R; Shinde, Santosh S; Toche, Raghunath B; Jachak, Madhukar N

    2011-01-01

    Novel pyrazolo-pyrrolo-pyrimidine (PPP) derivatives having remarkable photophysical properties are designed with the help of theoretical semiempirical calculations. These compounds then synthesized successfully and studied effect of substituents on its photophysical properties.

  6. Multi-GNSS PPP-RTK: From Large- to Small-Scale Networks

    PubMed Central

    Nadarajah, Nandakumaran; Wang, Kan; Choudhury, Mazher

    2018-01-01

    Precise point positioning (PPP) and its integer ambiguity resolution-enabled variant, PPP-RTK (real-time kinematic), can benefit enormously from the integration of multiple global navigation satellite systems (GNSS). In such a multi-GNSS landscape, the positioning convergence time is expected to be reduced considerably as compared to the one obtained by a single-GNSS setup. It is therefore the goal of the present contribution to provide numerical insights into the role taken by the multi-GNSS integration in delivering fast and high-precision positioning solutions (sub-decimeter and centimeter levels) using PPP-RTK. To that end, we employ the Curtin PPP-RTK platform and process data-sets of GPS, BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS) and Galileo in stand-alone and combined forms. The data-sets are collected by various receiver types, ranging from high-end multi-frequency geodetic receivers to low-cost single-frequency mass-market receivers. The corresponding stations form a large-scale (Australia-wide) network as well as a small-scale network with inter-station distances less than 30 km. In case of the Australia-wide GPS-only ambiguity-float setup, 90% of the horizontal positioning errors (kinematic mode) are shown to become less than five centimeters after 103 min. The stated required time is reduced to 66 min for the corresponding GPS + BDS + Galieo setup. The time is further reduced to 15 min by applying single-receiver ambiguity resolution. The outcomes are supported by the positioning results of the small-scale network. PMID:29614040

  7. Multi-GNSS PPP-RTK: From Large- to Small-Scale Networks.

    PubMed

    Nadarajah, Nandakumaran; Khodabandeh, Amir; Wang, Kan; Choudhury, Mazher; Teunissen, Peter J G

    2018-04-03

    Precise point positioning (PPP) and its integer ambiguity resolution-enabled variant, PPP-RTK (real-time kinematic), can benefit enormously from the integration of multiple global navigation satellite systems (GNSS). In such a multi-GNSS landscape, the positioning convergence time is expected to be reduced considerably as compared to the one obtained by a single-GNSS setup. It is therefore the goal of the present contribution to provide numerical insights into the role taken by the multi-GNSS integration in delivering fast and high-precision positioning solutions (sub-decimeter and centimeter levels) using PPP-RTK. To that end, we employ the Curtin PPP-RTK platform and process data-sets of GPS, BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS) and Galileo in stand-alone and combined forms. The data-sets are collected by various receiver types, ranging from high-end multi-frequency geodetic receivers to low-cost single-frequency mass-market receivers. The corresponding stations form a large-scale (Australia-wide) network as well as a small-scale network with inter-station distances less than 30 km. In case of the Australia-wide GPS-only ambiguity-float setup, 90% of the horizontal positioning errors (kinematic mode) are shown to become less than five centimeters after 103 min. The stated required time is reduced to 66 min for the corresponding GPS + BDS + Galieo setup. The time is further reduced to 15 min by applying single-receiver ambiguity resolution. The outcomes are supported by the positioning results of the small-scale network.

  8. Calculation of the physicochemical properties of thienopyridines by the Pariser-Parr-Pople (PPP) method

    SciT

    Vysotskii, Yu.B.; Zemskaya, E.A.; Zemskii, B.P.

    1987-10-01

    The dipole moments, diamagnetic susceptibilities, chemical shifts of the /sup 1/H, /sup 13/C, and /sup 14/N nuclei, and the energies of the lowest singlet-singlet transitions of aza-substituted thiophenes and benzo(b)thiophenes were calculated within the framework of the bonded variant of perturbation theory by the Pariser-Parr-Pople (PPP) method. A scale of aromatic character of the investigated class of compounds is given on the basis of the current distributions found.

  9. Performance assessment of multi-GNSS real-time PPP over Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdi, Naser; Ardalan, Alireza A.; Karimi, Roohollah; Rezvani, Mohammad-Hadi

    2017-06-01

    With the advent of multi-GNSS constellations and thanks to providing the real-time precise products by IGS, multi-GNSS Real-Time PPP has been of special interest to the geodetic community. These products stream in the form of RTCM-SSR through NTRIP broadcaster. In this contribution, we aim at assessing the convergence time and positioning accuracy of Real-Time PPP over Iran by means of GPS, GPS + GLONASS, GPS + BeiDou, and GPS + GLONASS + BeiDou configurations. To this end, RINEX observations of six GNSS stations, within Iranian Permanent GNSS Network (IPGN), over consecutive sixteen days were processed via BKG NTRIP Client (BNC, v 2.12). In the processing steps, the IGS-MGEX broadcast ephemerides (BRDM, provided by TUM/DLR) and the pre-saved CLK93 broadcast corrections stream (provided by CNES) have been used as the satellites known information. The numerical results were compared against the station coordinates obtained from the double-difference solutions by Bernese GPS Software v 5.0. Accordingly, we have found that GPS + BeiDou combination can reduce the convergence time by 27%, 16% and 10% and improve the positioning accuracy by 22%, 18% and 2%, in the north, east and up components, respectively, as compared with the GPS PPP. Additionally, in comparison to the GPS + GLONASS results, GPS + GLONASS + BeiDou combination speeds up the convergence time by 9%, 8% and 9% and enhance the positioning accuracy by 8%, 5% and 6%, in the north, east and up components, respectively. Overall, thanks to the availability of the current BeiDou constellation observations, the considerable decrease in the convergence time on one hand, and the improvement in the positioning accuracy on the other, can verify the efficiency of utilizing multi-GNSS PPP for real-time applications over Iran.

  10. On the Convergence of Ionospheric Constrained Precise Point Positioning (IC-PPP) Based on Undifferential Uncombined Raw GNSS Observations

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hongping; Gao, Zhouzheng; Ge, Maorong; Niu, Xiaoji; Huang, Ling; Tu, Rui; Li, Xingxing

    2013-01-01

    Precise Point Positioning (PPP) has become a very hot topic in GNSS research and applications. However, it usually takes about several tens of minutes in order to obtain positions with better than 10 cm accuracy. This prevents PPP from being widely used in real-time kinematic positioning services, therefore, a large effort has been made to tackle the convergence problem. One of the recent approaches is the ionospheric delay constrained precise point positioning (IC-PPP) that uses the spatial and temporal characteristics of ionospheric delays and also delays from an a priori model. In this paper, the impact of the quality of ionospheric models on the convergence of IC-PPP is evaluated using the IGS global ionospheric map (GIM) updated every two hours and a regional satellite-specific correction model. Furthermore, the effect of the receiver differential code bias (DCB) is investigated by comparing the convergence time for IC-PPP with and without estimation of the DCB parameter. From the result of processing a large amount of data, on the one hand, the quality of the a priori ionosphere delays plays a very important role in IC-PPP convergence. Generally, regional dense GNSS networks can provide more precise ionosphere delays than GIM and can consequently reduce the convergence time. On the other hand, ignoring the receiver DCB may considerably extend its convergence, and the larger the DCB, the longer the convergence time. Estimating receiver DCB in IC-PPP is a proper way to overcome this problem. Therefore, current IC-PPP should be enhanced by estimating receiver DCB and employing regional satellite-specific ionospheric correction models in order to speed up its convergence for more practical applications. PMID:24253190

  11. Development and laboratory testing of a 138-kV PPP-insulated joint for commercial application

    SciT

    Walldorf, S.P.; Chu, H.; Elbadaly, H.

    1990-04-01

    This paper describes the design, development and laboratory testing of a high voltage PPP (paper polypropylene/paper laminate) insulated joint for commercial application on 138-kV PPP-insulated cable. The design approach taken is conservative and addresses the typical variations in field conditions and in skill and workmanship of the splicing. Joint construction details, including choice of connector, taping structure, and joint mechanical reinforcement, are discussed. The test criteria are described and results are presented.

  12. On the convergence of ionospheric constrained precise point positioning (IC-PPP) based on undifferential uncombined raw GNSS observations.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongping; Gao, Zhouzheng; Ge, Maorong; Niu, Xiaoji; Huang, Ling; Tu, Rui; Li, Xingxing

    2013-11-18

    Precise Point Positioning (PPP) has become a very hot topic in GNSS research and applications. However, it usually takes about several tens of minutes in order to obtain positions with better than 10 cm accuracy. This prevents PPP from being widely used in real-time kinematic positioning services, therefore, a large effort has been made to tackle the convergence problem. One of the recent approaches is the ionospheric delay constrained precise point positioning (IC-PPP) that uses the spatial and temporal characteristics of ionospheric delays and also delays from an a priori model. In this paper, the impact of the quality of ionospheric models on the convergence of IC-PPP is evaluated using the IGS global ionospheric map (GIM) updated every two hours and a regional satellite-specific correction model. Furthermore, the effect of the receiver differential code bias (DCB) is investigated by comparing the convergence time for IC-PPP with and without estimation of the DCB parameter. From the result of processing a large amount of data, on the one hand, the quality of the a priori ionosphere delays plays a very important role in IC-PPP convergence. Generally, regional dense GNSS networks can provide more precise ionosphere delays than GIM and can consequently reduce the convergence time. On the other hand, ignoring the receiver DCB may considerably extend its convergence, and the larger the DCB, the longer the convergence time. Estimating receiver DCB in IC-PPP is a proper way to overcome this problem. Therefore, current IC-PPP should be enhanced by estimating receiver DCB and employing regional satellite-specific ionospheric correction models in order to speed up its convergence for more practical applications.

  13. Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis: clinical characteristics, etiologic associations, treatments, and outcomes in a series of 28 patients at Mayo Clinic, 1996-2013.

    PubMed

    Alniemi, Dema T; Wetter, David A; Bridges, Alina G; El-Azhary, Rokea A; Davis, Mark D P; Camilleri, Michael J; McEvoy, Marian T

    2017-04-01

    Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP) is a rare skin condition typically caused by medications. The objective of this study was to examine the clinical features, causes, and outcomes of AGEP at a sole tertiary care center. A retrospective review of patients with AGEP (European Study of Severe Cutaneous Adverse Reactions score of ≥ 5) seen at Mayo Clinic (Rochester, MN, USA) between January 1, 1996, and December 31, 2013, was conducted. Of 28 patients (mean age at onset: 56 years), 17 (61%) were women. The development of AGEP was attributed to medications in 25 patients (89%), with clindamycin the most common culprit (six patients). Three patients (11%) had mucous membrane involvement, and 21 (75%) showed systemic involvement. Ten patients (36%) received systemic corticosteroids for treatment of AGEP. Skin findings resolved within 15 days in 26 patients (93%) (mean time to resolution: 7.6 days). In three patients (11%), generalized skin eruptions or dermatitis developed weeks to months after the resolution of AGEP. Twenty-four patients (86%) had a personal history of drug reactions before the development of AGEP. A previous history of drug reactions and clindamycin causation were more common in the present cohort than in prior reports. A small subset of patients experienced new-onset non-AGEP skin eruptions within a few months of the resolution of AGEP. © 2017 The International Society of Dermatology.

  14. Ionospheric modelling to boost the PPP-RTK positioning and navigation in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arsov, Kirco; Terkildsen, Michael; Olivares, German

    2017-04-01

    This paper deals with implementation of 3-D ionospheric model to support the GNSS positioning and navigation activities in Australia. We will introduce two strategies for Slant Total Electron Content (STEC) estimation from GNSS CORS sites in Australia. In the first scenario, the STEC is estimated in the PPP-RTK network processing. The ionosphere is estimated together with other GNSS network parameters, such as Satellite Clocks, Satellite Phase Biases, etc. Another approach is where STEC is estimated on a station by station basis by taking advantage of already known station position and different satellite ambiguities relations. Accuracy studies and considerations will be presented and discussed. Furthermore, based on this STEC, 3-D ionosphere modeling will be performed. We will present the simple interpolation, 3-D Tomography and bi-cubic splines as modeling techniques. In order to assess these models, a (user) PPP-RTK test bed is established and a sensitivity matrix will be introduced and analyzed based on time to first fix (TTFF) of ambiguities, positioning accuracy, PPP-RTK solution convergence time etc. Different spatial configurations and constellations will be presented and assessed.

  15. A New Zenith Tropospheric Delay Grid Product for Real-Time PPP Applications over China.

    PubMed

    Lou, Yidong; Huang, Jinfang; Zhang, Weixing; Liang, Hong; Zheng, Fu; Liu, Jingnan

    2017-12-27

    Tropospheric delay is one of the major factors affecting the accuracy of electromagnetic distance measurements. To provide wide-area real-time high precision zenith tropospheric delay (ZTD), the temporal and spatial variations of ZTD with altitude were analyzed on the bases of the latest meteorological reanalysis product (ERA-Interim) provided by the European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF). An inverse scale height model at given locations taking latitude, longitude and day of year as inputs was then developed and used to convert real-time ZTD at GPS stations in Crustal Movement Observation Network of China (CMONOC) from station height to mean sea level (MSL). The real-time ZTD grid product (RtZTD) over China was then generated with a time interval of 5 min. Compared with ZTD estimated in post-processing mode, the bias and error RMS of ZTD at test GPS stations derived from RtZTD are 0.39 and 1.56 cm, which is significantly more accurate than commonly used empirical models. In addition, simulated real-time kinematic Precise Point Positioning (PPP) tests show that using RtZTD could accelerate the BDS-PPP convergence time by up to 32% and 65% in the horizontal and vertical components (set coordinate error thresholds to 0.4 m), respectively. For GPS-PPP, the convergence time using RtZTD can be accelerated by up to 29% in the vertical component (0.2 m).

  16. Targeting 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase in the oxidative PPP sensitizes leukemia cells to antimalarial agent dihydroartemisinin.

    PubMed

    Elf, S; Lin, R; Xia, S; Pan, Y; Shan, C; Wu, S; Lonial, S; Gaddh, M; Arellano, M L; Khoury, H J; Khuri, F R; Lee, B H; Boggon, T J; Fan, J; Chen, J

    2017-01-12

    The oxidative pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) is crucial for cancer cell metabolism and tumor growth. We recently reported that targeting a key oxidative PPP enzyme, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGD), using our novel small-molecule 6PGD inhibitors Physcion and its derivative S3, shows anticancer effects. Notably, humans with genetic deficiency of either 6PGD or another oxidative PPP enzyme, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, exhibit non-immune hemolytic anemia upon exposure to aspirin and various antimalarial drugs. Inspired by these clinical observations, we examined the anticancer potential of combined treatment with 6PGD inhibitors and antimalarial drugs. We found that stable knockdown of 6PGD sensitizes leukemia cells to antimalarial agent dihydroartemisinin (DHA). Combined treatment with DHA and Physcion activates AMP-activated protein kinase, leading to synergistic inhibition of human leukemia cell viability. Moreover, our combined therapy synergistically attenuates tumor growth in xenograft nude mice injected with human K562 leukemia cells and cell viability of primary leukemia cells from human patients, but shows minimal toxicity to normal hematopoietic cells in mice as well as red blood cells and mononucleocytes from healthy human donors. Our findings reveal the potential for combined therapy using optimized doses of Physcion and DHA as a novel antileukemia treatment without inducing hemolysis.

  17. Code-Phase Clock Bias and Frequency Offset in PPP Clock Solutions.

    PubMed

    Defraigne, Pascale; Sleewaegen, Jean-Marie

    2016-07-01

    Precise point positioning (PPP) is a zero-difference single-station technique that has proved to be very effective for time and frequency transfer, enabling the comparison of atomic clocks with a precision of a hundred picoseconds and a one-day stability below the 1e-15 level. It was, however, noted that for some receivers, a frequency difference is observed between the clock solution based on the code measurements and the clock solution based on the carrier-phase measurements. These observations reveal some inconsistency either between the code and carrier phases measured by the receiver or between the data analysis strategy of codes and carrier phases. One explanation for this discrepancy is the time offset that can exist for some receivers between the code and the carrier-phase latching. This paper explains how a code-phase bias in the receiver hardware can induce a frequency difference between the code and the carrier-phase clock solutions. The impact on PPP is then quantified. Finally, the possibility to determine this code-phase bias in the PPP modeling is investigated, and the first results are shown to be inappropriate due to the high level of code noise.

  18. Interference and differentiation of the neighboring surface microcracks in distributed sensing with PPP-BOTDA.

    PubMed

    Meng, Dewei; Ansari, Farhad

    2016-12-01

    Detection of cracks while at their early stages of evolution is important in health monitoring of civil structures. Review of technical literature reveals that single or sparsely distributed multiple cracks can be detected by Brillouin-scattering-based optical fiber sensor systems. In a recent study, a pre-pump-pulse Brillouin optical time-domain analysis (PPP-BOTDA) system was employed for detection of a single microcrack. Specific characteristics of the Brillouin gain spectrum, such as Brillouin frequency shift, and Brillouin gain spectrum width, were utilized in order to detect the formation and growth of microcracks with crack opening displacements as small as 25 μm. In most situations, formations of neighboring microcracks are not detected due to inherent limitations of Brillouin-based systems. In the study reported here, the capability of PPP-BOTDA for detection of two neighboring microcracks was investigated in terms of the proximity of the microcracks with respect to each other, i.e., crack spacing distance, crack opening displacement, and the spatial resolution of the PPP-BOTDA. The extent of the study pertained both to theoretical as well as experimental investigations. The concept of shape index is introduced in order to establish an analytical method for gauging the influence of the neighboring microcracks in detection and microcrack differentiation capabilities of Brillouin-based optical fiber sensor systems.

  19. PPP-RTK by means of S-system theory: revisiting the undifferenced, uncombined network model and a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Baocheng; Yuan, Yunbin

    2017-04-01

    A synthesis of two prevailing Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) positioning technologies, namely the precise point positioning (PPP) and the network-based real-time kinematic (NRTK), results in the emergence of the PPP-RTK. This new concept preferably integrates the typical advantage of PPP (e.g. flexibility) and that of NRTK (e.g. efficiency), such that it enables single-receiver users to achieve high positioning accuracy with reasonable timeliness through integer ambiguity resolution (IAR). The realization of PPP-RTK needs to accomplish two sequential tasks. The first task is to determine a class of corrections including, necessarily, the satellite orbits, the satellite clocks and the satellite phase (and code, in case of more than two frequencies) biases at the network level. With these corrections, the second task, then, is capable of solving for the ambiguity-fixed, absolute position(s) at the user level. In this contribution, we revisit three variants (geometry-free, geometry-fixed, and geometry- and satellite-clock-fixed) of undifferenced, uncombined PPP-RTK network model and discuss their implications for practical use. We carry out a case study using multi-day, dual-frequency GPS data from the Crustal Movement Observation Network of China (CMONOC), aiming to assess the (static and kinematic) positioning performance (in terms of time-to-first-fix and accuracy) that is achievable by PPP-RTK users across China.

  20. Novel pppGpp binding site at the C-terminal region of the Rel enzyme from Mycobacterium smegmatis.

    PubMed

    Syal, Kirtimaan; Joshi, Himanshu; Chatterji, Dipankar; Jain, Vikas

    2015-10-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis elicits the stringent response under unfavorable growth conditions, such as those encountered by the pathogen inside the host. The hallmark of this response is production of guanosine tetra- and pentaphosphates, collectively termed (p)ppGpp, which have pleiotropic effects on the bacterial physiology. As the stringent response is connected to survival under stress, it is now being targeted for developing inhibitors against bacterial persistence. The Rel enzyme in mycobacteria has two catalytic domains at its N-terminus that are involved in the synthesis and hydrolysis of (p)ppGpp, respectively. However, the function of the C-terminal region of the protein remained unknown. Here, we have identified a binding site for pppGpp in the C-terminal region of Rel. The binding affinity of pppGpp was quantified by isothermal titration calorimetry. The binding site was determined by crosslinking using the nucleotide analog azido-pppGpp, and examining the crosslink product by mass spectrometry. Additionally, mutations in the Rel protein were created to confirm the site of pppGpp binding by isothermal titration calorimetry. These mutants showed increased pppGpp synthesis and reduced hydrolytic activity. We believe that binding of pppGpp to Rel provides a feedback mechanism that allows the protein to detect and adjust the (p)ppGpp level in the cell. Our work suggests that such sites should also be considered while designing inhibitors to target the stringent response. © 2015 FEBS.

  1. Repression of the expression of PPP3CC by ZEB1 confers activation of NF-κB and contributes to invasion and growth in glioma cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongquan; Zhao, Shuli; Chen, Bo; Fu, Chuhua; Dang, Yanwei; Fang, Peihai; Wang, Jun; Wang, Ning; Liu, Lijun

    2018-02-01

    Gliomas are highly malignant brain tumors. Aberrant activation of NF-κB plays a crucial role in tumor progression. ELISA assay was used to detect NF-κB activity in glimoas cells with different treatments. PPP3CC expression was evaluated by qRT-PCR and western blot assay. Kaplan-Meier analysis estimated the overall survival rates according to the protein level of PPP3CC. Transwell and MTS assay were performed to determine cell invasion and growth. Chromatin immunoprecipitation combined with luciferase reporter assays illustrated the transcriptional regulation of PPP3CC. We showed that PPP3CC decrease was responsible for constitutive activation of NF-κB in gliomas. Restored PPP3CC expression inhibited activation of NF-κB. PPP3CC was frequently decreased in gliomas and that repression of the expression of PPP3CC correlated glioma progression. The ectopic expression of PPP3CC inhibited the invasive potential of glioma cells, and inhibited glioma cells proliferation in vitro and growth in vivo. Additionally, the expression of Zinc finger E-box-binding homeobox 1(ZEB1) was increased in gliomas and was negatively correlated with clinical outcomes of glioma patients. ZEB1 inversely correlated with the expression of PPP3CC. ZEB1 was also confirmed to physically bind to the PPP3CC promoter. ZEB1 knockdown resulted in an increase in the expression of PPP3CC and elevation of PPP3CC promoter activity in glioma cells. These findings indicated that the down-regulation of PPP3CC by ZEB1 resulted in activation of NF-κB is a critical oncogenic event in gliomas. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Performance Analysis of Web-Based Ppp Services with DİFFERENT Visibility Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albayrak, M.; Erkaya, H.; Ozludemir, M. T.; Ocalan, T.

    2016-12-01

    GNSS is being used effectively to precise position for many measuring and geodetic purposes at the present time. There is an increasing variety of these systems including the post-processing calculations in terms of number, quality and features and many different techniques are developed to determine position. Precise positioning intend to derive requires user experience and scientific or commercial software with costly license fees. However, in recent years important alternatives to this software that are user friendly and offer free web-based online precise point positioning service have become widely used in geodetic applications. The aim of this study is to test the performance of PPP techniques on ground control points with different visibility conditions. Within this framework, static observations were carried out for three hours a day repeatedly for six days, in YTU Davutpasa Campus on three different ground control points. The locations of these stations were selected by taking into account the impact of natural (trees, etc.) and artificial (buildings, etc.) obstacles. In order to compare the obtained GPS observations with PPP performances, first of all the accurate coordinates of the control points were computed with relative positioning technique in connection with the IGS stations using Bernese v5.0 software. Afterwards, three different web-based positioning services (CSRS-PPP, magicGNSS, GAPS) were used to analyze the GPS observations via PPP technique. To compare all of the obtained results, ITRF2008 datum measurement epoch coordinates were preferred by taking the service result criteria into consideration. In coordinate comparison, for the first station located nearby a building and possibly subjected to multipath effect horizontal discrepancies vary between 2-14.5 cm while vertical differences are between 3.5-16 cm. For the second point located partly in a forestry area, the discrepancies have been obtained as 1.5-8 cm and 2-10 cm for horizontal and

  3. An investigation into the performance of real-time GPS+GLONASS Precise Point Positioning (PPP) in New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harima, Ken; Choy, Suelynn; Rizos, Chris; Kogure, Satoshi

    2017-09-01

    This paper presents an investigation into the performance of real-time Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) Precise Point Positioning (PPP) in New Zealand. The motivation of the research is to evaluate the feasibility of using PPP technique and a satellite based augmentation system such as the Japanese Quasi-Zenith Satellite System (QZSS) to deliver a real-time precise positioning solution in support of a nation-wide high accuracy GNSS positioning coverage in New Zealand. Two IGS real-time correction streams are evaluated alongside with the PPP correction messages transmitted by the QZSS satellite known as MDC1. MDC1 corrections stream is generated by Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) using the Multi-GNSS Advanced Demonstration tool for Orbit and Clock Analysis (MADOCA) software and are currently transmitted in test mode by the QZSS satellite. The IGS real-time streams are the CLK9B real-time corrections stream generated by the French Centre National D'études Spatiales (CNES) using the PPP-Wizard software, and the CLK81 real-time corrections stream produced by GMV using their MagicGNSS software. GNSS data is collected from six New Zealand CORS stations operated by Land Information New Zealand (LINZ) over a one-week period in 2015. GPS and GLONASS measurements are processed in a real-time PPP mode using the satellite orbit and clock corrections from the real-time streams. The results show that positioning accuracies of 6 cm in horizontal component and 15 cm in vertical component can be achieved in real-time PPP. The real-time GPS+GLONASS PPP solution required 30 minutes to converge to within 10 cm horizontal positioning accuracy.

  4. Real-Time PPP Based on the Coupling Estimation of Clock Bias and Orbit Error with Broadcast Ephemeris

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Shuguo; Chen, Weirong; Jin, Xiaodong; Shi, Xiaofei; He, Fan

    2015-01-01

    Satellite orbit error and clock bias are the keys to precise point positioning (PPP). The traditional PPP algorithm requires precise satellite products based on worldwide permanent reference stations. Such an algorithm requires considerable work and hardly achieves real-time performance. However, real-time positioning service will be the dominant mode in the future. IGS is providing such an operational service (RTS) and there are also commercial systems like Trimble RTX in operation. On the basis of the regional Continuous Operational Reference System (CORS), a real-time PPP algorithm is proposed to apply the coupling estimation of clock bias and orbit error. The projection of orbit error onto the satellite-receiver range has the same effects on positioning accuracy with clock bias. Therefore, in satellite clock estimation, part of the orbit error can be absorbed by the clock bias and the effects of residual orbit error on positioning accuracy can be weakened by the evenly distributed satellite geometry. In consideration of the simple structure of pseudorange equations and the high precision of carrier-phase equations, the clock bias estimation method coupled with orbit error is also improved. Rovers obtain PPP results by receiving broadcast ephemeris and real-time satellite clock bias coupled with orbit error. By applying the proposed algorithm, the precise orbit products provided by GNSS analysis centers are rendered no longer necessary. On the basis of previous theoretical analysis, a real-time PPP system was developed. Some experiments were then designed to verify this algorithm. Experimental results show that the newly proposed approach performs better than the traditional PPP based on International GNSS Service (IGS) real-time products. The positioning accuracies of the rovers inside and outside the network are improved by 38.8% and 36.1%, respectively. The PPP convergence speeds are improved by up to 61.4% and 65.9%. The new approach can change the

  5. Real-Time PPP Based on the Coupling Estimation of Clock Bias and Orbit Error with Broadcast Ephemeris.

    PubMed

    Pan, Shuguo; Chen, Weirong; Jin, Xiaodong; Shi, Xiaofei; He, Fan

    2015-07-22

    Satellite orbit error and clock bias are the keys to precise point positioning (PPP). The traditional PPP algorithm requires precise satellite products based on worldwide permanent reference stations. Such an algorithm requires considerable work and hardly achieves real-time performance. However, real-time positioning service will be the dominant mode in the future. IGS is providing such an operational service (RTS) and there are also commercial systems like Trimble RTX in operation. On the basis of the regional Continuous Operational Reference System (CORS), a real-time PPP algorithm is proposed to apply the coupling estimation of clock bias and orbit error. The projection of orbit error onto the satellite-receiver range has the same effects on positioning accuracy with clock bias. Therefore, in satellite clock estimation, part of the orbit error can be absorbed by the clock bias and the effects of residual orbit error on positioning accuracy can be weakened by the evenly distributed satellite geometry. In consideration of the simple structure of pseudorange equations and the high precision of carrier-phase equations, the clock bias estimation method coupled with orbit error is also improved. Rovers obtain PPP results by receiving broadcast ephemeris and real-time satellite clock bias coupled with orbit error. By applying the proposed algorithm, the precise orbit products provided by GNSS analysis centers are rendered no longer necessary. On the basis of previous theoretical analysis, a real-time PPP system was developed. Some experiments were then designed to verify this algorithm. Experimental results show that the newly proposed approach performs better than the traditional PPP based on International GNSS Service (IGS) real-time products. The positioning accuracies of the rovers inside and outside the network are improved by 38.8% and 36.1%, respectively. The PPP convergence speeds are improved by up to 61.4% and 65.9%. The new approach can change the

  6. Evaluation on real-time dynamic performance of BDS in PPP, RTK, and INS tightly aided modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Zhouzheng; Li, Tuan; Zhang, Hongping; Ge, Maorong; Schuh, Harald

    2018-05-01

    Since China's BeiDou satellite navigation system (BDS) began to provide regional navigation service for Asia-Pacific region after 2012, more new generation BDS satellites have been launched to further expand BDS's coverage to be global. In this contribution, precise positioning models based on BDS and the corresponding mathematical algorithms are presented in detail. Then, an evaluation on BDS's real-time dynamic positioning and navigation performance is presented in Precise Point Positioning (PPP), Real-time Kinematic (RTK), Inertial Navigation System (INS) tightly aided PPP and RTK modes by processing a set of land-borne vehicle experiment data. Results indicate that BDS positioning Root Mean Square (RMS) in north, east, and vertical components are 2.0, 2.7, and 7.6 cm in RTK mode and 7.8, 14.7, and 24.8 cm in PPP mode, which are close to GPS positioning accuracy. Meanwhile, with the help of INS, about 38.8%, 67.5%, and 66.5% improvements can be obtained by using PPP/INS tight-integration mode. Such enhancements in RTK/INS tight-integration mode are 14.1%, 34.0%, and 41.9%. Moreover, the accuracy of velocimetry and attitude determination can be improved to be better than 1 cm/s and 0.1°, respectively. Besides, the continuity and reliability of BDS in both PPP and RTK modes can also be ameliorated significantly by INS during satellite signal missing periods.

  7. Economics of PPP-insulated pipe-type cable: Final report

    SciT

    Ernst, A.

    1987-10-01

    This study has been designed to establish the economic range of application and the potential cost advantage of PPP-insulated pipe-type cable compared with presently utilized paper-insulated designs. The study is in two parts. In the first part the electrical and thermal characteristics of a range of cable sizes are tabulated. This data can be utilized for planning and economic comparison purposes. In the second part 12 transmission load scenarios are studied to determine the relative cost of various designs considering materials, installation and the losses over a wide range of assumptions.

  8. Ensuring living condition for ageing population by public-private partnership (PPP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konjar, Miha; Nikšič, Matej; Grom, Janez Peter; Mujkić, Sabina; Fikfak, Alenka

    2018-03-01

    Lack of financial resources has become one of the main issues in fulfilling social and physical needs in urban development. The declining levels of public resources make the collaboration between public and private investors necessary. When facing the challenges of ageing population, shared investment may contribute to the appropriate development of sheltered housing to meet the goals of spatial planning as well as certain standards at the level of urban design. By ensuring appropriate living conditions for all generations such urban PPP projects may contribute to the fulfilment of the public interest. The paper presents practice of PPP implementation in Ljubljana, Slovenia, where local authority with the collaboration of private partners ensured more than 400 sheltered apartments in the last years. Examples show the extension of the idea from the 70s onwards in finding new models of housing for the aging population. The development of new models can be a good example of strengthening the cooperation between public and private partners in the field of urban development practice.

  9. Improved PPP Ambiguity Resolution Considering the Stochastic Characteristics of Atmospheric Corrections from Regional Networks

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yihe; Li, Bofeng; Gao, Yang

    2015-01-01

    With the increased availability of regional reference networks, Precise Point Positioning (PPP) can achieve fast ambiguity resolution (AR) and precise positioning by assimilating the satellite fractional cycle biases (FCBs) and atmospheric corrections derived from these networks. In such processing, the atmospheric corrections are usually treated as deterministic quantities. This is however unrealistic since the estimated atmospheric corrections obtained from the network data are random and furthermore the interpolated corrections diverge from the realistic corrections. This paper is dedicated to the stochastic modelling of atmospheric corrections and analyzing their effects on the PPP AR efficiency. The random errors of the interpolated corrections are processed as two components: one is from the random errors of estimated corrections at reference stations, while the other arises from the atmospheric delay discrepancies between reference stations and users. The interpolated atmospheric corrections are then applied by users as pseudo-observations with the estimated stochastic model. Two data sets are processed to assess the performance of interpolated corrections with the estimated stochastic models. The results show that when the stochastic characteristics of interpolated corrections are properly taken into account, the successful fix rate reaches 93.3% within 5 min for a medium inter-station distance network and 80.6% within 10 min for a long inter-station distance network. PMID:26633400

  10. Electronic structure of PPP@ZnO from all-electron quasiarticle calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Höffling, Benjamin; Nabok, Dimitri; Draxl, Claudia; Condensed Matter Theory Group, Humboldt University Berlin Team

    We investigate the electronic properties of poly(para-phenylene) (PPP) adsorbed on the non-polar (001) surface of rocksalt (rs) ZnO using all-electron density functional theory (DFT) as well as quasiparticle (QP) calculations within the GW approach. A particular focus is put on the electronic band discontinuities at the interface, where we investigate the impact of quantum confinement, molecular polarization, and charge rearrangement. For our prototypical system, PPP@ZnO, we find a type-I heterostructure. Comparison of the band offsets derived from a QP-treatment of the hybrid system with predictions based on mesoscopic methods, like the Shockley-Anderson model or alignment via the electrostatic potential, reveals the inadequacy of these simple approaches for the prediction of the electronic structure of such inorganic/organic heterosystems. Finally, we explore the optical excitations of the interface compared to the features of the pristine components and discuss the methodological implications for the ab-initio treatment of interface electronics.

  11. Properties of the low-lying electronic states of phenanthrene: Exact PPP results

    SciT

    Chakrabarti, A.; Ramasesha, S.

    1996-10-05

    The authors report properties of the exact low-lying states of phenanthrene, its anion and dianion within the Pariser-Parr-Pople (PPP) model. The experimentally known singlet states of the neutral molecule are well reproduced by the model. The intensities for one and two photon absorption to various single states are also in good agreement with experiment. From the bond orders of these states, the authors predict the equilibrium geometries. The relaxation energies of these states, computed from charge-charge correlations and bond orders, are presented. The authors also present results of ring current calculations in the singlet ground state of phenanthrene. The authorsmore » have also reported energies, spin densities, bond orders, and relaxation energies of several triplet states and compared then with experiments as well as with other calculations, where available. The fine structure constants D and E, computed in the lowest triplet state, compare well with those obtained from experiments. These properties are also presented for the anions and the dianions. The PPP model in these cases predicts a low-energy (< 1 eV) dipole excitation. 31 refs., 4 figs., 9 tabs.« less

  12. 6-Phosphogluconate dehydrogenase links oxidative PPP, lipogenesis and tumour growth by inhibiting LKB1-AMPK signalling.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ruiting; Elf, Shannon; Shan, Changliang; Kang, Hee-Bum; Ji, Quanjiang; Zhou, Lu; Hitosugi, Taro; Zhang, Liang; Zhang, Shuai; Seo, Jae Ho; Xie, Jianxin; Tucker, Meghan; Gu, Ting-Lei; Sudderth, Jessica; Jiang, Lei; Mitsche, Matthew; DeBerardinis, Ralph J; Wu, Shaoxiong; Li, Yuancheng; Mao, Hui; Chen, Peng R; Wang, Dongsheng; Chen, Georgia Zhuo; Hurwitz, Selwyn J; Lonial, Sagar; Arellano, Martha L; Khoury, Hanna J; Khuri, Fadlo R; Lee, Benjamin H; Lei, Qunying; Brat, Daniel J; Ye, Keqiang; Boggon, Titus J; He, Chuan; Kang, Sumin; Fan, Jun; Chen, Jing

    2015-11-01

    The oxidative pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) contributes to tumour growth, but the precise contribution of 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGD), the third enzyme in this pathway, to tumorigenesis remains unclear. We found that suppression of 6PGD decreased lipogenesis and RNA biosynthesis and elevated ROS levels in cancer cells, attenuating cell proliferation and tumour growth. 6PGD-mediated production of ribulose-5-phosphate (Ru-5-P) inhibits AMPK activation by disrupting the active LKB1 complex, thereby activating acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 and lipogenesis. Ru-5-P and NADPH are thought to be precursors in RNA biosynthesis and lipogenesis, respectively; thus, our findings provide an additional link between the oxidative PPP and lipogenesis through Ru-5-P-dependent inhibition of LKB1-AMPK signalling. Moreover, we identified and developed 6PGD inhibitors, physcion and its derivative S3, that effectively inhibited 6PGD, cancer cell proliferation and tumour growth in nude mice xenografts without obvious toxicity, suggesting that 6PGD could be an anticancer target.

  13. Inertial aided cycle slip detection and identification for integrated PPP GPS and INS.

    PubMed

    Du, Shuang; Gao, Yang

    2012-10-25

    The recently developed integrated Precise Point Positioning (PPP) GPS/INS system can be useful to many applications, such as UAV navigation systems, land vehicle/machine automation and mobile mapping systems. Since carrier phase measurements are the primary observables in PPP GPS, cycle slips, which often occur due to high dynamics, signal obstructions and low satellite elevation, must be detected and repaired in order to ensure the navigation performance. In this research, a new algorithm of cycle slip detection and identification has been developed. With the aiding from INS, the proposed method jointly uses WL and EWL phase combinations to uniquely determine cycle slips in the L1 and L2 frequencies. To verify the efficiency of the algorithm, both tactical-grade and consumer-grade IMUs are tested by using a real dataset collected from two field tests. The results indicate that the proposed algorithm can efficiently detect and identify the cycle slips and subsequently improve the navigation performance of the integrated system.

  14. Improved PPP Ambiguity Resolution Considering the Stochastic Characteristics of Atmospheric Corrections from Regional Networks.

    PubMed

    Li, Yihe; Li, Bofeng; Gao, Yang

    2015-11-30

    With the increased availability of regional reference networks, Precise Point Positioning (PPP) can achieve fast ambiguity resolution (AR) and precise positioning by assimilating the satellite fractional cycle biases (FCBs) and atmospheric corrections derived from these networks. In such processing, the atmospheric corrections are usually treated as deterministic quantities. This is however unrealistic since the estimated atmospheric corrections obtained from the network data are random and furthermore the interpolated corrections diverge from the realistic corrections. This paper is dedicated to the stochastic modelling of atmospheric corrections and analyzing their effects on the PPP AR efficiency. The random errors of the interpolated corrections are processed as two components: one is from the random errors of estimated corrections at reference stations, while the other arises from the atmospheric delay discrepancies between reference stations and users. The interpolated atmospheric corrections are then applied by users as pseudo-observations with the estimated stochastic model. Two data sets are processed to assess the performance of interpolated corrections with the estimated stochastic models. The results show that when the stochastic characteristics of interpolated corrections are properly taken into account, the successful fix rate reaches 93.3% within 5 min for a medium inter-station distance network and 80.6% within 10 min for a long inter-station distance network.

  15. Ionospheric and receiver DCB-constrained multi-GNSS single-frequency PPP integrated with MEMS inertial measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Zhouzheng; Ge, Maorong; Shen, Wenbin; Zhang, Hongping; Niu, Xiaoji

    2017-11-01

    Single-frequency precise point positioning (SF-PPP) is a potential precise positioning technique due to the advantages of the high accuracy in positioning after convergence and the low cost in operation. However, there are still challenges limiting its applications at present, such as the long convergence time, the low reliability, and the poor satellite availability and continuity in kinematic applications. In recent years, the achievements in the dual-frequency PPP have confirmed that its performance can be significantly enhanced by employing the slant ionospheric delay and receiver differential code bias (DCB) constraint model, and the multi-constellation Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) data. Accordingly, we introduce the slant ionospheric delay and receiver DCB constraint model, and the multi-GNSS data in SF-PPP modular together. In order to further overcome the drawbacks of SF-PPP in terms of reliability, continuity, and accuracy in the signal easily blocking environments, the inertial measurements are also adopted in this paper. Finally, we form a new approach to tightly integrate the multi-GNSS single-frequency observations and inertial measurements together to ameliorate the performance of the ionospheric delay and receiver DCB-constrained SF-PPP. In such model, the inter-system bias between each two GNSS systems, the inter-frequency bias between each two GLONASS frequencies, the hardware errors of the inertial sensors, the slant ionospheric delays of each user-satellite pair, and the receiver DCB are estimated together with other parameters in a unique Kalman filter. To demonstrate its performance, the multi-GNSS and low-cost inertial data from a land-borne experiment are analyzed. The results indicate that visible positioning improvements in terms of accuracy, continuity, and reliability can be achieved in both open-sky and complex conditions while using the proposed model in this study compared to the conventional GPS SF-PPP.

  16. Short double-stranded RNAs with an overhanging 5' ppp-nucleotide, as found in arenavirus genomes, act as RIG-I decoys.

    PubMed

    Marq, Jean-Baptiste; Hausmann, Stéphane; Veillard, Nicolas; Kolakofsky, Daniel; Garcin, Dominique

    2011-02-25

    Arenavirus RNA genomes are initiated by a "prime and realign" mechanism, such that the initiating GTP is found as a single unpaired (overhanging) nucleotide when the complementary genome ends anneal to form double-stranded (ds) RNA panhandle structures. dsRNAs modeled on these structures do not induce interferon (IFN), as opposed to blunt-ended (5' ppp)dsRNA. This study examines whether these viral structures can also act as decoys, by trapping RIG-I in inactive dsRNA complexes. We examined the ability of various dsRNAs to activate the RIG-I ATPase (presumably a measure of helicase translocation on dsRNA) relative to their ability to induce IFN. We found that there is no simple relationship between these two properties, as if RIG-I can translocate on short dsRNAs without inducing IFN. Moreover, we found that (5' ppp)dsRNAs with a single unpaired 5' ppp-nucleotide can in fact competitively inhibit the ability of blunt-ended (5' ppp)dsRNAs to induce IFN when co-transfected into cells and that this inhibition is strongly dependent on the presence of the 5' ppp. In contrast, (5' ppp)dsRNAs with a single unpaired 5' ppp-nucleotide does not inhibit poly(I-C)-induced IFN activation, which is independent of the presence of a 5' ppp group.

  17. [Phenotype and mechanism of inducible ppp2r1a knockout mouse model].

    PubMed

    Fan, J L; Wang, F P; Wang, S; Liu, X L; Wu, X N; Chen, W; Chen, L P; Li, W X

    2018-05-06

    Objective: Investigate the effects of inducible ppp2r1a knockout on main physiological function in adult mice and study the mechanism. Methods: Ppp2r1a(flox/flox) mice and CAGG-CreER mice were hybridized to obtain 20 CAGG-CreER ppp2r1a(flox/flox) and 20 mice in homozygous group. Two groups of mice were divided into 4 groups respectively, finally we got 8 groups with 5 mice in each group. Tamoxifen was injected intraperitoneally to acquire inducible ppp2r1a knockout mice. The knockout efficiency of PP2A Aα in vital organs was measured by Western blot. At 0, 2, 4 and 6 days after injection, we measured body weight, histopathological change, peripheral blood cell counts and blood biochemical. Real-time PCR was performed to measure expression of liver glucolipid metabolism genes. Results: After tamoxifen injection for 6 days, the knockout efficiency of PP2A Aα in vital organs was 35%, 12%, 15%, 60%, 69% and 72%, respectively in heart, liver, spleen, lung, kidney and brain. After tamoxifen injection for 6 days, the weight of homozygous mice was lower than that of wild type mice, with values of (17.42±1.76) g and (21.69±1.82) g, respectively ( P< 0.05). Moreover, the activity level, abdominal and renal fat were significantly decreased in homozygous mice. Homozygous mice survived no more than 7 days. Compared with wild type mice, the organ coefficient of spleen of homozygous mice was decreased at the 6th day, with values of (0.59±0.10)% and (0.36±0.05)% respectively ( P< 0.05). Obvious spleen atrophy and marked decrease of nucleated cells were showed by performing HE staining. Tunel staining revealed increased apoptosis ratio of splenic lymphocytes in homozygous mice. The levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST) of homozygous mice were higher than wild type mice ( P< 0.05). The values of ALT and AST in homozygous mice were (153.68±62.80) U/L and (193.2±44.28) U/L. The corresponding values in wild type mice were (41.02±12.91) U

  18. Accuracy of GIPSY PPP from version 6.2: a robust method to remove outliers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayal, Adem G.; Ugur Sanli, D.

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, we figure out the accuracy of GIPSY PPP from the latest version, version 6.2. As the research community prepares for the real-time PPP, it would be interesting to revise the accuracy of static GPS from the latest version of well established research software, the first among its kinds. Although the results do not significantly differ from the previous version, version 6.1.1, we still observe the slight improvement on the vertical component due to an enhanced second order ionospheric modeling which came out with the latest version. However, in this study, we rather turned our attention into outlier detection. Outliers usually occur among the solutions from shorter observation sessions and degrade the quality of the accuracy modeling. In our previous analysis from version 6.1.1, we argued that the elimination of outliers was cumbersome with the traditional method since repeated trials were needed, and subjectivity that could affect the statistical significance of the solutions might have been existed among the results (Hayal and Sanli, 2013). Here we overcome this problem using a robust outlier elimination method. Median is perhaps the simplest of the robust outlier detection methods in terms of applicability. At the same time, it might be considered to be the most efficient one with its highest breakdown point. In our analysis, we used a slightly different version of the median as introduced in Tut et al. 2013. Hence, we were able to remove suspected outliers at one run; which were, with the traditional methods, more problematic to remove this time from the solutions produced using the latest version of the software. References Hayal, AG, Sanli DU, Accuracy of GIPSY PPP from version 6, GNSS Precise Point Positioning Workshop: Reaching Full Potential, Vol. 1, pp. 41-42, (2013) Tut,İ., Sanli D.U., Erdogan B., Hekimoglu S., Efficiency of BERNESE single baseline rapid static positioning solutions with SEARCH strategy, Survey Review, Vol. 45, Issue 331

  19. On the feasibility of phase only PPP for kinematic LEO orbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallat, Christoph; Schön, Steffen

    2016-04-01

    Low Earth Orbiters (LEO) are satellites in altitudes up to 1000 kilometers. From the sensor data collected on board the Earth's gravity field can be recovered. Over the last 15 years several satellite missions were brought into space and the orbit determination improved over the years. To process the sensor data, precise positioning and timing of the satellite is mandatory. There are two approaches for precise orbit determination (POD) of LEO satellites. Kinematic orbits are based on GNSS observations and star camera data measured on board of the LEO. With a Precise Point Positioning (PPP) known from the terrestrial case, using ionospheric-free linear combinations P3 and L3 three-dimensional coordinates of the LEO can be estimated for every observation epoch. To counteract the challenges in kinematic orbit determination our approach is based on a technique called GNSS receiver clock modeling (RCM). Here the frequency stability of an external oscillator is used to model the behavior of the GNSS receiver clock with piecewise linear polynomials instead of estimating epoch-wise the receiver clock time offset as an unknown parameter. When using RCM the observation geometry is stabilized and the orbit coordinates and the receiver clock error can be estimated with a better precision. The satellites of the Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission are equipped with Ultra Stable quartz Oscillators (USO). The USO frequency stability is used to correct the GRACE GPS receiver clock. Therefore, receiver clock modeling is feasible for polynomials with a length up to 60 seconds, leading to improved mean PDOP values of 30 % and smaller formal mean standard deviations of the coordinates between 6 and 33 %. We developed a new approach for GRACE orbits using kinematic PPP with clock modeling and tested our approach with simulated and real GPS data. The idea to use only carrier phase observations in the final processing and no code measurements leads to a reduced number

  20. An Approach to Speed up Single-Frequency PPP Convergence with Quad-Constellation GNSS and GIM

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Changsheng; Gong, Yangzhao; Gao, Yang; Kuang, Cuilin

    2017-01-01

    The single-frequency precise point positioning (PPP) technique has attracted increasing attention due to its high accuracy and low cost. However, a very long convergence time, normally a few hours, is required in order to achieve a positioning accuracy level of a few centimeters. In this study, an approach is proposed to accelerate the single-frequency PPP convergence by combining quad-constellation global navigation satellite system (GNSS) and global ionospheric map (GIM) data. In this proposed approach, the GPS, GLONASS, BeiDou, and Galileo observations are directly used in an uncombined observation model and as a result the ionospheric and hardware delay (IHD) can be estimated together as a single unknown parameter. The IHD values acquired from the GIM product and the multi-GNSS differential code bias (DCB) product are then utilized as pseudo-observables of the IHD parameter in the observation model. A time varying weight scheme has also been proposed for the pseudo-observables to gradually decrease its contribution to the position solutions during the convergence period. To evaluate the proposed approach, datasets from twelve Multi-GNSS Experiment (MGEX) stations on seven consecutive days are processed and analyzed. The numerical results indicate that the single-frequency PPP with quad-constellation GNSS and GIM data are able to reduce the convergence time by 56%, 47%, 41% in the east, north, and up directions compared to the GPS-only single-frequency PPP. PMID:28587305

  1. An Approach to Speed up Single-Frequency PPP Convergence with Quad-Constellation GNSS and GIM.

    PubMed

    Cai, Changsheng; Gong, Yangzhao; Gao, Yang; Kuang, Cuilin

    2017-06-06

    The single-frequency precise point positioning (PPP) technique has attracted increasing attention due to its high accuracy and low cost. However, a very long convergence time, normally a few hours, is required in order to achieve a positioning accuracy level of a few centimeters. In this study, an approach is proposed to accelerate the single-frequency PPP convergence by combining quad-constellation global navigation satellite system (GNSS) and global ionospheric map (GIM) data. In this proposed approach, the GPS, GLONASS, BeiDou, and Galileo observations are directly used in an uncombined observation model and as a result the ionospheric and hardware delay (IHD) can be estimated together as a single unknown parameter. The IHD values acquired from the GIM product and the multi-GNSS differential code bias (DCB) product are then utilized as pseudo-observables of the IHD parameter in the observation model. A time varying weight scheme has also been proposed for the pseudo-observables to gradually decrease its contribution to the position solutions during the convergence period. To evaluate the proposed approach, datasets from twelve Multi-GNSS Experiment (MGEX) stations on seven consecutive days are processed and analyzed. The numerical results indicate that the single-frequency PPP with quad-constellation GNSS and GIM data are able to reduce the convergence time by 56%, 47%, 41% in the east, north, and up directions compared to the GPS-only single-frequency PPP.

