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Sample records for pancreatic head mass

  1. A Man with Pancreatic Head Mass Lesion on Endoscopic Ultrasound and Granuloma on Cytopathology.

    PubMed

    Rad, Neda; Heidarnezhad, Arash; Soheili, Setareh; Mohammad-Alizadeh, Amir Houshang; Nikmanesh, Arash

    2016-01-01

    Primary pancreatic lymphoma is an unlikely malignancy accounting for less than 0.5% of pancreatic tumors. Clinical presentation is often nonspecific and may be clinically misdiagnosed as pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Here we present an Iranian case of primary pancreatic lymphoma in a 47-year-old male suffering from jaundice and 20% weight loss. Endoscopic ultrasound revealed a mixed echoic mass lesion at the head of pancreas. The patient underwent endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration of solid pancreatic mass and histopathologic diagnosis revealed granuloma. Computed tomography-guided core needle biopsy was performed and eventually histological examination showed granuloma that was coherent with the diagnosis of primary pancreatic lymphoma. Primary pancreatic lymphoma is a rare entity presenting with nonspecific symptoms, laboratory and radiological findings. Computed tomography results in combination with clinical and radiological studies generally provide guidance for appropriate investigation.

  2. A Man with Pancreatic Head Mass Lesion on Endoscopic Ultrasound and Granuloma on Cytopathology

    PubMed Central

    Rad, Neda; Heidarnezhad, Arash; Soheili, Setareh; Mohammad-Alizadeh, Amir Houshang; Nikmanesh, Arash

    2016-01-01

    Primary pancreatic lymphoma is an unlikely malignancy accounting for less than 0.5% of pancreatic tumors. Clinical presentation is often nonspecific and may be clinically misdiagnosed as pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Here we present an Iranian case of primary pancreatic lymphoma in a 47-year-old male suffering from jaundice and 20% weight loss. Endoscopic ultrasound revealed a mixed echoic mass lesion at the head of pancreas. The patient underwent endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration of solid pancreatic mass and histopathologic diagnosis revealed granuloma. Computed tomography-guided core needle biopsy was performed and eventually histological examination showed granuloma that was coherent with the diagnosis of primary pancreatic lymphoma. Primary pancreatic lymphoma is a rare entity presenting with nonspecific symptoms, laboratory and radiological findings. Computed tomography results in combination with clinical and radiological studies generally provide guidance for appropriate investigation. PMID:28100998

  3. Biliary plastic stent does not influence the accuracy of endoscopic ultrasound-guided sampling of pancreatic head masses performed with core biopsy needles.

    PubMed

    Antonini, Filippo; Fuccio, Lorenzo; Giorgini, Sara; Fabbri, Carlo; Frazzoni, Leonardo; Scarpelli, Marina; Macarri, Giampiero

    2017-08-01

    While the presence of biliary stent significantly decreases the accuracy of endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) for pancreatic head cancer staging, its impact on the EUS-guided sampling accuracy is still debated. Furthermore, data on EUS-fine needle biopsy (EUS-FNB) using core biopsy needles in patients with pancreatic mass and biliary stent are lacking. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of biliary stent on the adequacy and accuracy of EUS-FNB in patients with pancreatic head mass. All patients who underwent EUS-guided sampling with core needles of solid pancreatic head masses causing obstructive jaundice were retrospectively identified in a single tertiary referral center. Adequacy, defined as the rate of cases in which a tissue specimen for proper examination was achieved, with and without biliary stent, was the primary outcome measure. The diagnostic accuracy and complication rate were the secondary outcome measures. A total of 130 patients with pancreatic head mass causing biliary obstruction were included in the study: 74 cases of them were sampled without stent and 56 cases with plastic stent in situ. The adequacy was 96.4% in the stent group and 90.5% in the group without stent (p=0.190). No significant differences were observed for sensitivity (88.9% vs. 85.9%), specificity (100% for both groups), and accuracy (89.3% vs. 86.5%) between those with and without stent, respectively. The accuracy was not influenced by the timing of stenting (<48h or ≥48h before EUS). No EUS-FNB related complications were recorded. The presence of biliary stent does not influence the tissue sampling adequacy, the diagnostic accuracy and the complication rate of EUS-FNB of pancreatic head masses performed with core biopsy needles. Copyright © 2017 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Primary Pancreatic Head Tuberculosis: Great Masquerader of Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Dhaval; Patel, Jatin; Rathi, Chetan; Ingle, Meghraj; Sawant, Prabha

    2015-01-01

    Isolated pancreatic tuberculosis (TB) is considered an extremely rare condition, even in the developing countries. Most reported cases of pancreatic TB are diagnosed after exploratory laparotomy or autopsy. Pancreatic TB is a potential mimic of invasive pancreatic malignancy and the presence of vascular invasion does not distinguish one condition from the other. Every effort should be made for the earliest diagnosis of this condition as TB is a treatable condition and it avoids unnecessary management of pancreatic carcinoma. Here we report a rare case of primary pancreatic head TB in a 58-year-old male who presented with hypodense lesion in head of pancreas with double duct sign and portal vein invasion mimicking non-resectable pancreatic carcinoma. PMID:27785295

  5. TPS, CA 19-9, VEGF-A, and CEA as diagnostic and prognostic factors in patients with mass lesions in the pancreatic head.

    PubMed

    Sandblom, Gabriel; Granroth, Sofie; Rasmussen, Ib Christian

    2008-01-01

    Although numerous tumour markers are available for periampullary tumours, including pancreatic cancer, their specificity and sensitivity have been questioned. To assess the diagnostic and prognostic values of tissue polypeptide specific antigen (TPS), carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA 19-9), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF-A), and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) we took serum samples in 56 patients with mass lesions in the pancreatic head. Among these patients, further investigations revealed pancreatic cancer in 20 patients, other malignant diseases in 12 and benign conditions in 24. Median CEA in all patients was 3.4 microg/L (range 0.5-585.0), median CA 19-9 was105 kU/L (range 0.6-1 300 00), median TPS 123.5 U/L (range 15.0-3350) and median VEGF-A 132.5 ng/L (range 60.0-4317). Area under the curve was 0.747, standard error (standard error [SE] =0.075) for CEA, 0.716 (SE=0.078) for CA 19-9 and 0.822 (SE=0.086) for TPS in ROC plots based on the ability of the tumours to distinguish between benign and malignant conditions. None of the markers significantly predicted survival in the subgroup of patients with pancreatic cancer. Our study shows that the markers may be used as fairly reliable diagnostic tools, but cannot be used to predict survival.

  6. Comparison of platelet-lymphocyte ratio and CA 19-9 in differentiating benign from malignant head masses in patients with chronic pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Kakkat, Shanavas; Rajan, Ramesh; Sindhu, R S; Natesh, Bonny; Raviram, S

    2017-07-01

    Pancreatic head ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) and inflammatory head masses (IHM) related to chronic pancreatitis are often difficult to differentiate. PDAC produces significant inflammatory response with resultant lymphopenia and thrombocytosis. The prognostic role of platelet-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) as a tumor marker has been defined. We aimed to find the role of PLR as a diagnostic marker for PDAC in differentiating benign head mass comparing with carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA 19-9). A prospective study of patients with biopsy-proven PDAC and benign IHM with underlying chronic pancreatitis from 1st November 2014 to 30th June 2016 was performed. Total blood count including platelet count and CA 19-9 were recorded and statistically analyzed. There was no significant difference in total leukocyte counts (7789±2027 vs. 7568±1289 cells/mm 3 ) between PDAC (n = 34) and IHM (n = 27). However, the mean lymphocyte (2235±837 vs. 2701±631 cells/mm 3 ) and platelet counts in mm 3 (3.36±0.789) × 10 5 vs. (2.45±0.598) × 10 5 showed difference. The median PLR was 161.9 (IQR = 117.5-205.6) in PDAC and 91 (IQR = 77.2-106.6) in IHM. The median CA 19-9 (U/mL) in PDAC and IHM was 69.3 (IQR = 22.7-427.7) and 13.9 (IQR = 7.2-23.6), respectively. On plotting the receiver operator characteristic curve (ROC curve), area under the curve was maximum for PLR (88.7%) compared to CA 19-9 (77.8%) in diagnosing PDAC (p<0.0001). Using coordinates of ROC, PLR cutoff value was 113.5 (sensitivity-79.4%, specificity-92.6%, positive predictive value (PPV)-91.5%, negative predictive value (NPV)-99.7%) while CA 19-9 cutoff value was 25.3 U/mL (sensitivity-73.5%, specificity-77.8%, PPV-78.5%, NPV-74.6%). PLR may be useful to differentiate PDAC from benign IHM in patients with chronic pancreatitis.

  7. [Duodenum-preserving total pancreatic head resection and pancreatic head resection with segmental duodenostomy].

    PubMed

    Takada, Tadahiro; Yasuda, Hideki; Nagashima, Ikuo; Amano, Hodaka; Yoshiada, Masahiro; Toyota, Naoyuki

    2003-06-01

    A duodenum-preserving pancreatic head resection (DPPHR) was first reported by Beger et al. in 1980. However, its application has been limited to chronic pancreatitis because of it is a subtotal pancreatic head resection. In 1990, we reported duodenum-preserving total pancreatic head resection (DPTPHR) in 26 cases. This opened the way for total pancreatic head resection, expanding the application of this approach to tumorigenic morbidities such as intraductal papillary mucinous tumor (IMPT), other benign tumors, and small pancreatic cancers. On the other hand, Nakao et al. reported pancreatic head resection with segmental duodenectomy (PHRSD) as an alternative pylorus-preserving pancreatoduodenectomy technique in 24 cases. Hirata et al. also reported this technique as a new pylorus-preserving pancreatoduodenostomy with increased vessel preservation. When performing DPTPHR, the surgeon should ensure adequate duodenal blood supply. Avoidance of duodenal ischemia is very important in this operation, and thus it is necessary to maintain blood flow in the posterior pancreatoduodenal artery and to preserve the mesoduodenal vessels. Postoperative pancreatic functional tests reveal that DPTPHR is superior to PPPD, including PHSRD, because the entire duodenum and duodenal integrity is very important for postoperative pancreatic function.

  8. Solitary pancreatic head metastasis from tibial adamantinoma: a rare indication to pancreaticoduodenectomy

    PubMed Central

    Silvestri, S; Sandrucci, S; Comandone, A; Molinaro, L; Chiusa, L; Fronda, G R; Franchello, A

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Pancreatic metastases are rare, <2% of all pancreatic neoplasia. This is the first case of pancreatic metastasis from adamantinoma, a rare, low grade and slow growing tumor which is frequently localized in long bones. We describe a case of a 45-year-old woman presenting with increased bilirubin level. Computed tomography and ecoendoscopic ultra sonography revealed a pancreatic head mass. Fine-needle aspiration biopsy was consistent with metastatic adamantinoma. The patient was submitted to a standard pancreaticoduodenectomy. As in the case presented, standard pancreatic resections are safe and feasible options to treat non-pancreatic primary tumor improving patient’s survival and quality of life. PMID:29479415

  9. Surgical treatment of chronic pancreatitis with pancreatic main duct dilatation: Long term results after head resection and duct drainage

    PubMed Central

    Schwarz, A.; Beger, H. G.

    2005-01-01

    Tissue and duct hypertension is considered as a major factor in the etiology of pain in patients with chronic pancreatitis (CP). Duct dilatation is a consequence of duct obstruction due to scars or duct stones. Nevertheless, the procedure of choice, drainage or resection, is still under discussion. We present long-term results of patients operated with duodenum-preserving pancreatic head resection (DPPHR) combined with a Partington-Rochelle duct drainage in cases of chronic pancreatitis with multiple stenosis and dilatation of the side ducts. Methods and patients. From April 1982 to September 2001, in 55 out of 538 patients with chronic pancreatitis, a DPPHR with additionally Partington-Rochelle duct drainage was performed (44 male, 11 female, mean age 45.8 years). Ninety-two percent of the patients suffered from alcoholic pancreatitis. Medical respective pain treatment for chronic pancreatitis was in median 64.5 months prior to surgery. The indications for surgery were in 87% pain, 59% of the patients had an inflammatory mass in the head of the pancreas, 36% a common bile duct stenosis and 5% a severe stenosis of the duodenum. The endocrine function (OGGT) was impaired in 79% of the patients preoperatively. Results. Hospital mortality was 0%, postoperative complications occurred in 11 patients. Follow-up: All except 2 patients were followed up in the outpatient clinic with the mean follow-up time of 69.7 months (8–105 months), the late mortality was 9%. Sixty-eight percent of the patients were completely free of pain, 29% had occasional pain, 3% suffered from a further attack of pancreatitis. Body weight increased in 79%, 58% were professionally rehabilitated. Late postoperative endocrine function was unchanged in 85% (improved in 5%, deteriorated in 10%). Conclusion. The pain control in patients with multiple duct stenosis after duodenum-preserving pancreatic head resection with duct drainage leads to long-standing absence of pain and low recurrence rate of

  10. Duodenum-preserving resection and Roux-en-Y pancreatic jejunostomy in benign pancreatic head tumors.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Chun-Hui; Tao, Ming; Jia, Yi-Mu; Xiong, Jing-Wei; Zhang, Tong-Lin; Xiu, Dian-Rong

    2014-11-28

    This study was conducted to explore the feasibility of partial pancreatic head resection and Roux-en-Y pancreatic jejunostomy for the treatment of benign tumors of the pancreatic head (BTPH). From November 2006 to February 2009, four patients (three female and one male) with a mean age of 34.3 years (range: 21-48 years) underwent partial pancreatic head resection and Roux-en-Y pancreatic jejunostomy for the treatment of BTPH (diameters of 3.2-4.5 cm) using small incisions (5.1-7.2 cm). Preoperative symptoms include one case of repeated upper abdominal pain, one case of drowsiness and two cases with no obvious preoperative symptoms. All four surgeries were successfully performed. The mean operative time was 196.8 min (range 165-226 min), and average blood loss was 138.0 mL (range: 82-210 mL). The mean postoperative hospital stay was 7.5 d (range: 7-8 d). In one case, the main pancreatic duct was injured. Pathological examination confirmed that one patient suffered from mucinous cystadenoma, one exhibited insulinoma, and two patients had solid-pseudopapillary neoplasms. There were no deaths or complications observed during the perioperative period. All patients had no signs of recurrence of the BTPH within a follow-up period of 48-76 mo and had good quality of life without diabetes. Partial pancreatic head resection with Roux-en-Y pancreatic jejunostomy is feasible in selected patients with BTPH.

  11. Revision of anastomotic stenosis after pancreatic head resection for chronic pancreatitis: is it futile?

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Katherine A; Fontenot, Bennett B; Harvey, Norman R; Adams, David B

    2010-01-01

    Background: Because survival after pancreaticoduodenectomy for cancer is limited, it is difficult to assess longterm pancreaticojejunal anastomotic patency. However, in patients with benign disease, pancreaticojejunal anastomotic stenosis may become problematic. What happens when pancreaticojejunal anastomosis revision is undertaken? Methods: Patients undergoing pancreatic anastomotic revision after pancreatic head resection for benign disease between 1997 and 2007 at the Medical University of South Carolina were identified. A retrospective chart review and analysis were undertaken with the approval of the Institutional Review Board for the Evaluation of Human Subjects. Longterm follow-up was obtained by patient survey at a clinic visit or by telephone. Results: During the study period, 237 patients underwent pancreatic head resection. Of these, 27 patients (17 women; median age 42 years) underwent revision of pancreaticojejunal anastomosis. Six patients (22%) had a pancreatic leak or abscess at the time of the index pancreatic head resection. The indication for revision of anastomosis was intractable pain. All patients underwent preoperative magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP), which indicated anastomotic stricture in 18 patients (63%). Nine other patients underwent exploration based on clinical suspicion caused by recurrent pancreatitis and stenosis was confirmed at the time of surgery. Six patients (22%) had perioperative complications after revision. The median length of stay was 12 days. There were no perioperative deaths; however, late mortality occurred in four patients (15%). Six of 23 survivors (26%) at the time of follow-up (median 56 months) reported longterm pain relief. Conclusions: Stricture of the pancreaticojejunal anastomosis after pancreatic head resection presents with recurrent pancreatitis and pancreatic pain. MRCP has good specificity in the diagnosis of anastomotic obstruction, but lacks sensitivity. Pancreaticojejunal revision

  12. Pediatric head and neck masses.

    PubMed

    Gujar, Sachin; Gandhi, Dheeraj; Mukherji, Suresh K

    2004-04-01

    Most neck masses in the pediatric head and neck region are benign. Congenital, developmental, and inflammatory lesions make up most of the masses in the pediatric head and neck. For example, neck masses due to inflammatory lymphadenitis are common in children because of the frequency of upper respiratory tract infections. Although many of the malignant tumors in children are found in the head and neck, they account for only a small portion of the neck masses. The choice of the imaging modality is based on a number of factors, several of which are unique to the pediatric population. Although the bulk of disease entities are adequately evaluated by CT, MRI can provide additional vital information in many cases. MRI provides better soft tissue characterization than CT, has multiplanar capabilities. In this article, we will attempt to provide an overview of conditions that present as neck masses.

  13. Pancreatic head excavation for tissue diagnosis may reduce unnecessary pancreaticoduodenectomies in the setting of chronic pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Fancellu, Alessandro; Ginesu, Giorgio C; Feo, Claudio F; Cossu, Maria L; Puledda, Marco; Pinna, Antonio; Porcu, Alberto

    2017-06-01

    The necessity to obtain a tissue diagnosis of cancer prior to pancreatic surgery still remains an open debate. In fact, a non-negligible percentage of patients undergoing pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) for suspected cancer has a benign lesion at final histology. We describe an approach for patients with diagnostic uncertainty between cancer and chronic pancreatitis, with the aim of minimizing the incidence of PD for suspicious malignancy finally diagnosed as benign disease. Eighty-eight patients (85.4%) with a clinicoradiological picture highly suggestive for malignancy received formal PD (group 1). Fifteen patients (14.6%) in whom preoperative diagnosis was uncertain between pancreatic cancer and chronic pancreatitis underwent pancreatic head excavation (PHEX) for intraoperative tissue diagnosis (group 2): those diagnosed as having cancer received PD, whereas those with chronic pancreatitis received pancreaticojejunostomy (PJ). No patient received PD for benign disease. All patients in group 1 had adenocarcinoma on final histology. Eight patients of group 2 (53.3%) received PD after intraoperative diagnosis of cancer, whereas 7 (46.7%) received PJ because no malignancy was found at introperative frozen sections. No signs of cancer were encountered in patients receiving PHEX and PJ after a median follow-up of 42 months. Overall survival did not differ between patients receiving PD for cancer in the group 1 and those receiving PD for cancer after PHEX in the group 2 (P=0.509). Although the described technique has been used in a very selected group of patients, our results suggest that PHEX for tissue diagnosis may reduce rates of unnecessary PD, when the preoperative diagnosis is uncertain between cancer and chronic pancreatitis.

  14. Microwave ablation of pancreatic head cancer: safety and efficacy.

    PubMed

    Carrafiello, Gianpaolo; Ierardi, Anna Maria; Fontana, Federico; Petrillo, Mario; Floridi, Chiara; Lucchina, Natalie; Cuffari, Salvatore; Dionigi, Gianlorenzo; Rotondo, Antonio; Fugazzola, Carlo

    2013-10-01

    To evaluate the safety and efficacy of percutaneous microwave (MW) ablation treatment in locally advanced, nonresectable, nonmetastatic pancreatic head cancer. Ten patients with pancreatic head cancer treated with percutaneous (n = 5) or laparotomic (n = 5) MW ablation were retrospectively reviewed. The MW generator used (45 W at 915 MHz) was connected by coaxial cable to 14-gauge straight MW antennas with a 3.7- or 2-cm radiating section. One or two antennae were used, with an ablation time of 10 minutes. Ultrasonographic (US) and combined US/cone-beam computed tomographic (CT) guidance were used in five patients each. Follow-up was performed by CT after 1, 3, 6, and, when possible, 12 months. Tumor response was assessed per Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors (version 1.1) and Choi criteria. The feasibility, safety, and major and minor complications associated with quality of life (QOL) were recorded prospectively. The procedure was feasible in all patients (100%). One late major complication was observed in one patient, and no visceral injury was detected. No patient had further surgery, and all minor complications resolved during the hospital stay. An improvement in QOL was observed in all patients despite a tendency to return to preoperative levels in the months following the procedure, without the influence of minor complications. No repeat treatment was performed. Despite the small number of patients, the present results can be considered encouraging, showing that MW ablation is a feasible approach in the palliative treatment of pancreatic tumors. © SIR, 2013.

  15. Pancreaticoduodenectomy versus duodenum-preserving pancreatic head resection for the treatment of chronic pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Zhenjiang; Xiang, Guangming; Tan, Chunlu; Zhang, Hao; Liu, Baowang; Gong, Jun; Mai, Gang; Liu, Xubao

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) and duodenum-preserving pancreatic head resection (DPPHR) for the treatment of chronic pancreatitis (CP). The 123 patients with CP who underwent pancreatic head resection between January 2004 and June 2009 were retrospectively analyzed. The preoperative variables, operative data, postoperative complications, and follow-up information were examined. There were no significant differences in clinical and morphological characteristics, pain relief, and jaundice status between the PD and DPPHR groups. The duration of operation was shorter (251.8 [SD, 43.1] vs 324.5 [SD, 41.4] minutes, P < 0.001), blood loss was less (464.4 [SD, 203.6] vs 646.5 [SD, 242.9] mL, P < 0.001), and overall postoperative morbidity was lower (3% vs 19%, P = 0.006) in DPPHR group. The duration of hospital stay was also significantly different (9.9 [SD, 1.8] vs 13.7 [SD, 2.8] days, P < 0.001). Most functional and symptom scales revealed a better quality of life in DPPHR group. The proportion of patients with exocrine and endocrine insufficiency was higher in PD group as compared with DPPHR group. Both procedures are equally effective in pain relief, but DPPHR is superior to PD in operative data, postoperative morbidity, improving quality of life, and preservation of exocrine and endocrine function.

