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Sample records for palos verdes shelf

  1. Deposition and Accumulation of Emerging Contaminants in the Sediments of the Palos Verde Shelf, California

    EPA Science Inventory

    Deposition and Accumulation of Emerging Contaminants in the Sediments of the Palos Verde Shelf, California Mark G. Cantwell, David R. Katz, Julia Sullivan, Robert P. Eganhouse, Monique M. Perron, Robert M. Burgess The Palos Verdes shelf is located off the Southern California coa...

  2. PILOT IN SITU CAPPING PROJECT FOR PALOS VERDES SHELF CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Palos Verdes Shelf Pilot Capping Project will evaluate the short-term results of capping the DDT- and PCB-contaminated sediment with clean sediment. It will also determine how these results are affected by variables such as cap material, placement method and water depth. The ...

  3. Palos Verdes Shelf oceanographic study; data report for observations December 2007–April 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosenberger, Kurt J.; Noble, Marlene A.; Sherwood, Christopher R.; Martini, Marinna M.; Ferreira, Joanne T.; Montgomery, Ellyn T.

    2011-01-01

    Beginning in 1997, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) defined a contaminated section of the Palos Verdes Shelf region in southern California as a Superfund Site, initiating a continuing investigation of this area. The investigation involved the EPA, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC), Los Angeles County Sanitation Districts (LACSD) data, and other allied agencies. In mid-2007, the Palos Verdes Shelf project team identified the need for additional data on the sediment properties and oceanographic conditions at the Palos Verdes Superfund Site and deployed seven bottom platforms, three subsurface moorings, and three surface moorings on the shelf. This additional data was needed to support ongoing modeling and feasibility studies and to improve our ability to model the fate of the effluent-affected deposit over time. It provided more detail on the spatial variability and magnitude of resuspension of the deposit during multiple storms that are expected to transit the region during a winter season. The operation began in early December 2007 and ended in early April 2008. The goal was to measure the sediment response (threshold of resuspension, suspended-sediment concentrations, and suspended-sediment transport rates) to bed stresses associated with waves and currents. Other objectives included determining the structure of the bottom boundary layer (BBL) relating nearbed currents with those measured at 10 m above bottom (mab) and comparing those with the long-term data from the LACSD Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) deployments for nearbed current speed and direction. Low-profile tripods with high-frequency ADCPs co-located with two of the large tripods were selected for this goal. This report describes the data obtained during the field program, the instruments and data-processing procedures used, and the archive that contains the data sets that have passed our quality-assurance procedures.

  4. The offshore Palos Verdes fault zone near San Pedro, Southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fisher, M.A.; Normark, W.R.; Langenheim, V.E.; Calvert, A.J.; Sliter, R.

    2004-01-01

    High-resolution seismic-reflection data are combined with a variety of other geophysical and geological data to interpret the offshore structure and earthquake hazards of the San Pedro shelf, near Los Angeles, California. Prominent structures investigated include the Wilmington graben, the Palos Verdes fault zone, various faults below the west part of the San Pedro shelf and slope, and the deep-water San Pedro basin. The structure of the Palos Verdes fault zone changes markedly along strike southeastward across the San Pedro shelf and slope. Under the north part of the shelf, this fault zone includes several strands, with the main strand dipping west. Under the slope, the main fault strands exhibit normal separation and mostly dip east. To the southeast near Lasuen Knoll, the Palos Verdes fault zone locally is low angle, but elsewhere near this knoll, the fault dips steeply. Fresh seafloor scarps near Lasuen Knoll indicate recent fault movement. We explain the observed structural variation along the Palos Verdes fault zone as the result of changes in strike and fault geometry along a master right-lateral strike-slip fault at depth. Complicated movement along this deep fault zone is suggested by the possible wave-cut terraces on Lasuen Knoll, which indicate subaerial exposure during the last sea level lowstand and subsequent subsidence of the knoll. Modeling of aeromagnetic data indicates a large magnetic body under the west part of the San Pedro shelf and upper slope. We interpret this body to be thick basalt of probable Miocene age. This basalt mass appears to have affected the pattern of rock deformation, perhaps because the basalt was more competent during deformation than the sedimentary rocks that encased the basalt. West of the Palos Verdes fault zone, other northwest-striking faults deform the outer shelf and slope. Evidence for recent movement along these faults is equivocal, because we lack age dates on deformed or offset sediment.

  5. Connections Among the Spatial and Temporal Structures in Tidal Currents, Internal Bores, and Surficial Sediment Distributions Over the Shelf off Palos Verdes, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Noble, Marlene A.; Rosenberger, Kurt J.; Xu, Jingping; Signell, Richard P.; Steele, Alex

    2009-01-01

    The topography of the Continental Shelf in the central portion of the Southern California Bight has rapid variations over relatively small spatial scales. The width of the shelf off the Palos Verdes peninsula, just northwest of Los Angeles, California, is only 1 to 3 km. About 7 km southeast of the peninsula, the shelf within San Pedro Bay widens to about 20 km. In 2000, the Los Angeles County Sanitation District began deploying a dense array of moorings in this complex region of the central Southern California Bight to monitor local circulation patterns. Moorings were deployed at 13 sites on the Palos Verdes shelf and within the northwestern portion of San Pedro Bay. At each site, a mooring supported a string of thermistors and an adjacent bottom platform housed an Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler. These instruments collected vertical profiles of current and temperature data continuously for one to two years. The variable bathymetry in the region causes rapid changes in the amplitudes and spatial structures of barotropic tidal currents, internal tidal currents, and in the associated nonlinear baroclinic currents that occur at approximate tidal frequencies. The largest barotropic tidal constituent is M2, the principal semidiurnal tide. The amplitude of this tidal current changes over fairly short along-shelf length scales. Tidal-current amplitudes are largest in the transition region between the two shelves; they increase from about 5 cm/s over the northern San Pedro shelf to nearly 10 cm/s on the southern portion of the Palos Verdes Shelf. Tidal-current amplitudes are then reduced to less than 2 cm/s over the very narrow section of the northern Palos Verdes shelf that lies just 6 km upcoast of the southern sites. Models suggest that the amplitude of the barotropic M2 tidal currents, which propagate toward the northwest primarily as a Kelvin wave, is adjusting to the short topographic length scales in the region. Semidiurnal sea-level oscillations are, as expected

  6. Evaluation of Polyethylene Passive Samplers to Estimate Deep Water PCB Concentrations at the Palos Verdes Shelf Superfund Site

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Palos Verdes Superfund site is located in over 50 meters of water on the continental shelf and slope off the coast of southern California (USA). The site includes 27 km2 of seabed contaminated over several decades by municipal treatment plant effluent discharged via outfall ...

  7. Passive Sampling to Measure Baseline Dissolved Persistent Organic Pollutant Concentrations in the Water Column of the Palos Verdes Shelf Superfund Site

    EPA Science Inventory

    Passive sampling was used to deduce water concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the vicinity of a marine Superfund site on the Palos Verdes Shelf, California, USA. Pre-calibrated solid phase microextraction (SPME) fibers and polyethylene (PE) strips that were...

  8. The dynamics of subtidal poleward flows over a narrow continental shelf, Palos Verdes, CA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Noble, M.A.; Ryan, H.F.; Wiberg, P.L.

    2002-01-01

    The Palos Verdes peninsula is a short, very narrow (< 3 km) shelf in southern California that is bracketed by two large embayments. In May 1992, arrays of up to 4 moorings and 2 benthic tripods were deployed in a yearlong study of the circulation processes over this shelf and the adjacent slope. Wind stress, coastal sea level, atmospheric pressure and wave records were obtained from offshore sites and from coastal stations surrounding Palos Verdes. Bottom stress calculated for the mid-shelf sites using a boundary-layer model and data from the above instruments indicated the bottom drag coefficient over this shelf is about 0.003 Currents flow toward the northwest along the shelf and upper slope. Speeds are generally around 20-30 cm/s. There was no obvious seasonal structure in the flow. The first EOF for subtidal alongshelf current accounted for nearly 70% of the variance at sites on the shelf and upper slope. The dominant fluctuations had periods between 5 and 20 days, periods longer than seen in the regional wind stress field. Coastal sea level and the alongshore gradient in sea level had a similar concentration of energy in the 5-20 day frequency band. About 30% of the alongshelf flow was coherent with the alongshelf pressure gradient; currents flowed down the pressure gradient with minimal phase lag. Winds accounted for only 15-20% of the variance in subtidal currents, but the measured effect of wind stress was large. A 1 dyne/cm2 wind stress was associated with a 20-30 cm/s alongshore current. Both the regional wind stress and the alongshelf pressure gradients had spatial scales much larger than found on this small shelf. Subtidal flows forced by these regional fields were set up in the adjacent, much broader basins. The currents amplified as they moved onto the narrow shelf between the basins. Hence, local wind-driven currents had anomalously large amplitudes. The momentum equations for alongshelf wind or pressure gradients did not balance because some of the

  9. Using Passive Samplers to Calculate the Diffusive Flux of DDTs and PCBs from Sediments to Water Column at the Palos Verdes Shelf Superfund Site

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background/Objectives. The Palos Verdes Shelf (PVS) Superfund site is in over 50 meters of water on the continental shelf and slope off the coast of southern California (USA). The site includes over 25 km2 of sediments contaminated over several decades by municipal treatment pla...

  10. DDE in sediments of the Palos Verdes shelf, California: In situ transformation rates and geochemical fate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eganhouse, R.P.; Pontolillo, J.

    2008-01-01

    From 1947 to 1971 the world's largest manufacturer of DDT discharged process wastes into the sewers of Los Angeles County. Roughly 870-1450 t of DDT were released to the ocean off Palos Verdes, CA, a portion of which (???100 t) resides in sediments on the continental shelf and slope. The most abundant DDT compound in the sediments, p,p???-DDE, is degrading by reductive dechlorination, butthe rate of transformation and factors controlling it are not well understood. In order to estimate in situ transformation rates and predict the long-term fate of p,p???-DDE, box cores were collected in 1992 and 2003 from a single location on the Palos Verdes Shelf and analyzed for 8 DDT compounds and 84 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners. The PCBs show no evidence of dechlorination, and inventories did not change between 1992 and 2003. By contrast, the inventory of p,p???-DDE decreased by 43%, whereas that of p,p???-DDMU, the putative reductive dechlorination product increased by 34%. The first-order transformation rate for p,p???-DDE at the study site is 0.051 ?? 0.006 yr-1. A multistep reaction model suggests that inventories of p,p???-DDE and p,p???-DDMU will continue to decline, whereas that of p,p???-DDNU will reach a maximum around 2014.

  11. Calculating the Diffusive Flux of Persistent Organic Pollutants between Sediments and the Water Column on the Palos Verdes Shelf Superfund Site using Polymeric Passive Samplers

    EPA Science Inventory

    Passive samplers were used to determine water concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the surface sediments and near-bottom water of a marine Superfund site on the Palos Verdes Shelf, California, USA. Measured concentrations in the porewater and water column at...

  12. Geostatistical mapping of effluent-affected sediment distribution on the Palos Verdes shelf

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Murray, C.J.; Lee, H.J.; Hampton, M.A.

    2002-01-01

    Geostatistical techniques were used to study the spatial continuity of the thickness of effluent-affected sediment in the offshore Palos Verdes Margin area. The thickness data were measured directly from cores and indirectly from high-frequency subbottom profiles collected over the Palos Verdes Margin. Strong spatial continuity of the sediment thickness data was identified, with a maximum range of correlation in excess of 1.4 km. The spatial correlation showed a marked anisotropy, and was more than twice as continuous in the alongshore direction as in the cross-shelf direction. Sequential indicator simulation employing models fit to the thickness data variograms was used to map the distribution of the sediment, and to quantify the uncertainty in those estimates. A strong correlation between sediment thickness data and measurements of the mass of the contaminant p,p???-DDE per unit area was identified. A calibration based on the bivariate distribution of the thickness and p,p???-DDE data was applied using Markov-Bayes indicator simulation to extend the geostatistical study and map the contamination levels in the sediment. Integrating the map grids produced by the geostatistical study of the two variables indicated that 7.8 million m3 of effluent-affected sediment exist in the map area, containing approximately 61-72 Mg (metric tons) of p,p???-DDE. Most of the contaminated sediment (about 85% of the sediment and 89% of the p,p???-DDE) occurs in water depths < 100 m. The geostatistical study also indicated that the samples available for mapping are well distributed and the uncertainty of the estimates of the thickness and contamination level of the sediments is lowest in areas where the contaminated sediment is most prevalent. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Sediment transport on the Palos Verdes shelf, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ferre, B.; Sherwood, C.R.; Wiberg, P.L.

    2010-01-01

    Sediment transport and the potential for erosion or deposition have been investigated on the Palos Verdes (PV) and San Pedro shelves in southern California to help assess the fate of an effluent-affected deposit contaminated with DDT and PCBs. Bottom boundary layer measurements at two 60-m sites in spring 2004 were used to set model parameters and evaluate a one-dimensional (vertical) model of local, steady-state resuspension, and suspended-sediment transport. The model demonstrated skill (Brier scores up to 0.75) reproducing the magnitudes of bottom shear stress, current speeds, and suspended-sediment concentrations measured during an April transport event, but the model tended to underpredict observed rotation in the bottom-boundary layer, possibly because the model did not account for the effects of temperature-salinity stratification. The model was run with wave input estimated from a nearby buoy and current input from four to six years of measurements at thirteen sites on the 35- and 65-m isobaths on the PV and San Pedro shelves. Sediment characteristics and erodibility were based on gentle wet-sieve analysis and erosion-chamber measurements. Modeled flow and sediment transport were mostly alongshelf toward the northwest on the PV shelf with a significant offshore component. The 95th percentile of bottom shear stresses ranged from 0.09 to 0.16 Pa at the 65-m sites, and the lowest values were in the middle of the PV shelf, near the Whites Point sewage outfalls where the effluent-affected layer is thickest. Long-term mean transport rates varied from 0.9 to 4.8 metric tons m-1 yr-1 along the 65-m isobaths on the PV shelf, and were much higher at the 35-m sites. Gradients in modeled alongshore transport rates suggest that, in the absence of a supply of sediment from the outfalls or PV coast, erosion at rates of ???0.2 mm yr-1 might occur in the region southeast of the outfalls. These rates are small compared to some estimates of background natural sedimentation

  14. Palo Verde College Facts, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palo Verde Coll., Blythe, CA.

    This is a 2001 report on Palo Verde College (PVC) (California) student demographics, enrollment status, citizenship, educational goals, and academic persistence. Student data were collected and analyzed to meet accrediting standards, improve institutional effectiveness, and fulfill the local district's mission. The report discusses enrollment…

  15. 75 FR 52045 - Arizona Public Service Company, Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station, Unit 3; Environmental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-24

    ... Company, Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station, Unit 3; Environmental Assessment and Finding of No.... NPF-74, issued to Arizona Public Service Company (APS, the licensee), for operation of Palo Verde... Statement for the Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station, NUREG-0841, dated February 1982. Agencies and...

  16. Using high-resolution multibeam bathymetry to identify seafloor surface rupture along the Palos Verdes fault complex in offshore Southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marlow, M. S.; Gardner, J.V.; Normark, W.R.

    2000-01-01

    Recently acquired high-resolution multibeam bathymetric data reveal several linear traces that are the surficial expressions of seafloor rupture of Holocene faults on the upper continental slope southeast of the Palos Verdes Peninsula. High-resolution multichannel and boomer seismic-reflection profiles show that these linear ruptures are the surficial expressions of Holocene faults with vertical to steep dips. The most prominent fault on the multibeam bathymetry is about 10 km to the west of the mapped trace of the Palos Verdes fault and extends for at least 14 km between the shelf edge and the base of the continental slope. This fault is informally called the Avalon Knoll fault for the nearby geographic feature of that name. Seismic-reflection profiles show that the Avalon Knoll fault is part of a northwest-trending complex of faults and anticlinal uplifts that are evident as scarps and bathymetric highs on the multibeam bathymetry. This fault complex may extend onshore and contribute to the missing balance of Quaternary uplift determined for the Palos Verdes Hills and not accounted for by vertical uplift along the onshore Palos Verdes fault. We investigate the extent of the newly located offshore Avalon Knoll fault and use this mapped fault length to estimate likely minimum magnitudes for events along this fault.

  17. Use of Polyethylene Passive Samplers to Estimate Dissolved Phase PCBs in the Water Column of the Palos Verdes Superfund Site

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Palos Verdes Superfund site is located in over 50 meters of water on the continental shelf and slope off the coast of southern California (USA). The site includes 27 km2 of seabed contaminated over several decades by municipal treatment plant effluent discharged via outfall ...

  18. Hydrographic and particle distributions over the Palos Verdes continental shelf: Spatial, seasonal and daily variability

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, B.H.; Noble, M.A.; Dickey, T.D.

    2002-01-01

    Moorings and towyo mapping were used to study the temporal and spatial variability of physical processes and suspended particulate material over the continental shelf of the Palos Verdes Peninsula in southwestern Los Angeles, California during the late summer of 1992 and winter of 1992-93. Seasonal evolution of the hydrographic structure is related to seasonal atmospheric forcing. During summer, stratification results from heating of the upper layer. Summer insolation coupled with the stratification results in a slight salinity increase nearsurface due to evaporation. Winter cooling removes much of the upper layer stratification, but winter storms can introduce sufficient quantities of freshwater into the shelf water column again adding stratification through the buoyancy input. Vertical mixing of the low salinity surface water deeper into the water column decreases the sharp nearsurface stratification and reduces the overall salinity of the upper water column. Moored conductivity measurements indicate that the decreased salinity persisted for at least 2 months after a major storm with additional freshwater inputs through the period. Four particulate groups contributed to the suspended particulate load in the water column: phytoplankton, resuspended sediments, and particles in treated sewage effluent were observed in every towyo mapping cruise; terrigenous particles are introduced through runoff from winter rainstorms. Terrigenous suspended particulate material sinks from the water column in <9 days and phytoplankton respond to the stormwater input of buoyancy and nutrients within the same period. The suspended particles near the bottom have spatially patchy distributions, but are always present in hydrographic surveys of the shelf. Temporal variations in these particles do not show a significant tidal response, but they may be maintained in suspension by internal wave and tide processes impinging on the shelf. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Sediment transport on the Palos Verdes shelf over seasonal to decadal time scales

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wiberg, P.L.; Drake, D.E.; Harris, C.K.; Noble, M.

    2002-01-01

    We combine direct observations, longer-term wave data, and model calculations to characterize resuspension and transport of fine-grained, effluent-affected sediment on the Palos Verdes shelf. Near-bed waves, currents, and suspended sediment concentrations were monitored during the winter of 1992-93 with a bottom tripod and current-meter mooring at a 63-m-deep site. Wave conditions that winter were moderate (??? 2 year recurrence interval), and mean current was alongshelf to the northwest; currents were not significantly correlated with wave conditions. Seven wave events during the winter (December-March) produced near-bed wave orbital velocities at the study site in excess of 14 cm s-1, the observed threshold for significant resuspension. Three of these events occurred during the bottom tripod deployment and are characterized by the highest persistent suspended sediment concentrations in the tripod record. Suspended sediment flux was alongshelf to the northwest for 5 of the 6 wave events for which current data were available; one event occurred during low southeast currents. Measured suspended sediment concentration and grain size generally agree with values that were calculated using a shelf sediment transport model with no adjustment of parameters from values determined for two muddy sites on the northern California shelf. We extend our seasonal observations to a period of almost 2 decades by applying the observed thresholds for wave-driven resuspension to near-bed wave conditions calculated from NDBC Buoy 46025 surface wave data. An average of 10 resuspension events per year, with an average duration of 1.6 days, were identified at a water depth of 60 m; the number of events dropped to 3 per year at 90 m, beyond the shelf break. For the majority of these events, calculated net suspended sediment flux is toward the northwest (alongshelf) at an average rate of 140 kg m-1 h-1; about a third of the events have net southeastward flux at an average rate of 30 kg m-1 h

  20. DDT-related compounds as non-extractable residues in submarine sediments of the Palos Verdes Shelf, California, USA.

    PubMed

    Kucher, S; Schwarzbauer, J

    2017-10-01

    The Palos Verdes Shelf (PVS) and the continental slope off the Palos Verdes Peninsula are highly contaminated by degradation products of the pesticide DDT (1-chloro-4-[2,2,2-trichloro-1-(4-chlorophenyl)ethyl]benzene). Sediment samples from two box cores were analyzed to obtain further information about the fate of DDT and its degradation products within the environment. After solvent extraction, an alkaline hydrolysis procedure was applied. A comprehensive screening for 26 DDT compounds revealed that DDT and its degradates contaminate not only the extractable fraction but also the fraction released by alkaline hydrolysis. A comparison of the quantitative distribution of DDT degradation products in the extractable fraction and released by alkaline hydrolysis showed a distinct difference. DDE (1-chloro-4-[2,2-dichloro-1-(4-chlorophenyl)ethenyl]benzene), DDD (1-chloro-4-[2,2-dichloro-1-(4-chlorophenyl)ethyl]benzene), DDMS (1-chloro-4-[2-chloro-1-(4-chlorophenyl)ethyl]benzene), and DDMU (1-chloro-4-[2-chloro-1-(4-chlorophenyl)ethenyl]benzene) were predominant in the sediment extracts but minor components of the hydrolyzable fraction. The most abundant compounds released by the alkaline hydrolysis were DBP (bis(4-chlorophenyl)methanone), DDNU (1-chloro-4-[1-(4-chlorophenyl)ethenyl]benzene), DDM (1-chloro-4-[(4-chlorophenyl)methyl]benzene) and the water-soluble DDA (2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)acetic acid). The release of DDA may point to the presence of an important degradation pathway in marine environments. Concentration levels of DDT-related compounds showed corresponding vertical profiles in both fractions, but were significantly lower in the fraction released by alkaline hydrolysis. In contrast to fluvial sediments contaminated by DDT and its degradates the alkaline hydrolysis products represented a minor portion of the total sedimentary burden in the analyzed marine sediments. These findings show the necessity of a comprehensive screening for all DDT isomers and

  1. Reformatted data sets used in the Cooperative LACSD/USGS Palos Verdes Flow Study, 2000--2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, Todd; Rosenberger, Kurt J.; Gartner, Anne L.

    2012-01-01

    Beginning in 1997, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) defined a contaminated section of the Palos Verdes shelf in southern California as a Superfund site, initiating a continuing investigation of this area. A number of agencies, including the EPA, U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), and Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC), conducted two oceanographic measurement programs in 2004 and 2007-2008 (SAIC, 2004, 2005; Rosenberger and others, 2010; Sherwood and others, unpublished data) to improve our understanding of the natural processes that resuspend and transport sediment in the area, especially in the region southeast of the Whites Point ocean outfall where earlier measurements were thought to be deficient. Los Angeles County Sanitation Districts (LACSD) deployed a simpler but much broader array of instruments on the Palos Verdes shelf and within the northern reaches of San Pedro Bay from 2000 to 2008 in order to characterize the current and temperature patterns within these regions. This program overlapped the two programs run by USGS and other agencies in 2004 and 2007. The LACSD data were made available to the USGS and the EPA in order to support their joint efforts to model the transport of the contaminated sediments in the region. This report describes the LACSD data sets, the instruments and data-processing procedures used, and the archive that contains the data sets that have passed our quality-assurance procedures.

  2. Depositional history of organic contaminants on the Palos Verdes Shelf, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eganhouse, R.P.; Pontolillo, J.

    2000-01-01

    During more than 60 years, sedimentation on the Palos Verdes Shelf has been dominated by time-varying inputs of municipal wastewater from the Los Angeles County Sanitation Districts (LACSD) and debris from the Portuguese Bend Landslide (PBL). The present study examines the depositional history of wastewater-derived organic contaminants at a site approximately 6-8 km downcurrent from the outfall system. Sediments at this location are impacted by contributions from both sources, but the relative influence of the sources has changed over time. Two classes of hydrophobic organic contaminants (chlorinated hydrocarbons, long-chain alkylbenzenes) were determined in sediment cores collected in 1981 and 1992. Using molecular stratigraphy, we determined average sedimentation rates (cm/year) and mass accumulation rates (g cm-2 year-1) for the following periods: 1955-1965, 1965-1971, 1971-1981 and 1981-1992. The results show that sedimentation and mass accumulation rates increased from 1955 to 1971 and decreased from 1971 to 1981. These trends are consistent with historical information on the emission of suspended solids from the outfall system, indicating that the discharge of wastes dominated sedimentation at the site during this period. In the 1980s and early 1990s, however, mass accumulation rates increased in spite of continually decreasing emissions of wastewater solids. Several lines of evidence indicate that this increase was due to mobilization of debris from the PBL during and after unusually strong winter storms in the 1980s. As a result, heavily contaminated sediments deposited during the years of greatest waste emissions (i.e. 1950-1970) have been buried to greater sub-bottom depths, thereby reducing their availability for mobilization to the overlying water column. These results highlight the dynamic nature of sedimentation in contaminated coastal ecosystems and its importance to the long-term fate and effects of toxic substances.

  3. Influence of the Portuguese Bend landslide on the character of the effluent-affected sediment deposit, Palos Verdes margin, southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kayen, R.E.; Lee, H.J.; Hein, J.R.

    2002-01-01

    Historic accretion of sediment on the Palos Verdes margin off Los Angeles County, CA, is dominated by two sources, effluent from Whites Point outfall and sediment eroded from the toe of Portuguese Bend landslide. In this paper, we document the recent history of sedimentation from these non-marine sources from 1937 until the late 1990s, and attempt to estimate the amount of material preserved on the shelf. Toward that end, we characterized offshore sediment by physical and geotechnical testing, using non-destructive gamma-ray whole-core logging techniques and conventional geotechnical strength tests, and X-ray diffraction. Results are reported within a geographic information system framework that allows for: (1) the evaluation of the spatial variability of the measured properties, and (2) assessment of the influence of these properties on processes affecting the effluent-affected Sediment layer. In the inner shelf, material eroded by wave action from the toe of the Portuguese Bend landslide since 1956 has contributed 5.7-9.4 million metric tons (Mmt) of sediment, from a total eroded mass of 12.1 Mmt. A lesser fraction (???2.7Mmt) of sediment is incorporated into the mid- and outer-shelf effluent-affected sediment layer. Evidence from X-ray diffractograms clearly indicates that landslide material has mixed with the mid- and outer-shelf effluent. From 1937-1987, it is estimated that 3.8 Mmt of solid anthropogenic effluent was discharged into the water column and onto the Palos Verdes Shelf.

  4. Age of Palos Verdes submarine debris avalanche, southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Normark, W.R.; McGann, M.; Sliter, R.

    2004-01-01

    The Palos Verdes debris avalanche is the largest, by volume, late Quaternary mass-wasted deposit recognized from the inner California Borderland basins. Early workers speculated that the sediment failure giving rise to the deposit is young, taking place well after sea level reached its present position. A newly acquired, closely-spaced grid of high-resolution, deep-tow boomer profiles of the debris avalanche shows that the Palos Verdes debris avalanche fills a turbidite leveed channel that extends seaward from San Pedro Sea Valley, with the bulk of the avalanche deposit appearing to result from a single failure on the adjacent slope. Radiocarbon dates from piston-cored sediment samples acquired near the distal edge of the avalanche deposit indicate that the main failure took place about 7500 yr BP. ?? 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. 76 FR 1197 - Arizona Public Service Company, Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station; Notice of Availability of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-07

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket Nos. 50-528, 50-529, 50-530; NRC-2009-0012] Arizona Public Service Company, Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station; Notice of Availability of the Final Supplement 43... of operation for the Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station (PVNGS). Possible alternatives to the...

  6. Diagenetic fate of organic contaminants on the Palos Verdes Shelf, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eganhouse, R.P.; Pontolillo, J.; Leiker, T.J.

    2000-01-01

    Municipal wastes discharged through deepwater submarine outfalls since 1937 have contaminated sediments of the Palos Verdes Shelf. A site approximately 6-8 km downcurrent from the outfall system was chosen for a study of the diagenetic fate of organic contaminants in the waste-impacted sediments. Concentrations of three classes of hydrophobic organic contaminants (DDT + metabolites, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and the long-chain alkylbenzenes) were determined in sediment cores collected at the study site in 1981 and 1992. Differences between the composition of effluent from the major source of DDT (Montrose Chemical) and that found in sediments suggests that parent DDT was transformed by hydrolytic dehydrochlorination during the earliest stages of diagenesis. As a result, p,p'-DDE is the dominant DDT metabolite found in shelf sediments, comprising 60-70% of ??DDT. The p,p-DDE/p,p'-DDMU concentration ratio decreases with increasing sub-bottom depth in sediment cores, indicating that reductive dechlorination of p,p'-DDE is occurring. Approximately 9-23% of the DDE inventory in the sediments may have been converted to DDMU since DDT discharges began ca. 1953. At most, this is less than half of the decline in p,p'-DDE inventory that has been observed at the study site for the period 1981-1995. Most of the observed decrease is attributable to remobilization by processes such as sediment mixing coupled to resuspension, contaminant desorption, and current advection. Existing field data suggest that the in situ rate of DDE transformation is 102-103 times slower than rates determined in recent laboratory microcosm experiments (Quensen, J.F., Mueller, S.A., Jain, M.K., Tiedje, J.M., 1998. Reductive dechlorination of DDE to DDMU in marine sediment microcosms. Science, 280, 722-724.). This explains why the DDT composition (i.e. o,p'-, p,p'-isomers of DDE, DDD, DDT) of sediments from this site have not changed significantly since at least 1972. Congener-specific PCB

  7. Movement patterns, habitat use and site fidelity of the white croaker (Genyonemus lineatus) in the Palos Verdes Superfund Site, Los Angeles, California.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, Barrett W; Lowe, Christopher G

    2015-08-01

    White croaker (Genyonemus lineatus family: Sciaenidae) are a schooling, benthic foraging fish historically associated with soft sediment and wastewater outfalls in southern California. While they are often used as an indicator species due to their high organochlorine contaminant loads, little is known of their movements in relation to contaminated habitats. A Vemco Positioning System acoustic telemetry array was used to collect fine-scale movement data and characterize the site fidelity, area use, and dispersal of 83 white croaker on the Palos Verdes Shelf Superfund Site, California over 27 months. White croaker generally demonstrated low residency and recurrence to the Palos Verdes Shelf, and were observed to be largely nomadic. However, individual behavior was highly variable. Although the entire monitored shelf was visited by tagged white croaker, habitats in 0-200 m proximity to wastewater outfalls and between 25 and 35 m depth were used most frequently. Approximately half of white croaker migrated into Los Angeles and Long Beach Harbors; areas where they may be targeted by subsistence fishers. A model framework for incorporating fish movement data into contaminant exposure estimates was developed to better understanding organochlorine contaminant exposure for planning future remediation and monitoring. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. 75 FR 8149 - Arizona Public Service Company, et al. Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station, Units 1, 2, and 3...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-23

    ...] Arizona Public Service Company, et al. Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station, Units 1, 2, and 3... Verde Nuclear Generating Station (PVNGS, the facility), Units 1, 2, and 3, respectively, located in... for the Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station, Units 1, 2, and 3, NUREG- 0841, dated February 1982...

  9. 75 FR 13606 - Arizona Public Service Company, Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station, Units 1, 2, and 3...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-22

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket Nos. STN 50-528, STN 50-529, and STN 50-530; NRC-2010-0114] Arizona Public Service Company, Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station, Units 1, 2, and 3; Environmental...-74, issued to Arizona Public Service Company (APS, the licensee), for operation of the Palo Verde...

  10. Marine geology and earthquake hazards of the San Pedro Shelf region, southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fisher, Michael A.; Normark, William R.; Langenheim, V.E.; Calvert, Andrew J.; Sliter, Ray

    2004-01-01

    High-resolution seismic-reflection data have been com- bined with a variety of other geophysical and geological data to interpret the offshore structure and earthquake hazards of the San Pedro Shelf, near Los Angeles, California. Prominent structures investigated include the Wilmington Graben, the Palos Verdes Fault Zone, various faults below the western part of the shelf and slope, and the deep-water San Pedro Basin. The structure of the Palos Verdes Fault Zone changes mark- edly southeastward across the San Pedro Shelf and slope. Under the northern part of the shelf, this fault zone includes several strands, but the main strand dips west and is probably an oblique-slip fault. Under the slope, this fault zone con- sists of several fault strands having normal separation, most of which dip moderately east. To the southeast near Lasuen Knoll, the Palos Verdes Fault Zone locally is a low-angle fault that dips east, but elsewhere near this knoll the fault appears to dip steeply. Fresh sea-floor scarps near Lasuen Knoll indi- cate recent fault movement. The observed regional structural variation along the Palos Verdes Fault Zone is explained as the result of changes in strike and fault geometry along a master strike-slip fault at depth. The shallow summit and possible wavecut terraces on Lasuen knoll indicate subaerial exposure during the last sea-level lowstand. Modeling of aeromagnetic data indicates the presence of a large magnetic body under the western part of the San Pedro Shelf and upper slope. This is interpreted to be a thick body of basalt of Miocene(?) age. Reflective sedimentary rocks overlying the basalt are tightly folded, whereas folds in sedimentary rocks east of the basalt have longer wavelengths. This difference might mean that the basalt was more competent during folding than the encasing sedimentary rocks. West of the Palos Verdes Fault Zone, other northwest-striking faults deform the outer shelf and slope. Evidence for recent movement along these

  11. Historical record and fluxes of DDTs at the Palos Verdes Shelf Superfund site, California.

    PubMed

    Liao, Chunyang; Taylor, Allison R; Kenney, William F; Schlenk, Daniel; Gan, Jay

    2017-03-01

    Marine sediments at many locations in the world are contaminated with a wide range of persistent organic pollutants. The Palos Verdes Shelf (PVS) is located in the ocean off the coast of Los Angeles, California and has been listed as a Superfund site by the US EPA since 1997, because of heavy contamination of DDTs and PCBs. However, little is known about the historical trend in the deposition of DDTs as a result of decades-long discharge of wastewater effluents. In this study, sediment cores were taken from the PVS site and determined for DDT and its metabolites including DDE and DDD (denoted as DDTs). Individual DDTs were found in the majority (95%) of the samples analyzed. The highest ∑DDT concentrations were found in three cores along the 60-meter isobath with geometric means of 31300, 7490, and 5010ng/gdw and medians of 82400, 17300, and 5200ng/g dw, respectively. Among DDT congeners, p,p'-DDE, o,p'-DDE and p,p'-DDD were predominant, contributing to approximately 54%, 27%, and 14% of the ΣDDTs in sediment. The vertical profiles of concentrations of contaminants in the sediment cores were examined. For most of the cores, a steady increase in the concentrations of DDTs during 1940s to 1980s was observed, while the concentrations declined gradually toward the surficial layers. On the basis of the mass flux of DDTs calculated and the area of the PVS Superfund site, we estimated the total deposition amount of DDTs in sediment and the deposition amount of ΣDDTs in this region during 1947-1971 was 132 tons, which was fairly close to what was reported in earlier studies for industrial wastewater discharge in the PVS site (870-1450tons). Our findings suggest that the elevated levels of DDTs in sediment from the PVS site are linked to the discharge of these contaminants between the 1940s-1980s. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Physical and chemical effects of grain aggregates on the Palos Verdes margin, southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Drake, D.E.; Eganhouse, R.; McArthur, W.

    2002-01-01

    Large discharges of wastewater and particulate matter from the outfalls of the Los Angeles County Sanitation Districts onto the Palos Verdes shelf since 1937 have produced an effluent-affected sediment deposit characterized by low bulk density, elevated organic matter content, and a high percentage of fine silt and clay particles relative to underlying native sands and sandy silts. Comparison of the results of grain-size analyses using a gentle wet-sieving technique that preserves certain grain aggregates to the results of standard size analyses of disaggregated particles shows that high percentages (up to 50%) of the silt and clay fractions of the effluent-affected mud are incorporated in aggregates having intermediate diameters in the fine-to-medium sand size range (63-500 ??m), Scanning electron microscope images of the aggregates show that they are predominantly oval fecal pellets or irregularly shaped fragments of pellets. Deposit-feeding polychaete worms such as Capitella sp. and Mediomastus sp., abundant in the mud-rich effluent-affected sediment on Palos Verdes shelf, are probably responsible for most of the grain aggregates through fecal pellet production. Particle settling rates and densities, and the concentrations of organic carbon and p,p???-DDE, a metabolite of the hydrophobic pesticide DDT, were determined for seven grain-size fractions in the effluent-affected sediment. Fecal pellet grain densities ranged from about 1.2 to 1.5 g/cc, and their average settling rates were reduced to the equivalent of about one phi size relative to spherical quartz grains of the same diameter. However, repackaging of fine silt and clay grains into the sand-sized fecal pellets causes an effective settling rate increase of up to 3 orders of magnitude for the smallest particles incorporated in the pellets. Moreover, organic carbon and p,p???-DDE exhibit a bimodal distribution with relatively high concentrations in the finest size fraction (0-20 ??m), as expected, and a

  13. Prediction of the fate of p,p'-DDE in sediment on the Palos Verdes shelf, California, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sherwood, C.R.; Drake, D.E.; Wiberg, P.L.; Wheatcroft, R.A.

    2002-01-01

    Long-term (60-yr) predictions of vertical profiles of p,p???-DDE concentrations in contaminated bottom sediments on the Palos Verdes shelf were calculated for three locations along the 60-m isobath using a numerical solution of the one-dimensional advection-diffusion equation. The calculations incorporated the following processes: sediment deposition (or erosion), depth-dependent solid-phase biodiffusive mixing, in situ diagenetic transformation, and loss of p,p???-DDE across the sediment-water interface by two mechanisms (resuspension of sediments by wave action and subsequent loss of p,p???-DDE to the water column by desorption, and desorption from sediments to porewater and subsequent molecular diffusion to the water column). A combination of field measurements, laboratory analyses, and calculations with supporting models was used to set parameters for the model. The model explains significant features observed in measurements made every 2 years from 1981 to 1997 by the County Sanitation Districts of Los Angeles (LACSD). Analyses of available data suggest that two sites northwest of the Whites Point sewage outfalls will remain depositional, even as particulate supply from the sewage-treatment plant and nearby Portuguese Bend Landslide decreases. At these sites, model predictions for 1991-2050 indicate that most of the existing inventory of p,p???-DDE will remain buried and that surface concentrations will gradually decrease. Analyses of data southeast of the outfalls suggest that erosion is likely to occur somewhere on the southeast edge of the existing effluent-affected deposit, and model predictions for such a site showed that erosion and biodiffusion will reintroduce the p,p???-DDE to the upper layer of sediments, with subsequent increases in surface concentrations and loss to the overlying water column.

  14. Tube structural integrity evaluation of Palo Verde Unit 1 steam generators for axial upper-bundle cracking

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Woodman, B.W.; Begley, J.A.; Brown, S.D.

    1995-12-01

    The analysis of the issue of upper bundle axial ODSCC as it apples to steam generator tube structural integrity in Unit 1 at the Palo Verde Nuclear generating Station is presented in this study. Based on past inspection results for Units 2 and 3 at Palo Verde, the detection of secondary side stress corrosion cracks in the upper bundle region of Unit 1 may occur at some future date. The following discussion provides a description and analysis of the probability of axial ODSCC in Unit 1 leading to the exceedance of Regulatory Guide 1.121 structural limits. The probabilities of structuralmore » limit exceedance are estimated as function of run time using a conservative approach. The chosen approach models the historical development of cracks, crack growth, detection of cracks and subsequent removal from service and the initiation and growth of new cracks during a given cycle of operation. Past performance of all Palo Verde Units as well as the historical performance of other steam generators was considered in the development of cracking statistics for application to Unit 1. Data in the literature and Unit 2 pulled tube examination results were used to construct probability of detection curves for the detection of axial IGSCC/IGA using an MRPC (multi-frequency rotating panake coil) eddy current probe. Crack growth rates were estimated from Unit 2 eddy current inspection data combined with pulled tube examination results and data in the literature. A Monte-Carlo probabilistic model is developed to provide an overall assessment of the risk of Regulatory Guide exceedance during plant operation.« less

  15. Search for neutrino oscillations at the palo verde nuclear reactors

    PubMed

    Boehm; Busenitz; Cook; Gratta; Henrikson; Kornis; Lawrence; Lee; McKinny; Miller; Novikov; Piepke; Ritchie; Tracy; Vogel; Wang; Wolf

    2000-04-24

    We report on the initial results from a measurement of the antineutrino flux and spectrum at a distance of about 800 m from the three reactors of the Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station using a segmented gadolinium-loaded scintillation detector. We find that the antineutrino flux agrees with that predicted in the absence of oscillations excluding at 90% C.L. nu;(e)-nu;(x) oscillations with Deltam(2)>1.12x10(-3) eV(2) for maximal mixing and sin (2)2straight theta>0.21 for large Deltam(2). Our results support the conclusion that the atmospheric neutrino oscillations observed by Super-Kamiokande do not involve nu(e).

  16. Passive sampling to measure baseline dissolved persistent organic pollutant concentrations in the water column of the Palos Verdes Shelf Superfund site.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Loretta A; Lao, Wenjian; Maruya, Keith A; White, Carmen; Burgess, Robert M

    2012-11-06

    Passive sampling was used to deduce water concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the vicinity of a marine Superfund site on the Palos Verdes Shelf, California, USA. Precalibrated solid phase microextraction (SPME) fibers and polyethylene (PE) strips that were preloaded with performance reference compounds (PRCs) were codeployed for 32 d along an 11-station gradient at bottom, surface, and midwater depths. Retrieved samplers were analyzed for DDT congeners and their breakdown products (DDE, DDD, DDMU, and DDNU) and 43 PCB congeners using GC-EI- and NCI-MS. PRCs were used to calculate compound-specific fractional equilibration achieved in situ for the PE samplers, using both an exponential approach to equilibrium (EAE) and numerical integration of Fickian diffusion (NI) models. The highest observed concentrations were for p,p'-DDE, with 2200 and 990 pg/L deduced from PE and SPME, respectively. The difference in these estimates could be largely attributed to uncertainty in equilibrium partition coefficients, unaccounted for disequilibrium between samplers and water, or different time scales over which the samplers average. The concordance between PE and SPME estimated concentrations for DDE was high (R(2) = 0.95). PCBs were only detected in PE samplers, due to their much larger size. Near-bottom waters adjacent to and down current from sediments with the highest bulk concentrations exhibited aqueous concentrations of DDTs and PCBs that exceeded Ambient Water Quality Criteria (AWQC) for human and aquatic health, indicating the need for future monitoring to determine the effectiveness of remedial activities taken to reduce adverse effects of contaminated surface sediments.

  17. Assessment of 1-chloro-4-[2,2-dichloro-1-(4-chlorophenyl)ethenyl]benzene (DDE) Transformation Rates on the Palos Verdes Shelf, CA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eganhouse, Robert P.; Pontolillo, James

    2008-01-01

    In 1953, the world's largest producer of DDT, Montrose Chemical Corporation, began to discharge process wastes into sewers of the Los Angeles County Sanitation Districts (LACSD), California. By 1971, when the sewer connection was terminated, approximately 1,500-2,000 metric tons of DDT had been introduced to the LACSD treatment plant in Carson, CA. After treatment, effluent from this plant was released to the ocean through a submarine outfall system on the Palos Verdes Shelf (PVS) near Los Angeles, resulting in the accumulation of highly contaminated marine sediments. Numerous investigations of the PVS have been undertaken since the late 1960s, but few have focused on the biogeochemical fate of DDT and its transformation products. In the early 1990s, it was shown that DDE, the major DDT compound in the sediments, was being reductively dechlorinated by microorganisms resident in sediments on the PVS. The U.S. Geological Survey undertook a study in cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to provide a better understanding of the range of reductive dechlorination rates on the PVS and the environmental factors that control them. Existing data show that rates of reductive dechlorination are variable spatially. A comparison of data from two cores collected approximately 7 kilometers downcurrent from the outfall systems in 1992 and 2003 yielded an average first-order transformation rate of approximately 0.05 yr-1. A multistep reaction model suggests that inventories of DDE in PVS sediments at the study site will continue to decline, whereas the inventory of the metabolite DDNU will reach a maximum around 2014.

  18. Calculating the diffusive flux of persistent organic pollutants between sediments and the water column on the Palos Verdes shelf superfund site using polymeric passive samplers.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Loretta A; Lao, Wenjian; Maruya, Keith A; Burgess, Robert M

    2014-04-01

    Passive samplers were deployed to the seafloor at a marine Superfund site on the Palos Verdes Shelf, California, USA, and used to determine water concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the surface sediments and near-bottom water. A model of Fickian diffusion across a thin water boundary layer at the sediment-water interface was used to calculate flux of contaminants due to molecular diffusion. Concentrations at four stations were used to calculate the flux of DDE, DDD, DDMU, and selected PCB congeners from sediments to the water column. Three passive sampling materials were compared: PE strips, POM strips, and SPME fibers. Performance reference compounds (PRCs) were used with PE and POM to correct for incomplete equilibration, and the resulting POP concentrations, determined by each material, agreed within 1 order of magnitude. SPME fibers, without PRC corrections, produced values that were generally much lower (1 to 2 orders of magnitude) than those measured using PE and POM, indicating that SPME may not have been fully equilibrated with waters being sampled. In addition, diffusive fluxes measured using PE strips at stations outside of a pilot remedial sand cap area were similar to those measured at a station inside the capped area: 240 to 260 ng cm(-2) y(-1) for p,p'-DDE. The largest diffusive fluxes of POPs were calculated at station 8C, the site where the highest sediment concentrations have been measured in the past, 1100 ng cm(-2) y(-1) for p,p'-DDE.

  19. Estimates of consumptive use and ground-water return flow using water budgets in Palo Verde Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Owen-Joyce, Sandra J.; Kimsey, Steven L.

    1987-01-01

    Palo Verde Valley, California, is an agricultural area in the flood plain of the Colorado River where irrigation water is diverted from the river and groundwater is discharged to a network of drainage ditches and (or) the river. Consumptive use by vegetation and groundwater return flow were calculated using water budgets. Consumptive use by vegetation was 484,000 acre-ft in 1981, 453,600 acre-ft in 1982, 364,400 acre-ft in 1983, and 374,300 acre-ft in 1984. The consumptive-use estimates are most sensitive to two measured components of the water budget, the diversion at Palo Verde Dam and the discharge from drainage ditches to the river. Groundwater return flow was 31,700 acre-ft in 1981, 24,000 acre-ft in 1982, 2,500 acre-ft in 1983, and 7 ,900 acre-ft in 1984. The return-flow estimates are most sensitive to discharge from drainage ditches; various irrigation requirements and crop areas, particularly alfalfa; the diversion at Palo Verde Dam; and the estimate of consumptive use. During increasing flows in the river, the estimate of groundwater return flow is sensitive also to change in groundwater storage. Change in groundwater storage was estimated to be -5,700 acre-ft in 1981, -12,600 acre-ft in 1982, 5,200 acre-ft in 1983, and 11 ,600 acre-ft in 1984. Changes in storage can be a significant component in the water budget used to estimate groundwater return flow but is negligible in the water budget used to estimate consumptive use. Change in storage was 1 to 3% of annual consumptive use. Change in storage for the area drained by the river ranged from 7 to 96% of annual groundwater return flow during the 4 years studied. Consumptive use calculated as diversions minus return flows was consistently lower than consumptive use calculated in a water budget. Water-budget estimates of consumptive use account for variations in precipitation, tributary inflow, river stage, and groundwater storage. The calculations for diversions minus return flows do not account for these

  20. Offshore survey provides answers to coastal stability and potential offshore extensions of landslides into Abalone Cove, Palos Verdes peninsula, Calif

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Dill, R.F.; Slosson, J.E.

    1993-04-01

    The configuration and stability of the present coast line near Abalone Cove, on the south side of Palos Verdes Peninsula, California is related to the geology, oceanographic conditions, and recent and ancient landslide activity. This case study utilizes offshore high resolution seismic profiles, side-scan sonar, diving, and coring, to relate marine geology to the stability of a coastal region with known active landslides utilizing a desk top computer and off-the-shelf software. Electronic navigation provided precise positioning that when applied to computer generated charts permitted correlation of survey data needed to define the offshore geology and sea floor sediment patterns. Amore » mackintosh desk-top computer and commercially available off-the-shelf software provided the analytical tools for constructing a base chart and a means to superimpose template overlays of topography, isopachs or sediment thickness, bottom roughness and sediment distribution patterns. This composite map of offshore geology and oceanography was then related to an extensive engineering and geological land study of the coastal zone forming Abalone Cove, an area of active landslides. Vibrocoring provided ground sediment data for high resolution seismic traverses. This paper details the systems used, present findings relative to potential landslide movements, coastal erosion and discuss how conclusions were reached to determine whether or not onshore landslide failures extend offshore.« less

  1. Acoustic profiles and images of the Palos Verdes Margin: Implications concerning deposition from the White's Point outfall

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Hampton, M A.; Karl, H; Murray, Christopher J.

    2001-12-01

    Subbottom profiles and sidescan-sonar images collected on and around the Palos Verdes shelf show a surficial deposit interpreted to contain effluent from the White's Point diffusers, as well as showing several geologic features that affect the deposit's distribution. The effluent-affected deposit is visible in high-resolution subbottom profiles on the shelf and the adjacent San Pedro basin slope to water depths of 170 m. It has a maximum thickness of 75 cm and was mapped acoustically over an area of 10.8 km{sup 2}, which encompasses a volume of about 3.2 million m{sup 3}. The deposit's basal reflector is acoustically distinct overmore » most of the mapped area, implying that the deposit has not been extensively mixed across its base, perhaps being relatively free of reworking since its initial deposition. Nearshore, the basal reflector is weak and fades away toward land, which could result from syndepositional intermixing of coarse native sediment (particularly from the Portuguese Bend landslide) with effluent in the high-energy nearshore zone, or postdepositionally by physical (wave) or biological mixing across the interface. The geometry of the deposit implies that effluent is dispersed primarily in a northwesterly and seaward direction from the diffusers. Dispersal across the shelf break is in some places strongly affected by topography, particularly by submarine canyons. The deposit overlies stratified and unstratified Quaternary sediment, up to 30 m thick, that in turn overlies the irregular erosional surface of deformed Miocene bedrock that crops out in places on the shelf and upper basin slope. The effluent-affected deposit rests on potentially unstable landslide deposits on the San Pedro basin slope. The acoustic profiles and side-scan images show evidence for active and inactive vents, probably of hot water and gas, some of which are within the boundary of the effluent-affected sediment deposit and could disrupt it if seepage occurs.« less

  2. p,p'-DDE bioaccumulation in female sea lions of the California Channel Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connolly, John P.; Glaser, David

    2002-05-01

    An area of sediment on the Palos Verdes shelf and in Santa Monica Bay off Los Angeles, CA is contaminated with DDE and other breakdown products of DDT as a result of discharges of DDT through the Whites Point outfall. Elevated concentrations of DDE have been found in the water column of the Palos Verdes Shelf and in various fish species inhabiting the shelf and Santa Monica Bay. High concentrations have also been found in California sea lions from San Miguel Island and sea lion carcasses on Santa Catalina Island. These islands are located some distance from the Palos Verdes shelf and Santa Monica Bay. It was the purpose of this study to determine if it is likely that the Palos Verdes Shelf/Santa Monica Bay sediments were the principal source of the DDE in the Channel Island sea lions via a pathway from sediments to water and fish preyed on by sea lions. A time variable, age dependent, physiologically based toxicokinetic model of female California sea lions was developed. Mass and energy balance equations describe the uptake and loss of contaminants. The contaminants are partitioned among multiple body compartments, including lipid and non-lipid body tissue and milk. Contaminants are distributed into a fetus of females. Physiological and toxicokinetic data were used to establish rates of growth, respiration, reproduction and lactation, internal partitioning of DDE, efficiency of DDE uptake and rates of DDE excretion. The model was used to estimate the likely DDE exposure history of the sea lions in view of their DDE body burdens. Field-measured dietary composition and prey contaminant levels were then used to establish potential exposure to DDE from various regions within the Southern California Bight. Comparison of the estimated exposure history with that attainable from the various regions indicated that the more highly contaminated lactating females were exposed to prey at levels found only on the Palos Verdes Shelf and in Santa Monica Bay. Thus, it is likely

  3. Cruise report; RV Coastal Surveyor Cruise C1-99; multibeam mapping of the Long Beach, California continental shelf; April 12 through May 19, 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gardner, James V.; Hughes-Clarke, John E.; Mayer, Larry A.

    1999-01-01

    The greater Los Angeles area of California is home to more than 10 million people. This large population puts increased pressure on the adjacent offshore continental shelf and margin with activities such as ocean disposal for dredged spoils, explosive disposal, waste-water outfall, and commercial fishing. The increased utilization of the shelf and margin in this area has generated accelerated multi-disciplinary research efforts in all aspects of the environment of the coastal zone. Prior to 1996 there were no highly accurate base maps of the continental shelf and slope upon which the research activities could be located and monitored. In 1996, the United States Geological Survey (USGS) Pacific Seafloor Mapping Project began to address this problem by mapping the Santa Monica shelf and margin (Fig. 1) using a state-of-the-art, high-resolution multibeam sonar system (Gardner, et al., 1996; 1999). Additional seafloor mapping in 1998 provided coverage of the continental margin from south of Newport to the proximal San Pedro Basin northwest of Palos Verdes Peninsula (Gardner, et al., 1998) (Fig. 1). The mapping of the seafloor in the greater Los Angeles continental shelf and margin was completed with a 30-day mapping of the Long Beach shelf in April and May 1999, the subject of this report. The objective of Cruise C-1-99-SC was to completely map the broad continental shelf from the eastern end of the Palos Verdes Peninsula to the narrow shelf south of Newport Beach, from the break in slope at about 120-m isobath to the inner shelf at about the 10-m isobath. Mapping the Long Beach shelf was jointly funded by the U.S. Geological Survey and the County of Orange (CA) Sanitation District and was conducted under a Cooperative Agreement with the Ocean Mapping Group from the University of New Brunswick (OMG/UNB). The OMG/UNB contracted with C&C Technologies, Inc. of Lafayette, LA for use of the RV Coastal Surveyor and the latest evolution of high-resolution multibeam sonars, a

  4. Transport processes near coastal ocean outfalls

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Noble, M.A.; Sherwood, C.R.; Lee, Hooi-Ling; Xu, Jie; Dartnell, P.; Robertson, G.; Martini, M.

    2001-01-01

    The central Southern California Bight is an urbanized coastal ocean where complex topography and largescale atmospheric and oceanographic forcing has led to numerous sediment-distribution patterns. Two large embayments, Santa Monica and San Pedro Bays, are connected by the short, very narrow shelf off the Palos Verdes peninsula. Ocean-sewage outfalls are located in the middle of Santa Monica Bay, on the Palos Verdes shelf and at the southeastern edge of San Pedro Bay. In 1992, the US Geological Survey, together with allied agencies, began a series of programs to determine the dominant processes that transport sediment and associated pollutants near the three ocean outfalls. As part of these programs, arrays of instrumented moorings that monitor currents, waves, water clarity, water density and collect resuspended materials were deployed on the continental shelf and slope information was also collected on the sediment and contaminant distributions in the region. The data and models developed for the Palos Verdes shelf suggest that the large reservoir of DDT/DDE in the coastal ocean sediments will continue to be exhumed and transported along the shelf for a long time. On the Santa Monica shelf, very large internal waves, or bores, are generated at the shelf break. The near-bottom currents associated with these waves sweep sediments and the associated contaminants from the shelf onto the continental slope. A new program underway on the San Pedro shelf will determine if water and contaminants from a nearby ocean outfall are transported to the local beaches by coastal ocean processes. The large variety of processes found that transport sediments and contaminants in this small region of the continental margin suggest that in regions with complex topography, local processes change markedly over small spatial scales. One cannot necessarily infer that the dominant transport processes will be similar even in adjacent regions.

  5. Comparison of estimates of evapotranspiration and consumptive use in Palo Verde Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Raymond, Lee H.; Owen-Joyce, Sandra J.

    1987-01-01

    Estimates of evapotranspiration and consumptive use by vegetation in Palo Verde Valley, California, were compared for calendar years 1981 to 1984. Vegetation types were classified, and the areas covered by each type were computed from Landsat satellite digital-image analysis. Evapotranspiration was calculated by multiplying the area of each vegetation type by a corresponding water use rate adjusted for year-to-year variations in climate. The vegetation classification slightly underestimates the total vegetated area when compared to crop reports, because not all multiple cropping could be identified. The accuracy of evapotranspiration calculated from vegetation classification depends primarily on the correct classification of alfalfa and cotton because alfalfa and cotton have larger acreages and use more water/acre than the other crops in the valley. Consumptive use was calculated using a water budget for each of the 4 years. Estimates of evapotranspiration and consumptive use by vegetation, respectively, were: (1) 439,400 and 483,500 acre-ft in 1981, (2) 430,700 and 452,700 acre-ft in 1982, (3) 402,000 and 364,400 acre-ft in 1983, and (4) 406,700 and 373,800 acre-ft in 1984. Evapotranspiration estimates were lower than consumptive use estimates in 1981 and 1982 and higher in 1983 and 1984. Both estimates were lower in 1983 and 1984 than in 1981 and 1982. Yearly differences in estimates correspond most closely to significant changes in stage of the lower Colorado River caused by flood control releases in 1983 and 1984 and to changes in cropping practices. (Author 's abstract)

  6. Multibeam mapping of the Los Angeles, California Margin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gardner, James V.; Dartnell, Peter

    2002-01-01

    The Los Angeles, California Margin was mapped using multibeam echosounders during three separate surveys (Figure 1). In 1996, the USGS surveyed the shelf and slope in Santa Monica Bay from Pt. Dume to south of the Palos Verdes Peninsula. The mapping was accomplished using a Kongsberg Simrad EM1000 multibeam sonar system that provided high-quality bathymetry and quantitative backscatter. In 1998, the USGS continued the mapping to the south and surveyed the outer shelf, slope, and proximal basin off Long Beach and Newport using a Kongsberg Simrad EM300 multibeam sonar system. In 1999, the Los Angeles Margin mapping was completed with the surveying of the inner Long Beach shelf from the Palos Verdes Peninsula, south to Newport. This survey used a dual Kongsberg Simrad EM3000D multibeam sonar system. These three surveys were conducted to support USGS projects studying marine pollution and geohazards along the Los Angeles Margin.

  7. Seafloor geology and benthic habitats, San Pedro Shelf, southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wong, Florence L.; Dartnell, Peter; Edwards, Brian D.; Phillips, Eleyne L.

    2012-01-01

    Seafloor samples, videography, still photography, and real-time descriptions of geologic and biologic constituents at or near the seafloor of the San Pedro Shelf, southern California, advance the study of natural and man-made processes on this coastal area off the metropolitan Los Angeles area. Multibeam echo-sounder data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in 1998 and 1999 guided sampling and camera work in 2004 resulting in a new seafloor character map that shows possible benthic habitats in much higher resolution (4- and 16-m pixels) than previously available. The seafloor is characterized by primarily muddy sand and sand with outcrops of Miocene and Pliocene bedrock along the Palos Verdes Fault Zone. Observed benthic populations indicate low abiotic complexity, low biotic complexity, and low biotic coverage. The data are provided for use in geographic information systems (GIS).

  8. Culicoides and other biting flies on the Palos Verdes Peninsula of Southern California, and their possible relationship to equine dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Mullens, Bradley A; Owen, Jeb P; Heft, David E; Sobeck, Ruth V

    2005-03-01

    Biting insects were sampled to investigate the cause(s) of dermatitis (putative Culicoides hypersensitivity [CHS]) on horses on the Palos Verdes Peninsula, Los Angeles County, California. Suction traps baited with CO2 were operated at 5 sites from April 2002 to August 2003, supplemented by sampling from horses. Six species of Culicoides, 7 species of mosquitoes, and occasional Simulium and Stomoxys were collected in traps. Culicoides sonorensis was the most common midge trapped, although C. obsoletus and C. freeborni also were collected repeatedly. Insects from the belly region of horses in spring (peak dermatitis period) were mostly C. obsoletus, which were far more abundant than indicated by CO2-baited suction traps. The predominant mosquito was Culiseta incidens; Culex quinquefasciatus and Cx. tarsalis also could be common, depending on the site. Mosquitoes, particularly Cs. incidens, were more abundant the 2nd year (normal rainfall), whereas C. sonorensis and C. freeborni were more abundant the 1st year (drought period). Culicoides obsoletus, supplemented by C. sonorensis, is regarded as a primary suspect causing CHS in this area.

  9. Submarine landslides of San Pedro Escarpment, southwest of Long Beach, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bohannon, R.G.; Gardner, J.V.

    2004-01-01

    The coastal infrastructure of the southern greater Los Angeles metropolitan area would be profoundly affected by a large tsunami. Submarine slope failures and active faults, either of which could have generated a tsunami, are known on the shelf and slope near Long Beach. Large slope failures are present on the San Pedro Escarpment and on the basin slope adjacent to the San Pedro shelf. The southeastern part of the escarpment has had a long history of slope failure. The most recent failure, the Palos Verdes slide, is over 4.5 km long, has been dated as 7500 years old, and involved over 0.34 km 3 of material, which now litters the adjacent basin floor. Other, smaller, deposits from nearby failures are also present, as are buried wedges of debris that indicate slope failures have occurred locally throughout the Holocene and much of the late Pleistocene. Slope failures have occurred in response to continual Quaternary uplift of the Palos Verdes anticlinorium. The Palos Verdes slide could potentially have generated a failure-related tsunami with an amplitude in the range of 8-12 m because it apparently failed catastrophically, started in shallow water, evolved on low-drag bedding planes, had a long slide path, and involved high-strength lithified material. ?? 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Estimating Earthquake Hazards in the San Pedro Shelf Region, Southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baher, S.; Fuis, G.; Normark, W. R.; Sliter, R.

    2003-12-01

    The San Pedro Shelf (SPS) region of the inner California Borderland offshore southern California poses a significant seismic hazard to the contiguous Los Angeles Area, as a consequence of late Cenozoic compressional reactivation of mid-Cenozoic extensional faults. The extent of the hazard, however, is poorly understood because of the complexity of fault geometries and uncertainties in earthquake locations. The major faults in the region include the Palos Verdes, THUMS Huntington Beach and the Newport-Inglewood fault zones. We report here the analysis and interpretation of wide-angle seismic-reflection and refraction data recorded as part of the Los Angeles Region Seismic Experiment line 1 (LARSE 1), multichannel seismic (MCS) reflection data obtained by the USGS (1998-2000) and industry borehole stratigraphy. The onshore-offshore velocity model, which is based on forward modeling of the refracted P-wave arrival times, is used to depth migrate the LARSE 1 section. Borehole stratigraphy allows correlation of the onshore and offshore velocity models because state regulations prevent collection of deep-penetration acoustic data nearshore (within 3 mi.). Our refraction study is an extension of ten Brink et al., 2000 tomographic inversion of LARSE I data. They found high velocities (> 6 km/sec) at about ~3.5 km depth from the Catalina Fault (CF) to the SPS. We find these velocities, shallower (around 2 km depth) beneath the Catalina Ridge (CR) and SPS, but at a depth 2.5-3.0 km elsewhere in the study region. This change in velocity structure can provide additional constraints for the tectonic processes of this region. The structural horizons observed in the LARSE 1 reflection data are tied to adjacent MCS lines. We find localized folding and faulting at depth (~2 km) southwest of the CR and on the SPS slope. Quasi-laminar beds, possible of pelagic origin follow the contours of earlier folded (wavelength ~1 km) and faulted Cenozoic sedimentary and volcanic rocks. Depth to

  11. Kinetin increases chromium absorption, modulates its distribution, and changes the activity of catalase and ascorbate peroxidase in Mexican Palo Verde

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yong; Peralta-Videa, Jose R.; Lopez-Moreno, Martha L.; Ren, Minghua; Saupe, Geoffrey; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L

    2015-01-01

    This report shows, for the first time, the effectiveness of the phytohormone kinetin (KN) in increasing Cr translocation from roots to stems in Mexican Palo Verde. Fifteen-day-old seedlings, germinated in soil spiked with Cr(III) and (VI) at 60 and 10 mg kg−1, respectively, were watered every other day for 30 days with a KN solution at 250 μM. Samples were analyzed for catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APOX) activities, Cr concentration, and Cr distribution in tissues. Results showed that KN reduced CAT but increased APOX in the roots of Cr(VI)-treated plants. In the leaves, KN reduced both CAT and APOX in Cr(III) but not in Cr(VI)-treated plants. However, KN increased total Cr concentration in roots, stems, and leaves by 45%, 103%, and 72%, respectively, compared to Cr(III) alone. For Cr(VI), KN increased Cr concentrations in roots, stems, and leaves, respectively, by 53%, 129%, and 168%, compared to Cr(VI) alone. The electron probe microanalyzer results showed that Cr was mainly located at the cortex section in the root, and Cr distribution was essentially homogenous in stems. However, proven through X-ray images, Cr(VI)-treated roots and stems had more Cr accumulation than Cr(III) counterparts. KN increased the Cr translocation from roots to stems. PMID:21174467

  12. 78 FR 21933 - Archon Energy 1, Inc.; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-12

    ... feasibility of the Palo Verde Diversion Dam Hydroelectric Project (Palo Verde Diversion Dam Project or project... Southern California Edison transmission line located approximately one mile west of the Palo Verde Dam. An...

  13. Submarine landslides of the Southern California Borderland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, H.J.; Greene, H. Gary; Edwards, B.D.; Fisher, M.A.; Normark, W.R.

    2009-01-01

    Conventional bathymetry, sidescan-sonar and seismic-reflection data, and recent, multibeam surveys of large parts of the Southern California Borderland disclose the presence of numerous submarine landslides. Most of these features are fairly small, with lateral dimensions less than ??2 km. In areas where multibeam surveys are available, only two large landslide complexes were identified on the mainland slope- Goleta slide in Santa Barbara Channel and Palos Verdes debris avalanche on the San Pedro Escarpment south of Palos Verdes Peninsula. Both of these complexes indicate repeated recurrences of catastrophic slope failure. Recurrence intervals are not well constrained but appear to be in the range of 7500 years for the Goleta slide. The most recent major activity of the Palos Verdes debris avalanche occurred roughly 7500 years ago. A small failure deposit in Santa Barbara Channel, the Gaviota mudflow, was perhaps caused by an 1812 earthquake. Most landslides in this region are probably triggered by earthquakes, although the larger failures were likely conditioned by other factors, such as oversteepening, development of shelf-edge deltas, and high fluid pressures. If a subsequent future landslide were to occur in the area of these large landslide complexes, a tsunami would probably result. Runup distances of 10 m over a 30-km-long stretch of the Santa Barbara coastline are predicted for a recurrence of the Goleta slide, and a runup of 3 m over a comparable stretch of the Los Angeles coastline is modeled for the Palos Verdes debris avalanche. ?? 2009 The Geological Society of America.

  14. 76 FR 42725 - Notice of Availability of the Record of Decision for the Southern California Edison Company...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-19

    ... Devers-Palo Verde No. 2 Transmission Line Project, California AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior... the Devers-Palo Verde No. 2 Transmission Line Project located in southern California. The Palm Springs..., located near the Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station west of Phoenix, Arizona. A 50-mile 230-kV...

  15. 75 FR 51498 - Notice of Availability of the Draft Supplement 43 to the Generic Environmental Impact Statement...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-20

    ... Nuclear Plants, and Public Meetings for the License Renewal of Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Stations..., NPF-51 and NPF-74 for an additional 20 years of operation for Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station... NRC by e-mail at PaloVerde[email protected] . All comments received by the Commission, including those made...

  16. 7 CFR 301.89-3 - Regulated areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    .... That portion of Riverside County known as the Palo Verde Valley (in part) bounded by a line drawn as... and −114.691197 longitude; then, southwest along the unnamed canal to the shoreline of Palo Verde Lagoon; then, northeast along the shoreline of Palo Verde Lagoon to its intersection with Rannells Drain...

  17. Geological perspectives on the Monte Verde archeological site in Chile and pre-Clovis coastal migration in the Americas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickinson, William R.

    2011-09-01

    Discovery of the Monte Verde archeological site in Chile overturned the previous consensus that the first Americans into the New World from Asia were the makers of Clovis projectile points, and rejuvenated the hypothesis that migration through the Americas occurred largely on portions of the Pacific continental shelf exposed by Pleistocene drawdown in eustatic sea level. The postulate of travel along a paleoshoreline now hidden underwater is an attractive means to posit pre-Clovis human movement southward from Beringia to Chile without leaving traces of migration onshore. Geologic analyses of the Pleistocene paleoenvironment at Monte Verde and of the morphology of the potential migration route along the continental shelf raise questions that have not been fully addressed. The periglacial setting of Monte Verde may call its antiquity into question and the narrowness of the Pacific continental shelf of the Americas makes it unlikely that people could travel the length of the Americas without impacting ground still onshore and no farther inland than Monte Verde itself. Geological perspectives on Monte Verde and coastal migration jointly suggest that the Clovis-first hypothesis for peopling the New World may have been abandoned prematurely.

  18. Clay-mineral suites, sources, and inferred dispersal routes: Southern California continental shelf

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hein, J.R.; Dowling, J.S.; Schuetze, A.; Lee, H.J.