  2. Protocol for obtaining platelet-rich plasma (PRP), platelet-poor plasma (PPP), and thrombin for autologous use.

    PubMed

    Franco, Diogo; Franco, Talita; Schettino, Angélica Maria; Filho, João Medeiros Tavares; Vendramin, Fabiel Spani

    2012-10-01

    Plasma has been widely studied and used in many different situations to speed up healing with better tissue adherence and hemostasis. Research projects are now attempting to isolate platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and platelet-poor plasma (PPP), making better use of their properties, particularly during operations and for wounds that are slow to heal. In view of the wide diversity of industrial machines and extraction protocols, together with the variety of industrially produced biologic glues, this article suggests an option for obtaining PRP, PPP, and human thrombin for autologous use. A way of obtaining PRP, PPP, and thrombin is reproduced through a protocol defined and established by the authors. Autologous thrombin and plasma were obtained through the collection and successive centrifugation of ten whole blood samples, until the desired hemocomponents were isolated, followed by quantitative and qualitative analyses of the elements obtained. The mean platelet concentration obtained was 6.03 × 10(8) platelets/ml, with a mean thrombin concentration of 33.54 nM, both values compatible with reports in the literature when different protocols are applied. The protocol described is a good option for the preparation and application of PRP, PPP, and autologous thrombin, particularly as they can be obtained simultaneously, eliminating the possibilities of viral contamination and allergic reactions. Moreover, the cost of this procedure is low, it is easy to perform, and replicable. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article.

  3. Identification and characterization of a matrix protein (PPP-10) in the periostracum of the pearl oyster, Pinctada fucata.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Seiji; Suzuki, Michio; Endo, Hirotoshi; Iimura, Kurin; Kinoshita, Shigeharu; Watabe, Shugo; Kogure, Toshihiro; Nagasawa, Hiromichi

    2013-01-01

    The periostracum is a layered structure that is formed as a mollusk shell grows. The shell is covered by the periostracum, which consists of organic matrices that prevent decalcification of the shell. In the present study, we discovered the presence of chitin in the periostracum and identified a novel matrix protein, Pinctada fucata periostracum protein named PPP-10. It was purified from the sodium dodecyl sulfate/dithiothreitol-soluble fraction of the periostracum of the Japanese pearl oyster, P. fucata. The deduced amino acid sequence was determined by a combination of amino acid sequence analysis and cDNA cloning. The open reading frame encoded a precursor protein of 112 amino acid residues including a 21-residue signal peptide. The 91 residues following the signal peptide contained abundant Cys and Tyr residues. PPP-10 was expressed on the outer side of the outer fold in the mantle, indicating that PPP-10 was present in the second or third layer of the periostracum. We also determined that the recombinant PPP-10 had chitin-binding activity and could incorporate chitin into the scaffolds of the periostracum. These results shed light on the early steps in mollusk shell formation.

  4. Structural and functional insights into 5'-ppp RNA pattern recognition by the innate immune receptor RIG-I.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanli; Ludwig, Janos; Schuberth, Christine; Goldeck, Marion; Schlee, Martin; Li, Haitao; Juranek, Stefan; Sheng, Gang; Micura, Ronald; Tuschl, Thomas; Hartmann, Gunther; Patel, Dinshaw J

    2010-07-01

    RIG-I is a cytosolic helicase that senses 5'-ppp RNA contained in negative-strand RNA viruses and triggers innate antiviral immune responses. Calorimetric binding studies established that the RIG-I C-terminal regulatory domain (CTD) binds to blunt-end double-stranded 5'-ppp RNA a factor of 17 more tightly than to its single-stranded counterpart. Here we report on the crystal structure of RIG-I CTD bound to both blunt ends of a self-complementary 5'-ppp dsRNA 12-mer, with interactions involving 5'-pp clearly visible in the complex. The structure, supported by mutation studies, defines how a lysine-rich basic cleft within the RIG-I CTD sequesters the observable 5'-pp of the bound RNA, with a stacked phenylalanine capping the terminal base pair. Key intermolecular interactions observed in the crystalline state are retained in the complex of 5'-ppp dsRNA 24-mer and full-length RIG-I under in vivo conditions, as evaluated from the impact of binding pocket RIG-I mutations and 2'-OCH(3) RNA modifications on the interferon response.

  5. Identification and characterization of a matrix protein (PPP-10) in the periostracum of the pearl oyster, Pinctada fucata☆

    PubMed Central

    Nakayama, Seiji; Suzuki, Michio; Endo, Hirotoshi; Iimura, Kurin; Kinoshita, Shigeharu; Watabe, Shugo; Kogure, Toshihiro; Nagasawa, Hiromichi

    2013-01-01

    The periostracum is a layered structure that is formed as a mollusk shell grows. The shell is covered by the periostracum, which consists of organic matrices that prevent decalcification of the shell. In the present study, we discovered the presence of chitin in the periostracum and identified a novel matrix protein, Pinctada fucata periostracum protein named PPP-10. It was purified from the sodium dodecyl sulfate/dithiothreitol-soluble fraction of the periostracum of the Japanese pearl oyster, P. fucata. The deduced amino acid sequence was determined by a combination of amino acid sequence analysis and cDNA cloning. The open reading frame encoded a precursor protein of 112 amino acid residues including a 21-residue signal peptide. The 91 residues following the signal peptide contained abundant Cys and Tyr residues. PPP-10 was expressed on the outer side of the outer fold in the mantle, indicating that PPP-10 was present in the second or third layer of the periostracum. We also determined that the recombinant PPP-10 had chitin-binding activity and could incorporate chitin into the scaffolds of the periostracum. These results shed light on the early steps in mollusk shell formation. PMID:24251105

  6. [Electronic spectra of triphenodioxazines dyes by modified PPP-MO method].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xue-jie

    2002-02-01

    The triphenodioxazines dyes have good colour and luster, excellent colour fastness to light, and strong painted. They are used as the dyes and pigment extensively, and also be used as the photoelectronic transformation, laser dyes and far-infrared anti-radiation material. The colour and constitution of triphenodioxazines dyes were evaluated by means of the modified PPP-SCF-MO method with variable R, beta approximation. The calculated wavelengths of maximum absorption are in good agreement with experimental results. It was found that there exists a good correlated relationship between the wavenumber of fluorescence maximum nu fl and the calculated fluorescence emission energy delta Efl, as nu fl = 11.6837 delta Efl + 3.3485(k.cm-1), r = 0.9547. The relationship between structure of molecular and properties of electronic spectra has been discussed.

  7. Instant noodles as an antifriction device: making the BOP with PPP in PNG.

    PubMed

    Errington, Frederick; Fujikura, Tatsuro; Gewertz, Deborah

    2012-01-01

    Focusing primarily, but not exclusively, on urban and periurban Papua New Guinea (PNG), we discuss the significance of instant ramen noodles to those now known as the “bottom of the pyramid” (BOP). Although instant noodles are remarkable in that they are eaten by virtually everyone in the world, albeit in different amounts and for different reasons, they are marketed in PNG specifically as a “popularly positioned product” (PPP) for the BOP. Cheap, convenient, tasty, filling, and shelf stable, they are a modern addition to Sidney Mintz's classic “proletarian hunger killers” of sugar, tea, and coffee. But, we argue, instant noodles have a distinctive contemporary role: they do more than sustain the poor; they transform them into the aspiring consumers of the BOP. As such, instant noodles can be viewed as an antifriction device, greasing the skids of capitalism as it extends its reach.

  8. Waltz Mill testing of 765-kV paper-polypropylene-paper (PPP) cable. Final report

    SciT

    Burghardt, R.R.

    1992-06-01

    A 765-kV PPP-insulated cable was subjected to a 27-month accelerated life test program at the EPRI Waltz Mill Cable Test Facility. Testing started in August 1981 and was successfully completed in January 1985. The program included conductor temperatures ranging from 85{degree}C to 105{degree}C and line-to-line voltages from 800 kV to 1050 kV. Cyclic testing was performed during 20 of the 27 months. Dissipation factor measurements were made throughout the program. The measurements indicated no deterioration of the cable or splices as a consequence of the high temperatures and voltages applied to them in this test program.

  9. Waltz Mill testing of 765-kV paper-polypropylene-paper (PPP) cable

    SciT

    Burghardt, R.R.

    1992-06-01

    A 765-kV PPP-insulated cable was subjected to a 27-month accelerated life test program at the EPRI Waltz Mill Cable Test Facility. Testing started in August 1981 and was successfully completed in January 1985. The program included conductor temperatures ranging from 85{degree}C to 105{degree}C and line-to-line voltages from 800 kV to 1050 kV. Cyclic testing was performed during 20 of the 27 months. Dissipation factor measurements were made throughout the program. The measurements indicated no deterioration of the cable or splices as a consequence of the high temperatures and voltages applied to them in this test program.

  10. Datum maintenance of the main Egyptian geodetic control networks by utilizing Precise Point Positioning "PPP" technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabah, Mostafa; Elmewafey, Mahmoud; Farahan, Magda H.

    2016-06-01

    A geodetic control network is the wire-frame or the skeleton on which continuous and consistent mapping, Geographic Information Systems (GIS), and surveys are based. Traditionally, geodetic control points are established as permanent physical monuments placed in the ground and precisely marked, located, and documented. With the development of satellite surveying methods and their availability and high degree of accuracy, a geodetic control network could be established by using GNSS and referred to an international terrestrial reference frame used as a three-dimensional geocentric reference system for a country. Based on this concept, in 1992, the Egypt Survey Authority (ESA) established two networks, namely High Accuracy Reference Network (HARN) and the National Agricultural Cadastral Network (NACN). To transfer the International Terrestrial Reference Frame to the HARN, the HARN was connected with four IGS stations. The processing results were 1:10,000,000 (Order A) for HARN and 1:1,000,000 (Order B) for NACN relative network accuracy standard between stations defined in ITRF1994 Epoch1996. Since 1996, ESA did not perform any updating or maintaining works for these networks. To see how non-performing maintenance degrading the values of the HARN and NACN, the available HARN and NACN stations in the Nile Delta were observed. The Processing of the tested part was done by CSRS-PPP Service based on utilizing Precise Point Positioning "PPP" and Trimble Business Center "TBC". The study shows the feasibility of Precise Point Positioning in updating the absolute positioning of the HARN network and its role in updating the reference frame (ITRF). The study also confirmed the necessity of the absent role of datum maintenance of Egypt networks.

  11. GPS receiver phase biases estimable in PPP-RTK networks: dynamic characterization and impact analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Baocheng; Liu, Teng; Yuan, Yunbin

    2017-11-01

    The integer ambiguity resolution enabled precise point positioning (PPP-RTK) has been proven advantageous in a wide range of applications. The realization of PPP-RTK concerns the isolation of satellite phase biases (SPBs) and other corrections from a network of Global Positioning System (GPS) reference receivers. This is generally based on Kalman filter in order to achieve real-time capability, in which proper modeling of the dynamics of various types of unknowns remains crucial. This paper seeks to gain insight into how to reasonably deal with the dynamic behavior of the estimable receiver phase biases (RPBs). Using dual-frequency GPS data collected at six colocated receivers over days 50-120 of 2015, we analyze the 30-s epoch-by-epoch estimates of L1 and wide-lane (WL) RPBs for each receiver pair. The dynamics observed in these estimates are a combined effect of three factors, namely the random measurement noise, the multipath and the ambient temperature. The first factor can be overcome by turning to a real-time filter and the second by considering the use of a sidereal filtering. The third factor has an effect only on the WL, and this effect appears to be linear. After accounting for these three factors, the low-pass-filtered, sidereal-filtered, epoch-by-epoch estimates of L1 RPBs follow a random walk process, whereas those of WL RPBs are constant over time. Properly modeling the dynamics of RPBs is vital, as it ensures the best convergence of the Kalman-filtered, between-satellite single-differenced SPB estimates to their correct values and, in turn, shortens the time-to-first-fix at user side.

  12. GPS receiver phase biases estimable in PPP-RTK networks: dynamic characterization and impact analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Baocheng; Liu, Teng; Yuan, Yunbin

    2018-06-01

    The integer ambiguity resolution enabled precise point positioning (PPP-RTK) has been proven advantageous in a wide range of applications. The realization of PPP-RTK concerns the isolation of satellite phase biases (SPBs) and other corrections from a network of Global Positioning System (GPS) reference receivers. This is generally based on Kalman filter in order to achieve real-time capability, in which proper modeling of the dynamics of various types of unknowns remains crucial. This paper seeks to gain insight into how to reasonably deal with the dynamic behavior of the estimable receiver phase biases (RPBs). Using dual-frequency GPS data collected at six colocated receivers over days 50-120 of 2015, we analyze the 30-s epoch-by-epoch estimates of L1 and wide-lane (WL) RPBs for each receiver pair. The dynamics observed in these estimates are a combined effect of three factors, namely the random measurement noise, the multipath and the ambient temperature. The first factor can be overcome by turning to a real-time filter and the second by considering the use of a sidereal filtering. The third factor has an effect only on the WL, and this effect appears to be linear. After accounting for these three factors, the low-pass-filtered, sidereal-filtered, epoch-by-epoch estimates of L1 RPBs follow a random walk process, whereas those of WL RPBs are constant over time. Properly modeling the dynamics of RPBs is vital, as it ensures the best convergence of the Kalman-filtered, between-satellite single-differenced SPB estimates to their correct values and, in turn, shortens the time-to-first-fix at user side.

  13. A study on predicting network corrections in PPP-RTK processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Kan; Khodabandeh, Amir; Teunissen, Peter

    2017-10-01

    In PPP-RTK processing, the network corrections including the satellite clocks, the satellite phase biases and the ionospheric delays are provided to the users to enable fast single-receiver integer ambiguity resolution. To solve the rank deficiencies in the undifferenced observation equations, the estimable parameters are formed to generate full-rank design matrix. In this contribution, we firstly discuss the interpretation of the estimable parameters without and with a dynamic satellite clock model incorporated in a Kalman filter during the network processing. The functionality of the dynamic satellite clock model is tested in the PPP-RTK processing. Due to the latency generated by the network processing and data transfer, the network corrections are delayed for the real-time user processing. To bridge the latencies, we discuss and compare two prediction approaches making use of the network corrections without and with the dynamic satellite clock model, respectively. The first prediction approach is based on the polynomial fitting of the estimated network parameters, while the second approach directly follows the dynamic model in the Kalman filter of the network processing and utilises the satellite clock drifts estimated in the network processing. Using 1 Hz data from two networks in Australia, the influences of the two prediction approaches on the user positioning results are analysed and compared for latencies ranging from 3 to 10 s. The accuracy of the positioning results decreases with the increasing latency of the network products. For a latency of 3 s, the RMS of the horizontal and the vertical coordinates (with respect to the ground truth) do not show large differences applying both prediction approaches. For a latency of 10 s, the prediction approach making use of the satellite clock model has generated slightly better positioning results with the differences of the RMS at mm-level. Further advantages and disadvantages of both prediction approaches are

  14. Efficient high-rate satellite clock estimation for PPP ambiguity resolution using carrier-ranges.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hua; Jiang, Weiping; Ge, Maorong; Wickert, Jens; Schuh, Harald

    2014-11-25

    In order to catch up the short-term clock variation of GNSS satellites, clock corrections must be estimated and updated at a high-rate for Precise Point Positioning (PPP). This estimation is already very time-consuming for the GPS constellation only as a great number of ambiguities need to be simultaneously estimated. However, on the one hand better estimates are expected by including more stations, and on the other hand satellites from different GNSS systems must be processed integratively for a reliable multi-GNSS positioning service. To alleviate the heavy computational burden, epoch-differenced observations are always employed where ambiguities are eliminated. As the epoch-differenced method can only derive temporal clock changes which have to be aligned to the absolute clocks but always in a rather complicated way, in this paper, an efficient method for high-rate clock estimation is proposed using the concept of "carrier-range" realized by means of PPP with integer ambiguity resolution. Processing procedures for both post- and real-time processing are developed, respectively. The experimental validation shows that the computation time could be reduced to about one sixth of that of the existing methods for post-processing and less than 1 s for processing a single epoch of a network with about 200 stations in real-time mode after all ambiguities are fixed. This confirms that the proposed processing strategy will enable the high-rate clock estimation for future multi-GNSS networks in post-processing and possibly also in real-time mode.

  15. How well can online GPS PPP post-processing services be used to establish geodetic survey control networks?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebner, R.; Featherstone, W. E.

    2008-09-01

    Establishing geodetic control networks for subsequent surveys can be a costly business, even when using GPS. Multiple stations should be occupied simultaneously and post-processed with scientific software. However, the free availability of online GPS precise point positioning (PPP) post-processing services offer the opportunity to establish a whole geodetic control network with just one dual-frequency receiver and one field crew. To test this idea, we compared coordinates from a moderate-sized (~550 km by ~440 km) geodetic network of 46 points over part of south-western Western Australia, which were processed both with the Bernese v5 scientific software and with the CSRS (Canadian Spatial Reference System) PPP free online service. After rejection of five stations where the antenna type was not recognised by CSRS, the PPP solutions agreed on average with the Bernese solutions to 3.3 mm in east, 4.8 mm in north and 11.8 mm in height. The average standard deviations of the Bernese solutions were 1.0 mm in east, 1.2 mm in north and 6.2 mm in height, whereas for CSRS they were 3.9 mm in east, 1.9 mm in north and 7.8 mm in height, reflecting the inherently lower precision of PPP. However, at the 99% confidence level, only one CSRS solution was statistically different to the Bernese solution in the north component, due to a data interruption at that site. Nevertheless, PPP can still be used to establish geodetic survey control, albeit with a slightly lower quality because of the larger standard deviations. This approach may be of particular benefit in developing countries or remote regions, where geodetic infrastructure is sparse and would not normally be established without this approach.

  16. The insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor inhibitor PPP produces only very limited resistance in tumor cells exposed to long-term selection.

    PubMed

    Vasilcanu, D; Weng, W-H; Girnita, A; Lui, W-O; Vasilcanu, R; Axelson, M; Larsson, O; Larsson, C; Girnita, L

    2006-05-25

    The cyclolignan PPP was recently demonstrated to inhibit the activity of insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R), without affecting the highly homologous insulin receptor. In addition, PPP caused complete regression of xenografts derived from various types of cancer. These data highlight the use of this compound in cancer treatment. However, a general concern with antitumor agents is development of resistance. In light of this problem, we aimed to investigate whether malignant cells may develop serious resistance to PPP. After trying to select 10 malignant cell lines, with documented IGF-1R expression and apoptotic responsiveness to PPP treatment (IC50s less than 0.1 microM), only two survived an 80-week selection but could only tolerate maximal PPP doses of 0.2 and 0.5 microM, respectively. Any further increase in the PPP dose resulted in massive cell death. These two cell lines were demonstrated not to acquire any essential alteration in responsiveness to PPP regarding IGF-1-induced IGF-1R phosphorylation. Neither did they exhibit any increase in expression of the multidrug resistance proteins MDR1 or MRP1. Consistently, they did not exhibit decreased sensitivity to conventional cytostatic drugs. Rather, the sensitivity was increased. During the first half of the selection period, both cell lines responded with a temporary and moderate increase in IGF-1R expression, which appeared to be because of an increased transcription of the IGF-1R gene. This increase in IGF-1R might be necessary to make cells competent for further selection but only up to a PPP concentration of 0.2 and 0.5 microM. In conclusion, malignant cells develop no or remarkably weak resistance to the IGF-1R inhibitor PPP.

  17. Resolving Peak Ground Displacements in Real-Time GNSS PPP Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodgkinson, K. M.; Mencin, D.; Mattioli, G. S.; Sievers, C.; Fox, O.

    2017-12-01

    The goal of early earthquake warning (EEW) systems is to provide warning of impending ground shaking to the public, infrastructure managers, and emergency responders. Shaking intensity can be estimated using Ground Motion Prediction Equations (GMPEs), but only if site characteristics, hypocentral distance and event magnitude are known. In recent years work has been done analyzing the first few seconds of the seismic P wave to derive event location and magnitude. While initial rupture locations seem to be sufficiently constrained, it has been shown that P-wave magnitude estimates tend to saturate at M>7. Regions where major and great earthquakes occur may therefore be vulnerable to an underestimation of shaking intensity if only P waves magnitudes are used. Crowell et al., (2013) first demonstrated that Peak Ground Displacement (PGD) from long-period surface waves recorded by GNSS receivers could provide a source-scaling relation that does not saturate with event magnitude. GNSS PGD derived magnitudes could improve the accuracy of EEW GMPE calculations. If such a source-scaling method were to be implemented in EEW algorithms it is critical that the noise levels in real-time GNSS processed time-series are low enough to resolve long-period surface waves. UNAVCO currently operates 770 real-time GNSS sites, most of which are located along the North American-Pacific Plate Boundary. In this study, we present an analysis of noise levels observed in the GNSS Precise Point Positioning (PPP) solutions generated and distributed in real-time by UNAVCO for periods from seconds to hours. The analysis is performed using the 770 sites in the real-time network and data collected through July 2017. We compare noise levels determined from various monument types and receiver-antenna configurations. This analysis gives a robust estimation of noise levels in PPP solutions because the solutions analyzed are those that were generated in real-time and thus contain all the problems observed

  18. Temperature Measurement and Damage Detection in Concrete Beams Exposed to Fire Using PPP-BOTDA Based Fiber Optic Sensors.

    PubMed

    Bao, Yi; Hoehler, Matthew S; Smith, Christopher M; Bundy, Matthew; Chen, Genda

    2017-10-01

    In this study, distributed fiber optic sensors based on pulse pre-pump Brillouin optical time domain analysis (PPP-BODTA) are characterized and deployed to measure spatially-distributed temperatures in reinforced concrete specimens exposed to fire. Four beams were tested to failure in a natural gas fueled compartment fire, each instrumented with one fused silica, single-mode optical fiber as a distributed sensor and four thermocouples. Prior to concrete cracking, the distributed temperature was validated at locations of the thermocouples by a relative difference of less than 9 %. The cracks in concrete can be identified as sharp peaks in the temperature distribution since the cracks are locally filled with hot air. Concrete cracking did not affect the sensitivity of the distributed sensor but concrete spalling broke the optical fiber loop required for PPP-BOTDA measurements.

  19. Lower bounds for the ground state energy for the PPP and Hubbard models of the benzene molecule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Číẑek, J.; Vinette, F.

    1988-09-01

    The optimized inner projection (OIP) technique, which is equivalent to the method of intermediate Hamiltonians (MIH), is applied to the PPP and Hubbard models of the benzene molecule. Both these methods are applicable since the electrostatic part of the PPP and Hubbard Hamiltonians is positive definite. Lower energy bounds are calculated using OIP and MIH for all values of the resonance integral β. In this study, β plays the role of a coupling constant. The deviation of the OIP results from exact ones is smaller than 7% for all values of β. The OIP results are also compared with the correlation energies obtained by other techniques. The OIP method gives surprisingly good results even for small |β| values.

  20. Pancreatitis, panniculitis, and polyarthritis (PPP) syndrome: MRI features of intraosseous fat necrosis involving the feet and knees.

    PubMed

    Kang, Dong Joo; Lee, Sun Joo; Choo, Hye Jung; Her, Minyoung; Yoon, Hye Kyoung

    2017-02-01

    Pancreatitis, panniculitis, and polyarthritis (PPP) syndrome is extremely rare and presents as a triad of the three diseases. The patient usually presents with mild or absent abdominal symptoms. Here, we report on a case of a 66-year-old male who presented with pain and swelling in both legs and mild abdominal pain. He was diagnosed with acute pancreatitis by pancreatic enzyme analysis and abdominal computed tomography (CT) and with skin lesions of panniculitis through a biopsy. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed multifocal intraosseous fat necrosis and arthritis involving both the feet and the knees. Therefore, we report a case of PPP syndrome with intraosseous fat necrosis involving both the feet and the knees.

  1. GBR-12909 and fluspirilene potently inhibited binding of ( sup 3 H) (+) 3-PPP to sigma receptors in rat brain

    SciT

    Contreras, P.C.; Bremer, M.E.; Rao, T.S.

    1990-01-01

    Fluspirilene and GBR-12909, two compounds structurally similar to BMY-14802 and haloperidol, were assessed for their ability to interact with sigma receptors. Fluspirilene, an antipsychotic agent that interacts potently with dopamine receptors, inhibited the binding of ({sup 3}H)-(+)3-PPP (IC{sub 50} = 380 nM) more potently than rimcazole, a putative sigma antagonist that was tested clinically for antipsychotic activity. GBR-12909, a potent dopamine uptake blocker, also inhibited the binding of ({sup 3}H)-(+)3-PPP with an IC{sub 50} of 48 nM. However, other compounds that block the re-uptake of catecholamines, such as nomifensine, desipramine, imipramine, xylamine, benztropine and cocaine, were much weaker than GBR-12909asmore » sigma ligands. Thus, GBR-12909 and fluspirilene, compounds structurally similar to BMY-14802, are potent sigma ligands.« less

  2. High-pressure dielectric-strength tests on PPP (PPLP) insulation. Final report. [Paper-polypropylene film-paper

    SciT

    Hata, R.; Hirose, M.; Nagai, T.

    1983-06-01

    The objectives of this project were to establish the effects of fluid pressure on the impulse and ac breakdown strengths of PPP (PPLP) (paper-polypropylene film-paper) insulation. Two thicknesses of PPP (PPLP), which was developed jointly by Sumitomo Electric Industries, Ltd. and Tomoegawa Paper Co., Ltd. and produced by the latter company, were tested with dodecylebenzene (DDB) of the alkylbenzene family as dielectric fluid. Appropriate flat/model cells as employed for previous breakdown tests on paper-oil insulation were used, suitable for test pressures up to 20 kg/cm/sup 2/ abs. (2.0 MN/m/sup 2/ or 284 psi). Impulse and ac breakdown tests were performedmore » at a series of applied pressures, at room temperature and 90/sup 0/C. The results were analyzed and are presented in comparison with previously published data on paper-oil cable insulation.« less

  3. Analysis of the dynamic behavior of structures using the high-rate GNSS-PPP method combined with a wavelet-neural model: Numerical simulation and experimental tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaloop, Mosbeh R.; Yigit, Cemal O.; Hu, Jong W.

    2018-03-01

    Recently, the high rate global navigation satellite system-precise point positioning (GNSS-PPP) technique has been used to detect the dynamic behavior of structures. This study aimed to increase the accuracy of the extraction oscillation properties of structural movements based on the high-rate (10 Hz) GNSS-PPP monitoring technique. A developmental model based on the combination of wavelet package transformation (WPT) de-noising and neural network prediction (NN) was proposed to improve the dynamic behavior of structures for GNSS-PPP method. A complicated numerical simulation involving highly noisy data and 13 experimental cases with different loads were utilized to confirm the efficiency of the proposed model design and the monitoring technique in detecting the dynamic behavior of structures. The results revealed that, when combined with the proposed model, GNSS-PPP method can be used to accurately detect the dynamic behavior of engineering structures as an alternative to relative GNSS method.

  4. PPP mode’s applications motivation in the field of water conservancy project - based on the “money service” theory of Milton Friedman

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zurong; Feng, Jingchun; Wang, Yuting; Xue, Song

    2017-06-01

    We study on PPP mode’s applications motivation in the field of water conservancy project, on the basis of analyzing Friedman’s “money service” theory, for the disadvantages of traditional investment mode in water conservancy project field. By analyzing the way of government and social capital spending money in PPP projects, we get conclusion that both of which are the way of “spending their own money to do their own thing”, which fully reflects that the two sides are a win-win partnership in PPP mode. From the application motivation, PPP mode can not only compensate for the lack of local funds, improve the investment efficiency of the government, but also promote marketization and the supply-side structural reforms.

  5. Hepatic protein phosphatase 1 regulatory subunit 3B (Ppp1r3b) promotes hepatic glycogen synthesis and thereby regulates fasting energy homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Minal B; Shewale, Swapnil V; Sequeira, Raymond N; Millar, John S; Hand, Nicholas J; Rader, Daniel J

    2017-06-23

    Maintenance of whole-body glucose homeostasis is critical to glycemic function. Genetic variants mapping to chromosome 8p23.1 in genome-wide association studies have been linked to glycemic traits in humans. The gene of known function closest to the mapped region, PPP1R3B (protein phosphatase 1 regulatory subunit 3B), encodes a protein (G L ) that regulates glycogen metabolism in the liver. We therefore sought to test the hypothesis that hepatic PPP1R3B is associated with glycemic traits. We generated mice with either liver-specific deletion ( Ppp1r3b Δ hep ) or liver-specific overexpression of Ppp1r3b The Ppp1r3b deletion significantly reduced glycogen synthase protein abundance, and the remaining protein was predominantly phosphorylated and inactive. As a consequence, glucose incorporation into hepatic glycogen was significantly impaired, total hepatic glycogen content was substantially decreased, and mice lacking hepatic Ppp1r3b had lower fasting plasma glucose than controls. The concomitant loss of liver glycogen impaired whole-body glucose homeostasis and increased hepatic expression of glycolytic enzymes in Ppp1r3b Δ hep mice relative to controls in the postprandial state. Eight hours of fasting significantly increased the expression of two critical gluconeogenic enzymes, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and glucose-6-phosphatase, above the levels in control livers. Conversely, the liver-specific overexpression of Ppp1r3b enhanced hepatic glycogen storage above that of controls and, as a result, delayed the onset of fasting-induced hypoglycemia. Moreover, mice overexpressing hepatic Ppp1r3b upon long-term fasting (12-36 h) were protected from blood ketone-body accumulation, unlike control and Ppp1r3b Δ hep mice. These findings indicate a major role for Ppp1r3b in regulating hepatic glycogen stores and whole-body glucose/energy homeostasis. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  6. Alterations of the PPP2R1B gene located at 11q23 in human colorectal cancers

    PubMed Central

    Takagi, Y; Futamura, M; Yamaguchi, K; Aoki, S; Takahashi, T; Saji, S

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS—In 1998 the PPP2R1B gene encoding the A subunit of the serine/threonine protein phosphatase was identified as a putative tumour suppressor gene in lung and colon cancer in the chromosome region 11q22-24. The aim of the present study was to determine the type of alterations in primary rectal cancers as well as colon cancers and the correlation between these alterations and clinicopathological data.
METHODS—Mutation analyses of the PPP2R1B gene sequence encoding the binding sites of the catalytic C subunit (Huntington elongation A subunit TOR (HEAT) repeats 11-15) and partial binding sites of the regulatory B subunit were carried out on cDNA samples from 30 primary colorectal cancer specimens and corresponding normal tissues using a combination of the polymerase chain reaction and subsequent direct DNA sequencing.
RESULTS—Five missense mutations producing amino acid substitutions were detected in the four colon cancer cases (13.3%; four of 30 colorectal cancers): 15glycine (GGT) to alanine (GCT) and 499leucine (TTA) to isoleucine (ATA) in the same case, and 498valine (GTG) to glutamic acid (GAG), 500valine (GTA) to glycine (GGA), and 365serine (TCT) to proline (CCT). Of these five mutations, three (60%) were located in HEAT repeat 13 and four (80%) showed T to other nucleotide substitutions. In addition, a normal polymorphism, 478leucine, was found. No correlation was found between these mutations and clinicopathological data.
CONCLUSION—Our results suggest that the PPP2R1B gene is one of the true targets at 11q23, and its inactivation is involved in the development of all types of colorectal cancers.


Keywords: PPP2R1B gene; colorectal cancer; tumour suppressor gene; protein phosphatase PMID:10896920

  7. Computational study of the covalent bonding of microcystins to cysteine residues--a reaction involved in the inhibition of the PPP family of protein phosphatases.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Susana R; Vasconcelos, Vítor M; Antunes, Agostinho

    2013-01-01

    Microcystins (MCs) are cyclic peptides, produced by cyanobacteria, that are hepatotoxic to mammals. The toxicity mechanism involves the potent inhibition of protein phosphatases, as the toxins bind the catalytic subunits of five enzymes of the phosphoprotein phosphatase (PPP) family of serine/threonine-specific phosphatases: Ppp1 (aka PP1), Ppp2 (aka PP2A), Ppp4, Ppp5 and Ppp6. The interaction with the proteins includes the formation of a covalent bond with a cysteine residue. Although this reaction seems to be accessory for the inhibition of PPP enzymes, it has been suggested to play an important part in the biological role of MCs and furthermore is involved in their nonenzymatic conjugation to glutathione. In this study, the molecular interaction of microcystins with their targeted PPP catalytic subunits is reviewed, including the relevance of the covalent bond for overall inhibition. The chemical reaction that leads to the formation of the covalent bond was evaluated in silico, both thermodynamically and kinetically, using quantum mechanical-based methods. As a result, it was confirmed to be a Michael-type addition, with simultaneous abstraction of the thiol hydrogen by a water molecule, transfer of hydrogen from the water to the α,β-unsaturated carbonyl group of the microcystin and addition of the sulfur to the β-carbon of the microcystin moiety. The calculated kinetics are in agreement with previous experimental results that had indicated the reaction to occur in a second step after a fast noncovalent interaction that inhibited the enzymes per se. © 2011 The Authors Journal compilation © 2011 FEBS.

  8. The low-lying electronic excitations in long polyenes: A PPP-MRD-CI study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavan, Paul; Schulten, Klaus

    1986-12-01

    A correct description of the electronic excitations in polyenes demands that electron correlation is accounted for correctly. Very large expansions are necessary including many-electron configurations with at least one, two, three, and four electrons promoted from the Hartree-Fock ground state. The enormous size of such expansions had prohibited accurate computations of the spectra for polyenes with more than ten π electrons. We present a multireference double excitation configuration interaction method (MRD-CI) which allows such computations for polyenes with up to 16 π electrons. We employ a Pariser-Parr-Pople (PPP) model Hamiltonian. For short polyenes with up to ten π electrons our calculations reproduce the excitation energies resulting from full-CI calculations. We extend our calculations to study the low-lying electronic excitations of the longer polyenes, in particular, the gap between the first optically forbidden and the first optically allowed excited singlet state. The size of this gap is shown to depend strongly on the degree of bond alternation and on the dielectric shielding of the Coulomb repulsion between the π electrons.

  9. Detection and monitoring of surface micro-cracks by PPP-BOTDA.

    PubMed

    Meng, Dewei; Ansari, Farhad; Feng, Xin

    2015-06-01

    Appearance of micrometer size surface cracks is common in structural elements such as welded connections, beams, and gusset plates in bridges. Brillouin scattering-based sensors are capable of making distributed strain measurements. Pre-pump-pulse Brillouin optical time domain analysis (PPP-BOTDA) provides a centimeter-level spatial resolution, which facilitates detection and monitoring of the cracks. In the work described here, in addition to the shift in Brillouin frequency (distributed strains), change in the Brillouin gain spectrum (BGS) width is investigated for the detection and monitoring of surface micro-cracks. A theoretical analysis was undertaken in order to verify the rationality of the proposed method. The theoretical approach involved simulation of strain within a segment of the optical fiber traversing a crack and use of the simulated strain distribution in the opto-mechanical relations in order to numerically obtain the change in the BGS. Simulations revealed that the increase in crack opening displacements is associated with increase in BGS width and decrease in its peak power. Experimental results also indicated that the increases in crack opening displacements are accompanied with increases in BGS widths. However, it will be difficult to use the decrease in BGS power peak as another indicator due to practical difficulties in establishing generalized power amplitude in all the experiments. The study indicated that, in combination with the shift in Brillouin frequency, the increase in BGS width will provide a strong tool for detection and monitoring of surface micro-crack growths.

  10. Multinucleon pion absorption in the sup 4 He(. pi. sup + , ppp ) n reaction

    SciT

    Weber, P.; McAlister, J.; Olszewski, R.

    1991-04-01

    Three-proton emission cross sections for the {sup 4}He({pi}{sup +},{ital ppp}){ital n} reaction were measured at an incident pion kinetic energy of {ital T}{sub {pi}}{sup +}=165 MeV over a wide angular range in a kinematically complete experiment. Angular correlations, missing momentum distributions, and energy spectra are compared with three- and four-body phase-space Monte Carlo calculations. The results provide strong evidence that most of the three-proton coincidences result from three-nucleon absorption. From phase-space integration the total three-nucleon absorption cross section is estimated to be {sigma}{sup 3{ital N}}=4.8{plus minus}1.0 mb. The cross section involving four nucleons is small and is estimated to bemore » {sigma}{sup 4{ital N}}{lt}2 mb. On the scale of the total absorption cross section in {sup 4}He, multinucleon pion absorption seems to represent only a small fraction.« less

  11. Variation in PPP3CC Genotype Is Associated with Long-Term Recovery after Severe Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Osier, Nicole D; Bales, James W; Pugh, Bunny; Shin, Samuel; Wyrobek, Julie; Puccio, Ava M; Okonkwo, David O; Ren, Dianxu; Alexander, Sheila; Conley, Yvette P; Dixon, C Edward

    2017-01-01

    After experimental traumatic brain injury (TBI), calcineurin is upregulated; blocking calcineurin is associated with improved outcomes. In humans, variation in the calcineurin A-gamma gene (PPP3CC) has been associated with neuropsychiatric disorders, though any role in TBI recovery remains unknown. This study examines associations between PPP3CC genotype and mortality, as well as gross functional status assessed at admission using the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) and at 3, 6, and 12 months after severe TBI using the Glasgow Outcome Score (GOS). The following tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (tSNPs) in PPP3CC were genotyped: rs2443504, rs2461491, rs2469749, and rs10108011. The rs2443504 AA genotype was univariately associated with GCS (p = 0.022), GOS at 3, 6, and 12 months (p = 0.002, p = 0.034, and p = 0.004, respectively), and mortality (p = 0.007). In multivariate analysis controlling for age, sex, and GCS, the AA genotype of rs2443504 was associated with GOS at 3 (p = 0.02), and 12 months (p = 0.01), with a trend toward significance at 6 months (p = 0.05); the AA genotype also was associated with mortality in the multivariate model (p = 0.04). Further work is warranted to better understand the role of calcineurin, as well as the genes encoding it and their relevance to outcomes after brain injury.

  12. HPLC-based quantification of bacterial housekeeping nucleotides and alarmone messengers ppGpp and pppGpp.

    PubMed

    Varik, Vallo; Oliveira, Sofia Raquel Alves; Hauryliuk, Vasili; Tenson, Tanel

    2017-09-08

    Here we describe an HPLC-based method to quantify bacterial housekeeping nucleotides and the signaling messengers ppGpp and pppGpp. We have replicated and tested several previously reported HPLC-based approaches and assembled a method that can process 50 samples in three days, thus making kinetically resolved experiments feasible. The method combines cell harvesting by rapid filtration, followed by acid extraction, freeze-drying with chromatographic separation. We use a combination of C18 IPRP-HPLC (GMP unresolved and co-migrating with IMP; GDP and GTP; AMP, ADP and ATP; CTP; UTP) and SAX-HPLC in isocratic mode (ppGpp and pppGpp) with UV detection. The approach is applicable to bacteria without the requirement of metabolic labelling with 32P-labelled radioactive precursors. We applied our method to quantify nucleotide pools in Escherichia coli BW25113 K12-strain both throughout the growth curve and during acute stringent response induced by mupirocin. While ppGpp and pppGpp levels vary drastically (40- and ≥8-fold, respectively) these changes are decoupled from the quotients of the housekeeping pool and guanosine and adenosine housekeeping nucleotides: NTP/NDP/NMP ratio remains stable at 6/1/0.3 during both normal batch culture growth and upon acute amino acid starvation.

  13. Two ancient bacterial-like PPP family phosphatases from Arabidopsis are highly conserved plant proteins that possess unique properties.

    PubMed

    Uhrig, R Glen; Moorhead, Greg B

    2011-12-01

    Protein phosphorylation, catalyzed by the opposing actions of protein kinases and phosphatases, is a cornerstone of cellular signaling and regulation. Since their discovery, protein phosphatases have emerged as highly regulated enzymes with specificity that rivals their counteracting kinase partners. However, despite years of focused characterization in mammalian and yeast systems, many protein phosphatases in plants remain poorly or incompletely characterized. Here, we describe a bioinformatic, biochemical, and cellular examination of an ancient, Bacterial-like subclass of the phosphoprotein phosphatase (PPP) family designated the Shewanella-like protein phosphatases (SLP phosphatases). The SLP phosphatase subcluster is highly conserved in all plants, mosses, and green algae, with members also found in select fungi, protists, and bacteria. As in other plant species, the nucleus-encoded Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) SLP phosphatases (AtSLP1 and AtSLP2) lack genetic redundancy and phylogenetically cluster into two distinct groups that maintain different subcellular localizations, with SLP1 being chloroplastic and SLP2 being cytosolic. Using heterologously expressed and purified protein, the enzymatic properties of both AtSLP1 and AtSLP2 were examined, revealing unique metal cation preferences in addition to a complete insensitivity to the classic serine/threonine PPP protein phosphatase inhibitors okadaic acid and microcystin. The unique properties and high conservation of the plant SLP phosphatases, coupled to their exclusion from animals, red algae, cyanobacteria, archaea, and most bacteria, render understanding the function(s) of this new subclass of PPP family protein phosphatases of particular interest.

  14. Prosthesis Prescription Protocol of the Arm (PPP-Arm): The implementation of a national prosthesis prescription protocol.

    PubMed

    Wijdenes, Paula; Brouwers, Michael; van der Sluis, Corry K

    2018-02-01

    In order to create more uniformity in the prescription of upper limb prostheses by Dutch rehabilitation teams, the development and implementation of a Prosthesis Prescription Protocol of the upper limb (PPP-Arm) was initiated. The aim was to create a national digital protocol to structure, underpin, and evaluate the prescription of upper limb prostheses for clients with acquired or congenital arm defects. Prosthesis Prescription Protocol of the Arm (PPP-Arm) was developed on the basis of the International Classification of Functioning and consisted of several layers. All stakeholders (rehabilitation teams, orthopedic workshops, patients, and insurance companies) were involved in development and implementation. A national project coordinator and knowledge brokers in each team were essential for the project. PPP-Arm was successfully developed and implemented in nine Dutch rehabilitation teams. The protocol improved team collaboration, structure, and completeness of prosthesis prescriptions and treatment uniformity and might be interesting for other countries as well. Clinical relevance A national protocol to prescribe upper limb prostheses can be helpful to create uniformity in treatment of patients with upper limb defects. Such a protocol improves quality of care for all patients in the country.

  15. Performance analysis of PPP ambiguity resolution with UPD products estimated from different scales of reference station networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Siyao; Li, Bofeng; Li, Xingxing; Zang, Nan

    2018-01-01

    Integer ambiguity fixing with uncalibrated phase delay (UPD) products can significantly shorten the initialization time and improve the accuracy of precise point positioning (PPP). Since the tracking arcs of satellites and the behavior of atmospheric biases can be very different for the reference networks with different scales, the qualities of corresponding UPD products may be also various. The purpose of this paper is to comparatively investigate the influence of different scales of reference station networks on UPD estimation and user ambiguity resolution. Three reference station networks with global, wide-area and local scales are used to compute the UPD products and analyze their impact on the PPP-AR. The time-to-first-fix, the unfix rate and the incorrect fix rate of PPP-AR are analyzed. Moreover, in order to further shorten the convergence time for obtaining precise positioning, a modified partial ambiguity resolution (PAR) and corresponding validation strategy are presented. In this PAR method, the ambiguity subset is determined by removing the ambiguity one by one in the order of ascending elevations. Besides, for static positioning mode, a coordinate validation strategy is employed to enhance the reliability of the fixed coordinate. The experiment results show that UPD products computed by smaller station network are more accurate and lead to a better coordinate solution; the PAR method used in this paper can shorten the convergence time and the coordinate validation strategy can improve the availability of high precision positioning.

  16. A Missense Mutation in PPP1R15B Causes a Syndrome Including Diabetes, Short Stature, and Microcephaly

    PubMed Central

    Abdulkarim, Baroj; Igoillo-Esteve, Mariana; Daures, Mathilde; Romero, Sophie; Philippi, Anne; Senée, Valérie; Lopes, Miguel; Cunha, Daniel A.; Harding, Heather P.; Derbois, Céline; Bendelac, Nathalie; Hattersley, Andrew T.; Eizirik, Décio L.; Ron, David

    2015-01-01

    Dysregulated endoplasmic reticulum stress and phosphorylation of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α (eIF2α) are associated with pancreatic β-cell failure and diabetes. Here, we report the first homozygous mutation in the PPP1R15B gene (also known as constitutive repressor of eIF2α phosphorylation [CReP]) encoding the regulatory subunit of an eIF2α-specific phosphatase in two siblings affected by a novel syndrome of diabetes of youth with short stature, intellectual disability, and microcephaly. The R658C mutation in PPP1R15B affects a conserved amino acid within the domain important for protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) binding. The R658C mutation decreases PP1 binding and eIF2α dephosphorylation and results in β-cell apoptosis. Our findings support the concept that dysregulated eIF2α phosphorylation, whether decreased by mutation of the kinase (EIF2AK3) in Wolcott-Rallison syndrome or increased by mutation of the phosphatase (PPP1R15B), is deleterious to β-cells and other secretory tissues, resulting in diabetes associated with multisystem abnormalities. PMID:26159176

  17. IGF-1 receptor tyrosine kinase inhibition by the cyclolignan PPP induces G2/M-phase accumulation and apoptosis in multiple myeloma cells.

    PubMed

    Strömberg, Thomas; Ekman, Simon; Girnita, Leonard; Dimberg, Lina Y; Larsson, Olle; Axelson, Magnus; Lennartsson, Johan; Hellman, Ulf; Carlson, Kristina; Osterborg, Anders; Vanderkerken, Karin; Nilsson, Kenneth; Jernberg-Wiklund, Helena

    2006-01-15

    Emerging evidence suggests the insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) to be an important mediator of tumor-cell survival and resistance to cytotoxic therapy in multiple myeloma (MM). Recently, members of the cyclolignan family have been shown to selectively inhibit the receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) activity of the IGF-1R beta-chain. The effects of the cyclolignan picropodophyllin (PPP) were studied in vitro using a panel of 13 MM cell lines and freshly purified tumor cells from 10 patients with MM. PPP clearly inhibited growth in all MM cell lines and primary MM samples cultured in the presence or absence of bone marrow stromal cells. PPP induced a profound accumulation of cells in the G(2)/M-phase and an increased apoptosis. Importantly, IGF-1, IGF-2, insulin, or IL-6 did not reduce the inhibitory effects of PPP. As demonstrated by in vitro kinase assays, PPP down-regulated the IGF-1 RTK activity without inhibiting the insulin RTK activity. This conferred decreased phosphorylation of Erk1/2 and reduced cyclin dependent kinase (CDK1) activity. In addition, the expression of mcl-1 and survivin was reduced. Taken together, we suggest that interfering with the IGF-1 RTK by using the cyclolignan PPP offers a novel and selective therapeutic strategy for MM.

  18. Inhibiting the IGF-1 receptor tyrosine kinase with the cyclolignan PPP: an in vitro and in vivo study in the 5T33MM mouse model.

    PubMed

    Menu, Eline; Jernberg-Wiklund, Helena; Stromberg, Thomas; De Raeve, Hendrik; Girnita, Leonard; Larsson, Olle; Axelson, Magnus; Asosingh, Kewal; Nilsson, Kenneth; Van Camp, Ben; Vanderkerken, Karin

    2006-01-15

    Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) plays a pleiotropic role in multiple myeloma (MM), that is, in survival, proliferation, chemotaxis, and angiogenesis. Strategies targeting the IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R) may therefore be important to develop efficient anti-MM agents. In this work we investigated the effect of an IGF-1R tyrosine kinase (IGF-1RTK) inhibitor (picropodophyllin or PPP) in the 5T33MM mouse model. In vitro data showed that PPP reduced IGF-1R autophosphorylation and downstream ERK activation, leading to inhibition of IGF-1-stimulated proliferation and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) secretion of MM cells. In an in vivo study, PPP reduced the bone marrow tumor burden and serum paraprotein in 5T33MM mice by 77% and 90%, respectively, compared to vehicle-treated animals. Angiogenesis was assessed by quantifying the microvessel density on CD31-stained paraffin sections and this was reduced by 60% in the PPP-treated group. In a separate survival experiment, Kaplan-Meier analysis demonstrated a significant increase in survival in PPP-treated 5T33MM animals compared to the vehicle controls (28 versus 18 days). These data suggest that the IGF-1RTK inhibitor PPP possesses a marked antitumor activity and strongly points to the possibility of using IGF-1R inhibitors in the treatment of MM.