  16. Triple bypass for advanced pancreatic head cancer associated with biliary stricture, duodenal stenosis, and recurrent obstructive pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Kudo, Yuzan; Sato, Norihiro; Tamura, Toshihisa; Hirata, Keiji

    2016-12-01

    Bypass surgery for cancer of the pancreatic head is usually done to palliate the obstructive symptoms in the biliary and/or digestive system. However, it is uncommon for patients to require pancreatic duct drainage for recurrent obstructive pancreatitis. In this article, we report a surgical technique of triple bypass consisting of Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy, gastrojejunostomy, and pancreaticojejunostomy for advanced pancreatic cancer. A 76-year-old male patient with locally advanced and metastatic pancreatic head cancer was referred to our department for biliary stricture, duodenal stenosis, and recurrent obstructive pancreatitis associated with persistent pancreatic pseudocyst. In an attempt to resolve all these problems simultaneously, a triple bypass was performed. The patient survived and continued to receive chemotherapy for almost 1 year after surgery without any serious complications. Thus, triple bypass is a useful surgical technique that could relief symptoms and offer better quality of life to patients with advanced pancreatic cancer presenting with biliary stricture, duodenal stenosis, and severe obstructive pancreatitis difficult to treat by medication or endoscopic procedures.

  17. Expression and prognostic significance of thymidylate synthase (TS) in pancreatic head and periampullary cancer.

    PubMed

    van der Zee, J A; van Eijck, C H J; Hop, W C J; van Dekken, H; Dicheva, B M; Seynhaeve, A L B; Koning, G A; Eggermont, A M M; Ten Hagen, T L M

    2012-11-01

    Pancreatic cancer has a dismal prognosis. Attempts have been made to improve outcome by several 5-FU based adjuvant treatment regimens. However, the results are conflicting. There seems to be a continental divide with respect to the use of 5-FU based chemoradiotherapy (CRT). Furthermore, evidence has been presented showing a different response of pancreatic head and periampullary cancer to 5-FU based CRT. Expression of thymidylate synthase (TS) has been associated with improved outcome following 5-FU based adjuvant treatment in gastrointestinal cancer. This prompted us to determine the differential expression and prognostic value of TS in pancreatic head and periampullary cancer. TS protein expression was studied by immunohistochemistry on original paraffin embedded tissue from 212 patients following microscopic radical resection (R0) of pancreatic head (n = 98) or periampullary cancer (n = 114). Expression was investigated for associations with recurrence free (RFS), cancer specific (CSS) and overall survival (OS), and conventional prognostic factors. High cytosolic TS expression was present in 26% of pancreatic head tumours and 37% of periampullary tumours (p = .11). Furthermore, TS was an independent factor predicting favourable outcome following curative resection of pancreatic head cancer (p = .003, .001 and .001 for RFS, CSS and OS, respectively). In contrast, in periampullary cancer, TS was not associated with outcome (all p > .10). TS, was found to be poorly expressed in both pancreatic head and periampullary cancer and identified as an independent prognostic factor following curative resection of pancreatic head cancer. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Modified duval procedure for small-duct chronic pancreatitis without head dominance.

    PubMed

    Oida, Takatsugu; Aramaki, Osamu; Kano, Hisao; Mimatsu, Kenji; Kawasaki, Atsushi; Kuboi, Youichi; Fukino, Nobutada; Kida, Kazutoshi; Amano, Sadao

    2011-01-01

    In the case of small-duct chronic pancreatitis, surgery for pain relief is broadly divided into resection and drainage procedures. These procedures should be selected according to the location of dominant lesion, diameter of the pancreatic duct and extent of the disease. The appropriate procedure for the treatment of small-duct chronic pancreatitis, especially small-duct chronic pancreatitis without head dominance, remains controversial. We developed the modified Duval procedure for the treatment of small-duct chronic pancreatitis without head dominance and determined the efficacy of this procedure. We retrospectively studied 14 patients who underwent surgical drainage with or without pancreatic resection for chronic pancreatitis with small pancreatic duct (<7mm) without head dominance. These patients were divided into 2 groups; the modified Puestow procedure group and the modified Duval procedure group. No complications occurred in the modified Duval group. In the modified Puestow procedure group, complete and partial pain relief were observed in 62.5%, and 37.5% of patients respectively. In contrast, complete pain relief was observed in all the patients in the modified Duval procedure group. Our modified Duval procedure is useful and should be considered the appropriate surgical technique for the treatment of small-duct chronic pancreatitis without head dominance.

  19. Sarcoidosis with Pancreatic Mass, Endobronchial Nodules, and Miliary Opacities in the Lung.

    PubMed

    Matsuura, Shun; Mochizuka, Yasutaka; Oishi, Kyohei; Miyashita, Koichi; Naoi, Hyogo; Mochizuki, Eisuke; Mikura, Shinichiro; Tsukui, Masaru; Koshimizu, Naoki; Ohata, Akihiko; Suda, Takahumi

    2017-11-15

    Sarcoidosis affects multiple organs and rarely has unusual manifestations. A 78-year-old woman was referred to our hospital for coughing symptoms. A chest computed tomography (CT) scan revealed bilateral diffuse miliary patterns and right pleural effusion. Bronchoscopy showed multiple nodules in the carina and the bronchus intermedius. A CT scan of her abdomen revealed hypovascular lesions involving the pancreatic head and body. A transbronchial lung biopsy, bronchial mucosal biopsy, and endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration of the pancreatic mass demonstrated non-caseating granulomas. We diagnosed the patient with sarcoidosis. She received no treatment for sarcoidosis and has been followed up for one year, during which no pulmonary disease progression had been observed and the pancreatic masses partially regressed.

  20. Pancreaticoduodenectomy for pancreatic head cancer: PPPD versus Whipple procedure.

    PubMed

    Lin, Pin-Wen; Shan, Yan-Shen; Lin, Yih-Jyh; Hung, Chung-Jye

    2005-01-01

    Resectable carcinoma of the head of the pancreas can be treated with either standard (the Whipple) or pylorus-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy (PPPD). Only a few reports compared the differences between these two procedures. From July 1994 to Oct 2002, a prospective randomized comparison between the Whipple procedure and PPPD done by the same surgeon for the patients with carcinoma of the head of the pancreas was conducted. Thirty-six patients diagnosed as pancreatic head adenocarcinoma were randomized to receive either the Whipple procedure or a PPPD. Three patients initially randomized to have a PPPD were converted to the Whipple procedure due to gross duodenal involvement. Finally, 19 patients received the Whipple procedure, 14 patients underwent PPPD and three patients had conversion. Two perioperative deaths in the Whipple group and one perioperative death in PPPD resulted in an 8 percent mortality rate in the 36 patients. Median duration of the Whipple operation was 265 (range 203-475) min with a median blood loss of 570 (50-8540) mL. In the patients who had PPPD, median operating time was 232 (range 165-270) min, and median blood loss was 375 (range 100-1300) mL. There was one minor leak from the pancreaticojejunostomy in each group, resulting in a 5.5 percent minor leak in 36 patients. These outcomes were not significantly different. Delayed gastric emptying was observed more frequently after PPPD (six of 14 patients) than after the Whipple procedure (none of 19 patients) (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference between the Whipple procedure and PPPD in terms of median survival and 5-year survival rate. The median survival time was 16.0 months and 5-year survival rate was 9.4 percent in the 36 patients. Blood loss during operation influenced the prognosis. There was no significant difference between the Whipple procedure and PPPD for the treatment of pancreatic head cancer in terms of operating time, blood loss, operative mortality and long

  1. Pancreatic head cryosurgery: safety and efficiency in vivo--a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Li, Jialiang; Zhou, Liang; Chen, Jibing; Wu, Binghui; Zeng, Jianying; Fang, Gang; Deng, Chunjuan; Huang, Shengquan; Yao, Fei; Chen, Zhixian; Leng, Yin; Deng, Min; Deng, Chunmei; Zhang, Bo; Zhou, Gang; He, Lihua; Liao, Maoxin; Chiu, David; Niu, Lizhi; Zuo, Jiansheng; Xu, Kecheng

    2012-11-01

    Pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer-related death. Cryosurgery has emerged as a promising new technique for treatment. Although 80% of pancreatic cancers are located in the pancreatic head, no research has been conducted on the safety and efficacy of cryosurgery for these tumors. Two groups of Tibetan miniature pigs (n = 4 per group) underwent cryosurgery to the pancreatic head with either the deep freezing protocol (100% argon output) or shallow freezing protocol (10% argon output), and compared to sham-operated pigs. Serum inflammatory factors and amylase increased during the 5 days after cryoablation in both groups but acute pancreatitis did not occur. Adhesions were observed between the pancreatic head and adjacent organs, and only minor trauma was caused to the stomach, duodenum, small intestine, and liver. Ice balls with a radius of 0.5 cm beyond the tumor edge were sufficient to cause complete necrosis of the pancreatic tissue, and decreased the degree of cold injury to surrounding tissues. Shallow freezing protocol seemed to be safer than, and just as effective as, the deep freezing protocol. This preliminary study suggests that cryosurgery could potentially be an effective treatment of cancer of the pancreatic head.

  2. Duodenum-preserving total pancreatic head resection for benign cystic neoplastic lesions.

    PubMed

    Beger, Hans G; Schwarz, Michael; Poch, Bertram

    2012-11-01

    Cystic neoplasms of the pancreas are diagnosed frequently due to early use of abdominal imaging techniques. Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm, mucinous cystic neoplasm, and serous pseudopapillary neoplasia are considered pre-cancerous lesions because of frequent transformation to cancer. Complete surgical resection of the benign lesion is a pancreatic cancer preventive treatment. The application for a limited surgical resection for the benign lesions is increasingly used to reduce the surgical trauma with a short- and long-term benefit compared to major surgical procedures. Duodenum-preserving total pancreatic head resection introduced for inflammatory tumors in the pancreatic head transfers to the patient with a benign cystic lesion located in the pancreatic head, the advantages of a minimalized surgical treatment. Based on the experience of 17 patients treated for cystic neoplastic lesions with duodenum-preserving total pancreatic head resection, the surgical technique of total pancreatic head resection for adenoma, borderline tumors, and carcinoma in situ of cystic neoplasm is presented. A segmental resection of the peripapillary duodenum is recommended in case of suspected tissue ischemia of the peripapillary duodenum. In 305 patients, collected from the literature by PubMed search, in about 40% of the patients a segmental resection of the duodenum and 60% a duodenum and common bile duct-preserving total pancreatic head resection has been performed. Hospital mortality of the 17 patients was 0%. In 305 patients collected, the hospital mortality was 0.65%, 13.2% experienced a delay of gastric emptying and a pancreatic fistula in 18.2%. Recurrence of the disease was 1.5%. Thirty-two of 175 patients had carcinoma in situ. Duodenum-preserving total pancreatic head resection for benign cystic neoplastic lesions is a safe surgical procedure with low post-operative morbidity and mortality.

  3. Management of synchronous tumours of the oesophagus and pancreatic head: a novel approach.

    PubMed

    Gyorki, D E; Clarke, N E; Hii, M W; Banting, S W; Cade, R J

    2011-09-01

    Synchronous tumours of the oesophagus and pancreatic head are very rare. This report describes a unique case of an adenocarcinoma of the distal oesophagus and a neuroendocrine tumour of the pancreatic head diagnosed synchronously but successfully managed metachronously. Initially, the patient underwent an oesophagectomy, with a colonic reconstruction following some months later by pylorus-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy. A staged resection was performed after a review of the literature suggested increased morbidity with synchronous major abdominal operations.

  4. Surgical treatment of pancreas divisum causing chronic pancreatitis: the outcome benefits of duodenum-preserving pancreatic head resection.

    PubMed

    Schlosser, W; Rau, B M; Poch, B; Beger, H G

    2005-01-01

    Pancreas divisum (PD) represents a duct anomaly in the pancreatic head ducts, leading frequently leading to recurrent acute pancreatitis (rAP) or chronic pancreatitis (CP). Based on endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, pancreas divisum can be found in 1% to 6% of patients with pancreatitis. The correlation of this abnormality with pancreatic disease is an issue of continuing controversy. Because of the underlying duct anomalies and major pathomorphological changes in the pancreatic head, duodenum-preserving pancreatic head resection (DPPHR) offers an option for causal treatment. Thirty-six patients with pancreatitis caused by PD were treated surgically. Thirty patients suffered from CP, 6 from rAP. The mean duration of the disease was 47.5 and 49.8 months, respectively. The age at the time of surgery was 39.2 years in the CP group, and 27.6 years in the rAP group. Median hospitalization since diagnosis was 18.8 weeks for CP patients and 24.6 weeks for rAP patients. Previous procedures performed in these patients included endoscopic papillotomy (30%), duct stenting (14%), and surgical treatment (17%). The median preoperative pain score was 8 on a visual analog scale. According to the classification of pancreas divisum, 10 patients demonstrated a complete PD, 25 had a functionally incomplete PD, and 1 had a dorsal duct type. The pain status as well as the endocrine (oral glucose tolerance test) and exocrine (pancreolauryl test) function were evaluated preoperatively and early and late postoperatively with a median follow-up time of 39.3 months. There was no operative-related mortality. The follow-up was 100%; 4 patients died (1 from suicide, 1 from cardiac arrest, and 2 from cancer of the esophagus). Fifty percent of the patients were completely pain-free, 31% had a significant reduction of pain with a median pain score of 2 (P < 0.001). Six patients (5 CP, 1 rAP) had further attacks of acute pancreatitis with a need for hospitalization. DPPHR reduced pain

  5. Management of common head and neck masses.

    PubMed

    Tracy, Thomas F; Muratore, Christopher S

    2007-02-01

    Head and neck masses are a common clinical concern in infants, children, and adolescents. The differential diagnosis for a head or neck mass includes congenital, inflammatory, and neoplastic lesions. An orderly and thorough examination of the head and neck with an appropriate directed workup will facilitate the diagnosis. The most common entities occur repeatedly within the various age groups and can be differentiated with a clear understanding of embryology and anatomy of the region, and an understanding of the natural history of a specific lesion. Congenital lesions most commonly found in the pediatric population include the thyroglossal duct cyst and the branchial cleft and arch anomalies. The inflammatory masses are secondary to local or systemic infections. The most common etiology for cervical adenopathy in children is reactive lymphadenopathy following a viral or bacterial illness. Persistent adenopathy raises more concerns, especially enlarged lymph nodes within the posterior triangle or supraclavicular space, nodes that are painless, firm, and not mobile, or a single dominant node that persists for more than 6 weeks should all heighten concern for malignancy. In this review, we discuss the current principles of surgical management of the most common head and neck masses that present to pediatricians and pediatric surgeons.

  6. Automated quantification of pancreatic β-cell mass

    PubMed Central

    Golson, Maria L.; Bush, William S.

    2014-01-01

    β-Cell mass is a parameter commonly measured in studies of islet biology and diabetes. However, the rigorous quantification of pancreatic β-cell mass using conventional histological methods is a time-consuming process. Rapidly evolving virtual slide technology with high-resolution slide scanners and newly developed image analysis tools has the potential to transform β-cell mass measurement. To test the effectiveness and accuracy of this new approach, we assessed pancreata from normal C57Bl/6J mice and from mouse models of β-cell ablation (streptozotocin-treated mice) and β-cell hyperplasia (leptin-deficient mice), using a standardized systematic sampling of pancreatic specimens. Our data indicate that automated analysis of virtual pancreatic slides is highly reliable and yields results consistent with those obtained by conventional morphometric analysis. This new methodology will allow investigators to dramatically reduce the time required for β-cell mass measurement by automating high-resolution image capture and analysis of entire pancreatic sections. PMID:24760991

  7. A prospective assessment of the natural course of the exocrine pancreatic function in patients with a pancreatic head tumor.

    PubMed

    Sikkens, Edmée C M; Cahen, Djuna L; de Wit, Jill; Looman, Caspar W N; van Eijck, Casper; Bruno, Marco J

    2014-01-01

    In cancer of the pancreatic head region, exocrine insufficiency is a well-known complication, leading to steatorrhea, weight loss, and malnutrition. Its presence is frequently overlooked, however, because the primary attention is focused on cancer treatment. To date, the risk of developing exocrine insufficiency is unspecified. Therefore, we assessed this function in patients with tumors of the pancreatic head, distal common bile duct, or ampulla of Vater. Between March 2010 and August 2012, we prospectively included patients diagnosed with cancer of the pancreatic head region at our tertiary center. To preclude the effect of a resection, we excluded operated patients. Each month, the exocrine function was determined with a fecal elastase test. Furthermore, endocrine function, steatorrhea-related symptoms, and body weight were evaluated. Patients were followed for 6 months, or until death. Thirty-two patients were included. The tumor was located in the pancreas in 75%, in the bile duct in 16%, and in the ampullary region in 9%, with a median size of 2.5 cm. At diagnosis, the prevalence of exocrine insufficiency was 66%, which increased to 92% after a median follow-up of 2 months (interquartile range, 1 to 4 mo). Most patients with cancer of the pancreatic head region were already exocrine insufficient at diagnosis, and within several months, this function was impaired in almost all cases. Given this high prevalence, physicians should be focused on diagnosing and treating exocrine insufficiency, to optimize the nutritional status and physical condition, especially for those patients undergoing palliative chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy.

  8. Carcinoma of the pancreatic head and periampullary region. Tumor staging with laparoscopy and laparoscopic ultrasonography.

    PubMed Central

    John, T G; Greig, J D; Carter, D C; Garden, O J

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The authors performed a prospective evaluation of staging laparoscopy with laparoscopic ultrasonography in predicting surgical resectability in patients with carcinomas of the pancreatic head and periampullary region. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Pancreatic resection with curative intent is possible in a select minority of patients who have carcinomas of the pancreatic head and periampullary region. Patient selection is important to plan appropriate therapy and avoid unnecessary laparotomy in patients with unresectable disease. Laparoscopic ultrasonography is a novel technique that combines the proven benefits of staging laparoscopy with high resolution intraoperative ultrasound of the liver and pancreas, but which has yet to be evaluated critically in the staging of pancreatic malignancy. METHODS: A cohort of 40 consecutive patients referred to a tertiary referral center and with a diagnosis of potentially resectable pancreatic or periampullary cancer underwent staging laparoscopy with laparoscopic ultrasonography. The diagnostic accuracy of staging laparoscopy alone and in conjunction with laparoscopic ultrasonography was evaluated in predicting tumor resectability (absence of peritoneal or liver metastases; absence of malignant regional lymphadenopathy; tumor confined to pancreatic head or periampullary region). RESULTS: "Occult" metastatic lesions were demonstrated by staging laparoscopy in 14 patients (35%). Laparoscopic ultrasonography demonstrated factors confirming unresectable tumor in 23 patients (59%), provided staging information in addition to that of laparoscopy alone in 20 patients (53%), and changed the decision regarding tumor resectability in 10 patients (25%). Staging laparoscopy with laparoscopic ultrasonography was more specific and accurate in predicting tumor resectability than laparoscopy alone (88% and 89% versus 50% and 65%, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Staging laparoscopy is indispensable in the detection of "occult" intra

  9. Characterization of the duodenal bacterial microbiota in patients with pancreatic head cancer vs. healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Mei, Qi-Xiang; Huang, Chun-Lan; Luo, Sheng-Zheng; Zhang, Xue-Mei; Zeng, Yue; Lu, Ying-Ying

    2018-06-01

    An increasing number of reports have demonstrated that there is an association between the presence of pathogenic microorganisms and pancreatic cancer. However, the role of the duodenal microbiota in pancreatic carcinogenesis remains unknown. In this study, duodenal mucosal microbiota was analyzed in 14 patients with pancreatic head cancer and 14 healthy controls using 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing methods. Plasma endotoxin activity and the concentrations of the proinflammatory cytokine IL-6 and C-reactive protein (CRP) were measured in blood samples. The urea breath test was used to detect Helicobacter pylori infections. Endoscopic duodenal mucosal biopsies were evaluated by histological examinations. Statistical comparisons of inflammatory factors revealed significantly higher levels of CRP and IL-6 in the pancreatic cancer group as compared to healthy controls. Patients with pancreatic cancer also had a higher incidence of H. pylori infections and showed mucosal changes, including villous abnormalities and diffuse inflammatory cell infiltration in the lamina propria. The sequences analysis showed that based on linear discriminant analysis effect size (LEfSe) analysis at the genus level, Acinetobacter, Aquabacterium, Oceanobacillus, Rahnella, Massilia, Delftia, Deinococcus, and Sphingobium were more abundant in the duodenal mucosa of pancreatic cancer patients, whereas the duodenal microbiotas of healthy controls were enriched with Porphyromonas, Paenibacillus, Enhydrobacter, Escherichia, Shigella, and Pseudomonas. These results reveal a picture of duodenal microbiota in pancreatic head cancer patients that could be useful in future trials investigating the role of gut microbiota in pancreatic cancer. Copyright © 2018 IAP and EPC. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Zero Launch Mass Three Dimensional Print Head

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, Robert P.; Gelino, Nathan J.; Smith, Jonathan D.; Buckles, Brad C.; Lippitt, Thomas; Schuler, Jason M.; Nick, Andrew J.; Nugent, Matt W.; Townsend, Ivan I.

    2018-01-01

    NASA's strategic goal is to put humans on Mars in the 2030's. The NASA Human Spaceflight Architecture Team (HAT) and NASA Mars Design Reference Architecture (DRA) 5.0 has determined that in-situ resource utilization (ISRU) is an essential technology to accomplish this mission. Additive construction technology using in-situ materials from planetary surfaces will reduce launch mass, allow structures to be three dimensionally (3D) printed on demand, and will allow building designs to be transmitted digitally from Earth and printed in space. This will ultimately lead to elimination of reliance on structural materials launched from Earth (zero launch mass of construction consumables). The zero launch mass (ZLM) 3D print head project addressed this need by developing a system that 3D prints using a mixture of in-situ regolith and polymer as feedstock, determining the optimum mixture ratio and regolith particle size distribution, developing software to convert g-code into motion instructions for a FANUC robotic arm, printing test samples, performing materials testing, and printing a reduced scale habitable structure concept. This paper will focus on the ZLM 3D Print Head design, materials selection, software development, and lessons learned from operating the system in the NASA KSC Swamp Works Granular Mechanics & Regolith Operations (GMRO) Laboratory.