    2003-01-01

    Clay mineralogy is useful in determining the distribution, sources, and dispersal routes of fine-grained sediments. In addition, clay minerals, especially smectite, may control the degree to which contaminants are adsorbed by the sediment. We analyzed 250 shelf sediment samples, 24 river-suspended-sediment samples, and 12 river-bed samples for clay-mineral contents in the Southern California Borderland from Point Conception to the Mexico border. In addition, six samples were analyzed from the Palos Verdes Headland in order to characterize the clay minerals contributed to the offshore from that point source. The <2 ??m-size fraction was isolated, Mg-saturated, and glycolated before analysis by X-ray diffraction. Semi-quantitative percentages of smectite, illite, and kaolinite plus chlorite were calculated using peak areas and standard weighting factors. Most fine-grained sediment is supplied to the shelf by rivers during major winter storms, especially during El Nin??o years. The largest sediment fluxes to the region are from the Santa Ynez and Santa Clara Rivers, which drain the Transverse Ranges. The mean clay-mineral suite for the entire shelf sediment data set (26% smectite, 50% illite, 24% kaolinite+chlorite) is closely comparable to that for the mean of all the rivers (31% smectite, 49% illite, 20% kaolinite+chlorite), indicating that the main source of shelf fine-grained sediments is the adjacent rivers. However, regional variations do exist and the shelf is divided into four provinces with characteristic clay-mineral suites. The means of the clay-mineral suites of the two southernmost provinces are within analytical error of the mineral suites of adjacent rivers. The next province to the north includes Santa Monica Bay and has a suite of clay minerals derived from mixing of fine-grained sediments from several sources, both from the north and south. The northernmost province clay-mineral suite matches moderately well that of the adjacent rivers, but does

  19. Tortricid Moths Reared from the Invasive Weed Mexican Palo Verde, Parkinsonia aculeata, with Comments on their Host Specificity, Biology, Geographic Distribution, and Systematics

    PubMed Central

    Brown, John W.; Segura, Ricardo; Santiago-Jiménez, Quiyari; Rota, Jadranka; Heard, Tim A.

    2011-01-01

    As part of efforts to identify native herbivores of Mexican palo verde, Parkinsonia aculeata L. (Leguminosae: Caesalpinioideae), as potential biological control agents against this invasive weed in Australia, ten species of Tortricidae (Lepidoptera) were reared from Guatemala, Mexico, Nicaragua, and Venezuela: Amorbia concavana (Zeller), Platynota rostrana (Walker), Platynota helianthes (Meyrick), Platynota stultana Walsingham (all Tortricinae: Sparganothini), Rudenia leguminana (Busck), Cochylis sp. (both Tortricinae: Cochylini), Ofatulena duodecemstriata (Walsingham), O. luminosa Heinrich, Ofatulena sp. (all Olethreutinae: Grapholitini), and Crocidosema lantana Busck (Olethreutinae: Eucosmini). Significant geographic range extensions are provided for O. duodecemstriata and R. leguminana. These are the first documented records of P. aculeata as a host plant for all but O. luminosa. The four species of Sparganothini are polyphagous; in contrast, the two Cochylini and three Grapholitini likely are specialists on Leguminosae. Ofatulena luminosa is possibly host specific on P. aculeata. Host trials with Rudenia leguminana also provide some evidence of specificity, in contrast to historical rearing records. To examine the possibility that R. leguminana is a complex of species, two data sets of molecular markers were examined: (1) a combined data set of two mitochondrial markers (a 781-basepair region of cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) and a 685-basepair region of cytochrome c oxidase II) and one nuclear marker (a 531-basepair region of the 28S domain 2); and (2) the 650-basepair “barcode” region of COI. Analyses of both data sets strongly suggest that individuals examined in this study belong to more than one species. PMID:21521138

  20. 75 FR 66389 - Notice of Availability of the Record of Decision for the Blythe Solar Power Project and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-28

    ... development agreement with Solar Millennium and requested that the project be assigned to Palo Verde Solar I...) transmission line will be constructed to interconnect to the Devers-Palo Verde II 500-kV transmission line at...

  1. Postglacial sedimentary record of the Southern California continental shelf and slope, Point Conception to Dana Point

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sommerfield, C.K.; Lee, H.J.; Normark, W.R.

    2009-01-01

    Sedimentary strata on the Southern California shelf and slope (Point Conception to Dana Point) display patterns and rates of sediment accumulation that convey information on sea-level inundation, sediment supply, and oceanic transport processes following the Last Glacial Maximum. In Santa Monica Bay and San Pedro Bay, postglacial transgression is recorded in shelf deposits by wave-ravinement surfaces dated at 13-11 ka and an upsection transition from coastal to shallow-marine sediment facies. Depositional conditions analogous to the modern environment were established in the bays by 8-9 ka. On the continental slope, transgression is evidenced in places by an increase in sediment grain size and accumulation rate ca. 15-10 ka, a consequence of coastal ravinement and downslope resedimentation, perhaps in conjunction with climatic increases in fluvial sediment delivery. Grain sizes and accumulation rates then decreased after 12-10 ka when the shelf flooded and backfilled under rising sea level. The Santa Barbara coastal cell contains the largest mass of postglacial sediment at 32-42 ?? 109 metric tons, most of which occurs between offshore Santa Barbara and Hueneme Canyon. The San Pedro cell contains the second largest quantity of sediment, 8-11 ?? 109 metric tons, much of which is present on the eastern Palos Verdes and outer San Pedro shelves. By comparison, the mass of sediment sequestered within the Santa Monica cell is smaller at ??6-8 ?? 109 metric tons. The postglacial sediment mass distribution among coastal cells reflects the size of local fluvial sediment sources, whereas intracell accumulation patterns reflect antecedent bathymetric features conducive for sediment bypass or trapping. ?? 2009 The Geological Society of America.

  2. Options for In Situ Capping of Palos Verdes Shelf Contaminated Sediments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-03-01

    coastal areas, as summarized by Rhoads and Carey (1996). In certain coastal areas the bioturbation effects of “ megafauna ” have received attention... Megafauna are exemplified by large skates and rays that excavate large pits during foraging and large crustaceans such as lobsters, crabs and mantis...disturbance, their pits are generally no deeper than 30 cm. Other potentially important megafauna included cuskeels and eelpouts, which are locally very

  3. Records of continental slope sediment flow morphodynamic responses to gradient and active faulting from integrated AUV and ROV data, offshore Palos Verdes, southern California Borderland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maier, Katherine L.; Brothers, Daniel; Paull, Charles K.; McGann, Mary; Caress, David W.; Conrad, James E.

    2016-01-01

    Variations in seabed gradient are widely acknowledged to influence deep-water deposition, but are often difficult to measure in sufficient detail from both modern and ancient examples. On the continental slope offshore Los Angeles, California, autonomous underwater vehicle, remotely operated vehicle, and shipboard methods were used to collect a dense grid of high-resolution multibeam bathymetry, chirp sub-bottom profiles, and targeted sediment core samples that demonstrate the influence of seafloor gradient on sediment accumulation, depositional environment, grain size of deposits, and seafloor morphology. In this setting, restraining and releasing bends along the active right-lateral Palos Verdes Fault create and maintain variations in seafloor gradient. Holocene down-slope flows appear to have been generated by slope failure, primarily on the uppermost slope (~ 100–200 m water depth). Turbidity currents created a low relief (< 10 m) channel, up-slope migrating sediment waves (λ = ~ 100 m, h ≤ 2 m), and a series of depocenters that have accumulated up to 4 m of Holocene sediment. Sediment waves increase in wavelength and decrease in wave height with decreasing gradient. Integrated analysis of high-resolution datasets provides quantification of morphodynamic sensitivity to seafloor gradients acting throughout deep-water depositional systems. These results help to bridge gaps in scale between existing deep-sea and experimental datasets and may provide constraints for future numerical modeling studies.

  4. Utilizing Tritium and CFC-12 to Determine Groundwater Sources in an Unconfined Aquifer Within the Abalone Cove Landslide, Palos Verdes, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Difilippo, E. L.; Hammond, D. E.; Douglas, R.; Clark, J. F.; Avisar, D.; Dunker, R.

    2004-12-01

    The Abalone Cove landslide occupies 80 acres of an ancient landslide complex on the Palos Verdes peninsula, and was re-activated in 1979. The uphill portion of the ancient landslide complex has remained stable in historic times. Water infiltration into the slide is a short term catalyst for mass movement in the area, so it is important to determine the sources of groundwater throughout the slide mass. Water may enter the slide mass through direct percolation of recent precipitation, inflow along the head scarp of the ancient landslide or by rising through the slide plane from a deeper aquifer. The objective of this contribution is to use geochemical tracers (tritium and CFC-12) in combination with numerical modeling to constrain the importance of each of these sources. Numerical models were constructed to predict geochemical tracer concentrations throughout the basin, assuming that the only source of water to the slide mass is percolation of recent precipitation. Predicted concentrations were then compared to measured tracer values. In the ancient landslide, predicted and measured tracer concentrations are in good agreement, indicating that most of the water in this area is recent precipitation falling within the basin. Groundwater recharged uphill of the ancient landslide contributes minor flow into the complex through the head scarp, with the majority of this water flowing beneath the ancient slide plane. However, predicted tracer concentrations in the toe of the Abalone Cove landslide are not consistent with measured values. Both CFC-12 and tritium concentrations indicate that water is older than predicted and communication between the slide mass and the aquifer beneath the slide plane must occur in this area. Infiltration of this deep circulating water may exert upward hydraulic pressure on the landslide slip surface, increasing the potential for movement. This hypothesis is consistent with the observation that current movement is only occurring in the area in

  5. Palos Crater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Palos Crater has been suggested as a future landing site for Mars Missions. This crater has a channel called Tinto Vallis, which enters from the south. This site was suggested as a landing site because it may contain lake deposits. Palos Crater is named in honor of the port city in Spain from which Christopher Columbus sailed on his way to the New World in August of 1492. The floor of Palos Crater appears to be layered in places providing further evidence that this site may in fact have been the location of an ancient lake.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  6. Review of a Proposal to Convert the Needles Outreach Operation to a State-Approved Educational Center. Commission Report 06-02

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Postsecondary Education Commission, 2006

    2006-01-01

    In this report, the Commission considers a proposal by the Palo Verde Community College District to convert the Needles outreach operation to a state-approved off-campus educational center of Palo Verde Community College. The proposal responds to the district's need to enhance educational services in the extremely remote community of Needles and…

  7. 75 FR 48323 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Palos Verdes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-10

    ... deep for direct human contact; however, fish in the PV Shelf area bioaccumulate the contaminants... response. Burden means the total time, effort, or financial resources expended by persons to generate, maintain, retain, or disclose or provide information to or for a Federal agency. This includes the time...

  8. The Palos Verdes Fault offshore southern California: late Pleistocene to present tectonic geomorphology, seascape evolution and slip rate estimate based on AUV and ROV surveys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brothers, Daniel S.; Conrad, James E.; Maier, Katherine L.; Paull, Charles K.; McGann, Mary L.; Caress, David W.

    2015-01-01

    The Palos Verdes Fault (PVF) is one of few active faults in Southern California that crosses the shoreline and can be studied using both terrestrial and subaqueous methodologies. To characterize the near-seafloor fault morphology, tectonic influences on continental slope sedimentary processes and late Pleistocene to present slip rate, a grid of high-resolution multibeam bathymetric data, and chirp subbottom profiles were acquired with an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) along the main trace of PVF in water depths between 250 and 600 m. Radiocarbon dates were obtained from vibracores collected using a remotely operated vehicle (ROV) and ship-based gravity cores. The PVF is expressed as a well-defined seafloor lineation marked by subtle along-strike bends. Right-stepping transtensional bends exert first-order control on sediment flow dynamics and the spatial distribution of Holocene depocenters; deformed strata within a small pull-apart basin record punctuated growth faulting associated with at least three Holocene surface ruptures. An upper (shallower) landslide scarp, a buried sedimentary mound, and a deeper scarp have been right-laterally offset across the PVF by 55 ± 5, 52 ± 4 , and 39 ± 8 m, respectively. The ages of the upper scarp and buried mound are approximately 31 ka; the age of the deeper scarp is bracketed to 17–24 ka. These three piercing points bracket the late Pleistocene to present slip rate to 1.3–2.8 mm/yr and provide a best estimate of 1.6–1.9 mm/yr. The deformation observed along the PVF is characteristic of strike-slip faulting and accounts for 20–30% of the total right-lateral slip budget accommodated offshore Southern California.

  9. Geology of the continental margin beneath Santa Monica Bay, Southern California, from seismic-reflection data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fisher, M.A.; Normark, W.R.; Bohannon, R.G.; Sliter, R.W.; Calvert, A.J.

    2003-01-01

    We interpret seismic-reflection data, which were collected in Santa Monica Bay using a 70-in3 generator-injector air gun, to show the geologic structure of the continental shelf and slope and of the deep-water, Santa Monica and San Pedro Basins. The goal of this research is to investigate the earthquake hazard posed to urban areas by offshore faults. These data reveal that northwest of the Palos Verdes Peninsula, the Palos Verdes Fault neither offsets the seafloor nor cuts through an undeformed sediment apron that postdates the last sea level rise. Other evidence indicates that this fault extends northwest beneath the shelf in the deep subsurface. However, other major faults in the study area, such as the Dume and San Pedro Basin Faults, were active recently, as indicated by an arched seafloor and offset shallow sediment. Rocks under the lower continental slope are deformed to differing degrees on opposite sides of Santa Monica Canyon. Northwest of this canyon, the continental slope is underlain by a little-deformed sediment apron; the main structures that deform this apron are two lower-slope anticlines that extend toward Point Dume and are cored by faults showing reverse or thrust separation. Southeast of Santa Monica Canyon, lower-slope rocks are deformed by a complex arrangement of strike-slip, normal, and reverse faults. The San Pedro Escarpment rises abruptly along the southeast side of Santa Monica Canyon. Reverse faults and folds underpinning this escarpment steepen progressively southeastward. Locally they form flower structures and cut downward into basement rocks. These faults merge downward with the San Pedro Basin fault zone, which is nearly vertical and strike slip. The escarpment and its attendant structures diverge from this strike-slip fault zone and extend for 60 km along the margin, separating the continental shelf from the deep-water basins. The deep-water Santa Monica Basin has large extent but is filled with only a thin (less than 1.5-km

  10. Seafloor mapping of the southeast Iberian margin (from Cabo de Palos to Cabo de Gata)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lastras, Galderic; Leon, César; Elvira, Elena; Pascual, Laura; Muñoz, Araceli; de Cárdenas, Enrique; Acosta, Juan; Canals, Miquel

    2014-05-01

    We present the multibeam bathymetry and derived maps of the southeast Iberian margin from Cabo de Palos to Cabo de Gata, 37º35'N to 35º45'N and 2º10'W to 0º20'E, from the coastline down to the Algero-Balearic abyssal plain at depths exceeding 2600 m. The edition of of the maps is carried out within the Complementary Action VALORPLAT ("Scientific valorisation of multibeam bathymetry data from the Spanish continental shelf and slope"), funded by the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitivity. The multibeam bathymetry data of the slope and abyssal plain were obtained during different surveys in 2004, 2006 and 2007 on board R/V Vizconde de Eza with a Simrad EM300 multibeam echo-sounder as part of the CAPESME Project, a collaboration between the Spanish Institute of Oceanography (IEO) and General Secretariat of Fisheries (SGP), primarily aiming at creating maps of the fishing grounds of the Mediterranean continental margins of Spain. Multibeam bathymetry data from the continental shelf were obtained within the ESPACE project, also in a cooperative frame between IEO and SGP. The map series is constituted by a general map at 1:400,000 scale and 14 detailed maps at 1:75,000 scale, which include inset maps on slope gradients and seafloor nature (rock or sediment type), the later obtained with rock dredges and Shipeck sediment dredges. Both the detailed maps and the general map are available in paper print, and the whole collection is also distributed in an edited USB. The geological features displayed in the different maps include the continental shelf, with abundant geomorphic features indicative of past sea-level changes, the continental slope carved by the Palos, Tiñoso, Cartagena Este, Cartagena Oeste, Águilas, Almanzora, Alias, Garrucha and Gata submarine canyons, the Mazarrón, Palomares and Al-Mansour escarpments, the Abubácer, Maimonides and Yusuf ridges, the Águilas and Al-Mansour seamounts, and the Algero-Balearic abyssal plain where prominent

  11. Coastal ocean transport patterns in the central Southern California Bight

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Noble, M.A.; Rosenberger, K.J.; Hamilton, P.; Xu, J. P.

    2009-01-01

    In the past decade, several large programs that monitor currents and transport patterns for periods from a few months to a few years were conducted by a consortium of university, federal, state, and municipal agencies in the central Southern California Bight, a heavily urbanized section of the coastal ocean off the west coast of the United States encompassing Santa Monica Bay, San Pedro Bay, and the Palos Verdes shelf. These programs were designed in part to determine how alongshelf and cross-shelf currents move sediments, pollutants, and suspended material through the region. Analysis of the data sets showed that the current patterns in this portion of the Bight have distinct changes in frequency and amplitude with location, in part because the topography of the shelf and upper slope varies rapidly over small spatial scales. However, because the mean, subtidal, and tidal-current patterns in any particular location were reasonably stable with time, one could determine a regional pattern for these current fields in the central Southern California Bight even though measurements at the various locations were obtained at different times. In particular, because the mean near-surface flows over the San Pedro and Palos Verdes shelves are divergent, near-surface waters from the upper slope tend to carry suspended material onto the shelf in the northwestern portion of San Pedro Bay. Water and suspended material are also carried off the shelf by the mean and subtidal flow fields in places where the orientation of the shelf break changes abruptly. The barotropic tidal currents in the central Southern California Bight flow primarily alongshore, but they have pronounced amplitude variations over relatively small changes in alongshelf location that are not totally predicted by numerical tidal models. Nonlinear internal tides and internal bores at tidal frequencies are oriented more across the shelf. They do not have a uniform transport direction, since they move fine sediment

  12. The Bridges SOI Model School Program at Palo Verde School, Palo Verde, Arizona.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stock, William A.; DiSalvo, Pamela M.

    The Bridges SOI Model School Program is an educational service based upon the SOI (Structure of Intellect) Model School curriculum. For the middle seven months of the academic year, all students in the program complete brief daily exercises that develop specific cognitive skills delineated in the SOI model. Additionally, intensive individual…

  13. Trophic transfer and effects of DDT in male hornyhead turbot (Pleuronichthys verticalis) from Palos Verdes Superfund site, CA (USA) and comparisons to field monitoring.

    PubMed

    Crago, Jordan; Xu, Elvis Genbo; Kupsco, Allison; Jia, Fang; Mehinto, Alvine C; Lao, Wenjian; Maruya, Keith A; Gan, Jay; Schlenk, Daniel

    2016-06-01

    High concentrations of DDT and metabolites (ΣDDT) have been detected in sediment and the demersal flatfish hornyhead turbot (Pleuronichtys verticalis) collected from Palos Verdes (PV), California, USA, a site contaminated with over 100 metric tons of DDT throughout 1960s-70s. This study was conducted to assess the transfer of ΣDDT from PV-sediment into polychaetes (Neanthes arenaceodentata) and hornyhead turbot, and to investigate if the responses in turbots from two different laboratory exposures mimic those in turbots caught in PV (PV-turbot). Turbot fed PV-sediment-contaminated polychaete for 7 days had liver concentrations of ΣDDT similar to PV-turbot. After 28 days, ΣDDT also accumulated in livers of turbot gavaged with a ΣDDT mixture. In vitro cell bioassays indicated significant increases of 17β-estradiol equivalents (EEQ) in turbot bile extracts as compared to the control in the 7-day study. These responses corresponded to those measured in PV-fish. Glucocorticoid receptor (GR), anti-androgen receptor (anti-AR), estrogen receptor (ER) or aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) activities were also observed in extracts of PV-sediment, and PV-sediment-exposed worm. Anti-AR, AhR and GR activities were significantly higher in PV-sediment than reference sediment (San Diego, SD). Higher transcripts of hepatic VTG, ERα and ERβ were found in PV-turbot than SD-turbot, but were unaltered in fish exposed to sediment-contaminated worms for the 7-day study. In contrast, liver extracts from the 28-day treatment of ΣDDT showed lower EEQ but similar hepatic VTG and ERβ transcripts relative to those of PV-turbot. These data indicated that trophic transfer of sediment-associated DDT in 7-day exposures corresponded to field measurements of DDT residues and in vitro ER bioactivities, but failed to mimic in vivo biological effects observed in field fish. In contrast, treatment with ΣDDT alone for 28 days mimicked in vivo biological effects of DDTs in PV fish, but did not

  14. Potential depletion of surface water in the Colorado River and agricultural drains by groundwater pumping in the Parker-Palo Verde-Cibola area, Arizona and California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leake, Stanley A.; Owen-Joyce, Sandra J.; Heilman, Julian A.

    2013-01-01

    Water use along the lower Colorado River is allocated as “consumptive use,” which is defined to be the amount of water diverted from the river minus the amount that returns to the river. Diversions of water from the river include surface water in canals and water removed from the river by pumping wells in the aquifer connected to the river. A complication in accounting for water pumped by wells occurs if the pumping depletes water in drains and reduces measured return flow in those drains. In that case, consumptive use of water pumped by the wells is accounted for in the reduction of measured return flow. A method is needed to understand where groundwater pumping will deplete water in the river and where it will deplete water in drains. To provide a basis for future accounting for pumped groundwater in the Parker-Palo Verde-Cibola area, a superposition model was constructed. The model consists of three layers of finite-difference cells that cover most of the aquifer in the study area. The model was run repeatedly with each run having a pumping well in a different model cell. The source of pumped water that is depletion of the river, expressed as a fraction of the pumping rate, was computed for all active cells in model layer 1, and maps were constructed to understand where groundwater pumping depletes the river and where it depletes drains. The model results indicate that if one or more drains exist between a pumping well location and the river, nearly all of the depletion will be from drains, and little or no depletion will come from the Colorado River. Results also show that if a well pumps on a side of the river with no drains in the immediate area, depletion will come from the Colorado River. Finally, if a well pumps between the river and drains that parallel the river, a fraction of the pumping will come from the river and the rest will come from the drains. Model results presented in this report may be considered in development or refinement of strategies

  15. Seismic, side-scan survey, diving, and coring data analyzed by a Macintosh II sup TM computer and inexpensive software provide answers to a possible offshore extension of landslides at Palos Verdes Peninsula, California

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Dill, R.F.; Slosson, J.E.; McEachen, D.B.

    1990-05-01

    A Macintosh II{sup TM} computer and commercially available software were used to analyze and depict the topography, construct an isopach sediment thickness map, plot core positions, and locate the geology of an offshore area facing an active landslide on the southern side of Palos Verdes Peninsula California. Profile data from side scan sonar, 3.5 kHz, and Boomer subbottom, high-resolution seismic, diving, echo sounder traverses, and cores - all controlled with a mini Ranger II navigation system - were placed in MacGridzo{sup TM} and WingZ{sup TM} software programs. The computer-plotted data from seven sources were used to construct maps with overlaysmore » for evaluating the possibility of a shoreside landslide extending offshore. The poster session describes the offshore survey system and demonstrates the development of the computer data base, its placement into the MacGridzo{sup TM} gridding program, and transfer of gridded navigational locations to the WingZ{sup TM} data base and graphics program. Data will be manipulated to show how sea-floor features are enhanced and how isopach data were used to interpret the possibility of landslide displacement and Holocene sea level rise. The software permits rapid assessment of data using computerized overlays and a simple, inexpensive means of constructing and evaluating information in map form and the preparation of final written reports. This system could be useful in many other areas where seismic profiles, precision navigational locations, soundings, diver observations, and core provide a great volume of information that must be compared on regional plots to develop of field maps for geological evaluation and reports.« less

  16. DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Case Study: Palo Duro Homes — Palo Duro Homes, Albuquerque, NM

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    none,

    2014-09-01

    This builder was honored for Most DOE Zero Energy Ready Homes Built in the 2014 Housing Innovation Awards. By July 2014, Palo Duro had completed 152 homes since the program began in 2013 (under the original program title DOE Challenge Home), all of them certified to the stringent efficiency requirements of DOE’s Zero Energy Ready Home program.

  17. The 1906 earthquake at Palo Alto, California; an interview with Birge M. Clark

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spall, H.

    1981-01-01

    Mr.Birge M. Clark, an architect in Palo Alto, Calif., was living in Palo Alto at the time of the 1906 earthquake. his father-in-law was Professor S. D. Townley, well known for his 1939 compilation, with Maxwell W. Allen, of earthquakes along the Pacific coast from 1769 to 1928. 

  18. Dynamics of a "low-enrichment high-retention" upwelling center over the southern Senegal shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ndoye, Siny; Capet, Xavier; Estrade, Philippe; Sow, Bamol; Machu, Eric; Brochier, Timothée.; Döring, Julian; Brehmer, Patrice

    2017-05-01

    Senegal is the southern tip of the Canary upwelling system. Its coastal ocean hosts an upwelling center which shapes sea surface temperatures between latitudes 12° and 15°N. Near this latter latitude, the Cape Verde headland and a sudden change in shelf cross-shore profile are major sources of heterogeneity in the southern Senegal upwelling sector (SSUS). SSUS dynamics is investigated by means of Regional Ocean Modeling System simulations. Configuration realism and resolution (Δx≈ 2 km) are sufficient to reproduce the SSUS frontal system. Our main focus is on the 3-D upwelling circulation which turns out to be profoundly different from 2-D theory: cold water injection onto the shelf and upwelling are strongly concentrated within a few tens of kilometers south of Cape Verde and largely arise from flow divergence in the alongshore direction; a significant fraction of the upwelled waters are retained nearshore over long distances while travelling southward under the influence of northerly winds. Another source of complexity, regional-scale alongshore pressure gradients, also contributes to the overall retention of upwelled waters over the shelf. Varying the degree of realism of atmospheric and oceanic forcings does not appreciably change these conclusions. This study sheds light on the dynamics and circulation underlying the recurrent sea surface temperature pattern observed during the upwelling season and offers new perspectives on the connections between the SSUS physical environment and its ecosystems. It also casts doubt on the validity of upwelling intensity estimations based on simple Ekman upwelling indices at such local scales.

  19. Sediment accumulation on the Southern California Bight continental margin during the twentieth century

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alexander, C.R.; Lee, H.J.

    2009-01-01

    Sediment discharged into the portion of the Southern California Bight extending from Santa Barbara to Dana Point enters a complex system of semi-isolated coastal cells, narrow continental shelves, submarine canyons, and offshore basins. On both the Santa Monica and San Pedro margins, 210Pb accumulation rates decrease in an offshore direction (from ??0.5 g cm-2yr-1 to 0.02 g cm-2yr -1), in concert with a fining in sediment grain size (from 4.5?? to 8.5??), suggesting that offshore transport of wave-resuspended material occurs as relatively dilute nepheloid layers and that hemiplegic sedimentation dominates the supply of sediment to the outer shelf, slope, and basins. Together, these areas are effectively sequestering up to 100% of the annual fluvial input. In contrast to the Santa Monica margin, which does not display evidence of mass wasting as an important process of sediment delivery and redistribution, the San Pedro margin does provide numerous examples of failures and mass wasting, suggesting that intraslope sediment redistribution may play a more important role there. Basin deposits in both areas exhibit evidence of turbidites tentatively associated with both major floods and earthquakes, sourced from either the Redondo Canyon (San Pedro Basin) or Dume Canyon (Santa Monica Basin). On the Palos Verdes shelf, sediment-accumulation rates decrease along and across the shelf away from the White's Point outfall, which has been a major source of contaminants to the shelf deposits. Accumulation rates prior to the construction of the outfall were ??0.2 g cm-2yr-1 and increased 1.5-3.7 times during peak discharges from the outfall in 1971. The distal rate of accumulation has decreased by ??50%, from 0.63 g cm -2yr-1 during the period 1971-1992 to 0.29 g cm -2yr-1 during the period 1992-2003. The proximal rate of accumulation, however, has only decreased ??10%, from 0.83 g cm -2yr-1 during the period 1971-1992 to 0.73 g cm -2yr-1 during the period 1992-2003. Effluent

  20. A model of p, p'-DDE and total PCB bioaccumulation in birds from the Southern California Bight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glaser, David; Connolly, John P.

    2002-05-01

    Pathways of p, p'-DDE and PCB transfer to three species of birds were characterized as part of the Southern California Bight Natural Resource Damage Assessment. Based upon analysis of the results of extensive field studies conducted by other investigators to characterize the dietary composition, foraging behavior, and contaminant levels in the predators and in their prey, 70-80 percent of the contaminant dose received by the peregrine falcon and 90-95 percent of the dose to the bald eagle originated within the Bight. Dynamic, mechanistic, bioenergetics-based bioaccumulation models for p, p'-DDE and PCBs were developed for both species. Measured contaminant levels in predator eggs were found to be quantitatively consistent with measured levels in their prey, providing support for the estimates of dietary composition and foraging behavior, and therefore for the characterization of contaminant sources. Based on the model, most of the contaminant dose to the bald eagles on Santa Catalina Island is accumulated from sea lion carrion, and, based on a model of female sea lion bioaccumulation described in a companion publication, much of the dose to the sea lion originates in the more highly contaminated regions of the Bight which include the Palos Verdes Shelf and Santa Monica Bay. The importance of non-local contaminant sources to the eagle was surprising, since the eagles are non-migratory and forage locally on Santa Catalina, and consume 90 percent fish, most of which are nearshore species. A third model constructed for the double-crested cormorant indicated that cormorants from Anacapa Island are likely to feed to some degree in the more highly contaminated regions of the Bight near the Palos Verdes Shelf. In contrast, the cormorants from Santa Barbara Island probably feed less intensively in the more contaminated regions of the Bight than previously thought. The model framework developed here is generally applicable. It can aid in predicting the course of natural

  1. Panorama from 'Cape Verde'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity captured this vista of 'Victoria Crater' from the viewpoint of 'Cape Verde,' one of the promontories that are part of the scalloped rim of the crater. Opportunity drove onto Cape Verde shortly after arriving at the rim of Victoria in September 2006. The view combines hundreds of exposures taken by the rover's panoramic camera (Pancam). The camera began taking the component images during Opportunity's 970th Martian day, or sol, on Mars (Oct. 16, 2006). Work on the panorama continued through the solar conjunction period, when Mars was nearly behind the sun from Earth's perspective and communications were minimized. Acquisition of images for this panorama was completed on Opportunity's 991st sol (Nov. 7, 2006).

    The top of Cape Verde is in the immediate foreground at the center of the image. To the left and right are two of the more gradually sloped bays that alternate with the cliff-faced capes or promontories around the rim of the crater. 'Duck Bay,' where Opportunity first reached the rim, is to the right. Beyond Duck Bay counterclockwise around the rim, the next promontory is 'Cabo Frio,' about 150 meters (500 feet) from the rover. On the left side of the panorama is 'Cape St. Mary,' the next promontory clockwise from Cape Verde and about 40 meters (130 feet) from the rover. The vantage point atop Cape Verde offered a good view of the rock layers in the cliff face of Cape St. Mary, which is about 15 meters or 50 feet tall. By about two weeks after the Pancam finished collecting the images for this panorama, Opportunity had driven to Cape St. Mary and was photographing Cape Verde's rock layers.

    The far side of the crater lies about 800 meters (half a mile) away, toward the southeast.

    This approximately true-color view combines images taken through three of the Pancam's filters, admitting light with wavelengths centered at 750 nanometers (near infrared), 530 nanometers (green) and 430 nanometers (violet).

  2. Ancient Streamlined Islands of the Palos Outflow Channel

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-08-24

    This image shows the northern terminus of an outflow channel located in the volcanic terrains of Amenthes Planum. The channel sources from the Palos impact crater to the south, where water flowed into the crater from Tinto Vallis and eventually formed a paleo lake. As rising lake levels breached through the crater's rim and inundated the plains to the north, the resulting high velocity, large discharge floods plucked out and eroded the volcanic plains scouring out the "Palos Outflow Channel" and the streamlined mesa-islands on its floor. These streamlined forms are the eroded remnants of plains material sculpted by catastrophic floods and are not sediment deposits emplaced by lower magnitude stream flows. Both the fluvial channel floor and the volcanic island surfaces are densely cratered by impacts suggesting that both the surfaces and the flood events are ancient. The morphology (shape) of the channel system and its islands have been preserved through the eons, but water has long been absent from this drainage system. Since then, winds have transported light-toned sediments across this terrain forming extensive dune fields within the channel system, on the floors of impact craters, and in other protected locations in the Palos Outflow Channel region. A closer look shows chevron, or fish-bone shaped, light-toned dunes located near the top of the image where numerous smaller channels have cut through the landscape. These dunes likely started out as Transverse Aeolian Ridges (TAR) that form perpendicular to the prevailing wind direction where the wind-blown sediment supply is scarce. This intriguing morphology likely reflects changes in the prevailing wind environment over time. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21023

  3. 75 FR 70673 - Ocean Transportation Intermediary License Applicants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-18

    ..., Fairview, NJ 07650, Officers: Yoon H. Cho, Vice President/Secretary (Qualifying Individual), Young S. Cho...., Rancho Palos Verdes, CA 90275, Officers: Stephen M. Kiang, President (Qualifying Individual), Benjamin L...

  4. 36 CFR 7.39 - Mesa Verde National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mesa Verde National Park. 7... SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.39 Mesa Verde National Park. (a) Visiting of... the admission of commercial automobiles and buses to Mesa Verde National Park, contained in § 5.4 of...

  5. El Verde Ridge, El Verde Valley, and Rio Icacos root phosphatase and bacterial community composition (December 2015)

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Cabugao, Kristine; Timm, Collin; Carrell, Alyssa

    Raw data of resin P values, root phosphatase, bacterial community 16S rRNA gene sequences, and bacterial isolate phosphatase and P solubilization in Rio Icacos, El Verde Ridge and El Verde Valley. Contact cabugaokm@ornl.gov if you need to use this dataset for additional information.

  6. Modeling Educational Content: The Cognitive Approach of the PALO Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez-Artacho, Miguel; Verdejo Maillo, M. Felisa

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a reference framework to describe educational material. It introduces the PALO Language as a cognitive based approach to Educational Modeling Languages (EML). In accordance with recent trends for reusability and interoperability in Learning Technologies, EML constitutes an evolution of the current content-centered…

  7. New, Late Miocene mammalian assemblage from the Palo Pintado Formation (Northwestern Argentina)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimicz, Natalia; Payrola, Patricio; del Papa, Cecilia

    2018-01-01

    A new mammalian assemblage from the Late Miocene Palo Pintado Formation in Northwestern Argentina is described. Specimens were exhumed from the lower levels of the unit cropping out at Tonco Valley, Salta Province. The association includes representatives of seven families and three orders: Cingulata (Macrochorobates, Vetelia, Euphractini gen et sp. indet. a and b), Notoungulata (Paedotherium, Protypotherium, Typotheriopsis), and Rodentia (Caviidae gen et sp. indet. a and b, Procardiomys, Protabrocoma, Prolagostomus, Lagostomus). This assemblage, together with stratigraphical information, suggests a Late Miocene age, probably intermediate between Chasicoan and Huayquerian SALMAs for the fossiliferous levels of the Palo Pintado Formation in Tonco Valley. Paleoecological data discernible from the faunal association suggest grassland and marsh communities that developed in the flood-plain setting under a seasonal climate with a conspicuous dry season.

  8. Three Techniques for Task Analysis: Examples from the Nuclear Utilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlisle, Kenneth E.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses three task analysis techniques utilized at the Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station to review training programs: analysis of (1) job positions, (2) procedures, and (3) instructional presentations. All of these include task breakdown, relationship determination, and task restructuring. (MBR)

  9. Groundwater quality in the Colorado River basins, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dawson, Barbara J. Milby; Belitz, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. Four groundwater basins along the Colorado River make up one of the study areas being evaluated. The Colorado River study area is approximately 884 square miles (2,290 square kilometers) and includes the Needles, Palo Verde Mesa, Palo Verde Valley, and Yuma groundwater basins (California Department of Water Resources, 2003). The Colorado River study area has an arid climate and is part of the Sonoran Desert. Average annual rainfall is about 3 inches (8 centimeters). Land use in the study area is approximately 47 percent (%) natural (mostly shrubland), 47% agricultural, and 6% urban. The primary crops are pasture and hay. The largest urban area is the city of Blythe (2010 population of 21,000). Groundwater in these basins is used for public and domestic water supply and for irrigation. The main water-bearing units are gravel, sand, silt, and clay deposited by the Colorado River or derived from surrounding mountains. The primary aquifers in the Colorado River study area are defined as those parts of the aquifers corresponding to the perforated intervals of wells listed in the California Department of Public Health database. Public-supply wells in the Colorado River basins are completed to depths between 230 and 460 feet (70 to 140 meters), consist of solid casing from the land surface to a depth of 130 of 390 feet (39 to 119 meters), and are screened or perforated below the solid casing. The main source of recharge to the groundwater systems in the Needles, Palo Verde Mesa, and Palo Verde Valley basins is the Colorado River; in the Yuma basin, the main source of recharge is from

  10. Advanced Placement Program at Palo Verde College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Twitchell, Theodore G.

    This study reports the outcome of an initial implementation of a California law permitting mentally gifted high school students to attend a junior college part time. The program procedure is described in terms of (1) selection and enrollment, (2) discipline, (3) books, (4) matters relating to high school graduation, (5) information for parents,…

  11. Panorama from 'Cape Verde' (False Color)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity captured this vista of 'Victoria Crater' from the viewpoint of 'Cape Verde,' one of the promontories that are part of the scalloped rim of the crater. Opportunity drove onto Cape Verde shortly after arriving at the rim of Victoria in September 2006. The view combines hundreds of exposures taken by the rover's panoramic camera (Pancam). The camera began taking the component images during Opportunity's 970th Martian day, or sol, on Mars (Oct. 16, 2006). Work on the panorama continued through the solar conjunction period, when Mars was nearly behind the sun from Earth's perspective and communications were minimized. Acquisition of images for this panorama was completed on Opportunity's 991st sol (Nov. 7, 2006).

    The top of Cape Verde is in the immediate foreground at the center of the image. To the left and right are two of the more gradually sloped bays that alternate with the cliff-faced capes or promontories around the rim of the crater. 'Duck Bay,' where Opportunity first reached the rim, is to the right. Beyond Duck Bay counterclockwise around the rim, the next promontory is 'Cabo Frio,' about 150 meters (500 feet) from the rover. On the left side of the panorama is 'Cape St. Mary,' the next promontory clockwise from Cape Verde and about 40 meters (130 feet) from the rover. The vantage point atop Cape Verde offered a good view of the rock layers in the cliff face of Cape St. Mary, which is about 15 meters or 50 feet tall. By about two weeks after the Pancam finished collecting the images for this panorama, Opportunity had driven to Cape St. Mary and was photographing Cape Verde's rock layers.

    The far side of the crater lies about 800 meters (half a mile) away, toward the southeast.

    This view combines images taken through three of the Pancam's filters, admitting light with wavelengths centered at 750 nanometers (near infrared), 530 nanometers (green) and 430 nanometers (violet). It is presented in false

  12. The Role of Evaluation and Plans for Evaluating the Current Testing Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winters, Lynn

    The Palos Verdes Peninsula Unified School District Office of Program Evaluation and Research is responsible for providing information for program development and improvement; providing test information to special programs coordinators; and acting as a clearinghouse for all information concerning tests, evaluation methodology, and educational…

  13. 36 CFR 7.39 - Mesa Verde National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Mesa Verde National Park. 7.39 Section 7.39 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.39 Mesa Verde National Park. (a) Visiting of...

  14. 36 CFR 7.39 - Mesa Verde National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Mesa Verde National Park. 7.39 Section 7.39 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.39 Mesa Verde National Park. (a) Visiting of...

  15. 36 CFR 7.39 - Mesa Verde National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Mesa Verde National Park. 7.39 Section 7.39 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.39 Mesa Verde National Park. (a) Visiting of...

  16. 36 CFR 7.39 - Mesa Verde National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mesa Verde National Park. 7.39 Section 7.39 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.39 Mesa Verde National Park. (a) Visiting of...

  17. 76 FR 5218 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-28

    ..., October 21, 2010 (74 FR 65038-65039). Thursday, February 10, 2011, Conference Room T2-B1, 11545 Rockville... Evaluation Report Associated with the License Renewal Application for the Palo Verde Nuclear Generating... NRC staff and Arizona Public Service Company regarding the final Safety Evaluation Report associated...

  18. 75 FR 43519 - Parker-Davis Project; Transmission Capacity for Renewable Energy Between Electrical District No...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-26

    ... for Renewable Energy Between Electrical District No. 5 Substation and the Palo Verde Hub AGENCY... transmission service on the P- DP for the purpose of transmitting renewable energy. Specifically, Western is soliciting interest from entities looking to transfer renewable energy from the area south of Phoenix...

  19. Mesa Community College at Red Mountain, Mesa, Arizona.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Design Cost Data, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Describes the Desert Willow Library and Classroom Building, Mesquite Student Services and Administration Building, Palo Verde Science Laboratories and Classroom Building, and Ironwood Central Plant of the title college, including educational context and design goals. Includes a general description; information on the architect, construction team,…

  20. Buckeye Union High School District. Report of Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona State Univ., Tempe. Bureau of Educational Research and Services.

    Embracing 4 Arizona elementary school districts (Arlington, Buckeye, Liberty, and Palo Verde) visited by consultants for evaluative purposes, this report presents information about and recommendations for the elementary schools in the Buckeye Union High School District. Summaries on the educational programs (language arts, social studies,…

  1. Hydrogeology of the upper and middle Verde River watersheds, central Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blasch, Kyle W.; Hoffmann, John P.; Graser, Leslie F.; Bryson, Jeannie R.; Flint, Alan L.

    2006-01-01

    The upper and middle Verde River watersheds in central Arizona are primarily in Yavapai County, which in 1999 was determined to be the fastest growing rural county in the United States; by 2050 the population is projected to more than double its current size (132,000 in 2000). This study combines climatic, surface-water, ground-water, water-chemistry, and geologic data to describe the hydrogeologic systems within the upper and middle Verde River watersheds and to provide a conceptual understanding of the ground-water flow system. The study area includes the Big Chino and Little Chino subbasins in the upper Verde River watershed and the Verde Valley subbasin in the middle Verde Rive watershed...more...A geochemical mixing model was used to quantify fractions of ground-water sources to the Verde River from various parts of the study area. Most of the water in the uppermost 0.2 mile of the Verde River is from the Little Chino subbasin, and the remainder is from the Big Chino subbasin. Discharge from a system of springs increases base flow to about 17 cubic feet per second within the next 2 miles of the river. Ground water that discharges at these springs is derived from the western part of the Coconino Plateau, from the Big Chino subbasin, and from the Little Chino subbasin. More...

  2. Camp Verde Adult Reading Program. Final Performance Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maynard, David A.

    This document begins with a four-page performance report describing how the Camp Verde Adult Reading Program site was relocated to the Community Center Complex, and the Town Council contracted directly with the Friends of the Camp Verde Library to provide for the requirements of the program. The U.S. Department of Education grant allowed the…

  3. Trend analysis of selected water-quality constituents in the Verde River Basin, central Arizona

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Baldys, S.

    1990-01-01

    Temporal trends of eight water quality constituents at six data collection sites in the Verde River basin in central Arizona were investigated using seasonal Kendall tau and ordinary least-squares regression methods of analysis. The constituents are dissolved solids, dissolved sulfate, dissolved arsenic, total phosphorus, pH, total nitrite plus nitrate-nitrogen, dissolved iron, and fecal coliform bacteria. Increasing trends with time in dissolved-solids concentrations of 7 to 8 mg/L/yr at Verde River near Camp Verde were found at significant level. An increasing trend in dissolved-sulfate concentrations of 3.59 mg/L/yr was also found at Verde River near Camp Verde, although at nonsignificant levels.more » Statistically significant decreasing trends with time in dissolved-solids and dissolved-sulfate concentrations were found at Verde River above Horseshoe Reservoir, which is downstream from Verde River near Camp Verde. Observed trends in the other constituents do not indicate the emergence of water quality problems in the Verde River basin. Analysis of the eight water quality constituents generally indicate nonvarying concentration levels after adjustment for seasonality and streamflow were made.« less

  4. Cape Verde

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    This Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity Pancam 'super resolution' mosaic of the approximately 6 m (20 foot) high cliff face of the Cape Verde promontory was taken by the rover from inside Victoria Crater, during the rover's descent into Duck Bay. Super-resolution is an imaging technique which utilizes information from multiple pictures of the same target in order to generate an image with a higher resolution than any of the individual images. Cape Verde is a geologically rich outcrop and is teaching scientists about how rocks at Victoria crater were modified since they were deposited long ago. This image complements super resolution mosaics obtained at Cape St. Mary and Cape St. Vincent and is consistent with the hypothesis that Victoria crater is located in the middle of what used to be an ancient sand dune field. Many rover team scientists are hoping to be able to eventually drive the rover closer to these layered rocks in the hopes of measuring their chemistry and mineralogy.

    This is a Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity Panoramic Camera image mosaic acquired on sols 1342 and 1356 (November 2 and 17, 2007), and was constructed from a mathematical combination of 64 different blue filter (480 nm) images.

  5. Use of the Community College Goals Inventory (CCGI) as an Impetus for Change in a Rural Community College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arter, Margaret H.

    In an effort to establish priorities for long- and short-range planning, Palo Verde College (PVC) administered the Educational Testing Service's Community College Goals Inventory to all PVC faculty and administrators, 20 community residents, five trustees, and approximately 200 students. The inventory asked respondents to rate the importance of…

  6. Prefabricated solution to modular construction in Cape Verde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieira, Nuno; Amado, Miguel; Pinho, Fernando

    2017-02-01

    Nowadays, the lack of adequate housing in Cape Verde is a growing problem. The migration of the population living in the countryside to the major cities generates an increase of the diameter of the cities. With the lack of economic power, the migrating families tend to occupy the land with houses which don't present proper conditions to living. Praia is the capital of Cape Verde and so on the biggest city of the country. This fact leads Praia to being the city with major economic power and job offer in all country. Consequently, Praia has developed the biggest slum of the Cape Verde and it is urgent to approach this problem in order to create solutions that reveal capacity to start solving it. Cape Verde's unique dry subtropical climate turns indispensable a careful resolution of the housing, in order to ensure the comfort of the occupants. The modular construction is a solution with potential to approach this problem with a fast and economic response. In order to answer the situation, this article introduces a modular solution in order to reach the needing of thermal comfort to the specific case of Praia.

  7. Dusk Lighting of Layered Textures in 'Cape Verde'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Full-shade lighting in the late Martian afternoon helps make details visible in this view of the layered cliff face of the 'Cape Verde' promontory making up part of the rim of Victoria Crater in the Meridiani Planum region of equatorial Mars.

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its panoramic camera (Pancam) to shoot the dozens of individual images that have been combined into this mosaic. Opportunity was inside Victoria Crater and near the base of the cliff when it took these images on the 1,579th and 1,580th Martian days, or sols, of the mission (July 2 and 3, 2008).

    Photographing the promontory from this position in Victoria Crater presented challenges for the rover team. The geometry was such that Cape Verde was between the rover and the sun, which could cause a range of negative effects, from glinting off Pancam's dusty lenses to shadowing on the cliff face. The team's solution was to take the images for this mosaic just after the sun disappeared behind the crater rim, at about 5:30 p.m. local solar time. The atmosphere was still lit, but no direct sunlight was illuminating the wall of Cape Verde.

    The result is a high-resolution view of Cape Verde in relatively uniform diffuse sky lighting across the scene.

    Pancam used a clear filter for taking the images for this mosaic. Capturing images in low-light situations was one of the main motivations for including the clear filter among the camera's assortment of filters available for use.

    The face of Cape Verde is about 6 meters (20 feet) tall. Victoria Crater, at about 800 meters (one-half mile) wide, is the largest and deepest crater that Opportunity has visited. It sits more than 5 kilometers (almost 4 miles) away from Opportunity's Eagle Crater landing site. Researchers sent Opportunity into Victoria Crater to study the rock layers exposed inside. The textures seen in the rock layers of Cape Verde suggest that the exposed layers were originally deposited by wind.

  8. Intraplate seismicity across the Cape Verde swell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vales, Dina; Matias, Luís.; Haberland, Christian; Silveira, Graça.; Weber, Michael; Carrilho, Fernando; Dias, Nuno

    2010-05-01

    The Cape Verde Archipelago ((15-17°N, 23-26°W) is located within the African plate, about 500km west of Senegal, in the African coast. The islands are located astride the Cape Verde mid-plate topographic swell, one of the largest features of its type in the world's ocean basins. The origin of this Cape Verde swell is still in debate. Previous determinations of the elastic thickness (Te) reveal a normal Te and a modest heat flow anomaly which suggest that the swell cannot be fully explained by uplift due to thermal reheating of the lithosphere by an underlying ‘‘hot spot'' and that other, deep-seated, mantle processes must be involved. The CV-PLUME (An investigation on the geometry and deep signature of the Cape Verde mantle plume) project intends to shape the geometry and deep origin of the Cape Verde mantle plume, via a combined study of seismic, magnetic, gravimetric and geochemical observations. Through this study we intend to characterize the structure beneath the archipelago from the surface down to the deep mantle. The core of this 3-year project was a temporary deployment of 39 Very Broad Band seismometers, across all the inhabited islands, to recorder local and teleseismic earthquakes. These instruments were operational from November 2007 to September 2008. In this work we report on the preliminary results obtained from the CV-PLUME network on the characterization of the local and regional seismicity. To detect the small magnitude seismic events the continuous data stream was screened using spectrograms. This proved to be a very robust technique in the face of the high short-period noise recorded by many of the stations, particularly during day time. The 10 month observation time showed that the background seismic activity in the Archipelago and surrounding area is low, with only a very few events recorded by the complete network. However, two clusters of earthquakes were detected close to the Brava Island, one to the NW and a second one, more active

  9. Uncertainty in low-flow data from three streamflow-gaging stations on the upper Verde River, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anning, D.W.; ,

    2004-01-01

    The evaluation of uncertainty in low-flow data collected from three streamflow-gaging stations on the upper Verde River, Arizona, was presented. In downstream order, the stations are Verde River near Paulden, Verde River near Clarkdale, and Verde River near Camp Verde. A monitoring objective of the evaluation was to characterize discharge of the lower flow regime through a variety of procedures such as frequency analysis and base-flow analysis. For Verde River near Paulden and near Camp Verde, the uncertainty of daily low flows can be reduced by decreasing the uncertainty of discharge-measurement frequency, or building an artificial control that would have a stable stage-discharge relation over time.

  10. Preface: The aging eye: normal changes, age-related diseases and sight-saving approaches

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This volume presents chapters based on a workshop held on June 14-16, 2013 in Rancho Palos Verde, CA sponsored by the Ocular Research Symposia Foundation (ORSF). The mission of the ORSF is to focus attention on unmet needs and current research opportunities in eye research with the objective of acce...

  11. Speed Reader. MicroSIFT Courseware Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northwest Regional Educational Lab., Portland, OR.

    THE FOLLOWING IS THE FULL TEXT OF THIS DOCUMENT (Except for the Evaluation Summary Table): VERSION: Copyright 1981. PRODUCER: Davidson and Associates, 6069 Groveoak Place #12, Rancho Palos Verdes, CA 90274. EVALUATION COMPLETED: January, 1983 by the Oakland ISD of Pontiac, Michigan. COST: $70.00. ABILITY LEVEL: Secondary. SUBJECT: Reading. MEDIUM…

  12. 76 FR 187 - Programmatic Environmental Assessment and Final Finding of No Significant Impact for Exemptions...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-03

    ... proposed action may include issuing exemptions to nuclear power plant licensees for up to 40 nuclear power.... Fitzpatrick Nuclear Power Plant Joseph M. Farley Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2 Millstone Power Station, Unit... Palisades Nuclear Plant Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station, Units 1, 2, and 3 Perry Nuclear Power Plant...

  13. Planting Seeds, Growing Diversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hua, Vanessa

    2011-01-01

    Last year, when students at Ridgecrest Intermediate School in Palos Verdes, California, were asked to name scientists, their answers--Benjamin Franklin, Thomas Edison, Albert Einstein, Bill Nye the Science Guy--reflected a common perception. Most of the leading scientists they came up with were white, male, or dead. Although women and people of…

  14. Decapoda from Antipatharia, Gorgonaria and Bivalvia at the Cape Verde Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wirtz, Peter; d'Udekem-d'Acoz, Cédric

    2001-07-01

    The shrimps Balssia gasti, Palaemonella atlantica, Periclimenes platalea, Periclimenes wirtzi, Pontonia manningi, Pontonia pinnophylax, Pontonia sp. nov., Pseudocoutierea wirtzi and the crabs Galathea intermedia and Micropisa ovata were collected from Antipatharia, Gorgonaria and Bivalvia at São Tiago Island, Republic of Cape Verde. Most of the associations between decapods and invertebrate hosts are reported here for the first time. This is also the first record of B. gasti and of P. wirtzi for the Cape Verde Islands. We briefly review the literature on littoral decapod crustaceans of the Cape Verde Islands.

  15. Changes in CO2 Composition in the Air of the Los Angeles Megacity Coinciding with the Prolonged Drought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, S.; Xu, X.; Miller, C. E.; Yung, Y. L.

    2016-12-01

    California has been in a severe drought for five years affecting weather, vegetation, and policy. Unfortunately, the last year's strong El Nino conditions did not bring the expected extra rainfall relief to southern California, and we are just finishing a year of water rationing, concentrating on limiting irrigation of outdoor landscape. What changes in the atmospheric CO2 composition in the Los Angeles, CA (LA) megacity have occurred during this period? We investigate changes reflected in the radiocarbon (Δ14C) and stable carbon isotopic composition (δ13C) of the CO2 in LA. We use the long-term records at our Pasadena (18 years, 11 with Δ14C) and Palos Verdes (7 years) sites to put the last five years in context. Pasadena is inland and a good receptor site for emissions in the LA basin for much of the year when the prevailing winds are from the ocean passing over LA. Palos Verdes is on the coast and usually receives winds from the ocean except during Santa Ana conditions, when dry, warm winds come from the north to northeast from the desert over the mountains and across the basin. Radiocarbon measurements give information on the fossil fuel and biosphere components of the local emissions. The amplitude of the observed seasonal cycle of CO2 derived from fossil fuel emissions (CO2ff) has decreased in Pasadena, while the amplitude of the biosphere's seasonal cycle has increased since the beginning of the drought, at both the Pasadena and Palos Verdes sites. There is evidence that the δ13C signature of the biosphere in Pasadena may have changed in the last year or so, which is consistent with an increase in the proportion of C4 vegetation surviving the drought and being planted to replace less drought-resistant C3 plants.

  16. Restoration of eroded soil in the Sonoran Desert with native leguminous trees using plant growth-promoting microorganisms and limited amounts of compost and water.

    PubMed

    Bashan, Yoav; Salazar, Bernardo G; Moreno, Manuel; Lopez, Blanca R; Linderman, Robert G

    2012-07-15

    Restoration of highly eroded desert land was attempted in the southern Sonoran Desert that had lost its natural capacity for self-revegetation. In six field experiments, the fields were planted with three native leguminous trees: mesquite amargo Prosopis articulata, and yellow and blue palo verde Parkinsonia microphylla and Parkinsonia florida. Restoration included inoculation with two of plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB; Azospirillum brasilense and Bacillus pumilus), native arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi, and small quantities of compost. Irrigation was applied, when necessary, to reach a rainy year (300 mm) of the area. The plots were maintained for 61 months. Survival of the trees was marginally affected by all supplements after 30 months, in the range of 60-90%. This variation depended on the plant species, where all young trees were established after 3 months. Plant density was a crucial variable and, in general, low plant density enhanced survival. High planting density was detrimental. Survival significantly declined in trees 61 months after planting. No general response of the trees to plant growth-promoting microorganisms and compost was found. Mesquite amargo and yellow palo verde responded well (height, number of branches, and diameter of the main stem) to inoculation with PGPB, AM fungi, and compost supplementation after three months of application. Fewer positive effects were recorded after 30 months. Blue palo verde did not respond to most treatments and had the lowest survival. Specific plant growth parameters were affected to varying degrees to inoculations or amendments, primarily depending on the tree species. Some combinations of tree/inoculant/amendment resulted in small negative effects or no response when measured after extended periods of time. Using native leguminous trees, this study demonstrated that restoration of severely eroded desert lands was possible. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Library Service to Industry; Series of Four Workshops.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Library, Sacramento.

    Library services to industry was the theme of four workshops held in Fresno, Altadena, Palos Verdes and Sacramento during March 1969. The composition of the panel at each workshop and the procedure for each panel presentation were basically the same. Each panel had a representative from industry and four practicing librarians: a public librarian,…

  18. First-of-A-Kind Control Room Modernization Project Plan

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Thomas, Kenneth David

    This project plan describes a comprehensive approach to the design of an end-state concept for a modernized control room for Palo Verde. It describes the collaboration arrangement between the DOE LWRS Program Control Room Modernization Project and the APS Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station. It further describes the role of other collaborators, including the Institute for Energy Technology (IFE) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). It combines advanced tools, methodologies, and facilities to enable a science-based approach to the validation of applicable engineering and human factors principles for nuclear plant control rooms. It addresses the required project results andmore » documentation to demonstrate compliance with regulatory requirements. It describes the project tasks that will be conducted in the project, and the deliverable reports that will be developed through these tasks. This project plan will be updated as new tasks are added and as project milestones are completed. It will serve as an ongoing description on the project both for project participants and for industry stakeholders.« less

  19. Channel Response to Low-Elevation Desert Fire: The King Valley Fire of 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Webb, Robert H.; Griffiths, Peter G.; Wallace, Cynthia S.A.; Boyer, Diane E.

    2007-01-01

    In late September to early October 2005, a fire swept north from the Yuma Proving Grounds and into the Kofa National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), traveling mainly along desert wash systems and low-relief alluvial fans. This fire burned 9,975 ha, moving through xeroriparian systems in washes as well as low-elevation desert ecosystems in King Valley, a major area of designated wilderness in the southern part of the Kofa NWR. Using satellite imagery, we determined that 9,255 ha of the Kofa NWR in King Valley burned. The fine-fuel loading for the fire was mostly a native forb (Plantago insularis), and the desert environment that was burned was mostly low-cover creosote bush (Larrea tridentata) scrub with scattered palo verde (Cercidium microphyllum). The wash environments had significant tree cover, including ironwood (Olneya tesota), blue palo verde (Cercidium floridum), desert willow (Chilopsis linearis), and/or smoke tree (Psorothamnus spinosa). This report presents monitoring data collected in June 2006 and January-February 2007 on the effects of this fire on channel morphology in King Valley.

  20. Spatial and seasonal variability of base flow in the Verde Valley, central Arizona, 2007 and 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garner, Bradley D.; Bills, Donald J.

    2012-01-01

    Synoptic base-flow surveys were conducted on streams in the Verde Valley, central Arizona, in June 2007 and February 2011 by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Verde River Basin Partnership, the Town of Clarkdale, and Yavapai County. These surveys, also known as seepage runs, measured streamflow under base-flow conditions at many locations over a short period of time. Surveys were conducted on a segment of the Verde River that flows through the Verde Valley, between USGS streamflow-gaging stations 09504000 and 09506000, a distance of 51 river miles. Data from the surveys were used to investigate the dominant controls on Verde River base flow, spatial variability in gaining and losing reaches, and the effects that human alterations have on base flow in the surface-water system. The most prominent human alterations in the Verde Valley are dozens of surface-water diversions from streams, including gravity-fed ditch diversions along the Verde River.Base flow that entered the Verde River from the tributary streams of Oak Creek, Beaver Creek, and West Clear Creek was found to be a major source of base flow in the Verde River. Groundwater discharge directly into the Verde River near these three confluences also was an important contributor of base flow to the Verde River, particularly near the confluence with Beaver Creek. An examination of individual reaches of the Verde River in the Verde Valley found three reaches (largely unaffected by ditch diversions) exhibiting a similar pattern: a small net groundwater discharge in February 2011 (12 cubic feet per second or less) and a small net streamflow loss in June 2007 (11 cubic feet per second or less). Two reaches heavily affected by ditch diversions were difficult to interpret because of the large number of confounding human factors. Possible lower and upper bounds of net groundwater flux were calculated for all reaches, including those heavily affected by ditches.

  1. Characterization of Palo Podrido, a Natural Process of Delignification in Wood †

    PubMed Central

    Agosin, Eduardo; Blanchette, Robert A.; Silva, Herman; Lapierre, Catherine; Cease, Kory R.; Ibach, Rebecca E.; Abad, André R.; Muga, Pedro

    1990-01-01

    Chemical and morphological changes of incipient to advanced stages of palo podrido, an extensively delignified wood, and other types of white rot decay found in the temperate forests of southern Chile were investigated. Palo podrido is a general term for white rot decay that is either selective or nonselective for the removal of lignin, whereas palo blanco describes the white decayed wood that has advanced stages of delignification. Selective delignification occurs mainly in trunks of Eucryphia cordifolia and Nothofagus dombeyi, which have the lowest lignin content and whose lignins have the largest amount of β-aryl ether bonds and the highest syringyl/guaiacyl ratio of all the native woods included in this study. A Ganoderma species was the main white rot fungus associated with the decay. The structural changes in lignin during the white rot degradation were examined by thioacidolysis, which revealed that the β-aryl ether-linked syringyl units were more specifically degraded than the guaiacyl ones, particularly in the case of selective delignification. Ultrastructural studies showed that the delignification process was diffuse throughout the cell wall. Lignin was first removed from the secondary wall nearest the lumen and then throughout the secondary wall toward the middle lamella. The middle lamella and cell corners were the last areas to be degraded. Black manganese deposits were found in some, but not all, selectively delignified samples. In advanced stages of delignification, almost pure cellulose could be found, although with a reduced degree of polymerization. Cellulolytic enzymes appeared to be responsible for depolymerization. A high brightness and an easy refining capacity were found in an unbleached pulp made from selectively delignified N. dombeyi wood. Its low viscosity, however, resulted in poor resistance properties of the pulp. The last stage of degradation (i.e., decomposition of cellulose-rich secondary wall layers) resulted in a gelatinlike

  2. NPDES Permit for Mesa Verde National Park Wastewater Treatment Facility in Colorado

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under NPDES permit number CO-0034398, the United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Mesa Verde National Park is authorized to discharge from the Mesa Verde National Park wastewater treatment plant, in Montezuma County, Colo.

  3. Is a changing climate affecting the tropical cyclone behavior of Cape Verde?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emmenegger, T. W.; Mann, M. E.; Evans, J. L.

    2016-12-01

    An existing dataset of synthetic tropical cyclone (TC) tracks derived from climate change simulations were used to explore TC variability within a 250 km radius of the Cape Verde Islands (16.5388N, 23.0418W). The synthetic sets were examined according to genesis point location, track projection, intensity, frequency, and seasonality within the observational era (1851 AD to present). These factors of TC variability have been shown to be strongly related to climate oscillations, thus the historical era was grouped by the increasing and decreasing regimes of sea surface temperature (SST) in the main development region (MDR) of the Atlantic Ocean. Numerous studies have examined Atlantic Basin activity throughout this era; the goal of this study is to investigate possible variations in TC behavior around Cape Verde, ultimately determining whether Cape Verde experiences similar fluctuations in activity as observed basin-wide. We find that several facets of TC variability such as intensity, seasonality, and genesis point location around Cape Verde are not significantly different to that of the entire basin, thus forecasts of the entire basin in these respects may also apply to our site. A long-term trend of increasing TC frequency can be identified basin-wide within the observed set, yet activity around Cape Verde does not display this same behavior observably or in any synthetic set. A relationship between the location of genesis points and the regimes of SST fluctuation is shown to be existent. We find both more observed and synthetic genesis points within the vicinity of Cape Verde during cool periods, and an eastward and equatorward shift in cyclogenesis is evident during warm regimes. This southeastern shift in genesis points attributes to the increased intensities of TCs seen during periods of warmer SST. Years of increased SST are additionally linked to an earlier seasonality in Cape Verde.

  4. Interannual Variability of the Patagonian Shelf Circulation and Cross-Shelf Exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Combes, V.; Matano, R. P.

    2016-02-01

    Observational studies have already established the general mean circulation and hydrographic characteristics of the Patagonian shelf waters using data from in situ observation, altimetry and more recently from the Aquarius satellite sea surface salinity, but the paucity of those data in time or below the surface leave us with an incomplete picture of the shelf circulation and of its variability. This study discusses the variability of the Patagonian central shelf circulation and off-shelf transport using a high-resolution model experiment for the period 1979-2012. The model solution shows high skill in reproducing the best-known aspects of the shelf and deep-ocean circulations. This study links the variability of the central shelf circulation and off-shelf transport to the wind variability, southern shelf transport variability and large-scale current variability. We find that while the inner and central shelf circulation are principally wind driven, the contribution of the Brazil/Malvinas Confluence (BMC) variability becomes important in the outer shelf and along the shelf break. The model also indicates that whereas the location of the off-shelf transport is controlled by the BMC, its variability is modulated by the southern shelf transport. The variability of the subtropical shelf front, where the fresh southern shelf waters encounters the saline northern shelf waters, is also presented in this study.

  5. Population size, breeding biology and on-land threats of Cape Verde petrel (Pterodroma feae) in Fogo Island, Cape Verde

    PubMed Central

    Zango, Laura; Calabuig, Pascual; Stefan, Laura M.; González-Solís, Jacob

    2017-01-01

    Cape Verde petrel (Pterodroma feae) is currently considered near threatened, but little is known about its population size, breeding biology and on land threats, jeopardizing its management and conservation. To improve this situation, we captured, marked and recaptured (CMR) birds using mist-nets over 10 years; measured and sexed them; monitored up to 14 burrows, deployed GPS devices on breeders and analyzed activity data of geolocators retrieved from breeders in Fogo (Cape Verde). We set cat traps over the colony and investigated their domestic/feral origin by marking domestic cats from a nearby village with transponders, by deploying GPS devices on domestic cats and by performing stable isotope analyses of fur of the trapped and domestic cats. The population of Fogo was estimated to be 293 birds, including immatures (95% CI: 233–254, CMR modelling). Based on geolocator activity data and nest monitoring we determined the breeding phenology of this species and we found biometric differences between sexes. While monitoring breeding performance, we verified a still ongoing cat predation and human harvesting. Overall, data gathered from trapped cats without transponder, cats GPS trips and the distinct isotopic values between domestic and trapped cats suggest cats visiting the colony are of feral origin. GPS tracks from breeders showed birds left and returned to the colony using the sector NE of the islands, where high level of public lights should be avoided specially during the fledging period. Main threats for the Cape Verde petrel in the remaining breeding islands are currently unknown but likely to be similar to Fogo, calling for an urgent assessment of population trends and the control of main threats in all Cape Verde Islands and uplisting its conservation status. PMID:28369105

  6. Population size, breeding biology and on-land threats of Cape Verde petrel (Pterodroma feae) in Fogo Island, Cape Verde.

    PubMed

    Militão, Teresa; Dinis, Herculano Andrade; Zango, Laura; Calabuig, Pascual; Stefan, Laura M; González-Solís, Jacob

    2017-01-01

    Cape Verde petrel (Pterodroma feae) is currently considered near threatened, but little is known about its population size, breeding biology and on land threats, jeopardizing its management and conservation. To improve this situation, we captured, marked and recaptured (CMR) birds using mist-nets over 10 years; measured and sexed them; monitored up to 14 burrows, deployed GPS devices on breeders and analyzed activity data of geolocators retrieved from breeders in Fogo (Cape Verde). We set cat traps over the colony and investigated their domestic/feral origin by marking domestic cats from a nearby village with transponders, by deploying GPS devices on domestic cats and by performing stable isotope analyses of fur of the trapped and domestic cats. The population of Fogo was estimated to be 293 birds, including immatures (95% CI: 233-254, CMR modelling). Based on geolocator activity data and nest monitoring we determined the breeding phenology of this species and we found biometric differences between sexes. While monitoring breeding performance, we verified a still ongoing cat predation and human harvesting. Overall, data gathered from trapped cats without transponder, cats GPS trips and the distinct isotopic values between domestic and trapped cats suggest cats visiting the colony are of feral origin. GPS tracks from breeders showed birds left and returned to the colony using the sector NE of the islands, where high level of public lights should be avoided specially during the fledging period. Main threats for the Cape Verde petrel in the remaining breeding islands are currently unknown but likely to be similar to Fogo, calling for an urgent assessment of population trends and the control of main threats in all Cape Verde Islands and uplisting its conservation status.

  7. Career Education at Mesa Verde

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Triplett, Napoleon B.

    1974-01-01

    A national pilot school for career education, Mesa Verde High School, Sacramento, subscribes to the philosophy that every student will be provided an abundance of career choices at all times whether he is vocationally, technically, or academically bound. A variety of work opportunities on the campus makes the program possible. (AG)

  8. HLA polymorphisms in Cabo Verde and Guiné-Bissau inferred from sequence-based typing.

    PubMed

    Spínola, Hélder; Bruges-Armas, Jácome; Middleton, Derek; Brehm, António

    2005-10-01

    Human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-A, -B, and -DRB1 polymorphisms were examined in the Cabo Verde and Guiné-Bissau populations. The data were obtained at high-resolution level, using sequence-based typing. The most frequent alleles in each locus was: A*020101 (16.7% in Guiné-Bissau and 13.5% in Cabo Verde), B*350101 (14.4% in Guiné-Bissau and 13.2% in Cabo Verde), DRB1*1304 (19.6% in Guiné-Bissau), and DRB1*1101 (10.1% in Cabo Verde). The predominant three loci haplotype in Guiné-Bissau was A*2301-B*1503-DRB1*1101 (4.6%) and in Cabo Verde was A*3002-B*350101-DRB1*1001 (2.8%), exclusive to northwestern islands (5.6%) and absent in Guiné-Bissau. The present study corroborates historic sources and other genetic studies that say Cabo Verde were populated not only by Africans but also by Europeans. Haplotypes and dendrogram analysis shows a Caucasian genetic influence in today's gene pool of Cabo Verdeans. Haplotypes and allele frequencies present a differential distribution between southeastern and northwestern Cabo Verde islands, which could be the result of different genetic influences, founder effect, or bottlenecks. Dendrograms and principal coordinates analysis show that Guineans are more similar to North Africans than other HLA-studied sub-Saharans, probably from ancient and recent genetic contacts with other peoples, namely East Africans.

  9. Bats of Mesa Verde National Park, Colorado: composition, reproduction, and roosting habits.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Shea, Thomas J.; Cryan, Paul M.; Snider, E. Apple; Valdez, Ernest W.; Ellison, Laura E.; Neubaum, Daniel J.