  19. PPP2R1A regulated by PAX3/FOXO1 fusion contributes to the acquisition of aggressive behavior in PAX3/FOXO1-positive alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Akaike, Keisuke; Suehara, Yoshiyuki; Kohsaka, Shinji; Hayashi, Takuo; Tanabe, Yu; Kazuno, Saiko; Mukaihara, Kenta; Toda-Ishii, Midori; Kurihara, Taisei; Kim, Youngji; Okubo, Taketo; Hayashi, Yasuhide; Takamochi, Kazuya; Takahashi, Fumiyuki; Kaneko, Kazuo; Ladanyi, Marc; Saito, Tsuyoshi

    2018-05-18

    To better characterize the oncogenic role of the PAX3-FOXO1 fusion protein in the acquisition of aggressive behavior in ARMS, we employed a proteomic approach using a PAX3-FOXO1 knockdown system in ARMS cell lines. This approach revealed a protein list consisting of 107 consistently upregulated and 114 consistently downregulated proteins that were expected to be regulated by PAX3-FOXO1 fusion protein. Furthermore, we identified 16 upregulated and 17 downregulated critical proteins based on a data-mining analysis. We also evaluated the function of PPP2R1A in ARMS cells. The PPP2R1A expression was upregulated at both the mRNA and protein levels by PAX3-FOXO1 silencing. The silencing of PPP2R1A significantly increased the cell growth of all four ARMS cells, suggesting that PPP2R1A still has a tumor suppressive function in ARMS cells; however, the native expression of PPP2R1A was low in the presence of PAX3-FOXO1. In addition, the activation of PP2A-part of which was encoded by PPP2R1A -by FTY720 treatment in ARMS cell lines inhibited cell growth. On the human phospho-kinase array analysis of 46 specific Ser/Thr or Tyr phosphorylation sites on 39 selected proteins, eNOS, AKT1/2/3, RSK1/2/3 and STAT3 phosphorylation were decreased by FTY-720 treatment. These findings suggest that PPP2R1A is a negatively regulated by PAX3-FOXO1 in ARMS. The activation of PP2A-probably in combination with kinase inhibitors-may represent a therapeutic target in ARMS. We believe that the protein expression profile associated with PAX3-FOXO1 would be valuable for discovering new therapeutic targets in ARMS.

  20. Inhibition of VEGF secretion and experimental choroidal neovascularization by picropodophyllin (PPP), an inhibitor of the insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor.

    PubMed

    Economou, Mario A; Wu, Jiangmei; Vasilcanu, Daiana; Rosengren, Linda; All-Ericsson, Charlotta; van der Ploeg, Ingeborg; Menu, Eline; Girnita, Leonard; Axelson, Magnus; Larsson, Olle; Seregard, Stefan; Kvanta, Anders

    2008-11-01

    Choroidal neovascularization (CNV) is a debilitating complication of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and a leading cause of vision loss. Along with other angiogenic factors like vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1) and its receptor, IGF-1R, have been implicated in CNV. We have previously shown that the cyclolignan picropodophyllin (PPP) efficiently blocks the insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) activity and causes cell death in uveal melanoma cell lines and in an in-vivo model. In this study we investigated the effect of PPP on VEGF expression both in vitro and in vivo and whether this effect has anti-angiogenic consequences in a murine CNV model. C57BL/6J mice with laser-induced CNVs were treated with PPP. Effects on CNV area were assayed by image analysis. VEGF levels in choroids and retinal pigment epithelial cells (APRE-19) were measured by Western blot or ELISA. Transcriptional activation of the VEGF promoter was determined by luciferase reporter gene assay. Mice treated with PPP, administered intraperitoneally or orally, showed 22-32% (p = 0.002) decrease in CNV area. Furthermore, VEGF levels in the choroids were significantly reduced. In cultured APRE-19 cells, IGF-1 was shown to increase VEGF secretion. This increase was completely blocked by PPP. We could confirm that PPP reduced the level of transcriptional activity of VEGF promoter. PPP reduces IGF-1 dependent VEGF expression and CNV in vivo. Accordingly, IGF-1R inhibitors may be useful tools in the therapy of conditions associated with CNV including neovascular AMD.

  1. Inhibition of VEGF secretion and experimental choroidal neovascularization by picropodophyllin (PPP), an inhibitor of the insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor.

    PubMed

    Economou, Mario A; Wu, Jiangmei; Vasilcanu, Daiana; Rosengren, Linda; All-Ericsson, Charlotta; van der Ploeg, Ingeborg; Menu, Eline; Girnita, Leonard; Axelson, Magnus; Larsson, Olle; Seregard, Stefan; Kvanta, Anders

    2008-06-01

    Choroidal neovascularization (CNV) is a debilitating complication of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and a leading cause of vision loss. Along with other angiogenic factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 and its receptor, IGF-1R, have been implicated in CNV. A prior study has shown that the cyclolignan picropodophyllin (PPP) efficiently blocks the insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) activity and causes cell death in uveal melanoma cell lines and in an in vivo model. In this study we investigated the effect of PPP on VEGF expression, both in vitro and in vivo, and whether this effect has antiangiogenic consequences in a murine CNV model. C57BL/6J mice with laser-induced CNVs were treated with PPP. Effects on CNV area were assayed by image analysis. VEGF levels in the choroid and retinal pigment epithelial cells (ARPE-19) were measured by Western blot or ELISA. Transcriptional activation of the VEGF promoter was determined by luciferase reporter gene assay. Mice treated with PPP, administered intraperitoneally or orally, showed a 22% to 32% (P = 0.002) decrease in CNV area. Furthermore, VEGF levels in the choroid were significantly reduced. In cultured ARPE-19 cells, IGF-1 was shown to increase VEGF secretion. This increase was completely blocked by PPP. PPP reduced the level of transcriptional activity of the VEGF promoter. PPP reduces IGF-1-dependent VEGF expression and CNV in vivo. Accordingly, IGF-1R inhibitors may be useful tools in the treatment of conditions associated with CNV, including neovascular AMD.

  2. PPP1R12A Copy Number Is Associated with Clinical Outcomes of Stage III CRC Receiving Oxaliplatin-Based Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chenbo; Li, Ajian; Li, Huaguang; Peng, Kangsheng; Wei, Qing; Lin, Moubin; Liu, Zhanju; Yin, Lu; Li, Jianwen

    2015-01-01

    Aim. To investigate the correlation between PPP1R12A gene copy number and clinical outcomes of oxaliplatin-based regimen in stage III colorectal cancer (CRC). Methods. A total of 139 paraffin-embedded tissue samples of stage III CRC patients who received oxaliplatin-based treatment after radical surgery were recruited. Genomic DNA was extracted and purified from paraffin-embedded sections. Quantitative PCR methods were used to detect the relative copy number (RCN) of PPP1R12A. Results. Statistical analysis demonstrated that low PPP1R12A RCN was associated with poor RFS (HR = 2.186, 95% CI: 1.293–3.696; P = 0.003) and OS (HR = 2.782, 95% CI: 1.531–5.052; P < 0.001). Additionally, when patients were stratified according to subgroups of stage III and tumor location, poor RFS and OS were also observed in the low PPP1R12A RCN group with significance (RFS: IIIB HR = 2.870, P < 0.001; colon HR = 1.910, P = 0.037; OS: IIIB HR = 3.527, P < 0.001; IIIC HR = 2.662, P = 0.049; rectum HR = 4.229, P = 0.002). Conclusion. Our findings suggest the copy number of PPP1R12A can independently predict recurrence and overall survival of stage III colorectal cancer patients receiving oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy. PMID:26113782

  3. Research on the application of PPP model in the Chinese construction and operation of new energy vehicle charging facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Liping

    2017-05-01

    New energy car charging equipment is the development and popularization of new energy vehicles. It has the nature of quasi-public goods. Due to the large number of construction projects, wide distribution, big investment, it needs huge sums of money. PPP mode is a new financing model and has the inherent driving force to lead the idea the technology and the system innovation. The government and the social subject cooperate on the basis of the spirit of contract thus achieve benefit sharing. This mode effectively improve the operation of new energy vehicle charging facilities operating efficiency

  4. Ionospheric effects in uncalibrated phase delay estimation and ambiguity-fixed PPP based on raw observable model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Shengfeng; Shi, Chuang; Lou, Yidong; Liu, Jingnan

    2015-05-01

    Zero-difference (ZD) ambiguity resolution (AR) reveals the potential to further improve the performance of precise point positioning (PPP). Traditionally, PPP AR is achieved by Melbourne-Wübbena and ionosphere-free combinations in which the ionosphere effect are removed. To exploit the ionosphere characteristics, PPP AR with L1 and L2 raw observable has also been developed recently. In this study, we apply this new approach in uncalibrated phase delay (UPD) generation and ZD AR and compare it with the traditional model. The raw observable processing strategy treats each ionosphere delay as an unknown parameter. In this manner, both a priori ionosphere correction model and its spatio-temporal correlation can be employed as constraints to improve the ambiguity resolution. However, theoretical analysis indicates that for the wide-lane (WL) UPD retrieved from L1/L2 ambiguities to benefit from this raw observable approach, high precision ionosphere correction of better than 0.7 total electron content unit (TECU) is essential. This conclusion is then confirmed with over 1 year data collected at about 360 stations. Firstly, both global and regional ionosphere model were generated and evaluated, the results of which demonstrated that, for large-scale ionosphere modeling, only an accuracy of 3.9 TECU can be achieved on average for the vertical delays, and this accuracy can be improved to about 0.64 TECU when dense network is involved. Based on these ionosphere products, WL/narrow-lane (NL) UPDs are then extracted with the raw observable model. The NL ambiguity reveals a better stability and consistency compared to traditional approach. Nonetheless, the WL ambiguity can be hardly improved even constrained with the high spatio-temporal resolution ionospheric corrections. By applying both these approaches in PPP-RTK, it is interesting to find that the traditional model is more efficient in AR as evidenced by the shorter time to first fix, while the three

  5. Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha Induced Protein 3 Interacting Protein 1 Gene Polymorphisms and Pustular Psoriasis in Chinese Han Population

    PubMed Central

    Han, Jian-Wen; Wang, Yong; Alateng, Chulu; Li, Hong-Bin; Bai, Yun-Hua; Lyu, Xin-Xiang; Wu, Rina

    2016-01-01

    Background: Psoriasis is a common immune-mediated inflammatory dermatosis. Generalized pustular psoriasis (GPP) is the severe and rare type of psoriasis. The association between tumor necrosis factor-alpha induced protein 3 interacting protein 1 (TNIP1) gene and psoriasis was confirmed in people with multiple ethnicities. This study was to investigate the association between TNIP1 gene polymorphisms and pustular psoriasis in Chinese Han population. Methods: Seventy-three patients with GPP, 67 patients with palmoplantar pustulosis (PPP), and 476 healthy controls were collected from Chinese Han population. Six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the TNIP1 gene, namely rs3805435, rs3792798, rs3792797, rs869976, rs17728338, and rs999011 were genotyped by using polymerase chain reaction-ligase detection reaction. Statistical analyses were performed using the PLINK 1.07 package. Allele frequencies and genotyping frequencies for six SNPs were compared by using Chi-square test, odd ratio (OR) (including 95% confidence interval) were calculated. The haplotype analysis was conducted by Haploview software. Results: The frequencies of alleles of five SNPs were significantly different between the GPP group and the control group (P ≤ 7.22 × 10−3), especially in the GPP patients without psoriasis vulgaris (PsV). In the haplotype analysis, the most significantly different haplotype was H4: ACGAAC, with 13.1% frequency in the GPP group but only 3.4% in the control group (OR = 4.16, P = 4.459 × 10−7). However, no significant difference in the allele frequencies was found between the PPP group and control group for each of the six SNPs (P > 0.05). Conclusions: Polymorphisms in TNIP1 are associated with GPP in Chinese Han population. However, no association with PPP was found. These findings suggest that TNIP1 might be a susceptibility gene for GPP. PMID:27364786

  6. Near real-time PPP-based monitoring of the ionosphere using dual-frequency GPS/BDS/Galileo data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhinmin; Li, Yangyang; Li, Fei; Guo, Jinyun

    2018-03-01

    Ionosphere delay is very important to GNSS observations, since it is one of the main error sources which have to be mitigated even eliminated in order to determine reliable and precise positions. The ionosphere is a dispersive medium to radio signal, so the value of the group delay or phase advance of GNSS radio signal depends on the signal frequency. Ground-based GNSS stations have been used for ionosphere monitoring and modeling for a long time. In this paper we will introduce a novel approach suitable for single-receiver operation based on the precise point positioning (PPP) technique. One of the main characteristic is that only carrier-phase observations are used to avoid particular effects of pseudorange observations. The technique consists of introducing ionosphere ambiguity parameters obtained from PPP filter into the geometry-free combination of observations to estimate ionospheric delays. Observational data from stations that are capable of tracking the GPS/BDS/GALILEO from the International GNSS Service (IGS) Multi-GNSS Experiments (MGEX) network are processed. For the purpose of performance validation, ionospheric delays series derived from the novel approach are compared with the global ionospheric map (GIM) from Ionospheric Associate Analysis Centers (IAACs). The results are encouraging and offer potential solutions to the near real-time ionosphere monitoring.

  7. Temperature measurement and damage detection in concrete beams exposed to fire using PPP-BOTDA based fiber optic sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Yi; Hoehler, Matthew S.; Smith, Christopher M.; Bundy, Matthew; Chen, Genda

    2017-10-01

    In this study, Brillouin scattering-based distributed fiber optic sensor is implemented to measure temperature distributions and detect cracks in concrete structures subjected to fire for the first time. A telecommunication-grade optical fiber is characterized as a high temperature sensor with pulse pre-pump Brillouin optical time domain analysis (PPP-BODTA), and implemented to measure spatially-distributed temperatures in reinforced concrete beams in fire. Four beams were tested to failure in a natural gas fueled compartment fire, each instrumented with one fused silica, single-mode optical fiber as a distributed sensor and four thermocouples. Prior to concrete cracking, the distributed temperature was validated at locations of the thermocouples by a relative difference of less than 9%. The cracks in concrete can be identified as sharp peaks in the temperature distribution since the cracks are locally filled with hot air. Concrete cracking did not affect the sensitivity of the distributed sensor but concrete spalling broke the optical fiber loop required for PPP-BOTDA measurements.

  8. [Effect of crystallization temperature of palm oil on its crystallization. IV. The influence of tripalmitoylglycerol (PPP) on the crystallization of 1,3-dipalmitoyl-2-oleoyl-glycerol (POP) and 1,2-dioleoyl-3-palmitoyl-glycerol (POO)].

    PubMed

    Mihara, Hiroaki; Ishiguro, Takashi; Fukano, Hidenori; Taniuchi, Shigeyuki; Ogino, Keizo

    2007-01-01

    Triacylglycerin in Palm Oil contains POP (1,3-dipalmitoyl-2-oleoyl-glycerol) at 30%, POO (1,2-dioleoyl-3-palmitoyl-glycerol) at 20% and PPP (tripalmitoylglycerol) at 5%. The crystallization temperature of PPP is high and the rates of crystal nuclear formation and growth are fast. It is thus considered that PPP may have some effect on the manner or mode of Palm Oil. Examination was thus made to clarify how PPP may affect the crystallization of POP and POO by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X ray diffractometry (XRD) conducted on PPP/POP and PPP/POO mixtures. High and low temperature peaks were noted to appear on the DSC crystallization curve for either of these mixtures. The high temperature peak was considered possibly due to PPP, and the low temperature peak, to POP or POO. DSC isothermal analysis indicated the rate of crystal growth of either mixture to exceed that of pure of POP or POO. Crystal mixture structure was also seen to be complicated than either compound in pure form. The present findings thus clearly indicate that clarification should be made of the effects of high melting point triacylglycerin, such as PPP, on the crystallization of Palm Oil.

  9. Smad4-dependent suppressor pituitary homeobox 2 promotes PPP2R2A-mediated inhibition of Akt pathway in pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qi; Li, Juanjuan; Wu, Wei; Shen, Ruizhe; Jiang, He; Qian, Yuting; Tang, Yanping; Bai, Tingting; Wu, Sheng; Wei, Lumin; Zang, Yi; Zhang, Ji; Wang, Lifu

    2016-03-08

    The importance of Pituitary homeobox 2 (Pitx2) in malignancy remains enigmatic, and Pitx2 has not been previously implicated in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). In this study, we performed gene expression profiling of human PDAC tissues and identified Pitx2 as a promising candidate. Pitx2 expression was decreased from 2.6- to 19-fold in human PDAC tissues from microarray units. Immunochemistry staining showed that Pitx2 expression was moderate to intense in normal pancreatic and pancreatic intraepithelial neoplastic lesions, whereas low in human PDAC tissues. The Pitx2 levels correlated with overall patient survival post-operatively in PDAC. Induction of Pitx2 expression partly inhibited the malignant phenotype of PDAC cells. Interestingly, low Pitx2 expression was correlated with Smad4 mutant inactivation, but not with Pitx2 DNA-methylation. Furthermore, Smad4 protein bound to Pitx2 promoter and stimulated Pitx2 expression in PDAC. In addition, Pitx2 protein bound to the promoter of the protein phosphatase 2A regulatory subunit B55α (PPP2R2A) and upregulated PPP2R2A expression, which may activate dephosphorylation of Akt in PDAC. These findings provide new mechanistic insights into Pitx2 as a tumor suppressor in the downstream of Smad4. And Pitx2 protein promotes PPP2R2A expression which may inhibit Akt pathway. Therefore, we propose that the Smad4-Pitx2-PPP2R2A axis, a new signaling pathway, suppresses the pancreatic carcinogenesis.

  10. Smad4-dependent suppressor pituitary homeobox 2 promotes PPP2R2A-mediated inhibition of Akt pathway in pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qi; Li, Juanjuan; Wu, Wei; Shen, Ruizhe; Jiang, He; Qian, Yuting; Tang, Yanping; Bai, Tingting; Wu, Sheng; Wei, Lumin; Zang, Yi; Zhang, Ji; Wang, Lifu

    2016-01-01

    The importance of Pituitary homeobox 2 (Pitx2) in malignancy remains enigmatic, and Pitx2 has not been previously implicated in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). In this study, we performed gene expression profiling of human PDAC tissues and identified Pitx2 as a promising candidate. Pitx2 expression was decreased from 2.6- to 19-fold in human PDAC tissues from microarray units. Immunochemistry staining showed that Pitx2 expression was moderate to intense in normal pancreatic and pancreatic intraepithelial neoplastic lesions, whereas low in human PDAC tissues. The Pitx2 levels correlated with overall patient survival post-operatively in PDAC. Induction of Pitx2 expression partly inhibited the malignant phenotype of PDAC cells. Interestingly, low Pitx2 expression was correlated with Smad4 mutant inactivation, but not with Pitx2 DNA-methylation. Furthermore, Smad4 protein bound to Pitx2 promoter and stimulated Pitx2 expression in PDAC. In addition, Pitx2 protein bound to the promoter of the protein phosphatase 2A regulatory subunit B55α (PPP2R2A) and upregulated PPP2R2A expression, which may activate dephosphorylation of Akt in PDAC. These findings provide new mechanistic insights into Pitx2 as a tumor suppressor in the downstream of Smad4. And Pitx2 protein promotes PPP2R2A expression which may inhibit Akt pathway. Therefore, we propose that the Smad4-Pitx2-PPP2R2A axis, a new signaling pathway, suppresses the pancreatic carcinogenesis. PMID:26848620

  11. Unpaired 5' ppp-nucleotides, as found in arenavirus double-stranded RNA panhandles, are not recognized by RIG-I.

    PubMed

    Marq, Jean-Baptiste; Kolakofsky, Daniel; Garcin, Dominique

    2010-06-11

    Arenavirus and bunyavirus RNA genomes are unusual in that they are found in circular nucleocapsids, presumably due to the annealing of their complementary terminal sequences. Moreover, arenavirus genome synthesis initiates with GTP at position +2 of the template rather than at the precise 3' end (position +1). After formation of a dinucleotide, 5' pppGpC(OH) is then realigned on the template before this primer is extended. The net result of this "prime and realign" mechanism of genome initiation is that 5' pppG is found as an unpaired 5' nucleotide when the complementary genome ends anneal to form a double-stranded (dsRNA) panhandle. Using 5' pppRNA made in vitro and purified so that all dsRNA side products are absent, we have determined that both this 5' nucleotide overhang, as well as mismatches within the dsRNA (as found in some arenavirus genomes), clearly reduce the ability of these model dsRNAs to induce interferon upon transfection into cells. The presence of this unpaired 5' ppp-nucleotide is thus another way that some viruses appear to use to avoid detection by cytoplasmic pattern recognition receptors.

  12. Performance oriented packaging testing of nine Mk 3 Mod 0 signal containers in PPP-B-621 wood box for packing group II solid hazardous materials. Final report

    SciT

    Libbert, K.J.

    1992-10-01

    A PPP-B-621 wood box containing nine Mk 3 Mod 0 Signal containers was tested for conformance to Performance Oriented Packaging criteria established by Code of Federal Regulations Title 49 CFR. The container was tested with a gross weight of 123.3 pounds (56 kilograms) and met all requirements.

  13. 40 CFR Table 7 to Subpart Ppp of... - Operating Parameters for Which Monitoring Levels Are Required To Be Established for Process Vent...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions for Polyether Polyols Production Pt. 63, Subpt. PPP, Table 7... regeneration stream mass or volumetric flow during carbon bed regeneration cycle; and temperature of the carbon...

  14. Identification and prioritization of NUAK1 and PPP1CC as positional candidate loci for skeletal muscle strength phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Windelinckx, An; De Mars, Gunther; Huygens, Wim; Peeters, Maarten W.; Vincent, Barbara; Wijmenga, Cisca; Lambrechts, Diether; Aerssens, Jeroen; Vlietinck, Robert; Beunen, Gaston

    2011-01-01

    Muscle strength is an important determinant in elite sports performance as well as in the activities of daily living. Muscle metabolism also plays a role in the genesis, and therefore prevention, of common pathological conditions and chronic diseases. Even though heritability estimates between 31 and 78% suggest a significant genetic component in muscle strength, only a limited number of genes influencing muscle strength have been identified. This study aimed to identify and prioritize positional candidate genes within a skeletal muscle strength quantitative trait locus on chromosome 12q22-23 for follow-up. A two-staged gene-centered fine-mapping approach using 122 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in stage 1 identified a familybased association (n = 500) between several tagSNPs located in the ATPase, Ca2+ transporting, cardiac muscle, slow twitch 2 (ATP2A2; rs3026468), the NUAK family, SNF1-like kinase, 1 (NUAK1; rs10861553 and rs3741886), and the protein phosphatase 1, catalytic subunit, gamma isoform (PPP1CC; rs1050587 and rs7901769) genes and knee torque production (P values up to 0.00092). In stage 2, family-based association tests on additional putatively functional SNPs (e.g., exonic SNPs, SNPs in transcription factor binding sites or in conserved regions) in an enlarged sample (n = 536; 464 individuals overlap with stage 1) did not identify additional associations with muscle strength characteristics. Further in-depth analyses will be necessary to elucidate the exact role of ATP2A2, PPP1CC, and NUAK1 in muscle strength and to find out which functional polymorphisms are at the base of the interindividual strength differences. PMID:21750233

  15. Steady γ-Ray Effects on the Performance of PPP-BOTDA and TW-COTDR Fiber Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Planes, Isabelle; Girard, Sylvain; Boukenter, Aziz; Marin, Emmanuel; Delepine-Lesoille, Sylvie; Marcandella, Claude; Ouerdane, Youcef

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the evolution of the performances of Pulse Pre Pump-Brillouin Time Domain Analysis (PPP-BOTDA) and Tunable Wavelength Coherent Optical Time Domain Reflectometry (TW-COTDR) fiber-based temperature and strain sensors when the sensing optical fiber is exposed to two γ-ray irradiation conditions: (i) at room temperature and a dose rate of 370 Gy(SiO2)/h up to a total ionizing dose (TID) of 56 kGy; (ii) at room temperature and a dose rate of 25 kGy(SiO2)/h up to a TID of 10 MGy. Two main different classes of single-mode optical fibers have been tested in situ, radiation-tolerant ones: fluorine-doped or nitrogen-doped core fibers, as well as Telecom-grade germanosilicate ones. Brillouin and Rayleigh Sensitivities of N-Doped fibers were not reported yet, and these characterizations pave the way for a novel and alternative sensing scheme. Moreover, in these harsh conditions, our results showed that the main parameter affecting the sensor sensitivity remains the Radiation Induced Attenuation (RIA) at its operation wavelength of 1550 nm. RIA limits the maximal sensing range but does not influence the measurement uncertainty. F-doped fiber is the most tolerant against RIA with induced losses below 8 dB/km after a 56 kGy accumulated dose whereas the excess losses of other fibers exceed 22 dB/km. Both Rayleigh and Brillouin signatures that are exploited by the PPP-BOTDA and the TW-COTDR remain unchanged (within our experimental uncertainties). The strain and temperature coefficients of the various fibers under test are not modified by radiations, at these dose/dose rate levels. Consequently, this enables the design of a robust strain and temperature sensing architecture for the monitoring of radioactive waste disposals. PMID:28218652

  16. Steady γ-Ray Effects on the Performance of PPP-BOTDA and TW-COTDR Fiber Sensing.

    PubMed

    Planes, Isabelle; Girard, Sylvain; Boukenter, Aziz; Marin, Emmanuel; Delepine-Lesoille, Sylvie; Marcandella, Claude; Ouerdane, Youcef

    2017-02-17

    We investigated the evolution of the performances of Pulse Pre Pump-Brillouin Time Domain Analysis (PPP-BOTDA) and Tunable Wavelength Coherent Optical Time Domain Reflectometry (TW-COTDR) fiber-based temperature and strain sensors when the sensing optical fiber is exposed to two γ-ray irradiation conditions: (i) at room temperature and a dose rate of 370 Gy(SiO2)/h up to a total ionizing dose (TID) of 56 kGy; (ii) at room temperature and a dose rate of 25 kGy(SiO2)/h up to a TID of 10 MGy. Two main different classes of single-mode optical fibers have been tested in situ, radiation-tolerant ones: fluorine-doped or nitrogen-doped core fibers, as well as Telecom-grade germanosilicate ones. Brillouin and Rayleigh Sensitivities of N-Doped fibers were not reported yet, and these characterizations pave the way for a novel and alternative sensing scheme. Moreover, in these harsh conditions, our results showed that the main parameter affecting the sensor sensitivity remains the Radiation Induced Attenuation (RIA) at its operation wavelength of 1550 nm. RIA limits the maximal sensing range but does not influence the measurement uncertainty. F-doped fiber is the most tolerant against RIA with induced losses below 8 dB/km after a 56 kGy accumulated dose whereas the excess losses of other fibers exceed 22 dB/km. Both Rayleigh and Brillouin signatures that are exploited by the PPP-BOTDA and the TW-COTDR remain unchanged (within our experimental uncertainties). The strain and temperature coefficients of the various fibers under test are not modified by radiations, at these dose/dose rate levels. Consequently, this enables the design of a robust strain and temperature sensing architecture for the monitoring of radioactive waste disposals.

  17. On the estimability of parameters in undifferenced, uncombined GNSS network and PPP-RTK user models by means of $mathcal {S}$ S -system theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odijk, Dennis; Zhang, Baocheng; Khodabandeh, Amir; Odolinski, Robert; Teunissen, Peter J. G.

    2016-01-01

    The concept of integer ambiguity resolution-enabled Precise Point Positioning (PPP-RTK) relies on appropriate network information for the parameters that are common between the single-receiver user that applies and the network that provides this information. Most of the current methods for PPP-RTK are based on forming the ionosphere-free combination using dual-frequency Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) observations. These methods are therefore restrictive in the light of the development of new multi-frequency GNSS constellations, as well as from the point of view that the PPP-RTK user requires ionospheric corrections to obtain integer ambiguity resolution results based on short observation time spans. The method for PPP-RTK that is presented in this article does not have above limitations as it is based on the undifferenced, uncombined GNSS observation equations, thereby keeping all parameters in the model. Working with the undifferenced observation equations implies that the models are rank-deficient; not all parameters are unbiasedly estimable, but only combinations of them. By application of S-system theory the model is made of full rank by constraining a minimum set of parameters, or S-basis. The choice of this S-basis determines the estimability and the interpretation of the parameters that are transmitted to the PPP-RTK users. As this choice is not unique, one has to be very careful when comparing network solutions in different S-systems; in that case the S-transformation, which is provided by the S-system method, should be used to make the comparison. Knowing the estimability and interpretation of the parameters estimated by the network is shown to be crucial for a correct interpretation of the estimable PPP-RTK user parameters, among others the essential ambiguity parameters, which have the integer property which is clearly following from the interpretation of satellite phase biases from the network. The flexibility of the S-system method is

  18. The recurrent PPP1CB mutation p.Pro49Arg in an additional Noonan-like syndrome individual: Broadening the clinical phenotype.

    PubMed

    Bertola, Débora; Yamamoto, Guilherme; Buscarilli, Michelle; Jorge, Alexander; Passos-Bueno, Maria Rita; Kim, Chong

    2017-03-01

    We report on a 12-year-old Brazilian boy with the p.Pro49Arg mutation in PPP1CB, a novel gene associated with RASopathies. This is the fifth individual described, and the fourth presenting the same variant, suggesting a mutational hotspot. Phenotypically, he also showed the same hair pattern-sparse, thin, and with slow growing-, similar to the typical ectodermal finding observed in Noonan syndrome-like disorder with loose anagen hair. Additionally, he presented craniosynostosis, a rare clinical finding in RASopathies. This report gives further support that this novel RASopathy-PPP1CB-related Noonan syndrome with loose anagen hair-shares great similarity to Noonan syndrome-like disorder with loose anagen hair, and expands the phenotypic spectrum by adding the cranial vault abnormality. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Bacterial-like PPP protein phosphatases: novel sequence alterations in pathogenic eukaryotes and peculiar features of bacterial sequence similarity.

    PubMed

    Kerk, David; Uhrig, R Glen; Moorhead, Greg B

    2013-01-01

    Reversible phosphorylation is a widespread modification affecting the great majority of eukaryotic cellular proteins, and whose effects influence nearly every cellular function. Protein phosphatases are increasingly recognized as exquisitely regulated contributors to these changes. The PPP (phosphoprotein phosphatase) family comprises enzymes, which catalyze dephosphorylation at serine and threonine residues. Nearly a decade ago, "bacterial-like" enzymes were recognized with similarity to proteins from various bacterial sources: SLPs (Shewanella-like phosphatases), RLPHs (Rhizobiales-like phosphatases), and ALPHs (ApaH-like phosphatases). A recent article from our laboratory appearing in Plant Physiology characterizes their extensive organismal distribution, abundance in plant species, predicted subcellular localization, motif organization, and sequence evolution. One salient observation is the distinct evolutionary trajectory followed by SLP genes and proteins in photosynthetic eukaryotes vs. animal and plant pathogens derived from photosynthetic ancestors. We present here a closer look at sequence data that emphasizes the distinctiveness of pathogen SLP proteins and that suggests that they might represent novel drug targets. A second observation in our original report was the high degree of similarity between the bacterial-like PPPs of eukaryotes and closely related proteins of the "eukaryotic-like" phyla Myxococcales and Planctomycetes. We here reflect on the possible implications of these observations and their importance for future research.

  20. hSSB1 phosphorylation is dynamically regulated by DNA-PK and PPP-family protein phosphatases.

    PubMed

    Ashton, Nicholas W; Paquet, Nicolas; Shirran, Sally L; Bolderson, Emma; Kariawasam, Ruvini; Touma, Christine; Fallahbaghery, Azadeh; Gamsjaeger, Roland; Cubeddu, Liza; Botting, Catherine; Pollock, Pamela M; O'Byrne, Kenneth J; Richard, Derek J

    2017-06-01

    The maintenance of genomic stability is essential for cellular viability and the prevention of diseases such as cancer. Human single-stranded DNA-binding protein 1 (hSSB1) is a protein with roles in the stabilisation and restart of stalled DNA replication forks, as well as in the repair of oxidative DNA lesions and double-strand DNA breaks. In the latter process, phosphorylation of threonine 117 by the ATM kinase is required for hSSB1 stability and efficient DNA repair. The regulation of hSSB1 in other DNA repair pathways has however remained unclear. Here we report that hSSB1 is also directly phosphorylated by DNA-PK at serine residue 134. While this modification is largely suppressed in undamaged cells by PPP-family protein phosphatases, S134 phosphorylation is enhanced following the disruption of replication forks and promotes cellular survival. Together, these data thereby represent a novel mechanism for hSSB1 regulation following the inhibition of replication. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Quasielastic charge-exchange reaction p/sup 3/ He. -->. n/sub F/ ppp at intermediate energies

    SciT

    Blinov, A.V.; Vanyushin, I.A.; Grechko, V.E.

    1988-04-01

    The principal characteristics of the quasielastic-charge-exchange reaction p/sup 3/He..-->..n/sub F/ppp are investigated by means of the liquid-hydrogen bubble chamber at our institute of diameter 80 cm, exposed in beams of /sup 3/He nuclei with momenta 2.5 and 5 GeV/c (the kinetic energy of the primary protons T/sub p/ in the rest system of the nucleus is respectively 0.318 and 0.978 GeV). The experimental data are compared with the predictions of the Glauber-Sitenko multiple-scattering theory and with the pole model taking into account the interaction of spectator nucleons in the final state. In the mass spectrum of the 3p system atmore » 3.05 GeV a well expressed structure is observed which is not described in the framework of the pole model. A possible resonance occurrence of this structure is discussed.« less

  2. Mutated PPP1R3B is recognized by T cells used to treat a melanoma patient who experienced a durable complete tumor regression

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yong-Chen; Yao, Xin; Li, Yong F.; El-Gamil, Mona; Dudley, Mark E.; Yang, James C.; Almeida, Jorge R.; Douek, Daniel C.; Samuels, Yardena; Rosenberg, Steven A.; Robbins, Paul F.

    2013-01-01

    Adoptive cell therapy with tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) represents an effective treatment for patients with metastatic melanoma. However, most of the antigen targets recognized by effective melanoma reactive TILs remain elusive. In this study, patient 2369 experienced a complete response, including regressions of bulky liver tumor masses ongoing beyond seven years following adoptive TILs transfer. The screening of a cDNA library generated from the autologous melanoma cell line resulted in the isolation of a mutated PPP1R3B (protein phosphatase 1, regulatory (inhibitor) subunit 3B) gene product. The mutated PPP1R3B peptide represents the immunodominant epitope recognized by tumor reactive T cells in TIL 2369. Five years following adoptive transfer, peripheral blood T lymphocytes obtained from patient 2369 recognized the mutated PPP1R3B epitope. These results demonstrate that adoptive T cell therapy targeting a tumor-specific antigen can mediate long-term survival for a patient with metastatic melanoma. This study also provides an impetus to develop personalized immunotherapy targeting tumor-specific, mutated antigens. PMID:23690473

  3. The cyclolignan PPP induces activation loop-specific inhibition of tyrosine phosphorylation of the insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor. Link to the phosphatidyl inositol-3 kinase/Akt apoptotic pathway.

    PubMed

    Vasilcanu, Daiana; Girnita, Ada; Girnita, Leonard; Vasilcanu, Radu; Axelson, Magnus; Larsson, Olle

    2004-10-14

    The insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) is crucial for many functions in neoplastic cells, for example, antiapoptosis. Recently, we demonstrated that the cyclolignan PPP efficiently inhibited phosphorylation of IGF-1R without interfering with insulin receptor activity. PPP preferentially reduced phosphorylated Akt, as compared to phosphorylated Erk1/2, and caused apoptosis. Now, we aimed to investigate how PPP inhibits the IGF-1R tyrosine kinase (IGF-1RTK) and the PI3K/Akt apoptotic pathway. Using a baculovirus driven IGF-1RTK we found that PPP interfered with tyrosine phosphorylation in the activation loop of the kinase domain. Specifically, it blocked phosphorylation of tyrosine (Y) 1136, while sparing the two others (Y1131 and Y1135). To explore the impact of inhibition of Y1136 on Akt phosphorylation we transfected P6 cells (overexpressing IGF-1R) and malignant melanoma cells with different IGF-1R mutants, including Y1136F (tyrosine replaced by phenylalanine). Y1136F was found to strongly decrease IGF-1 stimulated phosphorylation of Akt. Conversely, Akt phosphorylation was weakly affected in the Y1131F transfectant. Taken together, our data suggest that the preferential inhibition of phosphorylated Akt, after PPP treatment, may be due to specific inhibition of Y1136. PPP was proven not to interfere directly with Akt or any of its downstream molecules in the apoptotic pathway.

  4. Differential binding of ppGpp and pppGpp to E. coli RNA polymerase: photo-labeling and mass spectral studies.

    PubMed

    Syal, Kirtimaan; Chatterji, Dipankar

    2015-12-01

    (p)ppGpp, a secondary messenger, is induced under stress and shows pleiotropic response. It binds to RNA polymerase and regulates transcription in Escherichia coli. More than 25 years have passed since the first discovery was made on the direct interaction of ppGpp with E. coli RNA polymerase. Several lines of evidence suggest different modes of ppGpp binding to the enzyme. Earlier cross-linking experiments suggested that the β-subunit of RNA polymerase is the preferred site for ppGpp, whereas recent crystallographic studies pinpoint the interface of β'/ω-subunits as the site of action. With an aim to validate the binding domain and to follow whether tetra- and pentaphosphate guanosines have different location on RNA polymerase, this work was initiated. RNA polymerase was photo-labeled with 8-azido-ppGpp/8-azido-pppGpp, and the product was digested with trypsin and subjected to mass spectrometry analysis. We observed three new peptides in the trypsin digest of the RNA polymerase labeled with 8-azido-ppGpp, of which two peptides correspond to the same pocket on β'-subunit as predicted by X-ray structural analysis, whereas the third peptide was mapped on the β-subunit. In the case of 8-azido-pppGpp-labeled RNA polymerase, we have found only one cross-linked peptide from the β'-subunit. However, we were unable to identify any binding site of pppGpp on the β-subunit. Interestingly, we observed that pppGpp at high concentration competes out ppGpp bound to RNA polymerase more efficiently, whereas ppGpp cannot titrate out pppGpp. The competition between tetraphosphate guanosine and pentaphosphate guanosine for E. coli RNA polymerase was followed by gel-based assay as well as by a new method known as DRaCALA assay. © 2015 The Molecular Biology Society of Japan and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  5. Moderate DNA damage promotes metabolic flux into PPP via PKM2 Y-105 phosphorylation: a feature that favours cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Bhupender; Bamezai, Rameshwar N K

    2015-08-01

    Pyruvate kinase M2, an important metabolic enzyme, promotes aerobic glycolysis (Warburg effect) to facilitate cancer cell proliferation. Unravelling the status of this important glycolytic pathway enzyme under sub-lethal doses of etoposide, a commonly used anti-proliferative genotoxic drug to induce mild/moderate DNA damage in HeLa cells as a model system and discern its effect on: PKM2 expression, phosphorylation, dimer: tetramer ratio, activity and associated effects, was pertinent. Protein expression and phosphorylation of PKM2 from HeLa cells was estimated using Western blotting. Same protein lysate was also used to estimate total pyruvate kinase activity and the total dimer: tetramer content evaluated using glycerol gradient ultra-centrifugation. Intracellular PEP was estimated manually using standard curve; while NADPH was assessed by NADPH estimation kit. Unpaired t test and two-way-ANOVA was used for statistical analysis. A relative decrease in PKM2 expression and a subsequent dose and time dependent increase in Y105-phosphorylation were observed. A concomitant increase in PKM2 dimer content and Y105-phosphorylation responsible for reduced PKM2 activity promoted PEP accumulation and NADPH production, representing increased metabolic flux into PPP, a feature that favours cancer cells. It was apparent that the sub-lethal doses of etoposide induced inadequate damage to DNA in cancer cells in culture promoted pro-survival conditions due to Y105-phosphorylation of PKM2, its stable dimerization and inactivation, a unique association not known earlier, indicating what might happen in tumour revivals or recurrences.

  6. Schizophrenia susceptibility and NMDA-receptor mediated signalling: an association study involving 32 tagSNPs of DAO, DAOA, PPP3CC, and DTNBP1 genes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Recent studies supported associations between four NMDA-receptor-mediated signalling genes (D-amino acid oxidase, DAO; D-amino acid oxidase activator, DAOA; protein phosphatase 3 catalytic subunit gamma isoform, PPP3CC; dystrobrevin-binding protein 1, DTNBP1) and schizophrenia susceptibility, even though with contrasting results. Methods In an attempt to replicate these findings for the first time in an Italian population, a panel of 32 tagSNPs was analysed in a representative case-control sample involving 879 subjects. Results An association in the allele frequency was observed for the estimated PPP3CC CAG triplotype in the SNP window rs4872499 T/C-rs11780915 A/G-rs13271367 G/A (pcorrect = 0.001). Similarly, the clustered genotype frequencies of the estimated/phased CAG triplotype differed between cases and controls (p = 0.004), with the carriers having a higher frequency in the control population (p = 0.002, odd ratio OR = 0.59, 95% confident interval CI: 0.43-0.82). Following the phenotypic dissection strategy, the analysis of single SNPs evidenced a protective effect in males of rs11780915 and rs13271367 in PPP3CC gene (pcorrect = 0.02, pcorrect = 0.04 respectively). Moreover the estimated/phased GT diplotype (rs2070586A/G-rs3741775G/T) carriers of the DAO gene were more highly represented in female controls (p = 0.017, OR = 0.58, 95% CI: 0.37-0.90), as were the estimated/phased CAG triplotype carriers of the PPP3CC gene in females (p = 0.01, OR = 0.53, 95% CI: 0.32-0.87). In addition, we performed an interaction analysis, and a 66% (p = 0.003, OR = 0.34, 95% CI: 0.17-0.70) lower risk of developing schizophrenia for female (CAG + GT) carriers versus non-CAG or -GT carriers was observed. For DTNBP1, we found a protective effect in males for the rs6459409 (pcorrect = 0.02) and the estimated/phased CT diplotype (rs6459409-rs9476886) carriers (p = 3x10-4, OR = 0.46, 95% CI: 0.30-0.70). In

  7. A novel rasopathy caused by recurrent de novo missense mutations in PPP1CB closely resembles Noonan syndrome with loose anagen hair.

    PubMed

    Gripp, Karen W; Aldinger, Kimberly A; Bennett, James T; Baker, Laura; Tusi, Jessica; Powell-Hamilton, Nina; Stabley, Deborah; Sol-Church, Katia; Timms, Andrew E; Dobyns, William B

    2016-09-01

    Noonan syndrome is a rasopathy caused by mutations in multiple genes encoding components of the RAS/MAPK pathway. Despite its variable phenotype, limited genotype-phenotype correlations exist. Noonan syndrome with loose anagen hair (NS-LAH) is characterized by its distinctive hair anomalies, developmental differences, and structural brain abnormalities and is caused by a single recurrent missense SHOC2 mutation. SHOC2 forms a complex with protein phosphatase 1 (PP1C). Protein phosphatases counterbalance kinases and control activation of signaling proteins, such as the mitogen-activated protein kinases of the RAS/MAPK pathway. Here we report four patients with de novo missense mutations in protein phosphatase one catalytic subunit beta (PPP1CB), sharing a recognizable phenotype. Three individuals had the recurrent PPP1CB c.146G>C, p.Pro49Arg mutation, the fourth had a c.166G>C, p.Ala56Pro change. All had relative or absolute macrocephaly, low-set and posteriorly angulated ears, and developmental delay. Slow growing and/or sparse hair and/or an unruly hair texture was present in all. Three individuals had feeding difficulties requiring feeding tubes. One of two males had cryptorchidism, another had pectus excavatum. Short stature was present in three. A female with the recurrent mutation had a Dandy-Walker malformation and optic nerve hypoplasia. Mild ventriculomegaly occurred in all, cerebellar tonsillar ectopia was seen in two and progressed to Chiari 1 malformation in one individual. Based on the combination of phenotypic findings and PPP1CB's effect on RAF dephosphorylation within the RAS/MAPK pathway, this novel condition can be considered a rasopathy, most similar to NS-LAH. Collectively, these mutations meet the standardized criteria for pathogenicity. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Chemical Synthesis of a 5'-Terminal TMG-Capped Triribonucleotide m(3)(2,2,7)G(5)(')pppAmpUmpA of U1 RNA.

    PubMed

    Sekine, Mitsuo; Kadokura, Michinori; Satoh, Takahiko; Seio, Kohji; Wada, Takeshi; Fischer, Utz; Sumpter, Vicki; Lührmann, Reinhard

    1996-06-26

    The 5'-terminal TMG-capped triribonucleotide, m(3)(2,2,7)G(5)(')pppAmpUmpA, has been synthesized by condensation of an appropriately protected triribonucleotide derivative of ppAmpUmpA with a new TMG-capping reagent. During this total synthesis, it was found that the regioselective 2'-O-methylation of 3',5'-O-(1,1,3,3-tetraisopropyldisiloxane-1,3-diyl)-N-(4-monomethoxytrityl)adenosine was achieved by use of MeI/Ag(2)O without affecting the base moiety. A new route to 2-N,2-N-dimethylguanosine from guanosine via a three-step reaction has also been developed by reductive methylation using paraformaldehyde and sodium cyanoborohydride. These key intermediates were used as starting materials for the construction of a fully protected derivative of pAmpUmpA and a TMG-capping reagent of Im-pm(3)(2,2,7)G. The target TMG-capped tetramer, m(3)(2,2,7)G(5)(')pppAmpUmpA, was synthesized by condensation of a partially protected triribonucleotide 5'-terminal diphosphate species, ppA(MMTr)mpUmpA, with Im-pm(3)(2,2,7)G followed by treatment with 80% acetic acid. The structure of m(3)(2,2,7)G(5)(')pppAmpUmpA was characterized by (1)H and (31)P NMR spectroscopy as well as enzymatic assay using snake venom phosphodiesterase, calf intestinal phosphatase, and nuclease P1.

  9. A Novel Rasopathy Caused by Recurrent De Novo Missense Mutations In PPP1CB Closely Resembles Noonan Syndrome with Loose Anagen Hair

    PubMed Central

    Gripp, Karen W.; Aldinger, Kimberly A.; Bennett, James T.; Baker, Laura; Tusi, Jessica; Powell-Hamilton, Nina; Stabley, Deborah; Sol-Church, Katia; Timms, Andrew E.; Dobyns, William B.

    2016-01-01

    Noonan syndrome is a rasopathy caused by mutations in multiple genes encoding components of the RAS/MAPK pathway. Despite its variable phenotype, limited genotype-phenotype correlations exist. Noonan syndrome with loose anagen hair (NS-LAH) is characterized by its distinctive hair anomalies, developmental differences and structural brain abnormalities and is caused by a single recurrent missense SHOC2 mutation. SHOC2 forms a complex with protein phosphatase 1 (PP1C). Protein phosphatases counterbalance kinases and control activation of signaling proteins, such as the mitogen activated protein kinases of the RAS/MAPK pathway. Here we report four patients with de novo missense mutations in protein phosphatase 1 catalytic subunit beta (PPP1CB), sharing a recognizable phenotype. Three individuals had the recurrent PPP1CB c.146G>C, p.Pro49Arg mutation, the fourth had a c.166G>C, p.Ala56Pro change. All had relative or absolute macrocephaly, low-set and posteriorly angulated ears and developmental delay. Slow growing and/or sparse hair and/or an unruly hair texture was present in all. Three individuals had feeding difficulties requiring feeding tubes. One of two males had cryptorchidism, another had pectus excavatum. Short stature was present in three. A female with the recurrent mutation had a Dandy-Walker malformation and optic nerve hypoplasia. Mild ventriculomegaly occurred in all, cerebellar tonsillar ectopia was seen in two and progressed to Chiari 1 malformation in one individual. Based on the combination of phenotypic findings and PPP1CB’s effect on RAF dephosphorylation within the RAS/MAPK pathway, this novel condition can be considered a rasopathy, most similar to NS-LAH. Collectively, these mutations meet the standardized criteria for pathogenicity. PMID:27264673

  10. Performance-oriented packaging testing of PPP-B-601 ERAPS wood box for packing Group II solid hazardous material. Test report for Oct 91

    SciT

    Wu, E.

    1991-10-01

    Qualification tests were performed to determine whether the in-service PPP-B-601 ERAPS Wood Box could be utilized to contain properly dunnaged solid type hazardous materials weighing up to a gross weight of 237 kg (523 pounds). The tests were conducted in accordance with Performance Oriented Packaging (POP) requirements specified by the United Nations Recommendations on the Transportation of Dangerous Goods. The box has conformed to the POP performance requirements; i.e., the box successfully retained its contents throughout the stacking, vibration and drop tests.

