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Sample records for pampa arenosa buenos

  1. Prediction of seasonal water-table fluctuations in La Pampa and Buenos Aires, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanco, Raúl; Kruse, Eduardo

    2001-07-01

    The fluctuation of the water table east of La Pampa province and northwest of Buenos Aires province, Argentina, influences agricultural production in the region because it is closely related to the alternation of dry and wet periods. Sea-surface temperature (SST) anomalies have been used as predictors to forecast atmospheric variables in different regions of the world. The objective of this work is to present a simple model to forecast seasonal rainfall using SST distribution in the Pacific Ocean as a predictor. Once the relationship between precipitation and water-table fluctuations was established, a methodology for the prediction of water-table fluctuations was developed. A good agreement between observed and predicted water-table fluctuations was found when estimating water-table fluctuations in the summer and autumn seasons. Résumé. Les fluctuations de la nappe à l'est de la province de La Pampa et au nord-ouest de la province de Buenos Aires (Argentine) influence la production agricole de la région parce qu'elle est étroitement liée à l'alternance de saisons sèches et humides. Les anomalies de la température de surface de l'océan (SST) ont été utilisées comme prédicteurs pour prévoir les variables atmosphériques dans différentes régions du monde. L'objectif de ce travail est de présenter un modèle simple de prévision des précipitations saisonnières en utilisant comme prédicteur la distribution des SST dans l'Océan Pacifique. Une fois que la relation entre les fluctuations des précipitations et celles de la nappe a été établie, une méthodologie de prédiction des variations de la nappe a été mise au point. Un bon accord entre les variations de la nappe observées et celles prédites a été trouvé pour les estimations des variations de nappe en été et en automne. Resumen. La fluctuación del nivel freático al este de la provincia de La Pampa y al nordeste de la de Buenos Aires (Argentina) repercute en la producción agr

  2. Epidemiological studies on Echinococcus in Pampas fox (Lycalopex gymnocercus) and European hare (Lepus europaeus) in Buenos Aires province, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Scioscia, Nathalia Paula; Beldomenico, Pablo Martín; Petrigh, Romina Sandra; Pierangeli, Nora; Denegri, Guillermo María

    2013-10-01

    In Argentina, hydatid disease caused by Echinococcus granulosus is widespread. The south of Buenos Aires province, Argentina, is one of the three regions where hydatidosis is endemic. Although domestic dogs and sheep are considered to be the main hosts for E. granulosus, the potential role of wildlife in the local transmission of E. granulosus has not been investigated. The aim of this study was to estimate the hydatidosis/echinococcosis prevalence in European hare (Lepus europaeus) and Pampas fox (Lycalopex gymnocercus), two abundant species with a strong predator-prey relationship in rural areas of Buenos Aires province using different diagnostic tests. A total of 61 fox intestines were examined, finding that 52 (85.2%) harbored at least one helminth species. However, no adult or immature form of Echinococcus sp. was found in the intestinal contents. Coproparasitological analysis and Copro-ELISA followed by Copro-PCR were used as supplementary diagnostic tests. Only one (1.7%) of 59 fecal samples was positive to Taeniidae eggs by coproparasitological analysis, but this same sample was negative by the Copro-ELISA test. The analysis by Copro-ELISA showed 6 of 57 (10.6%) positive samples, but the Copro-PCR tests carried out on these samples were negative to E. granulosus. A total of 6,808 lungs, 3,576 livers, and 3,542 hearts of hunted hares were examined and palpated, but no structure resembling hydatid cysts were detected. Our results suggest that hares and Pampas foxes are not currently important wild reservoirs of E. granulosus in the studied area.

  3. Selection on Meiosis Genes in Diploid and Tetraploid Arabidopsis arenosa

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Kevin M.; Arnold, Brian; Xue, Katherine; Šurinová, Maria; O’Connell, Jeremy; Bomblies, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    Meiotic chromosome segregation is critical for fertility across eukaryotes, and core meiotic processes are well conserved even between kingdoms. Nevertheless, recent work in animals has shown that at least some meiosis genes are highly diverse or strongly differentiated among populations. What drives this remains largely unknown. We previously showed that autotetraploid Arabidopsis arenosa evolved stable meiosis, likely through reduced crossover rates, and that associated with this there is strong evidence for selection in a subset of meiosis genes known to affect axis formation, synapsis, and crossover frequency. Here, we use genome-wide data to study the molecular evolution of 70 meiosis genes in a much wider sample of A. arenosa. We sample the polyploid lineage, a diploid lineage from the Carpathian Mountains, and a more distantly related diploid lineage from the adjacent, but biogeographically distinct Pannonian Basin. We find that not only did selection act on meiosis genes in the polyploid lineage but also independently on a smaller subset of meiosis genes in Pannonian diploids. Functionally related genes are targeted by selection in these distinct contexts, and in two cases, independent sweeps occurred in the same loci. The tetraploid lineage has sustained selection on more genes, has more amino acid changes in each, and these more often affect conserved or potentially functional sites. We hypothesize that Pannonian diploid and tetraploid A. arenosa experienced selection on structural proteins that mediate sister chromatid cohesion, the formation of meiotic chromosome axes, and synapsis, likely for different underlying reasons. PMID:25543117

  4. Selection on meiosis genes in diploid and tetraploid Arabidopsis arenosa.

    PubMed

    Wright, Kevin M; Arnold, Brian; Xue, Katherine; Šurinová, Maria; O'Connell, Jeremy; Bomblies, Kirsten

    2015-04-01

    Meiotic chromosome segregation is critical for fertility across eukaryotes, and core meiotic processes are well conserved even between kingdoms. Nevertheless, recent work in animals has shown that at least some meiosis genes are highly diverse or strongly differentiated among populations. What drives this remains largely unknown. We previously showed that autotetraploid Arabidopsis arenosa evolved stable meiosis, likely through reduced crossover rates, and that associated with this there is strong evidence for selection in a subset of meiosis genes known to affect axis formation, synapsis, and crossover frequency. Here, we use genome-wide data to study the molecular evolution of 70 meiosis genes in a much wider sample of A. arenosa. We sample the polyploid lineage, a diploid lineage from the Carpathian Mountains, and a more distantly related diploid lineage from the adjacent, but biogeographically distinct Pannonian Basin. We find that not only did selection act on meiosis genes in the polyploid lineage but also independently on a smaller subset of meiosis genes in Pannonian diploids. Functionally related genes are targeted by selection in these distinct contexts, and in two cases, independent sweeps occurred in the same loci. The tetraploid lineage has sustained selection on more genes, has more amino acid changes in each, and these more often affect conserved or potentially functional sites. We hypothesize that Pannonian diploid and tetraploid A. arenosa experienced selection on structural proteins that mediate sister chromatid cohesion, the formation of meiotic chromosome axes, and synapsis, likely for different underlying reasons.

  5. Habitat-Associated Life History and Stress-Tolerance Variation in Arabidopsis arenosa1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Baduel, Pierre; Arnold, Brian; Weisman, Cara M.; Hunter, Ben

    2016-01-01

    Weediness in ephemeral plants is commonly characterized by rapid cycling, prolific all-in flowering, and loss of perenniality. Many species made transitions to weediness of this sort, which can be advantageous in high-disturbance or human-associated habitats. The molecular basis of this shift, however, remains mostly mysterious. Here, we use transcriptome sequencing, genome resequencing scans for selection, and stress tolerance assays to study a weedy population of the otherwise nonweedy Arabidopsis arenosa, an obligately outbreeding relative of Arabidopsis thaliana. Although weedy A. arenosa is widespread, a single genetic lineage colonized railways throughout central and northern Europe. We show that railway plants, in contrast to plants from sheltered outcrops in hill/mountain regions, are rapid cycling, have lost the vernalization requirement, show prolific flowering, and do not return to vegetative growth. Comparing transcriptomes of railway and mountain plants across time courses with and without vernalization, we found that railway plants have sharply abrogated vernalization responsiveness and high constitutive expression of heat- and cold-responsive genes. Railway plants also have strong constitutive heat shock and freezing tolerance compared with mountain plants, where tolerance must be induced. We found 20 genes with good evidence of selection in the railway population. One of these, LATE ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL, is known in A. thaliana to regulate many stress-response genes that we found to be differentially regulated among the distinct habitats. Our data suggest that, beyond life history regulation, other traits like basal stress tolerance also are associated with the evolution of weediness in A. arenosa. PMID:26941193

  6. Single Geographic Origin of a Widespread Autotetraploid Arabidopsis arenosa Lineage Followed by Interploidy Admixture.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Brian; Kim, Sang-Tae; Bomblies, Kirsten

    2015-06-01

    Whole-genome duplication, which leads to polyploidy, has been implicated in speciation and biological novelty. In plants, many species exhibit ploidy variation, which is likely representative of an early stage in the evolution of polyploid lineages. To understand the evolution of such multiploidy systems, we must address questions such as whether polyploid lineage(s) had a single or multiple origins, whether admixture occurs between ploidies, and the timescale over which ploidy variation affects the evolution of populations. Here we analyze three genomic data sets using nonparametric and parametric analyses, including coalescent-based methods, to study the evolutionary history of a geographically widespread autotetraploid variant of Arabidopsis arenosa, a new model system for understanding the molecular basis of autopolyploid evolution. Autotetraploid A. arenosa populations are widely distributed across much of Northern and Central Europe, whereas diploids occur in Eastern Europe and along the southern Baltic coast; the two ploidies overlap in the Carpathian Mountains. We find that the widespread autotetraploid populations we sampled likely arose from a single ancestral population approximately 11,000-30,000 generations ago in the Northern Carpathians, where its closest extant diploid relatives are found today. Afterward, the tetraploid population split into at least four major lineages that colonized much of Europe. Reconstructions of population history suggest that substantial interploidy admixture occurred in both directions, but only among geographically proximal populations. We find two cases in which selection likely acted on an introgressed locus, suggesting that persistent interploidy gene flow has a local influence on patterns of genetic variation in A. arenosa.

  7. Soil physical quality changes under different management systems after 10 years in Argentinian Humid Pampa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, J. L.; Aparicio, V. C.; Cerda, A.

    2014-08-01

    The Argentinian Humid Pampa extends over about 60 million ha, 90% of which are agricultural lands. The southeast of the Buenos Aires Province is part of the Humid Pampa (1 206 162 ha). The main crops are wheat, sunflower, corn and soybean. The management systems used in the area are: moldboard plow (MP), chisel plow (CP) and no-till (NT). Excessive soil cultivation under MP causes decreases in the soil organic carbon content (SOC). Adopting NT may reduce the effects of intensive agriculture, through the maintenance and accumulation of SOC. However, the soil compaction under NT causes degradation of the soil structure, reduces the soil water availability and reduces the soil hydraulic conductivity. We evaluated the evolution of the soil physical parameters in three management systems. After 10 years of experiments in four farmers' fields, we found that: soil bulk density was significantly higher under NT. The change in mean weight diameter (CMWD) of aggregates increased as the management system became more intensive. We did not find significant differences in time and management systems in hydraulic conductivity at tension (h)0 cm and h=20 cm. The reduction in total porosity under NT is mainly a product of a reduction in the percentage of mesopores in the soil. Time had no statistically significant effect on the SOC content. The management system did not affect the yields of crop. In this work, the results indicate a modification of some soil physical parameters (porosity, near-saturated hydraulic conductivity, soil structure) due to uninterrupted agricultural production.

  8. The Evolutionary History of the Arabidopsis arenosa Complex: Diverse Tetraploids Mask the Western Carpathian Center of Species and Genetic Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Schmickl, Roswitha; Paule, Juraj; Klein, Johannes; Marhold, Karol; Koch, Marcus A.

    2012-01-01

    The Arabidopsis arenosa complex is closely related to the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Species and subspecies in the complex are mainly biennial, predominantly outcrossing, herbaceous, and with a distribution range covering most parts of latitudes and the eastern reaches of Europe. In this study we present the first comprehensive evolutionary history of the A. arenosa species complex, covering its natural range, by using chromosome counts, nuclear AFLP data, and a maternally inherited marker from the chloroplast genome [trnL intron (trnL) and trnL/F intergenic spacer (trnL/F-IGS) of tRNALeu and tRNAPhe, respectively]. We unravel the broad-scale cytogeographic and phylogeographic patterns of diploids and tetraploids. Diploid cytotypes were exclusively found on the Balkan Peninsula and in the Carpathians while tetraploid cytotypes were found throughout the remaining distribution range of the A. arenosa complex. Three centers of genetic diversity were identified: the Balkan Peninsula, the Carpathians, and the unglaciated Eastern and Southeastern Alps. All three could have served as long-term refugia during Pleistocene climate oscillations. We hypothesize that the Western Carpathians were and still are the cradle of speciation within the A. arenosa complex due to the high species number and genetic diversity and the concurrence of both cytotypes there. PMID:22880083

  9. Genetic characterization of Uruguayan Pampa Rocha pigs with microsatellite markers

    PubMed Central

    Montenegro, M; Llambí, S; Castro, G; Barlocco, N; Vadell, A; Landi, V; Delgado, JV; Martínez, A

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we genetically characterized the Uruguayan pig breed Pampa Rocha. Genetic variability was assessed by analyzing a panel of 25 microsatellite markers from a sample of 39 individuals. Pampa Rocha pigs showed high genetic variability with observed and expected heterozygosities of 0.583 and 0.603, respectively. The mean number of alleles was 5.72. Twenty-four markers were polymorphic, with 95.8% of them in Hardy Weinberg equilibrium. The level of endogamy was low (FIS = 0.0475). A factorial analysis of correspondence was used to assess the genetic differences between Pampa Rocha and other pig breeds; genetic distances were calculated, and a tree was designed to reflect the distance matrix. Individuals were also allocated into clusters. This analysis showed that the Pampa Rocha breed was separated from the other breeds along the first and second axes. The neighbour-joining tree generated by the genetic distances DA showed clustering of Pampa Rocha with the Meishan breed. The allocation of individuals to clusters showed a clear separation of Pampa Rocha pigs. These results provide insights into the genetic variability of Pampa Rocha pigs and indicate that this breed is a well-defined genetic entity. PMID:25983624

  10. Chemical Composition, Antioxidant, and Antimicrobial Activities of Essential Oils of Endlicheria arenosa (Lauraceae) from the Amazon.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Joyce Kelly R; da Trindade, Rafaela C S; Maia, José Guilherme S; Setzer, William N

    2016-05-01

    The essential oils (EOs) of leaves and twigs of Endlicheria arenosa Chanderb. were obtained by hydrodistillation using a Clevenger-type apparatus and the chemical composition was determined by GC and GC-MS. In total, 47 constituents were identified and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (77.6%) were the main compounds found in the leaf EO, such as bicyclogermacrene (42.2%), germacrene D (12.5%) and β-caryophyllene (10.1%). Limonene (33.2%), terpinen-4-ol (15.6%) and δ-cadinol (6.9%) were the predominant constituents in the EO of the twigs. Using the DPPH radical-scavenging method, the EO of the leaves showed the greater radical-scavenging activity (216.5 ± 11.6 mg Trolox equivalents (TE)/mL compared to the EO of the twigs (122.6 ± 6.8 mg TE/mL). Also, the EO of leaves displayed promising antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli (MIC 19.5 μg x mL(-1)). The present study is the first report about evaluation of volatile oils for this species.

  11. Northern glacial refugia and altitudinal niche divergence shape genome-wide differentiation in the emerging plant model Arabidopsis arenosa.

    PubMed

    Kolář, Filip; Fuxová, Gabriela; Záveská, Eliška; Nagano, Atsushi J; Hyklová, Lucie; Lučanová, Magdalena; Kudoh, Hiroshi; Marhold, Karol

    2016-08-01

    Quaternary climatic oscillations profoundly impacted temperate biodiversity. For many diverse yet undersampled areas, however, the consequences of this impact are still poorly known. In Europe, particular uncertainty surrounds the role of Balkans, a major hotspot of European diversity, in postglacial recolonization of more northerly areas, and the Carpathians, a debatable candidate for a northern 'cryptic' glacial refugium. Using genome-wide SNPs and microsatellites, we examined how the interplay of historical processes and niche shifts structured genetic diversity of diploid Arabidopsis arenosa, a little-known member of the plant model genus that occupies a wide niche range from sea level to alpine peaks across eastern temperate Europe. While the northern Balkans hosted one isolated endemic lineage, most of the genetic diversity was concentrated further north in the Pannonian Basin and the Carpathians, where it likely survived the last glaciation in northern refugia. Finally, a distinct postglacial environment in northern Europe was colonized by populations of admixed origin from the two Carpathian lineages. Niche differentiation along altitude-related bioclimatic gradients was the main trend in the phylogeny of A. arenosa. The most prominent niche shifts, however, characterized genetically only slightly divergent populations that expanded into narrowly defined alpine and northern coastal postglacial environments. Our study highlights the role of eastern central European mountains not only as refugia for unique temperate diversity but also sources for postglacial expansion into novel high-altitude and high-latitude niches. Knowledge of distinct genetic substructure of diploid A. arenosa also opens new opportunities for follow-up studies of this emerging model of evolutionary biology.

  12. Reproductive biology of the pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus): a review

    PubMed Central

    Ungerfeld, Rodolfo; González-Pensado, Solana; Bielli, Alejandro; Villagrán, Matías; Olazabal, Daniel; Pérez, William

    2008-01-01

    The pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus) is a South American grazing deer which is in extreme danger of extinction. Very little is known about the biology of the pampas deer. Moreover, most information has not been published in peer-reviewed scientific journals, and is only available in local publications, theses, etc. Therefore, our aim was to update and summarize the available information regarding the reproductive biology of the pampas deer. Moreover, in most sections, we have also included new, unpublished information. Detailed descriptions are provided of the anatomy of both the female and the male reproductive tract, puberty onset, the oestrous cycle and gestational length. Birthing and the early postpartum period are described, as are maternal behaviour and early fawn development, seasonal distribution of births, seasonal changes in male reproduction and antler cycle, reproductive behaviour, semen collection, and cryopreservation. Finally, an overview is given and future directions of research are proposed. PMID:18534014

  13. Surface and groundwater quality in the northeastern region of Buenos Aires Province, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galindo, G.; Sainato, C.; Dapeña, C.; Fernández-Turiel, J. L.; Gimeno, D.; Pomposiello, M. C.; Panarello, H. O.

    2007-04-01

    This work studies the water quality of the Pergamino-Arrecifes River zone in the Rolling Pampa, northeast Buenos Aires Province, Argentina. Temperature, pH, specific conductivity, Na, K, Mg, Ca, SO42-, Cl -, HCO3-, NO3-, Si, Ag, Al, As, B, Ba, Be, Br, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Li, Mn, Mo, Ni, P, Pb, Se, Tl, U, V, Zn, and the environmental stable δ18O and δ2H isotope ratios were determined in 18 sampling stations. Natural and anthropogenic features influence surface and groundwater quality. Point pollution sources (septic wells and other domestic and farming effluents) increase the nitrate concentration. The values of pH, NO3-, Al, As, B, Fe, and Mn exceed the respective Argentine reference thresholds in different sampling stations for human drinking water; B, Mo, U, and V for irrigation; and V and Zn for cattle consumption.

  14. [Diversity and distribution of grasshoppers (Orthoptera: Acridoidea) in grasslands of the Southern Pampas region, Argentina].

    PubMed

    Mariottini, Yanina; De Wysiecki, María Laura; Lange, Carlos Ernesto

    2013-03-01

    In Argentina, the grasslands of Pampas region comprise approximately 15% of the country. As in other grasslands of the world, grasshoppers are among the most important native herbivores. Their economic importance has been recognized in Argentina since the mid to late nineteenth century, since outbreaks of different species have become recurrent phenomena. Therefore, the main objective of this work was to study their diversity and distribution in grasslands of the Southern Pampas region (Laprida county, Buenos Aires province), as one of the most affected areas. The study was conducted during five seasons (2005-10). Sampling sites were represented by the most common plant communities in this area, classified in four categories: native grasslands, disturbed grasslands, implanted pastures and halophilous grasslands. The samplings were conducted from mid-spring to early autumn, with five or six samples per season. We estimated the following population descriptors: species richness (S), eveness (E), dominance (J), and diversity index (H'). In order to evaluate the similitude of the grasshopper communities present in the different plant communities, we used qualitative and quantitative coefficients of similitude. A total of 22 species of grasshoppers were collected, of which 21 belong to the family Acrididae. The subfamily Melanoplinae was the most diverse with eight species. The largest species richness was recorded in native grasslands (18). The different communities of grasshoppers had similar indices of evenness and dominance (p>0.05). Considering all plant communities, the average value of Shannon-Wiener index was 1.58+/-0.075. There was a positive correlation between evenness index and species richness (p<0.05). The diversity index H' was different between plants communities (p<0.05), and it was higher in the disturbed grassland (1.75+/-0.096, p<0.05) than in the halophilous grasslands (1.34+/-0.12). Native and disturbed grasslands had a higher plant richness than

  15. Pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus) courtship and mating behavior

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Pampas deer, Ozotoceros bezoarticus (Linnaeus 1758), is a South American grazing deer categorized as "near threatened". However, knowledge about pampas deer behavior including courtship and mating is scarce and incomplete. The aim of this study was to characterize the courtship and mating behavior of the pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus), an endangered species from South America. Methods We performed focal observations of 5 males allocated at the Estación de Cría de Fauna Autóctona Cerro Pan de Azúcar, Uruguay, 4 times a day from 5 to 20 minutes each time on a daily basis from February to May. During that period we recorded all courtship and mating behaviors, as well as quantified the frequency of the specific behaviors shown. As mating were rarely observed, we recorded that behavior when it was observed in the context of other studies performed in the same population during the following 2 years. Results During the observation period we recorded 928 courtships and 5 mating periods. In addition, we recorded 10 more matings performed during other studies, totaling 15. The duration of each mating calculated from the 15 recordings was 3.9 ± 0.4 s, and the total period of female receptivity (from first to last mating acceptance) was 8.2 ± 1.1 min. Main observed courtship behaviors in males were “chase” and “ostentation”, while the most observed close to mating were “chinning”, “raised head” and “anogenital sniffing”. The most observed behaviors in females during the mating period were “vulva exhibition” and “move away”. Conclusion This is the first detailed report in pampas deer mating behavior. Estrus lasted only 8 min accepting only 3 short copulations per estrus. However, female behavior during courtship can be characterized as highly proceptive. PMID:23062236

  16. PAMPA--a drug absorption in vitro model 7. Comparing rat in situ, Caco-2, and PAMPA permeability of fluoroquinolones.

    PubMed

    Bermejo, Marival; Avdeef, Alex; Ruiz, Ana; Nalda, Ricardo; Ruell, Jeffrey A; Tsinman, Oksana; González, Isabel; Fernández, Carlos; Sánchez, Gloria; Garrigues, Teresa M; Merino, Virginia

    2004-03-01

    Parallel artificial membrane permeability assay (PAMPA) was used to measure the effective permeability, P(e), as a function of pH from 4 to 10, of 17 fluoroquinolones, including three congeneric series with systematically varied alkyl chain length at the 4'N-position of the piperazine residue. The permeability values spanned over three orders of magnitude. The intrinsic permeability, P(o), and the membrane permeability, P(m), were determined from the pH dependence of the effective permeability. The pK(a) values were determined potentiometrically. The PAMPA method employed stirring, adjusted such that the unstirred water layer (UWL) thickness matched the 30-100 microm range estimated to be in the human small intestine. The intrinsic permeability coefficients (10(-6)cm/s), representing the permeability of the uncharged form of the drug, are for 4'N-R-norfloxacin: 0.7 (R=H), 49 (Me), 132 (n-Pr), 365 (n-Bu); 4'N-R-ciprofloxacin: 2.7 (H), 37 (Me), 137 (n-Pr), 302 (n-Bu); 4'N-R-3'-methylciprofloxacin: 3.8 (H), 20 (Me), 51 (Et), 160 (n-Pr), 418 (n-Bu). Increasing the alkyl chain length in the congeneric series resulted in increased permeability, averaging about 0.34 log units per methylene group, except that of the first (H-to-Me), which was about 1.2 log units. These results were compared to Caco-2 and rat in situ permeability measurements. The in situ closed loop technique used for obtaining permeability values in rat showed a water layer thickness effect quite consistent with in vivo expectations. The rat-PAMPA correlation (r2=0.87) was better than that of rat-Caco-2 (r2=0.63). Caco-2-PAMPA correlation indicated r2=0.66. The latter correlation improved significantly (r2=0.82) when the Caco-2 data were corrected for the UWL effect.

  17. [Comparative analysis of growth and sexual maturation in girls of Santa Rosa (La Pampa) and La Plata (Buenos Aires), Argentina].

    PubMed

    Torres, M F; Luis, M A; Cesani, M F; Luna, M E; Castro, L E; Quintero, F; Oyhenart, E E

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze growth in relation to menarche in girls from two Argentinean urban populations. We performed a comparative-descriptive cross sectional study in 2474 schoolchildren between 8.0 and 16.9 years old from Santa Rosa (SR) and La Plata (LP) cities. We registered the presence of menarche and anthropometrics variables of body weight, total and sitting heights, arm circumference, triceps and subscapular skinfolds. Body mass index, subscapular/triceps index and muscle and fat arm areas were calculated. The study group was divided into 4 groups according to the city and menarche. The socio-environmental structured survey indicated significant differences between cities with these variables: tenure status, building materials and services, health care coverage, cash assistance, educational level and parents' occupation, therefore establishing a higher welfare in youngsters of SR. Menarche at a mean age of 12.7 years old was more prevalent in SR (40.6%) than in LP (33.7%) (c2 = 12.9; p < 0.01). The ANOVA indicated significant differences between cities in total and sitting heights and muscle area (p < 0.01), body weight and arm circumference (p < 0.05) which were generally held in the post hoc comparison by age in pre-menarche and post-menarche groups. The presence of a small body size at the expense of lowering in: total height, muscle area and leg length in LP youngsters, associated with a lower prevalence of menarche in this city, it would represents the adaptive cost of a lower welfare environment.

  18. Arsenic in Water Resources of the Southern Pampa Plains, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Paoloni, Juan D.; Sequeira, Mario E.; Espósito, Martín E.; Fiorentino, Carmen E.; del C. Blanco, María

    2009-01-01

    Confronted with the need for accessible sources of good quality water and in view of the fact that the threat to public health posed by arsenic occurs mainly through the ingestion of contaminated drinking water, the presence and distribution of arsenic was evaluated in the southern Pampa Plains of Bahía Blanca district in Argentina. The findings show variable concentrations of arsenic in a complex distribution pattern. Complementary information is provided on the behavior of the groundwater resource and its salinity in terms of dissolved ions. Groundwater is the most severely affected, 97% of the samples exceeding the guideline value for arsenic in drinking water as recommended by the WHO (Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality, 2004). and showing maximum concentrations of up to 0.30 mg/L. Informing those responsible for preventive medicine and alerting the community at large will facilitate measures to mitigate exposure and ensure the safety of drinking water. PMID:19936127

  19. Areal Changes of Lentic Water Bodies Within an Agricultural Basin of the Argentinean Pampas. Disentangling Land Management from Climatic Causes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Booman, Gisel Carolina; Calandroni, Mirta; Laterra, Pedro; Cabria, Fabián; Iribarne, Oscar; Vázquez, Pablo

    2012-12-01

    Wetland loss is a frequent concern for the environmental management of rural landscapes, but poor disentanglement between climatic and land management causes frequently constrains both proper diagnoses and planning. The aim of this study is to address areal changes induced by non-climatic factors on lentic water bodies (LWB) within an agricultural basin of the Argentinean Pampas, and the human activities that might be involved. The LWB of the Mar Chiquita basin (Buenos Aires province, Argentina) were mapped using Landsat images from 1998-2008 and then corrected for precipitation variability by considering the regional hydrological status on each date. LWB areal changes were statistically and spatially analyzed in relation to land use changes, channelization of streams, and drainage of small SWB in the catchment areas. We found that 12 % of the total LWB in the basin had changed ( P < 0.05) due to non-climatic causes. During the evaluated decade, 30 % of the LWB that changed size had decreased while 70 % showed steady increases in area. The number of altered LWB within watersheds lineally increased or decreased according to the proportion of grasslands replaced by sown pastures, or the proportion of sown pastures replaced by crop fields, respectively. Drainage and channelization do not appear to be related to the alteration of LWB; however some of these hydrologic modifications may predate 1998, and thus earlier effects cannot be discarded. This study shows that large-scale changes in land cover (e.g., grasslands reduction) can cause a noticeable loss of hydrologic regulation at the catchment scale within a decade.

  20. Water and CO2 Exchange for Different Land Use in Pampa Biome in Southern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberti, D. R.; de Moraes, O. L. L.; Diaz, M.; Tatsch, J. D.; Acevedo, O. C.; Zimermann, H. R.; Rubert, G. C.; Acosta, R.; Campos Velho, H. F.

    2015-12-01

    The Pampa is the newest and most unknown Brazilian Biome. It is located in the Southern portion of the country, as well as part of Argentina and the entire Uruguay, and is formed principally by natural grasslands that have been used for centuries for grazing livestock. In recent decades it has gone through a process of intense land use change and degradation, with the replacement of natural vegetation by rice paddy crops, soybean and exotic forests. Recent studies show that the Pampa has only 36% of its original vegetation in Brazil. Research on carbon and greenhouse gas emissions in Pampa Biome are recent. It is known that the Pampa natural areas contain high stocks of soil organic carbon, and therefore their conservation is relevant for climate change mitigation. However, the net exchange of carbon and water between the surface and the atmosphere are unknown. To fill this gap, a flux tower network, SULFLUX - www.ufsm.br/sulfux, was created. Currently, SULFLUX comprises three flux towers in the Pampa biome, two of them being over natural vegetation and the other one over a rice paddy. The flux towers are nearly 100 km apart from each other. We examine the effects of climate on carbon fluxes of through the year 2014. Analysis of temporal variability in water and CO2 fluxes are examined at daily to annual scales. Overall, regional variability in climatic drivers, land use and soil proprieties appears to have a greater effect on evapotranspiration than on net carbon exchange.

  1. Sotalol permeability in cultured-cell, rat intestine and PAMPA system

    PubMed Central

    LIU, WEI; OKOCHI, HIDEAKI; BENET, LESLIE Z.; ZHAI, SUO-DI

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To clarify sotalol’s classification in the BCS versus BDDCS systems through cellular, rat everted sac and PAMPA permeability studies. Methods Studies were carried out in Madin Darby canine kidney (MDCK) and MDR1-transfected MDCK (MDCK-MDR1) cell lines, rat everted gut sacs and the Parallel Artificial Membrane Permeability Assay (PAMPA) system. Three-hour transport studies were conducted in MDCK cell lines (with apical pH changes) and MDCK-MDR1 cells (with and without the P-glycoprotein inhibitor GG918); male Sprague-Dawley rats (300 ~ 350 g) were used to prepare everted sacs. In the PAMPA studies, drug solutions at different pH’s were dosed in each well and incubated for 5 hours. Samples were measured by LC-MS/MS, or liquid scintillation counting and apparent permeability (Papp) was calculated. Results Sotalol showed low permeability in all of the cultured-cell lines, everted sacs and PAMPA systems. It might be a border line P-glycoprotein substrate. The PAMPA study showed that sotalol’s permeability increased with a higher apical pH, while much less change was found in MDCK cells. Conclusion The low permeability rate for sotalol correlates with its Class 3 BDDCS assignment and lack of in vivo metabolism. PMID:22350803

  2. Learning interspecific communicative responses in Pampas foxes (Lycalopex gymnocercus).

    PubMed

    Barrera, Gabriela; Jakovcevic, Adriana; Mustaca, Alba; Bentosela, Mariana

    2012-01-01

    Domestic dogs show remarkable communicative abilities in their interaction with people. These skills maybe explained by the interaction between the domestication process and learning experiences during ontogeny. Studies carried out on other species of canids, which have not been domesticated are relevant to this topic. The purpose of this article is to study the effect of instrumental learning on captive Pampas foxes' (Lycalopex gymnocercus) communicative responses to humans. Seven foxes were tested in a conflict situation involving food within sight but out of their reach. In these situations dogs typically gaze at the human face to ask for food. In Study 1, there was an increase in gaze duration as a consequence of reinforcement and a decrease during extinction, when animals did not receive any more food. In Study 2, all of the four foxes tested successfully followed proximal pointing gesture to find hidden food. When a distal pointing cue was given, three out of four followed it in the first session and one in the second session. These results are consistent with those previously found in dogs, and suggest that learning experiences allow the development of communicative skills, even in not domesticated canid species.

  3. Relatedness and social organization of coypus in the Argentinean pampas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tunez, J.I.; Guichon, M.L.; Centron, D.; Henderson, A.P.; Callahan, C.; Cassini, M.H.

    2009-01-01

    Behavioural and trapping studies of the social organization of coypus have suggested the occurrence of kin groups and a polygynous mating system. We used 16 microsatellite markers to analyse parentage and relatedness relationships in two populations (J??uregui and Villa Ruiz) in the Argentinean Pampas. At J??uregui, a dominant male monopolized most paternities, leading to a high variance in reproductive success between males and a high level of polygyny. At Villa Ruiz, variance in reproductive success was low among resident males and males were the fathers of zero to four offspring each. For females, no significant differences were found. Two different social groups in each study site were used to assess genetic relatedness within and between groups. These groups were neighbouring at J??uregui but not at Villa Ruiz. At Villa Ruiz, coypus were significantly more related within than between groups, suggesting that behavioural groups were also genetic ones, and adult females were more related within than between groups, as should be expected for kin groups. This relationship was not found at J??uregui. Our results provide support to previous studies based on behavioural and trapping data, which indicate that coypus form social groups and have a polygynous mating system. However, we found differences in social organization between the two populations. This is the first study to determine parentage and/or relatedness in coypus. ?? 2008 The Authors.

  4. Brucella suis in armadillos (Chaetophractus villosus) from La Pampa, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Kin, Marta S; Fort, Marcelo; de Echaide, Susana T; Casanave, Emma B

    2014-06-04

    Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease transmitted from an animal reservoir to humans. Both, wildlife and domestic animals, contribute to the spreading of these zoonosis. The surveillance of the animal health status is strictly regulated for domestic animals, whereas disease monitoring in wildlife does not exist. The aim of the present study was to provide data on the prevalence of anti-Brucella antibodies in Chaetophractus villosus from a region of La Pampa, Argentina to assess public health risks. The C. villosus is endemic to South America, and in Argentina it represents a food resource for human consumption. A total of 150 sera of armadillos bleeding between 2007 and 2010 were tested using buffered plate antigen test (BPAT), serum agglutination test (SAT), 2-mercaptoethanol (2-ME) and complement fixation test (CFT), for the detection of anti-Brucella antibodies. Antibodies to Brucella sp. were found in 16% (24:150) of the armadillos tested using the BPAT test. All 24 positive samples were confirmed by the SAT, 2-ME and CFT tests. Strain isolation was attempted from liver and spleen samples of two animals with positive serology. Isolates were characterized by conventional biotyping and identification of specific DNA using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A total of 2 isolates were recovered from spleen and liver. Both of them were identified as Brucella suis biovar 1. This preliminary study provides the first report on the seroprevalence of brucellosis and describes the first isolate of B. suis biovar 1 in C. villosus in Argentina.

  5. Quaternary deformation around the Palo Negro area, Pampa Norte, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunetto, E.; Iriondo, M.; Zamboni, L.; Gottardi, G.

    2010-04-01

    The Pampa Norte region is a great plain characterized by low slopes and accumulation of hundreds of meters of thick loose sediments. A high morphostructure denominated San Guillermo block stands out in the central plain, the Tostado-Selva scarp forming its western boundary. It is located in an intraplate setting characterized by low tectonic activity. However recent uplift can be inferred by means of terrain analysis and the sedimentology of the Palo Negro Fm. Pond deposits (Palo Negro Fm.) observed in the scarp suggest topographic inversion during the Late Quaternary in the Palo Negro area. The morphology indicates that the deformation was widely distributed, forming a gentle (ca. 5 m amplitude and 13 km wavelength) asymmetric fold. Low sinuosity lineaments located in the base of the scarp, coincident with knick points in the topographic profile, can be interpreted as the projection of tip-lines by high-angle fault-propagation. This geometry is compatible with reverse kinematics on blind faults. A deformation style with reactivation of pre-existing faults is consistent with structural observations. Seismic reflectors suggest the presence of Cretaceous high-angle normal faults, and the orientation of lineaments is similar to the orientation of the graben systems and transverse accommodation zones originated during the opening of the South Atlantic Ocean. One OSL dating of 67.4 ± 5.1 kyr B.P (from Palo Negro Fm. supposed as deposited on a flat plain floor) and a height difference of 9.5 m measured in the Tostado-Selva scarp account for an averaged uplift rate of 0.14 mm/year.

  6. Comparative QSAR studies on PAMPA/modified PAMPA for high throughput profiling of drug absorption potential with respect to Caco-2 cells and human intestinal absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, Rajeshwar P.; Hansch, Corwin; Selassie, Cynthia D.

    2007-01-01

    Despite the dramatic increase in speed of synthesis and biological evaluation of new chemical entities, the number of compounds that survive the rigorous processes associated with drug development is low. Thus, an increased emphasis on thorough ADMET (absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion and toxicity) studies based on in vitro and in silico approaches allows for early evaluation of new drugs in the development phase. Artificial membrane permeability measurements afford a high throughput, relatively low cost but labor intensive alternative for in vitro determination of drug absorption potential; parallel artificial membrane permeability assays have been extensively utilized to determine drug absorption potentials. The present study provides comparative QSAR analysis on PAMPA/modified PAMPA for high throughput profiling of drugs with respect to Caco-2 cells and human intestinal absorption.

  7. [Past and present of Medicina (Buenos Aires)].

    PubMed

    Pasqualini, C D; Kotsias, B A

    2000-01-01

    To celebrate the 60th anniversary of Medicina (Buenos Aires) an International Symposium was held at the National Academy of Medicine of Buenos Aires on the 6-7th of October 1999, under the title of Clinical investigation in the next millennium. This meeting was a success as evidenced by the 376 registered attendants. Sixty years of uninterrupted publication is an uncommon feat in our midst and this could be achieved on the basis of a number of factors which include, the initiative of those who founded the journal, the unfailing motivation and dedication of the Editorial Board and primarily the authors who have trusted us with their manuscripts. Of the many important papers published, we have selected a few which proved to be milestones in the development of Argentine biomedicine. It is to be hoped that the future will bring an increase in our impact index through more and even better papers eventually reflecting the authentic scientific value of our country.

  8. [The seventieth anniversary of Medicina (Buenos Aires)].

    PubMed

    Kantor, Isabel N; Kotsias, Basilio A

    2010-01-01

    The historical trajectory of Medicina (Buenos Aires) and the current challenges accompanying its seventieth birthday are briefly described. The initial objectives at its foundation were to contribute to the advance of medicine, and support both clinical and experimental research in Argentina. These objectives continue to be valid. The editorial presence of the journal continues to be necessary. It is published following the international quality standards, the peer review system, and it is indexed in the main international data bases for scientific journals.

  9. Effect of Conversion from Natural Grassland to Arable Land on Soil Carbon Reserve in the Argentinean Rolling Pampas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andriulo, A. E.; Irizar, A. B.; Mary, B.; Wilson, M. G.

    2012-04-01

    The evaluation of the effect of land use change on accumulation of soil organic carbon (SOC) requires reliable data obtained from georeferenced sites with land use history records. The purpose of this study was to evaluate long term changes in the reserves of SOC in a typical Argiudol of the Pergamino series after the introduction of agriculture. Measures of soil organic carbon concentration and bulk density of Ap and A12 horizons were carried out in three sites of the Pergamino County (N of Buenos Aires province): a reference field with untilled pristine soil (33° 57' S; 60° 34' W), a field with 31 years (1980-2011) of agriculture (31Y) located next to the former, and a third field (33° 46' S; 60° 37' W) with 80 years (1910/1990) of agriculture (80Y). 31Y has been under continuous soybean cultivation with conventional tillage (CT) that consists of moldboard plow or double disk harrowing. At 80K the cultivation sequence was: 44 years of corn + 9 years of flax + 2 years of wheat + 17 years of wheat/soybean double cropping + 1 year of lentil; mostly under CT, some years under chisel plow during the 70's and a few years under zero tillage in soybean after wheat sown with conventional tillage during the 80's. Before the introduction of mechanical harvesting (1947) crop residues were burnt as well as the wheat stubble during the conventional double cropping period (1970-1980). Soil texture (23±1% clay, with predominance of illite) and field slopes (<0.5%) were similar in the three sites. Nitrogen and phosphorus fertilization rates were minimal due to the low crop response. The results are expressed in Mg ha-1 for an A soil horizon mass of 2500 Mg ha-1. The introduction of agriculture decreased SOC stock: 31Y varied from 68.3 to 40.1 Mg ha-1 (41.3% loss) and 80Y from 68.3 to 47.2 Mg ha-1 (30% loss). The SOC loss was the result of the mineralization of a large amount labile SOC present in the pristine soil and low annual additions of carbon issued from crop residue

  10. Pedro Gutierrez Bueno's Textbooks: Audiences, Teaching Practices and Chemical Revolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez, Jose Ramon Bertomeu; Belmar, Antonio Garcia

    2006-01-01

    Pedro Gutierrez Bueno wrote two editions of a chemistry textbook between 1788 and 1802. The paper offers a comparative view of both editions taking into account Gutierrez Bueno's biography, his intended audience and the changes related to the so-called chemical revolution. Some conclusions are at odds with common images about scientific…

  11. Occurrence of different species of fusarium from wheat in relation to disease levels predicted by a weather-based model in Argentina pampas region.

    PubMed

    Kikot, G E; Moschini, R; Consolo, V F; Rojo, R; Salerno, G; Hours, R A; Gasoni, L; Arambarri, A M; Alconada, T M

    2011-02-01

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) is an important disease throughout many of the world wheat-growing areas that have humid to semi-humid climate. The infection happens mainly during the anthesis of the wheat, when there have been favorable conditions of moisture and temperature. The direct relation of the infection to environmental factors makes possible the formulation of mathematical models that predict the disease. The causal agent of the FHB of the spike of wheat is attributed principally to Fusarium graminearum. High economic losses due yield decrease have been recorded in Argentina. In the present work, 67 isolates of Fusarium spp. were obtained from samples of wheat grains from Pampas region from 15 locations distributed in Buenos Aires, Entre Ríos, Santa Fe and Córboba provinces during 2006 and 2007 wheat-growing seasons. The identification of species from monosporic isolates was carried out by morphological characterization and use of species-specific PCR-based assays. Both identification criteria were necessary and complementary for the species determination, since in some cases the molecular identification was not specific. Scanty presence of F. graminearum was observed in 2006 wheat-growing season coinciding with the lack of favorable meteorological conditions for producing FHB infection events. High presence of F. graminearum isolates was observed in 2007 wheat-growing season, in accordance with moderate incidence of the disease according to spatial distribution of FHB incidence values. The aim of this report was to identify the causal agent of the FHB disease by different taxonomic criteria and to relate its occurrence with disease incidence values predicted by a weather-based model in Argentina.

  12. Social rank and reproductive performance of pampas deer females (Ozotoceros bezoarticus, Linnaeus, 1758).

    PubMed

    Morales-Piñeyrúa, Jéssica Tatiana; Ciappesoni, Gabriel; Ungerfeld, Rodolfo

    2014-06-01

    Our objectives were to determine if success index of pampas deer females is related with females' age and if social rank makes any influence on reproductive performance. Female social rank was determined in 18 groups of animals composed of 1 male: 5-9 females (total=98 females). Date of parturition for each female and sex and birth weight of fawns were recorded for each birth. The females were categorized in three hierarchical ranks: low (<0.33) (group LR), medium (0.33-0.66) (group MR), and high (>0.66) (group HR). The success index increased with age in pampas deer females (P<0.001). Social rank had no effect on calving success, relative calving dates, sex ratio or body weight at birth. In this study, the success index was related with females' age, and the reproductive performance did not differ between females of different social ranks.

  13. Permeability test for transdermal and local therapeutic patches using Skin PAMPA method.

    PubMed

    Vizserálek, Gábor; Berkó, Szilvia; Tóth, Gergő; Balogh, Réka; Budai-Szűcs, Mária; Csányi, Erzsébet; Sinkó, Bálint; Takács-Novák, Krisztina

    2015-08-30

    Using the skin as absorption site presents unique advantages that have facilitated the progression of transdermal drug delivery in the past decades. Efforts in drug research have been devoted to find a quick and reproducible model for predicting the skin permeation of molecules. The Parallel Artificial Membrane Permeability Assay (PAMPA) has been extended for prediction of transdermal permeation by developing a model with completely artificial membrane, which can mimic the permeation through the stratum corneum. The present study aims to extend the Skin PAMPA method for testing transdermal and local therapeutic patches. The original method was modified and seven commercially available transdermal and local therapeutic patches with four different active pharmaceutical ingredients (nicotine, fentanyl, rivastigmine and ketoprofen) were studied. Data were compared to the declared delivery rates that are indicated by the manufacturers. Ex vivo permeation study was also performed in order to compare the permeated amount of the released drugs obtained by the two methods. The flux across the artificial membrane as well as the human skin (ex vivo) has been calculated and compared to the in vivo flux deduced from the labelled delivery rate and the active area of the patches. The results suggest that Skin PAMPA system can serve as a useful tool for evaluation and classification of the transdermal patches.

  14. Neospora caninum causes severe economic losses in cattle in the humid pampa region of Argentina.

    PubMed

    Moore, Dadin; Reichel, Michael; Spath, Ernesto; Campero, Carlos

    2013-06-01

    This work estimates the economic losses due to Neospora abortions in the humid pampa region of Argentina.The total dairy and beef cattle population at risk of abortion is 1,771,326 and 9,726,684 head, respectively. In dairy cattle, there was an 8 % risk of experiencing abortion due to a variety of causes, but 16.5 % of them were due to Neospora caninum. The economic losses were estimated at US$1,415 (1,400-1,431) per abortion, which equates to a total loss of US$33,097,221 (15,622,600-119,349,693) for the dairy industry at the humid pampa region of Argentina. In beef cattle, the overall risk of abortion was estimated to be 4.5 % for all pregnancies,whereas 6.7 % are specifically due to N. caninum, with an economic loss of US$440 (range, 150-730) per abortion.This amounts to an annual loss to the beef industry of US$12,903,440 (range, 1,130,700-42,070,630) in the same area. The results of this study show that Neospora infections and thus abortions cause severe economic impacts in the dairy and beef industries in the humid pampa region of Argentina, which is one the most important areas of cattle production in the world [corrected].

  15. Gross Anatomy of Pampas Deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus, Linnaeus 1758) Mouth and Pharynx.

    PubMed

    Pérez, W; Vazquez, N; Ungerfeld, R

    2017-04-01

    The aims of this study were to describe the anatomy of the mouth and pharynx of the pampas deer, and to consider its evolutionary feeding niche according to those characteristics. Gross dissections of the mouth and pharynx were performed in 15 animals, 10 adult females and five young animals under 1 year (three males and two females), all dead by causes unrelated to this anatomical region. The upper lip entered in the constitution of a pigmented nasolabial plane. The masseter muscles weighed 43.8 ± 3.5 g and represented 0.23% of body weight, which corresponds to ruminants of feeders intermediate to grazers and browsers. Parotid glands represented 0.08% of the body weight, characteristic that also categorize the pampas deer as belonging to the intermediate feeding group. The dental formula was the same of the domestic ruminants. The upper incisors and canines were absent, and instead of them, there was a dental pad (Pulvinus dentalis). The upper canine teeth were present only in the deciduous dentition. The existence of a brachydont dentition turns Ozotoceros very vulnerable to continuous use as there is no compensatory teeth growth. The particular anatomy of the mouth and lips of this animal was adapted to a very selective feeding, taking highly nutritious sprouts beyond plant category. In conclusion and in addition to previous studies of anatomy of the digestive organs in this species, pampas deer may be categorized as belonging to the intermediate type of feeding.

  16. A palace for astronomy in Buenos Aires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gangui, Alejandro

    2011-06-01

    In no other epoch of Western history like in the Middle Ages, cosmology was so key an element of culture and, one way or another, the motion of the heavens ended up impregnating the literature of that time. Among the most noteworthy poets we find Dante Alighieri, who became famous for his Commedia, a monumental poem written roughly between 1307 and his death in 1321, and which the critics from 16th century onwards dubbed Divina. In this and other works, Dante pictures the cosmic image for the world, summing up the current trends of Neoplatonic and Islamic traditions. The Barolo Palace in the city of Buenos Aires is a singular combination of both astronomy and the worldview displayed in Dante's poetic masterpiece. Some links of the Palace's main architectural structure with the three realms of the Comedy have been studied in the past. In this note we consider its unique astronomical flavor, an issue which has not been sufficiently emphasized yet.

  17. Vocalizations during electroejaculation in anaesthetized adult and young pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus) males.

    PubMed

    Fumagalli, F; Damián, J P; Ungerfeld, R

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the vocalizations produced during electroejaculation under general anaesthesia in pampas deer males and to determine whether the characteristics of those vocalizations differ in adult and young pampas deer males. Electroejaculation was applied to 13 adults (AM) and 13 young (YM) males under general anaesthesia. Vocalizations were digitally recorded, and the number and duration of vocalizations, the latency in relation to each voltage, the total time vocalizing, and the structure of the fundamental frequency (F0) [initial frequency (F(start)), maximal frequency (F(max)), minimal frequency (F(min)) and final frequency (F(end))] were analysed. No male vocalized with 0 V; the number of animals that vocalized increased at 2 and 3 V and increased again at 4, 5 and 6 V (p < 0.05). The latency time from the beginning of each series (each voltage) decreased until 4 V (p < 0.01). The number of vocalizations/voltage increased from 4 V (p < 0.05). The length of each vocalization and the total time during which animals vocalized were greater in YM than AM (p = 0.02 and p = 0.01, respectively). Similarly, the fundamental frequencies were higher in YM than AM (p ≤ 0.05). Overall, we concluded that the vocalizations emitted during electroejaculation in pampas deer under general anaesthesia are related to the voltage applied during the process. Young males vocalize more time, probably due to a greater sensibility to the electric stimulation. The differences in the characteristics of the vocalizations between adult and young males may be related to the anatomic differences in the neck of adult or young males.

  18. Agronomic characterization of the Argentina Indicator Region. [U.S. corn belt and Argentine pampas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hicks, D. R. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    An overview of the Argentina indicator region including information on topography, climate, soils and vegetation is presented followed by a regionalization of crop livestock land use. Corn/soybean production and exports as well as agricultural practices are discussed. Similarities and differences in the physical agronomic scene, crop livestock land use and agricultural practices between the U.S. corn belt and the Argentine pampa are considered. The Argentine agricultural economy is described. Crop calendars for the Argentina indicator region, an accompanying description, notes on crop-livestock zones, wheat production, field size, and agricultural problems and practices are included.

  19. Triatoma infestans in Greater Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Gajate, P; Pietrokovsky, S; Abramo Orrego, L; Pérez, O; Monte, A; Belmonte, J; Wisnivesky-Colli, C

    2001-05-01

    The Health Administration Agencies of many municipalities in Greater Buenos Aires (GBA) receive frequent reports on triatomines in houses. The aim of this work was to identify and describe the dispersal foci of Triatoma infestans in an urban neighborhood of GBA, and contribute to the knowledge of the epidemiological situation in the region. In June 1998, potentially infested places were entomologically evaluated. T. infestans was only detected in a hen building for egg production, which housed approximately 6,000 birds. A total of 2,930 insects were collected. Density was about 9 triatomines/m(2). The proportions of fifth instar nymphs and adults were significantly higher than those of the other stages (p<0.001). The number of triatomines collected largely exceeded the highest domestic infestation found in one house from rural endemic areas of Argentina. Though triatomines were negative for Trypanosoma cruzi, they could acquire the parasite by coming in contact with infected people living in GBA. Besides, the numerous and widely distributed places housing hens and chickens, would favor the settlement of the vector. Together, both facts may constitute a risk of parasitic vectorial transmission. It is recommended to intensify systematic activities of vector search and case detection in GBA.

  20. Soil-borne bacterial structure and diversity does not reflect community activity in Pampa biome.

    PubMed

    Lupatini, Manoeli; Suleiman, Afnan Khalil Ahmad; Jacques, Rodrigo Josemar Seminoti; Antoniolli, Zaida Inês; Kuramae, Eiko Eurya; de Oliveira Camargo, Flávio Anastácio; Roesch, Luiz Fernando Würdig

    2013-01-01

    The Pampa biome is considered one of the main hotspots of the world's biodiversity and it is estimated that half of its original vegetation was removed and converted to agricultural land and tree plantations. Although an increasing amount of knowledge is being assembled regarding the response of soil bacterial communities to land use change, to the associated plant community and to soil properties, our understanding about how these interactions affect the microbial community from the Brazilian Pampa is still poor and incomplete. In this study, we hypothesized that the same soil type from the same geographic region but under distinct land use present dissimilar soil bacterial communities. To test this hypothesis, we assessed the soil bacterial communities from four land-uses within the same soil type by 454-pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene and by soil microbial activity analyzes. We found that the same soil type under different land uses harbor similar (but not equal) bacterial communities and the differences were controlled by many microbial taxa. No differences regarding diversity and richness between natural areas and areas under anthropogenic disturbance were detected. However, the measures of microbial activity did not converge with the 16S rRNA data supporting the idea that the coupling between functioning and composition of bacterial communities is not necessarily correlated.

  1. Seasonal patterns of horse fly richness and abundance in the Pampa biome of southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Krüger, Rodrigo Ferreira; Krolow, Tiago Kütter

    2015-12-01

    Fluctuations in seasonal patterns of horse fly populations were examined in rainforests of tropical South America, where the climate is seasonal. These patterns were evaluated with robust analytical models rather than identifying the main factors that influenced the fluctuations. We examined the seasonality of populations of horse flies in fields and lowland areas of the Pampa biome of southern Brazil with generalized linear models. We also investigated the diversity of these flies and the sampling effort of Malaise traps in this biome over two years. All of the 29 species had clear seasonality with regard to occurrence and abundance, but only seven species were identified as being influenced by temperature and humidity. The sampling was sufficient and the estimated diversity was 10% more than observed. Seasonal trends were synchronized across species and the populations were most abundant between September and March and nearly zero in other months. While previous studies demonstrated that seasonal patterns in population fluctuations are correlated with climatic conditions in horse fly assemblages in South America rainforests, we show a clear effect of each factor on richness and abundance and the seasonality in the prevalence of horse fly assemblages in localities of the Pampa biome.

  2. [Soil texture as a regulating factor of Escherichia coli adsorption in a Rolling Pampa basin (Argentina)].

    PubMed

    Behrends Kraemer, Filipe; Chagas, Celio I; Cosentino, Diego J; Paz, Marta; Moretton, Juan A

    2011-01-01

    Increase of bovine livestock rates in fragile areas of the Rolling Pampa entails a high risk of biological contamination. This biological contamination is regulated by edaphic variables such as texture, which control biological contaminants transport towards water bodies. In this work bacterial adsorption was correlated with individual particle sizes in 27 soils of a typical basin of the Rolling Pampa with slow centrifugation techniques. Bacterial adsorption values, using E. coli (ATCC 8739), ranged between 25.3 and 73.3% and significant correlation (R² = 0.6) was found between bacterial adsorption and clay content. This correlation was improved when particles smaller than 3 µm were considered (R² = 0.64) highlighting the capacity of very fine silt in adsorption mechanisms. Data obtained were compared with those proposed by Ling et al. (2002), finding similar slope but different intercept. This difference disappeared when a wild strain, isolated from bovine manures present in the basin, was used, since a bacterial adsorption increase of 48% was found.

  3. Potential biocontrol actinobacteria: Rhizospheric isolates from the Argentine Pampas lowlands legumes.

    PubMed

    Solans, Mariana; Scervino, Jose Martin; Messuti, María Inés; Vobis, Gernot; Wall, Luis Gabriel

    2016-11-01

    Control of fungal plant diseases by using naturally occurring non-pathogenic microorganisms represents a promising approach to biocontrol agents. This study reports the isolation, characterization, and fungal antagonistic activity of actinobacteria from forage soils in the Flooding Pampa, Argentina. A total of 32 saprophytic strains of actinobacteria were obtained by different isolation methods from rhizospheric soil of Lotus tenuis growing in the Salado River Basin. Based on physiological traits, eight isolates were selected for their biocontrol-related activities such as production of lytic extracellular enzymes, siderophores, hydrogen cyanide (HCN), and antagonistic activity against Cercospora sojina, Macrophomia phaseolina, Phomopsis sp., Fusarium oxysporum, and Fusarium verticilloides. These actinobacteria strains were characterized morphologically, physiologically, and identified by using molecular techniques. The characterization of biocontrol-related activities in vitro showed positive results for exoprotease, phospholipase, fungal growth inhibition, and siderophore production. However, none of the strains was positive for the production of hydrogen cyanide (HCN). Streptomyces sp. MM140 presented the highest index for biocontrol, and appear to be promising pathogenic fungi biocontrol agents. These results show the potential capacity of actinobacteria isolated from forage soils in the Argentine Pampas lowlands as promising biocontrol agents, and their future agronomic applications.

  4. Multiscale Trend Analysis for Pampa Grasslands Using Ground Data and Vegetation Sensor Imagery

    PubMed Central

    Scottá, Fernando C.; da Fonseca, Eliana L.

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate changes in the aboveground net primary productivity (ANPP) of grasslands in the Pampa biome by using experimental plots and changes in the spectral responses of similar vegetation communities obtained by remote sensing and to compare both datasets with meteorological variations to validate the transition scales of the datasets. Two different geographic scales were considered in this study. At the local scale, an analysis of the climate and its direct influences on grassland ANPP was performed using data from a long-term experiment. At the regional scale, the influences of climate on the grassland reflectance patterns were determined using vegetation sensor imagery data. Overall, the monthly variations of vegetation canopy growth analysed using environmental changes (air temperature, total rainfall and total evapotranspiration) were similar. The results from the ANPP data and the NDVI data showed the that variations in grassland growth were similar and independent of the analysis scale, which indicated that local data and the relationships of local data with climate can be considered at the regional scale in the Pampa biome by using remote sensing. PMID:26197320

  5. Multiscale Trend Analysis for Pampa Grasslands Using Ground Data and Vegetation Sensor Imagery.

    PubMed

    Scottá, Fernando C; da Fonseca, Eliana L

    2015-07-21

    This study aimed to evaluate changes in the aboveground net primary productivity (ANPP) of grasslands in the Pampa biome by using experimental plots and changes in the spectral responses of similar vegetation communities obtained by remote sensing and to compare both datasets with meteorological variations to validate the transition scales of the datasets. Two different geographic scales were considered in this study. At the local scale, an analysis of the climate and its direct influences on grassland ANPP was performed using data from a long-term experiment. At the regional scale, the influences of climate on the grassland reflectance patterns were determined using vegetation sensor imagery data. Overall, the monthly variations of vegetation canopy growth analysed using environmental changes (air temperature, total rainfall and total evapotranspiration) were similar. The results from the ANPP data and the NDVI data showed the that variations in grassland growth were similar and independent of the analysis scale, which indicated that local data and the relationships of local data with climate can be considered at the regional scale in the Pampa biome by using remote sensing.

  6. Presence of antibodies against Leptospira serovars in Chaetophractus villosus (Mammalia, Dasypodidae), La Pampa province, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Kin, Marta S; Brihuega, Bibiana; Fort, Marcelo; Delgado, Fernando; Bedotti, Daniel; Casanave, Emma B

    2015-01-01

    Leptospirosis is a zoonosis of worldwide distribution. The aim of this study was to examine the presence of antibodies against 21 Leptospira reactive serovars in Chaetophractus villosus in La Pampa province, Argentina, using the microscopic agglutination test (MAT). Pathologic changes compatible with leptospirosis and in situ detection of the agent by immunohistochemistry were studied in 24 and 3 individuals respectively. Only 35/150 (23.3%) serum samples had antibodies against Leptospira sp. Six percent of the samples reacted with serovar Canicola, 4.7% with serovar Castellonis, 1.3% with serovar Icterohemorrhagieae and 0.7% with serovar Hardjo. Sixteen (10.6%) serum samples agglutinated with Castellonis-Icterohemorrhagiae and Canicola-Castellonis serovars, both with 4.7%, and Canicola-Hardjo and Castellonis-Canicola-Icterohemorrhagiae both with 0.6%. Fourteen animals had variable degrees of lesions, which were more severe in animals with higher serological titers (3200), and Leptospira sp. was detected in 3 animals by immunohistochemistry. These results represent the first record of the presence of Leptospira in C. villosus in La Pampa.

  7. Land use change and ecosystem service provision in Pampas and Campos grasslands of southern South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Modernel, P.; Rossing, W. A. H.; Corbeels, M.; Dogliotti, S.; Picasso, V.; Tittonell, P.

    2016-11-01

    New livestock production models need to simultaneously meet the increasing global demand for meat and preserve biodiversity and ecosystem services. Since the 16th century beef cattle has been produced on the Pampas and Campos native grasslands in southern South America, with only small amounts of external inputs. We synthesised 242 references from peer-reviewed and grey literature published between 1945 and mid-2015 and analysed secondary data to examine the evidence on the ecosystem services provided by this grassland biodiversity hotspot and the way they are affected by land use changes and their drivers. The analysis followed the requirements of systematic review from the PRISMA statement (Moher et al 2009 Acad. Clin. Ann. Intern. Med. 151 264-9). The Pampas and Campos provide feed for 43 million heads of cattle and 14 million sheep. The biome is habitat of 4000 native plant species, 300 species of birds, 29 species of mammals, 49 species of reptiles and 35 species of amphibians. The soils of the region stock 5% of the soil organic carbon of Latin America on 3% of its area. Driven by high prices of soybean, the soybean area increased by 210% between 2000 and 2010, at the expense of 2 million ha (5%) of native grassland, mostly in the Pampas. Intensification of livestock production was apparent in two spatially distinct forms. In subregions where cropping increased, intensification of livestock production was reflected in an increased use of grains for feed as part of feedlots. In subregions dominated by native grasslands, stocking rates increased. The review showed that land use change and grazing regimes with low forage allowances were predominantly associated with negative effects on ecosystem service provision by reducing soil organic carbon stocks and the diversity of plants, birds and mammals, and by increasing soil erosion. We found little quantitative information on changes in the ecosystem services water provision, nutrient cycling and erosion control

  8. The Argentinean network for the assessment and monitoring of Pampean shallow-lakes (PAMPA2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zagarese, H. E.

    2012-12-01

    The Pampa region of Argentina is an extensive wetland containing nearly 200,000 shallow-lakes. The region is under increasing agricultural pressure resulting from climate change (increased temperature and precipitation) and the substitution of cattle breeding and traditional cultures by transgenic soy. Among the many services that they provide, shallow-lakes are highly responsive to changes in climate and land use. Therefore, long-term studies of shallow-lakes provide useful clues to understand and track changes occurring in their complex watersheds. PAMPA2 is a recently funded, long-term network project, with wide geographic coverage, aimed at studying Pampean shallow-lakes. Thirteen network sites (i.e., shallow lakes) occurring along the precipitation gradient (from < 300 mm y-1 to > 1000 mm y-1) form the core of the project. The network integrates various research teams from eight universities and research centers, with a strong multidisciplinary component. The approaches combine traditional sampling; high-rate monitoring using automated sensors; and remote sensing. The network develops and manufactures most the instruments, including automated buoys and unmanned aircrafts. In this presentation, we will provide details on the structure and state of development of the PAMPA2 network, and present a long-term case study of a large Pampean shallow-lake, exemplifying the strong dependence of lake processes on weather variables. Laguna Chascomús is a large, hypertrophic shallow-lake. Chascomús is one of the PAMPA2 study sites that have been more extensively studied. In this shallow-lake, high nutrient availability permits the development of a dense microbial plankton community, which in turn translates into exceptionally high water turbidity. Phytoplankton primary production is strongly limited by light availability. As a consequence, turbidity is strongly and positively correlated to the incoming solar radiation, resulting in a remarkable seasonal pattern of water

  9. FTS measurements of submillimeter-wave opacity at Pampa la Bola

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuo, Hiroshi; Sakamoto, Akihiro; Matsushita, Satoki

    1998-07-01

    The first measurement of submillimeter-wave atmospheric opacity spectra at the Pampa la Bola site (Northern Chile, Atacama 4800 m altitude) has been performed during the winter season using a Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS). Atmospheric emission spectra, as a function of airmass, were measured under various weather conditions. Atmospheric opacity was evaluated from sky temperature at zenith as well as from tipping measurements, which are independent measure but give consistent results. The FTS opacity measurements also show good match with 220 GHz radiometer measurements. Correlations between millimeter-wave and submillimeter-wave opacities get worse when 220 GHz opacity is larger than 0.1. Deviations from the opacity correlation at each frequency show good correlations themselves but have different relative variations at each frequency. This indicates that atmospheric transparency cannot be characterized only by millimeter-wave opacity buy requires simultaneous opacity measurements at millimeter and submillimeter-wavelengths.

  10. FTS Measurements of Submillimeter-Wave Atmospheric Opacity at Pampa la Bola

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuo, Hiroshi; Sakamoto, Akihiro; Matsushita, Satoki

    1998-06-01

    The first measurements of submillimeter-wave atmospheric opacity spectra at the Pampa la Bola site (Northern Chile, Atacama, 4800 m altitude) have been performed during the winter season using a Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS). Atmospheric emission spectra, as a function of airmass, were measured under various weather conditions. Atmospheric opacity was evaluated from sky temperature at the zenith as well as from tipping measurements, which are independent measures but give consistent results. Correlation diagrams between 220 GHz and 345 GHz, 410 GHz, 492 GHz, 675 GHz, 691 GHz, 809 GHz, 875 GHz are shown. Correlations between millimeter-wave and submillimeter-wave opacities get worse when 220 GHz opacity is larger than 0.1. Deviations from the opacity correlation at each frequency show good correlations themselves, but have different relative variations at each frequency. This indicates that atmospheric transparency cannot be characterized only by millimeter-wave opacity, but requires simultaneous opacity measurements at millimeter and submillimeter-wavelengths.

  11. Use of DMPC and DSPC lipids for verapamil and naproxen permeability studies by PAMPA.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Figueroa, M J; Contreras-Garrido, B C; Soto-Arriaza, M A

    2015-04-01

    Verapamil and naproxen Parallel Artificial Membrane Permeability Assay (PAMPA) permeability was studied using lipids not yet reported for this model in order to facilitate the quantification of drug permeability. These lipids are 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine (DSPC), 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC) and an equimolar mixture of DMPC/DSPC, both in the absence and in the presence of 33.3 mol% of cholesterol. PAMPA drug permeability using the lipids mentioned above was compared with lecithin-PC. The results show that verapamil permeability depends on the kind of lipid used, in the order DMPC > DMPC/DSPC > DSPC. The permeability of the drugs was between 1.3 and 3.5-times larger than those obtained in lecithin-PC for all the concentrations of the drug used. Naproxen shows similar permeability than verapamil; however, the permeability increased with respect to lecithin-PC only when DMPC and DMPC/DSPC were used. This behavior could be explained by a difference between the drug net charge at pH 7.4. On the other hand, in the presence of cholesterol, verapamil permeability increases in all lipid systems; however, the relative verapamil permeability respect to lecithin-PC did not show any significant increase. This result is likely due to the promoting effect of cholesterol, which is not able to compensate for the large increase in verapamil permeability observed in lecithin-PC. With respect to naproxen, its permeability value and relative permeability respect lecithin-PC not always increased in the presence of cholesterol. This result is probably attributed to the negative charge of naproxen rather than its molecular weight. The lipid systems studied have an advantage in drug permeability quantification, which is mainly related to the charge of the molecule and not to its molecular weight or to cholesterol used as an absorption promoter.

  12. Assessing groundwater recharge mechanisms in the Pampa del Tamarugal Basin of northern Chile's Atacama Desert

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayne, R., Jr.; Pollyea, R.; Dodd, J. P.; Olson, E. J.; Swanson, S.

    2015-12-01

    The hyper-arid Atacama Desert in northern Chile is one of the driest inhabited places on Earth receiving little to no rain (<5 mm/yr). Within the Tarapacá Region of the Atacama Desert, the Pampa del Tamarugal Aquifer (PTA) is the primary source of water for agriculture, industry, mining, and residential uses. The PTA covers 5,000 km2, and is located in the Pampa del Tamarugal Basin, which is situated between the Andes and the Coastal Cordillera, and is filled with ~1700m of Miocene and younger sediments. The source of recharge for the PTA originates as precipitation in the high Andes, which can receive up to 400 mm/yr of precipitation; however, the mechanisms and magnitude of recharge to the PTA are still poorly understood. Here, we present a regional scale, non-isothermal 2-D numerical groundwater model is developed to analyze the time scales and geological controls on fluid flow paths recharging the PTA. Results from this work suggest that (1) both shallow groundwater flow and deep (>1km) hydrothermal fluid circulation are responsible for recharging the PTA; (2) topography and geothermal gradients are the main driving factors for regional groundwater flow; (3) the Altos de Pica member 4, an ignimbrite layer in the sedimentary basin controls both heat and fluid flow in the western part of the basin, this is evident due to the presence of convection cells and meteoric water upwelling and presenting itself as surface water (salars); and (4) it takes meteoric water 100,000 years to travel from the high Andes to reach Pica and 1,000,000 years for salar formation. In addition, this work provides a theoretical basis for the spatial distribution of highly alkaline surface water bodies, known as salars in the western Atacama Desert.

  13. Pampas fox (Lycalopex gymnocercus) new intermediate host of Sarcocystis svanai (Apicomplexa: Sarcocystidae).

    PubMed

    Scioscia, Nathalia P; Olmos, Leandro; Gorosábel, Antonella; Bernad, Lucía; Pedrana, Julieta; Hecker, Yanina P; Gual, Ignacio; Laura Gos, M; Denegri, Guillermo M; Moore, Dadín P; Moré, Gastón

    2017-06-01

    Several Sarcocystis spp. have carnivores as definitive host and sarcocysts are common in muscles of herbivores (intermediate host). However, sarcocysts have been found in muscles of wild and domestic carnivores suggesting they are intermediate host for some Sarcocystis spp. Here, we report mature sarcocysts in the muscles of Pampas fox (Lycalopex gymnocercus). A total of 36 free-living foxes were analyzed. Different skeletal muscles were assessed by microscopic and molecular methods. Cysts and/or DNA of Sarcocystis sp. were detected in 61.1% (22/36) foxes. Histopathology revealed the presence of sarcocysts in 52.8% (19/36) foxes. The tongue and masseter were the muscles more frequently infected. Of all the samples processed by homogenization of pooled muscles of each animal, 45.4% (10/22) evidenced muscle cysts and 68.2% (15/22) resulted positives by PCR. Individual cysts obtained from the ten positive samples in direct microscopic examination were all positive by PCR. Five amplicons from individual cysts from different samples were selected for sequencing together with four PCR products obtained from the pooled muscles. All nine sequences shared a high identity among them (99.8-100%) and showed the highest identity by BLAST (99%) with a S. svanai sequence (KM362428) from a North American dog. By transmission electron microscopy, the sarcocyst wall was thin (<1μm), had minute undulations, with tiny evaginations and without evident villar protrusions. The cyst wall type is referred as "type 1". Sarcocystis svanai infects L. gymnocercus with a high prevalence and the presence of mature sarcocysts suggests the role of the Pampas fox as natural intermediate host. The definitive host of S. svanai remains unknown.

  14. Modification of a PAMPA model to predict passive gastrointestinal absorption and plasma protein binding.

    PubMed

    Bujard, Alban; Voirol, Hervé; Carrupt, Pierre-Alain; Schappler, Julie

    2015-09-18

    The Parallel Artificial Membrane Permeability Assay (PAMPA) is a well-known high throughput screening (HTS) technique for predicting in vivo passive absorption. In this technique, two compartments are separated by an artificial membrane that mimics passive permeability through biological membranes such as the dermal layer, the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), and the blood brain barrier (BBB). In the present study, a hexadecane artificial membrane (HDM)-PAMPA was used to predict the binding of compounds towards the human plasma using a mixture of human serum albumin (HSA) and alpha-1-acid glycoprotein (AGP). The ratio of HSA and AGP was equivalent to that found in the human plasma for both proteins (∼20:1). A pH gradient (5.0-7.4) was performed to increase the screening capacity and overcome the issue of passive permeability for acidic and amphoteric compounds. With this assay, the prediction of passive GIT absorption was maintained and the compounds were discriminated according to their permeability (on a no-to-high scale). The plasma protein binding (PPB) was estimated via the correlation of the differences between the amount of compound crossing the artificial membrane in assays conducted with and without protein using only a two end-point measurement. The use of a mixture of HSA and AGP to modulate drug permeation was compared to the use of the same concentrations of HSA and AGP used separately. The addition of HSA alone in the acceptor compartment was sufficient for estimating PPB, while it was demonstrated that AGP alone could enable the estimation of AGP binding.

  15. Arsenic contamination of natural waters in San Juan and La Pampa, Argentina.

    PubMed

    O'Reilly, J; Watts, M J; Shaw, R A; Marcilla, A L; Ward, N I

    2010-12-01

    Arsenic (As) speciation in surface and groundwater from two provinces in Argentina (San Juan and La Pampa) was investigated using solid phase extraction (SPE) cartridge methodology with comparison to total arsenic concentrations. A third province, Río Negro, was used as a control to the study. Strong cation exchange (SCX) and strong anion exchange (SAX) cartridges were utilised in series for the separation and preservation of arsenite (As(III)), arsenate (As(V)), monomethylarsonic acid (MA(V)) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA(V)). Samples were collected from a range of water outlets (rivers/streams, wells, untreated domestic taps, well water treatment works) to assess the relationship between total arsenic and arsenic species, water type and water parameters (pH, conductivity and total dissolved solids, TDS). Analysis of the waters for arsenic (total and species) was performed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) in collision cell mode. Total arsenic concentrations in the surface and groundwater from Encon and the San José de Jáchal region of San Juan (north-west Argentina within the Cuyo region) ranged from 9 to 357 μg l(-1) As. Groundwater from Eduardo Castex (EC) and Ingeniero Luiggi (LU) in La Pampa (central Argentina within the Chaco-Pampean Plain) ranged from 3 to 1326 μg l(-1) As. The pH range for the provinces of San Juan (7.2-9.7) and La Pampa (7.0-9.9) are in agreement with other published literature. The highest total arsenic concentrations were found in La Pampa well waters (both rural farms and pre-treated urban sources), particularly where there was high pH (typically > 8.2), conductivity (>2,600 μS cm(-1)) and TDS (>1,400 mg l(-1)). Reverse osmosis (RO) treatment of well waters in La Pampa for domestic drinking water in EC and LU significantly reduced total arsenic concentrations from a range of 216-224 μg l(-1) As to 0.3-0.8 μg l(-1) As. Arsenic species for both provinces were predominantly As(III) and As(V). As

  16. [Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in Buenos Aires, 2009-2014].