  11. Duodenum-preserving head resection for chronic pancreatitis: an institutional experience and national survey of usage.

    PubMed

    Varghese, Thomas K; Bell, Richard H

    2007-10-01

    Duodenum-preserving pancreatic head resections (DPPHRs) have been shown in European randomized clinical trials to be superior to pancreaticoduodenectomy for chronic pancreatitis, but DPPHR procedures have been slow to be adopted in the United States. To assess national attitudes of surgeons toward DPPHR, a web-based survey was administered to the U.S. members of the Pancreas Club, which is a national organization of pancreatic surgeons. We also performed a retrospective review of 21 DPPHRs, performed by the senior author, for chronic pancreatitis between January 2000 and March 2005. The web-based national survey was completed by 64 of 118 members of the Pancreas Club (54.24%). Of the 59 surgeons who perform operations for chronic pancreatitis, 34 had performed a DPPHR at least once. Only 23 U.S. surgeons continue to perform these procedures. Most surgeons who are not performing DPPHRs responded that, despite the published literature, existing procedures such as the Whipple and Puestow were better procedures. In our clinical series, 12 men and 9 women with a mean age of 48.2 +/- 9.6 years underwent DPPHR. The median length of stay was 9 days with 6 patients (28%) who had complications in the postoperative period. Ten of 20 potentially evaluable patients completed a visual analog pain scale and EORTC C-30 quality-of-life questionnaire. Pancreatic functioning approached the normal range in all domains. As compared with a general population of patients with chronic pancreatitis, significant improvement occurred in pancreatic-related pain and digestive function. Self-reported pain was significantly better after operation than before operation. DPPHR provides excellent functional results with relatively low postoperative morbidity and duration of stay. These procedures are underused in the United States, with very few surgeons who use, teach them, or report their results.

  12. Robot-assisted duodenum-preserving pancreatic head resection with pancreaticogastrostomy for benign or premalignant pancreatic head lesions: a single-centre experience.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yu; Jin, Jia-Bin; Zhan, Qian; Deng, Xia-Xing; Peng, Cheng-Hong; Shen, Bai-Yong

    2018-03-02

    The purpose of this study was to compare short- and long-term outcomes of modified robot-assisted duodenum-preserving pancreatic head resection (RA-DPPHR) versus robot-assisted pancreaticoduodenectomy (RA-PD). Matched for age, sex, ASA classification, tumour size, history of abdominal surgery and pathological type, 34 patients undergoing RA-DPPHR and 34 patients undergoing RA-PD between January 2010 and December 2016 were retrospectively analyzed. The RA-DPPHR group had shorter surgical time (188.2 vs. 386.3 min, p < 0.001) and less blood loss (168.2 vs. 386.3 ml, p = 0.026) but higher complication rate (47.1% vs. 32.4%, p = 0.105) and pancreatic fistula rate (32.4% vs. 17.6%, p = 0.161). Hospital mortality was 2.9%. Exocrine insufficiency was lower in the RA-DPPHR group (3.0% vs. 24.2%, p = 0.027). Endocrine insufficiency was observed in one RA-DPPHR patient and 5 RA-PD patients (p = 0.197). Modified RA-DPPHR benefits in terms of better conservation of exocrine and endocrine pancreatic functions at the expense of a significant morbidity and non-zero mortality. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. COX-2 overexpression in resected pancreatic head adenocarcinomas correlates with favourable prognosis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Overexpression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) has been implicated in oncogenesis and progression of adenocarcinomas of the pancreatic head. The data on the prognostic importance of COX expression in these tumours is inconsistent and conflicting. We evaluated how COX-2 overexpression affected overall postoperative survival in pancreatic head adenocarcinomas. Methods The study included 230 consecutive pancreatoduodenectomies for pancreatic cancer (PC, n = 92), ampullary cancer (AC, n = 62) and distal bile duct cancer (DBC, n = 76). COX-2 expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry. Associations between COX-2 expression and histopathologic variables including degree of differentiation, histopathologic type of differentiation (pancreatobiliary vs. intestinal) and lymph node ratio (LNR) were evaluated. Unadjusted and adjusted survival analysis was performed. Results COX-2 staining was positive in 71% of PC, 77% in AC and 72% in DBC. Irrespective of tumour origin, overall patient survival was more favourable in patients with COX-2 positive tumours than COX-2 negative (p = 0.043 in PC, p = 0.011 in AC, p = 0.06 in DBC). In tumours of pancreatobiliary type of histopathological differentiation, COX-2 expression did not significantly affect overall patient survival. In AC with intestinal differentiation COX-2 expression significantly predicted favourable survival (p = 0.003). In PC, COX-2 expression was significantly associated with high degree of differentiation (p = 0.002). COX-2 and LNR independently predicted good prognosis in a multivariate model. Conclusions COX-2 is overexpressed in pancreatic cancer, ampullary cancer and distal bile duct cancer and confers a survival benefit in all three cancer types. In pancreatic cancer, COX-2 overexpression is significantly associated with the degree of differentiation and independently predicts a favourable prognosis. PMID:24950702

  14. Diagnostic value of a pancreatic mass on computed tomography in patients undergoing pancreatoduodenectomy for presumed pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Gerritsen, Arja; Bollen, Thomas L; Nio, C Yung; Molenaar, I Quintus; Dijkgraaf, Marcel G W; van Santvoort, Hjalmar C; Offerhaus, G Johan; Brosens, Lodewijk A; Biermann, Katharina; Sieders, Egbert; de Jong, Koert P; van Dam, Ronald M; van der Harst, Erwin; van Goor, Harry; van Ramshorst, Bert; Bonsing, Bert A; de Hingh, Ignace H; Gerhards, Michael F; van Eijck, Casper H; Gouma, Dirk J; Borel Rinkes, Inne H M; Busch, Olivier R C; Besselink, Marc G H

    2015-07-01

    Previous studies have shown that 5-14% of patients undergoing pancreatoduodenectomy for suspected malignancy ultimately are diagnosed with benign disease. A "pancreatic mass" on computed tomography (CT) is considered to be the strongest predictor of malignancy, but studies describing its diagnostic value are lacking. The aim of this study was to determine the diagnostic value of a pancreatic mass on CT in patients with presumed pancreatic cancer, as well as the interobserver agreement among radiologists and the additional value of reassessment by expert-radiologists. Reassessment of preoperative CT scans was performed within a previously described multicenter retrospective cohort study in 344 patients undergoing pancreatoduodenectomy for suspected malignancy (2003-2010). Preoperative CT scans were reassessed by 2 experienced abdominal radiologists separately and subsequently in a consensus meeting, after defining a pancreatic mass as "a measurable space occupying soft tissue density, except for an enlarged papilla or focal steatosis". CT scans of 86 patients with benign and 258 patients with (pre)malignant disease were reassessed. In 66% of patients a pancreatic mass was reported in the original CT report, versus 48% and 50% on reassessment by the 2 expert radiologists separately and 44% in consensus (P < .001 vs original report). Interobserver agreement between the original CT report and expert consensus was fair (kappa = 0.32, 95% confidence interval 0.23-0.42). Among both expert-radiologists agreement was moderate (kappa = 0.47, 95% confidence interval 0.38-0.56), with disagreement on the presence of a pancreatic mass in 29% of cases. The specificity for malignancy of pancreatic masses identified in expert consensus was twice as high compared with the original CT report (87% vs 42%, respectively). Positive predictive value increased to 98% after expert consensus, but negative predictive value was low (12%). Clinicians need to be aware of potential considerable

  15. Pancreatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... the hormones insulin and glucagon into the bloodstream. Pancreatitis is inflammation of the pancreas. It happens when digestive enzymes start digesting the pancreas itself. Pancreatitis can be acute or chronic. Either form is ...

  16. Fetal Topographical Anatomy of the Pancreatic Head and Duodenum with Special Reference to Courses of the Pancreaticoduodenal Arteries

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Zhe Wu; Cho, Baik Hwan; Kim, Hyoung Tae; Kimura, Wataru; Fujimiya, Mineko; Murakami, Gen

    2010-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study is to provide better understanding as to how the "double" vascular arcades, in contrast to other intestinal marginal vessels, develop along the right margin of the pancreatic head. Materials and Methods In human fetuses between 8-30 weeks, we described the topographical anatomy of the vessels, bile duct, duodenum as well as the ventral and dorsal primordia of the pancreatic head with an aid of pancreatic polypeptide immunohisto-chemistry. Results The contents of the hepatoduodenal ligament crossed the superior side of the pylorus. Moreover, the right hepatic artery originating from the superior mesenteric artery ran along the superior aspect of the pancreatic head. An arterial arcade, corresponding to the posterior pancreaticoduodenal arteries, encircled the superior part of the pancreatic head, whereas another arcade, corresponding to the anterior pancreaticoduodenal arteries, surrounded the inferior part. The dorsal promordium of the pancreas surrounded and/or mixed the ventral primordium at 13-16 weeks. Thus, both arterial arcades were likely to attach to the dorsal primordium. Conclusion The fetal anatomy of the pancreaticoduodenal vascular arcades as well as that of the hepatoduodenal ligament were quite different from adults in topographical relations. Thus, in the stage later than 30 weeks, further rotation of the duodenum along a horizontal axis seemed to be required to move the pylorus posterosuperiorly and to reflect the superior surface of the pancreatic head posteriorly. However, to change the topographical anatomy of the superior and inferior arterial arcades into the final position, re-arrangement of the pancreatic parenchyma might be necessary in the head. PMID:20376893

  17. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided techniques for diagnosing pancreatic mass lesions: Can we do better?

    PubMed Central

    Storm, Andrew C; Lee, Linda S

    2016-01-01

    The diagnostic approach to a possible pancreatic mass lesion relies first upon various non-invasive imaging modalities, including computed tomography, ultrasound, and magnetic resonance imaging techniques. Once a suspect lesion has been identified, tissue acquisition for characterization of the lesion is often paramount in developing an individualized therapeutic approach. Given the high prevalence and mortality associated with pancreatic cancer, an ideal approach to diagnosing pancreatic mass lesions would be safe, highly sensitive, and reproducible across various practice settings. Tools, in addition to radiologic imaging, currently employed in the initial evaluation of a patient with a pancreatic mass lesion include serum tumor markers, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, and endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA). EUS-FNA has grown to become the gold standard in tissue diagnosis of pancreatic lesions. PMID:27818584

  18. [Surgical options for chronic pancreatitis].

    PubMed

    Tan, C L; Nuer, Emms; Abulaiti, Aizezi; Zhang, H; Chen, Y H; Liu, X B

    2016-11-01

    Objective: Discuss the surgical options for the chronic pancreatitis on the basis of anatomical morphological changes. Methods: A retrospective review of chronic pancreatitis patients in Department of Pancreatic Surgery, West China Hospital, Sichuan University between January 2010 and December 2014 was performed. The data of medical records, image feature, surgical types and records of follow-up were collected. Total 295 patients including 275 male and 20 female aged from 14 to 74 years with median age of 51 years. The clinical symptoms included abdominal pain in 280 cases, jaundice in 3 cases, single hemorrhage in digestive tract, diarrhea or mellitus in 12 cases. The anatomical morphological changes included pancreatic fibrosis and atrophy of the main pancreatic duct lesions in 44 cases (14.9%), inflammatory mass in the pancreatic head in 69 cases (22.4%), sporadic stones with calcification in the pancreatic head in 165 cases(55.9%), hyperplasia mass of pancreatic head and body in 14 cases (4.8%), sporadic stones with calcification in whole branch ducts accompanied with different degree of hyperplasia in whole pancreas in 3 cases (1.0%). The surgical options included longitudinal pancreaticojejunostomy, duodenum-preserving pancreatic head resection, Frey/Frey+ distal pancreatectomy, total and subtotal pancreatectomy. All patients were followed-up for 3 to 6 months in the outpatient. A cross-sectional study was carried out by telephone, letters, questionnaire and outpatient from April to June 2016. Results: Among 295 patients, 267 cases were followed-up for an average time of 40 months(18 to 78 months), 28 cases were lost to followed-up(9.5%). Pain remission rate of pancreatic fibrosis and atrophy of the main pancreatic duct lesions patients was 97.0%, of inflammatory mass in the pancreatic head patients was 96.8%, of sporadic stones with calcification in the pancreatic head patients was 96.6%, of hyperplasia mass of pancreatic head and body patients was 12/13, of

  19. Long-term Outcomes Favor Duodenum-preserving Pancreatic Head Resection over Pylorus-preserving Pancreaticoduodenectomy for Chronic Pancreatitis: A Meta-analysis and Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Sukharamwala, Prashant B; Patel, Krishen D; Teta, Anthony F; Parikh, Shailraj; Ross, Sharona B; Ryan, Carrie E; Rosemurgy, Alexander S

    2015-09-01

    Pylorus-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy (PPPD) and duodenum-preserving pancreatic head resection (DPPHR) are important treatment options for patients with chronic pancreatitis. This meta-analysis was undertaken to compare the long-term outcomes of DPPHR versus PPPD in patients with chronic pancreatitis. A systematic literature search was conducted using Embase, MEDLINE, Cochrane, and PubMed databases on all studies published between January 1991 and January 2013 reporting intermediate and long-term outcomes after DPPHR and PPPD for chronic pancreatitis. Long-term outcomes of interest were complete pain relief, quality of life, professional rehabilitation, exocrine insufficiency, and endocrine insufficiency. Other outcomes of interest included perioperative morbidity and length of stay (LOS). Ten studies were included comprising of 569 patients. There was no significant difference in complete pain relief (P = 0.24), endocrine insufficiency (P = 0.15), and perioperative morbidity (P = 0.13) between DPPHR and PPPD. However, quality of life (P < 0.00001), professional rehabilitation (P = 0.004), exocrine insufficiency (P = 0.005), and LOS (P = 0.00001) were significantly better for patients undergoing DPPHR compared with PPPD. In conclusion, there is no significant difference in endocrine insufficiency, postoperative pain relief, and perioperative morbidity for patients undergoing DPPHR versus PPPD. Improved intermediate and long-term outcomes including LOS, quality of life, professional rehabilitation, and preservation of exocrine function make DPPHR a more favorable approach than PPPD for patients with chronic pancreatitis.

  20. Two sides of the story? Smad4 loss in pancreatic cancer versus head-and-neck cancer

    PubMed Central

    Malkoski, Stephen P.; Wang, Xiao-Jing

    2012-01-01

    TGFβ signaling Smads (Smad2, 3, and 4) were suspected tumor suppressors soon after their discovery. Nearly two decades of research confirmed this role and revealed other divergent and cancer-specific functions including paradoxical tumor promotion effects. Although Smad4 is the most potent tumor suppressor, its functions are highly context-specific as exemplified by pancreatic cancer and head-and-neck cancer: in pancreatic cancer, Smad4 loss cannot initiate tumor formation but promotes metastases while in head-and-neck cancer Smad4 loss promotes cancer progression but also initiates tumor formation, likely through effects on genomic instability. The differing consequences of impaired Smad signaling in human cancers and the molecular mechanisms that underpin these differences will have important implications for the design and application of novel targeted therapies. PMID:22321641

  1. Decoy receptor 3 (DcR3) overexpression predicts the prognosis and pN2 in pancreatic head carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jian; Song, Shiduo; Li, Dechun; He, Songbing; Zhang, Bing; Wang, Zhenxin; Zhu, Xinguo

    2014-03-05

    This study was carried out to examine decoy receptor 3 (DcR3) expression and investigate its clinical and prognostic significance in patients with pancreatic head carcinoma. Tissue samples were obtained from 50 patients with pancreatic head carcinoma. DcR3 protein expression in tissues and sera was assessed by immunohistochemistry and ELISA. Correlations between DcR3 and clinicopathologic features and prognoses were analyzed statistically. Serum DcR3 levels were significantly elevated in patients with pancreatic head carcinoma compared with patients with cystadenoma and healthy individuals (P < 0.01 and P < 0.01, respectively). DcR3 overexpression correlated with lymph node metastases and TNM stages (P < 0.05 and P < 0.05, respectively). Median overall survival for the high DcR3 group was 16.3 months, compared to 21.6 months for the low DcR3 group (P < 0.05). In the low DcR3 group, no significant difference was found in the overall survival between patients who underwent standard pancreatoduodenectomy (SPD) and those who had radical pancreatoduodenectomy (RPD) (P > 0.05). In the high DcR3 group, the median overall survival rates were 16.8 months in the RPD group and 13.5 months in the SPD group (P < 0.05). We found that DcR3 was overexpressed in pancreatic head carcinoma. The patients with high DcR3 levels had higher pN2 stages than those with low DcR3 levels. Detecting serum DcR3 level preoperatively might be an additional approach for evaluating pN2 stage and guiding the range of lymphadenectomy.

  2. Preoperative biliary drainage using a fully covered self-expandable metallic stent for pancreatic head cancer: A prospective feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Togawa, Osamu; Isayama, Hiroyuki; Kawakami, Hiroshi; Nakai, Yousuke; Mohri, Dai; Hamada, Tsuyoshi; Kogure, Hirofumi; Kawakubo, Kazumichi; Sakamoto, Naoya; Koike, Kazuhiko; Kita, Hiroto

    2018-01-01

    The role of endoscopic preoperative biliary drainage (PBD) for pancreatic head cancer is controversial because of the high incidence of stent occlusion before surgery. This study was performed to evaluate the feasibility and safety of PBD using a fully covered self-expandable metallic stent (FCSEMS). This multicenter prospective study involved 26 patients treated for pancreatic head cancer with distal bile duct obstruction from April 2011 to March 2013. An FCSEMS was endoscopically placed in 24 patients. Among these, 7 patients were diagnosed with unresectable cancer, and 17 underwent surgery at a median of 18 days after FCSEMS placement. The main outcome measure was preoperative and postoperative adverse events. Two adverse events (cholecystitis and insufficient resolution of jaundice) occurred between FCSEMS placement and surgery (12%). Postoperative adverse events occurred in eight patients (47%). The cumulative incidence of stent-related adverse events 4 and 8 weeks after FCSEMS placement among the 24 patients who underwent this procedure were 19%. PBD using an FCSEMS is feasible in patients with resectable pancreatic head cancer. Placement of an FCSEMS can be an alternative PBD technique when surgery without delay is impossible. A larger randomized controlled trial is warranted.

  3. [A Case of Pancreatic Head Cancer Treated with Pancreaticoduodenectomy Combined with Hepatic Artery Resection Following Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy].

    PubMed

    Maeda, Shintaro; Takano, Shigetsugu; Shimizu, Hiroaki; Ohtsuka, Masayuki; Kato, Atsushi; Yoshitomi, Hideyuki; Furukawa, Katsunori; Takayashiki, Tsukasa; Kuboki, Satoshi; Suzuki, Daisuke; Sakai, Nozomu; Kagawa, Shingo; Miyazaki, Masaru

    2015-11-01

    A 70-year-old woman was diagnosed with pancreatic head cancer with hepatic artery invasion by multi-detector computed tomography (MD-CT). After 3 courses of gemcitabine plus S-1 neoadjuvant therapy, the tumor size was not diminished; however, the tumor marker CA19-9 level was decreased to less than 90% of its initial level. Pancreaticoduodenectomy combined with hepatic artery resection was performed, and an end-to-end anastomosis was made between the common and proper hepatic artery to reconstruct the hepatic artery. The pathological examination indicated adenosquamous carcinoma, no vascular invasion, and negative margin status, and the efficacy of chemotherapy was classified as GradeⅡb using Evans' classification. Usually, pancreatic head cancer with hepatic artery invasion is considered unresectable due to its high morbidity/mortality and poor prognosis. However, with the recently developed surgical strategy and appropriate therapeutic interventions, such as a combination of neoadjuvant chemotherapy and resection/reconstruction of the hepatic artery, a curative operation can be feasible for locally advanced pancreatic head cancer.

  4. Survival benefit of pancreaticoduodenectomy in a Japanese fashion for a limited group of patients with pancreatic head cancer.

    PubMed

    Takao, Sonshin; Shinchi, Hiroyuki; Maemura, Kosei; Kurahara, Hiroshi; Natsugoe, Shoji; Aikou, Takashi

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the clinical benefit of pancreaticoduodenectomy in a Japanese fashion for patients with pancreatic head cancer. One hundred and one patients underwent pancreatectomy for pancreatic head cancer between 1980 and 2001. Of these, 40 patients in the extended resection (ER) group had an extended lymphadenectomy and neural plexus dissection as a Japanese fashion, while 61 patients in the conventional resection (CR) group. Tumor status, morbidity, mortality, survival and pattern of recurrence were retrospectively studied. The incidence of R0 operations in the ER group was higher than that in the CR group (p<0.01). The actuarial 5-year survival rate (30.6%) of patients with pStage IIA or IIB in the ER group was significantly higher than that (8.2%) in the CR group (p=0.04) because local recurrence (47%) in the CR group was higher than that (25%) in the ER group (p=0.02). In an immunohistochemical study of isolated tumor cells (ITCs), 13 patients (57%) with lymph node ITCs were included in the 23 pN0 patients. Pancreaticoduodenectomy in a Japanese fashion with an adequate extended resection might bring a survival benefit for patients with pStage IIA or IIB pancreatic head cancer.

  5. Short and long-term post-operative outcomes of duodenum preserving pancreatic head resection for chronic pancreatitis affecting the head of pancreas: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Jawad, Zaynab A R; Tsim, Nicole; Pai, Madhava; Bansi, Dev; Westaby, David; Vlavianos, Panagiotis; Jiao, Long R

    2016-02-01

    To evaluate the short and long term outcomes of duodenum preserving pancreatic head resection (DPPHR) procedures in the treatment of painful chronic pancreatitis. A systematic literature search was performed to identify all comparative studies evaluating long and short term postoperative outcomes (pain relief, morbidity and mortality, pancreatic exocrine and endocrine function). Five published studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria including 1 randomized controlled trial comparing the Beger and Frey procedure. In total, 323 patients underwent surgical procedures for chronic pancreatitis, including Beger (n = 138) and Frey (n = 99), minimal Frey (n = 32), modified Frey (n = 25) and Berne's modification (n = 29). Two studies comparing the Beger and Frey procedure were entered into a meta-analysis and showed no difference in post-operative pain (RD = -0.06; CI -0.21 to 0.09), mortality (RD = 0.01; CI -0.03 to 0.05), morbidity (RD = 0.12; CI -0.00 to 0.24), exocrine insufficiency (RD = 0.04; CI -0.10 to 0.18) and endocrine insufficiency (RD = -0.14 CI -0.28 to 0.01). All procedures are equally effective for the management of pain for chronic pancreatitis. The choice of procedure should be determined by other factors including the presence of secondary complications of pancreatitis and intra-operative findings. Registration number CRD42015019275. Centre for Reviews and Dissemination, University of York, 2009. Copyright © 2015 International Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Association Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Investigation of the expression of RIF1 gene on head and neck, pancreatic and brain cancer and cancer stem cells.