  11. miR-146a facilitates osteoarthritis by regulating cartilage homeostasis via targeting Camk2d and Ppp3r2.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xudong; Wang, Chuandong; Zhao, Jingyu; Xu, Jiajia; Geng, Yiyun; Dai, Liming; Huang, Yan; Fu, Sai-Chuen; Dai, Kerong; Zhang, Xiaoling

    2017-04-06

    Osteoarthritis (OA), characterized by insufficient extracellular matrix synthesis and cartilage degeneration, is known as an incurable disease because its pathogenesis is poorly elucidated. Thus far, limited information is available regarding the pathophysiological role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in OA. In this study, we investigated the specific function of miR-146a in OA pathophysiology using mouse OA models. We found that the articular cartilage degeneration of miR-146a knockout (KO) mice was alleviated compared with that of the wild-type (WT) mice in spontaneous and instability-induced OA models. We demonstrate that miR-146a aggravated pro-inflammatory cytokines induced suppressing the expression of cartilage matrix-associated genes. We further identified calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II delta (Camk2d) and protein phosphatase 3, regulatory subunit B, beta isoform (Ppp3r2, also known as calcineurin B, type II) were essential targets of miR-146a in regulating cartilage homeostasis. Moreover, we found that surgical-induced OA mice treated with a miR-146a inhibitor significantly alleviated the destruction of articular cartilage via targeting Camk2d and Ppp3r2. These results suggested that miR-146a has a crucial role in maintaining cartilage homeostasis. MiR-146a inhibition in chondrocytes can be a potential therapeutic strategy to ameliorate OA.

  12. Association between parental history of diabetes and type 2 diabetes genetic risk scores in the PPP-Botnia and Framingham Offspring Studies.

    PubMed

    Vassy, Jason L; Shrader, Peter; Jonsson, Anna; Fox, Caroline S; Lyssenko, Valeriya; Isomaa, Bo; Groop, Leif; Meigs, James B; Franks, Paul W

    2011-08-01

    Parental history of diabetes and specific gene variants are risk factors for type 2 diabetes, but the extent to which these factors are associated is unknown. We examined the association between parental history of diabetes and a type 2 diabetes genetic risk score (GRS) in two cohort studies from Finland (population-based PPP-Botnia study) and the US (family-based Framingham Offspring Study). Mean (95% CI) GRS increased from 16.8 (16.8-16.9) to 16.9 (16.8-17.1) to 17.1 (16.8-17.4) among PPP-Botnia participants with 0, 1, and 2 parents with diabetes, respectively (p(trend)=0.03). The trend was similar among Framingham Offspring but was not statistically significant (p=0.07). The meta-analyzed p value for trend from the two studies was 0.005. The very modest associations reported above suggest that the increased risk of diabetes in offspring of parents with diabetes is largely the result of shared environmental/lifestyle factors and/or hitherto unknown genetic factors. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Tonsillectomy as a Treatment for Psoriasis: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Wiggin; Debbaneh, Maya; Moslehi, Homayoun; Koo, John; Liao, Wilson

    2015-01-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic skin disorder that affects 1% to 3% of the general population worldwide. Streptococcal infection, especially streptococcal pharyngitis, has been shown to be a significant trigger of psoriasis in some patients, possibly by sensitizing T cells to keratin epitopes in the skin. Due to the role of the palatine tonsils as an immunological organ that may generate autoreactive T cells, tonsillectomy has been investigated as a treatment for psoriasis. Tonsillectomy originally gained acceptance in Japan as a treatment for palmoplantar pustulosis, a condition that shares features with pustular psoriasis. Subsequently, tonsillectomy has been used for the treatment of plaque psoriasis and guttate psoriasis. Recently, the first randomized, controlled clinical trial of tonsillectomy was performed. Here, we review the available evidence for the benefit of tonsillectomy as a treatment for palmoplantar pustulosis and psoriasis. We also discuss molecular studies aimed at understanding the role of tonsils in skin disease. PMID:24283892

  14. Gene expression profile after activation of RIG-I in 5'ppp-dsRNA challenged DF1.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yang; Xu, Qi; Li, Yang; Liu, Ran; Huang, Zhengyang; Wang, Bin; Chen, Guohong

    2016-12-01

    Retinoic acid inducible gene I (RIG-I) can recognize influenza viruses and evoke the innate immune response. RIG-I is absent in the chicken genome, but is conserved in the genome of ducks. Lack of RIG-I renders chickens more susceptible to avian influenza infection, and the clinical symptoms are more prominent than in other poultry. It is unknown whether introduction of duck RIG-I into chicken cells can establish the immunity as is seen in ducks and the role of RIG-I in established immunity is unknown. In this study, a chicken cell strain with stable expression of duRIG-I was established by lentiviral infection, giving DF1/LV5-RIG-I, and a control strain DF1/LV5 was established in parallel. To verify stable, high level expression of duRIG-I in DF1 cells, the levels of duRIG-I mRNA and protein were determined by real-time RT-PCR and Western blot, respectively. Further, 5'triphosphate double stranded RNA (5'ppp-dsRNA) was used to mimic an RNA virus infection and the infected DF1/LV5-RIG-I and DF1/LV5 cells were subjected to high-throughput RNA-sequencing, which yielded 193.46 M reads and 39.07 G bases. A total of 278 differentially expressed genes (DEGs), i.e., duRIG-I-mediated responsive genes, were identified by RNA-seq. Among the 278 genes, 120 DEGs are annotated in the KEGG database, and the most reliable KEGG pathways are likely to be the signaling pathways of RIG-I like receptors. Functional analysis by Gene ontology (GO) indicates that the functions of these DEGs are primarily related to Type I interferon (IFN) signaling, IFN-β-mediated cellular responses and up-regulation of the RIG-I signaling pathway. Based on the shared genes among different pathways, a network representing crosstalk between RIG-I and other signaling pathways was constructed using Cytoscape software. The network suggests that RIG-mediated pathway may crosstalk with the Jak-STAT signaling pathway, Toll-like receptor signaling pathway, Wnt signaling pathway, ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis

  15. Using Compliance Analysis for PPP to bridge the gap between SEA and EIA: Lessons from the Turcot Interchange reconstruction in Montréal, Québec

    SciT

    Thompson, Undiné-Celeste, E-mail: undine_t@hotmail.com; Marsan, Jean-François, E-mail: jfmarsan@hotmail.com; Fournier-Peyresblanques, Bastien, E-mail: bastien.fp@gmail.com

    2013-09-15

    There is increasing concern about the disjunct between the intent of higher level government goals and actual projects “on the ground” in Canada. Although strategic environmental assessment (SEA) and a wide variety of plans, policies and programmes (PPP) contain and promote goals that envision a movement towards social, economic and environmental sustainability, these goals are not necessarily upheld by large-scale projects and their environmental impact assessments (EIAs). This disconnect is often illustrated through anecdotal observations. However, to be able to overcome this disjunct it is imperative to come to a clearer understanding of the degree of sustainability or unsustainability ofmore » large-scale developments and the way in which they “measure up” in terms of the goals when compared to alternative options. This article proposes a Compliance Analysis method for investigating the level of harmonization between SEA, PPP and proposed projects and their possible alternatives (CAPPP). This method is quantified through a Likert scale which allows for comparison of alternatives for decision making and analytical purposes. The 2009 proposal for the Turcot Exchange redevelopment in Montréal, Québec, put forward by the Ministry of Transport of Québec (MTQ), as well as two alternative proposals, were utilized as a case study to clearly demonstrate the CAPPP methodology and its applicability. The approved plan for the Turcot redevelopment proposed by MTQ was found to be in poor compliance with the majority of the 178 goals in the six sectors that were examined (air quality, climate change, health, noise, socioeconomic, transport), while alternative proposals were found to be in greater accordance with the intentions of governmental SEA and PPP. Synthesis and applications: The CAPPP methodology is a versatile “watchdog” tool for the examination of the level of compliance between stated goals for regions, industrial sectors, or governments and the

  16. Primary prevention of cardiovascular events with low-dose aspirin and vitamin E in type 2 diabetic patients: results of the Primary Prevention Project (PPP) trial.

    PubMed

    Sacco, Michele; Pellegrini, Fabio; Roncaglioni, Maria C; Avanzini, Fausto; Tognoni, Gianni; Nicolucci, Antonio

    2003-12-01

    We investigated in general practice the efficacy of antiplatelets and antioxidants in primary prevention of cardiovascular events in people with type 2 diabetes. The Primary Prevention Project (PPP) is a randomized, open trial with a two-by-two factorial design aimed to investigate low-dose aspirin (100 mg/day) and vitamin E (300 mg/day) in the prevention of cardiovascular events in patients with one or more cardiovascular risk factors. The primary end point was a composite end point of cardiovascular death, stroke, or myocardial infarction. A total of 1,031 people with diabetes in the PPP, aged >/=50 years, without a previous cardiovascular event were enrolled by 316 general practitioners and 14 diabetes outpatient clinics. The PPP trial was prematurely stopped (after a median of 3.7 years) by the independent data safety and monitoring board because of a consistent benefit of aspirin compared with the control group in a population of 4,495 patients with one or more major cardiovascular risk factors. In diabetic patients, aspirin treatment was associated with a nonsignificant reduction in the main end point (relative risk [RR] = 0.90, 95% CI 0.50-1.62) and in total cardiovascular events (0.89, 0.62-1.26) and with a nonsignificant increase in cardiovascular deaths (1.23, 0.69-2.19). In nondiabetic subjects, RRs for the main end point, total cardiovascular events, and cardiovascular deaths were 0.59 (0.37-0.94), 0.69 (0.53-0.90), and 0.32 (0.14-0.72), respectively. No significant reduction in any of the end points considered could be found with vitamin E in either diabetic or nondiabetic subjects. Our data suggest a lower effect of primary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) with low-dose aspirin in diabetic patients as opposed to subjects with other cardiovascular risk factors. If confirmed, these findings might indicate that the antiplatelet effects of aspirin in diabetic patients are overwhelmed by aspirin-insensitive mechanisms of platelet activation and

  17. Multi-GNSS high-rate RTK, PPP and novel direct phase observation processing method: application to precise dynamic displacement detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paziewski, Jacek; Sieradzki, Rafal; Baryla, Radoslaw

    2018-03-01

    This paper provides the methodology and performance assessment of multi-GNSS signal processing for the detection of small-scale high-rate dynamic displacements. For this purpose, we used methods of relative (RTK) and absolute positioning (PPP), and a novel direct signal processing approach. The first two methods are recognized as providing accurate information on position in many navigation and surveying applications. The latter is an innovative method for dynamic displacement determination with the use of GNSS phase signal processing. This method is based on the developed functional model with parametrized epoch-wise topocentric relative coordinates derived from filtered GNSS observations. Current regular kinematic PPP positioning, as well as medium/long range RTK, may not offer coordinate estimates with subcentimeter precision. Thus, extended processing strategies of absolute and relative GNSS positioning have been developed and applied for displacement detection. The study also aimed to comparatively analyze the developed methods as well as to analyze the impact of combined GPS and BDS processing and the dependence of the results of the relative methods on the baseline length. All the methods were implemented with in-house developed software allowing for high-rate precise GNSS positioning and signal processing. The phase and pseudorange observations collected with a rate of 50 Hz during the field test served as the experiment’s data set. The displacements at the rover station were triggered in the horizontal plane using a device which was designed and constructed to ensure a periodic motion of GNSS antenna with an amplitude of ~3 cm and a frequency of ~4.5 Hz. Finally, a medium range RTK, PPP, and direct phase observation processing method demonstrated the capability of providing reliable and consistent results with the precision of the determined dynamic displacements at the millimeter level. Specifically, the research shows that the standard deviation of

  18. Crystal structures and mutagenesis of PPP-family ser/thr protein phosphatases elucidate the selectivity of cantharidin and novel norcantharidin-based inhibitors of PP5C.

    PubMed

    Chattopadhyay, Debasish; Swingle, Mark R; Salter, Edward A; Wood, Eric; D'Arcy, Brandon; Zivanov, Catherine; Abney, Kevin; Musiyenko, Alla; Rusin, Scott F; Kettenbach, Arminja; Yet, Larry; Schroeder, Chad E; Golden, Jennifer E; Dunham, Wade H; Gingras, Anne-Claude; Banerjee, Surajit; Forbes, David; Wierzbicki, Andrzej; Honkanen, Richard E

    2016-06-01

    Cantharidin is a natural toxin and an active constituent in a traditional Chinese medicine used to treat tumors. Cantharidin acts as a semi-selective inhibitor of PPP-family ser/thr protein phosphatases. Despite sharing a common catalytic mechanism and marked structural similarity with PP1C, PP2AC and PP5C, human PP4C was found to be insensitive to the inhibitory activity of cantharidin. To explore the molecular basis for this selectivity, we synthesized and tested novel C5/C6-derivatives designed from quantum-based modeling of the interactions revealed in the co-crystal structures of PP5C in complex with cantharidin. Structure-activity relationship studies and analysis of high-resolution (1.25Å) PP5C-inhibitor co-crystal structures reveal close contacts between the inhibitor bridgehead oxygen and both a catalytic metal ion and a non-catalytic phenylalanine residue, the latter of which is substituted by tryptophan in PP4C. Quantum chemistry calculations predicted that steric clashes with the bulkier tryptophan side chain in PP4C would force all cantharidin-based inhibitors into an unfavorable binding mode, disrupting the strong coordination of active site metal ions observed in the PP5C co-crystal structures, thereby rendering PP4C insensitive to the inhibitors. This prediction was confirmed by inhibition studies employing native human PP4C. Mutation of PP5C (F446W) and PP1C (F257W), to mimic the PP4C active site, resulted in markedly suppressed sensitivity to cantharidin. These observations provide insight into the structural basis for the natural selectivity of cantharidin and provide an avenue for PP4C deselection. The novel crystal structures also provide insight into interactions that provide increased selectivity of the C5/C6 modifications for PP5C versus other PPP-family phosphatases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Association of PPP1R13L and CD3EAP polymorphisms with risk and survival of non-small cell lung cancer in Chinese non-smoking females

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Xu; Fang, Xue; Xia, Lingzi; Ren, Yangwu; Li, Xuelian; Quan, Xiaowei; Zhou, Baosen

    2017-01-01

    PPP1R13L and CD3EAP were confirmed to play important roles in transcription and apoptosis. SNPs in PPP1R13L and CD3EAP may be associated with lung cancer risk and survival. This study investigated the association of PPP1R13L rs1005165 and CD3EAP rs967591 with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) risk and survival in Chinese non-smoking females. 442 NSCLC cases and 480 cancer-free controls were conducted in the case-control study, and 283 cases were in cohort study. Genotype was determined by Taqman real-time PCR. The statistical analyses were performed by SPSS 22.0 software. We found that rs1005165 and rs967591 were significantly associated with NSCLC risk in Chinese non-smoking females. For rs1005165, compared with homozygous wild CC genotype, carriers of CT or TT genotype had lower risk of NSCLC (adjusted ORs were 0.675 and 0.713, 95% CI were 0.461-0.988 and 0.525-0.968, respectively), adjusted OR for dominant model was 0.702, 95% CI was 0.526-0.937. For rs967591, AA genotype (adjusted OR = 0.721, 95% CI = 0.532-0.978) and at least one A allele (GA+AA) (adjusted OR = 0.716, 95% CI = 0.536-0.956) were significantly correlated with lower risk of NSCLC, compared with GG genotype. But we didn’t find correlation between the two SNPs and survival time in Chinese non-smoking NSCLC females. In general, we found PPP1R13L rs1005165 and CD3EAP rs967591 might be associated with lower NSCLC risk in Chinese non-smoking females, but no significant relationship was found with NSCLC survival. PMID:29108262

  20. Rhizobiales-like Phosphatase 2 from Arabidopsis thaliana Is a Novel Phospho-tyrosine-specific Phospho-protein Phosphatase (PPP) Family Protein Phosphatase.

    PubMed

    Uhrig, R Glen; Labandera, Anne-Marie; Muhammad, Jamshed; Samuel, Marcus; Moorhead, Greg B

    2016-03-11

    Cellular signaling through protein tyrosine phosphorylation is well established in mammalian cells. Although lacking the classic tyrosine kinases present in humans, plants have a tyrosine phospho-proteome that rivals human cells. Here we report a novel plant tyrosine phosphatase from Arabidopsis thaliana (AtRLPH2) that, surprisingly, has the sequence hallmarks of a phospho-serine/threonine phosphatase belonging to the PPP family. Rhizobiales/Rhodobacterales/Rhodospirillaceae-like phosphatases (RLPHs) are conserved in plants and several other eukaryotes, but not in animals. We demonstrate that AtRLPH2 is localized to the plant cell cytosol, is resistant to the classic serine/threonine phosphatase inhibitors okadaic acid and microcystin, but is inhibited by the tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor orthovanadate and is particularly sensitive to inhibition by the adenylates, ATP and ADP. AtRLPH2 displays remarkable selectivity toward tyrosine-phosphorylated peptides versus serine/threonine phospho-peptides and readily dephosphorylates a classic tyrosine phosphatase protein substrate, suggesting that in vivo it is a tyrosine phosphatase. To date, only one other tyrosine phosphatase is known in plants; thus AtRLPH2 represents one of the missing pieces in the plant tyrosine phosphatase repertoire and supports the concept of protein tyrosine phosphorylation as a key regulatory event in plants. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  1. Cluster studies of La[sub 2]CuO[sub 4]: A mapping onto the Pariser--Parr--Pople (PPP) model

    SciT

    Martin, R.L.

    1993-06-01

    The techniques of [ital ab] [ital initio] electronic structure theory are used to study Cu[sub 2]O[sub 7] and Cu[sub 2]O[sub 11] cluster models of La[sub 2]CuO[sub 4]. Fair agreement is obtained with the experimentally determined spin exchange constant [ital J] (90 meV calculated vs 125 meV measured) at the expense of quite large configuration interactions (CI) expansions. Results for various charge states of the cluster are well described by a single-band'' Pariser--Parr--Pople (PPP) model. As in earlier local-density-functional (LDF) based parameter determinations, the present work suggests these materials fall in the strong coupling regime. However, a significant intersite Coulomb repulsionmore » is found in the present research. It is of sufficient strength [ital V][similar to][ital U]/5 to indicate that charge fluctuations may be more important in these materials than generally believed.« less

  2. A comparison of the effects of the dopamine partial agonists aripiprazole and (-)-3-PPP with quinpirole on stimulated dopamine release in the rat striatum: Studies using fast cyclic voltammetry in vitro.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, John J; Lowry, John P

    2012-07-05

    The effects of aripiprazole, (-)-(3-hydroxyphenyl)-N-n-propylpiperidine ((-)-3-PPP) and quinpirole on single and multiple pulse stimulated dopamine release were investigated using the technique of fast cyclic voltammetry (FCV) in isolated rat striatal slices. Aripiprazole and (-)-3-PPP had no significant effect on single pulse dopamine release at concentrations from 10nM to 10μM indicating low agonist activity. The compounds failed to potentiate 5 pulse stimulated release of dopamine although inhibitory effects were seen at 10μM for aripiprazole. Both compounds were tested against the concentration-response curve for quinpirole's inhibition of stimulated single pulse dopamine release. Aripiprazole and (-)-3-PPP shifted the concentration-response curve for quinpirole to the right. In each case this was greater than a 100-fold shift for the 10μM test compound. Whilst these results indicate that both compounds show little agonist activity on dopamine release and significant antagonism of the inhibitory effect of quinpirole on dopamine release, whether they are functionally selective dopamine D(2) ligands remains controversial. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Association between variants in or near PNPLA3, GCKR, and PPP1R3B with ultrasound-defined steatosis based on data from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Hernaez, Ruben; McLean, Jody; Lazo, Mariana; Brancati, Frederick L; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Borecki, Ingrid B; Harris, Tamara B; Nguyen, Thutrang; Kamel, Ihab R; Bonekamp, Susanne; Eberhardt, Mark S; Clark, Jeanne M; Kao, Wen Hong Linda; Speliotes, Elizabeth K

    2013-09-01

    A genome-wide association study associated 5 genetic variants with hepatic steatosis (identified by computerized tomography) in individuals of European ancestry. We investigated whether these variants were associated with measures of hepatic steatosis (HS) in non-Hispanic white (NHW), non-Hispanic black, and Mexican American (MA) participants in the US population-based National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III, phase 2. We analyzed data from 4804 adults (1825 NHW, 1442 non-Hispanic black, and 1537 MA; 51.7% women; mean age at examination, 42.5 y); the weighted prevalence of HS was 37.3%. We investigated whether ultrasound-measured HS, with and without increased levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), or level of ALT alone, was associated with rs738409 (patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing protein 3 [PNPLA3]), rs2228603 (neurocan [NCAN]), rs12137855 (lysophospholipase-like 1), rs780094 (glucokinase regulatory protein [GCKR]), and rs4240624 (protein phosphatase 1, regulatory subunit 3b [PPP1R3B]) using regression modeling in an additive genetic model, controlling for age, age-squared, sex, and alcohol consumption. The G allele of rs738409 (PNPLA3) and the T allele of rs780094 (GCKR) were associated with HS with a high level of ALT (odds ratio [OR], 1.36; P = .01; and OR, 1.30; P = .03, respectively). The A allele of rs4240624 (PPP1R3B) and the T allele of rs2228603 (NCAN) were associated with HS (OR, 1.28; P = .03; and OR, 1.40; P = .04, respectively). Variants of PNPLA3 and NCAN were associated with ALT level among all 3 ancestries. Some single-nucleotide polymorphisms were associated with particular races or ethnicities: variants in PNPLA3, NCAN, GCKR, and PPP1R3B were associated with NHW and variants in PNPLA3 were associated with MA. No variants were associated with NHB. We used data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III to validate the association between rs738409 (PNPLA3), rs780094 (GCKR), and rs4240624 (PPP1R3B

  4. Phosphorylation of PPP(S/T)P motif of the free LRP6 intracellular domain is not required to activate the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway and attenuate GSK3beta activity.

    PubMed

    Beagle, Brandon; Mi, Kaihong; Johnson, Gail V W

    2009-11-01

    The canonical Wnt/beta-catenin signaling pathway plays a critical role in numerous physiological and pathological processes. LRP6 is an essential co-receptor for Wnt/beta-catenin signaling; as transduction of the Wnt signal is strongly dependent upon GSK3beta-mediated phosphorylation of multiple PPP(S/T)P motifs within the membrane-anchored LRP6 intracellular domain. Previously, we showed that the free LRP6 intracellular domain (LRP6-ICD) can activate the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway in a beta-catenin and TCF/LEF-1 dependent manner, as well as interact with and attenuate GSK3beta activity. However, it is unknown if the ability of LRP6-ICD to attenuate GSK3beta activity and modulate activation of the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway requires phosphorylation of the LRP6-ICD PPP(S/T)P motifs, in a manner similar to the membrane-anchored LRP6 intracellular domain. Here we provide evidence that the LRP6-ICD does not have to be phosphorylated at its PPP(S/T)P motif by GSK3beta to stabilize endogenous cytosolic beta-catenin resulting in activation of TCF/LEF-1 and the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway. LRP6-ICD and a mutant in which all 5 PPP(S/T)P motifs were changed to PPP(A)P motifs equivalently interacted with and attenuated GSK3beta activity in vitro, and both constructs inhibited the in situ GSK3beta-mediated phosphorylation of beta-catenin and tau to the same extent. These data indicate that the LRP6-ICD attenuates GSK3beta activity similar to other GSK3beta binding proteins, and is not a result of it being a GSK3beta substrate. Our findings suggest the functional and regulatory mechanisms governing the free LRP6-ICD may be distinct from membrane-anchored LRP6, and that release of the LRP6-ICD may provide a complimentary signaling cascade capable of modulating Wnt-dependent gene expression. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Effects of low-dose aspirin on clinic and ambulatory blood pressure in treated hypertensive patients. Collaborative Group of the Primary Prevention Project (PPP)--Hypertension study.

    PubMed

    Avanzini, F; Palumbo, G; Alli, C; Roncaglioni, M C; Ronchi, E; Cristofari, M; Capra, A; Rossi, S; Nosotti, L; Costantini, C; Pietrofeso, R

    2000-06-01

    Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs may affect blood pressure (BP) control in hypertensive patients receiving drug treatment, but data on the effects of low-dose aspirin are scanty. This study assessed the effects of chronic treatment with low doses of aspirin (100 mg/day) on clinic and ambulatory systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) BP in hypertensives on chronic, stable antihypertensive therapy. The study was conducted in the framework of the Primary Prevention Project (PPP), a randomized, controlled factorial trial on the preventive effect of aspirin or vitamin E in people with one or more cardiovascular risk factors. Fifteen Italian hypertension units studied 142 hypertensive patients (76 men, 66 women; mean age 59 +/- 5.9 years) treated with different antihypertensive drugs: 71 patients were randomized to aspirin and 71 served as controls. All patients underwent a clinic BP evaluation with an automatic sphygmomanometer and a 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring, at baseline and after 3 months of aspirin treatment. At the end of the study the changes in clinic SBP and DBP were not statistically different in treated and untreated subjects. Ambulatory SBP and DBP after 3 months of aspirin treatment were similar to baseline: deltaSBP -0.5 mmHg (95% confidence intervals [CI] from -1.9 to +2.9 mm Hg) and deltaDBP -1.1 mm Hg (95% CI from -2.5 to +0.3 mm Hg). The pattern was similar in the control group. No interaction was found between aspirin and the most used antihypertensive drug classes (angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and calcium antagonists). Despite the relatively small sample size our results seem to exclude any significant influence of low-dose aspirin on BP control in hypertensives under treatment.

  6. "helix Nebula - the Science Cloud", a European Science Driven Cross-Domain Initiative Implemented in via AN Active Ppp Set-Up

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lengert, W.; Mondon, E.; Bégin, M. E.; Ferrer, M.; Vallois, F.; DelaMar, J.

    2015-12-01

    Helix Nebula, a European science cross-domain initiative building on an active PPP, is aiming to implement the concept of an open science commons[1] while using a cloud hybrid model[2] as the proposed implementation solution. This approach allows leveraging and merging of complementary data intensive Earth Science disciplines (e.g. instrumentation[3] and modeling), without introducing significant changes in the contributors' operational set-up. Considering the seamless integration with life-science (e.g. EMBL), scientific exploitation of meteorological, climate, and Earth Observation data and models open an enormous potential for new big data science. The work of Helix Nebula has shown that is it feasible to interoperate publicly funded infrastructures, such as EGI [5] and GEANT [6], with commercial cloud services. Such hybrid systems are in the interest of the existing users of publicly funded infrastructures and funding agencies because they will provide "freedom and choice" over the type of computing resources to be consumed and the manner in which they can be obtained. But to offer such freedom and choice across a spectrum of suppliers, various issues such as intellectual property, legal responsibility, service quality agreements and related issues need to be addressed. Finding solutions to these issues is one of the goals of the Helix Nebula initiative. [1] http://www.egi.eu/news-and-media/publications/OpenScienceCommons_v3.pdf [2] http://www.helix-nebula.eu/events/towards-the-european-open-science-cloud [3] e.g. https://sentinel.esa.int/web/sentinel/sentinel-data-access [5] http://www.egi.eu/ [6] http://www.geant.net/

  7. A family history of diabetes is associated with reduced physical fitness in the Prevalence, Prediction and Prevention of Diabetes (PPP)-Botnia study.

    PubMed

    Isomaa, B; Forsén, B; Lahti, K; Holmström, N; Wadén, J; Matintupa, O; Almgren, P; Eriksson, J G; Lyssenko, V; Taskinen, M-R; Tuomi, T; Groop, L C

    2010-08-01

    We studied the impact of a family history of type 2 diabetes on physical fitness, lifestyle factors and diabetes-related metabolic factors. The Prevalence, Prediction and Prevention of Diabetes (PPP)-Botnia study is a population-based study in Western Finland, which includes a random sample of 5,208 individuals aged 18 to 75 years identified through the national Finnish Population Registry. Physical activity, dietary habits and family history of type 2 diabetes were assessed by questionnaires and physical fitness by a validated 2 km walking test. Insulin secretion and action were assessed based upon OGTT measurements of insulin and glucose. A family history of type 2 diabetes was associated with a 2.4-fold risk of diabetes and lower physical fitness (maximal aerobic capacity 29.2 +/- 7.2 vs 32.1 +/- 7.0, p = 0.01) despite having similar reported physical activity to that of individuals with no family history. The same individuals also had reduced insulin secretion adjusted for insulin resistance, i.e. disposition index (p < 0.001) despite having higher BMI (27.4 +/- 4.6 vs 26.0 +/- 4.3 kg/m(2), p < 0.001). Individuals with a family history of type 2 diabetes are characterised by lower physical fitness, which cannot solely be explained by lower physical activity. They also have an impaired capacity of beta cells to compensate for an increase in insulin resistance imposed by an increase in BMI. These defects should be important targets for interventions aiming at preventing type 2 diabetes in individuals with inherited susceptibility to the disease.

  8. GPS PPP-derived precipitable water vapor retrieval based on Tm/Ps from multiple sources of meteorological data sets in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hongxing; Yuan, Yunbin; Li, Wei; Ou, Jikun; Li, Ying; Zhang, Baocheng

    2017-04-01

    Weighted mean temperature (Tm) and pressure (Ps) are two parameters of great relevance to precipitable water vapor (PWV) retrieval from global positioning system (GPS) data. However, information about the Tm and Ps cannot be available for those GPS stations that are not colocated with meteorological sensors. To investigate the optimal GPS-PWV retrieval method for China, two enhanced Tm models, GM-Tm (temperature dependent) and GH-Tm (temperature independent), are developed. Additionally, the potentials of the Ps data from the two reanalysis data sets, the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP)-Department of Energy (DOE) Reanalysis II (NCEP II) and ERA-Interim, and from the empirical model GPT2w for GPS-PWV retrieval are investigated over China. To evaluate the performances of multisources Tm and Ps data for GPS-PWV retrieval, GPS data (2011-2013) collected from 22 stations of the Crustal Movement Observation Network of China (CMONOC) were processed by using the precise point positioning (PPP) technique, estimating the zenith tropospheric delay (ZTD) so as to be subsequently converted to GPS-PWV. The retrieved GPS-PWVs are compared with their counterparts derived from NCEP II and radiosonde data over China. The results show that (1) the GM-Tm model consistently shows the highest accuracy (with root mean square error of 2.3 K), and the GH-Tm model should be selected when temperature observations are not available, and that (2) the performances of Ps from NCEP II and ERA-Interim differ marginally for GPS-PWV retrieval, and significant seasonal variations are found in the agreement between the GPS-PWVs and the PWVs derived from NCEP II and radiosonde data over China.

  9. 2008 Wen-Chuan Mw 8.3 Earthquake: Dynamic Deformation Analysis for Seismic Surface Waveforms with 1-Hz GPS PPP Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, C.; Lou, Y.; Zhang, H.; Zhao, Q.; Liu, J.

    2008-12-01

    Some 1-Hz GPS data in China during Sichuan Wen-Chuan Mw8.3 Earthquake are processed with instantaneous Precise Point Positioning (PPP) technique using software PANDA developed in Wuhan University. Near-field GPS stations are located 30km away but lost data after 10s while several far-field sites are 300km~1200km away from epicenter. Results indicate that plane displacements exceed 40cm within 10seconds in near field while the post-seismic deformation is northwestward at the magnitude of around 30cm. Seismic surface waveforms as LOVE and Rayleigh waves can be seen clearly in the dynamic deformation process of station XANY and CHGO (in KunMing city, Yunnan Province). Love wave's first vibration is in northwestward and then southeastward, after about one cycle, Rayleigh wave comes. Love wave is at the speed of about 4km/s, Rayleigh's is about 2.85km/s. There are two deformation pulses in Rayleigh waveforms during the period of about 120 seconds monitored at station XANY, which is about 600km from epicenter. One pulse is in counter-clockwise movement and the other is clock-wise, which seems to reveal the fact that there are two kinds of rupture process in totally opposite direction. Spectral analysis shows that there are mainly two kinds of periods in the surface waves reflected by the 1-Hz horizontal deformations, one is about 5~10s (6s and 8s) and another is about 20s, corresponding to Rayleigh and Love wave respectively. Rayleigh's wavelength is about 20km, which indicates that the hypocenter is about in the depth of 10km.

  10. [Headache as a manifestation of SAPHO syndrome with a lesion extending to the dura mater, parietal bone, and temporal muscle].

    PubMed

    Uematsu, Miho; Tobisawa, Shinsuke; Nagao, Masahiro; Matsubara, Shiro; Mizutani, Toshio; Shibuya, Makoto

    2012-01-01

    A 50-year-old woman with a history of palmoplantar pustulosis, femur osteomyelitis, and sterno-costo-clavicular hyperostosis presented with a chronic severe left temporal headache that had progressed during the previous year. Her CRP level was elevated. Cranial images showed Gadolinium-enhancement of the left temporal muscle, left parietal bone and dura mater. (99m)Tc-HMDP scintigram showed increased uptake in the left parietal bone, left sterno-costo-clavicular joint, right femoral head and intervertebral joints. Biopsy of the lesion demonstrated 1) proliferation of connective tissue in both perimysium and endomysium of the temporal muscle with mild inflammatory cell infiltration within the interstitium, 2) marked infiltration of granulocytes to the bone marrow of the parietal bone, 3) necrosis and moderate fibrosis in the interstitium with inflammatory cell infiltration in the parietal bone, and 4) moderate fibrosis and slight infiltration of inflammatory cells in the dura mater. The patient was diagnosed with a cranial lesion of synovitis-acne-pustulosis-hyperostosis-osteitis (SAPHO) syndrome. There was a moderate response to treatment with intravenous steroid pulse therapy and subsequent methotrexate. In a case of headache accompanied by inflammatory response, palmoplantar pustulosis and joint lesions such as hyperostosis, the possibility of a rare cranial manifestation of SAPHO syndrome should be considered.

  11. The effects of the NMR shift-reagents Dy(PPP)2, Dy(TTHA) and Tm(DOTP) on developed pressure in isolated perfused rat hearts. The role of shift-reagent calcium complexes.

    PubMed

    Gaszner, B; Simor, T; Hild, G; Elgavish, G A

    2001-11-01

    The 23Na NMR shift-reagent complexes (Dy(PPP)2, Dy(TTHA), and Tm(DOTP)) bind stoichiometric amounts of Ca2+. Thus, in perfused rat heart systems, a supplementation of Ca2+ is required to maintain the requisite extracellular free calcium concentration ([Ca(o)]f) and to approximate a physiological level of contractile function. The amount of reagent-bound Ca2+ in a heart perfusate that contains a shift-reagent depends on: (1) Ca2+ binding by excess ligand used during the preparation of the shift-reagent; and (2) the Ca2+ binding affinity of the shift-reagent. To address point 1), we introduced a 1H and 31P NMR spectroscopic titration method to quantify directly the concentration of the excess ligand. We also used this method to minimize the amount of excess ligand (L) and thus the amount of Ca*L complex. To address point (2), we determined the stepwise Kd (microm) values of the Ca complexes of the three shift-reagents.: Dy(PPP)2, Kd=0.09, Kd2=7.9; Dy(TTHA), Kd1=10.66, Kd2=10.12; and Tm(DOTP), K(d1)=0.502, Kd2=4.98. The Kd values of the Ca complexes of the phosphonate and triphosphate based shift-reagents, Tm(DOTP) and Dy(PPP)2, respectively, are lower than those of the polyaminocarboxylate-based Dy(TTHA), indicating stronger Ca binding affinities for the former two types of complexes. We have also shown a positive correlation between [Ca(o)]f and left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP) in perfused rat hearts. Dy(TTHA) has shown no effect on LVDP v[Ca(o)]f. The LVDP values in the presence of the phosphonate and triphosphate based shift-reagents, however, were significantly higher than expected from the [Ca(o)]f levels alone. Thus a positive inotropic effect, independent of [Ca(o)]f, is evident in the presence of Tm(DOTP) or Dy(PPP)2. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  12. A comparison of 2-phenyl-2-(1-piperidinyl)propane (ppp), 1,1',1''-phosphinothioylidynetrisaziridine (thioTEPA), clopidogrel, and ticlopidine as selective inactivators of human cytochrome P450 2B6.

    PubMed

    Walsky, Robert L; Obach, R Scott

    2007-11-01

    The use of selective chemical inhibitors of human cytochrome P450 (P450) enzymes represents a powerful method by which the relative contributions of various human P450 enzymes to the metabolism of drugs can be determined. However, the identification of CYP2B6 in the metabolism of drugs has been more challenging because of the lack of a well established inhibitor of this enzyme. In this report, we describe the selectivity of 2-phenyl-2-(1-piperidinyl)propane (PPP) as an inactivator of CYP2B6 and compare this selectivity versus other CYP2B6 inactivators: 1,1',1''-phosphinothioylidynetrisaziridine (thioTEPA), clopidogrel, and ticlopidine. Values of K(I) and k(inact) for PPP were 5.6 microM and 0.13/min for bupropion hydroxylase catalyzed by pooled human liver microsomes, and values for thioTEPA were similar (4.8 microM and 0.20/min, respectively). Intrinsic inactivation capability was considerably greater for clopidogrel because of a greater k(inact) value (1.9/min). Ticlopidine was potent with K(I) and k(inact) values of 0.32 microM and 0.43/min, respectively. The selectivity of these four agents for CYP2B6 was determined by testing their effects on other human P450 enzyme activities using conditions that yield approximately 90% inactivation of CYP2B6 activity. The results showed that preincubation of human liver microsomes with PPP at 30 microM for 30 min provided more selective inhibition for CYP2B6 than thioTEPA, clopidogrel, and ticlopidine. Furthermore, the use of clopidogrel is complicated by the observation that this agent is not stable in the presence of human liver microsomes, even without addition of NADPH. Therefore, PPP can serve as a selective chemical inactivator of CYP2B6 and be used to define the role of CYP2B6 in the metabolism of drugs.

  13. The PPP: Problem Panel Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Russell K.

    The Problem Panel Project is an instructor-developed, one-semester course in contemporary problems. Based on the inquiry approach, the course is structured for independent research and group work and requires no traditionally-structured daily lesson plans. The course is divided into six procedural points. First, students decide which contemporary…

  14. What's the P in PPP?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heikkila, T.; Lall, U.

    2011-12-01

    Public, Private, Partnership, Participatory, Polycentric, Poor, Perfect, Purveyor, Planner, Positive, Plural, Practical, Political, Process, Pervasive, Phase, Physical, Passive, Progressive, Paradigm? As the world stands at the crossroads of a water scarcity crisis, many wonder whether the "well developed" central planner paradigm of water resources planning, management, investment and regulation that emerged in the last century has served us well. The negative impacts of centralized projects and their management are routinely decried. Service metrics of publicly managed systems continue to deteriorate as the ability to recover operational and maintenance costs continue to be weak. The political processes that portend to protect the access of the disadvantaged are said to contribute to the poor performance of the systems, especially for the disadvantaged. The institutionalization of "well formed" policies that prove inflexible in an environment where supply, demand and societal goals change calls for adaptive management. Stakeholder driven participatory processes and public private partnerships are touted as potential paradigms for progressive solutions that span the political domain and could help achieve positive water balance recognizing the dimensions of supply and demand at local or regional scales. This talk presents a proposed framework that postulates the prospective roles that different actors could play to provide an effective and practical strategy for securing water resources while promoting active allocation strategies, improving access and reliability while promoting profitability for private operators, including progressive farmers who given their usage patterns can make the most prolific contribution to water security. We label this the many P Paradigm. To develop this framework, we draw initial insights from the literature on participatory and decentralized watershed governance. We then apply findings from field experiments on water management reforms in India and Brazil to extend this literature and demonstrate the benefits of the framework to scholars and practitioners alike.

  15. PPP insights in South Africa.

    PubMed

    du Toit, Japie

    2003-01-01

    After functioning for some time in an increasingly regulated and structured environment in dealing with the private sector in South Africa, it was important to Government, to carefully review the terminology used in this evolving playing field. As the definitions and mechanisms impacting on this form of interaction became clear, it was essential to find a broader definition to encompass all forms of commercial intervention between the two sectors. In preparation for the first South African National Health Summit during 2001, the term public private interaction became a general term used in this context. In the South African healthcare sectors this term is used specifically to indicate that all forms of interaction between the two sectors should be considered, rather than merely focussing on specific Public Private Partnerships (PPPs), that have a much more narrow definition. Recent health policy documents in South Africa all stress four key goals--equity, coherence, quality of care and efficiency--which provide a useful basis for decision-making about PPIs. The range of public-private interactions that may support or constrain the South African health system's development are set within the overall public/private mix of the country. In developing an equitable, efficient, coherent and high quality health system in South Africa, there is considerable potential for constructive engagement (collaboration and co-operation) between the public and the private health care sectors. Both sectors should embrace this opportunity and therefore it is useful to propose some basic guidelines for engagement based on the vision and goals of the national health system. In deciding whether or not to pursue any new PPI within the health sector, or in evaluating whether an existing PPI should continue or be revised, it is necessary to assess its merits in relation to the achievement of health system goals.

  16. Recurrent unilateral headache associated with SAPHO syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tsugawa, Jun; Ouma, Shinji; Fukae, Jiro; Tsuboi, Yoshio

    2014-01-01

    A 57-year-old woman was admitted with recurrent episodes of right frontal headache. Head magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed extensive thickening and enhancement of the right frontal dura, muscle and fascia, as well as abnormal signal intensity and enhancement of bone marrow at the lesions. Synovitis-acne-pustulosis-hyperostosis osteomyelitis (SAPHO) syndrome was diagnosed based on the patient's 8-year history of treatment of palmoplantar pustulosis and abnormal accumulations in the right temporal, sternum, and left medial clavicula on bone scintigraphy. SAPHO syndrome may be associated with skull lesions, which can contribute to the onset of repeated headache or dural thickening, thus these symptoms should be recognized as manifestations of this syndrome.

  17. SAPHO syndrome associated spondylitis

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Masato; Nakanishi, Kazuo; Misawa, Haruo; Sugimoto, Yoshihisa; Takahata, Tomohiro; Nakahara, Hiroyuki; Nakahara, Shinnosuke; Ozaki, Toshifumi

    2008-01-01

    The concept of synovitis, acne, pustulosis, hyperostosis, osteitis (SAPHO) syndrome has been well clarified, after Chamot et al. suggested this peculiar disorder in 1987. The most commonly affected site in SAPHO syndrome is the anterior chest, followed by the spine. However, the clinical course and taxonomic concept of SAPHO spinal lesions are poorly understood. This study was performed to analyze: (1) the detailed clinical course of spinal lesions in SAPHO syndrome, and (2) the relationship between SAPHO syndrome with spinal lesions and seronegative spondyloarthropathy. Thirteen patients with spondylitis in SAPHO syndrome were analyzed. The features of spinal lesions were a chronic onset with a slight inflammatory reaction, and slowly progressing non-marginal syndesmophytes at multi spinal levels, besides the coexistence of specific skin lesions. SAPHO syndrome, especially spinal lesions related to palmoplantar pustulosis, can be recognized as a subtype of seronegative spondyloarthropathy. PMID:18642032

  18. Kindler syndrome with palmoplantar hyperhidrosis and blonde hair.

    PubMed

    Maheshwari, Anshul; Dhaked, Daulat Ram; Mathur, Deepak K; Bhargava, Puneet

    2015-01-01

    Kindler syndrome (KS) is a very rare genodermatosis characterized by acral blistering starting in infancy along with photosensitivity, progressive poikiloderma, cutaneous atrophy, and a variable degree of mucosal involvement. A large number of other cutaneous and extracutaneous features have been described, which aid in diagnosing it. Generally KS has been found to be associated with hypohidrosis/anhidrosis. We herein present a rare case of KS with unique features.

  19. [Sternocostoclavicular hyperostosis--case reports and differential diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Mick, C; Kirgis, A; Noack, W

    1993-01-01

    Sternocostoclavicular hyperostosis (SCCH) is a disorder related to collagenoses. SCCH is typically characterised by the triad of swelling of the sternoclavicular and/or sternocostal joints of the first or second rib, palmar and plantar pustulosis (PPP), only limited elevation of inflammation indicating laboratory parameters. Till today the etiology is unclear and no causal therapy is known. Symptomatic treatment consists of administration of NSAID and cortisone, irradiation and even limited resection of the clavicle and rib.

  20. Genetic Polymorphisms in XRCC1, CD3EAP, PPP1R13L, XPB, XPC, and XPF and the Risk of Chronic Benzene Poisoning in a Chinese Occupational Population.

    PubMed

    Xue, Ping; Gao, Lin; Xiao, Sha; Zhang, Guopei; Xiao, Mingyang; Zhang, Qianye; Zheng, Xiao; Cai, Yuan; Jin, Cuihong; Yang, Jinghua; Wu, Shengwen; Lu, Xiaobo

    2015-01-01

    Individual variations in the capacity of DNA repair machinery to relieve benzene-induced DNA damage may be the key to developing chronic benzene poisoning (CBP), an increasingly prevalent occupational disease in China. ERCC1 (Excision repair cross complementation group 1) is located on chromosome 19q13.2-3 and participates in the crucial steps of Nucleotide Excision Repair (NER); moreover, we determined that one of its polymorphisms, ERCC1 rs11615, is a biomarker for CBP susceptibility in our previous report. Our aim is to further explore the deeper association between some genetic variations related to ERCC1 polymorphisms and CBP risk. Nine single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of XRCC1 (X-ray repair cross-complementing 1), CD3EAP (CD3e molecule, epsilon associated protein), PPP1R13L (protein phosphatase 1, regulatory subunit 13 like), XPB (Xeroderma pigmentosum group B), XPC (Xeroderma pigmentosum group C) and XPF (Xeroderma pigmentosum group F) were genotyped by the Snapshot and TaqMan-MGB® probe techniques, in a study involving 102 CBP patients and 204 controls. The potential interactions between these SNPs and lifestyle factors, such as smoking and drinking, were assessed using a stratified analysis. An XRCC1 allele, rs25487, was related to a higher risk of CBP (P<0.001) even after stratifying for potential confounders. Carriers of the TT genotype of XRCC1 rs1799782 who were alcohol drinkers (OR = 8.000; 95% CI: 1.316-48.645; P = 0.022), male (OR = 9.333; 95% CI: 1.593-54.672; P = 0.019), and had an exposure of ≤12 years (OR = 2.612; 95% CI: 1.048-6.510; P = 0.035) had an increased risk of CBP. However, the T allele in PPP1R13L rs1005165 (P<0.05) and the GA allele in CD3EAP rs967591 (OR = 0.162; 95% CI: 0039~0.666; P = 0.037) decreased the risk of CBP in men. The haplotype analysis of XRCC1 indicated that XRCC1 rs25487A, rs25489G and rs1799782T (OR = 15.469; 95% CI: 5.536-43.225; P<0.001) were associated with a high risk of CBP. The findings showed that

  1. Analysis of Human Proteome Organization Plasma Proteome Project (HUPO PPP) reference specimens using surface enhanced laser desorption/ionization-time of flight (SELDI-TOF) mass spectrometry: multi-institution correlation of spectra and identification of biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Rai, Alex J; Stemmer, Paul M; Zhang, Zhen; Adam, Bao-Ling; Morgan, William T; Caffrey, Rebecca E; Podust, Vladimir N; Patel, Manisha; Lim, Lih-Yin; Shipulina, Natalia V; Chan, Daniel W; Semmes, O John; Leung, Hon-Chiu Eastwood

    2005-08-01

    We report on a multicenter analysis of HUPO reference specimens using SELDI-TOF MS. Eight sites submitted data obtained from serum and plasma reference specimen analysis. Spectra from five sites passed preliminary quality assurance tests and were subjected to further analysis. Intralaboratory CVs varied from 15 to 43%. A correlation coefficient matrix generated using data from these five sites demonstrated high level of correlation, with values >0.7 on 37 of 42 spectra. More than 50 peaks were differentially present among the various sample types, as observed on three chip surfaces. Additionally, peaks at approximately 9200 and approximately 15,950 m/z were present only in select reference specimens. Chromatographic fractionation using anion-exchange, membrane cutoff, and reverse phase chromatography, was employed for protein purification of the approximately 9200 m/z peak. It was identified as the haptoglobin alpha subunit after peptide mass fingerprinting and high-resolution MS/MS analysis. The differential expression of this protein was confirmed by Western blot analysis. These pilot studies demonstrate the potential of the SELDI platform for reproducible and consistent analysis of serum/plasma across multiple sites and also for targeted biomarker discovery and protein identification. This approach could be exploited for population-based studies in all phases of the HUPO PPP.

  2. [Chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis of the mandible: report of three cases].