    2011-01-01

    We determined the bat fauna at Mesa Verde National Park (Mesa Verde) in 2006 and 2007, characterized bat elevational distribution and reproduction, and investigated roosting habits of selected species. We captured 1996 bats of 15 species in mist nets set over water during 120 nights of sampling and recorded echolocation calls of an additional species. The bat fauna at Mesa Verde included every species of bat known west of the Great Plains in Colorado, except the little brown bat (Myotis lucifugus). Some species showed skewed sex ratios, primarily due to a preponderance of males. Thirteen species of bats reproduced at Mesa Verde. Major differences in spring precipitation between the 2 years of our study were associated with differences in reproductive rates and, in some species, with numbers of juveniles captured. Reduced reproductive effort during spring drought will have a greater impact on bat populations with the forecasted increase in aridity in much of western North America by models of global climate change. We radiotracked 46 bats of 5 species to roosts and describe the first-known maternity colonies of spotted bats (Euderma maculatum) in Colorado. All 5 species that we tracked to diurnal roosts relied almost exclusively on rock crevices rather than trees or snags, despite the presence of mature forests at Mesa Verde and the use of trees for roosts in similar forests elsewhere by some of these species. Comparisons with past bat surveys at Mesa Verde and in surrounding areas suggest no dramatic evidence for effects of recent stand-replacing fires on the composition of the bat community.

  10. 75 FR 47808 - Verde Hydro, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Project No. 13819-000] Verde Hydro, LLC... Intervene, and Competing Applications August 2, 2010. On July 21, 2010, Verde Hydro, LLC filed an... the feasibility of the Verde Hydroelectric Project, located in Maricopa County, in the State of...

  11. Parkinsonia L.

    Treesearch

    Kristina F. Connor; Jane E. Rodgers; Carol Miller

    2008-01-01

    There are three noteworthy species of Parkinsonia grown in the United States. Palo verde is a thorny, green-barked shrub/small tree which can reach a height of 11 m. The name refers to the very noticeable green color of the smooth trunk of this drought-resistant tree of the hot southern deserts. The open-crowned trees have alternate, bipinnate...

  12. Low concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in air at Cape Verde.

    PubMed

    Nøst, Therese Haugdahl; Halse, Anne Karine; Schlabach, Martin; Bäcklund, Are; Eckhardt, Sabine; Breivik, Knut

    2018-01-15

    Ambient air is a core medium for monitoring of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) under the Stockholm Convention and is used in studies of global transports of POPs and their atmospheric sources and source regions. Still, data based on active air sampling remain scarce in many regions. The primary objectives of this study were to (i) monitor concentrations of selected POPs in air outside West Africa, and (ii) to evaluate potential atmospheric processes and source regions affecting measured concentrations. For this purpose, an active high-volume air sampler was installed on the Cape Verde Atmospheric Observatory at Cape Verde outside the coast of West Africa. Sampling commenced in May 2012 and 43 samples (24h sampling) were collected until June 2013. The samples were analyzed for selected polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and chlordanes. The concentrations of these POPs at Cape Verde were generally low and comparable to remote sites in the Arctic for several compounds. Seasonal trends varied between compounds and concentrations exhibited strong temperature dependence for chlordanes. Our results indicate net volatilization from the Atlantic Ocean north of Cape Verde as sources of these POPs. Air mass back trajectories demonstrated that air masses measured at Cape Verde were generally transported from the Atlantic Ocean or the North African continent. Overall, the low concentrations in air at Cape Verde were likely explained by absence of major emissions in areas from which the air masses originated combined with depletion during long-range atmospheric transport due to enhanced degradation under tropical conditions (high temperatures and concentrations of hydroxyl radicals). Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Strategic Analysis for the MER Cape Verde Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaines, Daniel; Belluta, Paolo; Herman, Jennifer; Hwang, Pauline; Mukai, Ryan; Porter, Dan; Jones, Byron; Wood, Eric; Grotzinger, John; Edgar, Lauren; hide

    2009-01-01

    The Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity has recently completed a two year campaign studying Victoria Crater. The campaign culminated in a close approach of Cape Verde in order to acquire high resolution imagery of the exposed stratigraphy in the cliff face. The close approach to Cape Verde provided significant challenges for every subsystem of the rover as the rover needed to traverse difficult, uncharacterised terrain and approach a cliff face with the potential of blocking out solar energy and communications with Earth. In this paper we describe the strategic analyses performed by the science and engineering teams so that we could successfully achieve the science objectives while keeping the rover safe.

  14. 77 FR 14058 - Santa Teresa Southern Railroad, LLC-Operation Exemption-Rail Line of Verde Logistics Railroad...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-08

    ... Southern Railroad, LLC--Operation Exemption--Rail Line of Verde Logistics Railroad, LLC at Santa Teresa... notice of exemption under 49 CFR 1150.31 to operate approximately 12,000 feet of rail line owned by Verde Logistics Railroad, LLC (Verde). The rail line extends between a point of connection with Union Pacific...

  15. Agrochemical characterization of vermicomposts produced from residues of Palo Santo (Bursera graveolens) essential oil extraction.

    PubMed

    Carrión-Paladines, Vinicio; Fries, Andreas; Gómez-Muñoz, Beatriz; García-Ruiz, Roberto

    2016-12-01

    Fruits of Palo Santo (Bursera graveolens) are used for essential oil extraction. The extraction process is very efficient, because up to 3% of the fresh fruits can be transformed into essential oil; however, a considerable amount of waste is concurrently produced (>97% of the fresh biomass). Recent developments in Ecuadorian policies to foster environmentally friendly agroforestry and industrial practices have led to widespread interest in reusing the waste. This study evaluated the application of four vermicomposts (VMs), which are produced from the waste of the Palo Santo fruit distillation in combination with other raw materials (kitchen leftovers, pig manure, goat manure, and King Grass), for agrochemical use and for carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) decomposition in two soils with different textures. The results showed that the vermicompost mixtures (VMM) were valuable for agricultural utilisation, because total N (min. 2.63%) was relatively high and the C/N ratio (max. 13.3), as well as the lignin (max. 3.8%) and polyphenol (max. 1.6%) contents were low. In addition, N availability increased for both soil types after the application of the VMM. In contrast, N became immobile during decomposition if the VM of the pure waste was added. This likely occurred because of the relatively low total N (1.16%) content and high C/N ratio (35.0). However, the comparatively low C decomposition of this VM type makes its application highly recommendable as a strategy to increase the levels of organic matter and C, as well as for soil reclamation. Overall, these results suggest that the residues of the Palo Santo essential oil extraction are a potential source for vermicompost production and sustainable agriculture. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Cape Verde. A Country Guide Series Report from the AACRAO-AID Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sevigny, Joseph A.

    This report provides information on the education system of Cape Verde, and is designed to assist college admissions officers and registrars in the United States with the admission and placement of students from that country. The report contains general information on the geography, history, and people of Cape Verde, as well as more specific…

  17. Strategic analysis for the MER Cape Verde approach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gaines, D.; Belluta, P.; Herman, J.; Hwang, P.; Mukai, R.; Porter, D.; Jones, B.; Wood, E.; Grotzinger, J.; Edgar, L.; Hayes, A.; Hare, T.; Squyres, S.

    2009-01-01

    The Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity has recently completed a two year campaign studying Victoria Crater. The campaign culminated in a close approach of Cape Verde in order to acquire high resolution imagery of the exposed stratigraphy in the cliff face. The close approach to Cape Verde provided significant challenges for every subsystem of the rover as the rover needed to traverse difficult, uncharacterised terrain and approach a cliff face with the potential of blocking out solar energy and communications with Earth. In this paper we describe the strategic analyses performed by the science and engineering teams so that we could successfully achieve the science objectives while keeping the rover safe. ??2009 IEEE.

  18. DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Case Study: Palo Duro Homes, Albuquerque, New Mexico

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    none,

    2013-09-01

    Palo Duro uses advanced framing techniques like 2x6 24-inch on-center framing, open headers above windows on non-load-bearing walls, 2-stud corners, ladder blocking where walls intersect, and single top and bottom plates. These techniques reduce the amount of lumber in the wall, allowing more room for insulation and reducing costs and installation time. The builder garnered a 2013 Housing Innovation Award in the production builder category.

  19. Restoring diversity after cattail expansion: disturbance, resilience, and seasonality in a tropical dry wetland.

    PubMed

    Osland, Michael J; González, Eugenio; Richardson, Curtis J

    2011-04-01

    As the human footprint expands, ecologists and resource managers are increasingly challenged to explain and manage abrupt ecosystem transformations (i.e., regime shifts). In this study, we investigated the role of a mechanical disturbance that has been used to restore and maintain local wetland diversity after a monotypic regime shift in northwestern Costa Rica [specifically, an abrupt landscape-scale cattail (Typha) expansion]. The study was conducted in Palo Verde Marsh (Palo Verde National Park; a RAMSAR Wetland of International Importance), a seasonally flooded freshwater wetland that has historically provided habitat for large populations of wading birds and waterfowl. A cattail (T. domingensis) expansion in the 1980s greatly altered the plant community and reduced avian habitat. Since then, Typha has been managed using a form of mechanical disturbance called fangueo (a Spanish word, pronounced "fahn-gay-yo" in English). We applied a Typha removal treatment at three levels (control, fangueo, and fangueo with fencing to exclude cattle grazing). Fangueo resulted in a large reduction in Typha dominance (i.e., decreased aboveground biomass, ramet density, and ramet height) and an increase in habitat heterogeneity. As in many ecosystems that have been defined by multiple and frequent disturbances, a large portion of the plant community regenerated after disturbance (via propagule banking) and fangueo resulted in a more diverse plant community that was strongly dictated by seasonal processes (i.e., distinct wet- and dry-season assemblages). Importantly, the mechanical disturbance had no apparent short-term impact on any of the soil properties we measured (including bulk density). Interestingly, low soil and foliar N:P values indicate that Palo Verde Marsh and other wetlands in the region may be nitrogen limited. Our results quantify how, in a cultural landscape where the historical disturbance regime has been altered and diversity has declined, a mechanical

  20. Effects of past and future groundwater development on the hydrologic system of Verde Valley, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garner, Bradley D.; Pool, D.R.

    2013-01-01

    Communities in central Arizona’s Verde Valley must manage limited water supplies in the face of rapidly growing populations. Developing groundwater resources to meet human needs has raised questions about the effects of groundwater withdrawals by pumping on the area’s rivers and streams, particularly the Verde River. U.S. Geological Survey hydrologists used a regional groundwater flow model to simulate the effects of groundwater pumping on streamflow in the Verde River. The study found that streamflow in the Verde River between 1910 and 2005 had been reduced as the result of streamflow depletion by groundwater pumping, also known as capture. Additionally, using three hypothetical scenarios for a period from 2005 to 2110, the study’s findings suggest that streamflow reductions will continue and may increase in the future.

  1. Public involvement and consensus building in the Verde River Watershed in central Arizona

    Treesearch

    Tom Bonomo

    1996-01-01

    Currently an organization called the Verde Watershed Association is the central point for consensus building and public involvement in water issues in the Verde River Watershed. The association is the out growth of efforts towards the resolution of watershed issues without passing new laws, initiating regulations, or entering the win-lose arena of litigation. The...

  2. Hurricane Fred Lashes the Cape Verde Islands

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-12-08

    Hurricane Fred is bringing very heavy rains to the Cape Verde Islands. From the National Hurricane Center's Hurricane Fred Forecast Discussion: "According to the official Atlantic tropical cyclone record, which begins in 1851, Fred is the first hurricane to pass through the Cape Verde Islands since 1892. We caution, however, that the database is less reliable prior to the satellite era (mid 1960s onward)." This image was taken by GOES East on August 31, 2015. Credit: NASA/NOAA via NOAA Environmental Visualization Laboratory NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram Credit: NOAA/NASA GOES Project

  3. Groundwater resources of Mosteiros basin, island of Fogo, Cape Verde, West Africa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heilweil, Victor M.; Gingerich, Stephen B.; Plummer, Niel; Verstraeten, Ingrid M.

    2010-01-01

    Groundwater resources in Cape Verde provide water for agriculture, industry, and human consumption. These resources are limited and susceptible to contamination. Additional groundwater resources are needed for continued agricultural development, particularly during times of drought, but increased use and (or) climatic change may have adverse effects on the quantity and quality of freshwater available. In volcanic island aquifers such as those of Cape Verde, a lens of fresh groundwater typically ?floats? upon a layer of brackish water at the freshwater/saltwater boundary, and increased pumping may cause salt water intrusion or other contamination. A recent U.S. Geological Survey study assessed baseline groundwater conditions in watersheds on three islands of Cape Verde to provide the scientific basis for sustainably developing water resources and minimizing future groundwater depletion and contamination.

  4. Dreamy Draw Dam - Master Plan and Feature Design, New River and Phoenix City Streams, Arizona.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-01

    Carnegiea gigantea Saguaro Cactus Ferocactus wislizenii Fishhook Barrel Cactus The area north of the paved assembly area will be recontoured to...brittlebush, triangle bursage, little leaf palo verde, ocotillo, and various cacti species (pls. 8 and 9). Destructive past land uses have contributed to the...is well established. Plants used include saguaro , ocotillo, and Bermuda grass. The areas used for borrowing of material in construction of the 18 dam

  5. Layers of Cape Verde in Victoria Crater Stereo

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-10-06

    This anaglyph from from NASA Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity is of Victoria crater, looking north from Duck Bay towards the dramatic promontory called Cape Verde. 3D glasses are necessary to view this image.

  6. IN and CCN Measurements on RV Polarstern and Cape Verde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welti, André; Herenz, Paul; Henning, Silvia; Stratmann, Frank

    2016-04-01

    Two field campaigns, one situated on RV Polarstern (Oct. - Dec. 2015) and one on the Cape Verde islands (Jan. - Feb. 2016) measuring ice nuclei (IN) and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentrations as a function of supersaturation and temperature are presented. The Polarstern cruise from Bremerhaven to Cape Town yields a cross section of IN and CCN concentrations from 54°N to 35°S and passes the Cape Verde Islands at 15°N. Measurements were conducted using the commercial CCNC and SPIN instruments from DMT. During both campaigns, a comprehensive set of aerosol characterization data including size distribution, optical properties and chemical information were measured in parallel. The ship based measurements provide a measure of variability in IN/CCN concentration with geographic position. As an example a clear influence on IN and CCN number concentration of the Saharan desert dust outflow between the Canary Islands and Cape Verde or the continental aerosol from Europe and South Africa was observed. The measurements on Cape Verde provide information on the temporal variability at a fixed position varying between clean marine and dust influenced conditions. Both datasets are related to auxiliary data of aerosol size distribution and chemical composition. The datasets are used to distinguish the influence of local sources and background concentration of IN/CCN. By combining of the geographically fix measurements with the geographical cross section, typical ranges of IN and CCN concentration are derived. The datasets will be part of the BACCHUS database thereby providing valuable input for future climate modeling activities.

  7. Cabo Verde telemedicine program: initial results of nationwide implementation.

    PubMed

    Latifi, Rifat; Dasho, Erion; Merrell, Ronald C; Lopes, Miguel; Azevedo, Vanda; Bekteshi, Flamur; Osmani, Kalterina L; Qesteri, Orland; Kucani, Julian; Lecaj, Ismet

    2014-11-01

    Telemedicine and e-health have been suggested as one solution for closing the health disparity gap between the developed world and the developing world. Yet evidence is lacking from current successful programs in the developing world and, in particular, from sub-Saharan Africa. The primary objective of our study was to present the preliminary results of our efforts in building the Integrated Telemedicine and e-Health Program for Cabo Verde (ITeHP-CV), with an emphasis on initial utilization and results. This is a prospective study of data collected while we worked to establish a fully functional, integrated national telemedicine network and virtual education network in Cabo Verde. We used the International Virtual e-Hospital Foundation strategic approach known as "initiate-build-operate-transfer" over a 26-month period (November 2011-December 2013). We describe herein the five main pillars of this process that have been implemented: (1) capacity building; (2) network development and deployment of equipment; (3) implementation of clinical telemedicine; (4) implementation of activities related to continuing medical education, delivered from within the country and from abroad; and (5) establishment and use of the electronic virtual library. Based on comprehensive technical and medical assessment of the country's needs, 10 fully functional telemedicine centers in all nine inhabited islands of the Republic of Cabo Verde have been established. RESULTS are presented under the five main pillars of capacity building, network deployment, implementation of clinical telemedicine, implementation of continuing medical education activities, and establishment of the electronic virtual library. The ITeHP-CV has been successfully launched, and the initial results are encouraging. The continuity of the program and sustainability are primary goals once the program is transferred fully to the Ministry of Health of Cabo Verde. A long-term follow-up study is required in order to ensure

  8. Mesa Verde--A Year-Round High School. A Descriptive Report of 1980-81.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Housden, Terry; Holmes, Lynda

    Mesa Verde High School was constructed in 1974 and is the last high school built in the San Juan (California) Unified District. It serves students in grades 9 through 12 and has an open enrollment policy. Mesa Verde operates on a year-round schedule with students divided into three tracks. Basically, each track is in session for 9 weeks and then…

  9. Chemometric characterization of alembic and industrial sugar cane spirits from cape verde and ceará, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Regina F R; Vidal, Carla B; de Lima, Ari C A; Melo, Diego Q; Dantas, Allan N S; Lopes, Gisele S; do Nascimento, Ronaldo F; Gomes, Clerton L; da Silva, Maria Nataniela

    2012-01-01

    Sugar cane spirits are some of the most popular alcoholic beverages consumed in Cape Verde. The sugar cane spirit industry in Cape Verde is based mainly on archaic practices that operate without supervision and without efficient control of the production process. The objective of this work was to evaluate samples of industrial and alembic sugar cane spirits from Cape Verde and Ceará, Brazil using principal component analysis. Thirty-two samples of spirits were analyzed, twenty from regions of the islands of Cape Verde and twelve from Ceará, Brazil. Of the samples obtained from Ceará, Brazil seven are alembic and five are industrial spirits. The components analyzed in these studies included the following: volatile organic compounds (n-propanol, isobutanol, isoamylic, higher alcohols, alcoholic grade, acetaldehyde, acetic acid, acetate); copper; and sulfates.

  10. Chemometric Characterization of Alembic and Industrial Sugar Cane Spirits from Cape Verde and Ceará, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Regina F. R.; Vidal, Carla B.; de Lima, Ari C. A.; Melo, Diego Q.; Dantas, Allan N. S.; Lopes, Gisele S.; do Nascimento, Ronaldo F.; Gomes, Clerton L.; da Silva, Maria Nataniela

    2012-01-01

    Sugar cane spirits are some of the most popular alcoholic beverages consumed in Cape Verde. The sugar cane spirit industry in Cape Verde is based mainly on archaic practices that operate without supervision and without efficient control of the production process. The objective of this work was to evaluate samples of industrial and alembic sugar cane spirits from Cape Verde and Ceará, Brazil using principal component analysis. Thirty-two samples of spirits were analyzed, twenty from regions of the islands of Cape Verde and twelve from Ceará, Brazil. Of the samples obtained from Ceará, Brazil seven are alembic and five are industrial spirits. The components analyzed in these studies included the following: volatile organic compounds (n-propanol, isobutanol, isoamylic, higher alcohols, alcoholic grade, acetaldehyde, acetic acid, acetate); copper; and sulfates. PMID:23227051

  11. Managing nuclear power plant induced disasters.

    PubMed

    Kyne, Dean

    2015-01-01

    To understand the management process of nuclear power plant (NPP) induced disasters. The study shields light on phases and issues associated with the NPP induced disaster management. This study uses Palo Verde Nuclear Generation Station as study subject and Arizona State as study area. This study uses the Radiological Assessment System for Consequence Analysis (RASCAL) Source Term to Dose (STDose) of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, a computer software to project and assess the source term dose and release pathway. This study also uses ArcGIS, a geographic information system to analyze geospatial data. A detailed case study of Palo Verde Nuclear Power Generation (PVNPG) Plant was conducted. The findings reveal that the NPP induced disaster management process is conducted by various stakeholders. To save lives and to minimize the impacts, it is vital to relate planning and process of the disaster management. Number of people who expose to the radioactive plume pathway and level of radioactivity could vary depending on the speed and direction of wind on the day the event takes place. This study findings show that there is a need to address the burning issue of different racial and ethnic groups' unequal exposure and unequal protection to potential risks associated with the NPPs.

  12. The apid cuckoo bees of the Cape Verde Islands (Hymenoptera, Apidae).

    PubMed

    Straka, Jakub; Engel, Michael S

    2012-01-01

    The apid cuckoo bees of the Cape Verde Islands (Republic of Cape Verde) are reviewed and five species recognized, representing two genera. The ammobatine genus Chiasmognathus Engel (Nomadinae: Ammobatini), a specialized lineage of cleptoparasites of nomioidine bees is recorded for the first time. Chiasmognathus batelkaisp. n. is distinguished from mainland African and Asian species. The genus Thyreus Panzer (Apinae: Melectini) is represented by four species - Thyreus denoliisp. n., Thyreus batelkaisp. n., Thyreus schwarzisp. n., and Thyreus aistleitnerisp. n. Previous records of Thyreus scutellaris (Fabricius) from the islands were based on misidentifications.

  13. Shelf-life prediction models for ready-to-eat fresh cut salads: Testing in real cold chain.

    PubMed

    Tsironi, Theofania; Dermesonlouoglou, Efimia; Giannoglou, Marianna; Gogou, Eleni; Katsaros, George; Taoukis, Petros

    2017-01-02

    The aim of the study was to develop and test the applicability of predictive models for shelf-life estimation of ready-to-eat (RTE) fresh cut salads in realistic distribution temperature conditions in the food supply chain. A systematic kinetic study of quality loss of RTE mixed salad (lollo rosso lettuce-40%, lollo verde lettuce-45%, rocket-15%) packed under modified atmospheres (3% O 2 , 10% CO 2 , 87% N 2 ) was conducted. Microbial population (total viable count, Pseudomonas spp., lactic acid bacteria), vitamin C, colour and texture were the measured quality parameters. Kinetic models for these indices were developed to determine the quality loss and calculate product remaining shelf-life (SL R ). Storage experiments were conducted at isothermal (2.5-15°C) and non-isothermal temperature conditions (T eff =7.8°C defined as the constant temperature that results in the same quality value as the variable temperature distribution) for validation purposes. Pseudomonas dominated spoilage, followed by browning and chemical changes. The end of shelf-life correlated with a Pseudomonas spp. level of 8 log(cfu/g), and 20% loss of the initial vitamin C content. The effect of temperature on these quality parameters was expressed by the Arrhenius equation; activation energy (E a ) value was 69.1 and 122.6kJ/mol for Pseudomonas spp. growth and vitamin C loss rates, respectively. Shelf-life prediction models were also validated in real cold chain conditions (including the stages of transport to and storage at retail distribution center, transport to and display at 7 retail stores, transport to and storage in domestic refrigerators). The quality level and SL R estimated after 2-3days of domestic storage (time of consumption) ranged between 1 and 8days at 4°C and was predicted within satisfactory statistical error by the kinetic models. T eff in the cold chain ranged between 3.7 and 8.3°C. Using the validated models, SL R of RTE fresh cut salad can be estimated at any point of

  14. Community Youth Engagement in East Palo Alto: A Study of the Youth Arts and Music Center Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Jamila; Biscocho, Francine; Gerstein, Amy

    2016-01-01

    The Youth Arts and Music Center Initiative is a community-wide effort to design and build an arts center in East Palo Alto. The six-year process, supported by the Goldman Foundation, centered on youth leadership and the arts, and engaged a cross-sector collaborative of partner organizations in an attempt to address the city's shortage of existing…

  15. Cross-Shelf Exchange.

    PubMed

    Brink, K H

    2016-01-01

    Cross-shelf exchange dominates the pathways and rates by which nutrients, biota, and materials on the continental shelf are delivered and removed. This follows because cross-shelf gradients of most properties are usually far greater than those in the alongshore direction. The resulting transports are limited by Earth's rotation, which inhibits flow from crossing isobaths. Thus, cross-shelf flows are generally weak compared with alongshore flows, and this leads to interesting observational issues. Cross-shelf flows are enabled by turbulent mixing processes, nonlinear processes (such as momentum advection), and time dependence. Thus, there is a wide range of possible effects that can allow these critical transports, and different natural settings are often governed by different combinations of processes. This review discusses examples of representative transport mechanisms and explores possible observational and theoretical paths to future progress.

  16. Strategies for Post-Primary Education in Small Island Developing States (SIDS): Lessons from Cape Verde

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atchoarena, David; Da Graca, Patricia Dias; Marquez, Jose Manuel

    2008-01-01

    This article addresses the context and challenges of small island developing states, focusing particularly on Cape Verde. After a general discussion of the characteristics of small island developing states, several development challenges such as poverty, unemployment and migratory issues specific to Cape Verde are evoked. Despite a period of…

  17. Geochemical constraints on depth of origin of oceanic carbonatites: The Cape Verde case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doucelance, Régis; Hammouda, Tahar; Moreira, Manuel; Martins, João C.

    2010-12-01

    We present new Sr-Nd isotope compositions together with major- and trace element concentrations measured for whole rocks and mineral separate phases (apatite, biotite and calcite) from fifteen Cape Verde oceanic carbonatites (Atlantic Ocean). Trace element patterns of calcio- and magnesio-carbonatites present a strong depletion in K, Hf, Zr and Ti and an overall enrichment in Sr and REE relative to Cape Verde basalts, arguing for distinct source components between carbonatites and basalts. Sr and Nd isotopic ratios show small, but significant variations defining a binary mixing between a depleted end-member with unradiogenic Sr and radiogenic Nd values and a ''enriched'' end-member compatible with old marine carbonates. We interpret the depleted end-member as the Cape Verde oceanic lithosphere by comparison with previous studies on Cape Verde basalts. We thus propose that oceanic carbonatites are resulting from the interaction of a deep rooted mantle plume carrying a lower 4He/ 3He signature from the lower mantle and a carbonated metasomatized lithosphere, which by low degree melting produced carbonatite magmas. Sr-Nd compositions and trace element patterns of carbonatites argue in favor of a metasomatic agent originating from partial melting of recycled, carbonated oceanic crust. We have successfully reproduced the main geochemical features of this model using a Monte-Carlo-type simulation.

  18. The apid cuckoo bees of the Cape Verde Islands (Hymenoptera, Apidae)

    PubMed Central

    Straka, Jakub; Engel, Michael S.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The apid cuckoo bees of the Cape Verde Islands (Republic of Cape Verde) are reviewed and five species recognized, representing two genera. The ammobatine genus Chiasmognathus Engel (Nomadinae: Ammobatini), a specialized lineage of cleptoparasites of nomioidine bees is recorded for the first time. Chiasmognathus batelkai sp. n. is distinguished from mainland African and Asian species. The genus Thyreus Panzer (Apinae: Melectini) is represented by four species – Thyreus denolii sp. n., Thyreus batelkai sp. n., Thyreus schwarzi sp. n., and Thyreus aistleitneri sp. n. Previous records of Thyreus scutellaris (Fabricius) from the islands were based on misidentifications. PMID:22977347

  19. 78 FR 34373 - Campo Verde Solar, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER13-1541-000] Campo Verde Solar, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Campo Verde...

  20. Determination of shelf heat transfer coefficients along the shelf flow path of a freeze dryer using the shelf fluid temperature perturbation approach.

    PubMed

    Kuu, Wei Y; Nail, Steven L; Hardwick, Lisa M

    2007-01-01

    The spatial distribution of local shelf heat transfer coefficients, Ks, was determined by mapping the transient temperature response of the shelf surface along the serpentine internal channels of the shelf while the temperature of the heat transfer fluid was ramped from -40 degrees to 40 degrees C. The solution of a first-order non-steady-state differential equation resulted in a predicted shelf surface temperature as a function of the shelf fluid temperature at any point along the flow path. During the study, the shelf surfaces were maintained under a thermally insulated condition so that the heat transfers by gas conduction and radiation were negligible. To minimize heat conduction by gas, the chamber was evacuated to a low pressure, such as 100 mTorr. To minimize heat transfers between shelves, shelves were moved close together, with a gap of approximately 3 mm between any two shelves, because the shelf surface temperatures at corresponding vertical locations of two shelves are virtually equal. In addition, this also provides a shielding from radiation heat transfer from shelf to walls. Local heat transfer coefficients at the probed locations h(x) ( approximately Ks) were calculated by fitting the experimental shelf temperature response to the theoretical value. While the resulting values of K(s) are in general agreement with previously reported values, the values of Ks close to the inlet are significantly higher than those of other locations of the shelf channel. This observation is most likely attributed to the variation of the flow pattern of heat transfer fluid within the channels.

  1. The Camino Verde intervention in Nicaragua, 2004-2012.

    PubMed

    Arosteguí, Jorge; Ledogar, Robert J; Coloma, Josefina; Hernández-Alvarez, Carlos; Suazo-Laguna, Harold; Cárcamo, Alvaro; Reyes, Rosa María; Belli, Alejandro; Andersson, Neil; Harris, Eva

    2017-05-30

    Camino Verde (the Green Way) is an evidence-based community mobilisation tool for prevention of dengue and other mosquito-borne viral diseases. Its effectiveness was demonstrated in a cluster-randomised controlled trial conducted in 2010-2013 in Nicaragua and Mexico. The Nicaraguan arm of the trial was preceded, from 2004 to 2008, by a feasibility study that provided valuable lessons and trained facilitators for the trial itself. Here, guided by the Template for Intervention Description and Replication (TIDieR), we describe the Camino Verde intervention in Nicaragua, presenting its rationale, its time and location, activities, materials used, the main actors, modes of delivery, how it was tailored to encourage community engagement, modifications made from the feasibility study to the trial itself, and how fidelity to the process originally designed was maintained. We also present information on costs and discuss the place of this study within the literature on implementation science. ISRCTN27581154 .

  2. Impact of Sahara dust transport on Cape Verde atmospheric element particles.

    PubMed

    Almeida-Silva, M; Almeida, S M; Freitas, M C; Pio, C A; Nunes, T; Cardoso, J

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to (1) conduct an elemental characterization of airborne particles sampled in Cape Verde and (2) assess the influence of Sahara desert on local suspended particles. Particulate matter (PM(10)) was collected in Praia city (14°94'N; 23°49'W) with a low-volume sampler in order to characterize its chemical composition by k0-INAA. The filter samples were first weighed and subsequently irradiated at the Portuguese Research Reactor. Results showed that PM(10) concentrations in Cape Verde markedly exceeded the health-based air quality standards defined by the European Union (EU), World Health Organization (WHO), and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in part due to the influence of Sahara dust transport. The PM(10) composition was characterized essentially by high concentrations of elements originating from the soil (K, Sm, Co, Fe, Sc, Rb, Cr, Ce, and Ba) and sea (Na), and low concentrations of anthropogenic elements (As, Zn, and Sb). In addition, the high concentrations of PM measured in Cape Verde suggest that health of the population may be less affected compared with other sites where PM(10) concentrations are lower but more enriched with toxic elements.

  3. Magnitude and variability of Holocene sediment accumulation in Santa Monica Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sommerfield, C.K.; Lee, H.J.

    2003-01-01

    The spatial variability of Holocene (past 10,000 years) sediment accumulation in Santa Monica Bay (California) was examined to identify controls sediment trapping in a bathymetrically complex coastal embayment and to provide geologic context for the post-industrial sedimentary record and associated pollution gradients. Sediment chronologies based on downcore AMS 14C dates were used to quantify long-term (millennia) accumulation rates in an effort to elucidate particle-transport pathways and sinks. Sediment accumulation rates for the full range of bayfloor environments (50-630 m water depths) range from 22 to 102 mg/cm2/year (15-88 mm/100 year), have an overall mean of 51??21 mg/cm2/year (1??, n=11), and are comparable to rates reported for adjacent borderland basins. Maximal accumulation rates on the Malibu shelf and within a reentrant to Redondo canyon are interpreted to reflect (1) proximity to sediment sources and (2) localized oceanographic and topographic conditions conducive to sediment trapping and deposition. The 14C-derived accumulation rates are 2-10 times lower than rates determined through 210Pb geochronology for the same sites in a related study, revealing that Holocene sediment accumulation has been non-steady-state. Santa Monica Bay is an important sink for suspended matter; averaged over the past several millennia a mass of sediment equivalent to 10-80% of the modern annual river supply is sequestered yearly. Net influx of suspended matter derived from the adjacent Palos Verdes shelf is evinced by a concentration gradient of p,p???-DDE in bayfloor sediments, whereas the distribution of anthropogenic silver suggests transport from Santa Monica shelf to the southeastern boundary of the bay. The results of this study provide new insight to the long-term fates of particulate matter in Los Angeles coastal waters. ?? 2003 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Vendor advertorial issue, 2004

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Agnihotri, Newal

    The focus of the July-August issue is on vendor advertorials. Major articles/reports in this issue include: A fascinating technology, by Andy White, GE Energy; Exciting times for the nuclear industry, by John Polcyn, AECL Technologies; SG replacement oversight program, by Ram Prabhakar, Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station; Modifications for improvement, by Herbert Deutschmann, Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate, HSK, Switzerland; and, Human factor approach in engineering, by Laure Quentin, EDF and Didier Niger, UNIPE, France.

  5. The LACDA (Los Angeles County Drainage Area) System Recreation Study, Los Angeles County Drainage Area.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-03-01

    Channel Islands and is not conveniently situ - tions, potential benefits are greatly increased by con- ated for the daily use of large numbers of people...are at least three races of birds and some plant species on the peninsula that are found nowhere else except the Channel Islands. 32. Agua Amarga Canyon...Class 3 (4,5,7) Agua Amarga Canyon is the last remaining relatively undisturbed drainage on the coastal side of the Palos Verdes Peninsula. There

  6. VERDE Analytic Modules

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    2008-01-15

    The Verde Analytic Modules permit the user to ingest openly available data feeds about phenomenology (storm tracks, wind, precipitation, earthquake, wildfires, and similar natural and manmade power grid disruptions and forecast power outages, restoration times, customers outaged, and key facilities that will lose power. Damage areas are predicted using historic damage criteria of the affected area. The modules use a cellular automata approach to estimating the distribution circuits assigned to geo-located substations. Population estimates served within the service areas are located within 1 km grid cells and converted to customer counts by conversion through demographic estimation of households and commercialmore » firms within the population cells. Restoration times are estimated by agent-based simulation of restoration crews working according to utility published prioritization calibrated by historic performance.« less

  7. Arizona watershed framework in the Verde River watershed

    Treesearch

    Ren Northrup

    2000-01-01

    The Arizona Department of Environmental Quality, Water Quality Division drafted a six-step approach to guide its staff and local participants in developing and implementing watershed management plans. From January 1999 through June 2000, the draft Arizona Statewide Watershed Framework will be tested in Arizona's Verde River watershed. This concept proofing...

  8. Thermostable Shelf Life Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perchonok, M. H.; Antonini, D. K.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this project is to determine the shelf life end-point of various food items by means of actual measurement or mathematical projection. The primary goal of the Advanced Food Technology Project in these long duration exploratory missions is to provide the crew with a palatable, nutritious and safe food system while minimizing volume, mass, and waste. The Mars missions could be as long as 2.5 years with the potential of the food being positioned prior to the crew arrival. Therefore, it is anticipated that foods that are used during the Mars missions will require a 5 year shelf life. Shelf life criteria are safety, nutrition, and acceptability. Any of these criteria can be the limiting factor in determining the food's shelf life. Due to the heat sterilization process used for the thermostabilized food items, safety will be preserved as long as the integrity of the package is maintained. Nutrition and acceptability will change over time. Since the food can be the sole source of nutrition to the crew, a significant loss in nutrition may determine when the shelf life endpoint has occurred. Shelf life can be defined when the food item is no longer acceptable. Acceptability can be defined in terms of appearance, flavor, texture, or aroma. Results from shelf life studies of the thermostabilized food items suggest that the shelf life of the foods range from 0 months to 8 years, depending on formulation.

  9. Thermostabilized Shelf Life Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perchonok, Michele H.; Catauro, Patricia M.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this project is to determine the shelf life end-point of various food items by means of actual measurement or mathematical projection. The primary goal of the Advanced Food Technology Project in these long duration exploratory missions is to provide the crew with a palatable, nutritious and safe food system while minimizing volume, mass, and waste. The Mars missions could be as long as 2.5 years with the potential of the food being positioned prior to the crew arrival. Therefore, it is anticipated that foods that are used during the Mars missions will require a 5 year shelf life. Shelf life criteria are safety, nutrition, and acceptability. Any of these criteria can be the limiting factor in determining the food's shelf life. Due to the heat sterilization process used for the thermostabilized food items, safety will be preserved as long as the integrity of the package is maintained. Nutrition and acceptability will change over time. Since the food can be the sole source of nutrition to the crew, a significant loss in nutrition may determine when the shelf life endpoint has occurred. Shelf life can be defined when the food item is no longer acceptable. Acceptability can be defined in terms of appearance, flavor, texture, or aroma. Results from shelf life studies of the thermostabilized food items suggest that the shelf life of the foods range from 0 months to 8 years, depending on formulation.

  10. Insecticide susceptibility of Aedes aegypti populations from Senegal and Cape Verde Archipelago.

    PubMed

    Dia, Ibrahima; Diagne, Cheikh Tidiane; Ba, Yamar; Diallo, Diawo; Konate, Lassana; Diallo, Mawlouth

    2012-10-22

    Two concomitant dengue 3 (DEN-3) epidemics occurred in Cape Verde Archipelago and Senegal between September and October 2009. Aedes aegypti was identified as the vector of these epidemics as several DEN-3 virus strains were isolated from this species in both countries. The susceptibility to pyrethroids, organochlorine, organophosphates and carbamate was investigated in two field strains of Aedes aegypti from both countries using WHO diagnostic bioassay kits in order to monitor their the current status of insecticide susceptibility. The two tested strains were highly resistant to DDT. The Cape Verde strain was found to be susceptible to all others tested insecticides except for propoxur 0.1%, which needs further investigation. The Dakar strain was susceptible to fenitrothion 1% and permethrin 0.75%, but displayed reduced susceptibility to deltamethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin and propoxur. As base-line results, our observations stress a careful management of insecticide use for the control of Ae. aegypti. Indeed, they indicate that DDT is no longer efficient for the control of Ae. aegypti populations in Cape Verde and Dakar and further suggest a thorough follow-up of propoxur susceptibility status in both sites and that of deltamethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin in Ae. aegypti populations in Dakar. Thus, regular monitoring of susceptibility is greatly needed as well as the knowing if this observed resistance/susceptibility is focal or not and for observed resistance, the use of biochemical methods is needed with detailed comparison of resistance levels over a large geographic area. Aedes aegypti, Insecticides, Susceptibility, Cape Verde, Senegal.

  11. 76 FR 43684 - Verde Energy USA Trading, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER11-4041-000] Verde Energy USA Trading, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... Verde Energy USA Trading, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate...

  12. Mud transportation on a steep shelf, Rio de La Plata shelf, Puerto Rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grove, K.A.; Pilkey, O.H.; Trumbull, J.V.A.

    1982-01-01

    Hurricanes David (August 29-30, 1979) and Frederick (September 2-5, 1979) caused major flooding of the Rio de La Plata in northern Puerto Rico. A thin mud layer was deposited across the narrow insular shelf adjacent to the river mouth. Within 5 months, fair-weather shelf-winnowing processes moved the mud layer entirely from the shelf, 0.5 to 2 km to the shelf break at the 50-m contour and beyond. The process of mud movement is termed 'mud hopping.' ?? 1982 A. M. Dowden, Inc.

  13. Origin and Population Dynamics of a Novel HIV-1 Subtype G Clade Circulating in Cape Verde and Portugal

    PubMed Central

    Guimarães, Monick L.; Morgado, Mariza G.; Bello, Gonzalo

    2015-01-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) subtype G is the most prevalent and second most prevalent HIV-1 clade in Cape Verde and Portugal, respectively; but there is no information about the origin and spatiotemporal dispersal pattern of this HIV-1 clade circulating in those countries. To this end, we used Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian coalescent-based methods to analyze a collection of 578 HIV-1 subtype G pol sequences sampled throughout Portugal, Cape Verde and 11 other countries from West and Central Africa over a period of 22 years (1992 to 2013). Our analyses indicate that most subtype G sequences from Cape Verde (80%) and Portugal (95%) branched together in a distinct monophyletic cluster (here called GCV-PT). The GCV-PT clade probably emerged after a single migration of the virus out of Central Africa into Cape Verde between the late 1970s and the middle 1980s, followed by a rapid dissemination to Portugal a couple of years later. Reconstruction of the demographic history of the GCV-PT clade circulating in Cape Verde and Portugal indicates that this viral clade displayed an initial phase of exponential growth during the 1980s and 1990s, followed by a decline in growth rate since the early 2000s. Our data also indicate that during the exponential growth phase the GCV-PT clade recombined with a preexisting subtype B viral strain circulating in Portugal, originating the CRF14_BG clade that was later disseminated to Spain and Cape Verde. Historical and recent human population movements between Angola, Cape Verde and Portugal probably played a key role in the origin and dispersal of the GCV-PT and CRF14_BG clades. PMID:25993094

  14. Origin and Population Dynamics of a Novel HIV-1 Subtype G Clade Circulating in Cape Verde and Portugal.

    PubMed

    de Pina-Araujo, Isabel Inês M; Delatorre, Edson; Guimarães, Monick L; Morgado, Mariza G; Bello, Gonzalo

    2015-01-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) subtype G is the most prevalent and second most prevalent HIV-1 clade in Cape Verde and Portugal, respectively; but there is no information about the origin and spatiotemporal dispersal pattern of this HIV-1 clade circulating in those countries. To this end, we used Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian coalescent-based methods to analyze a collection of 578 HIV-1 subtype G pol sequences sampled throughout Portugal, Cape Verde and 11 other countries from West and Central Africa over a period of 22 years (1992 to 2013). Our analyses indicate that most subtype G sequences from Cape Verde (80%) and Portugal (95%) branched together in a distinct monophyletic cluster (here called G(CV-PT)). The G(CV-PT) clade probably emerged after a single migration of the virus out of Central Africa into Cape Verde between the late 1970s and the middle 1980s, followed by a rapid dissemination to Portugal a couple of years later. Reconstruction of the demographic history of the G(CV-PT) clade circulating in Cape Verde and Portugal indicates that this viral clade displayed an initial phase of exponential growth during the 1980s and 1990s, followed by a decline in growth rate since the early 2000s. Our data also indicate that during the exponential growth phase the G(CV-PT) clade recombined with a preexisting subtype B viral strain circulating in Portugal, originating the CRF14_BG clade that was later disseminated to Spain and Cape Verde. Historical and recent human population movements between Angola, Cape Verde and Portugal probably played a key role in the origin and dispersal of the G(CV-PT )and CRF14_BG clades.

  15. 77 FR 38280 - Verde Energy USA New York, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-2071-000] Verde Energy USA New York, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... Verde Energy USA New York, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate...

  16. Seasonal and interannual cross-shelf transport over the Texas and Louisiana continental shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thyng, Kristen M.; Hetland, Robert D.

    2018-05-01

    Numerical drifters are tracked in a hydrodynamic simulation of circulation over the Texas-Louisiana shelf to analyze patterns in cross-shelf transport of materials. While the important forcing mechanisms in the region (wind, river, and deep eddies) and associated flow patterns are known, the resultant material transport is less well understood. The primary metric used in the calculations is the percent of drifters released within a region that cross the 100 m isobath. Results of the analysis indicate that, averaged over the eleven years of the simulation, there are two regions on the shelf - over the Texas shelf during winter, and over the Louisiana shelf in summer - with increased seasonal probability for offshore transport. Among the two other distinct regions, the big bend region in Texas has increased probability for onshore transport, and the Mississippi Delta region has an increase in offshore transport, for both seasons. Some of these regions of offshore transport have marked interannual variability. This interannual variability is correlated to interannual changes in forcing conditions. Winter transport off of the Texas shelf is correlated with winter mean wind direction, with more northerly winds enhancing offshore transport; summer transport off the Louisiana shelf is correlated with Mississippi River discharge.

  17. Verde Valley Community Needs Assessment Project, Spring 1979.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gose, Frank J.

    A study of the educational needs to be met by the Verde Campus of Yavapai College (YC) involved surveying seven populations. Responses were returned by 88 non-retired community residents, 96 retired members of the community, 191 members of the business sector, 240 current students, 208 former students, 19 faculty members, and 261 high school…

  18. Single and multiple in-season measurements as indicators of at-harvest cotton boll damage caused by verde plant bug (Hemiptera: Miridae).

    PubMed

    Brewer, Michael J; Armstrong, J Scott; Parker, Roy D

    2013-06-01

    The ability to monitor verde plant bug, Creontiades signatus Distant (Hemiptera: Miridae), and the progression of cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., boll responses to feeding and associated cotton boll rot provided opportunity to assess if single in-season measurements had value in evaluating at-harvest damage to bolls and if multiple in-season measurements enhanced their combined use. One in-season verde plant bug density measurement, three in-season plant injury measurements, and two at-harvest damage measurements were taken in 15 cotton fields in South Texas, 2010. Linear regression selected two measurements as potentially useful indicators of at-harvest damage: verde plant bug density (adjusted r2 = 0.68; P = 0.0004) and internal boll injury of the carpel wall (adjusted r2 = 0.72; P = 0.004). Considering use of multiple measurements, a stepwise multiple regression of the four in-season measurements selected a univariate model (verde plant bug density) using a 0.15 selection criterion (adjusted r2 = 0.74; P = 0.0002) and a bivariate model (verde plant bug density-internal boll injury) using a 0.25 selection criterion (adjusted r2 = 0.76; P = 0.0007) as indicators of at-harvest damage. In a validation using cultivar and water regime treatments experiencing low verde plant bug pressure in 2011 and 2012, the bivariate model performed better than models using verde plant bug density or internal boll injury separately. Overall, verde plant bug damaging cotton bolls exemplified the benefits of using multiple in-season measurements in pest monitoring programs, under the challenging situation when at-harvest damage results from a sequence of plant responses initiated by in-season insect feeding.

  19. Shelf-life dating of shelf-stable strawberry juice based on survival analysis of consumer acceptance information.

    PubMed

    Buvé, Carolien; Van Bedts, Tine; Haenen, Annelien; Kebede, Biniam; Braekers, Roel; Hendrickx, Marc; Van Loey, Ann; Grauwet, Tara

    2018-07-01

    Accurate shelf-life dating of food products is crucial for consumers and industries. Therefore, in this study we applied a science-based approach for shelf-life assessment, including accelerated shelf-life testing (ASLT), acceptability testing and the screening of analytical attributes for fast shelf-life predictions. Shelf-stable strawberry juice was selected as a case study. Ambient storage (20 °C) had no effect on the aroma-based acceptance of strawberry juice. The colour-based acceptability decreased during storage under ambient and accelerated (28-42 °C) conditions. The application of survival analysis showed that the colour-based shelf-life was reached in the early stages of storage (≤11 weeks) and that the shelf-life was shortened at higher temperatures. None of the selected attributes (a * and ΔE * value, anthocyanin and ascorbic acid content) is an ideal analytical marker for shelf-life predictions in the investigated temperature range (20-42 °C). Nevertheless, an overall analytical cut-off value over the whole temperature range can be selected. Colour changes of strawberry juice during storage are shelf-life limiting. Combining ASLT with acceptability testing allowed to gain faster insight into the change in colour-based acceptability and to perform shelf-life predictions relying on scientific data. An analytical marker is a convenient tool for shelf-life predictions in the context of ASLT. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. The Politics of an Emancipatory Literacy in Cape Verde.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macedo, Donaldo P.

    1983-01-01

    Examines the literacy program in Cape Verde against theories of cultural production and reproduction. Argues that the use of Portuguese rather than the Capeverdean dialect reproduces a colonial, elitist mentality, and that functional literacy in Portuguese fails to provide Capeverdeans with opportunities for critical reflection and social…

  1. Larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti of Foeniculum vulgare essential oils from Portugal and Cape Verde.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Diara Kady; Matosc, Olivia; Novoa, Maria Teresa; Figueiredo, Ana Cristina; Delgado, Manuel; Moiteiro, Cristina

    2015-04-01

    Dengue is a potentially fatal mosquito-borne infection with 50 million cases per year and 2.5 billion people vulnerable to the disease. This major public health problem has recurrent epidemics in Latin America and occurred recently in Cape Verde and Madeira Island. The lack of anti-viral treatment or vaccine makes the control of mosquito vectors a high option to prevent virus transmission. Essential oil (EO) constituents can affect insect's behaviour, being potentially effective in pest control. The present study evaluated the potential use of Foenicultm vulgare (fennel) EO in the control of the dengue vector Aedes aegypti. EOs isolated from fennel aerial parts collected in Cape Verde and from a commercial fennel EO of Portugal were analysed by NMR, GC and GC-MS. trans-Anethole (32 and 30%, respectively), limonene (28 and 18%, respectively) and fenchone (10% in both cases) were the main compounds identified in the EOs isolated from fennel from Cape Verde and Portugal, respectively. The larvicidal activity of the EOs and its major constituents were evaluated, using WHO procedures, against third instar larvae ofAe. aegypti for 24 h. Pure compounds, such as limonene isomers, were also assayed. The lethal concentrations LC50, C90 and LC99 were determined by probit analysis using mortality rates of bioassays. A 99% mortality of Ae. aegypti larvae was estimated at 37.1 and 52.4 µL L-1 of fennel EOs from Cape Verde and Portugal, respectively. Bioassays showed that fennel EOs from both countries displayed strong larvicidal effect against Ae. aegypti, the Cape Verde EO being as active as one of its major constituents, (-)-limonene.

  2. The Orthoptera of Castro Verde Special Protection Area (Southern Portugal): new data and conservation value.

    PubMed

    Pina, Sílvia; Vasconcelos, Sasha; Reino, Luís; Santana, Joana; Beja, Pedro; Sánchez-Oliver, Juan S; Catry, Inês; Moreira, Francisco; Ferreira, Sónia

    2017-01-01

    With the increasing awareness of the need for Orthoptera conservation, greater efforts must be gathered to implement specific monitoring schemes. Despite recent surveys, little is known about Portuguese Orthoptera populations. This study was performed in 2014 and 2015 mainly in Castro Verde Special Protection Area (SPA), southern Portugal, and is the first Orthoptera inventory conducted in the area. A total of 35 Orthoptera species was recorded, with two new species reported for Portugal. We provide species' habitat occurrences within the protected area and use information on the conservation status and the Iberian distribution of each documented species to discuss the importance of Castro Verde SPA for Orthoptera conservation. The data presented here sheds new light on Castro Verde SPA biodiversity and emphasizes the inclusion of this area in the conservation of Orthoptera diversity, particularly in the protection of threatened endemic species.

  3. Groundwater resources of Ribeira Fajã basin, island of São Nicolau, Cape Verde, West Africa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heilweil, Victor M.; Gingerich, Stephen B.; Plummer, Niel; Verstraeten, Ingrid M.

    2010-01-01

    Groundwater resources in Cape Verde provide water for agriculture, industry, and human consumption. These resources are limited and susceptible to contamination. Additional groundwater resources are needed for continued agricultural development, particularly during times of drought, but increased use and (or) climatic change may have adverse effects on the quantity and quality of freshwater available. In volcanic island aquifers such as those of Cape Verde, a lens of fresh groundwater typically ?floats? upon a layer of brackish water at the freshwater/saltwater boundary, and increased pumping may cause salt water intrusion or other contamination. A recent U.S. Geological Survey study assessed baseline groundwater conditions in watersheds on three islands of Cape Verde to provide the scientific basis for sustainably developing water resources and minimizing future groundwater depletion and contamination.

  4. The Orthoptera of Castro Verde Special Protection Area (Southern Portugal): new data and conservation value

    PubMed Central

    Pina, Sílvia; Vasconcelos, Sasha; Reino, Luís; Santana, Joana; Beja, Pedro; Sánchez-Oliver, Juan S.; Catry, Inês; Moreira, Francisco; Ferreira, Sónia

    2017-01-01

    Abstract With the increasing awareness of the need for Orthoptera conservation, greater efforts must be gathered to implement specific monitoring schemes. Despite recent surveys, little is known about Portuguese Orthoptera populations. This study was performed in 2014 and 2015 mainly in Castro Verde Special Protection Area (SPA), southern Portugal, and is the first Orthoptera inventory conducted in the area. A total of 35 Orthoptera species was recorded, with two new species reported for Portugal. We provide species’ habitat occurrences within the protected area and use information on the conservation status and the Iberian distribution of each documented species to discuss the importance of Castro Verde SPA for Orthoptera conservation. The data presented here sheds new light on Castro Verde SPA biodiversity and emphasizes the inclusion of this area in the conservation of Orthoptera diversity, particularly in the protection of threatened endemic species. PMID:29200922

  5. Tidal Modulation of Ice-shelf Flow: a Viscous Model of the Ross Ice Shelf

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brunt, Kelly M.; MacAyeal, Douglas R.

    2014-01-01

    Three stations near the calving front of the Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctica, recorded GPS data through a full spring-neap tidal cycle in November 2005. The data revealed a diurnal horizontal motion that varied both along and transverse to the long-term average velocity direction, similar to tidal signals observed in other ice shelves and ice streams. Based on its periodicity, it was hypothesized that the signal represents a flow response of the Ross Ice Shelf to the diurnal tides of the Ross Sea. To assess the influence of the tide on the ice-shelf motion, two hypotheses were developed. The first addressed the direct response of the ice shelf to tidal forcing, such as forces due to sea-surface slopes or forces due to sub-ice-shelf currents. The second involved the indirect response of ice-shelf flow to the tidal signals observed in the ice streams that source the ice shelf. A finite-element model, based on viscous creep flow, was developed to test these hypotheses, but succeeded only in falsifying both hypotheses, i.e. showing that direct tidal effects produce too small a response, and indirect tidal effects produce a response that is not smooth in time. This nullification suggests that a combination of viscous and elastic deformation is required to explain the observations.

  6. Phylogenetic relationships of cone snails endemic to Cabo Verde based on mitochondrial genomes.

    PubMed

    Abalde, Samuel; Tenorio, Manuel J; Afonso, Carlos M L; Uribe, Juan E; Echeverry, Ana M; Zardoya, Rafael

    2017-11-25

    Due to their great species and ecological diversity as well as their capacity to produce hundreds of different toxins, cone snails are of interest to evolutionary biologists, pharmacologists and amateur naturalists alike. Taxonomic identification of cone snails still relies mostly on the shape, color, and banding patterns of the shell. However, these phenotypic traits are prone to homoplasy. Therefore, the consistent use of genetic data for species delimitation and phylogenetic inference in this apparently hyperdiverse group is largely wanting. Here, we reconstruct the phylogeny of the cones endemic to Cabo Verde archipelago, a well-known radiation of the group, using mitochondrial (mt) genomes. The reconstructed phylogeny grouped the analyzed species into two main clades, one including Kalloconus from West Africa sister to Trovaoconus from Cabo Verde and the other with a paraphyletic Lautoconus due to the sister group relationship of Africonus from Cabo Verde and Lautoconus ventricosus from Mediterranean Sea and neighboring Atlantic Ocean to the exclusion of Lautoconus endemic to Senegal (plus Lautoconus guanche from Mauritania, Morocco, and Canary Islands). Within Trovaoconus, up to three main lineages could be distinguished. The clade of Africonus included four main lineages (named I to IV), each further subdivided into two monophyletic groups. The reconstructed phylogeny allowed inferring the evolution of the radula in the studied lineages as well as biogeographic patterns. The number of cone species endemic to Cabo Verde was revised under the light of sequence divergence data and the inferred phylogenetic relationships. The sequence divergence between continental members of the genus Kalloconus and island endemics ascribed to the genus Trovaoconus is low, prompting for synonymization of the latter. The genus Lautoconus is paraphyletic. Lautoconus ventricosus is the closest living sister group of genus Africonus. Diversification of Africonus was in allopatry

  7. Improving Access to Pediatric Cardiology in Cape Verde via a Collaborative International Telemedicine Service.

    PubMed

    Lapão, Luís Velez; Correia, Artur

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses the role of international telemedicine services in supporting the evacuation procedures from Cape Verde to Portugal, enabling better quality and cost reductions in the management of the global health system. The Cape Verde, as other African countries, health system lacks many medical specialists, like pediatric cardiologists, neurosurgery, etc. In this study, tele-cardiology shows good results as diagnostic support to the evacuation decision. Telemedicine services show benefits while monitoring patients in post-evacuation, helping to address the lack of responsive care in some specialties whose actual use will help save resources both in provision and in management of the evacuation procedures. Additionally, with tele-cardiology collaborative service many evacuations can be avoided whereas many cases will be treated and followed locally in Cape Verde with remote technical support from Portugal. This international telemedicine service enabled more efficient evacuations, by reducing expenses in travel and housing, and therefore contributed to the health system's improvement. This study provides some evidence of how important telemedicine really is to cope with both the geography and the shortage of physicians.

  8. Export of a Winter Shelf Phytoplankton Bloom at the Shelf Margin of Long Bay (South Atlantic Bight, USA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, J.; Seim, H.; Edwards, C. R.; Lockhart, S.; Moore, T.; Robertson, C. Y.; Amft, J.

    2016-02-01

    A winter 2012 field study off Long Bay (seaward of Myrtle Beach, South Carolina) investigated exchange processes along the shelf margin. Topics addressed included mechanisms of nutrient input (upper slope to outer shelf), phytoplankton blooms and community characteristics (mid-to-outer shelf), and possible export of shelf bloom material (transport to and across the shelf break to the upper slope). Observations utilized three moorings (mid-shelf, shelf break, upper slope), two gliders and ship operations (repeat cruises with profiling, water sampling and towed body surveys) along with satellite SST and ocean color imagery and near-by NOAA buoy records. Here we focus on the late January to early February period, when a mid-shelf bloom of Phaeocystis globosa (which forms large gelatinous colonies) was transported to the shelf break. The presence of Phaeocystis colonies resulted in strong spiking in chlorophyll (chl) fluorescence profiles. A partitioning approach was adapted to estimate chl in colonies (spikes) and small forms (baseline signal) and to account for an apparent difference in measured in vivo fluorescence per unit chl (lower in colonies). Up to 40-50% of chl in the bloom (surface to bottom on the mid-shelf) was estimated to be in the colonies. In late January, there a pronounced seaward slumping of relatively dense mid-shelf water along the bottom under warmer surface water derived from the inshore edge of a broad jet of Gulf Stream water flowing southwestward along the upper slope. We describe the evolution of this event and the conditions which set up this mechanism for episodic near-bed transport of fresh bloom material produced on the shelf to the upper slope off Long Bay. Down-slope transport may have been enhanced in this case by the high phytoplankton biomass in gelatinous colonies, which appeared to be settling in the water column on the shelf prior to the transport event.

  9. Larsen Ice Shelf, Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Warmer surface temperatures over just a few months in the Antarctic can splinter an ice shelf and prime it for a major collapse, NASA and university scientists report in the latest issue of the Journal of Glaciology. Using satellite images of tell-tale melt water on the ice surface and a sophisticated computer simulation of the motions and forces within an ice shelf, the scientists demonstrated that added pressure from surface water filling crevasses can crack the ice entirely through. The process can be expected to become more widespread if Antarctic summer temperatures increase. This true-color image from Landsat 7, acquired on February 21, 2000, shows pools of melt water on the surface of the Larsen Ice Shelf, and drifting icebergs that have split from the shelf. The upper image is an overview of the shelf's edge, while the lower image is displayed at full resolution of 30 meters (98 feet) per pixel. The labeled pond in the lower image measures roughly 1.6 by 1.6 km (1.0 x 1.0 miles). Full text of Press Release More Images and Animations Image courtesy Landsat 7 Science Team and NASA GSFC

  10. Along-shelf current variability on the Catalan inner-shelf (NW Mediterranean)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grifoll, Manel; Aretxabaleta, Alfredo L.; Espino, Manuel; Warner, John C.

    2012-01-01

    We examine the circulation over the inner shelf of the Catalan Sea using observations of currents obtained from three ADCPs within the inner-shelf (24 and 50 m depth) during March-April 2011. The along-shelf current fluctuations during that period are mainly controlled by the local wind stress on short time scales and by remote pressure gradients on synoptic time scales. Different forcing mechanisms are involved in the along-shelf momentum balance. During storm conditions, wind stress, sea level gradients and the non-linear terms dominate the balance. During weak wind conditions, the momentum balance is controlled by the pressure gradient, while during periods of moderate wind in the presence of considerable stratification, the balance is established between the Coriolis and wind stress terms. Vertical variations of velocity are affected by the strong observed density gradient. The increased vertical shear is accompanied by the development of stratified conditions due to local heating when the wind is not able to counteract (and destroy) stratification. The occasional influence of the Besòs river plume is observed in time scales of hours to days in a limited area in front of Barcelona. The area affected by the plume depends on the vertical extend of the fresher layer, the fast river discharge peak, and the relaxation of cross-shore velocities after northeast storm events. This contribution provides a first interpretation of the inner-shelf dynamics in the Catalan Sea.

  11. Preliminary synthesis and assessment of environmental flows in the middle Verde River watershed, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paretti, Nicholas; Brasher, Anne M. D.; Pearlstein, Susanna L.; Skow, Dena M.; Gungle, Bruce W.; Garner, Bradley D.

    2018-05-15

    A 3-year study was undertaken to evaluate the suitability of the available modeling tools for characterizing environmental flows in the middle Verde River watershed of central Arizona, describe riparian vegetation throughout the watershed, and estimate sediment mobilization in the river. Existing data on fish and macroinvertebrates were analyzed in relation to basin characteristics, flow regimes, and microhabitat, and a pilot study was conducted that sampled fish and macroinvertebrates and the microhabitats in which they were found. The sampling for the pilot study took place at five different locations in the middle Verde River watershed. This report presents the results of this 3-year study. The Northern Arizona Groundwater Flow Model (NARGFM) was found to be capable of predicting long-term changes caused by alteration of regional recharge (such as may result from climate variability) and groundwater pumping in gaining, losing, and dry reaches of the major streams in the middle Verde River watershed. Over the period 1910 to 2006, the model simulated an increase in dry reaches, a small increase in reaches losing discharge to the groundwater aquifer, and a concurrent decrease in reaches gaining discharge from groundwater. Although evaluations of the suitability of using the NARGFM and Basin Characteristic Model to characterize various streamflow intervals showed that smallerscale basin monthly runoff could be estimated adequately at locations of interest, monthly stream-flow estimates were found unsatisfactory for determining environmental flows.Orthoimagery and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer data were used to quantify stream and riparian vegetation properties related to biotic habitat. The relative abundance of riparian vegetation varied along the main channel of the Verde River. As would be expected, more upland plant species and fewer lowland species were found in the upper-middle section compared to the lower-middle section, and vice

  12. From introduced American weed to Cape Verde Islands endemic: the case of Solanum rigidum Lam. (Solanaceae, Solanum subgenus Leptostemonum).

    PubMed

    Knapp, Sandra; Vorontsova, Maria S

    2013-01-01

    A Solanum species long considered an American introduction to the Cape Verde Islands off the west coast of Africa is identified as Solanum rigidum, a member of the Eggplant clade of Old World spiny solanums (Solanum subgenus Leptostemonum) and is probably endemic to the Cape Verde Islands. Collections of this species from the Caribbean are likely to have been introduced from the Cape Verde Islands on slave ships. We discuss the complex nomenclatural history of this plant and provide a detailed description, illustration and distribution map. The preliminary conservation status of Solanum rigidum is Least Concern, but needs to be reassessed in light of its endemic rather than introduced status.

  13. Groundwater resources of Ribeira Paúl basin, island of Santo Antão, Cape Verde, West Africa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heilweil, Victor M.; Gingerich, Stephen B.; Verstraeten, Ingrid M.

    2010-01-01

    Groundwater resources in Cape Verde provide water for agriculture, industry, and human consumption. These resources are limited and susceptible to contamination. Additional groundwater resources are needed for continued agricultural development, particularly during times of drought, but increased use and (or) climatic change may have adverse effects on the quantity and quality of freshwater available. In volcanic island aquifers such as those of Cape Verde, a lens of fresh groundwater typically ?floats? upon a layer of brackish water at the freshwater/saltwater boundary, and increased pumping may cause salt water intrusion or other contamination. A recent U.S. Geological Survey study assessed baseline groundwater conditions in watersheds on three islands of Cape Verde to provide the scientific basis for sustainably developing water resources and minimizing future groundwater depletion and contamination.

  14. Tree species effects on pathogen-suppressive capacities of soil bacteria across two tropical dry forests in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Becklund, Kristen; Powers, Jennifer; Kinkel, Linda

    2016-11-01

    Antibiotic-producing bacteria in the genus Streptomyces can inhibit soil-borne plant pathogens, and have the potential to mediate the impacts of disease on plant communities. Little is known about how antibiotic production varies among soil communities in tropical forests, despite a long history of interest in the role of soil-borne pathogens in these ecosystems. Our objective was to determine how tree species and soils influence variation in antibiotic-mediated pathogen suppression among Streptomyces communities in two tropical dry forest sites (Santa Rosa and Palo Verde). We targeted tree species that co-occur in both sites and used a culture-based functional assay to quantify pathogen-suppressive capacities of Streptomyces communities beneath 50 focal trees. We also measured host-associated litter and soil element concentrations as potential mechanisms by which trees may influence soil microbes. Pathogen-suppressive capacities of Streptomyces communities varied within and among tree species, and inhibitory phenotypes were significantly related to soil and litter element concentrations. Average proportions of inhibitory Streptomyces in soils from the same tree species varied between 1.6 and 3.3-fold between sites. Densities and proportions of pathogen-suppressive bacteria were always higher in Santa Rosa than Palo Verde. Our results suggest that spatial heterogeneity in the potential for antibiotic-mediated disease suppression is shaped by tree species, site, and soil characteristics, which could have significant implications for understanding plant community composition and diversity in tropical dry forests.

  15. Larsen B Ice Shelf

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    article title:  Unique Views of a Shattered Ice Shelf     View Larger Image ... views of the breakup of the northern section of the Larsen B ice shelf are shown in this image pair from the Multi-angle Imaging ...

  16. The Asymmetric Continental Shelf Wave in Response to the Synoptic Wind Burst in a Semienclosed Double-Shelf Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Lixin; Lin, Xiaopei; Hetland, Robert D.; Guo, Jingsong

    2018-01-01

    The primary goal of this study is to investigate the asymmetric structure of continental shelf wave in a semienclosed double-shelf basin, such as the Yellow Sea. Supported by in situ observations and realistic numerical simulations, it is found that in the Yellow Sea, the shelf wave response to the synoptic wind forcing does not match the mathematically symmetric solution of classic double-shelf wave theory, but rather exhibits a westward shift. To study the formation mechanism of this asymmetric structure, an idealized model was used and two sets of experiments were conducted. The results confirm that the asymmetric structure is due to the existence of a topographic waveguide connecting both shelves. For a semienclosed basin, such as the Yellow Sea, a connection at the end of the basin eliminates the potential vorticity barrier between the two shelves and hence plays a role as a connecting waveguide for shelf waves. This waveguide enables the shelf wave to propagate from one shelf to the other shelf and produces the asymmetric response in sea level and upwind flow evolutions.

  17. 78 FR 32240 - Notice of Inent (NOI) To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Oro Verde Solar...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-29

    ... additional alternatives. Alternative A includes full-scale project development of a 450 Megawatt solar PV... the Oro Verde Solar Project at Edwards Air Force Base and County of Kern, CA AGENCY: Department of the... with the development of the Oro Verde Solar Project (OVSP) on Edwards AFB. The OVSP is a solar...

  18. Wilkins Ice Shelf

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-04-20

    The Wilkins Ice Shelf, as seen by NASA Terra spacecraft, on the western side of the Antarctic Peninsula, experienced multiple disintegration events in 2008. By the beginning of 2009, a narrow ice bridge was all that remained to connect the ice shelf to ice fragments fringing nearby Charcot Island. That bridge gave way in early April 2009. Days after the ice bridge rupture, on April 12, 2009, the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite acquired this image of the southern base of the ice bridge, where it connected with the remnant ice shelf. Although the ice bridge has played a role in stabilizing the ice fragments in the region, its rupture doesn't guarantee the ice will immediately move away. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA11991

  19. NPDES Permit for Mesa Verde National Park Water Treatment Plant in Colorado

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under NPDES permit number CO-0034462, the United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service is authorized to discharge from the Mesa Verde National Park water treatment plant, in Montezuma County, Colo.

  20. [Implementation of Telemedicine in Cape Verde: Influencing Factors].

    PubMed

    Correia, Artur; Azevedo, Vanda; Lapão, Luís Velez

    2017-04-28

    Telemedicine is the provision of health services, where distance is a critical factor, using information and communication technologies. Cape Verde has bet on using this tool to increase access of the population of its islands to specialized care. Qualitative study, covering the period between 2013 and 2014. It uses document analysis, semi-structured interviews and focus groups to collect data and analysis of content for their analysis. The participant population includes doctors, nurses and professionals from some institutions related to telemedicine. The priorities of the National Telemedicine Program are set, the cores and reference centers are operational, with trained personnel and equipment installed. Several other policy instruments and conditioning factors and facilitators of the program have been identified. Telemedicine is contributing to the reduction of inequalities in access to health, in Cape Verde. However, the full adoption of a service based on a new technology depends on conditioning factors and facilitators, and several success factors of telemedicine, identified in the literature, are not observed and in conjunction with other existing weaknesses affect the overall development of the National Telemedicine Program. However the strengths and capabilities are highlighted opportunities to act. Despite the progress, some telemedicine success factors highlighted on the literature are not seen in the country.

  1. Mexico City's Indios Verdes: Exploring Cultural Processes Using Public Memorials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, Seth

    2010-01-01

    Finding ways to convey current research in cultural geography that is predicated on theoretical frameworks in a manner accessible to high school and undergraduate college students is pedagogically important but difficult in practice. Statues in Mexico City nicknamed the Indios Verdes offer a rich example of fluid cultural dynamics that illustrate…

  2. Composition of fluid inclusions in Permian salt beds, Palo Duro Basin, Texas, U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roedder, E.; d'Angelo, W. M.; Dorrzapf, A.F.; Aruscavage, P. J.