    PubMed

    GursesCila, Hacer E; Acar, Muradiye; Barut, Furkan B; Gunduz, Mehmet; Grenman, Reidar; Gunduz, Esra

    2016-12-01

    Recent studies have shown that cancer stem cells are resistant to chemotherapy. The aim of this study was to compare RIF1 gene expression in head and neck, pancreatic cancer and glioma cell lines and the cancer stem cells isolated from these cell lines. UT-SCC-74 from Turku University and UT-SCC-74B primary tumor metastasis and neck cancer cell lines, YKG-1 glioma cancer cell line from RIKEN, pancreatic cancer cell lines and ASPC-1 cells from ATCC were grown in cell culture. To isolate cancer stem cells, ALDH-1 for UT-SCC-74 and UT-SCC-74B cell line, CD-133 for YKG-1 cell line and CD-24 for ASPC-1 cell line, were used as markers of cancer stem cells. RNA isolation was performed for both cancer lines and cancer stem cells. RNAs were converted to cDNA. RIF1 gene expression was performed by qRT-PCR analysis. RIF1 gene expression was compared with cancer cell lines and cancer stem cells isolated from these cell lines. The possible effect of RIF1 gene was evaluated. In the pancreatic cells, RIF1 gene expression in the stem cell-positive cell line was 256 time that seen in the stem cell-negative cell line. Considering the importance of RIF1 in NHEJ and of NHEJ in pancreatic cancer, RIF1 may be one of the genes that plays an important role in the diagnoses and therapeutic treatment of pancreatic cancer. The results of head and neck and brain cancers are inconclusive and further studies are required to elucidate the connection between RIF1 gene and these other types of cancers.

  7. A Mass of Pancreatic and Gastric Heterotopia Causing a Small Bowel Obstruction in a 61-Year-Old Male.

    PubMed

    Alfrejat, Majd; Khalil, Bassem; Jackobs, Jordan; Anderson, William; Eschbacher, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    Heterotopic tissue is a congenital anomaly that has been previously reported. Gastric and pancreatic heterotopia are among the most studied ones. Herein, we describe a case of a combined pancreatic and gastric heterotopia that formed a mass and caused a small intestine obstruction in a 61-year-old male. We also did a brief literature review of cases with gastric and pancreatic heterotopia in adult patients.

  8. The role of quantitative mass spectrometry in the discovery of pancreatic cancer biomarkers for translational science

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    In the post-genomic era, it has become evident that genetic changes alone are not sufficient to understand most disease processes including pancreatic cancer. Genome sequencing has revealed a complex set of genetic alterations in pancreatic cancer such as point mutations, chromosomal losses, gene amplifications and telomere shortening that drive cancerous growth through specific signaling pathways. Proteome-based approaches are important complements to genomic data and provide crucial information of the target driver molecules and their post-translational modifications. By applying quantitative mass spectrometry, this is an alternative way to identify biomarkers for early diagnosis and personalized medicine. We review the current quantitative mass spectrometric technologies and analyses that have been developed and applied in the last decade in the context of pancreatic cancer. Examples of candidate biomarkers that have been identified from these pancreas studies include among others, asporin, CD9, CXC chemokine ligand 7, fibronectin 1, galectin-1, gelsolin, intercellular adhesion molecule 1, insulin-like growth factor binding protein 2, metalloproteinase inhibitor 1, stromal cell derived factor 4, and transforming growth factor beta-induced protein. Many of these proteins are involved in various steps in pancreatic tumor progression including cell proliferation, adhesion, migration, invasion, metastasis, immune response and angiogenesis. These new protein candidates may provide essential information for the development of protein diagnostics and targeted therapies. We further argue that new strategies must be advanced and established for the integration of proteomic, transcriptomic and genomic data, in order to enhance biomarker translation. Large scale studies with meta data processing will pave the way for novel and unexpected correlations within pancreatic cancer, that will benefit the patient, with targeted treatment. PMID:24708694

  9. Evaluating the Minimal Specimens From Endoscopic Ultrasound-Guided Fine-Needle Aspiration in Pancreatic Masses

    PubMed Central

    Park, Joo Kyung; Kang, Ki Joo; Oh, Cho Rong; Lee, Jong Kyun; Lee, Kyu Taek; Jang, Kee Taek; Park, Sang-Mo; Lee, Kwang Hyuck

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) has become one of the most useful diagnostic modalities for the diagnosis of pancreatic mass. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of analyzing the minimal specimens obtained by EUS-FNA for the diagnosis of solid masses of pancreas. This study consisted of retrospective and prospective analyses. The retrospective study was performed on 116 patients who underwent EUS-FNA of solid masses for cytological smear, histological analysis, and combined analysis including immunohistochemical (IHC) staining. In the prospective study, 79 patients were enrolled to evaluate the quality and accuracy of EUS-FNA histological analysis and feasibility of IHC staining. The final diagnoses of all patients included pancreatic cancer (n = 126), nonpancreatic cancer (n = 21), other neoplasm (n = 27), and benign lesions (n = 21). In our retrospective study, the combined analysis was more sensitive than cytological analysis alone (P < 0.01). The overall sensitivity of cytology, histology, and combined analysis was 69.8%, 67.2%, and 81.8%, respectively. In the prospective analysis, 64.2% of all punctures were helpful for determining the diagnosis and 40.7% provided sufficient tissue for IHC staining. Histological analysis was helpful for diagnosis in 74.7% of patients. IHC staining was necessary for a definite diagnosis in 11.4% of patients, especially in the cases of nonmalignant pancreatic mass. Histological analysis and IHC study of EUS-FNA specimens was useful for the accurate diagnosis of pancreatic and peripancreatic lesions. Combined analysis showed significantly higher sensitivity than cytology alone because IHC staining was helpful for a diagnosis in some patients. PMID:27227937

  10. Intra-tumoral heterogeneity of gemcitabine delivery and mass transport in human pancreatic cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koay, Eugene J.; Baio, Flavio E.; Ondari, Alexander; Truty, Mark J.; Cristini, Vittorio; Thomas, Ryan M.; Chen, Rong; Chatterjee, Deyali; Kang, Ya'an; Zhang, Joy; Court, Laurence; Bhosale, Priya R.; Tamm, Eric P.; Qayyum, Aliya; Crane, Christopher H.; Javle, Milind; Katz, Matthew H.; Gottumukkala, Vijaya N.; Rozner, Marc A.; Shen, Haifa; Lee, Jeffrey E.; Wang, Huamin; Chen, Yuling; Plunkett, William; Abbruzzese, James L.; Wolff, Robert A.; Maitra, Anirban; Ferrari, Mauro; Varadhachary, Gauri R.; Fleming, Jason B.

    2014-12-01

    There is substantial heterogeneity in the clinical behavior of pancreatic cancer and in its response to therapy. Some of this variation may be due to differences in delivery of cytotoxic therapies between patients and within individual tumors. Indeed, in 12 patients with resectable pancreatic cancer, we previously demonstrated wide inter-patient variability in the delivery of gemcitabine as well as in the mass transport properties of tumors as measured by computed tomography (CT) scans. However, the variability of drug delivery and transport properties within pancreatic tumors is currently unknown. Here, we analyzed regional measurements of gemcitabine DNA incorporation in the tumors of the same 12 patients to understand the degree of intra-tumoral heterogeneity of drug delivery. We also developed a volumetric segmentation approach to measure mass transport properties from the CT scans of these patients and tested inter-observer agreement with this new methodology. Our results demonstrate significant heterogeneity of gemcitabine delivery within individual pancreatic tumors and across the patient cohort, with gemcitabine DNA incorporation in the inner portion of the tumors ranging from 38 to 74% of the total. Similarly, the CT-derived mass transport properties of the tumors had a high degree of heterogeneity, ranging from minimal difference to almost 200% difference between inner and outer portions of the tumor. Our quantitative method to derive transport properties from CT scans demonstrated less than 5% difference in gemcitabine prediction at the average CT-derived transport value across observers. These data illustrate significant inter-patient and intra-tumoral heterogeneity in the delivery of gemcitabine, and highlight how this variability can be reproducibly accounted for using principles of mass transport. With further validation as a biophysical marker, transport properties of tumors may be useful in patient selection for therapy and prediction of

  11. Clinicopathologic assessment of pancreatic ductal carcinoma located at the head of the pancreas, in relation to embryonic development.

    PubMed

    Okamura, Yukiyasu; Fujii, Tsutomu; Kanzaki, Akiyuki; Yamada, Suguru; Sugimoto, Hiroyuki; Nomoto, Shuji; Takeda, Shin; Nakao, Akimasa

    2012-05-01

    Pancreaticoduodenectomy is performed for pancreatic head cancer that originated from the dorsal or ventral primordium. Although the extent of lymph node (LN) dissection is the same irrespective of the origin, the lymphatic continuities may differ between the 2 primordia. Between March 2003 and September 2010, 152 patients underwent pancreaticoduodenectomy for pancreatic cancer. One hundred six patients were assigned into 2 groups according to tumor location on preoperative computed tomography, and their clinical and pathological features were retrospectively analyzed in view of the embryonic development of the pancreas. Sixty of 106 patients were classified with tumors that were derived from the dorsal pancreas (D group) and 46 from the ventral pancreas (V group). The frequency of LN involvement around the middle colic artery (LN 15) in the D group was higher than in the V group (P = 0.008). The rate of additional resection of the pancreas tended to be higher in the D group (P = 0.067). The present study showed the detailed pattern of spread of pancreatic ductal carcinoma to the LNs and provided important information for determining the optimal surgical strategy.

  12. A pylorus-retaining pancreatic head-duodenectomy for cancers of the duodenal papilla and the lower bile duct.

    PubMed

    Iwamoto, M; Sasahara, H; Kawabata, S; Hoshiko, M; Yasumoto, K; Imamura, K; Takagi, K; Morimatsu, M; Fujii, T; Shirouzu, K

    1996-01-01

    With the development of diagnostic technology, the surgical methods of cancer therapy have been expanded, and operations have been performed using a procedure corresponding to the stage of cancer to improve the postoperative QOL. A 79-year-old man with cancer of the duodenal papilla and obstructive jaundice, and a 63-year-old woman with cholangiocarcinoma in the lower region complicated by cholangitis caused by Candida underwent resections of the pancreatic head and duodenum, and pancreaticogastrostomies retaining the pylorus. Satisfactory results were obtained in both cases. The merits of the procedure were that there were few complaints, sufficient food could be ingested and the QCL was maintained. The benefits of pancreaticogastrostomy are that the anastomosis procedure is simple, the gastric wall is thicker than the jejunum and blood flow is plentiful. The dorsal gastric wall is located close to the pancreatic cut-end, therefore tension is not created, and the pancreatic enzymes are not activated because the anastomosis site does not contact the intestinal fluid. These characteristics should decrease the rate of anastomosis failure which can be a fetal complication. A safer operation is desirable, particularly for elderly patients or patients who have complications.

  13. Pancreatic abscess caused by Corynebacterium coyleae mimicking malignant neoplasm.

    PubMed

    Taguchi, Masashi; Nishikawa, Shoichiro; Matsuoka, Hidehiko; Narita, Ryoichi; Abe, Shintaro; Fukuda, Kazumasa; Miyamoto, Hiroshi; Taniguchi, Hatsumi; Otsuki, Makoto

    2006-11-01

    A 50-year-old female was referred to our hospital because of postprandial epigastric pain and pancreatic head mass. On admission, an elastic hard mass with tenderness was palpable in the epigastric region. Laboratory findings showed no abnormalities, except for a slightly elevated C-reactive protein value and iron deficiency anemia. Serum levels of pancreatic enzymes and tumor markers were also within the reference range. Computed tomography (CT) demonstrated a 5-cm heterogenous mass at the head of the pancreas. Angiography showed that gastroduodenal artery was transformed and narrowed by the mass. Smooth stenosis of portal vein was also observed. Fusion CT-positron emission tomography with 2-deoxy-2-[F]fluoro-D-glucose demonstrated a focus of increased uptake in the pancreatic head mass. We suspected the mass of malignancy but, surprisingly, tumor size was gradually decreased without any therapies. Biopsy specimens from the mass of the pancreas showed marked inflammatory cell infiltration and marked interstitial fibrosis without malignant cells. Thereafter, we could isolate Corynebacterium coyleae from the biopsy specimen. We diagnosed the mass as a pancreatic abscess caused by C. coyleae and started with the intravenous antibiotics therapy. Subsequent follow-up CT and ultrasonography showed dramatic improvement in pancreatic mass. We present here a case of pancreatic abscess which was difficult to differentiate from malignant lesion by various imaging studies. Moreover, we could culture and identify C. coyleae which had never been reported to be the source of pancreatic abscess.

  14. P-HPB-21: Isolated pancreatic tuberculosis mimicking inoperable pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sahu, Manoj Kumar; Singh, Ayashkanta; Behera, Debasmita; Behera, Manas; Narayan, Jimmy

    2017-01-01

    Background: Pancreatic tuberculosis is an uncommon disease, presenting as hypoechoic mass on imaging mimicking malignancy. Consequently, it represents a diagnostic challenge necessitating a tissue diagnosis. Case Report: A 75-year-old female presented with progressive jaundice and weight loss; imaging with computed tomography (CT) showed a large (5.8 cm × 4.6 cm) pancreatic head mass with encasement of portal and superior mesenteric veins, peripancreatic nodes, atrophic pancreatic parenchyma, and dilated main pancreatic duct. Cancer antigen 19-9 was moderately elevated. With a diagnosis of inoperable pancreatic malignancy, she was planned for tissue diagnosis and palliative chemotherapy. Endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) showed a heterogeneous mass with vascular invasion as in the CT. Fine needle aspiration (FNA) and biliary decompression with a plastic stent performed in the same sitting. Cytology demonstrated granuloma with caseous necrosis and presence of acid-fast bacilli. Antituberculosis treatment was started, and repeat CT after 6 months showed resolution of the mass. Discussion and Conclusion: A diagnosis of isolated pancreatic tuberculosis is rare and is difficult by clinical presentation alone; in India, it should be considered as a differential diagnosis of a pancreatic tumor. Benign lesions can also present with vascular invasions mimicking inoperable malignancy. EUS FNA is a very useful tool in accurate diagnosis of pancreatic head mass avoiding unnecessary surgeries.

  15. Value of endoscopic ultrasound guided fine needle aspiration biopsy in the diagnosis of solid pancreatic masses

    PubMed Central

    Voss, M; Hammel, P; Molas, G; Palazzo, L; Dancour, A; O'Toole, D; Terris, B; Degott, C; Bernades, P; Ruszniewski, P

    2000-01-01

    AIM—To assess the feasibility and diagnostic accuracy of endoscopic ultrasound guided fine needle biopsy (EUS-FNAB) in patients with solid pancreatic masses.
METHODS—Ninety nine consecutive patients with pancreatic masses were studied. Histological findings obtained by EUS-FNAB were compared with the final diagnosis assessed by surgery, biopsy of other tumour site or at postmortem examination, or by using a combination of clinical course, imaging features, and tumour markers.
RESULTS—EUS-FNAB was feasible in 90 patients (adenocarcinomas, n = 59; neuroendocrine tumours, n = 15; various neoplasms, n = 6; pancreatitis, n = 10), and analysable material was obtained in 73. Tumour size (⩾ or < 25 mm in diameter) did not influence the ability to obtain informative biopsy samples. Diagnostic accuracy was 74.4% (adenocarcinomas, 81.4%; neuroendocrine tumours, 46.7%; other lesions, 75%; p<0.02). Overall, the diagnostic yield in all 99 patients was 68%. Successful biopsies were performed in six patients with portal hypertension. Minor complications (moderate bleeding or pain) occurred in 5% of cases.
CONCLUSIONS—EUS-FNAB is a useful and safe method for the investigation of pancreatic masses, with a high feasibility rate even when lesions are small. Overall diagnostic accuracy of EUS-FNAB seems to depend on the tumour type.


Keywords: pancreas; tumour; endoscopic ultrasound; fine needle aspiration biopsy PMID:10644320

  16. Severe postoperative complications adversely affect long-term survival after R1 resection for pancreatic head adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Petermann, David; Demartines, Nicolas; Schäfer, Markus

    2013-08-01

    Survival after pancreatic head adenocarcinoma surgery is determined by tumor characteristics, resection margins, and adjuvant chemotherapy. Few studies have analyzed the long-term impact of postoperative morbidity. The aim of the present study was to assess the impact of postoperative complications on long-term survival after pancreaticoduodenectomy for cancer. Of 294 consecutive pancreatectomies performed between January 2000 and July 2011, a total of 101 pancreatic head resections for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma were retrospectively analyzed. Postoperative complications were classified on a five-grade validated scale and were correlated with long-term survival. Grade IIIb to IVb complications were defined as severe. Postoperative mortality and morbidity were 5 and 57 %, respectively. Severe postoperative complications occurred in 16 patients (16 %). Median overall survival was 1.4 years. Significant prognostic factors of survival were the N-stage of the tumor (median survival 3.4 years for N0 vs. 1.3 years for N1, p = 0.018) and R status of the resection (median survival 1.6 years for R0 vs. 1.2 years for R1, p = 0.038). Median survival after severe postoperative complications was decreased from 1.9 to 1.2 years (p = 0.06). Median survival for N0 or N1 tumor or after R0 resection was not influenced by the occurrence and severity of complications, but patients with a R1 resection and severe complications showed a worsened median survival of 0.6 vs. 2.0 years without severe complications (p = 0.0005). Postoperative severe morbidity per se had no impact on long-term survival except in patients with R1 tumor resection. These results suggest that severe complications after R1 resection predict poor outcome.

  17. Is tumour size an underestimated feature in the current TNM system for malignancies of the pancreatic head?

    PubMed

    Petermann, David; Demartines, Nicolas; Schäfer, Markus

    2013-11-01

    As the long-term survival of pancreatic head malignancies remains dismal, efforts have been made for a better patient selection and a tailored treatment. Tumour size could also be used for patient stratification. One hundred and fourteen patients underwent a pancreaticoduodenectomy for pancreatic adenocarcinoma, peri-ampullary and biliary cancer stratified according to: ≤20 mm, 21-34 mm, 35-45 mm and >45 mm tumour size. Patients with tumour sizes of ≤20 mm had a N1 rate of 41% and a R1/2 rate of 7%. The median survival was 3.4 years. N1 and R1/2 rates increased to 84% and 31% for tumour sizes of 21-34 mm (P = 0.0002 for N, P = 0.02 for R). The median survival decreased to 1.6 years (P = 0.0003). A further increase in tumour size of 35-45 mm revealed a further increase of N1 and R1/2 rates of 93% (P < 0.0001) and 33%, respectively. The median survival was 1.2 years (P = 0.004). Tumour sizes >45 mm were related to a further decreased median survival of 1.1 years (P = 0.2), whereas N1 and R1/2 rates were 87% and 20%, respectively. Tumour size is an important feature of pancreatic head malignancies. A tumour diameter of 20 mm seems to be the cut-off above which an increased rate of incomplete resections and metastatic lymph nodes must be encountered and the median survival is reduced. © 2013 International Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Association.

  18. A pancreas-preserving technique for the management of symptomatic pancreatic anastomotic insufficiency refractory to conservative treatment after pancreas head resection.

    PubMed

    Königsrainer, Ingmar; Zieker, Derek; Beckert, Stefan; Glatzle, Jörg; Schroeder, Torsten H; Heininger, Alexandra; Nadalin, Silvio; Königsrainer, Alfred

    2010-08-01

    Management of symptomatic pancreatic anastomotic insufficiency after pancreas head resection remains controversial. Completion pancreatectomy as one frequently performed option is associated with poor prognosis. During a 4-year period, a two-step strategy was applied in four consecutive patients suffering from pancreatic anastomotic insufficiency refractory to conservative management after a pancreas head resection. In the first step, sepsis was overbridged by meticulous debridement and resection of the pancreaticojejunostomy, leaving the biliary anastomosis untouched, and selective drainage of the pancreatic duct as well as the peripancreatic area. In the second step, after recovery, the procedure was completed with a novel pancreaticojejunostomy. The surgical procedure was completed in three patients after a mean of 164 (range: 112-213) days. One patient died from cardiac arrest 54 days after the reoperation with resolved abdominal sepsis. No pancreatic anastomotic insufficiency occurred after the new pancreaticojejunostomy had been performed. Three patients are alive and tumor-free with normal exocrine and endocrine pancreatic function after a mean follow-up of 20.3 (3-38) months following the definitive reconstruction. The two-step pancreas-preserving strategy can be used as an alternative to completion pancreatectomy for patients suffering from severe pancreatic anastomotic insufficiency.