    PubMed

    Iglesias, Ayelén A; Bellomo, Carla M; Martínez, Valeria P

    2016-01-01

    Andes virus is the causative agent of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) in Argentina and neighboring countries. In our country four different areas are affected: Northwest, Southwest, Central and Northeast, where distinct Andes virus genotypes were characterized. Three genotypes were described in Buenos Aires province (Central area): AND-Buenos Aires, AND-Lechiguanas and AND-Plata. In this work, we considered all HPS cases confirmed by ELISA and real time RT-PCR during the period 2009-2014 in Buenos Aires province. The annual distribution, fatality rate and geographic distribution were analyzed. We also analyzed the genotypes involved by RT-PCR and nucleotide sequencing. Finally we evaluated epidemiological data in order to establish the route of transmission. We analyzed 1386 suspect cases of hantavirus infection from Buenos Aires province and we confirmed 88 cases of Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome during 2009-2014. The overall average was 14.3 cases per year. The occurrence of a HPS outbreak was confirmed in Buenos Aires province during 2013, showing a 3 fold increase in case number compared to the annual average between 2009 and 2012, tending to normalize during 2014. The overall lethality was 25.6%, with a maximum value of 45.5% in 2011. Genotype analysis was performed in 30.7% of confirmed cases, AND-BsAs show the highest incidence, it was characterized in 72% of the studied cases. Epidemiological data and results of viral genome comparison strongly suggest person-to-person transmission in the three clusters of two cases described in our study.

  17. Structure, Composition and Metagenomic Profile of Soil Microbiomes Associated to Agricultural Land Use and Tillage Systems in Argentine Pampas

    PubMed Central

    Carbonetto, Belén; Rascovan, Nicolás; Álvarez, Roberto; Mentaberry, Alejandro; Vázquez, Martin P.

    2014-01-01

    Agriculture is facing a major challenge nowadays: to increase crop production for food and energy while preserving ecosystem functioning and soil quality. Argentine Pampas is one of the main world producers of crops and one of the main adopters of conservation agriculture. Changes in soil chemical and physical properties of Pampas soils due to different tillage systems have been deeply studied. Still, not much evidence has been reported on the effects of agricultural practices on Pampas soil microbiomes. The aim of our study was to investigate the effects of agricultural land use on community structure, composition and metabolic profiles on soil microbiomes of Argentine Pampas. We also compared the effects associated to conventional practices with the effects of no-tillage systems. Our results confirmed the impact on microbiome structure and composition due to agricultural practices. The phyla Verrucomicrobia, Plactomycetes, Actinobacteria, and Chloroflexi were more abundant in non cultivated soils while Gemmatimonadetes, Nitrospirae and WS3 were more abundant in cultivated soils. Effects on metabolic metagenomic profiles were also observed. The relative abundance of genes assigned to transcription, protein modification, nucleotide transport and metabolism, wall and membrane biogenesis and intracellular trafficking and secretion were higher in cultivated fertilized soils than in non cultivated soils. We also observed significant differences in microbiome structure and taxonomic composition between soils under conventional and no- tillage systems. Overall, our results suggest that agronomical land use and the type of tillage system have induced microbiomes to shift their life-history strategies. Microbiomes of cultivated fertilized soils (i.e. higher nutrient amendment) presented tendencies to copiotrophy while microbiomes of non cultivated homogenous soils appeared to have a more oligotrophic life-style. Additionally, we propose that conventional tillage systems

  18. Structure, composition and metagenomic profile of soil microbiomes associated to agricultural land use and tillage systems in Argentine Pampas.

    PubMed

    Carbonetto, Belén; Rascovan, Nicolás; Álvarez, Roberto; Mentaberry, Alejandro; Vázquez, Martin P

    2014-01-01

    Agriculture is facing a major challenge nowadays: to increase crop production for food and energy while preserving ecosystem functioning and soil quality. Argentine Pampas is one of the main world producers of crops and one of the main adopters of conservation agriculture. Changes in soil chemical and physical properties of Pampas soils due to different tillage systems have been deeply studied. Still, not much evidence has been reported on the effects of agricultural practices on Pampas soil microbiomes. The aim of our study was to investigate the effects of agricultural land use on community structure, composition and metabolic profiles on soil microbiomes of Argentine Pampas. We also compared the effects associated to conventional practices with the effects of no-tillage systems. Our results confirmed the impact on microbiome structure and composition due to agricultural practices. The phyla Verrucomicrobia, Plactomycetes, Actinobacteria, and Chloroflexi were more abundant in non cultivated soils while Gemmatimonadetes, Nitrospirae and WS3 were more abundant in cultivated soils. Effects on metabolic metagenomic profiles were also observed. The relative abundance of genes assigned to transcription, protein modification, nucleotide transport and metabolism, wall and membrane biogenesis and intracellular trafficking and secretion were higher in cultivated fertilized soils than in non cultivated soils. We also observed significant differences in microbiome structure and taxonomic composition between soils under conventional and no-tillage systems. Overall, our results suggest that agronomical land use and the type of tillage system have induced microbiomes to shift their life-history strategies. Microbiomes of cultivated fertilized soils (i.e. higher nutrient amendment) presented tendencies to copiotrophy while microbiomes of non cultivated homogenous soils appeared to have a more oligotrophic life-style. Additionally, we propose that conventional tillage systems may

  19. Spatial and temporal constraints on regional-scale groundwater flow in the Pampa del Tamarugal Basin, Atacama Desert, Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayne, Richard S.; Pollyea, Ryan M.; Dodd, Justin P.; Olson, Elizabeth J.; Swanson, Susan K.

    2016-12-01

    Aquifers within the Pampa del Tamarugal Basin (Atacama Desert, northern Chile) are the sole source of water for the coastal city of Iquique and the economically important mining industry. Despite this, the regional groundwater system remains poorly understood. Although it is widely accepted that aquifer recharge originates as precipitation in the Altiplano and Andean Cordillera to the east, there remains debate on whether recharge is driven primarily by near-surface groundwater flow in response to periodic flood events or by basal groundwater flux through deep-seated basin fractures. In addressing this debate, the present study quantifies spatial and temporal variability in regional-scale groundwater flow paths at 20.5°S latitude by combining a two-dimensional model of groundwater and heat flow with field observations and δ18O isotope values in surface water and groundwater. Results suggest that both previously proposed aquifer recharge mechanisms are likely influencing aquifers within the Pampa del Tamarugal Basin; however, each mechanism is operating on different spatial and temporal scales. Storm-driven flood events in the Altiplano readily transmit groundwater to the eastern Pampa del Tamarugal Basin through near-surface groundwater flow on short time scales, e.g., 100-101 years, but these effects are likely isolated to aquifers in the eastern third of the basin. In addition, this study illustrates a physical mechanism for groundwater originating in the eastern highlands to recharge aquifers and salars in the western Pampa del Tamarugal Basin over timescales of 104-105 years.

  20. Diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in soil from the Pampa Ondulada, Argentina, assessed by pyrosequencing and morphological techniques.

    PubMed

    Colombo, R P; Fernández Bidondo, L; Silvani, V A; Carbonetto, M B; Rascovan, N; Bompadre, M J; Pérgola, M; Cuenca, G; Godeas, A M

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of agronomic practices on the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal community in soils from the Pampa Ondulada region (Argentina), and to compare conclusions reached when using pyrosequencing or a morphological approach. The AM fungal diversity of 3 agricultural exploitations located in the Pampa Ondulada region (Argentina) was assessed by using 454 amplicon pyrosequencing and morphological (based on spore traits) approaches. Two kinds of soil managements are found in these sites: agronomic and non-agronomic. A total of 188 molecular operational taxonomic units and 29 morphological species of AM fungi were identified. No effect of soil management on AM richness was detected. AM fungal communities were more diverse and equitable in the absence of agronomic management. In contrast, the results on β-diversity varied according to the methodology used. We concluded that agronomic management of soil has a negative effect on AM fungal community biodiversity in the Pampa Ondulada region. We also conclude that both methodologies complement each other in the study of AM fungal ecology. This study greatly improved the knowledge about AM fungi in South America where the molecular diversity of AM fungi was practically unknown.

  1. Chemical immobilisation of free-ranging Pampas foxes (Pseudalopex gymnocercus): Assessment of ketamine-xylazine and tiletamine-zolazepam combinations.

    PubMed

    Luengos Vidal, E M; Castillo, D F; Baglioni, J; Manfredi, C; Lucherini, M; Casanave, E B

    2014-04-01

    Two protocols to immobilise free-ranging Pampas foxes for ear-tagging or radio-collaring were evaluated. One hundred fifteen foxes were injected with ketamine-xylazine (K-X) and thirteen with tiletamine-zolazepam (T-Z). The use of both T-Z and K-X combinations typically resulted in a smooth induction and recovery. In 86% of the cases K-X protocol was judged effective (mean±SD, K: 10.7±3.3mg/kg, X: 1.0±1.0mg/kg) while T-Z protocol was judged effective in 92% of the cases (T: 3.6±1.05mg/kg, Z: 3.6±1.05mg/kg). The primary differences between the two drug combinations were that the time necessary for the complete recovery was longer with T-Z, and thermic problems were found more frequently with K-X. Additionally, our results suggest that thermic stress may be a relatively frequent complication for Pampas foxes. This study provides baseline data on some physiologic variables in Pampas foxes captured with different methods and drugs in field conditions.

  2. HDM-PAMPA to predict gastrointestinal absorption, binding percentage, equilibrium and kinetics constants with human serum albumin and using 2 end-point measurements.

    PubMed

    Bujard, Alban; Petit, Charlotte; Carrupt, Pierre-Alain; Rudaz, Serge; Schappler, Julie

    2017-01-15

    The parallel artificial membrane permeability assay (PAMPA) is a high-throughput screening (HTS) technique developed to predict passive permeability through numerous different biological membranes, such as the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), the blood brain barrier (BBB), and the dermal layer. PAMPA is based on an artificial membrane, such as hexadecane (HDM), which separates two compartments (i.e., a donor and an acceptor compartment). In the present study, an HDM-PAMPA method was developed with human serum albumin (HSA) under iso-pH and gradient-pH conditions to predict the percentage of binding, dissociation/association constants (Kd and Ka, respectively) and dissociation/association kinetic rates (koff and kon, respectively) between a given drug and HSA. Thanks to the kinetic properties of PAMPA, a two end-point assay was implemented to obtain all three properties. The assay was used to measure basic, acidic, and amphoteric compounds. The protein was free in solution, allowing a direct comparison between this assay and equilibrium dialysis (ED). The developed PAMPA enabled screening of up to 96 compounds in a single run, generating valuable information on absorption and distribution in a high-throughput and high-repeatable manner.

  3. [Structure and functioning of research ethics committees in the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires and Greater Buenos Aires].

    PubMed

    Sabio, María Fernanda; Bortz, Jaime Elías

    2015-06-01

    Given the few existing studies on research ethics committees (RECs) in Argentina, this paper aims to describe the structure and functioning of institutional RECs in the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires and Greater Buenos Aires. A descriptive, qualitative and quantitative research study was carried out using a survey conducted between March and July 2012. The sample was made up of 46 RECs. Forty percent of committee members were doctors and the age and sex distribution met standards. Inadequate numbers of methodologists, community representatives, lawyers and members external to the institution were identified, as well as shortcomings regarding administrative staff, fixed locations for meetings, budgets adequate to expenditures and training in research ethics. Some of those surveyed reported problems in their relationship with the institution and with researchers, in addition to difficulties regarding the time available to perform tasks.

  4. Atrazine and metribuzin sorption in soils of the Argentinean humid pampas.

    PubMed

    Daniel, Peter E; Bedmar, Francisco; Costa, José L; Aparicio, Virginia C

    2002-12-01

    Laboratory studies were conducted to determine the influence of surface and subsurface properties of three representative soils of the humid pampas of Argentina on atrazine and metribuzin sorption. Atrazine and metribuzin sorption isotherms were constructed for each soil at four depths. Sorption affinity of herbicides was approximated by the Freundlich constant (K(f)), distribution coefficient (Kd), and the normalized Kd based on organic carbon content (K(oc)). Multiple regression of the sorption constants against selected soil properties indicated that organic carbon content (OC) and silt were related positively and negatively, respectively, to atrazine K(f) coefficient (r2 = 0.93), while Kd coefficient of atrazine was related positively to organic carbon content and negatively to both silt and cation exchange capacity (CEC) (r2 = 0.96). For metribuzin, only organic matter content was related positively to Kr coefficient (r2 = 0.51). Lower K(f) values for atrazine were obtained for all soils with increasing depth, indicating lesser sorption at greater depths. Metribuzin sorption was quite similar across all depths. Sorption constant K(f) of atrazine ranged from 2.06 to 7.82, while metribuzin K(f) values ranged from 1.8 to 3.52 and were lower than atrazine for all soils and depths, indicating a greater leaching potential across the soil profile.

  5. Microbiological quality of honey from the Pampas Region (Argentina) throughout the extraction process.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Leticia A; Ghilardi, Carolina; Hoffmann, Betiana; Busso, Carlos; Gallez, Liliana M

    2016-12-16

    The microbiological quality of honey obtained from different processing points and the environmental quality within honey houses were assessed in the Pampas Region (Argentina). Mold and yeast (MY), culturable heterotrophic mesophilic bacteria (CHMB), the number of spore-forming bacteria as well as the presence of Shigella spp., Salmonella spp. and fecal coliforms were evaluated in 163 samples. These samples were taken from eight honey houses. Results showed that 89 samples had ≤10CFU of MY/g honey, 69 ranged from 10 to 50CFU/g and two reached 65.5CFU/g. Eighty one percent of the samples showed ≤30CFU of CHMB/g honey and only seven samples had between 50 and 54.25CFU/g. Thirty six honey samples were obtained from drums: in 25 samples (69.4%) CHMB counts were less than ≤30CFU/g of honey; in 20 samples (55.5%) the values of MY were between 10 and 50CFU/g honey and total coliforms were only detected in 20 samples. Fecal coliforms, spores of clostridia as well as Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp were not detected and less than 50 spores of Bacillus spp. per g were observed in the honey from drums. Therefore, the microbiological honey quality within the honey houses did not show any sanitary risks. Our results were reported to honey house owners to help them understand the need to reinforce proper honey handling and sanitation practices.

  6. Arterial vascularization and morphological characteristics of adrenal glands in the Pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus, Linnaeus 1758).

    PubMed

    Erdoğan, S; Pérez, W

    2014-10-01

    This research presents morphological characteristics of adrenal glands and a demonstration of arterial vascularization in the Pampas deer, which is considered to be in extreme danger of extinction. A total of ten deer constituted the material of the study. Vascularization of organs was investigated by using latex injection technique. Left adrenal glands were basically supplied by coeliac, cranial mesenteric, renal and lumbal arteries. The arterial vascularization of the left adrenal glands was very complex in comparison with right adrenal glands. In two examples, branch of the lumbal artery was divided into phrenic caudal artery and cranial adrenal artery. In six examples, it was observed that the caudomedial and ventral regions of the left adrenal glands were also supplied by thinner branches that stemmed from second left lumbal artery. Besides, coeliac and cranial mesenteric arteries also gave off shorter branches supplying the cranial region of the left adrenal glands in five examples. It was determined that two branches originated from abdominal aorta directly for supplying left adrenal glands in only two examples. In four examples, two caudal adrenal arteries stemmed separately from left renal artery in a short distance. Arterial vascularization of right adrenal glands was more constant and supplied by lumbal and renal arteries. The adrenal glands were generally oval or round shaped. In only two examples, left adrenal glands were 'V-' or heart-shaped. There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in sizes between right and left adrenal glands.

  7. Microbial quality of soil from the Pampa biome in response to different grazing pressures.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Rafael S; Bataiolli, Renata; da Costa, Pedro B; Lisboa, Bruno; Passaglia, Luciane Maria P; Beneduzi, Anelise; Vargas, Luciano K

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of different grazing pressures on the activity and diversity of soil bacteria. We performed a long-term experiment in Eldorado do Sul, southern Brazil, that assessed three levels of grazing pressure: high pressure (HP), with 4% herbage allowance (HA), moderate pressure (MP), with 12% HA, and low pressure (LP), with 16% HA. Two reference areas were also assessed, one of never-grazed native vegetation (NG) and another of regenerated vegetation after two years of grazing (RG). Soil samples were evaluated for microbial biomass and enzymatic (β-glucosidase, arylsulfatase and urease) activities. The structure of the bacterial community and the population of diazotrophic bacteria were evaluated by RFLP of the 16S rRNA and nifH genes, respectively. The diversity of diazotrophic bacteria was assessed by partial sequencing of the 16S rDNA gene. The presence of grazing animals increased soil microbial biomass in MP and HP. The structures of the bacterial community and the populations of diazotrophic bacteria were altered by the different grazing managements, with a greater diversity of diazotrophic bacteria in the LP treatment. Based on the characteristics evaluated, the MP treatment was the most appropriate for animal production and conservation of the Pampa biome.

  8. Brachial Plexus in the Pampas Fox (Lycalopex gymnocercus): a Descriptive and Comparative Analysis.

    PubMed

    de Souza Junior, Paulo; da Cruz de Carvalho, Natan; de Mattos, Karine; Abidu Figueiredo, Marcelo; Luiz Quagliatto Santos, André

    2017-03-01

    Twenty thoracic limbs of ten Lycalopex gymnocercus were dissected to describe origin and distribution of the nerves forming brachial plexuses. The brachial plexus resulted from the connections between the ventral branches of the last three cervical nerves (C6, C7, and C8) and first thoracic nerve (T1). These branches connected the suprascapular, subscapular, axillary, musculocutaneous, radial, median and ulnar nerves to the intrinsic musculature and connected the brachiocephalic, thoracodorsal, lateral thoracic, long thoracic, cranial pectoral and caudal pectoral nerves to the extrinsic musculature. The C7 ventral branches contribute most to the formation of the nerves (62.7%), followed by C8 (58.8%), T1 (40.0%) and C6 (24.6%). Of the 260 nerves dissected, 69.2% resulted from a combination of two or three branches, while only 30.8% originated from a single branch. The origin and innervation area of the pampas fox brachial plexus, in comparison with other domestic and wild species, were most similar to the domestic dog and wild canids from the neotropics. The results of this study can serve as a base for comparative morphofunctional analysis involving this species and development of nerve block techniques. Anat Rec, 300:537-548, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Paleogenetical study of pre-Columbian samples from Pampa Grande (Salta, Argentina).

    PubMed

    Carnese, Fransisco R; Mendisco, Fanny; Keyser, Christine; Dejean, Cristina B; Dugoujon, Jean-Michel; Bravi, Claudio M; Ludes, Bertrand; Crubézy, Eric

    2010-03-01

    Ancient DNA recovered from 21 individuals excavated from burial sites in the Pampa Grande (PG) region (Salta province) of North-Western Argentina (NWA) was analyzed using various genetic markers (mitochondrial DNA, autosomal STRs, and Y chromosomal STRs). The results were compared to ancient and modern DNA from various populations in the Andean and North Argentinean regions, with the aim of establishing their relationships with PG. The mitochondrial haplogroup frequencies described (11% A, 47% B, and 42% D) presented values comparable to those found for the ancient Andean populations from Peru and San Pedro de Atacama. On the other hand, mitochondrial and Y chromosomal haplotypes were specific to PG, as they did not match any other of the South American populations studied. The described genetic diversity indicates homogeneity in the genetic structure of the ancient Andean populations, which was probably facilitated by the intense exchange network in the Andean zone, in particular among Tiwanaku, San Pedro de Atacama, and NWA. The discovery of haplotypes unique to PG could be due to a loss of genetic diversity caused by recent events affecting the autochthonous populations (establishment of the Inca Empire in the region, colonization by the Europeans).

  10. Arterial Vascularization of the Gastrointestinal Tract of the Pampas Deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus, Linnaeus, 1758).

    PubMed

    Pérez, W; Vazquez, N; Ungerfeld, R

    2016-06-01

    Based on gross dissection of fifteen adult animals (11 females, 4 males), we described the arterial supply of the stomach and intestines of the pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus), a South American endangered species. The coeliac artery emitted the splenic, left gastric and hepatic arteries. The splenic artery directed towards the spleen, and the right ruminal artery, which is its only collateral directed towards the stomach, being the main artery of the rumen. The left gastric artery gave origin to the left ruminal, the reticular and the left gastroepiploic arteries. The left gastroepiploic artery originated the reticular accessory artery. Both arteries, gastric and left gastroepiploic, anastomosed their right counterparts derived from the hepatic artery on the curvatures of the abomasum. The cranial mesenteric artery irrigated the second half of the duodenum until the beginning of the descending colon. The thickest branch emitted by the cranial mesenteric artery was the ileocolic artery, which was destined to the ascending colon, caecum and ileum. The colic branches and the right colic arteries were irradiated on the right surface of the spiral loop of the ascending colon and distributed to both centripetal and centrifugal coils of the ascending colon; the colic branches were also anastomosed with the last jejunals and ileals and with the right colic arteries. There were no variations in the origin of any of the main branches derived from the coeliac and cranial mesenteric arteries. This species had a basic pattern of arterial distribution similar to small domestic ruminants.

  11. [Taeniosis prevalence and human cysticercosis seroprevalence in Pampa Cangallo, Ayacucho, Peru 2008].

    PubMed

    Cordero, Avelino; Miranda, Eduardo; Segovia, Gualberto; Cantoral, Valentina; Huarcaya, Irene

    2010-01-01

    To estimate the taeniosis prevalence and human cysticercosis seroprevalence in a rural town from the Peruvian central Andes (Pampa Cangallo, Ayacucho), we performed a cross sectional study in 2008, included 368 people between 5 and 70 years. Fast sedimentation technique and direct examination of stool samples were used to taeniosis diagnosis, and ELISA are used as screening test to cysticercosis, positives cases were confirmed with immunoblot. We found five positives cases to Taenia sp. eggs, which represents a 1.4% (95%CI: 0.2 - 2.5%) of a taeniosis prevalence, being individuals between the 20 to 49 years those which presented high proportion. We found 3.3% (95%CI: 1.5 - 5.1%) of cysticercosis prevalence for 12 positives cases, being most frequent in women. No association with evaluated factors was found. Though the prevalence is low, the existence of the taeniosis and cysticercosis is confirmed in this population, by what there is suggested the establishment of prevention and control strategies, emphatically in the community education.

  12. Rembrandt’s Jewish Physician—Dr Ephraim Bueno (1599–1665): A Brief Medical History

    PubMed Central

    Weisz, George M.; Albury, William R.

    2013-01-01

    Medicine in the Middle Ages was, and ever since remained, one of the main preoccupations of the professionally restricted Jews. One of the medical dynasties on the Iberian Peninsula was the Bueno (Bonus) family. Following the expulsion of the Jews from Spain and their spread in Europe, these Iberian physicians became successful everywhere—just as the Buenos were in the Netherlands. PMID:23908860

  13. 17β-carboxamide steroids--in vitro prediction of human skin permeability and retention using PAMPA technique.

    PubMed

    Dobričić, Vladimir; Marković, Bojan; Nikolic, Katarina; Savić, Vladimir; Vladimirov, Sote; Čudina, Olivera

    2014-02-14

    In this paper, twenty-two 17β-carboxamide steroids were synthesized from five corticosteroids (hydrocortisone, prednisolone, methylprednisolone, dexamethasone and betamethasone) in two steps. The first step was periodic acid oxydation of these corticosteroids to corresponding cortienic acids and the second step was amidation of thus obtained cortienic acids with esterified l-amino acids. These compounds are potential soft corticosteroids with local anti-inflammatory activity in the skin. Parallel artificial membrane permeability assay (PAMPA) was applied in order to predict permeability and retention of these compounds in human skin. Comparison of permeability and retention parameters between 17β-carboxamide steroids and corresponding corticosteroids was performed. Compounds with significantly higher retention were identified and the derivative that does not have significantly higher permeability was underlined. Molecular structures of all compounds were optimized by use of Gaussian semiempirical/PM3 method. Geometrical, thermodynamic, physicochemical and electronical molecular parameters of the optimized structures were calculated and quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) analysis was performed in order to explain permeability and retention of these compounds. ANN-, PLS- and MLR-QSPR models were created. Quality of these models was evaluated by commonly used statistical parameters and the most reliable models were selected. Analyzing descriptors in the selected models, main molecular properties that influence permeability and retention in the PAMPA artificial membrane were identified. Based on these data, further structural modifications could be applied in order to increase retention without significant increase of permeability, which can positively affect potential local anti-inflammatory activity of these compounds. Selected QSPR models could be used as in silico tool for predicting human skin permeability and retention of novel 17

  14. The belt of metagabbros of La Pampa: Lower Paleozoic back-arc magmatism in south-central Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernicoff, Carlos J.; Zappettini, Eduardo O.; Villar, Luisa M.; Chemale, Farid, Jr.; Hernández, Laura

    2009-12-01

    Combined geological, geochronological, geochemical and geophysical studies have led to identification of a large (˜300 km long, ˜5 km wide) N-S trending belt of metagabbros in the province of La Pampa, south-central Argentina. This belt, though only poorly exposed in the localities of Valle Daza and Sierra de Lonco Vaca, stands out in the geophysical data (aeromagnetics and gravity). Modeling of the aeromagnetic data permits estimation of the geometry of the belt of metagabbros and surrounding rocks. The main rock type exposed is metagabbros with relict magmatic nucleii where layering is preserved. A counterclockwise P-T evolution affected these rocks, i.e., during the Middle Ordovician the protolith reached an initial granulite facies of metamorphism (M1), evolving to amphibolite facies (M2). During the Upper Devonian, a retrograde, greenschist facies metamorphism (M3) partially affected the metagabbros. The whole-rock Sm-Nd data suggest a juvenile source from a depleted mantle, with model ages ranging from 552 to 574 Ma, and positive Epsilon values of 6.51-6.82. A crystallization age of 480 Ma is based on geological considerations, i.e. geochronological data of the host rocks as well as comparisons with the Las Aguilas mafic-ultramafic belt of Sierra de San Luis (central Argentina). The geochemical studies indicate an enriched MORB and back-arc signature. The La Pampa metagabbros are interpreted to be originated as a result of the extension that took place in a back-arc setting coevally with the Famatinian magmatic arc (very poorly exposed in the western part of the study area). The extensional event was 'aborted' by the collision of the Cuyania terrane with Pampia-Gondwana in the Middle Ordovician, causing deformation and metamorphism throughout the arc-back-arc region. The similarities between the La Pampa metagabbros and the mafic-ultramafic Las Aguilas belt of the Sierra de San Luis are very conspicuous, for example, the age (Lower Paleozoic), geochemical

  15. VNTR polymorphism in the Buenos Aires, Argentina, metropolitan population.

    PubMed

    Sala, A; Penacino, G; Corach, D

    1997-12-01

    VNTR loci provide a wealth of information for human genetic research, ranging from gene mapping to paternity testing and forensic identification. In this study we report the construction, validation, and analysis of the first local genetic database for VNTR markers for Argentina. A sample of the metropolitan population of Buenos Aires was typed by means of six VNTR systems. Allele frequencies and expected heterozygosity were calculated. The sample set was further tested for departures from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and power of exclusion. Allele frequency distributions are compatible with previously reported data on Caucasian populations, and no departures from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium were detected.

  16. Agriculturization in the Argentinean Northern Humid Pampas: the Impact on Soil Structure and Runoff

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasal, M. C.; Léonard, J.; Andriulo, A.; Wilson, M. G.

    2012-04-01

    Argentina is among the countries with the largest cropped area under no-tillage (NT). No tillage was adopted in the northern Humid Pampas to reduce the widespread soil degradation by water erosion. With the advent of genetically modified soybean varieties, NT has developed exponentially. This evolution, combined with the influence of the international market trend, has resulted in large changes in crop sequence composition toward the disappearance of pastures and the expansion of soybean monoculture. The aim of this work was to evaluate the long-term consequences of these changes on the topsoil structure and the way in which the evolution of soil structure relates to the simplification of the crop sequence and to runoff at a regional scale. We analyzed the topsoil structure of 25 sites with Argiudolls having 4 to 29 consecutive years of NT using the cultural profile approach. An intensification sequence index (ISI) was calculated as the ratio between the length of the growth period and the length of the year. Fifteen natural-rainfall runoff plots (100 m2) with 3.5% slope were used to analyze the relationship between soil structural state, crop sequence and runoff for four years. Four types of soil structures were identified and a general pattern of vertical soil structure organization was revealed. The top centimeters of 72% of the sites were dominated by a granular structure. Platy soil structure development was omnipresent: all sites exhibited a horizontal platy structure (<10 cm thick) developing either directly from the soil surface or from below the granular structure. Below the platy structure layer, a gamma soil structure (with visible structural porosity) was observed in all sites (30-75% of the A horizon), while compacted delta soil structure was detected in localized zones. A significant parabolic relationship (R2=0.60) was found between the number of consecutive years under NT and the proportion of platy structure in the A horizon. The proportion of

  17. Influence of weather variables and plant communities on grasshopper density in the Southern Pampas, Argentina.

    PubMed

    de Wysiecki, María Laura; Arturi, Marcelo; Torrusio, Sandra; Cigliano, María Marta

    2011-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the influence of weather (precipitation and temperature) and plant communities on grasshopper density over a 14-year period (1996-2009) in Benito Juárez County, Southern Pampas, Argentina. Total density strongly varied among plant communities. Highest values were registered in 2001 and 2003 in highly disturbed pastures and in 2002 and 2009 in halophilous grasslands. Native grasslands had the lowest density values. Seasonal precipitation and temperature had no significant effect on total grasshopper density. Dichroplus elongatus (Giglio-Tos) (Orthoptera: Acridoidea), Covasacris pallidinota (Bruner), Dichroplus pratensis Bruner, Scotussa lemniscata Stål, Borellia bruneri (Rehn) and Dichroplus maculipennis (Blanchard) comprised, on average, 64% of the grasshopper assemblages during low density years and 79% during high density years. Dichroplus elongatus, S. lemniscata and C. pallidinota were the most abundant species in 2001, 2002 and 2003, while D. elongatus, B. brunneri and C. pallidinota in 2009. Dichroplus elongatus and D. pratensis, mixed feeders species, were positively affected by summer rainfall. This suggests that the increase in summer precipitation had a positive effect on the quantity and quality forage production, affecting these grasshopper populations. Scotussa lemniscata and C. pallidinota were negatively affected by winter and fall temperature, possibly affecting the embryonic development before diapause and hatching. Dichroplus elongatus and D. pratensis were associated with highly disturbed pastures, S. lemniscata with pastures and B. bruneri and D. maculipennis with halophilous grasslands. Covasacris pallidinota was closely associated with halophilous grasslands and moderately disturbed pastures. Weather conditions changed over the years, with 2001, 2002 and 2003 having excessive rainfall while 2008 and 2009 were the driest years since the study started. We suggest that although seasonal precipitation and

  18. Long-lasting floods buffer the thermal regime of the Pampas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houspanossian, Javier; Kuppel, Sylvain; Nosetto, Marcelo; Di Bella, Carlos; Oricchio, Patricio; Barrucand, Mariana; Rusticucci, Matilde; Jobbágy, Esteban

    2016-10-01

    The presence of large water masses influences the thermal regime of nearby land shaping the local climate of coastal areas by the ocean or large continental lakes. Large surface water bodies have an ephemeral nature in the vast sedimentary plains of the Pampas (Argentina) where non-flooded periods alternate with flooding cycles covering up to one third of the landscape for several months. Based on temperature records from 17 sites located 1 to 700 km away from the Atlantic coast and MODIS land surface temperature data, we explore the effects of floods on diurnal and seasonal thermal ranges as well as temperature extremes. In non-flooded periods, there is a linear increase of mean diurnal thermal range (DTR) from the coast towards the interior of the region (DTR increasing from 10 to 16 K, 0.79 K/100 km, r 2 = 0.81). This relationship weakens during flood episodes when the DTR of flood-prone inland locations shows a decline of 2 to 4 K, depending on surface water coverage in the surrounding area. DTR even approaches typical coastal values 500 km away from the ocean in the most flooded location that we studied during the three flooding cycles recorded in the study period. Frosts-free periods, a key driver of the phenology of both natural and cultivated ecosystems, are extended by up to 55 days during floods, most likely as a result of enhanced ground heat storage across the landscape ( 2.7 fold change in day-night heat transfer) combined with other effects on the surface energy balance such as greater night evaporation rates. The reduced thermal range and longer frost-free periods affect plant growth development and may offer an opportunity for longer crop growing periods, which may not only contribute to partially compensating for regional production losses caused by floods, but also open avenues for flood mitigation through higher plant evapotranspirative water losses.

  19. Gross anatomy of the female genital organs of the pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus, Linnaeus 1758).

    PubMed

    Pérez, W; Vazquez, N; Ungerfeld, R

    2013-06-01

    To describe the macroscopic anatomy of the genital organs of the female pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus), organs from animals dead in a captive breeding station were dissected. A total of twenty females, 17 adults and 10 pre-puberal approximately 1 year old were studied by gross dissection. The ovaries of adult females without corpora lutea weighed 0.22±0.02 g on the right and 0.20±0.01 g on the left and accounted for 0.03±0.01% of body weight. All corpora lutea (n=6) were found in the right ovary, but in cases where there was no corpus luteum present, the right ovary tended to be heavier than the left (P=0.1). The absence of ovarian bursa, intercornual ligament and suburethral diverticle is peculiar to this deer species. Only 6 convex caruncles were found in the uterine horns, which differ from the more of 100 present in domestic ruminants. Four regular folds that were observed in the cervix of the uterus should not be an obstacle to the passage of a transcervical catheter, allowing intrauterine artificial insemination. The close relationship between the ovarian artery and vein stood up could be associated with the passage of the uterine luteolytic factor from the vein to the ovarian artery, avoiding its systemic way, as happens in domestic ruminants. While the plan of organization was similar, there are some differences with the descriptions of other ruminants. Our results may be very useful as it provides with information that may be considered for the development of female reproductive biotechnologies.

  20. Sperm characterization and identification of sperm sub-populations in ejaculates from pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus).

    PubMed

    Beracochea, F; Gil, J; Sestelo, A; Garde, J J; Santiago-Moreno, J; Fumagalli, F; Ungerfeld, R

    2014-10-01

    Pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus) is a native endangered species. Knowledge of the basic spermiogram characteristics and the morphometric descriptors is necessary to effectively develop sperm cryopreservation. In other species, sperm sub-population is related to sperm cryo-resistance. The objective was to provide a general description of the sperm, including sperm head morphometric descriptors, its repeatability, and the existence of sperm sub-populations. Sperm were obtained from adult males by electroejaculation during the breeding season. The motility score was 3.4 ± 0.2 (mean ± SEM) and progressive motility was 59.4 ± 3.7%. Ejaculated volume was 413.9 ± 51.0 μl, the total number of sperm ejaculated was 321.2 ± 55.4 × 10(6). Also, 63.3 ± 3.1% of the sperm were morphologically abnormal and 23.7 ± 2.3% had acrosome damage. The sperm head length was 7.6 ± 0.01 μm, width 4.4 ± 0.01 μm, area 28.1 ± 0.07 μm(2) and the perimeter was 21.9 ± 0.04 μm. There was a positive relationship among morphometric descriptors and the motility score, overall motility and progressive motility. Also length (P=0.011), width (P=0.003), area (P=0.006) and perimeter (P=0.009) of sperm head obtained in two different collections were positively related. Overall, the low concentration, volume, overall quality and abnormal morphology, and wide variation of these variables may be a limitation for the development of sperm cryopreserved banks. There were three sperm sub-populations with different morphometric characteristics. The morphometric descriptors are maintained similarly among different collections.

  1. Influence of Weather Variables and Plant Communities on Grasshopper Density in the Southern Pampas, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    de Wysiecki, María Laura; Arturi, Marcelo; Torrusio, Sandra; Cigliano, María Marta

    2011-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the influence of weather (precipitation and temperature) and plant communities on grasshopper density over a 14-year period (1996–2009) in Benito Juárez County, Southern Pampas, Argentina. Total density strongly varied among plant communities. Highest values were registered in 2001 and 2003 in highly disturbed pastures and in 2002 and 2009 in halophilous grasslands. Native grasslands had the lowest density values. Seasonal precipitation and temperature had no significant effect on total grasshopper density. Dichroplus elongatus (Giglio-Tos) (Orthoptera: Acridoidea), Covasacris pallidinota (Bruner), Dichroplus pratensis Bruner, Scotussa lemniscata Stål, Borellia bruneri (Rehn) and Dichroplus maculipennis (Blanchard) comprised, on average, 64% of the grasshopper assemblages during low density years and 79% during high density years. Dichroplus elongatus, S. lemniscata and C. pallidinota were the most abundant species in 2001, 2002 and 2003, while D. elongatus, B. brunneri and C. pallidinota in 2009. Dichroplus elongatus and D. pratensis, mixed feeders species, were positively affected by summer rainfall. This suggests that the increase in summer precipitation had a positive effect on the quantity and quality forage production, affecting these grasshopper populations. Scotussa lemniscata and C. pallidinota were negatively affected by winter and fall temperature, possibly affecting the embryonic development before diapause and hatching. Dichroplus elongatus and D. pratensis were associated with highly disturbed pastures, S. lemniscata with pastures and B. bruneri and D. maculipennis with halophilous grasslands. Covasacris pallidinota was closely associated with halophilous grasslands and moderately disturbed pastures. Weather conditions changed over the years, with 2001, 2002 and 2003 having excessive rainfall while 2008 and 2009 were the driest years since the study started. We suggest that although seasonal precipitation and

  2. Second Line of Defense, Port of Buenos Aires and Exolgan Container Terminal Operational Testing and Evaluation Plan, Buenos Aires, Argentina

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, Bryan W.

    2012-08-23

    The Office of the Second Line of Defense (SLD) Megaports project team for Argentina will conduct operational testing and evaluation (OT&E) at Exolgan Container Terminal at the Port of Dock Sud from July 16-20, 2012; and at the Port of Buenos Aires from September 3-7, 2012. SLD is installing radiation detection equipment to screen export, import, and transshipment containers at these locations. The purpose of OT&E is to validate and baseline an operable system that meets the SLD mission and to ensure the system continues to perform as expected in an operational environment with Argentina Customs effectively adjudicating alarms.

  3. Melanie Klein in Buenos Aires: beginnings and developments.

    PubMed

    Etchegoyen, R Horacio; Zysman, Samuel

    2005-06-01

    In the first decades of the 20th century, Freud was known and quoted in Latin America by an elite of enlightened minds. In the 1940s a convergence took place in Buenos Aires of European exiles with local pioneers, and thus the Argentine Psychoanalytical Association was founded in 1942. Since then psychoanalysis has grown steadily and has spread into hospitals and universities, influencing culture at large. The socioeconomic situation of that time permitted this phenomenon to develop, to the astonishment of observers. In this paper the authors study the strong influence of Kleinian thought during the first 30 years of this development. The original works of local thinkers constitute the intellectual capital that sustains the idea of an 'Argentine psychoanalytic school'. During the 1970s, both society and psychoanalysis endured deep and complex changes. Lacan's teachings gained support and Klein's influence began to decline. At present the Buenos Aires Kleinians keep working, while their relationship with Lacanians and other schools is calmer. Respectful discussions became thus possible, oriented to strictly scientific differences.

  4. [Toxic fungi in Buenos Aires City and surroundings].

    PubMed

    Romano, Gonzalo M; Iannone, Leopoldo; Novas, María V; Carmarán, Cecilia; Romero, Andrea I; López, Silvia E; Lechner, Bernardo E

    2013-01-01

    In Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales,Universidad de Buenos Aires there is a service called Servicio de Identificación de Hongos Tóxicos, directed by researchers of the Program of Medicinal Plants and Fungi Involved in Biological Degradation (PROPLAME-PRHIDEB, CONICET) that assist hospitals and other health establishments, identifying the different samples of fungi and providing information about their toxicity, so that patients can receive the correct treatment. The objective of the present study was to analyze all the cases received from 1985 to 2012. This analysis permitted the confection of a table identifying the most common toxic species. The information gathered revealed that 47% of the patients were under 18 years of age and had eaten basidiomes; the remaining 53% were adults who insisted that they were able to distinguish edible from toxic mushrooms. Chlorophyllum molybdites turned out to be the main cause of fungal intoxication in Buenos Aires, which is commonly confused with Macrolepiota procera, an edible mushroom. In the second place Amanita phalloides was registered, an agaric known to cause severe symptoms after a long period of latency (6-10 hours), and which can lead to hepatic failure even requiring a transplant to prevent severe internal injuries or even death, is not early and correctly treated.

  5. Kinanthropometry of Group I rugby players in Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Holway, Francis Edward; Garavaglia, Romina

    2009-09-01

    The large variability in size and structure between playing positions in rugby merits specific kinanthropometric profiling. We aim to report detailed descriptive anthropometric data of a sample of 133 rugby players stratified by field positions (age 24.3 +/- 3.6 years, body mass 89.5 +/- 13.2 kg, and stature 178.8 +/- 7.3 cm) belonging to seven Group I teams competing in the Buenos Aires Rugby Union, and to find out if front row forwards (FR) have larger muscle and skeletal parameters. Body composition was analysed with the five-way fractionation method, expressing tissue masses in absolute terms, relative to weight as percentages and to stature as phantom z-scores. Furthermore, somatotype, body mass index, sum of six skinfolds, and muscle-to-bone ratio were calculated. Players were subsequently grouped into three positional clusters and muscular-skeletal elements compared, showing FR to have larger proportional muscle and skeletal structure than remaining forwards and backs (P < 0.001), albeit a similar muscle-to-bone ratio (P = 0.060). When compared to a sample of the top six teams at the 2003 Rugby World Cup, the Buenos Aires players were considerably smaller, measuring, on average, 3-11 cm less in height and 6-13 kg less in weight.

  6. Land-use change and soil type are drivers of fungal and archaeal communities in the Pampa biome.

    PubMed

    Lupatini, Manoeli; Jacques, Rodrigo Josemar Seminoti; Antoniolli, Zaida Inês; Suleiman, Afnan Khalil Ahmad; Fulthorpe, Roberta R; Roesch, Luiz Fernando Würdig

    2013-02-01

    The current study aimed to test the hypothesis that both land-use change and soil type are responsible for the major changes in the fungal and archaeal community structure and functioning of the soil microbial community in Brazilian Pampa biome. Soil samples were collected at sites with different land-uses (native grassland, native forest, Eucalyptus and Acacia plantation, soybean and watermelon field) and in a typical toposequence in Pampa biome formed by Paleudult, Albaqualf and alluvial soils. The structure of soil microbial community (archaeal and fungal) was evaluated by ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis and soil functional capabilities were measured by microbial biomass carbon and metabolic quotient. We detected different patterns in microbial community driven by land-use change and soil type, showing that both factors are significant drivers of fungal and archaeal community structure and biomass and microbial activity. Fungal community structure was more affected by land-use and archaeal community was more affected by soil type. Irrespective of the land-use or soil type, a large percentage of operational taxonomic unit were shared among the soils. We accepted the hypothesis that both land-use change and soil type are drivers of archaeal and fungal community structure and soil functional capabilities. Moreover, we also suggest the existence of a soil microbial core.

  7. Early Holocene human remains from the Argentinean Pampas: additional evidence for distinctive cranial morphology of early South Americans.

    PubMed

    Pucciarelli, Héctor M; Perez, S Ivan; Politis, Gustavo G

    2010-10-01

    The cranial morphology of Early Holocene American human samples is characterized by a long and narrow cranial vault, whereas more recent samples exhibit a shorter and wider cranial vault. Two hypotheses have been proposed to account for the morphological differences between early and late-American samples: (a) the migratory hypothesis that suggests that the morphological variation between early and late American samples was the result of a variable number of migratory waves; and (b) the local diversification hypothesis, that is, the morphological differences between early and late American samples were mainly generated by local, random (genetic drift), and nonrandom factors (selection and phenotypic plasticity). We present the first craniometric study of three early skulls from the Argentinean Pampas, dated ∼8,000 cal. years BP (Arroyo Seco 2, Chocorí, and La Tigra), and one associated with mega-faunal remains (Fontezuelas skull). In addition, we studied several Late Holocene samples. We show that the skulls from the Argentinean Pampas are morphologically similar to other Early Holocene American skulls (i.e., Lagoa Santa from Brazil, Tequendama, Checua, and Aguazuque from Colombia, Lauricocha from Peru, and early Mexicans) that exhibit long and narrow cranial vaults. These samples differ from the Late Holocene American samples that exhibit a shorter and wider cranial vault. Our results underscore the important differences in cranial morphology between early and late-American samples. However, we emphasize the need for further studies to discuss alternative hypotheses regarding such differences.

  8. Physiological and biochemical parameters in response to electroejaculation in adult and yearling anesthetized pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus) males.

    PubMed

    Fumagalli, F; Villagrán, M; Damián, J P; Ungerfeld, R

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize changes in physiological and biochemical parameters during electroejaculation (EE) under general anaesthesia in adult and yearling pampas deer males (Ozotoceros bezoarticus). The relation between heart rate, pulse rate, respiratory rate and oximetry with EE voltages was studied. The changes in cortisol, alkaline phosphatase, creatine kinase, aspartate aminotransferase and rectal temperature were determined before and after electroejaculation (BEE and AEE). Heart rate and pulse rate values increased during EE, with a greater increase in heart rate in adults (p < 0.01). Respiratory rate and SpO(2) were not affected by EE or category. The rectal temperature decreased in adults and yearlings during EE (p = 0.0001). Alkaline phosphatase, creatine kinase and aspartate aminotransferase concentrations increased AEE (p < 0.001, p < 0.01 and p < 0.05, respectively). Alkaline phosphatase and creatine kinase concentrations were greater in young than in adult males (p < 0.05). In conclusion, the EE under general anaesthesia in the pampas deer provoked increases in heart and pulse rates, as well as in creatine kinase, aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase concentrations, and a decrease in rectal temperature in both categories. Oximetry values were especially low during the procedure. Heart rate increase was greater in adult males, and alkaline phosphatase and creatine kinase concentrations were greater in yearlings.

  9. The Effect of Long Lasting Floods on the Thermal Regime of the Pampas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jobbagy, E. G.; Di Bella, C. M.; Nosetto, M. D.; Houspanossian, J.

    2014-12-01

    The presence of large water masses influences the thermal regime on the land, with proximity to the ocean or large continental water bodies having a strong effect on local climate. The vast sedimentary plain of the Pampas (Argentina) has extremely low regional slopes and poor surface drainage networks. Under its temperate subhumid climate this region alternates non-flooded periods with flooding cycles of several years that cover up to one third of the landscape with surface water and bring water tables within 1.5 m form the surface in approximately another third. Based on field temperature records for 50 years from 28 sites located 1 to 700 km away from the Atlantic coast and MODIS land surface temperature data, we explore the effects of floods on diurnal and seasonal thermal amplitude and temperature extremes. In non-flooded periods there is a linear increase of mean diurnal thermal amplitude (MDTA) from the coast towards the interior of the region (MDTA raising from 10 to 18 degrees C, 0.97 degrees C/100 km, r2=0.72). During floods the MTDA of flood prone stations declines between 2 to 4 degrees C depending on surface water coverage in the area. At Pehuajo (500 km away from the ocean, most flooded station), MTDA approached typical coastal values during the three flooding cycles recorded in the study period. Frosts-free periods, which are a key driver of the phenology of both natural and cultivated ecosystems, are extended during flooded periods, while heat waves are reduced in frequency and intensity. Temperature records from shallow groundwater (less than 0.5 m of depth) display a substantial diurnal cycle suggesting that waterlogged land complements surface water bodies in its day/night heat transfer role. Reduced thermal amplitude opens an opportunity for longer crop growing periods, including more intense double cropping, which not only contributes to compensates regional production losses caused by floods but opens an opportunity to mitigate them through

  10. Preliminary air pollution monitoring in San Miguel, Buenos Aires.

    PubMed

    Fagundez, L A; Fernández, V L; Marino, T H; Martín, I; Persano, D A; Rivarola Y Benítez, M; Sadañiowski, I V; Codnia, J; Zalts, A

    2001-09-01

    Passive diffusion samplers were employed in San Miguel (Buenos Aires Metropolitan Area) for a preliminary air pollution monitoring. The highest loads were observed in downtown, compared with an urban background site. Total suspended particulate matter (TSPM) varied from 0.257 to 0.033 mg cm(-2) month(-1); dust was examined for particle nature and size distribution. A similar trend was observed for nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and TSPM spatial distribution, suggesting that traffic is the major pollution source. Sulphur dioxide (SO2) values were low and rather homogeneous. Levels for the investigated pollutants are below EPA's guide line values. Geographic (flat area, near to Rio de La Plata) and climatologic factors (rainfalls and variable wind directions) contribute to disperse pollutants.

  11. The biogeochemistry of grassland to forest conversion: a tale of protons, cations, and water in the Pampas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jobbagy, E. G.; Jackson, R. B.

    2001-12-01

    Vegetation, through its cycling and sequestration of materials, can exert a strong influence on soil chemistry. We used tree plantation and native grasslands in the Pampas in South America as a model system to explore this influence. Most ecosystems and soils in the Pampas developed throughout the Quaternary under the complete absence of trees until the arrival of Europeans when trees were introduced. We evaluate the effect of grassland to forest shift on H+, base cations, Cl, and Mn pools using Eucalyptus plantations (10 to 100 years of age) paired with adjacent stands of native grassland. Across all sites, soil pH dropped significantly after afforestation (8 paired sites, p<0.01, mean pH forests = 4.2, mean pH grasslands = 5.4). A complete base cation and proton balance for three paired sites revealed a maximum acidification at intermediate soil depths (10-50 cm) associated with Ca redistribution by trees. Soil proton gains after 50 years (4-6 mol+/m2) were balanced by Ca sequestration in tree biomass and forest floor suggesting that higher Ca cycling by trees compared to grasses may be the mechanism of acidification. The same soil profiles showed alkalinization and large net Na gains below 50 cm of depth (>500 g/m2 in 50-100 cm) after afforestation. Based on precipitation, throughfall, litterfall, soil, and groundwater elemental composition we identified groundwater as the most likely source of Na inputs to the soil. In contrast with grasses, tree roots reached and used groundwater. During periods of high atmospheric water demand we observed diurnal fluctuations of water table level under a forest stand but not under its adjacent grassland stand. On average ground water was 1 m deeper and 10 times more saline in the forest stand compared to the adjacent grassland 200 m away (mean EC forest = 12993 uS, mean EC grassland = 819 uS for grassland). These observations point to water use and groundwater salt concentration by trees as an important step in deep soil

  12. Molecular characterization of Ehrlichia canis infecting dogs, Buenos Aires.

    PubMed

    Cicuttin, Gabriel L; De Salvo, María N; Gury Dohmen, Federico E

    2016-07-01

    Canine monocytic ehrlichiosis (CME) is a worldwide potentially fatal tick-borne rickettsial disease of dogs caused by Ehrlichia canis and transmitted by Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato. CME diagnosis includes indirect (serology) and direct (e.g. blood smears and PCR) methods. PCR is more sensitive and specific than direct microscopic examination and positive PCR results confirm infection, whereas positive serologic test results only confirm exposure. The aim of the present study was to perform a molecular characterization of E. canis from canine samples of the Metropolitan Area of Buenos Aires. We studied 223 blood samples of dogs submitted to our institute for CME diagnoses. The samples were initially screened for Anaplasmataceae family by PCR, resulting in 30 positive dogs (13.4%). Subsequently, positive DNAs were analyzed by nested PCR 16S rRNA specific for E. canis or Anaplasma platys, resulting in 15 (6.7%) and 16 (7.2%) positive dogs, respectively. For molecular characterization, samples positive for E. canis were subjected to amplification of a fragment of the dsb and p28 genes. The nucleotide sequences obtained for the dsb fragment resulted in 100% identity with others E. canis found in dogs from different regions of worldwide. The nucleotide sequences obtained for p28 gene resulted in 100% of identity with each other and closely with E. canis str. Jaboticabal (Brazil). Identity with others sequences of E. canis ranged from 76.9 to 79.7%. The occurrence of canine cases molecularly confirmed in Metropolitan Area of Buenos Aires highlights the need for more studies in order to understand epidemiological factors associated with CME, especially the disease transmission dynamic in South America given the existence of two lineages of R. sanguineus sensu lato with different vectorial capacity for transmission of E. canis.

  13. Geochemistry, geomorphology, and soil petrology of the Mars-like soils from Pampas de la Joya hyper-arid desert

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valdivia-Silva, Julio E.; Ortega-Gutierrez, Fernando; Bonaccorsi, Rosalba

    2016-07-01

    Mars-like environments on Earth are used as a model to guide the investigation of possible habitable Martian environments. In this work we evaluate and analyze the geology, geomorphology and soil petrology of the Pampas de La Joya Desert in southern Peru, in order to understand the processes that transformed the region into a Mars-like environment. Using a multidisciplinary approach, we analyze the different soils that compose the floor of the desert, as well as describe and interpret the post-Oligocene landscape emphasizing some Mars-like features with respect to its acting geologic processes, the habitability potential under very low levels of nutrients and water, and its suitability to sustain microorganisms or their remains. Importantly, this work is part of a bigger project that use Mars-like soils, looking for new crops capable to grow in extreme environments.

  14. Insights into Andean slope hydrology: reservoir characteristics of the thermal Pica spring system, Pampa del Tamarugal, northern Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheihing, Konstantin W.; Moya, Claudio E.; Tröger, Uwe

    2017-03-01

    The thermal Pica springs, at ˜1,400 m above sea level (asl) in the Pampa del Tamarugal (Chile), represent a low-saline spring system at the eastern margin of the hyper-arid Atacama Desert, where groundwater resources are scarce. This study investigates the hydrogeological and geothermal characteristics of their feed reservoir, fostered by the interpretation of a 20-km east-west-heading reflection-seismic line in the transition zone from the Andean Precordillera to the Pampa del Tamarugal. Additional hydrochemical, isotope and hydrologic time-series data support the integrated analysis. One of the main factors that enabled the development of the spring-related vertical fracture system at Pica, is a disruption zone in the Mesozoic Basement caused by intrusive formations. This destabilized the younger Oligocene units under the given tectonic stress conditions; thus, the respective groundwater reservoir is made up of fractured Oligocene units of low to moderate permeability. Groundwater recharge takes place in the Precordillera at ˜3,800 m asl. From there groundwater flow covers a height difference of ˜3,000 m with a maximum circulation depth of ˜800-950 m, where the waters obtain their geothermal imprint. The maximal expected reservoir temperature, as confirmed by geothermometers, is ˜55 °C. Corrected mean residence times of spring water and groundwater plot at 1,200-4,300 years uc(BP) and yield average interstitial velocities of 6.5-22 m/year. At the same time, the hydraulic head signal, as induced by recharge events in the Precordillera, is transmitted within 20-24 months over a distance of ˜32 km towards the Andean foothills at Pica and Puquio Nunez.

  15. Eolian depositional phases during the past 50 ka and inferred climate variability for the Pampean Sand Sea, western Pampas, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripaldi, Alfonsina; Forman, Steven L.

    2016-05-01

    The Pampean Sand Sea, which occurs from the Argentinian Pampas to the eastern Andean piedmont, hosts presently stabilized dune fields spanning the late Quaternary. This study integrates previous results and presents new geomorphic, stratigraphic, sedimentological, and chronologic data for nineteen >2 m-thick eolian successions for the San Luis paleo-dune field, western Pampas, to better constrain the depositional history. Six eolian depositional phases are identified spanning the past 50 ka, interposed with paleosols and/or bounded by erosive surfaces. Age control was from 61 OSL ages of small aliquots of quartz grains from eolian stratigraphic units. The inferred timing of eolian phases are at ca. 70 ± 10 yr, 190 ± 20 yr, 12 to 1 ka, 22 to 17 ka, 29 to 24 ka, and 40 to 32 ka. A maximum span for periods of pedogenesis at ca. 12 to 17 ka, 22 to 24 ka, and 29 to 32 ka was provided by bounding OSL ages, which broadly overlap with high stands of pluvial lakes and glacier advances in the central Andes. We infer that the added precipitation may reflect expansion of the Southern Hemisphere monsoon, associated with Northern Hemisphere Heinrich events, leading to episodes of significantly wetter conditions (>350 mm MAP) to at least 35° S. Most of the Holocene (12 ka to 0.8 ka) was characterized by sand sheet deposit under drier than present conditions (100-450 mm MAP), associated with Monte-type vegetation (shrub steppe). The latest two eolian depositional phases, occurred at ca. 190 and 70 yr ago, during the historic period with European settlement and are related to anthropogenic landscape disturbance, though the youngest phase was concomitant with 1930s drought. Wet conditions dominated since ca. AD 1970 with new lakes and rivers forming across this eolian terrain; an incongruous environmental response in reference to drier conditions for most of the Holocene.

  16. The carbon budget of a large catchment in the Argentine Pampa plain through hydrochemical modeling.

    PubMed

    Glok Galli, M; Martínez, D E; Kruse, E E

    2014-09-15

    Mar Chiquita is a coastal lagoon located in the Argentine Buenos Aires province in South America. The aim of this study is to estimate the annual contribution of inland waters to the carbon cycle in this lagoon's catchment by estimating the corresponding local carbon budget. Fifteen pairs of water samples were chosen to carry out hydrogeochemical modeling using PHREEQC software. Groundwater samples were considered as recharge water (initial solutions), while streamwater samples were taken as groundwater discharge (final solutions for inverse modeling/reference solutions for direct modeling). Fifteen direct models were performed, where each groundwater sample was constrained to calcite equilibrium under two different carbon dioxide partial pressure (PCO2) conditions: atmospheric conditions (log PCO2 (atm) = -3.5) and a PCO2 value of log PCO2 (atm) = -3. Groundwater samples are close to calcite equilibrium conditions. The calcite precipitation process is kinetically slower than gas diffusion, causing oversaturation of this reactant phase in streamwater samples. This was accompanied by a pH increase of approximately two units due to a PCO2 decrease. From the fifteen inverse models it was estimated that, of the total carbon that enters per year in the hydrological cycle of the study area, about 11.9% is delivered to the atmosphere as CO2 and around 6.7% is buried in sediments. This would indicate that 81.4% of the remaining carbon is retained in equilibrium within the system or discharged into the Mar Chiquita lagoon and/or directly to the ocean through regional flows.

  17. A Study on the Quality and Identity of Brazilian Pampa Biome Honey: Evidences for Its Beneficial Effects against Oxidative Stress and Hyperglycemia

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, L. C.; Batista, J. E. S.; Zemolin, A. P. P.; Nunes, M. E. M.; Lippert, D. B.; Royes, L. F. F.; Soares, F. A.; Pereira, A. B.; Posser, T.; Franco, J. L.

    2014-01-01

    We characterized, for the first time, the quality and identity of Brazilian Pampa biome honey and its antioxidant properties in vitro (FRAP, DDPH and ABTS). The potential protective effect of honey against oxidative stress induced by iron (Fe) and paraquat, (PQ) in a Drosophila melanogaster model (in vivo) was also tested. The results indicated that all honey samples tested showed antioxidant activity in vitro. Flies treated with honey showed increased lifespan and were protected against oxidative stress induced by Fe and PQ. Despite the high concentration of sugars in honey (approximately 70–80%), our results demonstrate a hypoglycemic-like effect of honey in Drosophila. Thus, this study demonstrates the high quality of Brazilian Pampa biome honey as well as its significant antioxidant activity in vitro and in vivo, pointing to the potential use of this natural product as an alternative in the therapy of oxidative stress-associated diseases. PMID:26904632

  18. PAMPA--a drug absorption in vitro model 11. Matching the in vivo unstirred water layer thickness by individual-well stirring in microtitre plates.

    PubMed

    Avdeef, Alex; Nielsen, Per E; Tsinman, Oksana

    2004-08-01

    Many plate-based in vitro assays of membrane permeability (e.g., Caco-2, MDCK, PAMPA) of sparingly soluble candidate molecules report permeability of water, and not of the intended membrane barrier. This is so because the unstirred water layer on both sides of the membrane barrier is rate limiting for these highly permeable molecules. The thickness of this water layer can be 1500-4000 microm in unstirred assays. Under in vivo conditions, however, the unstirred water layer is believed to be 30-100 microm thick. Lightly stirred in vitro assays, using plate shakers, cannot lower the thickness of the water layer to match that found in vivo. In this study, 55 lipophilic drugs were employed to characterize the effect of stirring in parallel artificial membrane permeability assay (PAMPA). Highly efficient individual-well magnetic stirring at speeds greater than 110 rpm has been demonstrated to lower the unstirred water layer thickness to the in vivo range. Stirring at 622 rpm has lowered the layer thickness to 13 microm in some cases, which had not been previously achieved for plate-based permeability assays. With diminished water layer contribution at 622 rpm, for example, the effective permeability of progesterone is 2754 x 10(-6) cm/s. The new stirring apparatus used in this study is not only suitable for PAMPA, but can also be used in Caco-2 assays. Because of the diminished resistance of the thinner water layer, the stirred PAMPA permeation time has decreased from the usual 15 h to about 15 min for lipophilic compounds.

  19. Assessment of water pollution in the Brazilian Pampa biome by means of stress biomarkers in tadpoles of the leaf frog Phyllomedusa iheringii (Anura: Hylidae).

    PubMed

    Santos, T G; Melo, R; Costa-Silva, D G; Nunes, Mem; Rodrigues, N R; Franco, J L

    2015-01-01

    The Brazilian Pampa biome is currently under constant threat due to increase of agriculture and improper management of urban effluents. Studies with a focus on the assessment of impacts caused by human activities in this biome are scarce. In the present study, we measured stress-related biomarkers in tadpoles of the leaf frog Phyllomedusa iheringii, an endemic species to the Pampa biome, and tested its suitability as a bioindicator for the assessment of potential aquatic contamination in selected ponds (S1 and S2) nearby agricultural areas in comparison to a reference site. A significant decrease in acetylcholinesterase activity was observed in S2 when compared to S1 and reference. The levels of total-hydroperoxides were increased in S2 site. In parallel, increased activity of the antioxidant enzymes catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione S-transferase were observed in S2 when compared to S1 and reference. Further studies are necessary in order to correlate the changes observed here with different chemical stressors in water, as well as to elucidate mechanisms of toxicity induced by pesticides in amphibian species endemic to the Pampa biome. Nevertheless, our study validates Phyllomedusa iheringii as a valuable bioindicator in environmental studies.

  20. Medium- and large-sized mammals in a steppic savanna area of the Brazilian Pampa: survey and conservation issues of a poorly known fauna.

    PubMed

    Espinosa, C C; Galiano, D; Kubiak, B B; Marinho, J R

    2016-02-01

    The wildlife of the Brazilian Pampa is threatened by large-scale habitat loss, due in particular to the expansion of soybean cultivation and the conversion of grasslands areas into extensive areas of silviculture. It is essential to study how the mammal fauna copes with the highly fragmented, human-influenced, non-protected landscape. Our study presents the results of a survey of the large- and medium-sized mammals of a typical human-influenced steppic savanna area of the Pampa biome. The survey was conducted exclusively with the use of camera traps over a period of 16 months. The relative frequencies of species in the area were evaluated. We recorded 18 species, some of them locally threatened (Tamandua tetradactyla, Alouatta caraya, Leopardus colocolo, Leopardus geoffroyi, Leopardus wiedii, Puma yagouaroundi, Mazama gouazoubira and Cuniculus paca). Several species were found to thrive in the area; however, many species were considered rare, and undoubtedly new species could be recorded if we continued the sampling. Our results contribute to the knowledge of faunal diversity in the Pampa biome and associated habitats, warn about threats and provide support for conservation measures.

  1. Assessment of water pollution in the Brazilian Pampa biome by means of stress biomarkers in tadpoles of the leaf frog Phyllomedusa iheringii (Anura: Hylidae)

    PubMed Central

    Santos, TG; Melo, R; Costa-Silva, DG; Nunes, MEM; Rodrigues, NR

    2015-01-01

    The Brazilian Pampa biome is currently under constant threat due to increase of agriculture and improper management of urban effluents. Studies with a focus on the assessment of impacts caused by human activities in this biome are scarce. In the present study, we measured stress-related biomarkers in tadpoles of the leaf frog Phyllomedusa iheringii, an endemic species to the Pampa biome, and tested its suitability as a bioindicator for the assessment of potential aquatic contamination in selected ponds (S1 and S2) nearby agricultural areas in comparison to a reference site. A significant decrease in acetylcholinesterase activity was observed in S2 when compared to S1 and reference. The levels of total-hydroperoxides were increased in S2 site. In parallel, increased activity of the antioxidant enzymes catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione S-transferase were observed in S2 when compared to S1 and reference. Further studies are necessary in order to correlate the changes observed here with different chemical stressors in water, as well as to elucidate mechanisms of toxicity induced by pesticides in amphibian species endemic to the Pampa biome. Nevertheless, our study validates Phyllomedusa iheringii as a valuable bioindicator in environmental studies. PMID:26056614

  2. A new PAMPA model using an in-house brain lipid extract for screening the blood-brain barrier permeability of drug candidates.

    PubMed

    Bicker, Joana; Alves, Gilberto; Fortuna, Ana; Soares-da-Silva, Patrício; Falcão, Amílcar

    2016-03-30

    The determination of the permeability of drug candidates across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a fundamental step during drug discovery programs. The parallel artificial membrane permeability assay (PAMPA) is a high throughput screening tool applied to evaluate the passive permeability and adapted to predict BBB penetration. Herein, a new PAMPA model was developed using an in-house brain lipid extract capable of discriminating BBB permeable from non-permeable compounds. The apparent permeability (Papp) of 18 reference molecules and 10 test compounds was assessed and compared with phosphatidylcholine and commercial porcine polar brain lipid (PBL). The physicochemical selectivity of the in-house brain lipid extract was demonstrated by correlating Papp values with physicochemical properties and its predictive capacity estimated by establishing in vitro-in vivo correlations. The strong correlations achieved between 2% (w/v) in-house lipid extract and PBL for reference (r(2)=0.77) and test compounds (r(2)=0.94) support an equivalent discriminatory capacity and validate the presented model. Moreover, PAMPA studies performed with PBL and in-house lipid extract exhibited a higher correlation with the in vivo parameter logBB (r(2)=0.76 and r(2)=0.72, respectively) than phosphatidylcholine (r(2)=0.51). Overall, the applied lipid extraction process was reproducible, economical and provided lipid extracts that can be used to reliably assess BBB permeation.

  3. P-Glycoprotein Deficient Mouse in situ Blood-Brain Barrier Permeability and its Prediction using an in combo PAMPA Model⋆

    PubMed Central

    Dagenais, Claude; Avdeef, Alex; Tsinman, Oksana; Dudley, Adam; Beliveau, Richard

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess the permeability of mouse blood-brain barrier (BBB) to a diverse set of compounds in the absence of P-glycoprotein (Pgp) mediated efflux, to predict it using an in combo PAMPA model, and to explore its role in brain penetration classification (BPC). The initial brain uptake (Kin) of 19 compounds in both wild-type and Pgp mutant [mdr1a(−/−)] CF-1 mice was determined by the in situ brain perfusion technique. PAMPA measurements were performed, and the values were used to develop an in combo model, including Abraham descriptors. Published rodent Kin values were used to enhance the dataset and validate the model. The model predicted 92% of the variance of the training set permeability. In all, 182 Kin values were considered in this study, spanning four log orders of magnitude and where Pgp decreased brain uptake by as much as 14-fold. The calculated permeability-surface area (PS) values along with literature reported brain tissue binding were used to group molecules in terms of their brain penetration classification. The in situ BBB permeability can be predicted by the in combo PAMPA model to a satisfactory degree, and can be used as a lower-cost, high throughput first-pass screening method for BBB passive permeability. PMID:19591928

  4. TANGO ARRAY I: An Air Shower Experiment in Buenos Aires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauleo, P.; Bonifazi, C.; Filevich, A.; Reguera, A.

    The TANGO Array is an air shower experiment which has been recently constructed in Buenos Aires, Argentina. It became fully operational in September, 2000. The array consists of 4 water ˇCerenkov detector stations enclosing a geometrical area of ˜ 30.000 m2 and its design has been optimized for the observation of EAS produced by cosmic rays near the "knee" energy region. Three of the detectors have been constructed using 12000-liter stainless steel tanks, and the fourth has been mounted in a smaller, 400liter plastic container. The detectors are connected by cables to the data acquisition room, where a fully automatic system, which takes advantage of the features of a 4-channel digital oscilloscope, was set for data collection without the need of operator intervention. This automatic experiment control includes monitoring, data logging, and daily calibration of all stations. This paper describes the detectors and their associated electronics, and details are given on the data acquisition system, the triggering and calibration procedures, and the operation of the array. Examples of air shower traces, recorded by the array, are presented.

  5. Spatial analysis of the tuberculosis treatment dropout, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Herrero, María Belén; Arrossi, Silvina; Ramos, Silvina; Braga, Jose Ueleres

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Identify spatial distribution patterns of the proportion of nonadherence to tuberculosis treatment and its associated factors. METHODS We conducted an ecological study based on secondary and primary data from municipalities of the metropolitan area of Buenos Aires, Argentina. An exploratory analysis of the characteristics of the area and the distributions of the cases included in the sample (proportion of nonadherence) was also carried out along with a multifactor analysis by linear regression. The variables related to the characteristics of the population, residences and families were analyzed. RESULTS Areas with higher proportion of the population without social security benefits (p = 0.007) and of households with unsatisfied basic needs had a higher risk of nonadherence (p = 0.032). In addition, the proportion of nonadherence was higher in areas with the highest proportion of households with no public transportation within 300 meters (p = 0.070). CONCLUSIONS We found a risk area for the nonadherence to treatment characterized by a population living in poverty, with precarious jobs and difficult access to public transportation.

  6. Bartonella spp. in cats from Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Cicuttin, Gabriel L; Brambati, Diego F; De Gennaro, María F; Carmona, Fernando; Isturiz, María L; Pujol, Laura E; Belerenian, Guillermo C; Gil, Horacio

    2014-01-10

    In Argentina, data on the presence of members of the genus Bartonella is scarce. To increase knowledge about these zoonotic pathogens in this country, the presence and variability of Bartonella spp. was investigated in cats and dogs from Buenos Aires. Bartonella spp. was detected in 17.8% of cats, while all dogs tested negative by PCR and Reverse Line Blot. B. henselae was the most frequent species, being detected in 11.9% (14/101), while B. clarridgeiae was found in only 5.9% (6/101) of the cats. Afterwards, B. henselae isolates and positive blood samples were characterized by Multiple Locus Sequence Typing (MLST) and Multiple Locus Variable Number Tandem Repeats Analysis (MLVA). As result, four different MLST sequence types (ST) and eight MLVA profiles were identified. ST 1 was the most frequent variant found in cats, followed by ST 8. Interestingly, some of the MLVA profiles that were detected in this study have been previously associated with human disease, and represents a potential risk of infection. Veterinarians and physicians should consider the presence of these emerging pathogens in their diagnostic routine.

  7. Spatial analysis of the tuberculosis treatment dropout, Buenos Aires, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Herrero, María Belén; Arrossi, Silvina; Ramos, Silvina; Braga, Jose Ueleres

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Identify spatial distribution patterns of the proportion of nonadherence to tuberculosis treatment and its associated factors. METHODS We conducted an ecological study based on secondary and primary data from municipalities of the metropolitan area of Buenos Aires, Argentina. An exploratory analysis of the characteristics of the area and the distributions of the cases included in the sample (proportion of nonadherence) was also carried out along with a multifactor analysis by linear regression. The variables related to the characteristics of the population, residences and families were analyzed. RESULTS Areas with higher proportion of the population without social security benefits (p = 0.007) and of households with unsatisfied basic needs had a higher risk of nonadherence (p = 0.032). In addition, the proportion of nonadherence was higher in areas with the highest proportion of households with no public transportation within 300 meters (p = 0.070). CONCLUSIONS We found a risk area for the nonadherence to treatment characterized by a population living in poverty, with precarious jobs and difficult access to public transportation. PMID:26270011

  8. Tobacco use among high school students in Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    PubMed Central

    Morello, P; Duggan, A; Adger, H; Anthony, J C; Joffe, A

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study assessed the prevalence and correlates of tobacco use among high school students in Buenos Aires, Argentina. METHODS: Anonymous, self-administered questionnaires were given to 3909 8th and 11th graders in a stratified random sample of 49 public and private schools. The instrument included items from American surveys, translated and validated among Argentinean teens. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to estimate possible effects on smoking behavior of environment, students' personal characteristics, and their knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes regarding smoking. RESULTS: Of 8th and 11th graders, 20% and 43%, respectively, were classified as current smokers. Overall, 29% of males and 32% of females were current smokers. Students attending public schools were more likely to smoke than those in private schools (P < .05). Current smoking was associated with having a best friend who smokes, reporting that more than 50% of friends of the same sex smoke, having positive attitudes and beliefs toward smoking, and having a positive intention to smoke within the next year (all P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Over 20% of the 8th graders in our sample were current smokers; prevention efforts must therefore start early. PMID:11213790

  9. [Canine brucellosis in dogs in the city of Buenos Aires].