    1987-01-01

    Several methods have been developed and used to extract and chemically analyze the two major types of fluid inclusions in bedded salt from the Palo Duro Basin, Texas. Data on the ratio K: Ca: Mg were obtained on a few of the clouds of tiny inclusions in "chevron" salt, representing the brines from which the salt originally crystallized. Much more complete quantitative data (Na, K, Ca, Mg, Sr, Cl, SO4 and Br) were obtained on ??? 120 individual "large" (mostly ???500 ??m on an edge, i.e., ??? ??? 1.6 ?? 10-4 g) inclusions in recrystallized salt. These latter fluids have a wide range of compositions, even in a given piece of core, indicating that fluids of grossly different composition were present in these salt beds during the several (?) stages of recrystallization. The analytical results indicating very large inter-and intra-sample chemical variation verify the conclusion reached earlier, from petrography and microthermometry, that the inclusion fluids in salt and their solutes are generally polygenetic. The diversity in composition stems from the combination of a variety of sources for the fluids (Permian sea, meteoric, and groundwater, as well as later migrating ground-, formation, or meteoric waters of unknown age), and a variety of subsequent geochemical processes of dissolution, precipitation and rock-water interaction. The compositional data are frequently ambiguous but do provide constraints and may eventually yield a coherent history of the events that produced these beds. Such an understanding of the past history of the evaporite sequence of the Palo Duro Basin should help in predicting the future role of the fluids in the salt if a nuclear waste repository is sited there. ?? 1987.

  3. Patterns of genetic diversity in three plant lineages endemic to the Cape Verde Islands.

    PubMed

    Romeiras, Maria M; Monteiro, Filipa; Duarte, M Cristina; Schaefer, Hanno; Carine, Mark

    2015-05-15

    Conservation of plant diversity on islands relies on a good knowledge of the taxonomy, distribution and genetic diversity of species. In recent decades, a combination of morphology- and DNA-based approaches has become the standard for investigating island plant lineages and this has led, in some cases, to the discovery of previously overlooked diversity, including 'cryptic species'. The flora of the Cape Verde archipelago in the North Atlantic is currently thought to comprise ∼740 vascular plant species, 92 of them endemics. Despite the fact that it is considered relatively well known, there has been a 12 % increase in the number of endemics in the last two decades. Relatively few of the Cape Verde plant lineages have been included in genetic studies so far and little is known about the patterns of diversification in the archipelago. Here we present an updated list for the endemic Cape Verde flora and analyse diversity patterns for three endemic plant lineages (Cynanchum, Globularia and Umbilicus) based on one nuclear (ITS) and four plastid DNA regions. In all three lineages, we find genetic variation. In Cynanchum, we find two distinct haplotypes with no clear geographical pattern, possibly reflecting different ploidy levels. In Globularia and Umbilicus, differentiation is evident between populations from northern and southern islands. Isolation and drift resulting from the small and fragmented distributions, coupled with the significant distances separating the northern and southern islands, could explain this pattern. Overall, our study suggests that the diversity in the endemic vascular flora of Cape Verde is higher than previously thought and further work is necessary to characterize the flora. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company.

  4. Seasonal Outflow of Ice Shelf Water Across the Front of the Filchner Ice Shelf, Weddell Sea, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darelius, E.; Sallée, J. B.

    2018-04-01

    The ice shelf water (ISW) found in the Filchner Trough, located in the southern Weddell Sea, Antarctica, is climatically important; it descends into the deep Weddell Sea contributing to bottom water formation, and it blocks warm off-shelf waters from accessing the Filchner ice shelf cavity. Yet the circulation of ISW within the Filchner Trough and the processes determining its exchange across the ice shelf front are to a large degree unknown. Here mooring records from the ice shelf front are presented, the longest of which is 4 years long. They show that the coldest (Θ =- 2.3∘C) ISW, which originates from the Ronne Trough in the west, exits the cavity across the western part of the ice shelf front during late austral summer and early autumn. The supercooled ISW escaping the cavity flows northward with a velocity of about 0.03 m/s. During the rest of the year, there is no outflow at the western site: the current is directed eastward, parallel to the ice shelf front, and the temperatures at the mooring site are slightly higher (Θ =- 2.0∘C). The eastern records show a more persistent outflow of ISW.

  5. Data for wells at the low-level radioactive-waste burial site in the Palos Forest Preserve, Illinois

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olimpio, J.C.

    1982-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey is studying the geologic, hydrologic, and geochemical properties of the glacial drift and underlying bedrock at a low-level radioactive-waste burial site in the Palos Forest Preserve, 22 kilometers southwest of Chicago. Data collected from the 33 test wells drilled into the drift plus data from 4 wells drilled into the underlying dolomite bedrock are presented. Data include maps showing the location of the test wells, a general description of the drift, well-construction information, and lithologic descriptions of cores from the wells finished in the drift.

  6. 41 CFR 101-27.205 - Shelf-life codes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Shelf-life codes. 101-27...-Management of Shelf-Life Materials § 101-27.205 Shelf-life codes. Shelf-life items shall be identified by use of a one-digit code to provide for uniform coding of shelf-life materials by all agencies. (a) The...

  7. 41 CFR 101-27.205 - Shelf-life codes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2011-07-01 2007-07-01 true Shelf-life codes. 101-27...-Management of Shelf-Life Materials § 101-27.205 Shelf-life codes. Shelf-life items shall be identified by use of a one-digit code to provide for uniform coding of shelf-life materials by all agencies. (a) The...

  8. 41 CFR 101-27.205 - Shelf-life codes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2014-07-01 2012-07-01 true Shelf-life codes. 101-27...-Management of Shelf-Life Materials § 101-27.205 Shelf-life codes. Shelf-life items shall be identified by use of a one-digit code to provide for uniform coding of shelf-life materials by all agencies. (a) The...

  9. 41 CFR 101-27.205 - Shelf-life codes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Shelf-life codes. 101-27...-Management of Shelf-Life Materials § 101-27.205 Shelf-life codes. Shelf-life items shall be identified by use of a one-digit code to provide for uniform coding of shelf-life materials by all agencies. (a) The...

  10. 41 CFR 101-27.205 - Shelf-life codes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Shelf-life codes. 101-27...-Management of Shelf-Life Materials § 101-27.205 Shelf-life codes. Shelf-life items shall be identified by use of a one-digit code to provide for uniform coding of shelf-life materials by all agencies. (a) The...

  11. Synthesis of Upper Verde River research and monitoring 1993-2008

    Treesearch

    Daniel G. Neary; Alvin L. Medina; John N. Rinne

    2012-01-01

    This volume is a state-of-knowledge synthesis of monitoring and research conducted on the Upper Verde River (UVR) of Arizona. It contains information on the history, hydrology, soils, geomorphology, vegetation, and fish fauna of the area that can help land managers and other scientists in successfully conducting ecosystem management and future monitoring and research...

  12. Oral receptivity of Aedes aegypti from Cape Verde for yellow fever, dengue, and chikungunya viruses.

    PubMed

    Vazeille, Marie; Yébakima, André; Lourenço-de-Oliveira, Ricardo; Andriamahefazafy, Barrysson; Correira, Artur; Rodrigues, Julio Monteiro; Veiga, Antonio; Moreira, Antonio; Leparc-Goffart, Isabelle; Grandadam, Marc; Failloux, Anna-Bella

    2013-01-01

    At the end of 2009, 21,313 cases of dengue-3 virus (DENV-3) were reported in the islands of Cape Verde, an archipelago located in the Atlantic Ocean 570 km from the coast of western Africa. It was the first dengue outbreak ever reported in Cape Verde. Mosquitoes collected in July 2010 in the city of Praia, on the island of Santiago, were identified morphologically as Aedes aegypti formosus. Using experimental oral infections, we found that this vector showed a moderate ability to transmit the epidemic dengue-3 virus, but was highly susceptible to chikungunya and yellow fever viruses.

  13. Verde plant bug, Creontiades signatus (Hemiptera: Miridae) effects of insect density and bloom period of infestation on cotton damage and yield

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The verde plant bug, Creontiades signatus Distant (Hemiptera: Miridae), has emerged as a threat to cotton in South Texas, causing boll damage similar to boll-feeding stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae). Verde plant bugs were released into caged cotton for a one-week period to characterize the effec...

  14. Understanding Ice Shelf Basal Melting Using Convergent ICEPOD Data Sets: ROSETTA-Ice Study of Ross Ice Shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, R. E.; Frearson, N.; Tinto, K. J.; Das, I.; Fricker, H. A.; Siddoway, C. S.; Padman, L.

    2017-12-01

    The future stability of the ice shelves surrounding Antarctica will be susceptible to increases in both surface and basal melt as the atmosphere and ocean warm. The ROSETTA-Ice program is targeted at using the ICEPOD airborne technology to produce new constraints on Ross Ice Shelf, the underlying ocean, bathymetry, and geologic setting, using radar sounding, gravimetry and laser altimetry. This convergent approach to studying the ice-shelf and basal processes enables us to develop an understanding of the fundamental controls on ice-shelf evolution. This work leverages the stratigraphy of the ice shelf, which is detected as individual reflectors by the shallow-ice radar and is often associated with surface scour, form close to the grounding line or pinning points on the ice shelf. Surface accumulation on the ice shelf buries these reflectors as the ice flows towards the calving front. This distinctive stratigraphy can be traced across the ice shelf for the major East Antarctic outlet glaciers and West Antarctic ice streams. Changes in the ice thickness below these reflectors are a result of strain and basal melting and freezing. Correcting the estimated thickness changes for strain using RIGGS strain measurements, we can develop decadal-resolution flowline distributions of basal melt. Close to East Antarctica elevated melt-rates (>1 m/yr) are found 60-100 km from the calving front. On the West Antarctic side high melt rates primarily develop within 10 km of the calving front. The East Antarctic side of Ross Ice Shelf is dominated by melt driven by saline water masses that develop in Ross Sea polynyas, while the melting on the West Antarctic side next to Hayes Bank is associated with modified Continental Deep Water transported along the continental shelf. The two sides of Ross Ice Shelf experience differing basal melt in part due to the duality in the underlying geologic structure: the East Antarctic side consists of relatively dense crust, with low amplitude

  15. Do riparian plant community characteristics differ between Tamarix (L.) invaded and non-invaded sites on the upper Verde River, Arizona?

    Treesearch

    Tyler D. Johnson; Thomas E. Kolb; Alvin L. Medina

    2009-01-01

    Invasion by Tamarix (L.) can severely alter riparian areas of the western U.S., which are globally rare ecosystems. The upper Verde River, Arizona, is a relatively free-flowing river and has abundant native riparian vegetation. Tamarix is present on the upper Verde but is a minor component of the vegetation (8% of stems). This...

  16. Shelf Life Prediction for Canned Gudeg using Accelerated Shelf Life Testing (ASLT) Based on Arrhenius Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nurhayati, R.; Rahayu NH, E.; Susanto, A.; Khasanah, Y.

    2017-04-01

    Gudeg is traditional food from Yogyakarta. It is consist of jackfruit, chicken, egg and coconut milk. Gudeg generally have a short shelf life. Canning or commercial sterilization is one way to extend the shelf life of gudeg. This aims of this research is to predict the shelf life of Andrawinaloka canned gudeg with Accelerated Shelf Life Test methods, Arrhenius model. Canned gudeg stored at three different temperature, there are 37, 50 and 60°C for two months. Measuring the number of Thio Barbituric Acid (TBA), as a critical aspect, were tested every 7 days. Arrhenius model approach is done with the equation order 0 and order 1. The analysis showed that the equation of order 0 can be used as an approach to estimating the shelf life of canned gudeg. The storage of Andrawinaloka canned gudeg at 30°C is predicted untill 21 months and 24 months for 25°C.

  17. The Brava seamount, Cape Verde: Beyond the spatial extent of EM1 and petrogenesis of highly evolved alkaline lavas.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barker, Abigail; Andersson, Axel; Troll, Valentin; Hansteen, Thor; Ellam, Robert

    2010-05-01

    Alkaline lavas from the Brava seamount, Cape Verde are investigated to establish the spatial distribution of compositional heterogeneity in the southwest of the Cape Verde archipelago. Highly evolved lavas provide a record of shallow level magma-crust interaction beneath the Brava seamount. The Brava seamount, located southwest of the island of Brava, Cape Verde was sampled during research cruise 8/85 of the R.R.S. Charles Darwin in 1985. Two groups of highly evolved alkaline volcanics are distinguished from the Brava seamount: 1) pyroxene-phonolites containing clinopyroxene, amphibole, nepheline, ±biotite, and minor sanidine and 2) feldspathoid-phonolites containing nepheline, nausean, minor biotite and leucite. All of the samples have MgO between 0.8 and 2 wt%, comparable to the most evolved volcanics sampled in the Cape Verde archipelago. The feldspathoid-phonolites have NaO2 of 12-13 wt%. Alkaline lavas from the Brava seamount have higher 87Sr/87Sr (0.70337 to 0.70347) at ɛNd of +6 to +7 than previously sampled in Cape Verde. Sr isotopes will be integrated with oxygen isotopes to establish magma and crust interactions in the magmatic plumbing system beneath the Brava seamount. Clinopyroxene-melt thermobarometry will be presented to constrain the depths of equilibrium crystallisation. Sr-O isotopes and thermobarometry will be combined to build a picture of the levels of magma stalling and interaction between magmas and the crust beneath the Brava seamount. The Brava seamount phonolitic lavas have high 206Pb/204Pb of 19.5 to 19.8 with negative ?8/4 and high ɛNd of +6 to +7 in contrast to the positive ?8/4 for lavas from nearby Brava and the southern islands of the Cape Verde archipelago. Lavas from the Brava seamount have Pb-Nd isotope systematics comparable to the northern Cape Verde islands, indicating the southwestern boundary in mantle heterogeneity and thereby the spatial extent of the EM1-like source contributing to the southern islands. The extensive

  18. Shelf life prediction of canned fried-rice using accelerated shelf life testing (ASLT) arrhenius method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurniadi, M.; Bintang, R.; Kusumaningrum, A.; Nursiwi, A.; Nurhikmat, A.; Susanto, A.; Angwar, M.; Triwiyono; Frediansyah, A.

    2017-12-01

    Research on shelf-life prediction of canned fried rice using Accelerated Shelf-life Test (ASLT) of Arrhenius model has been conducted. The aim of this research to predict shelf life of canned-fried rice products. Lethality value of 121°C for 15 and 20 minutes and Total Plate count methods are used to determine time and temperatures of sterilization process.Various storage temperatures of ASLT Arrhenius method were 35, 45 and 55°C during 35days. Rancidity is one of the derivation quality of canned fried rice. In this research, sample of canned fried rice is tested using rancidity value (TBA). TBA value was used as parameter which be measured once a week periodically. The use of can for fried rice without any chemical preservative is one of the advantage of the product, additionaly the use of physicalproperties such as temperature and pressure during its process can extend the shelf life and reduce the microbial contamination. The same research has never done before for fried rice as ready to eat meal. The result showed that the optimum conditions of sterilization process were 121°C,15 minutes with total plate count number of 9,3 × 101 CFU/ml. Lethality value of canned fried rice at 121°C,15 minutes was 3.63 minutes. The calculated Shelf-life of canned fried rice using Accelerated Shelf-life Test (ASLT) of Arrhenius method was 10.3 months.

  19. Drivers of Cape Verde archipelagic endemism in keyhole limpets.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Regina L; Assis, Jorge M; Madeira, Celine; Seabra, Rui; Lima, Fernando P; Lopes, Evandro P; Williams, Suzanne T; Castilho, Rita

    2017-02-02

    Oceanic archipelagos are the ideal setting for investigating processes that shape species assemblages. Focusing on keyhole limpets, genera Fissurella and Diodora from Cape Verde Islands, we used an integrative approach combining molecular phylogenetics with ocean transport simulations to infer species distribution patterns and analyse connectivity. Dispersal simulations, using pelagic larval duration and ocean currents as proxies, showed a reduced level of connectivity despite short distances between some of the islands. It is suggested that dispersal and persistence driven by patterns of oceanic circulation favouring self-recruitment played a primary role in explaining contemporary species distributions. Mitochondrial and nuclear data revealed the existence of eight Cape Verde endemic lineages, seven within Fissurella, distributed across the archipelago, and one within Diodora restricted to Boavista. The estimated origins for endemic Fissurella and Diodora were 10.2 and 6.7 MY, respectively. Between 9.5 and 4.5 MY, an intense period of volcanism in Boavista might have affected Diodora, preventing its diversification. Having originated earlier, Fissurella might have had more opportunities to disperse to other islands and speciate before those events. Bayesian analyses showed increased diversification rates in Fissurella possibly promoted by low sea levels during Plio-Pleistocene, which further explain differences in species richness between both genera.

  20. Drivers of Cape Verde archipelagic endemism in keyhole limpets

    PubMed Central

    Cunha, Regina L.; Assis, Jorge M.; Madeira, Celine; Seabra, Rui; Lima, Fernando P.; Lopes, Evandro P.; Williams, Suzanne T.; Castilho, Rita

    2017-01-01

    Oceanic archipelagos are the ideal setting for investigating processes that shape species assemblages. Focusing on keyhole limpets, genera Fissurella and Diodora from Cape Verde Islands, we used an integrative approach combining molecular phylogenetics with ocean transport simulations to infer species distribution patterns and analyse connectivity. Dispersal simulations, using pelagic larval duration and ocean currents as proxies, showed a reduced level of connectivity despite short distances between some of the islands. It is suggested that dispersal and persistence driven by patterns of oceanic circulation favouring self-recruitment played a primary role in explaining contemporary species distributions. Mitochondrial and nuclear data revealed the existence of eight Cape Verde endemic lineages, seven within Fissurella, distributed across the archipelago, and one within Diodora restricted to Boavista. The estimated origins for endemic Fissurella and Diodora were 10.2 and 6.7 MY, respectively. Between 9.5 and 4.5 MY, an intense period of volcanism in Boavista might have affected Diodora, preventing its diversification. Having originated earlier, Fissurella might have had more opportunities to disperse to other islands and speciate before those events. Bayesian analyses showed increased diversification rates in Fissurella possibly promoted by low sea levels during Plio-Pleistocene, which further explain differences in species richness between both genera. PMID:28150720

  1. Human effects on the hydrologic system of the Verde Valley, central Arizona, 1910–2005 and 2005–2110, using a regional groundwater flow model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garner, Bradley D.; Pool, D.R.; Tillman, Fred D.; Forbes, Brandon T.

    2013-01-01

    Water budgets were developed for the Verde Valley of central Arizona in order to evaluate the degree to which human stresses have affected the hydrologic system and might affect it in the future. The Verde Valley is a portion of central Arizona wherein concerns have been raised about water availability, particularly perennial base flow of the Verde River. The Northern Arizona Regional Groundwater Flow Model (NARGFM) was used to generate the water budgets and was run in several configurations for the 1910–2005 and 2005–2110 time periods. The resultant water budgets were subtracted from one another in order to quantify the relative changes that were attributable solely to human stresses; human stresses included groundwater withdrawals and incidental and artificial recharge but did not include, for example, human effects on the global climate. Three hypothetical and varied conditions of human stresses were developed and applied to the model for the 2005–2110 period. On the basis of this analysis, human stresses during 1910–2005 were found to have already affected the hydrologic system of the Verde Valley, and human stresses will continue to affect the hydrologic system during 2005–2110. Riparian evapotranspiration decreased and underflow into the Verde Valley increased because of human stresses, and net groundwater discharge to the Verde River in the Verde Valley decreased for the 1910–2005 model runs. The model also showed that base flow at the upstream end of the study area, as of 2005, was about 4,900 acre-feet per year less than it would have been in the absence of human stresses. At the downstream end of the Verde Valley, base flow had been reduced by about 10,000 acre-feet per year by the year 2005 because of human stresses. For the 2005–2110 period, the model showed that base flow at the downstream end of the Verde Valley may decrease by an additional 5,400 to 8,600 acre-feet per year because of past, ongoing, and hypothetical future human

  2. Ice-shelf melting around Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rignot, E.; Jacobs, S.

    2008-12-01

    The traditional view on the mass balance of Antarctic ice shelves is that they loose mass principally from iceberg calving with bottom melting a much lower contributing factor. Because ice shelves are now known to play a fundamental role in ice sheet evolution, it is important to re-evaluate their wastage processes from a circumpolar perspective using a combination of remote sensing techniques. We present area average rates deduced from grounding line discharge, snow accumulation, firn depth correction and ice shelf topography. We find that ice shelf melting accounts for roughly half of ice-shelf ablation, with a total melt water production of 1027 Gt/yr. The attrition fraction due to in-situ melting varies from 9 to 90 percent around Antarctica. High melt producers include the Ronne, Ross, Getz, Totten, Amery, George VI, Pine Island, Abbot, Dotson/Crosson, Shackleton, Thwaites and Moscow University Ice Shelves. Low producers include the Larsen C, Princess Astrid and Ragnhild coast, Fimbul, Brunt and Filchner. Correlation between melt water production and grounding line discharge is low (R2 = 0.65). Correlation with thermal ocean forcing from the ocean are highest in the northern parts of West Antarctica where regressions yield R2 of 0.93-0.97. Melt rates in the Amundsen Sea exhibit a quadratic sensitivity to thermal ocean forcing. We conclude that ice shelf melting plays a dominant role in ice shelf mass balance, with a potential to change rapidly in response to altered ocean heat transport onto the Antarctic continental shelf.

  3. Promoting Distance Education in Higher Education in Cape Verde and Mozambique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramos, Fernando; Taju, Gulamo; Canuto, Louisette

    2011-01-01

    Over the past six years, the authors have been project leaders for three distance education initiatives in Cape Verde and Mozambique: (1) a blended learning master's degree in multimedia in education for faculty in Cape Verdean public higher education institutions (2005-2008); (2) a teacher training programme for 1375 elementary teachers provided…

  4. Geotourism, Medical Geology and local development: Cape Verde case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rocha, F.; Ferreira da Silva, E.

    2014-11-01

    Geotourism and Geoparks in particular are real opportunities to rural developments promoting the rate decline of unemployment and emigration through engaging the local communities in geopark activities and tourism marketing in the form of adventure tourism, ecotourism, rural tourism and health geotourism. Geotourism is closely linked with Medical Geology. The intake of minerals and chemical elements for food, water, soil (through geophagy) or dust can be accomplished by ingestion, inhalation or dermal absorption. Pelotherapy or “Mudtherapy” is the use of mud/clay for therapeutic applications, internal or external. Cape Verde archipelago is located in Atlantic ocean, 400 km westwards of Senegal coast. Geotourism is being developed, mainly focused on the development of a geopark in Fogo island huge caldera, but also trying to take advantage of their potentialities for Geomedecine. A cooperative program established between Cape Verde University (UCV) and Aveiro University (UA, Portugal) is under way, aiming, on a first stage, to identify Geotouristic potentialities and, on a second stage, to develop products. Geotourism is being developed, mainly focused on the development of a geopark in Fogo isl. huge caldera, but also trying to take advantage of their potentialities for Geomedecine.

  5. Cape Verde in False Color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    A promontory nicknamed 'Cape Verde' can be seen jutting out from the walls of Victoria Crater in this false-color picture taken by the panoramic camera on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity. The rover took this picture on martian day, or sol, 1329 (Oct. 20, 2007), more than a month after it began descending down the crater walls -- and just 9 sols shy of its second Martian birthday on sol 1338 (Oct. 29, 2007). Opportunity landed on the Red Planet on Jan. 25, 2004. That's nearly four years ago on Earth, but only two on Mars because Mars takes longer to travel around the sun than Earth. One Martian year equals 687 Earth days.

    This view was taken using three panoramic-camera filters, admitting light with wavelengths centered at 750 nanometers (near infrared), 530 nanometers (green) and 430 nanometers (violet).

  6. Seafloor geology of the Monterey Bay area continental shelf

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eittreim, S.L.; Anima, R.J.; Stevenson, A.J.

    2002-01-01

    Acoustic swath-mapping of the greater Monterey Bay area continental shelf from Point An??o Nuevo to Point Sur reveals complex patterns of rock outcrops on the shelf, and coarse-sand bodies that occur in distinct depressions on the inner and mid-shelves. Most of the rock outcrops are erosional cuestas of dipping Tertiary rocks that make up the bedrock of the surrounding lands. A mid-shelf mud belt of Holocene sediment buries the Tertiary rocks in a continuous, 6-km-wide zone on the northern Monterey Bay shelf. Rock exposures occur on the inner shelf, near tectonically uplifting highlands, and on the outer shelf, beyond the reach of the mud depositing on the mid-shelf since the Holocene sea-level rise. The sediment-starved shelf off the Monterey Peninsula and south to Point Sur has a very thin cover of Holocene sediment, and bedrock outcrops occur across the whole shelf, with Salinian granite outcrops surrounding the Monterey Peninsula. Coarse-sand deposits occur both bounded within low-relief rippled scour depressions, and in broad sheets in areas like the Sur Platform where fine sediment sources are limited. The greatest concentrations of coarse-sand deposits occur on the southern Monterey Bay shelf and the Sur shelf. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. First report of Dirofilaria immitis in the Republic of Cape Verde.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Cristina; Almeida, Conceição; Malta, Manuel; Vilaça, Raquel; Payo-Puente, Pablo

    2013-02-18

    In Maio Island, Republic of Cape Verde, a seven-year old mongrel female dog exhibiting severe generalized adenomegaly and a poor body condition was examined during an animal welfare campaign. A blood smear was drawn from peripheral blood collection and several organisms consistent with Dirofilaria immitis microfilariae were identified. Both the antigen test conducted from plasma and the RT-PCR test performed from the blood smear sample were positive for D. immitis. This is, to the best of our knowledge, the first report of D. immitis in Cape Verde. The fact that the dog was autochthonous and had never left the island strongly suggests there might be other animals infected with the parasite. Our finding confirms the existence of the parasite in the canine population and necessarily implies the presence of a competent vector. As a serious cardiopulmonary disease and with the risk of the pathogen spreading rapidly, broader epidemiological studies need to be conducted to determine D. immitis prevalence in the canine population of Maio Island. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Paleocene Wilcox cross-shelf channel-belt history and shelf-margin growth: Key to Gulf of Mexico sediment delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jinyu; Steel, Ronald; Ambrose, William

    2017-12-01

    Shelf margins prograde and aggrade by the incremental addition of deltaic sediments supplied from river channel belts and by stored shoreline sediment. This paper documents the shelf-edge trajectory and coeval channel belts for a segment of Paleocene Lower Wilcox Group in the northern Gulf of Mexico based on 400 wireline logs and 300 m of whole cores. By quantitatively analyzing these data and comparing them with global databases, we demonstrate how varying sediment supply impacted the Wilcox shelf-margin growth and deep-water sediment dispersal under greenhouse eustatic conditions. The coastal plain to marine topset and uppermost continental slope succession of the Lower Wilcox shelf-margin sediment prism is divided into eighteen high-frequency ( 300 ky duration) stratigraphic sequences, and further grouped into 5 sequence sets (labeled as A-E from bottom to top). Sequence Set A is dominantly muddy slope deposits. The shelf edge of Sequence Sets B and C prograded rapidly (> 10 km/Ma) and aggraded modestly (< 80 m/Ma). The coeval channel belts are relatively large (individually averaging 11-13 m thick) and amalgamated. The water discharge of Sequence Sets B and C rivers, estimated by channel-belt thickness, bedform type, and grain size, is 7000-29,000 m3/s, considered as large rivers when compared with modern river databases. In contrast, slow progradation (< 10 km/Ma) and rapid aggradation (> 80 m/Ma) characterizes Sequence Sets D and E, which is associated with smaller (9-10 m thick on average) and isolated channel belts. This stratigraphic trend is likely due to an upward decreasing sediment supply indicated by the shelf-edge progradation rate and channel size, as well as an upward increasing shelf accommodation indicated by the shelf-edge aggradation rate. The rapid shelf-edge progradation and large rivers in Sequence Sets B and C confirm earlier suggestions that it was the early phase of Lower Wilcox dispersal that brought the largest deep-water sediment

  9. The effects of sub-ice-shelf melting on dense shelf water formation and export in idealized simulations of Antarctic margins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marques, Gustavo; Stern, Alon; Harrison, Matthew; Sergienko, Olga; Hallberg, Robert

    2017-04-01

    Dense shelf water (DSW) is formed in coastal polynyas around Antarctica as a result of intense cooling and brine rejection. A fraction of this water reaches ice shelves cavities and is modified due to interactions with sub-ice-shelf melt water. This modified water mass contributes to the formation of Antarctic Bottom Water, and consequently, influences the large-scale ocean circulation. Here, we investigate the role of sub-ice-shelf melting in the formation and export of DSW using idealized simulations with an isopycnal ocean model (MOM6) coupled with a sea ice model (SIS2) and a thermodynamic active ice shelf. A set of experiments is conducted with variable horizontal grid resolutions (0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 km), ice shelf geometries and atmospheric forcing. In all simulations DSW is spontaneously formed in coastal polynyas due to the combined effect of the imposed atmospheric forcing and the ocean state. Our results show that sub-ice-shelf melting can significantly change the rate of dense shelf water outflows, highlighting the importance of this process to correctly represent bottom water formation.

  10. Geophysical evidence for the evolution of the California Inner Continental Borderland as a metamorphic core complex

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ten Brink, Uri S.; Zhang, Jie; Brocher, Thomas M.; Okaya, David A.; Klitgord, Kim D.; Fuis, Gary S.

    2000-01-01

    We use new seismic and gravity data collected during the 1994 Los Angeles Region Seismic Experiment (LARSE) to discuss the origin of the California Inner Continental Borderland (ICB) as an extended terrain possibly in a metamorphic core complex mode. The data provide detailed crustal structure of the Borderland and its transition to mainland southern California. Using tomographic inversion as well as traditional forward ray tracing to model the wide-angle seismic data, we find little or no sediments, low (≤6.6 km/s) P wave velocity extending down to the crust-mantle boundary, and a thin crust (19 to 23 km thick). Coincident multichannel seismic reflection data show a reflective lower crust under Catalina Ridge. Contrary to other parts of coastal California, we do not find evidence for an underplated fossil oceanic layer at the base of the crust. Coincident gravity data suggest an abrupt increase in crustal thickness under the shelf edge, which represents the transition to the western Transverse Ranges. On the shelf the Palos Verdes Fault merges downward into a landward dipping surface which separates "basement" from low-velocity sediments, but interpretation of this surface as a detachment fault is inconclusive. The seismic velocity structure is interpreted to represent Catalina Schist rocks extending from top to bottom of the crust. This interpretation is compatible with a model for the origin of the ICB as an autochthonous formerly hot highly extended region that was filled with the exhumed metamorphic rocks. The basin and ridge topography and the protracted volcanism probably represent continued extension as a wide rift until ∼13 m.y. ago. Subduction of the young and hot Monterey and Arguello microplates under the Continental Borderland, followed by rotation and translation of the western Transverse Ranges, may have provided the necessary thermomechanical conditions for this extension and crustal inflow.

  11. Mantacaprella macaronensis, a new genus and species of Caprellidae (Crustacea: Amphipoda) from Canary Islands and Cape Verde.

    PubMed

    Maite, Vázquez-Luis; José M, Guerra-García; Susana, Carvalho; Lydia Png-Gonzalez

    2013-01-01

    Mantacaprella macaronensis new genus, new species, is described based on specimens collected from Canary Islands and Cape Verde. Mantacaprella is close to the genera Parambus, Pseudolirius, Propodalirius and Paracaprella, but can be distinguished by the combination of the following characteristics: pereopods 3, 4 and 5 two-articulate; pereopods 6 and 7 six-articulate; mandibular molar present and palp absent; male abdomen with a pair of well-developed appendages. The new species has been found living in Cymodocea nodosa meadows and Caulerpa prolifera beds from 8.8 to 14.6 m depth in Gran Canaria (Canary Islands), and in natural rocky and artificial habitats (shipwrecks) at 25 m in Sal Island (Cape Verde). Even though the new species is one of the dominant amphipods inhabiting meadows of Cymodocea nodosa in Gran Canaria and in Cape Verde, it had not been described so far. This reflects the lack of knowledge on Macaronesian invertebrates, such as amphipods, and the need of further taxonomical studies to better characterise the whole biodiversity of this region and to design adequate programmes of management and conservation.

  12. Mesa Verde: A Study of Man in an Agricultural Setting. Library Packet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Community Health Service (DHEW/PHS), Bethesda, MD.

    This collection of secondary readings contains general information about the ecology of living space, and specific information about the prehistory ecology of Mesa Verde, Colorado. There is also a section on how anthropologists use trees to date artifacts. A related document is indexed as ED 001 721. (AWW)

  13. Community Sediment Transport Modeling, National Ocean Partnership Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-01

    delta . A high-resolution, one-dimensional model that resolves the phase of the forcing gravity waves is being used to test the hypothesized mechanisms...dimensional process models to operational elements in the CSTMS framework. Sherwood and Ferre modified the existing algorithms for tracking stratigraphy ...Verdes shelf, California. Continental Shelf Research ( revised manuscript submitted), [refereed] Frank, D. P., D. L. Foster, and C. R. Sherwood

  14. Shelf Reading as a Collaborative Service Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Kevin N.; Kaspar, Wendi Arant

    2006-01-01

    Shelf reading the stacks is very often not seen as scholarly work in library circles and is therefore overlooked. However, there is a very real frustration of a patron who cannot find the material they need. There are very few studies that provide a working model for shelf reading. The authors suggest a collaborative shelf reading model based on…

  15. How ice shelf morphology controls basal melting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Little, Christopher M.; Gnanadesikan, Anand; Oppenheimer, Michael

    2009-12-01

    The response of ice shelf basal melting to climate is a function of ocean temperature, circulation, and mixing in the open ocean and the coupling of this external forcing to the sub-ice shelf circulation. Because slope strongly influences the properties of buoyancy-driven flow near the ice shelf base, ice shelf morphology plays a critical role in linking external, subsurface heat sources to the ice. In this paper, the slope-driven dynamic control of local and area-integrated melting rates is examined under a wide range of ocean temperatures and ice shelf shapes, with an emphasis on smaller, steeper ice shelves. A 3-D numerical ocean model is used to simulate the circulation underneath five idealized ice shelves, forced with subsurface ocean temperatures ranging from -2.0°C to 1.5°C. In the sub-ice shelf mixed layer, three spatially distinct dynamic regimes are present. Entrainment of heat occurs predominately under deeper sections of the ice shelf; local and area-integrated melting rates are most sensitive to changes in slope in this "initiation" region. Some entrained heat is advected upslope and used to melt ice in the "maintenance" region; however, flow convergence in the "outflow" region limits heat loss in flatter portions of the ice shelf. Heat flux to the ice exhibits (1) a spatially nonuniform, superlinear dependence on slope and (2) a shape- and temperature-dependent, internally controlled efficiency. Because the efficiency of heat flux through the mixed layer decreases with increasing ocean temperature, numerical simulations diverge from a simple quadratic scaling law.

  16. The evolution of the medical workforce in Cape Verde since independence in 1975.

    PubMed

    Delgado, A P; Tolentino, A C; Ferrinho, P

    2017-01-18

    Cape Verdean doctors have always graduated abroad. The first experience of pre-graduate medical education in Cape Verde begun in October 2015. Counting how many doctors Cape Verde has, knowing who they are, and knowing how they are distributed are very important to help fine-tune the medical training. The aim of this study is to analyze the evolution of the medical workforce in Cape Verde to support medical education implementation. Secondary data on doctors, from July 1975 until December 2014, collected from the Ministry of Health, were entered into an SPSS 20 database and studied by a simple descriptive statistical analysis. The database included data on 401 medical doctors. There was a predominance of females (n = 218; 54.4%). The overwhelming majority (n = 378; 94.3%) graduated from 5 of the 17 countries that contributed to the training of Cape Verdean doctors. All the islands of this archipelago country contributed to the 324 (80.8%) doctors born in the country. Of the 272 doctors still active in December 2014, 119 (43.6%) were general practitioners and 153 (56.4%) had specialized in one of the 31 specialties. The national ratio of doctors per 10 000 inhabitants was 5.25, but the reality varied significantly among islands. About one third of the doctors (n = 86; 32%) were at the primary care level, 38 (14%) at the secondary care level, and 144 (52%) in central hospitals. In 2053, all active physicians in 2014 will already be retired. This is a unique study of the evolution of the medical workforce of a country over 40 years, from the first day of independence. The study illustrates the importance of international collaborations, particularly of Cuba, in sustaining the medical workforce in Cape Verde. It is an example of how this collaboration was used to equip the country with doctors in an increasingly more equitable distribution across all islands. The study further illustrates the progressive feminization of the medical workforce. The study

  17. Ice-shelf Dynamics Near the Front of Filchner-Ronne Ice Shelf, Antarctica, Revealed by SAR Interferometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rignot, E.; MacAyeal, D. R.

    1998-01-01

    Fifteen synthetic-aperture radar (SAR) images of the Ronne Ice Shelf, Antarctica, obtained by the European Space Agency (ESA)'s Earth Remote Sensing satellites (ERS) 1 & 2 are used to study ice-shelf dynamics near two ends of the iceberg-calving front.

  18. Role of CO2-forced Antarctic shelf freshening on local shelf warming in an eddying global climate model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goddard, P.; Dufour, C.; Yin, J.; Griffies, S. M.; Winton, M.

    2017-12-01

    Ocean warming near the Antarctic ice shelves has critical implications for future ice sheet mass loss and global sea level rise. A global climate model (GFDL CM2.6) with an eddying ocean is used to quantify and better understand the mechanisms contributing to ocean warming on the Antarctic continental shelf in an idealized 2xCO2 experiment. The results indicate that the simulated shelf region warming varies in magnitude at different locations. Relatively large warm anomalies occur both in the upper 100 m and at depth, which are controlled by different mechanisms. Here, we focus on the deep shelf warming and its relationship to shelf freshening. Under CO2-forcing, enhanced runoff from Antarctica, more regional precipitation, and reduction of sea ice contribute to the shelf freshening. The freshening increases the lateral density gradient of the Antarctic Slope Front, which can limit along-isopycnal onshore transport of heat from the Circumpolar Deep Water across the shelf break. Thus, the magnitude and location of the freshening anomalies govern the magnitude and location of onshore heat transport and deep warm anomalies. Additionally, the freshening increases vertical stratification on the shelf. The enhanced stratification reduces vertical mixing of heat associated with diffusion and gravitational instabilities, further contributing to the build-up of temperature anomalies at depth. Freshening is a crucial driver of the magnitude and location of the warming; however, other drivers influence the warming such as CO2-forced weakening of the easterly wind stress and associated shoaling of isotherms. Understanding the relative role of freshening in the inhomogeneous ocean warming of the Antarctic continental shelf would lead to better projections of future ice sheet mass loss, especially near the most vulnerable calving fronts.

  19. Wind-induced interannual variability of sea level slope, along-shelf flow, and surface salinity on the Northwest Atlantic shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yun; Ji, Rubao; Fratantoni, Paula S.; Chen, Changsheng; Hare, Jonathan A.; Davis, Cabell S.; Beardsley, Robert C.

    2014-04-01

    In this study, we examine the importance of regional wind forcing in modulating advective processes and hydrographic properties along the Northwest Atlantic shelf, with a focus on the Nova Scotian Shelf (NSS)-Gulf of Maine (GoM) region. Long-term observational data of alongshore wind stress, sea level slope, and along-shelf flow are analyzed to quantify the relationship between wind forcing and hydrodynamic responses on interannual time scales. Additionally, a simplified momentum balance model is used to examine the underlying mechanisms. Our results show significant correlation among the observed interannual variability of sea level slope, along-shelf flow, and alongshore wind stress in the NSS-GoM region. A mechanism is suggested to elucidate the role of wind in modulating the sea level slope and along-shelf flow: stronger southwesterly (northeastward) winds tend to weaken the prevailing southwestward flow over the shelf, building sea level in the upstream Newfoundland Shelf region, whereas weaker southwesterly winds allow stronger southwestward flow to develop, raising sea level in the GoM region. The wind-induced flow variability can influence the transport of low-salinity water from the Gulf of St. Lawrence to the GoM, explaining interannual variations in surface salinity distributions within the region. Hence, our results offer a viable mechanism, besides the freshening of remote upstream sources, to explain interannual patterns of freshening in the GoM.

  20. Antarctic sub-shelf melt rates via SIMPEL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reese, Ronja; Albrecht, Torsten; Winkelmann, Ricarda

    2017-04-01

    Ocean-induced melting below ice-shelves is currently suspected to be the dominant cause of mass loss from the Antarctic Ice Sheet (e.g. Depoorter et al. 2013). Although thinning of ice shelves does not directly contribute to sea-level rise, it may have a significant indirect impact through the potential of ice shelves to buttress their adjacent ice sheet. Hence, an appropriate representation of sub-shelf melt rates is essential for modelling the evolution of ice sheets with marine terminating outlet glaciers. Due to computational limits of fully-coupled ice and ocean models, sub-shelf melt rates are often parametrized in large-scale or long-term simulations (e.g. Matin et al. 2011, Pollard & DeConto 2012). These parametrizations usually depend on the depth of the ice shelf base or its local slope but do not include the physical processes in ice shelf cavities. Here, we present the Sub Ice shelf Melt Potsdam modEL (SIMPEL) which mimics the first-order large-scale circulation in ice shelf cavities based on an ocean box model (Olbers & Hellmer, 2010), implemented in the Parallel Ice Sheet Model (Bueler & Brown 2009, Winkelmann et al. 2011, www.pism-docs.org). In SIMPEL, ocean water is transported at depth towards the grounding line where sub-shelf melt rates are highest, and then rises along the shelf base towards the calving front where refreezing can occur. Melt rates are computed by a description of ice-ocean interaction commonly used in high-resolution models (McPhee 1992, Holland & Jenkins 1999). This enables the model to capture a wide-range of melt rates, comparable to the observed range for Antarctic ice shelves (Rignot et al. 2013).

  1. Shelf-Life Prediction of Chilled Foods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gudmundsson, Gudmundur; Kristbergsson, Kristberg

    All foods have a finite shelf life. Even foods, which mature with time, will in the end deteriorate, although their life span can exceed 100 years. Definitions of shelf life of food products differ. Some stress the suitability of the product for consump¬tion, others for how long the product can be sold. The Institute of Food Science and Technology emphasizes safety in its definition of shelf life: "The period of time under defined conditions of storage, after manufacture or packing, for which a food product will remain safe and be fit for use" ( http://www.ifst.org ). This definition does not describe what makes a food product "safe" or "fit" for use, but one can say all factors which restrict the shelf life of a food product either affect safety or quality or both.

  2. Short-lived radium isotopes on the Scotian Shelf: Unique distribution and tracers of cross-shelf CO2 and nutrient transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burt, William; Thomas, Helmuth

    2013-04-01

    Radium (Ra) isotopes have become a common tool for investigating mixing rates on continental shelves, and more recently have been used to quantify the release of dissolved compounds enriched in pore-waters into the water column. We present results from Ra sampling of the Scotian Shelf region of the Canadian northwestern Atlantic Ocean, which reveal cross-shelf Ra distributions that are unique compared to other coastal regions. We explain the observations of lower 224Ra activities near the coast, relatively high activities at large distances offshore (>100km), and gradients in both offshore and onshore directions by inferring the regional geomorphology, as well as shelf bathymetry and circulation patterns. Ra gradients are used to calculate individual estimates of eddy diffusion in both the cross-shelf (KX) and vertical (KZ) directions using 1-D eddy diffusion models. Enhanced vertical mixing above offshore banks allows for Ra enrichments in offshore surface waters, while horizontal dispersion of this bank-related signal can transport Ra off the shelf break in surface waters, and towards the shore beneath the surface mixed layer. Similar onshore gradients in CO2 and nutrient species combined with Ra-derived KX values can yield onshore carbon and nutrient fluxes in subsurface waters, which in turn supply the CO2 outgassing from the Scotian Shelf. Our results thus provide constraints for cross-shelf transports of carbon and nutrients on the Scotian Shelf in order to guide mass balance or model based budget approaches in future studies.

  3. Mesa Verde: A Study of Man in an Agricultural Setting. Student Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Community Health Service (DHEW/PHS), Bethesda, MD.

    This student manual contains information and guides to assist the secondary student in functioning as an archeologist. Included are fables, pictures for analysis, a time line and description of the pre-history of Mesa Verde, Colorado. The manual concludes with artifact identification word sheets. A related document is ED 001 722. (AWW)

  4. Ice Front at Venable Ice Shelf

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-06-13

    This photo, taken onboard the Chilean Navy P3 aircraft, shows the ice front of Venable Ice Shelf, West Antarctica, in October 2008. It is an example of a small-size ice shelf that is a large melt water producer.

  5. CV-Dust: Atmospheric aerosol in the Cape Verde region: carbon and soluble fractions of PM10

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pio, C.; Nunes, T.; Cardoso, J.; Caseiro, A.; Custódio, D.; Cerqueira, M.; Patoilo, D.; Almeida, S. M.; Freitas, M. C.

    2012-04-01

    Every year, billions of tons of eroded mineral soils from the Saharan Desert and the Sahel region, the largest dust source in the world, cross Mediterranean towards Europe, western Asia and the tropical North Atlantic Ocean as far as the Caribbean and South America. Many aspects of the direct and indirect effects of dust on climate are not well understood and the bulk and surface chemistry of the mineral dust particles determines interactions with gaseous and other particle species. The quantification of the magnitude of warming or cooling remains open because of the strong variability of the atmospheric dust burden and the lack of representative data for the spatial and temporal distribution of the dust composition. CV-Dust is a project that aims at provide a detailed data on the size distribution and the size-resolved chemical and mineralogical composition of dust emitted from North Africa using a natural laboratory like Cape Verde. This archipelago is located in an area of massive dust transport from land to ocean, and is thus ideal to set up sampling devices that are able to characterize and quantify dust transported from Africa. Moreover, Cape Verde's future economic prospects depend heavily on the encouragement of tourism, therefore it is essential to elucidate the role of Saharan dust may play in the degradation of Cape Verde air quality. The main objectives of CV-Dust project are: 1) to characterize the chemical and mineralogical composition of dust transported from Africa by setting up an orchestra of aerosol sampling devices in the strategic archipelago of Cape Verde; 2) to identify the sources of particles in Cape Verde by using receptor models; 3) to elucidate the role Saharan dust may play in the degradation of Cape Verde air quality; 4) to model processes governing dust production, transport, interaction with the radiation field and removal from the atmosphere. Here we present part of the data obtained throughout the last year, involving a set of more

  6. Environmental controls on micro fracture processes in shelf ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sammonds, Peter

    2013-04-01

    The recent retreat and collapse of the ice shelves on the Antarctic Peninsula has been associated with regional atmospheric warming, oceanic warming, increased summer melt and shelf flexure. Although the cause of collapse is a matter of active discussion, the process is that of fracture of a creep-brittle material, close to its melting point. The environmental controls on how fracturing initiates, at a micro-scale, strongly determine the macroscopic disintegration of ice shelves. In particular the shelf temperature profile controls the plasticity of the ice shelf; the densification of shelf ice due to melting and re-freezing affects the crack tip stress intensity; the accretion of marine ice at the bottom of the shelf imposes a thermal/mechanical discontinuity; saline environments control crack tip stress corrosion; cyclic loading promotes sub-critical crack propagation. These strong environmental controls on shelf ice fracture means that assessing shelf stability is a non-deterministic problem. How these factors may be parameterized in ice shelf models, through the use of fracture mechanisms maps, is discussed. The findings are discussed in relation to the stability of Larsen C.

  7. Wave climate model of the Mid-Atlantic shelf and shoreline (Virginian Sea): Model development, shelf geomorphology, and preliminary results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldsmith, V.; Morris, W. D.; Byrne, R. J.; Whitlock, C. H.

    1974-01-01

    A computerized wave climate model is developed that applies linear wave theory and shelf depth information to predict wave behavior as they pass over the continental shelf as well as the resulting wave energy distributions along the coastline. Reviewed are also the geomorphology of the Mid-Atlantic Continental Shelf, wave computations resulting from 122 wave input conditions, and a preliminary analysis of these data.

  8. Antarctic sub-shelf melt rates via PICO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reese, Ronja; Albrecht, Torsten; Mengel, Matthias; Asay-Davis, Xylar; Winkelmann, Ricarda

    2018-06-01

    Ocean-induced melting below ice shelves is one of the dominant drivers for mass loss from the Antarctic Ice Sheet at present. An appropriate representation of sub-shelf melt rates is therefore essential for model simulations of marine-based ice sheet evolution. Continental-scale ice sheet models often rely on simple melt-parameterizations, in particular for long-term simulations, when fully coupled ice-ocean interaction becomes computationally too expensive. Such parameterizations can account for the influence of the local depth of the ice-shelf draft or its slope on melting. However, they do not capture the effect of ocean circulation underneath the ice shelf. Here we present the Potsdam Ice-shelf Cavity mOdel (PICO), which simulates the vertical overturning circulation in ice-shelf cavities and thus enables the computation of sub-shelf melt rates consistent with this circulation. PICO is based on an ocean box model that coarsely resolves ice shelf cavities and uses a boundary layer melt formulation. We implement it as a module of the Parallel Ice Sheet Model (PISM) and evaluate its performance under present-day conditions of the Southern Ocean. We identify a set of parameters that yield two-dimensional melt rate fields that qualitatively reproduce the typical pattern of comparably high melting near the grounding line and lower melting or refreezing towards the calving front. PICO captures the wide range of melt rates observed for Antarctic ice shelves, with an average of about 0.1 m a-1 for cold sub-shelf cavities, for example, underneath Ross or Ronne ice shelves, to 16 m a-1 for warm cavities such as in the Amundsen Sea region. This makes PICO a computationally feasible and more physical alternative to melt parameterizations purely based on ice draft geometry.

  9. View of 'Cape Verde' from 'Cape St. Mary' in Mid-Afternoon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    As part of its investigation of 'Victoria Crater,' NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity examined a promontory called 'Cape Verde' from the vantage point of 'Cape St. Mary,' the next promontory clockwise around the crater's deeply scalloped rim. This view of Cape Verde combines several exposures taken by the rover's panoramic camera into an approximately true-color mosaic. The exposures were taken during mid-afternoon lighting conditions.

    The upper portion of the crater wall contains a jumble of material tossed outward by the impact that excavated the crater. This vertical cross-section through the blanket of ejected material surrounding the crater was exposed by erosion that expanded the crater outward from its original diameter, according to scientists' interpretation of the observations. Below the jumbled material in the upper part of the wall are layers that survive relatively intact from before the crater-causing impact.

    The images combined into this mosaic were taken during the 1,006th Martian day, or sol, of Opportunity's Mars-surface mission (Nov. 22, 2006). The panoramic camera took them through the camera's 750-nanometer, 530-nanometer and 430-nanometer filters.

  10. View of 'Cape Verde' from 'Cape St. Mary' in Late Morning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    As part of its investigation of 'Victoria Crater,' NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity examined a promontory called 'Cape Verde' from the vantage point of 'Cape St. Mary,' the next promontory clockwise around the crater's deeply scalloped rim. This view of Cape Verde combines several exposures taken by the rover's panoramic camera into an approximately true-color mosaic. The exposures were taken during late-morning lighting conditions.

    The upper portion of the crater wall contains a jumble of material tossed outward by the impact that excavated the crater. This vertical cross-section through the blanket of ejected material surrounding the crater was exposed by erosion that expanded the crater outward from its original diameter, according to scientists' interpretation of the observations. Below the jumbled material in the upper part of the wall are layers that survive relatively intact from before the crater-causing impact.

    The images combined into this mosaic were taken during the 1,006th Martian day, or sol, of Opportunity's Mars-surface mission (Nov. 22, 2006). The panoramic camera took them through the camera's 750-nanometer, 530-nanometer and 430-nanometer filters.

  11. X-chromosome STR markers data in a Cabo Verde immigrant population of Lisboa.

    PubMed

    Afonso Costa, Heloísa; Morais, Paulo; Vieira da Silva, Cláudia; Matos, Sara; Marques Santos, Rodolfo; Espinheira, Rosa; Costa Santos, Jorge; Amorim, António

    2014-01-01

    Population genetic data of 12 X chromosomal short tandem repeats markers (DXS10074, DXS10079, DXS10101, DXS10103, DXS10134, DXS10135, DXS10146, DXS10148, DXS7132, DXS7423, DXS8378 and HPRTB) were analysed in 54 females and 95 males of an immigrant population from Cabo Verde living in Lisboa. The obtained results for forensic statistical parameters such as observed heterozigosity, polymorphism information content, power of discrimination and mean exclusion chance, based on single allele frequencies, reveal that this multiplex system is highly informative and can represent an important tool for genetic identification purposes in the immigrant population of Cabo Verde. Since the studied short tandem repeats genetic markers are distributed on four linkage groups, that can provide independent genotype information, we studied those groups as haploytes. The forensic efficiency parameters for the linked groups were all higher than 0.97, with linkage group I being the most polymorphic and linkage group III the less informative.

  12. Epidemiology of the Zika Virus Outbreak in the Cabo Verde Islands, West Africa.

    PubMed

    Lourenço, José; de Lourdes Monteiro, Maria; Valdez, Tomás; Monteiro Rodrigues, Júlio; Pybus, Oliver; Rodrigues Faria, Nuno

    2018-03-15

    The Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak in the island nation of Cabo Verde was of unprecedented magnitude in Africa and the first to be associated with microcephaly in the continent. Using a simple mathematical framework we present a first epidemiological assessment of attack and observation rates from 7,580 ZIKV notified cases and 18 microcephaly reports between July 2015 and May 2016. In line with observations from the Americas and elsewhere, the single-wave Cabo Verdean ZIKV epidemic was characterized by a basic reproductive number of 1.85 (95% CI, 1.5 - 2.2), with overall the attack rate of 51.1% (range 42.1 - 61.1) and observation rate of 2.7% (range 2.29 - 3.33). Current herd-immunity may not be sufficient to prevent future small-to-medium epidemics in Cabo Verde. Together with a small observation rate, these results highlight the need for rapid and integrated epidemiological, molecular and genomic surveillance to tackle forthcoming outbreaks of ZIKV and other arboviruses.

  13. Coupled ocean-shelf ecosystem modelling of northern North Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harle, J.; Holt, J. T.; Butenschön, M.; Allen, J. I.

    2016-02-01

    The biogeochemistry and ecosystems of the open-ocean and shelf seas are intimately connected. For example Northwest European continental shelf receives a substantial fraction of its nutrients from the wider North Atlantic and exports carbon at depth, sequestering it from atmospheric exchange. In the EC FP7 EuroBasin project (Holt et al 2014) we have developed a 1/12 degree basin-scale NEMO-ERSEM model with specific features relevant to shelf seas (e.g. tides and advanced vertical mixing schemes). This model is eddy resolving in the open-ocean, and resolves barotropic scales on-shelf. We use this model to explore the interaction between finely resolved physical processes and the ecosystem. Here we focus on shelf-sea processes and the connection between the shelf seas and open-ocean, and compare results with a 1/4 degree (eddy permitting) model that does not include shelf sea processes. We find tidal mixing fronts and river plume are well represented in the 1/12 degree model. Using approaches developed for the NW Shelf (Holt et al 2012), we provide estimates of across-shelf break nutrient fluxes to the seas surrounding this basin, and relate these fluxes and their interannual variability to the physical processes driving ocean-shelf exchange. Holt, J., et al, 2012. Oceanic controls on the primary production of the northwest European continental shelf: model experiments under recent past conditions and a potential future scenario. Biogeosciences 9, 97-117. Holt, J., et al, 2014. Challenges in integrative approaches to modelling the marine ecosystems of the North Atlantic: Physics to Fish and Coasts to Ocean. Progress in Oceanography doi:10.1016/j.pocean.2014.04.024.

  14. Vacuum Drying for Extending Litchi Shelf-Life: Vitamin C, Total Phenolics, Texture and Shelf-Life Assessment.

    PubMed

    Richter Reis, Felipe; de Oliveira, Aline Caroline; Gadelha, Gabriella Giani Pieretti; de Abreu, Marcela Breves; Soares, Hillary Isabelle

    2017-06-01

    In an attempt to obtain shelf-stable litchi fruit with preserved nutritional quality and good sensory features, quarters of peeled and pitted fruits were vacuum dried at 50, 60 and 70 °C at a constant pressure of 8.0 kPa. The product was assessed for its vitamin C, total phenolics and texture (hardness). In addition, the product with the best texture was assessed for its shelf-life by means of accelerated testing. Results suggest that vacuum dried litchi retained almost 70% of the vitamin C and total phenolics when compared to frozen fruits (control). Vitamin C and phenolic compounds content significantly decreased with drying, while no difference was found between different drying temperatures. Hardness increased with drying temperature. The sample dried at 70 °C presented crispness, which is a desired quality feature in dried fruit products. This sample was subjected to shelf-life evaluation, whose result suggests a shelf-life of eight months at 23 °C. Total color change (CIE ΔE 00 ) was the expiry criterion. Vacuum drying was a suitable technique for producing shelf-stable litchi fruit with good texture while preserving its desirable original nutrients. Consumption of vacuum dried litchi may be beneficial to health due to its remarkable content of phenolic compounds and vitamin C.

  15. Cretaceous shelf-sea chalk deposits

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Hattin, D.E.

    1988-01-01

    The word ''chalk'' is linked etymologically to the Cretaceous, but chalky facies neither dominate that system nor are confined to it. As used commonly, the term ''chalk'' refers to a variety of marine limestone that is white to light gray very fine grained, soft and friable, porous, and composed predominantly of calcitic skeletal remains, especially those derived from coccolithophores. No simple definition suffices to embrace all Cretaceous chalks, which include sandy, marly, shelly, phospatic, glauconitic, dolomitic, pyritic and organic-rich lithotypes. Most of the world's exposed Cretaceous chalk deposits were formed at shelf depths rather than in the deep sea. Cretaceousmore » shelf-sea chalks are developed most extensively in northern Europe, the U.S. Gulf Coastal Plain and Western Interior, and the Middle East, with lesser occurrences alo in Australia. Most Cretaceous shelf-sea chalks formed in the temperature zones, and in relatively deep water. Cretaceous chalks deposited on well-oxygenated sea floors are bioturbated and massive where deficient in terrigenous detritus, or bioturbated and rhythmically interbedded with argillaceous units where influx of terrigenous detritus varied systematically with climate changes. Accumulation of sufficient pelagic mud to form vast deposits of Cretaceous shelf-sea chalk required (1) sustained high productivity of calareous plankton, (2) extensive development of stable shelf and continental platform environments, (3) highstands of seal level, (4) deficiency of aragonitic skeletal material in chalk-forming sediments, and (5) low rates of terrigenous detrital influx. These conditions were met at different times in different places, even within the same general region.« less

  16. Plant growth stage-specific injury and economic injury level for verde plant bug, Creontiades signatus (Hemiptera: Miridae), on cotton: Effect of bloom period of infestation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The verde plant bug, Creontiades signatus Distant (Hemiptera: Miridae), has emerged as a threat to cotton in South Texas, causing boll damage similar to boll-feeding stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae). Verde plant bugs were released into caged cotton for a one-week period to characterize the effec...

  17. Impacts of the Conservation Education Program in Serra Malagueta Natural Park, Cape Verde

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnett, Edmund; Sills, Erin; Peterson, M. Nils; DePerno, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Environmental and conservation education programs are commonly offered in the rapidly expanding network of protected areas in developing countries. There have been few evaluations of these programs and their impacts on participants. At Serra Malagueta Natural Park in Cape Verde, we assessed changes in environmental knowledge, opinions, and…

  18. Chapter 3: Providing water and forage in the Salt-Verde River Basin

    Treesearch

    Leonard F. DeBano; Malchus B. Baker; Gerald J. Gottfried

    1999-01-01

    The Salt-Verde River Basin, covering about 8.4 million acres of the Central Arizona Highlands, supplies most of the water for the Salt River Valley in addition to providing other multiple use values. Mixed conifer, ponderosa pine forests, and a portion of the pinyon-juniper woodlands predominantly occupy the higher-elevation watersheds. Chaparral shrublands occupy a...

  19. Inter-regional differences in baseline toxicity of Bemisia argentifolii (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) to the two insect growth regulators, buprofezin and pyriproxyfen.

    PubMed

    Toscano, N C; Prabhaker, N; Castle, S J; Henneberry, T J

    2001-12-01

    A survey of 53 Bemisia argentifolii Bellows & Perring populations from different agricultural regions in California and Arizona was conducted from 1997 to 1999 to establish baseline toxicological responses to buprofezin and pyriproxyfen. Although both compounds proved to be highly toxic even in minute quantities to specific stages, geographical and temporal differences in responses were detected using a leaf spray bioassay technique. Monitoring for three years revealed that six to seven populations had higher LC50 values but not greater survival when exposed to these two insecticides. A significant difference in relative susceptibility to buprofezin was first observed in late season 1997 in San Joaquin Valley populations with LC50s ranging from 16 to 22 microg (AI)/liter(-1) compared with IC50s of 1 to 3 mg (AI)/liter(-1) in Imperial, Palo Verde Valley and Yuma populations. Whiteflies collected in subsequent years from these and other locations showed an increase in susceptibility to buprofezin. Regional differences in susceptibilities to pyriproxyfen were minimal within the same years. Three years of sampling revealed consistently higher LC50s to pyriproxyfen in populations from Palo Verde Valley, CA, compared with whiteflies from Imperial, San Joaquin Valley or Yuma. As was the case with buprofezin, a decline in LC50s to pyriproxyfen was observed in whiteflies from all locations sampled in 1999. However, no correlation was observed between buprofezin and pyriproxyfen toxicity in any of the strains. The variable toxicities observed to both compounds over a period of 3 yr may be due principally to inherent differences among geographical populations or due to past chemical use which may confer positive or negative cross-resistance to buprofezin or pyriproxyfen.

  20. Ice shelf structure derived from dispersion curve analysis of ambient seismic noise, Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diez, A.; Bromirski, P. D.; Gerstoft, P.; Stephen, R. A.; Anthony, R. E.; Aster, R. C.; Cai, C.; Nyblade, A.; Wiens, D. A.

    2016-05-01

    An L-configured, three-component short period seismic array was deployed on the Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctica during November 2014. Polarization analysis of ambient noise data from these stations shows linearly polarized waves for frequency bands between 0.2 and 2 Hz. A spectral peak at about 1.6 Hz is interpreted as the resonance frequency of the water column and is used to estimate the water layer thickness below the ice shelf. The frequency band from 4 to 18 Hz is dominated by Rayleigh and Love waves propagating from the north that, based on daily temporal variations, we conclude were generated by field camp activity. Frequency-slowness plots were calculated using beamforming. Resulting Love and Rayleigh wave dispersion curves were inverted for the shear wave velocity profile within the firn and ice to ˜150 m depth. The derived density profile allows estimation of the pore close-off depth and the firn-air content thickness. Separate inversions of Rayleigh and Love wave dispersion curves give different shear wave velocity profiles within the firn. We attribute this difference to an effective anisotropy due to fine layering. The layered structure of firn, ice, water and the seafloor results in a characteristic dispersion curve below 7 Hz. Forward modelling the observed Rayleigh wave dispersion curves using representative firn, ice, water and sediment structures indicates that Rayleigh waves are observed when wavelengths are long enough to span the distance from the ice shelf surface to the seafloor. The forward modelling shows that analysis of seismic data from an ice shelf provides the possibility of resolving ice shelf thickness, water column thickness and the physical properties of the ice shelf and underlying seafloor using passive-source seismic data.

  1. Breakup of Pack Ice, Antarctic Ice Shelf

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Breakup of Pack Ice along the periphery of the Antarctic Ice Shelf (53.5S, 3.0E) produced this mosaic of ice floes off the Antarctic Ice Shelf. Strong offshore winds, probably associated with strong katabatic downdrafts from the interior of the continent, are seen peeling off the edges of the ice shelf into long filamets of sea ice, icebergs, bergy bits and growlers to flow northward into the South Atlantic Ocean. 53.5S, 3.0E

  2. Shelf life of packaged bakery goods--a review.

    PubMed

    Galić, K; Curić, D; Gabrić, D

    2009-05-01

    Packaging requirements for fresh bakery goods are often minimal as many of the products are for immediate consumption. However, packaging can be an important factor in extending the shelf life of other cereal-based goods (toast, frozen products, biscuits, cakes, pastas). Some amount of the texture changes and flavor loss manifest over the shelf life of a soft-baked good can usually be minimized or delayed by effective use of packaging materials. The gains in the extension of shelf life will be application specific. It is recognized that defining the shelf life of a food is a difficult task and is an area of intense research for food product development scientists (food technologists, microbiologists, packaging experts). Proper application of chemical kinetic principles to food quality loss allows for efficiently designing appropriate shelf-life tests and maximizing the useful information that can be obtained from the resulting data. In the development of any new food product including reformulating, change of packaging, or storage/distribution condition (to penetrate into a new market), one important aspect is the knowledge of shelf life.

  3. Sensory shelf life of dulce de leche.

    PubMed

    Garitta, L; Hough, G; Sánchez, R

    2004-06-01

    The objectives of this research were to determine the sensory cutoff points for dulce de leche (DL) critical descriptors, both for defective off-flavors and for storage changes in desirable attributes, and to estimate the shelf life of DL as a function of storage temperature. The critical descriptors used to determine the cutoff points were plastic flavor, burnt flavor, dark color, and spreadability. Linear correlations between sensory acceptability and trained panel scores were used to determine the sensory failure cutoff point for each descriptor. To estimate shelf life, DL samples were stored at 25, 37, and 45 degrees C. Plastic flavor was the first descriptor to reach its cutoff point at 25 degrees C and was used for shelf-life calculations. Plastic flavor vs. storage time followed zero-order reaction rate. Shelf-life estimations at different temperatures were 109 d at 25 degrees C, 53 d at 37 degrees C, and 9 d at 45 degrees C. The activation energy, necessary to calculate shelf lives at different temperatures, was 14,370 +/- 2080 cal/mol.

  4. Seasonal cycle of circulation in the Antarctic Peninsula and the off-shelf transport of shelf waters into southern Drake Passage and Scotia Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Mingshun; Charette, Matthew A.; Measures, Christopher I.; Zhu, Yiwu; Zhou, Meng

    2013-06-01

    The seasonal cycle of circulation and transport in the Antarctic Peninsula shelf region is investigated using a high-resolution (˜2 km) regional model based on the Regional Oceanic Modeling System (ROMS). The model also includes a naturally occurring tracer with a strong source over the shelf (radium isotope 228Ra, t1/2=5.8 years) to investigate the sediment Fe input and its transport. The model is spun-up for three years using climatological boundary and surface forcing and then run for the 2004-2006 period using realistic forcing. Model results suggest a persistent and coherent circulation system throughout the year consisting of several major components that converge water masses from various sources toward Elephant Island. These currents are largely in geostrophic balance, driven by surface winds, topographic steering, and large-scale forcing. Strong off-shelf transport of the Fe-rich shelf waters takes place over the northeastern shelf/slope of Elephant Island, driven by a combination of topographic steering, extension of shelf currents, and strong horizontal mixing between the ACC and shelf waters. These results are generally consistent with recent and historical observational studies. Both the shelf circulation and off-shelf transport show a significant seasonality, mainly due to the seasonal changes of surface winds and large-scale circulation. Modeled and observed distributions of 228Ra suggest that a majority of Fe-rich upper layer waters exported off-shelf around Elephant Island are carried by the shelfbreak current and the Bransfield Strait Current from the shallow sills between Gerlache Strait and Livingston Island, and northern shelf of the South Shetland Islands, where strong winter mixing supplies much of the sediment derived nutrients (including Fe) input to the surface layer.

  5. Evolution of Devonian carbonate-shelf margin, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morrow, J.R.; Sandberg, C.A.

    2008-01-01

    The north-trending, 550-km-long Nevada segment of the Devonian carbonate-shelf margin, which fringed western North America, evidences the complex interaction of paleotectonics, eustasy, biotic changes, and bolide impact-related influences. Margin reconstruction is complicated by mid-Paleozoic to Paleogene compressional tectonics and younger extensional and strike-slip faulting. Reports published during the past three decades identify 12 important events that influenced development of shelf-margin settings; in chronological order, these are: (1) Early Devonian inheritance of Silurian stable shelf inargin, (2) formation of Early to early Middle 'Devonian shelf-margin basins, (3) propradation of later Middle Devonian shelf margin, (4) late Middle Devonian Taghanic ondap and continuing long-term Frasnian transgression, (5) initiation of latest Middle Devonian to early Frasnian proto-Antler orogenic forebulge, (6) mid-Frasnian Alamo Impact, (7) accelerated development of proto-Antler forebulge and backbulge Pilot basin, (8) global late Frasnian sentichatovae sea-level rise, (9) end-Frasnian sea-level fluctuations and ensuing mass extinction, (10) long-term Famennian regression and continept-wide erosion, (11) late Famennian emergence: of Ahtler orogenic highlands, and (12) end-Devonian eustatic sea-level fall. Although of considerable value for understanding facies relationships and geometries, existing standard carbonate platform-margin models developed for passive settings else-where do not adequately describe the diverse depositional and, structural settings along the Nevada Devonian platform margin. Recent structural and geochemical studies suggest that the Early to Middle Devonian-shelf-margin basins may have been fault-bound and controlled by inherited Precambrian structure. Subsequently, the migrating latest Middle to Late Devonian Antler orogenic forebulge exerted a dominant control on shelf-margin position, morphology, and sedimentation. ??Geological Society of

  6. Ice shelf structure from dispersion curve analysis of passive-source seismic data, Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diez, A.; Bromirski, P. D.; Gerstoft, P.; Stephen, R. A.; Anthony, R. E.; Aster, R. C.; Cai, C.; Nyblade, A.; Wiens, D.