  19. Monosodium Glutamate Dietary Consumption Decreases Pancreatic β-Cell Mass in Adult Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Boonnate, Piyanard; Waraasawapati, Sakda; Hipkaeo, Wiphawi; Pethlert, Supattra; Sharma, Amod; Selmi, Carlo; Prasongwattana, Vitoon; Cha’on, Ubon

    2015-01-01

    Background The amount of dietary monosodium glutamate (MSG) is increasing worldwide, in parallel with the epidemics of metabolic syndrome. Parenteral administration of MSG to rodents induces obesity, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes. However, the impact of dietary MSG is still being debated. We investigated the morphological and functional effects of prolonged MSG consumption on rat glucose metabolism and on pancreatic islet histology. Methods Eighty adult male Wistar rats were randomly subdivided into 4 groups, and test rats in each group were supplemented with MSG for a different duration (1, 3, 6, or 9 months, n=20 for each group). All rats were fed ad libitum with a standard rat chow and water. Ten test rats in each group were provided MSG 2 mg/g body weight/day in drinking water and the 10 remaining rats in each group served as non-MSG treated controls. Oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT) were performed and serum insulin measured at 9 months. Animals were sacrificed at 1, 3, 6, or 9 months to examine the histopathology of pancreatic islets. Results MSG-treated rats had significantly lower pancreatic β-cell mass at 1, 6 and 9 months of study. Islet hemorrhages increased with age in all groups and fibrosis was significantly more frequent in MSG-treated rats at 1 and 3 months. Serum insulin levels and glucose tolerance in MSG-treated and untreated rats were similar at all time points we investigated. Conclusion Daily MSG dietary consumption was associated with reduced pancreatic β-cell mass and enhanced hemorrhages and fibrosis, but did not affect glucose homeostasis. We speculate that high dietary MSG intake may exert a negative effect on the pancreas and such effect might become functionally significant in the presence or susceptibility to diabetes or NaCl; future experiments will take these crucial cofactors into account. PMID:26121281

  20. Monosodium Glutamate Dietary Consumption Decreases Pancreatic β-Cell Mass in Adult Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Boonnate, Piyanard; Waraasawapati, Sakda; Hipkaeo, Wiphawi; Pethlert, Supattra; Sharma, Amod; Selmi, Carlo; Prasongwattana, Vitoon; Cha'on, Ubon

    2015-01-01

    The amount of dietary monosodium glutamate (MSG) is increasing worldwide, in parallel with the epidemics of metabolic syndrome. Parenteral administration of MSG to rodents induces obesity, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes. However, the impact of dietary MSG is still being debated. We investigated the morphological and functional effects of prolonged MSG consumption on rat glucose metabolism and on pancreatic islet histology. Eighty adult male Wistar rats were randomly subdivided into 4 groups, and test rats in each group were supplemented with MSG for a different duration (1, 3, 6, or 9 months, n=20 for each group). All rats were fed ad libitum with a standard rat chow and water. Ten test rats in each group were provided MSG 2 mg/g body weight/day in drinking water and the 10 remaining rats in each group served as non-MSG treated controls. Oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT) were performed and serum insulin measured at 9 months. Animals were sacrificed at 1, 3, 6, or 9 months to examine the histopathology of pancreatic islets. MSG-treated rats had significantly lower pancreatic β-cell mass at 1, 6 and 9 months of study. Islet hemorrhages increased with age in all groups and fibrosis was significantly more frequent in MSG-treated rats at 1 and 3 months. Serum insulin levels and glucose tolerance in MSG-treated and untreated rats were similar at all time points we investigated. Daily MSG dietary consumption was associated with reduced pancreatic β-cell mass and enhanced hemorrhages and fibrosis, but did not affect glucose homeostasis. We speculate that high dietary MSG intake may exert a negative effect on the pancreas and such effect might become functionally significant in the presence or susceptibility to diabetes or NaCl; future experiments will take these crucial cofactors into account.

  1. Large-scale identification of core-fucosylated glycopeptide sites in pancreatic cancer serum using mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Tan, Zhijing; Yin, Haidi; Nie, Song; Lin, Zhenxin; Zhu, Jianhui; Ruffin, Mack T; Anderson, Michelle A; Simeone, Diane M; Lubman, David M

    2015-04-03

    Glycosylation has significant effects on protein function and cell metastasis, which are important in cancer progression. It is of great interest to identify site-specific glycosylation in search of potential cancer biomarkers. However, the abundance of glycopeptides is low compared to that of nonglycopeptides after trypsin digestion of serum samples, and the mass spectrometric signals of glycopeptides are often masked by coeluting nonglycopeptides due to low ionization efficiency. Selective enrichment of glycopeptides from complex serum samples is essential for mass spectrometry (MS)-based analysis. Herein, a strategy has been optimized using LCA enrichment to improve the identification of core-fucosylation (CF) sites in serum of pancreatic cancer patients. The optimized strategy was then applied to analyze CF glycopeptide sites in 13 sets of serum samples from pancreatic cancer, chronic pancreatitis, healthy controls, and a standard reference. In total, 630 core-fucosylation sites were identified from 322 CF proteins in pancreatic cancer patient serum using an Orbitrap Elite mass spectrometer. Further data analysis revealed that 8 CF peptides exhibited a significant difference between pancreatic cancer and other controls, which may be potential diagnostic biomarkers for pancreatic cancer.

  2. Brain mass estimation by head circumference and body mass methods in neonatal glycaemic modelling and control.

    PubMed

    Gunn, Cameron Allan; Dickson, Jennifer L; Pretty, Christopher G; Alsweiler, Jane M; Lynn, Adrienne; Shaw, Geoffrey M; Chase, J Geoffrey

    2014-07-01

    Hyperglycaemia is a common complication of stress and prematurity in extremely low-birth-weight infants. Model-based insulin therapy protocols have the ability to safely improve glycaemic control for this group. Estimating non-insulin-mediated brain glucose uptake by the central nervous system in these models is typically done using population-based body weight models, which may not be ideal. A head circumference-based model that separately treats small-for-gestational-age (SGA) and appropriate-for-gestational-age (AGA) infants is compared to a body weight model in a retrospective analysis of 48 patients with a median birth weight of 750g and median gestational age of 25 weeks. Estimated brain mass, model-based insulin sensitivity (SI) profiles, and projected glycaemic control outcomes are investigated. SGA infants (5) are also analyzed as a separate cohort. Across the entire cohort, estimated brain mass deviated by a median 10% between models, with a per-patient median difference in SI of 3.5%. For the SGA group, brain mass deviation was 42%, and per-patient SI deviation 13.7%. In virtual trials, 87-93% of recommended insulin rates were equal or slightly reduced (Δ<0.16mU/h) under the head circumference method, while glycaemic control outcomes showed little change. The results suggest that body weight methods are not as accurate as head circumference methods. Head circumference-based estimates may offer improved modelling accuracy and a small reduction in insulin administration, particularly for SGA infants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Can the new RCP R0/R1 classification predict the clinical outcome in ductal adenocarcinoma of the pancreatic head?

    PubMed

    Janot, M S; Kersting, S; Belyaev, O; Matuschek, A; Chromik, A M; Suelberg, D; Uhl, W; Tannapfel, A; Bergmann, U

    2012-08-01

    According to the International Union Against Cancer (UICC), R1 is defined as the microscopic presence of tumor cells at the surface of the resection margin (RM). In contrast, the Royal College of Pathologists (RCP) suggested to declare R1 already when tumor cells are found within 1 mm of the RM. The aim of this study was to determine the significance of the RM concerning the prognosis of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). From 2007 to 2009, 62 patients underwent a curative operation for PDAC of the pancreatic head. The relevance of R status on cumulative overall survival (OS) was assessed on univariate and multivariate analysis for both the classic R classification (UICC) and the suggestion of the RCP. Following the UICC criteria, a positive RM was detected in 8 %. Along with grading and lymph node ratio, R status revealed a significant impact on OS on univariate and multivariate analysis. Applying the suggestion of the RCP, R1 rate rose to 26 % resulting in no significant impact on OS in univariate analysis. Our study has shown that the RCP suggestion for R status has no impact on the prognosis of PDAC. In contrast, our data confirmed the UICC R classification of RM as well as N category, grading, and lymph node ratio as significant prognostic factors.

  4. [Hepaticojejunostomy after pancreatic head resection - technical aspects for reconstruction of small and fragile bile ducts with T-tube drainage].

    PubMed

    Herzog, T; Belyaev, O; Uhl, W; Seelig, M H; Chromik, A

    2012-12-01

    After pancreatic head resection the reconstruction of small and fragile bile ducts is technically demanding, resulting in more postoperative bile leaks. One option for the reconstruction is the placement of a T-tube drainage at the site of the anastomosis. Standard reconstruction after pancreatic head resection was an end-to-side hepaticojejunostomy with PDS 5.0, 15-25 cm distally from the pancreaticojejunostomy. For patients with a small bile duct diameter (≤ 5 mm) or a fragile bile duct wall the reconstruction was performed with PDS 6.0 and a T-tube drainage at the side of the anastomosis. The reconstruction with a T-tube drainage at the site of the anastomosis is technically easy to perform and offers the opportunity for immediate visualisation of the anastomosis in the postoperative period by application of water soluble contrast medium. If a bile leak occurs, biliary deviation through the T-tube drainage can enable a conservative management without revisional laparotomy in selected patients. Whether or not a conservative management of postoperative bile leaks will lead to more bile duct strictures is a subject for further investigations. A T-tube drainage at the site of the anastomosis can probably not prevent postoperative bile leaks from a difficult hepaticojejunostomy, but in selected patients it offers the opportunity for a conservative management resulting in less re-operations. Therefore we recommend the augmentation of a difficult hepaticojejunostomy with a T-tube drainage. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. 99mTc-HYNIC-TOC imaging in the evaluation of pancreatic masses which are potential neuroendocrine tumors.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Zhen; Zhang, Jingjing; Jin, Xiaona; Huo, Li; Zhu, Zhaohui; Xing, Haiqun; Li, Fang

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this investigation was to determine the accuracy of the findings and the diagnoses of Tc-hydrazinonicotinyl-Tyr3-octreotide scan (Tc-HYNIC-TOC imaging) in patients with pancreatic masses which were potential neuroendocrine tumors. Records of total 20 patients with pancreatic masses were retrospectively reviewed. All of the patients had been revealed by abdominal contrast CT and possibility of neuroendocrine tumors could not be excluded by CT imaging before Tc-HYNIC-TOC imaging. Tc-HYNIC-TOC imaging was performed at 1 and 4 hours post-tracer injection, and SPECT/CT images of the abdomen were also acquired. The image findings were compared to final diagnoses which were made from pathological examination. Among all 20 pancreatic masses evaluated, there were 16 malignant lesions which included 1 ductal adenocarcinoma and 15 neuroendocrine tumors. Tc-HYNIC-TOC imaging identified 14 of 15 pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors and excluded 4 of 5 lesions which were not neuroendocrine tumors. The overall sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy was therefore 93.3% (14 of 15), 80% (4 of 5), and 90.0% (18 of 20), respectively, in our patient population. Tc-HYNIC-TOC imaging provides reasonable accuracy in the evaluation pancreatic mass suspected to be neuroendocrine tumors.

  6. [Mediastinal Pancreatic Pseudocyst with Pancreatic Pleural Effusion].

    PubMed

    Sasajima, Motoko; Kawai, Hideki; Suzuki, Yohei; Saito, Yoshitaro; Eto, Takeshi

    2017-06-01

    A 72-year-old man with chronic alcohol related pancreatitis was admitted for dyspnea and pain at the upper body. Chest X-ray showed right massive pleural effusion. Chest and abdominal contrast enhanced thin slice computed tomography revealed the route from the pancreatic head reaching the right thoracic cavity via the esophagus hiatus and the communication between the cystic lesion and main pancreatic duct. We drained the pleural effusion that showed abnormally high amylase activity. We diagnosed his illness as mediastinal pancreatic pseudocyst with pancreatic pleural effusion. Endoscopic Nasopancreatic Drainage catheter was placed in the main pancreatic duct, and the pleural effusion disappeared.

  7. Impact of biliary stents on EUS-guided FNA of pancreatic mass lesions

    PubMed Central

    Ranney, Nathaniel; Phadnis, Milind; Trevino, Jessica; Ramesh, Jayapal; Wilcox, C. Mel; Varadarajulu, Shyam

    2014-01-01

    Background Few studies have evaluated the impact of biliary stents on EUS-guided FNA. Aim To compare diagnostic yield of EUS-FNA in patients with or without biliary stents. Design Retrospective study. Setting Tertiary referral center. Patients Patients with obstructive jaundice secondary to solid pancreatic mass lesions who underwent EUS-FNA over 5 years. Main Outcome Measures The primary objective was to compare the diagnostic accuracy of EUS-FNA in patients with or without biliary stents and between patients with plastic stents or self-expandable metal stents (SEMSs). Secondary objectives were to assess the technical difficulty of EUS-FNA by comparing the number of passes required to establish diagnosis and to identify predictors of a false-negative diagnosis. Results Of 214 patients who underwent EUS-FNA, 150 (70%) had biliary stents and 64 (30%) had no stents in place. Of 150 patients with biliary stents, 105 (70%) were plastic and 45 (30%) were SEMSs. At EUS-FNA, the diagnosis was pancreatic cancer in 155 (72%), chronic pancreatitis in 17 (8%), other cancer in 31 (14%), and indeterminate in 11 (5%). There was no difference in rates of diagnostic accuracy between patients with or without stents (93.7% vs 95.3%; P = .73) and between plastic or SEMSs (95.2% vs 95.5%, P = .99), respectively. Median number of passes to diagnosis was not significantly different between patients with or without stents (2 [interquartile ratio range (IQR) = 1–3] vs 2 [IQR = 1–4]; P = .066) and between plastic or SEMS (2.5 [IQR = 1–4] vs 2 [IQR = 1–4], P = .69), respectively. On univariate analysis, EUS-FNA results were false-negative in patients with large pancreatic masses (>3 cm vs <3 cm, 9.35% vs 0.93%, P = .005) that required more FNA passes (<2 vs >2 passes, 0% vs 11.8%, P < .0001). Limitations Retrospective study. Conclusions The presence or absence of a biliary stent, whether plastic or metal, does not have an impact on the diagnostic yield or technical difficulty of EUS

  8. Five-year follow-up of a prospective non-randomised study comparing duodenum-preserving pancreatic head resection with classic Whipple procedure in the treatment of chronic pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Möbius, C; Max, D; Uhlmann, D; Gumpp, K; Behrbohm, J; Horvath, K; Hauss, J; Witzigmann, H

    2007-05-01

    Three prospective randomised studies were conducted to compare pancreatoduodenectomy (PD) with duodenum-preserving pancreatic head resection (DPPHR) in patients suffering from chronic pancreatitis (cP). In these three series, the superiority of the duodenum-preserving technique with regard to quality of life (QOL) and pain relief has been demonstrated. Long-term follow-up investigations have not been published so far. The present paper reports on a 5-year follow-up study of a prospective, non-randomised trial comparing classic Whipple procedure (PD) with Beger DPPHR. Seventy patients were initially enrolled in this study. Fifty-one patients were left for the present long-term outcome analysis (PD, n = 24; DPPHR, n = 27). The follow-up included the following parameters: QOL, pain intensity, endocrine and exocrine function, and body mass index (BMI). The median follow-up was 63.5 (range 56-67) months. Two patients in the DPPHR group and none in the PD group underwent a re-operation. The QOL scores of the relevant symptom scales (nausea, pain, diarrhoea) and functional parameters (physical status, working ability, global QOL) were significantly better in the DPPHR group than in the PD group. Pain intensity as self-assessed by the patients was less pronounced in the DPPHR group (P < 0.001), whereas the frequency of acute episodes and analgesic medication did not differ between the two groups. No difference was observed between the two groups with regard to endocrine and exocrine function. The values of the median body mass index (BMI) in the PD group [23.4 (range 18.5-25.0) kg/m(2)] and in the DPPHR group [24.2 (range 17.9-27.8) kg/m(2)] were comparable. The 5-year outcome remained stable compared to the early post-operative data published elsewhere. This 5-year long-term outcome analysis documents the superiority of the Beger duodenum-preserving technique over the classic Whipple procedure in terms of QOL and pain intensity as self-assessed by the patients.

  9. Preoperative local MRI-staging of patients with a suspected pancreatic mass.

    PubMed

    Fischer, U; Vosshenrich, R; Horstmann, O; Becker, H; Salamat, B; Baum, F; Grabbe, E

    2002-02-01

    The aim of this study was to define the value of MRI of the pancreas for preoperative local staging of patients with a suspected pancreatic mass. Ninety-four patients (41 women, 53 men; age range 32-87 years) with a suspected pancreatic tumor underwent preoperative staging with MRI on a 1.5-T system. The MRI protocol included breath-hold MR cholangiopancreatography in turbo spin-echo technique, biphasic contrast-enhanced 3D MR angiography, and MRI of the upper abdomen with breath-hold T2-weighted half-Fourier acquired single-shot turbo spin-echo and T1-weighted fast-low-angle-shot (pre- and postcontrast) sequences. Data were collected prospectively and analyzed by two radiologists in agreement modality. Evaluation criteria were vascular involvement, resectability, and a characterization benign vs malignant. Results were compared to histopathology in 78 patients. Sixteen patients were followed-up. In 74 of 94 patients a solid tumor or an inflammation of the pancreas ( n=62) or the papilla ( n=12) was detected. In this group, MRI had a sensitivity of 98%, a specificity of 92%, and an accuracy of 96% in the characterization of malignant tumors. Regarding only the solid tumors, the positive predictive value of MRI was 87% with respect to resectability. Other pathologic findings included adenoma or inflammation of the duodenum ( n=5), carcinoma or benign stenosis of the choledochus duct ( n=7) and carcinoma of the gall bladder ( n=2). In 6 patients MRI did not depict any pathologic findings, and follow-up confirmed this interpretation. Magnetic resonance imaging allows a local preoperative staging in patients with suspected pancreatic tumor. Limitations, however, concern to the diagnostics of peritoneal and/or liver metastases.

  10. [The clinical impact of artery-first approach combined with vascular resection and reconstruction in the treatment of pancreatic head carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Huang, J L; Li, W G; Chen, F Z; Su, Z J; Li, F M; Liu, B

    2017-03-23

    Objective: To evaluate the application of artery first, combined vascular resection and reconstruction in the treatment of pancreatic head carcinoma. Methods: The clinical data of 13 patients with pancreatic head cancer were retrospectively analyzed from February 2014 to March 2016 in the Affiliated Hospital of Xiamen University. Preoperative computed tomography of high resolution layer or magnetic resonance imaging examination demonstrated pancreatic head carcinoma, as well as close adhesion, stenosis, compression or displacement of superior mesenteric vein or portal vein wall. In the operation, the artery first approach was used and the whole arterial blood supply in the head of the pancreas was fully exposed and interdicted. Finally, en block resection and vascular resection and reconstruction was adopted. Results: 12 of 13 patients had pancreatoduodenectomy synchronously with vascular resection and reconstruction; the other patient had these two surgery sequentially. Four patients received blood vessel wedge resection, five had segmental resection combined with end to end suture, and four had segmental resection combined with artificial vascular graft reconstruction. Operation time was (327.2±65.5) minutes, and the amount of blood loss was (472.6±226.4) millilitres. One patient suffered from delayed gastric emptying, and two patients had pancreatic fistula. All patients recovered from postoperative complications by conservative treatment. No patients developed biliary fistula, gastrointestinal fistula, abdominal infection, pulmonary infection, diarrhea, hypoglycemia or other complications, and none died in perioperative period. Postoperative pathological findings confirmed the diagnosis of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Mean tumor diameter was (4.2±1.5)cm, and (3.8±1.5) metastasis were found in (13.6±2.5) resected lymph nodes. In 11 cases, the tumor cells were found in the outer membrane of blood vessels, 2 cases were found to have tumor invasion in the

  11. Protons Offer Reduced Normal-Tissue Exposure for Patients Receiving Postoperative Radiotherapy for Resected Pancreatic Head Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols, Romaine C., E-mail: rnichols@floridaproton.org; Huh, Soon N.; Prado, Karl L.

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: To determine the potential role for adjuvant proton-based radiotherapy (PT) for resected pancreatic head cancer. Methods and Materials: Between June 2008 and November 2008, 8 consecutive patients with resected pancreatic head cancers underwent optimized intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) treatment planning. IMRT plans used between 10 and 18 fields and delivered 45 Gy to the initial planning target volume (PTV) and a 5.4 Gy boost to a reduced PTV. PTVs were defined according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 9704 radiotherapy guidelines. Ninety-five percent of PTVs received 100% of the target dose and 100% of the PTVs received 95% of themore » target dose. Normal tissue constraints were as follows: right kidney V18 Gy to <70%; left kidney V18 Gy to <30%; small bowel/stomach V20 Gy to <50%, V45 Gy to <15%, V50 Gy to <10%, and V54 Gy to <5%; liver V30 Gy to <60%; and spinal cord maximum to 46 Gy. Optimized two- to three-field three-dimensional conformal proton plans were retrospectively generated on the same patients. The team generating the proton plans was blinded to the dose distributions achieved by the IMRT plans. The IMRT and proton plans were then compared. A Wilcoxon paired t-test was performed to compare various dosimetric points between the two plans for each patient. Results: All proton plans met all normal tissue constraints and were isoeffective with the corresponding IMRT plans in terms of PTV coverage. The proton plans offered significantly reduced normal-tissue exposure over the IMRT plans with respect to the following: median small bowel V20 Gy, 15.4% with protons versus 47.0% with IMRT (p = 0.0156); median gastric V20 Gy, 2.3% with protons versus 20.0% with IMRT (p = 0.0313); and median right kidney V18 Gy, 27.3% with protons versus 50.5% with IMRT (p = 0.0156). Conclusions: By reducing small bowel and stomach exposure, protons have the potential to reduce the acute and late toxicities of postoperative chemoradiation in this

  12. Protons offer reduced normal-tissue exposure for patients receiving postoperative radiotherapy for resected pancreatic head cancer.