    PubMed

    Boeri, Eduardo; Escobar, Gabriela I; Ayala, Sandra M; Sosa-Estani, Sergio; Lucero, Nidia E

    2008-01-01

    Canine brucellosis, caused by Brucella canis, provokes epidydimitis, testicular atrophy and sterility in male dogs, while in females the major symptom is miscarriage. Transmission to humans may be through contact with semen, urine and/or aborted fetuses of infected animals. Our study, observational and cross-sectional, focused on dogs in lower class neighborhoods and slums with a high rate of unmet basic needs (UBN) in 8 areas of the city of Buenos Aires. We studied 219 dogs: 184 females and 35 males, that tested negative to the buffered plate antigen test (BPAT), which ruled out infection with smooth species of Brucella. We detected anti-B. canis antibodies in 16 dogs (7.3%): 9 females and 7 males, relevant data since the urine of males is considered one of the vectors for the spread of the infection. Although we could run blood cultures on only 175 animals, we isolated B. canis in 3 (2 females and 1 male). Only 3 of the owners of dogs that tested positive consented to a serological diagnosis and two of them were positive. We highlight that the agar gel immunodiffusion test (IGID) proved to have low sensitivity, having detected only one of the 16 positive cases and none of the three confirmed by isolation. We conclude that in the areas studied, the detection of serologically positive dogs and the isolation of B. canis in 3 cases are indicators of the health hazard for the population exposed to it.

  10. John Tweedie and Charles Darwin in Buenos Aires.

    PubMed

    Ollerton, Jeff; Chancellor, Gordon; van Wyhe, John

    2012-06-20

    The journey of exploration undertaken by Charles Darwin FRS during the voyage of HMS Beagle has a central place within the historical development of evolutionary theory and has been intensively studied. Despite this, new facts continue to emerge about some of the details of Darwin's activities. Drawing on recently published Darwin material and unpublished letters in the archives of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, we document a hitherto unexamined link between Darwin and John Tweedie (1775-1862), a relatively obscure Scottish gardener turned South American plant collector. All of the available evidence points to a meeting between the two men in Buenos Aires in 1832. Tweedie provided Darwin with information about the geography of the Rio Paraná, including the locality of fossilized wood eroding from the river bank. It also seems likely that Tweedie supplied Darwin with seeds that he later shipped back to John Stevens Henslow in Cambridge. Although this brief meeting was at the time relatively unimportant to either man, echoes of that encounter have resonated with Tweedie's descendants to the present day and have formed the basis for a family story about a written correspondence between Darwin and Tweedie. Local information supplied to Darwin by residents such as Tweedie was clearly important and deserves further attention.

  11. Lidar observations of cirrus clouds in Buenos Aires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabriela Lakkis, S.; Lavorato, Mario; Canziani, Pablo; Lacomi, Hector

    2015-08-01

    Characterization of cirrus clouds over Buenos Aires (34.6°S, 58.5°W) using a ground based lidar is presented. The study, carried out for the period 2010-2011, reveals that cirrus are usually found in the altitude region 8-11 km, with mid-cloud temperatures values varying between -75 °C and 55 °C. The clouds, whose bases altitudes display significant variability while their tops remains close to the tropopause, show geometrical thickness ranging from 1.2 to 5 km, with on average value 3.0±0.9 km. Most commonly observed cirri can be characterized as optically thin cirrus rather than dense ones, with a mean optical depth value of 0.26±0.11 and an applied multiple scattering factor η of 0.85±0.07. In this region, the optical depth increases with increasing geometrical thickness with a partially linear correlation. Lidar ratios are also analyzed and on average the value is 32±17 sr.

  12. Multidisciplinary approach of the hyperarid desert from Pampas de La Joya in southern Peru as a new analogue to Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valdivia-Silva, Julio E.; Navarro-Gonzalez, Rafael; McKay, Chris

    The distribution of living organisms, organic matter, and chemical properties in Mars-like en-vironments on Earth can be used as a model to guide the investigation of possible habitable environments on Mars. This dissertation aims to demonstrate that Pampas de la Joya Desert, located along the Pacific coast of southern Peru ( 15 to 17° S), is a possible analogue to Mars due to: 1) it is a hyper arid area comparable to Yungay in terms of its organic matter content, extreme environmental conditions, and presence of very low levels of microorganisms. 2) Its background of mineralogical composition comes from Andean volcanic chains and rocks exposed from Precambrian Gneiss and Cretaceous granitic batholiths surrounding the area. 3) Presence of microclimates and the "El Niño phenomena" effects allow the formation of an exotic and het-n erogeneous chemical composition in these soils, including iron oxides, sulphates and evaporative minerals. 4) Thermal volatilization in these soils, (similar to Viking and Phoenix instruments) shows high oxidant activity. 5) Great abundance of quartz and halite allow the growth of hy-polithic and endolithic cyanobacteria communities similar to the Yungay region. Precipitation of 2 and 10 mm/y in dry areas and abrupt gradients less than 100 km in values close to 100 mm/y and an aridity index less than 0.05, show extreme conditions. Data from 485 soil samples showed the organic soil carbon ranged from 0.004-0.012% C/g-soil. Carbonates contents ranged from 0.017-0.14% C/g-soil. The mineralogy shows three types of sources: volcanic, granitic and metamorphic. The presence of sulphates was abundant. Thermal volatilization showed high organic decomposition to CO2 during the process, indicating oxidant activity. Microbiological studies show 103 -105 bacteria/g-soil. Colonies of cyanobacteria under the quartz and within halite rocks were also evident. Altogether, the Pampas de la Joya is an interesting place for the Astrobiology studies as an

  13. [Resignifying hygienic concepts: the establishment of a sanitation authority in Buenos Aires in the 1880s].

    PubMed

    Alvarez, A

    1999-01-01

    The late nineteenth century saw the establishment of a sanitation authority in Buenos Aires, grounded on the ideas of nineteenth century hygienics. The article focuses on the scientific, technical and political innovations that were introduced and on the role that the process of medical professionalization played within this institution. The features of the sanitation policy that came to prevail in Buenos Aires at the turn of the century helped shape a system of standards and archetypes regarding the human body and its physical and mental well-being.

  14. A longitudinal study of hantavirus infection in three sympatric reservoir species in agroecosystems on the Argentine Pampa.

    PubMed

    Mills, James N; Schmidt, Karina; Ellis, Barbara A; Calderón, Gladys; Enría, Delia A; Ksiazek, Thomas G

    2007-01-01

    Prevalence of antibody reactive with Sin Nombre hantavirus (SNV) was evaluated from rodents captured over 31 months (March 1988 to September 1990) from six mark-recapture grids on the central Argentine Pampa. The most frequently infected rodents were: Akodon azarae (31/459), Necromys benefactus (8/141), and Oligoryzomys flavescens (10/281), which are known hosts of Pergamino, Maciel, and Lechiguanas hantaviruses, respectively. Relative population density and antibody prevalence varied seasonally and from year to year, population densities were highest in fall and prevalences were highest in spring. A positive association between antibody prevalence and body weight corroborated findings from other studies suggesting that hantaviruses are maintained in reservoir populations by horizontal transmission. In two of three host species, transmission was more frequent among male than among female mice. We found no evidence for a detrimental effect of hantavirus infection on host body weight, growth, longevity, movement, or reproductive preparedness. This analysis, based on cryopreserved specimens, represents the earliest conducted longitudinal, mark-recapture study of the dynamics of infection of autochthonous American hantaviruses in their sigmodontine host populations.

  15. Decision support model for assessing aquifer pollution hazard and prioritizing groundwater resources management in the wet Pampa plain, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Lima, M Lourdes; Romanelli, Asunción; Massone, Héctor E

    2013-06-01

    This paper gives an account of the implementation of a decision support system for assessing aquifer pollution hazard and prioritizing subwatersheds for groundwater resources management in the southeastern Pampa plain of Argentina. The use of this system is demonstrated with an example from Dulce Stream Basin (1,000 km(2) encompassing 27 subwatersheds), which has high level of agricultural activities and extensive available data regarding aquifer geology. In the logic model, aquifer pollution hazard is assessed as a function of two primary topics: groundwater and soil conditions. This logic model shows the state of each evaluated landscape with respect to aquifer pollution hazard based mainly on the parameters of the DRASTIC and GOD models. The decision model allows prioritizing subwatersheds for groundwater resources management according to three main criteria including farming activities, agrochemical application, and irrigation use. Stakeholder participation, through interviews, in combination with expert judgment was used to select and weight each criterion. The resulting subwatershed priority map, by combining the logic and decision models, allowed identifying five subwatersheds in the upper and middle basin as the main aquifer protection areas. The results reasonably fit the natural conditions of the basin, identifying those subwatersheds with shallow water depth, loam-loam silt texture soil media and pasture land cover in the middle basin, and others with intensive agricultural activity, coinciding with the natural recharge area to the aquifer system. Major difficulties and some recommendations of applying this methodology in real-world situations are discussed.

  16. Conservation implications of the mating system of the Pampa Hermosa landrace of peach palm analyzed with microsatellite markers

    PubMed Central

    Picanço-Rodrigues, Doriane; Astolfi-Filho, Spartaco; Lemes, Maristerra R.; Gribel, Rogerio; Sebbenn, Alexandre M.; Clement, Charles R.

    2015-01-01

    Peach palm (Bactris gasipaes) is cultivated by many indigenous and traditional communities from Amazonia to Central America for its edible fruits, and is currently important for its heart-of-palm. The objective of this study was to investigate the mating system of peach palm, as this is important for conservation and breeding. Eight microsatellite loci were used to genotype 24 open-pollinated progenies from three populations of the Pampa Hermosa landrace maintained in a progeny trial for genetic improvement. Both the multi-locus outcrossing rates (0.95 to 0.99) and the progeny level multi-locus outcrossing rates (0.9 to 1.0) were high, indicating that peach palm is predominantly allogamous. The outcrossing rates among relatives were significantly different from zero (0.101 to 0.202), providing evidence for considerable biparental inbreeding within populations, probably due to farmers planting seeds of a small number of open-pollinated progenies in the same plot. The correlations of paternity estimates were low (0.051 to 0.112), suggesting a large number of pollen sources (9 to 20) participating in pollination of individual fruit bunches. Effective population size estimates suggest that current germplasm collections are insufficient for long-term ex situ conservation. As with most underutilized crops, on farm conservation is the most important component of an integrated conservation strategy. PMID:25983626

  17. [An analysis of the first law on contraception in Argentina. The Responsible Procreation Programme in the province of La Pampa].

    PubMed

    Herminia di Liscia, María

    2012-01-01

    The passage of a Law requires previous negotiation processes that consider the background, arguments, support and the appropriate terminology for approaching the issue. The legal domain is a discursive field in which a dual struggle develops: to establish designations and to introduce that which the law establishes into everyday practice. Hence, conflictive processes are unleashed in which social agents are confronted by political parties, by institutions and by their own political and subjective identities. This article analyses the development of the "1363 Law", which was passed in November 1991 in the legislature of La Pampa province (Argentina). This Law created a provincial programme for responsible procreation, the first provincial legislation on contraception to be established. Although reproduction also involves males, special account is taken of speeches referring to females, given that the culture superimposes maternity on the female identity and references are therefore weighted towards the condition of women. We use the particularity of this case and its analytical potential in order to understand others, using as empirical material the parliamentary debate and interviews with the author of the Law and with key informants. We address the following questions: What was the national and provincial context in which the Law on responsible procreation was framed? What were the strategies adopted to achieve it? How was contraception articulated within the Peronist worldview of women? What meanings did the term "responsible procreation" bring into play? Finally, we present a brief assessment of the law's application.

  18. [Is there any relationship between rural environmental factors and reproductive health in the Pampa Humeda in Argentina?].

    PubMed

    Oliva, Alejandro; Biasatti, Ricardo; Cloquell, Silvia; González, Cristina; Olego, Susana; Gelin, Alberto

    2008-04-01

    The relationship between environmental factors and health is well known. Rural environmental influences on reproductive health have been properly proved, both in animals and humans. In Latin America, few studies have been conducted in this area. The current project is based on the description of relationships between reproductive health and environmental factors in rural populations, characterized by specific environmental characteristics. Three variables were evaluated: male-to-female birth ratio, male urogenital malformations (cryptorchidism and hypospadias), and endocrine-related cancer incidence. Five rural communities in the Pampa Humeda in Argentina were selected, and the data were compared to the national mean. Biomedical data and environmental risk factors were correlated through a geographic information system. The ratio of male to female births did not show any differences. Malformations showed very significant differences. Endocrine-related cancers showed higher incidence rates compared to the national mean, particularly in some communities. In conclusion, there is a relationship between environmental factors and reproductive health conditions in this region.

  19. A GIS-based assessment of groundwater suitability for irrigation purposes in flat areas of the wet Pampa plain, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Romanelli, Asunción; Lima, María Lourdes; Quiroz Londoño, Orlando Mauricio; Martínez, Daniel Emilio; Massone, Héctor Enrique

    2012-09-01

    The Pampa in Argentina is a large plain with a quite obvious dependence on agriculture, water availability and its quality. It is a sensitive environment due to weather changes and slope variations. Supplementary irrigation is a useful practice for compensating the production in the zone. However, potential negative impacts of this type of irrigation in salinization and sodification of soils are evident. Most conventional methodologies for assessing water irrigation quality have difficulties in their application in the region because they do not adjust to the defined assumptions for them. Consequently, a new GIS-based methodology integrating multiparametric data was proposed for evaluating and delineating groundwater suitability zones for irrigation purposes in flat areas. Hydrogeological surveys including water level measurements, groundwater samples for chemical analysis and electrical conductivity (EC) measurements were performed. The combination of EC, sodium adsorption ratio, residual sodium carbonate, slopes and hydraulic gradient parameters generated an irrigation water index (IWI). With the integration of the IWI 1 to 3 classes (categories of suitable waters for irrigation) and the aquifer thickness the restricted irrigation water index (RIWI) was obtained. The IWI's index application showed that 61.3 % of the area has "Very high" to "Moderate" potential for irrigation, while the 31.4 % of it has unsuitable waters. Approximately, 46 % of the tested area has high suitability for irrigation and moderate groundwater availability. This proposed methodology has advantages over traditional methods because it allows for better discrimination in homogeneous areas.

  20. Identification of MMP-1 and MMP-9 inhibitors from the roots of Eleutherococcus divaricatus, and the PAMPA test.

    PubMed

    Załuski, Daniel; Mendyk, Ewaryst; Smolarz, Helena D

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was the isolation of metalloproteinases MMP-1 and MMP-9 inhibitors from the chloroform extract of the Eleutherococcus divaricatus roots. Using GC-MS, (1)H and (13)C NMR, HMQC, HMBC, COSY and DEPT, (+)-sesamin has been identified as a new anti-MMP inhibitor. We report for the first time that (+)-sesamin inhibited MMP-1 and MMP-9 activity in 40% and 17%, respectively. The high inhibitory potential has been shown by ursolic acid (90.9% and 89.8% for MMP-1 and MMP-9). In the PAMPA test, the Pe value for sesamin was established as 17.4 × 10(-6) cm/s, that for ursolic acid as 30.0 × 10(- 6) cm/s. Verapamil and theophylline were used as a positive and negative control (Pe 42.1 and 2.9 × 10(-6) cm/s). To our best knowledge, no information was available on this activity of sesamin and other compounds. These studies provide a biochemical basis for the regulation of MMP-1 and MMP-9 by E. divaricatus compounds.

  1. Sociophonetic Variation in the Production and Perception of Obstruent Voicing in Buenos Aires Spanish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohena-Madrazo, Marcos

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation presents an instrumental study of variation in fricative voicing in Buenos Aires Spanish (BAS), particularly with respect to the devoicing change of the postalveolar fricative: /y/greater than/[function of]/. It proposes a novel way of determining the completion of this change by comparing the percentage voicing of the…

  2. Immigration and Educational Inclusion: Preliminary Evidence from Three Schools in Buenos Aires, Argentina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Astiz, M. Fernanda

    2015-01-01

    This exploratory comparative case study examines three schools in the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires that have a considerable number of recent immigrant students. The article illustrates how these schools advance ideas of inclusiveness and pluralism through the curriculum and educational opportunities, as mandated by the national education law of…

  3. The L2 Acquisition of Buenos Aires Spanish Intonation during a Study Abroad Semester

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornberry, Philip A.

    2014-01-01

    The present longitudinal study describes and categorizes the primary changes in L2 Spanish intonation over time by 11 learners studying abroad in Buenos Aires, Argentina for one academic semester. Via the autosegmental metrical model of analysis, this dissertation classifies intonational contours for absolute interrogatives and declarative…

  4. Cryptosporidium parvum GP60 subtypes in dairy cattle from Buenos Aires, Argentina

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cryptosporidium parvum from 73 dairy calves less than two months old from Buenos Aires province (Argentina) were molecularly characterized using sequence analysis of the GP60 gene. Seventy five sequences were obtained, and seven different subtypes were identified, all belonging to the IIa subtype f...

  5. The Effects of Salinity and Sodium Adsorption Ratio on the Water Retention and Hydraulic Conductivity Curves of Soils From The Pampa del Tamarugal, Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagos, M. S.; Munoz, J.; Suarez, F. I.; Fierro, V.; Moreno, C.

    2015-12-01

    The Pampa del Tamarugal is located in the Atacama Desert, the most arid desert of the world. It has important reserves of groundwater, which are probably fed by infiltration coming from the Andes Mountain, with groundwater levels fluctuating between 3 and 10-70 m below the land surface. In zones where shallow groundwater exists, the capillary rise allows to have a permanently moist vadose zone, which sustain native vegetation such as the Tamarugos (Prosopis tamarugo Phil.) and Algarrobos (Prosopis alba Griseb.). The native vegetation relies on the soil moisture and on the evaporative fluxes, which are controlled by the hydrodynamic characteristics of the soils. The soils associated to the salt flats of the Pampa del Tamarugal are a mixture of sands and clays, which have high levels of sulfates, chloride, carbonates, sodium, calcium, magnesium, and potassium, with high pH and electrical conductivity, and low organic matter and cationic exchange capacity. In this research, we are interested in evaluating the impact of salinity and sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) on the hydrodynamic characteristics of the soil, i.e., water retention and hydraulic conductivity curves. Soils were collected from the Pampa del Tamarugal and brought to the laboratory for characterization. The evaporation method (HYPROP, UMS) was used to determine the water retention curve and the hydraulic conductivity curve was estimated combining the evaporation method with direct measurements using a variable head permeameter (KSAT, UMS). It was found that higher sodium concentrations increase the water retention capacity and decrease the soiĺs hydraulic conductivity. These changes occur in the moist range of the hydrodynamic characteristics. The soil's hydraulic properties have significant impact on evaporation fluxes, which is the mayor component of the water balance. Thus, it is important to quantify them and incorporate salt precipitation/dissolution effect on the hydrodynamic properties to correctly

  6. Land use effect on invertebrate assemblages in Pampasic streams (Buenos Aires, Argentina).

    PubMed

    Solis, Marina; Mugni, Hernán; Hunt, Lisa; Marrochi, Natalia; Fanelli, Silvia; Bonetto, Carlos

    2016-09-01

    Agriculture and livestock may contribute to water quality degradation in adjacent waterbodies and produce changes in the resident invertebrate composition. The objective of the present study was to assess land use effects on the stream invertebrate assemblages in rural areas of the Argentine Pampa. The four sampling events were performed at six sites in four streams of the Pampa plain; two streams were sampled inside a biosphere reserve, and another one was surrounded by extensive livestock fields. The fourth stream was sampled at three sites; the upstream site was adjacent to agricultural plots, the following site was adjacent to an intensive livestock plot and the downstream site was adjacent to extensive breeding cattle plots. Higher pesticide concentrations were found at the site adjacent to agricultural plots and higher nutrient concentrations at the sites adjacent to agricultural and intensive breeding cattle plots. The invertebrate fauna were also different at these sites. Multivariate analysis showed a relationship between nutrient concentrations and taxonomic composition. Amphipoda (Hyalella curvispina) was the dominant group in the reserve and extensive breeding cattle sites, but was not present in the agricultural site. Also, Chironomidae were absent from the agricultural site while present at other sites. Gasteropoda (Biomphalaria peregrina), Zygoptera, and Hirudinea were dominant at the most impacted agricultural and intensive breeding cattle sites.

  7. For an ecology of scientific work: science, politics and the case of streams Pampa and Luiz Rau in Novo Hamburgo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Meirelles, M; Pedde, V; Figueiredo, J A S

    2015-12-01

    If, like Weber writes, every knowledge is objective in terms of evolving the interests of researchers and the agencies, in this article, we investigate that, which has been researched about two streams: Pampa and Luiz Rau. In doing so, in addition to highlighting what has caught the researchers' attention, this paper manages to point out a few gaps and fruitful fields of study which extend beyond the hard sciences. This study is, therefore, characterized as an essay review paper that sets out to use anthropology of science to think about the limitations and advances the studies about the two streams have achieved, as well as their social impact.

  8. Characterization of aerosol particles from Buenos Aires City and its subway system: PIXE and SEM/EDX

    SciTech Connect

    Murruni, L. G.; Debray, M. E.; Minsky, D.; Kreiner, A. J.; Burlon, A.; Davidson, M.; Davidson, J.; Ozafran, M.; Vazquez, M. E.; Rosenbusch, M.; Ulke, A. G.; Solanes, V.

    2007-02-12

    This study analyzes total suspended particle (TSP) samples collected at two sites of Buenos Aires City (34S, 58W). One site (San Martin) placed 17 km from city center, and the other one at an underground subway station (Diagonal Norte) in downtown Buenos Aires. In both cases, gravimetric analysis has been performed, while elemental analysis using PIXE has been only carried out in the first case. To the best our knowledge, this is the first airborne particle measurement perform at a Buenos Aires underground subway station.

  9. Interactive Effects of Large- and Small-Scale Sources of Feral Honey-Bees for Sunflower in the Argentine Pampas

    PubMed Central

    Sáez, Agustín; Sabatino, Malena; Aizen, Marcelo A.

    2012-01-01

    Pollinators for animal pollinated crops can be provided by natural and semi-natural habitats, ranging from large vegetation remnants to small areas of non-crop land in an otherwise highly modified landscape. It is unknown, however, how different small- and large-scale habitat patches interact as pollinator sources. In the intensively managed Argentine Pampas, we studied the additive and interactive effects of large expanses (up to 2200 ha) of natural habitat, represented by untilled isolated “sierras”, and narrow (3–7 m wide) strips of semi-natural habitat, represented by field margins, as pollinator sources for sunflower (Helianthus annus). We estimated visitation rates by feral honey-bees, Apis mellifera, and native flower visitors (as a group) at 1, 5, 25, 50 and 100 m from a field margin in 17 sunflower fields 0–10 km distant from the nearest sierra. Honey-bees dominated the pollinator assemblage accounting for >90% of all visits to sunflower inflorescences. Honey-bee visitation was strongly affected by proximity to the sierras decreasing by about 70% in the most isolated fields. There was also a decline in honey-bee visitation with distance from the field margin, which was apparent with increasing field isolation, but undetected in fields nearby large expanses of natural habitat. The probability of observing a native visitor decreased with isolation from the sierras, but in other respects visitation by flower visitors other than honey-bees was mostly unaffected by the habitat factors assessed in this study. Overall, we found strong hierarchical and interactive effects between the study large and small-scale pollinator sources. These results emphasize the importance of preserving natural habitats and managing actively field verges in the absence of large remnants of natural habitat for improving pollinator services. PMID:22303477

  10. Interactive effects of large- and small-scale sources of feral honey-bees for sunflower in the Argentine Pampas.

    PubMed

    Sáez, Agustín; Sabatino, Malena; Aizen, Marcelo A

    2012-01-01

    Pollinators for animal pollinated crops can be provided by natural and semi-natural habitats, ranging from large vegetation remnants to small areas of non-crop land in an otherwise highly modified landscape. It is unknown, however, how different small- and large-scale habitat patches interact as pollinator sources. In the intensively managed Argentine Pampas, we studied the additive and interactive effects of large expanses (up to 2200 ha) of natural habitat, represented by untilled isolated "sierras", and narrow (3-7 m wide) strips of semi-natural habitat, represented by field margins, as pollinator sources for sunflower (Helianthus annus). We estimated visitation rates by feral honey-bees, Apis mellifera, and native flower visitors (as a group) at 1, 5, 25, 50 and 100 m from a field margin in 17 sunflower fields 0-10 km distant from the nearest sierra. Honey-bees dominated the pollinator assemblage accounting for >90% of all visits to sunflower inflorescences. Honey-bee visitation was strongly affected by proximity to the sierras decreasing by about 70% in the most isolated fields. There was also a decline in honey-bee visitation with distance from the field margin, which was apparent with increasing field isolation, but undetected in fields nearby large expanses of natural habitat. The probability of observing a native visitor decreased with isolation from the sierras, but in other respects visitation by flower visitors other than honey-bees was mostly unaffected by the habitat factors assessed in this study. Overall, we found strong hierarchical and interactive effects between the study large and small-scale pollinator sources. These results emphasize the importance of preserving natural habitats and managing actively field verges in the absence of large remnants of natural habitat for improving pollinator services.

  11. Influence of ancient glacial periods on the Andean fauna: the case of the pampas cat (Leopardus colocolo)

    PubMed Central

    Cossíos, Daniel; Lucherini, Mauro; Ruiz-García, Manuel; Angers, Bernard

    2009-01-01

    Background While numerous studies revealed the major role of environmental changes of the Quaternary on the evolution of biodiversity, research on the influence of that period on current South-American fauna is scarce and have usually focused on lowland regions. In this study, the genetic structure of the pampas cat (Leopardus colocolo), a widely distributed felid, was determined and linked to ancient climate fluctuations on the Andean region. Results Using both mitochondrial sequences and nuclear microsatellites, we inferred the existence of at least four groups of populations in the central Andes, while other three localities, with little sample sizes (n = 3), presented differences in only one of these markers. The distribution of these groups is correlated to latitude, with a central area characterized by admixture of numerous mitochondrial clades. This suggests colonization from at least three glacial refuges and a contact zone between 20 degrees and 23 degrees S following a glaciation event. The similar coalescence times of the mitochondrial haplotypes indicated that the major clades split approximately one million years ago, likely during the Pre-Pastonian glacial period (0.80 – 1.30 MYA), followed by a demographic expansion in every clade during the Aftonian interglacial period (0.45 – 0.62 MYA). Interestingly, this structure roughly corresponds to the current recognised distribution of morphological subspecies. Conclusion The four groups of populations identified here must be considered different management units, and we propose the three localities showing differences in only mtDNA or ncDNA as provisional management units. The results revealed the influence of ancient climate fluctuations on the evolutionary history of this species. It is expected that the other species of land vertebrates with a smaller or similar mobility have been affected in the same manner by the glacial and interglacial periods in the central Andes PMID:19331650

  12. The role of phytophysiognomies and seasonality on the structure of ground-dwelling anuran (Amphibia) in the Pampa biome, Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Maragno, Franciéle P; Santos, Tiago G; Cechin, Sonia Z

    2013-09-01

    Considering that habitat use by amphibians is related both with climate and environmental features, we tested the hypothesis that anuran assemblages found in different phytophysiognomies and in different seasons vary in structure. Additionally, we searched for species which can be indicators of habitat and seasons. The study was conducted in the Pampa biome, southern Brazil. Sampling was done through pitfall traps placed in three phytophysiognomies: grassland, ecotone grassland/forest; and forest. The seasonality factor was created by grouping months in warn and cold seasons. Sixteen species were found and the assemblages were influenced both by phytophysiognomies and climatic seasonality. In a paired comparison, the three phytophysiognomies differed in structure of assemblage from each other. Physalaemus henselii, P. riograndensis, Pseudopaludicola falcipes and Pseudis minuta were indicators of ecotone. Leptodactylus gracilis and Physalaemus biligonigerus were indicators of grassland. None species was indicator of forest. Most of the species were indicators of warm season: Elachistocleis bicolor, Leptodactylus fuscus, L. gracilis, L. latinasus, L. latrans, L. mystacinus, Physalaemus biligonigerus, P. cuvieri and Pseudis minuta. None species was indicator of cold season. We found that even for species of open areas, as Pampa, heterogeneous phytophysiognomies are important for maintaining abundance and constancy of populations of anuran.

  13. So Far Away, Yet So Close: Strong Genetic Structure in Homonota uruguayensis (Squamata, Phyllodactylidae), a Species with Restricted Geographic Distribution in the Brazilian and Uruguayan Pampas

    PubMed Central

    Felappi, Jéssica F.; Vieira, Renata C.; Fagundes, Nelson J. R.; Verrastro, Laura V.

    2015-01-01

    The Pampas is a biologically rich South American biome, but is poorly represented in phylogeographic studies. While the Pleistocene glacial cycles may have affected the evolutionary history of species distributed in forested biomes, little is known about their effects on the habitats that remained stable through glacial cycles. The South American Pampas have been covered by grasslands during both glacial and interglacial periods and therefore represent an interesting system to test whether the genetic structure in such environments is less pronounced. In this study, we sampled Pampean populations of Homonota uruguayensis from Southern Brazil and Uruguay to assess the tempo and mode of population divergence, using both morphological measurements and molecular markers. Our results indicate that, in spite of its narrow geographic distribution, populations of H. uruguayensis show high levels of genetic structure. We found four major well-supported mtDNA clades with strong geographic associations. Estimates of their divergence times fell between 3.16 and 1.82 million years before the present. Populations from the central portion of the species distribution, on the border between Uruguay and Brazil, have high genetic diversity and may have undergone a population expansion approximately 250,000 years before the present. The high degree of genetic structure is reflected in the analyses of morphological characters, and most individuals could be correctly assigned to their parental population based on morphology alone. Finally, we discuss the biogeographic and conservation implications of these findings. PMID:25692471

  14. Residence time distribution in a large unconfined-semiconfined aquifer in the Argentine Pampas using 3H/3He and CFC tracers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez, D. E.; Fourré, E.; Londoño, O. M. Quiroz; Jean-Baptiste, P.; Galli, M. Glok; Dapoigny, A.; Grondona, S. I.

    2016-08-01

    The Pampa region in Argentina includes vast unconfined-semiconfined aquifers that local economies depend upon, but detailed knowledge of the associated water resources is still lacking. The Pampeano aquifer in the Pampa plain of Argentina covers around 1.5 million km2. In order to achieve a better understanding of the hydrogeological system through the estimation of mean residence times (MRT), water samples were taken from 12 monitoring wells, drilled at different depths in four locations, and analyzed for environmental tracers. The concentrations of 3H, tritiogenic 3He and chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) can be explained by mixtures of young waters adjusted to exponential piston flow models (EPM) or dispersion models (DM), and different proportions of tracer-free waters (dead water). The sampling site located very close to the water divide shows a dominance of young waters: 85 % of water best represented by a DM model with a MRT of 3 years. For the shallow wells at other sites, best-fitting models result in a DM with MRT between 20 and 35 years, and proportions of dead water between 40 and 60 %. These results lead to important updates in the conceptual model of the Pampeano aquifer. Large proportions of dead water at a few meters depth can be the consequence of upward flows in a multilayered aquifer or diffusive retardation in the inter-bedded clay layers.

  15. High genetic diversity but low population structure in the frog Pseudopaludicola falcipes (Hensel, 1867) (Amphibia, Anura) from the Pampas of South America.

    PubMed

    Langone, José A; Camargo, Arley; de Sá, Rafael O

    2016-02-01

    Relative to South America's ecoregions, the temperate grasslands of the Pampas have been poorly studied from a phylogeographic perspective. Based on an intermediate biogeographic setting between subtropical forest (Atlantic Forest) and arid ecosystems (Chaco and Patagonia), Pampean species are expected to show unstable demographic histories due to the Quaternary climatic oscillations. Herein, we investigate the phylogenetic relatedness and phylogeographic history of Pseudopaludicola falcipes, a small and common frog that is widely distributed across the Pampean grasslands. First, we use molecular data to assess if P. falcipes represents a single or multiple, separately evolving cryptic lineages. Because P. falcipes is a small-size species (<20mm) with extensive coloration and morphological variation, we suspected that it might represent a complex of cryptic species. In addition, we expected strong genetic and geographic structuring within Pseudopaludicola falcipes due to its large geographic distribution, potentially short dispersal distances, and multiple riverine barriers. We found that P. falcipes is a single evolutionary lineage with poor geographic structuring. Furthermore, current populations of P. falcipes have a large effective population size, maintain ancestral polymorphisms, and have a complex network of gene flow. We conclude that the demographic history of P. falcipes, combined with its ecological attributes and the landscape features of the Pampas, favored a unique combination among anurans of small body size, large population size, high genetic variability, but high cohesiveness of populations over a wide geographic distribution.

  16. Odonata Diversity and Synanthropy in Urban Areas: A Case Study in Avellaneda City, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Ramos, L S; Lozano, F; Muzón, J

    2017-04-01

    The increase of human population, especially in urban areas, correlates with an alarming destruction of green spaces. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms by which urbanization processes affect biodiversity is crucial in integrating the environment in a proper urban planning. The main urban center of Argentina is known as the Greater Buenos Aires (GBA), and it includes the autonomous city of Buenos Aires and 24 surrounding districts. Avellaneda, one of the districts of the GBA, is an important urban and industrial center with green areas and low level of urbanization on the coastal area of the Río de la Plata. This paper provides the first Odonata inventory for Avellaneda, determines the species' level of synanthropy with the Nuorteva index, and assess the Odonata species replacement along a latitudinal gradient on the occidental margin of the Río de la Plata.

  17. Thermal history from both sides of the South Atlantic passive margin - A comparison: Argentinean pampa vs. South African escarpement.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kollenz, Sebastian; Glasmacher, Ulrich A.

    2014-05-01

    The eastern Argentina South Atlantic passive continental margin is distinguished by a very flat topography. Out of the so called Pampean flat two mountain ranges are arising. These mountain ranges, the Sierras Australes and the Sierras Septentrionales, are located in the State of Buenos Aires south of the capital Buenos Aires. In existing literature the Sierras Australes are correlated with the South African cape fold belt (Torsvik 2009; Lopez Gamundi & Rossello 1998). Existing thermochronological data shows different post-breakup cooling histories for both areas and different AFT-ages. Published thermochronological ages (e.g. Raab et al. 2002, 2005, Gallagher et al et al. 1998)from the south African escarpement vary around 150 and 100 Ma (Gallagher et al. 1998). Only some spots in the eastern part of South Africa towards the pacific margin show older ages of 250 Ma and older than 350 Ma (Gallagher et al. 1998). New thermochronological data (AHe, AFT and ZHe) from the Sierras Australes indicate a different cooling history by revealing a range of varying ages due to younger tectonic activity. By comparing the data sets from both areas it is getting clear that the post-rift evolution of both continents is differing very strong. Gallagher, K., Brown, R. and Johnson, C. 1998. Fission track analysis and its application to geological problems. Annual review of Earth and Planetary Science, 26, 519-572. Lopez Gamundi, O.R., Rossello, E.A. (1998): Basin fill evolution and paleotectonic patterns along the Samfrau geosyncline: the Sauce Grande basin-Ventana foldbelt (Argentina) and Karoo basin-Cape foldbelt (South Africa) revisited. Geol Rundsch 86 :819-834. Raab, M.J., Brown, R.W., Gallagher, K., Carter, A. and Webber, K. 2002. late Cretaceous reactivation of major crustal shear zones in northern Namibia: constraints from apatite fission track analysis. Tectonophysics. 349, 75-92. Raab, M.J., Brown, R.W., Gallagher, K., Webber, K. and Gleadow, A.J.W. 2005. denudational and

  18. [Serological evidence of St. Louis encephalitis virus circulation in birds from Buenos Aires City, Argentina].

    PubMed

    Beltrán, Fernando J; Díaz, Luis A; Konigheim, Brenda; Molina, José; Beaudoin, Juan B; Contigiani, Marta; Spinsanti, Lorena I

    2015-01-01

    Our goal was to determine the presence of neutralizing antibodies against St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV) and West Nile virus (WNV) in sera of wild and domestic birds from Buenos Aires City, Argentina. From October 2012 to April 2013, 180 samples were collected and processed by the microneutralization technique. A 7.2% of the sampled birds were seropositive for SLEV, while no seropositive birds for WNV were detected.

  19. [Child and juvenile delinquency and legal system in the province of Buenos Aires, Argentina].

    PubMed

    Folino, Jorge O; Domenech, Ernesto; Gutiérrez, María A; Lescano, María J

    2009-01-01

    Taking into account the social relevance of child and juvenile delinquency, the little availability of local scientific evidence concerning the subject and the moment of change in the system, this article is intended to describe the criminal system of responsibility in the Province of Buenos Aires, Argentina. Psychiatric and psychological aspects of youth involved in crimes and of those who are institutionalized in the Legal Department of La Plata shall be explored.

  20. Child feeding practices and household food insecurity among low-income mothers in Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Lindsay, Ana Cristina; Ferarro, Mabel; Franchello, Alejandra; Barrera, Raul de La; Machado, Marcia Maria Tavares; Pfeiffer, Martha Erin; Peterson, Karen Eileen

    2012-03-01

    This qualitative study of low-income mothers in Buenos Aires, Argentina, examines the influence of socio-economic conditions, organizational structures, family relationships, and food insecurity on child feeding practices and weight status. Thirty-eight mothers of preschool children living in urban Buenos Aires participated in four focus group discussions. The results indicated that many mothers were aware that obesity may be detrimental to the child's health, but most of them are unclear about the specific consequences. Maternal employment, family pressures, food insecurity and financial worries seem to influence child feeding practices. These findings have important implications for developing strategies for nutritional assistance that could benefit the health of children and provide opportunities for educational programs that are directed to nutritional awareness in Buenos Aires, Argentina. The right to eat regularly and properly is an obligation of the State and must be implemented taking into account the notion of food sovereignty and respecting the importance of preserving the culture and eating habits of a country and its diverse population groups.

  1. [A case of bat rabies in a cat in the province of Buenos Aires, Argentina].

    PubMed

    Amasino, C F; Gury Dohmen, F; de Gaetano, J; Mena Segura, C; Palazzolo, A

    2003-12-01

    In the Central Laboratory of Public Health in Buenos Aires, rabies was detected in a cat that was brought in for diagnosis by its owners. The animal, which was displaying symptoms of the furious form of the disease, had attacked three people in the rural area of Chascomús, near the Rio de la Plata. All three of the people who had been bitten received the necessary treatment. The diagnosis was made using the fluorescent antibody test and the inoculation of mice and the results were communicated to the Zoonoses Division of the Ministry of Health. The virus was then typed at the Institute Pasteur of Buenos Aires using monoclonal antibodies, where it was found to be antigenic variant 4 of serotype 1, i.e., the type of virus usually found in insectivorous bats. This area has been free of the canine variant since 1984. This is the first known case in the province of Buenos Aires of a cat becoming infected with this type of virus. It confirms that there is a link between the air and terrestrial cycles of rabies in this area.

  2. Serological evidence of Rickettsia and Coxiella burnetii in humans of Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Cicuttin, Gabriel Leonardo; Degiuseppe, Juan Ignacio; Mamianetti, Andrea; Corin, Marcela Viviana; Linares, María Cielo; De Salvo, María Nazarena; Dohmen, Federico Eugenio Gury

    2015-12-01

    In Buenos Aires city (Argentina), the circulation of these agents has been detected mainly in vectors and animals, few human cases having been described. The aim of our study was to determine the seroprevalence of Rickettsia (spotted fever--SFG--and typhus--TG--groups) and Coxiella burnetii (Q fever agent) in residents of Buenos Aires city. The study involved 99 participants. Rickettsia IgG antibodies against SFG and TG were detected by IFA in 28.3% and 16.2% of serum samples, respectively. SFG titers were mostly 1/64 (53.6%) with a maximum of 1/512 (3.5%) whereas TG titers ranged between 1/64 (62.5%) and 1/256 (6.3%). Only one sample showed a titer of 1/32 for C. burnetii (phases I and II). The circulation of these pathogens in urban areas such as the city of Buenos Aires should be considered by health services, especially at the primary care level.

  3. Preliminary results of ERTS-investigations by W-German investigations. [multidisciplinary geoscientific experiments in central Germany and hydrogeology of Argentina Pampas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muehlfeld, R.

    1974-01-01

    Results are presented of West German investigations into multidisciplinary geoscientific experiments in central Germany and the Alps, and hydrogeological investigations in the Pampa of Argentina based on ERTS-1 data. The main goals of the investigation were achieved. The studies have given a good idea of the possibilities and limitations of ERTS imagery depending on the objectives in question and on the geographical conditions of the areas under investigation. Even in the well known region of central Europe, ERTS has proven its ability of improving present knowledge. In fields such as pollution monitoring and regional planning the satellite techniques should have distinct practical value. For any regional study of less known areas, the value of ERTS imagery can hardly be overestimated.

  4. Mineralogical study of the hyper-arid Mars like-soils from Pampas de La Joya, southern Peru and its implications in the geochemistry of dry environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valdivia-Silva, J. E.; Ortega, F.

    2011-10-01

    The Pampas de La Joya is located in southern Peru between 16°S and 17°S latitude and is part of the hyper-arid region of the Atacama Desert. Recently, this place has acquired an increased interest by astrobiology community because it presents Marslike soils regarding with the very low levels of organic matter, high oxidant activity, marked driest conditions, and very low levels of microorganisms. This work describes petrology, X-ray diffraction, and EDS-electron microscopy of 119 samples collected on the surface and shallow subsurface of the desert. The samples were divided in six types of soil due to its physical properties. Overall, our results show that the detrital components of the soils come essentially from the Andean volcanic chain and local outcrops of Precambriam gneisses and Cretaceous granitic batholiths. Current and past microclimates allowed the formation of paleolakes and the consequent heterogeneous deposits of evaporitic minerals.

  5. [Campylobacter spp.: prevalence and pheno-genotypic characterization of isolates recovered from patients suffering from diarrhea and their pets in La Pampa Province, Argentina].

    PubMed

    Tamborini, Ana L; Casabona, Luis M; Viñas, María R; Asato, Valeria; Hoffer, Alicia; Farace, María I; Lucero, María C; Corso, Alejandra; Pichel, Mariana

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of Campylobacter spp. was investigated in 327 patients suffering from diarrhea and in 36 animals (dogs, cats and chickens) owned by the patients that presented infection by Campylobacter in Santa Rosa, La Pampa, Argentina. Campylobacter spp. was isolated in 50/327 patients and in 12/36 animals, being Campylobacter jejuni the most common species. Resistance to ciprofloxacin (65 %) and tetracycline (32 %) was found among 35 isolates of human origin studied. Seven genetic subtypes were observed among 13 C. jejuni isolates by pulsed field gel electrophoresis. Two subtypes grouped isolates belonging to patients and their respective dogs whereas another subtype grouped one isolate of human origin and two isolates from the patient's chickens. The results of this investigation highlight the need to strengthen surveillance of Campylobacter spp. not only in poultry, which is recognized as the main reservoir, but also in pets, which were shown to be asymptomatic carriers of the pathogen.

  6. Multidisciplinary approach of the hyperarid desert of Pampas de La Joya in southern Peru as a new Mars-like soil analog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valdivia-Silva, Julio E.; Navarro-González, Rafael; Ortega-Gutierrez, Fernando; Fletcher, Lauren E.; Perez-Montaño, Saúl; Condori-Apaza, Reneé; McKay, Christopher P.

    2011-04-01

    The distribution of living organisms, organic matter, and chemical properties in Mars-like environments on Earth can be used as a model to guide the investigation of possible habitable environments on Mars. This work aims to demonstrate that the place known informally as the "Mar de Cuarzo" (Sea of Quartz) in the Pampas de La Joya desert southern Peru (between 16°S and 17°S latitude), contains soils with characteristics similar to those found on the Martian surface. Using a multidisciplinary approach, we studied the environmental data, geology, organic matter content, oxidant activity, and microbiology of this area. Our data show that (1) Mar de Cuarzo is a hyper arid area with a lower concentration of organic matter than those found in the Mars-like soils from Yungay area (Atacama Desert in Chile), while at the same time having, comparable extreme environmental conditions, and very low levels of microorganisms. (2) The detrital components of the soils come essentially from the Andean volcanic chain and local outcrops of Precambrian gneisses and Cretaceous granitic batholiths. (3) The presence of microclimates, geomorphological features, and the high influence of the "El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO)" allowed the formation of exotic and heterogeneous chemical deposits in these soils, including iron oxides, sulfates, and other evaporites. (4) Thermal volatilization in these soils (using methods similar to the Viking and Phoenix instruments) shows high oxidant activity. (5) Labeled release experiment (similar to the Viking instrument) shows high degradation of nutrients added in these soils. Altogether, the Mar de Cuarzo area in the Pampas de La Joya is an interesting place for astrobiological studies as a new analog to Mars, and for comparative analyses with other hyperarid analogs as Yungay.

  7. Oxidative stress markers in fish (Astyanax sp. and Danio rerio) exposed to urban and agricultural effluents in the Brazilian Pampa biome.

    PubMed

    Costa-Silva, D G; Nunes, M E M; Wallau, G L; Martins, I K; Zemolin, A P P; Cruz, L C; Rodrigues, N R; Lopes, A R; Posser, T; Franco, J L

    2015-10-01

    Aquatic ecosystems are under constant risk due to industrial, agricultural, and urban activities, compromising water quality and preservation of aquatic biota. The assessment of toxicological impacts caused by pollutants to aquatic environment using biomarker measurements in fish can provide reliable data to estimate sublethal effects posed by chemicals in contaminated areas. In this study, fish (Astyanax sp. and Danio rerio) exposed to agricultural and urban effluents at the Vacacaí River, Brazil, were tested for potential signs of aquatic contamination. This river comprehends one of the main watercourses of the Brazilian Pampa, a biome with a large biodiversity that has been neglected in terms of environmental and social-economic development. Sites S1 and S2 were chosen by their proximity to crops and wastewater discharge points, while reference site was located upstream of S1 and S2, in an apparently non-degraded area. Fish muscle and brain tissues were processed for determination of acetylcholinesterase as well as oxidative stress-related biomarkers. The results showed signs of environmental contamination, hallmarked by significant changes in cholinesterase activity, expression of metallothionein, antioxidant enzymes, glutathione levels, and activation of antioxidant/cell stress response signaling pathways in fish exposed to contaminated sites when compared to reference. Based on these results, it is evidenced that urban and agricultural activities are posing risk to the environmental quality of water resources at the studied area. It is also demonstrated that cell stress biomarkers may serve as important tools for biomonitoring and development of risk assessment protocols in the Pampa biome.

  8. Luminescence dating of glacial advances at Lago Buenos Aires (∼46 °S), Patagonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smedley, R. K.; Glasser, N. F.; Duller, G. A. T.

    2016-02-01

    Understanding the timing of past glacial advances in Patagonia is of global climatic importance because of the insight this can provide into the influence on glacier behaviour of changes in temperature and precipitation related to the Southern Westerlies. In this paper we present new luminescence ages determined using single grains of K-feldspar from proglacial outwash sediments that were deposited by the Patagonian Ice Sheet around Lago Buenos Aires (∼46 °S), east of the contemporary Northern Patagonian Icefield. The new luminescence ages indicate that major outwash accumulations formed around ∼110 ± 20 ka to 140 ± 20 ka and that these correspond to the Moreno I and II moraine ridges, which were previously dated using cosmogenic isotope dating to 150 ± 30 ka. Luminescence dating at Lago Buenos Aires has also identified outwash sediments that were deposited during glacial advances ∼30.8 ± 5.7 ka and ∼34.0 ± 6.1 ka (MIS 3) that are not recorded in the moraine record. Younger outwash accumulations were then deposited between ∼14.7 ± 2.1 and 26.2 ± 1.6 ka which correspond to the Fenix I - V moraine ridges. The combined chronology suggests that glacial advances occurred ∼110 ± 20 ka to 150 ± 30 ka (MIS 6), ∼30.8 ± 5.7 ka to ∼34.0 ± 6.1 ka (MIS 3), and ∼14.7 ± 2.1 to 26.2 ± 1.6 ka (MIS 2) at Lago Buenos Aires. Overall luminescence dating using single grains of K-feldspar has excellent potential to contribute towards the ever-increasing geochronological dataset constraining the timings of glacial advances in Patagonia.

  9. New Dalyelliidae (Platyhelminthes, Rhabditophora) from Buenos Aires Province, Argentina, and their stylet ultrastructure.

    PubMed

    Damborenea, Cristina; Brusa, Francisco; Noreña, Carolina

    2007-08-01

    Two new species of Dalyellidae, Dalyellia callvucurai n. sp. and Gieysztoria namuncurai n. sp., are described from temporary freshwater environments in central Buenos Aires Province, Argentina. The ultrastructure of the stylets of both species is also described. The new species of the genus Dalyellia is the second species of the genus found in the neotropics and the first whose stylet has been studied with scanning electron microscopy. Gieysztoria namuncurai n. sp. joins the seven species of the genus known in Argentina. The ultrastructural characteristics of the stylet place it in the Inaequales group, with complex stylets.

  10. [Dictyostelids (Eumycetozoa) from soils of Punta Lara, Province of Buenos Aires, Argentina].

    PubMed

    Vadell, E M

    2000-01-01

    Five taxa of dictyostelid cellular slime molds were isolated from soil and litter samples of the relictual gallery forest of Punta Lara (34 degrees 47' S, 58 degrees 1' W), Province of Buenos Aires, Argentina. Dictyostelium lavandulum, D. polycephalum, D. purpureum and Polysphondylium violaceum were identified from most samples studied, whereas D. macrocephalum was isolated only once. Strains were lyophilized and kept in the BAFC Ceparium. Two additional isolated strains were related to D. sphaerocephalum, and to D. mucoroides var. stoloniferum. These species were likewise found, among others, in soils of the Iguazú National Park (Misiones, Argentina) in 1995.

  11. Poor, ill, and sometimes abandoned: tubercular children in Buenos Aires, 1880-1920.

    PubMed

    Reber, Vera Blinn

    2002-04-01

    Ill children with chronic diseases, such as tuberculosis, have faced difficult lives. Poverty proved a factor in their susceptibility to disease, their abandonment, and their treatment. When public health policies in Buenos Aires shifted from ignoring children to viewing them as victims who needed protection, government agencies, charitable organizations, public schools, and hospitals developed special programs that emphasized both prevention and cure of childhood tuberculosis. Argentine physicians and hygienists supported programs that were similar to those in Europe and the United States. Despite efforts, from 1880 to 1920, diagnosis of tuberculosis remained problematic, health professionals failed to prevent tuberculosis in children, and physicians were unable to cure the disease.

  12. [Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of imipenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated in a Buenos Aires hospital].

    PubMed

    Cejas, D; Almuzara, M; Santella, G; Tuduri, A; Palombarani, S; Figueroa, S; Gutkind, G; Radice, M

    2008-01-01

    From 129 P. aeruginosa isolated at a health care centre located in Buenos Aires (Hospital "Eva Perón"), 14% produced IMP-13. Although 18 isolates were metallo-beta-lactamases (MBL) producers, only those isolates that displayed altered outer membrane protein profiles correlated with the resistant category according to CLSI or even Subcomisión de Antimicrobianos, SADEBAC, AAM. Phenotypic screening of metallo-beta-lactamases proved to be appropriate for detecting MBL producing isolates. IMP-13 producing isolates corresponded to at least five different clonal types, which not only suggests the dissemination of the resistant strain but also of the resistant marker.

  13. Atmospheric Boundary Layer Height Evolution with Lidar in Buenos Aires from 2008 to 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pawelko, Ezequiel Eduardo; Salvador, Jacobo Omar; Ristori, Pablo Roberto; Pallotta, Juan Vicente; Otero, Lidia Ana; Quel, Eduardo Jaime

    2016-06-01

    The analysis of the atmospheric boundary layer top height evolution is obtained from 2008 to 2011 in Buenos Aires using the multiwavelength lidar located at CEILAP (CITEDEF-CONICET) (34°33' S; 58°30' W; 17 m asl). Algorithms recognition based on covariance wavelet transform are applied to obtain seasonal statistics. This method is being evaluated for use in the Lidar Network in Argentina and it is being deployed in Patagonia region currently. The technique operates in real time in both low and high aerosol loads and with almost no human supervision.

  14. Ergonomic analysis for elementary school teachers. Preliminary trial for elementary schools in the province of Buenos Aires.

    PubMed

    Cuenca, Gabriela; Nusshold, Patricio

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the results of a preliminary trial, in the context of an intervention, developed by a team of ergonomists under the request of the Occupational Health Department of the General Management of Schools in the Province of Buenos Aires, Argentina. We present a reformulation of the request and the results obtained in 2009 from observations and interviews held in three schools in the province of Buenos Aires in which different jobs positions were assessed. From this stage onwards, the tools were validated and new aspects were shown, particularly in relation to the high variety of real situations in the education sector.

  15. Reef facies distribution patterns, Pleistocene (125 Ka) Falmouth Formation, Rio Bueno, Jamaica, W. I

    SciTech Connect

    Precht, W.F. ); Hoyt, W.H. )

    1991-03-01

    Detailed paleoecologic and sedimentologic studies of the well-exposed, Pleistocene (125 Ka) Falmouth Formation from Rio Bueno, Jamaica, where undertaken to define both temporal and spatial changes in reef architecture. Analyses of samples reveal an overall shallowing - upwards motif and a distinct lateral zonation of reefal facies similar to those observed in Recent fringing-reef and bank-barrier reef complexes from the eastern and western sides of Discovery Bay, Jamaica, respectively. The Falmouth Formation that crops out on the eastern shore of Rio Bueno Harbor is continually exposed (north-south) for approximately 0.5 km in length. The top of the reef exposure is approximately +4.5 m above MSL. This height correlates directly with sea level maxima for the Sangamon in Jamaica based upon a wavecut notch in the Hopegate Formation at the top of the Falmouth onlap surface. Interpretation of these deposits indicates that no lagoon or back-reef facies were present and that there was a gradation of energy regimes from high-to-low, north-to-south within this true fringing reef complex. Detailed sedimentologic analysis of thin-sections from all the above lithologies confirms the aforementioned paleoenvironmental interpretations. This study emphasizes the usefulness of modern counterparts in Pleistocene reef analysis and interpretation, and allows for an understanding of temporal (vertical) and spatial (horizontal) variations due to both physical disturbance and local sea level history that are preserved in these reefal deposits.

  16. Use of the Pap test by a population group in Buenos Aires.

    PubMed

    Klimovsky, E; Matos, E

    1996-12-01

    The study reported here sought to assess Pap test coverage of a group of asymptomatic Argentine women from the poor urban district of La Matanza in the Buenos Aires metropolitan area Initially, all 2495 women who voluntarily enrolled in a program for early detection of breast cancer between January 1991 and June 1993 were included. After removing those who did not meet various study criteria, there remained 779 study subjects with no gynecologic or mammary symptomatology. Two subgroups of these 779 were established-women who had received a Pap test at any time and those who had received such a test within the previous three years. Using these subgroups, the influence of certain sociodemographic and other variables upon the likelihood of Pap testing was assessed. The results indicated significant associations between past Pap testing and age, formal education, parity, and a family history of cancer Likewise, significant associations were found between Pap testing within the preceding three years and age, formal education, and parity. The study findings affirm the idea that it would be advisable to seek Pap testing for all study population women once every three years instead of every year. Since the study population was not necessarily representative of Buenos Aires population, however, and the findings could have been affected by self-selection and other biases, additional studies are needed to determine actual Pap test coverage among women of the metropolitan area.

  17. A method for optimizing waste collection using mathematical programming: a Buenos Aires case study.

    PubMed

    Bonomo, Flavio; Durán, Guillermo; Larumbe, Frederico; Marenco, Javier

    2012-03-01

    A method is proposed that uses operations research techniques to optimize the routes of waste collection vehicles servicing dumpster or skip-type containers. The waste collection problem is reduced to the classic travelling salesman problem, which is then solved using the Concorde solver program. A case study applying the method to the collection system in the southern zone of Buenos Aires is also presented. In addition to the typical minimum distance criterion, the optimization problem incorporates the objective of reducing vehicle wear and tear as measured by the physics concept of mechanical work. The solution approach, employing graph theory and mathematical programming tools, is fully described and the data correction process is also discussed. The application of the proposed method minimized the distance travelled by each collection vehicle in the areas studied, with actual reductions ranging from 10 to 40% of the existing routes. The shortened distances led in turn to substantial decreases in work done and therefore in vehicle wear and tear. Extrapolation of the results to the entire southern zone of Buenos Aires indicates potential savings for the civic authorities of more than US $200,000 per year in addition to the qualitative impacts of less traffic disruption, less vehicle driver fatigue and less pollution.

  18. [Histoplasmosis outbreak in Morón, Buenos Aires Province, Argentina].

    PubMed

    Negroni, R; Duré, R; Ortiz Nareto, A; Arechavala, A I; Maiolo, E I; Santiso, G M; Iovannitti, C; Ibarra-Camou, B; Canteros, C E

    2010-01-01

    A histoplasmosis outbreak affecting 6 previously healthy Air Force cadets is herein presented. The patients suffered from fever and respiratory symptoms after having cleaned an abandoned hangar soiled with pigeons and bat droppings. They all presented fever, myalgia, tachypnea, and nonproductive cough. Chest X-ray and CT scan studies showed disseminated reticulonodular images affecting both lungs. Hiliar adenomegalies were also observed. All patients achieved a favourable outcome without antifungal treatment. Both serologic tests searching for specificic antibodies (immunodiffusion and counterimmunoelectrophoresis) and histoplasmin skin tests were positive in all cases. Five soil samples mixed with pigeons and bat droppings were collected from the hangar. Suspensions of these samples were inoculated into 20 hamsters by intraperitoneal injection; mycelial phase of H. capsulatum was isolated from liver and spleen cultures. The genetic profile of this strain was compared with 12 isolates obtained from Argentinean patients, and a great degree of homogeneity was observed (> 96% similarity). Although histoplasmosis is endemic in the wet Pampas, this is the first epidemic outbreak reported south of the 34th parallel.

  19. A classification of the sea level pressure daily fields in southern South America: an application to daily rainfall in the Pampas region.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penalba, Olga; Bettolli, Maria Laura

    2010-05-01

    The Pampas covers Argentina's most productive agricultural land, extending more than 1600 km in the heartland of the country. The impact of climate adversities on agricultural activities makes it necessary to determine to what extent climate spatial and temporal variability is responsible for crop yields and to generate elements to monitor, estimate impacts and design an alert system. Local atmospheric conditions depend, among other factors, on the major scale fields. Consequently, an objective classification of daily circulation fields in the South of South America is proposed using a long database. Daily rainfalls within the Argentine Humid Pampas are also investigated in connection to the weather type categories. Daily mean sea level pressure (SLP) fields corresponding to the NCEP_Reanalysis 2 data provided by the NCEP-NCAR were used as representative of atmospheric circulation at low levels which is of great importance in determining moisture advection in the region. The period of study was 1979-1999. The chosen domain extends from 15°S to 60°S and from 40°W to 90° W on a 2.5° latitude-longitude grid. This domain extends over the Pacific and the Atlantic Oceans and the Andes Mountains, all of which have a significant influence on the atmospheric circulation over South America. The analyzed seasons correspond to summer (December-January- February) and winter (June-July-August). Daily rainfall series located in the core region for growing different crops in the Argentine Humid Pampas were also used. These series were provided by the Argentine National Meteorological Service. Cluster analysis was performed coupled with Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to determine the atmospheric circulation patterns. PCA was used as a synthesis method and the cluster analysis was carried out in the subspace given by the leading unrotated principal components. The ‘k-means' partitioning method with Euclidean distance was used. The choice of the optimal number of clusters

  20. The Sublime Corpse in Gertrudis Gomez de Avellaneda's Women's Journal "Album Cubano de lo Bueno y lo Bello" (1860)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaGreca, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    This article examines Gertrudis Gomez de Avellaneda's choice to include articles depicting the advanced decay of cadavers, which are simultaneously horrible and awesome, in her women's periodical "Album Cubano de lo Bueno y lo Bello". Background on Avellaneda's biography, women's print culture, and theories of the sublime provide a frame for the…

  1. Methodological and Ethical Dilemmas Encountered during Field Research of Family Violence Experienced by Adolescent Women in Buenos Aires

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luxardo, Natalia; Colombo, Graciela; Iglesias, Gabriela

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine some obstacles and dilemmas related to methodological strategies and ethical considerations that arose during the fieldwork of research focused on family violence during the stages of pregnancy and childbirth in adolescent females in Buenos Aires during 2007. From this study, we are able to contribute some…

  2. Personalization and Competition in Elite Schools in Buenos Aires: School Strategies for the Production and Legitimization of Dominant Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziegler, Sandra

    2017-01-01

    This article analyses the strategies found in two elite secondary institutions in Buenos Aires designed to legitimise the selection of students aspiring to become members of the elite. The first are personalization strategies where teachers and students work together with the aim of facilitating success in examinations. The second are strategies…

  3. "Quien Sabe Mas Lucha Mejor": Adult Educators' Care of the Self Practices within Social Movements in Buenos Aires, Argentina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Donnell, Jennifer Lee

    2014-01-01

    This article looks at popular adult educators' care of the self practices within social movements in Buenos Aires, Argentina. It answers the following questions: How is popular adult education practiced amongst educators in social movements? What can studying popular adult educators' care of the self practices offer the field of adult education?…

  4. Motivation and Attitudes of Students of English as a Foreign Language at ICANA in Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, Lia Diana Kamhi

    Both the motivation for and attitudes of adult Argentine students studying English as a foreign language (EFL) are investigated. A questionnaire was administered to 114 adult students attending EFL classes at beginning, intermediate, and advanced levels at the Instituto Cultural Argentino Norteamericano (ICANA) in Buenos Aires. The findings…

  5. Decomposition of sodium formate and L- and D-alanine in the Pampas de La Joya soils: Implications as a new geochemical analogue to Martian regolith

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valdivia-Silva, Julio E.; Navarro-González, Rafael; Rosa, José De La; McKay, Christopher P.

    2012-03-01

    The organic compounds on the Martian surface are still undetectable by the previous Viking mission that has been sent to Mars even though they are expected to be there by exogenous and/or endogenous synthesis. The high abiotic reactivity has been the most acceptable explanation for the apparently absence of organic matter in the regolith.Earth soils that have geochemical properties similar to those expected on the surface of Mars could help to decipher this question on the surface and shallow subsurface of the Red Planet. This work aims to demonstrate that the place known as the Pampas de La Joya desert in southern Peru, contains soils that have nonbiological chemical decomposition mechanisms of organic compounds under conditions of the Viking Labeled Release Experiment (LRx). We compare the organic decomposition kinetics of these hyper-arid soils with those seen in samples from arid and semiarid regions of the Atacama Desert, and data obtained by Viking LRx in the Martian regolith. 13Carbon-labeled organic compounds (sodium formate, D-, and L-alanine) were added in aqueous solution to different soil samples in order to analyze the evolved carbon dioxide (13CO2) generated during their degradation. As expected, there were significant differences in the evolved gas behavior between soil samples under similar experimental conditions. When sodium formate was added to hyper-arid samples, there was a peak of 13CO2 gas released demonstrating high oxidation activity in the soil. Heat treatment of soil samples did not completely eliminate the CO2 production. An increase in the decomposition rates ˜7 days after the first addition of organics showed a response consistent with biological activity. The addition of D- and L-alanine demonstrated that the production of 13CO2 due to biological decomposition began 5-8 days after incubation. Our results suggest that these soils from Pampas de La Joya present at least two types of oxidants, a thermostable one which is highly

  6. Paleo-Environmental Conditions Revealed by Fossil and Geochemical Features at Pampa-Lirima, a High-Altitude Geothermal System in the Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolau, C.; Blank, J. G.; Clavero, J. E.

    2015-12-01

    Sinter deposits that form in up-flow areas of high-temperature geothermal systems provide useful information about local and regional paleo-environmental conditions. We analyzed sinter from the Pampa Lirima geothermal field, a high-altitude (4,000 m) Andean site ~190 km east of Iquique in Northern Chile, 20 km from the Bolivian border. There, siliceous sinter is forming in several active thermal pools distributed in a broad, flat plain of sinter and sand debris. Water temperatures ranged from 38-80°C and pH was near neutral (6.0-7.4), when we sampled in November 2014. We focused on the largest pool, one with an artificial trench extending from its SE corner, through which effluent flowed; this trench cut through 1.25m of sinter horizon, allowing us to sample older sinter material along with deposits actively forming in the pool. We used EMP and SEM data to characterize 16 sinter samples. The sinter deposit is comprised of massive sinter layers interbedded with layers rich in fragmented sinter debris cemented by opal-A. The material is dominantly opal-A with a few percent accessory minerals. Accessory phases consist of sulfates - gypsum, sodium- and sodium-calcium sulfates, in decreasing order of occurrence. Fossil frustules and plant remnants replaced by opal-A spheres are abundant; they are comprised of diatom casts (15-80% of the rock), and 10-300 µm diameter filamentous features. In the trench, the fragmental layers are concentrated at the base of the exposed stratigraphy; these layers also show a higher abundance of sodium-sulfates, whereas the uppermost portion of the column presents calcium-sulfates - gypsum - and a lower frequency of fragmental layers. The mineralogy of the deposit is a record of changes in the geochemistry of the thermal pool and/or local environmental conditions over time, with periods of higher sodium and calcium content or higher evaporation rates. The fragmental nature of some sinter layers and the preserved plant remains suggest that

  7. Megacity and country emissions from combustion sources-Buenos Aires-Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawidowski, L.; Gomez, D.; Matranga, M.; D'Angiola, A.; Oreggioni, G.

    2010-12-01

    Historic time series (1970-2006) emissions of greenhouse gases and air pollutants arising from stationary and mobile combustion sources were estimated at national level for Argentina and at regional level for the metropolitan area of Buenos Aires (MABA). All emissions were estimated using a bottom-up approach following the IPCC good practice guidance. For mobile sources, national emissions include all transport categories. Regional emissions account thus far only for on-road. For national emissions, methodologies and guidance by the IPCC were employed, applying the highest possible tier and using: i)country-specific emission factors for carbon and sulphur and technology-based information for other species, ii)activity data from energy balance series (1970-2007), and iii)complementary information concerning the non-energy use of fuels. Regional emissions in 2006 were estimated in-depth using a technology-based approach for the city of Buenos Aires (CBA) and the 24 neighboring districts composing the MABA. A regional emissions factors database was developed to better characterize Latin American fleets and driving conditions employing COPERT III-IV algorithms and emission factors measured in dynamometers and circulating vehicles in Argentina, Brazil, Chile and Colombia. Past emissions were back estimated from 2005 to 1970 using the best available information, which differs greatly among categories, spatial disaggregation and time periods. The time series of stationary and mobile combustion sources at the national and regional level allowed the identification of distinct patterns. National greenhouse gas emissions in 2006 amounted to ~ 150 million ton CO2-equivalent, 70% of which were contributed by stationary sources. On-road transport was the major contributor within mobile sources (28.1 %). The increasing emissions trends are dominated by on-road transport, agriculture and residential categories while the variability is largely associated with energy industries

  8. Prevalence of molar incisor hypomineralization in the city of Buenos Aires.

    PubMed

    Biondi, Ana M; Cortese, Silvina G; Martínez, Karina; Ortolani, Andrea M; Sebelli, Patricia M F; Ienco, Melisa; Paván, Verónica H; Mendel, Nancy; Bertolino, Mariana; Hecht, Pedro

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of Molar Incisor Hypomineralization (MIH) still remains unknown in Argentina. The objectives of this work were to: estimate prevalence of MIH in a group of children seeking dental care in the city of Buenos Aires, analyze distribution according to year of birth and compare prevalence and severity of MIH in children with different access to health care services. A prospective, observational, transversal, descriptive study was designed, to be conducted on children seeking attention at Department of Comprehensive Children's Dentistry at the School of Dentistry of Buenos Aires University and at 3 pediatric dentistry offices attended by members of the team, located in Buenos Aires city (Kappa 0.933 0.911-0.952), from April to August 2010. The study included all children born between 1993 and 2003, whose 4 first molars and 8 permanent incisors had erupted. After prophylaxis and drying, the teeth were clinically evaluated and specially designed charts were used to record sex, year of birth, type of access to dental care, presence of MIH, number of affected incisors and molars, and maximum degree of severity for each tooth. The data obtained were analyzed using percentages, Fisher's Exact Test and Linear regression. 1098 children, mean age 11.3 years (11.08-11.39) were evaluated. Prevalence of MIH in this study was 15.9% (13.8-18.2). A highly significant positive correlation was obtained between MIH and year of birth (p<0.0001). Group A (private sector: prepaid medical insurance) was made up of 586 children (age: 10.92 6.22-15.62) while group B (public sector: university hospital) was made up of 512 children (age: 11.59 5.31-16.90). In Group A, MIH prevalence was 24.40% (20.9-27.9) while in Group B it was 6.44% (4.31-8.56) (p<0.0001). Of the affected molars, 37% (32.2-42) in A and 13.7% (6.7-23.8) in B had grade 3 lesions, with loss of enamel (p<0.0001). In this study, MIH was a frequent pathology (15.9%) and a significant increase was found according to

  9. Heat waves in Argentina: how unusual was the 2008 heat wave in Buenos Aires?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusticucci, Matilde; Almeira, Gustavo; Kyselý, Jan; Lhotka, Ondřej

    2014-05-01

    We examine temporal variability of heat waves over Argentina, and estimate recurrence probability of the most severe heat wave in Buenos Aires that occurred in November 2008. The number of days in heat waves per decade was analysed, considering spells of days with maximum temperature above the 90th percentile (MaxTHW), minimum temperature above the 90th percentile (MinTHW), and both maximum and minimum temperatures above the corresponding 90th percentiles (EHW) for the October-March period. Decadal values in Buenos Aires experienced increases in all definitions of heat waves, but at other stations, combinations of different trends or decadal variability resulted in some cases in a decrease of extreme heat waves, as shown in Córdoba (central Argentina) and Las Lomitas (northern Argentina). In the northwestern part of the country, La Quiaca and Tinogasta showed a strong change in the last decade, mainly due to the increment in the persistence of extreme MinTHW but also accompanied by increases in MaxTHW. In general, other stations showed a clear positive trend in MinTHW and decadal variability in MaxTHW, with the largest EHW cases in the last decade. Using simulations with a stochastic first-order autoregressive model (AR1), which reproduces the structure of time series of daily maximum temperatures, we estimated recurrence probability of the longest and most severe heat wave in Buenos Aires (over 1909-2010, according to intensity measured by cumulative excess of daily maximum temperatures above the 90th percentile) that occurred from 3 to 14 November 2008. The results showed that the recurrence probability of such long and severe heat wave is small in the present climate but increases substantially even under a moderate warming trend. The return period of such heat wave is estimated to be in the order of several hundreds years in the present climate while in a climate warmer by 1 °C, the return period declines by an order of magnitude, and in a climate warmer by 4

  10. The environmental impact of the Puyehue-Cordon Caulle 2011 volcanic eruption on Buenos Aires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raga, G. B.; Baumgardner, D.; Ulke, A. G.; Torres Brizuela, M.; Kucienska, B.

    2013-09-01

    On 4 June 2011, the volcanic complex Puyehue-Cordon Caulle located in the Chilean Andes erupted, producing a plume of gases and particles that eventually circled the Southern Hemisphere, disrupting air travel and depositing ash in large quantities. On eight occasions, the plume passed over the city of Buenos Aires, Argentina, leading local authorities to close the two international airports. The eruption occurred during an on-going field campaign when measurements of the properties of atmospheric aerosol particles were being made in Buenos Aires as part of a year-long study of the concentration and optical properties of aerosol at one site in the city. The suite of instruments deployed in Buenos Aires were not tailored to measurements of volcanic ash, but were designed to characterize urban conditions. Nevertheless, these measurements were analysed for periods when vertical profiles of aerosol backscatter, made with a ceilometer, clearly showed the presence of the volcano plume over the research site and resulted in airport closure. Aerosol optical thickness derived from AERONET, MODIS and a ceilometer at our research site, all show enhanced values clearly indicating that the three platforms identified the volcanic plume simultaneously. However, a quantitative comparison of the different estimates proves difficult, suggesting large spatial and temporal variability of the plume. Our results indicate that the number concentration of condensation nuclei (CN), the mass concentration of particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PPAH) and the light absorption coefficient exceeded the average background values by more than one standard deviation during the events of volcanic plume. The anomalous concentrations of CN suggest new particle formation, presumably from the conversion of SO2, while the anomalous concentrations of PPAH may come from the uptake of PAHs on the plume particles or from chemical reactions on the surface of plume particles. The anomalous

  11. Observations on the macroscopic anatomy of the intestinal tract and its mesenteric folds in the pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus, Linnaeus 1758).

    PubMed

    Pérez, W; Clauss, M; Ungerfeld, R

    2008-08-01

    We described the macroscopic anatomy of the intestines and their peritoneal folds of five adult pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus), a cervid species considered to ingest a high proportion of grass in its natural diet. The mean (+/-SD) body weight was 17 (+/-2) kg. The small intestine and the caecocolon measured 495 (+/-37) cm and 237 (+/-24) cm in length, respectively, with an average ratio (small intestine:caecocolon) of 1.9 (+/-0.1). The ascending colon had two and a half centripetal gyri, a central flexure and two centrifugal gyri. The spiral ansa, which was similar to an ellipse, was fixed to the whole left face of the mesenterium. Apart from the peritoneal folds described in the Nomina Anatomica Veterinaria, three additional, hitherto not described folds were found: a fold that fixed the caecum to the proximal ansa of the ascending colon, one that joined the terminal part of the proximal ansa to the last centrifugal gyrus of the spiral ansa of the ascending colon, and one that linked the ascending duodenum to the proximal ansa of the ascending colon. When compared with published data from other cervids of different feeding niches, it appears that, among cervids, the ratio of small intestine to the caecocolon length does not reflect the natural diet.

  12. Hf isotope study of Palaeozoic metaigneous rocks of La pampa province and implications for the occurrence of juvenile early Neoproterozoic (Tonian) magmatism in south-central Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernicoff, C. J.; Zappettini, E. O.; Santos, J. O. S.; Belousova, E.; McNaughton, N. J.

    2011-12-01

    On a global scale, juvenile Tonian (Early Neoproterozoic) magmatic rocks are associated with the extensional events that lead to the breakup of the Rodinia supercontinent. In Argentina, no geological record is available for this time interval, lasting from 1000 to 850 Ma. We present indirect evidence for the existence of Tonian extension in Argentina, as supported by Hf and Nd isotope determinations on Phanerozoic magmatic and sedimentary rocks. We mainly focus on our own Hf isotope determinations carried out on U-Pb SHRIMP dated zircons from Palaeozoic metaigneous rocks of La Pampa province, south-central Argentina, i.e. metagabbros of Valle Daza, dioritic orthogneiss of Estancia Lote 8, and metadiorite of Estancia El Carancho, having found that these rocks were derived from sources of ca. 920 to ca 880 Ma, with ɛHf values between +6.83 and + 9.59. Inherited zircons of this age and character identified in these rocks also point to the same source. We also compile additional Hf and Nd studies from previous work on Phanerozoic magmatic and sedimentary rocks. We preliminarily compare the age of the juvenile Tonian sources referred to in our work with that of two extensional events identified in the São Francisco craton, Brazil.