    2015-12-01

    An L-shaped array of three-component short period seismic stations was deployed at the Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctica approximately 100 km south of the ice edge, near 180° longitude, from November 18 through 28, 2014. Polarization analysis of data from these stations clearly shows propagating waves from below the ice shelf for frequencies below 2 Hz. Energy above 2 Hz is dominated by Rayleigh and Love waves propagating from the north. Frequency-slowness plots were calculated using beamforming. Resulting Love and Rayleigh wave dispersion curves were inverted for the shear wave velocity profile, from which we derive a density profile. The derived shear wave velocity profiles differ within the firn for the inversions using Rayleigh and Love wave dispersion curves. This difference is attributed to an effective anisotropy due to fine layering. The layered structure of firn, ice, water, and ocean floor results in a characteristic dispersion curve pattern below 7 Hz. We investigate the observed structures in more detail by forward modeling of Rayleigh wave dispersion curves for representative firn, ice, water, sediment structures. Rayleigh waves are observed when wavelengths are long enough to span the distance from the ice shelf surface to the seafloor. Our results show that the analysis of high frequency Rayleigh waves on an ice shelf has the ability to resolve ice shelf thickness, water column thickness, and the physical properties of the underlying ocean floor using passive-source seismic data.

  7. A long term glider study of shelf sea oxygen dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Charlotte; Palmer, Matthew; Mahaffey, Claire; Davis, Clare

    2017-04-01

    Oxygen is involved in most biogeochemical processes in the ocean, and dissolved oxygen (DO) is a well-established indicator for biological activity via the estimate of apparent oxygen utilisation (AOU). In the deep waters of the open ocean, the AOU provides a valuable insight into the ocean's biological carbon pump. However, in the physically dynamic and highly productive shallow shelf seas, interpretation of the oxygen distribution and the magnitude of AOU is complex. Physical processes, such as diapycnal mixing, entrainment and horizontal advection act to ventilate waters below the thermocline and thus increase oxygen and decrease AOU. In contrast, biological remineralisation of organic material below the thermocline will consume oxygen and increase AOU. We aim to address the following: 1. Does AOU change seasonally in a shelf sea in response to seasonal changes in productivity? 2. How important is turbulence in redistributing oxygen in a shelf sea? Using 9 months of high-resolution data from >20 glider deployments in the seasonally stratified NW European Shelf Sea we identify and quantify the physical and biological processes that control the DO distribution and magnitude of AOU in shelf seas. A 200km transect between the shelf edge and the central Celtic Sea (CCS) was repeated between November 2014 and August 2015, thus capturing key periods in the seasonal cycling in shelf seas, specifically the onset of stratification, the spring bloom, stratified summer period and breakdown of stratification. The gliders collected data for DO, temperature, salinity, chlorophyll fluorescence, CDOM, backscatter and turbulence. In addition, direct measurements of turbulent dissipation from the Ocean Microstructure Glider deployed during the campaign provided estimates of mixing at CCS and the shelf break, allowing accurate quantification of the vertical fluxes of oxygen. We find that oxygen decreases ubiquitously across the shelf as soon as stratification takes hold, though BML

  8. Layers of 'Cape Verde' in 'Victoria Crater'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    This view of Victoria crater is looking north from 'Duck Bay' towards the dramatic promontory called 'Cape Verde.' The dramatic cliff of layered rocks is about 50 meters (about 165 feet) away from the rover and is about 6 meters (about 20 feet) tall. The taller promontory beyond that is about 100 meters (about 325 feet) away, and the vista beyond that extends away for more than 400 meters (about 1300 feet) into the distance. This is an approximately true color rendering of images taken by the panoramic camera (Pancam) on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity during the rover's 952nd sol, or Martian day, (Sept. 28, 2006) using the camera's 750-nanometer, 530-nanometer and 430-nanometer filters.

  9. Dynamics of internal waves on the Southeast Florida shelf: Implications for cross-shelf exchange and turbulent mixing on a barrier reef system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Kristen Alexis

    The dynamics of internal waves shoaling on the Southeast Florida shelf and the resulting stratified turbulence in the shelf bottom boundary layer are investigated using observational studies completed during the summers of 2003-2005. This work is driven by a desire to understand the effects of internal wave-driven flow and the shoreward transport of cool, nutrient-rich water masses on cross-shelf exchange, vertical mixing, and mass transfer to benthic reef organisms. Shelf sea internal wave fields are typically highly variable and dominated by wind and tidal forces. However, this is not necessarily true for outer shelf regions or very narrow shelves where remote physical processes originating over the slope or deep ocean may exert a strong influence on the internal wave climate. During the summers of 2003 and 2004 observational studies were conducted to examine the effects of a western boundary current (the Florida Current), tides, and wind on the mean currents and internal wave field on the outer Southeast Florida shelf. We present evidence that suggests that the Florida Current plays as large a role in the determination of the high frequency internal wave field as tidal forces. These observations and analyses show that it is necessary to include the forcing from the Florida Current meanders and instabilities in order to predict accurately the episodic nature of the internal wave field on the Southeast Florida shelf. Deep ocean and continental shelf processes intersect at the shelf edge and influence the exchange of water masses and their associated characteristics including heat, nutrients, sediment, and larvae across the shelf. Thus, the dynamics of cross-shelf circulation have important consequences for organisms living on the shelf. In the second phase of this work, we investigate physical mechanisms controlling the exchange of water masses during the summer season across the Southeast Florida shelf. A time series of cross-shelf transport from May to August

  10. Basal crevasses and suture zones in the Larsen C Ice Shelf, Antarctica: Implications for ice shelf stability in a warming climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGrath, Daniel J.

    Understanding ice shelf structure and processes is paramount to future predictions of sea level rise, as nearly 75% of the ice flux from the Antarctic Ice Sheet (AIS) passes through these gates. The breakup of an ice shelf removes the longitudinal back stress acting on the grounded inland ice and leads to flow acceleration, dynamic thinning and frontal retreat, processes that can be sustained for more than a decade. Increased ice discharge to the ocean contributes to global sea level rise. This dissertation investigates basal crevasses and suture zones, two key structural components of ice shelves, in order to understand how the structure of an ice shelf influences its stability in a warming climate. Ground penetrating radar, high-resolution satellite imagery and a variety of modeling approaches are utilized to assess these features on the Larsen C Ice Shelf but in a manner that considers their influence on ice shelf stability around the AIS. Basal crevasses are large-scale (~66% of ice thickness and ten's of kms in length) and abundant features that are significant structural weaknesses. The viscoplastic deformation of the ice shelf in response to the perturbed hydrostatic balance leads to the formation of both surface depressions and crevasses, hence weakening the ice shelf further. Basal crevasses increase the local ice-ocean interface by ~30%, thereby increasing basal roughness and altering ice-ocean interactions. Ice-shelf fractures frequently terminate where they encounter suture zones, regions of material heterogeneity that form at the lateral bounds of meteoric inflows to ice shelves. The termination of a 25 km-long rift in the Churchill Peninsula suture zone is investigated and found to contain ~60 m of accreted marine ice. Steady-state basal melting/freezing rates are determined for the ice shelf and applied to a flowline model to examine the along-flow evolution of ice shelf structure. The thickening surface wedge of locally accumulated meteoric ice

  11. Endmembers of Ice Shelf Melt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boghosian, A.; Child, S. F.; Kingslake, J.; Tedesco, M.; Bell, R. E.; Alexandrov, O.; McMichael, S.

    2017-12-01

    Studies of surface melt on ice shelves have defined a spectrum of meltwater behavior. On one end the storage of meltwater in persistent surface ponds can trigger ice shelf collapse as in the 2002 event leading to the disintegration of the Larsen B Ice Shelf. On the other, meltwater export by rivers can stabilize an ice shelf as was recently shown on the Nansen Ice Shelf. We explore this dichotomy by quantifying the partitioning between stored and transported water on two glaciers adjacent to floating ice shelves, Nimrod (Antarctica) and Peterman (Greenland). We analyze optical satellite imagery (LANDSAT, WorldView), airborne imagery (Operation IceBridge, Trimetrogon Aerial Phototography), satellite radar (Sentinel-1), and digital elevation models (DEMs) to categorize surface meltwater fate and map the evolution of ice shelf hydrology and topographic features through time. On the floating Peterman Glacier tongue a sizable river exports water to the ocean. The surface hydrology of Nimrod Glacier, geometrically similar to Peterman but with ten times shallower surface slope, is dominated by storage in surface lakes. In contrast, the Nansen has the same surface slope as Nimrod but transports water through surface rivers. Slope alone is not the sole control on ice shelf hydrology. It is essential to track the storage and transport volumes for each of these systems. To estimate water storage and transport we analyze high resolution (40 cm - 2 m) modern and historical DEMs. We produce historical (1957 onwards) DEMs with structure-from-motion photogrammetry. The DEMs are used to constrain water storage potential estimates of observed basins and water routing/transport potential. We quantify the total volume of water stored seasonally and interannually. We use the normalize difference water index to map meltwater extent, and estimate lake water depth from optical data. We also consider the role of stored water in subsurface aquifers in recharging surface water after

  12. 41 CFR 101-27.204 - Types of shelf-life items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Types of shelf-life items...-Management of Shelf-Life Materials § 101-27.204 Types of shelf-life items. Shelf-life items are classified as nonextendable (Type I) and extendable (Type II). Type I items have a definite storage life after which the item...

  13. 41 CFR 101-27.204 - Types of shelf-life items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2011-07-01 2007-07-01 true Types of shelf-life items...-Management of Shelf-Life Materials § 101-27.204 Types of shelf-life items. Shelf-life items are classified as nonextendable (Type I) and extendable (Type II). Type I items have a definite storage life after which the item...

  14. 41 CFR 101-27.204 - Types of shelf-life items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2014-07-01 2012-07-01 true Types of shelf-life items...-Management of Shelf-Life Materials § 101-27.204 Types of shelf-life items. Shelf-life items are classified as nonextendable (Type I) and extendable (Type II). Type I items have a definite storage life after which the item...

  15. 41 CFR 101-27.204 - Types of shelf-life items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Types of shelf-life items...-Management of Shelf-Life Materials § 101-27.204 Types of shelf-life items. Shelf-life items are classified as nonextendable (Type I) and extendable (Type II). Type I items have a definite storage life after which the item...

  16. Dibble Ice Shelf

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-06-13

    This photo, aken onboard a National Science Foundation/NASA chartered Twin Otter aircraft, shows the ice front of Dibble Ice Shelf, East Antarctica, a significant melt water producer from the Wilkes Land region, East Antarctica.

  17. Seismicity within a propagating ice shelf rift: the relationship between icequake locations and ice shelf structure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heeszel, David S.; Fricker, Helen A.; Bassis, Jeremy N.; O'Neel, Shad; Walter, Fabian

    2014-01-01

    Iceberg calving is a dominant mass loss mechanism for Antarctic ice shelves, second only to basal melting. An important known process involved in calving is the initiation and propagation of through-penetrating fractures called rifts; however, the mechanisms controlling rift propagation remain poorly understood. To investigate the mechanics of ice-shelf rifting, we analyzed seismicity associated with a propagating rift tip on the Amery Ice Shelf, using data collected during the Austral summers of 2004-2007. We investigated seismicity associated with fracture propagation using a suite of passive seismological techniques including icequake locations, back projection, and moment tensor inversion. We confirm previous results that show that seismicity is characterized by periods of relative quiescence punctuated by swarms of intense seismicity of one to three hours. However, even during periods of quiescence, we find significant seismic deformation around the rift tip. Moment tensors, calculated for a subset of the largest icequakes (MW > -2.0) located near the rift tip, show steeply dipping fault planes, horizontal or shallowly plunging stress orientations, and often have a significant volumetric component. They also reveal that much of the observed seismicity is limited to the upper 50 m of the ice shelf. This suggests a complex system of deformation that involves the propagating rift, the region behind the rift tip, and a system of rift-transverse crevasses. Small-scale variations in the mechanical structure of the ice shelf, especially rift-transverse crevasses and accreted marine ice, play an important role in modulating the rate and location of seismicity associated with propagating ice shelf rifts.

  18. Under-reporting of tuberculosis in Praia, Cape Verde, from 2006 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Furtado da Luz, E; Braga, J U

    2018-03-01

    According to World Health Organization (WHO) estimates, the under-reporting rate for tuberculosis (TB) in Cape Verde between 2006 and 2012 was 49%. However, the WHO recognises the challenges associated with this estimation process and recommends implementing other methods, such as record linkage, to combat TB under-reporting. To estimate and analyse under-reporting of cases by TB surveillance health units and to evaluate TB cases retrieved from other TB diagnostic sources in Praia, Cape Verde, from 2006 to 2012. This cross-sectional study evaluated under-reporting using the following data: 1) the under-reporting index from TB reporting health units (RHUs), where the number of validated TB cases from RHUs was compared with data from the National Programme for the Fight against Tuberculosis and Leprosy (NPFTL); and 2) the under-reporting index among overall data sources, or a comparison of the number of all validated TB cases from all sources with NPFTL data. The TB under-reporting rate was 40% in Praia during the study period, and results were influenced by laboratory findings. The TB under-reporting rate was very similar to the rate estimated by the WHO. TB surveillance must be improved to reduce under-reporting.

  19. Epidemiology of the Zika Virus Outbreak in the Cabo Verde Islands, West Africa

    PubMed Central

    Lourenço, José; de Lourdes Monteiro, Maria; Valdez, Tomás; Monteiro Rodrigues, Júlio; Pybus, Oliver; Rodrigues Faria, Nuno

    2018-01-01

    Introduction: The Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak in the island nation of Cabo Verde was of unprecedented magnitude in Africa and the first to be associated with microcephaly in the continent. Methods: Using a simple mathematical framework we present a first epidemiological assessment of attack and observation rates from 7,580 ZIKV notified cases and 18 microcephaly reports between July 2015 and May 2016. Results: In line with observations from the Americas and elsewhere, the single-wave Cabo Verdean ZIKV epidemic was characterized by a basic reproductive number of 1.85 (95% CI, 1.5 - 2.2), with overall the attack rate of 51.1% (range 42.1 - 61.1) and observation rate of 2.7% (range 2.29 - 3.33). Conclusion: Current herd-immunity may not be sufficient to prevent future small-to-medium epidemics in Cabo Verde. Together with a small observation rate, these results highlight the need for rapid and integrated epidemiological, molecular and genomic surveillance to tackle forthcoming outbreaks of ZIKV and other arboviruses. PMID:29637009

  20. Estimation of shelf life of wikau maombo brownies cake using Accelerated Shelf Life Testing (ASLT) method with Arrhenius model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahyuni, S.; Holilah; Asranudin; Noviyanti

    2018-02-01

    The shelf life of brownies cake made from wikau maombo flour was predicted by ASLT method through the Arrhenius model. The aim of this study was to estimate the shelf life of brownies cake made from wikau maombo flour. The storage temperature of brownies cake was carried out at 20°C, 30°C and 45°C. The results showed that TBA (Thio Barbaturic Acid) number of brownies cake decreased as the storage temperature increase. Brownies stored at 20°C and 30°C were overgrown with mold on the storage time of six days. Brownies product (WT0 and WT1) had shelf life at 40°C approximately six and fourteen days, respectively. Brownies made from wikau maombo and wheat flour (WT1) was the best product with had the longest of shelf life about fourteen days.

  1. Achievement of malaria pre-elimination in Cape Verde according to the data collected from 2010 to 2016.

    PubMed

    DePina, Adilson José; Niang, El Hadji Amadou; Barbosa Andrade, Alex Jailson; Dia, Abdoulaye Kane; Moreira, Antonio; Faye, Ousmane; Seck, Ibrahima

    2018-06-19

    Malaria, despite being preventable and treatable, continues to be a major public health problem worldwide. The archipelago nation of Cape Verde is in a malaria pre-elimination phase with the highest potential to achieve the target goal of elimination in 2020. Nationwide malaria epidemiological data were obtained from the Cape Verde health information system that includes the individual malaria case notification system from all of the country's health structures. Each case is reported to the surveillance service then to the National Malaria Control Programme, which allowed for compilation in the national malaria case database. The database was analysed to assess the origin of the malaria cases, and incidence was calculated from 2010 to 2016 by sex and age. The health centre, health district and month of diagnosis were evaluated, as well as the sex and the age of the patients, allowing a direct descriptive analysis of national data to provide an up-to-date malaria epidemiological profile of the country. Malaria cases were classified as imported or indigenous, and then, geographical analyses were performed using a unique Geographical National Code with Quantum Geographic Information System 2.16.2 software to map the cases by municipalities. The overall temporal evolution of cases was analysed to assess their monthly and yearly variations from 2010 to 2016. Malaria is unstable in Cape Verde, with inter-annual variation and the majority of infections occurring in adult males (> 20 years). The indigenous cases are restricted to Santiago (96%) and Boavista (4%), while imported cases were recorded in all the nine inhabited islands, originating from neighbouring countries with ongoing malaria transmission; from Lusophone countries (25% from Angola, 25% from Guinea-Bissau), followed by the Republic of Senegal (12%) and Equatorial Guinea (10%). In 2010-2012, more imported (93 cases) than indigenous cases (26 cases) were observed; conversely, in 2013 and 2014, more

  2. Impacts of the Larsen-C Ice Shelf calving event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hogg, Anna E.; Gudmundsson, G. Hilmar

    2017-08-01

    A giant iceberg has calved off the Larsen-C Ice Shelf, the largest remaining ice shelf on the Antarctic Peninsula, reducing its total area by ~10%. Whilst calving events are a natural phenomenon and thus not necessarily indicative of changing environmental conditions, such events can impact ice-shelf stability.

  3. Shelf life prediction of apple brownies using accelerated method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pulungan, M. H.; Sukmana, A. D.; Dewi, I. A.

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this research was to determine shelf life of apple brownies. Shelf life was determined with Accelerated Shelf Life Testing method and Arrhenius equation. Experiment was conducted at 25, 35, and 45°C for 30 days. Every five days, the sample was analysed for free fatty acid (FFA), water activity (Aw), and organoleptic acceptance (flavour, aroma, and texture). The shelf life of the apple brownies based on FFA were 110, 54, and 28 days at temperature of 25, 35, and 45°C, respectively.

  4. The Role of Basal Channels in Ice Shelf Calving.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dow, C. F.; Lee, W. S.; Greenbaum, J. S.; Greene, C. A.; Blankenship, D. D.; Poinar, K.; Forrest, A.; Young, D. A.; Zappa, C. J.

    2017-12-01

    Increased rates of ice shelf break-up drives acceleration of grounded glacial ice into the ocean, resulting in sea-level rise. Ice shelves are vulnerable to thinning, which make them more susceptible to calving. Here, we examine basal channels under three ice shelves that locally thin the ice and drive formation of transverse ice shelf fractures. The basal channels also cause surface depressions due to hydrostatic buoyancy effects and can draw in surface water to form rivers. These rivers exacerbate thinning by surface melting and hydraulic loading, and can accelerate rifting when they flow into the transverse fractures. Our investigation focuses on Nansen Ice Shelf in the Ross Sea Embayment, East Antarctica. We use ice-sounding radar and single-beam laser altimeter data from two aerogeophysical campaigns conducted in 2011 and 2014, ice surface DEM reconstruction, and satellite imagery analysis, to examine the role of a substantial basal channel in the stability of this ice shelf. Nansen Ice Shelf calved two large icebergs totaling 214 km2 in area in April 2016. The transverse fracture that eventually rifted to form these icebergs initiated directly over the basal channel in 1987. In years when surface water formed on Nansen Ice Shelf, a river flowed into the transverse fracture. In November 2016, we identified a new fracture over the basal channel during in-situ data collection. We compare the Nansen Ice Shelf fractures with those at other vulnerable ice-shelf systems, including Petermann Glacier in Greenland and Totten Glacier in East Antarctica, to evaluate the role that basal channels may play in simultaneous basal and surface weakening and their consequent effect on ice-shelf rifting and stability.

  5. Ross Ice Shelf

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... Larger Image According to researchers funded by the National Science Foundation, several penguin colonies near the Ross Ice Shelf, ... Hut Point Peninsula. For a press release from the National Science Foundation containing additional details and MISR imagery ...

  6. Verde plant bug is associated with cottong boll rot in South Texas cotton

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Verde plant bug was the dominant boll-feeding sucking bug species (>98% of insects collected using a beat bucket) from peak to late bloom in cotton fields near the coast along the Coastal Bend of South Texas, from Port Lavaca to the Lower Rio qrande Valley in 2010 and 2011. It was common in fields w...

  7. Shelf Sea Oxygen Dynamics: A year of Glider Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, C. A. J.; Palmer, M.; Mahaffey, C.; Jardine, J.

    2016-02-01

    Oxygen (O) is involved in most biogeochemical processes in the ocean, and dissolved oxygen (DO) is a well-established indicator for biological activity via the estimate of apparent oxygen utilisation (AOU). In the deep waters of the open ocean, the AOU provides a valuable insight into the ocean's biological carbon pump. However, in the physically dynamic and highly productive shallow shelf seas, interpretation of the O distribution and the magnitude of AOU is complex. Physical processes, such as diapycnal mixing, entrainment and horizontal advection act to ventilate waters below the thermocline and thus increase O and decrease AOU. In contrast, biological remineralisation of organic material below the thermocline will consume O and increase AOU. Here, we use 1 year of high-resolution data from >20 glider deployments in the seasonally stratified NW European Shelf Sea to identify and quantify the physical and biological processes that control the DO distribution and magnitude of AOU in shelf seas. A 200km transect between the shelf edge and the central Celtic Sea (CCS) was repeated between November 2014 and August 2015, thus capturing key periods in the seasonal cycling in shelf seas, specifically the onset of stratification, the spring bloom, stratified summer period and breakdown of stratification. The gliders collected data for DO, temperature, salinity, chlorophyll fluorescence, CDOM, backscatter and turbulence. In addition, direct measurements of turbulent dissipation from the Ocean Microstructure Glider deployed during the campaign provided estimates of mixing at CCS and the shelf break, allowing accurate quantification of the vertical fluxes of O. At the end of the stratified period the DO concentration was higher and AOU was lower at the shelf break (80 µM) compared to at CCS on shelf (>95 µM) (Fig 1). Estimates of vertical DO fluxes indicate that this horizontal variation in DO and AOU was partly attributed to enhanced mixing via internal waves at the

  8. Modelling the bathymetry of the Antarctic continental shelf

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ten Brink, Uri S.; Rogers, William P.; Kirkham, R.M.

    1992-01-01

    Continental shelves are typically covered by relatively shallow waters (<200 m) which deepen gradually from the coast to the shelf edge. The continental shelf around Antarctica is deeper than normal (400-700m) and is characterized in many areas by a nearshore trough (up to 1 km deep) that gradually shallows toward the shelf edge. We examine the cause for the unusual shelf bathymetry of Antarctica by 2-D numerical models that simulate the bathymetry along seismic line ODP-119 in Prydz Bay. Line ODP-119 was chosen because it is tied to to 5 ODP boreholes, and because the margin underwent little recent tectonic activity or changes in the glacial drainage pattern. The numerical models incorporate several factors that are likely to influence the bathymetry, such as the load of the ice cap, the isostatic response of the lithosphere, thermal and tectnoic subsidence of the margin, sea level changes, and the patterns of erosion and sedimentation across the margin. The models show that the observed bathymetry can be produced almost entirely by the sum of the outer-shelf sediment loading and inner-shelf unloading and by the load of the slope sediments. A simple statistical mdoel demonstrates that this distribution pattern of erosion and deposition can be generated by multiple cycles of ice sheet advances across the shelf, whereby in each cycle a thin (a few tens of meters) uniform layer of sediments is eroded from under the ice sheet and is redeposited seaward of the grounding line.

  9. Layers of 'Cape Verde' in 'Victoria Crater' (Stereo)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    This view of Victoria crater is looking north from 'Duck Bay' towards the dramatic promontory called 'Cape Verde.' The dramatic cliff of layered rocks is about 50 meters (about 165 feet) away from the rover and is about 6 meters (about 20 feet) tall. The taller promontory beyond that is about 100 meters (about 325 feet) away, and the vista beyond that extends away for more than 400 meters (about 1300 feet) into the distance. This is a red-blue stereo anaglyph generated from images taken by the panoramic camera (Pancam) on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity during the rover's 952nd sol, or Martian day, (Sept. 28, 2006) using the camera's 430-nanometer filters.

  10. Seasonal cross-shelf distribution of major zooplankton taxa on the northern Gulf of Alaska shelf relative to water mass properties, species depth preferences and vertical migration behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coyle, Kenneth O.; Pinchuk, Alexei I.

    2005-01-01

    The cross-shelf distribution of major zooplankton species was examined on the northern Gulf of Alaska (GOA) shelf during the production season for four years, between October 1997 and October 2001. The zooplankton community on the northern GOA shelf consisted of oceanic and neritic species of the North Pacific subarctic species complex. Cross-shelf distribution of the major zooplankton species was influenced by their depth preferences, vertical migration behavior, salinity-temperature preferences, and by cross-shelf water-mass distribution and movement. The neritic community, dominated by Pseudocalanus spp., Metridia pacifica and Calanus marshallae, had highest abundances on the inner shelf, in the Alaska Coastal Current, and in the adjacent fjords in late spring and early summer. The oceanic community, which contained primarily Neocalanus cristatus and Eucalanus bungii, was observed in the Alaskan Stream and adjacent waters near the shelf break. A mid-shelf transition zone contained a mixture of oceanic and neritic species. Prince William Sound (PWS) contained a unique species complex of large mesopelagic copepods, amphipods and shrimp. Neocalanus flemingeri and Oithona similis were abundant in all four regions during spring and early summer. The transition zone commonly crossed much of the shelf between the shelf break and the ACC, but satellite images and CTD data indicate that occasionally a narrow shelf-break front can form, in which case distinct zooplankton species groups are observed on either side of the front. Satellite data also revealed numerous large and small eddies, which probably contribute to cross-shelf mixing in the transition zone.

  11. Temporal and spatial patterns in wind stress and wind stress curl over the central Southern California Bight

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Noble, Marlene A.; Rosenberger, Kurt J.; Rosenfeld, Leslie K.; Robertson, George L.

    2012-01-01

    In 2001, the U.S. Geological Survey, together with several other federal and municipal agencies, began a series of field programs to determine along and cross-shelf transport patterns over the continental shelves in the central Southern California Bight. As a part of these programs, moorings that monitor winds were deployed off the Palos Verdes peninsula and within San Pedro Bay for six 3–4 month summer and winter periods between 2001 and 2008. In addition, nearly continuous records of winds for this 7-year period were obtained from a terrestrial site at the coast and from a basin site offshore of the long-term coastal site. The mean annual winds are downcoast at all sites. The alongshelf components of wind stress, which are the largest part of the low-frequency wind stress fields, are well correlated between basin, shelf and coastal sites. On average, the amplitude of alongshelf fluctuations in wind stress are 3–4 times larger over the offshore basin, compared to the coastal site, irrespective of whether the fluctuations represent the total, or just the correlated portion of the wind stress field. The curl in the large-scale wind stress tends to be positive, especially in the winter season when the mean wind stress is downcoast and larger at the offshore basin site than at the beach. However, since the fluctuation in wind stress amplitudes are usually larger than the mean, periods of weak negative curl do occur, especially in the summer season when the largest normalized differences in the amplitude of wind stress fluctuations are found in the nearshore region of the coastal ocean. Even though the low-frequency wind stress field is well-correlated over the continental shelf and offshore basins, out to distances of 35 km or more from the coast, winds even 10 km inshore of the beach do not represent the coastal wind field, at least in the summer months. The seasonal changes in the spatial structures in wind stress amplitudes suggest that an assessment of the

  12. Iceberg B-15, Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Iceberg B-15 broke from the Ross Ice Shelf in Antarctica in late March. Among the largest ever observed, the new iceberg is approximately 170 miles long x 25 miles wide. Its 4,250 square-mile area is nearly as large as the state of Connecticut. The iceberg was formed from glacial ice moving off the Antarctic continent and calved along pre-existing cracks in the Ross Ice Shelf near Roosevelt Island. The calving of the iceberg essentially moves the northern boundary of the ice shelf about 25 miles to the south, a loss that would normally take the ice shelf as long as 50-100 years to replace. This infrared image was acquired by the DMSP (Defense Meteorological Satellite Program) F-13 satellite on April 13, 2000. For more images see Antarctic Meteorological Research Center Image courtesy of the University of Wisconsin - Madison, Space Science and Engineering Center, Antarctic Meteorological Research Center

  13. Assessment of tight-gas resources in Canyon sandstones of the Val Verde Basin, Texas, 2016

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Klett, Timothy R.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Hawkins, Sarah J.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Marra, Kristen R.; Finn, Thomas M.; Pitman, Janet K.

    2016-07-08

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey assessed mean resources of 5 trillion cubic feet of gas and 187 million barrels of natural gas liquids in tight-gas assessment units in the Canyon sandstones of the Val Verde Basin, Texas.

  14. Mean Lagrangian drift in continental shelf waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drivdal, M.; Weber, J. E. H.

    2012-04-01

    The time- and depth-averaged mean drift induced by barotropic continental shelf waves (CSW's) is studied theoretically for idealized shelf topography by calculating the mean volume fluxes to second order in wave amplitude. The waves suffer weak spatial damping due to bottom friction, which leads to radiation stress forcing of the mean fluxes. In terms of the total wave energy density E¯ over the shelf region, the radiation stress tensor component S¯11 for CSW's is found to be different from that of shallow water surface waves in a non-rotating ocean. For CSW's, the ratio ¯S11/¯E depends strongly on the wave number. The mean Lagrangian flow forced by the radiation stress can be subdivided into a Stokes drift and a mean Eulerian drift current. The magnitude of the latter depends on the ratio between the radiation stress and the bottom stress acting on the mean flow. When the effect of bottom friction acts equally strong on the waves and the mean current, calculations for short CSW's show that the Stokes drift and the friction-dependent wave-induced mean Eulerian current varies approximately in anti-phase over the shelf, and that the latter is numerically the largest. For long CSW's they are approximately in phase. In both cases the mean Lagrangian current, which is responsible for the net particle drift, has its largest numerical value at the coast on the shallow part of the shelf. Enhancing the effect of bottom friction on the Eulerian mean flow, results in a general current speed reduction, as well as a change in spatial structure for long waves. Applying realistic physical parameters for the continental shelf west of Norway, calculations yield along-shelf mean drift velocities for short CSW's that may be important for the transport of biological material, neutral tracers, and underwater plumes of dissolved oil from deep water drilling accidents.

  15. Calving and rifting on McMurdo Ice Shelf, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banwell, Alison; Willis, Ian; MacAyeal, Douglas; Goodsell, Becky; Macdonald, Grant; Mayer, David; Powell, Anthony

    2017-04-01

    On March 2, 2016, a series of small en échelon tabular icebergs calved from the seaward front of the McMurdo Ice Shelf, and a previously inactive ice-shelf rift suddenly widened and propagated by 3km, 25% of its previous length, setting the stage for future calving of an approximately 8 km2 segment of the ice shelf. Immediately prior to these events, perhaps within 24 hours, all remaining land-fast sea ice buttressing the ice shelf broke up and drifted away. The events were witnessed by time-lapse cameras at nearby Scott Base giving a unique opportunity to document the timing of the events and conditions leading up to them. In addition, the events can be put into context using nearby seismic and automatic weather station data, satellite imagery, and ground observation made 8 months later. Although the observations cannot be used definitively to identify the exact trigger of calving and rifting, the seismic records reveal superimposed sets of long-period (>10 s) sea swell, propagating into McMurdo Sound from distant storm sources in the Pacific Ocean, at the time of, and immediately prior to, the break-up of sea ice and associated ice shelf calving and rifting. This conspicuous presence suggests that sea swell should be studied further as a proximal cause of ice-shelf calving and rifting; if proven, it suggests that ice-shelf stability is tele-connected with far-field storm conditions at lower latitudes, adding a global dimension to the physics of potential ice-shelf breakup.

  16. Downslope flow across the Ross Sea shelf break (Antarctica)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergamasco, A.; Budillon, G.; Carniel, S.; Defendi, V.; Meloni, R.; Paschini, E.; Sclavo, M.; Spezie, G.

    2003-12-01

    The analysis of some high-resolution hydrological data sets acquired during the 1997, 1998, 2001 and 2003 austral summers across the Ross Sea continental shelf break are here presented. The main focus of these cruises carried out in the framework of the Italian National Antarctic Program was the investigation of the downslope flow of the dense waters originated inside the Ross Sea. Such dense waters, flow near the bottom and, reaching the continental shelf break, ventilate the deep ocean. Two Antarctic continental shelf mechanisms can originate dense and deep waters. The former mechanism involves the formation, along the Victoria Land coasts, of a dense and saline water mass, the High Salinity Shelf Water (HSSW). The HSSW formation is linked to the rejection of salt into the water column as sea ice freezes, especially during winter, in the polynya areas, where the ice is continuously pushed offshore by the strong katabatic winds. The latter one is responsible of the formation of a supercold water mass, the Ice Shelf Water (ISW). The salt supplied by the HSSW recirculated below the Ross Ice Shelf, the latent heat of melting and the heat sink provided by the Ross Ice Shelf give rise to plumes of ISW, characterized by temperatures below the sea-surface freezing point. The dense shelf waters migrate to the continental shelf-break, spill over the shelf edge and descend the continental slope as a shelf-break gravity current, subject to friction and possibly enhanced by topographic channelling. Friction, in particular, breaks the constraint of potential vorticity conservation, counteracting the geostrophic tendency for along slope flow. The density-driven downslope motion or cascading entrains ambient water, namely the lower layer of the CDW, reaches a depth where density is the same and spreads off-slope. In fact, the cascading event is inhibited by friction without entrainment. The downslope processes are important for the ocean and climate system because they play a

  17. Cyclonic entrainment of preconditioned shelf waters into a frontal eddy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Everett, J. D.; Macdonald, H.; Baird, M. E.; Humphries, J.; Roughan, M.; Suthers, I. M.

    2015-02-01

    The volume transport of nutrient-rich continental shelf water into a cyclonic frontal eddy (entrainment) was examined from satellite observations, a Slocum glider and numerical simulation outputs. Within the frontal eddy, parcels of water with temperature/salinity signatures of the continental shelf (18-19°C and >35.5, respectively) were recorded. The distribution of patches of shelf water observed within the eddy was consistent with the spiral pattern shown within the numerical simulations. A numerical dye tracer experiment showed that the surface waters (≤50 m depth) of the frontal eddy are almost entirely (≥95%) shelf waters. Particle tracking experiments showed that water was drawn into the eddy from over 4° of latitude (30-34.5°S). Consistent with the glider observations, the modeled particles entrained into the eddy sunk relative to their initial position. Particles released south of 33°S, where the waters are cooler and denser, sunk 34 m deeper than their release position. Distance to the shelf was a critical factor in determining the volume of shelf water entrained into the eddy. Entrainment reduced to 0.23 Sv when the eddy was furthest from the shelf, compared to 0.61 Sv when the eddy was within 10 km of the shelf. From a biological perspective, quantifying the entrainment of shelf water into frontal eddies is important, as it is thought to play a significant role in providing an offshore nursery habitat for coastally spawned larval fish.

  18. Study of genetic markers of CODIS and ESS systems in a population of individuals from Cabo Verde living in Lisboa.

    PubMed

    Resende, Ana; Amorim, António; da Silva, Cláudia Vieira; Ribeiro, Teresa; Porto, Maria João; Costa Santos, Jorge; Afonso Costa, Heloísa

    2017-01-01

    Twenty-two autosomal short tandem repeats included in the PowerPlex® Fusion System Amplification kit (Promega Corporation) were genotyped in a population sample of 500 unrelated individuals from Cabo Verde living in Lisboa. Allelic frequency data and forensic and statistical parameters were calculated and evaluated in this work. The genetic relationship among immigrant population from Cabo Verde living in Lisboa and other populations, such as Brazilian and Angola immigrants living in Lisboa; Afro-Americans, Caucasians, Hispanics and Asians living in the USA and the population from Lisboa was assessed, and a multidimensional scaling plot was drown to show these results.

  19. The exchange of Kuroshio and East China Sea shelf water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chern, Ching-Sheng; Wang, Joe; Wang, Dong-Ping

    1990-09-01

    A detailed hydrographic study of the East China Sea shelf edge north of Taiwan revealed an intense cold eddy on the shelf break and a large low-salinity filament at the slope. The cold eddy which is induced by the upwelling of the subsurface Kuroshio water has been repeatedly documented in previous studies. The filament which is made of the mixed shelf and subsurface Kuroshio water, on the other hand, has not been recognized before. The shelf edge upwelling appears to be associated with the sharp bending of the Kuroshio north of Taiwan, while the outpouring of shelf water appears to be associated with the northeasterly storms. Both the eddy and the filament consist of large fractions of the subsurface Kuroshio water, and they may be important to the salt and nutrient budget on the East China Sea shelf.

  20. Verde plant bug (Hemiptera: Miridae) feeding injury to cotton bolls characterized by boll age, size, and damage ratings.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, J Scott; Brewer, Michael J; Parker, Roy D; Adamczyk, J J

    2013-02-01

    The verde plant bug, Creontiades signatus (Distant), has been present in south Texas for several years but has more recently been documented as an economic threat to cultivated cotton, (Gossypium hirsutum L. Our studies over 2 yr (2009 and 2010) and two locations (Weslaco and Corpus Christi, TX) investigated feeding-injury of the verde plant bug to a range of cotton boll age classes defined by boll diameter and accumulated degree-days (anthesis to the time of infesting) for first-position cotton bolls infested with the plant bugs. The most detrimental damage to younger cotton holls from verde plant bug feeding was boll abscission. Cotton bolls <04 accumulating daily degree-days (ACDD), or a boll diameter of 1.3 cm were subject to 60-70% higher boll abscission when compared with the noninfested controls. Significantly higher boll abscission occurred from verde plant bug injured bolls compared with the controls up to 162 ACDD or a mean boll diameter 2.0 cm. Cotton seed weights were significantly reduced up to 179 ACDD or a boll diameter of 2.0 cm at Weslaco in 2009, and up to 317 ACDD or boll diameter 2.6 cm for Weslaco in 2010 when compared with the noninfested controls. Lint weight per cotton boll for infested and noninfested bolls was significantly reduced up to 262 ACDD or boll diameter 2.5 for Corpus Christi in 2010 and up to 288 ACCD or boll diameter 2.6 cm for Weslaco, TX, in 2010. Damage ratings (dependant variable) regressed against infested and noninfested seed-cotton weights showed that in every instance, the infested cotton bolls had a strong and significant relationship with damage ratings for all age classes of bolls. Damage ratings for the infested cotton bolls that did not abscise by harvest showed visual signs of verde plant bug feeding injury and the subsequent development ofboll rot; however, these two forms of injury causing lint and seed mass loss are hard to differentiate from open or boll-locked cotton bolls. Based on the results of both lint

  1. Shelf Circulation Induced by an Orographic Wind Jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ràfols, Laura; Grifoll, Manel; Jordà, Gabriel; Espino, Manuel; Sairouní, Abdel; Bravo, Manel

    2017-10-01

    The dynamical response to cross-shelf wind-jet episodes is investigated. The study area is located at the northern margin of the Ebro Shelf, in the Northwestern (NW) Mediterranean Sea, where episodes of strong northwesterly wind occur. In this case, the wind is channeled through the Ebro Valley and intensifies upon reaching the sea, resulting in a wind jet. The wind-jet response in terms of water circulation and vertical density structure is investigated using a numerical model. The numerical outputs agree with water current observations from a high-frequency radar. Additionally, temperature, sea level, and wind measurements are also used for the skill assessment of the model. For the wind-jet episodes, the numerical results show a well-defined two-layer circulation in the cross-shelf direction, with the surface currents in the direction of the wind. This pattern is consistent with sea level set-down due to the wind effect. The comparison of the vertical structure response for different episodes revealed that the increase of stratification leads to an onshore displacement of the transition from inner shelf to mid-shelf. In general, the cross-shelf momentum balance during a wind-jet episode exhibits a balance between the frictional terms and the pressure gradient in shallow waters, shifting to a balance between the Coriolis force and the wind stress terms in deeper waters.

  2. Teleseismic Earthquake Signals Observed on an Ice Shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, M. G.; Aster, R. C.; Anthony, R. E.; Wiens, D.; Nyblade, A.; Bromirski, P. D.; Stephen, R. A.; Gerstoft, P.

    2015-12-01

    The West Antarctic Rift System (WARS) is one of Earth's largest continental extension zones. Study of the WARS is complicated by the presence of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet, the Ross Ice Shelf, and the Ross Sea. Recent deployments of broadband seismographs in the POLENET project have allowed passive seismic techniques, such as receiver function analysis and surface wave dispersion, to be widely utilized to infer crustal and mantle velocity structure across much of the WARS and West Antarctica. However, a large sector of the WARS lies beneath the Ross Ice Shelf. In late 2014, 34 broadband seismographs were deployed atop the ice shelf to jointly study deep Earth structure and the dynamics of the ice shelf. Ice shelf conditions present strong challenges to broadband teleseismic imaging: 1) The presence of complicating signals in the microseism through long-period bands due to the influence of ocean gravity waves; 2) The strong velocity contrasts at the ice-water and water-sediment interfaces on either side of the water layer give rise to large amplitude reverberations; 3) The water layer screens S-waves or P-to-S phases originating from below the water layer. We present an initial analysis of the first teleseismic earthquake arrivals collected on the ice shelf at the end of the 2014 field season from a limited subset of these stations.

  3. Glacigenic landforms and sediments of the Western Irish Shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarron, Stephen; Monteys, Xavier; Toms, Lee

    2013-04-01

    Vibrocoring of possible glacigenic landforms identified from high resolution bathymetric coverage of the Irish Shelf by the Irish National Seabed Survey (INSS) has provided several clusters of short (<3m) cores that, due to a regional post-glacial erosional event, comprise last glacial age stratigraphies. In addition, new shallow seismic data and sedimentological information from across the Western Irish Shelf provide new insights into aspects of the nature, timing and pattern of shelf occupation by grounded lobate extensions of the last Irish Ice Sheet. Restricted chronological control of deglacial sequences in several cores indicates that northern parts of the western mid-shelf (south of a prominent outer Donegal Bay ridge) were ice free by ~24 ka B.P., and that ice had also probably retreated from outer shelf positions (as far west as the Porcupine Bank) at or before this time.

  4. Novel decomposition products of chlorophyll- a in continental shelf (Louisiana shelf) sediments: formation and transformation of carotenol chlorin esters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Nianhong; Bianchi, Thomas S.; Bland, John M.

    2003-06-01

    In April 2000, we collected box cores from five stations along a cross-shelf transect on the Louisiana (LA) continental shelf. Novel esters of carotenols and chlorins (carotenoid chlorin esters, CCEs), which are highly specific grazing markers, were identified in surface and deep sediments (>10 cm) from the LA shelf. Chlorophyll- a inventory indicated that CCEs are one of the major decay products of chlorophyll- a in shelf sediments. Abundances of total CCEs (9-18%) in surface sediments along the cross-shelf transect were comparable to the abundance of pheophytin- a, pyropheophytin- a, and total steryl chlorin esters (SCEs). Prior work has identified four CCEs which have dehydrated fucoxanthin/fucoxanthinol as a substitute alcohol of phytol. We report on four newly identified CCEs associated with nondehydrated fuxocanthin/fucoxanthinol esterified to (pyro)pheophorbide- a. These nondehydrated CCEs were generally present in lower concentrations than their dehydrated counterparts, but were detectable by atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) mass spectrometry coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). We attributed differences between this study and previous work to the time allowed for predepositional decay and grazing processes to occur. The rapid sedimentation of CCEs in the shallow water column (ca. 10 m) on the LA shelf allowed for effective burial of all CCEs compared to the deeper water column regions sampled by previous work. This speculation is supported by the fact that the concentrations of CCEs with nondehydrated fucoxanthin/fucoxanthinol were extremely low in sediments from the site on the outer LA shelf with a deeper (253 m) water column. We also tentatively identified an additional CCE and its isomer as fucoxanthinol didehydrate pyropheophorbide- a ester. We suggest that the formation and transformation of CCEs are primarily controlled by the following three biologically mediated reactions: demethoxycarbonylation, dehydration

  5. Biological, physical and chemical properties at the Subtropical Shelf Front Zone in the SW Atlantic Continental Shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muelbert, José H.; Acha, Marcelo; Mianzan, Hermes; Guerrero, Raúl; Reta, Raúl; Braga, Elisabete S.; Garcia, Virginia M. T.; Berasategui, Alejandro; Gomez-Erache, Mónica; Ramírez, Fernando

    2008-07-01

    The physical aspects of the Subtropical Shelf Front (STSF) for the Southwest Atlantic Continental Shelf were previously described. However, only scarce data on the biology of the front is available in the literature. The main goal of this paper is to describe the physical, chemical and biological properties of the STSF found in winter 2003 and summer 2004. A cross-section was established at the historically determined location of the STSF. Nine stations were sampled in winter and seven in summer. Each section included a series of conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD) stations where water samples from selected depths were filtered for nutrient determination. Surface samples were taken for chlorophyll a (Chl- a) determination and plankton net tows carried out above and below the pycnocline. Results revealed that winter was marked by an inner-shelf salinity front and that the STSF was located on the mid-shelf. The low salinity waters in the inner-shelf indicated a strong influence of freshwater, with high silicate (72 μM), suspended matter (45 mg l -1), phosphate (2.70 μM) and low nitrate (1.0 μM) levels. Total dissolved nitrogen was relatively high (22.98 μM), probably due to the elevated levels of organic compound contribution close to the continental margin. Surface Chl -a concentration decreased from coastal well-mixed waters, where values up to 8.0 mg m -3 were registered, to offshore waters. Towards the open ocean, high subsurface nutrients values were observed, probably associated to South Atlantic Central Waters (SACW). Zooplankton and ichthyoplankton abundance followed the same trend; three different groups associated to the inner-, mid- and outer-shelf region were identified. During summer, diluted waters extended over the shelf to join the STSF in the upper layer; the concentration of inorganic nutrients decreased in shallow waters; however, high values were observed between 40 and 60 m and in deep offshore waters. Surface Chl -a ranged 0.07-1.5 mg m -3

  6. Using Landsat-based evapotranspiration data to assess the linkages between water right transfers and economic transactions in southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senay, G. B.; Velpuri, N. M.; Schauer, M.; Friedrichs, M.; Singh, R. K.

    2017-12-01

    We used 31 years (1984-2014) of cloud-free Landsat data (3,396 Landsat scenes) to estimate evapotranspiration over the southwestern United States using the Operational Simplified Surface Energy Balance (SSEBop) model. We focused on some of California's most agriculture-intensive watersheds (8 central valley watersheds and Palo Verde Irrigation District (PVID)). Farmers in southern California (including PVID) have water rights on the Colorado River. After meeting competing demands for agriculture (irrigation) and rural domestic use, the Colorado River is diverted to meet urban water demands in southern California. Due to the population growth and increasing domestic use, farmers have entered a special agreement to transfer their water rights under the fallowing program to the Metropolitan Water District (MWD) of southern California. MWD supplies water to 19 million people, more than half of California's population, and is the largest supplier of treated water in the United States. In this study, we presented the total annual volumetric water use in the Palo Verde Irrigation District since 1984 and computed historical annual crop water saved due to a fallowing program. We then converted volumetric water saved to total payouts to farmers in dollars and estimated the number of beneficiary households in the Greater Los Angeles area. It is interesting to see that nearly 120,000 acre-feet of water was transferred from PVID to MWD in 2011 and the cost of water payouts were over $20 million. This water saving met the demands of over 325,000 households in the Greater Los Angeles area. This analysis helps to a) demonstrate an approach to estimate and compare annual water use and water payments/savings using satellite data, b) monitor water rights compliance in an irrigation district, c) demonstrate the impact of water savings, and d) understand the interconnections between land-water management and socio-economic transactions across multiple spatio-temporal scales.

  7. Analysis of stable isotope ratios (δ18O and δ2H) in precipitation of the Verde River watershed, Arizona 2003 through 2014

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beisner, Kimberly R.; Paretti, Nicholas V.; Tucci, Rachel S.

    2016-04-25

    Stable isotope delta values (δ18O and δ2H) of precipitation can vary with elevation, and quantification of the precipitation elevation gradient can be used to predict recharge elevation within a watershed. Precipitation samples were analyzed for stable isotope delta values between 2003 and 2014 from the Verde River watershed of north-central Arizona. Results indicate a significant decrease in summer isotopic values overtime at 3,100-, 4,100-, 6,100-, 7,100-, and 8,100-feet elevation. The updated local meteoric water line for the area is δ2H = 7.11 δ18O + 3.40. Equations to predict stable isotopic values based on elevation were updated from previous publications in Blasch and others (2006), Blasch and Bryson (2007), and Bryson and others (2007). New equations were separated for samples from the Camp Verde to Flagstaff transect and the Prescott to Chino Valley transect. For the Camp Verde to Flagstaff transect, the new equations for winter precipitation are δ18O = -0.0004z − 8.87 and δ2H = -0.0029z − 59.8 (where z represents elevation in feet) and the summer precipitation equations were not statistically significant. For the Prescott to Chino Valley transect, the new equations for summer precipitation are δ18O = -0.0005z − 3.22 and δ2H = -0.0022z − 27.9; the winter precipitation equations were not statistically significant and, notably, stable isotope values were similar across all elevations. Interpretation of elevation of recharge contributing to surface and groundwaters in the Verde River watershed using the updated equations for the Camp Verde to Flagstaff transect will give lower elevation values compared with interpretations presented in the previous studies. For waters in the Prescott and Chino Valley area, more information is needed to understand local controls on stable isotope values related to elevation.

  8. West Florida Shelf Response to Hurricane Irma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y.; Weisberg, R. H.; Chen, J.; Merz, C. R.; Law, J.; Zheng, L.

    2017-12-01

    Hurricane Irma impacted the west Florida continental shelf (WFS) as it transited the state of Florida during September 10-12, 2017, making landfall first at Cudjoe Key and then again at Naples, as a Category 2 hurricane. The WFS response to Hurricane Irma is analyzed using a combination of in situ observations and numerical model simulations. The observations include water column velocity (by Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers), sea surface temperature and meteorological records from three moorings on the shelf, surface currents by high-frequency radars, and coastal tide gauge records. The West Florida Coastal Ocean Model (WFCOM) employed downscales from the deep Gulf of Mexico, across the shelf and into the estuaries by nesting the unstructured grid FVCOM in the Gulf of Mexico HYCOM. Both the observations and the model simulations revealed strong upwelling and vertical mixing followed by downwelling as the storm passed by. This was accompanied by a rapid drop in sea surface temperature of approximately 4ºC and large decreases in sea level with associated negative surges, causing drying in the Florida Bay, Charlotte Harbor, Tampa Bay estuaries and the Big Bend region. The transport and exchange of water between the shelf and the estuaries and between the shelf and the Florida Keys reef track during the hurricane may have important implications for ecosystem studies within the region.

  9. Uncovering the glacial history of the Irish continental shelf (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunlop, P.; Benetti, S.; OCofaigh, C.

    2013-12-01

    In 1999 the Irish Government initiated a €32 million survey of its territorial waters known as the Irish National Seabed Survey (INSS). The INSS is amongst the largest marine mapping programmes ever undertaken anywhere in the world and provides high-resolution multibeam, backscatter and seismic data of the seabed around Ireland. These data have been used to provide the first clear evidence for extensive glaciation of the continental shelf west and northwest of Ireland. Streamlined drumlins on the mid to outer shelf record former offshore-directed ice flow towards the shelf edge and show that the ice sheet was grounded in a zone of confluence where ice flowing onto the shelf from northwest Ireland merged with ice flowing across the Malin Shelf from southwest Scotland. The major glacial features on the shelf are well developed nested arcuate moraine systems that mark the position of the ice sheet margin and confirm that the former British Irish Ice Sheet was grounded as far as the shelf edge around 100 km offshore of west Donegal at the last glacial maximum. Distal to the moraines, on the outermost shelf, prominent zones of iceberg plough marks give way to the Barra/Donegal fan and a well developed system of gullies and canyons which incise the continental slope. Since 2008 several scientific cruises have retrieved cores from the shelf and slope to help build a more detailed understanding of glacial events in this region. This presentation will provide an overview of the glacial history of the Irish shelf and will discuss ongoing research programmes that are building on the initial research findings to produce a better understanding of the nature and timing of ice sheet events in this region.

  10. Mixing in seasonally stratified shelf seas: a shifting paradigm.

    PubMed

    Rippeth, Tom P

    2005-12-15

    Although continental shelf seas make up a relatively small fraction (ca 7%) of the world ocean's surface, they are thought to contribute significantly (20-50% of the total) to the open-ocean carbon dioxide storage through processes collectively known as the shelf sea pump. The global significance of these processes is determined by the vertical mixing, which drives the net CO(2) drawdown (which can occur only in stratified water). In this paper, we focus on identifying the processes that are responsible for mixing across the thermocline in seasonally stratified shelf seas. We present evidence that shear instability and internal wave breaking are largely responsible for thermocline mixing, a clear development from the first-order paradigm for the water column structure in continental shelf seas. The levels of dissipation observed are quantitatively consistent with the observed dissipation rates of the internal tide and near-inertial oscillations. It is perhaps because these processes make such a small contribution to the total energy dissipated in shelf seas that they are not well represented in current state-of-the-art numerical models of continental shelf seas. The results thus present a clear challenge to oceanographic models.

  11. Ice-shelf Dynamics Near the Front of Filchner-Ronne Ice Shelf, Antarctica, Revealed by SAR Interferometry: Model/Interferogram Comparison

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MacAyeal, D. R.; Rignot, E.; Hulbe, C. L.

    1998-01-01

    We compare Earth Remote Sensing (ERS) satellite synthetic-aperture radar (SAR) interferograms with artificial interferograms constructed using output of a finite-element ice-shelf flow model to study the dynamics of Filchner-Ronne Ice Shelf (FRIS) near Hemmen Ice Rise (HIR) where the iceberg-calving front itersects Berkener Island (BI).

  12. Ocean-Forced Ice-Shelf Thinning in a Synchronously Coupled Ice-Ocean Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, James R.; Holland, Paul R.; Goldberg, Dan; Snow, Kate; Arthern, Robert; Campin, Jean-Michel; Heimbach, Patrick; Jenkins, Adrian

    2018-02-01

    The first fully synchronous, coupled ice shelf-ocean model with a fixed grounding line and imposed upstream ice velocity has been developed using the MITgcm (Massachusetts Institute of Technology general circulation model). Unlike previous, asynchronous, approaches to coupled modeling our approach is fully conservative of heat, salt, and mass. Synchronous coupling is achieved by continuously updating the ice-shelf thickness on the ocean time step. By simulating an idealized, warm-water ice shelf we show how raising the pycnocline leads to a reduction in both ice-shelf mass and back stress, and hence buttressing. Coupled runs show the formation of a western boundary channel in the ice-shelf base due to increased melting on the western boundary due to Coriolis enhanced flow. Eastern boundary ice thickening is also observed. This is not the case when using a simple depth-dependent parameterized melt, as the ice shelf has relatively thinner sides and a thicker central "bulge" for a given ice-shelf mass. Ice-shelf geometry arising from the parameterized melt rate tends to underestimate backstress (and therefore buttressing) for a given ice-shelf mass due to a thinner ice shelf at the boundaries when compared to coupled model simulations.

  13. The admixture structure and genetic variation of the archipelago of Cape Verde and its implications for admixture mapping studies.

    PubMed

    Beleza, Sandra; Campos, Joana; Lopes, Jailson; Araújo, Isabel Inês; Hoppfer Almada, Ana; Correia e Silva, António; Parra, Esteban J; Rocha, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    Recently admixed populations offer unique opportunities for studying human history and for elucidating the genetic basis of complex traits that differ in prevalence between human populations. Historical records, classical protein markers, and preliminary genetic data indicate that the Cape Verde islands in West Africa are highly admixed and primarily descended from European males and African females. However, little is known about the variation in admixture levels, admixture dynamics and genetic diversity across the islands, or about the potential of Cape Verde for admixture mapping studies. We have performed a detailed analysis of phenotypic and genetic variation in Cape Verde based on objective skin color measurements, socio-economic status (SES) evaluations and data for 50 autosomal, 34 X-chromosome, and 21 non-recombinant Y-chromosome (NRY) markers in 845 individuals from six islands of the archipelago. We find extensive genetic admixture between European and African ancestral populations (mean West African ancestry = 0.57, sd = 0.08), with individual African ancestry proportions varying considerably among the islands. African ancestry proportions calculated with X and Y-chromosome markers confirm that the pattern of admixture has been sex-biased. The high-resolution NRY-STRs reveal additional patterns of variation among the islands that are most consistent with differentiation after admixture. The differences in the autosomal admixture proportions are clearly evident in the skin color distribution across the islands (Pearson r = 0.54, P-value<2e-16). Despite this strong correlation, there are significant interactions between SES and skin color that are independent of the relationship between skin color and genetic ancestry. The observed distributions of admixture, genetic variation and skin color and the relationship of skin color with SES relate to historical and social events taking place during the settlement history of Cape Verde, and have implications for

  14. The Admixture Structure and Genetic Variation of the Archipelago of Cape Verde and Its Implications for Admixture Mapping Studies

    PubMed Central

    Beleza, Sandra; Campos, Joana; Lopes, Jailson; Araújo, Isabel Inês; Hoppfer Almada, Ana; e Silva, António Correia; Parra, Esteban J.; Rocha, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    Recently admixed populations offer unique opportunities for studying human history and for elucidating the genetic basis of complex traits that differ in prevalence between human populations. Historical records, classical protein markers, and preliminary genetic data indicate that the Cape Verde islands in West Africa are highly admixed and primarily descended from European males and African females. However, little is known about the variation in admixture levels, admixture dynamics and genetic diversity across the islands, or about the potential of Cape Verde for admixture mapping studies. We have performed a detailed analysis of phenotypic and genetic variation in Cape Verde based on objective skin color measurements, socio-economic status (SES) evaluations and data for 50 autosomal, 34 X-chromosome, and 21 non-recombinant Y-chromosome (NRY) markers in 845 individuals from six islands of the archipelago. We find extensive genetic admixture between European and African ancestral populations (mean West African ancestry = 0.57, sd = 0.08), with individual African ancestry proportions varying considerably among the islands. African ancestry proportions calculated with X and Y-chromosome markers confirm that the pattern of admixture has been sex-biased. The high-resolution NRY-STRs reveal additional patterns of variation among the islands that are most consistent with differentiation after admixture. The differences in the autosomal admixture proportions are clearly evident in the skin color distribution across the islands (Pearson r = 0.54, P-value<2e–16). Despite this strong correlation, there are significant interactions between SES and skin color that are independent of the relationship between skin color and genetic ancestry. The observed distributions of admixture, genetic variation and skin color and the relationship of skin color with SES relate to historical and social events taking place during the settlement history of Cape Verde, and have

  15. Condensate polisher prefiltration study for Laguna Verde Station

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Garcia, A.; Oyen, L.C.; Nelson, R.A.

    1995-05-01

    This paper describes an analysis of the iron and copper in the condensate and the technical and economic assessment of the installation of condensate polisher prefilters in Comision Federal de Electricidad`s Laguna Verde Nuclear Generating Station (LVNGS) north of Veracruz, Mexico. LVNGS is a 654 MWe General Electric BWR plant; Unit 1 has been in commercial operation since July, 1990, and Unit 2 is scheduled to become operational in June, 1995. The primary purpose of this study was to (1) analyze the high iron and copper concentrations in the condensate and feedwater, (2) identify, assess, and evaluate techniques to reducemore » the iron and copper concentrations, and (3) perform a cost-benefit analysis of the installation of implementing the appropriate techniques.« less

  16. Level-2 IPE for the Laguna Verde NPS

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Arellano, J.; De Loera, M.A.; Rea, R.

    1996-12-31

    In response to generic letter GL 88-20, Comision Federal de Electricidad and Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas have jointly developed the individual plant examination (IPE) for the Laguna Verde nuclear power station unit I (LVNPS). This plant is a 675-MW(electric) boiling water reactor (BWR/5) with a reinforced concrete Mark-II containment. The approach used to fulfill the IPE requirements was to make a level-1 probabilistic risk assessment (IPE level 1) plus a containment performance analysis including the behavior and release of the fission products to the environment (IPE level 2). This paper describes the level-2 portion of the LVNPS IPE, paying specialmore » attention to both some improvements to the traditional analytical methods and to the main results.« less

  17. Shelf-life prediction of canned "nasi uduk" using accelerated shelf-life test (ASLT) - Arrhenius model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurniadi, Muhamad; Salam, Nur; Kusumaningrum, Annisa; Nursiwi, Asri; Angwar, Mukhamad; Susanto, Agus; Nurhikmat, Asep; Triwiyono, Frediansyah, Andri

    2017-01-01

    "Nasi Uduk" is one of the Indonesian traditional food made from rice, steamed with coconut milk and seasoning. For optimizing shelf-life, canned "nasi uduk" for military and disaster-response ration, was packed using cylindrical cans of 72,63 × 53,04 mm (Ø × h) in size. One of the important aspects on quality assessment of preserved product was its rancidity. The aim of this research was to determine shelf-life of canned "nasi uduk" using ASLT method of Arrhenius model. Storage temperatures set up at 35, 45 and 55°C for 35 days. Optimization of sterilization process was conducted to achieve the optimum conditions of sterilization. Target lethality value (Fo), microorganism total plate count (TPC) and rancidity levels (TBA) were used as parameters in this research. The results showed that the optimum sterilization conditions were 121 °C for 20 minutes, TPC value of 9.5 × 101 CFU/ml and Fo value 4.14 minutes. Predicted shelf-life of canned "nasi uduk" was 9.6 months which was average TBA value still bellow of the critical point.

  18. Environmental Education Evaluation at the School: An Example in Sao Nicolau Island, Cape Verde

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graziani, Pietro; Cabral, Daniel; Santana, Nelson

    2013-01-01

    Monte Gordo Natural Park (MGNP) is part of the Cape Verde (CV) Protected Areas National Network. In order to create an effective Environmental Education (EE) curriculum, it is crucial to first identify the level of environmental knowledge of both teachers and students. In 2007 we implemented a set of four surveys to students and educators and…

  19. Seasonal circulation over the Catalan inner-shelf (northwest Mediterranean Sea)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grifoll, Manel; Aretxabaleta, Alfredo L.; Pelegrí, Josep L.; Espino, Manuel; Warner, John C.; Sánchez-Arcilla, Agustín

    2013-01-01

    This study characterizes the seasonal cycle of the Catalan inner-shelf circulation using observations and complementary numerical results. The relation between seasonal circulation and forcing mechanisms is explored through the depth-averaged momentum balance, for the period between May 2010 and April 2011, when velocity observations were partially available. The monthly-mean along-shelf flow is mainly controlled by the along-shelf pressure gradient and by surface and bottom stresses. During summer, fall, and winter, the along-shelf momentum balance is dominated by the barotropic pressure gradient and local winds. During spring, both wind stress and pressure gradient act in the same direction and are compensated by bottom stress. In the cross-shelf direction the dominant forces are in geostrophic balance, consistent with dynamic altimetry data.

  20. Seasonal circulation over the Catalan inner-shelf (northwest Mediterranean Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grifoll, Manel; Aretxabaleta, Alfredo L.; Pelegrí, Josep L.; Espino, Manuel; Warner, John C.; Sánchez-Arcilla, Agustín.

    2013-10-01

    This study characterizes the seasonal cycle of the Catalan inner-shelf circulation using observations and complementary numerical results. The relation between seasonal circulation and forcing mechanisms is explored through the depth-averaged momentum balance, for the period between May 2010 and April 2011, when velocity observations were partially available. The monthly-mean along-shelf flow is mainly controlled by the along-shelf pressure gradient and by surface and bottom stresses. During summer, fall, and winter, the along-shelf momentum balance is dominated by the barotropic pressure gradient and local winds. During spring, both wind stress and pressure gradient act in the same direction and are compensated by bottom stress. In the cross-shelf direction the dominant forces are in geostrophic balance, consistent with dynamic altimetry data.

  1. Shelf-Slope Exchanges near Submarine Canyons in the Southern Mid-Atlantic Bight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, H.; Gong, D.

    2016-02-01

    Shelf-slope exchange processes are major physical drivers of biological productivity near the shelf-break. Observations from two Slocum ocean gliders in Fall 2013 are used to explore the driving mechanisms of cross-shelf-slope exchanges near Norfolk Canyon and Washington Canyon in the southern Mid-Atlantic Bight. Offshore excursion of bottom "cold pool" water, and shoreward intrusion of slope water at surface layer and thermocline depth occurred during northeasterly along-shelf winds. The saline intrusions of surface slope water resided between the cold pool and surface shelf water, and reached the bottom on the outer and mid-shelf, while the offshore excursion of cold pool water was found between the surface and intermediate slope-water over the canyon. Ekman transport calculation shows wind-driven cross-shelf transport can partially explain this interleaving pattern of intrusions. Scaling analysis of double diffusive processes demonstrate that they also likely played a role in the cross-shelf-slope exchange. A unique canyon upwelling event was captured in and around Washington Canyon during a period of southwesterly along-shelf wind and along-shelf flow to the northeast. The water mass distributions and isopycnal responses in both along-canyon and cross-canyon transects are consistent with scaling analysis and numerical studies of canyon upwelling. Temperature-Salinity properties of water masses in the canyon suggest active mixing between shelf and slope water masses near the canyon head. These results point to the importance of wind, double diffusion, and canyon topography on shelf-slope exchange in the MAB.

  2. Composition and origin of PM10 in Cape Verde: Characterization of long-range transport episodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvador, P.; Almeida, S. M.; Cardoso, J.; Almeida-Silva, M.; Nunes, T.; Cerqueira, M.; Alves, C.; Reis, M. A.; Chaves, P. C.; Artíñano, B.; Pio, C.

    2016-02-01

    A receptor modelling study was performed to identify source categories and their contributions to the PM10 total mass at the Cape Verde archipelago. Trajectory statistical methods were also used to characterize the main atmospheric circulation patterns causing the transport of air masses and to geographically identify the main potential source areas of each PM10 source category. Our findings point out that the variability of the PM10 levels at Cape Verde was prompted by the advections of African mineral dust. The mineral dust load was mainly composed by clay-silicates mineral derived elements (22% of the PM10 total mass on average) with lower amounts of carbonates (9%). A clear northward gradient was observed in carbonates concentration that illustrates the differences in the composition according to the source regions of mineral dust. Mineral dust was frequently linked to industrial emissions from crude oil refineries, fertilizer industries as well as oil and coal power plants, located in the northern and north-western coast of the African continent (29%). Sea salt was also registered in the PM10 mass during most part of the sampling period, with a lower impact in the PM10 levels than the mineral dust one (26%). Combustion aerosols (6%) reached the highest mean values in summer as a consequence of the emissions from local-regional sources. Biomass burning aerosols produced from October to November in sub-sahelian latitudes, had a clear influence in the content of elemental carbon (EC) recorded at Cape Verde but a small impact in the PM10 total mass levels. A minor contribution to the PM10 mass has been associated to secondary inorganic compounds-SIC. Namely, ammonium sulfate and nitrate (SIC 1-5%) and calcium sulfate and nitrate (SIC 2-3%). The main origin of SIC 1 was attributed to emissions of SO2 and NOx from industrial sources located in the northern and north-western African coast and from wildfires produced in the continent. SIC 2 had a clear regional origin

  3. 41 CFR 101-27.206 - Procurement of shelf-life materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Procurement of shelf-life materials. 101-27.206 Section 101-27.206 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property... MANAGEMENT 27.2-Management of Shelf-Life Materials § 101-27.206 Procurement of shelf-life materials. ...

  4. 41 CFR 101-27.206 - Procurement of shelf-life materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2011-07-01 2007-07-01 true Procurement of shelf-life materials. 101-27.206 Section 101-27.206 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property... MANAGEMENT 27.2-Management of Shelf-Life Materials § 101-27.206 Procurement of shelf-life materials. ...

  5. 41 CFR 101-27.206 - Procurement of shelf-life materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Procurement of shelf-life materials. 101-27.206 Section 101-27.206 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property... MANAGEMENT 27.2-Management of Shelf-Life Materials § 101-27.206 Procurement of shelf-life materials. ...

  6. 41 CFR 101-27.206 - Procurement of shelf-life materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2014-07-01 2012-07-01 true Procurement of shelf-life materials. 101-27.206 Section 101-27.206 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property... MANAGEMENT 27.2-Management of Shelf-Life Materials § 101-27.206 Procurement of shelf-life materials. ...

  7. 41 CFR 101-27.206 - Procurement of shelf-life materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Procurement of shelf-life materials. 101-27.206 Section 101-27.206 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property... MANAGEMENT 27.2-Management of Shelf-Life Materials § 101-27.206 Procurement of shelf-life materials. ...