    PubMed

    Paim, Luciana B; Liphaus, Bernadete Lourdes; Rocha, André C; Castellanos, Aura Ligia Z; Silva, Clovis Artur A

    2003-01-01

    To report three cases of chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis of the mandible, an inflammatory disease affecting one or more bones with absence of isolated microorganisms in affected areas. The first case is a 13 year-old female presenting with pain and fever after dental treatment. The patient received antibiotic treatment for osteomyelitis, but developed progressive enlargement of the mandible and palmoplantar pustulosis. Bone scintigraphy showed intense and diffuse uptake in the mandible. The swelling decreased after indomethacin and hyperbaric oxygen therapy. Case 2 is a 9 year-old female patient with recurrent pain and edema of the right mandible for three years. The diagnosis of osteomyelitis was established and amoxicillin introduced. After three months, tomography showed diffuse mandible osteolysis. Indomethacin and hyperbaric oxygen therapy were introduced, however the patient presented a relapse and was treated with prednisone, rofecoxib and methotrexate. Patient 3, a 10 year-old male, had palmoplantar pustulosis and recurrent enlargement of the mandible. Tomography showed diffuse mandible osteolysis and scintigraphy revealed intense and diffuse uptake in the mandible. The patient was treated with prednisone. Rofecoxib was replaced after two relapses. Chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis of the mandible is often associated with prolonged pain periods and periods of activity and remission of the inflammatory process. Its recognition is important to prevent the patient from being submitted to prolonged antibiotic therapy and unnecessary invasive procedures.

  3. Genetic Polymorphisms in XRCC1, CD3EAP, PPP1R13L, XPB, XPC, and XPF and the Risk of Chronic Benzene Poisoning in a Chinese Occupational Population

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Sha; Zhang, Guopei; Xiao, Mingyang; Zhang, Qianye; Zheng, Xiao; Cai, Yuan; Jin, Cuihong; Yang, Jinghua; Wu, Shengwen; Lu, Xiaobo

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Individual variations in the capacity of DNA repair machinery to relieve benzene-induced DNA damage may be the key to developing chronic benzene poisoning (CBP), an increasingly prevalent occupational disease in China. ERCC1 (Excision repair cross complementation group 1) is located on chromosome 19q13.2–3 and participates in the crucial steps of Nucleotide Excision Repair (NER); moreover, we determined that one of its polymorphisms, ERCC1 rs11615, is a biomarker for CBP susceptibility in our previous report. Our aim is to further explore the deeper association between some genetic variations related to ERCC1 polymorphisms and CBP risk. Methods Nine single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of XRCC1 (X-ray repair cross-complementing 1), CD3EAP (CD3e molecule, epsilon associated protein), PPP1R13L (protein phosphatase 1, regulatory subunit 13 like), XPB (Xeroderma pigmentosum group B), XPC (Xeroderma pigmentosum group C) and XPF (Xeroderma pigmentosum group F) were genotyped by the Snapshot and TaqMan-MGB® probe techniques, in a study involving 102 CBP patients and 204 controls. The potential interactions between these SNPs and lifestyle factors, such as smoking and drinking, were assessed using a stratified analysis. Results An XRCC1 allele, rs25487, was related to a higher risk of CBP (P<0.001) even after stratifying for potential confounders. Carriers of the TT genotype of XRCC1 rs1799782 who were alcohol drinkers (OR = 8.000; 95% CI: 1.316–48.645; P = 0.022), male (OR = 9.333; 95% CI: 1.593–54.672; P = 0.019), and had an exposure of ≤12 years (OR = 2.612; 95% CI: 1.048–6.510; P = 0.035) had an increased risk of CBP. However, the T allele in PPP1R13L rs1005165 (P<0.05) and the GA allele in CD3EAP rs967591 (OR = 0.162; 95% CI: 0039~0.666; P = 0.037) decreased the risk of CBP in men. The haplotype analysis of XRCC1 indicated that XRCC1 rs25487A, rs25489G and rs1799782T (OR = 15.469; 95% CI: 5.536–43.225; P<0.001) were associated with a high

  4. Glyphosate-induced oxidative stress in Arabidopsis thaliana affecting peroxisomal metabolism and triggers activity in the oxidative phase of the pentose phosphate pathway (OxPPP) involved in NADPH generation.

    PubMed

    de Freitas-Silva, Larisse; Rodríguez-Ruiz, Marta; Houmani, Hayet; da Silva, Luzimar Campos; Palma, José M; Corpas, Francisco J

    2017-11-01

    Glyphosate is a broad-spectrum systemic herbicide used worldwide. In susceptible plants, glyphosate affects the shikimate pathway and reduces aromatic amino acid synthesis. Using Arabidopsis seedlings grown in the presence of 20μM glyphosate, we analyzed H 2 O 2 , ascorbate, glutathione (GSH) and protein oxidation content as well as antioxidant catalase, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and ascorbate-glutathione cycle enzyme activity. We also examined the principal NADPH-generating system components, including glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH), 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGDH), NADP-malic enzyme (NADP-ME) and NADP-isocitrate dehydrogenase (NADP-ICDH). Glyphosate caused a drastic reduction in growth parameters and an increase in protein oxidation. The herbicide also resulted in an overall increase in GSH content, antioxidant enzyme activity (catalase and all enzymatic components of the ascorbate-glutathione cycle) in addition to the two oxidative phase enzymes, G6PDH and 6PGDH, in the pentose phosphate pathway involved in NADPH generation. In this study, we provide new evidence on the participation of G6PDH and 6PGDH in the response to oxidative stress induced by glyphosate in Arabidopsis, in which peroxisomal enzymes, such as catalase and glycolate oxidase, are positively affected. We suggest that the NADPH provided by the oxidative phase of the pentose phosphate pathway (OxPPP) should serve to maintain glutathione reductase (GR) activity, thus preserving and regenerating the intracellular GSH pool under glyphosate-induced stress. It is particularly remarkable that the 6PGDH activity was unaffected by pro-oxidant and nitrating molecules such as H 2 0 2 , nitric oxide or peroxynitrite. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. 308nm Excimer Laser in Dermatology

    PubMed Central

    Mehraban, Shadi

    2014-01-01

    308nm xenon-chloride excimer laser, a novel mode of phototherapy, is an ultraviolet B radiation system consisting of a noble gas and halide. The aim of this systematic review was to investigate the literature and summarize all the experiments, clinical trials and case reports on 308-nm excimer laser in dermatological disorders. 308-nm excimer laser has currently a verified efficacy in treating skin conditions such as vitiligo, psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, alopecia areata, allergic rhinitis, folliculitis, granuloma annulare, lichen planus, mycosis fungoides, palmoplantar pustulosis, pityriasis alba, CD30+ lympho proliferative disorder, leukoderma, prurigo nodularis, localized scleroderma and genital lichen sclerosus. Although the 308-nm excimer laser appears to act as a promising treatment modality in dermatology, further large-scale studies should be undertaken in order to fully affirm its safety profile considering the potential risk, however minimal, of malignancy, it may impose. PMID:25606333

  6. Localisation of a gene for prepubertal periodontitis to chromosome 11q14 and identification of a cathepsin C gene mutation

    PubMed Central

    Hart, T; Hart, P; Michalec, M; Zhang, Y; Marazita, M; Cooper, M; Yassin, O; Nusier, M; Walker, S

    2000-01-01

    Prepubertal periodontitis (PPP) is a rare and rapidly progressive disease of young children that results in destruction of the periodontal support of the primary dentition. The condition may occur as part of a recognised syndrome or may occur as an isolated finding. Both autosomal dominant and recessive forms of Mendelian transmission have been reported for PPP. We report a consanguineous Jordanian family with four members affected by PPP in two nuclear sibships. The parents of the affected subjects are first cousins. We have localised a gene of major effect for PPP in this kindred (Zmax=3.55 for D11S901 at θ=0.00) to a 14 cM genetic interval on chromosome 11q14 flanked by D11S916 and D11S1367. This PPP candidate interval overlaps the region of chromosome 11q14 that contains the cathepsin C gene responsible for Papillon-Lefèvre and Haim-Munk syndromes. Sequence analysis of the cathepsin C gene from PPP affected subjects from this Jordanian family indicated that all were homozygous for a missense mutation (1040A→G) that changes a tyrosine to a cysteine. All four parents were heterozygous carriers of this Tyr347Cys cathepsin C mutation. None of the family members who were heterozygous carriers for this mutation showed any clinical findings of PPP. None of the 50 controls tested were found to have this Tyr347Cys mutation. This is the first reported gene mutation for non-syndromic periodontitis and shows that non-syndromic PPP is an allelic variant of the type IV palmoplantar ectodermal dysplasias.


Keywords: prepubertal periodontitis; periodontal disease; cathepsin C; linkage PMID:10662808

  7. [A study of the pathogenesis of tonsillar focal infection--transplantation of human tonsillar lymphocytes and human skin into SCID mice].

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Y; Kuki, K; Hayashi, Y; Yamanaka, N

    2000-07-01

    Pustulosis palmaris et plantaris (PPP) has been considered as one of the typical tonsillar focal infections, based on the marked clinical improvement of the skin lesions after tonsillectomy. In early-stage of PPP, it has been reported that lymphocytes, predominantly CD4-positive cells, infiltrate the palmar and plantar skin. However, the origin and mechanism of infiltration by these lymphocytes is not clear and there are very few reports on whether tonsillar cells react directly with the skin, possibly due to the difficulty of establishing adequate animal models. In this study, we established an experimental animal model of mice with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) and observed the reactions of the tonsillar lymphocytes (TL) or peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) of patients with PPP to their own plantar skin by transplanting the lymphocytes and skin of the patient into the mice. The results revealed that TL infiltrated the skin to a significantly greater extent than PBL. Most of these lymphocytes were T lymphocytes, and no B lymphocytes were detected in the transplanted skin. Strong expression of LFA-1 and ICAM-1 was observed in the skin after the TL transplantation. These results suggest that TL have a strong affinity for the skin in PPP, and that the adhesion molecules may play an important role in the infiltration by lymphocytes of the skin.

  8. Symmetry relations in charmless B{yields}PPP decays

    SciT

    Gronau, Michael; Rosner, Jonathan L.; Enrico Fermi Institute and Department of Physics, University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, Illinois 60637

    2005-11-01

    Strangeness-changing decays of B mesons to three-body final states of pions and kaons are studied, assuming that they are dominated by a {delta}I=0 penguin amplitude with flavor structure b{yields}s. Numerous isospin relations for B{yields}K{pi}{pi} and for underlying quasi-two-body decays are compared successfully with experiment, in some cases resolving ambiguities in fitting resonance parameters. The only exception is a somewhat small branching ratio noted in B{sup 0}{yields}K*{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}, interpreted in terms of destructive interference between a penguin amplitude and an enhanced electroweak penguin contribution. Relations for B decays into three kaons are derived in terms of final states involving K{submore » S} or K{sub L}, assuming that {phi}K-subtracted decay amplitudes are symmetric in K and K, as has been observed experimentally. Rates due to nonresonant backgrounds are studied using a simple model, which may reduce discrete ambiguities in Dalitz plot analyses.« less

  9. PPP/nonreal-time trajectory program interface requirements and capabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgavern, J. L.; Arbet, J. D.

    1975-01-01

    The selection process for interfacing a nonreal time trajectory program with the procedures and performance program is outlined; the interface provides summary data timelines for any desired trajectory profile. Consideration was given to two separate digital programs for satisfying capabilities. One was the CDC 6400 digital program BANDITO, and the second was the UNIVAC 1110 SVDS program.

  10. Engraftment of tonsillar mononuclear cells in human skin/SCID mouse chimera--validation of a novel xenogeneic transplantation model for autoimmune diseases.

    PubMed

    Yamanaka, N; Yamamoto, Y; Kuki, K

    2001-01-01

    Pustulosis palmaris et plantaris (PPP) has been considered as one of the typical tonsillar focal infections, based on the marked clinical improvement of the skin lesions after tonsillectomy. Despite the accumulation of data showing the clinical efficacy of tonsillectomy for this skin lesion, fundamental etiological and pathophysiological issues have yet to be addressed. One primary obstacle hindering investigators has been the lack of an appropriate animal model for this human skin disorder. In the early stage of PPP, it has been reported that lymphocytes, predominantly CD4+ T lymphocytes, infiltrate the palmar and plantar skins. However, the origin and mechanism of infiltration by these lymphocytes is not clear and there are very few reports on whether tonsillar mononuclear cells react directly with the skin. We have been intrigued by the ability to engraft human cells onto severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice, together with the opportunity for long-term graft survival and ability to adoptively transfer various human immunocompetent cells. In this review, we addressed the existing deficiencies in our understanding of the relationship between tonsils and PPP by using emerging transplantation technology involving SCID mice.

  11. Paradoxical skin lesions induced by anti-TNF-α agents in SAPHO syndrome.

    PubMed

    Li, Chen; Wu, Xia; Cao, Yihan; Zeng, Yueping; Zhang, Weihong; Zhang, Shuo; Liu, Yuehua; Jin, Hongzhong; Zhang, Wen; Li, Li

    2018-04-03

    The objectives of the study were to characterize the clinical picture of paradoxical skin lesions in SAPHO patients treated with anti-TNF-α agents and to explore its pathogenesis. Patients treated with anti-TNF-α therapy were identified from a cohort of 164 SAPHO patients. The clinical data and skin biopsies were collected. The usage, efficacy, and side effects of anti-TNF-α therapy were recorded. Forty-one (25.0%) patients received anti-TNF-α therapy, of which seven (17.1%) developed paradoxical skin lesions after 1 to 14 infusions. Patients with such lesions were older at onset of skin lesions than those without (p = 0.034). Expression of TNF-α in palmoplantar pustulosis increased after anti-TNF-α therapy in the two examined patients with exacerbated skin lesions. Anti-TNF-α therapy induces paradoxical skin lesions in 17.1% SAPHO patients. Late onset of skin manifestations is associated with an increased risk of such lesions. The paradoxical elevation of TNF-α expression in lesions may contribute to this phenomenon.

  12. A case of acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis due to amoxicillin-clavulanate with multiple positivity to beta-lactam patch testing.

    PubMed

    Bomarrito, L; Zisa, G; Delrosso, G; Farinelli, P; Galimberti, M

    2013-09-01

    We present a case of acute generalized exanthematous pustolosis (AGEP) induced by amoxicillin-clavulanate. Clinical diagnosis was confirmed by symptoms presentation and  histological features (Euroscar score point compatible with definite diagnosis). Patch testing performer six months later confirmed sensitization to the culprit drug and showed positivity also to other beta-lactam antibiotics (penicillin G and cephalexin). We believe that a T cell delayed response to betalactams common ring could be involved.

  13. Delivering informatics capabilities to an AHC research community through public/private partnerships (PPP).

    PubMed

    Smith, Kevin A; Athey, Brian D; Chahal, Amar P S; Sahai, Priti

    2008-11-06

    Velos eResearch is a commercially-developed, regulatory-compliant, web-based clinical research information system from Velos Inc. Aithent Inc. is a software development services company. The University of Michigan (UM) has public/private partnerships with Velos and Aithent to collaborate on development of additional capabilities, modules, and new products to better support the needs of clinical and translational research communities. These partnerships provide UM with a mechanism for obtaining high-quality functionally comprehensive capabilities more quickly and at lower cost, while the corporate partners get a quality advisory and development partner--this benefits all parties. The UM chose to partner with Velos in part because of its commitment to interoperability. Velos is an active participant in the NCI caBIG project and is committed to caBIG compatibility. Velos already provides interoperability with other Velos sites in the CTSA context. One example of the partnership is co-development of integrated specimen management capabilities. UM spent more than a year defining business requirements and technical specifications for, and is funding development of, this capability. UM also facilitates an autonomous user community (20+ institutions, 7 CTSA awardees); the broad goal of the group is to share experiences, expertise, identify collaborative opportunities, and support one another as well as provide a source of future needs identification to Velos. Advantages and risks related to delivering informatics capabilities to an AHC research community through a public/private partnership will be presented. The UM, Velos and Aithent will discuss frameworks, agreements and other factors that have contributed to a successful partnership.

  14. Plasmodium falciparum Serine/Threonine Phosphoprotein Phosphatases (PPP): From Housekeeper to 'Holy Grail'

    Availability of complete genome sequence for Plasmodium falciparum has been useful in drawing a comprehensive metabolic map of the parasite. Distinct and unique metabolic characteristics of the parasite may be exploited as potential targets for new antimalarial drug discovery research. Reversible ph...

  15. Genetics Home Reference: PPP2R5D-related intellectual disability

    MedlinePlus

    ... and delayed speech development. Recurrent seizures (epilepsy) and autism spectrum disorder , which is characterized by impaired communications ... Increased Head Circumference Encyclopedia: Intellectual Disability Health Topic: Autism Spectrum ... Topic: Developmental Disabilities Additional NIH ...

  16. Simulation and mitigation of higher-order ionospheric errors in PPP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zus, Florian; Deng, Zhiguo; Wickert, Jens

    2017-04-01

    We developed a rapid and precise algorithm to compute ionospheric phase advances in a realistic electron density field. The electron density field is derived from a plasmaspheric extension of the International Reference Ionosphere (Gulyaeva and Bilitza, 2012) and the magnetic field stems from the International Geomagnetic Reference Field. For specific station locations, elevation and azimuth angles the ionospheric phase advances are stored in a look-up table. The higher-order ionospheric residuals are computed by forming the standard linear combination of the ionospheric phase advances. In a simulation study we examine how the higher-order ionospheric residuals leak into estimated station coordinates, clocks, zenith delays and tropospheric gradients in precise point positioning. The simulation study includes a few hundred globally distributed stations and covers the time period 1990-2015. We take a close look on the estimated zenith delays and tropospheric gradients as they are considered a data source for meteorological and climate related research. We also show how the by product of this simulation study, the look-up tables, can be used to mitigate higher-order ionospheric errors in practise. Gulyaeva, T.L., and Bilitza, D. Towards ISO Standard Earth Ionosphere and Plasmasphere Model. In: New Developments in the Standard Model, edited by R.J. Larsen, pp. 1-39, NOVA, Hauppauge, New York, 2012, available at https://www.novapublishers.com/catalog/product_info.php?products_id=35812

  17. 40 CFR Table 8 to Subpart Ppp of... - Routine Reports Required by This Subpart

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ....1439(e)(6) Periodic Reports Semiannually, no later than 60 days after the end of each 6-month period... refilling of each storage vessel or the inspection of each storage vessel. a There may be two versions of... after June 1, 1999. § 63.1439(e)(4) Precompliance Report a Existing affected sources: 12 months prior to...

  18. 40 CFR Table 8 to Subpart Ppp of... - Routine Reports Required by This Subpart

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-month period. See § 63.1439(e)(6)(i) for the due date for this report. § 63.1439(e)(6)(iii) Quarterly... months prior to compliance date.New affected sources: with the application for approval of construction... end of each quarter. § 63.506(e)(7)(i) Storage Vessels Notification of Inspection At least 30 days...

  19. 40 CFR Table 8 to Subpart Ppp of... - Routine Reports Required by This Subpart

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....1439(e)(6) Periodic Reports Semiannually, no later than 60 days after the end of each 6-month period... refilling of each storage vessel or the inspection of each storage vessel. a There may be two versions of... after June 1, 1999. § 63.1439(e)(4) Precompliance Report a Existing affected sources: 12 months prior to...

  20. 40 CFR Table 8 to Subpart Ppp of... - Routine Reports Required by This Subpart

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-month period. See § 63.1439(e)(6)(i) for the due date for this report. § 63.1439(e)(6)(iii) Quarterly... months prior to compliance date.New affected sources: with the application for approval of construction... end of each quarter. § 63.506(e)(7)(i) Storage Vessels Notification of Inspection At least 30 days...

  1. 40 CFR Table 8 to Subpart Ppp of... - Routine Reports Required by This Subpart

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ....1439(e)(6) Periodic Reports Semiannually, no later than 60 days after the end of each 6-month period... refilling of each storage vessel or the inspection of each storage vessel. a There may be two versions of... after June 1, 1999. § 63.1439(e)(4) Precompliance Report a Existing affected sources: 12 months prior to...

  2. Depressive symptoms, antidepressant medication use, and insulin resistance: the PPP-Botnia Study.

    PubMed

    Pyykkönen, Antti-Jussi; Räikkönen, Katri; Tuomi, Tiinamaija; Eriksson, Johan G; Groop, Leif; Isomaa, Bo

    2011-12-01

    Although insulin resistance (IR) may underlie associations between depressive symptoms and diabetes, previous findings have been contradictory. We examined whether depressive symptoms associate with IR and insulin secretion, and, additionally, whether antidepressant medication use may modulate such associations. A total of 4,419 individuals underwent an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Participants with previously or newly diagnosed diabetes are excluded from this sample. The homeostasis model assessment of IR (HOMA-IR) and corrected insulin response (CIR) were calculated. Depressive symptoms and antidepressant medication use were self-reported. After controlling for confounding factors, depressive symptoms were associated with higher fasting and 30-min insulin during the OGTT and higher HOMA-IR but not CIR. Antidepressant medication use failed to modify these associations. Depressive symptoms are associated with IR but not with changes in insulin response when corrected for IR in individuals without previously or newly diagnosed diabetes.

  3. Exact solution of the PPP model for correlated electronic states of tetracene and substituted tetracene.

    PubMed

    Pati, Y Anusooya; Ramasesha, S

    2014-06-12

    Tetracene is an important conjugated molecule for device applications. We have used the diagrammatic valence bond method to obtain the desired states, in a Hilbert space of about 450 million singlets and 902 million triplets. We have also studied the donor/acceptor (D/A)-substituted tetracenes with D and A groups placed symmetrically about the long axis of the molecule. In these cases, by exploiting a new symmetry, which is a combination of C2 symmetry and electron-hole symmetry, we are able to obtain their low-lying states. In the case of substituted tetracene, we find that optically allowed one-photon excitation gaps reduce with increasing D/A strength, while the lowest singlet-triplet gap is only weakly affected. In all the systems we have studied, the excited singlet state, S1, is at more than twice the energy of the lowest triplet state and the second triplet is very close to the S1 state. Thus, donor-acceptor-substituted tetracene could be a good candidate in photovoltaic device application as it satisfies energy criteria for singlet fission. We have also obtained the model exact second harmonic generation (SHG) coefficients using the correction vector method, and we find that the SHG responses increase with the increase in D/A strength.

  4. Sleep duration and insulin resistance in individuals without type 2 diabetes: the PPP-Botnia study.

    PubMed

    Pyykkönen, Antti-Jussi; Isomaa, Bo; Pesonen, Anu-Katriina; Eriksson, Johan G; Groop, Leif; Tuomi, Tiinamaija; Räikkönen, Katri

    2014-08-01

    Both short and long sleep duration may increase risk of type 2 diabetes (diabetes). We studied if short and long sleep durations were associated with insulin resistance (IR) and insulin secretion in individuals without diabetes, and if the associations remained after we excluded individuals who reported more frequent and severe complaints of sleep apnea and insomnia. An oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed for 722 adults without diabetes. Indices of IR and insulin secretion were calculated. Sleep duration and complaints of sleep apnea and insomnia were self-reported. In comparison to average sleepers (6-9 h/night), short sleepers (< 6 h/night) had higher 120-min insulin and AUC glucose, and long sleepers (≥ 9 h/night) had higher fasting and 120-min insulin, 120-min glucose, and HOMAIR and lower Insulin Sensitivity Index. After adjusting for confounders and after excluding individuals who reported more frequent and severe complaints of sleep apnea and insomnia, long sleep duration remained significantly associated with IR and insulin secretion. Long but not short sleep duration is associated with IR and insulin secretion in individuals without diabetes whether or not accompanied by sleep complaints. Long sleepers may benefit from targeted preventions and interventions that aim at reducing risk of future diabetes.

  5. Legionella pneumophila effector WipA, a bacterial PPP protein phosphatase with PTP activity.

    PubMed

    Jia, Qian; Lin, Yun; Gou, Xuejing; He, Lei; Shen, Dong; Chen, Dongni; Xie, Wei; Lu, Yongjun

    2018-04-26

    The gram-negative bacterium Legionella pneumophila invades human's lung and causes Legionnaires' disease. To benefit its survival and replication in cellular milieu, L. pneumophila secrets at least 330 effector proteins into host cells. We found that the effector WipA has the protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) activity but does not depend on the classical CX5R motif for activity, suggesting that WipA is an unconventional PTP. Meanwhile, the presence of three other highly conserved motifs typically seen in protein serine/threonine phosphatases and the poor inhibition of WipA activity by okadaic acid led us to propose that WipA is a bacterial protein phosphatase. In addition, the determination of the 2.55-Å crystal structure of WipA revealed that WipA resembles cold-active protein tyrosine phosphatase (CAPTPase), and therefore very likely shares the same catalytic mechanism.

  6. Progressive preoperative pneumoperitoneum (PPP) as an adjunct for surgery of hernias with loss of domain.

    PubMed

    Oprea, V; Matei, O; Gheorghescu, D; Leuca, D; Buia, F; Rosianu, M; Dinca, M

    2014-01-01

    forced repair of a giant abdominal wall defect end with unsatisfactory results despite development of prosthetics materials. The enlargement of abdominal wall dimensions could be realized altogether other methods with the aid of pneumo-peritoneum. The aim of the study is to evaluate early results of the method used for patients with giant incisional hernias. between june 1998 - june 2013, 17 patients (4 males) with giant abdominal wall defects (incisional and inguinal hernias) were prepaired for radical surgery with pneumoperitoneum. Average age was 64.35 years. We reevaluated the standard constants of the pulmonary function,blood gases, and intra-vesical pressure in 3 moments: before the first gas insuflation, 24 hours before surgery and in the 7th daypost operatively. the method was free of accidents or incidents, no mortality was recorded. The respiratory function was significantly increased and also the intra-abdominal pressure. our results suggest that the method of progressive pneumoperitoneum is safe, costless of choice for creating a clear compatibility between the wall and abdominal content inpatients with giant abdominal wall defects. Also ensures a longterm and stable improvement of the respiratory function in all its components. Celsius.

  7. Frequency Comparison of [Formula: see text] Ion Optical Clocks at PTB and NPL via GPS PPP.

    PubMed

    Leute, J; Huntemann, N; Lipphardt, B; Tamm, Christian; Nisbet-Jones, P B R; King, S A; Godun, R M; Jones, J M; Margolis, H S; Whibberley, P B; Wallin, A; Merimaa, M; Gill, P; Peik, E

    2016-07-01

    We used precise point positioning, a well-established GPS carrier-phase frequency transfer method to perform a direct remote comparison of two optical frequency standards based on single laser-cooled [Formula: see text] ions operated at the National Physical Laboratory (NPL), U.K. and the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Germany. At both institutes, an active hydrogen maser serves as a flywheel oscillator which is connected to a GPS receiver as an external frequency reference and compared simultaneously to a realization of the unperturbed frequency of the (2)S1/2(F=0)-(2)D3/2(F=2) electric quadrupole transition in [Formula: see text] via an optical femtosecond frequency comb. To profit from long coherent GPS-link measurements, we extrapolate the fractional frequency difference over the various data gaps in the optical clock to maser comparisons which introduces maser noise to the frequency comparison but improves the uncertainty from the GPS-link instability. We determined the total statistical uncertainty consisting of the GPS-link uncertainty and the extrapolation uncertainties for several extrapolation schemes. Using the extrapolation scheme with the smallest combined uncertainty, we find a fractional frequency difference [Formula: see text] of -1.3×10(-15) with a combined uncertainty of 1.2×10(-15) for a total measurement time of 67 h. This result is consistent with an agreement of the frequencies realized by both optical clocks and with recent absolute frequency measurements against caesium fountain clocks within the corresponding uncertainties.

  8. A New Education Scheme for Japan: Importing Education PPP Structures from England and Scotland (Part 2)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tachioka, Hiroshi; Campbell, Joel R.

    2006-01-01

    There are very few PFI projects in Japan that are specifically designed for education, but there are a few hybrid or complex PFIs that includes education in their facilities and services. In this article, the authors discuss the Ichikawa City Seventh District Junior High School building (an education PFI), which includes a school lunch room,…

  9. High-rate RTK and PPP multi-GNSS positioning for small-scale dynamic displacements monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paziewski, Jacek; Sieradzki, Rafał; Baryła, Radosław; Wielgosz, Pawel

    2017-04-01

    The monitoring of dynamic displacements and deformations of engineering structures such as buildings, towers and bridges is of great interest due to several practical and theoretical reasons. The most important is to provide information required for safe maintenance of the constructions. High temporal resolution and precision of GNSS observations predestine this technology to be applied to most demanding application in terms of accuracy, availability and reliability. GNSS technique supported by appropriate processing methodology may meet the specific demands and requirements of ground and structures monitoring. Thus, high-rate multi-GNSS signals may be used as reliable source of information on dynamic displacements of ground and engineering structures, also in real time applications. In this study we present initial results of application of precise relative GNSS positioning for detection of small scale (cm level) high temporal resolution dynamic displacements. Methodology and algorithms applied in self-developed software allowing for relative positioning using high-rate dual-frequency phase and pseudorange GPS+Galileo observations are also given. Additionally, an approach was also made to use the Precise Point Positioning technique to such application. In the experiment were used the observations obtained from high-rate (20 Hz) geodetic receivers. The dynamic displacements were simulated using specially constructed device moving GNSS antenna with dedicated amplitude and frequency. The obtained results indicate on possibility of detection of dynamic displacements of the GNSS antenna even at the level of few millimetres using both relative and Precise Point Positioning techniques after suitable signals processing.

  10. Stressful life events and the metabolic syndrome: the prevalence, prediction and prevention of diabetes (PPP)-Botnia Study.

    PubMed

    Pyykkönen, Antti-Jussi; Räikkönen, Katri; Tuomi, Tiinamaija; Eriksson, Johan G; Groop, Leif; Isomaa, Bo

    2010-02-01

    Stress may play a role in the pathogenesis of the metabolic syndrome. However, the scant evidence available is not population-based, restricting the external validity of the findings. Our aim was to test associations between stressful life events, their accumulation, and the metabolic syndrome in a large population-based cohort. We also tested associations between stress and the individual components related to the metabolic syndrome. This was a population-based, random sample of 3,407 women and men aged 18-78 years residing in Western Finland. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III and International Diabetes Federation criteria. The severity of 15 stressful life events pertaining to finance, work, social relationships, health, and housing was self-rated. In comparison with subjects not reporting any extremely stressful life events, those reporting work- or finance-related events had an increased odds for having the metabolic syndrome. The risk was further increased according to accumulation of stressful finance-related events and to having at least three stressful life events in any of the life domains assessed. Accumulation of stressful life events was associated with insulin resistance, obesity, and triglycerides. The associations were not confounded by sex, age, lifestyle, or family history of diabetes. Life events perceived as stressful, particularly those related to finance and work, may be a signal for poor metabolic health.

  11. The Germplasm Enhancement of Maize (GEM) project: A Public-Private Partnership (PPP) to increase genetic diversity in US maize

    The Germplasm Enhancement of Maize (GEM) Project is a mission-oriented, cooperative research effort of the United States Department of Agriculture – Agricultural Research Service (USDA-ARS), land grant universities, private industry, and international agricultural research centers to broaden the ger...

  12. 40 CFR Table 5 to Subpart Ppp of... - Process Vents From Batch Unit Operations-Monitoring, Recordkeeping, and Reporting Requirements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... collected—PR. d,e Carbon Adsorber f Total regeneration stream mass or volumetric flow during carbon bed regeneration cycle(s), and 1. Record of total regeneration stream mass or volumetric flow for each carbon bed regeneration cycle.2. Record and report the total regeneration stream mass or volumetric flow during each...

  13. 40 CFR Table 6 to Subpart Ppp of... - Process Vents From Continuous Unit Operations-Monitoring, Recordkeeping, and Reporting Requirements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... operating—PR. d e Carbon Adsorber f Total regeneration stream mass or volumetric flow during carbon bed regeneration cycle(s), and 1. Record of total regeneration stream mass or volumetric flow for each carbon bed regeneration cycle.2. Record and report the total regeneration stream mass or volumetric flow during each...

  14. 40 CFR Table 6 to Subpart Ppp of... - Process Vents From Continuous Unit Operations-Monitoring, Recordkeeping, and Reporting Requirements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... temperature established in the NCS or operating—PR. d,e Carbon Adsorber f Total regeneration stream mass or volumetric flow during carbon bed regeneration cycle(s), and 1. Record of total regeneration stream mass or volumetric flow for each carbon bed regeneration cycle.2. Record and report the total regeneration stream...

  15. 40 CFR Table 7 to Subpart Ppp of... - Process Vents From Continuous Unit Operations-Monitoring, Recordkeeping, and Reporting Requirements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... absorbent is used. Condenser Exit temperature Maximum temperature. Carbon adsorber Total regeneration stream mass or volumetric flow during carbon bed regeneration cycle; and temperature of the carbon bed after regeneration (and within 15 minutes of completing any cooling cycle(s)) Maximum mass or volumetric flow; and...

  16. 40 CFR Table 6 to Subpart Ppp of... - Process Vents From Continuous Unit Operations-Monitoring, Recordkeeping, and Reporting Requirements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... temperature established in the NCS or operating—PR. d,e Carbon Adsorber f Total regeneration stream mass or volumetric flow during carbon bed regeneration cycle(s), and 1. Record of total regeneration stream mass or volumetric flow for each carbon bed regeneration cycle.2. Record and report the total regeneration stream...

  17. 40 CFR Table 5 to Subpart Ppp of... - Process Vents From Batch Unit Operations-Monitoring, Recordkeeping, and Reporting Requirements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Carbon Adsorber f Total regeneration stream mass or volumetric flow during carbon bed regeneration cycle(s), and 1. Record of total regeneration stream mass or volumetric flow for each carbon bed regeneration cycle.2. Record and report the total regeneration stream mass or volumetric flow during each...

  18. 40 CFR Table 7 to Subpart Ppp of... - Process Vents From Continuous Unit Operations-Monitoring, Recordkeeping, and Reporting Requirements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... absorbent is used. Condenser Exit temperature Maximum temperature. Carbon adsorber Total regeneration stream mass or volumetric flow during carbon bed regeneration cycle; and temperature of the carbon bed after regeneration (and within 15 minutes of completing any cooling cycle(s)) Maximum mass or volumetric flow; and...

  19. 40 CFR Table 5 to Subpart Ppp of... - Process Vents From Batch Unit Operations-Monitoring, Recordkeeping, and Reporting Requirements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Carbon Adsorber f Total regeneration stream mass or volumetric flow during carbon bed regeneration cycle(s), and 1. Record of total regeneration stream mass or volumetric flow for each carbon bed regeneration cycle.2. Record and report the total regeneration stream mass or volumetric flow during each...

  20. 40 CFR Table 5 to Subpart Ppp of... - Process Vents From Batch Unit Operations-Monitoring, Recordkeeping, and Reporting Requirements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... collected—PR. d e Carbon Adsorber f Total regeneration stream mass or volumetric flow during carbon bed regeneration cycle(s), and 1. Record of total regeneration stream mass or volumetric flow for each carbon bed regeneration cycle.2. Record and report the total regeneration stream mass or volumetric flow during each...

  1. 40 CFR Table 5 to Subpart Ppp of... - Process Vents From Batch Unit Operations-Monitoring, Recordkeeping, and Reporting Requirements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Carbon Adsorber f Total regeneration stream mass or volumetric flow during carbon bed regeneration cycle(s), and 1. Record of total regeneration stream mass or volumetric flow for each carbon bed regeneration cycle.2. Record and report the total regeneration stream mass or volumetric flow during each...

  2. 40 CFR Table 7 to Subpart Ppp of... - Process Vents From Continuous Unit Operations-Monitoring, Recordkeeping, and Reporting Requirements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... absorbent is used. Condenser Exit temperature Maximum temperature. Carbon adsorber Total regeneration stream mass or volumetric flow during carbon bed regeneration cycle; and temperature of the carbon bed after regeneration (and within 15 minutes of completing any cooling cycle(s)) Maximum mass or volumetric flow; and...

  3. 40 CFR Table 6 to Subpart Ppp of... - Process Vents From Continuous Unit Operations-Monitoring, Recordkeeping, and Reporting Requirements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... temperature established in the NCS or operating—PR. d,e Carbon Adsorber f Total regeneration stream mass or volumetric flow during carbon bed regeneration cycle(s), and 1. Record of total regeneration stream mass or volumetric flow for each carbon bed regeneration cycle.2. Record and report the total regeneration stream...

  4. 40 CFR Table 6 to Subpart Ppp of... - Process Vents From Continuous Unit Operations-Monitoring, Recordkeeping, and Reporting Requirements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... operating—PR. d,e Carbon Adsorber f Total regeneration stream mass or volumetric flow during carbon bed regeneration cycle(s), and 1. Record of total regeneration stream mass or volumetric flow for each carbon bed regeneration cycle.2. Record and report the total regeneration stream mass or volumetric flow during each...

  5. 40 CFR Table 7 to Subpart Ppp of... - Process Vents From Continuous Unit Operations-Monitoring, Recordkeeping, and Reporting Requirements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... regeneration stream mass or volumetric flow during carbon bed regeneration cycle; and temperature of the carbon bed after regeneration (and within 15 minutes of completing any cooling cycle(s)) Maximum mass or...

  6. Pinon Preparation Program (PPP): Meeting the Needs of Rural Native American Students through Site-Based Education Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prater, Greg; Lewis, Jamie B.

    This paper examines the experiences of Navajo college students participating in a site-based teacher preparation program in a remote community on a Navajo Reservation. The 10 students (9 women and 1 man) work as teaching assistants in the Pinon Unified School District (Arizona). Having previously completed required Liberal Studies courses, the…

  7. Is the risk for soil arthropods covered by new data requirements under the EU PPP Regulation No. 1107/2009?

    PubMed

    Kohlschmid, E; Ruf, D

    2016-12-01

    Testing of effects on earthworms and non-target foliar arthropods is an integral part of the ecotoxicological risk assessment for the authorization of plant protection products. According to the new data requirements, which came into force in 2014 for active substances and in 2016 for plant protection products, the chronic earthworm toxicity test with Eisenia fetida based on reproductive, growth, and behavioral effects instead of the acute earthworm toxicity test based on mortality, has to be conducted routinely. Additional testing of effects on soil arthropods (Folsomia candida, Hyposaspis aculeifer) is required if the risk assessment of foliar applications raises concerns regarding non-target foliar arthropods (Aphidius rhopalosiphi, Typhlodromus pyri) or if the product is applied directly on or into the soil. Thus, it was investigated whether the sublethal earthworm endpoint is more sensitive than the sublethal soil arthropod endpoint for different types of pesticides and whether the risk assessment for non-target arthropods would trigger the testing of effects on soil arthropods in the cases where soil arthropods are more sensitive than earthworms. Toxicity data were obtained from Swiss ecotoxicological database, EFSA Conclusions and scientific literature. For insecticides and herbicides, no general conclusion regarding differences in sensitivity of either earthworms or soil arthropods based on sublethal endpoints were possible. For fungicides, the data indicated that in general, earthworms seemed to be more sensitive than soil arthropods. In total, the sublethal F. candida or H. aculeifer endpoint was lower than the sublethal E. fetida endpoint for 23 (34 %) out of 68 active substances. For 26 % of these 23 active substances, testing of soil arthropods would not have been triggered due to the new data requirement. These results based on sublethal endpoints show that earthworms and soil arthropods differ in sensitivity toward certain active substances and that the risk assessment for non-target foliar arthropods did not always trigger soil arthropod testing in the cases where soil arthropods were more sensitive than earthworms.

  8. Development and testing of gold nanoparticles for drug delivery and treatment of heart failure: a theranostic potential for PPP cardiology.

    PubMed

    Spivak, Mykola Ya; Bubnov, Rostyslav V; Yemets, Ilya M; Lazarenko, Liudmyla M; Tymoshok, Natalia O; Ulberg, Zoia R

    2013-07-29

    Nanoscale gold particles (AuNPs) have wide perspectives for biomedical applications because of their unique biological properties, as antioxidative activity and potentials for drug delivery. The aim was to test effects of AuNPs using suggested heart failure rat model to compare with proved medication Simdax, to test gold nanoparticle for drug delivery, and to test sonoporation effect to increase nanoparticles delivery into myocardial cells. We performed biosafety and biocompatibility tests for AuNPs and conjugate with Simdax. For in vivo tests, we included Wistar rats weighing 180-200 g (n = 54), received doxorubicin in cumulative dose of 12.0 mg/kg to model advance heart failure, registered by ultrasonography. We formed six groups: the first three groups of animals received, respectively, 0.06 ml Simdax, AuNPs, and conjugate (AuNPs-Simdax), intrapleurally, and the second three received them intravenously. The seventh group was control (saline). We performed dynamic assessment of heart failure regression in vivo measuring hydrothorax. Sonoporation of gold nanoparticles to cardiomyocytes was tested. We designed and constructed colloidal, spherical gold nanoparticles, AuNPs-Simdax conjugate, both founded biosafety (in cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, and immunoreactivity). In all animals of the six groups after the third day post-medication injection, no ascites and liver enlargement were registered (P < 0.001 vs controls). Conjugate injection showed significantly higher hydrothorax reduction than Simdax injection only (P < 0.01); gold nanoparticle injection showed significantly higher results than Simdax injection (P < 0.05). AuNPs and conjugate showed no significant difference for rat recovery. Difference in rat life continuity was significant between Simdax vs AuNPs (P < 0.05) and Simdax vs conjugate (P < 0.05). Sonoporation enhances AuNP transfer into the cell and mitochondria that were highly localized, superior to controls (P < 0.01 for both). Gold nanoparticles of 30 nm and its AuNPs-Simdax conjugate gave positive results in biosafety and biocompatibility in vitro and in vivo. AuNPs-Simdax and AuNPs have similar significant cardioprotective effects in rats with doxorubicin-induced heart failure, higher than that of Simdax. Intrapleural (local) delivery is preferred over intravenous (systemic) delivery according to all tested parameters. Sonoporation is able to enhance gold nanoparticle delivery to myocardial cells in vivo.

  9. Association between depressive symptoms and metabolic syndrome is not explained by antidepressant medication: results from the PPP-Botnia Study.

    PubMed

    Pyykkönen, Antti-Jussi; Räikkönen, Katri; Tuomi, Tiinamaija; Eriksson, Johan G; Groop, Leif; Isomaa, Bo

    2012-05-01

    To study whether the frequently reported association between depressive symptoms and the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its individual components are secondary to the use of antidepressant medication and to established diabetes or cardiovascular diseases (CVD). A population-based, random sample of 4,967 women and men aged 18-75 years. MetS was defined according to the new, harmonized criteria. Glucose tolerance was assessed by oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). CVD, depressive symptoms, and use of antidepressant medication were self-reported. The odds for having the MetS increased over 10%for each standard deviation increase in depressive symptoms. Users of antidepressant medication had more than 50% increased odds for having the MetS. Depressive symptoms were also associated with higher glucose response during the OGTT, higher serum triglyceride and lower HDL-cholesterol concentrations, and higher waist circumference, while use of antidepressant medication was associated with higher triglycerides, waist circumference, and systolic blood pressure. The associations of depressive symptoms were not secondary to use of antidepressant medication and were not explained by established diabetes or CVD. Depressive symptoms, the MetS, and the individual components of MetS are related. These associations are not driven by use of antidepressant medication, established diabetes, or CVD.

  10. Subjective sleep complaints are associated with insulin resistance in individuals without diabetes: the PPP-Botnia Study.

    PubMed

    Pyykkönen, Antti-Jussi; Isomaa, Bo; Pesonen, Anu-Katriina; Eriksson, Johan G; Groop, Leif; Tuomi, Tiinamaija; Räikkönen, Katri

    2012-11-01

    Sleep disorders and subjective sleep complaints have been associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes. The evidence with respect to insulin resistance (IR) and insulin secretion in individuals without type 2 diabetes has been scarce and elusive. We examined if subjective sleep complaints and their co-occurrence were associated with IR and insulin secretion in adult women and men without diabetes. Women (n = 442) and men (n = 354) 18-75 years of age without type 2 diabetes underwent an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), with insulin and glucose measured at fasting and at 30 and 120 min. Complaints related to sleep apnea, insomnia, and daytime sleepiness were self-rated with the Basic Nordic Sleep Questionnaire. In comparison with individuals with no or minor sleep complaints, those with more frequent complaints of sleep apnea, insomnia, and daytime sleepiness were more insulin resistant, as evidenced by higher fasting insulin concentrations and insulin and glucose responses to OGTT, and more frequently had high homeostasis model assessment of IR and low insulin sensitivity index values. The likelihood of being insulin resistant increased significantly and linearly according to the accumulation of co-occurring sleep complaints. These associations changed only a little when adjusted for mediating and confounding factors and for depressive symptoms. Sleep complaints were not associated with indices of deficiency in insulin secretion. Subjective sleep complaints were associated with IR. The likelihood of being insulin resistant increased according to accumulation of co-occurring sleep complaints. Sleep complaints were not associated with deficiency in insulin secretion.

  11. From PPP and CALL/MALL to a Praxis of Task-Based Teaching and Mobile Assisted Language Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarvis, Huw

    2015-01-01

    Two of the most significant trends in TESOL (Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages) over the last twenty years or so are the rise of task­-based language teaching (TBLT) and the growth of technology. With TBLT there is a challenging of more traditional structure-based models of delivery, and the increased capacity and mobility of…

  12. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Ppp of... - Group 1 Storage Vessels at Existing and New Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Group 1 Storage Vessels at Existing...—Group 1 Storage Vessels at Existing and New Affected Sources Vessel capacity(cubic meters) Vapor Pressure a (kilopascals) 75 ≤capacity pressure of total...

  13. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Ppp of... - Group 1 Storage Vessels at Existing and New Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Group 1 Storage Vessels at Existing...—Group 1 Storage Vessels at Existing and New Affected Sources Vessel capacity(cubic meters) Vapor Pressure a (kilopascals) 75 ≤ capacity pressure of...

  14. Advanced crew procedures development techniques: Procedures and performance program description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arbet, J. D.; Mangiaracina, A. A.

    1975-01-01

    The Procedures and Performance Program (PPP) for operation in conjunction with the Shuttle Procedures Simulator (SPS) is described. The PPP user interface, the SPS/PPP interface, and the PPP applications software are discussed.

  15. Observational Study of the Genetic Architecture of Neutrophil-Mediated Inflammatory Skin Diseases

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-09-26

    Other Specified Inflammatory Disorders of Skin or Subcutaneous Tissue; Pyoderma Gangrenosum; Erosive Pustular Dermatosis of the Scalp; Sweet's Syndrome; Behcet's Disease; Bowel-associated Dermatosis-arthritis Syndrome; Pustular Psoriasis; Acute Generalized Exanthematous Pustulosis; Keratoderma Blenorrhagicum; Sneddon-Wilkinson Disease; IgA Pemphigus; Amicrobial Pustulosis of the Folds; Infantile Acropustulosis; Transient Neonatal Pustulosis; Neutrophilic Eccrine Hidradenitis; Rheumatoid Neutrophilic Dermatitis; Neutrophilic Urticaria; Still's Disease; Erythema Marginatum; Unclassified Periodic Fever Syndromes / Autoinflammatory Syndromes; Dermatitis Herpetiformis; Linear IgA Bullous Dermatosis; Bullous Systemic Lupus Erythematosus; Inflammatory Epidermolysis Bullosa Aquisita; Neutrophilic Dermatosis of the Dorsal Hands (Pustular Vasculitis); Small Vessel Vasculitis Including Urticarial Vasculitis; Erythema Elevatum Diutinum; Medium Vessel Vasculitis

  16. Pancreatitis, panniculitis and polyarthritis (PPP-) syndrome caused by post-pancreatitis pseudocyst with mesenteric fistula. Diagnosis and successful surgical treatment. Case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Dieker, Wulf; Derer, Johannes; Henzler, Thomas; Schneider, Alexander; Rückert, Felix; Wilhelm, Torsten J; Krüger, Bernd

    2017-01-01

    Pancreatitis, panniculitis and polyarthritis syndrome is a very rare extra-pancreatic complication of pancreatic diseases. While in most cases this syndrome is caused by acute or chronic pancreatitis, we report a case of a 62-year-old man presenting with extensive intraosseous fat necrosis, polyarthritis and panniculitis caused by a post-pancreatitis pseudocyst with a fistula to the superior mesenteric vein and extremely high blood levels of lipase. This became symptomatic 2.5 years after an episode of acute pancreatitis and as in most cases abdominal symptoms were absent. Treatment by surgical resection of the pancreatic head with the pseudocyst and mesenteric fistula led to complete remission of all symptoms. A review of the literature revealed that all publications are limited to case reports. Most authors hypothesize that an unspecific damage can cause a secretion of pancreatic enzymes to the bloodstream leading to a systemic lipolysis and fat tissue necrosis, especially of subcutaneous tissue, bone marrow, inducing panniculitis, polyarthritis and osteonecrosis. Even if caused by an acute pancreatitis abdominal symptoms are often mild or absent in most cases leading to misdiagnosis and poor prognosis. While symptomatic treatment with NSAR and cortisone showed poor to moderate response, causal treatment can be successful depending on the underlying pancreatic disease. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Evaluation of compliance with isotretinoin PPP recommendations and exploration of reasons for non-compliance: Survey among French-speaking health care professionals and patients in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Lelubre, Mélanie; Hamdani, Jamila; Senterre, Christelle; Amighi, Karim; Peres, Marion; Schneider, Marie-Paule; Bugnon, Olivier; De Vriese, Carine

    2018-05-03

    To evaluate awareness of and compliance in Belgium by French-speaking health care professionals and patients with the isotretinoin safety recommendations regarding its teratogenic risk. Survey using online questionnaires, delivered from December 2014 to March 2015 for patients, pharmacists, dermatologists, and GPs and delivered again from September 2015 to October 2015 for GPs. Questionnaires were completed by 24 dermatologists, 24 GPs, 58 pharmacists, and 33 female patients. The pregnancy prevention programme was poorly known by health care professionals (23.6%) and patients (15.2%). Health care professionals informed women of childbearing age in depth about the teratogenic risk (98.3% of pharmacists and 100.0% of GPs and dermatologists) and the importance of an effective contraceptive method (87.9% and 100.0%, respectively). Patients were less informed about the pregnancy test (25.9% and 14.6%) and the need to use a second contraceptive method (29.3% and 27.1%). The low compliance with the last 2 recommendations was due to a lack of adoption by health care professionals regarding the need for these recommendations if female patients have an effective contraceptive method and the pregnancy risk is discussed in detail with them. The effectiveness of the pregnancy prevention programme recommendations should be reconsidered by an expert committee. Justifications should be added to effective recommendations to increase their adoption by health care professionals and patients. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Do you know this syndrome?