  13. Infection with a Hepatozoon sp. closely related to Hepatozoon felis in a wild Pampas gray fox (Lycalopex -Pseudalopex -gymnocercus) co-infected with canine distemper virus.

    PubMed

    Giannitti, Federico; Diab, Santiago S; Uzal, Francisco A; Fresneda, Karina; Rossi, Daniel; Talmi-Frank, Dalit; Baneth, Gad

    2012-05-25

    A species of Hepatozoon closely related to Hepatozoon felis found in the skeletal and cardiac muscle of a wild Pampas gray fox (Lycalopex gymnocercus) is described. The fox was euthanized after showing severe incoordination. On necropsy and histopathology there was bilateral, diffuse, severe, sub-acute, necrotizing bronchointerstitial pneumonia, with intracytoplasmic and intranuclear eosinophilic inclusion bodies. Canine distemper virus was detected by immunohistochemistry in the bronchiolar epithelium, syncytial cells, alveolar macrophages and pneumocytes. The skeletal muscle and myocardium contained multiple round to oval protozoan cysts ranging from 64 μm × 75 μm to 98 μm × 122 μm, with a central eosinophilic meront-like core surrounded by concentric rings of mucinous material resembling Hepatozoon americanum cysts but smaller in size. Macrophages within rare pyogranulomas and monocytes/macrophages in adjacent sinusoidal blood vessels in the skeletal muscle contained intracytoplasmic round protozoa consistent with merozoites or developing gamonts of Hepatozoon. Hepatozoon sp. infection was confirmed by PCR of skeletal muscle and the sequenced 18S rRNA PCR product was found to be 99% identical to H. felis by BLAST analysis and deposited in GenBank as accession number HQ020489. It clustered together in the phylogenetic analysis with published H. felis sequences and separately from H. canis, H. americanum and other Hepatozoon species. However, the close relatedness of the fox Hepatozoon to H. felis does not rule out infection with a different and possibly unknown Hepatozoon species.

  14. Simulating the selfing and migration of Luehea divaricata populations in the Pampa biome to investigate the conservation potential of their genetic resources.

    PubMed

    Serrote, C M L; Reiniger, L R S; Stefenon, V M; Curti, A R; Costa, L S; Paim, A F

    2016-08-29

    Computer simulations are an important tool for developing conservation strategies for forest species. This study used simulations to investigate the genetic, ecological, and reproductive patterns that contribute to the genetic structure of the tree Luehea divaricata Mart. & Zucc. in five forest fragments in the Brazilian Pampa biome. Using the EASYPOP model, we determined the selfing and migration rates that would match the corresponding genetic structure of microsatellite marker data (based on observed and expected heterozygosity parameters). The simulated reproductive mode was mixed, with a high rate of outcrossing (rate = 0.7). This was consistent with a selfing-incompatible system in this species, which reduced, but did not prevent, selfing. The simulated migration rate was 0.02, which implied that the forest fragments were isolated by distance, and that the inbreeding coefficients were high. Based on Nei's gene diversity analysis, 94% of the genetic variability was distributed within the forest fragments, and only 6% of the genetic diversity was caused by differences between them. Furthermore, the minimum viable population and minimum viable area genetic conservation parameters (which determine conservation potential in the short and long term) suggested that only the Inhatinhum forest fragment had the short-term potential to maintain its genetic diversity. However, in the long term, none of the forest fragments proved to be sustainable, indicating that the populations will require intervention to prevent a decline in genetic variability. The creation of ecological corridors could be a useful solution to connect forest fragments and enhance gene flow between them.

  15. Genetic divergence among populations and accessions of the spineless peach palm from Pampa Hermosa landrace used in the heart-of-palm agribusiness in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Alves-Pereira, Alessandro; Clement, Charles R; Picanço-Rodrigues, Doriane

    2012-04-01

    Although originally domesticated for its fruit, exploitation of the peach palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth) in the production of gourmet heart-of-palm has also become an important activity, hence the need for improved material for large-scale production, on employing the Pampa Hermosa landrace as the seed source. In this study 11 microsatellite markers were used to evaluate genetic divergence among 96 elite plants representing four populations of spineless peach palm from the above cited source. Genetic variability was high (H(T) = 0.82). The low levels of divergence [F(ST) (0.023), G(ST)' (0.005)] and the high number of migrants (Nm - 3.8 to 52.2) indicated significant interpopulation gene flow. Some of the plants presented high levels of genetic divergence, but the plants were grouped independently of their geographic origins. When combined with morpho-agronomic evaluation, the results found could substantially contribute towards mounting an efficient tool for obtaining superior genotypes with wide genetic variability for improvement programs.

  16. Paradoxical Personality and Academic Achievement in College Students From Buenos Aires

    PubMed Central

    Freiberg Hoffmann, Agustín; Fernández Liporace, María Mercedes

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a study on paradoxical personality, defined as a distinctive feature in creative persons, developed with 350 college students from Buenos Aires. Goals aimed at describing and analysing possible significant differences of paradoxical traits in students from diverse majors representing seven different fields of study, and examining the relationship between each bipolar trait and academic achievement. The sample was composed of 7 groups (n = 50 by group) representing fields of study typically offered in public universities, Biology, Computer Science, Engineering, Law, Nutrition, Psychology, and History of Art. Analyses by career provided descriptive information about students of these majors, concerning their paradoxical personality profiles. Correlational studies verified significant associations between academic achievement and most paradoxical traits in majors such as Computer Science, Nutrition and Psychology. Results are discussed regarding practical outcomes and teaching programs. PMID:27247680

  17. HIV Knowledge and Beliefs among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Buenos Aires, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Pando, MA; Balan, I; Marone, R; Dolezal, C; Barreda, V; Carballo Dieguez, A; Avila, MM

    2013-01-01

    Five hundred men who have sex with men (MSM), recruited through Respondent Driven Sampling in Buenos Aires, Argentina, were interviewed in order to assess knowledge and beliefs about HIV infection. The mean proportion of HIV correct knowledge answers was 62%; however participants whose sexual partners in the prior year included women (MSM&W) had lower frequencies of correct answers than participants with no women partners. Men with previous HIV testing experience and those who were HIV positive had higher HIV knowledge. In relation to HIV beliefs, less than half of participants responded correctly to each of the scenarios presented. Accurate answers for all items were more likely among those who only have sex with men. Men have basic HIV knowledge but also many misconceptions about transmission and prevention. Furthermore, MSM&W have less information than those who are exclusively MSM, probably related to the fact that information campaigns specifically targeted gay identified men. PMID:23297085

  18. Physicochemical parameters and sensory properties of honeys from Buenos Aires region.

    PubMed

    Silvano, María F; Varela, María S; Palacio, María A; Ruffinengo, Sergio; Yamul, Diego K

    2014-01-01

    The physicochemical parameters (moisture, hydroxymethyl furfural, colour, electrical conductivity, free acidity, glucose, fructose and sucrose) and the sensory properties(aroma, taste, appeareance, texture) were determined in honeys from apiaries of the agricultural, hills and meadow zones of the south east region of Buenos Aires province (Argentina). The analysis of variance showed significant differences among zones in the mean value of hydroximethyl furfural, colour, electrical conductivity and sucrose content. The principal component analysis explained the 70% of the variance among samples with the first two principal components in both cases. The cluster analysis and linear discriminant analysis showed that samples were grouped in relation to the sampling region coinciding with the results of the principal component analysis. Results suggest that could be possible to classify honeys according to the geographic origin based on the physicochemical parameters; however, the sensory properties were not good predictors.

  19. Paradoxical Personality and Academic Achievement in College Students From Buenos Aires.

    PubMed

    Freiberg Hoffmann, Agustín; Fernández Liporace, María Mercedes

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents a study on paradoxical personality, defined as a distinctive feature in creative persons, developed with 350 college students from Buenos Aires. Goals aimed at describing and analysing possible significant differences of paradoxical traits in students from diverse majors representing seven different fields of study, and examining the relationship between each bipolar trait and academic achievement. The sample was composed of 7 groups (n = 50 by group) representing fields of study typically offered in public universities, Biology, Computer Science, Engineering, Law, Nutrition, Psychology, and History of Art. Analyses by career provided descriptive information about students of these majors, concerning their paradoxical personality profiles. Correlational studies verified significant associations between academic achievement and most paradoxical traits in majors such as Computer Science, Nutrition and Psychology. Results are discussed regarding practical outcomes and teaching programs.

  20. Population data for DXS6800, DXS101 and DXS8377 loci from Buenos Aires (Argentina).

    PubMed

    Noseda, Pablo A; Kenline, Jaclyn; Manning, Samantha; Gangitano, David A

    2013-07-01

    The X-chromosomal short tandem repeats (X-STRs) DXS6800, DXS101 and DXS8377 were analysed in a population sample from Buenos Aires (Argentina) using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) multiplex approach with fluorescent detection. We present allele frequencies for these loci in a population comprising 113 women and 99 men. The Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) was tested in the female sample and no significant deviations were observed. The homogeneity of allele frequencies of men and women was compared by the Fisher's exact test and showed similar distributions. Linkage disequilibrium (LD) tests were performed in males for all pairs of loci and no significant associations were detected. Parameters of forensic interest were also estimated.

  1. Atmospheric control of Aedes aegypti populations in Buenos Aires (Argentina) and its variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Garín, A.; Bejarán, R. A.; Carbajo, A. E.; de Casas, S. C.; Schweigmann, N. J.

    The mosquito Aedes aegypti is the main urban vector responsible for the transmission of dengue fever and dengue hemorrhagic fever. The city of Buenos Aires, Argentina, is located at the southern end of the world distribution of the species. The population abundance of Ae. aegypti is mainly regulated by environmental factors. We calculated the potential number of times that a female could lay eggs during its mean life expectancy, based on potential egg production and daily meteorological records. The model considers those variables implying physical hazard to the survival of Ae. aegypti, mosquito flying activity and oviposition. The results, obtained after calibration and validation of the model with field observations, show significant correlation (P<0.001) for different lags depending on the life stage. From these results, more favorable atmospheric conditions for Ae. aegypti reproduction (linked to the urban climatic change) can be observed. The climatic variability in the last decade resembles conditions at the end of 19th century.

  2. First record of Sarcoramphus Dumeril 1806 (Ciconiiformes: Vulturidae) from the Pleistocene of Buenos Aires province, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noriega, Jorge I.; Areta, Juan I.

    2005-10-01

    The finding of an incomplete specimen of Sarcoramphus papa (Linné 1758), commonly known as the King Vulture, from the locality of Camet Norte (Buenos Aires province) in Argentina is reported. The bearing level is referred to the Late Pleistocene Santa Clara Formation (Late Lujanian). Sarcoramphus papa is actually a dweller of undisturbed areas of tropical rainforest and humid tropical and subtropical forests in Central and South America, ranging from Mexico to northern Argentina. It is rarely found in large open areas such as steppes and grasslands and/or habitats with extremely low temperatures in winter. The fossiliferous locality is located geographically more than 700 km south of the species' southern distributional limit and thus far away from suitable habitats for its survival. This fossil record contradicts previous paleoenvironmental reconstructions for the same place and time, suggesting a mixed community with some arboreal structures capable of holding this taxon.

  3. Thermotolerant Campylobacters in domestic animals in a defined population in Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    PubMed

    López, Clara M; Giacoboni, Gabriela; Agostini, Adela; Cornero, Fernando J; Tellechea, Diana M; Trinidad, Juan José

    2002-10-15

    We assessed the prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni in animals in a region of unsatisfied basic needs in the city of Buenos Aires and studied a few risk factors. First we conducted a census to identify all dwellings having pet animals (dogs, cats, and birds). Fecal samples were then taken for isolation and identification of strains. We observed 17% prevalence for dogs (95% CI: 13, 22), 16% for cats (95% CI: 8, 27) and 19% for birds (95% CI: 5, 42). In dogs, the highest prevalences were found in summer and in animals <1 year old; in cats, in autumn and those aged 3-5 years. Strains were identified as C. jejuni biotype II in 70% of isolates. In the population described here, dogs, cats and birds kept in households were potential sources of human Campylobacter infections.

  4. [Milonguitas in Buenos Aires (1910-40): tango, social ascent, and tuberculosis].

    PubMed

    Armus, Diego

    2002-01-01

    During the first three decades of the 20th century, in the fervor of urban change that transformed Buenos Aires into a metropolis, poetry, cinema, theater, and the lyrics of the tango repeatedly portrayed the path of muchachas de barrio who, by taking to nightlife and the downtown cabarets, placed their stakes on a society where social ascent--limited yet real--was part of the urban experience. For the most part written by men, the lyrics speak of these journeys in a tone of censure and tuberculosis is cast as a form of punishment for these young women who dared to question ther place in the domestic world and the world of the barrio. The tango thus offers its audience not only a highly moralizing account but also paints an image of an illness that seems unique to women although it in fact affected male and female alike.

  5. [The fight against polio: a social-medical alliance, Buenos Aires, 1943].

    PubMed

    Testa, Daniela Edelvis

    2012-12-01

    The present article analyzes the emergence of a volunteer-based social assistance organization that played an active role in the health care provided for poliomyelitis in Argentina: Asociación para la Lucha contra la Parálisis Infantil (Association for the Fight against Child Paralysis). This institution was created in Buenos Aires in 1943 by a group of women from upper and middle class social sectors. In a context of biomedical uncertainty, the organization mobilized material and symbolic resources to respond to the need for rehabilitation of the permanent physical conditions the disease provoked in its victims. Using as a source the institutional memories of the organization, the article demonstrates how doctors and philanthropists formed a social-medical alliance and developed a fundamental interest in practicing a form of treatment sustained in a framework that united Christian ideas with medical and rehabilitative innovations.

  6. [A challenge to Peronism's social justice: hydatidosis in the province of Buenos Aires, 1946-1952].

    PubMed

    Valobra, Adriana

    2007-01-01

    This analysis of the sanitary policies enforced in the province of Buenos Aires by Domingo Alfredo Mercante--Juan Domingo Perón's right-hand man--focuses on one of his most fascinating efforts: the eradication of hydatidosis. In exploring an issue largely forgotten by historiography, the article describes how the Mercante administration (1946-52) used statistical, socioeconomic, and symbolic legitimization to place hydatidosis on the State agenda. The administration's strategies are also pinpointed: the passing of regulatory laws against this endemic disease; the creation of specific state anti-hydatidosis institutions; the creation of space for information and for interdisciplinary, interministerial, and even supranational education aimed at achieving greater knowledge of the disease and at the exchange of experiences; and, lastly, the definition of initiatives focused on relief, treatment, and prevention in animals and people.

  7. Functional Foods and Nutraceuticals in a Market of Bolivian Immigrants in Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    PubMed Central

    Pochettino, María Lelia; Puentes, Jeremías P.; Buet Costantino, Fernando; Arenas, Patricia M.; Ulibarri, Emilio A.; Hurrell, Julio A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a research in urban ethnobotany, conducted in a market of Bolivian immigrants in the neighborhood of Liniers, Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina). Functional foods and nutraceuticals belonging to 50 species of 18 families, its products, and uses were recorded. Some products are exclusive from the Bolivian community; others are frequent within the community, but they are also available in the general commercial circuit; they are introduced into it, generally, through shops called dietéticas (“health-food stores”), where products associated with the maintenance of health are sold. On this basis, the traditional and nontraditional components of the urban botanical knowledge were evaluated as well as its dynamics in relation to the diffusion of the products. Both the framework and methodological design are innovative for the studies of the urban botanical knowledge and the traditional markets in metropolitan areas. PMID:22203866

  8. European origin of patients with Paget's disease of bone in the Buenos Aires area.

    PubMed

    Gómez Acotto, C; Mautalen, C A

    2001-01-01

    Paget's bone disease is heterogeneously distributed and several foci of high prevalence have been reported in Europe, United States, Argentina and Australia. The aim of the present work was to determine the ethnic origin of the disease in Buenos Aires using a cross sectional epidemiological study. Sample choice was based on a sampling according to grandparents' nationality. Ninety five percent of Paget patients were of European descent and 5% were non-European, while in the control group the proportion of European descendants is lower: 83% (OR: 3.7; p < 0.007; IC 95%: 1.4-9.7). Within the group of patients with Paget's disease the proportion of Italian and Russian descendants was higher than expected according to the 1914 Argentinean census. The prevalence of Paget's disease among European migrants was higher than in the control group of citizens. Regardless of environmental factors, it is likely that the migrants carried a higher risk of developing the disease.

  9. HIV Testing Practices among Men Who Have Sex with Men in Buenos Aires, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Carballo-Diéguez, Alex; Balán, Iván C.; Dolezal, Curtis; Pando, María A.; Marone, Rubén; Barreda, Victoria; Ávila, María Mercedes

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the study was to explore HIV-testing practices among MSM in Buenos Aires, Argentina, in light of current international health guidelines that recommend frequent HIV testing for MSM who engage in high-risk behavior. Participants, who were recruited using respondent-driven sampling (RDS), were 500 mostly young, non-gay-identified MSM of low socioeconomic status, high levels of unemployment, living mainly in the less affluent areas surrounding Buenos Aires, and lacking health insurance. They provided blood samples for HIV testing and responded to a Computer Assisted Self Interview. Fifty-two percent had never been tested for HIV, and 20% had been tested only once; 17% were found to be HIV infected, of whom almost half were unaware of their status. Main reasons for never having tested previously were: not feeling at risk, fear of finding out results, and not knowing where to get tested. Among those previously tested, men had been tested a median of 2 times with their most recent test having occurred a median of 2.7 years prior to study enrollment. Of those who had not tested positive before entering the study, only 41% returned for their results. HIV testing was infrequent and insufficient for early detection of infection, entry into treatment, and protection of sexual partners. This was particularly the case among non-gay-identified MSM. Testing campaigns should aim to help MSM become aware of their risk behavior, decrease fear of testing by explaining available treatment resources and decreasing the stigma associated with HIV, and by publicizing information about free and confidential testing locations. Rapid HIV testing should be made available to eliminate the need for a return visit and make results immediately available to individuals who are tested. PMID:23659314

  10. Dengue Virus 1 in Buenos Aires from 1999 to 2010: Towards Local Spread

    PubMed Central

    Tittarelli, Estefanía; Mistchenko, Alicia S.

    2014-01-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) is a public health problem representing the most important arthropod-borne viral disease in humans. In Argentina, Northern provinces have reported autochthonous cases since 1997, though these outbreaks have originated in bordering countries, where co-circulation of more than one serotype has been reported. In the last decade, imported dengue cases have been reported in Buenos Aires, the urban area of Argentina with the highest population density. In 2009, a dengue outbreak affected Buenos Aires and, for the first time, local transmission was detected. All cases of this outbreak were caused by DENV-1. In this report, we present the full-length sequences of 27 DENV-1 isolates, corresponding to imported cases of 1999–2000, as well as local and imported cases of the 2009 and 2010 outbreaks. We analyzed their phylogenetic and phylodynamic relationships and their global and local spread. Additionally, we characterized their genomic and phenotypic features. All cases belonged to DENV-1 genotype V. The most recent ancestor for this genotype was dated ∼1934, whereas that for the 2009 outbreak was dated ∼2007. The mean rates of nucleotide substitution were 4.98E-4 and 8.53E-4 subs./site/yr, respectively. We inferred an introduction from Paraguay in 1999–2000 and mainly from Venezuela during 2009–2010. Overall, the number of synonymous substitutions per synonymous site significantly exceeded the number of non-synonymous substitutions per site and 12 positively selected sites were detected. These analyses could contribute to a better understanding regarding spread and evolution of this pathogen in the Southern Cone of South America. PMID:25343372

  11. Reproductive performance of dairy farms in western Buenos Aires province, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Gonzalo

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the reproductive performance of 23 grazing-based dairy farms from western Buenos Aires province in Argentina. The data set included data from the breeding season starting in May 2011 and ending in March 2012. Submission, conception, and pregnancy rates ranged from 42.4 to 70.2%, 20.1 to 44.9%, and 10.3 to 24.5%, respectively. No correlation was observed between conception and submission rates, suggesting that dairy farms with poor submission rates but with relatively high conception rates might increase pregnancy rates by simply putting more effort into increasing estrus detection and submission rates. Decreases in submission and conception rates were observed among 21-d cycles, indicating seasonal variation. A greater number of cows in estrus at the beginning of the breeding period could have facilitated estrus detection and therefore increased submission rates. In addition, restarting the breeding activities with timed artificial insemination programs may explain the highest submission rates at the beginning of the breeding period. A first decrease of 5.1 percentage units in conception rate was observed during the spring (October-November) and an additional decrease of 2.4 percentage units in conception rate was observed during the summer (January-February). Decreases in conception rates could be related to high intakes of high-protein diets, heat stress, or a combination of both. Attenuating heat stress during the summer may be critical for maximizing conception rates in grazing systems from western Buenos Aires province.

  12. Hepatitis B virus in Buenos Aires, Argentina: genotypes, virological characteristics and clinical outcomes.

    PubMed

    Pezzano, S C; Torres, C; Fainboim, H A; Bouzas, M B; Schroder, T; Giuliano, S F; Paz, S; Alvarez, E; Campos, R H; Mbayed, V A

    2011-02-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is classified into eight major genotypes, A-H, which are geographically distributed worldwide. The aim of this work was to describe the clinical characteristics associated with the HBV genotypes circulating in Buenos Aires city. The study included 139 patients infected with HBV, whose clinical courses were classified as acute symptomatic self-limiting hepatitis, inactive carrier state and chronic active hepatitis (HBV e-antigen (HBeAg)-positive and HBeAg-negative). The HBV genotypes were determined in 128 patients by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism and phylogenetic analysis. Biochemical, virological, clinical and histological features were analysed. A differential distribution of genotypes between acute symptomatic and chronic infections was found. Among the acute cases, genotype F was predominant (65.2%, 30/46) and genotype D was rare (4.3%, 2/46), whereas among the chronic infections, a homogeneous distribution of genotypes A (26.8%, 22/82), D (31.7%, 26/82) and F (36.6%, 30/82), with an unusual presence of genotypes B (1.2%, 1/82) and C (3.7%, 3/82), was observed. Regarding the liver histology of chronically infected patients, genotype F tended to display higher histological activity indexes. Mutations related to HBV surface antigen immunoreactivity, antiviral resistance and HBeAg-negative status were studied. This work constitutes, to our knowledge, the first description of the clinical characteristics related to HBV genotypes in Argentina, where the distribution of genotypes in patients with acute infection has not been reported previously. Finally, it was established that genotype F is the prevalent genotype among the acute symptomatic infections in Buenos Aires city, and that it shows a tendency to cause an adverse disease outcome among the chronic cases.

  13. [Collectors of historical, archeological, and natural science objects at municipal museums in Buenos Aires province, Argentina, during the 1950s].

    PubMed

    Pupio, María Alejandra

    2005-01-01

    Through reference to the creation and expansion of municipal museums in the province of Buenos Aires during the 1950s, the article explores some aspects of how archeological collections are compiled. The collections under study came from private hands, having been gathered by collectors who relinquished them so these museums could be formed. At the same time that these collections became public, the collectors themselves became responsible for them in the role of directors of the new institutes. Within this context, the collectors established institutional relations that allowed them to devise common strategies concerning the receipt, selection, and exhibition of archeological collections. The result was the shaping of a network of solidarity in the southern part of Buenos Aires province.

  14. [Migrants from bordering countries in the labor force of the metropolitan area of Buenos Aires, 1980-1996].

    PubMed

    Maguid, A

    1997-04-01

    Data from the 1991 Argentine census indicate that migrants from neighboring countries at that date were maintaining patterns of entry into the labor force of Buenos Aires consistent with past tendencies. Migrants tended to be employed in less skilled manufacturing industries, construction, commerce, and domestic work, often filling positions rejected by the native population because of low wages and poor working conditions. Profound changes in the Argentine economy since 1991 have included rising unemployment and underemployment and a loss of productive jobs in industry and construction. A comparison of the occupational structure of migrants from neighboring countries and of the total population for the years 1980, 1991, and 1996 demonstrates that important changes in sectorial employment have occurred among both the native and immigrant populations, with the immigrant population increasingly relegated to ever smaller sectors of the labor market offering less attractive employment. Nearly half of the 841,697 persons immigrating in 1991 from countries bordering Argentina settled in the Buenos Aires metropolitan region, comprising 42.8% of foreigners in the metropolitan area and 3.7% of the total regional population. Of the population from border countries residing in Buenos Aires, 43% are Paraguayan, 28% Uruguayan, 15% Bolivian, 12% Chilean, and 2% Brazilian. The unemployment rate in Buenos Aires fluctuated between 4% and 6% during 1974-92, but it rose to 10.6% in 1993 and then to 18% in 1996. The underemployment rate rose from 4.6% in 1983 to 8.2% in 1993 and 12.6% in 1996.

  15. Thermal and Evolved Gas Analysis (TEGA) of hyperarid soils doped with microorganisms from the Atacama Desert in southern Peru (Pampas de la Joya): Implications for the Phoenix Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valdivia-Silva, Julio E.; Navarro-Gonzalez, Rafael; McKay, Chris

    TEGA is one of several instruments on board of the Phoenix Lander that will perform differential scanning calorimetry and evolved gas analysis of soil samples and ice, collected from the surface and subsurface at a northern landing site on Mars. TEGA is a combination of a high-temperature furnace and a mass spectrometer that will be use to analyze samples delivered to instrument via a robotic arm. The samples will be heated at a programmed ramp rate up to 1000° C and the power required for heating will be carefully and continuously monitored (scanning calorimetry). The evolved gases generated during the process will be analyzed with the evolved-gas analyzer (a magnetic sector mass spectrometer) in order to determine the composition of gases released as a function of temperature. Our laboratory has developed a sample characterization method using a pyrolizer integrated to a quadrupole mass spectrometer to support the interpretations of TEGA data. Here we examine the thermal and evolved gas properties of six types of hyperarid soils from the Pampas de La Joya southern Peru, a possible analog to Mars, which has been previously enriched with microorganisms (Salmonella thypimurium, Micrococcus luteus, and Candida albicans) to investigate the effect of soil matrix over TEGA response. Between 20 to 40 mg of soil pre-treated to 500° C for 24 hours to remove traces of organics, was mixed with or without 5mg biomass lyophilized (dry weight). Additionally 20 mg of each one microorganism were analyzed. The samples were placed in the pyrolizer that reached 1200° C at 1 hour. The volatiles released were transferred to the MS using helium as a carrier gas. The quadrupole MS was ran in scan mode from 40-350m/z. As expected, there were significant differences in the evolved gas behaviors for microorganism samples with or without a soil matrix under similar heating conditions. In addition, samples belonging to the most arid environments had significant differences compared with

  16. Climatological characteristics in the extreme hyper-arid region of Pampas de La Joya, Peru. Astrobiological approach in four years of observation: 2004-2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valdivia-Silva, Julio E.; Navarro-González, Rafael; Fletcher, Lauren; Pérez-Montaño, Saúl; Condori-Apaza, Reneé; Ortega-Gutiérrez, Fernando; McKay, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    This study reports the environmental conditions of temperature, moisture and radiation for four years (May 2004 to July 2008) in the area known as Pampas de La Joya in southern Peru, which recently has been considered as a new Mars analogue. The period of evaluation includes the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) during the months of September 2006 to March 2007, which, despite not having catastrophic effects like its predecessor on 1997-1998, showed an interesting increase in humidity. Our data describe the extreme conditions present in the region and their relationship with the presence of potential habitats that could allow for the survival of micro-organisms. The average environmental temperature was 18.9°C, with a maximum of 35.9°C and a minimum of -4.5°C. The annual average incident solar radiation was 508 W m-2, with high near 1060 W m-2 at noon during the driest period between September and March. The average relative humidity (RH) was 29.5, 20.1 and 20.4% for air, soil and rock, respectively. The RH had higher values at night due to fog during the months of June and August, and during the early morning between December and March. During the months of ENSO event there were four episodes of precipitation (1.1, 1.5, 2.0 and 0.9 mm), of which three increased soil and rock moisture on an average more than 45% and persisted for over 15 days after precipitation, while the atmospheric environment had no significant variations. Finally, quartz rocks and evaporite minerals colonized with micro-organisms were found as the only micro-habitats, in this region, capable of supporting life in this extreme environment.

  17. Prediction of blood-brain barrier permeation of α-adrenergic and imidazoline receptor ligands using PAMPA technique and quantitative-structure permeability relationship analysis.

    PubMed

    Vucicevic, Jelica; Nikolic, Katarina; Dobričić, Vladimir; Agbaba, Danica

    2015-02-20

    Imidazoline receptor ligands are a numerous family of biologically active compounds known to produce central hypotensive effect by interaction with both α2-adrenoreceptors (α2-AR) and imidazoline receptors (IRs). Recent hypotheses connect those ligands with several neurological disorders. Therefore some IRs ligands are examined as novel centrally acting antihypertensives and drug candidates for treatment of various neurological diseases. Effective Blood-Brain Barrier (BBB) permeability (P(e)) of 18 IRs/α-ARs ligands and 22 Central Nervous System (CNS) drugs was experimentally determined using Parallel Artificial Membrane Permeability Assay (PAMPA) and studied by the Quantitative-Structure-Permeability Relationship (QSPR) methodology. The dominant molecules/cations species of compounds have been calculated at pH = 7.4. The analyzed ligands were optimized using Density Functional Theory (B3LYP/6-31G(d,p)) included in ChemBio3D Ultra 13.0 program and molecule descriptors for optimized compounds were calculated using ChemBio3D Ultra 13.0, Dragon 6.0 and ADMET predictor 6.5 software. Effective permeability of compounds was used as dependent variable (Y), while calculated molecular parametres were used as independent variables (X) in the QSPR study. SIMCA P+ 12.0 was used for Partial Least Square (PLS) analysis, while the stepwise Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) and Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) modeling were performed using STASTICA Neural Networks 4.0. Predictive potential of the formed models was confirmed by Leave-One-Out Cross- and external-validation and the most reliable models were selected. The descriptors that are important for model building are identified as well as their influence on BBB permeability. Results of the QSPR studies could be used as time and cost efficient screening tools for evaluation of BBB permeation of novel α-adrenergic/imidazoline receptor ligands, as promising drug candidates for treatment of hypertension or neurological diseases.

  18. Comparative symbiotic performance of native rhizobia of the Flooding Pampa and strains currently used for inoculating Lotus tenuis in this region.

    PubMed

    Sannazzaro, Analía Inés; Bergottini, Verónica Mariel; Paz, Rosalía Cristina; Castagno, Luis Nazareno; Menéndez, Ana Bernardina; Ruiz, Oscar Adolfo; Pieckenstain, Fernando Luis; Estrella, María Julia

    2011-02-01

    The Flooding Pampa (FP) is the most important area for cattle breeding in Argentina. In this region, persistence and yield of typical forage legumes are strongly limited by soil salinity and alkalinity, which affect around 30% of the total area. Instead, naturalized Lotus tenuis is the main forage legume in this region. Rhizobial strains currently used for inoculating L. tenuis in the FP are exotic or native from non-saline soils of this region, their taxonomic identity being unknown. Assuming that rhizobia native from the most restrictive environments are well adapted to adverse conditions, the use of such isolates could improve the productivity of L. tenuis in the FP. Hence, the goal of this study was to evaluate the symbiotic efficiency of selected L. tenuis rhizobia native from the FP, as compared with strains currently used for field inoculation of this legume. Under non-stressing conditions, the symbiotic performance of native strains of FP exceeded those ones currently used for L. tenuis. Moreover, the symbiotic performance of the native strain ML103 was considerably high under salt stress, compared with strains currently used as inoculants. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed that unclassified rhizobia currently used for field inoculation of L. tenuis and native strains grouped with the genus Mesorhizobium. As a whole, results obtained demonstrate that soils of the FP are a source of efficient and diverse rhizobia that could be used as a sustainable agronomic tool to formulate inoculants that improve forage yield of L. tenuis in this region.

  19. Brazilian Pampa Biome Honey Protects Against Mortality, Locomotor Deficits and Oxidative Stress Induced by Hypoxia/Reperfusion in Adult Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Cruz, L C; Ecker, A; Dias, R S; Seeger, R L; Braga, M M; Boligon, A A; Martins, I K; Costa-Silva, D G; Barbosa, N V; Cañedo, A D; Posser, T; Franco, J L

    2016-02-01

    We aimed to investigate the potential beneficial effects of the Brazilian Pampa biome honey in a Drosophila-based hypoxia model. Adult flies were reared in standard medium in the presence or absence of honey (at a final concentration of 10 % in medium). Then, control flies (4 % sucrose in medium) and honey-treated flies were submitted to hypoxia. Subsequently, flies were analyzed for mortality, neurolocomotor behavior (negative geotaxis), mitochondrial/oxidative stress parameters and expression of hypoxia/stress related genes by RT-qPCR. The HPLC analysis revealed the presence of phenolics and flavonoids in the studied honey. Caffeic acid was the major compound followed by p-coumaric acid and kaempferol. The presence of such compounds was correlated with a substantial antioxidant activity in vitro. Flies subjected to hypoxia presented marked mortality, locomotor deficits and changes in oxidative stress and mitochondrial activity parameters. Honey treatment was able to completely block mortality and locomotor phenotypes. In addition, honey was able to reverse ROS production and hypoxia-induced changes in mitochondrial complex I and II activity. Hypoxia also induced an up-regulation in mRNA expression of Sima (HIF-1), NFκβ, NRF2, HOX, AKT-1, InR, dILP2, dILP5 and HSP27. Honey treatment was not able to modulate changes in the tested genes, indicating that its protective effects involve additional mechanisms other than transcriptional activity of hypoxia-driven adaptive responses in flies. Our results demonstrated, for the first time, the beneficial effects of honey against the deleterious effects of hypoxia/reperfusion processes in a complex organism.

  20. Molecular characterization of Rickettsia massiliae and Anaplasma platys infecting Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks and domestic dogs, Buenos Aires (Argentina).

    PubMed

    Cicuttin, Gabriel L; Brambati, Diego F; Rodríguez Eugui, Juan I; Lebrero, Cecilia González; De Salvo, María N; Beltrán, Fernando J; Gury Dohmen, Federico E; Jado, Isabel; Anda, Pedro

    2014-09-01

    Rickettsioses, ehrlichioses and anaplasmoses are emerging diseases that are mainly transmitted by arthropods and that affect humans and animals. The aim of the present study was to use molecular techniques to detect and characterize those pathogens in dogs and ticks from Buenos Aires city. We studied 207 Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks and 52 canine blood samples from poor neighborhoods of Buenos Aires city. The samples were molecularly screened for the genera Rickettsia, Ehrlichia, and Anaplasma by PCR and sequencing. DNA of Rickettsia massiliae (3.4%) and Anaplasma platys (13.5%) was detected in ticks and blood samples, respectively. For characterization, the positive samples were subjected to amplification of a fragment of the 190-kDa outer membrane protein gene (spotted fever group rickettsiae) and a fragment of the groESL gene (specific for A. platys). A phylogenetic tree was constructed using the neighbor-joining method, revealing that the sequences were closely related to those of strains from other geographic regions. The results indicate that human and animal pathogens are abundant in dogs and their ticks in Buenos Aires city and portray the potentially high risk of human exposure to infection with these agents, especially in poor neighborhoods, where there is close contact with animals in an environment of poor health conditions.

  1. Gene frequencies in the cat population of Buenos Aires, Argentina, and the possible origin of this population.

    PubMed

    Kajon, A; Centrón García, D; Ruiz-García, M

    1992-01-01

    The phenotypes of 295 stray cats seen in the capital area of Buenos Aires, Argentina, between March and December of 1989 were recorded. The corresponding mutant allele frequencies were as follows: O = 0.28, a = 0.83, Ta = 0.01; tb = 0.31; d = 0.45; I = 0.40; S = 0.28; W = 0.02. The allele frequencies calculated at the O locus were consistent with those expected for a randomly breeding population according to the formula for the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The analysis of the genetic distances between Buenos Aires and several European cat populations revealed that the Spanish and, especially, those with a proven more ancestral genetic constitution, are the most closely related. When a similar analysis was carried out, including other Latin American cat populations, those of Spanish origin were found to show the highest degree of relatedness. These findings suggest that the Buenos Aires cat population was not genetically structured following the "two-stepping-stone" model and support the hypothesis that differential gene flows play a transcendental role in understanding the genetic composition of domestic cat populations.

  2. Simulation of regional-scale groundwater flow in the Azul River basin, Buenos Aires Province, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varni, Marcelo R.; Usunoff, Eduardo J.

    A three-dimensional modular model (MODFLOW) was used to simulate groundwater flow in the Azul River basin, Buenos Aires Province, Argentina, in order to assess the correctness of the conceptual model of the hydrogeological system. Simulated heads satisfactorily match observed heads in the regional water-table aquifer. Model results indicate that: (1) groundwater recharge is not uniform throughout the region but is best represented by three recharge rates, decreasing downgradient, similar to the distribution of soils and geomorphological characteristics; and (2) evapotranspiration rates are larger than previous estimates, which were made by using the Thornthwaite-Mather method. Evapotranspiration rates estimated by MODFLOW agree with results of independent studies of the region. Model results closely match historical surface-flow records, thereby suggesting that the model description of the aquifer-river relationship is correct. Résumé Un modèle modulaire tridimensionnel (MODFLOW) a été utilisé pour simuler les écoulements souterrains dans le bassin de la rivière Azul (Province de Buenos Aires, Argentine), dans le but d'évaluer la justesse du modèle conceptuel du système hydrogéologique. La piézométrie simulée s'ajuste de façon satisfaisante à celle observée pour l'ensemble de la nappe. Les résultats du modèle indiquent que: (1) la recharge de la nappe n'est pas uniforme sur toute la région, mais qu'elle est mieux approchée par trois valeurs différentes, décroissant vers l'aval-gradient, en suivant la même distribution que les sols et les caractéristiques géomorphologiques et (2) l'évapotranspiration est nettement plus importante que prévu initialement à partir de la méthode de Thornthwaite-Mather. Les valeurs d'évapotranspiration fournies par MODFLOW concordent bien avec les résultats d'autres études portant sur la région. Les résultats du modèle reproduisent convenablement les chroniques de débit des écoulements de surface

  3. [Fungal biomass estimation in soils from southwestern Buenos Aires province (Argentina) using calcofluor white stain].

    PubMed

    Vázquez, María B; Amodeo, Martín R; Bianchinotti, María V

    Soil microorganisms are vital for ecosystem functioning because of the role they play in soil nutrient cycling. Agricultural practices and the intensification of land use have a negative effect on microbial activities and fungal biomass has been widely used as an indicator of soil health. The aim of this study was to analyze fungal biomass in soils from southwestern Buenos Aires province using direct fluorescent staining and to contribute to its use as an indicator of environmental changes in the ecosystem as well as to define its sensitivity to weather conditions. Soil samples were collected during two consecutive years. Soil smears were prepared and stained with two different concentrations of calcofluor, and the fungal biomass was estimated under an epifluorescence microscope. Soil fungal biomass varied between 2.23 and 26.89μg fungal C/g soil, being these values in the range expected for the studied soil type. The fungal biomass was positively related to temperature and precipitations. The methodology used was reliable, standardized and sensitive to weather conditions. The results of this study contribute information to evaluate fungal biomass in different soil types and support its use as an indicator of soil health for analyzing the impact of different agricultural practices.

  4. [Saint Louis encephalitis virus in Buenos Aires city during the outbreak of dengue in 2009].

    PubMed

    López, Horacio; Neira, Jorge; Morales, María Alejandra; Fabbri, Cintia; D'Agostino, María Laura; Zitto, Teresa

    2011-01-01

    We report the case of a male, 80-year-old resident in the City of Buenos Aires, with a diagnosis of St. Louis encephalitis (SLE) during a countrywide dengue outbreak, from January to May 2009. The patient had a chronic lymphocytic leukemia treated with chlorambucil, prostate cancer (hormone therapy and radiotherapy) and images consistent with bone metastases. Cerebrospinal fluid examination showed pleocytosis with a predominance of mononuclear cells and high protein concentration. Bacteria, fungi and mycobacteria cultures, as well as the PCR for herpes virus, HSV, CMV and EBV, were negative. We confirmed the diagnosis of SLE by detection of IgM antibodies in both CSF and serum sample with IgG seroconversion by neutralization in cell cultures and negative results for other flaviviruses with known circulation in Argentina. We review the evidence for the presence of the St. Louis virus in our country and point to the importance of the diagnosis and the search of other Flavivirus in suspected dengue cases with severe or atypical presentation. This work emphasizes the need to strengthen both the epidemiological surveillance of SLE, and vector control to prevent different infections transmitted by mosquitoes and to understand their true impact on public health in Argentina.

  5. Urban Chagas disease in children and women in primary care centres in Buenos Aires, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Moscatelli, Guillermo; Berenstein, Ada; Tarlovsky, Ana; Siniawski, Susana; Biancardi, Miguel; Ballering, Griselda; Moroni, Samanta; Schwarcz, Marta; Hernández, Susana; García-Bournissen, Facundo; Cozzi, Andrés Espejo; Freilij, Héctor; Altcheh, Jaime

    2015-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of this disease in women of childbearing age and children treated at health centres in underserviced areas of the city of Buenos Aires. Demographic and Chagas disease status data were collected. Samples for Chagas disease serology were obtained on filter paper and the reactive results were confirmed with conventional samples. A total of 1,786 subjects were screened and 73 positive screening results were obtained: 17 were from children and 56 were from women. The Trypanosoma cruzi infection risk was greater in those individuals who had relatives with Chagas disease, who remember seeing kissing bugs, who were of Bolivian nationality or were born in the Argentine province of Santiago del Estero. The overall prevalence of Chagas disease was 4.08%. Due to migration, Chagas disease is currently predominantly urban. The observed prevalence requires health programme activities that are aimed at urban children and their mothers. Most children were infected congenitally, which reinforces the need for Chagas disease screening of all pregnant women and their babies in Argentina. The active search for new cases is important because the appropriate treatment in children has a high cure rate. PMID:26222020

  6. [Campylobacteriosis in a low-income community in Buenos Aires, Argentina].

    PubMed

    López, C; Agostini, A; Giacoboni, G; Cornero, F; Tellechea, D; Trinidad, J J

    2003-12-01

    The authors describe the problem of campylobacteriosis in a low-income community located in southern Buenos Aires. Homes in the area were classified according to their total number of inhabitants, the number of children and animals living in the house and the amount of poultry meat consumed. Samples were taken from all the different types of homes that had been identified in order to isolate, identify and type Campylobacter sp., using the modified Skirrow technique, bio-chemical tests and the Lior technique respectively. The prevalences found were 16.96% in dogs, 20% in cats and 40% in poultry. The pathogens isolated were Campylobacter jejuni type II in 94.44% of the cases and Campylobacter upsaliensis in 5.55% of the cases. In poultry meat, 92.85% of the samples were positive (23.07% for type I and 76.92% for type II). The incidence of diarrhoea in children caused by C. jejuni was 0.4/1000 children/month (type I in all cases). A high prevalence of C. jejuni type II was detected in pets and in poultry meat. The source of infection in children may have been poultry meat.

  7. Aquatic insect assemblages of man-made permanent ponds, Buenos Aires city, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Fontanarrosa, M S; Collantes, M B; Bachmann, A O

    2013-02-01

    Freshwater habitats are important elements within urban green space and they are endangered by various types of human activity. With the aim to increase the knowledge about species biodiversity in urban ecosystems, we characterised the assemblages of aquatic insects in four permanent man-made ponds in Buenos Aires city (Argentina) during a 1-year period. We recorded 32 species with Sigara spp. (Hemiptera) as the most abundant. The removal of aquatic vegetation from the studied ponds may have affected both the establishment and permanence of the insect community. Swimmers were the dominant group in the studied sites, followed by burrowers and sprawlers, and only a few strictly climbers were collected. Therefore, all sampled ponds were dominated by collectors (principally gatherers), secondarily by predators and only few shredders were detected, which was much affected by the removal of macrophytes. Non-parametric abundance indexes estimated a number of species very close to the observed number in each site. Conversely, the incidence indexes estimated more species because there were many more taxa present only in one sample than those represented by few individual in a sample. Our data provides some insights on the community of man-made ponds that can improve the management of these aquatic urban habitats. Considering that macrophytes affect animal assemblages due to their role as physical structures that increase the complexity or heterogeneity of habitats, they should not be removed by authorities in order to promote biodiversity.

  8. Genotypes of Leptospira spp. strains isolated from dogs in Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Grune Loffler, Sylvia; Passaro, Diego; Samartino, Luis; Soncini, Analía; Romero, Graciela; Brihuega, Bibiana

    2014-01-01

    Leptospirosis is an infectious disease of wide global distribution, which is endemic in Argentina. The objective of this study was to obtain the genetic profiles of Leptospira spp. strains isolated from clinical cases of dogs in the province of Buenos Aires by the multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA). Eight isolated canine strains were genotyped by MLVA, obtaining the identical profile of Leptospira interrogans serovar Canicola Hond Utrecht IV in the strains named Dogy and Mayo. The strains named Bel, Sarmiento, La Plata 4581 and La Plata 5478 were identical to the profile of the genotype of L. interrogans serovar Portlandvere MY 1039.The strain named Avellaneda was identical to the genotype profile of L. interrogans serovar Icterohaemorrhagiae RGA and the strain named SB had the same profile as the L. interrogans serovar Pomona Baires genotype and was similar to the profile of serovar Pomona Pomona genotype. It would be useful to include a larger number of isolates from different dog populations in various provinces of Argentina and to characterize the genetic profiles of the strains circulating in the country. The information obtained will be useful for the control of leptospirosis in the dog population.

  9. Prevalence of the amphibian chytrid fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis) at Buenos Aires National Wildlife Refuge, Arizona, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sigafus, Brent H.; Hossack, Blake R.; Muths, Erin L.; Schwalbe, Cecil R.

    2014-01-01

    Information on disease presence can be of use to natural resource managers, especially in areas supporting threatened and endangered species that occur coincidentally with species that are suspected vectors for disease. Ad hoc reports may be of limited utility (Muths et al. 2009), but a general sense of pathogen presence (or absence) can inform management directed at T&E species, especially in regions where disease is suspected to have caused population declines (Bradley et al. 2002). The Chiricahua Leopard Frog (Lithobates chiricahuensis), a species susceptible to infection by the amphibian chytrid fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, Bd) (Bradley et al. 2002), and the non-native, invasive American Bullfrog (L. catesbeianus), a suspected vector for chytridiomycosis (Schloegel et al. 2012, Gervasi et al. 2013), both occur at Buenos Aires National Wildlife Refuge (BANWR) and surrounding lands in southern Arizona. Efforts to eradicate the bullfrog from BANWR began in 1997 (Suhre, 2010). Eradication from the southern portion of BANWR was successful by 2008 but the bullfrog remains present at the Arivaca Cienega and in areas immediately adjacent to the refuge (Fig. 1). Curtailing the re-invasion of the bullfrog into BANWR will require vigilance as to ensure the health of Chiricahua Leopard Frog populations.

  10. Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamases in Enterobacteriaceae in Buenos Aires, Argentina, Public Hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Quinteros, M.; Radice, M.; Gardella, N.; Rodriguez, M. M.; Costa, N.; Korbenfeld, D.; Couto, E.; Gutkind, G.

    2003-01-01

    Resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins is often associated with plasmid encoded extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL). In order to evaluate the prevalence and diversity of ESBLs in enterobacteria in our city, a 1-month-period survey was carried out from April to May 2000. Extended-spectrum-cephalosporin-resistant strains, isolated from inpatient clinical specimens other than stools, were collected among 17 participating hospitals. From a total of 427 enterobacterial strains that were collected during this period, 39 were extended-spectrum cephalosporin resistant. The National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards' Screening and Confirmatory Tests for ESBL production were performed using cefotaxime and ceftazidime; cefepime and cefepime-clavulanic acid-containing disks were included. β-Lactamases were characterized by isoelectric focusing and PCR amplification using specific primers. Three different ESBLs were detected: SHV-related (4 isolates), PER-2-type (9 isolates), and CTX-M-2-related (26 isolates). Sequencing of the corresponding genes confirmed CTX-M-2 in 19 of 21 and CTX-M-31 (an allelic variant) in the remaining 2 of 21. CTX-M-2 (or its variant) was detected in all Escherichia coli, Enterobacter aerogenes, Serratia marcescens, Proteus mirabilis, and Providencia stuartii strains, while PER-2 was detected in Enterobacter cloacae, E. aerogenes, and Klebsiella pneumoniae; SHV-related ESBL were found only in K. pneumoniae. These results clearly show that CTX-M-2 is the most prevalent ESBL produced by enterobacterial species isolated from public hospitals in Buenos Aires. PMID:12936986

  11. Ecotoxicological and Genotoxic Evaluation of Buenos Aires City (Argentina) Hospital Wastewater

    PubMed Central

    Juárez, Ángela Beatriz; Dragani, Valeria; Saenz, Magalí Elizabeth; Moretton, Juan

    2014-01-01

    Hospital wastewater (HWW) constitutes a potential risk to the ecosystems and human health due to the presence of toxic and genotoxic chemical compounds. In the present work we investigated toxicity and genotoxicity of wastewaters from the public hospital of Buenos Aires (Argentina). The effluent from the sewage treatment plant (STP) serving around 10 million inhabitants was also evaluated. The study was carried out between April and September 2012. Toxicity and genotoxicity assessment was performed using the green algae Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and the Allium cepa test, respectively. Toxicity assay showed that 55% of the samples were toxic to the algae (%I of growth between 23.9 and 54.8). The A. cepa test showed that 40% of the samples were genotoxic. The analysis of chromosome aberrations (CA) and micronucleus (MN) showed no significant differences between days and significant differences between months. The sample from the STP was not genotoxic to A. cepa but toxic to the algae (%I = 41%), showing that sewage treatment was not totally effective. This study highlights the need for environmental control programs and the establishment of advanced and effective effluent treatment plants in the hospitals, which are merely dumping the wastewaters in the municipal sewerage system. PMID:25214834

  12. Comparative study of urban development and groundwater condition in coastal areas of Buenos Aires, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues Capítulo, Leandro; Carretero, Silvina C.; Kruse, Eduardo E.

    2017-02-01

    The geomorphological evolution of a sand-dune barrier in Buenos Aires, Argentina, is analyzed as a factor regulating the fresh groundwater reserves available. The impact of geomorphological evolution and the consequences for the social and economic development of two coastal areas are assessed. This is one of the most important tourist destinations in the country; for study purposes, it was divided into a northern sector and a southern sector. In the southern sector, the exploitable groundwater is associated with the Holocene and upper Pleistocene geomorphological evolution, which generated three interrelated aquifer units, constituting a system whose useful thickness reaches at least 45 m. In contrast, the northern sector is restricted to two Holocene aquifer units, whose total thickness is on the order of 12 m. The morphological characteristics and the occurrence of the largest fresh groundwater reserves in the southern sector are indicators of better conditions for economic growth, which is mainly reflected on the expansion of real estate ventures. The relationships of transmissivity vs area of real estate ventures (Arev), and total water consumption vs Arev, are indicators for the sustainable management of the water resources. The approach chosen may be used by decision makers in other regions to assess the feasibility of future tourism projects on the basis of the availability of water resources associated with geomorphological features.

  13. Tire-breeding mosquitoes of public health importance along an urbanisation gradient in Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Rubio, Alejandra; Cardo, María Victoria; Vezzani, Darío

    2011-09-01

    Used vehicle tires are a source of mosquito vectors and a means of their introduction and expansion. With the aim of assessing the effects of urbanisation on the main mosquito vectors in temperate Argentina, the infestation levels of Aedes aegypti (L.) and Culex pipiens L. were studied in used tires from highly urbanised cities to low-urbanised small towns in Buenos Aires. Immatures of both species accounted for 96% of the 9,722 individuals collected; the total individuals collected represented seven species. The percentage of water-filled tires containing mosquitoes [container index (CI)] was 33% and the percentage of infested sites [site index (SI)] was 65.2%. These indexes decreased significantly from low to high urbanisation levels for both mosquito species. The relative abundance (RA) of Ae. aegypti immatures was slightly higher toward large cities, but showed no difference for Cx. pipiens. The CI of shaded tires was significantly higher than the CI of exposed tires for both mosquito species. There was no difference in RA values between shaded and sunlit tires. The CI and the SI were highest during the summer across the urbanisation levels, except for Cx. pipiens, which continued to increase during the autumn in small towns. Results related to urbanisation gradient, sunlit exposure and seasonality are discussed.

  14. Driving from Chicago to Buenos Aires: instrumentation courses during a road trip across the Americas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izraelevitch, Federico

    2017-01-01

    The Escaramujo Project (www.escaramujo.net) was a series of hands-on laboratory courses on High Energy Physics and Astroparticle Instrumentation, in eight Latinamerican Institutions. The Physicist Federico Izraelevitch traveled on a van with his wife and dogs from Chicago to Buenos Aires teaching these courses. During these sessions, groups of advanced undergraduate and graduate students built a modern cosmic ray detector based on plastic scintillators and SiPMs, specifically designed for this project. With the detector as a common thread, they were able to understand the designing principles and the underlying Physics involved, build the device, start it up, characterize it, acquire data and analyze it, in the way of real particle Physics experiment. After the five-days courses, a functional detector remained at each institution to train future students and to support and enable local research activities. About a hundred talented and highly motivated students were reached out with the initiative. Besides the aims to awaken vocations in science, technology and engineering, The Escaramujo Project was an effort to strengthen the integration of academic institutions in Latin America within the international scientific community.

  15. [Recent history: 12th International Conference on Cancer, Buenos Aires, Argentina, 1978].

    PubMed

    Spinelli, Hugo

    2014-04-01

    Using the approaches of history of the present, this article recovers the discussions surrounding the 12th International Conference on Cancer carried out in Buenos Aires in 1978, in reaction to which Georges Périès organized a "counter-conference" in Paris. In order to understand this discussion, the political situation of the time is described, as is the state of human rights at the time in Argentina, the role of the media - in particular the newspapers La Nación and Clarín and the magazine Gente - and the institutional position adopted by the National Academy of Medicine, as expressed in a letter sent to the presidents of the primary scientific societies of the world. The letter is reprinted in this text as a documentary source, taken from Memoria: Año 1978 (Presidencia de Dr. José E. Rivarola) [Acta: Year 1978 (Presidency of Dr. José E. Rivarola)]. The framework of the discussion makes reference to science's social policy versus science's supposed neutrality and the role of scientific societies.

  16. [Factors associated with academic success of medical students at Buenos Aires University].

    PubMed

    Borracci, Raúl A; Pittaluga, Roberto D; Álvarez Rodríguez, Juan E; Arribalzaga, Eduardo B; Poveda Camargo, Ricardo L; Couto, Juan L; Provenzano, Sergio L

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify common factors relating to the academic success of medical students who were distinguished with honors at the Buenos Aires University. In 2011, 142 graduates were surveyed; the questionnaire included 59 questions on their sociodemographic environment, living conditions and social integration, motivation to study, learning capacity and health quality during their career. Compared to other students, these distinguished students more often lived in the city, far from their families; had been educated at private or universitary high schools, their economic needs were financed by their parents, who were on the whole professionals. Most of them were single and childless. The possibility of future employment oportunities (work) did not influence their choice of a medical career, academic success was important to them and they believed that success depended largely on personal effort; they knew how to handle anxiety, were sociable but independent and preferred solid experience to abstract conceptuality in order to obtain information. Our conclusion, within the current system of candidate selection, these results serve to calculate the covert self-selection mechanisms during the career, or in a more restrictive regime, to select those likely to reach academic success due to their privileged ambience. The analysis of demographic factors indicates some degree of inequality for socially disadvantaged students. Perhaps, a selection system based only on intellectual abilities would help identify and support the best candidates regardless of their social context.

  17. A Pleistocene (MIS 5e) mollusk assemblage from Ezeiza (Buenos Aires Province, Argentina)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez, Sergio; Julia del Río, Claudia; Rojas, Alejandra

    2016-10-01

    A fossil assemblage collected around 3.5 m amsl from Ezeiza, Buenos Aires province, have AMS 14C ages of ca. 33,000 to ca. 40,000 yr BP, whereas in the literature is a report of a conventional 14C age of >43,000 yr BP. An OSL age from the overlying deposit corresponds to ca. 22,000 yr. The samples contain marine fossils: mollusks, balanids and corals (Astrangia). La Coronilla (Uruguay, attributed to MIS 5e) is the locality most related to Ezeiza faunistically, despite is not the nearest one. In consequence, the relationship should be addressed to a more similar age and environment than others. The fauna indicates a higher water temperature than today. In Ezeiza exclusively cold water taxa are absent, and we found seven warm taxa with their southern distribution limit displaced northwards today, plus other six at their southern distribution limit. Around 60% of all the species and more than 70% of the individuals are of warm-temperate waters. In sum, although prima facie the numerical ages would locate the deposit in MIS3, faunistic, temperature, and height evidences show that the Ezeiza mollusk assemblage belong to MIS5e. A stronger than presently Brazil warm current, reaching Southern latitudes, may explain the changes in geographical ranges.

  18. Factors associated with H pylori epidemiology in symptomatic children in Buenos Aires, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Goldman, Cinthia; Barrado, Andrés; Janjetic, Mariana; Balcarce, Norma; Rua, Eduardo Cueto; Oshiro, Masaru; Calcagno, María L; Sarrasague, Margarita Martinez; Fuda, Julián; Weill, Ricardo; Zubillaga, Marcela; Perez-Perez, Guillermo I; Boccio, José

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To determine prevalence of H pylori infection in symptomatic children in Buenos Aires, Argentina, and to investigate factors associated with H pylori positivity. METHODS: A total of 395 children with upper gastrointestinal symptoms referred to the Gastroente-rology Unit of the Children Hospital “Sor Maria Ludovica” were evaluated for the presence of H pylori by the 13C-Urea Breath Test (13C-UBT). A questionnaire was applied to the recruited population. RESULTS: Prevalence of H pylori infection was 40.0% in this population (mean age 9.97 ± 3.1 years). The factors associated with H pylori positivity were number of siblings (P < 0.001), presence of pet cats (P = 0.03) and birds (P = 0.04) in the household, and antecedents of gastritis among family members (P = 0.01). After multivariate analysis, number of siblings [Odds ratio (OR) = 1.39; 95% CI, 1.20-1.61] and contact with pet cats (OR = 1.76; 95% CI, 1.00-3.09) remained as variables associated with H pylori infection. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of H pylori infection in children with upper gastrointestinal symptoms in Argentina was similar to that reported in developed countries. Children from families with a higher crowding index and presence of pet cats have a higher risk of being colonized with H pylori. PMID:16981273

  19. Sea level oscillations in coastal waters of the Buenos Aires province, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dragani, W. C.; Mazio, C. A.; Nuñez, M. N.

    2002-03-01

    Sea level oscillations, with periods ranging from a few minutes to almost 2 h, have been observed at various tide stations located on the coast of Buenos Aires. Simultaneous records of sea level elevation measured in Mar de Ajó, Pinamar and Mar del Plata during 1982 have been spectrally analyzed. Significant spectral energy has been detected between 0.85 and 4.69 cycles per hour (cph) and the most energetic peaks have frequencies between 1.17 and 1.49 cph. Spectra, coherence, and phase difference have been analyzed for the most energetic event of the year. During that event, the most intensive spectral peak is at 1.17 cph for Mar de Ajó and Pinamar, and at 1.49 cph for Mar del Plata. Simultaneous total energy peaks at Mar de Ajó, Pinamar and Mar del Plata, and the coherence function estimated between Mar de Ajó and Pinamar suggests that sea level oscillations could be a regional phenomenon. The analyzed data suggest that sea level oscillations could be forced by atmospheric gravity waves associated with frontal passages.

  20. [History of the Department of Neurology at the University of Buenos Aires (1887-2007)].

    PubMed

    Allegri, Ricardo F; Bartoloni, Leonardo; Sica, Roberto E

    2016-07-01

    In 1887, only five years after Jean-Martin Charcot was awarded the Head of Neurology at "La Salpetrière" in Paris, José María Ramos Mejía became the first professor of Neurology in South America, at the School of Medicine of the University of Buenos Aires. Ramos Mejía convoked three assistants, the neuropathologist Christofredo Jakob, the clinician José A. Esteves and José Ingenieros. Hence it followed that Neurology in Argentina took a stand based on a clinical neurology-neuropathology approach (1941-1987) followed by a clinical-semiological attitude, finally inserting itself within the modern times (1987-present) by creating subspecialties. Throughout its history, Argentina has made remarkable contributions to Neurology, such as the diagnosis and pathogenesis of the nervous system involvement occurring in some regional endemic disorders -for instance, Chagas' disease-, the clinical approach to the diagnosis of dementias, and the pathogenesis of extrapyramidal illnesses and other primary degenerative diseases of the central nervous system, mainly amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. On the other hand, in recent years globalization allowed neurologists to participate in international cooperative projects, favoring a swifter development in the practice of this discipline.

  1. Magnetic Characterization of Stream-Sediments From Buenos Aires Province, Argentina, Affected by Pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaparro, M. A.; Sinito, A. M.; Bidegain, J. C.; Gogorza, C. S.; Jurado, S.

    2001-12-01

    A wide urban area from Northeast of Buenos Aires Province is exposed to an important anthropogenic influence, mainly due to industrial activity. In this two water streams were chosen: one of them (Del Gato stream, G) next to La Plata City and the another one (El Pescado stream, P) on the outskirts of the city. Both streams have similar characteristics, although the first one (G) has a higher input of pollutants (fluvial effluents, fly ashes, solid wastes, etc.) than the last one (P). Sediments analyzed in this work are limes from continental origin of PostPampeano (Holocene). Although, some cores were affected by sandy-limy sediments with mollusc valves from Querandino Sea (Pleistocene - later Holocene) and limy sediments of chestnut color with calcareous concretions from the Ensenadense. Magnetic measurements and geochemical studies were carried out on the samples. Among the magnetic parameters, specific susceptibility (X), X frequency-dependence (Xfd%), X temperature-dependence, Natural Remanent Magnetization (NRM), Isothermal Remanent Magnetization (IRM), Saturation IRM (SIRM), coercivity of remanence (Bcr), S ratio and SIRM/X ratio, Anhysteric Remanent Magnetization (ARM), Magnetic and Thermal Demagnetization were studied. The magnetic characteristics for both sites indicate the predominance of magnetically soft minerals on G site and relatively hard minerals on P site. Magnetite is the main magnetic carrier, Pseudo Single Domain and Single Domain grains were found. Chemical studies show (in some cases) a high concentration for some heavy metals (Pb, Cu, Zn, Ni and Fe) on the upper 22-cm. Contents of heavy metals and ARM were correlated. Very good correlation (R> 0.81) is found for Cu, Zn, Ni, Fe and the sum (of Pb, Cu, Zn and Ni), and a weaker correlation for Pb.

  2. Ectoparasitic species from Canis familiaris (Linné) in Buenos Aires province, Argentina.

    PubMed

    González, Alda; Castro, Dolores del C; González, Sandra

    2004-02-26

    Several arthropods that live as ectoparasites on domestic dogs can cause severe dermatitis or act as vectors of pathogenic agents, resulting in serious diseases not only in dogs, but also in humans. We studied ectoparasites found on Canis familiaris sampled in five areas in Buenos Aires province, Argentina. The prevalence of fleas, ticks and lice was analyzed, as well as their seasonal variations through the different sites studied. The kind of infestation found in each host was determined and the intensity of natural infestation was estimated. The study was carried out from October 2001 to July 2002, with 116 dogs that lived in rural areas and did not receive control treatments. In order to remove the ectoparasites, the dogs' skin was rubbed with a piece of cotton soaked in ether. All dogs had at least one species of ectoparasites. A total number of 5193 ectoparasites were found corresponding to four species, 15.7% Ctenocephalides canis, 73% Rhipicephalus sanguineus, 1.8 Linognathus setosus and 9.4% Heterodoxus spiniger. R. sanguineus was the most abundant species, and C. canis was the only flea species found. This may be due to the dogs being exclusively rural animals. Within the zones sampled, Magdalena showed the greatest prevalence, maybe as a consequence of having the highest relative humidity in relation to the other areas. Triple infestation (ticks-fleas-lice) was observed in 56.9% of the dogs; 39.6% presented double infestation, most being ticks-fleas, and only 3.4% showed simple infestation (lice). Female hosts were the most affected. Even though there were records of ectoparasites throughout all the year, a higher intensity was observed during the spring months, most likely as a result of the increase in temperature after the winter months.

  3. Water quality-based toxics evaluation of Reconquista River, Province of Buenos Aires, Argentina

    SciTech Connect

    Herkovits, J.; Herkovits, F.D.; Perez-Coll, C.S.

    1995-12-31

    The water quality based toxics control is essential to evaluate the aggregate toxicity, bioavailability as well as for the detection and/or prediction of ecological impacts. Reconquista River valley is situated in the north area of Great Buenos Aires with a population of three million inhabitants. The river is loaded with industrial and municipal waste water. In the present preliminary study the authors report the toxicity found in surface water at a 6 sample stations (including a reference point and a stream) all of them downstream from mixing zone areas. The ecotoxicological study was performed with three native species (Bufo arenarum embryos, Cnesterodon decemmaculatus and a species of shrimp collected in an upstream reference site) during a 7 day renewal toxicity test conducted with 10 individuals (by duplicate) for each condition plus control. The results point out that the Bufo arenarum embryos test is the most sensitive to toxic substances as well as the better adapted species to the changing physico-chemical conditions of this river. The results obtained with embryos, expressed in Acute and Chronic Toxicity Units (according USEPA) range between <0.3--2 and <1--5 respectively (recommended magnitudes for industrial effluents according USEPA: 0.3 and 1 toxicity units respectively). Therefore, the toxicity found in Reconquista River ecosystem was up to 6 times higher than the maximal value recommended for industrial effluents. It is noteworthy that in the place where toxicity starts to rise, a large number of dead fishes were found and from that place downstream, no macroorganisms were found in the river. The results confirm the high sensitivity of Bufo arenarum embryos for continental waters ecotoxicological studies and the possibility of using this test as a short-term chronic toxicity method for water quality-based toxics control.

  4. Airborne PCDD/F profiles in rural and urban areas of Buenos Aires Province, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Cappelletti, N; Astoviza, M; Migoya, M C; Colombo, J C

    2016-12-15

    Passive air samplers were deployed in 18 rural and urban locations in the densely populated Buenos Aires district to investigate airborne polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and polychlorinated-dibenzofuran (PCDD/Fs) profiles, sources and spatial patterns. Atmospheric concentrations reported as total toxic equivalents (TEQs), 2378-substituted (∑17PCDD/F) and 4-8 homologous groups (∑4-8PCDD/F) were highly variable and significantly correlated to urban scale. The rural average (3.0±2.7fgTEQm(-3)) was thirty times less than metropolitan values (90±51fgTEQm(-3)), with urban cluster (5.4±4.0fgTEQm(-3)) and urbanized area (33±50fgTEQm(-3)) in an intermediate position. A rural outlier exhibited the highest TEQ values (295-296fgTEQm(-3)) suggesting a local source. Principal component analyses (PCA) performed for ∑17PCDD/F and ∑4-8PCDD/F to identify source contributions showed more significant results for homologue groups compared to 17 congeners (83 and 45% of total variability explained, respectively) pointing to dominant diesel emissions enriched in TeCDF in rural areas, and open burning and industrial sources characterized by TeCDD, PeCDD contributing most in urbanized and metropolitan areas. Homologue group PCA also performed better clustering samples according to sources and TEQ concentrations. The PCDD/Fs profile of the rural outlier dominated by HxCDF and HpCDD/F showed a typical municipal incineration signature confirming the presence of local source.

  5. [Transparency in public sector acquisitions. The case of hospitals in the City of Buenos Aires].

    PubMed

    Rossi, T; Murillo Fort, C; Puente Karolys, J C

    2002-01-01

    This paper deals with corruption and the lack of transparency in public sector purchases as well as with the main instruments to obtain adequate results in purchase negotiation.Firstly, we discuss how corruption causes concern to national governments, international organizations, academic centers, non-governmental organizations and society in general. The consequences of corruption in Argentina and other Latin American countries are highlighted, especially the effect of corruption on economic growth and the way it creates economic inefficiency and inequality.Secondly, the database created by the Subsecretary of Strategic Management of the Autonomous Government of the City of Buenos Aires is analyzed. The central purpose of this study is to evaluate the impact of the Administrative Reform of 1998 on the prices of 24 products acquired by 13 general acute care hospitals from 1998-1999. The weighted prices, the number of units purchased and the total number of contracts given in this period, as well as the products with the greatest utilization rate, are analyzed. Multivariante analysis was used to identify hospitals with appropriate activity and efficient budget administration (activity and negotiation indicators). Price development was analyzed using the regression technique (ordinary least squares), which demonstrated an 8% reduction in prices for the year 1999. The contribution of each hospital to this variation is presented using dummy variables. Thus, six of the 13 hospitals significantly contributed to the decrease in prices. Of these six, three hospitals also contributed to reduction in price dispersion. The results obtained allow us to conclude that, if public hospitals have adequate purchase negotiation instruments and a uniform legal framework, they can achieve a good level of activity. Furthermore, public hospitals can contribute to reductions in price and price dispersion, at the same time as improving efficiency in the assignation and utilization of

  6. Correction: Washington and Geneva arrive in Buenos Aires: notes on the history of the habit of smoking and its medicalization.

    PubMed

    2015-12-01

    [This corrects the article DOI: 10.1590/S0104-59702015000100017.]. Upon request of the author, the article "Washington and Geneva come to Buenos Aires: notes on the history of smoking and its medicalization" by Diego Armus, publicado em História, Ciências, Saúde - Manguinhos, v.22, n.1 , Jan.-Mar. 2015:on page 301, second paragraph, sixth line, where it says " It was only in 2012 when Argentina ratified the agreement and the National Congress approved a new national law" it should read "It was only in 2012, without having ratified the convention, when the National Congress approved a new national law. "

  7. Doing gender in a toxic world. Women and freebase cocaine in the city of Buenos Aires (Argentina).

    PubMed

    Romo-Avilés, Nuria; Camarotti, Ana Clara; Tarragona, Alicia; Touris, Cecilia

    2015-04-01

    Consumption of freebase cocaine in Argentina has been investigated among males but not females. This qualitative study focuses on the complexity of relationships between gender identity and the use of drugs, investigating freebase cocaine as an example in the Metropolitan Area of Buenos Aires, Argentina. In-depth interviews were conducted with female consumers in 2010. The results reveal the different ways in which female identity is constructed in the context of social vulnerability. We identify ways of doing gender and feeling like a woman in a man's world that are associated with a higher risk of violence and exclusion for being female.

  8. [Distribution of findings of scorpions in Buenos Aires city in the period 2001-2012 and their sanitary implications].

    PubMed

    Blanco, Guillermo; Laskowicz, Rodrigo D; Lanari, Laura C; Scarlato, Eduardo; Damin, Carlos; de Titto, Ernesto H; de Roodt, Adolfo R

    2016-02-01

    Scorpion stings and their associated mortality increased in the last years in Argentina, with a cumulative record of 73,617 cases and 30 deaths during the period 2001-2012, occurring almost all the deaths in pediatric patients. However, deaths due to severe envenoming by scorpion stings have not been recorded in Buenos Aires city and suburban regions, although the presence of scorpions in this city has been increasingly reported. We studied the temporal and geographical distribution of Tityus trivittatus findings in Buenos Aires city from the database of the Research and Development Area from the National Institute for Production of Biologics of the National Ministry of Health during the period 10/01/2001 to 31/12/2012 in order to correlate these findings with the distribution of health centers in the city. In this period 385 consults with identification of scorpions were recorded. Annual records showed a growing trend. Georeferenced data showed that findings appeared to increase in the surroundings of metro and train stations, mainly at the east of the city with expansion to the west. Although Toxicology services are geographically related to the zones with higher density of finding of scorpions, the accessibility to the centers with antivenom may hinder its application in the recommended time; some measures to avoid possible delays in the application of the treatment are suggested.

  9. [Food environment and space accessibility evaluation to perform physical activity in 3 socially contrasting neighbourhoods of Buenos Aires city].

    PubMed

    Garipe, Leila Yasmin; Gónzalez, Verónica; Biasizzo, Antonella; Soriano, Jennifer Laila; Perman, Gaston; Giunta, Diego

    2014-01-01

    Due to the environmental influences on health, the goal of this study was to describe and compare the built environment in 3 socially contrasting neighbourhoods of Buenos Aires city.In 2011 a cross-sectional study was conducted in 3 socially contrasting neighbourhoods of Buenos Aires city: Recoleta (upper class), Almagro (middle class) and Constitución (lower class). Grocery stores and food stands were surveyed as well as all suitable spaces to perform physical activity. An analysis was conducted to assess the density of every food outlet per Km2 of each neighbourhood's area and per 10000 inhabitants. 2778 food stores and 149 outdoor physical activity facilities were surveyed. A higher density was observed in Constitución for fast food restaurants (Recoleta 3.6; Almagro 2.4; Constitución 6.7) and food stands (Recoleta 4.2; Almagro 1.2; Constitución 25.7) and a lower density for outdoor physical activity facilities. Population density and area density proved to be analogous. Statistically relevant differences were observed regarding the dimension of each food outlet: grocery stores, fruit stands, pubs, restaurants and food stands, as well as in the number of food stores and outdoor physical activity facilities. The information gathered in this study could be highly useful for public health policies on healthy lifestyles, and could eventually redefine the built environment in order to improve the city's equality regarding outdoor physical activity facilities and food stores.

  10. ["Medical Deputies": clinics and politics in the dispute for public resources in Buenos Aires (1906-1917)].

    PubMed

    Souza, P; Hurtado, D

    2008-01-01

    In June 1906, the conservative deputy and doctor Eliseo Cantón submitted in the Argentinian Parliament the project of a , which would take up four blocks, would be located in front of the Faculty of Medicine of the University of Buenos Aires and would be made up by 20 institutes with a capacity for 80 beds each. The dispute over this huge project, which lasted until 1917, placed in the middle of the scene, a group of "medical deputies" who used the political platform as a space to define the main aspects of the hospital system. The controversy went beyond the Parliament reaching the public sphere. The lavishness of the project on the eve of the Centenary public festivities or the opulence of a Buenos Aires which inspired to be like Paris were related, in a symbolic view, to the progress of local medicine and its aspirations to be included in the international medical arena. The analysed case helps understand how an essentially political controversy - which led to economical, ethical and cognitive discussions - intervened in the process of building up a socio-professional space of the hospital medical practice.