    PubMed

    Nichols, Romaine C; Huh, Soon N; Prado, Karl L; Yi, Byong Y; Sharma, Navesh K; Ho, Meng W; Hoppe, Bradford S; Mendenhall, Nancy P; Li, Zuofeng; Regine, William F

    2012-05-01

    To determine the potential role for adjuvant proton-based radiotherapy (PT) for resected pancreatic head cancer. Between June 2008 and November 2008, 8 consecutive patients with resected pancreatic head cancers underwent optimized intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) treatment planning. IMRT plans used between 10 and 18 fields and delivered 45 Gy to the initial planning target volume (PTV) and a 5.4 Gy boost to a reduced PTV. PTVs were defined according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 9704 radiotherapy guidelines. Ninety-five percent of PTVs received 100% of the target dose and 100% of the PTVs received 95% of the target dose. Normal tissue constraints were as follows: right kidney V18 Gy to <70%; left kidney V18 Gy to <30%; small bowel/stomach V20 Gy to <50%, V45 Gy to <15%, V50 Gy to <10%, and V54 Gy to <5%; liver V30 Gy to <60%; and spinal cord maximum to 46 Gy. Optimized two- to three-field three-dimensional conformal proton plans were retrospectively generated on the same patients. The team generating the proton plans was blinded to the dose distributions achieved by the IMRT plans. The IMRT and proton plans were then compared. A Wilcoxon paired t-test was performed to compare various dosimetric points between the two plans for each patient. All proton plans met all normal tissue constraints and were isoeffective with the corresponding IMRT plans in terms of PTV coverage. The proton plans offered significantly reduced normal-tissue exposure over the IMRT plans with respect to the following: median small bowel V20 Gy, 15.4% with protons versus 47.0% with IMRT (p = 0.0156); median gastric V20 Gy, 2.3% with protons versus 20.0% with IMRT (p = 0.0313); and median right kidney V18 Gy, 27.3% with protons versus 50.5% with IMRT (p = 0.0156). By reducing small bowel and stomach exposure, protons have the potential to reduce the acute and late toxicities of postoperative chemoradiation in this setting. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Loss of mTORC1 signaling alters pancreatic α cell mass and impairs glucagon secretion

    PubMed Central

    Bozadjieva, Nadejda; Dai, Xiao-Qing; Cummings, Kelsey; Gimeno, Jennifer; Powers, Alvin C.; Gittes, George K.; Rüegg, Markus A.; Hall, Michael N.; MacDonald, Patrick E.

    2017-01-01

    Glucagon plays a major role in the regulation of glucose homeostasis during fed and fasting states. However, the mechanisms responsible for the regulation of pancreatic α cell mass and function are not completely understood. In the current study, we identified mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) as a major regulator of α cell mass and glucagon secretion. Using mice with tissue-specific deletion of the mTORC1 regulator Raptor in α cells (αRaptorKO), we showed that mTORC1 signaling is dispensable for α cell development, but essential for α cell maturation during the transition from a milk-based diet to a chow-based diet after weaning. Moreover, inhibition of mTORC1 signaling in αRaptorKO mice and in WT animals exposed to chronic rapamycin administration decreased glucagon content and glucagon secretion. In αRaptorKO mice, impaired glucagon secretion occurred in response to different secretagogues and was mediated by alterations in KATP channel subunit expression and activity. Additionally, our data identify the mTORC1/FoxA2 axis as a link between mTORC1 and transcriptional regulation of key genes responsible for α cell function. Thus, our results reveal a potential function of mTORC1 in nutrient-dependent regulation of glucagon secretion and identify a role for mTORC1 in controlling α cell–mass maintenance. PMID:29106387

  14. Unraveling Pancreatic Segmentation.

    PubMed

    Renard, Yohann; de Mestier, Louis; Perez, Manuela; Avisse, Claude; Lévy, Philippe; Kianmanesh, Reza

    2018-04-01

    Limited pancreatic resections are increasingly performed, but the rate of postoperative fistula is higher than after classical resections. Pancreatic segmentation, anatomically and radiologically identifiable, may theoretically help the surgeon removing selected anatomical portions with their own segmental pancreatic duct and thus might decrease the postoperative fistula rate. We aimed at systematically and comprehensively reviewing the previously proposed pancreatic segmentations and discuss their relevance and limitations. PubMed database was searched for articles investigating pancreatic segmentation, including human or animal anatomy, and cadaveric or surgical studies. Overall, 47/99 articles were selected and grouped into 4 main hypotheses of pancreatic segmentation methodology: anatomic, vascular, embryologic and lymphatic. The head, body and tail segments are gross description without distinct borders. The arterial territories defined vascular segments and isolate an isthmic paucivascular area. The embryological theory relied on the fusion plans of the embryological buds. The lymphatic drainage pathways defined the lymphatic segmentation. These theories had differences, but converged toward separating the head and body/tail parts, and the anterior from posterior and inferior parts of the pancreatic head. The rate of postoperative fistula was not decreased when surgical resection was performed following any of these segmentation theories; hence, none of them appeared relevant enough to guide pancreatic transections. Current pancreatic segmentation theories do not enable defining anatomical-surgical pancreatic segments. Other approaches should be explored, in particular focusing on pancreatic ducts, through pancreatic ducts reconstructions and embryologic 3D modelization.

  15. Proton therapy may allow for comprehensive elective nodal coverage for patients receiving neoadjuvant radiotherapy for localized pancreatic head cancers.

    PubMed

    Lee, Richard Y; Nichols, Romaine C; Huh, Soon N; Ho, Meng W; Li, Zuofeng; Zaiden, Robert; Awad, Ziad T; Ahmed, Bestoun; Hoppe, Bradfors S

    2013-12-01

    Neoadjuvant radiotherapy has the potential to improve local disease control for patients with localized pancreatic cancers. Concern about an increased risk of surgical complications due to small bowel and gastric exposure, however, has limited enthusiasm for this approach. Dosimetric studies have demonstrated the potential for proton therapy to reduce intestinal exposure compared with X-ray-based therapy. We sought to determine if neoadjuvant proton therapy allowed for field expansions to cover high-risk nodal stations in addition to the primary tumor. Twelve consecutive patients with nonmetastatic cancers of the pancreatic head underwent proton-based planning for neoadjuvant radiotherapy. Gross tumor volume was contoured using diagnostic computed tomography (CT) scans with oral and intravenous contrast. Four-dimensional planning scans were utilized to define an internal clinical target volume (ICTV). Five-mm planning target volume (PTV) expansions on the ICTV were generated to establish an initial PTV (PTV1). A second PTV was created using the initial PTV but was expanded to include the high-risk nodal targets as defined by the RTOG contouring atlas (PTV2). Optimized proton plans were generated for both PTVs for each patient. All PTVs received a dose of 50.4 cobalt gray equivalent (CGE). Normal-tissue exposures to the small bowel space, stomach, right kidney, left kidney and liver were recorded. Point spinal cord dose was limited to 45 CGE. Median PTV1 volume was 308.75 cm(3) (range, 133.33-495.61 cm(3)). Median PTV2 volume was 541.75 cm(3) (range, 399.44-691.14 cm(3)). In spite of the substantial enlargement of the PTV when high-risk lymph nodes were included in the treatment volume, normal-tissue exposures (stomach, bowel space, liver, and kidneys) were only minimally increased relative to the exposures seen when only the gross tumor target was treated. Proton therapy appears to allow for field expansions to cover high-risk lymph nodes without significantly

  16. Regulation of pancreatic islet beta-cell mass by growth factor and hormone signaling.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yao; Chang, Yongchang

    2014-01-01

    Dysfunction and destruction of pancreatic islet beta cells is a hallmark of diabetes. Better understanding of cellular signals in beta cells will allow development of therapeutic strategies for diabetes, such as preservation and expansion of beta-cell mass and improvement of beta-cell function. During the past several decades, the number of studies analyzing the molecular mechanisms, including growth factor/hormone signaling pathways that impact islet beta-cell mass and function, has increased exponentially. Notably, somatolactogenic hormones including growth hormone (GH), prolactin (PRL), and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and their receptors (GHR, PRLR, and IGF-1R) are critically involved in beta-cell growth, survival, differentiation, and insulin secretion. In this chapter, we focus more narrowly on GH, PRL, and IGF-1 signaling, and GH-IGF-1 cross talk. We also discuss how these signaling aspects contribute to the regulation of beta-cell proliferation and apoptosis. In particular, our novel findings of GH-induced formation of GHR-JAK2-IGF-1R protein complex and synergistic effects of GH and IGF-1 on beta-cell signaling, proliferation, and antiapoptosis lead to a new concept that IGF-1R may serve as a proximal component of GH/GHR signaling. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The 'Whip-Stow' procedure: an innovative modification to the whipple procedure in the management of premalignant and malignant pancreatic head disease.

    PubMed

    Jeyarajah, D Rohan; Khithani, Amit; Curtis, David; Galanopoulos, Christos A

    2010-01-01

    Pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) is the standard of care in the treatment of premalignant and malignant diseases of the head of the pancreas. Variability exists in anastomosis with the pancreatic remnant. This work describes a safe and easy modification for the pancreatic anastomosis after PD. Ten patients underwent the "Whip-Stow" procedure for the management of the pancreatic remnant. PD combined with a Puestow (lateral pancreaticojejunostomy [LPJ]) was completed using a running single-layer, 4-0 Prolene obeying a duct-to-mucosa technique. LPJ and pancreaticogastrostomy (PG) historical leak rates are reported to be 13.9 and 15.8 per cent, respectively. Mortality, leak, and postoperative bleeding rates were 0 per cent in all patients. The Whip-Stow was completed without loops or microscope with a 4-0 single-layer suture decreasing the time and complexity of the anastomosis. Average time was 12 minutes as compared with the 50 minutes of a 5 or 6-0 interrupted, multilayered duct-mucosa anastomosis. Benefits included a long-segment LPJ. In this study, the Whip-Stow procedure has proven to be a safe and simple approach to pancreatic anastomosis in selected patients. This new technique provides the benefit of technical ease while obeying the age old principles of obtaining a wide duct to mucosa anastomosis.

  18. Lipoprotein lipase activity and mass, apolipoprotein C-II mass and polymorphisms of apolipoproteins E and A5 in subjects with prior acute hypertriglyceridaemic pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Severe hypertriglyceridaemia due to chylomicronemia may trigger an acute pancreatitis. However, the basic underlying mechanism is usually not well understood. We decided to analyze some proteins involved in the catabolism of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins in patients with severe hypertriglyceridaemia. Methods Twenty-four survivors of acute hypertriglyceridaemic pancreatitis (cases) and 31 patients with severe hypertriglyceridaemia (controls) were included. Clinical and anthropometrical data, chylomicronaemia, lipoprotein profile, postheparin lipoprotein lipase mass and activity, hepatic lipase activity, apolipoprotein C II and CIII mass, apo E and A5 polymorphisms were assessed. Results Only five cases were found to have LPL mass and activity deficiency, all of them thin and having the first episode in childhood. No cases had apolipoprotein CII deficiency. No significant differences were found between the non-deficient LPL cases and the controls in terms of obesity, diabetes, alcohol consumption, drug therapy, gender distribution, evidence of fasting chylomicronaemia, lipid levels, LPL activity and mass, hepatic lipase activity, CII and CIII mass or apo E polymorphisms. However, the SNP S19W of apo A5 tended to be more prevalent in cases than controls (40% vs. 23%, NS). Conclusion Primary defects in LPL and C-II are rare in survivors of acute hypertriglyceridaemic pancreatitis; lipase activity measurements should be restricted to those having their first episode during chilhood. PMID:19534808

  19. Impact of fast-track concept elements in the classical pancreatic head resection (Kausch-Whipple procedure).

    PubMed

    Gastinger, Ingo; Meyer, Frank; Lembcke, Thomas; Schmidt, Uwe; Ptok, Henry; Lippert, Hans

    2012-08-01

    The aim of the study was to determine statistically significant factors with an impact on the early postoperative surgical outcome. The influence of applied fast-track components on surgical results and early postoperative outcome in 143 consecutive Kausch-Whipple procedure patients was evaluated in a single-center retrospective analysis of a prospective collection of patient-associated pre-, peri- and postoperative data from 1997-2006. The in-hospital mortality rate was 2.8% (n=4). Fast-track measures were shown to have no effect on the morbidity rate in the multi-variate analysis. Over the study period, a decrease of intraoperative infusion volume from 14.2 mL/kg body weight/h in the first year to 10.7 mL/kg body weight/h in the last year was accompanied by an increase in patients requiring intraoperative catecholamines, up from 17% to 95%. The administration of ropivacain/sufentanil via thoracic peri-dural catheter injection initiated in 2000 and now considered the leading analgesic method, was used in 95% of the cases in 2006. Early extubation rate rose from 16.6% to 57.9%. Fast-track aspects in the perioperative management have become more important in several surgical procedure even in those with a greater invasiveness such as Kausch-Whipple. However, such techniques used in peri-operative management of Kausch-Whipple pancreatic-head resections had no impact on the morbidity rate. In addition, the low in-hospital mortality rate was particularly attributed to surgical competence.

  20. Autoimmune pancreatitis can develop into chronic pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) has been recognized as a distinct type of pancreatitis that is possibly caused by autoimmune mechanisms. AIP is characterized by high serum IgG4 and IgG4-positive plasma cell infiltration in affected pancreatic tissue. Acute phase AIP responds favorably to corticosteroid therapy and results in the amelioration of clinical findings. However, the long-term prognosis and outcome of AIP remain unclear. We have proposed a working hypothesis that AIP can develop into ordinary chronic pancreatitis resembling alcoholic pancreatitis over a long-term course based on several clinical findings, most notably frequent pancreatic stone formation. In this review article, we describe a series of study results to confirm our hypothesis and clarify that: 1) pancreatic calcification in AIP is closely associated with disease recurrence; 2) advanced stage AIP might have earlier been included in ordinary chronic pancreatitis; 3) approximately 40% of AIP patients experience pancreatic stone formation over a long-term course, for which a primary risk factor is narrowing of both Wirsung’s and Santorini’s ducts; and 4) nearly 20% of AIP patients progress to confirmed chronic pancreatitis according to the revised Japanese Clinical Diagnostic Criteria, with independent risk factors being pancreatic head swelling and non-narrowing of the pancreatic body duct. PMID:24884922

  1. Autoimmune pancreatitis can develop into chronic pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Maruyama, Masahiro; Watanabe, Takayuki; Kanai, Keita; Oguchi, Takaya; Asano, Jumpei; Ito, Tetsuya; Ozaki, Yayoi; Muraki, Takashi; Hamano, Hideaki; Arakura, Norikazu; Kawa, Shigeyuki

    2014-05-21

    Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) has been recognized as a distinct type of pancreatitis that is possibly caused by autoimmune mechanisms. AIP is characterized by high serum IgG4 and IgG4-positive plasma cell infiltration in affected pancreatic tissue. Acute phase AIP responds favorably to corticosteroid therapy and results in the amelioration of clinical findings. However, the long-term prognosis and outcome of AIP remain unclear. We have proposed a working hypothesis that AIP can develop into ordinary chronic pancreatitis resembling alcoholic pancreatitis over a long-term course based on several clinical findings, most notably frequent pancreatic stone formation. In this review article, we describe a series of study results to confirm our hypothesis and clarify that: 1) pancreatic calcification in AIP is closely associated with disease recurrence; 2) advanced stage AIP might have earlier been included in ordinary chronic pancreatitis; 3) approximately 40% of AIP patients experience pancreatic stone formation over a long-term course, for which a primary risk factor is narrowing of both Wirsung's and Santorini's ducts; and 4) nearly 20% of AIP patients progress to confirmed chronic pancreatitis according to the revised Japanese Clinical Diagnostic Criteria, with independent risk factors being pancreatic head swelling and non-narrowing of the pancreatic body duct.

  2. One Stage Emergency Pancreatoduodenectomy  for Isolated Injury to Pancreatic Head Following Blunt Abdominal Trauma: Case Report and Review of Literature.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Sumanta Kumar

    2013-07-01

    Major pancreatic injury following blunt abdominal trauma by itself is a relatively rare occurrence, and in vast majority of cases (95%) it is associated with injury to adjacent major vessels and organs; thus making isolated major pancreatic injury even rarer. While most pancreatic injuries are managed by simple measures like debridement and drainage, complex proximal injury poses surgical challenge regarding surgical skill and judgement. Disproportionate approach at any stage of management can contribute  to high mortality and morbidity. Emergency pancreatoduodenectomy plays a limited but important role in managing serious trauma to proximal pancreas and duodenum. Author presents a case where isolated injury to head of pancreas required emergency pancreatoduodenectomy. After a bizarre road accident, a middle aged male underwent emergency laparotomy for intraperitoneal bleeding and during exploration a deep transverse laceration with ampullary disruption was found in the head of the organ. Duodenum in all its part was intact and there was no other injury. The nature and site of injury made emergency pancreatoduodenectomy the only viable option. Leaking pancreatojejunostomy enhances infective complications that lead to late mortality. To circumvent this problem there is enthusiasm for staged surgery with resection and tube pancreatostomy in first stage, leaving the difficult anastomosis for a later date, However, if the patient is haemodynamically stable and operated reasonably early, one stage pancreatoduodenectomy gives good result and avoids repeating surgery with inherent problems and reduces hospital stay. For successful management of pancreatic trauma it is essential to make early diagnosis of duct disruption, with sound application of operative skill and judgement by treating surgeon.

  3. Mass spectrometry-based metabolic profiling of gemcitabine-sensitive and gemcitabine-resistant pancreatic cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Fujimura, Yoshinori; Ikenaga, Naoki; Ohuchida, Kenoki; Setoyama, Daiki; Irie, Miho; Miura, Daisuke; Wariishi, Hiroyuki; Murata, Masaharu; Mizumoto, Kazuhiro; Hashizume, Makoto; Tanaka, Masao

    2014-03-01

    Gemcitabine resistance (GR) is one of the critical issues for therapy for pancreatic cancer, but the mechanism still remains unclear. Our aim was to increase the understanding of GR by metabolic profiling approach. To establish GR cells, 2 human pancreatic cancer cell lines, SUIT-2 and CAPAN-1, were exposed to increasing concentration of gemcitabine. Both parental and chemoresistant cells obtained by this treatment were subjected to metabolic profiling based on liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Multivariate statistical analyses, both principal component analysis and orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis, distinguished metabolic signature of responsiveness and resistance to gemcitabine in both SUIT-2 and CAPAN-1 cells. Among significantly different (P < 0.005) metabolite peaks between parental and GR cells, we identified metabolites related to several metabolic pathways such as amino acid, nucleotide, energy, cofactor, and vitamin pathways. Decreases in glutamine and proline levels as well as increases in aspartate, hydroxyproline, creatine, and creatinine levels were observed in chemoresistant cells from both cell lines. These results suggest that metabolic profiling can isolate distinct features of pancreatic cancer in the metabolome of gemcitabine-sensitive and GR cells. These findings may contribute to the biomarker discovery and an enhanced understanding of GR in pancreatic cancer.

  4. Dual-Modal Magnetic Resonance/Fluorescent Zinc Probes for Pancreatic β-Cell Mass Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Stasiuk, Graeme J; Minuzzi, Florencia; Sae-Heng, Myra; Rivas, Charlotte; Juretschke, Hans-Paul; Piemonti, Lorenzo; Allegrini, Peter R; Laurent, Didier; Duckworth, Andrew R; Beeby, Andrew; Rutter, Guy A; Long, Nicholas J

    2015-01-01

    Despite the contribution of changes in pancreatic β-cell mass to the development of all forms of diabetes mellitus, few robust approaches currently exist to monitor these changes prospectively in vivo. Although magnetic-resonance imaging (MRI) provides a potentially useful technique, targeting MRI-active probes to the β cell has proved challenging. Zinc ions are highly concentrated in the secretory granule, but they are relatively less abundant in the exocrine pancreas and in other tissues. We have therefore developed functional dual-modal probes based on transition-metal chelates capable of binding zinc. The first of these, Gd⋅1, binds ZnII directly by means of an amidoquinoline moiety (AQA), thus causing a large ratiometric Stokes shift in the fluorescence from λem=410 to 500 nm with an increase in relaxivity from r1=4.2 up to 4.9 mM−1 s−1. The probe is efficiently accumulated into secretory granules in β-cell-derived lines and isolated islets, but more poorly by non-endocrine cells, and leads to a reduction in T1 in human islets. In vivo murine studies of Gd⋅1 have shown accumulation of the probe in the pancreas with increased signal intensity over 140 minutes. PMID:25736590

  5. Chronic pancreatitis

    MedlinePlus

    Chronic pancreatitis - chronic; Pancreatitis - chronic - discharge; Pancreatic insufficiency - chronic; Acute pancreatitis - chronic ... abuse over many years. Repeated episodes of acute pancreatitis can lead to chronic pancreatitis. Genetics may be ...

  6. [Pancreatic trauma].

    PubMed

    Arvieux, C; Guillon, F; Létoublon, Ch; Oughriss, M

    2003-10-01

    Early diagnosis of pancreatic trauma has always been challenging because of the lack of correlation between the initial clinical symptomatology, radiologic and laboratory findings, and the severity of the injury. Thanks to the improved performance of spiral CT scanning and magnetic resonance pancreatography, it is now often possible to make an early diagnosis of pancreatic contusion, to localize the site of the injury, and (most importantly) to identify injury to the main pancreatic duct which has major implications for the management of the case. When the trauma victim is unstable, radiologic work-up may be impossible and urgent laparotomy is required. Control of hemorrhage is the primary concern here and a damage control approach with packing may be appropriate; if the pancreatic head has been destroyed, a pancreaticoduodenectomy with delayed reconstruction may be required. If the trauma victim is stable, the treatment strategy will be governed by a variety of parameters--age, clinical condition, associated local anatomic findings (pancreatitis, injury to the duodenum or biliary tract), involvement of the pancreatic duct, and localization of the injury within the gland (to right or left of the mesenteric vessels).

  7. Frey procedure for surgical management of chronic pancreatitis in children.

    PubMed

    Rollins, Michael D; Meyers, Rebecka L

    2004-06-01

    The authors adopted the Frey procedure for the surgical management of chronic pancreatitis after one of their patients had recurrent disease in the head of the gland after a longitudinal pancreaticojejunostomy (LPJ or modified Puestow procedure). This is the first description of its use in children. A retrospective chart review was performed of all children undergoing a drainage or resection procedure for chronic pancreatitis from 1995 to 2002. Eleven children (6 boys, 5 girls, ages 8 to 18 years) underwent either the LPJ (3) or Frey (8) procedure. Etiologies included: idiopathic (5), familial (2), congenital anomaly of the major papilla (1), pancreatic head mass (1), short bowel syndrome (1), and pancreatic divisum (1). Before surgical therapy, patients had been symptomatic 2.3 years (range, 1 month to 6 years) and had been hospitalized for pancreatitis 4 times (range, 1 to 10). Four patients did not respond to endoscopic stenting, and 5 had a pancreatic pseudocyst. Patients were followed up in clinic an average of 2.5 years, with total time elapsed since surgery averaging 4.6 years. Eight of 11 patients experienced excellent or good results subsequent to surgical intervention. The Frey procedure is effective for children who have not responded to conservative management of chronic pancreatitis and may prevent recurrent disease in the head of the gland.