    PubMed

    Dellatorre, Gerson; Castro, Caio César Silva de

    2012-01-01

    The SAPHO syndrome (synovitis, acne, pustulosis, hyperostosis and osteitis) includes a group of findings characterized by bone lesions usually located on the anterior chest wall, often associated with skin lesions. We report the case of a 47 years old patient, with osteochondritis at costoesternal and manubrium-sternal joints, besides of palmar-plantar pustulosis. The diagnosis is predominantly clinical and there are several treatment options described in the literature.

  19. Regulation of skin pigmentation and thickness by dickkopf 1 (DKK1)

    PubMed Central

    Yamaguchi, Yuji; Morita, Akimichi; Maeda, Akira; Hearing, Vincent J.

    2009-01-01

    Dickkopf 1 (DKK1), an inhibitor of Wnt signaling, not only functions as a head inducer during development, but also regulates joint remodeling and bone formation, which suggests roles for DKK1 in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis and multiple myeloma. We recently demonstrated that levels of DKK1 in palmoplantar dermal fibroblasts are physiologically higher than those observed in non-palmoplantar dermal fibroblasts. Thus, the DKK1-rich mesenchyme in palmoplantar dermis affects the overlying epithelium and induces a palmoplantar phenotype in the epidermis. More specifically, DKK1 suppresses melanocyte function and growth via the regulation of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) and β-catenin. Furthermore, DKK1 induces the expression of keratin 9 and α-Kelch-like ECT2 interacting protein (αKLEIP) but down-regulates the expression of β-catenin, glycogen synthase kinase 3β, protein kinase C and proteinase-activated receptor-2 (PAR-2) in keratinocytes. Treatment of reconstructed skin with DKK1 reproduces the hypopigmentation and thickening of skin via Wnt/β-catenin signaling. These studies elucidate why human palmoplantar skin is thicker and paler than non-palmoplantar skin via the secretion of DKK1 by fibroblasts that affect the overlying epidermis. Thus, DKK1 may be useful for reducing skin pigmentation and for thickening photo-aged skin and palmoplantar wounds caused by diabetes mellitus and rheumatic skin diseases. PMID:19675559

  20. Enzyme-Assisted Extraction Optimization, Characterization and Antioxidant Activity of Polysaccharides from Sea Cucumber Phyllophorus proteus.

    PubMed

    Qin, Yujing; Yuan, Qingxia; Zhang, Yuexing; Li, Jialu; Zhu, Xinjiao; Zhao, Lingling; Wen, Jing; Liu, Jikai; Zhao, Longyan; Zhao, Jinhua

    2018-03-06

    Enzyme-assisted extraction optimization, characterization and in vitro antioxidant activity of polysaccharides from sea cucumber Phyllophorus proteus (PPP) were investigated in the present study. The optimal extraction conditions with a yield of 6.44 ± 0.06% for PPP were determined as follows: Extraction time of 2.89 h, ratio of extraction solvent to raw material of 16.26 mL/g, extraction pH of 6.83, exraction temperature of 50 °C and papain concentration of 0.15%. Three purified fractions, PPP-1a, PPP-1b and PPP-2 with molecular weights of 369.60, 41.73 and 57.76 kDa, respectively, were obtained from PPP by chromatography of FPA98Cl and Sepharose CL-6B columns. Analysis of monosaccharide compositions showed that PPP-1a consisted of N -acetyl-galactosamine (GalNAc), galactose (Gal) and fucose (Fuc), PPP-1b of Fuc as the only monosaccharide and PPP-2 of glucuronic acid, GalNAc and Fuc. Sulfate contents of PPP, PPP-1a, PPP-1b and PPP-2 were determined to be 21.9%, 20.6%, 25.2% and 28.0% ( w / w ), respectively. PPP and PPP-1a had higher molecular weight and intrinsic viscosity than those of the PPP-1b and PPP-2. PPP, PPP-1a, PPP-1b and PPP-2 exhibited obvious activities of scavenging 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical, hydroxyl radical, superoxide radical and ABTS radical in different extent, which suggested that the polysaccharides from Phyllophorus proteus may be novel agents having potential value for antioxidation.

  1. The Trinity of Portfolio Placement: Validity, Reliability, and Curriculum Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borrowman, Shane

    1999-01-01

    Provides an overview of the Portfolio Placement Project (PPP) at the University of Arizona; explores the concept of validity as it relates to the PPP; explores the concept of reliability within the PPP; and argues that the PPP has had enormous positive impact on the curriculum of the University of Arizona and the schools whose students submit…

  2. Antiphospholipid Syndrome with Antiβ2glicoprotein-1 Antibodies as the Cause of Recurrent Tibial Vein Thrombosis in SAPHO syndrome.

    PubMed

    Przepiera-Będzak, Hanna; Brzosko, Marek

    2016-12-01

    The antiphospholipid antibody syndrome is defined by the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies in patients with recurrent venous or arterial thromboembolism (1). SAPHO syndrome is a rare disease, characterized by specific clinical manifestations of synovitis, acne pustulosis, hyperostosis, and osteitis. It is a disease that manifests with a combination of osseous and articular manifestations associated with skin lesions (2). Venous thrombosis complicating SAPHO syndrome seems to be uncommon with an unclear pathogenesis (3-9). Coexistence of antiphospholipid syndrome and SAPHO syndrome was not previously mentioned in literature. A 33-year-old white woman was diagnosed with SAPHO syndrome at the age of 31. The patient was previously diagnosed with polycystic ovary syndrome and depressive syndrome. She was treated with sulfasalazin (2 g daily) and methotrexate (20 mg weekly). Seven months before admission to our department she experienced an episode of deep vein thrombosis of the left leg, successfully treated with subcutaneous enoxaparin sodium (40 mg daily) that was continued for the following 6 months as secondary prophylaxis. Pustular skin changes on palmar surface of the hands and plantar surface of the feet (characteristic for palmo-plantar pustulosis), tenderness of sterno-clavicular joints, swelling and restricted motion of both wrists, and pain on motion in both elbows, shoulders, knees, and ankles were found on physical examination. There was also a moderate amount of effusion in her left knee. There was a 3-centimeter difference between the circumferences of the shins. The level of C reactive protein was increased (6.21 mg/L). The patient was positive for antiβ2glicoprotein-1 (anti-β2G-1) antibodies. Tests for anticardiolipin antibodies (aCL), antiannexin V antibodies, antiphosphatidylserine antibodies (aPS), and antiprothrombin antibodies (aPT) were negative. Prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, and D-dimer level were normal, and

  3. Naxos Disease in Two Siblings

    PubMed Central

    Meera, G; Prabhavathy, D; Jayakumar, S; Tharini, GK

    2010-01-01

    Naxos disease is a rare cardiocutaneous disorder characterized by palmoplantar keratoderma, woolly hair and arrythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy. We report two siblings with Naxos disease with right middle lobe syndrome in one of them. PMID:21188028

  4. OLMSTED SYNDROME: REPORT OF TWO CASES

    PubMed Central

    Tharini, G K; Hema, N; Jayakumar, S; Parveen, B

    2011-01-01

    Olmsted syndrome is an uncommon genetic disorder with symmetrical, diffuse, transgredient, mutilating palmoplantar keratoderma and periorificial hyperkeratosis. Olmsted syndrome in a female patient is particularly rare, and we report two unrelated female patients of Olmsted syndrome, who presented with perioral hyperkeratosis and palmoplantar keratoderma. One of our patients also had woolly hair from birth and flexion contracture of a digit, while the other had pseudoainhum. There was no cardiac involvement. Hence, the diagnosis of Olmsted syndrome was made. PMID:22121289

  5. Overview of the Project Prometheus Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burdick, G. M.

    2003-01-01

    This presentation will give an overview of the Project Prometheus Program (PPP, formerly the Nuclear Systems Initiative, NSI) and the Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO) Project (a component of PPP), a mission to the three icy Galilean moons of Jupiter.

  6. 5. Historic American Buildings Survey Frank O. Branzetti, Photographer July ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Historic American Buildings Survey Frank O. Branzetti, Photographer July 17, 1940 (ppp) 7- MILE STONE, 1411 BLUE HILL AVE., DORCHESTER - Milestones A, B, E, HHH, III & PPP, Various Dorchester locations, Dorchester, Suffolk County, MA

  7. Altered Expression of Human Smooth Muscle Myosin Phosphatase Targeting (MYPT) Isovariants with Pregnancy and Labor.

    PubMed

    Lartey, Jon; Taggart, Julie; Robson, Stephen; Taggart, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Myosin light-chain phosphatase is a trimeric protein that hydrolyses phosphorylated myosin II light chains (MYLII) to cause relaxation in smooth muscle cells including those of the uterus. A major component of the phosphatase is the myosin targeting subunit (MYPT), which directs a catalytic subunit to dephosphorylate MYLII. There are 5 main MYPT family members (MYPT1 (PPP1R12A), MYPT2 (PPP1R12B), MYPT3 (PPP1R16A), myosin binding subunit 85 MBS85 (PPP1R12C) and TIMAP (TGF-beta-inhibited membrane-associated protein (PPP1R16B)). Nitric oxide (NO)-mediated smooth muscle relaxation has in part been attributed to activation of the phosphatase by PKG binding to a leucine zipper (LZ) dimerization domain located at the carboxyl-terminus of PPP1R12A. In animal studies, alternative splicing of PPP1R12A can lead to the inclusion of a 31-nucleotide exonic segment that generates a LZ negative (LZ-) isovariant rendering the phosphatase less sensitive to NO vasodilators and alterations in PPP1R12ALZ- and LZ+ expression have been linked to phenotypic changes in smooth muscle function. Moreover, PPP1R12B and PPP1R12C, but not PPP1R16A or PPP1R16B, have the potential for LZ+/LZ- alternative splicing. Yet, by comparison to animal studies, the information on human MYPT genomic sequences/mRNA expressions is scant. As uterine smooth muscle undergoes substantial remodeling during pregnancy we were interested in establishing the patterns of expression of human MYPT isovariants during this process and also following labor onset as this could have important implications for determining successful pregnancy outcome. We used cross-species genome alignment, to infer putative human sequences not available in the public domain, and isovariant-specific quantitative PCR, to analyse the expression of mRNA encoding putative LZ+ and LZ- forms of PPP1R12A, PPP1R12B and PPP1R12C as well as canonical PPP1R16A and PPP1R16B genes in human uterine smooth muscle from non-pregnant, pregnant and in

  8. [Inflammatory spondylodiscitis as a unique radiological manifestation of the SAPHO syndrome].

    PubMed

    Cabay, J E; Marcelis, S; Dondelinger, R F

    1998-04-01

    We describe two cases of SAPHO with an exclusive spinal involvement. Diagnosis was established by sterno-clavicular arthralgias, palmar and plantar pustulosis and by radiological signs of inflammatory spondylodiscitis and vertebral osteitis. Spondylodiscitis and medullary edema resolved as shown by MRI after administration of steroids in one case and methotrexate in the other.

  9. The genetic background of generalized pustular psoriasis: IL36RN mutations and CARD14 gain-of-function variants.

    PubMed

    Sugiura, Kazumitsu

    2014-06-01

    Generalized pustular psoriasis (GPP) is often present in patients with existing or prior psoriasis vulgaris (PV; "GPP with PV"). However, cases of GPP have been known to arise without a history of PV ("GPP alone"). There has long been debate over whether GPP alone and GPP with PV are distinct subtypes that are etiologically different from each other. We recently reported that the majority of GPP alone cases is caused by recessive mutations of IL36RN. In contrast, only a few exceptional cases of GPP with PV were found to have recessive IL36RN mutations. Very recently, we also reported that CARD14 p.Asp176His, a gain-of-function variant, is a predisposing factor for GPP with PV; in contrast, the variant is not associated with GPP alone in the Japanese population. These results suggest that GPP alone is genetically different from GPP with PV. IL36RN mutations are also found in some patients with severe acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis, palmar-plantar pustulosis, and acrodermatitis continua of hallopeau. CARD14 mutations and variants are causal or disease susceptibility factors of PV, GPP, or pityriasis rubra pilaris, depending on the mutation or variant position of CARD14. It is clinically important to analyze IL36RN mutations in patients with sterile pustulosis. For example, identifying recessive IL36RN mutations leads to early diagnosis of GPP, even at the first episode of pustulosis. In addition, individuals with IL36RN mutations are very susceptible to GPP or GPP-related generalized pustulosis induced by drugs (e.g., amoxicillin), infections, pregnancy, or menstruation. Copyright © 2014 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Efficacy of Precordial Percussion Pacing Assessed in a Cardiac Standstill Microminipig Model.

    PubMed

    Wada, Takeshi; Ohara, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Yuji; Cao, Xin; Izumi-Nakaseko, Hiroko; Ando, Kentaro; Honda, Mitsuru; Yoshihara, Katsunori; Nakazato, Yuji; Lurie, Keith G; Sugiyama, Atsushi

    2017-07-25

    Potential cardiovascular benefits of precordial percussion pacing (PPP) during cardiac standstill are unknown.Methods and Results:A cardiac standstill model in amicrominipigwas created by inducing complete atrioventricular block with a catheter ablation technique (n=7). Next, the efficacy of cardiopulmonary resuscitation by standard chest compressions (S-CPR), PPP and ventricular electrical pacing in this model were analyzed in series (n=4). To assess the mechanism of PPP, a non-selective, stretch-activated channel blocker, amiloride, was administered during PPP (n=3). Peak systolic and diastolic arterial pressures during S-CPR, PPP and ventricular electrical pacing were statistically similar. However, the duration of developed arterial pressure with PPP was comparable to that with ventricular electrical pacing, and significantly greater than that with S-CPR. Amiloride decreased the induction rate of ventricular electrical activity by PPP in a dose-related manner. Each animal survived without any neurological deficit at 24, 48 h and 1 week, even with up to 2 h of continuous PPP. In amicrominipigmodel of cardiac standstill, PPP can become a novel means to significantly improve physiological outcomes after cardiac standstill or symptomatic bradyarrhythmias in the absence of cardiac pacing. Activation of the non-selective stretch-activated channels may mediate some of the mechanophysiological effects of PPP. Further study of PPP by itself and together with S-CPR is warranted using cardiac arrest models of atrioventricular block and asystole.

  11. Not so pseudo: the evolutionary history of protein phosphatase 1 regulatory subunit 2 and related pseudogenes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Pseudogenes are traditionally considered “dead” genes, therefore lacking biological functions. This view has however been challenged during the last decade. This is the case of the Protein phosphatase 1 regulatory subunit 2 (PPP1R2) or inhibitor-2 gene family, for which several incomplete copies exist scattered throughout the genome. Results In this study, the pseudogenization process of PPP1R2 was analyzed. Ten PPP1R2-related pseudogenes (PPP1R2P1-P10), highly similar to PPP1R2, were retrieved from the human genome assembly present in the databases. The phylogenetic analysis of mammalian PPP1R2 and related pseudogenes suggested that PPP1R2P7 and PPP1R2P9 retroposons appeared before the great mammalian radiation, while the remaining pseudogenes are primate-specific and retroposed at different times during Primate evolution. Although considered inactive, four of these pseudogenes seem to be transcribed and possibly possess biological functions. Given the role of PPP1R2 in sperm motility, the presence of these proteins was assessed in human sperm, and two PPP1R2-related proteins were detected, PPP1R2P3 and PPP1R2P9. Signatures of negative and positive selection were also detected in PPP1R2P9, further suggesting a role as a functional protein. Conclusions The results show that contrary to initial observations PPP1R2-related pseudogenes are not simple bystanders of the evolutionary process but may rather be at the origin of genes with novel functions. PMID:24195737

  12. [Psychoprophylaxis and the rate of cesarean section].

    PubMed

    Oyuela-García, Juana; Hernández-Herrera, Ricardo Jorge

    2010-01-01

    The psychoprophylactic programs (PPP) have been widely used in women to face the fear-tension-pain cycle, reducing anxiety and pain during labour. The aim was to demonstrate if a PPP reduces the caesarean rate. 300 low risk pregnant women were included; 100 in the PPP group and 200 in the control group. The PPP participants attended theory and practical sessions; they visited labor, delivery, recovery and hospitalization areas. Chi-square, Student's t test and odds ratio were applied. Pregnancy ended by caesarean section in 35/100 of PPP group and in 99/200 (49.5%) in control group (p < 0.02, OR = 1.8, IC = 1.1-2.9). Maternal complications occurred in 13/100 in the PPP group, and 42/200 (21%) in control group (p = 0.09, RM = 0.56). The newborn (NB) complications were observed in 9/100 in PPP and 46/200 (23%) in control group (p < 0.02, OR = 0.33). In the PPP group, 70% assisted to three or more sessions. Hospital stance in control group, accumulated 17 days more in mothers and 171 days more in NB than in the PPP group. In PPP group observed a caesarean rate reduction with fewer maternal and perinatal complications.

  13. Novel pre-therapeutic scoring system using patient and haematological data to predict facial palsy prognosis.

    PubMed

    Wasano, K; Ishikawa, T; Kawasaki, T; Yamamoto, S; Tomisato, S; Shinden, S; Minami, S; Wakabayashi, T; Ogawa, K

    2017-12-01

    We describe a novel scoring system, the facial Palsy Prognosis Prediction score (PPP score), which we test for reliability in predicting pre-therapeutic prognosis of facial palsy. We aimed to use readily available patient data that all clinicians have access to before starting treatment. Multicenter case series with chart review. Three tertiary care hospitals. We obtained haematological and demographic data from 468 facial palsy patients who were treated between 2010 and 2014 in three tertiary care hospitals. Patients were categorised as having Bell's palsy or Ramsey Hunt's palsy. We compared the data of recovered and unrecovered patients. PPP scores consisted of combinatorial threshold values of continuous patient data (eg platelet count) and categorical variables (eg gender) that best predicted recovery. We created separate PPP scores for Bell's palsy patients (PPP-B) and for Ramsey Hunt's palsy patients (PPP-H). The PPP-B score included age (≥65 years), gender (male) and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (≥2.9). The PPP-H score included age (≥50 years), monocyte rate (≥6.0%), mean corpuscular volume (≥95 fl) and platelet count (≤200 000 /μL). Patient recovery rate significantly decreased with increasing PPP scores (both PPP-B and PPP-H) in a step-wise manner. PPP scores (ie PPP-B score and PPP-H score) ≥2 were associated with worse than average prognosis. Palsy Prognosis Prediction scores are useful for predicting prognosis of facial palsy before beginning treatment. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. [Keratosis palmoplantaris maculosa seu papulosa (Davies-Colley) simulating multiple cornua cutanea].

    PubMed

    Schreiber, D; Stücker, M; Hoffmann, K; Bacharach-Buhles, M; Altmeyer, P

    1997-08-01

    Patient with extensive keratosis palmoplantaris maculosa seu papulosa (Davies-Colley) presented with multiple cutaneous horns. The clinical picture, the histology, the electro microscopic examination, the negative tumor screening and the viral classification in the tissue allowed the differentiation from other palmoplantar keratoses. The patient was treated successfully using a combination of acitretin with physical and chemical measures.

  15. Clinicoepidemiological Study of Different Types of Warts

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Sanjeev; Sharma, Yugal K.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Warts are cutaneous and, sometimes, mucosal lesions caused by one of the several human papilloma viruses. Aim. Assessment of the clinicoepidemiological aspects of warts. Materials and Methods. One hundred consecutive patients of warts presenting to the department of our institution were assigned two broad locational groups: genital and nongenital warts, the latter subdivided into common, plane, palmoplantar, mosaic, and digitate/filiform. Results. Ninety had nongenital and 10 had genital warts in our study; common (42%), palmoplantar (20%), and plane (18%) were the common types of the nongenital warts. All the genital warts were acuminate. In the second decade, the commonest age group, encompassed all patients of mosaic, 40% of palmoplantar, and 20% of genital warts. Overall male (66%) preponderance xisted. All cases of filiform warts were males. Mosaic warts affected females more commonly. Students (32%), laborers (28%), and housewives (16%) were the usual occupations. Cosmetic concern (92%), pain (16%), and itching (15%) were the common complaints. All patients of genital warts sought treatment within 6 months. Conclusions. Common, palmoplantar, and plane warts were the common types of nongenital warts. Overall prevalence peaked during the second decade but one-third of the cases of plane warts occurred during the first. Extremities were the most common sites (66.7%); face was the next commonly (23%) involved. PMID:27047542

  16. Preparation of a porcine plasma protein composite film and its application.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ji-Hyun; Song, Kyung Bin

    2015-01-01

    To use blood released from slaughtering houses, a porcine plasma protein (PPP)/nanoclay composite film was prepared. The tensile strength and elongation at break values of the PPP composite film with 5% nanoclay were 10.01 MPa and 6.55%, respectively. The PPP composite film containing 1% grapefruit seed extract (GSE) was applied to pork meat, and the populations of inoculated Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Listeria monocytogenes in the pork meat packaged with the PPP composite film decreased by 0.8 and 1.0 log CFU/g, respectively, after 7 days of storage compared to the populations of the control. In addition, thiobarbituric acid values in the pork meat packaged with the PPP composite film were less than those of the control sample during storage. These results suggest that the PPP nanocomposite film containing 1% GSE can be used as a packaging material to maintain the quality of pork meat.

  17. Modeling and Assessment of Precise Time Transfer by Using BeiDou Navigation Satellite System Triple-Frequency Signals.

    PubMed

    Tu, Rui; Zhang, Pengfei; Zhang, Rui; Liu, Jinhai; Lu, Xiaochun

    2018-03-29

    This study proposes two models for precise time transfer using the BeiDou Navigation Satellite System triple-frequency signals: ionosphere-free (IF) combined precise point positioning (PPP) model with two dual-frequency combinations (IF-PPP1) and ionosphere-free combined PPP model with a single triple-frequency combination (IF-PPP2). A dataset with a short baseline (with a common external time frequency) and a long baseline are used for performance assessments. The results show that IF-PPP1 and IF-PPP2 models can both be used for precise time transfer using BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS) triple-frequency signals, and the accuracy and stability of time transfer is the same in both cases, except for a constant system bias caused by the hardware delay of different frequencies, which can be removed by the parameter estimation and prediction with long time datasets or by a priori calibration.

  18. Modeling and Assessment of Precise Time Transfer by Using BeiDou Navigation Satellite System Triple-Frequency Signals

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Pengfei; Zhang, Rui; Liu, Jinhai; Lu, Xiaochun

    2018-01-01

    This study proposes two models for precise time transfer using the BeiDou Navigation Satellite System triple-frequency signals: ionosphere-free (IF) combined precise point positioning (PPP) model with two dual-frequency combinations (IF-PPP1) and ionosphere-free combined PPP model with a single triple-frequency combination (IF-PPP2). A dataset with a short baseline (with a common external time frequency) and a long baseline are used for performance assessments. The results show that IF-PPP1 and IF-PPP2 models can both be used for precise time transfer using BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS) triple-frequency signals, and the accuracy and stability of time transfer is the same in both cases, except for a constant system bias caused by the hardware delay of different frequencies, which can be removed by the parameter estimation and prediction with long time datasets or by a priori calibration. PMID:29596330

  19. Severe Cutaneous Drug Reactions: Do Overlapping Forms Exist?

    PubMed

    Horcajada-Reales, C; Pulido-Pérez, A; Suárez-Fernández, R

    2016-01-01

    Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis, and drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms are all severe hypersensitivity reactions to medications. While each of these reactions is a well-established entity with specific diagnostic criteria, clinicians see cases that fulfill criteria for more than one form, prompting discussion on the possibility of combined forms. Such overlapping clinical pictures meeting the criteria for 2 conditions have thus become a topic of debate in dermatology in recent years. We describe 2 patients with cutaneous drug reactions having the characteristics of both acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis and Stevens-Johnson syndrome -toxic epidermal necrolysis. We also review previously published cases and current thinking on such overlapping conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEDV. All rights reserved.

  20. Osteitis--an under-recognised association with seronegative spondyloarthropathy?

    PubMed

    Stebbings, S; Highton, J; Doyle, T C; Jeffery, A K

    1997-12-12

    To emphasise osteitis as a feature of the spondyloarthritides. We describe four cases spanning a spectrum of the spondyloarthritides in which osteitis was a feature. One patient had psoriatic arthritis with palmar-plantar pustular psoriasis and extensive osteitis involving the tibia and fibula. This case provides a link with two cases with SAPHO syndrome (synovitis, acne, pustulosis hyperostosis, osteitis) who had palmar-plantar pustulosis and osteitis. Many now argue that this syndrome is a form of spondyloarthritis. The fourth case, which was of particular interest to us, had enteric reactive arthritis and scintigraphic changes strongly suggesting the presence of osteitis of individual bones in the wrist. We propose that these four cases demonstrate that osteitis may be another feature common to the spondyloarthritides and SAPHO. Awareness of this may facilitate better documentation of this feature of the disease.

  1. Picropodophyllin inhibits the growth of Ewing's sarcoma cells through the insulin‑like growth factor‑1 receptor/Akt signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yong-Tao; Wang, Bao-Jun; Miao, Sheng-Wu; Gao, Jian-Jun

    2015-11-01

    Ewing's sarcoma (ES) is the second most common type of pediatric bone tumor, and is associated with a poor prognosis. Picropodophyllin (PPP), a novel selective inhibitor of insulin‑like growth factor‑1 receptor (IGF‑1R), is able to strongly inhibit various types of cancers. However, the effect of IGF‑1R on ES remains unclear. Following treatment with various concentrations of PPP for various times, cell viability was determined using an MTT assay. In addition, cell proliferation and apoptosis was investigated separately by bromodeoxyuridine staining and flow cytometry, respectively. The PPP‑associated signaling pathway was also investigated. The results of the present study suggested that PPP inhibited cell proliferation and viability of A673 and SK‑ES‑1 human Ewing's sarcoma cells in a dose- and time‑dependent manner. In addition, cell apoptosis rates were increased following treatment with PPP. Further investigation of the underlying mechanism revealed that PPP inhibited Akt phosphorylation. Fumonisin B1, an Akt‑specific activator, reversed the inhibitory effects of PPP on cell growth. Furthermore, the results suggested that PPP decreased the expression levels of IGF‑1R, a common activator of Akt signaling. PPP inhibited the growth of human Ewing's sarcoma cells by targeting the IGF‑1R/Akt signaling pathway. Therefore, PPP may prove useful in the development of an effective strategy for the treatment of Ewing's sarcoma.

  2. Participation in Physical Play and Leisure in Children With Motor Impairments: Mixed-Methods Study to Generate Evidence for Developing an Intervention.

    PubMed

    Kolehmainen, Niina; Ramsay, Craig; McKee, Lorna; Missiuna, Cheryl; Owen, Christine; Francis, Jill

    2015-10-01

    Participation in physical play/leisure (PPP) is an important therapy goal of children with motor impairments. Evidence for interventions promoting PPP in these children is scarce. The first step is to identify modifiable, clinically meaningful predictors of PPP for targeting by interventions. The study objective was to identify, in children with motor impairments, body function and structure, activity, environmental, and personal factors related to PPP and modifiable by therapists. This was a mixed-methods, intervention development study. The World Health Organization framework International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health was used. Participants were children (6-8 years old) with motor impairments, mobilizing independently with or without equipment and seen by physical therapists or occupational therapists in 6 regions in the United Kingdom, and their parents. Self-reported PPP was assessed with the Children's Assessment of Participation and Enjoyment. Modifiable-factor data were collected with therapists' observations, parent questionnaires, and child-friendly interviews. The Children's Assessment of Participation and Enjoyment, therapist, and parent data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and linear regression. Interview data were analyzed for emerging themes. Children's (n=195) PPP (X=18 times per week, interquartile range=11-25) was mainly 'recreational' (eg, pretend play, playing with pets) rather than 'active physical' (eg, riding a bike/scooter). Parents (n=152) reported positive beliefs about children's PPP but various levels of family PPP. Therapists reported 23 unique impairments (eg, muscle tone), 16 activity limitations (eg, walking), and 3 personal factors (eg, child's PPP confidence). Children interviewed (n=17) reported a strong preference for active play but indicated that adults regulated their PPP. Family PPP and impairment in the child's movement-related body structures explained 18% of the variation in PPP. Family

  3. Progressive preoperative pneumoperitoneum preparation (the Goni Moreno protocol) prior to large incisional hernia surgery: volumetric, respiratory and clinical impacts. A prospective study.

    PubMed

    Sabbagh, C; Dumont, F; Fuks, D; Yzet, T; Verhaeghe, P; Regimbeau, J-M

    2012-02-01

    Progressive preoperative pneumoperitoneum (PPP) is used to prepare incisional hernias with loss of domain (IHLD) operations. The aim of the present study was to analyze the effect of PPP on peritoneal volume [measured using a new computed tomography (CT)-based method] and respiratory function. From July 2004 to July 2008, 19 patients were included in a prospective, observational study. The volumes of the incisional hernia (VIH), the abdominal cavity (VAC), the total peritoneal content (VP) and the VIH/VP ratio were measured before and after PPP using abdominal CT scan data. Spirometric parameters were measured before and after PPP, and postoperative clinical data were evaluated. Before and after PPP, the mean VIH was 1,420 cc and 2,110 cc (P  < 0.01), and the mean VAC was 9,083 cc and 11,104 cc (P < 0.01). The VAC increased by 2,021 cc (P < 0.01) and was greater than the mean VIH before PPP. After PPP, the spirometric measurements revealed a restrictive syndrome. The overall postoperative morbidity rate was 37%. PPP increased the hernia and abdominal volumes. PPP induced a progressive, restrictive syndrome.

  4. Participation in Physical Play and Leisure in Children With Motor Impairments: Mixed-Methods Study to Generate Evidence for Developing an Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Ramsay, Craig; McKee, Lorna; Missiuna, Cheryl; Owen, Christine; Francis, Jill

    2015-01-01

    Background Participation in physical play/leisure (PPP) is an important therapy goal of children with motor impairments. Evidence for interventions promoting PPP in these children is scarce. The first step is to identify modifiable, clinically meaningful predictors of PPP for targeting by interventions. Objective The study objective was to identify, in children with motor impairments, body function and structure, activity, environmental, and personal factors related to PPP and modifiable by therapists. Design This was a mixed-methods, intervention development study. The World Health Organization framework International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health was used. Methods Participants were children (6–8 years old) with motor impairments, mobilizing independently with or without equipment and seen by physical therapists or occupational therapists in 6 regions in the United Kingdom, and their parents. Self-reported PPP was assessed with the Children's Assessment of Participation and Enjoyment. Modifiable-factor data were collected with therapists' observations, parent questionnaires, and child-friendly interviews. The Children's Assessment of Participation and Enjoyment, therapist, and parent data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and linear regression. Interview data were analyzed for emerging themes. Results Children's (n=195) PPP (X=18 times per week, interquartile range=11–25) was mainly ‘recreational’ (eg, pretend play, playing with pets) rather than ‘active physical’ (eg, riding a bike/scooter). Parents (n=152) reported positive beliefs about children's PPP but various levels of family PPP. Therapists reported 23 unique impairments (eg, muscle tone), 16 activity limitations (eg, walking), and 3 personal factors (eg, child's PPP confidence). Children interviewed (n=17) reported a strong preference for active play but indicated that adults regulated their PPP. Family PPP and impairment in the child's movement-related body

  5. [Role of the medium acidity in the complexes formation of pyropheophorbide a with albumin and lipoproteins].

    PubMed

    Golovina, G V; Ol'shevskaia, V A; Kalinina, V N; Shtil', A A; Kuz'min, V A

    2011-01-01

    The spectral characteristics of the photosensitizer pyropheophorbide a (PPP) complexes with its carriers, that is, serum albumin and low density lipoproteins, were investigated in aqueous solutions at pH 7.4 and 5.0. The acidic pH had no effect on the quantitative parameters of PPP binding to lipoproteins but reduces its affinity for albumin. Differential role of acidification in the binding of PPP to biomacromolecules should be considered in the design of PPP-based drugs given that pH is frequently lowered in the sites of the disease.

  6. Plantar blood flow response to accumulated pressure stimulus in diabetic people with different peak plantar pressure: a non-randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Pu, Fang; Ren, Weiyan; Fu, Hongyuan; Zheng, Xuan; Yang, Min; Jan, Yih-Kuen; Fan, Yubo

    2018-05-11

    The aim of this study was to investigate the plantar blood flow response to the same accumulated pressure stimulus in diabetic patients with different peak plantar pressure (PPP), which is important for assessing the risk of diabetic foot ulcer. Eleven diabetic subjects with high PPP (PPP ≥ 207 kPa) and 8 diabetic subjects with low PPP (PPP < 207 kPa) were asked to walk naturally on a treadmill so as to induce an accumulated stimulus of 73,000 kPa·s on their first metatarsal head, which was monitored with a sensorized insole. Blood perfusion (BP) in the first metatarsal head was measured before and after walking. Results showed that blood flow after applying the same walking stimulus was significantly decreased in comparison to the basal BP before walking in both high PPP and low PPP groups (p < 0.05), but no significant differences were found between the two groups in terms of BP parameters and its percentage change (p > 0.05). Moreover, BP parameters were not significantly correlated to PPP and the pressure-time integral (PTI) of the subjects' gait (p > 0.05). This indicated that, besides PPP and PTI, the accumulated mechanical stimulus should be taken into consideration when assessing the risk of diabetic patients developing foot ulcers. Graphical abstract Plantar blood flow response to a walking stimulus.

  7. Performance Evaluation of Real-Time Precise Point Positioning Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alcay, Salih; Turgut, Muzeyyen

    2017-12-01

    Post-Processed Precise Point Positioning (PPP) is a well-known zero-difference positioning method which provides accurate and precise results. After the experimental tests, IGS Real Time Service (RTS) officially provided real time orbit and clock products for the GNSS community that allows real-time (RT) PPP applications. Different software packages can be used for RT-PPP. In this study, in order to evaluate the performance of RT-PPP, 3 IGS stations are used. Results, obtained by using BKG Ntrip Client (BNC) Software v2.12, are examined in terms of both accuracy and precision.

  8. Factors Leading to Persistent Postsurgical Pain in Adolescents Undergoing Spinal Fusion: An Integrative Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Perry, Mallory; Starkweather, Angela; Baumbauer, Kyle; Young, Erin

    Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is the most common spinal deformity among children and adolescents and the most frequent reason for corrective spinal fusion (SF). Of the children and adolescents who undergo SF, a significant number will experience persistent postoperative pain (PPP). This integrative literature review was conducted to identify and synthesize perioperative factors that may contribute to risk of developing PPP. Articles which addressed PPP within the last 10years and primary research on postoperative pain outcomes in adolescents after SF were selected for review. 15 articles which met eligibility criteria were included. Preoperative pain intensity was the most significant factor identified in the development of PPP and increased postoperative pain. Social function and psychological factors also have role in the development of PPP. There were no theoretical models or frameworks for evaluating PPP incidence in adolescent with AIS after SF. Perioperative factors such as, preoperative pain, correction magnitude, pain coping, anxiety and social functioning are vital to understanding a child's risk of PPP following SF. There is a need for theoretically-based studies to assess PPP among children and adolescents with AIS after SF surgery. The Biobehavioral Pain Network (BPN) model was proposed, to encompass biological, social and psychological domains which may be responsible for incidence of PPP in children undergoing SF. Such a model can be used to systematically develop and evaluate personalized postoperative pain management strategies for this patient population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Gas and hydrocarbon vapor permeation in poly(1-trimethylsilyl-1-propyne)/poly(1-phenyl-1-propyne) blends

    SciT

    Morisato, A.; Shen, H.C.; Toy, L.G.

    1996-12-31

    Permeation properties of phase-separated blends prepared from glassy poly(1-trimethylsilyl-1-propyne) (PTMSP) and poly(1-phenyl-1-propyne) (PPP) were determined as a function of blend composition with pure hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide, and butane. Blend permeabilities decrease significantly with increasing PPP concentration and suggest the occurrence of a phase inversion at low PPP content (5 to 20 wt%). Based on TEM analysis high-aspect-ratio (extended) PPP ellipsoidal dispersions are found in a PTMSP matrix, indicating that the phase inversion is closely related to dispersed-phase connectivity in the blends.

  10. SAPHO syndrome in an adult with ulcerative colitis responsive to intravenous pamidronate: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Siau, Keith; Laversuch, Catherine J

    2010-06-01

    Synovitis, acne, pustulosis, hyperostosis, osteitis (SAPHO) syndrome is a rare group of sterile, inflammatory osteoarticular disorders classically associated with skin lesions. It is occasionally associated with enteropathic disease such as ulcerative colitis. We present a 39-year-old patient with chronic ulcerative colitis who developed enteropathic SAPHO and responded well to pamidronate. We discuss the clinicopathological features with particular attention to bone pathology, and perform a literature review of this fascinating syndrome.

  11. Severe hepatotoxic reaction with progression to cirrhosis after use of a novel retinoid (acitretin).

    PubMed

    van Ditzhuijsen, T J; van Haelst, U J; van Dooren-Greebe, R J; van de Kerkhof, P C; Yap, S H

    1990-09-01

    We report the case of a 50-year-old female who suffered from severe palmar and plantar pustulosis. During treatment with acitretin, a novel oral retinoid, which is the main derivative of etretinate, the patient developed a severe hepatotoxic reaction. Subsequent histological studies strongly suggested the development of liver cirrhosis. Reversible elevation of serum aminotransferase values during treatment with acitretin has been reported. However, the present observation indicates that severe hepatotoxic injury may also follow treatment with this agent.

  12. Cardiac-specific deletion of protein phosphatase 1β promotes increased myofilament protein phosphorylation and contractile alterations

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ruijie; Correll, Robert N.; Davis, Jennifer; Vagnozzi, Ronald J.; York, Allen J.; Sargent, Michelle A.; Nairn, Angus C.; Molkentin, Jeffery D.

    2015-01-01

    There are 3 protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) catalytic isoforms (α, β and γ) encoded within the mammalian genome. These 3 gene products share ~90% amino acid homology within their catalytic domains but each has unique N- and C-termini that likely underlie distinctive subcellular localization or functionality. In this study, we assessed the effect associated with loss of each PP1 isoform in the heart using a conditional Cre-loxP targeting approach in mice. Ppp1ca-loxP, Ppp1cb-loxP and Ppp1cc-oxP alleles were crossed with either an Nkx2.5-Cre knock-in containing allele for early embryonic deletion or a tamoxifen inducible α-myosin heavy chain (αMHC)-MerCreMer transgene for adult and cardiac-specific deletion. We determined that while deletion of Ppp1ca (PP1α) or Ppp1cc (PP1γ) had little effect on the whole heart, deletion of Ppp1cb (PP1β) resulted in concentric remodeling of the heart, interstitial fibrosis and contractile dysregulation, using either the embryonic or adult-specific Cre-expressing alleles. However, myocytes isolated from Ppp1cb deleted hearts surprisingly showed enhanced contractility. Mechanistically we found that deletion of any of the 3 PP1 gene-encoding isoforms had no effect on phosphorylation of phospholamban, nor were Ca2+ handling dynamics altered in adult myocytes from Ppp1cb deleted hearts. However, loss of Ppp1cb from the heart, but not Ppp1ca or Ppp1cc, resulted in elevated phosphorylation of myofilament proteins such as myosin light chain 2 and cardiac myosin binding protein C, consistent with an enriched localization profile of this isoform to the sarcomeres. These results suggest a unique functional role for the PP1β isoform in affecting cardiac contractile function. PMID:26334248

  13. SciT

    Yin, Shu-Cheng; Department of Otolaryngology – Head and Neck Surgery, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071; Guo, Wei

    Highlights: •We identified that PPP inhibits IGF-1R/Akt pathway in NPC cells. •PPP dose-dependently inhibits NPC cell proliferation in vitro. •PPP suppresses tumor growth of NPC in nude mice. •PPP have little effect on microtubule assembly. -- Abstract: Insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) is a cell membrane receptor with tyrosine kinase activity and plays important roles in cell transformation, tumor growth, tumor invasion, and metastasis. Picropodophyllin (PPP) is a selective IGF-1R inhibitor and shows promising antitumor effects for several human cancers. However, its antitumor effects in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) remain unclear. The purpose of this study is to investigate the antitumormore » activity of PPP in NPC using in vitro cell culture and in vivo animal model. We found that PPP dose-dependently decreased the IGF-induced phosphorylation and activity of IGF-1R and consequently reduced the phosphorylation of Akt, one downstream target of IGF-1R. In addition, PPP inhibited NPC cell proliferation in vitro. The half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of PPP for NPC cell line CNE-2 was ⩽1 μM at 24 h after treatment and ⩽0.5 μM at 48 h after treatment, respectively. Moreover, administration of PPP by intraperitoneal injection significantly suppressed the tumor growth of xenografted NPC in nude mice. Taken together, these results suggest targeting IGF-1R by PPP may represent a new strategy for treatment of NPCs with positive IGF-1R expression.« less

  14. TCTEX1D4, a novel protein phosphatase 1 interactor: connecting the phosphatase to the microtubule network

    PubMed Central

    Korrodi-Gregório, Luís; Vieira, Sandra I.; Esteves, Sara L. C.; Silva, Joana V.; Freitas, Maria João; Brauns, Ann-Kristin; Luers, Georg; Abrantes, Joana; Esteves, Pedro J.; da Cruz e Silva, Odete A. B.; Fardilha, Margarida; da Cruz e Silva, Edgar F.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Reversible phosphorylation plays an important role as a mechanism of intracellular control in eukaryotes. PPP1, a major eukaryotic Ser/Thr-protein phosphatase, acquires its specificity by interacting with different protein regulators, also known as PPP1 interacting proteins (PIPs). In the present work we characterized a physiologically relevant PIP in testis. Using a yeast two-hybrid screen with a human testis cDNA library, we identified a novel PIP of PPP1CC2 isoform, the T-complex testis expressed protein 1 domain containing 4 (TCTEX1D4) that has recently been described as a Tctex1 dynein light chain family member. The overlay assays confirm that TCTEX1D4 interacts with the different spliced isoforms of PPP1CC. Also, the binding domain occurs in the N-terminus, where a consensus PPP1 binding motif (PPP1BM) RVSF is present. The distribution of TCTEX1D4 in testis suggests its involvement in distinct functions, such as TGFβ signaling at the blood–testis barrier and acrosome cap formation. Immunofluorescence in human ejaculated sperm shows that TCTEX1D4 is present in the flagellum and in the acrosome region of the head. Moreover, TCTEX1D4 and PPP1 co-localize in the microtubule organizing center (MTOC) and microtubules in cell cultures. Importantly, the TCTEX1D4 PPP1BM seems to be relevant for complex formation, for PPP1 retention in the MTOC and movement along microtubules. These novel results open new avenues to possible roles of this dynein, together with PPP1. In essence TCTEX1D4/PPP1C complex appears to be involved in microtubule dynamics, sperm motility, acrosome reaction and in the regulation of the blood–testis barrier. PMID:23789093

  15. Glycyrrhetinic Acid-Mediated Polymeric Drug Delivery Targeting the Acidic Microenvironment of Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jinming; Zhang, Min; Ji, Juan; Fang, Xiefan; Pan, Xin; Wang, Yitao; Wu, Chuanbin; Chen, Meiwan

    2015-10-01

    The major hurdle of current drug carrier against hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the lack of specific and selective drug delivery to HCC. In this study, a novel glycyrrhetinic acid (GA) and poly(L-Histidine) (PHIS) mediated polymeric drug delivery system was developed to target HCC that have GA binding receptors and release its encapsulated anticancer drug in the acidic microenvironment of HCC. Firstly, GA and PHIS were conjugated to form poly (ethylene glycol)-poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (GA-PEG-PHIS-PLGA, GA-PPP) micelles by grafting reaction between active terminal groups. Secondly, andrographolide (AGP) was encapsulated to GA-PPP to make AGP/GA-PPP using the solvent evaporation method. The pH-responsive property of AGP/GA-PPP micelles was validated by monitoring its stability and drug release behavior in different pH conditions. Furthermore, selective hepatocellular uptake of GA-PPP micelles in vitro, liver specific drug accumulation in vivo, as well as the enhanced antitumor effects of AGP/GA-PPP micelles confirmed the HCC targeting property of our novel drug delivery system. Average size of AGP/GA-PPP micelles increased significantly and the encapsulated AGP released faster in vitro at pH 5.0, while micelles keeping stable in pH 7.4. AGP/GA-PPP micelles were uptaken more efficiently by human Hep3B liver cells than that by human MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. GA-PPP micelles accumulated specifically in the liver and possessed long retention time in vivo. AGP/GA-PPP micelles significantly inhibited tumor growth and provided better therapeutic outcomes compared to free AGP and AGP/PEG-PLGA(AGP/PP) micelles without GA and PHIS decoration. This novel GA-PPP polymeric carrier is promising for targeted treatment of HCC.

  16. Biological evaluation and finite-element modeling of porous poly(para-phenylene) for orthopaedic implants.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Hyunhee; Patel, Ravi R; Hoyt, Anthony J; Lin, Angela S P; Torstrick, F Brennan; Guldberg, Robert E; Frick, Carl P; Carpenter, R Dana; Yakacki, Christopher M; Willett, Nick J

    2018-05-01

    Poly(para-phenylene) (PPP) is a novel aromatic polymer with higher strength and stiffness than polyetheretherketone (PEEK), the gold standard material for polymeric load-bearing orthopaedic implants. The amorphous structure of PPP makes it relatively straightforward to manufacture different architectures, while maintaining mechanical properties. PPP is promising as a potential orthopaedic material; however, the biocompatibility and osseointegration have not been well investigated. The objective of this study was to evaluate biological and mechanical behavior of PPP, with or without porosity, in comparison to PEEK. We examined four specific constructs: 1) solid PPP, 2) solid PEEK, 3) porous PPP and 4) porous PEEK. Pre-osteoblasts (MC3T3) exhibited similar cell proliferation among the materials. Osteogenic potential was significantly increased in the porous PPP scaffold as assessed by ALP activity and calcium mineralization. In vivo osseointegration was assessed by implanting the cylindrical materials into a defect in the metaphysis region of rat tibiae. Significantly more mineral ingrowth was observed in both porous scaffolds compared to the solid scaffolds, and porous PPP had a further increase compared to porous PEEK. Additionally, porous PPP implants showed bone formation throughout the porous structure when observed via histology. A computational simulation of mechanical push-out strength showed approximately 50% higher interfacial strength in the porous PPP implants compared to the porous PEEK implants and similar stress dissipation. These data demonstrate the potential utility of PPP for orthopaedic applications and show improved osseointegration when compared to the currently available polymeric material. PEEK has been widely used in orthopaedic surgery; however, the ability to utilize PEEK for advanced fabrication methods, such as 3D printing and tailored porosity, remain challenging. We present a promising new orthopaedic biomaterial, Poly

  17. Australian Vocational Education and Training Statistics: Outcomes from the Productivity Places Program, 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2009

    2009-01-01

    Information is presented in this publication about the outcomes for students who completed their vocational education and training (VET) under the Productivity Places Program (PPP) during 2008. The Productivity Places Program Survey covers students who were awarded a qualification in 2008 with funding from the PPP. The survey focuses on students'…

  18. Increasing Principal Preparation Candidates' Awareness of Biases in Educational Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Karen D.; Ringler, Marjorie C.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine whether the study of diversity topics embedded in a Principal Preparation Program (PPP) internship changed candidates' self-awareness of their biases in educational environments and the biases they observed in their school community. In this study PPP candidates' perceptions of their biases and those of…

  19. Preservation at Stony Brook. Preservation Planning Program. Study Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Donald C.; And Others

    This final report is a product of a Preservation Planning Program (PPP) self-study conducted by the State University of New York (SUNY), Stony Brook, working with the Association of Research Libraries' (ARL) Office of Management Studies (OMS). The PPP is designed to put self-help tools into the hands of library staff responsible for developing…

  20. United States Grand Strategy: Implications of Decline and Retrenchment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-01

    5 2. GDP Based on PPP Share of World Total. (Reprinted from IMF [2011...external/pubs/ft/weo/2011/update/01 (accessed May 17, 2012). Figure 2: GDP Based on PPP Share of World Total. (Reprinted from IMF [2011].) In...47 Tanzania -- 53 -- -- -- -- 46 65 Nigeria 46 76 61 -- -- 62 70 64 S. Africa -- 65 -- -- -- -- -- 60 22

  1. Quantifying potential propagule pressure of aquatic invasive species from the commercial shipping industry in Canada.

    PubMed

    Lo, Veronica B; Levings, Colin D; Chan, Kai M A

    2012-02-01

    We quantify and compare different measures of potential propagule pressure (PPP) of aquatic invasive species (AIS) from commercial vessels in Canada. We used ship arrivals and ballast water discharge volumes as proxies for PPP from ballast water organisms, and wetted surface area (WSA) as a proxy for hull fouling PPP, to determine their relative contributions to total PPP. For three regions studied, PPP proxies correlated significantly across ports and some vessel categories. Relative contributions of ship arrivals, ballast discharge, and WSAs to PPP, evidenced by non-significant correlations across these measures, varied across regions, ports, vessel types, and seasons. Flow-through (dominant on east and west coasts) and empty-refill (in Great Lakes-St. Lawrence region) were the major ballast water exchange methods employed by the vessels surveyed. These methods have different biological efficacy for AIS removal, influencing PPP. Our study illustrates benefits and limitations of using different PPP proxies to estimate invasion risk. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Real-Time Single Frequency Precise Point Positioning Using SBAS Corrections

    PubMed Central

    Li, Liang; Jia, Chun; Zhao, Lin; Cheng, Jianhua; Liu, Jianxu; Ding, Jicheng

    2016-01-01

    Real-time single frequency precise point positioning (PPP) is a promising technique for high-precision navigation with sub-meter or even centimeter-level accuracy because of its convenience and low cost. The navigation performance of single frequency PPP heavily depends on the real-time availability and quality of correction products for satellite orbits and satellite clocks. Satellite-based augmentation system (SBAS) provides the correction products in real-time, but they are intended to be used for wide area differential positioning at 1 meter level precision. By imposing the constraints for ionosphere error, we have developed a real-time single frequency PPP method by sufficiently utilizing SBAS correction products. The proposed PPP method are tested with static and kinematic data, respectively. The static experimental results show that the position accuracy of the proposed PPP method can reach decimeter level, and achieve an improvement of at least 30% when compared with the traditional SBAS method. The positioning convergence of the proposed PPP method can be achieved in 636 epochs at most in static mode. In the kinematic experiment, the position accuracy of the proposed PPP method can be improved by at least 20 cm relative to the SBAS method. Furthermore, it has revealed that the proposed PPP method can achieve decimeter level convergence within 500 s in the kinematic mode. PMID:27517930

  3. Change in college students' perceived parental permissibility of alcohol use and its relation to college drinking.

    PubMed

    Calhoun, Brian H; Maggs, Jennifer L; Loken, Eric

    2018-01-01

    College students who perceive their parents to hold permissive views about their alcohol use engage in heavier drinking. However, few studies have assessed perceived parental permissibility of alcohol use (PPP) longitudinally across the later college years, and few have assessed variation in changes in PPP and whether or not these changes differentially predict drinking. This study assessed whether PPP changed across college and used two approaches to determine whether PPP predicted binge drinking frequency and peak drinking. Data on college students' daily lives and risk behaviors were collected from 687 students (51% female) in a large university in the Northeast United States over four years. Perceived parental permissibility of alcohol use increased from the last year of high school through the third year of college with males reporting significantly higher PPP by the third year of college. From 12th grade through the third year of college, between-person differences in mean PPP were positively associated with binge drinking frequency and peak drinking, and patterns of PPP change differentially predicted both drinking outcomes through fourth year. These findings suggest that PPP is a dynamic construct that may evidence important developmental changes across college and the transition to adulthood. More broadly, the results indicate that aspects of the parent-child relationship continue to change after high school and may be important as they are linked with college student risk behaviors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Biodegradable bioplastics from food wastes

    An estimated 1.8 billion tons of waste are created annually from food processing in the US, including the peels, pulp, and pomace (PPP) generated from fruits and vegetables when they are converted into frozen or canned products or pressed into juice. PPP currently is sold as animal feed at low cost,...