  11. Late Quaternary continental and marine sediments of northeastern Buenos Aires province (Argentina): Fossil content and paleoenvironmental interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fucks, Enrique; Aguirre, Marina; Deschamps, Cecilia M.

    2005-10-01

    Abundant invertebrate and vertebrate fossil remains that exhibit excellent preservation and were collected from deposits of both continental and marine origins at Pilar (Buenos Aires, Argentina) add paleoenvironmental data from the northeastern Buenos Aires province area linked to sea-level oscillations and climate variability since approximately 120 ka BP (marine oxygen isotope stage [MOIS] 5e). Two new fossiliferous localities discovered in the Luján River Valley allow for detailed geological studies and new dating of molluscan shells and bones. The studies suggest salinity changes during the Last Interglacial (8 m above m.s.l., min. 14C>40 ka) and the mid-Holocene transgression (5 m above m.s.l., 7-3 14C ka BP) compared with the modern pattern along the adjacent littoral (Río de la Plata). The marine sequences represent the innermost boundary of the sea-level transgression in that area and contain a biogenic record (bivalves, gastropods, forams, ostracods) that indicates marginal marine environments (higher salinity than at present). Vertebrates and molluscs from the continental sequence suggest a freshwater habitat in which remains of marine fish must be allochthonous, probably incorporated by postmortem fluvial transport to the final depositional environment.

  12. Viral diagnostic criteria for Feline immunodeficiency virus and Feline leukemia virus infections in domestic cats from Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Galdo Novo, Sabrina; Bucafusco, Danilo; Diaz, Leandro M; Bratanich, Ana Cristina

    A cross-sectional study was carried out on cats attending the Small Animal Hospital at the Faculty of Veterinary Sciences of the University of Buenos Aires to assess the prevalence and associated risk factors of Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) in the city of Buenos Aires, Argentina. Blood samples from 255 cats with symptoms compatible with FIV or FeLV infection, collected between 2009 and 2013 were analyzed by serology (immunochromatography, IA) and by hemi-nested PCR (n-PCR). The IA and n-PCR assays showed similar percentages of positivity for FIV while the n-PCR test was more sensitive for FeLV. Differences between the diagnostic tests and their choice according to the age of the animal are discussed. The clinical histories of ninety of the 255 cats showed blood profiles similar to others previously reported and revealed a higher risk of infection in male adult cats with outdoor access.

  13. [Seroepidemiology of human rotaviruses in a community of the Avellaneda district, Province of Buenos Aires].

    PubMed

    Gómez, J; Bercovich, A; Alvarez, A; Garrido, D; Grinstein, S

    1990-01-01

    The results obtained during a prospective study performed in 49 families of the Avellaneda District, Buenos Aires Province, in order to known the seroepidemiology of human rotaviruses under natural conditions were described. Families which included a pregnant woman, were voluntarily recruited. The newborn was studied together with its family until two years of age, in order to assess the moment of the primary rotavirus infection. Feces from every person with gastrointestinal symptoms were obtained for rotavirus diagnosis. Blood samples from every member of the family were obtained since their recruitment and each 6 months until the newborn reached two years of age. Rotavirus infections were established by determining the amount of circulating rotavirus IgG antibodies in paired serum samples using ELISA. In all, 502.2 six-month periods with paired serum samples were studied. Most of the infections detected during the first year of life were primary infections (0.64 cases per child-year; 91.3% in seronegative children; p less than 0.005). The peaks of rotavirus diarrhea incidence were observed at the same age (0.25 cases per child-year; p less than 0.01). It must be stated that 51.9% of the newborns presented circulating anti-rotavirus IgG antibodies transmitted by the mother; 72% were breastfed for a mean period of 9.7 months. The total incidence of rotavirus infections was 0.63 cases per person-year, without significant variations for each age group. Most of them were asymptomatic cases and 61.6% were reinfections. These results show the high endemicity of human rotavirus in our population where siblings and adults act as reservoirs of the infection. Finally we found a significant relation between the level of circulating anti-rotavirus antibodies and the resistance to infection and illness caused by rotavirus during the six-month periods studied with paired serum samples (p less than 0.005 for infection; p less than 0.03 for diarrhea). The incidence of rotavirus

  14. Geochemical Assessment of Groundwater in the Peri-urban Environment of Buenos Aires, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallardo, A.

    2014-12-01

    Groundwater pollution is a major concern in peri-urban environments. Thus, water quality is being investigated at several domestic wells in Brandsen, 70 km south of Buenos Aires, Argentina. To present, about 20 water sources were sampled in orchards and small farms of the area. There is limited data about the wells construction, although collected information suggests that groundwater is derived from the superficial sandy loams of the Pampean Aquifer. Samples were analysed for major inorganic elements using ion chromatography and ICP-MS. Titration was used to estimate alkalinity. Physical characteristics (EC, pH, temperature) were measured on site. Results show that groundwater pH ranges from 6.5 to 7.8, with a specific conductance of 180 to 255 mS/m. A peak of 360 mS/m in one horticultural parcel is associated to local NO3- concentrations up to 140 mg/L. This value exceeds the maximum recommendations set by the WHO (50 mg/L). Considering that fertilizer inputs in that property are negligible, the high levels of NO3- might be attributed to effluents from a neighbour septic tank. An increase in NO3- (>150mg/L) was also detected in two conventional farms. This increase correlates to elevated SO42- concentrations (>300 mg/L) suggesting thus, fertilizers percolation into the saturated zone. The leaching of these fluids might be exacerbated by irrigation during new planting, and accumulations of fertilizer-solids in the root zones from previous seasons. Chloride concentrations average ~90 mg/L and would not pose a threat to health at the moment. Its main origin would be related to connate waters in the loam matrix, although some anthropogenic inputs might occur in the previously described farms. In general, the rest of the analysed elements fall within acceptable levels for drinking purposes as well. Nevertheless, further work is still necessary to better define the fate of the potential harmful elements and assess seasonal variations in water quality.

  15. Prosodic Transfer in Learner and Contact Varieties: Speech Rhythm and Intonation of Buenos Aires Spanish and L2 Castilian Spanish Produced by Italian Native Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabriel, Christoph; Kireva, Elena

    2014-01-01

    A remarkable example of Spanish-Italian contact is the Spanish variety spoken in Buenos Aires (Porteño), which is said to be prosodically "Italianized" due to migration-induced contact. The change in Porteño prosody has been interpreted as a result of transfer from the first language (L1) that occurred when Italian immigrants learned…

  16. The Moral Dimension of Class and Gender Identity-Making: Poverty and Aggression in a Secondary School in the City of Buenos Aires

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meo, Analia Ines

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents some results of a qualitative study carried out in a secondary school in the city of Buenos Aires (Argentina). It examines how two students from poor families responded to, and viewed, aggression by peers at their school. This paper argues that the examination of students' narratives about aggression (based on classism and…

  17. Reading for All; Proceedings of the IRA (International Reading Association) World Congress on Reading (4th, Buenos Aires, Argentina, August 3-5, 1972).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karlin, Robert, Ed.

    This book contains papers presented at the Fourth International Reading Association World Congress on Reading in Buenos Aires, Argentina, in August 1972. The contents of the book are divided into three parts: "Literacy and Literature" includes papers on libraries, books, and reading by Jorge Borges, the future of reading by Theodore Harris, the…

  18. Hepatitis C Virus Diversification in Argentina: Comparative Analysis between the Large City of Buenos Aires and the Small Rural Town of O'Brien

    PubMed Central

    Golemba, Marcelo D.; Culasso, Andrés C. A.; Villamil, Federico G.; Bare, Patricia; Gadano, Adrián; Ridruejo, Ezequiel; Martinez, Alfredo; Di Lello, Federico A.; Campos, Rodolfo H.

    2013-01-01

    Background The estimated prevalence of HCV infection in Argentina is around 2%. However, higher rates of infection have been described in population studies of small urban and rural communities. The aim of this work was to compare the origin and diversification of HCV-1b in samples from two different epidemiological scenarios: Buenos Aires, a large cosmopolitan city, and O'Brien, a small rural town with a high prevalence of HCV infection. Patients and Methods The E1/E2 and NS5B regions of the viral genome from 83 patients infected with HCV-1b were sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis and Bayesian Coalescent methods were used to study the origin and diversification of HCV-1b in both patient populations. Results Samples from Buenos Aires showed a polyphyletic behavior with a tMRCA around 1887–1900 and a time of spread of infection approximately 60 years ago. In contrast, samples from ÓBrien showed a monophyletic behavior with a tMRCA around 1950–1960 and a time of spread of infection more recent than in Buenos Aires, around 20–30 years ago. Conclusion Phylogenetic and coalescence analysis revealed a different behavior in the epidemiological histories of Buenos Aires and ÓBrien. HCV infection in Buenos Aires shows a polyphyletic behavior and an exponential growth in two phases, whereas that in O'Brien shows a monophyletic cluster and an exponential growth in one single step with a more recent tMRCA. The polyphyletic origin and the probability of encountering susceptible individuals in a large cosmopolitan city like Buenos Aires are in agreement with a longer period of expansion. In contrast, in less populated areas such as O'Brien, the chances of HCV transmission are strongly restricted. Furthermore, the monophyletic character and the most recent time of emergence suggest that different HCV-1b ancestors (variants) that were in expansion in Buenos Aires had the opportunity to colonize and expand in O’Brien. PMID:24386322

  19. Presentación del estudio “Links” de hombres que tienes sexo con hombres en Buenos Aires, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Carballo-Diéguez, Alex; Ávila, María M; Balán, Iván C.; Marone, Rubén; Pando, María A.; Barreda, Victoria

    2011-01-01

    Resumen Estudios previos en Buenos Aires reportaron altas prevalencias de HIV entre HSH, con valores que oscilan entre 9 y 14% durante casi 10 años de continuo testeo. El objetivo principal de este estudio fue la evaluación de factores relacionados al comportamiento de alto riesgo para transmisión del HIV entre HSH entre los que se incluyen el conocimiento y factores emocionales, socioculturales y ambientales. Por otro lado se realizó la estimación de prevalencia e incidencia de HIV utilizando RDS (Respondent Driven Sampling), así como la presencia de otras infecciones de transmisión sexual. Por último se evaluaron los hábitos de testeo para HIV indagando que factores facilitan o impiden su realización. El estudio constó de dos fases, en primer lugar una fase cualitativa y posteriormente una fase cuantitativa con una duración total de 4 años y medio. Durante la fase cualitativa se realizaron 44 entrevistas individuales en profundidad, 8 grupos focales y 10 observaciones etnográficas (hoteles, baños públicos (“teteras”), cines pornográficos, fiestas privadas, dark rooms y discotecas). Durante la fase cuantitativa del estudio se realizó el reclutamiento de 500 participantes que provinieron de la Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, así como del Gran Buenos Aires. El reclutamiento se comenzó con 16 participantes llamados semillas. Se realizó el diagnóstico de infección por HIV, hepatitis B y C (HBV y HCV), Treponema pallidum, Virus Papiloma Humano (HPV) y Chlamidias. La colaboración establecida entre los grupos de trabajo enfocados en áreas diversas posibilitó el abordaje conjunto de nuevas estrategias de investigación antes no exploradas en nuestro país. Los resultados más relevantes de esta investigación serán progresivamente publicados en sucesivos números de Actualizaciones en SIDA. PMID:25264397

  20. Presentación del estudio "Links" de hombres que tienes sexo con hombres en Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Carballo-Diéguez, Alex; Avila, María M; Balán, Iván C; Marone, Rubén; Pando, María A; Barreda, Victoria

    2011-03-01

    Estudios previos en Buenos Aires reportaron altas prevalencias de HIV entre HSH, con valores que oscilan entre 9 y 14% durante casi 10 años de continuo testeo. El objetivo principal de este estudio fue la evaluación de factores relacionados al comportamiento de alto riesgo para transmisión del HIV entre HSH entre los que se incluyen el conocimiento y factores emocionales, socioculturales y ambientales. Por otro lado se realizó la estimación de prevalencia e incidencia de HIV utilizando RDS (Respondent Driven Sampling), así como la presencia de otras infecciones de transmisión sexual. Por último se evaluaron los hábitos de testeo para HIV indagando que factores facilitan o impiden su realización. El estudio constó de dos fases, en primer lugar una fase cualitativa y posteriormente una fase cuantitativa con una duración total de 4 años y medio. Durante la fase cualitativa se realizaron 44 entrevistas individuales en profundidad, 8 grupos focales y 10 observaciones etnográficas (hoteles, baños públicos ("teteras"), cines pornográficos, fiestas privadas, dark rooms y discotecas). Durante la fase cuantitativa del estudio se realizó el reclutamiento de 500 participantes que provinieron de la Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, así como del Gran Buenos Aires. El reclutamiento se comenzó con 16 participantes llamados semillas. Se realizó el diagnóstico de infección por HIV, hepatitis B y C (HBV y HCV), Treponema pallidum, Virus Papiloma Humano (HPV) y Chlamidias. La colaboración establecida entre los grupos de trabajo enfocados en áreas diversas posibilitó el abordaje conjunto de nuevas estrategias de investigación antes no exploradas en nuestro país. Los resultados más relevantes de esta investigación serán progresivamente publicados en sucesivos números de Actualizaciones en SIDA.

  1. Insights into Pleistocene palaeoenvironments and biostratigraphy in southern Buenos Aires province (Argentina) from continental deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beilinson, E.; Gasparini, G. M.; Soibelzon, L. H.; Soibelzon, E.

    2015-07-01

    The coastal cliffs of the Buenos Aires province (Argentina) have been the subject of intense paleontological studies since the XIX century. Therefore, many of the type localities in which is based the late Cenozoic Pampean biostratigraphic/chronostratigraphic scheme are located in this area. In this context, the sedimentites that crop out near the mouth of the Chocorí Creek contain a set of palaeontological sites that, because of their richness and well-preserved fossil content, hold high national and international importance. The aims of the present contribution are: 1) to make a stratigraphic and sedimentological characterization of the study area; 2) to list the fauna outcropped at these palaeontological sites and establish a biostratigraphic framework; 3) to elaborate a palaeoenvironmental model for the area. The study interval was informally subdivided into a lower, middle and upper interval. Interpretation was based on the presence of a number of key features such as architectural elements; channel:overbank ratio and palaeosol occurrence. The first two intervals were interpreted as continental deposits of a fluvio-alluvial nature and are the focus of this paper. The upper interval was related to foreshore marine deposits and will be studied in a future contribution. The lower interval is characterized mainly by overbank architectural elements in which calcisols and argillic protosols were identified. Channel-fill deposits are isolated and surrounded by fine-grained overbank successions and sedimentary structures are suggestive of mixed-load transport. The contact between the lower and middle intervals is an irregular, highly erosive surface characterized by a significant vertical change in the facies. This surface defines the base of multistorey sandbodies which's internal arrangement alongside with the low participation of overbank deposits suggests deposition by a braided fluvial system. Palaeosols and vertebrate fossils were used as palaeoclimatic

  2. Problem Oriented Medical Record: Characterizing the Use of the Problem List at Hospital Italiano de Buenos Aires.

    PubMed

    Franco, Mariano; Giussi Bordoni, Maria Victoria; Otero, Carlos; Landoni, Mariana Clara; Benitez, Sonia; Borbolla, Damian; Luna, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Problem oriented medical record (POMR) was born in late sixties. Expecting an ordered, complete and updated medical record were some of the goals of its founder. Several healthcare institutions have included problem list into their clinical records but some concerns have been reported. These concerns are in reference to their voluminosity, incompleteness and outdatedness. This study attempts to understand how healthcare professionals are using the problem list at Hospital Italiano de Buenos Aires (HIBA). We believe it is essential to understand the local reality applied to our own applications and cultural instances of documentation. This report is the basis from which several improvements could be made in order to meet the goals of Weed's proposal.

  3. [Soil contamination with Toxocara sp. eggs in squares and public places from the city of La Plata. Buenos Aires, Argentina].

    PubMed

    Fonrouge, R; Guardis, M V; Radman, N E; Archelli, S M

    2000-01-01

    This study consisted of a stratified sampling, randomly taken, of the soil from the squares and parks of the city of La Plata, Province of Buenos Aires, in order to establish the prevalence of contamination caused by Toxocara sp. A total 242 soil samples was examined. From each sample a 10 grams aliquot was taken, washed in a 0.2% Tween 80 solution, and processed using the technique of concentration by flotation with sugar solution. There was a prevalence of 13.2%. In each positive sample, the quantity of eggs varied from 1 to 4. Toxocara sp. eggs were observed in 15 out of 22 squares and parks investigated. The sampling design and the processing method employed were satisfactory for the recovering and identification of Toxocara sp. eggs.

  4. Bioprospecting for fast growing and biomass characterization of oleaginous microalgae from South-Eastern Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Do Nascimento, Mauro; Ortiz-Marquez, Juan Cesar Federico; Sanchez-Rizza, Lara; Echarte, María Mercedes; Curatti, Leonardo

    2012-12-01

    As part of pioneering efforts to assess the potential of native microalgae as biofuel feedstock in South-Eastern Buenos Aires, 34 monoalgal cultures (corresponding to the Phylum Chlorophyta) were established and 21 were selected for further growth and biomass composition characterization. Novel RNA sequences in the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region were identified. Some strains showed desirable traits as biodiesel feedstock such as (i) apparent maximal doubling times of 6h, (ii) lipids accumulation of up to 43% of their dry biomass, (iii) high ration of mono-unsaturated to poly-unsaturated fatty acids, (iv) high response to CO(2) supplementation, and (v) complete sedimentation in 4h. Data of the outdoors performance of some strains suggested they might represent valuable resources for future research towards the regional development of the technology for microalgae-based biofuels.

  5. The Risk Assessment Program and the Court of Penal Execution in the Province of Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Folino, Jorge O; Marengo, Claudio M; Marchiano, Susana E; Ascazibar, Mariel

    2004-02-01

    This study describes the working of a new system that supervises the execution of the punishment phase in the Province of Buenos Aires, Argentina; namely, the Court of Penal Execution, as well as the risk assessment program. It also reports the results of the violent recidivism baseline risk assessment carried out in candidates for conditional release. The cohort studied was recruited during 18 months in the Judicial Department of La Plata, taking into consideration psychopathological and criminological variables. The Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R), the Historical, Clinical, and Risk Management--20 (HCR-20), and the Violence Risk Appraisal Guide (VRAG), among others, were used as measures. During the study period, 65 candidates for conditional release were part of the baseline assessment, and they constitute the population of this study. The measures' mean scores were PCL-R, 20.57; HCR-20, 18.58; VRAG, 12.17.

  6. [From educational and health tourism for children to social tourism: vacation camps in the Province of Buenos Aires, Argentina].

    PubMed

    Bruno, Perla

    2015-12-01

    The early twentieth century saw the rise of vacation camps for frail children as educational and health-giving experiences provided by medical and philanthropic organizations. This article analyzes some of these early experiences, seen here as the predecessors of social tourism, in the Province of Buenos Aires. A combination of written sources are examined, mainly institutional reports, periodicals such as the Monitor de la Educación Común - published by the Consejo Nacional de Educación (National Board of Education) - or laws, with photographs and plans for different examples. I argue that these buildings were both physical and cultural "brands" in the places where they were located, and that their architectural structure encapsulated ideas about leisure space and cures in unique natural environments.

  7. Highlights of the ecancer/SAC First International Prostate Cancer Symposium, 11–12 March 2016, Buenos Aires, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Villalba, Marcelo Blanco; Bramajo, Marina; Bruno, Mario

    2016-01-01

    The ecancer/SAC First International Prostate Cancer Symposium, held in Buenos Aires, included national, regional, and international experts in the field of prostate cancer. More than 200 professionals from a variety of areas (clinical urologists, pathologists, oncologists, biologists, imaging specialists, radiation therapists, and generalist doctors, among others) attended, and they proposed multidisciplinary management of prostate pathology from the start in concordance with the ideas set forth by the organising committee. A radiotherapy workshop was also held during the symposium, in which new techniques and their possible uses were specifically discussed. In addition to the local doctors, Dr Lilian Faroni (COI Group, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), Dr Leonardo Carmona (Chilean Head and Neck Institute, Chile), and Dr Anthony Addesa (Jupiter Medical Centre, Florida, USA) also participated in this symposium. PMID:27350786

  8. Entrainment Heat Flux Computed with Lidar and Wavelet Technique in Buenos Aires During Last Chaitén Volcano Eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pawelko, Ezequiel Eduardo; Salvador, Jacobo Omar; Ristori, Pablo Roberto; Pallotta, Juan Vicente; Otero, Lidia Ana; Quel, Eduardo Jaime

    2016-06-01

    At Lidar Division of CEILAP (CITEDEF-CONICET) a multiwavelength Raman-Rayleigh lidar optimized to measure the atmospheric boundary layer is being operated. This instrument is used for monitoring important aerosol intrusion events in Buenos Aires, such as the arrival of volcanic ashes from the Chaitén volcano eruption on May 2008. That was the first monitoring of volcanic ash with lidar in Argentina. In this event several volcanic ash plumes with high aerosol optical thickness were detected in the free atmosphere, affecting the visibility, surface radiation and therefore, the ABL evolution. In this work, the impact of ashes in entrainment flux ratio is studied. This parameter is obtained from the atmospheric boundary layer height and entrainment zone thickness using algorithms based on covariance wavelet transform.

  9. High rates of serum Se deficiency among HIV and HCV infected and uninfected drug users in Buenos Aires, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Sheehan, Heidi B; Benetucci, Jorge; Muzzio, Estela; Redini, Liliana; Naveira, Jorge; Segura, Marcela; Weissenbacher, Mercedes; Tang, Alice M

    2012-01-01

    Objective To describe the prevalence and correlates of low serum Se and determine whether HIV, hepatitis C virus (HCV) and/or types of drugs used are associated with serum Se in a cohort of infected and uninfected drug users. Design Independent correlates of low serum Se levels based on data collected from food recalls, physical exams, and clinical status questionnaires were identified using multivariate analysis. Setting Buenos Aires, Argentina Subjects A total of 205 (25 females and 180 males) former and current drug users Results Drug users had an average serum Se level of 69.8±32.8 μg/dl, and 82% were considered deficient (< 85μg/l). Multivariate analyses found that HIV and/or HCV infection had lower mean Se compared to healthy, uninfected drug users (HIV/HCV co-infection: −25.3 μg/l (SE =7.6, p=0.001); HIV alone: −28.9 μg/l (SE=6.9, p<0.001); HCV alone −19.4 μg/l (SE = 7.1, p=0.006). Current and previous drug use was associated with higher serum Se. Cigarette smoking and heavy alcohol consumption were not found to be associated with Se status. Conclusions Low serum Se levels are highly prevalent among drug users in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Se supplementation and/or dietary interventions may be warranted in drug users who are at high risk of HIV and/or HCV infection. PMID:21740621

  10. [Correlation between results of the residency admission test and of pediatric certification test in Buenos Aires, Argentina].

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Juan Pablo; Hamui, Magali; Paganini, Agustina; Torres, Fernando A; Ossorio, María Fabiana; Eiguchi, Kumiko; Ferrero, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    In the city of Buenos Aires (CABA), pediatric residents enter the residency program after taking a unified admission test. After completion of the program and passing a final test, the Universidad de Buenos Aires (UBA) provides a professional certification. The objective of this study is to determine if the results obtained in the residency admission test (RAT) and those of the professional certification test (PCT) correlated. This is a cross-sectional study, that included all subjects who passed the pediatrics RAT in CABA in 2004-2009, and that attended the pediatric PCT of the UBA. The score for each subject in both tests was obtained and the corresponding correlation was calculated. Results were divided in quintiles, and the proportion of subjects who improved their position in the PCT with respect to the RAT was calculated. Data from 303 subjects was obtained. The RAT showed a median of 45.0 (over 60 maximum) (IC-range: 43.0-48.7), and the PCT showed a median of 6 points (over 10 max.)(IC-range: 6-8). A significative correlation between results in RAT and PCT was observed (r = 0.37, p < 0.001). Based on their position in the RAT, 43.8% of subjects improved their position in the PCT, without differences between residents attending pediatric and general hospitals (45.6 vs. 31.5%; p = 0.1). In the case of pediatric residents, results of the residency admission test correlate with those obtained in the professional certification test.

  11. [Comparison of the prevalence of molar incisor hypomineralization among children with different health care coverage in the cities of Buenos Aires (Argentina) and Montevideo (Uruguay)].

    PubMed

    López Jordi, María del Carmen; Cortese, Silvina G; Álvarez, Licet; Salveraglio, Inés; Ortolani, Andrea M; Biondi, Ana M

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the prevalence of molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH) among children with different health care coverage in Buenos Aires and Montevideo. An observational, cross-sectional and descriptive study was designed, considering children born from 1993-2003 who were seen in the Chairs of Comprehensive Children's Dentistry (Universidad de Buenos Aires) and of Pediatric Dentistry (Universidad de la República) and at five private dental offices between April and December 2010. Two groups were defined: A (Buenos Aires; n=1,090) and B (Montevideo; n=626). The clinical diagnosis was carried out with calibrated examiners (Kappa: 0.94) using the Mathu-Muju and Wright criteria. The prevalence of MIH was found to be 16.1% in A and 12.3% in B (p=0.03), with statistically significant differences between the public and private care sectors in both groups (A p=0.0008; B p=0.0004) and a positive correlation between MIH and year of birth (A p=0.001; B p=0.005). The results show that MIH is an emerging pathology and that MIH prevalence is related to year of birth and access to health care.

  12. [Social inequalities in cervical cancer mortality in the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires, 1999-2003 and 2004-2006].

    PubMed

    Martínez, María Laura; Guevel, Carlos Gust

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the spatial distribution of cervical cancer mortality in the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires during the period 1999-2003 and its relationship to the socioeconomic conditions of the population, as well as to compare the distribution during this period with that of the triennium 2004-2006. This ecological study used electoral districts as the unit of analysis. The selected socioeconomic indicators were educational deficit, lack of health insurance and the Material Deprivation of Households Index (Índice de Privación Material de Hogares), taken from the National Population and Housing Census (Censo Nacional de Población, Hogares y Viviendas) of 2001. The stratification of the city into areas according to these conditions and the analysis of standardized mortality ratios showed an increased risk of dying from cervical cancer associated with worse socioeconomic conditions. The stratification and death risks demonstrated a clear spatial pattern, with the south of the city presenting the highest death risks, and the northern and central areas presenting the lowest risks.

  13. Ecotoxicological studies of environmental samples from Buenos Aires area using a standardized amphibian embryo toxicity test (AMPHITOX).

    PubMed

    Herkovits, Jorge; Perez-Coll, Cristina; Herkovits, Francisco D

    2002-01-01

    The toxicity of 34 environmental samples from potentially polluted and reference stations were evaluated by means of the AMPHITOX test from acute to chronic exposure according to the toxicity found in each sample. The samples were obtained from surface and ground water, leaches, industrial effluents and soils. The data, expressed in acute, short-term chronic and chronic Toxicity Units (TUa, TUstc and TUc) resulted in a maximal value of 1000 TUc, found in a leach, while the lower toxicity value was 1.4 TUa corresponding to two surface water samples. In five samples (four providing from reference places) no toxicity was detected. The results point out the possibility of evaluating the toxicity of a wide diversity of samples by means of AMPHITOX as a customized toxicity test. The fact that almost all samples with suspected toxicity in rivers and streams from the Metropolitan area of Buenos Aires city resulted toxic, indicates the need of enhanced stewardship of chemical substances for environmental and human health protection purposes.

  14. First report of an HIV-1 triple recombinant of subtypes B, C and F in Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Pando, María A; Eyzaguirre, Lindsay M; Segura, Marcela; Bautista, Christian T; Marone, Rubén; Ceballos, Ana; Montano, Silvia M; Sánchez, José L; Weissenbacher, Mercedes; Avila, María M; Carr, Jean K

    2006-09-07

    We describe the genetic diversity of currently transmitted strains of HIV-1 in men who have sex with men (MSM) in Buenos Aires, Argentina between 2000 and 2004. Nearly full-length sequence analysis of 10 samples showed that 6 were subtype B, 3 were BF recombinant and 1 was a triple recombinant of subtypes B, C and F. The 3 BF recombinants were 3 different unique recombinant forms. Full genome analysis of one strain that was subtype F when sequenced in pol was found to be a triple recombinant. Gag and pol were predominantly subtype F, while gp120 was subtype B; there were regions of subtype C interspersed throughout. The young man infected with this strain reported multiple sexual partners and sero-converted between May and November of 2004. This study reported for the first time the full genome analysis of a triple recombinant between subtypes B, C and F, that combines in one virus the three most common subtypes in South America.

  15. Comments on Environmental and Sanitary Aspects of the Scorpionism by Tityus trivittatus in Buenos Aires City, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    de Roodt, Adolfo Rafael

    2014-01-01

    Deaths by venomous animals are medical emergencies that can lead to death and thus constitute sanitary problems in some regions of the world. In the South of America, the accidents by these animals are a common sanitary problem especially in warm, tropical or subtropical regions, related with rural work in several countries. Argentina is located in the extreme South of South America and a minor part of the continental surface is in tropical or subtropical regions, where most of the accidents by venomous animals happen. However, in the big cities in the center and South of the country, with no relation to rural work, scorpionism, mostly due to the synanthropic and facultative parthenogenetic scorpion Tityus trivittatus, has become a sanitary problem in the last few decades. This scorpion is present in the biggest cities of Argentina and in the last decades has killed over 20 children in provinces of the center and north of the country, mostly in big cities. In addition, it seems that this species is growing and spreading in new regions of the cities. In this revision, some characteristics of this scorpion regarding its habitat, spreading in Buenos Aires city, combat measures and available treatments are discussed. PMID:24759176

  16. Antiquity of the Rı´o de la Plata craton in Tandilia, southern Buenos Aires province, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pankhurst, R. J.; Ramos, A.; Linares, E.

    2003-05-01

    Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd whole-rock data for granitoids and orthogneisses from the western part of the Sierras Septentrionales of the southern Buenos Aires province yield an errorchron of 2009±71 Ma (initial 87Sr/ 86Sr=0.7041, MSWD=69) and an isochron of 2140±88 Ma (initial 143Nd/ 144Nd=0.50977), respectively. As in previous investigations, the Rb-Sr data are clearly disturbed, but the Sm-Nd isochron may record the age of emplacement of igneous precursors. These results reaffirm that this region is the southern extension of the crystalline basement of the Rı´o de la Plata craton. The Sm-Nd age, though not very precise, is slightly older than previously demonstrated but consistent with most recent U-Pb studies of the craton exposed in Uruguay and Brazil. Crust-derived Sm-Nd model ages averaging 2620±80 Ma indicate that, though the principal rock-forming events were Paleoproterozoic, a Late Archaean prehistory is possible. However, the data place strict constraints on the nature and intensity of post-2000 Ma activity in this area, which seems to be confined to tholeiitic dyke emplacement and hydrothermal reactivation.

  17. Embryonic and Morphological Development of Larvae and Juvenile of the Buenos Aires Tetra, Hyphessobrycon anisitsi (Pisces Characidae) Characidae Fishes.

    PubMed

    Park, Jae-Min; Han, Kyeong-Ho; Han, Ran

    2015-03-01

    We have launched an investigation for Embryonic Development, Larvae and Juvenile Morphology, of Buenos aires tetra in order to build basic data of Characidae and fish seeding production. We brought 50 couples of Characidae from Bizidduck aquarium in Yeosu-si, Jeollanamdo, from Korea on March of 2015. We put them in the tetragonal glass aquarium (50×50×30 cm). Breeding water temperature was 27.5~28.5°C (mean 28.0±0.05°C) and being maintained. The shape of fertilized egg was round shape, and it was adhesive demersal egg. The egg size was 0.63~0.91 mm (mean 0.74±0.07 mm, n=20). After getting fertilized egg, the developmental stage was gastrula stage, and embryo covered almost two-thirds of Yolk. Incubation was happened after 16 hours 13 minutes from gastrula stage, and the tail of juvenile came out first with tearing egg capsule. Immediately after the incubation, prelarvae had 3.78~3.88 mm length (mean 3.84±0.04 mm, n=5), and it had no mouth and anus yet. 34 days after hatching from the incubation, juvenile had 8.63~13.1 mm (mean 10.9±1.66 mm), and it had similar silver-colored body shape with its mother.

  18. Atmospheric deposition of nitrogen emitted in the Metropolitan Area of Buenos Aires to coastal waters of de la Plata River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pineda Rojas, Andrea L.; Venegas, Laura E.

    The Metropolitan Area of Buenos Aires (MABA) is the third mega-city in Latin America. Atmospheric N emitted in the area deposits to coastal waters of de la Plata River. This study describes the parameterizations included in DAUMOD-RD (v.3) model to evaluate concentrations of nitrogen compounds (nitrogen dioxide, gaseous nitric acid and nitrate aerosol) and their total (dry and wet) deposition to a water surface. This model is applied to area sources and CALPUFF model to point sources of NO x in the MABA. The models are run for 3 years of hourly meteorological data, with a spatial resolution of 1 km 2. Mean annual deposition is 69, 728 kg-N year -1 over 2 339 km 2 of river. Dry deposition contributions of N-NO 2, N-HNO 3 and N-NO 3- to this value are 44%, 22% and 20%, respectively. Wet deposition of N-HNO 3 and N-NO 3- represents 3% and 11% of total annual value, respectively. This very low contribution results from the rare occurrence of rainy hours with wind blowing from the city to the river. Monthly dry deposition flux estimated for coastal waters of MABA varies between 7 and 13 kg-N km -2 month -1. These results are comparable to values reported for other coastal zones in the world.

  19. [Prevention of cervical and breast cancer in health services and non-governmental organizations in the city of Buenos Aires].

    PubMed

    Ponce, Marisa

    2013-08-01

    The article analyzes actions for the prevention of cervical and breast cancer in public, private, and employment-based health services and in non-governmental organizations in the city of Buenos Aires. The article seeks to reflect on the reach and limitations of the approaches implemented in the three subsectors of the health care system and the community to prevent women from suffering or eventually dying as a consequence of these diseases, in the fragmented context of a health system with great heterogeneity in access and deep social inequalities in the use of preventive actions. The study utilizes a broad definition of prevention which integrates education, awareness-building and early detection of pre-carcinogenic and carcinogenic lesions, among other medical and non-medical components. The results were obtained using semi-structured interviews with subjects from public hospitals, employment-based health care services, private medical companies and non-governmental organizations with work in cancer prevention. These results show that contrary to a comprehensive approach, each institution limits its actions to only one aspect of prevention, implementing predominately isolated or disconnected actions inadequate to generate an autonomous and well-informed demand for treatment and health care among women.

  20. The glacial geomorphology of the Lago Buenos Aires and Lago Puerreydón ice lobes, Central Patagonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bendle, Jacob; Thorndycraft, Varyl; Palmer, Adrian

    2016-04-01

    Patagonia is ideally located for reconstructions of late Quaternary ice-climate interaction(s) in the Southern Hemisphere mid-latitudes, yet many questions remain concerning post-LGM ice sheet retreat dynamics across the region. While modern-day glaciation is restricted to three small icefields (the North and South Patagonian and Cordillera Darwin icefields), during the Quaternary, and at the LGM, episodes of significant ice advance culminated in an expansive Patagonian ice sheet (PIS) centered over the southern Andes, for which a long and well-preserved landform record exists. Previous mapping in the region has either aimed to achieve regional coverage, necessarily omitting more subtle/complex features suggestive of certain ice-marginal processes, or has focused on the identification of palaeo-ice limits (e.g. moraine ridges) for geochronological applications, with little attention given to other (e.g. glaciofluvial, glaciolacustrine) features that are significant for understanding post-LGM ice sheet retreat dynamics. This poster presents a comprehensive and highly detailed (<30m spatial resolution) map of the glacial geomorphology of the Lago Buenos Aires (46.4°S) and Lago Puerreydón (47.2°S) ice lobes, major outlet glaciers of the central sector of the former PIS. The map allows refined reconstructions of glacial and, in particular, deglacial ice-marginal processes, and will underpin further analysis on the retreat history of the palaeo-ice lobes using high-resolution lithostratigraphic (varve) analyses.

  1. An Assessment of Spontaneous Vegetation Recovery in Aggregate Quarries in Coastal Sand Dunes in Buenos Aires Province, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández Montoni, María Victoria; Fernández Honaine, Mariana; del Río, Julio Luis

    2014-08-01

    Sand dune quarries are a location of common aggregate mining activity developed in coastal areas, especially in the southeast Buenos Aires province, Argentina. In this article, spontaneous plant development after extraction activity ceased was evaluated. Five areas (three quarried and two natural/conservation areas) were sampled for plant cover and composition as well as sediment characterization. Different indexes, principal component analysis, and cluster analyses were applied to compare the areas. The dominant families observed in four of the five areas were Asteraceae, Poaceae, and Cyperaceae, and most of the species are commonly found in sandy and humid soils and/or modified/anthropized ones. Percentages of plant cover increased with time because of the cessation of active aggregate extraction. Indexes and multivariate analyses showed that it was possible to distinguish quarried and natural areas based on composition and vegetation cover. The distribution of plant species among the four areas responded to the presence of mining activity, but it also responded to the topographical position and consequently the depth of the groundwater level. Besides these differences, the four areas shared many native species. The results might indicate that once the activity has ceased, quarried areas may spontaneously and quickly develop a plant community with some similarities to those present in the nonquarried areas. However, given that the extracting activity involves the removal of the soil, revegetation of this type of environment depends on the presence of natural areas in the surroundings, which can serve as a source of seeds and propagules for plant regeneration.

  2. Biostratigraphy and biochronology of the Monte Hermoso Formation (early Pliocene) at its type locality, Buenos Aires Province, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomassini, Rodrigo L.; Montalvo, Claudia I.; Deschamps, Cecilia M.; Manera, Teresa

    2013-12-01

    The Monte Hermoso Formation, cropping out at its type locality of Farola Monte Hermoso (Buenos Aires Province), is a classical fossiliferous unit of the South American Neogene, highlighted by the abundance and diversity of its vertebrate remains. However, its biostratigraphy and age have been largely debated, and numerous discrepancies and controversies have been stated. In this regard, the result of the analysis of new materials recovered from the different levels of this formation, following a strict control of stratigraphic provenance, is here reported. As well, the provenance of specimens of previous collections has been evaluated. The studied assemblage consists of Osteichthyes, Amphibia, Reptilia, Aves and Mammalia. These latter are the most numerous and belong to the Didelphimorphia, Polydolopimorphia, Rodentia, Notoungulata, Litopterna and Xenarthra. The recorded taxa suggest no important faunistic variations among the different levels of the Monte Hermoso Formation that would imply significant chronological differences, and hence, justify the recognition of two biostratigraphic units. The analysis of the first and last records as well as the taxa considered as exclusive, does not support the validity of the biozones of Trigodon gaudryi and Neocavia depressidens previously proposed. On this basis, a new scheme for the Monte Hermoso Formation at its type locality is proposed, including a new single biostratigraphic unit. This unit is the Eumysops laeviplicatus Range Zone, which represents the biostratigraphic base for the Montehermosan Stage/Age of the early Pliocene.

  3. Adenoviruses of canine and human origins in stool samples from free-living pampas foxes (Lycalopex gymnocercus) and crab-eating foxes (Cerdocyon thous) in São Francisco de Paula, Rio dos Sinos basin.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, G S; Fleck, J D; Kluge, M; Rech, N K; Soliman, M C; Staggemeier, R; Rodrigues, M T; Barros, M P; Heinzelmann, L S; Spilki, F R

    2015-05-01

    The spread of enteric viruses of domestic animals and human beings to wild species can be facilitated by the resistance of these viruses on the environment and their ability to be transmitted by water and contaminated food. The health status of the populations of pampas foxes Lycalopex gymnocercus) and crab-eating foxes (Cerdocyon thous) is largely unknown and the landscapes occupied by these animals in southern Brazil have been threatened by human occupation and expansion of agriculture. In this work, the search of genomes of human and canine adenoviruses in feces from these wild carnivores was used to track the dissemination of domestic animals and human pathogens to the free-living populations in a wildlife reserve located in southern Brazil. This was performed by virus-specific differential real-time polymerase chain reactions (qPCR) on stool specimens, avoiding capture and additional stress to the animals. Genus-specific conventional reverse-transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) was complementarily performed aiming the detection of enteroviruses (EV) and rotaviruses (RV) on these same samples. HAdV genomes were found on 14 out of the 17 (82.35%) stool samples analysed, whereas CAV was found co-infecting 5 of these samples. RV genomes were detected on 7 of the 17 samples (41.18%) and all samples were negative for EV. The results point to the dispersion of HAdV and RV at a high rate to these species of South American wild carnivores, which can be an effect of growing anthropisation of the habitat of these animals.

  4. Phylogenetic and phylodynamic analyses of human metapneumovirus in Buenos Aires (Argentina) for a three-year period (2009-2011).

    PubMed

    Velez Rueda, Ana Julia; Mistchenko, Alicia Susana; Viegas, Mariana

    2013-01-01

    Human metapneumovirus, which belongs to the Paramyxoviridae family and has been classified as a member of the Pneumovirus genus, is genetically and clinically similar to other family members such as human respiratory syncytial virus. A total of 1146 nasopharyngeal aspirates from pediatric patients with moderate and severe acute lower respiratory tract infections, hospitalized at the Ricardo Gutierrez Childreńs Hospital (Buenos Aires, Argentina), were tested by real time RT-PCR for human metapneumovirus. Results showed that 168 (14.65%) were positive. Thirty-six of these 168 samples were randomly selected to characterize positive cases molecularly. The phylogenetic analysis of the sequences of the G and F genes showed that genotypes A2 and B2 cocirculated during 2009 and 2010 and that only genotype A2 circulated in 2011 in Argentina. Genotype A2 prevailed during the study period, a fact supported by a higher effective population size (Neτ) and higher diversity as compared to that of genotype B2 (10.9% (SE 1.3%) vs. 1.7% (SE 0.4%), respectively). The phylogeographic analysis of the G protein gene sequences showed that this virus has no geographical restrictions and can travel globally harbored in hosts. The selection pressure analysis of the F protein showed that although this protein has regions with polymorphisms, it has vast structural and functional constraints. In addition, the predicted B-linear epitopes and the sites recognized by previously described monoclonal antibodies were conserved in all Argentine sequences. This points out this protein as a potential candidate to be the target of future humanized antibodies or vaccines.

  5. Phytoplankton chlorophyte structure as related to ENSO events in a saline lowland river (Salado River, Buenos Aires, Argentina).

    PubMed

    Solari, Lía C; Gabellone, Néstor A; Claps, María C; Casco, María A; Quaíni, Karina P; Neschuk, Nancy C

    2014-04-01

    We analyzed the phytoplankton present in the lower sector of the Salado River (Buenos Aires, Argentina) for 10 years (1995-2005) and detected significant changes occurring in chlorophyte abundance and species richness during La Niña event (1998-1999), which period was analyzed throughout the entire basin (main stream and tributaries). We compared the physicochemical and biologic variables between two El Niño-La Niña-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) periods - El Niño (March 1997-January 1998) and La Niña (May 1998-May 1999) - to identify possible indicators of a relationship between climatic anomalies and chlorophyte performance. Chlorophyte density increased during the La Niña. Under normal or extreme hydrologic conditions, mobile (Chlamydomonas spp.) and nonmobile (Monoraphidium spp.) chlorophytes codominated. These species belonged to Reynolds's functional groups X1 and X2, those typical of nutrient-enriched environments. Comparative analyses between El Niño and La Niña periods indicated significant differences in physicochemical (K(+), dissolved polyphenols, particulate reactive phosphorus, alkalinity, pH) and biologic (species diversity and richness, phytoplankton and chlorophyte total densities) variables between the two periods at all basin sites. During the La Niña condition, species richness was greater owing to interconnected shallow lakes and drainage-channel inputs, while the Shannon diversity index was lower because of the high abundance values of Monoraphidium minutum. A detailed analysis of the chlorophytes in the entire basin, indicated that changes in density and species dominance occurred on a regional scale although diverse chlorophyte assemblages were identified in the different sectors of the Salado River basin. After La Niña event, the entire basin had the potential to revert to the previous density values, showing the resilience to global environmental changes and the ability to reestablish the general conditions of stability.

  6. Phytoplankton chlorophyte structure as related to ENSO events in a saline lowland river (Salado River, Buenos Aires, Argentina)

    PubMed Central

    Solari, Lía C; Gabellone, Néstor A; Claps, María C; Casco, María A; Quaíni, Karina P; Neschuk, Nancy C

    2014-01-01

    We analyzed the phytoplankton present in the lower sector of the Salado River (Buenos Aires, Argentina) for 10 years (1995–2005) and detected significant changes occurring in chlorophyte abundance and species richness during La Niña event (1998–1999), which period was analyzed throughout the entire basin (main stream and tributaries). We compared the physicochemical and biologic variables between two El Niño–La Niña–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) periods – El Niño (March 1997–January 1998) and La Niña (May 1998–May 1999) – to identify possible indicators of a relationship between climatic anomalies and chlorophyte performance. Chlorophyte density increased during the La Niña. Under normal or extreme hydrologic conditions, mobile (Chlamydomonas spp.) and nonmobile (Monoraphidium spp.) chlorophytes codominated. These species belonged to Reynolds's functional groups X1 and X2, those typical of nutrient-enriched environments. Comparative analyses between El Niño and La Niña periods indicated significant differences in physicochemical (K+, dissolved polyphenols, particulate reactive phosphorus, alkalinity, pH) and biologic (species diversity and richness, phytoplankton and chlorophyte total densities) variables between the two periods at all basin sites. During the La Niña condition, species richness was greater owing to interconnected shallow lakes and drainage-channel inputs, while the Shannon diversity index was lower because of the high abundance values of Monoraphidium minutum. A detailed analysis of the chlorophytes in the entire basin, indicated that changes in density and species dominance occurred on a regional scale although diverse chlorophyte assemblages were identified in the different sectors of the Salado River basin. After La Niña event, the entire basin had the potential to revert to the previous density values, showing the resilience to global environmental changes and the ability to reestablish the general conditions of

  7. U-Th and 10Be constraints on sediment recycling in proglacial settings, Lago Buenos Aires, Patagonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cogez, Antoine; Herman, Frédéric; Pelt, Eric; Norton, Kevin; Darvill, Christopher; Christl, Marcus; Morvan, Gilles; Reuschlé, Thierry; Chabaux, François

    2016-04-01

    The sedimentary cycle includes the formation by erosion of rocks, transport and deposition. While erosion and deposition can be documented, the history of sediments between the time it is extracted from the rocks and ultimately deposited into basins remains a major challenge. However, the mechanism of transfer and alteration of the sediments during transport plays a key role in the evolution of basins, feedbacks between erosion and climate, and glacial-interglacial variability of sediment transport and weathering. This is particularly true in proglacial settings because large overdeepenings, in particular, are potential sediment traps for which the efficiency at evacuating those sediments is largely unknown. The Lago Buenos Aires moraines in Patagonia are particularly interesting because they are imbricated from the older in the outer part to the younger in the inner part of the system. We sampled fine grained sediments from these moraines and measured U-Th isotopes in the 4-50 μm silicate fraction. Deposition ages were refined using 10Be exposure ages. We show first that the comminution ages model can be improved by measuring also Th isotopes, from which weathering rates can be deduced. Moreover we show from our data that there is a time lag of 300 kyr on average between erosion and deposition in the moraine. This could be attributed to the long residence time of sediments in the lake overdeepening. This conclusion raises perspectives about the transport times and dynamic of the sediments during a whole sedimentary cycle, and the subsequent effect on weathering. This conclusion could also contradict some assumptions commonly made for our erosion rates/sediment fluxes reconstructions based on river sediments analysis, in recently deglaciated catchments.

  8. Aerosol properties and meteorological conditions in the city of Buenos Aires, Argentina, during the resuspension of volcanic ash from the Puyehue-Cordón Caulle eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graciela Ulke, Ana; Torres Brizuela, Marcela M.; Raga, Graciela B.; Baumgardner, Darrel

    2016-09-01

    The eruption in June 2011 of the Puyehue-Cordón Caulle Volcanic Complex in Chile impacted air traffic around the Southern Hemisphere for several months after the initial ash emissions. The ash deposited in vast areas of the Patagonian Steppe was subjected to the strong wind conditions prevalent during the austral winter and spring experiencing resuspension over various regions of Argentina. In this study we analyze the meteorological conditions that led to the episode of volcanic ash resuspension which impacted the city of Buenos Aires and resulted in the closure of the two main airports in Buenos Aires area (Ezeiza and Aeroparque) on 16 October 2011. A relevant result is that resuspended material (volcanic ash plus dust) imprints a distinguishable feature within the atmospheric thermodynamic vertical profiles. The thermodynamic soundings show the signature of "pulses of drying" in layers associated with the presence of hygroscopic ash in the atmosphere that has already been reported in similar episodes after volcanic eruptions in other parts of the world. This particular footprint can be used to detect the probable existence of volcanic ash layers. This study also illustrates the utility of ceilometers to detect not only cloud base at airports but also volcanic ash plumes at the boundary layer and up to 7 km altitude. Aerosol properties measured in the city during the resuspension episode indicate the presence of enhanced concentrations of aerosol particles in the boundary layer along with spectral signatures in the measurements at the Buenos Aires AERONET site typical of ash plus dust advected towards the city. The mandatory aviation reports from the National Weather Service about airborne and deposited volcanic ash at the airport near the measurement site (Aeroparque) correlate in time with the enhanced concentrations. The presence of the resuspended material was detected by the CALIOP lidar overpassing the region. Since the dynamics of ash resuspension and

  9. Conceptual resistance in the disciplines of the mind: the Leipzig-Buenos Aires connection at the beginning of the 20th century.

    PubMed

    Taiana, Cecilia

    2005-11-01

    Personal correspondence written by Prof. Felix Krueger from Argentina in 1906-1907 to his teacher and mentor Wilhelm Wundt in Leipzig is situated in the historical context of the theoretical debates taking place at the University of Buenos Aires at the beginning of the 20th century. A critical survey of the transatlantic migration of psychological theories and their reception in Argentina raises the broader issues of the nature of the cultural and social roots of local interpretations induced by the circulation of theories across national fields of scientific inquiry. It is argued that national intellectual fields and the historicity of their categories of interpretation mediate in the foreign trade of theories.

  10. [Endemic goiter in Argentina. Epidemiologic studies before (1968) and during (1986) prophylaxis with iodized salt in the city of Buenos Aires].

    PubMed

    Salvaneschi, J P; Salvaneschi, B G; Moralejo, A B; García, J R

    1991-01-01

    An epidemiological survey on goiter was conducted in Buenos Aires, on 3882 schoolchildren, a randomized sample of 160,026 children of public schools, before establishing prophylactic measures in 1968. With an estimated error of 5% the result was 14.8% of goiter prevalence. This figure qualified Buenos Aires as an endemic area and was, therefore, included in the National Programme to Combat Endemic Goiter, through iodized salt (proportion 1:30,000 of salt). Schools were qualified according to their social level in high, middle and low; the prevalence of goiter was 6.8%, 12.2% and 26.4%, respectively. The prevalence was also higher in older ages. In 1986, using the same randomized sample, a second survey was conducted, after 18 years of prophylaxis. Goiter prevalence was 8.5%. Goiter in the low social class was about the same as in the middle class. In randomized samples of 49 urines, iodine concentration was determined yielding an average of 139.6 micrograms/g creatinine (median 120.9 micrograms/g creatinine). Urinary iodine level in 14 children with goiter was 146.1 micrograms/g creatinine and in 12 without goiter was 171.4 micrograms/g. There was no statistical difference between these three groups. Variations in radioiodine uptake, urinary iodine, plasma inorganic iodine levels, and water iodine are discussed.

  11. [Mycotrophic capacity and efficiency of microbial consortia of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi native of soils from Buenos Aires province under contrasting management].

    PubMed

    Thougnon Islas, Andrea J; Eyherabide, Mercedes; Echeverría, Hernán E; Sainz Rozas, Hernán R; Covacevich, Fernanda

    2014-01-01

    We characterized the infective and sporulation capacities of microbial consortia of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) native of Buenos Aires province (Argentina) and determined if some soil characteristics and mycorrhizal parameters could allow to select potentially beneficial inocula. Soil samples were selected from seven locations in Buenos Aires province all under agricultural (A) and pristine (P) conditions. The AMF were multiplied and mycorrhizal root colonization of trap plants was observed at 10 weeks of growth. Spore number in field was low; however, after multiplication spore density accounted for 80-1175 spores per 100g of soil. The principal component analysis showed that the P and Fe soil contents are the main modulators of infectivity and sporulation capacity. The mycorrhizal potential was determined in three locations, being high in Pristine Lobería and Agricultural Trenque Lauquen and low in Junín. Agricultural Lobería (AL) and Pristine Lobería (PL) inocula were selected and their efficiency was evaluated under controlled conditions. Even though shoot dry matter increases after inoculation was not significant (p>0.05) mycorrhizal response was greater than 40% for tomato and 25% for corn, particularly after inoculation with inocula from the agricultural management. These results could be associated to the incipient development of mycorrhizae in both species. Additional research should be conducted to further develop our findings in order to determine the factors involved in the selection of efficient inocula.

  12. [Placental weight percentiles and its relationship with fetal weight according to gestational age in an urban area of Buenos Aires].

    PubMed

    Grandi, Carlos; Roman, Estela; Dipierri, Jose

    2015-01-01

    Antecedentes: El peso placentario (PP) y los índices de su relación con el peso al nacer (PN) (PN/PP, PP/PN) predicen morbi-mortalidad perinatal y resultados alejados de la salud. Objetivos: Calcular percentilos del PP e índices por sexo y edad gestacional correspondientes a 867 RNV de la Maternidad Sardá de Buenos Aires, Argentina y compararlos con referencias internacionales. Material y métodos: Se excluyeron feto muerto, embarazo múltiple, edad gestacional <22 y >42 semanas y PP<100g y >2500g. Características maternas y fetales: edad, educación, tabaco, paridad, diabetes, preeclampsia, corioamnionitis, restricción del crecimiento, malformación congénita y prematurez. Se calcularon estadísticos de resumen y percentilos con el método LMS. Las comparaciones se realizaron con test t-Student, ANOVA y referencias internacionales. Resultados: Edad materna media 24 años, educación 10.1 años, 24.5% primíparas, 12.6% fumadoras, 4.9% presentaron diabetes, 8.7% preeclampsia, 7.9% corioamnionitis y 13.0% restricción del crecimiento fetal. El 55.3% de los RN fueron varones, 51.6% prematuros, 18.9% PEG y 7.1% malformados. El PN y EG promedio fue de 2581g y 35.6 semanas respectivamente. Elevada correlación positiva de la EG con PP y PN/PP y negativa con PP/PN (p%lt;0.001); el peso de la placenta e índices fueron mayores en varones. Se presentan los percentiles de PP, PN/PP y PP/PN. Las diferencias con las referencias oscilaron de 0.46% -13%, 4.91% -12.1% y 5.81% -14% para el PP, PN/PP y PP/PN respectivamente. Conclusiones: los percentilos generados son aplicables en investigaciones sobre la relación de la placenta con resultados perinatales y la salud durante el ciclo vital.

  13. Incidence and prevalence of lupus in Buenos Aires, Argentina: a 11-year health management organisation-based study

    PubMed Central

    Scolnik, M; Marin, J; Valeiras, S M; Marchese, M F; Talani, A S; Avellaneda, N L; Etchepare, A; Etchepare, P; Plou, M S; Soriano, E R

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Studies regarding the epidemiology of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) are lacking in Argentina. Our purpose was to estimate the incidence and prevalence of SLE in a university hospital-based health management organisation in Buenos Aires (HIMCP). Methods For incidence calculation, the population at risk included all adult members of the HIMCP, with continuous affiliation for at least 1 year from January 1998 to January 2009. Each person was followed until he/she voluntarily left the HIMCP, death or finalisation of the study. Multiple methods for case finding were used to ensure complete ascertainment: (a) patients with problem SLE, undifferentiated autoimmune disease or mixed connective tissue disease in the Computer-based Patient Record System, (b) patients with positive antinuclear antibody test, anti-Sm antibodies and/or anti-dsDNA antibodies in the laboratory database and (c) patients who consumed hydroxichloroquine, chloroquine, azathioprine, cyclophosphamide, mycophenolate, cyclosporine or rituximab, from the administrative HIMCP drugs database. Medical records of all patients found were reviewed, and only patients fulfilling ACR criteria for SLE were included. Global and gender incidence rate (IR) was calculated. Prevalence was estimated on 1 January 2009, and the denominator population was the number of active members >18 years at that date (n=127 959). Results In the study period, 68 patients developed SLE. The observed IR (per 100 000 person-years, (CI 95%)) was 6.3 (4.9 to 7.7) for total population; 8.9 (CI 6.6 to 11.2) for women and 2.6 (1.2 to 3.9) for men. On 1 January 2009, 75 prevalent cases were identified. Prevalence rates (cases per 100 000 habitants, (CI 95%)) were 58.6 (46.1 to 73.5) for total population; 83.2 (63.9 to 106.4) for women and 23 (CI 11.9 to 40.1) for men. Conclusions SLE incidence and prevalence rates in Argentina are in agreement with those of other studies from different parts of the world. PMID:25379189

  14. Long-term variability of heat waves in Argentina and recurrence probability of the severe 2008 heat wave in Buenos Aires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusticucci, Matilde; Kyselý, Jan; Almeira, Gustavo; Lhotka, Ondřej

    2016-05-01

    Heat waves are one of the main concerns related to the impacts of climate change, because their frequency and severity are projected to increase in a future climate. The objectives of this work are to study the long-term variability of heat waves over Argentina and to estimate recurrence probability of the most severe 2008 heat wave in Buenos Aires. We used three definitions of heat waves that were based on (1) daily maximum temperature above the 90th percentile (MaxTHW), (2) daily minimum temperature above the 90th percentile (MinTHW) and (3) both maximum and minimum temperatures above the corresponding 90th percentiles (EHW). The minimum length of a heat wave was 3 days, and the analysis was performed over the October-March period. Decadal values in Buenos Aires experienced clear increases in heat waves according to MinTHW and EHW, with the highest frequency for both in the 2001-2010 decade, but at other stations, combinations of different trends and decadal variability resulted in some cases in a decrease of extreme heat waves. In the north-western part of the country, a strong positive change in the last decade was found, mainly due to the increment in the persistence of MinTHW but also accompanied by increases in MaxTHW. In general, other stations show a clear positive trend in MinTHW and decadal variability in MaxTHW, with the largest EHW cases in the last decade. We also estimated recurrence probability of the longest and most severe heat wave in Buenos Aires (over 1909-2010, according to intensity measured by the cumulative excess of maximum daily temperature above the 90th percentile) that occurred from 3 to 14 November 2008, by means of simulations with a stochastic first-order autoregressive model. The recurrence probability of such long and severe heat wave is small in the present climate but it is likely to increase substantially in the near future even under a moderate warming trend.

  15. Molecular typing of Treponema pallidum isolates from Buenos Aires, Argentina: Frequent Nichols-like isolates and low levels of macrolide resistance.

    PubMed

    Gallo Vaulet, Lucía; Grillová, Linda; Mikalová, Lenka; Casco, Ricardo; Rodríguez Fermepin, Marcelo; Pando, María A; Šmajs, David

    2017-01-01

    A total of 54 clinical samples, including genital lesion swabs, whole blood and cerebrospinal fluid from patients diagnosed with syphilis were collected in 2006 and in 2013 in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Treponemal DNA was detected in 43 of the analyzed samples (79.6%) and further analyzed using Sequencing-based molecular typing (SBMT) and Enhanced CDC-typing (ECDCT). By SBMT, 10 different Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum (TPA) genotypes were found, of which six were related to the TPA SS14 strain, and four to the TPA Nichols strain. The 23S rRNA gene was amplified in samples isolated from 42 patients, and in six of them (14.3%), either the A2058G (four patients, 9.5%) or the A2059G (two patients, 4.8%) mutations were found. In addition to Taiwan, Madagascar and Peru, Argentina is another country where the prevalence of Nichols-like isolates (26.8%) is greater than 10%.

  16. High Prevalence of Substance Use among Men who have Sex with Men in Buenos Aires, Argentina: Implications for HIV Risk Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Balán, Iván C.; Carballo-Diéguez, Alex; Dolezal, Curtis; Marone, Rubén; Pando, María A.; Barreda, Victoria; Ávila, María M

    2012-01-01

    Five hundred gay and other men who have sex with men (G&MSM) from Buenos Aires, Argentina completed an assessment regarding substance use and sexual behavior. During the past two months, 78% of participants consumed alcohol and 61% drugs. Over 20% of participants reporting alcohol, marijuana, cocaine sulfate, or tranquilizer use, did so daily. Heavy alcohol use was more likely among participants with greater mood reactivity (AOR = 1.64) and less likely among those who identified as gay (AOR=0.38). Weekly drug use was less likely among older (AOR=0.98), and gay-identified participants (AOR=0.50), but more likely among participants with greater mood reactivity (AOR=1.49). Drug use was correlated with unprotected anal and vaginal intercourse with men, women, and transvestites among non-gay identified participants (r= 0.22). Findings highlight the need to reduce substance use and sexual risk behavior in this population. PMID:23196860

  17. [Acanthamoeba sp. keratitis: first case confirmed by isolation and molecular typification in Bahía Blanca, Buenos Aires Province, Argentina].

    PubMed

    Gertiser, M L; Giagante, E; Sgattoni, E; Basabe, N; Rivero, F; Luján, H; Occhionero, M; Paniccia, L; Visciarelli, E; Costamagna, S R

    2010-01-01

    Some species of the Acanthamoeba genus cause keratitis, a very painful, most likely unilateral corneal infection , associated with eye and vision impairment. We here present a case of a 31-year-old female patient, a regular user of soft contact lenses without good practices of lens hygiene and handling. The patient attended medical consultation after two months of inflammation and pain in her right eye. After ophthalmological studies, and due to suspicion of a parasitic infection, a biopsy was performed and the sample submitted for bacteriological and parasitological analyses. Moreover, contact lens holders and lens cleaning solutions were studied. The samples yielded negative results for bacterial infection. However, cultivation of all samples showed the presence of amoeboid parasites. Isolated amoebae were morphologically and molecularly classified as members of the Acanthamoeba genus. This is the first case of keratitis caused by Acanthamoeba in Bahía Blanca, Buenos Aires Province, where the parasite was identified by specific and sensitive molecular techniques.

  18. [The origin and quality of water for human consumption: the health of the population residing in the Matanza-Riachuelo river basin area in Greater Buenos Aires].

    PubMed

    Monteverde, Malena; Cipponeri, Marcos; Angelaccio, Carlos; Gianuzzi, Leda

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the origin and quality of water used for consumption in a sample of households in Matanza-Riachuelo river basin area in Greater Buenos Aires, Argentina. The results of drinking water by source indicated that 9% of water samples from the public water system, 45% of bottled water samples and 80% of well water samples were not safe for drinking due to excess content of coliforms, Escherichia coli or nitrates. Individuals living in households where well water is the main source of drinking water have a 55% higher chance of suffering a water-borne disease; in the cases of diarrheas, the probability is 87% higher and in the case of dermatitis, 160% higher. The water for human consumption in this region should be provided by centralized sources that assure control over the quality of the water.

  19. [New documental evidence on the history of homeopathy in Latin America: a case study of links between Rio de Janeiro and Buenos Aires].

    PubMed

    Tarcitano, Conrado Mariano; Waisse, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    Homeopathy began to spread soon after it was formulated by Samuel Hahnemann in the early 1800s, reaching the Southern Cone in the 1830s. In processes of this kind, one figure is often cited as being responsible for introducing it, often attaining quasi-mythical status. Little is known, however, about how homeopathy reached Argentina at that time. Through archival research, we discovered that medical and lay homeopaths circulated between Rio de Janeiro and Buenos Aires. Given the well-known proselytizing of the circles gravitating around lay homeopaths B. Mure and J.V. Martins in Rio de Janeiro, the documents indicate that this movement actually went as far as Argentina, which had not been confirmed until now.

  20. Hydrogeochemical and isotopic characterisation of groundwater in a sand-dune phreatic aquifer on the northeastern coast of the province of Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Carretero, Silvina C; Dapeña, Cristina; Kruse, Eduardo E

    2013-01-01

    This contribution presents the hydrochemical and isotopic characterisation of the phreatic aquifer located in the Partido de la Costa, province of Buenos Aires, Argentina. In the sand-dune barrier geomorphological environment, groundwater is mainly a low-salinity Ca-HCO3 and Na-HCO3-type, being in general suitable for drinking, whereas in the continental plain (silty clay sediments), groundwater is a Na-Cl type with high salinity and unsuitable for human consumption. The general isotopic composition of the area ranges from-6.8 to-4.3 ‰ for δ(18)O and from-39 to-21 ‰ for δ(2)H, showing that rainwater rapidly infiltrates into the sandy substrate and reaches the water table almost without significant modification in its isotopic composition. These analyses, combined with other chemical parameters, made it possible to corroborate that in the eastern area of the phreatic aquifer, there is no contamination from marine salt water.

  1. [Food and health risks: views on healthy food and food consumption practices among middle-class women and men in the Metropolitan Area of Buenos Aires].

    PubMed

    Freidin, Betina

    2016-01-01

    In this article we analyze notions about healthy food and the perceptions of risks related to industrialized foodstuffs within a group of young and middle-aged females and males who belong to the middle class and live in the Metropolitan Area of Buenos Aires. Data come from eight focus groups that were carried out in 2013. The study shows that the participants of the focus group have incorporated scientific-nutritional knowledge into their conceptions of healthy food. However, few discuss the risks of industrialized food beyond the growing public attention regarding trans fats and salt content. Although organic foods are positively valued, participants object to their high cost and the location of their commercialization. We show how in their food practices, the participants of the focus groups weigh their concern about health against other priorities such as costs, convenience, aesthetics, pleasure and sociability.

  2. The population ecology of Muscina stabulans (Fallén) (Diptera: Muscidae), along an urban-rural gradient of Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Patitucci, Luciano D; Mulieri, Pablo R; Mariluis, Juan C; Schnack, Juan A

    2010-01-01

    The false stable fly, Muscina stabulans (Fallén), was surveyed along an urban-rural gradient at Almirante Brown, Buenos Aires province, Argentina. Samples were taken at monthly intervals from May 2005 to April 2007. Hourly captures of adult flies (10:00 am-04:00 pm) were taken at each sampling date with a hand net. The baits used were 250 g of rotten cow liver and 250 g of fresh dog faeces exposed in shaded and sunny areas. The entire sample accumulated 358 specimens. The number of specimens captured during the second year was higher than in the fi rst year. Muscina stabulans was more abundant at urban-suburban sites. Females showed significant preferences for cow liver. We caught more specimens in shaded areas. The hourly activity increased toward the afternoon at the three sites. The present work was the first ecological study related to a muscid species in Argentina.

  3. [The Universidad de Buenos Aires in the 1970s: analysis of the press release expressing solidarity with Rodolfo Puiggrós].

    PubMed

    Recalde, Aritz

    2012-12-01

    This article reconstructs the historical context surrounding the emission of a press release by authorities of the Universidad de Buenos Aires, expressing their solidarity with historian and university rector Rodolfo Puiggrós after his resignation. In his term, Puiggrós attempted to fuse the institution's scientific and technological plans with the new development model initiated by Héctor Cámpora and the Peronist movement in 1973. The article makes reference to the project of university transformation promoted by Puiggrós, combining the ideological traditions of Marxism, reformism, and nationalism. A few key points, useful for analyzing the reasons behind Puiggrós's resignation, are presented, and the arguments highlighted within this press release, published by Office of Media and Communications on October 5, 1973, are discussed.

  4. [Gutiérrez Bueno (1745-1822), textbooks and a new public for chemistry in the last third of the 18th century].

    PubMed

    García Belmar, A; Bertomeu Sánchez, J R

    2001-01-01

    This paper is a part of a general research project on the role that chemistry played in the transition of materia medica to experimental pharmacology during 19th century Spain. Within this general framework, the paper deals with the main characteristics of Spanish textbooks aimed at pharmaceutical and medical students. In a former study, published in this journal, we outlined the institutional context in which these books were read, written and published. Some of these issues are developed in the present paper through analysis of the "Curso de química" written by Pedro Gutiérrez Bueno. New light is shed on the public for chemistry during the late XVIII century Spain and their role in shaping the contents and organisation of chemistry textbooks.

  5. Children's palliative care now! Highlights from the second ICPCN conference on children's palliative care, 18-21 May 2016, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Downing, J; Kiman, R; Boucher, S; Nkosi, B; Steel, B; Marston, C; Lascar, E; Marston, J

    2016-01-01

    The International Children's Palliative Care Network held its second international conference on children's palliative care in Buenos Aires, Argentina, from the 18th-21st May 2016. The theme of the conference was 'Children's Palliative Care…. Now!' emphasising the need for palliative care for children now, as the future will be too late for many of them. Six pre-conference workshops were held, addressing issues connected to pain assessment and management, adolescent palliative care, ethics and decision-making, developing programmes, the basics of children's palliative care, and hidden aspects of children's palliative care. The conference brought together 410 participants from 40 countries. Plenary, concurrent, and poster presentations covered issues around the status of children's palliative care, genetics, perinatal and neonatal palliative care, the impact of children's palliative care and the experiences of parents and volunteers, palliative care as a human right, education in children's palliative care, managing complex pain in children, spiritual care and when to initiate palliative care. The 'Big Debate' explored issues around decision-making and end of life care in children, and gave participants the opportunity to explore a sensitive and thought provoking topic. At the end of the conference, delegates were urged to sign the Commitment of Buenos Aires which called for governments to implement the WHA resolution and ensure access to palliative care for neonates, children and their families, and also commits us as palliative care providers to share all that we can and collaborate with each other to achieve the global vision of palliative care for all children who need it. The conference highlighted the ongoing issues in children's palliative care and participants were continually challenged to ensure that children can access palliative care NOW.

  6. Prospective Multicenter Study of Community-Associated Skin and Skin Structure Infections due to Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Buenos Aires, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    López Furst, María José; de Vedia, Lautaro; Fernández, Silvina; Gardella, Noella; Ganaha, María Cristina; Prieto, Sergio; Carbone, Edith; Lista, Nicolás; Rotryng, Flavio; Morera, Graciana I.; Mollerach, Marta; Stryjewski, Martín E.

    2013-01-01

    Background Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) is now the most common cause of skin and skin structure infections (SSSI) in several world regions. In Argentina prospective, multicenter clinical studies have only been conducted in pediatric populations. Objective Primary: describe the prevalence, clinical and demographic characteristics of adult patients with community acquired SSSI due to MRSA; secondary: molecular evaluation of CA-MRSA strains. Patients with MRSA were compared to those without MRSA. Materials and Methods Prospective, observational, multicenter, epidemiologic study, with molecular analysis, conducted at 19 sites in Argentina (18 in Buenos Aires) between March 2010 and October 2011. Patients were included if they were ≥14 years, were diagnosed with SSSI, a culture was obtained, and there had no significant healthcare contact identified. A logistic regression model was used to identify factors associated with CA-MRSA. Pulse field types, SCCmec, and PVL status were also determined. Results A total of 311 patients were included. CA-MRSA was isolated in 70% (218/311) of patients. Clinical variables independently associated with CA-MRSA were: presence of purulent lesion (OR 3.29; 95%CI 1.67, 6.49) and age <50 years (OR 2.39; 95%CI 1.22, 4.70). The vast majority of CA-MRSA strains causing SSSI carried PVL genes (95%) and were SCCmec type IV. The sequence type CA-MRSA ST30 spa t019 was the predominant clone. Conclusions CA-MRSA is now the most common cause of SSSI in our adult patients without healthcare contact. ST30, SCCmec IV, PVL+, spa t019 is the predominant clone in Buenos Aires, Argentina. PMID:24324543

  7. Children’s palliative care now! Highlights from the second ICPCN conference on children’s palliative care, 18–21 May 2016, Buenos Aires, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Downing, J; Kiman, R; Boucher, S; Nkosi, B; Steel, B; Marston, C; Lascar, E; Marston, J

    2016-01-01

    The International Children’s Palliative Care Network held its second international conference on children’s palliative care in Buenos Aires, Argentina, from the 18th–21st May 2016. The theme of the conference was ‘Children’s Palliative Care…. Now!’ emphasising the need for palliative care for children now, as the future will be too late for many of them. Six pre-conference workshops were held, addressing issues connected to pain assessment and management, adolescent palliative care, ethics and decision-making, developing programmes, the basics of children’s palliative care, and hidden aspects of children’s palliative care. The conference brought together 410 participants from 40 countries. Plenary, concurrent, and poster presentations covered issues around the status of children’s palliative care, genetics, perinatal and neonatal palliative care, the impact of children’s palliative care and the experiences of parents and volunteers, palliative care as a human right, education in children’s palliative care, managing complex pain in children, spiritual care and when to initiate palliative care. The ‘Big Debate’ explored issues around decision-making and end of life care in children, and gave participants the opportunity to explore a sensitive and thought provoking topic. At the end of the conference, delegates were urged to sign the Commitment of Buenos Aires which called for governments to implement the WHA resolution and ensure access to palliative care for neonates, children and their families, and also commits us as palliative care providers to share all that we can and collaborate with each other to achieve the global vision of palliative care for all children who need it. The conference highlighted the ongoing issues in children’s palliative care and participants were continually challenged to ensure that children can access palliative care NOW. PMID:27610193

  8. Hydrogeological investigations in the Pampa of Argentina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bannert, D. (Principal Investigator); Bender, H.; Kruck, W.; Lago, J. J.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Satellite imagery in combination with ground investigations allows identification and delineation of differences in the conditions of the near surface ground water (depth to ground water, salinity). The degree of precision achieved is greater than that obtainable by conventional ground survey methods alone.

  9. Hydrogeological Investigations in the Pampa of Argentina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bannert, D.; Bender, H.; Kantor, W.; Kruck, W. (Principal Investigator)

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Satellite imagery in combination with ground investigations allows the identification and delineation of the near surface ground water (depth to ground water, salinity). The degree of precision achieved is greater than that obtainable by conventional ground survey methods alone.