  8. A model study of sediment transport across the shelf break

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchal, Olivier

    2017-04-01

    A variety of dynamical processes can contribute to the transport of material (e.g., particulate matter) across the shelf break - the region separating the continental shelf from the continental slope. Among these processes are (i) the reflection of internal waves on the outer shelf and upper slope, and (ii) the instability of hydrographic fronts, roughly aligned with isobaths, that are often present at the shelf break. On the one hand, internal waves reflecting on a sloping boundary can produce bottom shear stresses that are large enough to resuspend non-cohesive sediments into the water column. On the other hand, eddies shed from unstable shelf break fronts can incorporate into their core particle-rich waters from the outer shelf and upper slope, and transport these waters offshore. Here we present numerical experiments with a three-dimensional numerical model of ocean circulation and sediment transport, which illustrate the joint effect of internal waves and eddies on sediment transport across the shelf break. The model is based on the primitive equations and terrain-following coordinates. The model domain is square and idealized, comprising a flat continental shelf, a constant continental slope, and a flat abyssal basin. The model grid has O(1 km) horizontal resolution, so that (sub)mesoscale eddies observed in the vicinity of shelf breaks, such as south of New England, can be represented in detail. Internal waves are excited through the specification of a periodic variation in the across-slope component of velocity at the offshore boundary of the domain, and eddies are generated from the baroclinic instability of a shelf break jet that is initially in strict thermal wind balance. Numerical experiments are conducted that are characterized by (i) different slopes of internal wave characteristics relative to the continental slope, representing sub-critical, critical, and super-critical regimes, and (ii) different values for the dimensionless ratios that emerge

  9. Victoria Land, Ross Sea, and Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    On December 19, 2001, MODIS acquired data that produced this image of Antarctica's Victoria Land, Ross Ice Shelf, and the Ross Sea. The coastline that runs up and down along the left side of the image denotes where Victoria Land (left) meets the Ross Ice Shelf (right). The Ross Ice Shelf is the world's largest floating body of ice, approximately the same size as France. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  10. Chemistry of volcanic soils used for agriculture in Brava Island (Cape Verde)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prudêncio, Maria Isabel; Marques, Rosa; Waerenborgh, João Carlos; José Vieira, Bruno; Dias, Maria Isabel; Rocha, Fernando

    2017-04-01

    Brava is a small volcanic island located on the south-western part of the Cape Verde archipelago. It is characterized by an irregular plateau between 300 and 976 m above sea level, which is bounded by steep coastal cliffs and cut by fluvial incision in a generally radial drainage pattern. The major volcano-stratigraphic units of the island are: Lower Unit, Middle Unit, Upper Unit, and Sediments. Although Brava is one of the islands with more frequent rainy periods in Cape Verde, the climate is essentially semi-arid, which associated with the rough topography leads to incipient soils. Detailed Fe speciation and chemical composition studies of Cape Verde soils have shown that oxidation is a major weathering mechanism, and high contents of trace elements may occur originated from imbalance of elements in the volcanic parent materials, which can be a threat to the environmental health. The soils mostly used for agriculture in Brava Island are those developed on phonolitic pyroclasts on the plateau and also on sediments. In this work the whole sample (< 2 mm) and the clay-sized fraction (< 2 µm) of these soils were analysed by Mössbauer spectroscopy and neutron activation analysis, aiming to characterize the iron speciation and to determine the concentration and distribution of 30 chemical elements in Brava soils. Mössbauer spectroscopy shows that Fe is more oxidyzed in topsoils developed on sediments (84-87%) than in soils developed on pyroclasts (71-79%). In the clay sized-fraction of all the studied soils only Fe(III) was detected. Iron oxides clearly distinguish the soils derived from the two types of parent materials, hematite being the only Fe oxide present in soils developed on sediments, while maghemite is more abundant in soils developed on pyroclasts. Iron and chromium are depleted in this fine fraction suggesting their occurrence as iron oxides and ferromagnesian minerals present in coarser particles. Among the chemical elements studied, antimony was found

  11. Depositional history of Louisiana-Mississippi outer continental shelf

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kindinger, J.L.; Miller, R.J.; Stelting, C.E.

    1982-01-01

    A geological study was undertaken in 1981 in the Louisiana-Mississippi outer continental shelf for the Bureau of Land Management. The study included a high-resolution seismic reflection survey, surficial sediment sampling and surface current drifter sampling. Approximately 7100 sq km of the Louisiana-Mississippi shelf and upper slope were surveyed. The sea floor of the entire area is relatively smooth except for occasional areas of uplift produced by diapiric intrusion along the upper slope. Characteristics of the topography and subsurface shelf sediments are the result of depositional sequences due to delta outbuilding over transgressive sediments with intervening periods of erosion during low sea level stands. Little evidence of structural deformation such as faults, diapirs, and shallow gas is present on the shelf and only a few minor faults and scarps are found on the slope. Minisparker seismic records in combination with air gun (40 and 5 cu in) and 3.5-kHz subbottom profile records reveal that seven major stages of shelf development have occurred since the middle Pleistocene. The shelf development has been controlled by the rise and fall of sea level. These stages are defined by four major unconformities, several depositions of transgressive sediments, sequences of river channeling and progradational delta deposits. Surficial sediment sample and seismic records indicate tat the last major depositional event was the progradation of the St. Bernard Delta lobe. This delta lobe covered the northwestern and central regions. Surficial sediments in most of the study area are the product of the reworking of the San Bernard Delta lobe and previous progradations.

  12. The Foraging Ecology of the Endangered Cape Verde Shearwater, a Sentinel Species for Marine Conservation off West Africa.

    PubMed

    Paiva, Vitor H; Geraldes, Pedro; Rodrigues, Isabel; Melo, Tommy; Melo, José; Ramos, Jaime A

    2015-01-01

    Large Marine Ecosystems such as the Canary Current system off West Africa sustains high abundance of small pelagic prey, which attracts marine predators. Seabirds are top predators often used as biodiversity surrogates and sentinel species of the marine ecosystem health, thus frequently informing marine conservation planning. This study presents the first data on the spatial (GPS-loggers) and trophic (stable isotope analysis) ecology of a tropical seabird-the endangered Cape Verde shearwater Calonectris edwardsii-during both the incubation and the chick-rearing periods of two consecutive years. This information was related with marine environmental predictors (species distribution models), existent areas of conservation concern for seabirds (i.e. marine Important Bird Areas; marine IBAs) and threats to the marine environment in the West African areas heavily used by the shearwaters. There was an apparent inter-annual consistency on the spatial, foraging and trophic ecology of Cape Verde shearwater, but a strong alteration on the foraging strategies of adult breeders among breeding phases (i.e. from incubation to chick-rearing). During incubation, birds mostly targeted a discrete region off West Africa, known by its enhanced productivity profile and thus also highly exploited by international industrial fishery fleets. When chick-rearing, adults exploited the comparatively less productive tropical environment within the islands of Cape Verde, at relatively close distance from their breeding colony. The species enlarged its trophic niche and increased the trophic level of their prey from incubation to chick-rearing, likely to provision their chicks with a more diversified and better quality diet. There was a high overlap between the Cape Verde shearwaters foraging areas with those of European shearwater species that overwinter in this area and known areas of megafauna bycatch off West Africa, but very little overlap with existing Marine Important Bird Areas. Further

  13. Nutrient Dynamics in the Northern South China Sea Shelf-sea (NoSoCS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, G. T.; Guo, X.

    2011-12-01

    The Northern South China Sea Shelf-sea (NoSoCS) is situated in the sub-tropics along the southern Chinese coast between the southern end of the Taiwan Strait and the Hainan Island. Samples were collected in four cross-shelf transects in summer, 2010 and two cross-shelf transects in winter, 2011 in this Shelf-sea. The shelf may be sub-divided into the inner shelf (<40 m, low water temperature, high chlorophyll concentration), the middle shelf (50-80 m), and the outer shelf (90-120 m, high water temperature, low nutrient and chlorophyll concentrations). The mixed layer depth and the top of the nutricline depth (at ~30 m in the summer and ~70 m in the winter) were shallower than the shelf break depth (~120 m) in both seasons. The relatively nutrient-rich upper nutricline water (>1 μM in NO3- and >0.1 μM in soluble reactive phosphate) stretched across the shelf at least to the middle shelf. Thus, vertical mixing, even to relatively shallow depths, on the shelf may supply nutrients to and play a critical role in determining the primary production in the mixed layer. At least three such processes were observed. Through the year, internal waves of various strengths generated at the Luzon Strait propagated westward along the bottom of the mixed layer and dissipated along the middle and outer shelf. The effects of these waves were especially conspicuous north of the Dongsha Atoll and their action enhances vertical mixing. In the summer, upwelling occurred in the inner/middle shelf off Dongshan in response to the along shore southwest monsoon and the topographic forcing by the ridge extending offshore from Dongshan to the Taiwan Bank. In the winter, surface cooling and the strong northeast monsoon led to complete overturn in the shelf. The maximum density, reaching 24.6, in the surface waters was found offshore in the inner and middle shelf. This density was equivalent to the density of the water at >100 m offshore. As a result, this dense water also appeared as a layer of

  14. The yogurt amino acid profile's variation during the shelf-life.

    PubMed

    Germani, A; Luneia, R; Nigro, F; Vitiello, V; Donini, L M; del Balzo, V

    2014-01-01

    To analyze the yogurt amino acid profile starting from marketing through the whole shelf-life. The evaluation of the proteolytic activity of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus salivarius subsp. thermophilus, allows to deduce their vitality during the shelf-life period and within 45 days. Three types of full fats yogurts have been analyzed (a) natural white (b) sweet white and (c) whole fruit - in two stages: t0 (first day of shelf-life) and t1 (end of shelf-life). The proteins have been analyzed by the Kjeldahl method and the amino acid profile by HPLC. In natural yogurt a significant increase of the amount of free amino acids has been observed during the period of shelf-life (97%). In the sweetened full fats and fruit yogurt, instead, there is a lower increase of respectively 33% and 39% In whole milk natural yogurt, based on our data, the proteolytic activity seems to persist during the entire period of the shelf-life and this can be considered an index of bacterial survival, especially of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus during the marketing process.

  15. Surficial Geologic Map of Mesa Verde National Park, Montezuma County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carrara, Paul E.

    2012-01-01

    Mesa Verde National Park in southwestern Colorado was established in 1906 to preserve and protect the artifacts and dwelling sites, including the famous cliff dwellings, of the Ancestral Puebloan people who lived in the area from about A.D. 550 to A.D. 1300. In 1978, the United Nations designated the park as a World Heritage Site. The geology of the park played a key role in the lives of these ancient people. For example, the numerous (approximately 600) cliff dwellings are closely associated with the Cliff House Sandstone of Late Cretaceous age, which weathers to form deep alcoves. In addition, the ancient people farmed the thick, red loess (wind-blown dust) deposits on the mesa tops, which because of its particle size distribution has good moisture retention properties. The soil in this loess cover and the seasonal rains allowed these people to grow their crops (corn, beans, and squash) on the broad mesa tops. Today, geology is still an important concern in the Mesa Verde area because the landscape is susceptible to various forms of mass movement (landslides, debris flows, rockfalls), swelling soils, and flash floods that affect the park's archeological sites and its infrastructure (roads, septic systems, utilities, and building sites). The map, which encompasses an area of about 100 mi2 (260 km2), includes all of Mesa Verde National Park, a small part of the Ute Mountain Indian Reservation that borders the park on its southern and western sides, and some Bureau of Land Management and privately owned land to the north and east. Surficial deposits depicted on the map include: artificial fills, alluvium of small ephemeral streams, alluvium deposited by the Mancos River, residual gravel on high mesas, a combination of alluvial and colluvial deposits, fan deposits, colluvial deposits derived from the Menefee Formation, colluvial deposits derived from the Mancos Shale, rockfall deposits, debris flow deposits, earthflow deposits, translational and rotational landslide

  16. Comparison of Ice-shelf Creep Flow Simulations with Ice-front Motion of Filchner-Ronne Ice Shelf, Antarctica, Detected by SAR Interferometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hulbe, C. L.; Rignot, E.; MacAyeal, D. R.

    1998-01-01

    Comparison between numerical model ice-shelf flow simulations and synthetic aperture radar (SAR) interferograms is used to study the dynamics at the Hemmen Ice Rise (HIR) and Lassiter Coast (LC) corners of the iceberg-calving front of the Filchner-Ronne Ice Shelf (FRIS).

  17. Understanding and improving the shelf life of tomatoes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Shelf life of ripe tomato fruit is economically very important, from production to the marketing chain, since it determines the cash returns to the grower and the grocer/processor. Shelf life of horticultural edible produce, including tomato, is regulated through myriad physiological, biochemical an...

  18. Immigration and Resiliency: Unpacking the Experiences of High School Students from Cape Verde and Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hersi, Afra Ahmed

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the complex factors, both individual and social, that contribute to the resiliency and academic achievement of six adolescent African immigrant students from Cape Verde and Ethiopia who were enrolled in a small high school in the United States. The school was designed specifically for recent adolescent immigrant students.…

  19. Leptospira interrogans in Rodents from Cape Verde.

    PubMed

    Plata-Luis, Josué; Foronda, Pilar; Martín-Alonso, Aaron; Feliu, Carlos; Alves, Joana; Gil, Horacio; Valladares, Basilio

    2016-11-01

    Leptospirosis is an important worldwide zoonotic disease that can infect both animals and humans. In most cases, leptospirosis is a nonspecific self-limiting illness, but some patients can develop a severe form with a high mortality. This study was carried out in Santiago Island, Cape Verde, in 2012-2013. A total of 62 wild rodents (Rattus rattus and Mus domesticus) were analyzed. The lipL32 gene, present only in pathogenic Leptospira spp., was amplified by PCR, and 16 samples were positive (25.8%). In both rodent species, Leptospira interrogans was identified. The results show the presence of pathogenic Leptospira in the three localities analyzed in Santiago. The presence of L. interrogans demonstrates a serious health risk for the population, since this species has been associated with the most severe form of leptospirosis, the Weil's disease in humans, a severe infection with jaundice, renal failure, and hemorrhage.

  20. Authigenesis of trace metals in energetic tropical shelf environments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Breckel, E.J.; Emerson, S.; Balistrieri, L.S.

    2005-01-01

    We evaluated authigenic changes of Fe, Mn, V, U, Mo, Cd and Re in suboxic, periodically remobilized, tropical shelf sediments from the Amazon continental shelf and the Gulf of Papua. The Cd/Al, Mo/Al, and U/Al ratios in Amazon shelf sediments were 82%, 37%, and 16% less than those in Amazon River suspended sediments, respectively. Very large depletions of U previously reported in this environment were not observed. The Cd/Al ratios in Gulf of Papua sediments were 76% lower than measurements made on several Papua New Guinea rivers, whereas U/Al ratios in the shelf sediments were enriched by approximately 20%. Other metal/Al ratios in the Papua New Guinea river suspended sediments and continental shelf sediments were not distinguishably different. Comparison of metal/Al ratios to grain size distributions in Gulf of Papua samples indicates that our observations cannot be attributed to differences in grain size between the river suspended sediments and continental shelf sediments. These two shelves constitute a source of dissolved Cd to the world ocean equal to 29-100% of the dissolved Cd input from rivers, but only 3% of the dissolved Mo input and 4% of the dissolved U input. Release of Cd, Mo, and U in tropical shelf sediments is likely a result of intense Fe and Mn oxide reduction in pore waters and resuspension of the sediments. Since we do not observe depletions of particulate Fe and Mn in the shelf sediments most of these dissolved metals must reoxidize in the overlying waters and reprecipitate. As Cd exhibits the largest losses on these tropical shelves, we examined the ability of newly formed Fe and Mn oxides to adsorb dissolved Cd using a geochemical diffuse double-layer surface complexation model and found the oxide surfaces are relatively ineffective at readsorbing Cd in seawater due to surface-site competition by Mg and Ca. If the remobilization and reoxidation of Fe and Mn occurs frequently enough before sediment is buried significant amounts of Cd may be

  1. Phytoplankton Distribution in Relation to Environmental Drivers on the North West European Shelf Sea.

    PubMed

    Siemering, Beatrix; Bresnan, Eileen; Painter, Stuart C; Daniels, Chris J; Inall, Mark; Davidson, Keith

    2016-01-01

    The edge of the North West European Shelf (NWES) is characterised by a steep continental slope and a northward flowing slope current. These topographic/hydrographic features separate oceanic water and shelf water masses hence potentially separate phytoplankton communities. The slope current may facilitate the advective transport of phytoplankton, with mixing at the shelf edge supporting nutrient supply and therefore phytoplankton production. On the west Scottish shelf in particular, little is known about the phytoplankton communities in and around the shelf break and adjacent waters. Hence, to improve our understanding of environmental drivers of phytoplankton communities, biological and environmental data were collected on seven cross-shelf transects across the Malin and Hebridean Shelves during autumn 2014. Density profiles indicated that shelf break and oceanic stations had a 100 m deep mixed surface layer while stations on the shelf were generally well mixed. Analysis of similarity and multidimensional scaling of phytoplankton counts revealed that phytoplankton communities on the shelf were significantly different to those found at the shelf break and at oceanic stations. Shelf stations were dominated by dinoflagellates, with diatoms contributing a maximum of 37% of cells. Shelf break and oceanic stations were also dinoflagellate dominated but displayed a lower species diversity. Significant difference between shelf and shelf break stations suggested that the continental slope limited cross shelf phytoplankton exchange. Northern and southern phytoplankton communities on the shelf were approximately 15% dissimilar while there was no latitudinal gradient for stations along the slope current, suggesting this current provided south to north connectivity. Fitting environmental data to phytoplankton ordination showed a significant relationship between phytoplankton community dissimilarities and nutrient concentrations and light availability on the shelf compared to

  2. Phytoplankton Distribution in Relation to Environmental Drivers on the North West European Shelf Sea

    PubMed Central

    Siemering, Beatrix; Bresnan, Eileen; Painter, Stuart C.; Daniels, Chris J.; Inall, Mark; Davidson, Keith

    2016-01-01

    The edge of the North West European Shelf (NWES) is characterised by a steep continental slope and a northward flowing slope current. These topographic/hydrographic features separate oceanic water and shelf water masses hence potentially separate phytoplankton communities. The slope current may facilitate the advective transport of phytoplankton, with mixing at the shelf edge supporting nutrient supply and therefore phytoplankton production. On the west Scottish shelf in particular, little is known about the phytoplankton communities in and around the shelf break and adjacent waters. Hence, to improve our understanding of environmental drivers of phytoplankton communities, biological and environmental data were collected on seven cross-shelf transects across the Malin and Hebridean Shelves during autumn 2014. Density profiles indicated that shelf break and oceanic stations had a 100 m deep mixed surface layer while stations on the shelf were generally well mixed. Analysis of similarity and multidimensional scaling of phytoplankton counts revealed that phytoplankton communities on the shelf were significantly different to those found at the shelf break and at oceanic stations. Shelf stations were dominated by dinoflagellates, with diatoms contributing a maximum of 37% of cells. Shelf break and oceanic stations were also dinoflagellate dominated but displayed a lower species diversity. Significant difference between shelf and shelf break stations suggested that the continental slope limited cross shelf phytoplankton exchange. Northern and southern phytoplankton communities on the shelf were approximately 15% dissimilar while there was no latitudinal gradient for stations along the slope current, suggesting this current provided south to north connectivity. Fitting environmental data to phytoplankton ordination showed a significant relationship between phytoplankton community dissimilarities and nutrient concentrations and light availability on the shelf compared to

  3. Possible effects of groundwater pumping on surface water in the Verde Valley, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leake, Stanley A.; Haney, Jeanmarie

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with The Nature Conservancy, has applied a groundwater model to simulate effects of groundwater pumping and artificial recharge on surface water in the Verde Valley sub-basin of Arizona. Results are in two sets of maps that show effects of locations of pumping or recharge on streamflow. These maps will help managers make decisions that will meet water needs and minimize environmental impacts.

  4. Morphology and sediment dynamics of the northern Catalan continental shelf, northwestern Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durán, Ruth; Canals, Miquel; Sanz, José Luis; Lastras, Galderic; Amblas, David; Micallef, Aaron

    2014-01-01

    The northern Catalan continental shelf, in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea, extends along 200 km from the Cap de Creus submarine canyon to the Llobregat Delta, in the vicinity of the city of Barcelona. In this paper we present the results of a systematic investigation of this area by means of very high-resolution multibeam bathymetry to fully assess its morphological variability. The causative factors and processes determining such variability are subsequently interpreted. The shelf is divided in three segments by two prominent submarine canyons: the northernmost Roses Shelf is separated from the intermediate La Planassa Shelf by the La Fonera Canyon, while the boundary between the La Planassa Shelf and the southernmost Barcelona Shelf is marked by the Blanes Canyon. These two canyons are deeply incised in the continental margin, with their heads located at only 0.8 and 5 km from the shore, respectively. The seafloor character reflects the influence of external controlling factors on the geomorphology and sediment dynamics of the northern continental shelf of Catalonia. These factors are the geological setting, the volume and nature of sediment input, and the type and characteristics of processes leading to sediment redistribution, such as dense shelf water cascading (DSWC) and eastern storms. The interaction of all these factors determines sediment dynamics and allows subdividing the northern Catalan continental shelf into three segments: the erosional-depositional Roses Shelf to the north, the non-depositional La Planassa Shelf in the middle, and the depositional Barcelona Shelf to the south. Erosional features off the Cap de Creus Peninsula and an along-shelf subdued channel in the outer shelf illustrate prevailing sediment dynamics in the Roses segment, which is dominated by erosional processes, local sediment accumulations and the southward bypass of sediment. The rocky character of the seafloor immediately north of the Blanes Canyon head demonstrates that

  5. Detecting high spatial variability of ice shelf basal mass balance, Roi Baudouin Ice Shelf, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, Sophie; Drews, Reinhard; Helm, Veit; Sun, Sainan; Pattyn, Frank

    2017-11-01

    Ice shelves control the dynamic mass loss of ice sheets through buttressing and their integrity depends on the spatial variability of their basal mass balance (BMB), i.e. the difference between refreezing and melting. Here, we present an improved technique - based on satellite observations - to capture the small-scale variability in the BMB of ice shelves. As a case study, we apply the methodology to the Roi Baudouin Ice Shelf, Dronning Maud Land, East Antarctica, and derive its yearly averaged BMB at 10 m horizontal gridding. We use mass conservation in a Lagrangian framework based on high-resolution surface velocities, atmospheric-model surface mass balance and hydrostatic ice-thickness fields (derived from TanDEM-X surface elevation). Spatial derivatives are implemented using the total-variation differentiation, which preserves abrupt changes in flow velocities and their spatial gradients. Such changes may reflect a dynamic response to localized basal melting and should be included in the mass budget. Our BMB field exhibits much spatial detail and ranges from -14.7 to 8.6 m a-1 ice equivalent. Highest melt rates are found close to the grounding line where the pressure melting point is high, and the ice shelf slope is steep. The BMB field agrees well with on-site measurements from phase-sensitive radar, although independent radar profiling indicates unresolved spatial variations in firn density. We show that an elliptical surface depression (10 m deep and with an extent of 0.7 km × 1.3 km) lowers by 0.5 to 1.4 m a-1, which we tentatively attribute to a transient adaptation to hydrostatic equilibrium. We find evidence for elevated melting beneath ice shelf channels (with melting being concentrated on the channel's flanks). However, farther downstream from the grounding line, the majority of ice shelf channels advect passively (i.e. no melting nor refreezing) toward the ice shelf front. Although the absolute, satellite-based BMB values remain uncertain, we have

  6. Layers of 'Cape Verde' in 'Victoria Crater' (Enhanced)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    This view of Victoria crater is looking north from 'Duck Bay' towards the dramatic promontory called 'Cape Verde.' The dramatic cliff of layered rocks is about 50 meters (about 165 feet) away from the rover and is about 6 meters (about 20 feet) tall. The taller promontory beyond that is about 100 meters (about 325 feet) away, and the vista beyond that extends away for more than 400 meters (about 1300 feet) into the distance. This is a false color rendering (enhanced to bring out details from within the shadowed regions of the scene) of images taken by the panoramic camera (Pancam) on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity during the rover's 952nd sol, or Martian day, (Sept. 28, 2006) using the camera's 750-nanometer, 530-nanometer and 430-nanometer filters.

  7. Inorganic carbon fluxes on the Mackenzie Shelf of the Beaufort Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mol, Jacoba; Thomas, Helmuth; Myers, Paul G.; Hu, Xianmin; Mucci, Alfonso

    2018-02-01

    The Mackenzie Shelf in the southeastern Beaufort Sea is a region that has experienced large changes in the past several decades as warming, sea-ice loss, and increased river discharge have altered carbon cycling. Upwelling and downwelling events are common on the shelf, caused by strong, fluctuating along-shore winds, resulting in cross-shelf Ekman transport, and an alternating estuarine and anti-estuarine circulation. Downwelling carries dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and other remineralization products off the shelf and into the deep basin for possible long-term storage in the world's oceans. Upwelling carries DIC and nutrient-rich waters from the Pacific-origin upper halocline layer (UHL) onto the shelf. Profiles of DIC and total alkalinity (TA) taken in August and September of 2014 are used to investigate the cycling of carbon on the Mackenzie Shelf. The along-shore transport of water and the cross-shelf transport of DIC are quantified using velocity field output from a simulation of the Arctic and Northern Hemisphere Atlantic (ANHA4) configuration of the Nucleus of European Modelling of the Ocean (NEMO) framework. A strong upwelling event prior to sampling on the Mackenzie Shelf took place, bringing CO2-rich (elevated pCO2) water from the UHL onto the shelf bottom. The maximum on-shelf DIC flux was estimated at 16.9×103 mol C d-1 m-2 during the event. The maximum on-shelf transport of DIC through the upwelling event was found to be 65±15×10-3 Tg C d-1. TA and the oxygen isotope ratio of water (δ18O-H2O) are used to examine water-mass distributions in the study area and to investigate the influence of Pacific Water, Mackenzie River freshwater, and sea-ice melt on carbon dynamics and air-sea fluxes of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the surface mixed layer. Understanding carbon transfer in this seasonally dynamic environment is key to quantify the importance of Arctic shelf regions to the global carbon cycle and provide a basis for understanding how it will

  8. The Tweeting Ice Shelf: geophysics and outreach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Liefferinge, Brice; Berger, Sophie; Drews, Reinhard; Pattyn, Frank

    2015-04-01

    Over the last decade the Antarctic and Greenland ice sheets have contributed about one third of the annual sea level rise (Hanna et al., 2013). However, it remains difficult to reconcile global mass balance estimates obtained from different satellite-based methods. A typical approach is to balance the mass input from atmospheric modelling with the outgoing mass flux at the ice-sheet boundary (Shepherd et al., 2012). The flux calculations at the boundary rely on satellite-derived surface velocities, which are currently only available as snapshots in time, and which need ground truth for validation. Here, we report on continuous, year-round measurements that aim at improving the input-output method in several aspects and carefully map the flow speed allowing for detecting seasonal variability. For this purpose, we set up in December 2014 three stand-alone single-frequency GPSes on the Roi Baudouin ice shelf (East Antarctica). The GPSes are installed across a surface depression (typical for large ice-shelf channels), where subglacial melting is expected. This setup allows us to investigate how these channels behave, i.e., if they become wider, whether or not they enhance the ice flow, and, in combination with an installed phase-sensitive radar, what amount of melting occurs below the channels in contact with the ocean. The GPS data are transmitted on a daily basis. Ice-shelf velocity is derived from the raw hourly location following the methods described in den Ouden et al. (2010), Dunse et al. (2012), and Ahlstrøm et al. (2013). However, a reference station has not been used for the correction. Basic processing involves outliers removal, smoothing, time-series analysis and comparison with tidal models. The project comes alongside an outreach event: on a weekly basis, the ice shelf 'tweets' its position, motion and relays other information with respect to the project. The GPS systems can be followed on Twitter via @TweetinIceShelf as well as the Tweeting Ice Shelf

  9. Application of passive sampling for measuring dissolved concentrations of organic contaminants in the water column at three marine superfund sites.

    PubMed

    Burgess, Robert M; Lohmann, Rainer; Schubauer-Berigan, Joseph P; Reitsma, Pamela; Perron, Monique M; Lefkovitz, Lisa; Cantwell, Mark G

    2015-08-01

    Currently, there is an effort under way to encourage remedial project managers at contaminated sites to use passive sampling to collect freely dissolved concentrations (Cfree ) of hydrophobic organic contaminants to improve site assessments. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the use of passive sampling for measuring water column Cfree for several hydrophobic organic contaminants at 3 US Environmental Protection Agency Superfund sites. Sites investigated included New Bedford Harbor (New Bedford, MA, USA), Palos Verdes Shelf (Los Angeles, CA, USA), and Naval Station Newport (Newport, RI, USA); and the passive samplers evaluated were polyethylene, polydimethylsiloxane-coated solid-phase microextraction fibers, semipermeable membrane devices, and polyoxymethylene. In general, the different passive samplers demonstrated good agreement, with Cfree values varying by a factor of 2 to 3. Further, at New Bedford Harbor, where conventional water sample concentrations were also measured (i.e., grab samples), passive sampler-based Cfree values agreed within a factor of 2. These findings suggest that all of the samplers were experiencing and measuring similar Cfree during their respective deployments. Also, at New Bedford Harbor, a strong log-linear, correlative, and predictive relationship was found between polyethylene passive sampler accumulation and lipid-normalized blue mussel bioaccumulation of polychlorinated biphenyls (r(2)  = 0.92, p < 0.05). The present study demonstrates the utility of passive sampling for generating scientifically accurate water column Cfree values, which is critical for making informed environmental management decisions at contaminated sediment sites. Published 2015 SETAC. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  10. Microbial Diversity and Toxin Risk in Tropical Freshwater Reservoirs of Cape Verde.

    PubMed

    Semedo-Aguiar, Ana P; Pereira-Leal, Jose B; Leite, Ricardo B

    2018-05-05

    The Cape Verde islands are part of the African Sahelian arid belt that possesses an erratic rain pattern prompting the need for water reservoirs, which are now critical for the country’s sustainability. Worldwide, freshwater cyanobacterial blooms are increasing in frequency due to global climate change and the eutrophication of water bodies, particularly in reservoirs. To date, there have been no risk assessments of cyanobacterial toxin production in these man-made structures. We evaluated this potential risk using 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing and full metagenome sequencing in freshwater reservoirs of Cape Verde. Our analysis revealed the presence of several potentially toxic cyanobacterial genera in all sampled reservoirs. Faveta potentially toxic and bloom-forming Microcystis sp., dominated our samples, while a Cryptomonas green algae and Gammaproteobacteria dominated Saquinho and Poilão reservoirs. We reconstructed and assembled the Microcystis genome, extracted from the metagenome of bulk DNA from Faveta water. Phylogenetic analysis of Microcystis cf. aeruginosa CV01’s genome revealed its close relationship with other Microcystis genomes, as well as clustering with other continental African strains, suggesting geographical coherency. In addition, it revealed several clusters of known toxin-producing genes. This survey reinforces the need to better understand the country’s microbial ecology as a whole of water reservoirs on the rise.

  11. Microbial Diversity and Toxin Risk in Tropical Freshwater Reservoirs of Cape Verde

    PubMed Central

    Pereira-Leal, Jose B.

    2018-01-01

    The Cape Verde islands are part of the African Sahelian arid belt that possesses an erratic rain pattern prompting the need for water reservoirs, which are now critical for the country’s sustainability. Worldwide, freshwater cyanobacterial blooms are increasing in frequency due to global climate change and the eutrophication of water bodies, particularly in reservoirs. To date, there have been no risk assessments of cyanobacterial toxin production in these man-made structures. We evaluated this potential risk using 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing and full metagenome sequencing in freshwater reservoirs of Cape Verde. Our analysis revealed the presence of several potentially toxic cyanobacterial genera in all sampled reservoirs. Faveta potentially toxic and bloom-forming Microcystis sp., dominated our samples, while a Cryptomonas green algae and Gammaproteobacteria dominated Saquinho and Poilão reservoirs. We reconstructed and assembled the Microcystis genome, extracted from the metagenome of bulk DNA from Faveta water. Phylogenetic analysis of Microcystis cf. aeruginosa CV01’s genome revealed its close relationship with other Microcystis genomes, as well as clustering with other continental African strains, suggesting geographical coherency. In addition, it revealed several clusters of known toxin-producing genes. This survey reinforces the need to better understand the country’s microbial ecology as a whole of water reservoirs on the rise. PMID:29734762

  12. Sediment metabolism on the Louisiana continental shelf - Eldridge

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rates of aerobic and anaerobic sediment metabolism were measured on the Louisiana Continental Shelf during 5 cruises in 2006 and 2007. On each cruise, 3-4 stations were occupied in regions of the shelf that experience summer bottom-water hypoxia. Net DIC, O2, N2, and nutrient f...

  13. View of 'Cape Verde' from 'Cape St. Mary' in Mid-Afternoon (False Color)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    As part of its investigation of 'Victoria Crater,' NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity examined a promontory called 'Cape Verde' from the vantage point of 'Cape St. Mary,' the next promontory clockwise around the crater's deeply scalloped rim. This view of Cape Verde combines several exposures taken by the rover's panoramic camera into an approximately false-color mosaic. The exposures were taken during mid-afternoon lighting conditions.

    The upper portion of the crater wall contains a jumble of material tossed outward by the impact that excavated the crater. This vertical cross-section through the blanket of ejected material surrounding the crater was exposed by erosion that expanded the crater outward from its original diameter, according to scientists' interpretation of the observations. Below the jumbled material in the upper part of the wall are layers that survive relatively intact from before the crater-causing impact.

    The images combined into this mosaic were taken during the 1,006th Martian day, or sol, of Opportunity's Mars-surface mission (Nov. 22, 2006). The panoramic camera took them through the camera's 750-nanometer, 530-nanometer and 430-nanometer filters. The false color enhances subtle color differences among materials in the rocks and soils of the scene.

  14. View of 'Cape Verde' from 'Cape St. Mary' in Late Morning (False Color)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    As part of its investigation of 'Victoria Crater,' NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity examined a promontory called 'Cape Verde' from the vantage point of 'Cape St. Mary,' the next promontory clockwise around the crater's deeply scalloped rim. This view of Cape Verde combines several exposures taken by the rover's panoramic camera into a false-color mosaic. The exposures were taken during late-morning lighting conditions.

    The upper portion of the crater wall contains a jumble of material tossed outward by the impact that excavated the crater. This vertical cross-section through the blanket of ejected material surrounding the crater was exposed by erosion that expanded the crater outward from its original diameter, according to scientists' interpretation of the observations. Below the jumbled material in the upper part of the wall are layers that survive relatively intact from before the crater-causing impact.

    The images combined into this mosaic were taken during the 1,006th Martian day, or sol, of Opportunity's Mars-surface mission (Nov. 22, 2006). The panoramic camera took them through the camera's 750-nanometer, 530-nanometer and 430-nanometer filters. The false color enhances subtle color differences among materials in the rocks and soils of the scene.

  15. Anthropometric assessment of the nutritional status of preschool-age children in Cape Verde

    PubMed Central

    Wennberg, A.

    1988-01-01

    The nutritional status of preschool-age children (0-6 years old) in Cape Verde was assessed using anthropometric measurements in a survey that involved 17 017 children from all regions of the country. About 26% of the estimated population in the target age group was included. Data were collected through primary health care centres during the latter part of 1983. The nutritional indicators weight-for-height, weight-for-age, and height-for-age were compared with reference data from the U.S. National Center for Health Statistics. Values of the indicators below -2 standard deviations of the median were considered to represent moderate undernutrition, while values below -3 standard deviations were taken to indicate severe malnutrition. The prevalence of low weight-for-height (wasting) was 2.5%, while that of severe wasting was 0.6%. The corresponding prevalences of low height-for-age and weight-for-age were 13.1% and 17.2%, respectively, with severe categories representing 2.3% and 6.1%, respectively, of the cases in the total sample. There is therefore a relatively strong tendency towards growth retardation or chronic, moderate nutritional deprivation in preschool-age children in Cape Verde, although there exist interregional variations. PMID:3262443

  16. Plant growth stage-specific injury and economic injury level for verde plant bug, Creontiades signatus (Hemiptera: Miridae), on cotton: effect of bloom period of infestation.

    PubMed

    Brewer, Michael J; Anderson, Darwin J; Armstrong, J Scott

    2013-10-01

    Verde plant bugs, Creontiades signatus Distant (Hemiptera: Miridae), were released onto caged cotton, Cossypium hirsutum L., for a 1-wk period to characterize the effects of insect density and bloom period of infestation on cotton injury and yield in 2011 and 2012, Corpus Christi, TX. When plants were infested during early bloom (10-11 nodes above first white flower), a linear decline in fruit retention and boll load and a linear increase in boll injury were detected as verde plant bug infestation levels increased from an average of 0.5 to 4 bugs per plant. Lint and seed yield per plant showed a corresponding decline. Fruit retention, boll load, and yield were not affected on plants infested 1 wk later at peak bloom (8-9 nodes above first white flower), even though boll injury increased as infestation levels increased. Second-year testing verified boll injury but not yield loss, when infestations occurred at peak bloom. Incidence of cotton boll rot, known to be associated with verde plant bug feeding, was low to modest (< 1% [2012] to 12% [2011] of bolls with disease symptoms), and drought stress persisted throughout the study. Caging effect was minimal: a 10% fruit retention decline was associated with caging, and the effect was not detectable in the other measurements. Overall, reduced fruit retention and boll load caused by verde plant bug were important contributors to yield decline, damage potential was greatest during the early bloom period of infestation, and a simple linear response best described the yield response-insect density relationship at early bloom. Confirmation that cotton after peak bloom was less prone to verde plant bug injury and an early bloom-specific economic injury level were key findings that can improve integrated pest management decision-making for dryland cotton, at least under low-rainfall growing conditions.

  17. Surficial sediments on the western Canadian continental shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bornhold, Brian D.; Barrie, J. Vaughn

    1991-08-01

    The active continental margin off western Canada is characterized in the south by convergence between the Explorer and Juan de Fuca Plates and the America Plate, and in the north by transform fault motion between the Pacific and America Plates along the Queen Charlotte Fault. Except in some of the deepest troughs and basins shelf sediments are dominated by immature lithic arenites reflecting this tectonic setting. The Vancouver Island shelf is from 5 to 75 km wide and displays complex topography on the inner shelf and a relatively featureless mid- and outer shelf. An exception is the area off southwestern Vancouver Island where large basins bounded by morainal deposits extend more than two-thirds of the distance across the shelf. The shelf edge varies from 180 to 225 m depth and is indented by numerous canyons. Nearshore sediments consist mainly of gravels and boulders and become finer offshore such that muds are slowly accumulating in depths greater than 100 m. Off northwestern Vancouver Island calcareous sediments are abundant with carbonate values often exceeding 75%. High wave and current energies and efficient sediment trapping in coastal fiords have resulted in low rates of accumulation. Olive, glauconitic, Holocene muds and muddy sands are generally less than 0.3 m thick and accumulate only on the outer shelf over an extensive stiff, gray, glaciomarine sandy mud. Queen Charlotte Sound exhibits three broad, shallow, glacially scoured troughs, filled mainly with clayey silts and fine sands and separated by sand and gravel covered banks. Hecate Strait, between the Queen Charlotte Islands and the mainland, consists of a prominent southward-opening trough along the east side of the Strait bounded by Dogfish and Laskeek Banks on the west adjacent to Graham and Moresby Islands, respectively. The trough below 200 m is filled by silts. The banks are covered by discontinuous sands and gravels of variable calcareous content. The bank edges often display megaripples and

  18. Simulation of streamflow and estimation of recharge to the Edwards aquifer in the Hondo Creek, Verde Creek, and San Geronimo Creek watersheds, south-central Texas, 1951-2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ockerman, Darwin J.

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the San Antonio Water System, constructed three watershed models using the Hydrological Simulation Program—FORTRAN (HSPF) to simulate streamflow and estimate recharge to the Edwards aquifer in the Hondo Creek, Verde Creek, and San Geronimo Creek watersheds in south-central Texas. The three models were calibrated and tested with available data collected during 1992–2003. Simulations of streamflow and recharge were done for 1951–2003. The approach to construct the models was to first calibrate the Hondo Creek model (with an hourly time step) using 1992–99 data and test the model using 2000–2003 data. The Hondo Creek model parameters then were applied to the Verde Creek and San Geronimo Creek watersheds to construct the Verde Creek and San Geronimo Creek models. The simulated streamflows for Hondo Creek are considered acceptable. Annual, monthly, and daily simulated streamflows adequately match measured values, but simulated hourly streamflows do not. The accuracy of streamflow simulations for Verde Creek is uncertain. For San Geronimo Creek, the match of measured and simulated annual and monthly streamflows is acceptable (or nearly so); but for daily and hourly streamflows, the calibration is relatively poor. Simulated average annual total streamflow for 1951–2003 to Hondo Creek, Verde Creek, and San Geronimo Creek is 45,400; 32,400; and 11,100 acre-feet, respectively. Simulated average annual streamflow at the respective watershed outlets is 13,000; 16,200; and 6,920 acre-feet. The difference between total streamflow and streamflow at the watershed outlet is streamflow lost to channel infiltration. Estimated average annual Edwards aquifer recharge for Hondo Creek, Verde Creek, and San Geronimo Creek watersheds for 1951–2003 is 37,900 acrefeet (5.04 inches), 26,000 acre-feet (3.36 inches), and 5,940 acre-feet (1.97 inches), respectively. Most of the recharge (about 77 percent for the three watersheds

  19. Snow extent measurements from geostationary satellites using an interactive computer system. [Salt and Verde River Basins, Arizona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gird, R. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1980-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. A time series of GOES full resolution visible image sectors was viewed on the McIDAS video component in chronological order and registered to within plus or minus 1 image pixel to compute real time snow melting rates. Synoptic scale clouds were eliminated to create a snow covered area from a composite image. Results show good agreement with NESS products although a significant difference was noted for one two-day period when the NESS products showed an increase in the snow cover for the Verde Basin, while the GOES/McIDAS product implied no change in the snow cover for approximately the same period. A check of NWS radar reports indicated no precipitation had occurred within the Verde basin. The use of the registered image sequence eliminates instrument error since small changes in the snow cover between any two days are easily detected.

  20. Note On The Ross Sea Shelf Water Downflow Processes (antarctica)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergamasco, A.; Defendi, V.; Spezie, G.; Budillon, G.; Carniel, S.

    In the framework of the CLIMA Project of the Italian National Program for Research in Antarctica, three different experimental data sets were acquired along the continental shelf break; two of them (in 1997 and 2001) close to Cape Adare, the 1998 one in the middle of the Ross Sea (i.e. 75 S, 177 W). The investigations were chosen in order to explore the downslope flow of the bottom waters produced in the Ross Sea, namely the High Salinity Shelf Water (HSSW, the densest water mass of the southern ocean coming from its formation site in the polynya region in Terra Nova bay), and the Ice Shelf Water (ISW, originated below the Ross Ice Shelf and outflowing northward). Both bottom waters spill over the shelf edge and mix with the Circumpolar Deep Water (CDW) contributing to the formation of the Antarctic Bottom Waters (AABW). Interpreting temperature, salinity and density maps in terms of cascading processes, both HSSW and ISW overflows are evidenced during, respectively, 1997 and 1998. During the 2001 acquisition there is no presence of HSSW along the shelf break, nevertheless distribution captures the evidence of a downslope flow process.

  1. Breakup of Pack Ice, Antarctic Ice Shelf

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1991-09-18

    STS048-152-007 (12-18 Sept 1991) --- The periphery of the Antarctic ice shelf and the Antarctic Peninsula were photographed by the STS 48 crew members. Strong offshore winds, probably associated with katabatic winds from the interior of the continent, are peeling off the edges of the ice shelf into ribbons of sea ice, icebergs, bergy bits and growlers into the cold waters of the circum-Antarctic southern ocean.

  2. Modified, Packaged Tortillas Have Long Shelf Life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bourland, Charles; Glaus-Late, Kimberly

    1995-01-01

    Tortillas made from modified recipe and sealed in low-pressure nitrogen in foil pouches in effort to increase their shelf life at room temperature. Preliminary tests show that shelf life of these tortillas at least five months; in contrast, commercial tortillas last only few days. Part of water in recipe replaced with glycerin. Particularly necessary to avoid Clostridium botulinum, which grows in anaerobic environments and produces deadly toxin that causes botulism.

  3. Y-chromosome lineages in Cabo Verde Islands witness the diverse geographic origin of its first male settlers.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Rita; Rosa, Alexandra; Freitas, Ana; Fernandes, Ana; Kivisild, Toomas; Villems, Richard; Brehm, António

    2003-11-01

    The Y-chromosome haplogroup composition of the population of the Cabo Verde Archipelago was profiled by using 32 single-nucleotide polymorphism markers and compared with potential source populations from Iberia, west Africa, and the Middle East. According to the traditional view, the major proportion of the founding population of Cabo Verde was of west African ancestry with the addition of a minor fraction of male colonizers from Europe. Unexpectedly, more than half of the paternal lineages (53.5%) of Cabo Verdeans clustered in haplogroups I, J, K, and R1, which are characteristic of populations of Europe and the Middle East, while being absent in the probable west African source population of Guiné-Bissau. Moreover, a high frequency of J* lineages in Cabo Verdeans relates them more closely to populations of the Middle East and probably provides the first genetic evidence of the legacy of the Jews. In addition, the considerable proportion (20.5%) of E3b(xM81) lineages indicates a possible gene flow from the Middle East or northeast Africa, which, at least partly, could be ascribed to the Sephardic Jews. In contrast to the predominance of west African mitochondrial DNA haplotypes in their maternal gene pool, the major west African Y-chromosome lineage E3a was observed only at a frequency of 15.9%. Overall, these results indicate that gene flow from multiple sources and various sex-specific patterns have been important in the formation of the genomic diversity in the Cabo Verde islands.

  4. Suspended particulate layers and internal waves over the southern Monterey Bay continental shelf: An important control on shelf mud belts?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheriton, Olivia M.; McPhee-Shaw, Erika E.; Shaw, William J.; Stanton, Timothy P.; Bellingham, James G.; Storlazzi, Curt D.

    2014-01-01

    Physical and optical measurements taken over the mud belt on the southern continental shelf of Monterey Bay, California documented the frequent occurrence of suspended particulate matter features, the majority of which were detached from the seafloor, centered 9-33 m above the bed. In fall 2011, an automated profiling mooring and fixed instrumentation, including a thermistor chain and upward-looking acoustic Doppler current profiler, were deployed at 70 m depth for 5 weeks, and from 12 to 16 October a long-range autonomous underwater vehicle performed across-shelf transects. Individual SPM events were uncorrelated with local bed shear stress caused by surface waves and bottom currents. Nearly half of all observed SPM layers occurred during 1 week of the study, 9-16 October 2011, and were advected past the fixed profiling mooring by the onshore phase of semidiurnal internal tide bottom currents. At the start of the 9-16 October period, we observed intense near-bed vertical velocities capable of lifting particulates into the middle of the water column. This "updraft" event appears to have been associated with nonlinear adjustment of high-amplitude internal tides over the mid and outer shelf. These findings suggest that nonlinear internal tidal motions can erode material over the outer shelf and that, once suspended, this SPM can then be transported shoreward to the middle and shallow sections of the mud belt. This represents a fundamental broadening of our understanding of how shelf mud belts may be built up and sustained.

  5. Geometric controls of the flexural gravity waves on the Ross Ice Shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sergienko, O. V.

    2017-12-01

    Long-period ocean waves, formed locally or at distant sources, can reach sub-ice-shelf cavities and excite coupled motion in the cavity and the ice shelf - flexural gravity waves. Three-dimensional numerical simulations of the flexural gravity waves on the Ross Ice Shelf show that propagation of these waves is strongly controlled by the geometry of the system - the cavity shape, its water-column thickness and the ice-shelf thickness. The results of numerical simulations demonstrate that propagation of the waves is spatially organized in beams, whose orientation is determined by the direction of the of the open ocean waves incident on the ice-shelf front. As a result, depending on the beams orientation, parts of the Ross Ice Shelf experience significantly larger flexural stresses compared to other parts where the flexural gravity beams do not propagate. Very long-period waves can propagate farther away from the ice-shelf front exciting flexural stresses in the vicinity of the grounding line.

  6. Exchanges between the open Black Sea and its North West shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shapiro, Georgy; Wobus, Fred; Zhou, Feng

    2014-05-01

    Exchanges between the vast NW shelf and the deep basin of the Black Sea play a significant role in maintaining the balance of nutrients, heat content and salinity of the shelf waters. Nearly 87 % of the Black Sea is entirely anoxic below 70 to 200m and contains high levels of hydrogen sulphide (Zaitsev et al, 2001), and this makes the shelf waters particularly valuable for maintaining the Black Sea ecosystem in good health. The increase in salinity of shelf waters occurs partially due to exchanges with more saline open sea waters and represents a threat to relics and endemic species. The shelf-break is commonly considered the bottle-neck of the shelf-deep sea exchanges (e.g. (Huthnance, 1995, Ivanov et al, 1997). Due to conservation of potential vorticity, the geostrophic currents flow along the contours of constant depth. However the ageostrophic flows (Ekman drift, mesoscale eddies, filaments, internal waves) are not subject to the same constraints. It has been shown that during the winter well mixed cold waters formed on the North West shelf propagate into the deep sea, providing an important mechanism for the replenishment of the Cold Intermediate Layer ( Staneva and Stanev, 1997). However, much less is known about exchanges in the warm season. In this study, the transports of water, heat and salt between the northwestern shelf and the adjacent deep basin of the Black Sea are investigated using a high-resolution three-dimensional primitive equation model, NEMO-SHELF-BLS (Shapiro et al, 2013). It is shown that during the period from April to August, 2005, both onshore and offshore cross-shelf break transports in the top 20 m were as high as 0.24 Sv on average, which was equivalent to the replacement of 60% of the volume of surface shelf waters (0 - 20 m) per month. Two main exchange mechanisms are studied: (i) Ekman transport, and (ii) transport by mesoscale eddies and associated meanders of the Rim Current. The Ekman drift causes nearly uniform onshore or

  7. Demand-Adjusted Shelf Availability Parameters: A Second Look.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwarz, Philip

    1983-01-01

    Data gathered in application of Paul Kantor's demand-adjusted shelf availability model to medium-sized academic library indicate significant differences in shelf availability when data are analyzed by last circulation date, acquisition date, and imprint date, and when they are gathered during periods of low and high use. Ten references are cited.…

  8. Vector competence of Aedes aegypti and Aedes vittatus (Diptera: Culicidae) from Senegal and Cape Verde archipelago for West African lineages of chikungunya virus.

    PubMed

    Diagne, Cheikh T; Faye, Oumar; Guerbois, Mathilde; Knight, Rachel; Diallo, Diawo; Faye, Ousmane; Ba, Yamar; Dia, Ibrahima; Faye, Ousmane; Weaver, Scott C; Sall, Amadou A; Diallo, Mawlouth

    2014-09-01

    To assess the risk of emergence of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) in West Africa, vector competence of wild-type, urban, and non-urban Aedes aegypti and Ae. vittatus from Senegal and Cape Verde for CHIKV was investigated. Mosquitoes were fed orally with CHIKV isolates from mosquitoes (ArD30237), bats (CS13-288), and humans (HD180738). After 5, 10, and 15 days of incubation following an infectious blood meal, presence of CHIKV RNA was determined in bodies, legs/wings, and saliva using real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Aedes vittatus showed high susceptibility (50-100%) and early dissemination and transmission of all CHIKV strains tested. Aedes aegypti exhibited infection rates ranging from 0% to 50%. Aedes aegypti from Cape Verde and Kedougou, but not those from Dakar, showed the potential to transmit CHIKV in saliva. Analysis of biology and competence showed relatively high infective survival rates for Ae. vittatus and Ae. aegypti from Cape Verde, suggesting their efficient vector capacity in West Africa. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  9. Aula Verde: art as experience in community-based environmental education.

    PubMed

    Abarca, Marco A

    2010-01-01

    After winning a class-action lawsuit against unconstitutional prison conditions in Puerto Rico, Marco Abarca managed to direct part of the fine monies accumulated throughout years of litigation toward an investment that would improve the living conditions in one of the largest and poorest housing projects in Puerto Rico. With the participation of parolees and probationers, he began to transform a mosquito-infested badland into a natural haven. Then, with the help of science educators, the group designed a workshop for elementary school children on urban ecology. As the participants organized, what developed was a community-based, self-employed enterprise known as Aula Verde.

  10. Ocean-shelf interaction and exchange (Fridtjof Nansen Medal Lecture)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huthnance, John M.

    2016-04-01

    A brief review will be given of physical processes where shallow shelf seas border the deep ocean, including waves that travel and propagate responses around the ocean boundary. Some implications for ocean-shelf exchange of water and its physical and biochemical contents will be discussed, along with an outline of some studies estimating these exchanges. There will be an emphasis on the north-west European shelf edge. A recent study is the project FASTNEt: "Fluxes across sloping topography of the North East Atlantic". This aims to resolve seasonal, interannual and regional variations. Novel and varied measurements have been made in three contrasting sectors of shelf edge: the Celtic Sea south-west of Britain, the Malin-Hebrides shelf west of Scotland and the West Shetland shelf north of Scotland. Previous studies established the existence of flow along the continental slope in these areas, more persistently poleward in northern sectors. Modelling aims to diagnose and estimate the contribution of various processes to transports and to exchange along and across the slope. Estimates obtained so far will be presented; overall transport from drifters and moored current meters; effective "diffusivity" from drifter dispersion and salinity surveys; other estimates of velocity variance contributing to exchange. In addition to transport by the along-slope flow, possible process contributions which may be estimated include internal waves and their Stokes drift, tidal pumping, eddies and Ekman transports, in a wind-driven surface layer and in a bottom boundary layer. Overall estimates of exchange across the shelf edge here are large by global standards, several m**2/s (Sverdrups per 1000 km). However, the large majority of this exchange is in tides and other motion of comparably short period, and is only effective for water properties or contents that evolve on a time-scale of a day or less.

  11. Radiation stress and mean drift in continental shelf waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Jan Erik H.; Drivdal, Magnus

    2012-03-01

    The time- and depth-averaged mean drift induced by barotropic continental shelf waves (CSW's) is studied theoretically for idealized shelf topography by calculating the mean volume fluxes to second order in wave amplitude. The waves suffer weak spatial damping due to bottom friction, which leads to radiation stress forcing of the mean fluxes. In terms of the total wave energy density E̅̅ over the shelf region, the radiation stress tensor component S̅11 for CSW's is found to be different from that of shallow water surface waves in a non-rotating ocean. For CSW's, the ratio S̅11/E̅ depends strongly on the wave number. The mean Lagrangian flow forced by the radiation stress can be subdivided into a Stokes drift and a mean Eulerian drift current. The magnitude of latter depends on ratio between the radiation stress and the bottom stress acting on the mean flow. When the effect of bottom friction acts equally strong on the waves and the mean current, calculations for short CSW's show that the Stokes drift and the friction-dependent wave-induced mean Eulerian current varies approximately in anti-phase over the shelf, and that the latter is numerically the largest. For long CSW's they are approximately in phase. In both cases the mean Lagrangian current, which is responsible for the net particle drift, has its largest numerical value at the coast on the shallow part of the shelf. Enhancing the effect of bottom friction on the Eulerian mean flow, results in a general current speed reduction, as well as a change in spatial structure for long waves. Applying realistic physical parameters for the continental shelf west of Norway, calculations yield along-shelf mean drift velocities for short CSW's that may be important for the transport of biological material, neutral tracers, and underwater plumes of dissolved oil from deepwater drilling accidents.

  12. Structure and development of the southern Moroccan continental shelf

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dillon, William P.

    1974-01-01

    The structure of the continental shelf off southern Morocco was studied by means of 2,100 km of seismic reflection profiles, magnetic and bathymetric surveys, and dredge samples. The research area lies off four geologic divisions adjacent to the coast: the Atlas Mountains; the Souss Trough; the Anti-Atlas Mountains; and the Aaiun Basin. The continental shelf, along with the western Atlas Mountains, the western Souss Trough, and the entire Aaiun Basin, has subsided along a normal fault-flexure system. This system runs along the shore at the Anti-Atlas Mountains, and cuts off this cratonic block from the shelf subsidence. The shelf is narrow and characterized by out-building off the Anti-Atlas range, whereas it is broader and characterized by upbuilding to the north and south. Deposition was essentially continuous at least from Early Cretaceous through Eocene time. Published work suggests that the last cycle of sedimentation began during Permian rifting. After Eocene time, most sediments carried to the shelf must have bypassed it and gone to construct the slope and rise or to the deep sea. Tertiary orogenies caused extensive folding of Mesozoic and early Tertiary deposits off the Atlas Mountains. ?? 1974.

  13. A CASE STUDY OF THE LOS ANGELES COUNTY PALOS VERDES LANDFILL GAS DEVELOPMENT PROJECT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report documents the first-ever-attempt to capture sanitary landfill gases and beneficiate them to natural gas pipeline quality--or very nearly so. For this reason the authors must credit the entrepreneurs for a successful first full-scale demonstration of a technology that ...

  14. Sea ice and oceanic processes on the Ross Sea continental shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, S. S.; Comiso, J. C.

    1989-12-01

    We have investigated the spatial and temporal variability of Antarctic sea ice concentrations on the Ross Sea continental shelf, in relation to oceanic and atmospheric forcing. Sea ice data were derived from Nimbus 7 scanning multichannel microwave radiometer (SMMR) brightness temperatures from 1979-1986. Ice cover over the shelf was persistently lower than above the adjacent deep ocean, averaging 86% during winter with little month-to-month or interannual variability. The large spring Ross Sea polynya on the western shelf results in a longer period of summer insolation, greater surface layer heat storage, and later ice formation in that region the following autumn. Newly identified Pennell and Ross Passage polynyas near the continental shelf break appear to be maintained in part by divergence above a submarine bank and by upwelling of warmer water near the slope front. Warmer subsurface water enters the shelf region year-round and will retard ice growth and enhance heat flux to the atmosphere when entrained in the strong winter vertical circulation. Temperatures at 125-m depth on a mooring near the Ross Ice Shelf during July 1984 averaged 0.15°C above freezing, sufficient to support a vertical heat flux above 100 W/m2. Monthly average subsurface ocean temperatures along the Ross Ice Shelf lag the air temperature cycle and begin to rise several weeks before spring ice breakout. The coarse SMMR resolution and dynamic ice shelf coastlines can compromise the use of microwave sea ice data near continental boundaries.

  15. Carbon Dynamics on the Louisiana Continental Shelf and Cross-Shelf Feeding of Hypoxia

    EPA Science Inventory

    Large-scale hypoxia regularly develops during the summer on the Louisiana continental shelf. Traditionally, hypoxia has been linked to the vast winter and spring nutrient inputs from the Mississippi River and its distributary, the Atchafalaya River. However, recent studies indica...

  16. Layers of 'Cape Verde' in 'Victoria Crater' (False Color)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    This view of Victoria crater is looking north from 'Duck Bay' towards the dramatic promontory called 'Cape Verde.' The dramatic cliff of layered rocks is about 50 meters (about 165 feet) away from the rover and is about 6 meters (about 20 feet) tall. The taller promontory beyond that is about 100 meters (about 325 feet) away, and the vista beyond that extends away for more than 400 meters (about 1300 feet) into the distance. This is an enhanced false color rendering of images taken by the panoramic camera (Pancam) on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity during the rover's 952nd sol, or Martian day, (Sept. 28, 2006) using the camera's 750-nanometer, 530-nanometer and 430-nanometer filters.

  17. Breakup of the Larsen Ice Shelf, Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Recent Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite imagery analyzed at the University of Colorado's National Snow and Ice Data Center revealed that the northern section of the Larsen B ice shelf, a large floating ice mass on the eastern side of the Antarctic Peninsula, has shattered and separated from the continent. This particular image was taken on March 5, 2002. The shattered ice formed a plume of thousands of icebergs adrift in the Weddell Sea. A total of about 3,250 square kilometers of shelf area disintegrated in a 35-day period beginning on January 31, 2002. Over the last five years, the shelf has lost a total of 5,700 square kilometers and is now about 40 percent the size of its previous minimum stable extent. Ice shelves are thick plates of ice, fed by glaciers, that float on the ocean around much of Antarctica. The Larsen B shelf was about 220 meters thick. Based on studies of ice flow and sediment thickness beneath the ice shelf, scientists believe that it existed for at least 400 years prior to this event and likely existed since the end of the last major glaciation 12,000 years ago. For reference, the area lost in this most recent event dwarfs Rhode Island (2,717 square kilometers) in size. In terms of volume, the amount of ice released in this short time is 720 billion tons--enough ice for about 12 trillion 10-kilogram bags. This is the largest single event in a series of retreats by ice shelves along the peninsula over the last 30 years. The retreats are attributed to a strong climate warming in the region. The rate of warming is approximately 0.5 degrees Celsius per decade, and the trend has been present since at least the late 1940s. Overall in the peninsula, the extent of seven ice shelves has declined by a total of about 13,500 square kilometers since 1974. This value excludes areas that would be expected to calve under stable conditions. Ted Scambos, a researcher with the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) at

  18. Looking Into and Through the Ross Ice Shelf - ROSETTA-ICE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, R. E.

    2015-12-01

    Our current understanding of the structure and stability of the Ross Ice Shelf is based on satellite studies of the ice surface and the 1970's RIGGS program. The study of the flowlines evident in the MODIS imagery combined with surface geophysics has revealed a complex history with ice streams Mercer, Whillans and Kamb changing velocity over the past 1000 years. Here, we present preliminary IcePod and IceBridge radar data acquired in December 2014 and November 2013 across the Ross Ice Shelf that show clearly, for the first time, the structure of the ice shelf and provide insights into ice-ocean interaction. The three major layers of the ice shelf are (1) the continental meteoric ice layer), ice formed on the grounded ice sheet that entered the ice shelf where ice streams and outlet glaciers crossed the grounding line (2) the locally accumulating meteoric ice layer, ice and snow that forms from snowfall on the floating ice shelf and (3) a basal marine ice layer. The locally accumulating meteoric ice layer contains well-defined internal layers that are generally parallel to the ice surface and thickens away from the grounding line and reaches a maximum thickness of 220m along the line crossing Roosevelt Island. The continental meteoric layer is located below a broad irregular internal reflector, and is characterized by irregular internal layers. These internal layers are often folded, likely a result of deformation as the ice flowed across the grounding line. The basal marine ice layer, up to 50m thick, is best resolved in locations where basal crevasses are present, and appears to thicken along the flow at rates of decimeters per year. Each individual flowband of the ice shelf contains layers that are distinct in their structure. For example, the thickness of the locally accumulated layer is a function of both the time since crossing the grounding line and the thickness of the incoming ice. Features in the meteoric ice, such as distinct folds, can be traced between

  19. Postharvest biology, quality and shelf-life of buckwheat microgreens

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Buckwheat microgreens are rich in antioxidants and provitamins/vitamins, including flavonoids, carotenoids, and a-tocopherol. However, short shelf life has limited their commercial use. The purpose of this study was to optimize storage conditions to extend the shelf life of buckwheat microgreens. St...

  20. Eddy energy and shelf interactions in the Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohlmann, J. Carter; Niiler, P. Peter; Fox, Chad A.; Leben, Robert R.

    2001-02-01

    Sea surface height anomaly data from satellite are continuously available for the entire Gulf of Mexico. Surface current velocities derived from these remotely sensed data are compared with surface velocities from drifting buoys. The comparison shows that satellite altimetry does an excellent job resolving gulf eddies over the shelf rise (depths between ˜200 and 2000 m) if the proper length scale is used. Correlations between altimeter- and drifter-derived velocities are statistically significant (r>0.5) when the surface slope is computed over 125 km, indicating that remotely sensed sea surface height anomaly data can be used to aid the understanding of circulation over the shelf rise. Velocity variance over the shelf rise from the altimetry data shows regions of pronounced eddy energy south of the Mississippi outflow, south of the Texas-Louisiana shelf, and in the northwest and northeast corners of the gulf. These are the same locations where surface drifters are most likely to cross the shelf rise, suggesting gulf eddies promote cross-shore flows. This is clearly exemplified with both warm and cold eddies. Finally, the contribution of gulf eddies and wind stress to changes in the mean circulation are compared. Results indicate that the eddy-generated vorticity flux to the mean flow is greater than the contribution from the surface wind stress curl, especially in the region of the Loop current and along the shelf rise base in the western gulf. Future modeling efforts must not neglect the role of eddies in driving gulf circulation over the shelf rise.

  1. Suspended particulate layers and internal waves over the southern Monterey Bay continental shelf: an important control on shelf mud belts?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cheriton, Olivia M.; McPhee-Shaw, Erika E.; Shaw, William J.; Stanton, Timothy P.; Bellingham, James G.; Storlazzi, Curt D.

    2014-01-01

    Physical and optical measurements taken over the mud belt on the southern continental shelf of Monterey Bay, California documented the frequent occurrence of suspended particulate matter features, the majority of which were detached from the seafloor, centered 9–33 m above the bed. In fall 2011, an automated profiling mooring and fixed instrumentation, including a thermistor chain and upward-looking acoustic Doppler current profiler, were deployed at 70 m depth for 5 weeks, and from 12 to 16 October a long-range autonomous underwater vehicle performed across-shelf transects. Individual SPM events were uncorrelated with local bed shear stress caused by surface waves and bottom currents. Nearly half of all observed SPM layers occurred during 1 week of the study, 9–16 October 2011, and were advected past the fixed profiling mooring by the onshore phase of semidiurnal internal tide bottom currents. At the start of the 9–16 October period, we observed intense near-bed vertical velocities capable of lifting particulates into the middle of the water column. This “updraft” event appears to have been associated with nonlinear adjustment of high-amplitude internal tides over the mid and outer shelf. These findings suggest that nonlinear internal tidal motions can erode material over the outer shelf and that, once suspended, this SPM can then be transported shoreward to the middle and shallow sections of the mud belt. This represents a fundamental broadening of our understanding of how shelf mud belts may be built up and sustained.

  2. Moisture and shelf life in sugar confections.

    PubMed

    Ergun, R; Lietha, R; Hartel, R W

    2010-02-01

    From hardening of marshmallow to graining of hard candies, moisture plays a critical role in determining the quality and shelf life of sugar-based confections. Water is important during the manufacturing of confections, is an important factor in governing texture, and is often the limiting parameter during storage that controls shelf life. Thus, an understanding of water relations in confections is critical to controlling quality. Water content, which is controlled during candy manufacturing through an understanding of boiling point elevation, is one of the most important parameters that governs the texture of candies. For example, the texture of caramel progresses from soft and runny to hard and brittle as the moisture content decreases. However, knowledge of water content by itself is insufficient to controlling stability and shelf life. Understanding water activity, or the ratio of vapor pressures, is necessary to control shelf life. A difference in water activity, either between candy and air or between two domains within the candy, is the driving force for moisture migration in confections. When the difference in water activity is large, moisture migration is rapid, although the rate of moisture migration depends on the nature of resistances to water diffusion. Barrier packaging films protect the candy from air whereas edible films inhibit moisture migration between different moisture domains within a confection. More recently, the concept of glass transition, or the polymer science approach, has supplemented water activity as a critical parameter related to candy stability. Confections with low moisture content, such as hard candy, cotton candy, and some caramels and toffees, may contain sugars in the amorphous or glassy state. As long as these products remain below their glass transition temperature, they remain stable for very long times. However, certain glassy sugars tend to be hygroscopic, rapidly picking up moisture from the air, which causes

  3. Horizontal Gaze Palsy and Progressive Scoliosis With ROBO 3 Mutations in Patients From Cape Verde.

    PubMed

    Mendes Marques, Nadine B P S; Barros, Sandra R; Miranda, Ana F; Nobre Cardoso, João; Parreira, Sónia; Fonseca, Teresa; Donaire, Nelvia M; Campos, Nuno

    2017-06-01

    Horizontal gaze palsy with progressive scoliosis (HGPPS) is a rare and autosomal recessive syndrome. We describe 2 cases of HGPPS which are the first documented in patients of African ancestry from an isolated population in Cape Verde. They demonstrated typical findings on neuro-ophthalmic examination and brain magnetic resonance imaging. One patient had novel heterozymous mutations of the ROB0 3 gene.

  4. Seismic stratigraphy of the Mississippi-Alabama shelf and upper continental slope

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kindinger, J.L.

    1988-01-01

    The Mississippi-Alabama shelf and upper continental slope contain relatively thin Upper Pleistocene and Holocene deposits. Five stages of shelf evolution can be identified from the early Wisconsinan to present. The stages were controlled by glacioeustatic or relative sea-level changes and are defined by the stratigraphic position of depositional and erosional episodes. The stratigraphy was identified on seismic profiles by means of geomorphic pattern, high-angle clinoform progradational deposits, buried stream entrenchments, planar conformities, and erosional unconformities. The oldest stage (stage 1) of evolution occurred during the early Wisconsinan lowstand; the subaerially exposed shelf was eroded to a smooth seaward-sloping surface. This paleosurface is overlain by a thin (< 10 m) drape of transgressive deposits (stage 2). Stage 3 occurred in three phases as the late Wisconsinan sea retreated: (1) fluvial channel systems eroded across the shelf, (2) deposited a thick (90 m) shelf-margin delta, and (3) contemporaneously deposited sediments on the upper slope. Stage 4 included the rapid Holocene sea-level rise that deposited a relatively thin transgressive facies over parts of the shelf. The last major depositional episode (stage 5) was the progradation of the St. Bernard delta over the northwestern and central parts of the area. A depositional hiatus has occurred since the St. Bernard progradation. These Upper Quaternary shelf and slope deposits provide models for analogous deposits in the geologic record. Primarily, they are examples of cyclic sedimentation caused by changes in sea level and may be useful in describing short-term, sandy depositional episodes in prograding shelf and slope sequences. ?? 1988.

  5. Transgressive systems tract development and incised-valley fills within a quaternary estuary-shelf system: Virginia inner shelf, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foyle, A.M.; Oertel, G.F.