  5. Quantitative importance of the pentose phosphate pathway determined by incorporation of 13C from [2-13C]- and [3-13C]glucose into TCA cycle intermediates and neurotransmitter amino acids in functionally intact neurons.

    PubMed

    Brekke, Eva M F; Walls, Anne B; Schousboe, Arne; Waagepetersen, Helle S; Sonnewald, Ursula

    2012-09-01

    The brain is highly susceptible to oxidative injury, and the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) has been shown to be affected by pathological conditions, such as Alzheimer's disease and traumatic brain injury. While this pathway has been investigated in the intact brain and in astrocytes, little is known about the PPP in neurons. The activity of the PPP was quantified in cultured cerebral cortical and cerebellar neurons after incubation in the presence of [2-(13)C]glucose or [3-(13)C]glucose. The activity of the PPP was several fold lower than glycolysis in both types of neurons. While metabolism of (13)C-labeled glucose via the PPP does not appear to contribute to the production of releasable lactate, it contributes to labeling of tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediates and related amino acids. Based on glutamate isotopomers, it was calculated that PPP activity accounts for ~6% of glucose metabolism in cortical neurons and ~4% in cerebellar neurons. This is the first demonstration that pyruvate generated from glucose via the PPP contributes to the synthesis of acetyl CoA for oxidation in the TCA cycle. Moreover, the fact that (13)C labeling from glucose is incorporated into glutamate proves that both the oxidative and the nonoxidative stages of the PPP are active in neurons.

  6. 77 FR 43368 - Navistar Truck Development and Technology Center, a Subsidiary of Navistar International...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-24

    ..., Alpha Personnel, Inc., and PPP Careers, Inc., Fort Wayne, Indiana; Amended Certification Regarding... workers were engaged in engineering and technical consulting services. The company reports that workers leased from PPP Careers, Inc. were employed on-site at the 2911 Meyer Road, Fort Wayne, Indiana location...

  7. Tightly coupled integration of ionosphere-constrained precise point positioning and inertial navigation systems.

    PubMed

    Gao, Zhouzheng; Zhang, Hongping; Ge, Maorong; Niu, Xiaoji; Shen, Wenbin; Wickert, Jens; Schuh, Harald

    2015-03-10

    The continuity and reliability of precise GNSS positioning can be seriously limited by severe user observation environments. The Inertial Navigation System (INS) can overcome such drawbacks, but its performance is clearly restricted by INS sensor errors over time. Accordingly, the tightly coupled integration of GPS and INS can overcome the disadvantages of each individual system and together form a new navigation system with a higher accuracy, reliability and availability. Recently, ionosphere-constrained (IC) precise point positioning (PPP) utilizing raw GPS observations was proven able to improve both the convergence and positioning accuracy of the conventional PPP using ionosphere-free combined observations (LC-PPP). In this paper, a new mode of tightly coupled integration, in which the IC-PPP instead of LC-PPP is employed, is implemented to further improve the performance of the coupled system. We present the detailed mathematical model and the related algorithm of the new integration of IC-PPP and INS. To evaluate the performance of the new tightly coupled integration, data of both airborne and vehicle experiments with a geodetic GPS receiver and tactical grade inertial measurement unit are processed and the results are analyzed. The statistics show that the new approach can further improve the positioning accuracy compared with both IC-PPP and the tightly coupled integration of the conventional PPP and INS.

  8. Tightly Coupled Integration of Ionosphere-Constrained Precise Point Positioning and Inertial Navigation Systems

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Zhouzheng; Zhang, Hongping; Ge, Maorong; Niu, Xiaoji; Shen, Wenbin; Wickert, Jens; Schuh, Harald

    2015-01-01

    The continuity and reliability of precise GNSS positioning can be seriously limited by severe user observation environments. The Inertial Navigation System (INS) can overcome such drawbacks, but its performance is clearly restricted by INS sensor errors over time. Accordingly, the tightly coupled integration of GPS and INS can overcome the disadvantages of each individual system and together form a new navigation system with a higher accuracy, reliability and availability. Recently, ionosphere-constrained (IC) precise point positioning (PPP) utilizing raw GPS observations was proven able to improve both the convergence and positioning accuracy of the conventional PPP using ionosphere-free combined observations (LC-PPP). In this paper, a new mode of tightly coupled integration, in which the IC-PPP instead of LC-PPP is employed, is implemented to further improve the performance of the coupled system. We present the detailed mathematical model and the related algorithm of the new integration of IC-PPP and INS. To evaluate the performance of the new tightly coupled integration, data of both airborne and vehicle experiments with a geodetic GPS receiver and tactical grade inertial measurement unit are processed and the results are analyzed. The statistics show that the new approach can further improve the positioning accuracy compared with both IC-PPP and the tightly coupled integration of the conventional PPP and INS. PMID:25763647

  9. Advanced crew procedures development techniques: Procedures and performance program training plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arbet, J. D.; Benbow, R. L.

    1975-01-01

    A plan developed to support the training of PPP users in the operations associated with PPP usage is described. This document contains an overview of the contents of each training session and a detailed outline to be used as the guideline for each session.

  10. Changing What You Know and Do: The Parent-Child Psychotherapy Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Betty Ann; Venza, James

    2011-01-01

    The Parent-Child Psychotherapy Program (PPP) is a multifamily group therapy intervention for parents and young children at high risk for intergenerational patterns of neglect, abuse, and disorganized attachment. A "developmental and experiential model" that incorporates principles of attachment theory, the PPP addresses parent and child needs…

  11. Public-Private Partnership in the Countries of the Eurasian Economic Union

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matayev, Talgat

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine a concept and content of a public-private partnership as a perspective tool for development of cooperation among the EEU countries. The standard and legal base and institutes of PPP development in the EEU countries are studied herein. Main problems of PPP development are determined on the basis of the…

  12. Research and Related Issues: Interactive Instructional Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weikart, David P.

    This presentation reports outcomes of the Perry Preschool Project (PPP) and the High/Scope Preschool Curriculum Study (H/SPCS). The PPP is an ongoing study that in 1962 began to follow 123 black youths who were at risk of failing in school. The study explored the long-term effects on the youth of participation versus nonparticipation in a program…

  13. Preservation Planning Program. Study Report. Iowa State University Library. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galejs, John; And Others

    This final report is a product of a Preservation Planning Program (PPP) self-study conducted by the Iowa State University, working with the Association of Research Libraries' (ARL) Office of Management Studies. The PPP is designed to put self-help tools into the hands of library staff responsible for developing plans and procedures for preserving…

  14. 40 CFR 63.1434 - Equipment leak provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... subparts F, I, or PPP of this part” shall apply instead of the phrase “the provisions of subparts F or I of....163 and 63.168, for the purposes of this subpart. In addition, the phrase “subparts F, I, and PPP...

  15. Psychotomimetic opiate receptors labeled and visualized with (+)-(/sup 3/H)3-(3-hydroxyphenyl)-N-(1-propyl)piperidine

    SciT

    Largent, B.L.; Gundlach, A.L.; Snyder, S.H.

    1984-08-01

    3-(3-Hydroxyphenyl)-N-(1-propyl)piperidine (3-PPP) has been proposed as a selective dopamine autoreceptor agonist in the central nervous system. This report describes the pharmacology and localization of specific high-affinity binding sites for (+)-(/sup 3/H)3-PPP in brain. The drug specificity of (+)-(/sup 3/H)3-PPP binding is identical to that of sigma receptors, which may mediate psychotomimetic effects of some opiates. Haloperidol and the opioid derivatives, pentazocine, cyclazocine, and SKF 10,047 are potent inhibitors of (+)-(/sup 3/H)3-PPP binding. Stereoselectivity is exhibited for the (+) isomers of cyclazocine and SKF 10.047 at the sigma site, opposite to the stereoselectivity seen at ..mu.., sigma, and k opiate receptors.more » (+)-(/sup 3/H)3-PPP does not label dopamine receptors, as potent dopamine agonists and antagonists are weak inhibitors of binding and the localization of specific (+)-(/sup 3/H)3-PPP binding sites does not parallel that of dopamine neurons. Discrete localizations of (+)-(/sup 3/H)3-PPP binding sites in many brain areas including limbic, midbrain, brainstem, and cerebellar regions may explain psychotomimetic actions of opiates and behavior effects of 3-PPP. 41 references, 2 figures, 1 table.« less

  16. Preservation Planning Project Study Team. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pittsburgh Univ., PA. Libraries.

    This final report is a product of a comprehensive 14-month Preservation Planning Program (PPP) self-study conducted by the University of Pittsburgh Libraries, working with the Association of Research Libraries' (ARL) Office of Management Studies. The PPP is designed to put self-help tools into the hands of library staff responsible for developing…

  17. 40 CFR 63.1434 - Equipment leak provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... subparts F, I, or PPP of this part” shall apply instead of the phrase “the provisions of subparts F or I of....163 and 63.168, for the purposes of this subpart. In addition, the phrase “subparts F, I, and PPP...

  18. Presentation-Practice-Production and Task-Based Learning in the Light of Second Language Learning Theories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritchie, Graeme

    2003-01-01

    Features of presentation-practice-production (PPP) and task-based learning (TBL) models for language teaching are discussed with reference to language learning theories. Pre-selection of target structures, use of controlled repetition, and explicit grammar instruction in a PPP lesson are given. Suggests TBL approaches afford greater learning…

  19. 40 CFR 63.1434 - Equipment leak provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... subparts F, I, or PPP of this part” shall apply instead of the phrase “the provisions of subparts F or I of....163 and 63.168, for the purposes of this subpart. In addition, the phrase “subparts F, I, and PPP...

  20. Public-Private Partnership Program Evaluation. 1988-89.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bland, June

    This evaluation of the 1988-89 Public Private Partnership (PPP) program in Washington (District of Columbia) was seriously limited by the unavailability of statistical data on student progress and internship performance. PPP was designed to improve the preparation of high school students for the world of work by involving community businesses in…

  1. Quantitative importance of the pentose phosphate pathway determined by incorporation of 13C from [2-13C]- and [3-13C]glucose into TCA cycle intermediates and neurotransmitter amino acids in functionally intact neurons

    PubMed Central

    Brekke, Eva M F; Walls, Anne B; Schousboe, Arne; Waagepetersen, Helle S; Sonnewald, Ursula

    2012-01-01

    The brain is highly susceptible to oxidative injury, and the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) has been shown to be affected by pathological conditions, such as Alzheimer's disease and traumatic brain injury. While this pathway has been investigated in the intact brain and in astrocytes, little is known about the PPP in neurons. The activity of the PPP was quantified in cultured cerebral cortical and cerebellar neurons after incubation in the presence of [2-13C]glucose or [3-13C]glucose. The activity of the PPP was several fold lower than glycolysis in both types of neurons. While metabolism of 13C-labeled glucose via the PPP does not appear to contribute to the production of releasable lactate, it contributes to labeling of tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediates and related amino acids. Based on glutamate isotopomers, it was calculated that PPP activity accounts for ∼6% of glucose metabolism in cortical neurons and ∼4% in cerebellar neurons. This is the first demonstration that pyruvate generated from glucose via the PPP contributes to the synthesis of acetyl CoA for oxidation in the TCA cycle. Moreover, the fact that 13C labeling from glucose is incorporated into glutamate proves that both the oxidative and the nonoxidative stages of the PPP are active in neurons. PMID:22714050

  2. The Test Validation Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frederick, Richard I.; Bowden, Stephen C.

    2009-01-01

    Common rates employed in classificatory testing are the true positive rate (TPR), false positive rate (FPR), positive predictive power (PPP), and negative predictive power (NPP). FPR and TPR are estimated from research samples representing populations to be distinguished by classificatory testing. PPP and NPP are used by clinicians to classify…

  3. Recycling carbon dioxide during xylose fermentation by engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    In this study, we introduced the ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCO) and phosphoribulokinase (PRK) into an engineered S. cerevisiae (SR8) harboring the XR/XDH pathway and up-regulated PPP 10, to enable CO2 recycling through a synthetic rPPP during xylose fermentation (Fig. 1). ...

  4. Strengthening the Strength of Public-Private Partnership Model in Education: A Case Study of Durbar High School in Nepal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rajbhandari, Mani Man Singh

    2011-01-01

    Public-Private Partnership (PPP) model in education is being importantly valuable in developing countries in enriching the strength pf public schools that government appears to be heavy and slow. PPP model however, initiate developmental program that encourage teachers motivation to teach. This further allows private and local community group…

  5. Gynecologic Cancer Translational Research Center of Excellence

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    endometriosis a precursor of gyn malignancy. Studies will also require cells with PPP2R1A mutation(2-5). We identified PPP2R1A mutation in ACI-89...K, Zeng T, et al. ARID1A mutations in endometriosis -associated ovarian carcinomas. N Engl J Med.363(16):1532-43. PMCID: 2976679. 7. Wiegand KC, Lee

  6. Accuracy assessment of the Precise Point Positioning method applied for surveys and tracking moving objects in GIS environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilieva, Tamara; Gekov, Svetoslav

    2017-04-01

    The Precise Point Positioning (PPP) method gives the users the opportunity to determine point locations using a single GNSS receiver. The accuracy of the determined by PPP point locations is better in comparison to the standard point positioning, due to the precise satellite orbit and clock corrections that are developed and maintained by the International GNSS Service (IGS). The aim of our current research is the accuracy assessment of the PPP method applied for surveys and tracking moving objects in GIS environment. The PPP data is collected by using preliminary developed by us software application that allows different sets of attribute data for the measurements and their accuracy to be used. The results from the PPP measurements are directly compared within the geospatial database to different other sets of terrestrial data - measurements obtained by total stations, real time kinematic and static GNSS.

  7. Testing for purchasing power parity in 21 African countries using several unit root tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choji, Niri Martha; Sek, Siok Kun

    2017-04-01

    Purchasing power parity is used as a basis for international income and expenditure comparison through the exchange rate theory. However, empirical studies show disagreement on the validity of PPP. In this paper, we conduct the testing on the validity of PPP using panel data approach. We apply seven different panel unit root tests to test the validity of the purchasing power parity (PPP) hypothesis based on the quarterly data on real effective exchange rate for 21 African countries from the period 1971: Q1-2012: Q4. All the results of the seven tests rejected the hypothesis of stationarity meaning that absolute PPP does not hold in those African Countries. This result confirmed the claim from previous studies that standard panel unit tests fail to support the PPP hypothesis.

  8. Probabilistic interpretation of Peelle's pertinent puzzle and its resolution

    SciT

    Hanson, Kenneth M.; Kawano, T.; Talou, P.

    2004-01-01

    Peelle's Pertinent Puzzle (PPP) states a seemingly plausible set of measurements with their covariance matrix, which produce an implausible answer. To answer the PPP question, we describe a reasonable experimental situation that is consistent with the PPP solution. The confusion surrounding the PPP arises in part because of its imprecise statement, which permits to a variety of interpretations and resulting answers, some of which seem implausible. We emphasize the importance of basing the analysis on an unambiguous probabilistic model that reflects the experimental situation. We present several different models of how the measurements quoted in the PPP problem could bemore » obtained, and interpret their solution in terms of a detailed probabilistic analysis. We suggest a probabilistic approach to handling uncertainties about which model to use.« less

  9. Probabilistic Interpretation of Peelle's Pertinent Puzzle and its Resolution

    SciT

    Hanson, Kenneth M.; Kawano, Toshihiko; Talou, Patrick

    2005-05-24

    Peelle's Pertinent Puzzle (PPP) states a seemingly plausible set of measurements with their covariance matrix, which produce an implausible answer. To answer the PPP question, we describe a reasonable experimental situation that is consistent with the PPP solution. The confusion surrounding the PPP arises in part because of its imprecise statement, which permits to a variety of interpretations and resulting answers, some of which seem implausible. We emphasize the importance of basing the analysis on an unambiguous probabilistic model that reflects the experimental situation. We present several different models of how the measurements quoted in the PPP problem could bemore » obtained, and interpret their solution in terms of a detailed probabilistic analysis. We suggest a probabilistic approach to handling uncertainties about which model to use.« less

  10. Glycopyrrolate-induced craniofacial compensatory hyperhidrosis successfully treated with oxybutynin: report of a novel adverse effect and subsequent successful treatment.

    PubMed

    Prouty, Megan E; Fischer, Ryan; Liu, Deede

    2016-10-15

    Hyperhidrosis, or abnormally increased sweating, is a condition that may have a primary or secondary cause. Usually medication- induced secondary hyperhidrosis manifests with generalized, rather than focal sweating. We report a 32-year-old woman with a history of palmoplantar hyperhidrosis for 15 years who presented for treatment and was prescribed oral glycopyrrolate. One month later, the palmoplantar hyperhidrosis had resolved, but she developed new persistent craniofacial sweating. After an unsuccessful trial of clonidine, oxybutynin resolved the craniofacial hyperhidrosis. To our knowledge, this is the first case of compensatory hyperhidrosis secondary to glycopyrrolate reported in the literature. The case highlights the importance of reviewing medication changes that correlate with new onset or changing hyperhidrosis. It also demonstrates a rare drug adverse effect with successful treatment.

  11. The Impact of Skin Problems on the Quality of Life in Patients Treated with Anticancer Agents: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jaewon; Lim, Jin; Park, Jong Seo; Kim, Miso; Kim, Tae-Yong; Kim, Tae Min; Lee, Kyung-Hun; Keam, Bhumsuk; Han, Sae-Won; Mun, Je-Ho; Cho, Kwang Hyun; Jo, Seong Jin

    2017-12-14

    Patients treated with anticancer agents often experience a variety of treatment-related skin problems, which can impair their quality of life. In this cross-sectional study, Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) and clinical information were evaluated in patients under active anticancer treatment using a questionnaire survey and their medical records review. Of 375 evaluated subjects with anticancer therapy, 136 (36.27%) and 114 (30.40%) were treated for breast cancer and colorectal cancer, respectively. We found that women, breast cancer, targeted agent use, and longer duration of anticancer therapy were associated with higher dermatology-specific QoL distraction. In addition, itching, dry skin, easy bruising, pigmentation, papulopustules on face, periungual inflammation, nail changes, palmoplantar lesions were associated with significantly higher DLQI scores. Periungual inflammation and palmoplantar lesions scored the highest DLQI. We believe our findings can be helpful to clinicians in counseling and managing the patients undergoing anticancer therapy.

  12. Performance Analysis of Several GPS/Galileo Precise Point Positioning Models

    PubMed Central

    Afifi, Akram; El-Rabbany, Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the performance of several precise point positioning (PPP) models, which combine dual-frequency GPS/Galileo observations in the un-differenced and between-satellite single-difference (BSSD) modes. These include the traditional un-differenced model, the decoupled clock model, the semi-decoupled clock model, and the between-satellite single-difference model. We take advantage of the IGS-MGEX network products to correct for the satellite differential code biases and the orbital and satellite clock errors. Natural Resources Canada’s GPSPace PPP software is modified to handle the various GPS/Galileo PPP models. A total of six data sets of GPS and Galileo observations at six IGS stations are processed to examine the performance of the various PPP models. It is shown that the traditional un-differenced GPS/Galileo PPP model, the GPS decoupled clock model, and the semi-decoupled clock GPS/Galileo PPP model improve the convergence time by about 25% in comparison with the un-differenced GPS-only model. In addition, the semi-decoupled GPS/Galileo PPP model improves the solution precision by about 25% compared to the traditional un-differenced GPS/Galileo PPP model. Moreover, the BSSD GPS/Galileo PPP model improves the solution convergence time by about 50%, in comparison with the un-differenced GPS PPP model, regardless of the type of BSSD combination used. As well, the BSSD model improves the precision of the estimated parameters by about 50% and 25% when the loose and the tight combinations are used, respectively, in comparison with the un-differenced GPS-only model. Comparable results are obtained through the tight combination when either a GPS or a Galileo satellite is selected as a reference. PMID:26102495

  13. Performance Analysis of Several GPS/Galileo Precise Point Positioning Models.

    PubMed

    Afifi, Akram; El-Rabbany, Ahmed

    2015-06-19

    This paper examines the performance of several precise point positioning (PPP) models, which combine dual-frequency GPS/Galileo observations in the un-differenced and between-satellite single-difference (BSSD) modes. These include the traditional un-differenced model, the decoupled clock model, the semi-decoupled clock model, and the between-satellite single-difference model. We take advantage of the IGS-MGEX network products to correct for the satellite differential code biases and the orbital and satellite clock errors. Natural Resources Canada's GPSPace PPP software is modified to handle the various GPS/Galileo PPP models. A total of six data sets of GPS and Galileo observations at six IGS stations are processed to examine the performance of the various PPP models. It is shown that the traditional un-differenced GPS/Galileo PPP model, the GPS decoupled clock model, and the semi-decoupled clock GPS/Galileo PPP model improve the convergence time by about 25% in comparison with the un-differenced GPS-only model. In addition, the semi-decoupled GPS/Galileo PPP model improves the solution precision by about 25% compared to the traditional un-differenced GPS/Galileo PPP model. Moreover, the BSSD GPS/Galileo PPP model improves the solution convergence time by about 50%, in comparison with the un-differenced GPS PPP model, regardless of the type of BSSD combination used. As well, the BSSD model improves the precision of the estimated parameters by about 50% and 25% when the loose and the tight combinations are used, respectively, in comparison with the un-differenced GPS-only model. Comparable results are obtained through the tight combination when either a GPS or a Galileo satellite is selected as a reference.

  14. Persistent Postoperative Pain after Cardiac Surgery: Incidence, Characterization, Associated Factors and its impact in Quality of Life.

    PubMed

    Guimarães-Pereira, Luís; Farinha, Filomena; Azevedo, Luís; Abelha, Fernando; Castro-Lopes, José

    2016-10-01

    Cardiac surgery (CS) ranks among the most frequently performed interventions worldwide and persistent postoperative pain (PPP) has been recognized as a relevant clinical outcome in this context. We aimed to evaluate its incidence, characteristics, associated factors and patient's quality of life (QoL). Observational prospective study conducted in patients undergoing CS in a tertiary university hospital. PPP was defined as persistent pain after surgery with higher than 3 months' duration, after excluding other causes of pain. We used a set of questionnaires for data collection: Pain Catastrophizing Scale, Duke Health Profile, Brief Pain Inventory Short Form, McGill Pain Questionnaire Short Form, Douleur Neuropathique en 4 Questions and standardized questions regarding pain periodicity. A total of 288 patients have completed the study and 43% presented PPP assessed at 3 months (PPP3M); out of which 84% were not under any treatment. PPP patients reported significantly lower QoL, and a neuropathic pain (NP) component was present in 50% of them. Younger age, female gender, higher body mass index, catastrophizing, coronary artery bypass graft, osteoarthritis, history of previous surgery (excluding sternotomy) and moderate to severe acute postoperative pain were independent predictors of PPP3M. This is the first study comprehensively describing PPP after CS and identifying NP in half of them. Our results support the important role that PPP plays after CS in considering its interference in patients' daily life and their lower QoL, which deserves the attention of health care professionals in order to improve prevention, assessment and treatment of these patients. WHAT DOES THIS STUDY ADD?: This study comprehensively describes persistent postoperative pain (PPP) after cardiac surgery (CS) and identifies neuropathic pain (NP) in half of them. Our results support the important role that PPP plays after CS in considering its interference in patients' daily life and their

  15. Gorlin syndrome.

    PubMed

    Devi, Basanti; Behera, Binodini; Patro, Sibasish; Pattnaik, Subhransu S; Puhan, Manas R

    2013-05-01

    Gorlin Syndrome, a rare genodermatosis, otherwise known as Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS) is a multisystem disease affecting skin, nervous system, eyes, endocrine glands, and bones. It is characterized by multiple basal cell carcinomas, palmoplantar pits, jaw cysts, and bony deformities like kyphoscoliosis and frontal bossing. We would like to report a case of Gorlin syndrome with classical features, as this is a rare genodermatosis.

  16. Dermatopathia pigmentosa reticularis: A rare reticulate pigmentary disorder

    PubMed Central

    Shanker, Vinay; Gupta, Mudita

    2013-01-01

    Dermatopathia pigmentosa reticularis is a rare ectodermal dysplasia with a triad of generalized reticulate hyperpigmentation, noncicatricial alopecia, and onychodystrophy. We report a case of a 21 year old woman who had generalized reticulate pigmentation, diffuse noncicatricial alopecia and onychodystrophy of finger and toe nails. Along with this triad she had palmoplantar keratoderma and poorly developed dermatoglyphics. There was no evidence of involvement of other ectodermally derived organ. PMID:23440032

  17. [Basan's syndrome: Congenital absence of dermatoglyphs and milia].

    PubMed

    Gagey-Caron, V; Stalder, J-F; Barbarot, S

    2009-05-01

    White micropapules are uncommon on the face newborns and are mainly due to sebaceous hyperplasia, or more rarely to milia. In some cases they may result from milia and profuse milia suggest rare diseases. We report the case of a newborn presenting with profuse congenital milia on the face that resolved spontaneously within a few months. This eruption revealed Basan's syndrome, a rare, autosomal dominant inherited dermatosis described as the association of profuse facial milia, acral bullae, absence of dermatoglyphs, and palmoplantar hypohydrosis.

  18. Keratolysis exfoliativa (dyshidrosis lamellosa sicca): a distinct peeling entity.

    PubMed

    Chang, Y Y; van der Velden, J; van der Wier, G; Kramer, D; Diercks, G F H; van Geel, M; Coenraads, P J; Zeeuwen, P L J M; Jonkman, M F

    2012-11-01

    Keratolysis exfoliativa (KE), also known as dyshidrosis lamellosa sicca, is a palmoplantar dermatosis characterized by air-filled blisters and collarette desquamation. It has been regarded as a subtype of dyshidrotic eczema, a fungal infection or a dermatophytid reaction. KE may also resemble acral peeling skin syndrome and localized epidermolysis bullosa simplex. Although KE is a common disorder, it is a rarely reported and is an under-recognized dermatosis. To delineate the characteristic features of KE. We investigated the clinical, immunohistopathological, ultrastructural and molecular features of KE. Patients were included from the clinical records. Additional diagnostic research consisted of mutation analysis of the candidate genes TGM5, KRT5, KRT14, FLG, SPINK6 and SPINK9. A total of 24 patients with KE were identified, six with familial and 18 with sporadic KE. Lesions consisted of air-filled blisters only on palmoplantar skin, followed by collarette and lamellar peeling. Both light microscopy and electron microscopy showed cleavage and partially degraded corneodesmosomes within the stratum corneum, whereas immunofluorescence microscopy showed normal expression of corneodesmosomal components. No mutations were found in TGM5, KRT5/14 and SPINK6/9. There was no clear link with atopy or with FLG mutations. Our study suggests premature corneodesmolysis as the main pathological mechanism of this palmoplantar skin disorder. We conclude that KE appears to be a distinct peeling entity. © 2012 The Authors. BJD © 2012 British Association of Dermatologists.

  19. Pachyonychia Congenita (K16) with Unusual Features and Good Response to Acitretin

    PubMed Central

    Almutawa, Fahad; Thusaringam, Thusanth; Watters, Kevin; Gayden, Tenzin; Jabado, Nada; Sasseville, Denis

    2015-01-01

    Background Pachyonychia congenita (PC) is a rare autosomal dominant disease whose main clinical features include hypertrophic onychodystrophy and palmoplantar keratoderma. The new classification is based on genetic variants with mutations in keratin KRT6A, KRT6B, KRT6C, KRT16, KRT17, and an unknown mutation. Here, we present a case of PC with unusual clinical and histological features and a favorable response to oral acitretin. Case A 49-year-old male presented with diffuse and striate palmoplantar keratoderma, thickened nails, knuckle pads, and pseudoainhum. Histology showed compact hyperkeratosis, prominent irregular acanthosis, and extensive epidermolytic hyperkeratosis, suggestive of Vörner's palmoplantar keratoderma. However, keratin 9 and 1 were not mutated, and full exome sequencing showed heterozygous missense mutation in type I keratin K16. Conclusion To our knowledge, epidermolytic hyperkeratosis has not been previously described with PC. Our patient had an excellent response, maintained over the last 5 years, to a low dose of acitretin. We wish to emphasize the crucial role of whole exome sequencing in establishing the correct diagnosis. PMID:26464567

  20. Precise Point Positioning Based on BDS and GPS Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, ZhouZheng; Zhang, Hongping; Shen, Wenbin

    2014-05-01

    BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS) has obtained the ability applying initial navigation and precise point services for the Asian-Pacific regions at the end of 2012 with the constellation of 5 Geostationary Earth Orbit (GEO), 5 Inclined Geosynchronous Orbit (IGSO) and 4 Medium Earth Orbit (MEO). Till 2020, it will consist with 5 GEO, 3 IGSO and 27 MEO, and apply global navigation service similar to GPS and GLONASS. As we known, GPS precise point positioning (PPP) is a powerful tool for crustal deformation monitoring, GPS meteorology, orbit determination of low earth orbit satellites, high accuracy kinematic positioning et al. However, it accuracy and convergence time are influenced by the quality of pseudo-range observations and the observing geometry between user and Global navigation satellites system (GNSS) satellites. Usually, it takes more than 30 minutes even hours to obtain centimeter level position accuracy for PPP while using GPS dual-frequency observations only. In recent years, many researches have been done to solve this problem. One of the approaches is smooth pseudo-range by carrier-phase observations to improve pseudo-range accuracy. By which can improve PPP initial position accuracy and shorten PPP convergence time. Another sachems is to change position dilution of precision (PDOP) with multi-GNSS observations. Now, BDS has the ability to service whole Asian-Pacific regions, which make it possible to use GPS and BDS for precise positioning. In addition, according to researches on GNSS PDOP distribution, BDS can improve PDOP obviously. Therefore, it necessary to do some researches on PPP performance using both GPS observations and BDS observations, especially in Asian-Pacific regions currently. In this paper, we focus on the influences of BDS to GPS PPP mainly in three terms including BDS PPP accuracy, PDOP improvement and convergence time of PPP based on GPS and BDS observations. Here, the GPS and BDS two-constellation data are collected from

  1. Modeling tropospheric wet delays with national GNSS reference network in China for BeiDou precise point positioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Fu; Lou, Yidong; Gu, Shengfeng; Gong, Xiaopeng; Shi, Chuang

    2017-10-01

    During past decades, precise point positioning (PPP) has been proven to be a well-known positioning technique for centimeter or decimeter level accuracy. However, it needs long convergence time to get high-accuracy positioning, which limits the prospects of PPP, especially in real-time applications. It is expected that the PPP convergence time can be reduced by introducing high-quality external information, such as ionospheric or tropospheric corrections. In this study, several methods for tropospheric wet delays modeling over wide areas are investigated. A new, improved model is developed, applicable in real-time applications in China. Based on the GPT2w model, a modified parameter of zenith wet delay exponential decay wrt. height is introduced in the modeling of the real-time tropospheric delay. The accuracy of this tropospheric model and GPT2w model in different seasons is evaluated with cross-validation, the root mean square of the zenith troposphere delay (ZTD) is 1.2 and 3.6 cm on average, respectively. On the other hand, this new model proves to be better than the tropospheric modeling based on water-vapor scale height; it can accurately express tropospheric delays up to 10 km altitude, which potentially has benefits in many real-time applications. With the high-accuracy ZTD model, the augmented PPP convergence performance for BeiDou navigation satellite system (BDS) and GPS is evaluated. It shows that the contribution of the high-quality ZTD model on PPP convergence performance has relation with the constellation geometry. As BDS constellation geometry is poorer than GPS, the improvement for BDS PPP is more significant than that for GPS PPP. Compared with standard real-time PPP, the convergence time is reduced by 2-7 and 20-50% for the augmented BDS PPP, while GPS PPP only improves about 6 and 18% (on average), in horizontal and vertical directions, respectively. When GPS and BDS are combined, the geometry is greatly improved, which is good enough to get a

  2. Precise Point Positioning Using Triple GNSS Constellations in Various Modes.

    PubMed

    Afifi, Akram; El-Rabbany, Ahmed

    2016-05-28

    This paper introduces a new dual-frequency precise point positioning (PPP) model, which combines the observations from three different global navigation satellite system (GNSS) constellations, namely GPS, Galileo, and BeiDou. Combining measurements from different GNSS systems introduces additional biases, including inter-system bias and hardware delays, which require rigorous modelling. Our model is based on the un-differenced and between-satellite single-difference (BSSD) linear combinations. BSSD linear combination cancels out some receiver-related biases, including receiver clock error and non-zero initial phase bias of the receiver oscillator. Forming the BSSD linear combination requires a reference satellite, which can be selected from any of the GPS, Galileo, and BeiDou systems. In this paper three BSSD scenarios are tested; each considers a reference satellite from a different GNSS constellation. Natural Resources Canada's GPSPace PPP software is modified to enable a combined GPS, Galileo, and BeiDou PPP solution and to handle the newly introduced biases. A total of four data sets collected at four different IGS stations are processed to verify the developed PPP model. Precise satellite orbit and clock products from the International GNSS Service Multi-GNSS Experiment (IGS-MGEX) network are used to correct the GPS, Galileo, and BeiDou measurements in the post-processing PPP mode. A real-time PPP solution is also obtained, which is referred to as RT-PPP in the sequel, through the use of the IGS real-time service (RTS) for satellite orbit and clock corrections. However, only GPS and Galileo observations are used for the RT-PPP solution, as the RTS-IGS satellite products are not presently available for BeiDou system. All post-processed and real-time PPP solutions are compared with the traditional un-differenced GPS-only counterparts. It is shown that combining the GPS, Galileo, and BeiDou observations in the post-processing mode improves the PPP convergence

  3. Improving BeiDou real-time precise point positioning with numerical weather models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Cuixian; Li, Xingxing; Zus, Florian; Heinkelmann, Robert; Dick, Galina; Ge, Maorong; Wickert, Jens; Schuh, Harald

    2017-09-01

    Precise positioning with the current Chinese BeiDou Navigation Satellite System is proven to be of comparable accuracy to the Global Positioning System, which is at centimeter level for the horizontal components and sub-decimeter level for the vertical component. But the BeiDou precise point positioning (PPP) shows its limitation in requiring a relatively long convergence time. In this study, we develop a numerical weather model (NWM) augmented PPP processing algorithm to improve BeiDou precise positioning. Tropospheric delay parameters, i.e., zenith delays, mapping functions, and horizontal delay gradients, derived from short-range forecasts from the Global Forecast System of the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) are applied into BeiDou real-time PPP. Observational data from stations that are capable of tracking the BeiDou constellation from the International GNSS Service (IGS) Multi-GNSS Experiments network are processed, with the introduced NWM-augmented PPP and the standard PPP processing. The accuracy of tropospheric delays derived from NCEP is assessed against with the IGS final tropospheric delay products. The positioning results show that an improvement in convergence time up to 60.0 and 66.7% for the east and vertical components, respectively, can be achieved with the NWM-augmented PPP solution compared to the standard PPP solutions, while only slight improvement in the solution convergence can be found for the north component. A positioning accuracy of 5.7 and 5.9 cm for the east component is achieved with the standard PPP that estimates gradients and the one that estimates no gradients, respectively, in comparison to 3.5 cm of the NWM-augmented PPP, showing an improvement of 38.6 and 40.1%. Compared to the accuracy of 3.7 and 4.1 cm for the north component derived from the two standard PPP solutions, the one of the NWM-augmented PPP solution is improved to 2.0 cm, by about 45.9 and 51.2%. The positioning accuracy for the up component

  4. Precise Point Positioning Using Triple GNSS Constellations in Various Modes

    PubMed Central

    Afifi, Akram; El-Rabbany, Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces a new dual-frequency precise point positioning (PPP) model, which combines the observations from three different global navigation satellite system (GNSS) constellations, namely GPS, Galileo, and BeiDou. Combining measurements from different GNSS systems introduces additional biases, including inter-system bias and hardware delays, which require rigorous modelling. Our model is based on the un-differenced and between-satellite single-difference (BSSD) linear combinations. BSSD linear combination cancels out some receiver-related biases, including receiver clock error and non-zero initial phase bias of the receiver oscillator. Forming the BSSD linear combination requires a reference satellite, which can be selected from any of the GPS, Galileo, and BeiDou systems. In this paper three BSSD scenarios are tested; each considers a reference satellite from a different GNSS constellation. Natural Resources Canada’s GPSPace PPP software is modified to enable a combined GPS, Galileo, and BeiDou PPP solution and to handle the newly introduced biases. A total of four data sets collected at four different IGS stations are processed to verify the developed PPP model. Precise satellite orbit and clock products from the International GNSS Service Multi-GNSS Experiment (IGS-MGEX) network are used to correct the GPS, Galileo, and BeiDou measurements in the post-processing PPP mode. A real-time PPP solution is also obtained, which is referred to as RT-PPP in the sequel, through the use of the IGS real-time service (RTS) for satellite orbit and clock corrections. However, only GPS and Galileo observations are used for the RT-PPP solution, as the RTS-IGS satellite products are not presently available for BeiDou system. All post-processed and real-time PPP solutions are compared with the traditional un-differenced GPS-only counterparts. It is shown that combining the GPS, Galileo, and BeiDou observations in the post-processing mode improves the PPP convergence

  5. Three Positive Parenting Practices and Their Correlation with Risk of Childhood Developmental, Social, or Behavioral Delays: An Analysis of the National Survey of Children's Health.

    PubMed

    Cprek, Sarah E; Williams, Corrine M; Asaolu, Ibitola; Alexander, Linda A; Vanderpool, Robin C

    2015-11-01

    (1) Investigate the relationship between three specific positive parenting practices (PPP)-reading to children, engaging in storytelling or singing, and eating meals together as a family-and parent-reported risk of developmental, behavioral, or social delays among children between the ages of 1-5 years in the US. (2) Determine if a combination of these parenting practices has an effect on the outcome. Chi square and multiple logistic regression analyses were used to analyze cross-sectional data from the National Survey of Children's Health 2011/2012 in regards to the relationship between each of the three individual PPP as well as a total PPP score and the child's risk of being developmentally, socially, or behaviorally delayed (N = 21,527). Risk of delay was calculated using the Parents' Evaluation of Developmental Status Questionnaire, which is a parental self-report measure that has been correlated with diagnosed child delays. These analyses controlled for poverty and parental education. All analyses were completed using SAS Version 9.3. A strong correlation was found between each of the three PPP as well as the total PPP score and the child's risk of developmental, social, or behavioral delays (p < 0.05 for each test). These associations were found to have a dose-response relationship (p < 0.05 in all but one analysis). Daily engagement in PPP could possibly reduce children's risk of delay, and specifically engaging in all three PPP may have greater benefit.

  6. Prioritizing public- private partnership models for public hospitals of iran based on performance indicators.

    PubMed

    Gholamzadeh Nikjoo, Raana; Jabbari Beyrami, Hossein; Jannati, Ali; Asghari Jaafarabadi, Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    The present study was conducted to scrutinize Public- Private Partnership (PPP) models in public hospitals of different countries based on performance indicators in order to se-lect appropriated models for Iran hospitals. In this mixed (quantitative-qualitative) study, systematic review and expert panel has been done to identify varied models of PPP as well as performance indicators. In the second step we prioritized performance indicator and PPP models based on selected performance indicators by Analytical Hierarchy process (AHP) technique. The data were analyzed by Excel 2007 and Expert Choice11 software's. In quality - effectiveness area, indicators like the rate of hospital infections (100%), hospital accidents prevalence rate (73%), pure rate of hospital mortality (63%), patient satisfaction percentage (53%), in accessibility equity area indicators such as average inpatient waiting time (100%) and average outpatient waiting time (74%), and in financial - efficiency area, indicators including average length of stay (100%), bed occupation ratio (99%), specific income to total cost ratio (97%) have been chosen to be the most key performance indicators. In the pri¬oritization of the PPP models clinical outsourcing, management, privatization, BOO (build, own, operate) and non-clinical outsourcing models, achieved high priority for various performance in¬dicator areas. This study had been provided the most common PPP options in the field of public hospitals and had gathered suitable evidences from experts for choosing appropriate PPP option for public hospitals. Effect of private sector presence in public hospital performance, based on which PPP options undertaken, will be different.

  7. Gait in Pregnancy-related Pelvic girdle Pain: amplitudes, timing, and coordination of horizontal trunk rotations.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wen Hua; Meijer, Onno G; Bruijn, Sjoerd M; Hu, Hai; van Dieën, Jaap H; Lamoth, Claudine J C; van Royen, Barend J; Beek, Peter J

    2008-09-01

    Walking is impaired in Pregnancy-related Pelvic girdle Pain (PPP). Walking velocity is reduced, and in postpartum PPP relative phase between horizontal pelvis and thorax rotations was found to be lower at higher velocities, and rotational amplitudes tended to be larger. While attempting to confirm these findings for PPP during pregnancy, we wanted to identify underlying mechanisms. We compared gait kinematics of 12 healthy pregnant women and 12 pregnant women with PPP, focusing on the amplitudes of transverse segmental rotations, the timing and relative phase of these rotations, and the amplitude of spinal rotations. In PPP during pregnancy walking velocity was lower than in controls, and negatively correlated with fear of movement. While patients' rotational amplitudes were larger, with large inter-individual differences, spinal rotations did not differ between groups. In the patients, peak thorax rotation occurred earlier in the stride cycle at higher velocities, and relative phase was lower. The earlier results on postpartum PPP were confirmed for PPP during pregnancy. Spinal rotations remained unaffected, while at higher velocities the peak of thorax rotations occurred earlier in the stride cycle. The latter change may serve to avoid excessive spine rotations caused by the larger segmental rotations.

  8. Gait in Pregnancy-related Pelvic girdle Pain: amplitudes, timing, and coordination of horizontal trunk rotations

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Wen Hua; Bruijn, Sjoerd M.; Hu, Hai; van Dieën, Jaap H.; Lamoth, Claudine J. C.; van Royen, Barend J.; Beek, Peter J.

    2008-01-01

    Walking is impaired in Pregnancy-related Pelvic girdle Pain (PPP). Walking velocity is reduced, and in postpartum PPP relative phase between horizontal pelvis and thorax rotations was found to be lower at higher velocities, and rotational amplitudes tended to be larger. While attempting to confirm these findings for PPP during pregnancy, we wanted to identify underlying mechanisms. We compared gait kinematics of 12 healthy pregnant women and 12 pregnant women with PPP, focusing on the amplitudes of transverse segmental rotations, the timing and relative phase of these rotations, and the amplitude of spinal rotations. In PPP during pregnancy walking velocity was lower than in controls, and negatively correlated with fear of movement. While patients’ rotational amplitudes were larger, with large inter-individual differences, spinal rotations did not differ between groups. In the patients, peak thorax rotation occurred earlier in the stride cycle at higher velocities, and relative phase was lower. The earlier results on postpartum PPP were confirmed for PPP during pregnancy. Spinal rotations remained unaffected, while at higher velocities the peak of thorax rotations occurred earlier in the stride cycle. The latter change may serve to avoid excessive spine rotations caused by the larger segmental rotations. PMID:18661160

  9. G-actin provides substrate-specificity to eukaryotic initiation factor 2α holophosphatases

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ruming; Rato, Cláudia; Yan, Yahui; Crespillo-Casado, Ana; Clarke, Hanna J; Harding, Heather P; Marciniak, Stefan J; Read, Randy J; Ron, David

    2015-01-01

    Dephosphorylation of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2a (eIF2a) restores protein synthesis at the waning of stress responses and requires a PP1 catalytic subunit and a regulatory subunit, PPP1R15A/GADD34 or PPP1R15B/CReP. Surprisingly, PPP1R15-PP1 binary complexes reconstituted in vitro lacked substrate selectivity. However, selectivity was restored by crude cell lysate or purified G-actin, which joined PPP1R15-PP1 to form a stable ternary complex. In crystal structures of the non-selective PPP1R15B-PP1G complex, the functional core of PPP1R15 made multiple surface contacts with PP1G, but at a distance from the active site, whereas in the substrate-selective ternary complex, actin contributes to one face of a platform encompassing the active site. Computational docking of the N-terminal lobe of eIF2a at this platform placed phosphorylated serine 51 near the active site. Mutagenesis of predicted surface-contacting residues enfeebled dephosphorylation, suggesting that avidity for the substrate plays an important role in imparting specificity on the PPP1R15B-PP1G-actin ternary complex. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.04871.001 PMID:25774600

  10. A cost and performance comparison of Public Private Partnership and public hospitals in Spain.

    PubMed

    Caballer-Tarazona, Maria; Clemente-Collado, Antonio; Vivas-Consuelo, David

    2016-12-01

    Public-private partnership (PPP) initiatives are extending around the world, especially in Europe, as an innovation to traditional public health systems, with the intention of making them more efficient.There is a varied range of PPP models with different degrees of responsibility from simple public sector contracts with the private, up to the complete privatisation of the service. As such, we may say the involvement of the private sector embraces the development, financing and provision of public infrastructures and delivery services.In this paper, one of the oldest PPP initiatives developed in Spain and transferred to other European and Latin American countries is evaluated for first time: the integrated healthcare delivery Alzira model.Through a comparison of public and PPP hospital performance, cost and quality indicators, the efficiency of the PPP experience in five hospitals is evaluated to identify the influence of private management in the results.Regarding the performance and efficiency analysis, it is seen that the PPP group obtains good results, above the average, but not always better than those directly managed. It is necessary to conduct studies with a greater number of PPP hospitals to obtain conclusive results.