  10. Quality of life in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients requiring insulin treatment in Buenos Aires, Argentina: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Pichon-Riviere, Andres; Irazola, Vilma; Beratarrechea, Andrea; Alcaraz, Andrea; Carrara, Carolina

    2015-01-01

    Background: Decision-makers have begun to recognize Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) as an important and measurable outcome of healthcare interventions; and HRQoL data is increasingly being used by policy-makers to prioritize health resources. Our objective was to measure HRQoL in a group of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) patients receiving insulin treatment in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study of patients with T2DM over 21 years of age, treated with either Neutral Protamine Hagedorn (NPH) insulin or Insulin Glargine (IG), who had not changed their baseline schedule in the last 6 months. The recruitment was during 2006–7 in nine private diabetes specialists’ offices in Buenos Aires, Argentina. A standardized diabetes-specific HRQoL questionnaire, the Audit of Diabetes Dependent Quality of Life (ADDQoL), was used. Results: A total of 183 patients were included (93 receiving NPH and 90 receiving IG). The mean QoL score was: 0.98 (SD: 0.89) and the diabetes specific QoL was: -1.49 (SD: 0.90). T2DM had a negative impact on HRQoL with a mean Average Weighted Impact (AWI) score on QoL of -1.77 (SD: 1.58). The greatest negative impact was observed for domains: ‘worries about the future’, ‘freedom to eat’, ‘living conditions’, ‘sex life’, and ‘family life’. The mean AWI score was -1.71 (SD: 1.48) in patients treated with IG and -1.85 (SD: 1.68) in patients receiving NPH, this difference was not statistically significant. Conclusion: The ADDQoL questionnaire is a tool that can be used in Argentina to measure the QoL of patients with diabetes when evaluating diabetes care programs. The scores of QoL in our selected population did not differ from those reported in high-income countries. We expect that the results of this study will increase healthcare providers’ awareness of patients’ perceived QoL and help to overcome the barriers that delay insulin treatment; mainly clinical inertia and patient

  11. Histology and gametogenesis in Heleobia piscium (Cochliopidae) from the Multiple Use Reserve “Isla Martín García,” Buenos Aires, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Díaz, Ana C.

    2016-01-01

    Heleobia piscium (d’Orbigny, 1835), a member of the Cochliopidae family found only in South America, is distributed from Entre Ríos, Delta del Paraná, and the littoral of the Río de la Plata down as far as to Punta Indio (Buenos Aires), the southernmost limit of the snail’s geographical distribution. To date, little information is available regarding the reproductive cycle of species within this family either in Argentina or throughout South America. The present work analyzed the histology of the reproductive system of the gonochoric species H. piscium and determined the stages oogenesis and spermatogenesis under natural conditions. Specimens of H. piscium were collected in the Multiple-Use Natural Reserve Isla Martín García, located in the Upper Río de la Plata estuary to the south of the mouth of the Uruguay River. The gametogenic cycle in both sexes was found to consist of the following stages: early maturation, maturation, and evacuation. The maturation period was found to extend from January to October and evacuation of the gametes to start in November and end in February (summer in the Southern Hemisphere). The results indicated the H. piscium exhibit a reproductive cycle without a resting period. PMID:27761336

  12. β-lactamases produced by amoxicillin-clavulanate-resistant enterobacteria isolated in Buenos Aires, Argentina: a new blaTEM gene.

    PubMed

    Di Conza, José A; Badaracco, Alejandra; Ayala, Juan; Rodríguez, Cynthia; Famiglietti, Angela; Gutkind, Gabriel O

    2014-01-01

    Resistance to β-lactam/β-lactamase inhibitors in enterobacteria is a growing problem that has not been intensively studied in Argentina. In the present work, 54/843 enterobacteria collected in a teaching hospital of Buenos Aires city were ampicillin-sulbactam-resistant isolates remaining susceptible to second- and third-generation cephalosporins. The enzymatic mechanisms present in the isolates, which were also amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (AMC)-resistant (18/54) were herein analyzed. Sequencing revealed two different variants of blaTEM-1, being blaTEM-1b the most frequently detected allelle (10 Escherichia coli, 3 Klebsiella pneumoniae, 2 Proteus mirabilis and 1 Raoultella terrigena) followed by blaTEM-1a (1 K. pneumoniae). Amoxicillin-clavulanate resistance seems to be mainly associated with TEM-1 overproduction (mostly in E. coli) or co-expressed with OXA-2-like and/or SHV β-lactamases (K. pneumoniae and P. mirabilis). A new blaTEM variant (TEM-163) was described in an E. coli strain having an AMC MIC value of 16/8μg/ml. TEM-163 contains Arg275Gln and His289Leu amino acid substitutions. On the basis of the high specific activity and low IC50 for clavulanic acid observed, the resistance pattern seems to be due to overproduction of the new variant of broad spectrum β-lactamase rather than to an inhibitor-resistant TEM (IRT)-like behavior.

  13. Molecular typing of Treponema pallidum isolates from Buenos Aires, Argentina: Frequent Nichols-like isolates and low levels of macrolide resistance

    PubMed Central

    Gallo Vaulet, Lucía; Grillová, Linda; Mikalová, Lenka; Casco, Ricardo; Rodríguez Fermepin, Marcelo; Pando, María A.; Šmajs, David

    2017-01-01

    A total of 54 clinical samples, including genital lesion swabs, whole blood and cerebrospinal fluid from patients diagnosed with syphilis were collected in 2006 and in 2013 in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Treponemal DNA was detected in 43 of the analyzed samples (79.6%) and further analyzed using Sequencing-based molecular typing (SBMT) and Enhanced CDC-typing (ECDCT). By SBMT, 10 different Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum (TPA) genotypes were found, of which six were related to the TPA SS14 strain, and four to the TPA Nichols strain. The 23S rRNA gene was amplified in samples isolated from 42 patients, and in six of them (14.3%), either the A2058G (four patients, 9.5%) or the A2059G (two patients, 4.8%) mutations were found. In addition to Taiwan, Madagascar and Peru, Argentina is another country where the prevalence of Nichols-like isolates (26.8%) is greater than 10%. PMID:28235102

  14. Electrical conductivity and depth of groundwater at the Pergamino zone (Buenos Aires Province, Argentina) through vertical electrical soundings and geostatistical analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sainato, Claudia; Galindo, Griselda; Pomposiello, Cristina; Malleville, Horacio; de Abelleyra, Diego; Losinno, B.

    2003-06-01

    In the humid Pampean region of Argentina, a rich agricultural zone, the periodic occurrence of droughts of different intensity is one of the most important factors in the variability of crop yield. Because complementary irrigation is a highly efficient resource to increase such yields, an understanding of groundwater resources is important. This knowledge is limited in topographically smooth zones by the absence of outcroppings and observation boreholes. Water conductivity is another limitation factor if the goal is to avoid soil degradation by irrigation and negative effects for animal and human consumption. The aquifers of the northeastern zone of the Buenos Aires province have been studied regionally, but information at the local scale is limited to sparse boreholes. In this work, a survey using vertical electrical soundings was carried out to determine the depth, thickness, and continuity of shallower aquifers. Both a mapping of the water table and the electrical conductivity distribution of free aquifers were achieved from well data and geophysical results using geostatistical techniques. Recharge areas of the aquifer were recognized as those areas with low conductivity and topographic highs. The discharge areas, mainly at the bed of the Pergamino River, have higher values of conductivity; two zones north and south of the city of Pergamino have conductivities greater than 2000 μS cm -1. Isolines of depth to the fresh-salty water interface showed different values over the Pergamino River, with some local maxima at the swamp zone and near Pergamino.

  15. [Expanding the boundaries of clinics. Development of a community mental health program for children and teenagers from a rights perspective in the City of Buenos Aires].

    PubMed

    Barcala, Alejandra; Torricelli, Flavia

    2013-01-01

    There are forms of severe suffering in contemporary life that are not accommodated within the mechanisms offered by the mental health care system or that are not described on diagnostics handbooks, which need an appropriate response. This paper deals with the development of a community mental health program that provided care to children and teenagers with severe mental disorders and with a significant subjective suffering in the City of Buenos Aires from 2006 until the beginning of 2012. Pursuant to international standards in force in terms of mental health and human rights, this community, collective and territorial mental health practice suggested an inter-discipline and cross-sector approach that took into consideration the multi-dimension of social health determiners to provide comprehensive care. In order to offer a reply to fragmentation and the repeated traumas to which a large number of these children and teenagers have been exposed to, the program designed individual clinical-community strategies for each child or teenager, based on a network of continuous and reliable institutional supports. Conceived from a psychoanalytical approach, this praxis intended to benefit subjectification processes and the building of social bonds aiming at preventing the growing trends of administering medication and admitting children and teenagers as patients in mental health facilities.

  16. Individual growth of Heleobia piscium in natural populations (Gastropoda: Cochliopidae) from the multiple use natural Reserve Isla Martin Garcia, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Martin, S M

    2008-08-01

    The present work analyses the individual growth of Heleobia piscium in natural conditions in coastal drainage channels of the Multiple Use Natural Reserve Isla Martín García, Buenos Aires, Argentina. Isla Martín García is located in the Upper Río de la Plata, to the south of the mouth of the Uruguay river (34 degrees 11' 25" S and 58 degrees 15' 38" W). Monthly collections were made from July 2005 to July 2006 in the eastern part of the island (Arena Beach). The population of H. piscium showed a complex and dynamic structure of sizes during a long period of the annual cycle. Two cohorts could be detected. The Bertalanffy growth equation was: Lt = 6 (1-e -1.85 (t+0.38)) and Lt = 3.9 (1-e -0.19 (t+4.84)) for cohorts 1 and 2, respectively. The pattern of population growth displayed a staggered model, where the greatest growth is observed during the summer. The reproductive period occurred during six months, from the beginning of summer to middle of fall. Based on only one reproductive effort, this pattern is not similar to that of other cogeneric species already studied.

  17. Histology and gametogenesis in Heleobia piscium (Cochliopidae) from the Multiple Use Reserve "Isla Martín García," Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Martin, Stella Maris; Díaz, Ana C

    2016-01-01

    Heleobia piscium (d'Orbigny, 1835), a member of the Cochliopidae family found only in South America, is distributed from Entre Ríos, Delta del Paraná, and the littoral of the Río de la Plata down as far as to Punta Indio (Buenos Aires), the southernmost limit of the snail's geographical distribution. To date, little information is available regarding the reproductive cycle of species within this family either in Argentina or throughout South America. The present work analyzed the histology of the reproductive system of the gonochoric species H. piscium and determined the stages oogenesis and spermatogenesis under natural conditions. Specimens of H. piscium were collected in the Multiple-Use Natural Reserve Isla Martín García, located in the Upper Río de la Plata estuary to the south of the mouth of the Uruguay River. The gametogenic cycle in both sexes was found to consist of the following stages: early maturation, maturation, and evacuation. The maturation period was found to extend from January to October and evacuation of the gametes to start in November and end in February (summer in the Southern Hemisphere). The results indicated the H. piscium exhibit a reproductive cycle without a resting period.

  18. Individual growth of Drepanotrema cimex (Pulmonata: Planorbidae) from Arenalcito pond, natural reserve multiple uses Martin García Island, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Martín-Stella, M; Díaz-Ana, C; Rumi, A

    2013-11-01

    The species of the genus Drepanotrema, most of them endemic to the Neotropical region, belong to the Planorbidae. Of the nine species of this genus, six are found in Argentina. The present investigation analysed the individual growth of Drepanotrema cimex in Arenalcito pond (34°11' S, 58°15' W), Martín García Island Natural Reserve of Multiple Uses, Buenos Aires Province, Argentina. A total of 14 samples were collected (n = 1931) from February 2006 to June 2007. Five environmental variables were measured: water temperature, dissolved oxygen (mg L-1), electrical conductivity (µS cm-1), total dissolved solids, and pH. The individual growth of the species was analysed mathematically by means of the von Bertalanffy equation, where: Lt = 5,6(1-e-2,0592 (t-0,293)). The parameter L∞ was estimated by the Ford-Walford Method. The population of D. cimex was characterised by a complex and dynamic size structure throughout the annual cycle. The analysis of the curves revealed unimodal (2006) and polymodal (April to June 2007) distributions, which pattern served to identify the existence of cohorts within the population studied.

  19. Behavior of dioxin like PCBs and PBDEs during early diagenesis of organic matter in settling material and bottom sediments from the sewage impacted Buenos Aires' coastal area, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Cappelletti, N; Skorupka, C N; Migoya, M C; Tatone, L; Astoviza, M; Colombo, J C

    2014-10-01

    Settling particles (SPs) and sediments collected in the Buenos Aires sewer area were analyzed for dioxin like polychlorinated biphenyls (dlPCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) to follow early diagenetic changes during transport and deposition of organic matter. SP showed a temporal trend of higher total organic carbon (TOC) and fresher dlPCBs and PBDEs signatures during warm-rainy months related to more efficient washout of residues. TOC-normalized sediment trap concentrations suggest a diagenetic magnification of dlPCBs during cold-dry months due to enhanced decomposition of TOC, whereas most labile PBDEs appear to follow TOC decay. The diagenetic behavior of individual congeners along seasonal changes (cold/warm) and during deposition (bottom sediment/SP) shows the selective preservation of heavier, more persistent congeners with a positive relationship with sediment half-lives. The 3-4 times diagenetic magnification of heavier congeners observed in bottom sediments would be a prevailing long-term pathway for dlPCBs and PBDEs bioaccumulation in detritus feeding organisms.

  20. Phylogenetic and molecular analyses of human parainfluenza type 3 virus in Buenos Aires, Argentina, between 2009 and 2013: The emergence of new genetic lineages.

    PubMed

    Goya, Stephanie; Mistchenko, Alicia Susana; Viegas, Mariana

    2016-04-01

    Despite that human parainfluenza type 3 viruses (HPIV3) are one of the leading causes of acute lower respiratory tract infections in children under five, there is no licensed vaccine and there is limited current information on the molecular characteristics of regional and global circulating strains. The aim of this study was to describe the molecular characterization of HPIV3 circulating in Buenos Aires. We performed a genetic and phylogenetic analysis of the HN glycoprotein gene. Between 2009 and 2013, 124 HPIV3-positive samples taken from hospitalized pediatric patients were analyzed. Four new genetic lineages were described. Among them, C1c and C3d lineages showed local circulation patterns, whereas C3e and C3f comprised sequences from very distant countries. Despite the diversity of the described genotypes, C3a and C3d predominated over the others, the latter was present during the first years of the study and it was progressively replaced by C3a. Molecular analyses showed 28 non-synonymous substitutions; of these, 13 were located in potentially predicted B-cell epitopes. Taken together, the emergence of genetic lineages and the information of the molecular characteristics of HN protein may contribute to the general knowledge of HPIV3 molecular epidemiology for future vaccine development and antiviral therapies.

  1. NMVOCs speciated emissions from mobile sources and their effect on air quality and human health in the metropolitan area of Buenos Aires, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Angiola, Ariela; Dawidowski, Laura; Gomez, Dario; Granier, Claire

    2014-05-01

    Since 2007, more than half of the world's population live in urban areas. Urban atmospheres are dominated by pollutants associated with vehicular emissions. Transport emissions are an important source of non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) emissions, species of high interest because of their negative health effects and their contribution to the formation of secondary pollutants responsible for photochemical smog. NMVOCs emissions are generally not very well represented in emission inventories and their speciation presents a high level of uncertainty. In general, emissions from South American countries are still quite unknown for the international community, and usually present a high degree of uncertainty due to the lack of available data to compile emission inventories. Within the Inter-American Institute for Global Change Research (IAI, www.iai.int) projects, UMESAM (Urban Mobile Emissions in South American Megacities) and SAEMC (South American Emissions, Megacities and Climate, http://saemc.cmm.uchile.cl/), the effort was made to compute on-road transport emission inventories for South American megacities, namely Bogota, Buenos Aires, Lima, Sao Paulo and Santiago de Chile, considering megacities as urban agglomerations with more than 5 million inhabitants. The present work is a continuation of these projects, with the aim to extend the calculated NMVOCs emissions inventory into the individual species required by CTMs. The on-road mobile sector of the metropolitan area of Buenos Aires (MABA), Argentina, accounted for 70 Gg of NMVOCs emissions for 2006, without considering two-wheelers. Gasoline light-duty vehicles were responsible for 64% of NMVOCs emissions, followed by compressed natural gas (CNG) light-duty vehicles (22%), diesel heavy-duty vehicles (11%) and diesel light-duty vehicles (7%). NMVOCs emissions were speciated according to fuel and technology, employing the European COPERT (Ntziachristos & Samaras, 2000) VOCs speciation scheme for

  2. HIV and Other Sexually Transmitted Infections among Men Who Have Sex with Men Recruited by RDS in Buenos Aires, Argentina: High HIV and HPV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Pando, María A.; Balán, Iván C.; Marone, Rubén; Dolezal, Curtis; Leu, Cheng-Shiun; Squiquera, Luis; Barreda, Victoria; Rodriguez Fermepín, Marcelo; Gallo Vaulet, Lucia; Rey, Jorge; Picconi, María; Carballo-Diéguez, Alex; Avila, María M.

    2012-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of HIV and other STIs, among MSM from Buenos Aires (2007–2009). Methods Responding Driven Sampling was used for recruitment of MSM. Participants completed a structured web-based survey and provided biological samples. Results A total of 496 MSM were studied for HIV, HBV, HCV, and T pallidum infections. Chlamydia and HPV diagnoses were only performed in 98 and 109 participants, respectively. Prevalence of HIV was 17.3%, HBV 22.9%, HCV 7.5%, T pallidum 20.5%, HPV 83.5%, and C trachomatis 1.7%. In the year prior to the evaluation, 71% of the participants had had sex with men and/or trans and women (MMW) while 29% had not had sex with women (MM). Comparing MM to MMW, prevalence of HIV (30.7% vs. 11.9%, p<0.001), HBV (36.4% vs. 17.8%, p<0.001), T pallidum (32.1% vs. 15.7%, p<0.001), and HPV (88.3% vs. 70.4%, p = 0.039) were significantly higher among MM, whereas no significant differences were found for HCV and C trachomatis. The MM group had also significantly higher HIV incidence (5.60 vs. 4.28 per 100 persons-year, p = 0.032). HPV genotypes 16, 6, and 11 were the most frequently found; 40.7% of the MSM had more than one genotype and one high risk genotype was detected in 43.6% of participants. Conclusions Both MM and MMW are at high risk of infection for HIV and other STIs. Rates of HIV, HBV, T pallidum and HPV infections are higher in the MM group. PMID:22768137

  3. Chacarita Project: conformation and analysis of a modern and documented human osteological collection from Buenos Aires City--theoretical, methodological and ethical aspects.

    PubMed

    Bosio, L A; García Guraieb, S; Luna, L H; Aranda, C

    2012-12-01

    Osteological reference collections play a key role in bioanthropological research; they allow the development and testing of methods for sexing and ageing individuals using various bone and dental attributes. This paper presents the first stage results of the ongoing Chacarita Research Project, which aims to generate and study a reference collection of adult skeletons representative of the contemporary population of Buenos Aires city. The Chacarita Collection consists of unclaimed human remains of individuals of known nationality, sex, age, cause and date of death from the Chacarita Public Cemetery. Unlike other similar endeavours, this sample has been completely exhumed using archaeological techniques. So far, a total of 146 adult skeletons have been recovered (60 females - 41.1% and 86 males - 58.90%), the majority of which have ages-at-death in the range of 71-90 years. They were born primarily in Argentina (n=133; 91.1%), although other nationalities are also represented. Dates of death range between 1987 and 2000. In the short term, the osteological study of this collection will allow assessment of the performance of classical methods of sex determination and age-at-death estimation in a local setting. A special priority will be given to the study of osteological changes in individuals over 50 years. As the sample is being retrieved by exhumation, the impact of taphonomic agents on the most diagnostic bone structures is also being assessed. In the long term, this osteological collection will be available to generate new population-specific techniques and to develop comparative biological studies.

  4. Egg Hatching and Survival of Immature Stages of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) Under Natural Temperature Conditions During the Cold Season in Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    PubMed

    De Majo, María Sol; Montini, Pedro; Fischer, Sylvia

    2017-01-01

    In temperate regions, the seasonal dynamics of Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae) is mainly influenced by temperature. It is assumed that, during the winter season, the population remains as eggs and that the development and population growth of surviving eggs begin during the following spring. The aim of the current study was to assess egg hatching of Ae. aegypti during the winter in Buenos Aires city (Argentina), and analyze the survival of immature stages. The experiments consisted of immersing eggs and studying the development of immature stages of cohorts from June and September under natural temperature conditions. The proportion of hatched eggs was compared between weeks of immersion and related to environmental variables. Survival was compared among cohorts and the development rate was related to the mean temperature during development. The results showed that, with few exceptions, egg hatching was over 45% during the winter period. The proportion of hatched eggs was positively associated with immersion temperature, pre-immersion temperature and photoperiod. The immature stages completed the development during the cold season, with a trend toward increased survival of late-hatching cohorts. Survival was 30% at 13.2 °C and above 90% at 20 °C, whereas the development time at low temperatures was 49.4 d at 13.2 °C and 17.7 d at 20 °C. The high hatching and survival compared with other studies suggest that the local population might be adapting to winter conditions. The anticipated emergence of adults would be adaptive if they are able to reproduce successfully in the early spring.

  5. [Cultural adaptation and Argentine validation of the Northwick Park Neck Pain Questionnaire in the hospitals of the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires].

    PubMed

    Aguirre, Mariana V; Rodríguez, Matias G; Clarett, Martín; Iribarne, Juan I; Martínez, Marianela; Battistotti, Romina; López de Arcaute, Ana S; Adarves, Romina; Orsini, Esteban

    2013-01-01

    Objetivo: realizar la adaptación cultural y validación del Cuestionario Northwick Park (NPQ) en Argentina, determinando sus propiedades psicométricas, en pacientes con dolor cervical de origen mecánico derivados al Servicio de Kinesiología del Hospital D. F. Santojanni. Materiales y Métodos: Se solicitó la autorización del autor original del NPQ, luego se realizó la adaptación lingüística y prueba piloto. Las propiedades psicométricas incluyeron: confiabilidad test-retest (coeficiente de correlación intraclase, CCI), validez (coeficiente de correlación de Pearson NPQ-Escala Análoga Visual, EVA), consistencia interna (alfa de Cronbach) y sensibilidad al cambio (prueba T para pruebas pareadas NPQ-EVA). Se incluyeron consecutivamente 60 pacientes de septiembre de 2007 a febrero de 2009 con dolor cervical mecánico. Se midieron las variables porcentaje de discapacidad (NPQ) y dolor (EVA) al día del ingreso, a las 24 horas y al alta. Resultados: Veintiséis pacientes completaron el estudio, 4 fueron eliminados y 30 no completaron la 3° medición. Se obtuvo una buena confiabilidad test-retest (ICC 0.8979) y una alta consistencia interna (alfa de Cronbach 0.86). La validez mostró una buena correlación (r= 0,678). La sensibilidad al cambio fue buena (r=0.661). Conclusión: El NPQ es un instrumento válido, confiable y sensible para evaluar la discapacidad asociada al dolor cervical de origen mecánico en pacientes atendidos en el ámbito hospitalario de la Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires.

  6. Prevalence of Toxocara cati and other parasites in cats' faeces collected from the open spaces of public institutions: Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Sommerfelt, I E; Cardillo, N; López, C; Ribicich, M; Gallo, C; Franco, A

    2006-09-10

    Toxocarosis is a worldwide parasitic infection that affects both cats and dogs. Toxocara cati (Schrank, 1788) syn. Toxocara mystax (Zeder, 1800) prevalence was studied in faeces from stray cats collected from the open spaces of public institutions of Buenos Aires city, both building and surrounding open spaces are fenced off. Of the 465 samples obtained from March to June of 2005, 58.3% were found to have parasite eggs. The following parasites were identified from the 271 positive samples: T. cati (61.2%), Cystoisospora spp. (20.3%), Trichuris spp. (17.0%), Toxascaris leonina (15.1%), Ancylostoma spp. (14%) and Aelurostrongylus abstrusus (2.6%). T. cati prevalence was 35.7% (95% confidence interval: 31.2-40.1), with a 42.2% single isolations. The most frequent combination was T. cati and Cystoisospora spp. (9%). More than half the areas studied showed over 40% prevalence. Seventy-one percent of the collected samples were fresh with a variable moist consistency and 29% were older with a dry consistency. A statistically significant association was found between sample consistency and presence of parasites (chi2 = 10.81; p = 0.001) as also between sample consistency and presence of T. cati (chi2 = 11.27; p = 0.0007). Moist consistencies were significantly different from the rest: consistency (wet or dry) versus parasites (z = 1.95; p = 0.02) (95% confidence interval: 0.004-0.203); consistency (wet or dry) versus T. cati (z = 3.25; p = 0.0006) (95% confidence interval: 0.075-0.254). The cat population that inhabits these public green spaces contaminates the environment, thus transforming them into dangerous spaces with a variable rate for the human population that spends time in these places.

  7. Diagenesis of Paleozoic playa-lake and ephemeral-stream deposits from the Pimenta Bueno Formation, Siluro-Devonian (?) of the Parecis Basin, central Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldberg, K.; Morad, S.; Al-Aasm, I. S.; De Ros, L. F.

    2011-07-01

    The Parecis Basin is a large intracratonic rift located in central Brazil and filled with Paleozoic carbonate, evaporite and siliciclastic sediments. The occurrence of gas seeps has recently attracted significant exploration interest by the Brazilian petroleum agency and by Petrobras. The continuously cored PB-01-RO well provided the first opportunity to study the depositional environments, diagenetic evolution and hydrocarbon potential of the largely unknown sedimentary successions of the Parecis Basin. The cored lithologies, belonging to the Siluro-Devonian (?) Pimenta Bueno Formation, are interpreted as deposited in playa-lake and ephemeral-stream environments. The deposits display a strong facies control on the diagenetic mineral assemblages and evolution. Diagenetic minerals in the ephemeral-stream deposits include eogenetic hematite and smectitic clay coats and quartz cement, and the mesogenetic process includes precipitation of sulfates (anhydrite and barite) and carbonates (calcite, dolomite and kutnahorite-ankerite-huntite), followed by partial dissolution of these carbonates and sulfates, and of feldspar grains. Telogenetic processes include the precipitation of hematite and kaolinite within secondary pores, and the replacement of anhydrite by gypsum. A second burial phase and mesodiagenesis is indicated by the precipitation of discrete K-feldspar crystals within moldic pores after dissolved feldspars, and by the illitization of etched, telogenetic kaolinite. The playa-lake deposits show early diagenetic dolomitization of lime mud, precipitation of anhydrite nodules and extensive silicification. The anhydrite nodules were replaced by gypsum and chalcedony during telodiagenesis. Potential source rocks are locally represented by organic shales. The fluvial sandstones show fair reservoir quality and limited compaction, as indicated by their intergranular volume, suggesting that the succession has undergone moderate burial. Potential seals for hydrocarbon

  8. Social and environmental health determinants and their relationship with parasitic diseases in asymptomatic children from a shantytown in Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Garbossa, Graciela; Pía Buyayisqui, María; Geffner, Laura; López Arias, Ludmila; de la Fournière, Sofía; Haedo, Ana S; Marconi, Adela E; Frid, Juan C; Nesse, Alcira B; Bordoni, Noemí

    2013-04-01

    Health inequities are a common problem for all countries and are the result of not only adverse social conditions but also poor public policies. Today chronic diseases represent the most relevant threats and are a current challenge. Parasitic infections, a leading cause of child morbidity affecting low-income populations, can be transmitted because of an unhealthy environment. Notwithstanding, scarce data have been published on the epidemiological profile of intestinal parasitoses in asymptomatic children living in shantytowns. Vulnerable populations settled in slums are growing in Argentina, particularly in Buenos Aires city. Consequently, this work intended to screen healthy carriers of enteric parasites and determine the epidemiologic profile in asymptomatic children residing in one of those communities, to explore risk factors associated with the transmission of parasites, and to initiate a basic health education campaign to promote healthy behavior in the community. Fecal samples (n = 138) were analyzed by conventional parasitological methods and a survey gathered data on symptoms, family composition, and environmental and hygiene-related variables. High prevalence of feco-orally-transmitted parasitoses (83·3%) and polyparasitism were remarkable findings. The main environmental health determinants were those related to excreta disposal and water provision. Health promotion actions were performed through the diffusion of a set of posters with iconic images and brief messages for health education. Results suggest the need for an environmental sanitation policy to complement health promotion actions. It is essential to spread the results of investigations that address inequities and social determinants of health in order to integrate data with local political processes and alert on acceptable actions for developing appropriate interventions.

  9. TENDENCIA DE LA TUBERCULOSIS EN LA REGIÓN SANITARIA V DE LA PROVINCIA DE BUENOS AIRES, AÑOS 2000–2011

    PubMed Central

    CHIRICO, CRISTINA; SANJURJO, MYRIAM; IRIBARREN, SARAH; APPENDINO, ANDREA; ZERBINI, ELSA; ETCHEVARRIA, MIRTA

    2016-01-01

    El objetivo del presente trabajo fue analizar la situación epidemiológica de la tuberculosis (TB) en la Región Sanitaria V (RSV), provincia de Buenos Aires. El estudio de tendencia permitió conocer un valor promedio de las variaciones de la tasa de incidencia (TI), calculadas por regresión lineal simple y expresadas como variación anual promedio (VAP). Se analizaron el número de casos notificados y TI por 100 000 habitantes de todas las formas de TB, los casos de TB pulmonar (TBP) y TBP confirmados por bacteriología, total casos por grupos de edad: 0 – 14; 15 – 29 y mayores de 64 años, entre el 1° de enero de 2000 al 31 de diciembre de 2011. La declinación de la TI fue menor al 5% para todas las formas de TB e inferior en las TBP confirmadas bacteriológicamente. Los casos de TBP y TI más elevadas, se concentraron en el grupo de 15 a 29 años, con tendencia estable o ligeramente ascendente de la TI en la TBP bacilífera. El mismo comportamiento presentaron los casos de TBP infantil con confirmación bacteriológica. La mayor velocidad de descenso en la TI de la TBP se produjo en este grupo de edad, mientras que en mayores de 64 años, el descenso fue sostenido en el tiempo. La TB persiste como un riesgo de salud en la RSV, con casos en edades jóvenes, por lo que sigue siendo necesario fortalecer el control de la TB en esta región. PMID:26117604

  10. Social and environmental health determinants and their relationship with parasitic diseases in asymptomatic children from a shantytown in Buenos Aires, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Garbossa, Graciela; Pía Buyayisqui, María; Geffner, Laura; López Arias, Ludmila; de la Fournière, Sofía; Haedo, Ana S; Marconi, Adela E; Frid, Juan C; Nesse, Alcira B; Bordoni, Noemí

    2013-01-01

    Health inequities are a common problem for all countries and are the result of not only adverse social conditions but also poor public policies. Today chronic diseases represent the most relevant threats and are a current challenge. Parasitic infections, a leading cause of child morbidity affecting low-income populations, can be transmitted because of an unhealthy environment. Notwithstanding, scarce data have been published on the epidemiological profile of intestinal parasitoses in asymptomatic children living in shantytowns. Vulnerable populations settled in slums are growing in Argentina, particularly in Buenos Aires city. Consequently, this work intended to screen healthy carriers of enteric parasites and determine the epidemiologic profile in asymptomatic children residing in one of those communities, to explore risk factors associated with the transmission of parasites, and to initiate a basic health education campaign to promote healthy behavior in the community. Fecal samples (n = 138) were analyzed by conventional parasitological methods and a survey gathered data on symptoms, family composition, and environmental and hygiene-related variables. High prevalence of feco-orally-transmitted parasitoses (83.3%) and polyparasitism were remarkable findings. The main environmental health determinants were those related to excreta disposal and water provision. Health promotion actions were performed through the diffusion of a set of posters with iconic images and brief messages for health education. Results suggest the need for an environmental sanitation policy to complement health promotion actions. It is essential to spread the results of investigations that address inequities and social determinants of health in order to integrate data with local political processes and alert on acceptable actions for developing appropriate interventions. PMID:23683369

  11. An epidemiological study of gastrointestinal parasites of dogs from Southern Greater Buenos Aires (Argentina): age, gender, breed, mixed infections, and seasonal and spatial patterns.

    PubMed

    Fontanarrosa, María F; Vezzani, Darío; Basabe, Julia; Eiras, Diego F

    2006-03-31

    A total of 2193 fecal samples from owned dogs were collected during the 2003-2004 period in Southern Greater Buenos Aires, and were evaluated for the presence of intestinal parasites by a flotation-centrifugation method. The overall prevalence was 52.4%, and the 11 species found were: Ancylostoma caninum (13%), Isospora ohioensis complex (12%), Toxocara canis (11%), Trichuris vulpis (10%), Sarcocystis sp. (10%), Giardia duodenalis (9%), Isospora canis (3%), Hammondia-Neospora complex (3%), Dipilydium caninum (18 cases), Cryptosporidium sp. (5 cases), and Toxascaris leonina (1 case). There was no significant difference in the overall prevalence between genders (female = 50.4%, male = 54.6%), and breeds (pure = 52.3%, mixed = 53%), but prevalence in puppies (<1 year) was higher than in adult dogs (62.7% versus 40.8%, respectively). Only the prevalence of A. caninum differed between genders, with higher values for males. The prevalences of six of the parasite species showed a decreasing trend with increasing host age, and an inverse pattern was found for two other species. The prevalences of three protozoa were significantly higher in pure-breed dogs, and those of two nematodes were significantly higher in mixed-breed dogs. The prevalences of T. canis, A. caninum, and T. vulpis were spatially heterogeneous with a clear Southwest-Northeast gradient. Only prevalences of Sarcocystis sp. and G. duodenalis showed seasonal variation. The frequency distribution of the number of species per fecal sample did not differ from a random distribution. Results obtained throughout the world were discussed.

  12. Characterization of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli isolated from ground beef collected in different socioeconomic strata markets in Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Llorente, Patricia; Barnech, Laura; Irino, Kinue; Rumi, María Valeria; Bentancor, Adriana

    2014-01-01

    Consumption of raw/undercooked ground beef is the most common route of transmission of Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC). The aim of the study was to determine the STEC contamination level of the ground beef samples collected in 36 markets of different socioeconomic strata in Buenos Aires, Argentina, and the characterization of the isolated strains. Ninety-one out of 252 (36.1%) samples were stx+. Fifty-seven STEC strains were recovered. Eleven STEC strains belonged to O157 serogroup, and 46 to non-O157 serogroups. Virulence markers of the 57 STEC were stx1, 5.3% (3/57); stx2, 86.0% (49/57); stx1/stx2, 8.8% (5/57); ehxA, 61.4% (35/57); eae, 26.3% (15/57); saa, 24.6% (14/57). Shiga toxin subtypes were stx2, 31.5% (17/54); stx2c-vhb, 24.1% (13/54); stx2c-vha, 20.4% (11/54); stx2/stx2c-vha, 14.8% (8/54); stx2/stx2c-vhb, 5.6% (3/54); stx2c-vha/vhb, 3.7% (2/54). Serotypes O178:H19 and O157:H7 were prevalent. Contamination rate of STEC in all strata was high, and the highest O157 contamination was observed at low strata at several sampling rounds. Persistence of STEC was not detected. Sixteen strains (28.1%) were resistant to ampicillin, streptomycin, amikacin, or tetracycline. The STEC contamination level of ground beef could vary according to the sociocultural characteristics of the population.

  13. Use of Respondent Driven Sampling (RDS) Generates a Very Diverse Sample of Men Who Have Sex with Men (MSM) in Buenos Aires, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Carballo-Diéguez, Alex; Balan, Ivan; Marone, Rubén; Pando, María A.; Dolezal, Curtis; Barreda, Victoria; Leu, Cheng-Shiun; Ávila, María Mercedes

    2011-01-01

    Background Prior research focusing on men who have sex with men (MSM) conducted in Buenos Aires, Argentina, used convenience samples that included mainly gay identified men. To increase MSM sample representativeness, we used Respondent Driven Sampling (RDS) for the first time in Argentina. Using RDS, under certain specified conditions, the observed estimates for the percentage of the population with a specific trait are asymptotically unbiased. We describe, the diversity of the recruited sample, from the point of view of sexual orientation, and contrast the different subgroups in terms of their HIV sexual risk behavior. Methodology 500 MSM were recruited using RDS. Behavioral data were collected through face-to-face interviews and Web-based CASI. Conclusion In contrast with prior studies, RDS generated a very diverse sample of MSM from a sexual identity perspective. Only 24.5% of participants identified as gay; 36.2% identified as bisexual, 21.9% as heterosexual, and 17.4% were grouped as “other.” Gay and non-gay identified MSM differed significantly in their sexual behavior, the former having higher numbers of partners, more frequent sexual contacts and less frequency of condom use. One third of the men (gay, 3%; bisexual, 34%, heterosexual, 51%; other, 49%) reported having had sex with men, women and transvestites in the two months prior to the interview. This population requires further study and, potentially, HIV prevention strategies tailored to such diversity of partnerships. Our results highlight the potential effectiveness of using RDS to reach non-gay identified MSM. They also present lessons learned in the implementation of RDS to recruit MSM concerning both the importance and limitations of formative work, the need to tailor incentives to circumstances of the less affluent potential participants, the need to prevent masking, and the challenge of assessing network size. PMID:22102896

  14. Characterization of Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli Isolated from Ground Beef Collected in Different Socioeconomic Strata Markets in Buenos Aires, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Llorente, Patricia; Barnech, Laura; Irino, Kinue; Rumi, María Valeria

    2014-01-01

    Consumption of raw/undercooked ground beef is the most common route of transmission of Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC). The aim of the study was to determine the STEC contamination level of the ground beef samples collected in 36 markets of different socioeconomic strata in Buenos Aires, Argentina, and the characterization of the isolated strains. Ninety-one out of 252 (36.1%) samples were stx+. Fifty-seven STEC strains were recovered. Eleven STEC strains belonged to O157 serogroup, and 46 to non-O157 serogroups. Virulence markers of the 57 STEC were stx1, 5.3% (3/57); stx2, 86.0% (49/57); stx1/stx2, 8.8% (5/57); ehxA, 61.4% (35/57); eae, 26.3% (15/57); saa, 24.6% (14/57). Shiga toxin subtypes were stx2, 31.5% (17/54); stx2c-vhb, 24.1% (13/54); stx2c-vha, 20.4% (11/54); stx2/stx2c-vha, 14.8% (8/54); stx2/stx2c-vhb, 5.6% (3/54); stx2c-vha/vhb, 3.7% (2/54). Serotypes O178:H19 and O157:H7 were prevalent. Contamination rate of STEC in all strata was high, and the highest O157 contamination was observed at low strata at several sampling rounds. Persistence of STEC was not detected. Sixteen strains (28.1%) were resistant to ampicillin, streptomycin, amikacin, or tetracycline. The STEC contamination level of ground beef could vary according to the sociocultural characteristics of the population. PMID:25006586

  15. A Series of Stacked and Entrenched Fan Deltas at Lake General Carrera/Buenos Aires (Chile/Argentina) as Terrestrial Analog to Understand the Entrenchment of Martian Deltas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Achille, G.; Salese, F.

    2014-12-01

    The apparent lack of entrenchment on Martian fan deltas has been hitherto uniquely interpreted as evidence for fast disappearance of water and used to support the hypothesis of an abrupt climate change on Mars around 3.7-3.4 Ga. However, hi-res imagery and topography of several martian fan deltas show evidence of erosion and entrenchment in response to decreasing water level settings. Moreover, the boundary conditions for entrenchment have never been investigated from a quantitative point of view. To gain a quantitative understanding on fan delta entrenchment processes, we are studying (using remote sensing, modeling, and fieldwork campaigns) a series of seven stacked fan deltas formed at Lake General Carrera/Buenos Aires (Chile/Argentina). The uppermost deposit is located more than 400 m above the lowest delta presently forming at the current lake water level. The six raised deltas formed during highstands punctuating the overall 15000 yrs long retreat of the lake and are entirely entrenched thus allowing potential sampling over the entire thickness of the sedimentary sequences. These windows to the internal outcrops enable the assessment of water and sediment paleo-discharges (based on the analysis of the grain sizes) and to implement numerical simulations to reproduce the sedimentary deposits using numeric code such as Sedflux 2.0 (Hutton and Syvitski, 2008). The studied sedimentary assemblage offers the unique opportunity to place constraints on the fan deltas entrenchment with strong implications for the modeling of martian entrenched fans and thus for the understanding of the paleoclimate and paleohydrology during their terminal activity. We present the results of remote sensing study from satellite hi-res imagery and topography, numerical modeling, and from a survey field campaign. E. W. H. Hutton and J. P. M. Syvitski, Sedflux 2.0: An advanced process-response model that generates three-dimensional stratigraphy, Computers & Geosciences 34 (2008) 1319-1337.

  16. Subduction of the South Chile active spreading ridge: A 17 Ma to 3 Ma magmatic record in central Patagonia (western edge of Meseta del Lago Buenos Aires, Argentina)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boutonnet, E.; Arnaud, N.; Guivel, C.; Lagabrielle, Y.; Scalabrino, B.; Espinoza, F.

    2010-01-01

    The Chile Triple Junction is a natural laboratory to study the interactions between magmatism and tectonics during the subduction of an active spreading ridge beneath a continent. The MLBA plateau (Meseta del Lago Buenos Aires) is one of the Neogene alkali basaltic plateaus located in the back-arc region of the Andean Cordillera at the latitude of the current Chile Triple Junction. The genesis of MLBA can be related with successive opening of slabs windows beneath Patagonia: within the subducting Nazca Plate itself and between the Nazca and Antarctic plates. Detailed 40Ar/ 39Ar dating and geochemical analysis of bimodal magmatism from the western flank of the MLBA show major changes in the back-arc magmatism which occurred between 14.5 Ma and 12.5 Ma with the transition from calc-alkaline lavas (Cerro Plomo) to alkaline lavas (MLBA) in relation with slab window opening. In a second step, at 4-3 Ma, alkaline felsic intrusions were emplaced in the western flank of the MLBA coevally with the MLBA basalts with which they are genetically related. These late OIB-like alkaline to transitional basalts were generated by partial melting of the subslab asthenosphere of the subducting Nazca plate during the opening of the South Chile spreading ridge-related slab window. These basalts differentiated with small amounts of assimilation in shallow magma chambers emplaced along transtensional to extensional zones. The close association of bimodal magmatism with extensional tectonic features in the western MLBA is a strong support to the model of Patagonian collapse event proposed to have taken place between 5 and 3 Ma as a consequence of the presence of the asthenospheric window (SCR-1 segment of South Chile Ridge) below the MLBA area.

  17. An early work [1910-1913] in Biological Psychology by pioneer psychiatrist, criminologist and philosopher José Ingenieros, M.D. (1877-1925) of Buenos Aires.

    PubMed

    Triarhou, Lazaros C; del Cerro, Manuel

    2006-04-01

    One of the earliest recorded works in Biological Psychology was published in 1910 by Argentine psychiatrist José Ingenieros (1877-1925), Professor of Experimental Psychology at the Faculty of Philosophy and Letters of the University of Buenos Aires. Ingenieros, a multifaceted personality and prolific author and educator famous for his lapidary aphorisms, has been considered a 'luminary' for generations. Trained as a physician, he was the first scientist to establish a comprehensive psychological system in Latin America. His long list of publications includes more than 300 titles generally divided in two periods: studies in mental pathology and criminology (1897-1908) and studies in philosophy, psychology and sociology (1908-1925). His works were never made particularly available to English-speaking audiences, despite the fact that certain of his books are still best-sellers in the Spanish-speaking world. We present an overview of Ingenieros' life and work, and a detailed account of his profoundly interesting work Principios de Psicología Biológica, in which he analyzes the development, evolution and social context of mental functions. We also provide an English translation of the Introduction contributed by Nobel laureate Wilhelm Ostwald (1853-1932) to the 1922 German edition of the work, pertinent to the energetic principles Ingenieros used and the study of Psychology as a natural science. It is a hope, 80 years after Ingenieros' parting, to bibliographically resurrect this champion of reason, who, until now, has not been given his due placement in the international psychological and biomedical literature.

  18. [Body, disability, and stigma in the origins of the field of adapted sport in the city of Buenos Aires, 1950-1961: a mere interiorization of a devalued identity?].

    PubMed

    Ferrante, Carolina

    2014-01-01

    Although adapted sport is considered the main integrator of people with disabilities, Disability Studies argues that it reinforces the oppression suffered by this group. However, these positions do not historically reconstruct the ethos constructed in sport. In order to contribute to this discussion, I analyze here the ways of thinking about and experiencing disability that were constructed in the origins of the field of adapted sport, in the city of Buenos Aires, from 1950 to 1961. Thus, I begin by analyzing the content of publications of the first clubs for people with disabilities and in-depth interviews with protagonists of the origins of adapted sport and local physiatry.

  19. [The role of the Faculty of Medicine in the process of academic modernization and professionalization at the University of Buenos Aires, 1955-1958: issues in debate and points of convergence].

    PubMed

    Romero, Lucía

    2010-01-01

    The article analyzes the relations between the process of academic modernization at the University of Buenos Aires in the mid-1950s and the individuals who led this process, influenced by innovative views, transformations, and people from the Faculty of Medicine. This reconstruction of the debates, proposals, and actual changes at the Faculty focuses especially on Alfredo Lanari, who, at the First Congress on Medical Education, held by the Argentinean Medical Association in 1957, put forward ideas on clinical research, teaching, and health care that showed how complicated full-time work would be for someone with the professional profile of a clinical researcher.

  20. Occurrence of Mutations in the Antimicrobial Target Genes Related to Levofloxacin, Clarithromycin, and Amoxicillin Resistance in Helicobacter pylori Isolates from Buenos Aires City.

    PubMed

    Zerbetto De Palma, Gerardo; Mendiondo, Nicolas; Wonaga, Andrés; Viola, Luis; Ibarra, Daniela; Campitelli, Esteban; Salim, Nicolas; Corti, Rodolfo; Goldman, Cinthia; Catalano, Mariana

    2017-04-01

    Domain V of 23S rRNA, gyrA and gyrB Quinolones Resistance-Determining Region (QRDR), and pbp-1A gene point mutations were investigated in Helicobacter pylori-resistant isolates from three centres of Buenos Aires. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were performed in 197 isolates from 52 H. pylori-positive naive patients by agar dilution method. Point mutations were achieved by amplification and sequencing of the target genes, and their association with resistance was determined by natural transformation assays. Resistance rates were as follows: metronidazole 28.8%, clarithromycin (CLA) 26.9%, levofloxacin (LEV) 32.7%, and amoxicillin (AMX) 7.6%. Nearly one-third of patients carried multidrug-resistant isolates. A2143G or A2142G in domain V of 23S-rRNA was found in all isolates showing high level of resistance to CLA (MIC >2 mg/L), accounting for 76.0% (38/50) of those with the resistant phenotype. The mutations A2267G or T1861C carried by 8/12 isolates with MIC 1-2 mg/L (low level) did not confer resistance by transformation. Substitutions at GyrA position 87 or 91, mainly N87K and D91G, were found in 92.8% (52/56) of the LEV-resistant isolates: 48 isolates with MIC 4-64 mg/L and 4/8 isolates with MIC 2 mg/L. The remaining four harboured K133N, also present in susceptible isolates. None of the substitutions in GyrB demonstrated to confer resistance. Transformation proved that PBP-1A N562Y and/or T556S substitutions confer the AMX resistance in our isolates, showing an additive effect. In conclusion, the usually reported mutations related to CLA, LEV, and AMX resistance were found in our isolates. However, low-level CLA resistance seems not to be due to mutations in Domain V of 23S rRNA gene.

  1. [The case of the 'lowlife': perceptions of danger and the prevention of disreputable behaviors in theRevista de Criminología, Psiquiatría, Medicina Legal y Ciencias Afinesin Buenos Aires, 1914-1923].

    PubMed

    Dovio, Mariana

    2013-11-30

    We analyze the construction of the notion of the 'lowlife' in the city of Buenos Aires in the Revista de Criminología, Psiquiatría y Medicina Legal, from 1914-1923. We shall analyze the notion of 'lowlife', meaning behaviors situated in a border zone between crime and madness, from the point of view of prevention and perception of danger. The first way of analyzing the 'lowlife' examines institutional projects that were related to eugenics and that advocated preventive detention of dangerous people, 'alcoholists' and vagrants. The second involves identifying in moral and physical terms the kind of people who were targeted in the creation of intervention projects for those considered to be 'lowlifes', who could potentially damage the fabric of society in some way.

  2. Changes in time-use and drug use by young adults in poor neighbourhoods of Greater Buenos Aires, Argentina, after the political transitions of 2001-2002: Results of a survey

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In some countries, "Big Events" like crises and transitions have been followed by large increases in drug use, drug injection and HIV/AIDS. Argentina experienced an economic crisis and political transition in 2001/2002 that affected how people use their time. This paper studies how time use changes between years 2001 and 2004, subsequent to these events, were associated with drug consumption in poor neighbourhoods of Greater Buenos Aires. Methods In 2003-2004, 68 current injecting drug users (IDUs) and 235 young non-IDUs, aged 21-35, who lived in impoverished drug-impacted neighbourhoods in Greater Buenos Aires, were asked about time use then and in 2001. Data on weekly hours spent working or looking for work, doing housework/childcare, consuming drugs, being with friends, and hanging out in the neighbourhood, were studied in relation to time spent using drugs. Field observations and focus groups were also conducted. Results After 2001, among both IDUs and non-IDUs, mean weekly time spent working declined significantly (especially among IDUs); time spent looking for work increased, and time spent with friends and hanging out in the neighbourhood decreased. We found no increase in injecting or non-injecting drug consumption after 2001. Subjects most affected by the way the crises led to decreased work time and/or to increased time looking for work--and by the associated increase in time spent in one's neighbourhood--were most likely to increase their time using drugs. Conclusions Time use methods are useful to study changes in drug use and their relationships to every day life activities. In these previously-drug-impacted neighbourhoods, the Argentinean crisis did not lead to an increase in drug use, which somewhat contradicts our initial expectations. Nevertheless, those for whom the crises led to decreased work time, increased time looking for work, and increased time spent in indoor or outdoor neighbourhood environments, were likely to spend more time

  3. Aceptabilidad del diagnóstico rápido casero para HIV entre hombres gay y otros hombres que tienen sexo con hombres (G&HSH) de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires.

    PubMed

    Balán, Iván C; Carballo-Diéguez, Alex; Marone, Rubén O; Pando, María A; Barreda, Victoria; Avila, María M

    2011-03-01

    El uso del diagnóstico rápido para HIV en Argentina, así como otros países de Latinoamérica, ha sido limitado hasta el momento. Este trabajo reporta los resultados provenientes de un estudio cualitativo realizado entre hombres gays y otros hombres que tienen sexo con hombres (G&HSH) de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires, Argentina. El objetivo principal del mismo fue conocer las ventajas y desventajas que los hombres G&HSH perciben en relación al diagnóstico rápido casero para HIV. Se realizaron ocho grupos focales con 73 participantes en los cuales se discutió acerca de las ventajas y desventajas del uso de los diagnósticos rápidos. Las respuestas fueron codificadas utilizando un programa para análisis de datos cualitativos (NVivo) y analizadas temáticamente. Los participantes describieron numerosas ventajas sobre el uso del diagnóstico rápido casero, aunque algunos reportaron importantes preocupaciones dentro de las cuales se destaca la posibilidad de impulsos suicidas si alguien recibe un resultado positivo estando solo. En términos generales se observó una gran aceptabilidad para el uso del diagnóstico rápido si el mismo es realizado por personal de salud en lugares acondicionados para este fin.

  4. Approximate total Fe content determined by Mössbauer spectrometry: Application to determine the correlation between gamma-ray-emitter activities and total content of Fe phases in soils of the Province of Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Montes, M L; Rivas, P C; Taylor, M A; Mercader, R C

    2016-10-01

    Pearson correlation coefficients between (40)K, (226)Ra and (232)Th activities and the total Fe phase fractions yielded by Mössbauer spectroscopy have been calculated for soils of the Province of Buenos Aires, Argentina. Total fractions of Fe phases have been obtained from the relative fractions reported in previous works weighted by the Fe soil content and the recoilless-fraction of each Fe phase. An approximate method based on the relationship between the Mössbauer spectral absorption area (obtained from the (57)Fe Mössbauer data) and the total Fe concentration (determined by colorimetric methods, after microwave assisted acid digestion of soil samples) has been used for the first time to determine the Fe concentration in soils with an accuracy of 15%. Protocol to extend the method for unknown samples is also discussed. The determined new coefficients differ from those reported previously. A significant and positive correlation between the total fraction of Fe(2+) and the (40)K activity values has been obtained. This result validates the hypothesis put forward in a previous work, i.e., that illite captures the (40)K existing in the soil. In addition, with the new approximation, the Pearson correlation coefficients for the other natural radionuclides give values that indicate that the methodology reported here is appropriate to study the correlations between the activity values with the total fractions of Fe phases.

  5. Aceptabilidad del diagnóstico rápido casero para HIV entre hombres gay y otros hombres que tienen sexo con hombres (G&HSH) de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires

    PubMed Central

    Balán, Iván C.; Carballo-Diéguez, Alex; Marone, Rubén O.; Pando, María A.; Barreda, Victoria; Ávila, María M.

    2011-01-01

    Resumen El uso del diagnóstico rápido para HIV en Argentina, así como otros países de Latinoamérica, ha sido limitado hasta el momento. Este trabajo reporta los resultados provenientes de un estudio cualitativo realizado entre hombres gays y otros hombres que tienen sexo con hombres (G&HSH) de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires, Argentina. El objetivo principal del mismo fue conocer las ventajas y desventajas que los hombres G&HSH perciben en relación al diagnóstico rápido casero para HIV. Se realizaron ocho grupos focales con 73 participantes en los cuales se discutió acerca de las ventajas y desventajas del uso de los diagnósticos rápidos. Las respuestas fueron codificadas utilizando un programa para análisis de datos cualitativos (NVivo) y analizadas temáticamente. Los participantes describieron numerosas ventajas sobre el uso del diagnóstico rápido casero, aunque algunos reportaron importantes preocupaciones dentro de las cuales se destaca la posibilidad de impulsos suicidas si alguien recibe un resultado positivo estando solo. En términos generales se observó una gran aceptabilidad para el uso del diagnóstico rápido si el mismo es realizado por personal de salud en lugares acondicionados para este fin. PMID:25284951

  6. Association of monthly frequencies of diverse diseases in the calls to the public emergency service of the city of Buenos Aires during 1999-2004 with meteorological variables and seasons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, P.

    2013-01-01

    This work aims to study associations between monthly averages of meteorological variables and monthly frequencies of diverse diseases in the calls to the public ambulance emergency service of the city of Buenos Aires during the years 1999-2004. Throughout this time period no changes were made in the classification codes of the illnesses. Heart disease, arrhythmia, heart failure, cardiopulmonary arrest, angina pectoris, psychiatric diseases, stroke, transient ischemic attack, syncope and the total number of calls were analyzed against 11 weather variables and the four seasons. All illnesses exhibited some seasonal behavior, except cardiorespiratory arrest and angina pectoris. The largest frequencies of illnesses that exhibited some association with the meteorological variables used to occur in winter, except the psychiatric cases. Heart failure, stroke, psychiatric diseases and the total number of calls showed significant correlations with the 11 meteorological variables considered, and the largest indices (absolute values above 0.6) were found for the former two pathologies. On the other side, cardiorespiratory arrest and angina pectoris revealed no significant correlations and nearly null indices. Variables associated with temperature were the meteorological proxies with the largest correlations against diseases. Pressure and humidity mostly exhibited positive correlations, which is the opposite of variables related to temperature. Contrary to all other diseases, psychiatric pathologies showed a clear predominance of positive correlations. Finally, the association degree of the medical dataset with recurrent patterns was further evaluated through Fourier analysis, to assess the presence of statistically significant behavior. In the Northern Hemisphere high morbidity and mortality rates in December are usually assigned to diverse factors in relation to the holidays, but such an effect is not observed in the present analysis. There seems to be no clearly preferred

  7. Quality of Life of Sardinian Immigrants in Buenos Aires and of People Living in Italy and Sardinia: Does the Kind of Care have a Role for People with Depression?

    PubMed Central

    Carta, Mauro Giovanni; D’Oca, Silvia; Atzeni, Michela; Perra, Alessandra; Moro, Maria Francesca; Sancassiani, Federica; Mausel, Gustavo; Nardi, Antonio Egidio; Minerba, Luigi; Brasesco, Veronica

    2016-01-01

    Background / Objectives: The aim of the study was to compare the Quality of Life (QoL) of Sardinian immigrants to Argentina with Sardinians residing in Sardinia. The hypothesis was that a different availability of effective treatments for mood disorders may impact the well being of persons with these disorders. Methods: One out of five families of Sardinian origin was randomly selected. An Italian study (including Sardinia) was adopted as the control. The Mood Disorder Questionnaire was used for screening mania/hypomania; the diagnosis of Current Major Depressive Disorder was conducted by means of the Patient Health Questionnaire in immigrants and by means of a clinical interview in the control study and in an immigrant subsample (to verify comparability); the Short-Form Health Survey-12 was applied to measure QoL. Results: The Sardinian immigrants showed a higher QoL than Italians in Italy (but not with Sardinians residing in Sardinia). On the contrary, the attributable burden worsening QoL due to lifetime manic/hypomanic episodes, as well as to current depressive episodes, was found higher among Sardinian immigrants with respect to both Sardinian residents in Sardinia and the total Italian sample. The use of effective treatment for mood disorder was higher in Italy. Conclusion: The study found that in a sample of Sardinian immigrants in Buenos Aires the impact of a mood disorder affects QoL more incisively than in Sardinians residing in Sardinia. The suggested hypothesis of a possible role of beliefs guiding the search for treatments will be verified in future studies. PMID:28217143

  8. Subduction of the South-Chile active spreading ridge: a 17 Ma to 3 Ma magmatic record in central Patagonia (western edge of Meseta del Lago Buenos Aires, Argentina)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boutonnet, Emmanuelle; Arnaud, Nicolas; Guivel, Christèle; Lagabrielle, Yves; Scalabrino, Bruno; Espinoza, Felipe

    2010-05-01

    The Chile Triple Junction is a natural laboratory to study the interactions between magmatism and tectonics during the subduction of an active spreading ridge beneath a continent. The MLBA plateau (Meseta del Lago Buenos Aires) is one of the Neogene alkali basaltic plateaus located in the back-arc region of the Andean Cordillera at the latitude of the current Chile Triple Junction. The genesis of MLBA can be related with successive opening of slabs windows beneath Patagonia: within the subducting Nazca Plate itself and between the Nazca and Antarctic plates. Detailed 40Ar/39Ar dating and geochemical analysis of bimodal magmatism from the western flank of the MLBA show major changes in the back-arc magmatism which occurred between 14.5 Ma and 12.5 Ma with the transition from calc-alkaline lavas (Cerro Plomo) to alkaline lavas (MLBA) in relation with slab window opening. In a second step, at 4- 3 Ma, alkaline felsic intrusions were emplaced in the western flank of the MLBA coevally with the MLBA basalts with which they are genetically related. These late OIB-like alkaline to transitional basalts were generated by partial melting of the subslab asthenosphere of the subducting Nazca plate during the opening of the South Chile spreading ridge-related slab window. These basalts differentiated with small amounts of assimilation in shallow magma chambers emplaced along transtensional to extensional zones. The close association of bimodal magmatism with extensional tectonic features in the western MLBA is a strong support to the model of Patagonian collapse event proposed to have taken place between 5 and 3 Ma as a consequence of the presence of the asthenospheric window (SCR-1 segment of South Chile Ridge) below the MLBA area.

  9. Variation of the Earth's magnetic field strength in South America during the last two millennia: New results from historical buildings of Buenos Aires and re-evaluation of regional data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goguitchaichvili, Avto; Morales, Juan; Schavelzon, Daniel; Vásquez, Carlos; Gogorza, Claudia S. G.; Loponte, Daniel; Rapalini, Augusto

    2015-08-01

    The causes of the systematic decay of the Earth's Magnetic Field strength since eighteen century have been a matter of debate during the last decade. It is also well known that such variations may have completely different expressions under an area characterized with strong magnetic anomalies, such as the South Atlantic Magnetic Anomaly. To fully understand these atypical phenomena, it is crucial to retrieve the past evolution of Earth's magnetic field beyond the observatory records. We report on detailed rock-magnetic and archeointensity investigations from some well-studied historical buildings of Buenos Aires city, located at the heart of the South Atlantic Magnetic Anomaly. Samples consist of bricks, tiles, fireplaces and pottery, which are considered as highly suitable materials for archaeointensity studies. The dating is ascertained by historical documents complemented by archeological constraints. Eighteen out of 26 analyzed samples yield reliable absolute intensity determinations. The site-mean archaeointensity values obtained in this study range from 28.5 to 43.5 μT, with corresponding virtual axial dipole moments (VADMs) ranging from 5.3 to 8.04 × 1022 Am2. Most determinations obtained in the present study are in remarkable agreement with the values predicted by the time varying field model CALS10k.1b (Korte et al., 2011). For the older periods the recently available SHA.DIF.14 model (Pavon-Carrasco et al., 2014) seems to have greater resolution. South American archaeointensity database now includes absolute intensities from 400 to 1930 AD based on 63 selected archaeointensity determinations. The data set reveals several distinct periods of quite large fluctuations of intensity. However, most data are concentrated into a relatively narrow interval from AD 1250 to AD 1450. At the beginning of the record, values between 400 AD and 830 AD match well with ARCH3k.1 model. Some general features may be detected: the time intervals from about AD 400 to 950 and

  10. The PAMPA datasets: a metagenomic survey of microbial communities in Argentinean pampean soils

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Soil is among the most diverse and complex environments in the world. Soil microorganisms play an essential role in biogeochemical cycles and affect plant growth and crop production. However, our knowledge of the relationship between species-assemblies and soil ecosystem processes is still very limited. The aim of this study was to generate a comprehensive metagenomic survey to evaluate the effect of high-input agricultural practices on soil microbial communities. Results We collected soil samples from three different areas in the Argentinean Pampean region under three different types of land uses and two soil sources (bulk and rhizospheric). We extracted total DNA from all samples and also synthetized cDNA from rhizospheric samples. Using 454-FLX technology, we generated 112 16S ribosomal DNA and 14 16S ribosomal RNA amplicon libraries totaling 1.3 M reads and 36 shotgun metagenome libraries totaling 17.8 million reads (7.7 GB). Our preliminary results suggested that water availability could be the primary driver that defined microbial assemblages over land use and soil source. However, when water was not a limiting resource (annual precipitation >800 mm) land use was a primary driver. Conclusion This was the first metagenomic study of soil conducted in Argentina and our datasets are among the few large soil datasets publicly available. The detailed analysis of these data will provide a step forward in our understanding of how soil microbiomes respond to high-input agricultural systems, and they will serve as a useful comparison with other soil metagenomic studies worldwide. PMID:24450949

  11. Pollen dispersal and breeding structure in a hawkmoth-pollinated Pampa grasslands species Petunia axillaris (Solanaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Turchetto, Caroline; Lima, Jacqueline S.; Rodrigues, Daniele M.; Bonatto, Sandro L.; Freitas, Loreta B.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims The evolution of selfing is one of the most common transitions in flowering plants, and this change in mating pattern has important systematic and ecological consequences because it often initiates reproductive isolation and speciation. Petunia axillaris (Solanaceae) includes three allopatric subspecies widely distributed in temperate South America that present different degrees of self-compatibity and incompatibility. One of these subspecies is co-distributed with P. exserta in a restricted area and presents a complex, not well-understood mating system. Artificial crossing experiments suggest a complex system of mating in this sympatric area. The main aims of this study were to estimate the pollen dispersal distance and to evaluate the breeding structure of P. axillaris subsp. axillaris, a hawkmoth-pollinated taxon from this sympatric zone. Methods Pollen dispersal distance was compared with nearest-neighbours distance, and the differentiation in the pollen pool among mother plants was estimated. In addition, the correlation between genetic differentiation and spatial distance among plants was tested. All adult individuals (252) within a space of 2800 m2 and 15 open-pollinated progeny (285 seedlings) were analysed. Genetic analyses were based on 12 polymorphic microsatellite loci. Key Results A high proportion of self-pollination was found, indicating a mixed-mating system. The maximum pollen dispersal distance was 1013 m, but most pollination events (96 %) occurred at a distance of 0 m, predominantly in an inbreeding system. Both parents among sampled individuals could be identifed in 60–85 % of the progeny. Conclusions The results show that most pollen dispersal in the hawkmoth-pollinated P. axillaris subsp. axillaris occurs within populations and there is a high proportion of inbreeding. This mating system appears to favour species integrity in a secondary contact zone with the congener species P. exserta. PMID:25808656

  12. Effect of spatial variability on solute velocity and dispersion in two soils of the Argentinian Pampas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aparicio, Virginia; Costa, José; Domenech, Marisa; Castro Franco, Mauricio

    2013-04-01

    Predicting how solutes move through the unsaturated zone is essential to determine the potential risk of groundwater contamination (Costa et al., 1994). The estimation of the spatial variability of solute transport parameters, such as velocity and dispersion, enables a more accurate understanding of transport processes. Apparent electrical conductivity (ECa) has been used to characterize the spatial behavior of soil properties. The objective of this study was to characterize the spatial variability of soil transport parameters at field scale using ECa measurements. ECa measurements of 42 ha (Tres Arroyos) and 50 ha (Balcarce) farms were collected for the top 0-30 cm (ECa(s)) soil using the Veris® 3100. ECa maps were generated using geostatistical interpolation techniques. From these maps, three general areas were delineated, named high, medium, and low ECa zones. At each zone, three sub samples were collected. Soil samples were taken at 0-30 cm. Clay content and organic matter (OM) was analyzed. The transport assay was performed in the laboratory using undisturbed soil columns, under controlled conditions of T ° (22 ° C).Br- determinations were performed with a specific Br- electrode. The breakthrough curves were fitted using the model CXTFIT 2.1 (Toride et al., 1999) to estimate the transport parameters Velocity (V) and Dispersion (D). In this study we found no statistical significant differences for V and D between treatments. Also, there were no differences in V and D between sites. The average V and D value was 9.3 cm h-1 and 357.5 cm2 h-2, respectively. Despite finding statistically significant differences between treatments for the other measured physical and chemical properties, in our work it was not possible to detect the spatial variability of solute transport parameters.

  13. Fabrics, Facies And Flow Through A Large-Volume Ignimbrite: Pampa De Oxaya, Chile.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Platzman, Ellen; Cooper, Frances

    2016-04-01

    Large volume pyroclastic currents form during some of the most destructive volcanic eruptions on the planet, yet because they are underrepresented in the geological record they remain poorly understood. The Miocene Oxaya ignimbrites, exposed along the western Andean slopes in northern Chile, form one of the largest ignimbrite provinces on earth. We use anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) in conjunction with rock magnetic measurements to investigate flow behavior and depositional processes in one of the largest members of the Oxaya succession, the Cardones ignimbrite. Despite its prominence the location of the source caldera remains unknown and fundamental processes remain poorly constrained. During 2012 nearly 8km (7,773m) of core was recovered from the early Miocene ignimbrites in 11 holes at elevations ranging from 2336m to 3805m along the Andean escarpment east of Arica, Chile. The drill cores are remarkable in that they penetrate through the entirety of the ignimbrite sequence and into the basement below. Samples for this study were collected from a > 1 km long core drilled at an altitude 3692m. The core sampled 981 m of Cardones ignimbrite and 15 m of underlying sediments and volcaniclastics before penetrating 148 m of basement. Detailed measurements of the variation in bulk magnetic properties including natural remanent magnetization (NRM), susceptibility, ARM, and IRM, were used to monitor changes in concentration, composition and grainsize of the magnetic components though the ignimbrite. AMS in conjunction with detailed rock magnetic measurements were used to constrain flow processes. The data reveal a well-defined flow direction and systematic variations in flow processes with depth. Low field bulk magnetic susceptibility averages 3.2x10-3 SI. Rock magnetic studies and petrographic examination indicate that magnetite is likely to be the dominant magnetic phase although paramagnetic mineral phases also contribute to the magnetic fabric. The degree of anisotropy (P) ranges from 1.01- 1.1 with high P generally associated with predominately linear fabrics and higher bulk susceptibility. Petrofabric orientations, after correction for rotation about the core axis, are well grouped and imbricated revealing a well-defined transport direction down the paleo-slope towards the SW (247°), confirming the deformed Lauca caldera as the likely source of the eruption. Systematic variations in a fabric shape (T) and intensity (P) with depth were also observed with predominately oblate fabrics near the top and towards the base of the flow, and predominately prolate fabrics in the central section of the flow. These vertical changes in fabric show that this massive, apparently homogeneous deposit has a systematic layering that can be interpreted as the combined effect of subtle changes in clast populations related to source heterogeneities, temporal changes in the flow-boundary zone during deposition, and changes in post-depositional processes with depth.

  14. Genotyping Mycobacterium bovis from cattle in the Central Pampas of Argentina: temporal and regional trends

    PubMed Central

    Shimizu, Ernesto; Macías, Analía; Paolicchi, Fernando; Magnano, Gabriel; Zapata, Laura; Fernández, Analía; Canal, Ana; Garbaccio, Sergio; Cataldi, Angel; Caimi, Karina; Zumárraga, Martín

    2014-01-01

    Mycobacterium bovis is the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis (TB), a disease that affects approximately 5% of Argentinean cattle. Among the molecular methods for genotyping, the most convenient are spoligotyping and variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR). A total of 378 samples from bovines with visible lesions consistent with TB were collected at slaughterhouses in three provinces, yielding 265 M. bovis spoligotyped isolates, which were distributed into 35 spoligotypes. In addition, 197 isolates were also typed by the VNTR method and 54 combined VNTR types were detected. There were 24 clusters and 27 orphan types. When both typing methods were combined, 98 spoligotypes and VNTR types were observed with 27 clusters and 71 orphan types. By performing a meta-analysis with previous spoligotyping results, we identified regional and temporal trends in the population structure of M. bovis. For SB0140, the most predominant spoligotype in Argentina, the prevalence percentage remained high during different periods, varying from 25.5-57.8% (1994-2011). By contrast, the second and third most prevalent spoligotypes exhibited important fluctuations. This study shows that there has been an expansion in ancestral lineages as demonstrated by spoligotyping. However, exact tandem repeat typing suggests dynamic changes in the clonal population of this microorganism. PMID:24676658

  15. Genotyping Mycobacterium bovis from cattle in the Central Pampas of Argentina: temporal and regional trends.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Ernesto; Macías, Analía; Paolicchi, Fernando; Magnano, Gabriel; Zapata, Laura; Fernández, Analía; Canal, Ana; Garbaccio, Sergio; Cataldi, Angel; Caimi, Karina; Zumárraga, Martín

    2014-04-01

    Mycobacterium bovis is the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis (TB), a disease that affects approximately 5% of Argentinean cattle. Among the molecular methods for genotyping, the most convenient are spoligotyping and variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR). A total of 378 samples from bovines with visible lesions consistent with TB were collected at slaughterhouses in three provinces, yielding 265 M. bovis spoligotyped isolates, which were distributed into 35 spoligotypes. In addition, 197 isolates were also typed by the VNTR method and 54 combined VNTR types were detected. There were 24 clusters and 27 orphan types. When both typing methods were combined, 98 spoligotypes and VNTR types were observed with 27 clusters and 71 orphan types. By performing a meta-analysis with previous spoligotyping results, we identified regional and temporal trends in the population structure of M. bovis. For SB0140, the most predominant spoligotype in Argentina, the prevalence percentage remained high during different periods, varying from 25.5-57.8% (1994-2011). By contrast, the second and third most prevalent spoligotypes exhibited important fluctuations. This study shows that there has been an expansion in ancestral lineages as demonstrated by spoligotyping. However, exact tandem repeat typing suggests dynamic changes in the clonal population of this microorganism.

  16. Absolute Interrogative Intonation Patterns in Buenos Aires Spanish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Su Ar

    2010-01-01

    In Spanish, each uttered phrase, depending on its use, has one of a variety of intonation patterns. For example, a phrase such as "Maria viene manana" "Mary is coming tomorrow" can be used as a declarative or as an absolute interrogative (a yes/no question) depending on the intonation pattern that a speaker produces. …

  17. [Prevention of congenital toxoplasmosis in a Buenos Aires hospital].

    PubMed

    Carral, Liliana; Kaufer, Federico; Olejnik, Patricia; Freuler, Cristina; Durlach, Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    The prevention of congenital toxoplasmosis is based on providing information to women, serologic diagnosis and treatment of the infected mother and child. In this article we present the results of 12 years of implementation of a congenital toxoplasmosis prevention program in which we measured the mother's infection incidence rate, the transmission rate and the number and severity of infection in newborns. The study was performed on 12035 pregnant women in the period 2000-2011. The prevalence rate of antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii was 18.33% (2206/12035). Thirty-seven out of 9792 susceptible women presented acute infection and the mother's infection incidence rate was 3.78 per 1000 births. The transplacental transmission rate was 5.4% (2/37). Two newborns presented congenital toxoplasmosis infection, one had no clinical signs while the other presented strabismus and chorioretinitis. Thirty-five infected mothers and the two children with congenital infection were treated. The transmission rates obtained allow consider this prevention program as a valid resource to minimize the impact of congenital toxoplasmosis.

  18. Reproductive isolation between two populations of Diatraea saccharalis (F.) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) from different host plant species and regions in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Fogliata, S V; Vera, A; Gastaminza, G; Cuenya, M I; Zucchi, M I; Willink, E; Castagnaro, A P; Murúa, M G

    2016-10-01

    The sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.), has a widespread distribution throughout the Western Hemisphere and is a pest of many crop plants including sugarcane, corn, sorghum and rice. The use of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) corn has been the primary tool for managing this species in corn fields. Sugarcane borer control has been recently threatened by observations of susceptibility and/or resistance to certain varieties of Bt corn and the protein used in many newer varieties. This has led to increased interest in understanding sugarcane borer genetic diversity and gene flow within and among its populations and the consequent exchange of alleles between geographically distant populations. The objective of this study was to examine reproductive compatibility between host-associated geographic populations of D. saccharalis in Argentina and to determine whether this pest represents a complex of host-associated cryptic species rather than a wide ranging generalist species. Intra and inter-population crosses revealed that D. saccharalis populations from the northwestern and Pampas regions presented evidence of prezygotic and postzygotic incompatibility. Such a result is likely to be the product of an interruption of gene flow produced by either geographic or host plant associated isolation, suggesting that Tucumán (northwestern) and Buenos Aires (Pampas) populations of D. saccharalis are a distinct genotype and possibly an incipient species.