    1997-01-01

    High-frequency Quaternary glacioeustasy resulted in the incision of six moderate- to high-relief fluvial erosion surfaces beneath the Virginia inner shelf and coastal zone along the updip edges of the Atlantic continental margin. Fluvial valleys up to 5 km wide, with up to 37 m of relief and thalweg depths of up to 72 m below modern mean sea level, cut through underlying Pleistocene and Mio-Pliocene strata in response to drops in baselevel on the order of 100 m. Fluvially incised valleys were significantly modified during subsequent marine transgressions as fluvial drainage basins evolved into estuarine embayments (ancestral generations of the Chesapeake Bay). Complex incised-valley fill successions are bounded by, or contain, up to four stacked erosional surfaces (basal fluvial erosion surface, bay ravinement, tidal ravinement, and ebb-flood channel-base diastem) in vertical succession. These surfaces, combined with the transgressive oceanic ravinement that generally caps incised-valley fills, control the lateral and vertical development of intervening seismic facies (depositional systems). Transgressive stratigraphy characterizes the Quaternary section beneath the Virginia inner shelf where six depositional sequences (Sequences I-VI) are identified. Depositional sequences consist primarily of estuarine depositional systems (subjacent to the transgressive oceanic ravinement) and shoreface-shelf depositional systems; highstand systems tract coastal systems are thinly developed. The Quaternary section can be broadly subdivided into two parts. The upper part contains sequences consisting predominantly of inner shelf facies, whereas sequences in the lower part of the section consist predominantly of estuarine facies. Three styles of sequence preservation are identified. Style 1, represented by Sequences VI and V, is characterized by large estuarine systems (ancestral generations of the Chesapeake Bay) that are up to 40 m thick, have hemicylindrical wedge geometries

  6. The Foraging Ecology of the Endangered Cape Verde Shearwater, a Sentinel Species for Marine Conservation off West Africa

    PubMed Central

    Paiva, Vitor H.; Geraldes, Pedro; Rodrigues, Isabel; Melo, Tommy; Melo, José; Ramos, Jaime A.

    2015-01-01

    Large Marine Ecosystems such as the Canary Current system off West Africa sustains high abundance of small pelagic prey, which attracts marine predators. Seabirds are top predators often used as biodiversity surrogates and sentinel species of the marine ecosystem health, thus frequently informing marine conservation planning. This study presents the first data on the spatial (GPS-loggers) and trophic (stable isotope analysis) ecology of a tropical seabird—the endangered Cape Verde shearwater Calonectris edwardsii–during both the incubation and the chick-rearing periods of two consecutive years. This information was related with marine environmental predictors (species distribution models), existent areas of conservation concern for seabirds (i.e. marine Important Bird Areas; marine IBAs) and threats to the marine environment in the West African areas heavily used by the shearwaters. There was an apparent inter-annual consistency on the spatial, foraging and trophic ecology of Cape Verde shearwater, but a strong alteration on the foraging strategies of adult breeders among breeding phases (i.e. from incubation to chick-rearing). During incubation, birds mostly targeted a discrete region off West Africa, known by its enhanced productivity profile and thus also highly exploited by international industrial fishery fleets. When chick-rearing, adults exploited the comparatively less productive tropical environment within the islands of Cape Verde, at relatively close distance from their breeding colony. The species enlarged its trophic niche and increased the trophic level of their prey from incubation to chick-rearing, likely to provision their chicks with a more diversified and better quality diet. There was a high overlap between the Cape Verde shearwaters foraging areas with those of European shearwater species that overwinter in this area and known areas of megafauna bycatch off West Africa, but very little overlap with existing Marine Important Bird Areas

  7. Chilean Tsunami Rocks the Ross Ice Shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bromirski, P. D.; Gerstoft, P.; Chen, Z.; Stephen, R. A.; Diez, A.; Arcas, D.; Wiens, D.; Aster, R. C.; Nyblade, A.

    2016-12-01

    The response of the Ross Ice Shelf (RIS) to the September 16, 2015 9.3 Mb Chilean earthquake tsunami (> 75 s period) and infragravity (IG) waves (50 - 300 s period) were recorded by a broadband seismic array deployed on the RIS from November 2014 to November 2015. The array included two linear transects, one approximately orthogonal to the shelf front extending 430 km southward toward the grounding zone, and an east-west transect spanning the RIS roughly parallel to the front about 100 km south of the ice edge (https://scripps.ucsd.edu/centers/iceshelfvibes/). Signals generated by both the tsunami and IG waves were recorded at all stations on floating ice, with little ocean wave-induced energy reaching stations on grounded ice. Cross-correlation and dispersion curve analyses indicate that tsunami and IG wave-generated signals propagate across the RIS at gravity wave speeds (about 70 m/s), consistent with coupled water-ice flexural-gravity waves propagating through the ice shelf from the north. Gravity wave excitation at periods > 100 s is continuously observed during the austral winter, providing mechanical excitation of the RIS throughout the year. Horizontal displacements are typically about 3 times larger than vertical displacements, producing extensional motions that could facilitate expansion of existing fractures. The vertical and horizontal spectra in the IG band attenuate exponentially with distance from the front. Tsunami model data are used to assess variability of excitation of the RIS by long period gravity waves. Substantial variability across the RIS roughly parallel to the front is observed, likely resulting from a combination of gravity wave amplitude variability along the front, signal attenuation, incident angle of the wave forcing at the front that depends on wave generation location as well as bathymetry under and north of the shelf, and water layer and ice shelf thickness and properties.

  8. Lotus alianus, a new species from Cabo Verde and nomeenclatural notes on Lotus section Pedrosia (Fabaceae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Lotus alianus J.H. Kirkbr., sp. nov., is described and illustrated. It is a rare endemic species from the Republic of Cape Verde, and is found in dry habitats on just two islands, Ilhas de Santo Antao and Sao Vicente. In addition, two species names are synonymized with L. creticus L., and a lectotyp...

  9. Streamlining ICAT development through off-the shelf hypermedia systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orey, Michael; Trent, Ann; Young, James; Sanders, Michael

    1993-01-01

    This project examined the efficacy of building intelligent computer assisted training using an off-the-shelf hypermedia package. In addition, we compared this package to an architecture that had been developed in a previous contract which was based in the C programming language. One person developed a tutor in LinkWay (an off-the-shelf hypermedia system) and another developed the same tutor using the ALM C-based architecture. Development times, ease of use, learner preferences, learner options, and learning effectiveness were compared. In all cases, the off-the-shelf package was shown to be superior to the C-based system.

  10. Glacial morphology and depositional sequences of the Antarctic Continental Shelf

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ten Brink, Uri S.; Schneider, Christopher

    1995-01-01

    Proposes a simple model for the unusual depositional sequences and morphology of the Antarctic continental shelf. It considers the regional stratal geometry and the reversed morphology to be principally the results of time-integrated effects of glacial erosion and sedimentation related to the location of the ice grounding line. The model offers several guidelines for stratigraphic interpretation of the Antarctic shelf and a Northern Hemisphere shelf, both of which were subject to many glacial advances and retreats. -Authors

  11. How much riverine nutrients do shelf seas allow into the open ocean?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharples, J.; Fennel, K.; Jickells, T. D.

    2016-02-01

    Globally rivers deliver 35 Tg of dissolved N and 2 Tg of dissolved P into the coastal zone each year. Investigating the effects of this nutrient supply on the open ocean generally takes one of two approaches: either all or none of the nutrients are assumed to enter the open ocean. Here we use some general assumptions on the behaviour of river plumes on the shelf to arrive at an estimate of the proportions of dissolved N and P that are processed on the shelf, and thus the amount of riverine nutrient that enters the open ocean. Using the Global NEWS database of 6000 rivers we assume that discharges to the shelf are initially constrained within coastal buoyancy currents of width 2 internal Rossby radii. This width is compared to the local shelf width for each river. For plume widths greater than the shelf width riverine nutrients are assumed to be transported over the shelf edge within the plume. For plume widths less than the shelf width we assume that exchange with the open ocean is controlled by physical processes at the shelf break. For each river an estimate of the residence time of riverine water is made, based on the transport or exchange rate and the shelf volume. Empirical relationships between residence time and the proportion of supplied N and P that is retained on the shelf are then used to estimate the amount of dissolved N and P that escapes to the open ocean. The results suggest that 25% of dissolved N and 20% of dissolved P are processed in shelf seas, with the rest exported to the open ocean. There is a latitudinal pattern, with tropical rivers delivering more nutrients to the open ocean. This is partially a result of the high discharges of some tropical rivers, but a key issue is our assumption of the internal Rossby radius governing plume width. A range of values for transport rates within plumes and exchange rates across the shelf break are used to assess the sensitivity of these results, which appear to be robust.

  12. Channelized Melting Drives Thinning Under a Rapidly Melting Antarctic Ice Shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gourmelen, Noel; Goldberg, Dan N.; Snow, Kate; Henley, Sian F.; Bingham, Robert G.; Kimura, Satoshi; Hogg, Anna E.; Shepherd, Andrew; Mouginot, Jeremie; Lenaerts, Jan T. M.; Ligtenberg, Stefan R. M.; van de Berg, Willem Jan

    2017-10-01

    Ice shelves play a vital role in regulating loss of grounded ice and in supplying freshwater to coastal seas. However, melt variability within ice shelves is poorly constrained and may be instrumental in driving ice shelf imbalance and collapse. High-resolution altimetry measurements from 2010 to 2016 show that Dotson Ice Shelf (DIS), West Antarctica, thins in response to basal melting focused along a single 5 km-wide and 60 km-long channel extending from the ice shelf's grounding zone to its calving front. If focused thinning continues at present rates, the channel will melt through, and the ice shelf collapse, within 40-50 years, almost two centuries before collapse is projected from the average thinning rate. Our findings provide evidence of basal melt-driven sub-ice shelf channel formation and its potential for accelerating the weakening of ice shelves.

  13. The effect of addition of olive oil and "Aceto balsamico di Modena" wine vinegar in conjunction with active atmosphere packaging on the microbial and sensory quality of "Lollo Verde" lettuce and rocket salad.

    PubMed

    Arvanitoyannis, Ioannis S; Bouletis, Achilleas D; Papa, Eirini A; Gkagtzis, Dimitrios C; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos; Papaloucas, C

    2011-12-01

    Fresh rocket "Eruca Sativa" and lettuce "Lollo Verde" leaves were stored with the addition of olive oil and wine vinegar "Aceto balsamico di Modena" under modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) (5% O(2)/10% CO(2)/85% N(2) for MAP A and 2% O(2)/5% CO(2)/93% N(2) for MAP B). The microbial (mesophilic, psychrotrophic bacteria and Enterobacteriacae), physical (color and firmness) and sensory parameters of samples were studied in relation to storage time (up to 10 days at 5 ± 1 °C). The effect of wine vinegar and the application of both MAP treatments reduced the growth of all bacteria populations (p < 0.05). Samples with olive oil stored under MAP A gave the best score for overall impression (3 and 2.1 for MAP A and B respectively at the 9th day of storage) while the addition of vinegar limited sensory shelf-life to 3 days (p < 0.05). Firmness was negatively affected by wine vinegar while samples with olive oil stored under MAP A maintained firmness close to normal. Color attributes were maintained better under both MAP treatments (p < 0.05). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The occurrence of the filarial nematode Dirofilaria repens in canine hosts from Maio Island, Cape Verde.

    PubMed

    Marcos, R; Pereira, C; Maia, J P; Santos, M; Luzzago, C; Lauzi, S; Genchi, C; Faustino, A; Puente-Payo, P

    2017-01-01

    The prevalence of canine Dirofilaria infection in Maio Island (Cape Verde) was analysed by serology, morphological and molecular identification of the parasite species. Blood and sera were collected from 150 dogs and 80 cats aged over 6 months from various localities of the island. DNA was extracted from blood and samples were screened by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using microfilaria-specific primers. No Dirofilaria immitis was found in dogs while D. repens microfilariae were found in 5.3% of dogs and 6% were positive by PCR. The species identity was confirmed by sequencing of PCR products, which showed almost 100% homology with D. repens European sequences published in GenBank. No difference in Dirofilaria infection was observed between males and females or in dogs with different weights. However, older dogs and those from the western part of Maio Island were more frequently infected. No Dirofilaria was found in cats. This study represents the first evidence of D. repens in Cape Verde (West Africa) and highlights the need for implementing control measures and for a better surveillance of dirofilariosis in Africa.

  15. Fracture propagation and stability of ice shelves governed by ice shelf heterogeneity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borstad, Chris; McGrath, Daniel; Pope, Allen

    2017-05-01

    Tabular iceberg calving and ice shelf retreat occurs after full-thickness fractures, known as rifts, propagate across an ice shelf. A quickly evolving rift signals a threat to the stability of Larsen C, the Antarctic Peninsula's largest ice shelf. Here we reveal the influence of ice shelf heterogeneity on the growth of this rift, with implications that challenge existing notions of ice shelf stability. Most of the rift extension has occurred in bursts after overcoming the resistance of suture zones that bind together neighboring glacier inflows. We model the stresses in the ice shelf to determine potential rift trajectories. Calving perturbations to ice flow will likely reach the grounding line. The stability of Larsen C may hinge on a single suture zone that stabilizes numerous upstream rifts. Elevated fracture toughness of suture zones may be the most important property that allows ice shelves to modulate Antarctica's contribution to sea level rise.

  16. Continental shelf landscapes of the southeastern United States since the last interglacial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, M. Scott; Sautter, Leslie Reynolds; Johnson, Kacey L.; Luciano, Katherine E.; Sedberry, George R.; Wright, Eric E.; Siuda, Amy N. S.

    2013-12-01

    The wide, sediment-starved continental shelf and modern coastal areas of the southeastern United States retain well-preserved but scattered remnants of a submerged paleolandscape. This paper presents a conceptual model of stratigraphic deposition and landscape formation since the last interglacial on the continental shelf of South Carolina, with portions of North Carolina, Georgia, and Florida (USA). Data for this study include multibeam bathymetry surveys, sidescan sonar mosaics, high-resolution subbottom profiles, and ground-truth surveys from - 250 m to the modern tidewater region. Four bathymetric zones are recognized with eleven landforms and landform indicators. The described zones range in depths from the modern shoreline, across the shelf, and over the shelf edge to - 250 m MSL. Relative sea level curves are presented for the area and discussed in conjunction with cultural and climatic events. The potential for preservation of Paleoamerican sites is high at the shelf edge between - 130 m and - 45 m, with Archaic and later occupations likely in depths of less than - 25 m. Prominent vantage points for Paleoamericans (> 11 kya) would have existed at the shelf edge, and tidewater resources would have been available nearby for a period of almost 6 ka. Rapid transgression rates (> 60 km/ka) after the sea level rose over the shelf edge make preservation of tidewater sites less likely on the outer and middle shelf. Searches for the earliest Paleoamericans should focus on promontories at the edge of the shelf and along future discoveries of paleoincisions on the shelf. Mapping and delineating this paleolandscape and associated unconsolidated sedimentary deposits interspersed with rocky plains and ledges will continue to be a priority to marine archeologists, coastal managers, fishery scientists, and marine spatial planners over the next several decades.

  17. Two new species of Melanorivulus (Cyprinodontiformes: Cynolebiidae) from Rio Verde drainage, Upper Rio Paraná basin, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Volcan, Matheus Vieira; Klotzel, Bruno; Lanés, Luis Esteban Krause

    2017-02-21

    Two new species of the genus Melanorivulus are herein described from the middle Rio Verde drainage, upper Rio Paraná basin, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Both new species are members of the Melanorivulus pictus clade, diagnosed by having ventral process of angulo-articular vestigial and flanks intense greenish blue or greenish golden to purplish blue above anal fin base in males. Melanorivulus nigropunctatus, new species, from wetlands of a small drainage tributary of right side of the Rio Verde, differs from all other congeners by possessing black dots over the head and body in both sexes and pectoral fin orange with a dark grey margin in males. Melanorivulus ofaie, new species, is found in a similar environment, but at the opposite margin of the Rio Verde. It is distinguished by males presenting flank greenish blue to light blue, with seven to nine oblique chevron-like red bars, ventral portion of head whitish with dark brown spots, dorsal fin yellow with two to three transverse broad red oblique stripes and distal region red, anal fin light orangish yellow, basal area light blue with short red bars and distal portion with a dark red margin, and caudal fin yellow or orangish yellow with three to four vertical red bars in the dorsal and middle portions, sometimes with a orange distal margin. Both new species are considered endangered due to the loss and degradation of their habitat.

  18. Accumulation of anthocyanins in tomato skin extends shelf life.

    PubMed

    Bassolino, Laura; Zhang, Yang; Schoonbeek, Henk-Jan; Kiferle, Claudia; Perata, Pierdomenico; Martin, Cathie

    2013-11-01

    Shelf life is one of the most important traits for the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) industry. Two key factors, post-harvest over-ripening and susceptibility to post-harvest pathogen infection, determine tomato shelf life. Anthocyanins accumulate in the skin of Aft/Aft atv/atv tomatoes, the result of introgressing alleles affecting anthocyanin biosynthesis in fruit from two wild relatives of tomato, which results in extended fruit shelf life. Compared with ordinary, anthocyanin-less tomatoes, the fruits of Aft/Aft atv/atv keep longer during storage and are less susceptible to Botrytis cinerea, a major tomato pathogen, post-harvest. Using genetically modified tomatoes over-producing anthocyanins, we confirmed that skin-specific accumulation of anthocyanins in tomato is sufficient to reduce the susceptibility of fruit to Botrytis cinerea. Our data indicate that accumulation of anthocyanins in tomato fruit, achieved either by traditional breeding or genetic engineering can be an effective way to extend tomato shelf life. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  19. The carbonaceous phyllite rock-hosted Pedra Verde copper mine, Borborema Province, Brazil: Stable isotope constraints, structural controls and metallogenic evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva Nogueira de Matos, José Henrique; Saraiva dos Santos, Ticiano José; Virgínia Soares Monteiro, Lena

    2017-12-01

    The Pedra Verde Copper Mine is located in the Viçosa do Ceará municipality, State of Ceará, NE Brazil. The copper mineralization is hosted by the Pedra Verde Phyllite, which is a carbonaceous chlorite-calcite phyllite with subordinate biotite. It belongs to the Neoproterozoic Martinópole Group of the Médio Coreaú Domain, Borborema Province. The Pedra Verde deposit is stratabound and its ore zoning is conspicuous, according to the following sequence, from bottom to top: marcasite/pyrite, native silver, chalcopyrite, bornite, chalcocite, native copper and hematite. Barite and carbonaceous material are reported in ore zones. Zoning reflects the ore formation within a redox boundary developed due to the interaction between oxidized copper- and sulfate-bearing fluids and the reduced phyllite. Structural control on mineralization is evidenced by the association of the ore minerals with veins, hinge folds, shadow pressures, and mylonitic foliation. It was mainly exercised by a dextral transcurrent shear zone developed during the third deformational stage identified in the Médio Coreaú Domain between 590 Ma and 570 Ma. This points to the importance of epigenetic, post-metamorphic deformational events for ore formation. Oxygen isotopic composition (δ18OH2O = 8.94 to 11.28‰, at 250 to 300 °C) estimated for the hydrothermal fluids in equilibrium with calcite indicates metamorphic or evolved meteoric isotopic signatures. The δ13CPDB values (-2.60 to -9.25‰) obtained for hydrothermal calcite indicate mixing of carbon sources derived from marine carbonate rocks and carbonaceous material. The δ34SCDT values (14.88 to 36.91‰) of sulfides suggest evaporites as sulfate sources or a closed system in relation to SO42- availability to form H2S. Carbonaceous matter had a key role in thermochemical sulfate processes and sulfide precipitation. The Pedra Verde Copper Mine is considered the first stratabound meta-sedimentary rock-hosted copper deposit described in Brazil

  20. Late Pleistocene and Holocene sedimentary facies on the Ebro continental shelf

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Diaz, J.; Nelson, C.H.; Barber, J.H.; Giro, S.

    1990-01-01

    Late Pleistocene-Holocene history of the Ebro continental shelf of northeastern Spain is recorded in two main sedimentary units: (1) a lower, transgressive unit that covers the shelf and is exposed on the outer shelf south of 40??40???N, and (2) an upper, progradational, prodeltaic unit that borders the Ebro Delta and extends southward along the inner shelf. The lower transgressive unit includes a large linear shoal found at a water depth of 90 m and hardground mounds at water depths of 70-80 m. Some patches of earlier Pleistocene prodelta mud remain also, exposed or covered by a thin veneer of transgressive sand on the northern outer shelf. This relict sand sheet is 2-3 m thick and contains 9000-12,500 yr old oyster and other shells at water depths of 78-88 m. The upper prodelta unit covers most of the inner shelf from water depths of 20-80 m and extends from the present Ebro River Delta to an area to the southwest where the unit progressively thins and narrows. Interpretation of high-resolution seismic reflection data shows the following facies occurring progressively offshore: (1) a thick stratified facies with thin progradational "foresets beds", (2) a faintly laminated facies with sparse reflectors of low continuity, and (3) a thin transparent bottomset facies underlain by a prominent flat-lying reflector. Deposition in the northern half of the prodelta began as soon as the shoreline transgressed over the mid-shelf, but progradation of the southern half did not begin until about 1000-3000 yrs after the transgression. A classic deltaic progradational sequence is shown in the Ebro prodelta mud by (1) gradation of seismic facies away from the delta, (2) coarsening-upward sequences near the delta and fining-upward sequences in the distal mud belt deposits, and (3) thin storm-sand layers and shell lags in the nearshore stratified facies. The boundaries of the prodeltaic unit are controlled by increased current speeds on the outer shelf (where the shelf narrows) and

  1. Antarctic Ice Shelf Loss Comes From Underneath

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-12-08

    Calving front of an ice shelf in West Antarctica. The traditional view on ice shelves, the floating extensions of seaward glaciers, has been that they mostly lose ice by shedding icebergs. A new study by NASA and university researchers has found that warm ocean waters melting the ice sheets from underneath account for 55 percent of all ice shelf mass loss in Antarctica. This image was taken during the 2012 Antarctic campaign of NASA's Operation IceBridge, a mission that provided data for the new ice shelf study. Read more: www.nasa.gov/topics/earth/features/earth20130613.html Credit: NASA/GSFC/Jefferson Beck NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  2. Impact of Diagenesis on Biosignature Preservation Potential in Playa Lake Evaporites of the Verde Formation, Arizona: Implications for Mars Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shkolyar, S.; Farmer, J. D.

    2016-05-01

    We studied evaporite subfacies in the Verde Fmn., AZ. We identified diagenetic pathways and assessed how diagenesis affected biosignature preservation potential (BPP) in each. Results revealed eight pathways, each with diverse impacts on BPP.

  3. Quantification of Changes for the Milne Ice Shelf, Nunavut, Canada, 1950 -- 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mortimer, Colleen Adel

    This study presents a comprehensive overview of the current state of the Milne Ice Shelf and how it has changed over the last 59 years. The 205 +/-1 km2 ice shelf experienced a 28% (82 +/-0.8 km 2) reduction in area between 1950 -- 2009, and a 20% (2.5 +/-0.9km 3 water equivalent (w.e.)) reduction in volume between 1981 -- 2008/2009, suggesting a long-term state of negative mass balance. Comparison of mean annual specific mass balances (up to -0.34 m w.e. yr-1) with surface mass balance measurements for the nearby Ward Hunt Ice Shelf suggest that basal melt is a key contributor to total ice shelf thinning. The development and expansion of new and existing surface cracks, as well as ice-marginal and epishelf lake development, indicate significant ice shelf weakening. Over the next few decades it is likely that the Milne Ice Shelf will continue to deteriorate.

  4. Iron Uptake in a Shelf Sea: Seasonality and Stoichiometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniels, C. J.; Poulton, A. J.; Moore, M. M.; Birchill, A.; Mayers, K.; Lohan, M. C.

    2016-02-01

    Primary production by phytoplankton in shelf seas represents a significant contribution to global carbon cycling. Trace metals, such as Iron (Fe), are essential micronutrients for phytoplankton growth, and may ultimately limit primary production. The uptake of iron within natural phytoplankton communities is poorly understood. Using carrier free 55Fe, we are able to obtain novel estimates of biological uptake of Fe using trace level Fe additions that do not perturb the system. Here we present results from a study measuring the uptake of carrier free Iron (55Fe), in parallel with measurements of Carbon (14C) and Phosphorus (33P) uptake; samples were collected from the Celtic sea in spring (April 2015) and summer (July 2015), on-shelf and off-shelf, and in 2 size fractions (Total, >2µm), thus producing a novel dataset of the seasonality of macronutrient and micronutrient uptake by phytoplankton within a shelf sea. Primary production ranged from 1.0 - 2.2 mmol C m-3 d-1 in April and 0.2 - 1.5 mmol C m-3 d-1 in July, with a corresponding higher biomass in April (0.7 - 3.24 mg Chl m-3) than July (0.3 - 1.6 mg Chl m-3). Significant rates of Fe uptake were measured in all samples (e.g. 21 nmol m-3 d-1, on-shelf, April), with variable stoichiometry (e.g. Fe/C of 16 µmol/mol, and Fe/P of 0.4 mmol/mol, on-shelf, April). The results will be presented and examined in the context of the available nutrient pools, the phytoplankton community structure and the impact on biogeochemical cycling.

  5. Core drilling through the ross ice shelf (antarctica) confirmed Basal freezing.

    PubMed

    Zotikov, I A; Zagorodnov, V S; Raikovsky, J V

    1980-03-28

    New techniques that have been used to obtain a continuous ice core through the whole 416-meter thickness of the Ross Ice Shelf at Camp J-9 have demonstrated that the bottom 6 meters of the ice shelf consists of sea ice. The rate of basal freezing that is forming this ice is estimated by different methods to be 2 centimeters of ice per year. The sea ice is composed of large vertical crystals, which form the waffle-like lower boundary of the shelf. A distinct alignment of the crystals throughout the sea ice layer suggests the presence of persistent long-term currents beneath the ice shelf.

  6. Ice-Shelf Melting Around Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rignot, E.; Jacobs, S.; Mouginot, J.; Scheuchl, B.

    2013-07-01

    We compare the volume flux divergence of Antarctic ice shelves in 2007 and 2008 with 1979 to 2010 surface accumulation and 2003 to 2008 thinning to determine their rates of melting and mass balance. Basal melt of 1325 ± 235 gigatons per year (Gt/year) exceeds a calving flux of 1089 ± 139 Gt/year, making ice-shelf melting the largest ablation process in Antarctica. The giant cold-cavity Ross, Filchner, and Ronne ice shelves covering two-thirds of the total ice-shelf area account for only 15% of net melting. Half of the meltwater comes from 10 small, warm-cavity Southeast Pacific ice shelves occupying 8% of the area. A similar high melt/area ratio is found for six East Antarctic ice shelves, implying undocumented strong ocean thermal forcing on their deep grounding lines.

  7. Fun at Antarctic grounding lines: Ice-shelf channels and sediment transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drews, Reinhard; Mayer, Christoph; Eisen, Olaf; Helm, Veit; Ehlers, Todd A.; Pattyn, Frank; Berger, Sophie; Favier, Lionel; Hewitt, Ian H.; Ng, Felix; Fürst, Johannes J.; Gillet-Chaulet, Fabien; Bergeot, Nicolas; Matsuoka, Kenichi

    2017-04-01

    Meltwater beneath the polar ice sheets drains, in part, through subglacial conduits. Landforms created by such drainages are abundant in areas formerly covered by ice sheets during the last glacial maximum. However, observations of subglacial conduit dynamics under a contemporary ice sheet are lacking. We present results from ice-penetrating radar to infer the existence of subglacial conduits upstream of the grounding line of Roi Baudouin Ice Shelf, Antarctica. The conduits are aligned with ice-shelf channels, and underlain by esker ridges formed from sediment deposition due to reduced water outflow speed near the grounding line. In turn, the eskers modify local ice flow to initiate the bottom topography of the ice-shelf channels, and create small surface ridges extending onto the shelf. Relict features on the shelf are interpreted to indicate a history of these interactions and variability of past subglacial drainages. Because ice-shelf channels are loci where intense melting occurs to thin an ice shelf, these findings expose a novel link between subglacial drainage, sedimentation, and ice-shelf stability. To investigate the role of sediment transport beneath ice sheets further, we model the sheet-shelf system of the Ekstömisen catchment, Antarctica. A 3D finite element model (Elmer/ICE) is used to solve the transients full Stokes equation for isotropic, isothermal ice with a dynamic grounding line. We initialize the model with surface topography from the TanDEM-X satellites and by inverting simultaneously for ice viscosity and basal drag using present-day surface velocities. Results produce a flow field which is consitent with sattelite and on-site observations. Solving the age-depth relationship allows comparison with radar isochrones from airborne data, and gives information about the atmospheric/dynamic history of this sector. The flow field will eventually be used to identify potential sediment sources and sinks which we compare with more than 400 km of

  8. West Florida Shelf: A natural laboratory for the study of ocean acidificiation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hallock, Pamela; Robbins, Lisa L.; Larson, Rebekka A.; Beck, Tanya; Schwing, Patrick; Martinez-Colon, Michael; Gooch, Brad

    2010-01-01

    Declining oceanic pH and carbonate-ion concentrations are well-known consequences of increased atmospheric and surface-ocean partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2). The possible subject of shifts in seawater carbonate chemistry on biocalcification and survival rates of marine organisms provides questions amenable to both experimental and field study (Kleypas and Langdon, 2006). To date, limited quantitative data exist with which to formalize and test hypotheses regarding such impacts, particularly in continental-shelf settings. The continental shelves of Florida provide an ideal natural laboratory in which to test latitudinal (and temperature and depth) shifts in habitat ranges of calcifying organisms. Both the east and west Florida shelves extend from warm temperate to subtropical latitudes; additionally, the west Florida shelf has very little siliciclastic influx to mask the carbonate production. This study utilizes the natural laboratory of the west and southwest Florida shelf (fig 1.1) to examine the transition from foramol (predominately foraminifera and molluscan) carbonate sediments, characteristic of the west-central Florida shelf, to chlorozoan (algal and coral) sediments characteristic of the southwest Florida shelf. The west Florida shelf is a mixed siliciclastic carbonate ramp that to the south transitions to the carbonate-dominated southwest Florida shelf (Enos, 1977; Brooks and others, 2003). The west Florida shelf is a distally steepened carbonate ramp that is ~250 kilometers (km) wide (Read, 1985). It is covered by a veneer of unconsolidated sediment consisting of mainly biogenic carbonate and quartz in the near shore, with subordinate amounts of phosphate. The sediment-distribution pattern is largely a function of proximity to source, with physical processes playing a minor role in distribution. The carbonate sand-and-gravel fraction is produced by organisms within the depositional basin of the west Florida shelf (Brooks and others, 2003). The

  9. Circumpolar Deep Water transport and current structure at the Amundsen Sea shelf break

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assmann, Karen M.; Wåhlin, Anna K.; Heywood, Karen J.; Jenkins, Adrian; Kim, Tae Wan; Lee, Sang Hoon

    2017-04-01

    The West Antarctic Ice Sheet has been losing mass at an increasing rate over the past decades. Ocean heat transport to the ice-ocean interface has been identified as an important contributor to this mass loss and the role it plays in ice sheet stability makes it crucial to understand its drivers in order to make accurate future projections of global sea level. While processes closer to the ice-ocean interface modulate this heat transport, its ultimate source is located in the deep basin off the continental shelf as a core of relatively warm, salty water underlying a colder, fresher shallow surface layer. To reach the marine terminating glaciers and the base of floating ice shelves, this warm, salty water mass must cross the bathymetric obstacle of the shelf break. Glacial troughs that intersect the Amundsen shelf break and deepen southwards towards the ice shelf fronts have been shown to play an important role in transporting warm, salty Circumpolar Deep Water (CDW) towards the ice shelves. North of the shelf break, circulation in the Amundsen Sea occupies an intermediate regime between the eastward Antarctic Circumpolar Current that impinges on the shelf break in the Bellingshausen Sea and the westward southern limb of the Ross Gyre that follows the shelf break in the Ross Sea. Hydrographic and mooring observations and numerical model results at the mouth of the central shelf break trough leading to Pine Island and Thwaites Glaciers show a westward wind-driven shelf break current overlying an eastward undercurrent that turns onto the shelf in the trough. It is thought that the existence of the latter feature facilitates the on-shelf transport of CDW. A less clearly defined shelf break depression further west acts as the main pathway for CDW to Dotson and eastern Getz Ice shelves. Model results indicate that a similar eastward undercurrent exists here driving the on-shelf transport of CDW. Two moorings on the upper slope east of the trough entrance show a

  10. Factors Controlling Pre-Columbian and Early Historic Maize Productivity in the American Southwest, Part 2: The Chaco Halo, Mesa Verde, Pajarito Plateau/Bandelier, and Zuni Archaeological Regions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Benson, L.V.

    2011-01-01

    Chemical and nutrient analyses of 471 soil samples from 161 sites within four archaeological regions (Pajarito Plateau/Bandelier, Zuni, Mesa Verde, and the Chaco Halo) were combined with historical climate data in order to evaluate the agricultural productivity of each region. In addition, maize productivity and field-life calculations were performed using organic-nitrogen (N) values from the upper 50 cm of soil in each region and a range (1-3%/year) of N-mineralization rates. The endmember values of this range were assumed representative of dry and wet climate states. With respect to precipitation and heat, the Pajarito Plateau area has excellent agricultural potential; the agricultural potentials of the Zuni and Mesa Verde regions are good; and the agricultural potential of the Chaco Halo is poor. Calculations of N mineralization and field life indicate that Morfield Valley in Mesa Verde should be able to provide 10 bu/ac of maize for decades (without the addition of N) when organic N-mineralization rates exceed 2%. Productivity and field-life potential decrease in the following order: Zuni, Mesa Verde, Bandelier, Chaco Halo. The Chaco Halo is very unproductive; e. g., 10 bushels per acre can be achieved within the Halo only from soils having the highest organic N concentration (third quartile) and which undergo the highest rate (3%) of N mineralization. ?? 2010 US Government.

  11. Bathymetric and oceanic controls on Abbot Ice Shelf thickness and stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cochran, J. R.; Jacobs, S. S.; Tinto, K. J.; Bell, R. E.

    2014-05-01

    Ice shelves play key roles in stabilizing Antarctica's ice sheets, maintaining its high albedo and returning freshwater to the Southern Ocean. Improved data sets of ice shelf draft and underlying bathymetry are important for assessing ocean-ice interactions and modeling ice response to climate change. The long, narrow Abbot Ice Shelf south of Thurston Island produces a large volume of meltwater, but is close to being in overall mass balance. Here we invert NASA Operation IceBridge (OIB) airborne gravity data over the Abbot region to obtain sub-ice bathymetry, and combine OIB elevation and ice thickness measurements to estimate ice draft. A series of asymmetric fault-bounded basins formed during rifting of Zealandia from Antarctica underlie the Abbot Ice Shelf west of 94° W and the Cosgrove Ice Shelf to the south. Sub-ice water column depths along OIB flight lines are sufficiently deep to allow warm deep and thermocline waters observed near the western Abbot ice front to circulate through much of the ice shelf cavity. An average ice shelf draft of ~200 m, 15% less than the Bedmap2 compilation, coincides with the summer transition between the ocean surface mixed layer and upper thermocline. Thick ice streams feeding the Abbot cross relatively stable grounding lines and are rapidly thinned by the warmest inflow. While the ice shelf is presently in equilibrium, the overall correspondence between draft distribution and thermocline depth indicates sensitivity to changes in characteristics of the ocean surface and deep waters.

  12. 41 CFR 102-36.450 - Do we report excess shelf-life items?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... shelf-life items? 102-36.450 Section 102-36.450 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...-DISPOSITION OF EXCESS PERSONAL PROPERTY Personal Property Whose Disposal Requires Special Handling Shelf-Life Items § 102-36.450 Do we report excess shelf-life items? (a) When there are quantities on hand, that...

  13. Remote and In Situ Observations of Surfzone and Inner-Shelf Tracer Dispersion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hally-Rosendahl, K.; Feddersen, F.; Clark, D.; Guza, R. T.

    2014-12-01

    Surfzone and inner-shelf tracer dispersion was observed at the approximately alongshore-uniform Imperial Beach, California during the IB09 experiment. Rhodamine dye tracer, released continuously near the shoreline for several hours, was advected alongshore by breaking wave- and wind-driven currents, and ejected offshore from the surfzone to the inner-shelf by transient rips. Aerial multispectral imaging of inner-shelf dye concentration complemented in situ surfzone and inner-shelf measurements of dye, temperature, waves, and currents, providing tracer transport and dispersion observations spanning approximately 400 m cross-shore and 3 km alongshore. Combined in situ and aerial measurements approximately close a surfzone and inner-shelf dye budget. Mean alongshore dye dilution follows a power-law relationship, and both spatial and temporal dye variability decrease with distance from the release. Aerial images reveal coherent inner-shelf dye plume structures extending over 300 m offshore with alongshore length scales up to 400 m. Plume tracking among successive images yields inner-shelf alongshore advection rates consistent with in situ observations. Alongshore advection is faster within the surfzone than on the inner-shelf, and the leading alongshore edge of inner-shelf dye is due to local transient rip ejections from the surfzone. A combination of in situ and aerial surfzone and inner-shelf measurements are used to quantify cross- and alongshore dye tracer transports. This work is funded by NSF (including a Graduate Research Fellowship, Grant No. DGE1144086), ONR, and California Sea Grant. Figure: Aerial multispectral image of surface dye concentration (parts per billion, see colorbar) versus cross-shore coordinate x and alongshore coordinate y, approximately 5 hours after the start of a continuous dye release (green star). The mean shoreline is at x=0 m. Dark gray indicates the beach and a pier, and light gray indicates regions outside the imaged area. Black

  14. Channelized melting drives thinning under Dotson ice shelf, Western Antarctic Ice Sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gourmelen, N.; Goldberg, D.; Snow, K.; Henley, S. F.; Bingham, R. G.; Kimura, S.; Hogg, A.; Shepherd, A.; Mouginot, J.; Lenaerts, J.; Ligtenberg, S.; Van De Berg, W. J.

    2017-12-01

    The majority of meteoric ice that forms in West Antarctica leaves the ice sheet through floating ice shelves, many of which have been thinning substantially over the last 25 years. A significant proportion of ice-shelf thinning has been driven by submarine melting facilitated by increased access of relatively warm (>0.6oC) modified Circumpolar Deep Water to sub-shelf cavities. Ice shelves play a significant role in stabilising the ice sheet from runaway retreat and regulating its contribution to sea level change. Ice-shelf melting has also been implicated in sustaining high primary productivity in Antarctica's coastal seas. However, these processes vary regionally and are not fully understood. Under some ice shelves, concentrated melting leads to the formation of inverted channels. These channels guide buoyant melt-laden outflow, which can lead to localised melting of the sea ice cover. The channels may also potentially lead to heightened crevassing, which in turn affects ice-shelf stability. Meanwhile, numerical studies suggest that buttressing loss is sensitive to the location of ice removal within an ice-shelf. Thus it is important that we observe spatial patterns, as well as magnitudes, of ice-shelf thinning, in order to improve understanding of the ocean drivers of thinning and of their impacts on ice-shelf stability. Here we show from high-resolution altimetry measurements acquired between 2010 to 2016 that Dotson Ice Shelf, West Antarctica, thins in response to basal melting focussed along a single 5 km-wide and 60 km-long channel extending from the ice shelf's grounding zone to its calving front. The coupled effect of geostrophic circulation and ice-shelf topography leads to the observed concentration of basal melting. Analysis of previous datasets suggests that this process has been ongoing for at least the last 25 years. If focused thinning continues at present rates, the channel would melt through within 40-50 years, almost two centuries before it is

  15. Cross-shore flow on the inner-shelf off southwest Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamas, L.; Peliz, A.; Oliveira, P.; Dias, J.

    2012-04-01

    Velocity measurements from 4 bottom-mounted ADCP deployments (summers of 2006, 2007, 2008 and 2011) at a 12-m depth site off Sines, Portugal, complemented with time series of winds, waves and tides, are used to study the inner-shelf cross-shore flow dependence on wave, tidal and wind forcings. During these four summers, the dominating winds are from the north (upwelling-favorable), with strong diurnal sea breeze cycle throughout these periods. This quasi-steady wind circulation is sometimes interrupted by short event-like reversals. The observed records were split in different subsets according to tidal amplitude, wave height, cross- and along-shore wind magnitudes, and the vertical structure of the cross-shore flow was studied for each of these subsets. Despite different forcing conditions, the cross-shore velocity profiles usually show a vertical parabolic structure with maximum onshore flow at mid-depth, resembling the upwelling return flow for mid-shelf conditions, but atypical for the inner-shelf and in disagreement with other inner-shelf studies from other sites. We compare the observations with simplified 2D inner-shelf models and with results from other studies.

  16. Shelf life modelling for first-expired-first-out warehouse management

    PubMed Central

    Hertog, Maarten L. A. T. M.; Uysal, Ismail; McCarthy, Ultan; Verlinden, Bert M.; Nicolaï, Bart M.

    2014-01-01

    In the supply chain of perishable food products, large losses are incurred between farm and fork. Given the limited land resources and an ever-growing population, the food supply chain is faced with the challenge of increasing its handling efficiency and minimizing post-harvest food losses. Huge value can be added by optimizing warehouse management systems, taking into account the estimated remaining shelf life of the product, and matching it to the requirements of the subsequent part of the handling chain. This contribution focuses on how model approaches estimating quality changes and remaining shelf life can be combined in optimizing first-expired-first-out cold chain management strategies for perishable products. To this end, shelf-life-related performance indicators are used to introduce remaining shelf life and product quality in the cost function when optimizing the supply chain. A combinatorial exhaustive-search algorithm is shown to be feasible as the complexity of the optimization problem is sufficiently low for the size and properties of a typical commercial cold chain. The estimated shelf life distances for a particular batch can thus be taken as a guide to optimize logistics. PMID:24797134

  17. Prevalence of Anaemia and Associated Factors among Children below Five Years of Age in Cape Verde, West Africa

    PubMed Central

    Semedo, Rosa M.L.; Santos, Marta M.A.S.; Baião, Mirian R.; Luiz, Ronir R.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study estimated the prevalence of anaemia and associated factors in a probability sample of 993 children aged 6-59 months in Cape Verde, West Africa. Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) were estimated from a hierarchical model for multiple analysis to assess the association between anaemia and explanatory variables. The prevalence of anaemia was 51.8% (95% CI 47.7-55.8). Children who resided within poor household conditions (OR 1.99; 95% CI 1.06-3.71) were below 24 months of age (OR 3.23; 95% CI 2.03-5.15) and recently experienced diarrhoea (OR 1.58; 95% CI 0.99-2.50) were at high risk of anaemia. Anaemia should be considered a serious public-health concern in Cape Verde, mainly for children below 24 months. Further, special consideration should be given to children who have experienced recent diarrhoea and belong to families residing in poor household conditions. PMID:25895198

  18. Prevalence of anaemia and associated factors among children below five years of age in Cape Verde, West Africa.

    PubMed

    Semedo, Rosa M L; Santos, Marta M A S; Baião, Mirian R; Luiz, Ronir R; da Veiga, Gloria V

    2014-12-01

    This study estimated the prevalence of anaemia and associated factors in a probability sample of 993 chil- dren aged 6-59 months in Cape Verde, West Africa. Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) were estimated from a hierarchical model for multiple analysis to assess the association between anaemia and explanatory variables. The prevalence of anaemia was 51.8% (95% CI 47.7-55.8). Children who resided within poor household conditions (OR 1.99; 95% CI 1.06-3.71) were below 24 months of age (OR 3.23; 95% CI 2.03-5.15) and recently experienced diarrhoea (OR 1.58; 95% CI 0.99-2.50) were at high risk of anaemia. Anaemia should be considered a serious public-health concern in Cape Verde, mainly for chil- dren below 24 months. Further, special consideration should be given to children who have experienced recent diarrhoea and belong to families residing in poor household conditions.

  19. Slope/Shelf Circulation and Cross-Slope/Shelf Transport Out of a Bay Driven by Eddies from the Open Ocean

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-01

    channel. More recently, they examined the role of eddies in the overturning circulation of the Southern Ocean using the hemispheric HIM with realistic... meridional velocity with intervals of 0.1 · 10−3ms−1 159 PV equation to study the bay-scale circulations : d dt ( f + ζ H0 − f0h0 H 20 ) = F, (4.30) where...2009-18 DOCTORAL DISSERTATION by Yu Zhang September 2009 Slope/shelf Circulation and Cross-slope/shelf Transport Out of a Bay Driven by Eddies from

  20. 41 CFR 101-27.209 - Utilization and distribution of shelf-life items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... distribution of shelf-life items. 101-27.209 Section 101-27.209 Public Contracts and Property Management... PROCUREMENT 27-INVENTORY MANAGEMENT 27.2-Management of Shelf-Life Materials § 101-27.209 Utilization and distribution of shelf-life items. Where it is determined that specified quantities of both Type I and Type II...

  1. Variations in sediment texture on the northern Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary continental shelf

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edwards, B.D.

    2002-01-01

    The storm-protected continental shelf of Monterey Bay, part of the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary, north-central California, is subject to abundant, episodic sediment input from fluvial sources. North of Monterey Bay, conditions of reduced sediment supply combined with the exposed nature of the shelf provide an effective laboratory for studying the contrasting effects of storm- versus fluvial-dominated conditions on modern sedimentation. Textural analyses performed on surface sediment samples collected from more than 380 box cores and MultiCores??? document the existence of a clearly defined mud belt occupying the mid-shelf throughout the region. Inshore sands combined with these mid-shelf muds represent deposits from modern sedimentation processes. In Monterey Bay, where episodic fluvial input from winter storms dominates sedimentation, the mid-shelf mud belt extends across the shelf to the shelf break. North of Monterey Bay, where sediment loads are reduced and both oceanographic and storm processes dominate, the mid-shelf mud belt is bordered by relict sediments occupying the outer shelf. In the study area, mass accumulation rates established by radiochemical studies support the contention that storm-induced along-shelf processes result in northward transport of sediment within the mud belt. The continuity of transport, however, is interrupted by topographic highs which are barriers or inhibitors to sediment transport created by wrench-style tectonics associated with the San Andreas fault system.

  2. Opportunity's Second Martian Birthday at Cape Verde

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    A promontory nicknamed 'Cape Verde' can be seen jutting out from the walls of Victoria Crater in this approximate true-color picture taken by the panoramic camera on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity. The rover took this picture on martian day, or sol, 1329 (Oct. 20, 2007), more than a month after it began descending down the crater walls -- and just 9 sols shy of its second Martian birthday on sol 1338 (Oct. 29, 2007). Opportunity landed on the Red Planet on Jan. 25, 2004. That's nearly four years ago on Earth, but only two on Mars because Mars takes longer to travel around the sun than Earth. One Martian year equals 687 Earth days.

    The overall soft quality of the image, and the 'haze' seen in the lower right portion, are the result of scattered light from dust on the front sapphire window of the rover's camera.

    This view was taken using three panoramic-camera filters, admitting light with wavelengths centered at 750 nanometers (near infrared), 530 nanometers (green) and 430 nanometers (violet).

  3. A novel approach for calculating shelf life of minimally processed vegetables.

    PubMed

    Corbo, Maria Rosaria; Del Nobile, Matteo Alessandro; Sinigaglia, Milena

    2006-01-15

    Shelf life of minimally processed vegetables is often calculated by using the kinetic parameters of Gompertz equation as modified by Zwietering et al. [Zwietering, M.H., Jongenburger, F.M., Roumbouts, M., van't Riet, K., 1990. Modelling of the bacterial growth curve. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 56, 1875-1881.] taking 5x10(7) CFU/g as the maximum acceptable contamination value consistent with acceptable quality of these products. As this method does not allow estimation of the standard errors of the shelf life, in this paper the modified Gompertz equation was re-parameterized to directly include the shelf life as a fitting parameter among the Gompertz parameters. Being the shelf life a fitting parameter is possible to determine its confidence interval by fitting the proposed equation to the experimental data. The goodness-of-fit of this new equation was tested by using mesophilic bacteria cell loads from different minimally processed vegetables (packaged fresh-cut lettuce, fennel and shredded carrots) that differed for some process operations or for package atmosphere. The new equation was able to describe the data well and to estimate the shelf life. The results obtained emphasize the importance of using the standard errors for the shelf life value to show significant differences among the samples.

  4. Ross Ice Shelf airstream driven by polar vortex cyclone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Colin

    2012-07-01

    The powerful air and ocean currents that flow in and above the Southern Ocean, circling in the Southern Hemisphere's high latitudes, form a barrier to mixing between Antarctica and the rest of the planet. Particularly during the austral winter, strong westerly winds isolate the Antarctic continent from heat, energy, and mass exchange, bolstering the scale of the annual polar ozone depletion and driving the continent's record-breaking low temperatures. Pushing through this wall of high winds, the Ross Ice Shelf airstream (RAS) is responsible for a sizable amount of mass and energy exchange from the Antarctic inland areas to lower latitudes. Sitting due south of New Zealand, the roughly 470,000-square-kilometer Ross Ice Shelf is the continent's largest ice shelf and a hub of activity for Antarctic research. A highly variable lower atmospheric air current, RAS draws air from the inland Antarctic Plateau over the Ross Ice Shelf and past the Ross Sea. Drawing on modeled wind patterns for 2001-2005, Seefeldt and Cassano identify the primary drivers of RAS.

  5. Shelf Life of Food Products: From Open Labeling to Real-Time Measurements.

    PubMed

    Corradini, Maria G

    2018-03-25

    The labels currently used on food and beverage products only provide consumers with a rough guide to their expected shelf lives because they assume that a product only experiences a limited range of predefined handling and storage conditions. These static labels do not take into consideration conditions that might shorten a product's shelf life (such as temperature abuse), which can lead to problems associated with food safety and waste. Advances in shelf-life estimation have the potential to improve the safety, reliability, and sustainability of the food supply. Selection of appropriate kinetic models and data-analysis techniques is essential to predict shelf life, to account for variability in environmental conditions, and to allow real-time monitoring. Novel analytical tools to determine safety and quality attributes in situ coupled with modern tracking technologies and appropriate predictive tools have the potential to provide accurate estimations of the remaining shelf life of a food product in real time. This review summarizes the necessary steps to attain a transition from open labeling to real-time shelf-life measurements.

  6. Onshore-offshore movement of jumbo squid (Dosidicus gigas) on the continental shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, Julia S.; Gilly, William F.; Field, John C.; Payne, John C.

    2013-10-01

    Jumbo squid (Dosidicus gigas) have greatly extended their range in the California Current System, where they forage on a variety of ecologically and economically important species that inhabit both coastal and offshore mesopelagic regions. Swimming abilities and behavior are important factors in assessing the impacts of this range expansion, particularly in regard to foraging in conjunction with onshore-offshore movement over the continental shelf. Here we describe a study of horizontal movements by jumbo squid along and across the continental shelf off Washington, USA, using acoustic tags in association with the Census of Marine Life's Pacific Ocean Shelf Tracking Program (POST) receiver arrays. We detected frequent movements along the shelf break, movement onto the shelf at night, and no evidence of movement as a cohesive school. Our results demonstrate feasibility of using acoustic tags and arrays to document horizontal movements of jumbo squid along and across the continental shelf. This is important in order to determine how those movements overlap with those of other ecologically and commercially important fish species.

  7. Verde plant bug (Hemiptera: Miridae) feeding injury to cotton bolls charcterized by boll age, size and damage ratings

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Our studies over 2 years (2009 and 2010) and 2 locations (Weslaco and Corpus Christi, TX) investigated the relationship of feeding-injury of the verde plant bug, Creontiades signatus Distant, to a range of cotton boll age classes further defined by boll diameter and accumulated degree-days (anthesis...

  8. The threat of increasing hybridization of an endangered plant species, Purshia subintegra, in the Verde Valley, Arizona

    Treesearch

    Joanne E. Baggs; Joyce Maschinski

    2001-01-01

    The existence of the endangered shrub Purshia subintegra may be threatened by hybridization with the more common P. stansburiana. In the Verde Valley, the range of the rare P. subintegra overlaps with the range of P. stansburiana, allowing introgression to occur. Although P. subintegra and P. stansburiana have many distinguishing characteristics, there are plants in...

  9. Flexural-gravity Wave Attenuation in a Thick Ice Shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephen, R. A.; Bromirski, P. D.; Gerstoft, P.; Chen, Z.; Wiens, D.; Aster, R. C.; Nyblade, A.

    2016-12-01

    A thirty-four station broadband seismic array was deployed on the Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctica from November 2014 to November 2017. Analyses indicate that phase speeds of infra-gravity wave and tsunami excitation in the 0.003 to 0.02 Hz band are 70 m/s, corresponding to the low frequency limit of flexural-gravity waves. Median spectral amplitudes in this band decay exponentially with distance from the shelf edge in a manner consistent with intrinsic attenuation. Seismic Q is typically 7-9, with an RMS amplitude decay of 0.04-0.05dB/km and an e-folding distance of 175-220 km. Amplitudes do not appear to drop crossing crevasse fields. Vertical and horizontal acceleration levels at stations on the floating ice shelf are 50 dB higher than those on grounded ice. Horizontal accelerations are about 15 dB higher than vertical accelerations. Median spectral levels at 0.003 Hz are within 6 dB for stations from 2 to 430 km from the shelf edge. In contrast, the levels drop by 90 dB at 0.02 Hz. Ocean gravity wave excitation has been proposed as a mechanism that can weaken ice shelves and potentially trigger disintegration events. These measurements indicate that the propensity for shelf weakening and disintegration decays exponentially with distance from the ice front for gravity waves in the 0.003 to 0.02Hz band.

  10. Does the NBME Surgery Shelf exam constitute a "double jeopardy" of USMLE Step 1 performance?

    PubMed

    Ryan, Michael S; Colbert-Getz, Jorie M; Glenn, Salem N; Browning, Joel D; Anand, Rahul J

    2017-02-01

    Scores from the NBME Subject Examination in Surgery (Surgery Shelf) positively correlate with United States Medical Licensing Examination Step 1 (Step 1). Based on this relationship, the authors evaluated the predictive value of Step 1 on the Surgery Shelf. Surgery Shelf standard scores were substituted for Step 1 standard scores for 395 students in 2012-2014 at one medical school. Linear regression was used to determine how well Step 1 scores predicted Surgery Shelf scores. Percent match between original (with Shelf) and modified (with Step 1) clerkship grades were computed. Step 1 scores significantly predicted Surgery Shelf scores, R 2  = 0.42, P < 0.001. For every point increase in Step 1, a Surgery Shelf score increased by 0.30 points. Seventy-seven percent of original grades matched the modified grades. Replacing Surgery Shelf scores with Step 1 scores did not have an effect on the majority of final clerkship grades. This observation raises concern over use of Surgery Shelf scores as a measure of knowledge obtained during the Surgery clerkship. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Salinity variability along the eastern continental shelf of Canada and the United States, 1973-2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bisagni, James J.

    2016-09-01

    Continental shelf waters located off the east coast of Canada and the United States are part of a long shelf current system that is partly comprised of colder, less-saline waters originating from high latitudes, including waters from the North Atlantic sub-polar gyre, along with ice-melt and freshwater input from local rivers. A 41-year analysis (1973-2013) of near-surface salinity (NSS) using three hydrographic datasets (Bedford Institute of Oceanography "Climate", NOAA/ESDIM, and Canadian Marine Environmental Data Service (MEDS)) allowed an examination of NSS variability within 11 continental shelf sub-regions, extending from the southern Newfoundland Shelf of eastern Canada to the DelMarVa/Hatteras Shelf of the United States. Although the periods of record containing sufficient data vary between sub-regions, regional mean NSS values are lowest within the Gulf of St. Lawrence and highest on the DelMarVa/Hatteras shelf, with largest annual variability within the Gulf of St. Lawrence. After removal of outliers, long-term linear trends computed from annual mean NSS were detected along the Newfoundland Shelf (+0.011 y-1), Western Scotian Shelf (-0.007 y-1), Gulf of Maine (-0.014 y-1), Georges Bank (-0.011 y-1), and DelMarVa/Hatteras Shelf (+0.024 y-1). A long-term quadratic fit to annual mean NSS from the Eastern Scotian Shelf displays a salinity increase through 1992 of +0.026 y-1, decreasing thereafter until 2013 by -0.028 y-1. A quadratic fit for the Western Grand Banks displays a NSS increase through 2007 of +0.022 y-1, decreasing thereafter through 2013 by -0.006 y-1. Annual mean NSS from the Eastern Grand Banks, Tail of the Grand Banks, Gulf of St. Lawrence, and Middle Atlantic Bight display no long-term trends. Inter-annual variability (IAV) of NSS residuals shows similar small mean squared error (mse) of 0.02-0.04 for the four northern-most sub-regions (Newfoundland Shelf, Eastern, Tail and Western Grand Banks) and are correlated at 0-year lag. IAV of NSS

  12. Potential for Suboxic Ammonium Oxidation in Louisiana Continental Shelf Sediments

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sediments deposited onto the Louisiana continental shelf (LCS) west of the Mississippi River Delta form mobile muds varying in thickness from meters near the outfall to centimeters on the western portion of the shelf. The muds have high concentrations of iron which promote rapid...

  13. Numerical modelling and data assimilation of the Larsen B ice shelf, Antarctic Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Vieli, Andreas; Payne, Antony J; Du, Zhijun; Shepherd, Andrew

    2006-07-15

    In this study, the flow and rheology of pre-collapse Larsen B ice shelf are investigated by using a combination of flow modelling and data assimilation. Observed shelf velocities from satellite interferometry are used to constrain an ice shelf model by using a data assimilation technique based on the control method. In particular, the ice rheology field and the velocities at the inland shelf boundary are simultaneously optimized to get a modelled flow and stress field that is consistent with the observed flow. The application to the Larsen B ice shelf shows that a strong weakening of the ice in the shear zones, mostly along the margins, is necessary to fit the observed shelf flow. This pattern of bands with weak ice is a very robust feature of the inversion, whereas the ice rheology within the main shelf body is found to be not well constrained. This suggests that these weak zones play a major role in the control of the flow of the Larsen B ice shelf and may be the key to understanding the observed pre-collapse thinning and acceleration of Larsen B. Regarding the sensitivity of the stress field to rheology, the consistency of the model with the observed flow seems crucial for any further analysis such as the application of fracture mechanics or perturbation model experiments.

  14. Circulation in the Chesapeake Bay entrance region: Estuary-shelf interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boicourt, W. C.

    1981-01-01

    Current meters and temperature-salinity recorders confirm the assumption that the upper layers of the continental shelf waters off Chesapeake Bay can be banded in summer, such that the coastal boundary layer (consisting of the Bay outflow) and the outer shelf flow southward while the inner shelf flows to the north, driven by the prevailing southerly winds. These measurements show that the estuary itself may also be banded in its lower reaches such that the inflow is confined primarily to the deep channel, while the upper layer outflow is split into two flow maxima on either side of this channel.

  15. Arsenic enrichment in shelf and coastal sediment of the Brazilian subtropics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirlean, N.; Medeanic, S.; Garcia, F. A.; Travassos, M. P.; Baisch, P.

    2012-03-01

    High levels of As (i.e., above the nationally legislated threshold of 70 mg kg-1) were found in shelf sediment of the Espirito Santo state of Brazil. The elevated content of this metalloid propagated in the sediment to a depth of approximately 1.5 m. The adjacent beach sands and mangrove sediments were also enriched in As. The variation in As levels along the shelf sediment profiles was acompained by calcareous-material distribution, which reflects the paleogeographical circumstances that promote local reef development during the corresponding intervals of sedimentation. Arsenic-rich calcareous bioclast materials migrate to a beach from the surface horizon of nearby shelf sediment, thereby replacing the part of the As that previously entered the marine environment with eroded material from the continent to the littoral zone. The segment of the Brazilian tropical shelf that was studied clearly demonstrated that the As enrichment of the shelf sediment is determined by the exposure of the Barreiras formation on the coast and the development of reefs, which are favorable sites for the settling of bodies of biogenic carbonates.

  16. Use of images in shelf life assessment of fruit salad.

    PubMed

    Manzocco, Lara; Rumignani, Alberto; Lagazio, Corrado

    2012-07-01

    Fruit salads stored for different lengths of time as well as their images were used to estimate sensory shelf life by survival analysis. Shelf life estimates obtained using fruit salad images were longer than those achieved by analyzing the real product. This was attributed to the fact that images are 2-dimensional representations of real food, probably not comprehensive of all the visual information needed by the panelists to produce an acceptability/unacceptability judgment. Images were also subjected to image analysis and the analysis of the overall visual quality by a trained panel. These indices proved to be highly correlated to consumer rejection of the fruit salad and could be exploited for routine shelf life assessment of analogous products. To this regard, a failure criterion of 25% consumer rejection could be equivalent to a score 3 in a 5-point overall visual quality scale. Food images can be used to assess product shelf life. In the case of fruit salads, the overall visual quality assessed by a trained panel on product images and the percentage of brown pixels in digital images can be exploited to estimate shelf life corresponding to a selected consumer rejection. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  17. Combining Field Monitoring with Remote Sensing to Reconstruct Historical Hydroperiod: a Case Study in a Degrading Tropical Wetland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alonso, A.; Munoz-Carpena, R.; Kaplan, D. A.

    2017-12-01

    Wetland ecosystem structure and function are primarily governed by water regime. Characterizing past and current wetland hydrology is thus crucial for identifying the drivers of long-term wetland degradation. Critically, a lack of spatially distributed and long-term data has impeded such characterization in most wetland systems across the world. The publically accessible Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite products encode spatial and temporal data for landscape monitoring, but it was unclear whether it could be used to reliably predict the hydric status of wetland due to the mixture of spectral signatures existing within and between such systems. We proposed and tested a methodological framework for the identification of site-specific wetness status spectral identification rule (WSSIR) using two recent technical innovations: affordable, easily deployable field water level sensors to train the WSSIR with supervised learning, and the powerful cloud-based Google Earth Engine (GEE) platform to rapidly access and process the MODIS imagery. This methodological framework was used in a study case of the globally important Palo Verde National Park tropical wetland in Costa Rica. Results showed that a site-specific WISSR could reliably detect wetland wet or dry status (hydroperiod) and capture the temporal variability of the wetness status. We applied it on the 500 m 2000-2016 MODIS Land Surface Reflectance daily product to reconstruct hydroperiod history, hence reaching a temporal resolution rarely matched in remote sensing for environmental studies. The analysis of the resulting long-term, spatially distributed MODIS-derived data, coupled with shorter-term, 15-minute resolution field water level time-series provided new insights into the drivers controlling the spatiotemporal dynamics of hydrology within Palo Verde National Park's degrading wetlands. This new knowledge is critical to make informed restoration and management decisions

  18. A Laboratory Model of a Cooled Continental Shelf

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-06-01

    26 Abstract A laboratory model of wintertime cooling over a continental shelf has a water surface cooled by air in an annular rotating...singular point where Froude number u/(g’hl)1/2 equaled a given value and flowed out along the bottom. In this formula, u is velocity of the water onto...support cross-shelf geostrophic currents. To accomplish this, an annular geometry was used. A cylindrical tank was fitted with a shallow but wide

  19. Seals map bathymetry of the Antarctic continental shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padman, Laurie; Costa, Daniel P.; Bolmer, S. Thompson; Goebel, Michael E.; Huckstadt, Luis A.; Jenkins, Adrian; McDonald, Birgitte I.; Shoosmith, Deborah R.

    2010-11-01

    We demonstrate the first use of marine mammal dive-depth data to improve maps of bathymetry in poorly sampled regions of the continental shelf. A group of 57 instrumented elephant seals made on the order of 2 × 105 dives over and near the continental shelf on the western side of the Antarctic Peninsula during five seasons, 2005-2009. Maximum dive depth exceeded 2000 m. For dives made near existing ship tracks with measured water depths H<700 m, ˜30% of dive depths were to the seabed, consistent with expected benthic foraging behavior. By identifying the deepest of multiple dives within small areas as a dive to the seabed, we have developed a map of seal-derived bathymetry. Our map fills in several regions for which trackline data are sparse, significantly improving delineation of troughs crossing the continental shelf of the southern Bellingshausen Sea.

  20. Shelf sediment transport during hurricanes Katrina and Rita

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Kehui; Mickey, Rangley C.; Chen, Qin; Harris, Courtney K.; Hetland, Robert D.; Hu, Kelin; Wang, Jiaze

    2016-05-01

    Hurricanes can greatly modify the sedimentary record, but our coastal scientific community has rather limited capability to predict hurricane-induced sediment deposition. A three-dimensional sediment transport model was developed in the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) to study seabed erosion and deposition on the Louisiana shelf in response to Hurricanes Katrina and Rita in the year 2005. Sensitivity tests were performed on both erosional and depositional processes for a wide range of erosional rates and settling velocities, and uncertainty analysis was done on critical shear stresses using the polynomial chaos approximation method. A total of 22 model runs were performed in sensitivity and uncertainty tests. Estimated maximum erosional depths were sensitive to the inputs, but horizontal erosional patterns seemed to be controlled mainly by hurricane tracks, wave-current combined shear stresses, seabed grain sizes, and shelf bathymetry. During the passage of two hurricanes, local resuspension and deposition dominated the sediment transport mechanisms. Hurricane Katrina followed a shelf-perpendicular track before making landfall and its energy dissipated rapidly within about 48 h along the eastern Louisiana coast. In contrast, Hurricane Rita followed a more shelf-oblique track and disturbed the seabed extensively during its 84-h passage from the Alabama-Mississippi border to the Louisiana-Texas border. Conditions to either side of Hurricane Rita's storm track differed substantially, with the region to the east having stronger winds, taller waves and thus deeper erosions. This study indicated that major hurricanes can disturb the shelf at centimeter to meter levels. Each of these two hurricanes suspended seabed sediment mass that far exceeded the annual sediment inputs from the Mississippi and Atchafalaya Rivers, but the net transport from shelves to estuaries is yet to be determined. Future studies should focus on the modeling of sediment exchange between

  1. Decadal variability on the Northwest European continental shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Sam; Cottier, Finlo; Inall, Mark; Griffiths, Colin

    2018-02-01

    Decadal scale time series of the shelf seas are important for understanding both climate and process studies. Despite numerous investigations of long-term temperature variability in the shelf seas, studies of salinity variability are few. Salt is a more conservative tracer than temperature in shallow seas, and it can reveal changes in local hydrographic conditions as well as transmitted basin-scale changes. Here, new inter-annual salinity time series on the northwest European shelf are developed and a 13 year high resolution salinity record from a coastal mooring in western Scotland is presented and analysed. We find strong temporal variability in coastal salinity on timescales ranging from tidal to inter-annual, with the magnitude of variability greatest during winter months. There is little seasonality and no significant decadal trend in the coastal time series of salinity. We propose 4 hydrographic states to explain salinity variance in the shelf area west of Scotland based on the interaction between a baroclinic coastal current and wind-forced barotropic flow: while wind forcing is important, we find that changes in the buoyancy-driven flow are more likely to influence long-term salinity observations. We calculate that during prevailing westerly wind conditions, surface waters in the Sea of the Hebrides receive a mix of 62% Atlantic origin water to 38% coastal sources. This contrasts with easterly wind conditions, during which the mix is 6% Atlantic to 94% coastal sources on average. This 'switching' between hydrographic states is expected to impact nutrient transport and therefore modify the level of primary productivity on the shelf. This strong local variability in salinity is roughly an order of magnitude greater than changes in the adjacent ocean basin, and we infer from this that Scottish coastal waters are likely to be resilient to decadal changes in ocean climate.

  2. Interactions between Freshwater Input, Light, and Phytoplankton Dynamics on the Louisiana Continental Shelf.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Light attenuation (kd), chlorophyll a (chl a), and primary production (PP) were measured across the Louisiana shelf, encompassing the area of the shelf where summer hypoxia forms, on 7 spring/summer cruises from 2005 to 2007. Shelf-wide average kd (1/m) co-varied with Mississipp...

  3. Actively evolving subglacial conduits and eskers initiate ice shelf channels at an Antarctic grounding line.

    PubMed

    Drews, R; Pattyn, F; Hewitt, I J; Ng, F S L; Berger, S; Matsuoka, K; Helm, V; Bergeot, N; Favier, L; Neckel, N

    2017-05-09

    Ice-shelf channels are long curvilinear tracts of thin ice found on Antarctic ice shelves. Many of them originate near the grounding line, but their formation mechanisms remain poorly understood. Here we use ice-penetrating radar data from Roi Baudouin Ice Shelf, East Antarctica, to infer that the morphology of several ice-shelf channels is seeded upstream of the grounding line by large basal obstacles indenting the ice from below. We interpret each obstacle as an esker ridge formed from sediments deposited by subglacial water conduits, and calculate that the eskers' size grows towards the grounding line where deposition rates are maximum. Relict features on the shelf indicate that these linked systems of subglacial conduits and ice-shelf channels have been changing over the past few centuries. Because ice-shelf channels are loci where intense melting occurs to thin an ice shelf, these findings expose a novel link between subglacial drainage, sedimentation and ice-shelf stability.

  4. Actively evolving subglacial conduits and eskers initiate ice shelf channels at an Antarctic grounding line

    PubMed Central

    Drews, R.; Pattyn, F.; Hewitt, I. J.; Ng, F. S. L.; Berger, S.; Matsuoka, K.; Helm, V.; Bergeot, N.; Favier, L.; Neckel, N.

    2017-01-01

    Ice-shelf channels are long curvilinear tracts of thin ice found on Antarctic ice shelves. Many of them originate near the grounding line, but their formation mechanisms remain poorly understood. Here we use ice-penetrating radar data from Roi Baudouin Ice Shelf, East Antarctica, to infer that the morphology of several ice-shelf channels is seeded upstream of the grounding line by large basal obstacles indenting the ice from below. We interpret each obstacle as an esker ridge formed from sediments deposited by subglacial water conduits, and calculate that the eskers' size grows towards the grounding line where deposition rates are maximum. Relict features on the shelf indicate that these linked systems of subglacial conduits and ice-shelf channels have been changing over the past few centuries. Because ice-shelf channels are loci where intense melting occurs to thin an ice shelf, these findings expose a novel link between subglacial drainage, sedimentation and ice-shelf stability. PMID:28485400

  5. Cross-shelf transport induced by coastal trapped waves along the coast of East China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Lin; Dong, Changming; Yin, Liping

    2017-08-01

    Cross-shelf transport is important due to its role in the transport of nutrients, larvae, sediments, and pollutants. The role of coastal trapped waves (CTWs) and their contribution to the cross-shelf transport is presently unknown. The impact of wind-driven CTWs on the structure of the cross-shelf currents and transport is investigated in the East China Sea (ECS) starting from theory. The cross-shelf currents are divided into four terms: the geostrophic balance (GB) term, the second-order wave (SOW) term, the bottom friction (BF) term and Ekman (EK) term, as well as three modes: the Kelvin wave (KW) mode, the first shelf wave (SW1) mode and the second shelf wave (SW2) mode. Comparison among these decompositions shows that (1) for the four terms, the effect of the GB and EK terms is continual, while that of the BF term is confined to 60u2013240 km offshore, and the contribution of the SOW term can be ignored; (2) for the three modes, the KW and SW1 modes are dominant in cross-shelf transport. The results show that the total cross-shelf transport travels onshore under idealized wind stress on the order of 10-1, and it increases along the cross-shelf direction and peaks about -0.73 Sv at the continental shelf margin. With the increase of linear bottom friction coefficient, the cross-shelf transport declines with distance with the slope becoming more uniform.