  8. Efficacy of OK-432 Therapy for the Incisionless Treatment of Head and Neck Cystic Masses

    PubMed Central

    Hasan, Hesham Y. A.; Rizwan, Muhammad A.

    2018-01-01

    Head and neck masses can present in different pathologies that usually vary according to the age of the patient. We report five cases of benign head or neck masses occurring among patients of different ages who were managed at the Bahrain Defence Force Royal Medical Services Hospital, Ar-Rifaa, Bahrain, between 2005–2014. All of the patients were treated using the sclerotherapeutic agent OK-432. Although surgical removal is usually considered optimal treatment in the management of such cases, OK-432 appears to be a promising alternative. PMID:29666687

  9. Body-Mass Index and Pancreatic Cancer Incidence: A Pooled Analysis of Nine Population-Based Cohort Studies With More Than 340,000 Japanese Subjects.

    PubMed

    Koyanagi, Yuriko N; Matsuo, Keitaro; Ito, Hidemi; Tamakoshi, Akiko; Sugawara, Yumi; Hidaka, Akihisa; Wada, Keiko; Oze, Isao; Kitamura, Yuri; Liu, Rong; Mizoue, Tetsuya; Sawada, Norie; Nagata, Chisato; Wakai, Kenji; Nakayama, Tomio; Sadakane, Atsuko; Tanaka, Keitaro; Inoue, Manami; Tsugane, Shoichiro; Sasazuki, Shizuka

    2018-05-05

    A high body mass index (BMI) has been proposed as an important risk factor for pancreatic cancer. However, this association of BMI with pancreatic cancer risk has not been confirmed in Asian populations. We evaluated the association between BMI (either at baseline or during early adulthood) and pancreatic cancer risk by conducting a pooled analysis of nine population-based prospective cohort studies in Japan with more than 340,000 subjects. Summary hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated by pooling study-specific HRs for unified BMI categories with a random-effects model. Among Japanese men, being obese at baseline was associated with a higher risk of pancreatic cancer incidence (≥30 kg/m 2 compared with 23 to <25 kg/m 2 , adjusted HR 1.71; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03-2.86). A J-shaped association between BMI during early adulthood and pancreatic cancer incidence was seen in men. In contrast, we observed no clear association among women, although there may be a positive linear association between BMI at baseline and the risk of pancreatic cancer (per 1 kg/m 2 , adjusted HR 1.02; 95% CI, 1.00-1.05). Pooling of data from cohort studies with a considerable number of Japanese subjects revealed a significant positive association between obesity and pancreatic cancer risk among men. This information indicates that strategies that effectively prevent obesity among men might lead to a reduced burden of pancreatic cancer, especially in Asian populations.

  10. [Massive pleural effusion complicating chronic pancreatitis. Treatment by endoscopic closure of a pancreatic-mediastinal fistula].

    PubMed

    Trudzinski, F C; Rädle, J; Treiber, G; Kramm, T; Sybrecht, G W

    2008-11-01

    A 53-year-old man was admitted because of anuria, dyspnea and a septic temperature. The patients' history included chronic alcoholism, chronic pancreatitis, COPD and a right nephrectomy because of nephrolithiasis. Urosepsis was initially suspected. The patients' clinical condition and nutritional state were severely reduced. Laboratory findings revealed severe systemic inflammation (leucocyte count: 22.4/nl, CRP: 324 mg/l). Computed tomography showed a large left-sided pleural effusion, encapsulated abdominal fluid below the diaphragm and alongside the pancreatic tail. After aspiration of the pleural effusion the diagnosis of an exsudate with elevated concentration of lipase (56,000 U/l) was confirmed. Endoscopic ultrasound showed a 3-4 cm pseudocystic mass originating in the region of the pancreatic tail. The ERP depicted chronic pancreatitis with strictures and destruction of the pancreatic duct. Two fistulae were identified, one proximal to a ductal stricture in the pancreatic head and a second one in the pancreatic tail which corresponded to the reported pseudocyst. The patient was admitted to the ICU with symptoms of impending sepsis. The pleural effusion was treated with CT-guided chest drainage. The initial endoscopic attempt at stent closure of the fistula failed because it was possible to pass through the ductal stricture only with a thin hydrophilic wire and small-lumen catheter. However, injection of fibrin glue into the proximal pancreatic duct over a length of 2 cm obliterated the fistula and the pleural effusion was resolved. Pancreatic-pleural or pancreatic-mediastinal fistula is a rare complication of pancreatitis associated with unilateral pleural effusion. Combined internal endoscopic drainage and external chest drainage is the treatment of choice. After failure of routine endoscopic therapy, endoscopic closure of fistulas using fibrin glue might offer an alternative treatment strategy.

  11. Pancreatic β-cell overexpression of the glucagon receptor gene results in enhanced β-cell function and mass

    PubMed Central

    Gelling, Richard W.; Vuguin, Patricia M.; Du, Xiu Quan; Cui, Lingguang; Rømer, John; Pederson, Raymond A.; Leiser, Margarita; Sørensen, Heidi; Holst, Jens J.; Fledelius, Christian; Johansen, Peter B.; Fleischer, Norman; McIntosh, Christopher H. S.; Nishimura, Erica; Charron, Maureen J.

    2009-01-01

    In addition to its primary role in regulating glucose production from the liver, glucagon has many other actions, reflected by the wide tissue distribution of the glucagon receptor (Gcgr). To investigate the role of glucagon in the regulation of insulin secretion and whole body glucose homeostasis in vivo, we generated mice overexpressing the Gcgr specifically on pancreatic β-cells (RIP-Gcgr). In vivo and in vitro insulin secretion in response to glucagon and glucose was increased 1.7- to 3.9-fold in RIP-Gcgr mice compared with controls. Consistent with the observed increase in insulin release in response to glucagon and glucose, the glucose excursion resulting from both a glucagon challenge and intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT) was significantly reduced in RIP-Gcgr mice compared with controls. However, RIP-Gcgr mice display similar glucose responses to an insulin challenge. β-Cell mass and pancreatic insulin content were also increased (20 and 50%, respectively) in RIP-Gcgr mice compared with controls. When fed a high-fat diet (HFD), both control and RIP-Gcgr mice developed similar degrees of obesity and insulin resistance. However, the severity of both fasting hyperglycemia and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) were reduced in RIP-Gcgr mice compared with controls. Furthermore, the insulin response of RIP-Gcgr mice to an IPGTT was twice that of controls when fed the HFD. These data indicate that increased pancreatic β-cell expression of the Gcgr increased insulin secretion, pancreatic insulin content, β-cell mass, and, when mice were fed a HFD, partially protected against hyperglycemia and IGT. PMID:19602585

  12. Relationship between salivary/pancreatic amylase and body mass index: a systems biology approach.

    PubMed

    Bonnefond, Amélie; Yengo, Loïc; Dechaume, Aurélie; Canouil, Mickaël; Castelain, Maxime; Roger, Estelle; Allegaert, Frédéric; Caiazzo, Robert; Raverdy, Violeta; Pigeyre, Marie; Arredouani, Abdelilah; Borys, Jean-Michel; Lévy-Marchal, Claire; Weill, Jacques; Roussel, Ronan; Balkau, Beverley; Marre, Michel; Pattou, François; Brousseau, Thierry; Froguel, Philippe

    2017-02-23

    Salivary (AMY1) and pancreatic (AMY2) amylases hydrolyze starch. Copy number of AMY1A (encoding AMY1) was reported to be higher in populations with a high-starch diet and reduced in obese people. These results based on quantitative PCR have been challenged recently. We aimed to re-assess the relationship between amylase and adiposity using a systems biology approach. We assessed the association between plasma enzymatic activity of AMY1 or AMY2, and several metabolic traits in almost 4000 French individuals from D.E.S.I.R. longitudinal study. The effect of the number of copies of AMY1A (encoding AMY1) or AMY2A (encoding AMY2) measured through droplet digital PCR was then analyzed on the same parameters in the same study. A Mendelian randomization analysis was also performed. We subsequently assessed the association between AMY1A copy number and obesity risk in two case-control studies (5000 samples in total). Finally, we assessed the association between body mass index (BMI)-related plasma metabolites and AMY1 or AMY2 activity. We evidenced strong associations between AMY1 or AMY2 activity and lower BMI. However, we found a modest contribution of AMY1A copy number to lower BMI. Mendelian randomization identified a causal negative effect of BMI on AMY1 and AMY2 activities. Yet, we also found a significant negative contribution of AMY1 activity at baseline to the change in BMI during the 9-year follow-up, and a significant contribution of AMY1A copy number to lower obesity risk in children, suggesting a bidirectional relationship between AMY1 activity and adiposity. Metabonomics identified a BMI-independent association between AMY1 activity and lactate, a product of complex carbohydrate fermentation. These findings provide new insights into the involvement of amylase in adiposity and starch metabolism.

  13. Centralisation for resection of the pancreatic head: A comparison of operative factors and early outcomes during the evolving unit and tertiary unit phases at a UK institution.

    PubMed

    Kostalas, M; Nageswaran, H; Froghi, S; Riga, A; Kumar, R; Menezes, N; Worthington, T R; Karanjia, N D

    2017-08-19

    To assess impact of centralisation on patients undergoing pancreatic head resections at a tertiary hepatobiliary (HPB) centre in the UK. Data were analysed from a prospectively maintained database from 1998 to 2014 on all patients undergoing pancreatic head resections. Two specific time periods were defined; these were the evolving unit phase (EU) from 1998 to 2009 and finally the established tertiary unit phase (TU) from 2010 to 2014. Peri-operative factors and post-operative outcomes were analysed. 395 resections were undertaken during the study period. Following establishment of our tertiary HPB unit, the volume of resections undertaken increased greater than three-fold with an associated increase in case-complexity (p = 0.004). Operating time was found to increase in the TU phase compared with EU phase (p=>0.0005) whilst there was no significant difference in the rate of peri-operative transfusion, or in post-operative morbidity rates. There was a significant reduction in the post-operative length of stay in the TU phase (p = 0.003) with a significantly higher proportion of patients being discharged within 9 days of their procedure (p=<0.0005). There was also a significant reduction in 30-day post-operative mortality in the TU phase (0.5%) compared with the EU phase (3%) (p = 0.029). Data from our series of 395 cases suggests that centralisation of pancreatic cancer services to a tertiary centre does result in improved patient outcomes. The benefits of a multi-disciplinary and specialist HPB service results in a high volume, high quality unit with improved patient outcomes. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Physical properties of the human head: mass, center of gravity and moment of inertia.

    PubMed

    Yoganandan, Narayan; Pintar, Frank A; Zhang, Jiangyue; Baisden, Jamie L

    2009-06-19

    This paper presents a synthesis of biomedical investigations of the human head with specific reference to certain aspects of physical properties and development of anthropometry data, leading to the advancement of dummies used in crashworthiness research. As a significant majority of the studies have been summarized as reports, an effort has been made to chronologically review the literature with the above objectives. The first part is devoted to early studies wherein the mass, center of gravity (CG), and moment of inertia (MOI) properties are obtained from human cadaver experiments. Unembalmed and preserved whole-body and isolated head and head-neck experiments are discussed. Acknowledging that the current version of the Hybrid III dummy is the most widely used anthropomorphic test device in motor vehicle crashworthiness research for frontal impact applications for over 30 years, bases for the mass and MOI-related data used in the dummy are discussed. Since the development and federalization of the dummy in the United States, description of methods used to arrive at these properties form a part of the manuscript. Studies subsequent to the development of this dummy including those from the US Military are also discussed. As the head and neck are coupled in any impact, and increasing improvements in technology such as advanced airbags, and pre-tensioners and load limiters in manual seatbelts affect the kinetics of the head-neck complex, the manuscript underscores the need to pursue studies to precisely determine all the physical properties of the head. Because the most critical parameters (locations of CG and occipital condyles (OC), mass, and MOI) have not been determined on a specimen-by-specimen basis in any single study, it is important to gather these data in future experiments. These critical data will be of value for improving occupant safety, designing advanced restraint systems, developing second generation dummies, and assessing the injury mitigating

  15. Accessible or Inaccessible? Diagnostic Efficacy of CT-Guided Core Biopsies of Head and Neck Masses

    SciTech Connect

    Cunningham, Jane D., E-mail: janecunningham0708@gmail.com; McCusker, Mark W.; Power, Sarah

    PurposeTissue sampling of lesions in the head and neck is challenging due to complex regional anatomy and sometimes necessitates open surgical biopsy. However, many patients are poor surgical candidates due to comorbidity. Thus, we evaluated the use of CT guidance for establishing histopathological diagnosis of head and neck masses.MethodsAll consecutive patients (n = 22) who underwent CT-guided core biopsy of head or neck masses between April 2009 and August 2012 were retrospectively reviewed using the departmental CT interventional procedures database. The indication for each biopsy performed was to establish or exclude a diagnosis of neoplasia in patients with suspicious head or neckmore » lesions found on clinical examination or imaging studies. Patients received conscious sedation and 18 G, semiautomated core needle biopsies were performed by experienced neuroradiologists using 16-slice multidetector row CT imaging guidance (Somatom Definition Siemens Medical Solutions, Germany). Histopathology results of each biopsy were analysed.ResultsSixteen of 22 biopsies that were performed (73 %) yielded a pathological diagnosis. Anatomic locations biopsied included: masticator (n = 7), parapharyngeal (n = 3), parotid (n = 3), carotid (n = 3), perivertebral (n = 3), pharyngeal (n = 2), and retropharyngeal (n = 1) spaces. Six biopsies (27 %) were nondiagnostic due to inadequate tissue sampling, particularly small biopsy sample size and failure to biopsy the true sampling site due to extensive necrosis. No major complications were encountered.ConclusionsThe use of CT guidance to perform core biopsies of head and neck masses is an effective means of establishing histopathological diagnosis and reduces the need for diagnostic open surgical biopsy and general anaesthesia.« less

  16. Body mass index and prognosis in patients with head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Gama, Ricardo Ribeiro; Song, Yuyao; Zhang, Qihuang; Brown, M Catherine; Wang, Jennifer; Habbous, Steven; Tong, Li; Huang, Shao Hui; O'Sullivan, Brian; Waldron, John; Xu, Wei; Goldstein, David; Liu, Geoffrey

    2017-06-01

    Body mass index (BMI) has been associated variably with head and neck cancer outcomes. We evaluated the association between BMI at either diagnosis or at early adulthood head and neck cancer outcomes. Patients with invasive head and neck squamous cell cancer at Princess Margaret Cancer Centre in Toronto, Canada, were surveyed on tobacco and alcohol exposure, performance status, comorbidities, and BMI at diagnosis. A subset also had data collected for BMI at early adulthood. With a median follow-up of 2.5 years, in 1279 analyzed patients, being overweight (hazard ratio [HR], 0.55; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.4-0.8; p = .001) at diagnosis was associated with improved survival when compared with individuals with normal weight. In contrast, underweight patients at diagnosis were associated with a worse outcome (HR, 1.89; 95% CI, 1.2-3.1; p < .01). Being underweight at diagnosis was an independent, adverse prognostic factor, whereas being overweight conferred better prognosis. BMI in early adulthood was not associated strongly with head and neck cancer outcomes. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck 39: 1226-1233, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Systematic review and meta-analysis of metal versus plastic stents for preoperative biliary drainage in resectable periampullary or pancreatic head tumors.

    PubMed

    Crippa, S; Cirocchi, R; Partelli, S; Petrone, M C; Muffatti, F; Renzi, C; Falconi, M; Arcidiacono, P G

    2016-09-01

    Preoperative biliary drainage (PBD) with stenting increases complications compared with surgery without PBD. Metallic stents are considered superior to plastic stents when considering stent-related complications. Aim of the present systematic review and meta-analysis is to compare the rate of endoscopic re-intervention before surgery and postoperative outcomes of metal versus plastic stents in patients with resectable periampullary or pancreatic head neoplasms. We conducted a bibliographic research using the National Library of Medicine's PubMed database, including both randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and non-RCTs. Quantitative synthesis was performed according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement. Statistical heterogeneity was assessed using the I(2) tests. One RCT and four non-RCTs were selected, including 704 patients. Of these, 202 patients (29.5%) were treated with metal stents and 502 (70.5%) with plastic stents. The majority of patients (86.4%) had pancreatic cancer. The rate of endoscopic re-intervention after preoperative biliary drainage was significantly lower in the metal stent (3.4%) than in the plastic stent (14.8%) group (p < 0.0001). The rate of postoperative pancreatic fistula was significantly lower in the meta stent group as well (5.1% versus 11.8%, p = 0.04). The rate of post-operative surgical complications and of - post-operative mortality did not differ between the two groups. Although the present systematic review and meta-analysis demonstrates that metal stent are more effective than plastic stents for PBD in patients with resectable periampullary tumors, randomized controlled trials are needed in order to confirm these data with a higher level of evidence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Fine needle aspiration cytology in the management of head and neck masses.

    PubMed

    Slack, R W; Croft, C B; Crome, L P

    1985-04-01

    Fine needle aspiration cytology is a useful technique in the management of patients with masses in the head and neck, which is usually performed in co-operation with a specialized cytopathologist. It has not until recently been an investigation used frequently by British otolaryngologists. This study shows that an aspiration cytology service may be run with the aid of a general histopathologist and demonstrates that it is a valuable aid to diagnosis even without the services of a specialized cytopathologist.

  19. Fat: friend or foe? A review of fat-containing masses within the head and neck.

    PubMed

    Kale, Hrishikesh A; Prabhu, Arpan V; Sinelnikov, Andrey; Branstetter, Barton

    2016-11-01

    Fat-containing lesions of the head and neck are commonly encountered in day-to-day practice. Our aim was to review the various imaging presentations of common and some uncommon fat-containing lesions within the head and neck with potential pitfalls and mimics. While most soft-tissue masses have a fairly similar density, the presence of fat in a mass lesion is easy to identify on both CT/MRI and can help narrow the differential. Case-based examples of lipomas, liposarcomas, lipoblastomas, dermoids, teratomas and other fatty lesions will be used to describe imaging features. While fat density can be helpful, differentiating benign from malignant fat-containing lesions can still pose a challenge. Lesions simulating pathology such as brown fat, fatty changes within organs and post-operative flaps are presented. Finally, examples of fatty lesions in atypical locations are shown to illustrate examples that should be kept in mind in any differential. The presence of fat in head and neck masses can aid radiologists in arriving at an accurate diagnosis. Knowledge of the imaging appearance of these fat-containing lesions and their mimics can help avoid unnecessary biopsy or surgery.

  20. Head-on collisions of unequal mass black holes in D=5 dimensions

    SciTech Connect

    Witek, Helvi; Cardoso, Vitor; Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Mississippi, University, Mississippi 38677

    We study head-on collisions of unequal mass black hole binaries in D=5 spacetime dimensions, with mass ratios between 1:1 and 1:4. Information about gravitational radiation is extracted by using the Kodama-Ishibashi gauge-invariant formalism and details of the apparent horizon of the final black hole. We present waveforms, total integrated energy and momentum for this process. Our results show surprisingly good agreement, within 5% or less, with those extrapolated from linearized, point-particle calculations. Our results also show that consistency with the area theorem bound requires that the same process in a large number of spacetime dimensions must display new features.

  1. Islet-selectivity of G-protein coupled receptor ligands evaluated for PET imaging of pancreatic {beta}-cell mass

    SciTech Connect

    Cline, Gary W., E-mail: gary.cline@yale.edu; Zhao, Xiaojian; Jakowski, Amy B.

    2011-09-02

    Highlights: {yields} We screened G-protein coupled receptors for imaging pancreatic. {yields} Database mining and immunohistochemistry identified GPCRs enriched in {beta}-cells. {yields} In vitro and in vivo assays were used to determine exocrine vs endocrine specificity. {yields} GPCR candidates for imaging of {beta}-cell mass are Prokineticin-1R, mGluR5, and GLP-1R. -- Abstract: A critical unmet need exists for methods to quantitatively measure endogenous pancreatic {beta}-cell mass (BCM) for the clinical evaluation of therapies to prevent or reverse loss of BCM and diabetes progression. Our objective was to identify G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) that are expressed with a high degree of specificity tomore » islet {beta}-cells for receptor-targeted imaging of BCM. GPCRs enriched in pancreatic islets relative to pancreas acinar and hepatic tissue were identified using a database screen. Islet-specific expression was confirmed by human pancreas immunohistochemistry (IHC). In vitro selectivity assessment was determined from the binding and uptake of radiolabeled ligands to the rat insulinoma INS-1 832/13 cell line and isolated rat islets relative to the exocrine pancreas cell-type, PANC-1. Tail-vein injections of radioligands into rats were used to determine favorable image criteria of in vivo biodistribution to the pancreas relative to other internal organs (i.e., liver, spleen, stomach, and lungs). Database and IHC screening identified four candidate receptors for further in vitro and in vivo evaluation for PET imaging of BCM: prokineticin-1 receptor (PK-1R), metabotropic glutamate receptor type-5 (mGluR5), neuropeptide Y-2 receptor (NPY-2R), and glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor (GLP-1R). In vitro specificity ratios gave the following receptor rank order: PK-1R > GLP-1R > NPY-2R > mGluR5. The biodistribution rank order of selectivity to the pancreas was found to be PK-1R > VMAT2 {approx} GLP-1R > mGluR5. Favorable islet selectivity and biodistribution

  2. Preoperative Computerized Tomography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Pancreas Predicts Pancreatic Mass and Functional Outcomes After Total Pancreatectomy and Islet Autotransplant.