  19. Diversification in the South American Pampas: the genetic and morphological variation of the widespread Petunia axillaris complex (Solanaceae).

    PubMed

    Turchetto, Caroline; Fagundes, Nelson J R; Segatto, Ana L A; Kuhlemeier, Cris; Solís Neffa, Viviana G; Speranza, Pablo R; Bonatto, Sandro L; Freitas, Loreta B

    2014-02-01

    Understanding the spatiotemporal distribution of genetic variation and the ways in which this distribution is connected to the ecological context of natural populations is fundamental for understanding the nature and mode of intraspecific and, ultimately, interspecific differentiation. The Petunia axillaris complex is endemic to the grasslands of southern South America and includes three subspecies: P. a. axillaris, P. a. parodii and P. a. subandina. These subspecies are traditionally delimited based on both geography and floral morphology, although the latter is highly variable. Here, we determined the patterns of genetic (nuclear and cpDNA), morphological and ecological (bioclimatic) variation of a large number of P. axillaris populations and found that they are mostly coincident with subspecies delimitation. The nuclear data suggest that the subspecies are likely independent evolutionary units, and their morphological differences may be associated with local adaptations to diverse climatic and/or edaphic conditions and population isolation. The demographic dynamics over time estimated by skyline plot analyses showed different patterns for each subspecies in the last 100 000 years, which is compatible with a divergence time between 35 000 and 107 000 years ago between P. a. axillaris and P. a. parodii, as estimated with the IMa program. Coalescent simulation tests using Approximate Bayesian Computation do not support previous suggestions of extensive gene flow between P. a. axillaris and P. a. parodii in their contact zone.

  20. Phylogeography of the armadillo Chaetophractus villosus (Dasypodidae Xenarthra): post-glacial range expansion from Pampas to Patagonia (Argentina).

    PubMed

    Poljak, Sebastián; Confalonieri, Viviana; Fasanella, Mariana; Gabrielli, Magalí; Lizarralde, Marta Susana

    2010-04-01

    We report a phylogeographic study of Chaetophractus villosus populations in Argentina. Control Region (CR) sequences (484 bp) were obtained for 76 C. villosus from 20 locations across the species whole distribution range. Seventeen new haplotypes were identified. The highest genetic variation and the earliest fossils were found in the Pampean Region, thus appearing as the most probable area of origin of the species. A general pattern of Contiguous Range Expansion (CRE) was revealed by Nested Clade Analysis (NCA) supported by mismatch analysis and Fu's test. The Pampean Region would have been the pre-expansion area, while Patagonia would have been the main dispersal route of contiguous expansion, possibly after the Pleistocenic glaciations.

  1. Variables Associated with Utilization of a Centralized Medical Post in the Andean Community of Pampas Grande, Peru

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merry, Stephen P.; Rohrer, James E.; Thacher, Thomas D.; Summers, Matthew R.; Alpern, Jonathan D.; Contino, Robert W.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Integral to the location of health resources is the distance decay of utilization observed in a population. In rural Peru, a nongovernmental organization planning to increase the availability of health services needed this information. Purpose: To determine variables associated with utilization of a central medical clinic and determine…

  2. Impact of Soil Resistance to Penetration in the Irrigation Interval of Supplementary Irrigation Systems at the Humid Pampa, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández J., P.; Befani M., R.; Boschetti N., G.; Quintero C., E.; Díaz E., L.; Lado, M.; Paz-González, A.

    2015-04-01

    The Avellaneda District, located in northeastern of Santa Fe Province, Argentina, has an average annual rainfall of 1250 mm per year, but with a high variability in their seasonal distribution. Generally, the occurrence of precipitation in winter is low, while summer droughts are frequent. The yearly hydrological cycle shows a water deficit, given that the annual potential evapotranspiration is estimated at 1330 mm. Field crops such as soybean, corn, sunflower and cotton, which are affected by water stress during their critical growth periods, are dominant in this area. Therefore, a supplemental irrigation project has been developed in order to identify workable solutions. This project pumps water from Paraná River to provide a water supply to the target area under irrigation. A pressurized irrigation system operating on demand provides water to a network of channels, which in turn deliver water to farms. The scheduled surface of irrigation is 8800 hectares. The maximum flow rate was designed to be 8.25 m3/second. The soils have been classified as Aquic Argiudolls in areas of very gentle slopes, and Vertic Argiudolls in flat and concave reliefs; neither salinity nor excess sodium affect the soils of the study are. The objective of this study was to provide a quantitative data set to manage the irrigation project, through the determination of available water (AW), easily available water (EAw) and optimal water range (or interval) of the soil horizons. The study has been conducted in a text area of 1500 hectares in surface. Five soil profiles were sampled to determine physical properties (structure stability, effective root depth, infiltration, bulk density, penetration resistance and water holding capacity), chemical properties (pH, cation exchange capacity, base saturation, salinity, and sodium content ) and morphological characteristics of the successive horizons. Also several environmental characteristics were evaluated, including: climate, topographic conditions, relief, general and slope position, erosion, natural vegetation and agricultural crops. Indeed the computed available water (AW) content and easily available water (EAw) content values depended on bulk density, field capacity and permanent wilting point, but also they were affected by the soil penetration resistance measured to a depth of 80 cm; this parameter limits the extent of the soil volume explored by plant roots and therefore EAw content. Moreover, soil penetration resistance enables to take into account the concept of optimal water interval, which indicates how soil compaction limits the levels of easily available water that really can be extracted by the crop. The estimated values of EAw water ranged from 74 to 133 mm for the profiles studies. When including the concept of mechanical resistance to penetration to obtain the value of the optimal water interval, the above values decreased, ranging between 34 and 57 mm; this was mainly explained on the basis of the true depth of exploration by plant roots of the soil profiles. Based on the recorded values of the soil mechanical resistance to penetration, it was concluded that sunflower and corn crops will be mostly affected on their growth and root development. Subsequently, and for a maximum consumptive use of 10 mm/day, the commonly used irrigation interval of 13 days, should decrease to 6 days, if the new methodology is used i.e. if the limitations of soil depth exploration by crop roots are taken into account. This result is consistent with those from current practices under non irrigated conditions, where it has been shown that crop yields are affected by water shortage provided that an important precipitation doesn't occur among such interval.

  3. Spore loads of Paranosema locustae (Microsporidia) in heavily infected grasshoppers (Orthoptera: Acridoidea) of the Argentine Pampas and Patagonia.

    PubMed

    Plischuk, Santiago; Bardi, Christian J; Lange, Carlos E

    2013-09-01

    Paranosema locustae, an entomopathogen of grasshoppers and locusts, remains the only microsporidium registered as a biocontrol agent. After introductions from North America, it became established in grasshopper communities of Argentina. We measured the infection intensity of field collected, heavily infected male and female adults of individuals belonging to six grasshopper species, five melanoplines (Melanoplinae) (Baeacris pseudopunctulatus, Dichroplus maculipennis, Dichroplus vittatus, Neopedies brunneri, Scotussa lemniscata), and one gomphocerine (Gomphocerinae) (Staurorhectus longicornis). Average spore load among heavily infected grasshoppers ranged from 8.7±0.5×10(7) to 1.1±0.7×10(9). Only females of B. pseudopunctulatus and S. longicornis showed significantly higher spore loads than the males.

  4. Sediment and Phosphorus losses by Surface Runoff from a Catchment in the Humid Pampa Landscape, Argentina Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Méndez M., A.; Díaz E., L.; Lenzi M., L.; Lado, M.; Vidal-Vázquez, E.

    2015-04-01

    The estimation of sediment and phosphorus transfers from soil into watersheds as a result of agricultural activity is a key aspect for characterizing the sustainability of current land use systems. The objective of the present study was to quantify the temporal evolution of suspended sediment and dissolved phosphorus losses from the upper basin of the Gualeguaychú River. The studied catchment has an area of 483 Km2 and is located in the Entre Ríos province, Argentina Republic. The climate is subtropical humid with average annual rainfall of 1200 mm. Soils are characterized by very low infiltration rates. Land use was assessed by remote sensing and GIS tools, and consists of: 31% abandoned rice fields, 20% naturalized fields, 20% soybean (second cycle), 10% soybean (first cycle), 7% rice, 4% Pasture, and the remaining 7% is devoted to civil and road works, native forests and other crops. Low soil infiltration capacity, together with landscape geomorphological traits of the studied landscape and zonal rainfall regime, typically originates periods with high surface runoff volumes, mainly in autumn, spring and summer months. The study was conducted during a period of eight years. Instantaneous water flow measurements (discharge) were estimated in a control section of Gualeguaychú River from hydrometer reading and the rating curve of height-flow. In addition, 134 water samples of 2000 cm3 were collected during the study period to analyze the concentration of suspended sediments and dissolved phosphorus. The instantaneous flow was estimated with the hydrometer reading and the application of curve of height - flow. The discharge range was from 0.14 to 128 m3/sec, indicating a high variability in the response of the catchment to seasonal rainfall. On average suspended sediment and dissolved phosphorus losses of the experimental catchment were 1.42 Mg and 0.335 Kg per hectare/year, respectively. It was also shown that few events of high rainfall that generate excess runoff were responsible for the most of recorded losses of sediment and phosphorus. Moreover, the highest exportation of sediments and phosphorus from soil to streamflow occurred in the spring and summer period. The daily losses of phosphorus or sediments were mainly explained by the amount of precipitation accumulated during the five days prior to sampling, as shown by regression analysis, and a higher coefficient of determination was obtained for samples extracted during the summer season. This response mainly has been demonstrated to be produced in periods with higher amounts of precipitation equal or greater than 35 mm arising in this season, which are characteristic for summer storms with high rain intensities, and therefore greater erosive power.

  5. Effects of changes in land use on soil physical properties and soil organic carbon content in a wheat-corn-sunflower crop sequence, in a loam soil of Argentina.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aparicio, V.; Costa, J. L.

    2012-04-01

    The Argentinean Humid Pampas extend over about 60 million hectares, 90% of which are agricultural lands. The Southeast of the Buenos Aires Province is part of the Humid Pampas, it covers over 1,206,162 hectares, the mean annual temperature is 13.3 °C and the climate is sub-humid. At the present only 6% of the lands are used for pasture. The main activities are agriculture and cattle production. The main crops are wheat, sunflower, corn and soybean. The tillage systems used in the area are: moldboard plow (MP), chisel plow (CP) and no-till (NT). Excessive soil cultivation under MP generates decreases in the levels of soil organic carbon (SOC). The magnitude of such decrease depends on the intensity of the tillage system, the tillage timeliness and the amount and quality of the residues. Adopting NT may reduce the effects of intensive agriculture, through the maintenance and accumulation of SOC. However, there are evidences that, under NT, the bulk density (ρb) in the superficial layers of the soil increases. The soil compaction causes degradation of the soil structure, reduces the soil water availability and reduces the soil hydraulic conductivity. With this scenario and the tendency to increase the surface under NT in the Southeast Humid Pampas, we evaluated the evolution of some soil physical properties and the SOC in a 10-year experiment with a wheat-corn-sunflower rotation. The experiment was carried out in four localities at farmerś fields under three different tillage systems: MP, CP and NT in a randomized complete block design, considering each locality as a block. Each plot had 50 m in width by 100 m length and the treatments were: NT, MP and CP. The results of this experiment have allowed us to verify that: i) the wheat-corn-sunflower crop sequence showed a tendency to reduce the values of bulk density (ρb) but NT increased ρb in the superficial soil layers; ii) the more intensive the tillage system, the higher the change in the mean weight diameter

  6. A new species of Tullbergia (Collembola, Tullbergiidae) from Buenos Aires, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Palacios-Vargas, José G.; Martínez, Ana E. Salazar

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A new species of Tullbergia from Argentina is described and illustrated; it is differentiated from Tullbergia paranensis by the number of vesicles of postantennal organ, pseudocelli shape and its formulae and the number of dorsal sensilla on Ant. IV. In addition a key for the identification of the members of the family from Argentina is included. PMID:25061344

  7. SPIRE, the ``Spin Triangle'': Athens, Hamburg, Buenos Aires: Advancing Nanospintronics and Nanomagnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Arthur R.

    2012-02-01

    Future technological advances at the frontier of `elec'tronics will increasingly rely on the use of the spin property of the electron at ever smaller length scales. As a result, it is critical to make substantial efforts towards understanding and ultimately controlling spin and magnetism at the nanoscale. In SPIRE, the goal is to achieve these important scientific advancements through a unique combination of experimental and theoretical techniques, as well as complementary expertise and coherent efforts across three continents. The key experimental tool of choice is spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy -- the premier method for accessing the spin structure of surfaces and nanostructures with resolution down to the atomic scale. At the same time, atom and molecule deposition and manipulation schemes are added in order to both atomically engineer, and precisely investigate, novel nanoscale spin structures. These efforts are being applied to an array of physical systems, including single magnetic atomic layers, self-assembled 2-D molecular arrays, single adatoms and molecules, and alloyed spintronic materials. Efforts are aimed at exploring complex spin structures and phenomena occurring in these systems. At the same time, the problems are approached, and in some cases guided, by the use of leading theoretical tools, including analytical approaches such as renormalization group theory, and computational approaches such as first principles density functional theory. The scientific goals of the project are achieved by a collaborative effort with the international partners, engaging students at all levels who, through their research experiences both at home and abroad, gain international research outlooks as well as understandings of cultural differences, by working on intriguing problems of mutual interest. A novel scientific journalism internship program based at Ohio University furthers the project's broader impacts.

  8. Ecotoxicity in the Reconquista River, province of Buenos Aires, Argentina: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Herkovits, J; Perez-Coll, C S; Herkovits, F D

    1996-02-01

    The Reconquista River in Argentina is considered a "supercritical" river basin due to environmental degradation. Within its valley of 1.547 km2, there are more than 3 million inhabitants and 12,000 industries. Using early-life-stage toxicity tests with Bufo arenarum embryos (the most sensitive of three native species), we determined the water quality at six sampling stations of the river valley and expressed the results as acute and chronic toxicity units. Along most of the river, the toxicity was higher than the allowable level of whole industrial effluent toxicity recommended by U.S. EPA. In a tributary stream, Arroyo Moron, the water was about 10 times more toxic than the criteria maximum concentration (CMC) recommended by U.S. EPA for industrial effluents. Similar degradation of the water quality was found taking as a reference value an upstream sampling station. In all places where the water quality was worse than the CMC, no macroorganisms were found, and in one of these places, a large number of dead fishes was observed. Our study points out that amphibian early-life-stage toxicity tests could be appropriate for assessing water contamination and water quality, which is essential for diagnosis, protection of environmental services, monitoring, and restoration purposes.

  9. "San Manuel Bueno, martir," Miguel de Unamuno. Performance Guides to Spanish Texts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gies, David Thatcher, Comp.

    This performance guide is the result of work conducted at the University of Virginia's National Endowment for the Humanities Summer Institute, 1989, on "Spanish Literature in Performance," in which 25 secondary school Spanish teachers studied Spanish texts from the perspective of classroom performance to deepen knowledge of the texts and…

  10. Ecotoxicity in the Reconquista River, province of Buenos Aires, Argentina: a preliminary study.

    PubMed Central

    Herkovits, J; Perez-Coll, C S; Herkovits, F D

    1996-01-01

    The Reconquista River in Argentina is considered a "supercritical" river basin due to environmental degradation. Within its valley of 1.547 km2, there are more than 3 million inhabitants and 12,000 industries. Using early-life-stage toxicity tests with Bufo arenarum embryos (the most sensitive of three native species), we determined the water quality at six sampling stations of the river valley and expressed the results as acute and chronic toxicity units. Along most of the river, the toxicity was higher than the allowable level of whole industrial effluent toxicity recommended by U.S. EPA. In a tributary stream, Arroyo Moron, the water was about 10 times more toxic than the criteria maximum concentration (CMC) recommended by U.S. EPA for industrial effluents. Similar degradation of the water quality was found taking as a reference value an upstream sampling station. In all places where the water quality was worse than the CMC, no macroorganisms were found, and in one of these places, a large number of dead fishes was observed. Our study points out that amphibian early-life-stage toxicity tests could be appropriate for assessing water contamination and water quality, which is essential for diagnosis, protection of environmental services, monitoring, and restoration purposes. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5. Figure 6. PMID:8820587

  11. [Herpes zoster in elderly adults in a community hospital in Buenos Aires. June 2013-May 2014].

    PubMed

    Rozenek, Miriam; Romani, Adriana; Aronson, Sandra; Ramilo, María Del Carmen; Abellán, Valeria; Pérez, María Andrea; Cámera, Luis

    2017-01-01

    Herpes zoster (HZ) is caused by reactivation of the varicella zoster virus. Its main risk factor is increasing age and comorbidities. There are limited data on the characteristics of HZ in South America, especially in the elderly. We analyzed epidemiological and clinical characteristics of 340 patients over 60 years assisted for HZ, between June 2013 and May 2014. The average age was 74 years (60-100), 62% (210) had thoracic location; 75% (255) of the initial consultations were held in guards; 68% (143) had pain and vesicles, and 4% (14) only pain at baseline. Pain persisted after finishing the episode in 41% (139). The diagnosis was made between 1 and 3 days from the beginning of the episode in 53% (180 patients). Average number of visits per episode was 3.6 (1-24). Antiviral treatment was supplied to 91% (309); however it was inadequate in dose or time in 49.1% (167 cases). Pain treatment was indicated in 66% (224). Most frequently used drugs (alone or in combination) were non-steroidal painkillers (43%, 146), pregabalin (30%, 102), opiates (24%, 82), and steroids (12%, 41); 9% (31) presented comorbidities; 27% (126) experienced pain after the ending of the episode, with an average duration of 138.7 days. In general, diagnosis was done late, making it difficult to use antivirals correctly. The presence of pain was more frequent than reported in other publications, however there are few data in this age group.

  12. Buenos Dias! Good Morning! Implementing Dual-Language Programs in Illinois. New Journalism on Latino Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridges, Margaret; McElmurry, Sara

    2010-01-01

    Bilingual education has taken center stage in Illinois with a new education mandate; many public preschools will be required to offer bilingual education to all three- and four-year-olds who do not speak English. Dual-language (DL) classrooms represent one very promising model in bilingual education that is being used to develop these new…

  13. [Aberrant immunophenotypes in acute leukemia in a Buenos Aires' hospital population].

    PubMed

    Novoa, Viviana; Núñez, Neri A; Carballo, Orlando G; Lessa, Carmen F

    2013-01-01

    Multiparameter flow cytometry (MFC) has become the preferred method for the lineage assignment and maturational analysis of malignant cells in acute leukemias. Multiparametric immunophenotyping analysis allows the detection of aberrant antigen expression and the analysis of heterogeneity and clonality of malignant cells in leukemias. Our objectives were to analyze the membrane antigen expression and to evaluate if the aberrant phenotypes occurrence in blasts cells of patients with acute leukemia is useful in monitoring the response to the treatment. We have retrospectively analyzed the MFC data of 364 samples sent to our laboratory in a 7 years period. For this purpose we have used a large panel of monoclonal antibodies against lymphoid, myeloid and precursors antigens. From the 364 analyzed samples, 60.2% showed a phenotype compatible with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), 28.8% with B lymphoblastic leukemia (B-LLA), 6.6% with T lymphoblastic leukemia (T-LLA) and 4.4% with rare leukemias. Aberrant phenotypes were found in 86% of the samples. The aberrant phenotypes identified were:1) lineage infidelity AML (54%), B-ALL (40%), T-ALL (29%); 2) absence of antigen expression: AML (21%), B-ALL (35%), T-ALL (70%); 3) altered antigen expression: AML (67%), B-ALL (66%),T-ALL (84%); 4) asynchronous expression: AML (26%), B-ALL (37%) and 5) ectopic phenotype: T-ALL (96%). Multiparameter flow cytometry of acute leukemias allowed identification of aberrant phenotypes in the majority of our patients, that are helpful for monitoring treatment response.

  14. Characterization and health risk assessment of VOCs in occupational environments in Buenos Aires, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colman Lerner, J. E.; Sanchez, E. Y.; Sambeth, J. E.; Porta, A. A.

    2012-08-01

    To detect volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in indoor air in small enterprises in La Plata city and surrounding areas, sampling was conducted using passive diffusion monitors (3M-3500) and analysis of the samples were performed byCG-FID. Analytic methodology was optimized for 23 VOCs (n-alkanes, cycloalkanes, aromatic and chlorinated compounds, ketones and terpenes compounds) by determining the recovery factor and detection limit for each analyte. Different recovery values were obtained by desorbing with a mixture of dichloromethane: methanol (50:50), with a standard deviation lower than 5%. Enterprise analyzed included chemical analysis laboratories, sewing workrooms, electromechanical repair and car painting centers, take away food shops, and a photocopy center. The highest levels of VOCs were found to be in electromechanical repair and car painting centers (hexane, BTEX, CHCl3, CCl4) followed by chemical analysis laboratories and sewing workrooms. Cancer and noncancer risks were assessed using conventional approaches (HQ and LCR, US EPA) using the benzene, trichloroethylene, chloroform for cancer risk, and toluene, xylene and n-hexane, for noncancer risks as markers. The results showed different LCR for benzene and trichloroethylene between the different indoor environments analyzed (electromechanical repair and car painting center ≫ others) and chloroform (laboratory > others), but comparing with the results obtained by other research, are in similar order of magnitude for equivalents activities. Similar finding were founded for HQ. Comparing these results with the worker protection legislation the electromechanical repair and car painting center and chemical analysis laboratories are close to the limits advised by OSHA and ACGIH. These facts show the importance of the use of abatement technologies for the complete reduction of VOCs levels, to mitigate their impact in the worker's health and their venting to the atmosphere.

  15. [Diversity of ferns and lycophytes from Reserve Natural Punta Lara, Buenos Aires, Argentina].

    PubMed

    Giudice, Gabriela E; Ramos Giacosa, Juan Pablo; Luján Luna, María; Yañez, Agustina; de la Sota, Elías R

    2011-09-01

    Punta Lara Natural Reserve shelters the relict of the Southernmost riparian forest in the world, where the flora is threatened by the anthropic expansion and by the introduction of exotic species. In this area the ferns and lycophytes grow in particular environments as marshland, grassland and marginal forest. The aim of this work was to evaluate the diversity of ferns and lycophytes that inhabit in Punta Lara Natural Reserve. Field trips were conducted from 2006 to 2009 and local herbaria and specific bibliography were also revised. As a result of our study twenty four taxa of ferns and lycophytes were recognized. Their habit was mainly terrestrial (70%), fewer aquatic (17%) and epiphytic (13%). Five native taxa were scarcely recorded whereas two native species previously documented were not found. We assume that the main threats on ferns and lycophytes populations in Punta Lara Reserve are: removal for comercialization, invasion by exotic species and climatic fluctuations (drought periods). Keys for taxa identification are given and strategies for the conservation of threatened taxa are proposed.

  16. Susceptibility trends of Bacteroides fragilis group isolates from Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Fernández Canigia, L; Castello, L; Di Martino, A; Greco, G; Legaria, M C; Litterio, M; Predari, S C; Rollet, R; Rossetti, A; Carloni, G; Sarchi, M I; Bianchini, H

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the susceptibility trends to seven antibiotics of Bacteroides fragilis group isolates based on three survey studies performed by the Committee of Anaerobic Bacteria between 1989 and 2002. Fifty three, 82 and 65 B. fragilis group isolates were collected during each period. The antimicrobial agents included were: ampicillin, ampicillin-sulbactam (2:1), cefoxitin, piperacillin, imipenem, clindamycin, and metronidazole. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined according to the reference agar dilution method described by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI, formerly NCCLS). The most active antibiotics for B. fragilis and non-B. fragilis species throughout the three periods were: imipenem with 99.1 and 100% of activity, respectively, and metronidazole with 100% of activity. The susceptibility to ampicillin-sulbactam showed a decrease, from 100% to 90.3% and to 82.4 % in the last period, for both B. fragilis and non-B. fragilis species, respectively. The overall susceptibility rates for cefoxitin, piperacillin, and clindamycin were significantly different between B. fragilis and non-B. fragilis species (84.2% vs. 56.5%; 85.9% vs. 66.7% and 88.8% vs. 64.7%, respectively, p < 0.05). Cefoxitin was the antibiotic that showed more variations as regards periods and species. The susceptibility rates for clindamycin were low, about 60%, for non-B. fragilis species during the last two periods. The variations observed in the susceptibility patterns of the B. fragilis group isolates emphasize the need to continue monitoring the emergence of resistance in order to guide the election of the most appropriate antibiotic therapy scheme for anaerobic infections.

  17. 25 years of live related renal transplantation in children: The Buenos Aires experience

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz, Eduardo; Ferraris, Jorge

    2007-01-01

    The number of pediatric patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD) has been steadily growing during the last 10 years all over the world, because of the improvement of medical and surgical treatment of severe urologic malformations and congenital and acquired nephrological disorders. Kidney transplantation (Tx) with a live related donor continues to be the gold standard therapy to treat ESRD in children because of the best final results, the chronic lack of cadaveric donors and the frequent possibility of young patients to have parents or relatives as a source of a potential graft donor. Nowadays almost every pediatric patient can be dialyzed and transplanted, even early in life, if he or she has the possibility of a live related donor. Improvements in pediatric anesthesiology and intensive care have also been very important, in reducing the morbidity and mortality related to Tx procedures. Here we report our experience with Tx for the last 25 years, specially our long experience of live related donor transplantation in children and adolescents with emphasis on technical issues in small children and pediatric patients with severe urologic malformations and bladder dysfunction. We'll make special considerations on the improvement in short and long follow-up with the actual prevention and treatment of graft rejection, due to the new immunosuppressive agents and protocols. PMID:19718302

  18. [Frequency and antimicrobial resistance of Acinetobacter species in a university hospital of Buenos Aires City].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Carlos Hernán; Nastro, Marcela; Dabos, Laura; Vay, Carlos; Famiglietti, Angela

    2014-01-01

    Two-hundred Acinetobacter isolates belonging to 200 patients admitted to Hospital de Clínicas José de San Martín during the period March 2013-June 2014 were analyzed. The identification was performed by mass spectrometry and was confirmed by molecular methods. Susceptibility to antimicrobials was studied by the Vitek-2 system. A 94% correlation of both identification methods was found. Multidrug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii was the predominant genomic species (92.6%) in hospital-acquired infections, whereas Acinetobacter pitti and Acinetobacter nosocomialis accounted for 3.5% and 0.5% of the isolates recovered, respectively. In community-acquired infections a major predominance of the different genomic species was observed. Acinetobacter johnsonii and A. baumannii are the most frequent species, accounting for 45.9% of the isolates recovered. Resistance to carbapenems and minocycline was only observed in A. baumannii. Mass spectrophotometry was an effective tool for the identification of the different genomic species.

  19. Knowing the enemy: ant behavior and control in a pediatric hospital of Buenos Aires.

    PubMed

    Josens, Roxana; Sola, Francisco J; Marchisio, Nahuel; Di Renzo, María Agostina; Giacometti, Alina

    2014-01-01

    Ant control is difficult in systems even where a variety of control strategies and compounds are allowed; in sensitive places such as hospitals, where there are often restrictions on the methods and toxicants to be applied, the challenge is even greater. Here we report the methods and results of how we faced this challenge of controlling ants in a pediatric hospital using baits. Our strategy was based on identifying the species present and analyzing their behavior. On the one hand, we evaluated outdoors in the green areas of the hospital, the relative abundance of ant genera, their food preferences and the behavioral dominances. On the other hand, control treatments were performed using separately two boron compounds added to sucrose solution which was not highly concentrated to avoid constrains due to the viscosity. Most of the species in the food preference test accepted sugary food; only one species was recorded to visit it less than the protein foods. This result was consistent with the efficacy of control treatments by sugary baits within the rooms. For species that showed good acceptance of sugar solutions in the preference test outdoors, sugar bait control indoors was 100& effective. Conversely, for the only species that foraged significantly less on sugar food, the bait treatment was ineffective. This work reveals the importance of considering the behavior and feeding preferences of the species to be controlled by toxic baits.

  20. Great Mentors: Robert Jervis, Bruce Bueno de Mesquita, and Peter Katzenstein

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDermott, Rose

    2010-01-01

    I have been extremely blessed in my life to have benefitted from some amazing mentors and friends in both psychology (most notably, Amos Tversky, Phil Zimbardo, and Leda Cosmides) and political science. Inspired by the occasion of Robert Jervis' festschrift, which importantly does not signal his imminent retirement, I was prompted to take…

  1. [Community acquired pneumonia and pulmonary hemorrhage in leptospirosis in the Buenos Aires metropolitan area].

    PubMed

    Seijo, Alfredo; Romer, Yamila; San Juan, Jorge; Prieto, Raúl; Nogueras, Mabel; De Vedia, Lautaro; Font Nine, Luis; Giamperetti, Sergio

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to report the epidemiological, clinical and diagnosis findings of pneumonia and pulmonary hemorrhage observed in patients with leptospirosis in the period January 2007 to October 2009. A 64% (20/31) of patients diagnosed with leptospirosis presented pneumonia. Fifteen of them (75%) had severe pneumonia, of which seven (35%) were pulmonary hemorrhage. In ten patients (32%) reason for consultation and clinical early stage was a secretory gastroenteritis with fever and abdominal pain. Jaundice was only expressed in eleven patients (35%). The technique of chain reaction (PCR) was useful for diagnosis in samples obtained post mortem. A strain classified in serogroup canicola was isolated from blood culture. Pneumonia was classified into three types: non-severe pneumonia course with little overall impact; severe pneumonia associated with systemic clinical forms with jaundice, renal failure, thrombocytopenia, and pulmonary hemorrhage, and of serious course, not associated with jaundice, kidney failure or thrombocytopenia. Antibiotic treatment started in the early stages of disease (average 3.2 days) had no influence on the development of severe pneumonia. It is puggested to consider three clinical forms of leptospirosis: anicteric, icteric (with its evolutionary variants) and pulmonary hemorrhage.

  2. School Autonomy in the Province of Buenos Aires, Argentina: Evidence from Two School Districts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Astiz, M. Fernanda

    2006-01-01

    This article provides empirical evidence of policy adoption, outcomes and consequences of decentralization and school autonomy initiatives enacted in Argentina during the 1990s. The study examines what school autonomy meant in Argentina and how it was adopted at the provincial and school levels. Using qualitative data on school districts of the…

  3. Comparing International Student Friendship Networks in Buenos Aires: Direct Enrollment Programs vs. Study Abroad Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrickson, Blake

    2016-01-01

    In March of 2011 Unite States president Barack Obama announced the "100,000 strong in the Americas" program during his visit to Chile (U.S. State Department, 2011). The initiative's goal is to reach 100,000 U.S. students studying in Latin America and 100,000 Latin American students studying in the United States. This interchange of…

  4. [Isolation of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli O157:H16 identified in a diarrhea case in a child and his household contacts in La Pampa Province, Argentina].

    PubMed

    Silveyra, Ivana M; Pereyra, Adriana M; Alvarez, María G; Villagran, Mariana D; Baroni, Andrea B; Deza, Natalia; Carbonari, Claudia C; Miliwebsky, Elizabeth; Rivas, Marta

    2015-01-01

    Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) is a major causative agent of acute diarrhea in children in developing countries. This pathotype is divided into typical EPEC (tEPEC) and atypical EPEC (aEPEC), based on the presence of the bfp virulence factor associated with adhesion, encoded in the pEAF plasmid. In the present study, the isolation of aEPEC O157:H16 from a bloody diarrhea case in a child and his household contacts (mother, father and sister) is described. The strain was characterized as E. coli O157:H16 eae-ɛ-positive, sorbitol fermenter with β-glucuronidase activity, susceptible to all antimicrobials tested, and negative for virulence factors stx1, stx2, ehxA and bfp. XbaI-PFGE performed on all isolates showed the AREXHX01.1040 macrorestriction pattern, with 100% similarity. These results highlight the importance of epidemiological surveillance of E. coli O157-associated diarrhea cases identified in children and their family contacts, as well as the incorporation of molecular techniques that allow the detection of the different E. coli pathotypes.

  5. The IAF's Argentine Grantees: Caught in the Crisis. Indigenous Awakening; Self-Help and the Cities; Storm Clouds and Hope on the Pampa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durbin, Paula

    2003-01-01

    Examines how Inter-American Foundation's grantees in Argentina are coping with the country's economic crisis of 2001. Describes community development projects in Indigenous regions, the role of urban schools as the only functioning public institution providing human services, literacy education in Patagonia, job training and support for…

  6. Landsat classification of Argentina summer crops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badhwar, G. D.; Gargantini, C. E.; Redondo, F. V.

    1987-01-01

    A Landsat MSS and TM classification approach based on three features derived from the greenness profile has proved very effective in separating and identifying corn, soybeans, and other ground cover classes in the U.S. The objective of this study is to investigate the separation of summer crops in Argentina, one of the most important commodity exporters, using the same greenness profile features that have proved effective in the U.S. Corn Belt. The area chosen for study is a more complex cropping practice area located in the north-west corner of Buenos Aires province in Pampa Humeda, where corn, soybean, sorghum, sunflower, and pastures are cultivated. It is shown that the profile features can provide very effective separation, except in the case of corn from sorghum. Separation between corn and soybeans was found to be greater than in the U.S. This study suggests that the automatic, unsupervised classification approach developed in the U.S., with relatively minor modification, can be used for summer crop area estimation in Argentina.

  7. [The wind prophylaxis. Repressive and sanitary institutions in Argentina's Patagonia, 1880-1940].

    PubMed

    Bohoslavsky, E; Silva di Liscia, M

    2008-01-01

    This article focuses on the study of some social control technologies and discourses, displayed in Argentina's provinces between 1880 and 1940, with particular reference to the so-called 'Territorios Nacionales' of La Pampa Río Negro and Neuquén, which were submitted to a direct federal authority. THe main purpose is to analyze - within these areas- - the building of repressive and sanitary institutions (i.e., police, prisons, asylums, hospitals) as well as the enforcement of positivists studying and classifying methodologies, intended to identify 'abnormality'. A straight and permanent rule of these "territorios Nacionales' on the federal State could have meant a longer attention to their social and economic development through a direct and intense presence of national, modernizing, positivist institutions. However, a deeper historical study of repressive and sanitary institutions allows to arrive to completely different conclusions. The sources show that these institutions had numerous daily problems, were frequently and severely under-budgeted and were obliged to develop not originally forseen functions and tasks. These situations imply revising not only these institutions' real regulation capacities but also the very existence of a generalized, efficient social control programme in Argentina at the beginning of the 20th century, as many scholars focused on Buenos Aires's study case have already argued.

  8. Constraining the time of extinction of the South American fox Dusicyon avus (Carnivora, Canidae) during the late Holocene.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prevosti, Francisco; Santiago, Fernando; Prates, Luciano; Salemme, Mónica; Martin, Fabiana

    2010-05-01

    The mass extinction at the end of the Pleistocene affected South America during the Late Pleistocene and the Early Holocene, when megamammals and large mammals disappeared. Several carnivores became extinct, like the sabretooth Smilodon, the short face bear (Arctotherium) and some large canids (i.e. Protocyon, Canis dirus). After this mass event virtually no carnivores became extinct in South America. The only exception is the fox Dusicyon avus, a middle sized canid (estimated body mass between 10-15 kg) with a more carnivore diet than the living South American foxes (i.e. Lycalopex culpaeus). The last record of the species comes from middle-late Holocene archaeological sites in the Pampean Region (Argentina) and Patagonia (Argentina and Chile). During the Late Pleistocene D. avus had a wide distribution, that covered part of Uruguay, Argentina (Buenos Aires province) and the southernmost Chile. Albeit some remains from late Holocene sites have been published, these remains lack of isotopic dates that could (allow?) constraint (to determine) the date of extinction of this fox. In this contribution we present several new records from the Pampean Region and Patagonia, and several taxon dates. The new records indicate that D. avus disappeared in the late Holocene at least ≈ 3000 years BP in the island of Tierra del Fuego (Patagonia) and ≈ 1600 BP in the continent. Since at this time humans were occupying most of the Pampas and Patagonia a revision of the causes behind the extinction of this fox is required.

  9. Exposure to selected Pathogens in to selected pathogens in Geoffroy's cats and domestic carnivores from central Argentina.

    PubMed

    Uhart, Marcela M; Rago, M Virginia; Marull, Carolina A; Ferreyra, Hebe del Valle; Pereira, Javier A

    2012-10-01

    Wild carnivores share a high percentage of parasites and viruses with closely related domestic carnivores. Because of increased overlap and potential contact with domestic species, we conducted a retrospective serosurvey for 11 common carnivore pathogens in 40 Geoffroy's cats (Leopardus geoffroyi) sampled between 2000 and 2008 within or near two protected areas in central Argentina (Lihué Calel National Park, La Pampa, and Campos del Tuyú National Park, Buenos Aires), as well as five domestic cats and 11 domestic dogs from catde ranches adjacent to Lihué Calel Park. Geoffroy's cats had detectable antibody to canine distemper virus (CDV), feline calicivirus (FCV), feline coronavirus, feline panleukopenia virus (FPV), Toxoplasma gondii, Leptospira interrogans (serovars Ictero/Icter and Ballum), and Dirofilaria immitis. None of the wild cats had antibodies to feline herpesvirus, feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), feline leukemia virus, or rabies virus. Domestic dogs had antibodies to CDV, canine adenovirus, canine herpesvirus, and canine parvovirus. Antibodies to FPV, FCV, FIV, and T. gondii were found in domestic cats. We provide the first data on exposure of free-ranging Geoffroy's cats to pathogens at two sites within the core area of the species distribution range, including the first report of antibodies to CDV in this species. We encourage continued monitoring for diseases in wild and domestic carnivores as well as preventive health care for domestic animals, particularly in park buffer zones where overlap is greatest.

  10. Lacustrine evidence of anti-phase distribution of moisture in Southern South America during the Neoglacial period (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piovano, E.; Ariztegui, D.; Sylvestre, F.; Córdoba, F.

    2009-12-01

    An increasing number of lacustrine records is now available for southern South America east of the Andes. As a result a network of well-studied sites is emerging allowing to track hydrological changes throughout time at a regional scale. New limnogeological results spanning the Holocene across the subtropical Pampean plains of Southern South America are compared with lacustrine records covering both Andean and extra Andean sectors of eastern Patagonia. The development of contrasting hydrological patterns can be observed between the Pampas (Laguna Mar Chiquita, 30°S; Laguna Melincué, 34°S; Lagunas Encadenadas del Oeste de Buenos Aires, 37°S) and eastern Patagonia (Lago Frías, 41°S; Lago Cardiel, 49°S; and Laguna Potrok Aike, 52°S) at both sides of the South American Arid Diagonal (AD) during prevailing warm or cold climatic phases, respectively. Paleohydrological reconstructions suggest wet conditions in regions located west and south of the AD, like Patagonia or even the Central Andes, during cold climatic phases such as those occurred during neoglaciations including the Little Ice Age (LIA). These phases are characterized by a dominant Pacific source of moisture. Conversely, dry conditions can be proposed for the same climatic interval across the subtropical low-lands east of the AD. These areas are mostly under the influence of an Atlantic summer rain regime. Conversely, extensive dryness across Patagonia and wet conditions in the Pampas can be inferred during warm climatic phases such as the Medieval Climatic Anomaly or the last part of the 20th century. This new paleohydrological data from Patagonia and the Pampean plains further indicate that the development of this anti-phase hydrological pattern was active only after the middle Holocene. Thus, it appears as contemporaneous to an intensification of the Southern Westerlies in concert with a weakened Monsoonal circulation. The anti-phasing cold/wet vs. cold/dry hydrological conditions at different

  11. On TB Vaccines, Patients' Demands, and Modern Printed Media in Times of Biomedical Uncertainties: Buenos Aires, 1920-1950.

    PubMed

    Armus, Diego

    2016-03-01

    Reconstructing some of the experiences of people living with tuberculosis in Argentina in the first half of the twentieth century, as reflected not only in written and oral accounts but also in individual and collective actions, this article explores the ways in which patients came to grips with medical expertise in times of biomedical uncertainty. These negotiations, which inevitably included adaptations as well as confrontations, highlight a much less passive and submissive patient-physician relationship than is often assumed. Though patients were certainly subordinate to medical doctors' knowledge and practices, that subordination, far from absolute, was limited and often overthrown. The article focuses on patients' demands to gain access to a vaccine not approved by the medical establishment. By engaging with media organizations, the sick invoked their "right to health" in order to obtain access to experimental treatments when biomedicine was unable to deliver efficient therapies.

  12. The Linguistic Experience of Italians in Buenos Aires, Argentina, 1890-1914: Language Shift as Seen through Social Spaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Italiano-McGreevy, Maria

    2013-01-01

    From 1890-1914, Argentina received a large influx of Italian immigrants who wanted to "hacer la América," or live the American dream of economic prosperity. With Italian immigrants representing nearly half of all immigrants entering Argentina, the government strived to create a new sense of Argentine pride and nationalism. The objective…

  13. Generalized cost-effectiveness analysis of a package of interventions to reduce cardiovascular disease in Buenos Aires, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Rubinstein, Adolfo; García Martí, Sebastián; Souto, Alberto; Ferrante, Daniel; Augustovski, Federico

    2009-01-01

    Background Chronic diseases, represented mainly by cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer, are increasing in developing countries and account for 53% of chronic diseases in Argentina. There is strong evidence that a reduction of 50% of the deaths due to CVD can be attributed to a reduction in smoking, hypertension and hypercholesterolemia. Generalized cost-effectiveness analysis (GCE) is a methodology designed by WHO to inform decision makers about the extent to which current or new interventions represent an efficient use of resources. We aimed to use GCE analysis to identify the most efficient interventions to decrease CVD. Methods Six individual interventions (treatment of hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, smoking cessation and combined clinical strategies to reduce the 10 year CVD Risk) and two population-based interventions (cooperation between government, consumer associations and bakery chambers to reduce salt in bread, and mass education strategies to reduce hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and obesity) were selected for analysis. Estimates of effectiveness were entered into age and sex specific models to predict their impact in terms of age-weighted and discounted DALYs saved (disability-adjusted life years). To translate the age- and sex-adjusted incidence of CVD events into health changes, we used risk model software developed by WHO (PopMod). Costs of services were measured in Argentine pesos, and discounted at an annual rate of 3%. Different budgetary impact scenarios were explored. Results The average cost-effectiveness ratio in argentine pesos (ARS$) per DALY for the different interventions were: (i) less salt in bread $151; (ii) mass media campaign $547; (iii) combination drug therapy provided to subjects with a 20%, 10% and 5% global CVD risk, $3,599, $4,113 and $4,533, respectively; (iv) high blood pressure (HBP) lowering therapy $7,716; (v) tobacco cessation with bupropion $ 33,563; and (iv) high-cholesterol lowering therapy with statins $ 70,994. Conclusion Against a threshold of average per capita income in Argentina, the two selected population-based interventions (lowering salt intake and health education through mass-media campaigns) plus the modified polypill strategy targeting people with a 20% or greater risk were cost-effective. Use of this methodology in developing countries can make resource-allocation decisions less intuitive and more driven by evidence. PMID:19419570

  14. A catalog of the types of Staphylinidae (Insecta, Coleoptera) deposited in the Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales, Buenos Aires (MACN).

    PubMed

    Bachmann, Axel O; Chani-Posse, Mariana; Guala, Mariel E; Newton, Alfred F

    2017-01-22

    The type specimens (all current categories) of Staphylinidae deposited in this Museum are listed; names are recorded, most of them represented by name-bearing types (primary types). The specific and subspecific names are alphabetically ordered in a single list, followed by the generic names (and subgeneric ones, if they were stated) spelled as they were published; later combinations and/ or current binomina are mentioned insofar these are known to the authors. Two lists are added: 2. Specimens labeled as types of names not found in the literature and probably never published, or published as nomina nuda; and 3. Specimens labeled as types, but not originally designated as such. An appendix provides a systematically arranged list of all names discussed, with indication of where they are discussed in the text.

  15. Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in cats in the western part of Great Buenos Aires, Argentina, 1993.

    PubMed

    Fernández, F; Ouviña, G; Clot, E; Fernandes Guido, R; Codoni, C

    1995-08-01

    The serological prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii was determined, using indirect haemagglutination assay, in the sera of 169 cats. Classification by age, sex, alimentary, hunting and roaming habits was made in conjunction with the number of cats living in each house. An important prevalence was detected (19.5%) from 1 year of age and statistical significance was found in those animals that had predatory habits or lived in groups.

  16. An assessment of the impact of Health Workers for Change in Avellaneda, province of Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Pittman, P; Blatt, G; Rodriguez, P

    2001-09-01

    This paper describes the evaluation of the Health Workers for Change (HWFC) workshop series in a primary health care clinic in Avellaneda, Argentina. The study found that there was an important impact at the facility level 2 months after the intervention (T2). Health workers were motivated and willing to examine their own practices critically in an effort to improve quality of care. Informants from the community also perceived that patients were being treated more kindly. Eleven months later (T3), however, the impact at the facility level had receded significantly. At the system level the main benefit of the workshops was to focus attention on the health workers themselves, particularly their perception that there was little communication with the authorities. As a result, the number of system level supervisors increased and they were urged to spend more time in the clinics. Reasons for the limited impact at T3 are discussed and suggestions are made for improving the intervention.

  17. Something Old, Something New. Educational Inclusion and Head Teachers as Policy Actors and Subjects in the City of Buenos Aires

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meo, Analía Inés

    2015-01-01

    In Argentina, "'inclusion" has become a central target of national and provincial educational policy since the mid-2000s. Unlike in other countries, inclusion has been associated with the transformation of upper secondary schooling into a compulsory level of education, together with the effective integration of pupils from…

  18. [Ultraviolet radiation impact on seasonal variations of serum 25-hydroxy-vitamin D in healthy young adults in Buenos Aires].

    PubMed

    Costanzo, Pablo R; Constanzo, Pablo R; Elías, Natalia O; Kleiman Rubinsztein, Jessica; García Basavilbaso, Natalia X; Piacentini, Rubén; Salerni, Helena H

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to sunlight (ES) is the main source of vitamin D. There are few reports regarding the seasonal variations of serum 25(OH) vitamin D in young adults and its correlation with ultraviolet radiation dose (UVRd). Our aims were to determine 25OHD variations in young adults and assess the correlation between 25OHD levels, dietary calcium intake (DCI) and the UVRd. Eighty two healthy volunteers were prospectively studied: 42 women and 40 men. Serum 25OHD, calcium, phosphorus and magnesium were measured at the end of winter and at the end of summer. ES and UVRd were determined hourly in winter and summer. Seasonal variation in serum 25OHD levels was observed with significantly higher levels in summer in both gender. Serum 25OHD <20 ng/ml was more frequently found in winter (42.6% in women and 50% in men). The ES and UVRd were significantly lower in winter vs. summer. ES and UVRd positively correlated with 25OHD only in winter in both men and women. DCI was lower than recommended and did not correlate with 25OHD levels.

  19. Isolation and characterization of onion degrading bacteria from onion waste produced in South Buenos Aires province, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Rinland, María Emilia; Gómez, Marisa Anahí

    2015-03-01

    Onion production in Argentina generates a significant amount of waste. Finding an effective method to recycle it is a matter of environmental concern. Among organic waste reuse techniques, anaerobic digestion could be a valuable alternative to current practices. Substrate inoculation with appropriate bacterial strains enhances the rate-limiting step (hydrolysis) of anaerobic digestion of biomass wastes. Selection of indigenous bacteria with the ability to degrade onion waste could be a good approach to find a suitable bioaugmentation or pretreatment agent. We isolated bacterial strains from onion waste in different degradation stages and from different localities. In order to characterize and select the best candidates, we analyzed the growth patterns of the isolates in a medium prepared with onion juice as the main source of nutrients and we evaluated carbon source utilization. Nine strains were selected to test their ability to grow using onion tissue and the five most remarkable ones were identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Strains belonged to the genera Pseudoxanthomonas, Bacillus, Micrococcus and Pseudomonas. Two strains, Bacillus subtilis subsp. subtillis MB2-62 and Pseudomonas poae VE-74 have characteristics that make them promising candidates for bioaugmentation or pretreatment purposes.

  20. [The foundational myth of Argentinian homeopathy. The journal "Homeopatía," Buenos Aires (1933-1940)].

    PubMed

    González Korzeniewski, Manuel A

    2010-01-01

    The present article analyzes the historical-identitary construction in the older and most important institution of Homeopathy in Argentina. Two analytical axes are constructed: on the one hand, the construction of a foundational myth that outlines a genealogical thread between the "divinities" of the medicine, and on the other hand, the mitification of Hahnemann, founding father of the discipline. Using both axes we explain how the discourses of the journal were creating a symbolic support for the weak conjuncture in which they tried to be consolidated legally as an institution.

  1. The type specimens of Tachinidae (Diptera) housed in the Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales "Bernardino Rivadavia", Buenos Aires.

    PubMed

    Mulieri, Pablo Ricardo; Patitucci, Luciano Damián; Bachmann, Axel Oscar; O'Hara, James E

    2013-01-01

    The type material of species of Tachinidae (Diptera) housed in the collection of the Entomology Division of the Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales "Bernardino Rivadavia" were examined and are herein documented. The collection contains 202 type specimens consisting of 54 species described by E.E. Blanchard and 12 described by J. Brèthes. Comparison of their original descriptions with the label information reveals the existence of 24 holotypes, 1 lectotype, 141 syntypes and 36 paratypes. Complete information is given for each type, including reference to the original description, label data, and preservation condition.

  2. Incorporating Community Knowledge to Lahar Hazard Maps: Canton Buenos Aires Case Study, at Santa Ana (Ilamatepec) Volcano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bajo, J. V.; Martinez-Hackert, B.; Polio, C.; Gutierrez, E.

    2015-12-01

    Santa Ana (Ilamatepec) Volcano is an active composite volcano located in the Apaneca Volcanic Field located in western part of El Salvador, Central America. The volcano is surrounded by rural communities in its proximal areas and the second (Santa Ana, 13 km) and fourth (Sonsosante, 15 km) largest cities of the country. On October 1st, 2005, the volcano erupted after months of increased activity. Following the eruption, volcanic mitigation projects were conducted in the region, but the communities had little or no input on them. This project consisted in the creation of lahar volcanic hazard map for the Canton Buanos Aires on the northern part of the volcano by incorporating the community's knowledge from prior events to model parameters and results. The work with the community consisted in several meetings where the community members recounted past events. They were asked to map the outcomes of those events using either a topographic map of the area, a Google Earth image, or a blank paper poster size. These maps have been used to identify hazard and vulnerable areas, and for model validation. These maps were presented to the communities and they accepted their results and the maps.

  3. Genetic and Phylogenetic Analyses of Influenza A H1N1pdm Virus in Buenos Aires, Argentina ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Barrero, P. R.; Viegas, M.; Valinotto, L. E.; Mistchenko, A. S.

    2011-01-01

    An influenza pandemic caused by swine-origin influenza virus A/H1N1 (H1N1pdm) spread worldwide in 2009, with 12,080 confirmed cases and 626 deaths occurring in Argentina. A total of 330 H1N1pdm viruses were detected from May to August 2009, and phylogenetic and genetic analyses of 21 complete genome sequences from both mild and fatal cases were achieved with reference to concatenated whole genomes. In addition, the analysis of another 16 hemagglutinin (HA), neuraminidase (NA), and matrix (M) gene sequences of Argentinean isolates was performed. The microevolution timeline was assessed and resistance monitoring of an NA fragment from 228 samples throughout the 2009 pandemic peak was performed by sequencing and pyrosequencing. We also assessed the viral growth kinetics for samples with replacements at the genomic level or special clinical features. In this study, we found by Bayesian inference that the Argentinean complete genome sequences clustered with globally distributed clade 7 sequences. The HA sequences were related to samples from the northern hemisphere autumn-winter from September to December 2009. The NA of Argentinean sequences belonged to the New York group. The N-4 fragment as well as the hierarchical clustering of samples showed that a consensus sequence prevailed in time but also that different variants, including five H275Y oseltamivir-resistant strains, arose from May to August 2009. Fatal and oseltamivir-resistant isolates had impaired growth and a small plaque phenotype compared to oseltamivir-sensitive and consensus strains. Although these strains might not be fit enough to spread in the entire population, molecular surveillance proved to be essential to monitor resistance and viral dynamics in our country. PMID:21047959

  4. Report on 27th International Conference on Low Temperature Physics (LT27), Buenos Aires, Argentina, August 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saunders, John; Kono, Kimitoshi

    2014-12-01

    The following is an extract from the Activity Report to the IUPAP General Assembly, November 2014 by Commision C5 (Low Temperature Physics). It provides an overview of LT27, reflecting the most important and recent developments.

  5. Atmospherically-induced water oscillations detected in the port of Quequén, Buenos Aires, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dragani, Walter C.; D'Onofrio, Enrique E.; Grismeyer, Walter; Fiore, Monica M. E.; Campos, María Inés

    Sea level data gathered at Quequén, corresponding to the four most energetic events detected in 1982, are analyzed and compared with simultaneous sea level data recorded at Mar del Plata, Pinamar and Mar de Ajó. Large-amplitude sea-level oscillations at these locations are generally superposed to low-amplitude oscillations (“background”) which are one or two order of magnitude lower than the first ones. Background at Quequén is characterized by a broadband energy spectrum with maximum energy around 17-35 min. During energetic events at Quequén, the spectral peaks are situated between 0.8 and 4.0 cph (15-75 min) and wavelet analysis shows intermittent activity of large-amplitude waves (they show up irregularly during short lapses of 100-200 min long, approximately). The computed ratios between sea level variances of the active event and the preceding background at Quequén, Mar de Ajó, Pinamar and Mar del Plata apparently do not have a relationship among locations nor events. Such noticeable variability in the spectral peak positions, variances and ratios could likely be related to the celerity, amplitude, direction and period of atmospheric gravity waves in the region. Large-amplitude sea-level oscillations are always firstly observed at Quequén and, subsequently further north, at Mar del Plata, Pinamar and Mar de Ajó, respectively. Maximum amplitudes detected for each event at these different locations are very similar. These results support that atmospherically-induced large-amplitude sea-level oscillations (generated on the continental shelf) would enter the port of Quequén through its narrow mouth while they propagate towards Mar del Plata, Pinamar and Mar de Ajó, where they show up in tidal records some hours later.

  6. Insecticide toxicity to Hyalella curvispina in runoff and stream water within a soybean farm (Buenos Aires, Argentina).

    PubMed

    Mugni, H; Ronco, A; Bonetto, C

    2011-03-01

    Toxicity to the locally dominant amphipod Hyalella curvispina was assessed in a first-order stream running through a cultivated farm. Cypermethrin, chlorpyrifos, endosulfan and glyphosate were sprayed throughout the studied period. Toxicity was assayed under controlled laboratory conditions with runoff and stream water samples taken from the field under steady state and flood conditions. Ephemeral toxicity pulses were observed as a consequence of farm pesticide applications. After pesticide application, runoff water showed 100% mortality to H. curvispina for 1 month, but no mortality thereafter. Toxicity persistence was shortest in stream water, intermediate in stream sediments and longest in soil samples. Runoff had a more important toxicity effect than the exposure to direct aerial fumigation. The regional environmental features determining fast toxicity dissipation are discussed.

  7. Stratigraphy of the fluvial deposits of the Salado river basin, Buenos Aires Province: Lithology, chronology and paleoclimate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fucks, E.; Pisano, M. F.; Huarte, R. A.; Di Lello, C. V.; Mari, F.; Carbonari, J. E.

    2015-07-01

    The regional landscape of the Salado depression is related to weathering, eolian and fluvial processes generated under different climatic conditions. Although during most of the Holocene the climatic conditions were warm and humid, previously, a vast plain dominated by deflation processes and enhanced by weathering processes was developed in an arid environment. Fluvial deposits produced afterwards are continuous and lithologically homogeneous, which allows differentiation and characterization of the entire stratigraphic sequence. The stratigraphic units of this area, closely related to the paleoclimatic conditions, are recognized and characterized. Three lithostratigraphic units of fluvial origin (Members) and two paleosols have been differentiated. The first ones were grouped in the Luján Formation. Some of the units are related to other ones previously recognized in this area (La Chumbiada Member and La Pelada Geosol), but others have no similarity or relationship with previously known units (Gorch and Puente Las Gaviotas Members, and Frigorífico Belgrano Geosol). Radiocarbon ages suggest that the fluvial sequences were deposited after the glacial maximum, corresponding to MIS 1, except for the basal levels of the lower member which is late Late Pleistocene. Although the general paleoclimatic conditions were related to warm and humid climate, events related to water deficits were also recognized, which could be related to the Younger Dryas, the middle Holocene and the late Holocene.

  8. [Isolation of environmental mycobacteria from soils of Córdoba city Argentina].

    PubMed

    Ballarino, Guillermo J; Eseverri, M Verónica; Salas, Andrea V; Giayetto, Víctor O; González, Silvia; Wolff, Lidia; Pessah, Oscar

    2002-01-01

    The interest for the research on enviromental mycobacteria has risen over the last decades, in part, due to a significant incidence rate rise. Reports from all over the world address the soil as the major source for human contamination. In Argentina two documents report the prevalence of atypical mycobacteriosis at Córdoba (1997), and the isolation of enviromental mycobacteria from soils of the Province of La Pampa (1999) respectively. The aim of our study was to confirm the presence of enviromental mycobacteria in soil of the city of Córdoba. The map of the city was divided in 9 regions according to avenues and major streets distribution. A total of 120 soil samples were recollected with spatula from a 10 x 10 cm square up to 1 cm deep. Samples were kept at 4 degrees C no more than 7 days. Soil samples were homogenized with destilled water in a 1:1 proportion, and decontaminated according to Petroff's method. The cultures were made in Lowestein-Jehnsen media and incubated at 37 degrees C controlling development every 7 days for 2 months. An acid-fast-bacilli smear was made from colonies obtained. Twenty three cultures (19%) were discarded due to contamination. Twenty cultures (17%) developed acid fast bacilli (AFB). Colonies obtained were sent to the Mycobacteria Service of the Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Infecciosas Dr. Carlos G. Malbrán, in the city of Buenos Aires, for identification. A single isolation was identified as Mycobacterium triviale. A positive correlation was observed between the frequency of positive AFB isolation and the number of samples taken from park areas. The presence of enviromental mycobacteria in soils of Córdoba was confirmed. Results suggest higher odds of isolation in parklands and soils where animals live. Extensive works are needed to asset the features that allow and contribute the proliferation of mycobacteria in soils.

  9. Egg parasitoid of Saccharosydne subandina (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) in Neuquen, Argentina

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Saccharosydne subandina Remes Lenicov & Rossi Batiz is a recently described planthopper from Argentina which is known to feed on garlic, rye, and pampas grass (de Remes-Lenicov & Rossi-Batiz 2010). During a trip to Neuquén Province in February 2007, we noticed a heavy infestation of pampas grass, Co...

  10. View from My Classroom: A Self-Paced Course for the General Student.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ledbetter, Elaine W.

    1978-01-01

    Describes a chemistry course designed for the general student at Pampa Senior High School, Pampa, Texas. It presents the fundamental concepts in chemistry in a nonmathematical context; contains many options in the form of minicourses; and permits the student to pace himself. (HM)

  11. Ecology and management of savannas and semi-deserts of central Argentina

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vegetation of western pampas of central Argentina comprises: caldera, local name of a savanna to woodland ecosystem dominated by Prosopis caldenia; short-grassland and dune-grassland. The area include the central La Pampa and southern San Luis provinces, following a western precipitation gradient fr...

  12. Papers Selected for Presentation at the International Symposium on Remote Sensing of Environment (16th) Held at Buenos Aires, Argentina on 2-9 June 1982. Volume 1.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-06-01

    improvement of health status and environment conditions of rural and marginal city population, giving particular attention to the children . c. The...of sand in each year and in the process sandblasted the young emerging crops. In many cases the crops were totally destroyed and reseeding was...F. M. die; IIASU I , Y. BRITO MAT~S, B3. B. de; FUCK , R. A. Provincias Lstrul tura is Bras ili iras . In: S 1MPOS1O DI: GLOLOC IA DO NORD:s’ril, 7

  13. Desarrollo de un detector de rayos cósmicos de la colaboración LAGO en Buenos Aires - Aplicaciones en meteorología espacial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coppola, M.; Bezzecchi, F.; Gulisano, A. M.; Masías-Meza, J. J.; Areso, O.; Ramelli, M.; Dasso, S.; LAGO Collaboration

    2016-08-01

    The study of low energy cosmic particles allows to analyze several aspects of major interest for space weather. Ground detectors permit to observe secundary particles produced during the cascades developed in the atmosphere. The characterization of a prototype for a water Cherenkov radiation particles detector, in the frame of the LAGO collaboration (Latin American Giant Observatory), is presented in this work. The collaboration plans to install this detector at the LAGO antarctic site. The developed acquisition system and the method used to make the energy callibration of the detector are detailed here, as also corrections for atmospheric effects.

  14. Papers Selected for Presentation at the International Symposium on Remote Sensing of Environment (16th) Held at Buenos Aires, Argentina on 2-9 June 1982. Volume 2.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-06-01

    TECHNIQUES P. Hernandez Filho, et al ...... .................. . 885 ON A NEW REFLECTION MODEL FOR THE CORN FIELD Y. Haba, et al...the areas of Eucalyptus reforestation. 887 REFERENCES HERNANDEZ FILHO,P.; SIIMABUKURO, Y.E. Estabelecimento de metodologia para avaiiaqiode povoamentos...florestais artificiais utilizando-se dados do LANDSAT. Sao Josg dos Campos, jun., 1978 (INPE-1271-TPT/089). HERNANDEZ FILHO, P.; SHIMABUKURO, Y.E

  15. Trajectories associated to regional and extra-regional pollen transport in the southeast of Buenos Aires province, Mar del Plata (Argentina).

    PubMed

    Gassmann, María I; Pérez, Claudio F

    2006-05-01

    Long range transport of airborne pollen has been seldom studied in South America. Backward trajectories of Celtis and Nothofagus pollen grains trapped over a meteorological station outside Mar del Plata City were calculated in one-hour steps using the regional hybrid model developed by the NOAA (HYSPLIT 4.5) and the data of the NCEP filed in the NOAA server. Results showed that the observed trajectories agree with the location of vegetation sources of the collected tree species. In the case of Celtis, the transport was associated to anticyclones located east of the city, generating winds with a N-NE component, which produce pollen cloud advection from the Celtis forests located some tens of kilometers to the N and NE of the city. The sources of Nothofagus pollen correspond to a narrow strip on the Andes slopes between 39 degrees and 55 degrees S, at least 1100 km to the SW of Mar del Plata. The transport was associated to eastward displacement of the troughs corresponding to the Westerlies circulation and the presence of an anticyclone system that brings back Nothofagus pollen towards Mar del Plata area.

  16. [Job placement for people with severe mental illness. The group experience and employment support in a community mental health institution in Buenos Aires].

    PubMed

    Hönig, Adriana

    2015-01-01

    Starting from the depiction of the experience of a reflection group dedicated to job search and job placement for people with severe mental illness, social and working inclusion problem is analyzed. Users' and work receptors' perspectives are analyzed after considering work as a transforming tool of their subjectivity. This experience is based on the concept of employability. Supported employment is highlighted. Emotional moving and subjective affectation within participants are specifically taken into account, and individual pathways towards working insertion valued and respected. This reflection group is analyzed in terms of mental health services' imaginary transformation, as well as professionals, firms and community's attitudes towards people with mental illness, and the concept of recovery and stigma associated to them.

  17. The type-material of Arctiinae (Lepidoptera, Erebidae) described by Burmeister and Berg in the collection of the Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales Bernardino Rivadavia (Buenos Aires, Argentina).

    PubMed

    Beccacece, Hernán M; Vincent, Benoit; Navarro, Fernando R

    2014-01-01

    Carlos G. Burmeister and Carlos Berg were among the most important and influential naturalists and zoologists in Argentina and South America and described 241 species and 34 genera of Lepidoptera. The Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales Bernardino Rivadavia (MACN) housed some of the Lepidoptera type specimens of these authors. In this study we present a catalogue with complete information and photographs of 11 Burmeister type specimens and 10 Berg type specimens of Phaegopterina, Arctiina and Pericopina (Lepidoptera, Erebidae, Arctiinae, Arctiini) housed in the MACN. Lectotypes or holotypes were designated where primary type specimens could be recognized; in some cases we were not able to recognize types. The catalogue also proposes nomenclatural changes and new synonymies: Opharus picturata (Burmeister, 1878), comb. n.; Opharus brunnea Gaede, 1923: 7, syn. n.; Hypocrisias jonesi (Schaus, 1894), syn. n.; Leucanopsis infucata (Berg, 1882), stat. rev.; Paracles argentina (Berg, 1877), sp. rev.; Paracles uruguayensis (Berg, 1886), sp. rev.

  18. Dynamics of Eimeria oocyst excretion in dairy calves in the Province of Buenos Aires (Argentina), during their first 2 months of age.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, R O; Romero, J R; Founroge, R D

    2008-02-14

    Clinical coccidiosis is associated with high fecal contamination and stress situations, mainly in animals under 1 year of age. Artificially fed dairy calves are one of the categories most prone to suffer from this parasitic disease. The study was carried out in a commercial dairy farm. Feces samples of heifer calves between 2 and 8 weeks old were taken monthly for oocyst counts and Eimeria spp. identification. Of the 862 feces samples analyzed, 48% presented oocysts. When grouping the results of monthly samplings of each age group, it was observed that this percentage increased in the group of calves between 20 and 40 days of life, reaching the peak average of 85% of infection prevalence in the group with between 26 and 30 days of age. The discharge of oocysts observed between 21 and 35 days of age was superior to the rest (p<0.05). This trend appeared every month throughout the whole year. However, during March, April, June, September and November, the curves in the group categories were higher than in the remaining months (p<0.05). Twelve Eimeria species were identified, being E. ellipsoidalis, E. bovis, E. zuernii and E. auburnensis those in highest numbers. E. ellipsoidalis had an important predominance in the opg composition, >75% up to 25 days of life (p<0.05). E. bovis reached peak values in the 26 and 30 days group (p<0.05), remaining without significant variations in the last stage of the artificial milk feeding period (approximately 60 days of life), when the oocyst counts were significantly low. Oocysts of E. auburnensis appeared in great proportion (46%) in the cultures later than the previous species (p<0.05), in calves of the age groups of between 46 and 50 days of age. Oocysts of E. zuernii showed no trend associated with age. The highest prevalence of infection and of oocyst values appeared during the periods with better environmental conditions for sporulation, survival and dispersion of oocysts (spring and autumn), coincident with the highest birth rates and an elevated number of calves in the paddock. Calves developed a process of natural "vaccination" against coccidiosis. This was demonstrated by the decrease in the quantity of animals shedding oocysts and in the number of oocysts eliminated at the end of the artificial milk feeding period.

  19. [Quali-quantitative study of the social variables defining transmission scenarios of Argentine Hemorrhagic Fever in the provinces of Buenos Aires and Santa Fe, 2001-2010].

    PubMed

    Mastrangelo, Andrea; Tagliabue, Paula; Berro, Lorena; De Carolis, Darío; Sinchi, Anabel; Digilio, Clara; Enria, Delia

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this paper was to characterize transmission scenarios of Argentine Hemorrhagic Fever in the post-vaccination period (2001-2010). The study was made up of three phases. The first consisted of a quantitative analysis using the database of the Dr. Julio I. Maiztegui National Institute of Human Viral Diseases [Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Virales Humanas] regarding the confirmed cases in the period of study (221 cases). Taking into account the transmission site and the known endemic area, cases were grouped into three hypothetical transmission scenarios, identified as: a) classical, b) emerging-reemerging, c) traveling. In the second phase, in order to test these hypotheses, in-depth interviews were carried out from August to September 2011 within an intentionally selected sample of patients distributed proportionally among the three hypotheses. Finally, in the third stage, the data obtained for each hypothetical scenario were grouped into three spatiotemporal scales: the microscale (subject), the mesoscale (locality) and macroscale (region). The results show that new transmission sites are associated with the social dynamics of cereal production and port-bound routes.

  20. Buenos Hábitos Alimenticios para Una Buena Salud: Evaluation of a Nutrition Education Program to Improve Heart Health and Brain Health in Latinas

    PubMed Central

    Otilingam, Poorni G.; Gatz, Margaret; Tello, Elizabeth; Escobar, Antonio Jose; Goldstein, Aviva; Torres, Mina; Varma, Rohit

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The goal of this research was to evaluate nutrition education targeting Latinas, a group at particular risk of obesity and diabetes, which predict to later life cardiovascular disease and dementia. Methods Culturally tailored, theory-based nutrition education was provided to Mexican origin Latinas aged 48 to 84. The randomized design compared participants in workshops incorporating the connection between dietary fat and brain health, participants in workshops focusing only on dietary fat and heart health, a waitlist control group, and a posttest only control group. Results Among those assigned to either intervention, there was statistically significant gain in health literacy, knowledge about dietary fat, and behaviors to reduce dietary fat compared to waitlist control. There was no difference in outcomes between those given the module about diet and brain health and those not provided that module. Discussion A program to encourage dietary fat modification in Latinas proved feasible and modestly effective. PMID:25231884

  1. Constraints and changes in the development of science and technology policies in Argentina's University of Buenos Aires and the National Autonomous University of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alcantara, Armando

    1999-06-01

    This dissertation is a comparison of the effects of structural adjustment on scientific and technological policies in two of the largest and most important universities of Latin America, UBA and UNAM. In its broadest sense, scientific and technological policies encompass a set of interventions, decisions, and activities of different institutions within a given society aimed to hinder or stimulate the progress of scientific research, and the application of its products to socioeconomic, political, cultural or military objectives. The methodological approach for this dissertation aimed to combine data collected at both the macro and micro levels. First, a profound examination of different bibliographical sources such as books, articles, and documents of different kinds (policy papers, national plans, and working papers), was carried out. Secondly, a series of interviews were conducted with scientists in some of the natural sciences' research centers and institutes, academic administrators and top officials of the S&T government agencies, in Argentina and Mexico, The main goal of these interviews was to understand the institutional dynamics as it was shaped by actors and processes, outside and within the two universities. This study found that the structural adjustment process in Argentina and Mexico has negatively affected the S&T policies in both UBA and UNAM. Local S&T played a original role in the two universities under scrutiny. Investments in science and technology have remained significantly low in Argentina and Mexico. In addition to this, the small amount of scientific personnel, the predominantly public characteristic of S&T funds, and the reduced number of doctoral graduates resulted in low levels of scientific output as compared with the number of publications in international scientific literature. A predominant academic orientation with few contributions to societal needs, either related to the productive sectors or to social problems such as pollution, energy, food, and health, among others, was also seen. A coherent and articulated S&T policy linking the university, the state, and the productive sectors, could only be achieved if it is included in a different economic strategy that would go beyond the limitations of the neoliberal model.

  2. Hands of Knowledge. "Adult Education, Development and Peace." Report of the World Assembly of Adult Education (Buenos Aires, Argentina, November 22-30, 1985).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stultz, Erma, Ed.

    This report, written in popular education style and designed to be readable both by adult educators and by the people with whom they work, describes a week-long meeting of the World Assembly of Adult Education. Under the general themes "Where are we?""Where are we going?" and How to do it" the report provides synopses of…

  3. Motivational Interviewing among HIV Health Care Providers: Challenges and opportunities to enhance engagement and retention in care in Buenos Aires, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Bofill, Lina; Weiss, Stephen M; Lucas, Mar; Bordato, Alejandra; Dorigo, Analia; Fernandez-Cabanillas, Graciela; Aristegui, Ines; Lopez, Maria; Waldrop-Valverde, Drenna; Jones, Deborah

    2016-01-01

    Providers’ response to Motivational Interviewing (MI) to improve engagement and retention in care among challenging patients with HIV in Argentina were evaluated. 12 HIV care physicians participated and video recordings pre- and post-MI training were obtained. One week post-training 11/12 participants were committed to using MI strategies during consult session. 9/12 participants demonstrated appropriate utilization of MI techniques and increased adherence focused discussion and care (t = 3.59, p = .006). MI appears to be a viable strategy to enhance engagement and retention in challenging HIV patients. PMID:26056148

  4. The type-material of Arctiinae (Lepidoptera, Erebidae) described by Burmeister and Berg in the collection of the Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales Bernardino Rivadavia (Buenos Aires, Argentina)

    PubMed Central

    Beccacece, Hernán M.; Vincent, Benoit; Navarro, Fernando R.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Carlos G. Burmeister and Carlos Berg were among the most important and influential naturalists and zoologists in Argentina and South America and described 241 species and 34 genera of Lepidoptera. The Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales Bernardino Rivadavia (MACN) housed some of the Lepidoptera type specimens of these authors. In this study we present a catalogue with complete information and photographs of 11 Burmeister type specimens and 10 Berg type specimens of Phaegopterina, Arctiina and Pericopina (Lepidoptera, Erebidae, Arctiinae, Arctiini) housed in the MACN. Lectotypes or holotypes were designated where primary type specimens could be recognized; in some cases we were not able to recognize types. The catalogue also proposes nomenclatural changes and new synonymies: Opharus picturata (Burmeister, 1878), comb. n.; Opharus brunnea Gaede, 1923: 7, syn. n.; Hypocrisias jonesi (Schaus, 1894), syn. n.; Leucanopsis infucata (Berg, 1882), stat. rev.; Paracles argentina (Berg, 1877), sp. rev.; Paracles uruguayensis (Berg, 1886), sp. rev. PMID:25061380

  5. Interdisciplinary approach to the ecological status assessment of Rio Quequén Grande watershed in Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teruggi, L. B.; Caporali, E.; Sala, S.; Kristensen, M. J.