  6. Regional Changes in Icescape Impact Shelf Circulation and Basal Melting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cougnon, E. A.; Galton-Fenzi, B. K.; Rintoul, S. R.; Legrésy, B.; Williams, G. D.; Fraser, A. D.; Hunter, J. R.

    2017-11-01

    Ice shelf basal melt is the dominant contribution to mass loss from Antarctic ice shelves. However, the sensitivity of basal melt to changes in icescape (grounded icebergs, ice shelves, and sea ice) and related ocean circulation is poorly understood. Here we simulate the impact of the major 2010 calving event of the Mertz Glacier Tongue (MGT), East Antarctica, and related redistribution of sea ice and icebergs on the basal melt rate of the local ice shelves. We find that the position of the grounded tabular iceberg B9B controls the water masses that reach the nearby ice shelf cavities. After the calving of the MGT and the removal of B9B, warmer water is present both within the MGT cavity and on the continental shelf driving a 57% increase of the deep MGT basal melting. Major changes in icescape influence the oceanic heat flux responsible for basal ice shelf melting.

  7. Preliminary report on geophysics of the Verde River headwaters region, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langenheim, V.E.; Duval, J.S.; Wirt, Laurie; DeWitt, Ed

    2000-01-01

    This report summarizes the acquisition, data processing, and preliminary interpretation of a high-resolution aeromagnetic and radiometric survey near the confluence of the Big and Little Chino basins in the headwaters of the Verde River, Arizona. The goal of the aeromagnetic study is to improve understanding of the geologic framework as it affects groundwater flow, particularly in relation to the occurrence of springs in the upper Verde River headwaters region. Radiometric data were also collected to map surficial rocks and soils, thus aiding geologic mapping of the basin fill. Additional gravity data were collected to enhance existing coverage. Both aeromagnetic and gravity data indicate a large gradient along the Big Chino fault, a fault with Quaternary movement. Filtered aeromagnetic data show other possible faults within the basin fill and areas where volcanic rocks are shallowly buried. Gravity lows associated with Big Chino and Williamson Valleys indicate potentially significant accumulations of low-density basin fill. The absence of a gravity low associated with Little Chino Valley indicates that high-density rocks are shallow. The radiometric maps show higher radioactivity associated with the Tertiary latites and with the sediments derived from them. The surficial materials on the eastern side of the Big Chino Valley are significantly lower in radioactivity and reflect the materials derived from the limestone and basalt east of the valley. The dividing line between the low radioactivity materials to the east and the higher radioactiviy materials to the west coincides approximately with the major drainage system of the valley, locally known as Big Chino Wash. This feature is remarkably straight and is approximately parallel to the Big Chino Fault. The uranium map shows large areas with concentrations greater than 5 ppm eU, and we expect that these areas will have a significantly higher risk potential for indoor radon.

  8. Feedback Limiting the Coastal Response to Irregularities in Shelf Bathymetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    List, J. H.; Benedet, L.

    2007-12-01

    Observations and engineering studies have shown that non-uniform inner shelf bathymetry can influence longshore sediment transport gradients and create patterns of shoreline change. One classic example is from Grand Isle, Louisiana, where two offshore borrow pits caused two zones of shoreline accretion landward of the pits. In addition to anthropogenic cases, many natural situations exist in which irregularities in coastal planform are thought to result from offshore shoals or depressions. Recent studies using the hydrodynamic model Delft3D have successfully simulated the observed nearshore erosion and accretion patterns landward of an inner shelf borrow pit. An analysis of the momentum balance in a steady-state simulation has demonstrated that both alongshore pressure gradients (due to alongshore variations in wave setup) and radiation stress gradients (terms relevant to alongshore forcing) are important for forcing the initial pattern of nearshore sedimentation in response to the borrow pit. The response of the coast to non-uniform inner shelf bathymetry appears to be limited, however, because observed shoreline undulations are often rather subtle. (An exception may exist in the case of a very high angle wave climate.) Therefore, feedbacks in processes must exist such that growth of the shoreline salient itself modifies the transport processes in a way that limits further growth (assuming the perturbation in inner shelf bathymetry itself remains unchanged). Examination of the Delft3D momentum balance for an inner shelf pit test case demonstrates that after a certain degree of morphologic development the forcing associated with the well-known shoreline smoothing process (a.k.a., diffusion) counteracts the forcing associated with the inner shelf pit, producing a negative feedback which arrests further growth of the shoreline salient. These results provide insights into the physical processes that control shoreline changes behind inner shelf bathymetric anomalies (i

  9. Ice Shelf-Ocean Interactions Near Ice Rises and Ice Rumples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lange, M. A.; Rückamp, M.; Kleiner, T.

    2013-12-01

    The stability of ice shelves depends on the existence of embayments and is largely influenced by ice rises and ice rumples, which act as 'pinning-points' for ice shelf movement. Of additional critical importance are interactions between ice shelves and the water masses underlying them in ice shelf cavities, particularly melting and refreezing processes. The present study aims to elucidate the role of ice rises and ice rumples in the context of climate change impacts on Antarctic ice shelves. However, due to their smaller spatial extent, ice rumples react more sensitively to climate change than ice rises. Different forcings are at work and need to be considered separately as well as synergistically. In order to address these issues, we have decided to deal with the following three issues explicitly: oceanographic-, cryospheric and general topics. In so doing, we paid particular attention to possible interrelationships and feedbacks in a coupled ice-shelf-ocean system. With regard to oceanographic issues, we have applied the ocean circulation model ROMBAX to ocean water masses adjacent to and underneath a number of idealized ice shelf configurations: wide and narrow as well as laterally restrained and unrestrained ice shelves. Simulations were performed with and without small ice rises located close to the calving front. For larger configurations, the impact of the ice rises on melt rates at the ice shelf base is negligible, while for smaller configurations net melting rates at the ice-shelf base differ by a factor of up to eight depending on whether ice rises are considered or not. We employed the thermo-coupled ice flow model TIM-FD3 to simulate the effects of several ice rises and one ice rumple on the dynamics of ice shelf flow. We considered the complete un-grounding of the ice shelf in order to investigate the effect of pinning points of different characteristics (interior or near calving front, small and medium sized) on the resulting flow and stress fields

  10. Polynya dynamics and associated atmospheric forcing at the Ronne Ice Shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebner, Lars; Heinemann, Günther

    2014-05-01

    The Ronne Ice Shelf is known as one of the most active regions of polynya developments around the Antarctic continent. Low temperatures are prevailing throughout the whole year, particularly in winter. It is generally recognized that polynya formations are primarily forced by offshore winds and secondarily by ocean currents. Many authors have addressed this issue previously at the Ross Ice Shelf and Adélie Coast and connected polynya dynamics to strong katabatic surge events. Such investigations of atmospheric dynamics and simultaneous polynya occurrence are still severely underrepresented for the southwestern part of the Weddell Sea and especially for the Ronne Ice Shelf. Due to the very flat terrain gradients of the ice shelf katabatic winds are of minor importance in that area. Other atmospheric processes must therefore play a crucial role for polynya developments at the Ronne Ice Shelf. High-resolution simulations have been carried out for the Weddell Sea region using the non-hydrostatic NWP model COSMO from the German Meteorological Service (DWD). For the austral autumn and winter (March to August) 2008 daily forecast simulations were conducted with the consideration of daily sea-ice coverage deduced from the passive microwave system AMSR-E. These simulations are used to analyze the synoptic and mesoscale atmospheric dynamics of the Weddell Sea region and find linkages to polynya occurrence at the Ronne Ice Shelf. For that reason, the relation between the surface wind speed, the synoptic pressure gradient in the free atmosphere and polynya area is investigated. Seven significant polynya events are identified for the simulation period, three in the autumn and four in the winter season. It can be shown that in almost all cases synoptic cyclones are the primary polynya forcing systems. In most cases the timely interaction of several passing cyclones in the northern and central Weddell Sea leads to maintenance of a strong synoptic pressure gradient above the

  11. Upper-crustal structure of the inner Continental Borderland near Long Beach, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baher, S.; Fuis, G.; Sliter, R.; Normark, W.R.

    2005-01-01

    A new P-wave velocity/structural model for the inner Continental Borderland (ICB) region was developed for the area near Long Beach, California. It combines controlled-source seismic reflection and refraction data collected during the 1994 Los Angeles Region Seismic Experiment (LARSE), multichannel seismic reflection data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey (1998-2000), and nearshore borehole stratigraphy. Based on lateral velocity contrasts and stratigraphic variation determined from borehole data, we are able to locate major faults such as the Cabrillo, Palos Verdes, THUMS-Huntington Beach, and Newport Inglewood fault zones, along with minor faults such as the slope fault, Avalon knoll, and several other yet unnamed faults. Catalog seismicity (1975-2002) plotted on our preferred velocity/structural model shows recent seismicity is located on 16 out of our 24 faults, providing evidence for continuing concern with respect to the existing seismic-hazard estimates. Forward modeling of P-wave arrival times on the LARSE line 1 resulted in a four-layer model that better resolves the stratigraphy and geologic structures of the ICB and also provides tighter constraints on the upper-crustal velocity structure than previous modeling of the LARSE data. There is a correlation between the structural horizons identified in the reflection data with the velocity interfaces determined from forward modeling of refraction data. The strongest correlation is between the base of velocity layer 1 of the refraction model and the base of the planar sediment beneath the shelf and slope determined by the reflection model. Layers 2 and 3 of the velocity model loosely correlate with the diffractive crust layer, locally interpreted as Catalina Schist.

  12. Carbon mineralization in Laptev and East Siberian sea shelf and slope sediment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brüchert, Volker; Bröder, Lisa; Sawicka, Joanna E.; Tesi, Tommaso; Joye, Samantha P.; Sun, Xiaole; Semiletov, Igor P.; Samarkin, Vladimir A.

    2018-01-01

    The Siberian Arctic Sea shelf and slope is a key region for the degradation of terrestrial organic material transported from the organic-carbon-rich permafrost regions of Siberia. We report on sediment carbon mineralization rates based on O2 microelectrode profiling; intact sediment core incubations; 35S-sulfate tracer experiments; pore-water dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC); δ13CDIC; and iron, manganese, and ammonium concentrations from 20 shelf and slope stations. This data set provides a spatial overview of sediment carbon mineralization rates and pathways over large parts of the outer Laptev and East Siberian Arctic shelf and slope and allows us to assess degradation rates and efficiency of carbon burial in these sediments. Rates of oxygen uptake and iron and manganese reduction were comparable to temperate shelf and slope environments, but bacterial sulfate reduction rates were comparatively low. In the topmost 50 cm of sediment, aerobic carbon mineralization dominated degradation and comprised on average 84 % of the depth-integrated carbon mineralization. Oxygen uptake rates and anaerobic carbon mineralization rates were higher in the eastern East Siberian Sea shelf compared to the Laptev Sea shelf. DIC / NH4+ ratios in pore waters and the stable carbon isotope composition of remineralized DIC indicated that the degraded organic matter on the Siberian shelf and slope was a mixture of marine and terrestrial organic matter. Based on dual end-member calculations, the terrestrial organic carbon contribution varied between 32 and 36 %, with a higher contribution in the Laptev Sea than in the East Siberian Sea. Extrapolation of the measured degradation rates using isotope end-member apportionment over the outer shelf of the Laptev and East Siberian seas suggests that about 16 Tg C yr-1 is respired in the outer shelf seafloor sediment. Of the organic matter buried below the oxygen penetration depth, between 0.6 and 1.3 Tg C yr-1 is degraded by anaerobic processes

  13. Serological survey of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii and Coxiella burnetii in rodents in north-western African islands (Canary Islands and Cape Verde).

    PubMed

    Foronda, Pilar; Plata-Luis, Josué; del Castillo-Figueruelo, Borja; Fernández-Álvarez, Ángela; Martín-Alonso, Aarón; Feliu, Carlos; Cabral, Marilena D; Valladares, Basilio

    2015-05-29

    Coxiella burnetii and Toxoplasma gondii are intracellular parasites that cause important reproductive disorders in animals and humans worldwide, resulting in high economic losses. The aim of the present study was to analyse the possible role of peridomestic small mammals in the maintenance and transmission of C. burnetii and T. gondii in the north-western African archipelagos of the Canary Islands and Cape Verde, where these species are commonly found affecting humans and farm animals. Between 2009 and 2013, 108 black rats (Rattus rattus) and 77 mice (Mus musculus) were analysed for the presence of Coxiella and Toxoplasma antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and indirect immunofluorescence (IFA), respectively. Our results showed a wide distribution of C. burnetii and T. gondii, except for T. gondii in Cape Verde, in both rodent species. The overall seroprevalence of C. burnetii antibodies was 12.4%; 21.1% for Cape Verde and 10.2% for the Canary Islands. With respect to T. gondii, seropositive rodents were only observed in the Canary Islands, with an overall seroprevalence of 15%. Considering the fact that both pathogens can infect a large range of hosts, including livestock and humans, the results are of public health and veterinary importance and could be used by governmental entities to manage risk factors and to prevent future cases of Q fever and toxoplasmosis.

  14. Seismic velocity site characterization of 10 Arizona strong-motion recording stations by spectral analysis of surface wave dispersion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kayen, Robert E.; Carkin, Brad A.; Corbett, Skye C.

    2017-10-19

    Vertical one-dimensional shear wave velocity (VS) profiles are presented for strong-motion sites in Arizona for a suite of stations surrounding the Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station. The purpose of the study is to determine the detailed site velocity profile, the average velocity in the upper 30 meters of the profile (VS30), the average velocity for the entire profile (VSZ), and the National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program (NEHRP) site classification. The VS profiles are estimated using a non-invasive continuous-sine-wave method for gathering the dispersion characteristics of surface waves. Shear wave velocity profiles were inverted from the averaged dispersion curves using three independent methods for comparison, and the root-mean-square combined coefficient of variation (COV) of the dispersion and inversion calculations are estimated for each site.

  15. Vertical Variability of Anoxia Along the Northern Omani Shelf.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Queste, B. Y.; Piontkovski, S.; Heywood, K. J.

    2016-02-01

    Three autonomous underwater gliders were deployed along a 80 km transect extending from Muscat out into the Gulf during both monsoons and the intermonsoon season as part of a project funded by ONR Global and the UK NERC. The gliders surveyed the top 1000m across the continental shelf, the steep continental slope, and the Sea of Oman while measuring temperature, salinity, oxygen, chlorophyll a fluorescence, optical backscatter, photosyntheticall active radiation and providing estimates of depth-averaged currents and up/downwelling. The data show the depth of the surface oxycline varying by 50m across the transect as a function of mixed layer depth. Below, we observed high variability, on the order of days, in the oxygen profile with the boundary of the suboxic zone (< 6 µmol.kg-1) varying by up to 250m. This upper boundary was determined by the volume of the Persian Gulf Water (PGW) outflow which travels along the shelf edge. Below 400m, oxygen concentrations reached levels below 1 µmol.kg-1. The physical drivers of PGW transport therefore double, or reduce by half, the available habitat for macrofauna. The across-shelf transect allowed estimation of along-slope transport and variability of the PGW, identified by its higher salinity, temperature, optical backscatter and oxygen content. The structure and volume of the outflow was highly variable. During peak outflow, the core extended beyond the glider transect. During periods of minimal flow, it was constrained to 10km beyond the shelf break. PGW was also present in mesoscale eddies beyond the shelf break.

  16. Marine ice regulates the future stability of a large Antarctic ice shelf

    PubMed Central

    Kulessa, Bernd; Jansen, Daniela; Luckman, Adrian J.; King, Edward C.; Sammonds, Peter R.

    2014-01-01

    The collapses of the Larsen A and B ice shelves on the Antarctic Peninsula in 1995 and 2002 confirm the impact of southward-propagating climate warming in this region. Recent mass and dynamic changes of Larsen B’s southern neighbour Larsen C, the fourth largest ice shelf in Antarctica, may herald a similar instability. Here, using a validated ice-shelf model run in diagnostic mode, constrained by satellite and in situ geophysical data, we identify the nature of this potential instability. We demonstrate that the present-day spatial distribution and orientation of the principal stresses within Larsen C ice shelf are akin to those within pre-collapse Larsen B. When Larsen B’s stabilizing frontal portion was lost in 1995, the unstable remaining shelf accelerated, crumbled and ultimately collapsed. We hypothesize that Larsen C ice shelf may suffer a similar fate if it were not stabilized by warm and mechanically soft marine ice, entrained within narrow suture zones. PMID:24751641

  17. Determining the inventory impact of extended-shelf-life platelets with a network simulation model.

    PubMed

    Blake, John T

    2017-12-01

    The regulatory shelf life for platelets (PLTs) in many jurisdictions is 5 days. PLT shelf life can be extended to 7 days with an enhanced bacterial detection algorithm. Enhanced testing, however, comes at a cost, which may be offset by reductions in wastage due to longer shelf life. This article describes a method for estimating systemwide reductions in PLT outdates after PLT shelf life is extended. A simulation was used to evaluate the impact of an extended PLT shelf life within a national blood network. A network model of the Canadian Blood Services PLT supply chain was built and validated. PLT shelf life was extended from 5 days to 6, 7, and 8 days and runs were completed to determine the impact on outdates. Results suggest that, in general, a 16.3% reduction in PLT wastage can be expected with each additional day that PLT shelf life is extended. Both suppliers and hospitals will experience fewer outdating units, but wastage will decrease at a faster rate at hospitals. No effect was seen by blood group, but there was some evidence that supplier site characteristics influences both the number of units wasted and the site's ability to benefit from extended-shelf-life PLTs. Extended-shelf-life PLTs will reduce wastage within a blood supply chain. At 7 days, an improvement of 38% reduction in wastage can be expected with outdates being equally distributed between suppliers and hospital customers. © 2017 AABB.

  18. Thermohaline variability and Antarctic bottom water formation at the Ross Sea shelf break

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budillon, Giorgio; Castagno, Pasquale; Aliani, Stefano; Spezie, Giancarlo; Padman, Laurie

    2011-10-01

    We use hydrological and current meter data collected in the Ross Sea, Antarctica between 1995 and 2006 to describe the spatial and temporal variability of water masses involved in the production of Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW). Data were collected in two regions of known outflows of dense shelf water in this region; the Drygalski Trough (DT) and the Glomar-Challenger Trough (GCT). Dense shelf water just inshore of the shelf break is dominated by High Salinity Shelf Water (HSSW) in the DT and Ice Shelf Water (ISW) in the GCT. The HSSW in the northern DT freshened by ˜0.06 in 11 y, while the ISW in the northern GCT freshened by ˜0.04 in 8 y and warmed by ˜0.04 °C in 11 y, dominated by a rapid warming during austral summer 2001/02. The Antarctic Slope Front separating the warm Circumpolar Deep Water (CDW) from the shelf waters is more stable near GCT than near DT, with CDW and mixing products being found on the outer DT shelf but not on the outer GCT shelf. The different source waters and mixing processes at the two sites lead to production of AABW with different thermohaline characteristics in the central and western Ross Sea. Multi-year time series of hydrography and currents at long-term moorings within 100 km of the shelf break in both troughs confirm the interannual signals in the dense shelf water and reveal the seasonal cycle of water mass properties. Near the DT the HSSW salinities experienced maxima in March/April and minima in September/October. The ISW in the GCT is warmest in March/April and coolest between August and October. Mooring data also demonstrate significant high-frequency variability associated with tides and other processes. Wavelet analysis of near-bottom moored sensors sampling the dense water cascade over the continental slope west of the GCT shows intermittent energetic pulses of cold, dense water with periods from ˜32 h to ˜5 days.

  19. Morphology and stratal geometry of the Antarctic continental shelf: Insights from models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cooper, Alan K.; Barker, Peter F.; Brancolini, Giuliano

    1997-01-01

    Reconstruction of past ice-sheet fluctuations from the stratigraphy of glaciated continental shelves requires understanding of the relationships among the stratal geometry, glacial and marine sedimentary processes, and ice dynamics. We investigate the formation of the morphology and the broad stratal geometry of topsets on the Antarctic continental shelf with numerical models. Our models assume that the stratal geometry and morphology are principally the results of time-integrated effects of glacial erosion and sedimentation related to the location of the seaward edge of the grounded ice. The location of the grounding line varies with time almost randomly across the shelf. With these simple assumptions, the models can successfully mimic salient features of the morphology and the stratal geometry. The models suggest that the current shelf has gradually evolved to its present geometry by many glacial advances and retreats of the grounding line to different locations across the shelf. The locations of the grounding line do not appear to be linearly correlated with either fluctuations in the 5 l s O record (which presumably represents changes in the global ice volume) or with the global sea-level curve, suggesting that either a more complex relationship exists or local effects dominate. The models suggest that erosion of preglacial sediments is confined to the inner shelf, and erosion decreases and deposition increases toward the shelf edge. Some of the deposited glacial sediments must be derived from continental erosion. The sediments probably undergo extensive transport and reworking obliterating much of the evidence for their original depositional environment. The flexural rigidity and the tectonic subsidence of the underlying lithosphere modify the bathymetry of the shelf, but probably have little effect on the stratal geometry. Our models provide several guidelines for the interpretation of unconformities, the nature of preserved topset deposits, and the

  20. Growing Crack in Antarctica Larsen C Ice Shelf Spotted by NASA MISR

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-08-31

    Project MIDAS, a United Kingdom-based group that studies the Larsen Ice Shelf in Antarctica, reported Aug. 18, 2016, that a large crack in the Larsen C shelf has grown by another 13 miles (22 kilometers) in the past six months. The crack is now more than 80 miles (130 kilometers) long. Larsen C is the fourth largest ice shelf in Antarctica, with an area of about 19,300 square miles (50,000 square kilometers), greater than the size of Maryland. Computer modeling by Project MIDAS predicts that the crack will continue to grow and eventually cause between nine and twelve percent of the ice shelf to collapse, resulting in the loss of 2,300 square miles (6,000 square kilometers) of ice -- more than the area of Delaware. This follows the collapse of the Larsen B shelf in 2002 and the Larsen A shelf in 1995, which removed about 1,255 square miles (3,250 square kilometers) and 580 square miles (1,500 square kilometers) of ice, respectively. The Multiangle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) instrument aboard NASA's Terra satellite flew over Larsen C on Aug. 22, 2016. The MISR instrument views Earth with nine cameras pointed at different angles, which provides information about the texture of the surface. On the left is a natural-color image of the shelf from MISR's vertical-viewing camera. Antarctica is slowly emerging from its polar night, and the low light gives the scene a bluish tint. The Larsen C shelf is on the left, while thinner sea ice is present on the right. A variety of cracks are visible in the Larsen C shelf, all appearing roughly the same. The image is about 130 by 135 miles (210 by 220 kilometers) in size. On the right is a composite image made by combining data from MISR's 46-degree backward-pointing camera (plotted as blue), the vertical-pointing camera (plotted as green), and the 46-degree forward-pointing camera (plotted as red). This has the effect of highlighting surface roughness; smooth surfaces appear as blue-purple, while rough surfaces appear as

  1. NASA MISR Tracks Growth of Rift in the Larsen C Ice Shelf

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-04-11

    A rift in Antarctica's Larsen C ice shelf has grown to 110 miles (175 km) long, making it inevitable that an iceberg larger than Rhode Island will soon calve from the ice shelf. Larsen C is the fourth largest ice shelf in Antarctica, with an area of almost 20,000 square miles (50,000 square kilometers). The calving event will remove approximately 10 percent of the ice shelf's mass, according to the Project for Impact of Melt on Ice Shelf Dynamics and Stability (MIDAS), a UK-based team studying the ice shelf. Only 12 miles (20 km) of ice now separates the end of the rift from the ocean. The rift has grown at least 30 miles (50 km) in length since August, but appears to be slowing recently as Antarctica returns to polar winter. Project MIDAS reports that the calving event might destabilize the ice shelf, which could result in a collapse similar to what occurred to the Larsen B ice shelf in 2002. The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) instrument aboard NASA's Terra satellite captured views of Larsen C on August 22, 2016, when the rift was 80 miles (130 km) in length; December 8, 2016, when the rift was approximately 90 miles (145 km) long; and April 6, 2017. The MISR instrument has nine cameras, which view the Earth at different angles. The overview image, from December 8, shows the entire Antarctic Peninsula -- home to Larsen A, B, and C ice shelves -- in natural color (similar to how it would appear to the human eye) from MISR's vertical-viewing camera. Combining information from several MISR cameras pointed at different angles gives information about the texture of the ice. The accompanying GIF depicts the inset area shown on the larger image and displays data from all three dates in false color. These multiangular views -- composited from MISR's 46-degree backward-pointing camera, the nadir (vertical-viewing) camera, and the 46-degree forward-pointing camera -- represent variations in ice texture as changes in color, such that areas of rough ice appear

  2. Chacterization of Teleseismic Earthquakes Observed on an Ice Shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, M. G.; Aster, R. C.; Anthony, R. E.; Wiens, D.; Nyblade, A.; Bromirski, P. D.; Stephen, R. A.; Gerstoft, P.

    2016-12-01

    Broadband seismographs deployed atop large tabular icebergs and ice shelves record a rich superposition of atmospheric, oceanic, and solid earth signals. We characterize these signals, including body and surface wave arrivals from approximately 200 global earthquakes, using a 34-station broadband array spanning the Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctica. Teleseismic earthquake arrivals are essential for constructing models of crustal and upper mantle structure, and observations on the ice shelf are key to resolving the structure of the underlying West Antarctic Rift System. To test the plausibility of passive imaging in this unique environment, we examine seasonal and spatial dependence of signal-to-noise ratios of body wave arrivals and the impact of ice shelf dynamics on surface wave dispersion. We also note unusual phase mechanics arising from the floating platform geometry.

  3. Wind-driven coastal upwelling and westward circulation in the Yucatan shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz-Castillo, Eugenio; Gomez-Valdes, Jose; Sheinbaum, Julio; Rioja-Nieto, Rodolfo

    2016-04-01

    The wind-driven circulation and wind-induced coastal upwelling in a large shelf sea with a zonally oriented coast are examined. The Yucatan shelf is located to the north of the Yucatan peninsula in the eastern Gulf of Mexico. This area is a tropical shallow body of water with a smooth sloping bottom and is one of the largest shelves in the world. This study describes the wind-driven circulation and wind-induced coastal upwelling in the Yucatan shelf, which is forced by easterly winds throughout the year. Data obtained from hydrographic surveys, acoustic current profilers and environmental satellites are used in the analysis. Hydrographic data was analyzed and geostrophic currents were calculated in each survey. In addition an analytical model was applied to reproduce the currents. The results of a general circulation model were used with an empirical orthogonal function analysis to study the variability of the currents. The study area is divided in two regions: from the 40 m to the 200 m isobaths (outer shelf) and from the coast to the 40 m isobath (inner shelf). At the outer shelf, observations revealed upwelling events throughout the year, and a westward current with velocities of approximately 0.2 m s-1 was calculated from the numerical model output and hydrographic data. In addition, the theory developed by Pedlosky (2007) for a stratified fluid along a sloping bottom adequately explains the current's primary characteristics. The momentum of the current comes from the wind, and the stratification is an important factor in its dynamics. At the inner shelf, observations and numerical model output show a wind-driven westward current with maximum velocities of 0.20 m s-1. The momentum balance in this region is between local acceleration and friction. A cold-water band is developed during the period of maximum upwelling.

  4. Observed Oceanic Response over the Upper Continental Slope and Outer Shelf during Hurricane Ivan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-01

    the slope and rise. In addition, they were presumed to be along-shelf and cross-shelf components of group veloci- generated by pulsations of the Loop ...hits. Fortunately, all of exchange of mass, momentum, heat , and water proper- the SEED moorings survived this powerful storm and ties across the shelf...15. SUBJECT TERMS SEED, continental shelf, Doppler, waves 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF 18. NUMBER 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE

  5. Circulation of DENV2 and DENV4 in Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) mosquitoes from Praia, Santiago Island, Cabo Verde

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Elisete T. B.; Paiva, Marcelo H. S.; de Melo-Santos, Maria A. V.; Alves, Joana; Gómez, Lara F.; Ayres, Constância F. J.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Arthropod-borne viruses, such as Dengue (DENV), Chikungunya (CHIKV), and Zika (ZIKV), pose a challenge to public health, due to their worldwide distribution and large-scale outbreaks. Dengue fever is currently one of the most important diseases and it is caused by four serotypes of DENV and is mainly transmitted by the mosquito Aedes aegypti. It is estimated that 50–100 million cases are reported every year worldwide. More recently, CHIKV and ZIKV, which are also transmitted by Ae. aegypti, have caused epidemics in countries in the Caribbean region, the Pacific region, and Americas. Cabo Verde faced its first dengue outbreak in 2009, with more than 21,000 reported cases and four registered deaths. The epidemic was caused by DENV-3 transmitted by Ae. aegypti mosquitoes. In addition, the country faced a Zika outbreak with more than 7,500 notified cases from October 2015 to May 2016. In the present study, we conducted a survey in mosquito samples to detect arboviruses circulating in the local vector population. Collections were performed from November 2014 to January 2015, in the City of Praia, the capital of Cabo Verde, using aspirators and BG-sentinel traps. Samples were examined by multiplex Reverse Transcription-polymerase chain reaction. A total of 161 Ae. aegypti adult females were analyzed (34 pools) and from these samples, eight pools were found positive for DENV-2 and DENV-4. Our results revealed a very high natural infection rate in the vector population and showed two different serotypes co-circulating in the island that differ from the one detected in the 2009 outbreak in Cabo Verde. PMID:28973490

  6. 41 CFR 101-27.207-3 - Marking material to show extended shelf life.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... extended shelf life. 101-27.207-3 Section 101-27.207-3 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal... extended shelf life. When the shelf-life period of Type II material (except for critical end-use items as described below) is extended, only the exterior containers of bulk stocks need be annotated or labeled to...

  7. 41 CFR 101-27.207-3 - Marking material to show extended shelf life.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... extended shelf life. 101-27.207-3 Section 101-27.207-3 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal... extended shelf life. When the shelf-life period of Type II material (except for critical end-use items as described below) is extended, only the exterior containers of bulk stocks need be annotated or labeled to...

  8. 41 CFR 101-27.207-3 - Marking material to show extended shelf life.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... extended shelf life. 101-27.207-3 Section 101-27.207-3 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal... extended shelf life. When the shelf-life period of Type II material (except for critical end-use items as described below) is extended, only the exterior containers of bulk stocks need be annotated or labeled to...

  9. 41 CFR 101-27.207-3 - Marking material to show extended shelf life.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... extended shelf life. 101-27.207-3 Section 101-27.207-3 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal... extended shelf life. When the shelf-life period of Type II material (except for critical end-use items as described below) is extended, only the exterior containers of bulk stocks need be annotated or labeled to...

  10. 41 CFR 101-27.207-3 - Marking material to show extended shelf life.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... extended shelf life. 101-27.207-3 Section 101-27.207-3 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal... extended shelf life. When the shelf-life period of Type II material (except for critical end-use items as described below) is extended, only the exterior containers of bulk stocks need be annotated or labeled to...

  11. Oxidative changes in lipids, proteins, and antioxidants in yogurt during the shelf life.

    PubMed

    Citta, Anna; Folda, Alessandra; Scalcon, Valeria; Scutari, Guido; Bindoli, Alberto; Bellamio, Marco; Feller, Emiliano; Rigobello, Maria Pia

    2017-11-01

    Oxidation processes in milk and yogurt during the shelf life can result in an alteration of protein and lipid constituents. Therefore, the antioxidant properties of yogurt in standard conditions of preservation were evaluated. Total phenols, free radical scavenger activity, degree of lipid peroxidation, and protein oxidation were determined in plain and skim yogurts with or without fruit puree. After production, plain, skim, plain berries, and skim berries yogurts were compared during the shelf life up to 9 weeks. All types of yogurts revealed a basal antioxidant activity that was higher when a fruit puree was present but gradually decreased during the shelf life. However, after 5-8 weeks, antioxidant activity increased again. Both in plain and berries yogurts lipid peroxidation increased until the seventh week of shelf life and after decreased, whereas protein oxidation of all yogurts was similar either in the absence or presence of berries and increased during shelf life. During the shelf life, a different behavior between lipid and protein oxidation takes place and the presence of berries determines a protection only against lipid peroxidation.

  12. Long-term observing system for the oceanic regime of Filchner-Ronne Ice Shelf, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Østerhus, Svein; Schröder, Michael; Hellmer, Hartmunt; Darelius, Elin; Nicholls, Keith; Makinson, Keith

    2014-05-01

    Long term observations of the flow of dense waters from their area of formation to the abyss of the World Ocean, and the return flow of warm waters, are central to climate research. For the Weddell Sea an important component of such a system entails monitoring the formation of High Salinity Shelf Water (HSSW) on the continental shelf north of Ronne Ice Front, the transformation to Ice Shelf Water (ISW) beneath the floating Filchner-Ronne ice shelf, and the flux of ISW overflowing the shelf break to the deep Weddell Sea. Equally important is the return flow of warm water toward the Filchner-Ronne Ice Shelf system. AWI, BAS and UNI/UIB operate a number of monitoring stations in the southern Weddell Sea. The systems build upon techniques and methods developed over several decades and have a proven record of high data return. Here we present plans for extending, integrating and operating the existing long term observatories to increase our knowledge of the natural variability of the ocean-ice shelf system, and to allow early identification of possible changes of regional or global importance. The S2 observatory at the Filchner sill was established in 1977 and continues to deliver the longest existing marine time series from Antarctica. As a key site for monitoring the ISW overflow S2 is a part of the global net of monitoring sites under CLIVAR Southern Ocean Observing System (SOOS) and OceanSITES. The existing S2 observatory consists of a sub-surface mooring carrying sensors for current velocity, temperature, salinity and dissolved oxygen measurements. Observations at the Filchner sill also show a seasonal inflow of relatively warm water that is able to reach Filchner Ice Front. New model results indicate that this flow of water might increase in the future and we have deployed a number of instrumented moorings in the Filchner Depression to estimate the heat flux towards the ice shelf. In 1999 we established Site 5 on Ronne Ice Shelf using a hot-water drill to access

  13. Multi-scale coupled modelling of waves and currents on the Catalan shelf.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grifoll, M.; Warner, J. C.; Espino, M.; Sánchez-Arcilla, A.

    2012-04-01

    Catalan shelf circulation is characterized by a background along-shelf flow to the southwest (including some meso-scale features) plus episodic storm driven patterns. To investigate these dynamics, a coupled multi-scale modeling system is applied to the Catalan shelf (North-western Mediterranean Sea). The implementation consists of a set of increasing-resolution nested models, based on the circulation model ROMS and the wave model SWAN as part of the COAWST modeling system, covering from the slope and shelf region (~1 km horizontal resolution) down to a local area around Barcelona city (~40 m). The system is initialized with MyOcean products in the coarsest outer domain, and uses atmospheric forcing from other sources for the increasing resolution inner domains. Results of the finer resolution domains exhibit improved agreement with observations relative to the coarser model results. Several hydrodynamic configurations were simulated to determine dominant forcing mechanisms and hydrodynamic processes that control coastal scale processes. The numerical results reveal that the short term (hours to days) inner-shelf variability is strongly influenced by local wind variability, while sea-level slope, baroclinic effects, radiation stresses and regional circulation constitute second-order processes. Additional analysis identifies the significance of shelf/slope exchange fluxes, river discharge and the effect of the spatial resolution of the atmospheric fluxes.

  14. 75 FR 1076 - Outer Continental Shelf Civil Penalties

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-08

    ...The Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act requires the MMS to review the maximum daily civil penalty assessment for violations of regulations governing oil and gas operations in the Outer Continental Shelf at least once every 3 years. This review ensures that the maximum penalty assessment reflects any increases in the Consumer Price Index as prepared by the Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor. After conducting the required review in August 2009, the MMS determined that no adjustment is necessary at this time.

  15. Satellite snowcover and runoff monitoring in central Arizona. [Salt River Project: Salt-Verde Watershed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schumann, H. H.; Kirdar, E.; Warskow, W. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1980-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Although the very high resolution experimental LANDSAT imagery permits rapid snow cover mapping at low cost, only one observation is available very 9 days. In contrast, low resolution operational imagery acquired by the ITOS and SMS/GOES satellites provide the daily synoptic observations necessary to monitor the rapid changes in snow covered areas in the entire Salt-Verde watershed. Geometric distortions in meteorological satellite imagery require specialized optical equipment or digital image processing for snow cover mapping.

  16. Shelf-stable egg-based products processed by high pressure thermal sterilization

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Producing a thermally sterilized egg-based product with increased shelf life without losing the sensory and nutritional properties of the freshly prepared product is challenging. Until recently, all commercial shelf-stable egg-based products were sterilized using conventional thermal processing; how...

  17. Seabed topography beneath Larsen C Ice Shelf from seismic soundings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brisbourne, A. M.; Smith, A. M.; King, E. C.; Nicholls, K. W.; Holland, P. R.; Makinson, K.

    2013-08-01

    Seismic reflection soundings of ice thickness and seabed depth were acquired on the Larsen C Ice Shelf in order to test a sub-shelf bathymetry model derived from the inversion of IceBridge gravity data. A series of lines were collected, from the Churchill Peninsula in the north to the Joerg Peninsula in the south, and also towards the ice front. Sites were selected using the bathymetry model derived from the inversion of free-air gravity data to indicate key regions where sub-shelf oceanic circulation may be affected by ice draft and sub-shelf cavity thickness. The seismic velocity profile in the upper 100 m of firn and ice was derived from shallow refraction surveys at a number of locations. Measured temperatures within the ice column and at the ice base were used to define the velocity profile through the remainder of the ice column. Seismic velocities in the water column were derived from previous in situ measurements. Uncertainties in ice and water cavity thickness are in general <10 m. Compared with the seismic measurements, the root-mean-square error in the gravimetrically derived bathymetry at the seismic sites is 162 m. The seismic profiles prove the non-existence of several bathymetric features that are indicated in the gravity inversion model, significantly modifying the expected oceanic circulation beneath the ice shelf. Similar features have previously been shown to be highly significant in affecting basal melt rates predicted by ocean models. The discrepancies between the gravity inversion results and the seismic bathymetry are attributed to the assumption of uniform geology inherent in the gravity inversion process and also the sparsity of IceBridge flight lines. Results indicate that care must be taken when using bathymetry models derived by the inversion of free-air gravity anomalies. The bathymetry results presented here will be used to improve existing sub-shelf ocean circulation models.

  18. Shelf life characteristics of bread produced from ozonated wheat flour.

    PubMed

    Obadi, Mohammed; Zhu, Ke-Xue; Peng, Wei; Sulieman, Abdellatif A; Mahdi, Amer Ali; Mohammed, Khalid; Zhou, Hui-Ming

    2017-11-13

    The objective of this work was to study the effect of ozone treatment on the quality of bread and its shelf life. Flour was treated with ozone gas a rate of 5 L/min for 5, 15, 25, 35, and 45 min. Baking studies showed that bread made from flour treated with ozone for 15 min exhibited improved quality properties (in terms of specific volume, bread color, and crumb cell numbers). Exposure to ozone for shorter times did not cause obvious changes in the major volatile compounds of bread. A shelf life tests showed that ozone gas treatment influenced the extent of starch crystallinity. The relative starch crystallinity of bread made from flour treated with ozone for 15 min was lower than the control value, as were the hardness, springiness, and cohesiveness. Microscopic examination of crumb structure revealed remarkable differences between control and treated breads. Although ozone is a naturally occurring substance found in the atmosphere, ozone can also be produced synthetically. Recently, ozone has come to be regarded as a new treatment for flour. Especially in countries where the chlorination is forbidden, ozone treatment may be of a great interest if it were associated with significant and reliable changes in flour. Ozone treatment of wheat flour tends to improve bread shelf life and quality in terms of physiochemical, baking properties, X-ray diffraction data, volatile compound levels, crumb structure, and textural characteristics. Given such findings, desirable shelf life and bread qualities may be achieved when ozone is used as a flour oxidant prior to bread baking. Analyses of the effects of ozone gas on treatment of flour on bread shelf life and quality would aid the production of high quality and extend the shelf life of bread. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Spoilage and shelf-life extension of fresh fish and shellfish.

    PubMed

    Ashie, I N; Smith, J P; Simpson, B K

    1996-01-01

    Fresh fish and shellfish are highly perishable products due to their biological composition. Under normal refrigerated storage conditions, the shelf life of these products is limited by enzymatic and microbiological spoilage. However, with increasing consumer demands for fresh products with extended shelf life and increasing energy costs associated with freezing and frozen storage, the fish-processing industry is actively seeking alternative methods of shelf life preservation and marketability of fresh, refrigerated fish and at the same time economizing on energy costs. Additional methods that could fulfill these objectives include chemical decontamination, low-dose irradiation, ultra-high pressure, and modified atmosphere packaging (MAP). This review focuses on the biochemical and microbiological composition of fresh fish/shellfish, the spoilage patterns in these products, factors influencing spoilage, and the combination treatments that can be used in conjunction with refrigeration to extend the shelf life and keeping quality of fresh fish/shellfish. The safety concerns of minimally processed/MAP fish, specifically with respect to the growth of Clostridium botulinum type E, is also addressed.

  20. Distribution and taxonomic discussion of Tetraneuris verdiensis, an apparently rare edaphic endemic from the Verde Valley of Arizona

    Treesearch

    Daniel J. Godec

    2001-01-01

    Tetraneuris verdiensis was first published in 1996. It appears to be closely related to Tetraneuris acaulis var. arizonica. The closest known location of T. acaulis var. arizonica is approximately 7 miles northwest of the known T. verdiensis locations, which are 5 miles east of Camp Verde. Tetraneuris verdiensis is significant in that no other entirely discoid...

  1. Wood plenty, grass good, water none: Vegetation changes in Arizona's upper Verde River watershed from 1850 to 1997

    Treesearch

    Harley G. Shaw

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare current woodland density and distribution in and around the dry upper Verde River watershed in northwestern Arizona with conditions prior to Anglo settlement. Historic conditions were assessed using early photographs and early diaries and reports. The expedition led by Amiel Weeks Whipple was retraced and areas described in 1854...

  2. Deep divers in shallow seas: Southern elephant seals on the Patagonian shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campagna, Claudio; Piola, Alberto R.; Marin, Maria Rosa; Lewis, Mirtha; Zajaczkovski, Uriel; Fernández, Teresita

    2007-10-01

    Elephant seals are wide-ranging, pelagic, deep-diving (average of 400-600 m) predators that typically travel to open waters and continental shelf edges thousands of kilometers from their land breeding colonies. We report a less common pattern of foraging in the shallow waters of a continental shelf. Southern elephant seals, Mirounga leonina, that breed at Península Valdés (Argentina), face an extended (˜1,000,000 km 2; 400-700 km-wide, depending on track), shallow (<150 m) and seasonally productive plateau, the Patagonian shelf. Adults of both sexes usually cross it in rapid transit to other potential foraging grounds on the shelf edge or in the Argentine Basin, but 2-4 year-old juveniles spread over the plateau and spent months in shallow waters. This behavior was recorded for 9 seals (5 males and 4 females) of 23 satellite-tracked juveniles (springs of 2004 and 2005) and for 2 subadult males studied in previous seasons. Trips included travel trajectories and time spent in areas where swim speed decreased, suggesting foraging. Preferred locations of juvenile females were in the proximity of the shelf break, where stratified waters had relatively high phytoplankton concentrations, but young and subadult males used the relatively cold (7-8 °C), low-salinity (˜33.3) mid-shelf waters, with depths of 105-120 m and a poorly stratified water column. Three of the latter seals, instrumented with time-depth recorders, showed dives compatible with benthic feeding and no diel pattern of depths distribution. Regions of the mid-shelf were used in different seasons and were associated with low chlorophyll- a concentration at the time of the visit, suggesting that surface productivity does not overlap with putative quality habitat for benthic foragers. Benthic diving on the shallow mid-shelf would be a resource partitioning strategy advantageous for young males prior to greater energetic demands of a high growth rate and a large body size. Later in life, the more predictable

  3. Nepheloid Layers: Origin and Development In A Narrow Continental Shelf (nw Portugal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, A.; Vitorino, J.; Rodrigues, A.; Jouanneau, J. M.; Weber, O.; Dias, J. A.

    A general hydrographic, nephelometric and sedimentological surveying of the NW Portuguese continental shelf and slope was undertaken, under winter and spring con- ditions in order to elaborate a conceptual model of suspended sediments (nepheloid layer) dynamics. Two major situations were found: 1) Spring/Summer - with northerly winds (upwelling) and low energetic wave regime that favour the deposition of sedi- ments. The northerly winds promote offshore transport in the surface nepheloid layer (SNL) and the establishment of a seasonal thermocline allow the expansion of the SNL to the west. The SNL can reach or even cross the shelf-break (50 km from coastline). Particulate organic carbon (POC) content in this layer highlights the higher contribution of biogenic particles (average concentration of 22%); 2) Winter, with southerly winds (downwelling) and high energetic wave regime that favour mid- shelf sediments resuspension and offshore transport in the bottom nepheloid layer (BNL). In the shelf-break the BNL detached to form intermediate nepheloid layers (INL). The SNL is restricted to the inner shelf. The effect of southerly winds gener- ates shoreward Ekman transport and detains the offshore westward extension of this layer even during high river run-off periods. The POC content indicates a dominance of litogenic particles in suspension (average concentration of 8%). Over the mid- and inner-shelf the dominant resuspension mechanism is associated with surface waves (Vitorino et al., 2002). Estimates based on wave measurements at mid-shelf (86m depth) suggested that, in winter, the wave shear velocity frequently exceeds 1 cm/s, assumed as the critical shear velocity for the resuspension of the fine grained sedi- ments (34m) of the bottom cover. Storm events, such as the one observed in November 1996 easily increase the wave shear velocities over 3 cm/s, leading to the increase of the BNL thickness (20-30m) (Vitorino et al., 2002; Oliveira et al., 2002). Low

  4. Effect of shelf aging on vibration transmissibility of anti-vibration gloves

    PubMed Central

    SHIBATA, Nobuyuki

    2017-01-01

    Anti-vibration gloves have been used in real workplaces to reduce vibration transmitted through hand-held power tools to the hand. Generally materials used for vibration attenuation in gloves are resilient materials composed of certain synthetic and/or composite polymers. The mechanical characteristics of the resilient materials used in anti-vibration gloves are prone to be influenced by environmental conditions such as temperature, humidity, and photo-irradiation, which cause material degradation and aging. This study focused on the influence of shelf aging on the vibration attenuation performance of air-packaged anti-vibration gloves following 2 yr of shelf aging. Effects of shelf aging on the vibration attenuation performance of anti-vibration gloves were examined according to the Japan industrial standard JIS T8114 test protocol. The findings indicate that shelf aging induces the reduction of vibration attenuation performance in air-packaged anti-vibration gloves. PMID:28978817

  5. Shelf life stability of lactobacilli encapsulated in raspberry powder: insights into non-dairy probiotics.

    PubMed

    Anekella, Kartheek; Orsat, Valérie

    2014-06-01

    Study the shelf-life quality changes in raspberry juice with encapsulated lactobacilli (Lactobacillus rhamnosus NRRL B-4495 and Lactobacillus acidophilus NRRL B-442) obtained by spray drying and understand the various factors involved. Raspberry powder was obtained from spray drying lactobacilli and raspberry juice with maltodextrin as an additive. Shelf life of the powder was analyzed over a period of 30 d. Acid and bile tolerance and antibiotic resistance was compared before and after spray drying. Water activity, survival, and scanning electron microscope images were also measured during the shelf life. A combination of processing conditions: inlet temperature (°C), maltodextrin to juice solids ratio and inlet feed rate (ml/min) during spray drying had a significant role on the survival of lactobacilli during shelf life. Refrigerated storage provided a higher shelf-life stability with regards to CFU/g (as high as 84% on day 0 and 98% retention by the end of 30 d) compared to room temperature storage. Probiotic properties during shelf life are affected by the processing conditions and encapsulated food matrix. Thus, understanding these aspects in vitro during shelf life gives us a brief insight into the future of non-dairy probiotics.

  6. Geologic?l History of E?st Siberi?n Se? Shelf

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Safronov, Aleksandr F.

    2016-01-01

    In our study we discuss the traditional and novel concepts of East Siberian Shelf origin with regards to the structure and composition of the Paleozoic and early Mesozoic sediments, coming to the surface on the Siberian Islands ?rchipel?go. The core idea is to summarize the existing concepts of East Siberian Shelf formation and to draw up the…

  7. Ice shelf basal melt rates around Antarctica from simulations and observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schodlok, M. P.; Menemenlis, D.; Rignot, E. J.

    2016-02-01

    We introduce an explicit representation of Antarctic ice shelf cavities in the Estimating the Circulation and Climate of the Ocean, Phase II (ECCO2) ocean retrospective analysis; and compare resulting basal melt rates and patterns to independent estimates from satellite observations. Two simulations are carried out: the first is based on the original ECCO2 vertical discretization; the second has higher vertical resolution particularly at the depth range of ice shelf cavities. The original ECCO2 vertical discretization produces higher than observed melt rates and leads to a misrepresentation of Southern Ocean water mass properties and transports. In general, thicker levels at the base of the ice shelves lead to increased melting because of their larger heat capacity. This strengthens horizontal gradients and circulation within and outside the cavities and, in turn, warm water transports from the shelf break to the ice shelves. The simulation with more vertical levels produces basal melt rates (1735 ± 164 Gt/a) and patterns that are in better agreement with observations. Thinner levels in the sub-ice-shelf cavities improve the representation of a fresh/cold layer at the ice shelf base and of warm/salty water near the bottom, leading to a sharper pycnocline and reduced vertical mixing underneath the ice shelf. Improved water column properties lead to more accurate melt rates and patterns, especially for melt/freeze patterns under large cold-water ice shelves. At the 18 km grid spacing of the ECCO2 model configuration, the smaller, warm-water ice shelves cannot be properly represented, with higher than observed melt rates in both simulations.

  8. A Mathematical Model of Melt Lake Development on an Ice Shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buzzard, S. C.; Feltham, D. L.; Flocco, D.

    2018-02-01

    The accumulation of surface meltwater on ice shelves can lead to the formation of melt lakes. Melt lakes have been implicated in ice shelf collapse; Antarctica's Larsen B Ice Shelf was observed to have a large amount of surface melt lakes present preceding its collapse in 2002. Such collapse can affect ocean circulation and temperature, cause habitat loss and contribute to sea level rise through the acceleration of tributary glaciers. We present a mathematical model of a surface melt lake on an idealized ice shelf. The model incorporates a calculation of the ice shelf surface energy balance, heat transfer through the firn, the production and percolation of meltwater into the firn, the formation of ice lenses, and the development and refreezing of surface melt lakes. The model is applied to the Larsen C Ice Shelf, where melt lakes have been observed. This region has warmed several times the global average over the last century and the Larsen C firn layer could become saturated with meltwater by the end of the century. When forced with weather station data, our model produces surface melting, meltwater accumulation, and melt lake development consistent with observations. We examine the sensitivity of lake formation to uncertain parameters and provide evidence of the importance of processes such as lateral meltwater transport. We conclude that melt lakes impact surface melt and firn density and warrant inclusion in dynamic-thermodynamic models of ice shelf evolution within climate models, of which our model could form the basis for the thermodynamic component.

  9. Amazon water lenses and the influence of the North Brazil Current on the continental shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prestes, Yuri O.; Silva, Alex Costa da; Jeandel, Catherine

    2018-05-01

    The exchange processes on the Amazon continental shelf in northern Brazil are subject to complex interactions that involve forcings derived from distinct sources. The Amazon shelf is a unique and highly dynamic environment in which considerable discharge of freshwater enters the Atlantic Ocean, producing extensive Amazon Water Lenses (AWL). In addition to the presence of the AWL, the shelf is influenced by the semidiurnal oscillations of the tides and the strong North Brazil Current (NBC), a boundary current of the western Atlantic. The present study was based primarily on the influence of the freshwater input and the NBC on the shelf and the Amazon Shelf Break (ASB) off the mouth of the Pará River. For this purpose, hydrographic and hydrodynamic data were obtained by moorings of the AMANDES Project (April-July 2008), located on the Amazon shelf and the ASB. Spectral analysis and the continuous wavelet transform were applied to define tidal (high frequency/short period) and subtidal (low frequency/long period) signals. The results indicated that on both the shelf and the break, the semidiurnal tides are responsible for the residual landward transport and are predominantly across-shelf. Low-frequency motions in the synoptic bands and the AWL are related to spatial changes in the velocity field, mainly on the ASB in the along-shelf direction. The flow of the NBC can be interpreted as an along-shelf low-frequency oscillation capable of altering the spatial configuration of the velocity field, although its influence is perceived only in the absence of the AWL.

  10. Evidence for an ice shelf covering the central Arctic Ocean during the penultimate glaciation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jakobsson, Martin; Nilsson, Johan; Anderson, Leif G.; Backman, Jan; Bjork, Goran; Cronin, Thomas M.; Kirchner, Nina; Koshurnikov, Andrey; Mayer, Larry; Noormets, Riko; O'Regan, Matthew; Stranne, Christian; Ananiev, Roman; Macho, Natalia Barrientos; Cherniykh, Dennis; Coxall, Helen; Eriksson, Bjorn; Floden, Tom; Gemery, Laura; Gustafsson, Orjan; Jerram, Kevin; Johansson, Carina; Khortov, Alexey; Mohammad, Rezwan; Semiletov, Igor

    2016-01-01

    The hypothesis of a km-thick ice shelf covering the entire Arctic Ocean during peak glacial conditions was proposed nearly half a century ago. Floating ice shelves preserve few direct traces after their disappearance, making reconstructions difficult. Seafloor imprints of ice shelves should, however, exist where ice grounded along their flow paths. Here we present new evidence of ice-shelf groundings on bathymetric highs in the central Arctic Ocean, resurrecting the concept of an ice shelf extending over the entire central Arctic Ocean during at least one previous ice age. New and previously mapped glacial landforms together reveal flow of a spatially coherent, in some regions >1-km thick, central Arctic Ocean ice shelf dated to marine isotope stage 6 (~140 ka). Bathymetric highs were likely critical in the ice-shelf development by acting as pinning points where stabilizing ice rises formed, thereby providing sufficient back stress to allow ice shelf thickening.

  11. Evidence for an ice shelf covering the central Arctic Ocean during the penultimate glaciation

    PubMed Central

    Jakobsson, Martin; Nilsson, Johan; Anderson, Leif; Backman, Jan; Björk, Göran; Cronin, Thomas M.; Kirchner, Nina; Koshurnikov, Andrey; Mayer, Larry; Noormets, Riko; O'Regan, Matthew; Stranne, Christian; Ananiev, Roman; Barrientos Macho, Natalia; Cherniykh, Denis; Coxall, Helen; Eriksson, Björn; Flodén, Tom; Gemery, Laura; Gustafsson, Örjan; Jerram, Kevin; Johansson, Carina; Khortov, Alexey; Mohammad, Rezwan; Semiletov, Igor

    2016-01-01

    The hypothesis of a km-thick ice shelf covering the entire Arctic Ocean during peak glacial conditions was proposed nearly half a century ago. Floating ice shelves preserve few direct traces after their disappearance, making reconstructions difficult. Seafloor imprints of ice shelves should, however, exist where ice grounded along their flow paths. Here we present new evidence of ice-shelf groundings on bathymetric highs in the central Arctic Ocean, resurrecting the concept of an ice shelf extending over the entire central Arctic Ocean during at least one previous ice age. New and previously mapped glacial landforms together reveal flow of a spatially coherent, in some regions >1-km thick, central Arctic Ocean ice shelf dated to marine isotope stage 6 (∼140 ka). Bathymetric highs were likely critical in the ice-shelf development by acting as pinning points where stabilizing ice rises formed, thereby providing sufficient back stress to allow ice shelf thickening. PMID:26778247

  12. Sulphur dioxide (SO2) emissions during the 2014-15 Fogo eruption, Cape Verde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrancos, José; Dionis, Samara; Quevedo, Roberto; Fernandes, Paulo; Rodríguez, Fátima; Pérez, Nemesio M.; Silva, Sónia; Cardoso, Nadir; Hernández, Pedro A.; Melián, Gladys V.; Padrón, Eleazar; Padilla, Germán; Asensio-Ramos, María; Calvo, David; Semedo, Helio; Alfama, Vera

    2015-04-01

    A new eruption started at Fogo volcanic island on November 23, 2014, an active stratovolcano, located in the SW of the Cape Verde Archipelago; rising over 6 km from the 4000m deep seafloor to the Pico do Fogo summit at 2829m above sea level (m.a.s.l.). Since settlement in the 15th century, 27 eruptions have been identified through analysis of incomplete written records (Ribeiro, 1960), with average time intervals of 20 yr and average duration of two months. The eruptions were mostly effusive (Hawaiian to Strombolian), with rare occurrences of highly explosive episodes including phreatomagmatic events (Day et al., 1999). This study reports sulphur dioxide (SO2) emission rate variations observed throughout the 2014-15 Fogo eruption, Cape Verde. More than 100 measurements of SO2 emission rate have been carried out in a daily basis by ITER/INVOLCAN/UNICV/OVCV/SNPC research team since November 28, 2014, five days after the eruption onset, by means of a miniDOAS using the traverse method with a car. The daily deviation obtained of the data is around 15%. Estimated SO2 emission rates ranged from 12,476 ± 981 to 492 ± 27 tons/day during the 2014-15 Fogo eruption until January 1, 2015. During this first five days of measurements, the observed SO2 emission rates were high with an average rate of 11,100 tons/day. On December 3, 2014 the SO2 emission rate dropped to values close to 4,000 tons/day, whereas few days later, on December 10, 2014, an increase to values close to 11,000 tons/day was recorded. Since then, SO2 emission rate has shown decrease trend to values close to 1,300 tons/day until December 21, 2014. The average of the observed SO2 emission rate was about 2,000 tons/day from December 21, 2014 to January 1, 2015, without detecting a specific either increasing or decreasing trend of the SO2 emission rate. The objective of this report is to clarify relations between the SO2 emission rate and surface eruptive activity during the 2014-15 Fogo eruption. Day, S. J

  13. Sixty-two years of change in subtropical wet forest structure and composition at El Verde, Puerto Rico

    Treesearch

    A.P. Drew; J.D. Boley; Y. Zhao; F.H. Wadsworth

    2009-01-01

    A plot established in 1943 in a subtropical wet forest at the Luquillo Experimental Forest of Puerto Rico has been assessed periodically for changes in species and size of all trees >4cm diameter. Forest dynamics on a 0.72ha plot (EV-3) at 400masl at El Verde show recovery principally from hurricanes of 1928 and 1932, timber stand improvement in 1958, and from...

  14. Ice shelf structure and stability: Larsen C Ice Shelf, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubbard, B. P.; Ashmore, D.; Bevan, S. L.; Booth, A. D.; Holland, P.; Jansen, D.; Kuipers Munneke, P.; Kulessa, B.; Luckman, A. J.; Sevestre, H.; O'Leary, M.

    2017-12-01

    We report on recent empirical investigations of the internal structure and stability (or otherwise) of Larsen C Ice Shelf (LCIS), Antarctica, focusing on research carried out for the MIDAS research project between 2014 and 2017. Borehole- and surface geophysics-based fieldwork carried out in austral springs 2014 and 2015 revealed that ephemeral surface ponds, preferentially located within the major inlets within the northern sector of the ice shelf, result in the formation of several tens of metres of (relatively dense) subsurface ice within what would otherwise have been a progressively densifying snow and firn column. Five boreholes were drilled throughout the sector and logged by optical televiewer, showing this refrozen ice to be extensive and of variable composition depending on its process of formation. Mapping the depth-distribution of the resulting ice types and associating each with a simple flow-line model of ice motion and accumulation indicates that this area of LCIS has experienced substantial melting for some centuries but that surface ponding has only occurred in recent decades, possibly restricted to the past 20 years. We also present near-surface temperature data that reveal surprising temporal patterns in foehn wind activity and intensity. Finally, we report on the geometrical extension and widening of a rift that was responsible for calving a 5,800 km^2 iceberg from the LCIS in July 2017. The nature of rift propagation through `suture' ice bands, widely considered to be composed of marine ice, is contrasted with that of its propagation through meteoric ice.

  15. Physical basis for a thick ice shelf in the Arctic Basin during the penultimate glacial maximum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasson, E.; DeConto, R.; Pollard, D.; Clark, C.

    2017-12-01

    A thick ice shelf covering the Arctic Ocean during glacial stages was discussed in a number of publications in the 1970s. Although this hypothesis has received intermittent attention, the emergence of new geophysical evidence for ice grounding in water depths of up to 1 km in the central Arctic Basin has renewed interest into the physical plausibility and significance of an Arctic ice shelf. Various ice shelf configurations have been proposed, from an ice shelf restricted to the Amerasian Basin (the `minimum model') to a complete ice shelf cover in the Arctic. Attempts to simulate an Arctic ice shelf have been limited. Here we use a hybrid ice sheet / shelf model that has been widely applied to the Antarctic ice sheet to explore the potential for thick ice shelves forming in the Arctic Basin. We use a climate forcing appropriate for MIS6, the penultimate glacial maximum. We perform a number of experiments testing different ice sheet / shelf configurations and compare the model results with ice grounding locations and inferred flow directions. Finally, we comment on the potential significance of an Arctic ice shelf to the global glacial climate system.

  16. One- and two-stage Arrhenius models for pharmaceutical shelf life prediction.

    PubMed

    Fan, Zhewen; Zhang, Lanju

    2015-01-01

    One of the most challenging aspects of the pharmaceutical development is the demonstration and estimation of chemical stability. It is imperative that pharmaceutical products be stable for two or more years. Long-term stability studies are required to support such shelf life claim at registration. However, during drug development to facilitate formulation and dosage form selection, an accelerated stability study with stressed storage condition is preferred to quickly obtain a good prediction of shelf life under ambient storage conditions. Such a prediction typically uses Arrhenius equation that describes relationship between degradation rate and temperature (and humidity). Existing methods usually rely on the assumption of normality of the errors. In addition, shelf life projection is usually based on confidence band of a regression line. However, the coverage probability of a method is often overlooked or under-reported. In this paper, we introduce two nonparametric bootstrap procedures for shelf life estimation based on accelerated stability testing, and compare them with a one-stage nonlinear Arrhenius prediction model. Our simulation results demonstrate that one-stage nonlinear Arrhenius method has significant lower coverage than nominal levels. Our bootstrap method gave better coverage and led to a shelf life prediction closer to that based on long-term stability data.

  17. Effects of Cross-Shelf Physical Forcing on Satellite Bio-Optical Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ladner, S. D.; Teague, W. J.; Mitchell, D. A.; Goode, W. A.; Gould, R. W.; Arnone, R. A.

    2005-05-01

    Our goal is to determine the effects of cross-shelf physical forcing on the optical properties in the northern Gulf of Mexico using in situ optical profiles and surface ocean color satellite images from SeaWiFS. The Naval Research Laboratory at Stennis Space Center is conducting an extensive monitoring program in the Northeast Gulf of Mexico west of the Desoto Canyon. During the Slope to Shelf Energetics and Exchange Dynamics (SEED) project, 14 bottom mounted Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers (ADCP's) were deployed from May-December 2004 along the shelf break at depths ranging from 60 to 1000 meters to improve understanding of cross-shelf exchange processes. Analysis of the May current data indicate abnormal events, including 30 cm/s off-shelf currents throughout the water column and a 3° Celsius elevation in bottom temperature. Coincident optical profiles were collected in May (absorption, scattering coefficients) and are compared with currents and physical properties (temperature, salinity). Similar subsurface abnormalities with stronger currents occurred in September during the passing of Hurricane Ivan over the mooring sites. We will show a time series of near-surface current speeds and their effect on the surface-satellite optical properties over the entire SEED sampling exercise.

  18. Numerical model of ice melange expansion during abrupt ice-shelf collapse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guttenberg, N.; Abbot, D. S.; Amundson, J. M.; Burton, J. C.; Cathles, L. M.; Macayeal, D. R.; Zhang, W.

    2010-12-01

    Satellite imagery of the February 2008 Wilkins Ice-Shelf Collapse event reveals that a large percentage of the involved ice shelf was converted to capsized icebergs and broken fragments of icebergs over a relatively short period of time, possibly less than 24 hours. The extreme violence and short time scale of the event, and the considerable reduction of gravitational potential energy between upright and capsized icebergs, suggests that iceberg capsize might be an important driving mechanism controlling both the rate and spatial extent of ice shelf collapse. To investigate this suggestion, we have constructed an idealized, 2-dimensional model of a disintegrating ice shelf composed of a large number (N~100 to >1000) of initially well-packed icebergs of rectangular cross section. The model geometry consists of a longitudinal cross section of the idealized ice shelf from grounding line (or the upstream extent of ice-shelf fragmentation) to seaward ice front, and includes the region beyond the initial ice front to cover the open, ice-free water into which the collapsing ice shelf expands. The seawater in which the icebergs float is treated as a hydrostatic fluid in the computation of iceberg orientation (e.g., the evaluation of buoyancy forces and torques), thereby eliminating the complexities of free-surface waves, but net horizontal drift of the icebergs is resisted by a linear drag law designed to energy dissipation by viscous forces and surface-gravity-wave radiation. Icebergs interact via both elastic and inelastic contacts (typically a corner of one iceberg will scrape along the face of its neighbor). Ice-shelf collapse in the model is embodied by the mass capsize of a large proportion of the initially packed icebergs and the consequent advancement of the ice front (leading edge). Model simulations are conducted to examine (a) the threshold of stability (e.g., what density of initially capsizable icebergs is needed to allow a small perturbation to the system

  19. Molecular and serological surveillance of canine enteric viruses in stray dogs from Vila do Maio, Cape Verde

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Infections caused by canine parvovirus, canine distemper virus and canine coronavirus are an important cause of mortality and morbidity in dogs worldwide. Prior to this study, no information was available concerning the incidence and prevalence of these viruses in Cape Verde archipelago. Results To provide information regarding the health status of the canine population in Vila do Maio, Maio Island, Cape Verde, 53 rectal swabs were collected from 53 stray dogs during 2010 and 93 rectal swabs and 88 blood samples were collected from 125 stray dogs in 2011. All rectal swabs (2010 n = 53; 2011 n = 93) were analysed for the presence of canine parvovirus, canine distemper virus and canine coronavirus nucleic acids by quantitative PCR methods. Specific antibodies against canine distemper virus and canine parvovirus were also assessed (2011 n = 88). From the 2010 sampling, 43.3% (23/53) were positive for canine parvovirus DNA, 11.3% (6/53) for canine distemper virus RNA and 1.9% (1/53) for canine coronavirus RNA. In 2011, the prevalence values for canine parvovirus and canine coronavirus were quite similar to those from the previous year, respectively 44.1% (41/93), and 1.1% (1/93), but canine distemper virus was not detected in any of the samples analysed (0%, 0/93). Antibodies against canine parvovirus were detected in 71.6% (63/88) blood samples and the seroprevalence found for canine distemper virus was 51.1% (45/88). Conclusions This study discloses the data obtained in a molecular and serological epidemiological surveillance carried out in urban populations of stray and domestic animals. Virus transmission and spreading occurs easily in large dog populations leading to high mortality rates particularly in unvaccinated susceptible animals. In addition, these animals can act as disease reservoirs for wild animal populations by occasional contact. Identification of susceptible wildlife of Maio Island is of upmost importance to evaluate the risk

  20. Molecular and serological surveillance of canine enteric viruses in stray dogs from Vila do Maio, Cape Verde.

    PubMed

    Castanheira, Pedro; Duarte, Ana; Gil, Solange; Cartaxeiro, Clara; Malta, Manuel; Vieira, Sara; Tavares, Luis

    2014-04-23

    Infections caused by canine parvovirus, canine distemper virus and canine coronavirus are an important cause of mortality and morbidity in dogs worldwide. Prior to this study, no information was available concerning the incidence and prevalence of these viruses in Cape Verde archipelago. To provide information regarding the health status of the canine population in Vila do Maio, Maio Island, Cape Verde, 53 rectal swabs were collected from 53 stray dogs during 2010 and 93 rectal swabs and 88 blood samples were collected from 125 stray dogs in 2011. All rectal swabs (2010 n = 53; 2011 n = 93) were analysed for the presence of canine parvovirus, canine distemper virus and canine coronavirus nucleic acids by quantitative PCR methods. Specific antibodies against canine distemper virus and canine parvovirus were also assessed (2011 n = 88).From the 2010 sampling, 43.3% (23/53) were positive for canine parvovirus DNA, 11.3% (6/53) for canine distemper virus RNA and 1.9% (1/53) for canine coronavirus RNA. In 2011, the prevalence values for canine parvovirus and canine coronavirus were quite similar to those from the previous year, respectively 44.1% (41/93), and 1.1% (1/93), but canine distemper virus was not detected in any of the samples analysed (0%, 0/93). Antibodies against canine parvovirus were detected in 71.6% (63/88) blood samples and the seroprevalence found for canine distemper virus was 51.1% (45/88). This study discloses the data obtained in a molecular and serological epidemiological surveillance carried out in urban populations of stray and domestic animals. Virus transmission and spreading occurs easily in large dog populations leading to high mortality rates particularly in unvaccinated susceptible animals. In addition, these animals can act as disease reservoirs for wild animal populations by occasional contact. Identification of susceptible wildlife of Maio Island is of upmost importance to evaluate the risk of pathogen spill over from