  11. Molecular Evolution of Phosphoprotein Phosphatases in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Miskei, Márton; Ádám, Csaba; Kovács, László; Karányi, Zsolt; Dombrádi, Viktor

    2011-01-01

    Phosphoprotein phosphatases (PPP), these ancient and important regulatory enzymes are present in all eukaryotic organisms. Based on the genome sequences of 12 Drosophila species we traced the evolution of the PPP catalytic subunits and noted a substantial expansion of the gene family. We concluded that the 18–22 PPP genes of Drosophilidae were generated from a core set of 8 indispensable phosphatases that are present in most of the insects. Retropositons followed by tandem gene duplications extended the phosphatase repertoire, and sporadic gene losses contributed to the species specific variations in the PPP complement. During the course of these studies we identified 5, up till now uncharacterized phosphatase retrogenes: PpY+, PpD5+, PpD6+, Pp4+, and Pp6+ which are found only in some ancient Drosophila. We demonstrated that all of these new PPP genes exhibit a distinct male specific expression. In addition to the changes in gene numbers, the intron-exon structure and the chromosomal localization of several PPP genes was also altered during evolution. The G−C content of the coding regions decreased when a gene moved into the heterochromatic region of chromosome Y. Thus the PPP enzymes exemplify the various types of dynamic rearrangements that accompany the molecular evolution of a gene family in Drosophilidae. PMID:21789237

  12. "It Keeps Us from Putting Drugs in Pockets": How a Public-Private Partnership for Hospital Management May Help Curb Corruption.

    PubMed

    Vian, Taryn; Mcintosh, Nathalie; Grabowski, Aria

    2017-01-01

    Health care sector corruption diverts resources that could otherwise be used to improve access to health services. Use of private-sector practices such as a public-private partnership (PPP) model for hospital governance and management may reduce corruption. In 2011, a government-run hospital in Lesotho was replaced by a PPP hospital, offering an opportunity to compare hospital systems and practices. To assess whether a PPP model in a hospital can help curb corruption. We conducted 36 semistructured interviews with key informants between February 2013 and April 2013. We asked about hospital operations and practices at the government-run and PPP hospitals. We performed content analysis of interview data using a priori codes derived from the Corruption in the Health Sector framework and compared themes related with corruption between the hospitals. Corrupt practices that were described at the government-run hospital (theft, absenteeism, and shirking) were absent in the PPP hospital. In the PPP hospital, anticorruption mechanisms (controls on discretion, transparency, accountability, and detection and enforcement) were described in four management subsystems: human resources, facility and equipment management, drug supply, and security. The PPP hospital appeared to reduce corruption by controlling discretion and increasing accountability, transparency, and detection and enforcement. Changes imposed new norms that supported personal responsibility and minimized opportunities, incentives, and pressures to engage in corrupt practices. By implementing private-sector management practices, a PPP model for hospital governance and management may curb corruption. To assess the feasibility of a PPP, administrators should account for cost savings resulting from reduced corruption.

  13. “It Keeps Us from Putting Drugs in Pockets”: How a Public-Private Partnership for Hospital Management May Help Curb Corruption

    PubMed Central

    Vian, Taryn; McIntosh, Nathalie; Grabowski, Aria

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Health care sector corruption diverts resources that could otherwise be used to improve access to health services. Use of private-sector practices such as a public-private partnership (PPP) model for hospital governance and management may reduce corruption. In 2011, a government-run hospital in Lesotho was replaced by a PPP hospital, offering an opportunity to compare hospital systems and practices. Objective To assess whether a PPP model in a hospital can help curb corruption. Methods We conducted 36 semistructured interviews with key informants between February 2013 and April 2013. We asked about hospital operations and practices at the government-run and PPP hospitals. We performed content analysis of interview data using a priori codes derived from the Corruption in the Health Sector framework and compared themes related with corruption between the hospitals. Results Corrupt practices that were described at the government-run hospital (theft, absenteeism, and shirking) were absent in the PPP hospital. In the PPP hospital, anticorruption mechanisms (controls on discretion, transparency, accountability, and detection and enforcement) were described in four management subsystems: human resources, facility and equipment management, drug supply, and security. Conclusion The PPP hospital appeared to reduce corruption by controlling discretion and increasing accountability, transparency, and detection and enforcement. Changes imposed new norms that supported personal responsibility and minimized opportunities, incentives, and pressures to engage in corrupt practices. By implementing private-sector management practices, a PPP model for hospital governance and management may curb corruption. To assess the feasibility of a PPP, administrators should account for cost savings resulting from reduced corruption. PMID:28746025

  14. [Adjusting Platelet Counts for Platelet Aggregation Tests].

    PubMed

    Ling, Li-Qin; Yang, Xin-Chun; Chen, Hao; Liu, Chao-Nan; Chen, Si; Jiang, Hong; Jin, Ya-Xiong; Zhou, Jing

    2018-03-01

    To explore a better method to adjust platelet counts for light transmission aggregometry (LTA). Blood samples from 36 healthy participants aged from 18 to 50 yr. were collected.Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) was diluted using platelet-poor plasma (PPP) and physiological saline (PS),respectively,in a ratio of 1.5,2,2.5 and 3 times. Platelet aggregation was induced by adenosine diphosphate (ADP),arachidonic acid (ARA),collagen (COL), epinephrine (EPI),or ristocetin (RIS). The maximal aggregation rates (MAs) of different approaches were compared. We also compared the MAs induced by RIS between PRP-obtained-PPP and whole blood-obtained-PPP (2 100× g, 5 min). Compared with the original PRP,the MAs induced by ADP,ARA,and EPI decreased in PPP-adjusted PRP (significant at 2-3 times dilution ratio, P <0.05),but not in PS-adjusted PRP ( P >0.05). The MA induced by RIS decreased in PS-adjusted PRP (significant at all dilution ratios, P <0.05),but not in PPP-adjusted PRP ( P >0.05). No changes in the MA induced by COL were found in PS-adjusted PRP and PPP-adjusted PRP ( P >0.05). Whole blood-obtained-PPP (2 100× g, 5 min) had the same MA induced by ristocetin compared with PRP-obtained-PPP ( P >0.05). PS is recommended for adjusting platelets counts for platelet aggregation induced by ADP,ARA,COL and EPI. Whole blood-obtained-PPP (2 100 × g, 5 min) is recommended for RIS-induced aggregation as a matter of convenience. Copyright© by Editorial Board of Journal of Sichuan University (Medical Science Edition).

  15. Error analysis of high-rate GNSS precise point positioning for seismic wave measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shu, Yuanming; Shi, Yun; Xu, Peiliang; Niu, Xiaoji; Liu, Jingnan

    2017-06-01

    High-rate GNSS precise point positioning (PPP) has been playing a more and more important role in providing precise positioning information in fast time-varying environments. Although kinematic PPP is commonly known to have a precision of a few centimeters, the precision of high-rate PPP within a short period of time has been reported recently with experiments to reach a few millimeters in the horizontal components and sub-centimeters in the vertical component to measure seismic motion, which is several times better than the conventional kinematic PPP practice. To fully understand the mechanism of mystified excellent performance of high-rate PPP within a short period of time, we have carried out a theoretical error analysis of PPP and conducted the corresponding simulations within a short period of time. The theoretical analysis has clearly indicated that the high-rate PPP errors consist of two types: the residual systematic errors at the starting epoch, which affect high-rate PPP through the change of satellite geometry, and the time-varying systematic errors between the starting epoch and the current epoch. Both the theoretical error analysis and simulated results are fully consistent with and thus have unambiguously confirmed the reported high precision of high-rate PPP, which has been further affirmed here by the real data experiments, indicating that high-rate PPP can indeed achieve the millimeter level of precision in the horizontal components and the sub-centimeter level of precision in the vertical component to measure motion within a short period of time. The simulation results have clearly shown that the random noise of carrier phases and higher order ionospheric errors are two major factors to affect the precision of high-rate PPP within a short period of time. The experiments with real data have also indicated that the precision of PPP solutions can degrade to the cm level in both the horizontal and vertical components, if the geometry of satellites is

  16. Anamolous ionospheric TEC variations prior to the Indonesian earthquake (M 7.1) of November 15, 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alcay, Salih

    2017-05-01

    This paper investigates preearthquake ionospheric variations with the use of TEC of Global Ionospheric Maps (GIMs) and regional maps based on Precise Point Positioning (PPP) during the 7.1-M Indonesian earthquake that occurred on November 15, 2014. TEC maps corresponding to 10 days before to 4 days after the event were examined. In addition, a time series of TEC values according to the PPP maps were also evaluated. In addition to GIMs, it was possible to detect TEC variations with PPP maps. The results showed that ionospheric TEC decreased strikingly 4 days prior to the earthquake. This TEC variation was highly likely related to seismic activity.

  17. Advanced crew procedures development techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arbet, J. D.; Benbow, R. L.; Mangiaracina, A. A.; Mcgavern, J. L.; Spangler, M. C.; Tatum, I. C.

    1975-01-01

    The development of an operational computer program, the Procedures and Performance Program (PPP), is reported which provides a procedures recording and crew/vehicle performance monitoring capability. The PPP provides real time CRT displays and postrun hardcopy of procedures, difference procedures, performance, performance evaluation, and training script/training status data. During post-run, the program is designed to support evaluation through the reconstruction of displays to any point in time. A permanent record of the simulation exercise can be obtained via hardcopy output of the display data, and via magnetic tape transfer to the Generalized Documentation Processor (GDP). Reference procedures data may be transferred from the GDP to the PPP.

  18. Eosinophilic folliculitis: an important differential diagnosis after allogeneic bone-marrow transplant.

    PubMed

    Fraser, S J; Benton, E C; Roddie, P H; Krajewski, A S; Goodlad, J R

    2009-04-01

    Eosinophilic folliculitis (EF) is a descriptive histopathological term applied to a heterogeneous group of disorders. In EF, the characteristic histopathological features are eosinophilic spongiosis and pustulosis involving the infundibular region of the hair follicle. EF may be seen in association with bacterial and fungal infection, drug reactions and haematological disorders. However, in those conditions, the histopathological changes are rarely restricted to the infundibula but in most cases include a moderate to dense perifollicular or even diffuse dermal infiltrate of lymphocytes, or eosinophilic or neutrophilic granulocytes. We present two cases of EF after mini-allogeneic bone-marrow transplantation (BMT) in order to highlight this rare and perhaps under-recognized clinical association.

  19. SAPHO: What radiologists should know.

    PubMed

    Depasquale, R; Kumar, N; Lalam, R K; Tins, B J; Tyrrell, P N M; Singh, J; Cassar-Pullicino, V N

    2012-03-01

    SAPHO (synovitis, acne, pustulosis, hyperostosis, and osteitis) is an umbrella acronym for inflammatory clinical conditions whose common denominator is aseptic osteoarticular involvement with characteristic skin lesions. It involves all ages, can involve any skeletal site, and has variable imaging appearances depending on the stage/age of the lesion and imaging method. It mimics important differentials including infection and neoplasia. Awareness of the imaging features, especially in the spine, facilitates early diagnosis, prevents repeated biopsies, and avoids unnecessary surgery, while initiating appropriate treatment. Copyright © 2011 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Autoinflammatory bone diseases.

    PubMed

    Stern, Sara M; Ferguson, Polly J

    2013-11-01

    Autoinflammatory bone disease is a new branch of autoinflammatory diseases caused by seemingly unprovoked activation of the innate immune system leading to an osseous inflammatory process. The inflammatory bone lesions in these disorders are characterized by chronic inflammation that is typically culture negative with no demonstrable organism on histopathology. The most common autoinflammatory bone diseases in childhood include chronic nonbacterial osteomyelitis (CNO), synovitis, acne, pustulosis, hyperostosis, osteitis syndrome, Majeed syndrome, deficiency of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist, and cherubism. In this article, the authors focus on CNO and summarize the distinct genetic autoinflammatory bone syndromes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. 6. Historic American Buildings Survey Frank O. Branzetti, Photographer July ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Historic American Buildings Survey Frank O. Branzetti, Photographer July 23, 1940 (b) 7- MILE STONE, opp. 1040 ADAMS ST., DORCHESTER - Milestones A, B, E, HHH, III & PPP, Various Dorchester locations, Dorchester, Suffolk County, MA

  2. Protecting public interests in public-private-partnership arrangements for highway improvement projects.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2012-03-16

    Engaging private investors and entrepreneurs through public-private partnership (PPP) in : constructing and operating transportation facilities has emerged as one of the viable options to : meet the challenges of funding the development and maintenan...

  3. Feasibility study guidelines for public private partnership projects : Vol. 1 & 2

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2010-10-01

    For many state Departments of Transportation (DOTs), a shortage of transportation funds requires the : agencies to combat that shortage by implementing innovative programs. Nationwide, Public Private : Partnerships (PPP) in transportation projects ar...

  4. 61. BOILER CHAMBER No. 2, LOOKING SOUTHWEST BETWEEN CHAMBER AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    61. BOILER CHAMBER No. 2, LOOKING SOUTHWEST BETWEEN CHAMBER AND CONCRETE ENCLOSURE (LOCATION PPP) - Shippingport Atomic Power Station, On Ohio River, 25 miles Northwest of Pittsburgh, Shippingport, Beaver County, PA

  5. Evaluation of public private partnership proposals.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2010-06-01

    In Alabama, a shortage of transportation funds requires the Alabama Department of Transportation (ALDOT) to combat that shortage by implementing innovative programs. Nationwide, Public Private Partnerships (PPP) in transportation projects are increas...

  6. OXIDATIVE STRESS, INFLAMMATION AND CARCINOGENESIS ARE CONTROLLED THROUGH THE PENTOSE PHOSPHATE PATHWAY BY TRANSALDOLASE

    PubMed Central

    Perl, Andras; Hanczko, Robert; Telarico, Tiffany; Oaks, Zachary; Landas, Steve

    2011-01-01

    Metabolism of glucose through the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) influences the development of diverse pathologies. Hemolytic anemia due to deficiency of PPP enzyme glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase is the most common genetic disease in humans. Recently, inactivation of another PPP enzyme, transaldolase (TAL), has been implicated in male infertility and fatty liver progressing to steatohepatitis and cancer. Hepatocarcinogenesis was associated with activation of aldose reductase and redox-sensitive transcription factors and prevented by N-acetylcysteine. Here, we discuss how alternative formulations of the PPP with and without TAL reflect cell type-specific metabolic control of oxidative stress, a critical source of inflammation and carcinogenesis. Ongoing studies of TAL deficiency will identify new molecular targets for diagnosis and treatment in clinical practice. PMID:21376665

  7. Policy issues in U.S. transportation public-private partnerships lessons from Australia.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2010-07-01

    In this report, the authors examine Australias experience with transportation public-private partnerships (PPPs) and the lessons that experience holds for the use of PPPs in the United States. Australia now has decades of experience in PPP use in ...

  8. 75 FR 5643 - Notice of Receipt of Requests to Voluntarily Cancel Certain Pesticide Registrations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-03

    ... 50% Malathion Malathion Spray 000769-00847 Pratt's Home & Garden Pyrethrins Insect Bomb Piperonyl...-00099 Flyer's Insecticide Resmethrin 047000-00132 Wasp & Hornet Insect Resmethrin Bomb 048668-00004 PPP...

  9. Feasibility study guideline for public private partnership projects : volume I & II.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2010-10-01

    For many state Departments of Transportation (DOTs), a shortage of transportation funds requires the : agencies to combat that shortage by implementing innovative programs. Nationwide, Public Private : Partnerships (PPP) in transportation projects ar...

  10. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey Frank O. Branzetti, Photographer July ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey Frank O. Branzetti, Photographer July 9, 1940 (a) 4- MILE STONE, POND ST., DORCHESTER - Milestones A, B, E, HHH, III & PPP, Various Dorchester locations, Dorchester, Suffolk County, MA

  11. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey Frank O. Branzetti, Photographer July ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey Frank O. Branzetti, Photographer July 23, 1940 (hhh) 5- MILE STONE, 879 BLUE HILL AVE., DORCHESTER - Milestones A, B, E, HHH, III & PPP, Various Dorchester locations, Dorchester, Suffolk County, MA

  12. 4. Historic American Buildings Survey Frank O. Branzetti, Photographer July ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Historic American Buildings Survey Frank O. Branzetti, Photographer July 23, 1940 (iii) 6- MILE STONE, opp. 1280 BLUE HILL AVE., DORCHESTER - Milestones A, B, E, HHH, III & PPP, Various Dorchester locations, Dorchester, Suffolk County, MA

  13. Deep Space One High-Voltage Bus Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rachocki, Ken; Nieraeth, Donald

    1999-01-01

    The design of the High Voltage Power Converter Unit on DS1 allows both the spacecraft avionics and ion propulsion to operate in a stable manner near the PPP of the solar array. This approach relies on a fairly well-defined solar array model to determine the projected PPP. The solar array voltage set-points have to be updated every week to maintain operation near PPP. Stable operation even to the LEFT of the Peak Power Point is achievable so long as you do not change the operating power level of the ion engine. The next step for this technology is to investigate the use of onboard autonomy to determine the optimum SA voltage regulation set-point (i.e. near the PPP); this is for future missions that have one or more ion propulsion subsystems.

  14. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey Frank O. Branzetti, Photographer July ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey Frank O. Branzetti, Photographer July 23, 1940 (e) 6- MILE STONE, POND ST., DORCHESTER - Milestones A, B, E, HHH, III & PPP, Various Dorchester locations, Dorchester, Suffolk County, MA

  15. Innovative UK Approaches to Acquisition Management

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-01

    Financial and Operational Imperatives Size of UK armed forces UK Industry ? Political influence PFI / PPP Increased Scrutiny - NAO “ Commercialisation “ of the...acquisition KNOWLEDGE (EXPERIENCE – Lessons learned) KNOWLEDGE (Training) KNOWLEDGE ( Education ) OPTIMAL OPERATIONAL PERFORMANCE Operational Capability UK

  16. Valuing public sector risk exposure in transportation public-private partnerships.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2010-10-01

    This report presents a methodological framework to evaluate public sector financial risk exposure when : delivering transportation infrastructure through public-private partnership (PPP) agreements in the United : States (U.S.). The framework is base...

  17. Public-private partnerships (PPPs) in highway reconstruction, rehabilitation, and operations.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2011-10-31

    In the context of transportation, a Public-private Partnership" (PPP) is a contractual agreement established between a public agency and private sector entity often to allow for greater participation of the latter in the delivery of a transportation ...

  18. Potential economic benefits of public-private partnership (P3s) on reclaimed mine sites in the construction of the I-73/74 NHS corridor.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2012-02-01

    A public private partnership (PPP or P3), according to the FHWA, is a contractual agreement : between a public agency and a private entity for private sector participation in the delivery of : transportation projects. One of the most innovat...

  19. A method of undifferenced ambiguity resolution for GPS+GLONASS precise point positioning.

    PubMed

    Yi, Wenting; Song, Weiwei; Lou, Yidong; Shi, Chuang; Yao, Yibin

    2016-05-25

    Integer ambiguity resolution is critical for achieving positions of high precision and for shortening the convergence time of precise point positioning (PPP). However, GLONASS adopts the signal processing technology of frequency division multiple access and results in inter-frequency code biases (IFCBs), which are currently difficult to correct. This bias makes the methods proposed for GPS ambiguity fixing unsuitable for GLONASS. To realize undifferenced GLONASS ambiguity fixing, we propose an undifferenced ambiguity resolution method for GPS+GLONASS PPP, which considers the IFCBs estimation. The experimental result demonstrates that the success rate of GLONASS ambiguity fixing can reach 75% through the proposed method. Compared with the ambiguity float solutions, the positioning accuracies of ambiguity-fixed solutions of GLONASS-only PPP are increased by 12.2%, 20.9%, and 10.3%, and that of the GPS+GLONASS PPP by 13.0%, 35.2%, and 14.1% in the North, East and Up directions, respectively.

  20. The GFZ real-time GNSS precise positioning service system and its adaption for COMPASS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xingxing; Ge, Maorong; Zhang, Hongping; Nischan, Thomas; Wickert, Jens

    2013-03-01

    Motivated by the IGS real-time Pilot Project, GFZ has been developing its own real-time precise positioning service for various applications. An operational system at GFZ is now broadcasting real-time orbits, clocks, global ionospheric model, uncalibrated phase delays and regional atmospheric corrections for standard PPP, PPP with ambiguity fixing, single-frequency PPP and regional augmented PPP. To avoid developing various algorithms for different applications, we proposed a uniform algorithm and implemented it into our real-time software. In the new processing scheme, we employed un-differenced raw observations with atmospheric delays as parameters, which are properly constrained by real-time derived global ionospheric model or regional atmospheric corrections and by the empirical characteristics of the atmospheric delay variation in time and space. The positioning performance in terms of convergence time and ambiguity fixing depends mainly on the quality of the received atmospheric information and the spatial and temporal constraints. The un-differenced raw observation model can not only integrate PPP and NRTK into a seamless positioning service, but also syncretize these two techniques into a unique model and algorithm. Furthermore, it is suitable for both dual-frequency and sing-frequency receivers. Based on the real-time data streams from IGS, EUREF and SAPOS reference networks, we can provide services of global precise point positioning (PPP) with 5-10 cm accuracy, PPP with ambiguity-fixing of 2-5 cm accuracy, PPP using single-frequency receiver with accuracy of better than 50 cm and PPP with regional augmentation for instantaneous ambiguity resolution of 1-3 cm accuracy. We adapted the system for current COMPASS to provide PPP service. COMPASS observations from a regional network of nine stations are used for precise orbit determination and clock estimation in simulated real-time mode, the orbit and clock products are applied for real-time precise point

  1. The Properties of 3 Different Plasma Formulations and Their Effects on Tendinopathic Cells.

    PubMed

    Rubio-Azpeitia, Eva; Bilbao, Ane M; Sánchez, Pello; Delgado, Diego; Andia, Isabel

    2016-08-01

    Tendinopathies are attributed to failure of the healing process and inadequate tissue remodeling. Plasma injections can trigger regenerative responses by modifying the molecular microenvironment. To examine the differences in the mitotic, chemotactic, anabolic, and inflammatory effects between leukocyte- and platelet-rich plasma (L-PRP), platelet-rich plasma (PRP), and platelet-poor plasma (PPP). Controlled laboratory study. Tendinopathic cells were cultured in 3-dimensional (3D) hydrogels formed using PPP, PRP, and L-PRP. Cell migration was evaluated using a μ-Slide chemotaxis chamber with video microscopy. Proliferation was assessed using XTT assays. Expression of genes associated with matrix turnover, including type 1 collagen (COL1A1), COL3A1, aggrecan, decorin, fibronectin, matrix metalloproteinase 1 (MMP-1), MMP-3, A Disintegrin-Like And Metalloprotease With Thrombospondin Type 1 Motif proteins 4 (ADAMTS-4), and ADAMTS-5, was assessed using real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. Secreted inflammatory proteins, including interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8, monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1), and regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES), as well as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), were quantified using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Tendinopathic cells migrate at a higher velocity along L-PRP and PRP than along PPP gradients. PRP and L-PRP promote hypercellularity. PPP and PRP showed more pronounced anabolic properties, as demonstrated by enhanced COL1A1 and COL3A1 and reduced MMP-1 expression. Decorin, fibronectin, and aggrecan were downregulated in L-PRP compared with PPP and PRP. L-PRP and PRP were shown to be more proinflammatory than PPP in terms of IL-6 secretion, but cells in PPP showed MCP-1(high) phenotype. CTGF secretion was significantly reduced in L-PRP compared with PPP and PRP. The main advantages of L-PRP and PRP use, compared with PPP

  2. The association of TP53 mutations with the resistance of colorectal carcinoma to the insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor inhibitor picropodophyllin

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There is growing evidence indicating the insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R) plays a critical role in the progression of human colorectal carcinomas. IGF-1R is an attractive drug target for the treatment of colon cancer. Picropodophyllin (PPP), of the cyclolignan family, has recently been identified as an IGF-1R inhibitor. The aim of this study is to determine the therapeutic response and mechanism after colorectal carcinoma treatment with PPP. Methods Seven colorectal carcinoma cell lines were treated with PPP. Following treatment, cells were analyzed for growth by a cell viability assay, sub-G1 apoptosis by flow cytometry, caspase cleavage and activation of AKT and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) by western blot analysis. To examine the in vivo therapeutic efficacy of PPP, mice implanted with human colorectal carcinoma xenografts underwent PPP treatment. Results PPP treatment blocked the phosphorylation of IGF-1R, AKT and ERK and inhibited the growth of TP53 wild-type but not mutated colorectal carcinoma cell lines. The treatment of PPP also induced apoptosis in TP53 wild-type cells as evident by the presence of sub-G1 cells and the cleavage of caspase-9, caspase-3, DNA fragmentation factor-45 (DFF45), poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), and X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP). The loss of BAD phosphorylation in the PPP-treated TP53 wild type cells further suggested that the treatment induced apoptosis through the BAD-mediated mitochondrial pathway. In contrast, PPP treatment failed to induce the phosphorylation of AKT and ERK and caspase cleavage in TP53 mutated colorectal carcinoma cell lines. Finally, PPP treatment suppressed the growth of xenografts derived from TP53 wild type but not mutated colorectal carcinoma cells. Conclusions We report the association of TP53 mutations with the resistance of treatment of colorectal carcinoma cells in culture and in a xenograft mouse model with the IGF-1R inhibitor PPP. TP53

  3. On the Interpretation of the Influence of Substituents on the UV-Spectroscopic Properties of Benzimidazole and Indazole Derivatives (In German)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabian, Walter

    1983-12-01

    On the interpretation of the influence of substituents on the UV-spectroscopic properties of benzimidazole and indazole derivatives. The UV spectra of a series of substituted benzimidazoles and indazoles were calculated by means of semiempirical quantum chemical methods (PPP, CNDO/S-CI). The results of the PPP calculations were subjected to a configuration analysis. Using this method, the influence of the nature and position of substituents on the absorption characteristics could be rationalized.

  4. MINOS Timing and GPS Precise Point Positioning

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    Minos Timing Spec • Neutrinos created in bunches separated by 19 ns • ~ 1 neutrino/day detected in Soudan Mine – 2 milliseconds travel time...calibration – No low-cost Fermilab to Soudan Mine connections known – Not yet tested for operational time transfer Clock Options • High-Performance... UNDERGROUND LABORATORY •;, ~ (((ft.F ~’: · GPS PRECISE POINT POSITIONING A Brief Overview What is GPS PPP? • GPS PPP is a way to use precise ephemerides

  5. Ambiguity resolution in precise point positioning with hourly data for global single receiver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaohong; Li, Pan; Guo, Fei

    2013-01-01

    Integer ambiguity resolution (IAR) can improve precise point positioning (PPP) performance significantly. IAR for PPP became a highlight topic in global positioning system (GPS) community in recent years. More and more researchers focus on this issue. Progress has been made in the latest years. In this paper, we aim at investigating and demonstrating the performance of a global zero-differenced (ZD) PPP IAR service for GPS users by providing routine ZD uncalibrated fractional offsets (UFOs) for wide-lane and narrow-lane. Data sets from all IGS stations collected on DOY 1, 100, 200 and 300 of 2010 are used to validate and demonstrate this global service. Static experiment results show that an accuracy better than 1 cm in horizontal and 1-2 cm in vertical could be achieved in ambiguity-fixed PPP solution with only hourly data. Compared with PPP float solution, an average improvement reaches 58.2% in east, 28.3% in north and 23.8% in vertical for all tested stations. Results of kinematic experiments show that the RMS of kinematic PPP solutions can be improved from 21.6, 16.6 and 37.7 mm to 12.2, 13.3 and 34.3 mm for the fixed solutions in the east, north and vertical components, respectively. Both static and kinematic experiments show that wide-lane and narrow-lane UFO products of all satellites can be generated and provided in a routine way accompanying satellite orbit and clock products for the PPP user anywhere around the world, to obtain accurate and reliable ambiguity-fixed PPP solutions.

  6. Occupational exposure to plant protection products and health effects in Switzerland: what do we know and what do we need to do?

    PubMed

    Graczyk, Halshka; Hopf, Nancy B; Mediouni, Zakia; Guseva-Canu, Irina; Sanvido, Olivier; Schmid, Kaspar; Berthet, Aurelie

    2018-04-26

    There is currently no centralised database on workers' exposures to plant protection products (PPPs) in Switzerland, nor a national register for negative health effects linking them to occupational PPP exposure. This lack of basic data makes it difficult to implement either epidemiological research or prevention campaigns for the agricultural sector. The first objective was to understand the level of information and flow of data on occupational PPP exposures and health effects in the Canton of Vaud, Switzerland. Then, to apply this information to develop recommendations for improving a vigilance system for occupational health effects related to PPP exposure. A mapping study and semistructured stakeholder interviews were conducted to better understand the flow of data on occupational PPP exposures and health effects. A clinical records investigation of workers occupationally exposed to PPPs was undertaken to understand the magnitude of this potential problem. Finally, a workshop brought together relevant stakeholders to discuss recommendations for the way forwards. A lack of data on PPP exposures and associated health effects was revealed. This highlighted important knowledge gaps at different levels of the current institutional information flow system. We found that although there were numerous stakeholders that worked efficiently in their own mandate, there was a clear need for increased collaboration and coordination in order to make use of existing data to promote safer PPP use among agricultural workers in Switzerland. Due to increasing evidence of an association between PPP exposure and health effects, increased collaboration between stakeholders is necessary to develop links between the data sources that already exist. Our study was the first to investigate the health effects linked to PPP exposure among the Swiss agricultural population. The recommendations presented in this paper would help promote a safer and healthier agricultural workforce in Switzerland

  7. Three-frequency BDS precise point positioning ambiguity resolution based on raw observables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Pan; Zhang, Xiaohong; Ge, Maorong; Schuh, Harald

    2018-02-01

    All BeiDou navigation satellite system (BDS) satellites are transmitting signals on three frequencies, which brings new opportunity and challenges for high-accuracy precise point positioning (PPP) with ambiguity resolution (AR). This paper proposes an effective uncalibrated phase delay (UPD) estimation and AR strategy which is based on a raw PPP model. First, triple-frequency raw PPP models are developed. The observation model and stochastic model are designed and extended to accommodate the third frequency. Then, the UPD is parameterized in raw frequency form while estimating with the high-precision and low-noise integer linear combination of float ambiguity which are derived by ambiguity decorrelation. Third, with UPD corrected, the LAMBDA method is used for resolving full or partial ambiguities which can be fixed. This method can be easily and flexibly extended for dual-, triple- or even more frequency. To verify the effectiveness and performance of triple-frequency PPP AR, tests with real BDS data from 90 stations lasting for 21 days were performed in static mode. Data were processed with three strategies: BDS triple-frequency ambiguity-float PPP, BDS triple-frequency PPP with dual-frequency (B1/B2) and three-frequency AR, respectively. Numerous experiment results showed that compared with the ambiguity-float solution, the performance in terms of convergence time and positioning biases can be significantly improved by AR. Among three groups of solutions, the triple-frequency PPP AR achieved the best performance. Compared with dual-frequency AR, additional the third frequency could apparently improve the position estimations during the initialization phase and under constraint environments when the dual-frequency PPP AR is limited by few satellite numbers.

  8. SOARD Overview: Southern Office of Aerospace Research and Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-06

    Argentina: 22nd GDP(PPP) • Population: 40 M • Buenos Aires: 13M • Brazil: 8Th GDP (PPP) • Population: 192 M • Sao Paulo: 20 M • Chile ... Chile 4 DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. A Sample of Latin America Resources & Science Sugarcane production...fiber to kill bacteria, robotics, aquaculture* High, dry, quite, clear location makes Chile key astronomy center in the world, for example Atacama

  9. Measurement of Perceived Stress Among Pregnant Women: A Comparison of Two Different Instruments.

    PubMed

    Solivan, Amber E; Xiong, Xu; Harville, Emily W; Buekens, Pierre

    2015-09-01

    Assess the amount of agreement between the classification of stress from the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and the Assessment of Stress portion of the Prenatal Psychosocial Profile (PPP) among pregnant women. A secondary data analysis on a cross-sectional study of 301 pregnant women from the New Orleans and Baton Rouge areas who were exposed to Hurricane Katrina was conducted. Women with complete data (219) were analyzed. Women scoring in the third tertile of each instrument were compared. The kappa statistic was used to assess agreement between instruments. Additional comparisons were made with three instruments that measure other important psychosocial constructs that could be related to stress: the Edinburgh Depression Scale (EDS) and the Assessments of Support (partner and other support) and Self-Esteem from the PPP. No significant difference was found between the two tests. The PSS and the PPP were both statistically significantly correlated to each other (ρ = 0.71, p < 0.01). Thirty-five women were classified discordantly resulting in a Kappa Coefficient of 0.61 (95% CI 0.50-0.72, p < 0.01). No significant differences were found between these two instruments in correlation with the EDS (PPP, r = 0.76; PSS, r = 0.72; p < 0.01 for each), partner support (PPP, r = -0.47; PSS r = -0.46; p < 0.01 for each), other support (PPP, r = -0.31; PSS r = -0.32; p < 0.01 for each) and self-esteem (PPP, r = -0.41; PSS, r = -0.52; p < 0.01 for each), respectively. Given the similarities between the PSS and PPP, researchers are encouraged to choose and administer one instrument to participants, or to use the instruments in combination as an external reliability check.

  10. Autoradiographic localization of sigma receptor binding sites in guinea pig and rat central nervous system with (+)3H-3-(3-hydroxyphenyl)-N-(1-propyl)piperidine

    SciT

    Gundlach, A.L.; Largent, B.L.; Snyder, S.H.

    1986-06-01

    (+)3H-3-PPP ((+)3H-3-(3-Hydroxyphenyl)-N-(1-propyl)-piperidine) binds with high affinity to brain membranes with a pharmacological profile consistent with that of sigma receptors. The distribution of (+)3H-3-PPP binding sites in brain and spinal cord of both guinea pig and rat has been determined by in vitro autoradiography with binding densities quantitated by computer-assisted densitometry. (+)3H-3-PPP binding to slide-mounted brain sections is saturable and displays high affinity and a pharmacological specificity very similar to sites labeled in homogenates. (+)3H-3-PPP binding sites are heterogeneously distributed. Highest concentrations of binding sites occur in spinal cord, particularly the ventral horn and dorsal root ganglia; the pons-medulla, associated withmore » the cranial nerve and pontine nuclei and throughout the brain stem reticular formation; the cerebellum, over the Purkinje cell layer; the midbrain, particularly the central gray and red nucleus; and hippocampus, over the pyramidal cell layer. Lowest levels are seen in the basal ganglia and parts of the thalamus, while all other areas, including hypothalamus and cerebral cortex, exhibit moderate grain densities. Quinolinic acid-induced lesions of the hippocampus indicate that (+)3H-3-PPP labels hippocampal pyramidal cells and granule cells in the dentate gyrus. Intrastriatal injection of ibotenic acid dramatically reduces (+)3H-3-PPP binding in this area, while injection of 6-hydroxydopamine produces a relatively slight decrease. The distribution of (+)3H-3-PPP binding sites does not correlate with the receptor distribution of any recognized neurotransmitter or neuropeptide, including dopamine. However, there is a notable similarity between the distribution of (+)3H-3-PPP sites and high-affinity binding sites for psychotomimetic opioids, such as the benzomorphan (+)SKF 10,047.« less

  11. Systematic engineering of pentose phosphate pathway improves Escherichia coli succinate production.

    PubMed

    Tan, Zaigao; Chen, Jing; Zhang, Xueli

    2016-01-01

    Succinate biosynthesis of Escherichia coli is reducing equivalent-dependent and the EMP pathway serves as the primary reducing equivalent source under anaerobic condition. Compared with EMP, pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) is reducing equivalent-conserving but suffers from low efficacy. In this study, the ribosome binding site library and modified multivariate modular metabolic engineering (MMME) approaches are employed to overcome the low efficacy of PPP and thus increase succinate production. Altering expression levels of different PPP enzymes have distinct effects on succinate production. Specifically, increased expression of five enzymes, i.e., Zwf, Pgl, Gnd, Tkt, and Tal, contributes to increased succinate production, while the increased expression of two enzymes, i.e., Rpe and Rpi, significantly decreases succinate production. Modular engineering strategy is employed to decompose PPP into three modules according to position and function. Engineering of Zwf/Pgl/Gnd and Tkt/Tal modules effectively increases succinate yield and production, while engineering of Rpe/Rpi module decreases. Imbalance of enzymatic reactions in PPP is alleviated using MMME approach. Finally, combinational utilization of engineered PPP and SthA transhydrogenase enables succinate yield up to 1.61 mol/mol glucose, which is 94% of theoretical maximum yield (1.71 mol/mol) and also the highest succinate yield in minimal medium to our knowledge. In summary, we systematically engineered the PPP for improving the supply of reducing equivalents and thus succinate production. Besides succinate, these PPP engineering strategies and conclusions can also be applicable to the production of other reducing equivalent-dependent biorenewables.

  12. Studies on the control of development: isolation of Bacillus subtilis mutants blocked early in sporulation and defective in synthesis of highly phosphorylated nucleotides.

    PubMed

    Rhaese, H J; Hoch, J A; Groscurth, R

    1977-03-01

    To test our model on the mechanism of initiation of differentiation in Bacillus subtilis, we tested early blocked (stage 0) sporulation mutants for their ability to synthesize highly phosphorylated nucleotides. We also isolated early blocked asporogenous mutants with the aid of the intercalating drug tilorone. Among all mutants tested we found that the spo0F-bearing strain was unable to synthesize adenosine 3'(2')-triphosphate 5'-triphosphate, pppAppp. A revertant of this mutant regained the ability to both sporulate and synthesize pppAppp. Ribosomes of the asporogenous mutant isolated at T2 (2 hr after the end of logarithmic growth) of sporulation, in contrast to the wild type, do not synthesize adenosine 3'(2')-diphosphate 5'-diphosphate, ppApp, or adenosine 3'(2')-diphosphate 5'-triphosphate, pppApp, but synthesize guanosine 3'(2')-diphosphate 5'-diphosphate, ppGpp, and guanosine 3'(2')-diphosphate 5'-triphosphate, pppGpp. This behavior is characteristic of ribosomes from vegetative, not sporulating, cells. Ribosomes from the sporogenous revertant behave like those of the wild type. The results suggest that the spo0F mutation may be a mutation in the structural gene for pppAppp synthetase. The inability to synthesize pppAppp in this strain also prevents the formation of "sporulation-specific ribosomes," i.e., ribosomes that synthetize ppApp and pppApp. The present experiments suggest that the nucleotide pppAppp participates in the initiation of sporulation by triggering a sequencies of events required for the production of heat-resistant spores.

  13. Sperm calcineurin inhibition prevents mouse fertility with implications for male contraceptive.

    PubMed

    Miyata, Haruhiko; Satouh, Yuhkoh; Mashiko, Daisuke; Muto, Masanaga; Nozawa, Kaori; Shiba, Kogiku; Fujihara, Yoshitaka; Isotani, Ayako; Inaba, Kazuo; Ikawa, Masahito

    2015-10-23

    Calcineurin inhibitors, such as cyclosporine A and FK506, are used as immunosuppressant drugs, but their adverse effects on male reproductive function remain unclear. The testis expresses somatic calcineurin and a sperm-specific isoform that contains a catalytic subunit (PPP3CC) and a regulatory subunit (PPP3R2). We demonstrate herein that male mice lacking Ppp3cc or Ppp3r2 genes (knockout mice) are infertile, with reduced sperm motility owing to an inflexible midpiece. Treatment of mice with cyclosporine A or FK506 creates phenocopies of the sperm motility and morphological defects. These defects appear within 4 to 5 days of treatment, which indicates that sperm-specific calcineurin confers midpiece flexibility during epididymal transit. Male mouse fertility recovered a week after we discontinued treatment. Because human spermatozoa contain PPP3CC and PPP3R2 as a form of calcineurin, inhibition of this sperm-specific calcineurin may lead to the development of a reversible male contraceptive that would target spermatozoa in the epididymis. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  14. Use of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in postpartum psychosis--a naturalistic prospective study.

    PubMed

    Babu, Girish N; Thippeswamy, Harish; Chandra, Prabha S

    2013-06-01

    Postpartum psychosis (PPP) is a severe psychiatric condition requiring rapid restoration of health in view of significant risks to both mother and the infant. Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is often used for treatment of severe PPP. The aims of the study were to describe the indications for ECT among women admitted with PPP to a psychiatric hospital in India. It also aimed at assessing whether women with PPP who received ECT differed in their clinical history, diagnosis, severity of illness, psychopathology, drug dosage, and duration of hospital stay, compared to women who did not receive ECT. Infants of mothers who were breast-feeding their infants while receiving ECT were assessed for adverse effects. This was a naturalistic prospective study of 78 women admitted with PPP, 34 (43.6 %) of whom received ECT. Presence of catatonia, augmentation of medications, and suicidality were common indications for ECT. Catatonic symptoms were significantly higher among women who received ECT. There was no significant difference in duration of hospitalization or severity of psychopathology between women who did and did not receive ECT. Transient side effects to ECT were observed in few women, with no adverse effects noted in infants who were breast-fed. The current study supports the use of ECT as an effective and safe treatment for women with severe PPP.

  15. Thin chest wall is an independent risk factor for the development of pneumothorax after chest tube removal.

    PubMed

    Anand, Rahul J; Whelan, James F; Ferrada, Paula; Duane, Therese M; Malhotra, Ajai K; Aboutanos, Michel B; Ivatury, Rao R

    2012-04-01

    The factors contributing to the development of pneumothorax after removal of chest tube thoracostomy are not fully understood. We hypothesized that development of post pull pneumothorax (PPP) after chest tube removal would be significantly lower in those patients with thicker chest walls, due to the "protective" layer of adipose tissue. All patients on our trauma service who underwent chest tube thoracostomy from July 2010 to February 2011 were retrospectively reviewed. Patient age, mechanism of trauma, and chest Abbreviated Injury Scale score were analyzed. Thoracic CTs were reviewed to ascertain chest wall thickness (CW). Thickness was measured at the level of the nipple at the midaxillary line, as perpendicular distance between skin and pleural cavity. Chest X-ray reports from immediately prior and after chest tube removal were reviewed for interval development of PPP. Data are presented as average ± standard deviation. Ninety-one chest tubes were inserted into 81 patients. Patients who died before chest tube removal (n = 11), or those without thoracic CT scans (n = 13) were excluded. PPP occurred in 29.9 per cent of chest tube removals (20/67). When PPP was encountered, repeat chest tube was necessary in 20 per cent of cases (4/20). After univariate analysis, younger age, penetrating mechanism, and thin chest wall were found to be significant risk factors for development of PPP. Chest Abbreviated Injury Scale score was similar in both groups. Logistic regression showed only chest wall thickness to be an independent risk factor for development of PPP.

  16. Diabetic foot ulcer incidence in relation to plantar pressure magnitude and measurement location.

    PubMed

    Ledoux, William R; Shofer, Jane B; Cowley, Matthew S; Ahroni, Jessie H; Cohen, Victoria; Boyko, Edward J

    2013-01-01

    We prospectively examined the relationship between site-specific peak plantar pressure (PPP) and ulcer risk. Researchers have previously reported associations between diabetic foot ulcer and elevated plantar foot pressure, but the effect of location-specific pressures has not been studied. Diabetic subjects (n=591) were enrolled from a single VA hospital. Five measurements of in-shoe plantar pressure were collected using F-Scan. Pressures were measured at 8 areas: heel, lateral midfoot, medial midfoot, first metatarsal, second through fourth metatarsal, fifth metatarsal, hallux, and other toes. The relationship between incident plantar foot ulcer and PPP or pressure-time integral (PTI) was assessed using Cox regression. During follow-up (2.4years), 47 subjects developed plantar ulcers (10 heel, 12 metatarsal, 19 hallux, 6 other). Overall mean PPP was higher for ulcer subjects (219 vs. 194kPa), but the relationship differed by site (the metatarsals with ulcers had higher pressure, while the opposite was true for the hallux and heel). A statistical analysis was not performed on the means, but hazard ratios from a Cox survival analysis were nonsignificant for PPP across all sites and when adjusted for location. However, when the metatarsals were considered separately, higher baseline PPP was significantly associated with greater ulcer risk; at other sites, this relationship was nonsignificant. Hazard ratios for all PTI data were nonsignificant. Location must be considered when assessing the relationship between PPP and plantar ulceration. © 2013.

  17. Diabetic foot ulcer incidence in relation to plantar pressure magnitude and measurement location☆,☆☆,★

    PubMed Central

    Ledoux, William R.; Shofer, Jane B.; Cowley, Matthew S.; Ahroni, Jessie H.; Cohen, Victoria; Boyko, Edward J.

    2014-01-01

    Aims We prospectively examined the relationship between site-specific peak plantar pressure (PPP) and ulcer risk. Researchers have previously reported associations between diabetic foot ulcer and elevated plantar foot pressure, but the effect of location-specific pressures has not been studied. Methods Diabetic subjects (n = 591) were enrolled from a single VA hospital. Five measurements of in-shoe plantar pressure were collected using F-Scan. Pressures were measured at 8 areas: heel, lateral midfoot, medial midfoot, first metatarsal, second through fourth metatarsal, fifth metatarsal, hallux, and other toes. The relationship between incident plantar foot ulcer and PPP or pressure–time integral (PTI) was assessed using Cox regression. Results During follow-up (2.4 years), 47 subjects developed plantar ulcers (10 heel, 12 metatarsal, 19 hallux, 6 other). Overall mean PPP was higher for ulcer subjects (219 vs. 194 kPa), but the relationship differed by site (the metatarsals with ulcers had higher pressure, while the opposite was true for the hallux and heel). A statistical analysis was not performed on the means, but hazard ratios from a Cox survival analysis were nonsignificant for PPP across all sites and when adjusted for location. However, when the metatarsals were considered separately, higher baseline PPP was significantly associated with greater ulcer risk; at other sites, this relationship was nonsignificant. Hazard ratios for all PTI data were nonsignificant. Conclusions Location must be considered when assessing the relationship between PPP and plantar ulceration. PMID:24012295

  18. Actomyosin drives cancer cell nuclear dysmorphia and threatens genome stability.

    PubMed

    Takaki, Tohru; Montagner, Marco; Serres, Murielle P; Le Berre, Maël; Russell, Matt; Collinson, Lucy; Szuhai, Karoly; Howell, Michael; Boulton, Simon J; Sahai, Erik; Petronczki, Mark

    2017-07-24

    Altered nuclear shape is a defining feature of cancer cells. The mechanisms underlying nuclear dysmorphia in cancer remain poorly understood. Here we identify PPP1R12A and PPP1CB, two subunits of the myosin phosphatase complex that antagonizes actomyosin contractility, as proteins safeguarding nuclear integrity. Loss of PPP1R12A or PPP1CB causes nuclear fragmentation, nuclear envelope rupture, nuclear compartment breakdown and genome instability. Pharmacological or genetic inhibition of actomyosin contractility restores nuclear architecture and genome integrity in cells lacking PPP1R12A or PPP1CB. We detect actin filaments at nuclear envelope rupture sites and define the Rho-ROCK pathway as the driver of nuclear damage. Lamin A protects nuclei from the impact of actomyosin activity. Blocking contractility increases nuclear circularity in cultured cancer cells and suppresses deformations of xenograft nuclei in vivo. We conclude that actomyosin contractility is a major determinant of nuclear shape and that unrestrained contractility causes nuclear dysmorphia, nuclear envelope rupture and genome instability.

  19. 'FAN the SUN brighter': fortifying Africa nutritionally (FAN) - the role of public private partnership in scaling up nutrition (SUN) in West Africa.

    PubMed

    Sablah, Mawuli; Baker, Shawn K; Badham, Jane; De Zayas, Alfred

    2013-11-01

    The scaling up nutrition (SUN) policy framework requires extensive public–private partnership (PPP). Malnutrition is multi-dimensional and should engage multi-sectoral platforms. The SUN policy however did not fully embrace the dynamics of harnessing PPP. The objectives of the present paper are to highlight the reasons for the apprehension around PPP and illustrate how effective coordination of PPP in West Africa has contributed to implementing large-scale food fortification with micronutrients as a complementary nutrition intervention. The experience of Helen Keller International (HKI) in scaling up food fortification was emphasised with understanding of the factors contributing to indifference by the international community to private sector contribution to SUN. The roles of different stakeholders in a PPP are elucidated and the process linked to who, why and how to engage. The private sector provides direct nutrition services while the public sector creates the enabling environment for the private sector to thrive on social values. Through this approach fortified vegetable oil and wheat flour are now reaching over 70% of the population in West Africa. As a neutral broker HKI coordinated and facilitated dialogue among the different stakeholders. The core competencies of each stakeholder were harnessed and each partner was held accountable. It concludes that multi-sectoral relationship must be transparent, equitable and based on shared mutual interests. The rules and values of PPP offer opportunities for SUN.

  20. [Plant protection products and their residues : Aspects of consumer safety in context of the new EU regulations].

    PubMed

    Banasiak, U; Michalski, B; Pfeil, R; Solecki, R

    2010-06-01

    The law regulating plant protection products (PPP) in the European Union (EU) was fundamentally revised through the introduction of Regulation (EC) No. 1107/2009 which is due to enter into force on 14 June 2011. EU-wide harmonized maximum residue levels (MRLs) for the active substances of PPP in foods are laid down in Regulation (EC) No. 396/2005 and apply since entry into force of the regulation on 1 September 2008. The goal of both regulations is to strengthen the level of consumer protection. PPP are subject to a strict assessment of active substances, which is regulated at the EU level as well as an authorization procedure in the EU Member States. Prior to application for authorization of a PPP, the active substance(s) it contains must be included in a positive list. Tests regarding the toxicity and residue behavior of PPP must be conducted by the applicant, and the respective documents must be submitted to the authorities for evaluation. Following review of the required data, toxicological threshold values are derived, consumer exposure is assessed, and the risk to health is evaluated. The goal of this evaluation is to ensure that the use of PPP according to good plant protection practice does not have any harmful effects on human health.