    2010-12-01

    The Río Quequén Grande (RQG) watershed is located in the southeast section of Buenos Aires province, in Argentina, and it has an area of about 9.940 km2. The RQG outflows into the Atlantic Ocean, near the city of Necochea and it is a representative example of Argentinean River that drains the flat pampas of the region. The region is very important from a social and economical point of view, it is in fact characterized by intense agricultural activity and it is part of one of the most productive plain in the world. In spite of all that, the related environmental impacts, in this part of the world, are habitually faced studying specific aspects and using local measures, which often lead to the collapse of the living riverine systems. In this frame, the integration of all the available data, coupled with specific data from appropriate monitoring campaigns is proposed. Particularly geological, hydrological and geomorphological data are integrated with biological monitoring data for surface water quality assessment. Concepts like biotic integrity or ecological status are introduced to effectively protect and enhance water resources. The aim of the research is to recognize natural and anthropogenic spatial heterogeneity and to test methodologies for ecological status assessment of RQG watershed, integrating abiotic and biotic data together with all the available information. A dedicated Geographic Information System (GIS) is developed and an interdisciplinary approach is implemented. The watershed is characterized, using an integrated informative system of geological, geomorphological, sedimentological, hydrological, geochemical, land uses and biological information. Textural and geochemical river bed sediments data and water chemical parameters of the main tributaries and the main course were also monitored. Bankfull channel and caliche outcrops crossing the RQG channel were mapped and the fluvial cross sections were surveyed. The hydrological and hydraulic analyses

  6. Hybrid Incompatibility in Arabidopsis Is Determined by a Multiple-Locus Genetic Network1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Burkart-Waco, Diana; Josefsson, Caroline; Dilkes, Brian; Kozloff, Nora; Torjek, Otto; Meyer, Rhonda; Altmann, Thomas; Comai, Luca

    2012-01-01

    The cross between Arabidopsis thaliana and the closely related species Arabidopsis arenosa results in postzygotic hybrid incompatibility, manifested as seed death. Ecotypes of A. thaliana were tested for their ability to produce live seed when crossed to A. arenosa. The identified genetic variation was used to map quantitative trait loci (QTLs) encoded by the A. thaliana genome that affect the frequency of postzygotic lethality and the phenotypes of surviving seeds. Seven QTLs affecting the A. thaliana component of this hybrid incompatibility were identified by crossing a Columbia × C24 recombinant inbred line population to diploid A. arenosa pollen donors. Additional epistatic loci were identified based on their pairwise interaction with one or several of these QTLs. Epistatic interactions were detected for all seven QTLs. The two largest additive QTLs were subjected to fine-mapping, indicating the action of at least two genes in each. The topology of this network reveals a large set of minor-effect loci from the maternal genome controlling hybrid growth and viability at different developmental stages. Our study establishes a framework that will enable the identification and characterization of genes and pathways in A. thaliana responsible for hybrid lethality in the A. thaliana × A. arenosa interspecific cross. PMID:22135429

  7. The Effects of Spall on m(b) and M(s)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-04-04

    HARDHAT 02-15-62 37 116 5.9 287 .12 .44 CHINCHILLA I 02-19-62 37 116 1.8 150 .17 .51 PLATYPUS 02-24-62 37 116 0-20 58 .07 .15 PAMPAS 03-01-62 37 116 0...16 1.78 335 .12 .51 PLATYPUS 15 .05 .86 32 .04 .51 PAMPAS 15 .20 17.02 ERMINE 15 .03 .43 A- 1 APPENDIX Continued Surface Particle Velocity Data

  8. The Ecstasy and the Agony: Administrative Success on One Level Does Not Guarantee Success on Another.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oberg, Terry J.

    1986-01-01

    Desribes the case of Carlos Bueno, a fictional elementary school principal who transforms a racially troubled school into a model of cooperation and excellence. Bueno is later appointed principal of an unruly junior high school, with disastrous results. Readers are asked to study Bueno's failure and decide the beleaguered superintendent's best…

  9. Confirmatory factor analysis of the Drive for Muscularity Scale-S (DMS-S) and Male Body Attitudes Scale-S (MBAS-S) among male university students in Buenos Aires.

    PubMed

    Compte, Emilio J; Sepúlveda, Ana R; de Pellegrin, Yolanda; Blanco, Miriam

    2015-06-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that men express body dissatisfaction differently than women. Although specific instruments that address body dissatisfaction in men have been developed, only a few have been validated in Latin-American male populations. The aim of this study was to reassess the factor structure of the Spanish versions of the Drive for Muscularity Scale (DMS-S) and the Male Body Attitudes Scale (MBAS-S) in an Argentinian sample. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 423 male students to examine: the factorial structure (confirmatory factor analysis), the internal consistency reliability, and the concurrent, convergent and discriminant validity of both scales. Results replicated the two factor structures for the DMS-S and MBAS-S. Both scales showed excellent levels of internal consistency, and various measures of construct validity indicated that the DMS-S and MBAS-S were acceptable and valid instruments to assess body dissatisfaction in Argentinian males.

  10. [Exploratory study of dietary intake and prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in women ≥ 65 years old living in their family home or in public homes of Buenos Aires city, Argentina].

    PubMed

    Brito, Graciela Mabel; Mastaglia, Silvina Rosana; Goedelmann, Celeste; Seijo, Mariana; Somoza, Julia; Oliveri, Beatriz

    2013-01-01

    El estado nutricional y factores socioambientales influyen sobre la salud y calidad de vida del adulto mayor. Ingestas inadecuadas de proteínas, calcio y vitamina D afectan la salud ósea. Objetivos: 1) Evaluar el aporte de energía, proteínas, calcio y vitamina D en mujeres ≥65 años; 2) Analizar según el lugar de residencia: hogar familiar (HF) o residencias semicautivas (RSC); 3) Evaluar la relación entre ingesta y parámetros bioquímicos. Población: 44 mujeres ambulatorias y clínicamente sanas de (X ± DE) 75 ± 7 años, índice de masa corporal 28 ± 4 kg/m2. Métodos: 1) Cuestionarios de frecuencia de consumo de alimentos, exposición solar y nivel socioeconómico. 2) Laboratorio: En suero: 25-hidroxivitamina D (25OHD), crosslaps (CTX), calcio (Cas), fósforo y fosfatasa alcalina ósea e Índice calcio/creatinina (Cau/Cru) en orina de 2 h. Resultados: El grupo total presentó ingestas inferiores a las recomendadas excepto en proteínas, con déficit mayor en RSC. El 88 % presentó deficiencia de vitamina D (25OHD < 20 ng/ml). Se halló correlación positiva entre 25OHD e ingesta de vitamina D (r = 0,46; p < 0,007) y correlación negativa entre 25OHD y CTX en aquellas con niveles < 15 ng/ml (r = -0,51; p < 0,03). Los niveles de 25OHD, Cas y Cau/Cru fueron mayores en HF que RSC. Conclusión: La alta prevalencia de déficit de vitamina D, ingesta inadecuada de calcio y vitamina D en mujeres añosas constituye un factor de riesgo para la salud ósea. Se requieren programas de educación alimentaria y eventual suplementación con vitamina D enfatizados en grupos de mayor riesgo como RSC.

  11. The Secondary Education Curriculum in Latin America: New Tendencies and Changes. Final Report of the Seminar Organized by the International Bureau of Education and Held at the International Institute for Educational Planning (Buenos Aires, Argentina, September 2-3, 1999).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braslavsky, Cecilia

    This report was presented and discussed at a seminar on "The Secondary Education Curriculum in Latin America: The View of Specialists" which took place at UNESCO's International Institute for Educational Planning. It also incorporates information and comments put forward at the seminar by participants from Argentina, Chile, Uruguay, and…

  12. The Choiyoi Group from central Argentina: a subalkaline transitional to alkaline association in the craton adjacent to the active margin of the Gondwana continent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llambías, Eduardo J.; Quenardelle, Sonia; Montenegro, Teresita

    2003-08-01

    Permian and Lower Triassic igneous rocks from La Pampa province, central Argentina, are part of the Choiyoi Group, whose extension in Argentina exceeds 500,000 km 2. In La Pampa, the distribution of these outcrops occurs along a NW-SE belt that cuts obliquely across the N-S structures of the Lower Paleozoic rocks. The basement of the Choiyoi Group in western La Pampa consists of Mesoproterozoic to Lower Paleozoic rocks that form part of the exotic Cuyania terrane. In central La Pampa, the basement consists of Lower Paleozoic igneous and metamorphic rocks affected by the Lower Paleozoic Famatinian orogeny. The Choiyoi Group from La Pampa shares features with the Choiyoi Group elsewhere, such as an abundance of mesosilicic to silicic ignimbrites, subvolcanic domes, and granite plutons emplaced at sallow levels. In La Pampa, we recognize two suites: shoshonitic and trachydacitic to rhyolitic. The shoshonite suite is overlain by trachydacites and rhyolites. The plutonic rocks that belong to the cupola of the intrusive bodies are monzogranitic. The most significant difference between the Choiyoi Group from La Pampa and that from the Cordillera Frontal and the San Rafael block is that the San Rafael orogenic phase (Lower Permian) is not obvious in La Pampa. Therefore, we cannot attribute to the Choiyoi Group a postorogenic character, as in the Cordillera Frontal or the San Rafael Block. This difference in the tectonic setting is reflected in the composition of the igneous rocks of La Pampa, in that they generally have a higher alkali content with respect to silica, a weak enrichment in TiO 2, and a depletion in CaO. Both suites are transitional from subalkaline to alkaline series. The shoshonitic suite is rich in clinopyroxene and apatite. Whole-rock compositions have high content of P 2O 5 (0.5-3.9%) and Sr (1320-1890 ppm). Zr is weakly enriched (273-502 ppm), and Nb (29-37 ppm) is depleted. The Th (16-45 ppm) and U (3-14 ppm) content is high. We postulate a crustal

  13. A modified parallel artificial membrane permeability assay for evaluating the bioconcentration of highly hydrophobic chemicals in fish.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Jung-Hwan; Escher, Beate I

    2008-03-01

    Low cost in vitro tools are needed at the screening stage of assessment of bioaccumulation potential of new and existing chemicals because the number of chemical substances that needs to be tested highly exceeds the capacity of in vivo bioconcentration tests. Thus, the parallel artificial membrane permeability assay (PAMPA) system was modified to predict passive uptake/ elimination rate in fish. To overcome the difficulties associated with low aqueous solubility and high membrane affinity of highly hydrophobic chemicals, we measured the rate of permeation from the donor poly(dimethylsiloxane)(PDMS) disk to the acceptor PDMS disk through aqueous and PDMS membrane boundary layers and term the modified PAMPA system "PDMS-PAMPA". Twenty chemicals were selected for validation of PDMS-PAMPA. The measured permeability is proportional to the passive elimination rate constant in fish and was used to predict the "minimum" in vivo elimination rate constant. The in vivo data were very close to predicted values except for a few polar chemicals and metabolically active chemicals, such as pyrene and benzo[a]pyrene. Thus, PDMS-PAMPA can be an appropriate in vitro system for nonmetabolizable chemicals. Combination with metabolic clearance rates using a battery of metabolic degradation assays would enhance the applicability for metabolizable chemicals.

  14. Borrowed alleles and convergence in serpentine adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, Brian J.; Lahner, Brett; DaCosta, Jeffrey M.; Weisman, Caroline M.; Hollister, Jesse D.; Salt, David E.; Bomblies, Kirsten; Yant, Levi

    2016-01-01

    Serpentine barrens represent extreme hazards for plant colonists. These sites are characterized by high porosity leading to drought, lack of essential mineral nutrients, and phytotoxic levels of metals. Nevertheless, nature forged populations adapted to these challenges. Here, we use a population-based evolutionary genomic approach coupled with elemental profiling to assess how autotetraploid Arabidopsis arenosa adapted to a multichallenge serpentine habitat in the Austrian Alps. We first demonstrate that serpentine-adapted plants exhibit dramatically altered elemental accumulation levels in common conditions, and then resequence 24 autotetraploid individuals from three populations to perform a genome scan. We find evidence for highly localized selective sweeps that point to a polygenic, multitrait basis for serpentine adaptation. Comparing our results to a previous study of independent serpentine colonizations in the closely related diploid Arabidopsis lyrata in the United Kingdom and United States, we find the highest levels of differentiation in 11 of the same loci, providing candidate alleles for mediating convergent evolution. This overlap between independent colonizations in different species suggests that a limited number of evolutionary strategies are suited to overcome the multiple challenges of serpentine adaptation. Interestingly, we detect footprints of selection in A. arenosa in the context of substantial gene flow from nearby off-serpentine populations of A. arenosa, as well as from A. lyrata. In several cases, quantitative tests of introgression indicate that some alleles exhibiting strong selective sweep signatures appear to have been introgressed from A. lyrata. This finding suggests that migrant alleles may have facilitated adaptation of A. arenosa to this multihazard environment. PMID:27357660

  15. New L Chondrites from Antofagasta, Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, R.; Zolensky, M.; Martinez de Los Rios, E.

    1992-07-01

    Desert regions can be productive meteorite recovery locations because of low humidity, minimal ground cover and, in favorable situations, high prevailing winds to deflate surfaces. For these reasons we have made reconnaissance searches of a particularly arid Atacama Desert tract between Antofagasta and Mejillones, Chile (approx. 23 degrees 15'S, 70 degrees 30'W). One of us (EMR) had previously collected new ordinary chondrites from this same area, which has been named Pampa (a), (b), (c), and (e). The Pampa de Agua Blanca (PAB) chondrite is also apparently from this same area. In our brief 1991 reconnaissance we found additional specimens of (a) and (c). All of these meteorites have been found as multiple stones, necessitating pairing studies. Consequently, we examined our finds (a, b, c, and e), borrowed specimens from the Field Museum (a, b, PAB) and Robert Haag (c), and have performed the first detailed studies of the Pampa meteorites. Here we summarize results of these studies. Shock levels refer to the classification developed by Stoffler et al. (1991). PAMPA (a): This weathered meteorite is represented by several partially fusion-crusted fragments with a combined mass of approximately 380 g. No distinct chondrules are evident in thin section, although some chondrule fragments are present; considerable recrystallization is evident and plagioclase (Ab(sub)80Or5-Ab(sub)83Or(sub)5) is present as clear grains. Diopside and hydroxylapatite are also present. Olivine (Fo(sub)75.0 mean, 0.4% mean deviation-PMD) exhibits no shock effects. We classify Pampa (a) as L6, shock level 1. PAMPA (b): This is a weathered meteorite represented by numerous individual stones with a combined weight of approximately 10 kg. We examined thin sections from four individual stones of (b). A few distinct barred chondrules are evident in thin section, along with numerous chondrule and aggregate fragments. Olivine (Fo(sub)74.8 mean, 0.9 PMD) exhibits undulatory extinction, planar fractures

  16. Selection, isolation, and identification of fungi for bioherbicide production.

    PubMed

    Souza, Angélica Rossana Castro de; Baldoni, Daiana Bortoluzzi; Lima, Jessica; Porto, Vitória; Marcuz, Camila; Machado, Carolina; Ferraz, Rafael Camargo; Kuhn, Raquel C; Jacques, Rodrigo J S; Guedes, Jerson V C; Mazutti, Marcio A

    Production of a bioherbicide for biological control of weeds requires a series of steps, from selection of a suitable microbial strain to final formulation. Thus, this study aimed to select fungi for production of secondary metabolites with herbicidal activity using biological resources of the Brazilian Pampa biome. Phytopathogenic fungi were isolated from infected tissues of weeds in the Pampa biome. A liquid synthetic culture medium was used for production of metabolites. The phytotoxicity of fungal metabolites was assessed via biological tests using the plant Cucumis sativus L., and the most promising strain was identified by molecular analysis. Thirty-nine fungi were isolated, and 28 presented some phytotoxic symptoms against the target plant. Fungus VP51 belonging to the genus Diaporthe showed the most pronounced herbicidal activity. The Brazilian Pampa biome is a potential resource for the development of new and sustainable chemical compounds for modern agriculture.

  17. The Falklands/Malvinas 1982: Why Didn’t Argentina Win the War?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    Command Structure and Its Impact on Land Operations during the Falklands/Malvinas War (1982).” Manuscript, Universidad del CEMA , Buenos Aires, 2006...1982).” Manuscript, Universidad del CEMA , Buenos Aires, September 2004, www.ucema.edu.ar/publicaciones. 38 Girrier, Robert Paul. “Lessons from...Operations during the Falklands/Malvinas War (1982)” (Student Thesis, Universidad del CEMA , Buenos Aires, 2006), 9. 26 J. C. D‟Odorico, “An Exclusive

  18. Modeling for Improved Minimum Resolvable Temperature Difference Measurements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-09-01

    and Computer Engineering Naval Postgraduate School Monterey, California 93943 7. Comando de Operaciones Navales 1 Edificio Libertad Comodoro Py 2055...Buenos Aires (1104) Republica Argentina 8. Direccibn General de Instrucci6n Naval 1 Edificio Libertad Comodoro Py 2055 Buenos Aires (1104) Republica...Argentina 93 9. Comando de la Flota de Mar 1 Edificio Libertad Comodoro Py 2055 Buenos Aires (1104) Repihl ica Argentina 10. Agregaci6n Naval Argentina

  19. Immune Serum Produced by DNA Vaccination Protects Hamsters against Lethal Respiratory Challenge with Andes Virus

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-02-01

    pulmonary syndrome in Argentina. Possibility of person to person transmission. Medicina (Buenos Aires) 56: 709–711. 8. Ferres, M., P. Vial, C. Marco, L...transmission of Andes virus. Medicina (Buenos Aires) 58(Suppl. 1):27–36. 20. Padula, P. J., A. Edelstein, S. D. Miguel, N. M. Lopez, C. M. Rossi, and R

  20. Mystery #17 Answer

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-22

    ... The native grasslands of the Pampas are reknowned for the scarcity of trees. Although there has been forest loss in surrounding regions, ... 7.   In the same year in which this image was acquired, a water contamination event occurred and residents of the aforementioned city ...

  1. Actions to Abate Critical Threats, Such as Encroachment and Invasive Species, Using GIS and Conservation Area Planning Across the Gulf Coastal Plain Ecosystem Partnership (GCPEP) Landscape, Phase 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-22

    2 Japanese Honeysuckle (Lonicera japonica) 2 Lantana (Lantana camara) 2 Vasey Grass (Paspalum urvillei) 1 Pampas Grass 1 Camphor Tree...Urban interface Main base 10+ Yes Treat 10. Camphor Road edges 1+ Yes Treat 29 PARTNER INVASIVE ASSESSMENT REPLIES Agency/Organization: __DOD

  2. Evaluation of physicochemical properties and intestinal permeability of six dietary polyphenols in human intestinal colon adenocarcinoma Caco-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Rastogi, Himanshu; Jana, Snehasis

    2016-02-01

    Phenolic compounds are common ingredients in many dietary supplements and functional foods. However, data concerning physicochemical properties and permeability of polyphenols on the intestinal epithelial cells are scarce. The aims of this study were to determine the experimental partition coefficient (Log P), and parallel artificial membrane permeability assay (PAMPA), to characterize the bi-directional transport of six phenolic compounds viz. caffeic acid, chrysin, gallic acid, quercetin, resveratrol and rutin in Caco-2 cells. The experimental Log P values of six polyphenols were correlated (R (2) = 0.92) well with the calculated Log P values. The apparent permeability (P app) range of all polyphenols in PAMPA for the apical (AP) to basolateral (BL) was 1.18 ± 0.05 × 10(-6) to 5.90 ± 0.16 × 10(-6) cm/s. The apparent Caco-2 permeability (P app) range for the AP-BL was 0.96 ± 0.03 × 10(-6) to 3.80 ± 0.45 × 10(-6) cm/s. The efflux ratio of P app (BL → AP) to P app (AP → BL) for all phenolics was <2, suggesting greater permeability in the absorptive direction. Six compounds exhibited strong correlations between Log P and PAMPA/Caco-2 cell monolayer permeation data. Dietary six polyphenols were poorly absorbed through PAMPA and Caco-2 cells, and their transepithelial transports were mainly by passive diffusion.

  3. Investigation of the Efficacy of Transdermal Penetration Enhancers Through the Use of Human Skin and a Skin Mimic Artificial Membrane.

    PubMed

    Balázs, Boglárka; Vizserálek, Gábor; Berkó, Szilvia; Budai-Szűcs, Mária; Kelemen, András; Sinkó, Bálint; Takács-Novák, Krisztina; Szabó-Révész, Piroska; Csányi, Erzsébet

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the behavior of promising penetration enhancers through the use of 2 different skin test systems. Hydrogel-based transdermal formulations were developed with ibuprofen as a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug. Transcutol and sucrose esters were used as biocompatible penetration enhancers. The permeability measurements were performed with ex vivo Franz diffusion cell methods and a newly developed Skin Parallel Artificial Membrane Permeability Assays (PAMPA) model. Franz diffusion measurement is commonly used as a research tool in studies of diffusion through synthetic membranes in vitro or penetration through ex vivo human skin, whereas Skin PAMPA involves recently published artificial membrane-based technology for the fast prediction of skin penetration. It is a 96-well plate-based model with optimized artificial membrane structure containing free fatty acid, cholesterol, and synthetic ceramide analog compounds to mimic the stratum corneum barrier function. Transdermal preparations containing 2.64% of different sucrose esters and/or Transcutol and a constant (5%) of ibuprofen were investigated to determine the effects of these penetration enhancers. The study demonstrated the good correlation of the permeability data obtained through use of human skin membrane and the in vitro Skin PAMPA system. The Skin PAMPA artificial membrane serves as quick and relatively deep tool in the early stages of transdermal delivery systems, through which the enhancing efficacy of excipients can be screened so as to facilitate the choice of effective penetration components.

  4. Self-Assessed Disability and Self-Rated Health among Rural Villagers in Peru: A Brief Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohrer, James E.; Merry, Stephen P.; Thacher, Thomas D.; Summers, Matthew R.; Alpern, Jonathan D.; Contino, Robert W.

    2010-01-01

    Context: Risks for poor self-rated overall health in rural areas of developing nations have not been thoroughly investigated. Purpose: The objective of this study was to assess potential risk factors for poor self-rated health among rural villagers in Peru. Methods: A door-to-door survey of villagers residing in the Pampas Grande region in Peru,…

  5. QSAR application for the prediction of compound permeability with in silico descriptors in practical use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakao, Kazuya; Fujikawa, Masaaki; Shimizu, Ryo; Akamatsu, Miki

    2009-05-01

    The parallel artificial membrane permeation assay (PAMPA) was developed as a model for the prediction of transcellular permeation in the process of drug absorption. In our previous report, it was revealed that PAMPA permeability is governed by log P, p K a, and the hydrogen-bonding ability of compounds. In order to construct a new filtering method for selecting informative compounds from the whole combinatorial library, this study tried to predict PAMPA permeability with in silico descriptors. Log P, p K a, and polar surface areas (PSA) as a hydrogen-bonding descriptor were calculated by commercially available or free-accessible web programs. Five-fold cross-validations and conventional regression analyses were examined with the training set for the entire 81 combinations with nine log P, three p K a and three PSA descriptors. By comparison of statistical indices, four equations were selected and then the model with the best combination of in silico descriptors was determined based on the external validation. The PAMPA prediction equation obtained in this report could be applied for the prediction of both Caco-2 cell permeability and human intestinal absorption of mainly passively-transported drugs.

  6. Recent grazing impacts on the earth recorded in the Rio Cuarto crater field, Argentina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schultz, Peter H.; Lianza, Ruben E.

    1992-01-01

    An anomalous alignment of oblong rimmed depressions has been observed on the otherwise featureless farmland of the Argentine Pampas. It is argued here, from sample analysis and by analogy with laboratory experiments, that the structure resulted from a low-angle impact and ricochet of a chondritic body originally 150-300 m in diameter.

  7. Genome Sequencing Reveals the Origin of the Allotetraploid Arabidopsis suecica.

    PubMed

    Novikova, Polina Yu; Tsuchimatsu, Takashi; Simon, Samson; Nizhynska, Viktoria; Voronin, Viktor; Burns, Robin; Fedorenko, Olga M; Holm, Svante; Säll, Torbjörn; Prat, Elisa; Marande, William; Castric, Vincent; Nordborg, Magnus

    2017-04-01

    Polyploidy is an example of instantaneous speciation when it involves the formation of a new cytotype that is incompatible with the parental species. Because new polyploid individuals are likely to be rare, establishment of a new species is unlikely unless polyploids are able to reproduce through self-fertilization (selfing), or asexually. Conversely, selfing (or asexuality) makes it possible for polyploid species to originate from a single individual-a bona fide speciation event. The extent to which this happens is not known. Here, we consider the origin of Arabidopsis suecica, a selfing allopolyploid between Arabidopsis thaliana and Arabidopsis arenosa, which has hitherto been considered to be an example of a unique origin. Based on whole-genome re-sequencing of 15 natural A. suecica accessions, we identify ubiquitous shared polymorphism with the parental species, and hence conclusively reject a unique origin in favor of multiple founding individuals. We further estimate that the species originated after the last glacial maximum in Eastern Europe or central Eurasia (rather than Sweden, as the name might suggest). Finally, annotation of the self-incompatibility loci in A. suecica revealed that both loci carry non-functional alleles. The locus inherited from the selfing A. thaliana is fixed for an ancestral non-functional allele, whereas the locus inherited from the outcrossing A. arenosa is fixed for a novel loss-of-function allele. Furthermore, the allele inherited from A. thaliana is predicted to transcriptionally silence the allele inherited from A. arenosa, suggesting that loss of self-incompatibility may have been instantaneous.

  8. Summary of Synoptic Meteorological Observations (SSMO). South America and Selected Island Coastal Marine Areas, East Coast. Volume 2. Area 9-Rio de Janeiro, Area 10-Florianopolis, Area 11-Porto Alegre, Area 12-Buenos Aires, Area 13-Bahia Blanca, Area 14-Rawson, Area 15-Puerto Deseado, Area 16-Magellan Strain East.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-06-01

    its 7.10 10. TOTAL HOM 4190 (000 (1000 10004 NM 4116 TOTAL us$Y 0o#, clove (SOY (I ANDS* AND I* 065 00605 .R .1 .6 $,*15, 6s$ 1.9 MI0 00605 .7 1.7 7.6...14.4 24.4 2.6 390 ?.2 S?.7 TOTAL Ito R99 $45 219 242 274 M6 194 ?OTAC NMINBE OP 061l 10*5 PC? PAIR NH (5/63 Ga.$ -TABLE -7A P5CINTAGE PoEl OP Cow CLOves

  9. Stochastic and epigenetic changes of gene expression in Arabidopsis polyploids.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jianlin; Tian, Lu; Madlung, Andreas; Lee, Hyeon-Se; Chen, Meng; Lee, Jinsuk J; Watson, Brian; Kagochi, Trevor; Comai, Luca; Chen, Z Jeffrey

    2004-01-01

    Polyploidization is an abrupt speciation mechanism for eukaryotes and is especially common in plants. However, little is known about patterns and mechanisms of gene regulation during early stages of polyploid formation. Here we analyzed differential expression patterns of the progenitors' genes among successive selfing generations and independent lineages. The synthetic Arabidopsis allotetraploid lines were produced by a genetic cross between A. thaliana and A. arenosa autotetraploids. We found that some progenitors' genes are differentially expressed in early generations, whereas other genes are silenced in late generations or among different siblings within a selfing generation, suggesting that the silencing of progenitors' genes is rapidly and/or stochastically established. Moreover, a subset of genes is affected in autotetraploid and multiple independent allotetraploid lines and in A. suecica, a natural allotetraploid derived from A. thaliana and A. arenosa, indicating locus-specific susceptibility to ploidy-dependent gene regulation. The role of DNA methylation in silencing progenitors' genes is tested in DNA-hypomethylation transgenic lines of A. suecica using RNA interference (RNAi). Two silenced genes are reactivated in both ddm1- and met1-RNAi lines, consistent with the demethylation of centromeric repeats and gene-specific regions in the genome. A rapid and stochastic process of differential gene expression is reinforced by epigenetic regulation during polyploid formation and evolution. PMID:15342533

  10. New host records for four species of tortricid moths (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) on cultivated blueberries, Vaccinium corymbosum (Ericaceae), in Argentina

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Four species of tortricids were reared from cultivated blueberries, Vaccinium corymbosum L. (Ericaceae), from four field sites in the province of Buenos Aires, Argentina: Clarkeulia bourquini (Clarke, 1949), Clarkeulia deceptiva (Clarke, 1949), Argyrotaenia spheralopa (Meyrick, 1909), and Platynota ...

  11. 75 FR 65383 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Telemanagement Forum

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-22

    ... De Telecommunicaciones De Bogota S.A.E.S.P, Bogota, COLOMBIA; e-Stratega S.R.L., Olivos, Buenos Aires..., UNITED KINGDOM; RiverMuse, London, UNITED KINGDOM; RRD SRL--Reti Radiotelevisive Digitali Srl, Milano,...

  12. Organosilicon Compounds and Polymers and Silicon Ceramics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-11-23

    X Congreso Nacional de la Academia Mexicana de Quimica Inorganica (Zacatecas, Mexico; invited speaker) Institute of Materials Science, University of...Central Research and Development Department, du Pont (Wilmington, DE) Alcoa Technical Center XIX Congreso Latinoamericano de Quimica (Buenos Aires

  13. Source Hierarchy List. Volume 1. A through D

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-07-01

    AIRES UNIV (ARGENTINA) 403366 CENTRO DE INVESTIGACIONES CARDIOLOGICAS 02 BUENOS AIRES UNIV (ARGENTINA) 400190 INSTITUTO DE ANATOMIA GENERAL Y...AIRES UNIV (ARGENTINA) INSTITUTO OE ANATOMIA GENERAL Y EMBRIOIOGIA 066325 068300 403366 400190

  14. Circular structures of Bajada del Diablo (Argentina): geophysical signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prezzi, C. B.; Orgeira, M. J.; Martinez, O.; Acevedo, R. D.; Ponce, F.; Goldmann, G.; Magneres, I.; Rabassa, J.

    2016-05-01

    Bajada del Diablo is located in the Northern Patagonian Massif, Chubut, Argentina. The study area includes several circular structures found in Miocene olivine basalts of the Quiñelaf Eruptive Complex and in the Late Pliocene/Early Pleistocene Pampa Sastre conglomerates. An impact origin has been proposed for these circular structures. With the aim of further investigate the proposed impact origin, topographic, gravimetric, magnetic, resistivity, palaeomagnetic and electromagnetic surveys in two circular structures (`8' and `G') located in Pampa Sastre conglomerates and in basalts of the Quiñelaf Eruptive Complex were carried out. The new geophysical results support the hypothesis of an impact origin. However, the confirmation of such an origin through the findings of shock metamorphism evidences and/or the recovery of meteorites remains elusive.

  15. Comment on "Dynamic topography in South America" by Federico M. Dávila & Carolina Lithgow-Bertelloni

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hechenleitner, E. Martín; Fiorelli, Lucas E.; Larrovere, Mariano A.; Grellet-Tinner, Gerald; Carignano, Ana P.

    2014-03-01

    In their article Dávila and Lithgow-Bertelloni (2013) propose that the Andes have been isostatically uncompensated throughout the Cenozoic and that additional forces induced by mantle flow were required to explain the observed topographies. Although this hypothesis seems plausible, they provide a regional model of "the Bermejo-Pampas foreland of Argentina" which implies that the deposition of the Los Llanos Formation (in La Rioja, NW Argentina) occurred during Miocene. However, this age is incongruent with the presence of a neosauropod nesting site at Sanagasta and a Cretaceous faunal assemblage in Tama both in Los Llanos Formation and well documented in recent publications. Therefore, the proposed model for "the Bermejo-Pampas foreland of Argentina" appears incorrect. Moreover, the Cretaceous exposures at Sanagasta and Tama foster the need of revising the alleged Cenozoic age of the Los Llanos Formation in La Rioja and neighboring provinces, and the tectonic models associated with this formation.

  16. In Vitro Permeation of Micronized and Nanonized Alaptide from Semisolid Formulations

    PubMed Central

    Opatrilova, Radka; Cernikova, Aneta; Coufalova, Lenka; Dohnal, Jiri

    2013-01-01

    This study is focused on in vitro permeation of the original Czech compound, a skin/mucosa tissue regeneration promoter, known under the international nonproprietary name “alaptide,” in micronized and nanonized forms. Alaptide showed a great potential for local applications for treatment and/or regeneration of the injured skin. The above mentioned technological modifications influence the permeation of alaptide through artificial or biological membranes, such as PAMPA or skin. The permeation of micronized and nanonized form of alaptide formulated to various semisolid pharmaceutical compositions through full-thickness pig ear skin using a Franz cell has been investigated in detail. In general, it can be concluded that the nanonized alaptide permeated through the skin less than the micronized form; different observations were made for permeation through the PAMPA system, where the micronized form showed lower permeation than the nanonized alaptide. PMID:24453907

  17. Instances of Use of United States Armed Forces Abroad, 1798-2001

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-02-05

    authorized U.S. military action by statute. 1806— Mexico (Spanish territory). Capt. Z . M. Pike, with a platoon of troops, invaded Spanish territory at...plundering the American ship Friendship. 1833— Argentina. October 31 to November 15. A force was sent ashore at Buenos Aires to protect the interests of...February 3 to 12, 1852; September 17, 1852 to April 1853. Marines were landed and maintained in Buenos Aires to protect American interests during a

  18. Instances of Use of United States Armed Forces Abroad, 1798-2007

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-12

    1806 Mexico (Spanish territory). Capt. Z . M. Pike, with a platoon of troops, invaded Spanish territory at the headwaters of the Rio Grande on orders...ship Friendship. 1833 Argentina. October 31 to November 15. A force was sent ashore at Buenos Aires to protect the interests of the United States and...1852; September 17, 1852 to April 1853. Marines were landed and maintained in Buenos Aires to protect American interests during a revolution. 1853

  19. Instances of Use of United States Armed Forces Abroad, 1798-2007

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-14

    statute. 1806 Mexico (Spanish territory). Capt. Z . M. Pike, with a platoon of troops, invaded Spanish territory at the headwaters of the Rio Grande on...American ship Friendship. 1833 Argentina. October 31 to November 15. A force was sent ashore at Buenos Aires to protect the interests of the United...to 12, 1852; September 17, 1852 to April 1853. Marines were landed and maintained in Buenos Aires to protect American interests during a revolution

  20. Free Trade With Mexico and U.S. National Security

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-02-22

    North American Free Trade and Investment: Canada. Mexico and The United States, ed. Clark W. Reynolds, Leonard Waverman, and Gerardo Bueno (Stanford...and the United States, ed. Clark W. Reynolds, Leonard Waverman, and Gerardo Bueno , 241-252. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1991. U.S...NUMBER 8c ADDRESS (Oty, State, and Z /P Code) 10. SOURCE OF FUNDING NUMBERS PROGRAM ELEMENT NO. 11. TITLE (Indudt Security Cltaifkation) FREE TRADE

  1. Air and Space Power Journal. Volume 16, Number 3, Fall 2002

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-01-01

    the conflict a conventional war to seize or hold territory ? Is it an unconventional guerrilla struggle? Is it an insurgency supported by a third...who simply did not un­ derstand the German dictator’s perspective, believed that accepting his territorial claims to predominantly German areas of...Bartolomé, El Conflicto Del Atlántico Sur (Buenos Aires: Circulo Militar, 1996); and Carlos Augusto Landaburu, La Guerra de las Malvinas (Buenos Aires

  2. Low Ultraviolet B and Increased Risk of Brain Cancer: An Ecological Study of 175 Countries

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-07-01

    Mean Author Year Journal Location 25(OH)D ng/ml Mazess et al. 1985 Am J Clin Nutr Alaska, USA 16.6 Oliveri et al. 1990 Medicina Buenos Aires...Clin Nutr USA 32.9 Rucker et al. 2002 Cmaj Calgary, Canada 23.8 Tangpricha et al. 2002 Am J Med USA 29.1 Fassi et al. 2003 Medicina Buenos Aires

  3. Latin America Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Fishery Agreement 5 Mexican, Honduran Electrical Agreement 5 ARGENTINA CGT Presents 21-Point ’National Proposal’ (BUENOS AIRES HERALD, 31 Jul 85...Spanish 1425 GMT 2 Jul 85] CSO: 3248/453 JPRS-LAM-85-072 23 August 1985 ARGENTINA CGT PRESENTS 21-POINT ’NATIONAL PROPOSAL’ PY312351 Buenos Aires...August 1985 ARGENTINA BRIEFS COMMUNIST SUSPECTED MURDERER ARRESTED—(NA-DYN)—Domingo Valenzuela, suspected murderer of Villa Corina Communist

  4. South Atlantic Omega Validation. Volume 1. Summary, Analysis, Appendices A-E.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-01

    DATA BASE 3SITE JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOVIDEC * ~ AREQUIPA - * * * * * I ASCENSION * ** 3 ~BUENOS AIRES * ** ** NATAL ** I...AUGUST NVDIBr _ _ _00 0600 � 0600 11800 06010 AREQUIPA ’ 2 1 26 27 S 4 23 19 ASCENSION 14 14 BUENOS AIRES 21 24 16 16 2S 2𔄀 NATAL 2 2 10 12 1S 13 66 I

  5. Intraregional Migration and Social Mobility: A Study of Europeans in the Southern Cone, 1880-1914

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-11-04

    Geografia y Historia , 1964), p. 223. 27 Coffee production was first brought to Rio de Janeiro province in the 17 90s, and spread into the Paraiba...Inmigracion, vol. 6. Mexico, D.F.: Instituto Panamericano de Geografia e Historia , 1990. p. 151.58 From this table, it is evident that the...Geografia e Historia , 1987), p. 121. 11 Ibid. - • - 12 James Scobie, Revolution on the Pampas: A Social History of Argentine Wheat, 1860-1910 (Austin

  6. Groundwater flow in a closed basin with a saline shallow lake in a volcanic area: Laguna Tuyajto, northern Chilean Altiplano of the Andes.

    PubMed

    Herrera, Christian; Custodio, Emilio; Chong, Guillermo; Lambán, Luis Javier; Riquelme, Rodrigo; Wilke, Hans; Jódar, Jorge; Urrutia, Javier; Urqueta, Harry; Sarmiento, Alvaro; Gamboa, Carolina; Lictevout, Elisabeth

    2016-01-15

    Laguna Tuyajto is a small, shallow saline water lake in the Andean Altiplano of northern Chile. In the eastern side it is fed by springs that discharge groundwater of the nearby volcanic aquifers. The area is arid: rainfall does not exceed 200mm/year in the rainiest parts. The stable isotopic content of spring water shows that the recharge is originated mainly from winter rain, snow melt, and to a lesser extent from some short and intense sporadic rainfall events. Most of the spring water outflowing in the northern side of Laguna Tuyajto is recharged in the Tuyajto volcano. Most of the spring water in the eastern side and groundwater are recharged at higher elevations, in the rims of the nearby endorheic basins of Pampa Colorada and Pampa Las Tecas to the East. The presence of tritium in some deep wells in Pampa Colorada and Pampa Las Tecas indicates recent recharge. Gas emission in recent volcanoes increase the sulfate content of atmospheric deposition and this is reflected in local groundwater. The chemical composition and concentration of spring waters are the result of meteoric water evapo-concentration, water-rock interaction, and mainly the dissolution of old and buried evaporitic deposits. Groundwater flow is mostly shallow due to a low permeability ignimbrite layer of regional extent, which also hinders brine spreading below and around the lake. High deep temperatures near the recent Tuyajto volcano explain the high dissolved silica contents and the δ(18)O shift to heavier values found in some of the spring waters. Laguna Tuyajto is a terminal lake where salts cumulate, mostly halite, but some brine transfer to the Salar de Aguas Calientes-3 cannot be excluded. The hydrogeological behavior of Laguna Tuyajto constitutes a model to understand the functioning of many other similar basins in other areas in the Andean Altiplano.

  7. Importance of physicochemical properties for the design of new pesticides.

    PubMed

    Akamatsu, Miki

    2011-04-13

    The physicochemical properties of candidate compounds play important roles in the design of new pesticides. Pesticides must be absorbed by pests, be transported to the target site, and then interact with proteins. Hydrophobicity is very important for these processes. Log P, where P is the partition coefficient in the 1-octanol/water system, is commonly used as a hydrophobic descriptor and correlates with membrane permeation and transport. It was recently reported that permeability by the parallel artificial membrane permeation assay (PAMPA) could be used to predict human oral absorption of passively transported compounds. PAMPA, which is a rapid high-throughput screening system, may be useful to predict pesticide absorption because PAMPA permeability can be calculated using log P and other parameters. Electronic and structural properties as well as hydrophobicity are important factors for protein-ligand interaction. To show the importance of physicochemical properties, the classic QSAR and CoMFA of neonicotinoids and prediction of bioavailability of pesticides in terms of membrane permeability in comparison with drugs are described.

  8. Assessing the impacts of climate change on winter crop production in Uruguay and Argentina using crop simulation models

    SciTech Connect

    Baethgen, W.E.; Magrin, G.O.

    1995-12-31

    Enhanced greenhouse effect caused by the increase in atmospheric concentration of CO{sub 2} and other trace gases could lead to higher global surface temperature and altered hydrological cycles. Most possible climate change scenarios include higher atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations, higher temperatures, and changes in precipitation. Three global climate models (GCMs) were applied to generate climate change scenarios for the Pampas region in southern South America. The generated scenarios were then used with crop simulation models to study the possible impact of climate change on wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) production in the Pampas. The authors evaluated the impact of possible climate change scenarios on wheat and barley production in Uruguay for a wide range of soil and crop management strategies including planting dates, cultivar types, fertilizer management, and tillage practices. They also studied the impact of climate change on wheat production across two transects of the Pampas: north to south transect with decreasing temperature, and east to west transect with decreasing precipitation. Finally, sensitivity analyses were conducted for both, the Uruguayan site and the transects, by increasing daily maximum and minimum temperature by 0, 2, and 4 C, and changing the precipitation by {minus}20, 0, and +20%.

  9. Identification of the natural breeding sites of sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae), potential vectors of leishmaniasis, in the province of Chaco, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Parras, Matías Ariel; Rosa, Juan Ramón; Szelag, Enrique Alejandro; Salomón, Oscar Daniel

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this work was to identify the natural breeding sites of sandflies in the province of Chaco, Argentina, for the first time. Preliminary studies were conducted in two different phytogeographic regions: dry Chaco (Parque Provincial Pampa del Indio), in January 2010, and humid Chaco (Resistencia, Margarita Belén and Colonia Benítez), from May-September 2010. A total of 127 samples were collected (Pampa del Indio: 15, Resistencia: 37, Margarita Belén: 36, Colonia Benítez: 39). A female of Migonemyia migonei was found in Pampa del Indio at the base of a bromeliad in the summer (January) and a pupal exuvium of a phlebotomine fly was found in Resistencia, in a place where dogs rested, in the winter (July). These findings highlighted these two sites as potential breeding sites. Because the existence of potential natural breeding sites for sandflies has been demonstrated in both forest and periurban areas, expanding the search efforts and characterising these sites will enable the development of specific study designs to gain insight into the spatial distribution of the risks posed by these vectors. The resulting information will serve as a basis for proposing and evaluating vector control measures.

  10. On some Vetigastropoda (Mollusca, Gastropoda) from the Plio-Pleistocene of the Philippines with descriptions of three new species.

    PubMed

    Helwerda, Renate Ariane; Wesselingh, Frank Pieter; Williams, Suzanne T

    2014-01-21

    We studied representatives of seven vetigastropod families in an extremely well-preserved Plio-Pleistocene mollusc fauna found in relatively deep water sediments (c. 200-300 m paleodepth) from the north-western Philippines. The fauna is systematically described and its paleoenvironmental and paleobiogeographical character is explored. Twenty-six species of gastropods were studied, three of which are described as new: Halystina conoidea n. sp., Calliotropis arenosa n. sp. and Ethminolia wareni n. sp. Four new combinations are proposed: Pseudotalopia taiwanensis (Chen, 2006), Solariella segersi (Poppe, Tagaro & Dekker, 2006), Zetela tabakotanii (Poppe, Tagaro & Dekker, 2006) and Ilanga konos (Vilvens, 2009). Fourteen species are known living. Most extant species nowadays occur around the Philippines. Two of the species also occur in Neogene deposits from western Pacific islands. The new fauna offers insights into the character of relatively deep water Indo-West Pacific mollusc faunas prior to the onset of the late Quaternary ice ages.

  11. Genome-Wide Dosage-Dependent and -Independent Regulation Contributes to Gene Expression and Evolutionary Novelty in Plant Polyploids.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xiaoli; Zhang, Changqing; Ko, Dae Kwan; Chen, Z Jeffrey

    2015-09-01

    Polyploidy provides evolutionary and morphological novelties in many plants and some animals. However, the role of genome dosage and composition in gene expression changes remains poorly understood. Here, we generated a series of resynthesized Arabidopsis tetraploids that contain 0-4 copies of Arabidopsis thaliana and Arabidopsis arenosa genomes and investigated ploidy and hybridity effects on gene expression. Allelic expression can be defined as dosage dependent (expression levels correlate with genome dosages) or otherwise as dosage independent. Here, we show that many dosage-dependent genes contribute to cell cycle, photosynthesis, and metabolism, whereas dosage-independent genes are enriched in biotic and abiotic stress responses. Interestingly, dosage-dependent genes tend to be preserved in ancient biochemical pathways present in both plant and nonplant species, whereas many dosage-independent genes belong to plant-specific pathways. This is confirmed by an independent analysis using Arabidopsis phylostratigraphic map. For A. thaliana loci, the dosage-dependent alleles are devoid of TEs and tend to correlate with H3K9ac, H3K4me3, and CG methylation, whereas the majority of dosage-independent alleles are enriched with TEs and correspond to H3K27me1, H3K27me3, and CHG (H = A, T, or C) methylation. Furthermore, there is a parent-of-origin effect on nonadditively expressed genes in the reciprocal allotetraploids especially when A. arenosa is used as the pollen donor, leading to metabolic and morphological changes. Thus, ploidy, epigenetic modifications, and cytoplasmic-nuclear interactions shape gene expression diversity in polyploids. Dosage-dependent expression can maintain growth and developmental stability, whereas dosage-independent expression can facilitate functional divergence between homeologs (subfunctionalization and/or neofunctionalization) during polyploid evolution.

  12. Environmental Regulation of Heterosis in the Allopolyploid Arabidopsis suecica1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Solhaug, Erik M.; Ihinger, Jacie; Gamboa, Veronica; Bradford, Denise; Doerge, R.W.

    2016-01-01

    Allopolyploids are organisms possessing more than two complete sets of chromosomes from two or more species and are frequently more vigorous than their progenitors. To address the question why allopolyploids display hybrid vigor, we compared the natural allopolyploid Arabidopsis suecica to its progenitor species Arabidopsis thaliana and Arabidopsis arenosa. We measured chlorophyll content, CO2 assimilation, and carbohydrate production under varying light conditions and found that the allopolyploid assimilates more CO2 per unit chlorophyll than either of the two progenitor species in high intensity light. The increased carbon assimilation corresponds with greater starch accumulation, but only in strong light, suggesting that the strength of hybrid vigor is dependent on environmental conditions. In weaker light A. suecica tends to produce as much primary metabolites as the better progenitor. We found that gene expression of LIMIT DEXTRINASE1, a debranching enzyme that cleaves branch points within starch molecules, is at the same level in the allopolyploid as in the maternal progenitor A. thaliana and significantly more expressed than in the paternal progenitor A. arenosa. However, expression differences of β-amylases and GLUCAN-WATER DIKINASE1 were not statistically significantly elevated in the allopolyploid over progenitor expression levels. In contrast to allopolyploids, autopolyploid A. thaliana showed the same photosynthetic rate as diploids, indicating that polyploidization alone is likely not the reason for enhanced vigor in the allopolyploid. Taken together, our data suggest that the magnitude of heterosis in A. suecica is environmentally regulated, arises from more efficient photosynthesis, and, under specific conditions, leads to greater starch accumulation than in its progenitor species. PMID:26896394

  13. Distribution of Hepatitis B Virus Genotypes in Two Different Pediatric Populations from Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Mbayed, V. A.; López, J. L.; Telenta, P. F. S.; Palacios, G.; Badía, I.; Ferro, A.; Galoppo, C.; Campos, R.

    1998-01-01

    Differences in pathogenesis and the probability of becoming a chronic carrier depend on the age at which hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is acquired, ranging from 82% in infants less than 6 months of age to 15 to 30% in older children. HBV genotypes from 22 pediatric patients from two areas that differ in prevalence have been determined. Phylogenetic analysis shows a clear difference between the genotype distribution in Buenos Aires, a low-prevalence area, and that found in Gualeguay, Entre Ríos, a high-prevalence area. While the analysis allocated the sequences in the Buenos Aires group to genotypes A (36%), D (9%), and F (55%), the Gualeguay group presented exclusively genotype A isolates with very low nucleotide divergence, which suggests a strong founder viral population. The high prevalence of genotype F in the Buenos Aires group and its high intragroup heterogeneity agree with the American origin of this genotype. PMID:9774595

  14. The Hanle Effect in Atomic and Molecular Lines: A New Look at the Sun's Hidden Magnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trujillo Bueno, J.; Asensio Ramos, A.; Shchukina, N.

    2006-12-01

    This paper reviews some of the most recent advances in the application of the Hanle effect to solar physics, and how these developments are allowing us to explore the magnetism of the photospheric regions that look ``empty'' in solar magnetograms--that is, the Sun's ``hidden'' magnetism. In particular, we show how a joint analysis of the Hanle effect in atomic and molecular lines indicates that there is a vast amount of hidden magnetic energy and unsigned magnetic flux localized in the (intergranular) downflowing regions of the quiet solar photosphere, carried mainly by tangled fields at sub-resolution scales with strengths between the equipartition field values and ˜1 kG. This article combines in one contribution Trujillo Bueno's invited keynote paper and the contributed papers by Asensio Ramos & Trujillo Bueno and by Shchukina & Trujillo Bueno.

  15. Variations in groundwater availability during the past 9,000 years in the Atacama Desert, Chile: A subannual record of oxygen isotope values from Prosopis tamarugo tree rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dodd, J. P.; Rivera, M.

    2012-12-01

    The Atacama Desert is among the driest regions on Earth; therefore, access to water is critical to human populations throughout the Pampa del Tamarugal region of northern Chile (20° to 22°S, 69° to 70°W). Presently, the region receives <5 mm of precipitation annually, and seasonal runoff and groundwater recharge from higher altitudes in the Andes Mountains is the primary source of water in the Pampa del Tamarugal. Oxygen isotope data from Prosopis tamarugo tree rings indicate that the region has become increasingly arid over the past 9ka, likely as a result of decreased water transport from these recharge areas. Oxygen isotope values from α-cellulose of P. tamarugo tree rings from the Llamara Basin (9130 ±145 and 7910 to 7870 ±10 Cal BP), Ramaditas (2615 ±135 Cal BP), and La Tirana Refresco (modern) record sub-annual variations in groundwater availability in the Pampa del Tamarugal. Low δ18O values (23.8 to 32.8‰) in the P. tamarugo samples from the Llamara Basin indicate wetter conditions prior to 7.8 ka; however, sub-annual variability in the δ18O values remains relatively high with an average range in intra-ring values of 3.0‰ (2σ=1.1‰). P. tamarugo logs that were used as building materials and grown in agricultural fields at Ramaditas (~2.6ka), an archeological site in the Pampa del Tamarugal, have a wider range of δ18O values (17.5 to 35.6‰) and greater intra-ring variability (ave. 4.5‰, 2σ=3.2‰). The greater range in interannual and subannual δ18O values most likely reflects a period with highly variable fluxes of runoff/recharge water. The development and eventual abandonment of Ramaditas and other settlements appear to coincide with changes in the availability of water in the region. Modern P. tamarugo from La Tirana Refresco collected in 2008 have δ18O values that are consistently higher (33.1 to 36.3‰) with much lower intra-ring variability (1.5‰, 2σ=0.9‰), indicating persistently drier conditions and greater evaporative

  16. Glyphosate and AMPA contents in sediments produced by wind erosion of agricultural soils in Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aparicio, Virginia; Aimar, Silvia; De Gerónimo, Eduardo; Buschiazzo, Daniel; Mendez, Mariano; Costa, José Luis

    2014-05-01

    Wind erosion of soils is an important event in arid and semiarid regions of Argentina. The magnitude of wind erosion occurring under different management practices is relatively well known in this region but less information is available on the quality of the eroded material. Considering that the intensification of agriculture may increase the concentrations of substances in the eroded material, producing potential negative effects on the environment, we analyzed the amount of glyphosate and AMPA in sediments produced by wind erosion of agricultural soils of Argentina. Wind eroded materials were collected by means of BSNE samplers in two loess sites of the semiarid region of Argentina: Chaco and La Pampa. Samples were collected from 1 ha square fields at 13.5, 50 and 150 cm height. Results showed that at higher heights the concentrations of glyphosate and AMPA were mostly higher. The glyphosate concentration was more variable and higher in Chaco (0.66 to 313 µg kg-1) than in La Pampa (4.17 to 114 µg kg-1). These results may be due to the higher use of herbicides in Chaco, where the predominant crops are soybeans and corn, produced under no-tillage. Under these conditions the use of glyphosate for weeds control is a common practice. Conversely, AMPA concentrations were higher in La Pampa (13.1 to 101.3 µg kg-1) than in Chaco (1.3 to 83 µg kg-1). These preliminary results show high concentrations of glyphosate and AMPA in wind eroded materials of agricultural soils of Argentina. More research is needed to confirm these high concentrations in other conditions in order to detect the temporal and spatial distribution patterns of the herbicide.

  17. A new genus and species of Platyischnopidae (Amphipoda: Gammaridea) from the Argentine sea, South-West Atlantic ocean.

    PubMed

    Chiesa, Ignacio L; Alonso, Gloria M

    2014-05-30

    The family Platyischnopidae is herein reported for the first time in the Argentine Sea, South-West Atlantic Ocean. A new genus and species, Platyisao holodividum gen. et. sp. nov., collected off the coast of Buenos Aires and Río Negro provinces, is fully described and illustrated. Platyisao gen. nov. is distinguished from the eight other genera of Platyischnopidae by the gnathopods subchelate, and the telson elongate, completely cleft. In addition, the distribution of Tiburonella viscana (Barnard J.L., 1964), up to now known in the South-West Atlantic Ocean from Brazilian waters, is extended to the coast off Buenos Aires province, Argentina.

  18. New Argentine Central-West line taps rich Neuquen gas field

    SciTech Connect

    Watts, J.

    1982-02-01

    Argentina's new Central-West gas pipeline consists of 697 miles of 30-in. line and 451 miles of smaller gathering and distribution lines that link the rich Neuquen gas field with cities to the north. A financing package drawn up by 21 banks in the US and Europe allowed Cogasco S.A. to build the line for Gas del Estado across the roadless pampas east of the Andes. Primarily an agricultural country, Argentina had to import all the equipment and materials for the project. Site work began in July, 1980 with 800 workers employed on three spreads; the line was commissioned in November, 1981, 15 months ahead of the contract schedule.

  19. INL Advanced Radiotherapy Research Program Annual Report 2004

    SciTech Connect

    James Venhuizen

    2005-06-01

    This report summarizes the activities and major accomplishments for the Idaho National Laboratory Advanced Radiotherapy Research Program for calendar year 2004. Topics covered include boron analysis in biological samples, computational dosimetry and treatment planning software development, medical neutron source development and characterization, and collaborative dosimetry studies at the RA-1 facility in Buenos Aires, Argentina.

  20. University and Local Government in Metropolitan Environmental Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laffite, Nicolas Baya

    2008-01-01

    This article addresses the role of universities in the sustainable management of metropolitan areas, drawing on the outputs from a workshop that brought together academics, professionals and politicians responsible for the urban environmental management of the metropolitan areas of Buenos Aires, Argentina, and Sao Paulo, Brazil. Urban…

  1. NOMENCLATURAL NOTES ON THE EURYTOMIDS (CHALCIDOIDEA: EURYTOMIDAE) DESCRIBED BY JEAN BRÈTHES HOUSED IN MUSEO ARGENTINO DE CIENCIAS NATURALES “BERNARDINO RIVADAVIA”

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nine species parasitic eurytomid wasps described by Jean Brèthes and deposited in the National Insect Collection of Argentina, Buenos Aires are treated and their nomenclature stabilized. The condition of the type material is described. Lectotypes are designated for Prodecatoma parodii, Eudecatoma o...

  2. International Reports on Literacy Research: Argentina, Mexico, France

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malloy, Jacquelynn A., Comp.; Mallozzi, Christine, Comp.

    2007-01-01

    This is a compilation of reports on international literacy research. The report includes 3 separate reports on Argentina, Mexico, and France. In the first report, Melina Porto reports on a new implementation of a teacher-education program currently underway in the province of Buenos Aires, Argentina, under the leadership of teacher-researcher…

  3. Interpreters of mumblings.

    PubMed

    Martinez, H

    When dentists appear in literature, it seems that they are frequently portrayed as evil, cruel and, sometimes, even rather stupid--but is this a fair assumption? Dr Horacio Martinez, a dentist in Buenos Aires, Argentina, steers us through a number of well known novels where the dentist plays a crucial role.

  4. JPRS Report West Europe

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    ported the choice of Claes Anderson as a chairman. During his final turn to speak at the meeting Kakela admitted that he might have angered the trade...city of Mar del Plata , 400 km south of Buenos Aires, to work on a development wherein the Spaniards would contribute factory ships and know-how

  5. Worldwide Report, Nuclear Development and Proliferation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    an intensive re- liance on nuclear energy, making use of its rich uranium re- serves, since other alternative sources, such as solar energy, wind...MEET OBJECTIVES Buenos Aires ENERGIA NUCLEAR in Spanish No 14 1983 pp 47-49 [Excerpts] Fuel Elements Enterprise The manufacturing technology

  6. Latin America Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    of the University of Buenos Aires; and "The Palestinian Cultural Heritage, an Endangered Patrimony," by Beatriz Bisso. 8711/9869 CSO: 3342/5 17...because Lepage is Biaggini, not Escalante . CAP will also keep on crisscrossing the country, with or without rules and regulations, until he is

  7. The Effects of Spanwise Structures and Unsteady Forcing of Vortex Generators on a Shock-Induced Separated Flow Using Planar Laser Scattering

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-01

    students and post- doctoral fellow who worked at the lab and were in the fluid dynamics group: Paul Belden, Pablo Bueno, Mirko Gamba, Bharathram...in the wind tunnel. Shaker Motor VGs Shaker Moto Figure A5. Photograph showing entire flap and VG assembly with flap in up position. r Flap

  8. A new species of Cephalobium (Rhabditida, Cephalobiidae), a parasite of Anurogryllus muticus (De Geer) (Orthoptera, Gryllidae) in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Camino, Nora B; Maiztegui, Bárbara

    2002-10-01

    Cephalobium odontolateralis n. sp. (Nematoda, Cephalobiidae) is described and illustrated from the nymphs of Anurogryllus muticus (De Geer) (Orthoptera, Gryllidae) from Buenos Aires province, Argentina. It is characterized by a lateral large tooth in the stoma and by the arrangement and number of the genital papillae in the male; there are 6 pairs of postanal papillae, but none is preanal.

  9. Politics Is Also "Child's Play"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milstein, Diana

    2010-01-01

    In this article, I discuss children's habitually underestimated agency capabilities in school life, including their potential as political subjects. Here, I present a description and analysis of an episode that took place in 2004, at a primary school located in a working class neighbourhood of Greater Buenos Aires, Argentina. On this occasion, a…

  10. Children Interactions in Literacy Tutoring Situations: A Study with Urban Marginalized Populations in Argentina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosemberg, Celia Renata; Alam, Florencia; Stein, Alejandra

    2014-01-01

    The study analyzed the conversational exchanges through which child tutors mediated literacy abilities and knowledge with young children in the framework of the project "From Child to Child: A Tutor-Child Literacy Program," that is being conducted in Buenos Aires, Argentina. The analysis considered the conversational moves deployed by…

  11. Test Takers' Attitudes about the TOEFL iBT[TM]. TOEFL iBT Research Report. RR-10-2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stricker, Lawrence J.; Attali, Yigal

    2010-01-01

    The principal aims of this study, a conceptual replication of an earlier investigation of the TOEFL[R] computer-based test, or TOEFL CBT, in Buenos Aires, Cairo, and Frankfurt, were to assess test takers' reported acceptance of the TOEFL Internet-based test, or TOEFL iBT[TM], and its associations with possible determinants of this acceptance and…

  12. DoD Global Emerging Infections System Annual Report, Fiscal Year 2000

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-01-01

    Saude Publica (Reports in Public Health), Rio de Janeiro. 16: 109-118, 2000. Anyamba A, Linthicum KJ, Mahoney R,Tucker CJ, Kelley PW. “Mapping spatial...Kelley PW. Contagio y Seguridad Mundial: Las Infecciones Emergentes Como Problemática Transnacional. Central Army Hospital, Buenos Aires,Argentina

  13. Principals' Role and Public Primary Schools' Effectiveness in Four Latin American Cities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Joan B.

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the effectiveness of observable and quantifiable traits in and approaches of school principals in enhancing student achievement. Data were gathered on 2,048 fourth-grade students in 96 public primary schools in Leon, Mexico; Belo Horizonte, Brazil; Buenos Aires, Argentina; and Santiago, Chile. The UNESCO/ORELAC (United…

  14. Argentine Hydrellia Robineau-Desvoidy (Diptera, Ephydridae): new species and key to identification.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues Júnior, Francisco De Assis; Mathis, Wayne Nielsen; Hauser, Martin

    2015-05-13

    Hydrellia egeriae sp. nov., a new species of Hydrellia from Campana (34 14' 04 S, 58 52' 32 W) and Hurlingham (3435'14 S, 5838'27 W), Buenos Aires province, Argentina is described. A key to the Argentine Hydrellia species is presented.

  15. Latin American Literatures and Cultures: Self and Society. Papers from the National Endowment for the Humanities Summer Institute (La Jolla, California, August 1996).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seabrook, John H., Ed.

    1996-01-01

    This special issue contains the following articles: (1) "Critiquing the Center: Rigoberta Menchu and Enrique Dussel" (Joseph R. Hoff); (2) "Caroline Maria De Jesus: A Testimonial Voice in the Wilderness" (Eva Bueno); (3) "Latin American Women's Voices: La Malinche to Rigoberta Menchu" (Ana Maria Romo de Mease); (4) "China in Borges''The Garden of…

  16. Selection of the Argentine indicator region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramirez, C. J.; Reed, C. R. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    Determined from available Argentine crop statistics, selection of the Indicator Region was based on the highest wheat, corn, and soybean producing provinces, which were: Buenos Aires, Cordoba, Entre Rios, and Santa Fe. Each province in Argentina was examined for the availability of LANDSAT data; area, yield and production statistics; crop calendars; and other ancillary data. The Argentine Indicator Region is described.

  17. RNA Viruses that Cause Hemorrhagic, Encephalitic, and Febrile Disease

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-01

    platelet counts prior to onset of therapy. Treatment resulted in re- Ebola/Marburg versal of clinical disease including resolu- tion of hemorrhage...hemorrhagic fever-a de fiebre hemorragica argentina tratados con public problem and a field of research. Bull plasma immune. Medicina (Buenos Aires

  18. A new Batillipedidae (Tardigrada, Arthrotardigrada) from Argentina.

    PubMed

    Menechella, Agustín G; Bulnes, Verónica N; Cazzaniga, Néstor J

    2015-10-16

    A new species of marine tardigrade, Batillipes acuticauda sp. n., has been found in midlittoral sand sediments collected at Monte Hermoso beach (Buenos Aires province, Argentina). The new species differs from all other members of Batillipedidae by its combination of caudal apparatus, lateral processes and toe patterns. It is the first description of an arthrotardigrade from Argentina.

  19. Histone Code Modulation by Oncogenic PWWP-domain Protein in Breast Cancers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-01

    were prepared from cells by using the RNeasy Plus Mini Kit (Qiagen, Valencia , CA, USA) and were converted into complementary DNAs with the qScript...application to proliferation and cytotoxicity assays. J Immunol Methods 65: 55–63. Natrajan R, Lambros MB, Rodriguez -Pinilla SM, Moreno-Bueno G, Tan DS

  20. Padres Maltratadores: Grupos de Autoayuda (Abusive Parents: Self-Help Groups).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Intebi, Irene V.; Groisman, Adriana E.

    1991-01-01

    Causes of child abuse by parents are discussed. A therapy program in Buenos Aires (Argentina) for abusive parents is described. The program utilizes self-help groups as part of the therapeutic plan and has found them to be promising. Referral, types of interactions with the groups, and short-, medium-, and long-term objectives are discussed. (BRM)

  1. Interrupting Commemoration: Thinking with Art, Thinking through the Strictures of Argentina's "Espacio para la memoria"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paolantonio, Mario Di

    2011-01-01

    Recently, a few buildings within the "Espacio para la memoria" in Buenos Aires have been designated as a UNESCO Centre where, amongst other educational activities, evidentiary materials of the past repression are to be stored and displayed. Another building in the complex houses a Community Centre operated by the Mothers of the Plaza de…

  2. [On the concept of lucidity].

    PubMed

    Martínez, Daniel R

    2014-01-01

    Kraepelin's concept of clarity of awareness (lucidity) had a stable signification during more than hundred years. It is the basis of most of current theories of disturbed consciousness. However, two alternative definitions that arise in Buenos Aires produce confusion due to their conceptual overlap. We discuss these definitions and propose a classification of disorders of consciousness that rely on traditional point of view.

  3. A Matter of Degrees: Preparing Teachers for the Pre-K Classroom. Education Reform Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bueno, Marisa; Darling-Hammond, Linda; Gonzales, Danielle

    2010-01-01

    Research indicates that state pre-k programs with higher teacher qualification requirements improve children's school readiness so states get the most out of their investment in early education. This 2010 report, authored by Marisa Bueno, Linda Darling-Hammond and Danielle Gonzales, reviewed research on training for pre-k teachers and concluded…

  4. First report of Enterocytozoon bieneusi from dairy cattle in South America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fecal specimens were obtained from a total of 70 dairy calves less than two months old on 11 municipalities in Buenos Aires, Argentina. After removal of fecal debris by sieving and sucrose flotation, specimens were subjected to PCR to detect the presence of Enterocytozoon bieneusi. PCR revealed a 14...

  5. Búsqueda de los sitios de observación del tránsito de Venus de 1882 en territorio argentino. I. Bragado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vázquez, R. A.; Milesi, G. E.

    We present here the results of an investigation that allowed us to determine the precise site of the Temporary Astronomical Station, settled in the city of Bragado, Provincia de Buenos Aires, in order to observe the transit of Venus in front of the solar disk on 6 December 1882. Our work thus ended a discussion about the Plaza San Martin. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  6. Torrance Test of Creative Thinking: The Question of Its Construct Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almeida, Leandro S.; Prieto, Lola Prieto; Ferrando, Mercedes; Oliveira, Emma; Ferrandiz, Carmen

    2008-01-01

    Some cognitive dimensions are internationally considered by psychologists to describe and to assess creativity. For example, (Guilford, P. (1976). Creatividad y Educacion. Buenos Aires. Ed. Paidos) and (Torrance, E. P. (1977). Discovery and nurturance of giftedness in the culturally different. Reston, VA: Council on Exceptional Children) suggested…

  7. Teachers' Work, Food Policies, and Gender in Argentina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robert, Sarah A.; McEntarfer, Heather Killelea

    2014-01-01

    Few studies explore teachers' involvement in school feeding, questioning gendered implications within a feminine and feminized profession. Ethnographic data from one public high school in Metropolitan Buenos Aires suggest that teachers' efforts to address student hunger added new work roles: food advocates/activists, food managers, and service…

  8. Catalog and Illustrated Review of the Subgenus Melanoconion of Culex (Diptera: Culicidae) (Contributions of the American Entomological Institute. Volume 27, Number 2, 1992)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-01

    de Entomologia Taxonomica, Division de Endemias Rurales, Maracay, Venezuela Section de Entomologia, Departamento de Parasitologia y Microbiologia ...Paulo, Brazil Faculdade de Saude Publica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Brazil Instituto National de Microbiologia , Carlos G. Malbran, Buenos Aires...Publication de la 84 Contrib. Amer. Ent. Inst., Vol. 27, No. 2, 1992 Division de Endemias Rurales, Direction de Malariologia y Saneamiento Ambiental

  9. [Does geographic context matter in diabetes-related mortality? Spatial and time trends in Argentina, 1990-2012].

    PubMed

    Leveau, Carlos M; Marro, M Jimena; Alonso, Valeria; Lawrynowicz, Alicia E B

    2017-02-13

    The aim of this study was to identify spatial-temporal clusters of high and low diabetes-related mortality from 1990 to 2012 in Argentina. This was a spatial-temporal retrospective ecological study in the population older than 34 years living in Argentina, according to sex, from 1990 to 2012. The spatial units of analysis consisted of the country's departments (subdivisions of the provinces) plus the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires. Spatial-temporal exploration technique was used to detect clusters with high and low mortality. Areas with high mortality from diabetes mellitus were found in the Central-West of the country, and areas with low mortality were found in the coastal region of the province of Buenos Aires and Patagonia. Clusters with high mortality occupied a period from 1995 to 2008; clusters with low mortality shifted towards the years 2002 to 2012. The recent drop in mortality from diabetes was not geographically homogeneous, but displayed a marked decrease in the eastern area of the Province of Buenos Aires and the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires.

  10. The Low Profile Bioprosthesis: Results with 491 Valves Implanted in 453 Patients for up to 5 Years

    PubMed Central

    Navia, J. A.; Gimenez, C.; Tamashiro, A.; Esper, R.; Haller, J.; Liotta, D.

    1982-01-01

    This report summarizes results of the first 453 consecutive patients who had 491 low profile bioprostheses implanted at the Italian Hospital in Buenos Aires over a 5-year period. During this time, with the goal of long-term durability, the valve mounting technique was slightly modified, whereas the materials and design of the annulus underwent more extensive changes. Images PMID:15226950

  11. Exact vs. Gauss-Seidel numerical solutions of the non-LTE radiation transfer problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quang, Carine; Paletou, Frédéric; Chevallier, Loïc

    2004-12-01

    Although published in 1995 (Trujillo Bueno & Fabiani Bendicho, ApJ 455, 646), the Gauss-Seidel method for solving the non-LTE radiative transfer problem has deserved too little attention in the astrophysical community yet. Further tests of the performances and of the accuracy of the numerical scheme are provided.

  12. The Development and Airborne Testing of the PALE Seat.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-06-20

    Navigation Technology Directorate so Software Computer Directorate 60 Aircraft & Crew Systems Technology Directorate 70 Planning Assessment...Dayton, Ohio. 27. Horten, R.: Ala volante caza "Horten IX". Rev. Nacional de Aeronautics, 3:5: 19-20, Buenos Aires, 1950. 28. Horten, R.: Desarrollo de

  13. Everyday Banality in a Documentary by Teenage Women: Between the Trivial and the Extreme. Schooling and Desiring in Contexts of Extreme Urban Poverty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grinberg, Silvia

    2010-01-01

    In this article, I offer some reflections on a video documentary workshop for students in the first year of middle school. The workshop, which was held in 2008, took place in a school in an area of extreme urban poverty in the metropolitan area of Buenos Aires, Argentina, specifically in one of the more and more common spaces usually called…

  14. Lexical Input to Young Children from Extremely Poor Communities in Argentina: Effects of a Home Literacy Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosemberg, Celia Renata; Stein, Alejandra; Borzone, Ana Maria

    2011-01-01

    The study analyzes the lexical properties of the linguistic context that children from marginalized urban neighborhoods from Buenos Aires, Argentina, are exposed to in the literacy situations generated by an at-home early literacy program. The analysis is focused on the comparison of the vocabulary that these children are exposed to daily with the…

  15. The Struggle of Being Toba in Contemporary Argentina: Processes of Ethnic Identification of Indigenous Children in Contexts of Language Shift

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hecht, Ana Carolina

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this article is to study how children experience their ethnic identifications in relation to their knowledge of the Toba language through daily interactions with peers and adults (both indigenous and non-indigenous). The study is focused on an urban setting in Buenos Aires (Argentina) where monolingual (Spanish) practices are replacing…

  16. Literacy before Schooling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferreiro, Emilia; Teberosky, Ana

    The reflections and theses on preschool children's literacy development presented in this book are the result of an experimental project carried out in Buenos Aires from 1974 to 1976. Chapter 1 discusses the educational situation in Latin America, traditional methods of reading instruction, contemporary psycholinguistics, the pertinence of…

  17. Worldwide Report Telecommunications Policy, Research and Development No. 274.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Text] [Lima EL COMERCIO in Spanish 27 Apr 83 p 3] 8143 CSO: 5500/2071 ARGENTINA BRIEFS SATELLITE GROUND STATION—Buenos Aires, 5 May (TELAM...Iquitos, Arequipa, lea, Huaraz, Cuzco and Tacna. [TextJ [.Lima EL COMERCIO in Spanish 3 May 83 p a 8 PY] CSO; 5500/2074 ST LUCIA DETAILED REVIEW OF

  18. Civil-Military Relations in Latin America: The Hedgehog and the Fox Revisited

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    saber tanto en el tema como los oficiales militares, quienes saben mucho sobre “una cosa importante”. Basado en la literatura académica y una amplia...1999. Control Civil y Fuerzas Armadas en las nuevas democra- cias latinoamericanas Nuevohazer, Buenos Aires. Hall, Peter A. and Taylor, Rosemary C. R

  19. The Effects of Authentic Reading Activities on the Written Production of Novice College Spanish Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capanegra, Ana Isabel

    2014-01-01

    Many scholars have researched reading-to-writing relations, some of which found reading to be an effective enhancer of writing (Al-Jarf, 2004; Asencior, 2006; Lee, 1986a; Lee & Riley, 1990; Perez-Sotelo & Gonzalez-Bueno, 2003; Shang, 2007). Similar beginner college student samples were used previously by Asencior (2006), Perez-Sotelo and…

  20. Design and Optimization of Wings in Subsonic and Transonic Regime

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-06-01

    transici6n libre. In tinizaci6n. In 3 "r Congreso de M~todos Numie icos V Encontro Nacional de Mecanica Computacional , en Ingenierina, Zaragoza, Junio...on Computational Mechanics, Mecanica Computacional , Guimaraes, October,20- Buenos Aires, Argentina, June, 29-July 2,1998. 22,1997. 21-10 DISCUSSION