    PubMed

    Young, Michael C; Theis, Jake R; Hodges, James S; Dunn, Ty B; Pruett, Timothy L; Chinnakotla, Srinath; Walker, Sidney P; Freeman, Martin L; Trikudanathan, Guru; Arain, Mustafa; Robertson, Paul R; Wilhelm, Joshua J; Schwarzenberg, Sarah J; Bland, Barbara; Beilman, Gregory J; Bellin, Melena D

    2016-08-01

    Approximately two thirds of patients will remain on insulin therapy after total pancreatectomy with islet autotransplant (TPIAT) for chronic pancreatitis. We investigated the relationship between measured pancreas volume on computerized tomography or magnetic resonance imaging and features of chronic pancreatitis on imaging, with subsequent islet isolation and diabetes outcomes. Computerized tomography or magnetic resonance imaging was reviewed for pancreas volume (Vitrea software) and presence or absence of calcifications, atrophy, and dilated pancreatic duct in 97 patients undergoing TPIAT. Relationship between these features and (1) islet mass isolated and (2) diabetes status at 1-year post-TPIAT were evaluated. Pancreas volume correlated with islet mass measured as total islet equivalents (r = 0.50, P < 0.0001). Mean islet equivalents were reduced by more than half if any one of calcifications, atrophy, or ductal dilatation were observed. Pancreatic calcifications increased the odds of insulin dependence 4.0 fold (1.1, 15). Collectively, the pancreas volume and 3 imaging features strongly associated with 1-year insulin use (P = 0.07), islet graft failure (P = 0.003), hemoglobin A1c (P = 0.0004), fasting glucose (P = 0.027), and fasting C-peptide level (P = 0.008). Measures of pancreatic parenchymal destruction on imaging, including smaller pancreas volume and calcifications, associate strongly with impaired islet mass and 1-year diabetes outcomes.

  3. Chronic pancreatitis with multiple pseudocysts and pancreatic panniculitis: A case report.

    PubMed

    Gu, Yuqing; Qian, Zhuyin

    2018-06-01

    Pancreatic pseudocyst can present single or multiple, inside or outside the pancreas. Pancreatic panniculitis is a rare skin lesion in pancreatic disease patients. The purpose of this study is to report a case of chronic pancreatitis coexisting with multiple pseudocysts and pancreatic panniculitis. A 46-year-old man with chronic pancreatitis presented multiple small cystic lesions inside the head of the pancreas and two large cystic lesions adjacent to the tail of the pancreas. The patient also developed subcutaneous nodules involving upper and lower limbs, hands, and lower abdomen bilaterally. The patient was diagnosed with pancreatic pseudocyst and pancreatic panniculitis resulted from chronic pancreatitis. Bile duct stent and pancreatic duct stent placement was performed endoscopicly. Panniculitis faded three weeks later and the pancreatic pseudocysts disappeared six weeks later. Clinicians should be aware of the manifestation of multiple pancreatic pseudocyst and pancreatic panniculitis, and endoscopic transpapillary drainage may be a effective way in this scenario.

  4. Pancreatic sarcoidosis discovered during Whipple procedure.

    PubMed

    Cook, Jonathan; Spees, Tanner; Telefus, Phillip; Ranaudo, Jeffrey M; Carryl, Stephen; Xiao, Philip

    2013-04-04

    Pancreatic sarcoidosis is a rare variant of systemic sarcoidosis, with cases described in literature as recently as January 2010. We present here a case of pancreatic involvement with non-caseating granulomas discovered on laparotomy in a patient with a preoperative diagnosis of pancreatic carcinoma. Computer tomography scan without contrast revealed a well-marginated smooth-shaped tumor in the head of the pancreas morphologically consistent with malignancy. During Whipple procedure, the mass was found to be a large lymph node that contained numerous non-caseating granulomas. Radiologically and clinically, non-caseating granulomas of the pancreas are often misdiagnosed as malignant tumor. Special attention given to this differential diagnosis by surgeons, pathologists and clinicians can avoid misdiagnosis and unnecessary treatment. Published by Oxford University Press and JSCR Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved. © The Author 2013.

  5. Low skeletal muscle mass outperforms the Charlson Comorbidity Index in risk prediction in patients undergoing pancreatic resections.

    PubMed

    Wagner, D; Marsoner, K; Tomberger, A; Haybaeck, J; Haas, J; Werkgartner, G; Cerwenka, H; Bacher, H; Mischinger, H J; Kornprat, P

    2018-05-01

    Low skeletal muscle mass is a known predictor of morbidity and mortality in patients undergoing major pancreatic surgeries. We sought to combine low skeletal muscle mass with established risk predictors to improve their prognostic capacity for postoperative outcome and morbidity. As established parameters to predict preoperative mortality risk for patients, the ASA classification and the Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) were used. The Hounsfield Units Average Calculation (HUAC) was measured to define low skeletal muscle mass in 424 patients undergoing pancreatic resections for malignancies. Patients in the lowest sex-adjusted quartile for HUAC were defined as having low skeletal muscle mass (muscle wasting). Multivariable Cox regression analysis was utilized to identify preoperative risk factors associated with postoperative morbidity. Median patient age was 63 years (19-87), 47.9% patients were male, and half the cohort had multiple comorbidities (Charlson Comorbidity Index [CCI]>6, 63.2%), 30-day mortality was 5.8% (n = 25). Median HUAC was 19.78 HU (IQR: 15.94-23.54) with 145 patients (34.2%) having low skeletal muscle mass. Preoperative frailty defined by low skeletal muscle mass was associated with an increased risk for postoperative complications (OR 1.55, CI 95% 0.98-2.45, p = 0.014), and a higher 30-day mortality (HR 5.17, CI 95% 1.57-16.69, p = 0.004). With an AUC of 0.85 HUAC showed the highest predictability for 30-day mortality (CI 95% 0.78-0.91, p = 0.0001). Patients with CCI ≥6 and low skeletal muscle mass defined by the HUAC had a 9.78 higher risk of dying in the immediate postoperative phase (HR 9.78, CI 95% 2.98-12.2, p = 0.0001). Low skeletal muscle mass predicts postoperative mortality and complications best and it should be incorporated to conventional risk scores to identify high risk patients. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd, BASO ~ The Association for Cancer Surgery, and the European Society of Surgical Oncology. All rights

  6. Clinicopathological Features of Intraductal Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors.

    PubMed

    Chang, Xiao-Yan; Jia, Cong-Wei; Meng, Yun-Xiao; Chen, Jie

    2016-10-10

    Objective To evaluate the clinical and pathologic characteristics of intraductal pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PanNETs). Methods Four cases of intraductal PanNETs were studied by light microscopy and immunohistochemistry with the analysis of morphologic features and review of relevant literatures. Results Two female patients and two male patients aged 41- 58 years were enrolled in this study. The chief complaint was abdominal pain in two patients,vomiting in one patient,and jaundice in the last patient. Imaging examination showed intraductal neoplasm with diagnosis as intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) in case 1; space-occupying lesions were found in the head of pancreas in the other three cases with pancreatic ductal ectasia and distal pancreatic atrophy. Grossly the masses were located in pancreatic main duct and invaded into surrounding pancreatic parachyma. Microscopically the tumors arranged with solid pattern,with some trabecular structures in the last two cases. Small duct and ductules were seen in intraductal PanNETs. The immunohistochemical expression showed that SYN and CgA were positive in neoplastic cells and negative in small duct and ductules.Conclusions Intraductal PanNETs are rare conditions. The clinical symptoms and imaging findings are similar to IPMN or pancreatic carcinoma. The tumors are located within pancreatic duct partly and can invade the pancreatic parenchyma. Microscopically the neuroendocrine tumors mix with small duct and forms ductulo-insular structure,which should be differentiated with mixed ductal endocrine carcinoma. The grade and prognosis are similar to those of classical neuroendocrine tumors.

  7. Pancreatic acinar cell carcinoma extending into the common bile and main pancreatic ducts.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Rin; Okabe, Yoshinobu; Jimi, Atsuo; Shiota, Koji; Kodama, Takahito; Naito, Yoshiki; Yasunaga, Masafumi; Kinoshita, Hisafumi; Kojiro, Masamichi

    2006-10-01

    Acinar cell carcinoma (ACC) of the pancreas is relatively rare, accounting for only approximately 1% of all exocrine pancreatic tumors. A 69-year-old man was found to have a mass lesion measuring approximately 4 cm in diameter in the pancreatic head on ultrasound, abdominal dynamic CT, and percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography showed defect of the lower common bile duct (CBD) due to obstruction by the tumor cast. Histopathologically, the pancreatic head tumor invaded the main pancreatic duct (MPD) and CBD with extension into the CBD in a form of tumor cast. The tumor cells consisted of a solid proliferation with abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm and round nuclei in an acinar and trabecular fashion. A 55-year-old man with upper abdominal pain and nausea, had a cystic lesion approximately 3 cm in size in the pancreatic tail on CT. Histopathologically, the tumor was encapsulated by fibrous capsule and had extensive central necrosis with solid areas in the tumor periphery, and invaded with extension into the MPD in a form of tumor cast. The tumor cells resembled acinar cells in solid growths. Two resected cases of ACC with unusual tumor extension into the CBD and the MPD, respectively, are reported.

  8. Endoscopic Ultrasound-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration versus Percutaneous Ultrasound-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration in Diagnosis of Focal Pancreatic Masses

    PubMed Central

    Okasha, Hussein Hassan; Naga, Mazen Ibrahim; Esmat, Serag; Naguib, Mohamed; Hassanein, Mohamed; Hassani, Mohamed; El-Kassas, Mohamed; Mahdy, Reem Ezzat; El-Gemeie, Emad; Farag, Ali Hassan; Foda, Ayman Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Pancreatic carcinoma is one of the leading cancer morbidity and mortality world-wide. Controversy has arisen about whether the percutaneous approach with computed tomography/ultrasonography-guidance fine needle aspiration (US-FNA) or endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) is the preferred method to obtain diagnostic tissue. Our purpose of this study is to compare between the diagnostic accuracy of EUS-FNA and percutaneous US-FNA in diagnosis of pancreatic cancer. Patients and Methods: A total of 197 patients with pancreatic masses were included in the study, 125 patients underwent US-FNA (Group 1) and 72 patients underwent EUS-FNA (Group 2). Results: EUS-FNA has nearly the same accuracy (88.9%) as US-FNA (87.2%) in diagnosis of pancreatic cancer. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value for EUS-FNA was 84%, 100%, 100%, 73.3% respectively. It was 85.5%, 90.4%, 94.7%, 76% respectively for US-FNA. EUS-FNA had a lower complication rate (1.38%) than US-FNA (5.6%). Conclusion: EUS-FNA has nearly the same accuracy as US-FNA of pancreatic masses with a lower complication rate. PMID:24949394

  9. Glucagon-like peptide-1 reduces pancreatic β-cell mass through hypothalamic neural pathways in high-fat diet-induced obese rats.

    PubMed

    Ando, Hisae; Gotoh, Koro; Fujiwara, Kansuke; Anai, Manabu; Chiba, Seiichi; Masaki, Takayuki; Kakuma, Tetsuya; Shibata, Hirotaka

    2017-07-17

    We examined whether glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) affects β-cell mass and proliferation through neural pathways, from hepatic afferent nerves to pancreatic efferent nerves via the central nervous system, in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese rats. The effects of chronic administration of GLP-1 (7-36) and liraglutide, a GLP-1 receptor agonist, on pancreatic morphological alterations, c-fos expression and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) content in the hypothalamus, and glucose metabolism were investigated in HFD-induced obese rats that underwent hepatic afferent vagotomy (VgX) and/or pancreatic efferent sympathectomy (SpX). Chronic GLP-1 (7-36) administration to HFD-induced obese rats elevated c-fos expression and BDNF content in the hypothalamus, followed by a reduction in pancreatic β-cell hyperplasia and insulin content, thus resulting in improved glucose tolerance. These responses were abolished by VgX and SpX. Moreover, administration of liraglutide similarly activated the hypothalamic neural pathways, thus resulting in a more profound amelioration of glucose tolerance than native GLP-1 (7-36). These data suggest that GLP-1 normalizes the obesity-induced compensatory increase in β-cell mass and glucose intolerance through a neuronal relay system consisting of hepatic afferent nerves, the hypothalamus, and pancreatic efferent nerves.

  10. Surgical therapy in chronic pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Neal, C P; Dennison, A R; Garcea, G

    2012-12-01

    Chronic pancreatitis (CP) is an inflammatory disease of the pancreas which causes chronic pain, as well as exocrine and endocrine failure in the majority of patients, together producing social and domestic upheaval and a very poor quality of life. At least half of patients will require surgical intervention at some stage in their disease, primarily for the treatment of persistent pain. Available data have now confirmed that surgical intervention may produce superior results to conservative and endoscopic treatment. Comprehensive individual patient assessment is crucial to optimal surgical management, however, in order to determine which morphological disease variant (large duct disease, distal stricture with focal disease, expanded head or small duct/minimal change disease) is present in the individual patient, as a wide and differing range of surgical approaches are possible depending upon the specific abnormality within the gland. This review comprehensively assesses the evidence for these differing approaches to surgical intervention in chronic pancreatitis. Surgical drainage procedures should be limited to a small number of patients with a dilated duct and no pancreatic head mass. Similarly, a small population presenting with a focal stricture and tail only disease may be successfully treated by distal pancreatectomy. Long-term results of both of these procedure types are poor, however. More impressive results have been yielded for the surgical treatment of the expanded head, for which a range of surgical options now exist. Evidence from level I studies and a recent meta-analysis suggests that duodenum-preserving resections offer benefits compared to pancreaticoduodenectomy, though the results of the ongoing, multicentre ChroPac trial are awaited to confirm this. Further data are also needed to determine which of the duodenum-preserving procedures provides optimal results. In relation to small duct/minimal change disease total pancreatectomy represents the only

  11. Preservative effect of electrolyzed reduced water on pancreatic beta-cell mass in diabetic db/db mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mi-Ja; Jung, Kyung Hee; Uhm, Yoon Kyung; Leem, Kang-Hyun; Kim, Hye Kyung

    2007-02-01

    Oxidative stress is produced under diabetic conditions and involved in progression of pancreatic beta-cell dysfunction. Both an increase in reactive oxygen free radical species (ROS) and a decrease in the antioxidant defense mechanism lead to the increase in oxidative stress in diabetes. Electrolyzed reduced water (ERW) with ROS scavenging ability may have a potential effect on diabetic animals, a model for high oxidative stress. Therefore, the present study examined the possible anti-diabetic effect of ERW in genetically diabetic mouse strain C57BL/6J-db/db (db/db). ERW with ROS scavenging ability reduced the blood glucose concentration, increased blood insulin level, improved glucose tolerance and preserved beta-cell mass in db/db mice. The present data suggest that ERW may protects beta-cell damage and would be useful for antidiabetic agent.

  12. β-Arrestin2 plays a key role in the modulation of the pancreatic beta cell mass in mice.

    PubMed

    Ravier, Magalie A; Leduc, Michele; Richard, Joy; Linck, Nathalie; Varrault, Annie; Pirot, Nelly; Roussel, Morgane M; Bockaert, Joël; Dalle, Stéphane; Bertrand, Gyslaine

    2014-03-01

    Beta cell failure due to progressive secretory dysfunction and limited expansion of beta cell mass is a key feature of type 2 diabetes. Beta cell function and mass are controlled by glucose and hormones/neurotransmitters that activate G protein-coupled receptors or receptor tyrosine kinases. We have investigated the role of β-arrestin (ARRB)2, a scaffold protein known to modulate such receptor signalling, in the modulation of beta cell function and mass, with a specific interest in glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), muscarinic and insulin receptors. β-arrestin2-knockout mice and their wild-type littermates were fed a normal or a high-fat diet (HFD). Glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion were assessed in vivo. Beta cell mass was evaluated in pancreatic sections. Free cytosolic [Ca(2+)] and insulin secretion were determined using perifused islets. The insulin signalling pathway was evaluated by western blotting. Arrb2-knockout mice exhibited impaired glucose tolerance and insulin secretion in vivo, but normal insulin sensitivity compared with wild type. Surprisingly, the absence of ARRB2 did not affect glucose-stimulated insulin secretion or GLP-1- and acetylcholine-mediated amplifications from perifused islets, but it decreased the islet insulin content and beta cell mass. Additionally, there was no compensatory beta cell mass expansion through proliferation in response to the HFD. Furthermore, Arrb2 deletion altered the islet insulin signalling pathway. ARRB2 is unlikely to be involved in the regulation of insulin secretion, but it is required for beta cell mass plasticity. Additionally, we provide new insights into the mechanisms involved in insulin signalling in beta cells.

  13. Impact of a portal/superior mesenteric vein resection during pancreatico-duodenectomy for pancreatic head adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Dumitrascu, T; Dima, S; Brasoveanu, V; Stroescu, C; Herlea, V; Moldovan, S; Ionescu, M; Popescu, I

    2014-12-01

    The impact of venous resection (VR) in pancreatico-dudenectomy (PD) for pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is controversial. The aim of the study is to comparatively assess the postoperative outcomes after PD with and without VR for PDAC and to identify predictors of morbidity and survival in the subgroup of PD with VR. The data of 51 PD with VR were compared with those of 183 PD without VR. Binary logistic regression and Cox survival analyses were performed. Both the operative time and estimated blood loss was significantly higher in the VR group (P<0.001). A trend towards an increased 90-day mortality (9.8% vs. 5.5%) and severe morbidity (20% vs. 13%) was observed when a VR was performed (P ≥0.264). The median overall survival time after the PD with and without VR was 13 months and 17 months, respectively (P=0.845). The absence of histological tumor invasion of the VR was found as the only independent predictor for a better survival (HR=0.359; 95% CI 0.161-0.803; P=0.013). A PD with VR can be safely incorporated in a pancreatic surgeon armamentarium. However, the trend towards increased mortality and severe morbidity rates should be expected, along with higher operative time and blood loss, compared with PD without VR. Associated VR does not appear to significantly impair the prognosis after PD for PDAC; however, histological tumor invasion of the VR has a negative impact on the survival.

  14. The value of mutational profiling of the cytocentrifugation supernatant fluid from fine-needle aspiration of pancreatic solid mass lesions.

    PubMed

    Deftereos, Georgios; Finkelstein, Sydney D; Jackson, Sara A; Ellsworth, Eric M G; Krishnamurti, Uma; Liu, Yulin; Silverman, Jan F; Binkert, Candy R; Ujevich, Beth A; Mohanty, Alok

    2014-04-01

    Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) of pancreatic solid masses can be significantly impacted by sampling variation. Molecular analysis of tumor DNA can be an aid for more definitive diagnosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate how molecular analysis of the cell-free cytocentrifugation supernatant DNA can help reduce sampling variability and increase diagnostic yield. Twenty-three FNA smears from pancreatic solid masses were performed. Remaining aspirates were rinsed for preparation of cytocentrifuged slides or cell blocks. DNA was extracted from supernatant fluid and assessed for DNA quantity spectrophotometrically and for amplifiability by quantitative PCR (qPCR). Supernatants with adequate DNA were analyzed for mutations using PCR/capillary electrophoresis for a broad panel of markers (KRAS point mutation by sequencing, microsatellite fragment analysis for loss of heterozygosity (LOH) of 16 markers at 1p, 3p, 5q, 9p, 10q, 17p, 17q, 21q, and 22q). In selected cases, microdissection of stained cytology smears and/or cytocentrifugation cellular slides were analyzed and compared. In all, 5/23 samples cytologically confirmed as adenocarcinoma showed detectable mutations both in the microdissected slide-based cytology cells and in the cytocentrifugation supernatant. While most mutations detected were present in both microdissected slides and supernatant fluid specimens, the latter showed additional mutations supporting greater sensitivity for detecting relevant DNA damage. Clonality for individual marker mutations was higher in the supernatant fluid than in microdissected cells. Cytocentrifugation supernatant fluid contains levels of amplifiable DNA suitable for mutation detection and characterization. The finding of additional detectable mutations at higher clonality indicates that supernatant fluid may be enriched with tumor DNA. Molecular analysis of the supernatant fluid could serve as an adjunct method to reduce sampling variability and increase diagnostic yield

  15. Puzzling mass movement features in the Navarinsky Canyon head, Bering Sea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carlson, P.R.; Karl, Herman A.; Edwards, B.D.

    1982-01-01

    Two types of morphologic features in the head of Navarinsky Canyon are attributed to mass movement of near-surface sediment. A series of pull-aparts is located downslope of large sand waves. These pull-aparts, possibly induced by liquefaction, affect the upper 5 to 10 m of sandy sediment (water depths 350 to 600 m) on a 1o slope. A hummocky elongate mound of muddy sand (water depths 550 to 800 m) contains chaotic internal reflectors to a subbottom depth of 30 to 40 m and possibly is the product of a shallow slide. We speculate that Holocene seismicity is the likely triggering mechanism. ?? 1982 A. M. Dowden, Inc.

  16. [Diagnostic utility of endoscopic ultrasonography elastography and contrast-enhanced harmonic endoscopic ultrasonography in a patient with type 2 autoimmune pancreatitis].

    PubMed

    Yokode, Masataka; Shiomi, Hideyuki; Itai, Ryosuke; Mikami, Sakae; Yamashita, Yukimasa; Nakano, Ryota; Ezaki, Takeshi; Masuda, Atsuhiro; Zen, Yoh

    2018-01-01

    A referring hospital diagnosed a 57-year-old man with a pancreatic head mass. The initial endoscopic ultrasonography-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) was inconclusive because of the small sample size. Endoscopic ultrasonography elastography (EUS-EG) and contrast-enhanced harmonic endoscopic ultrasonography (CE-EUS), conducted at our institute, raised the possibility of mass-forming pancreatitis or autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP). A repeat EUS-FNA revealed inflammatory changes, including a neutrophilic duct injury suggestive of type 2 AIP. The pancreatic lesion responded well to the steroid therapy. The present case suggests that EUS-EG and CE-EUS may be useful for diagnostic exclusion of pancreatic cancers, and the combined use of EUS-EG and CE-EUS, with EUS-FNA, may help characterize inflammatory pancreatic lesions.

  17. Preoperative Computerized Tomography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Pancreas Predicts Pancreatic Mass and Functional Outcomes After Total Pancreatectomy and Islet Autotransplant

    PubMed Central

    Young, Michael C.; Theis, Jake R.; Hodges, James S.; Dunn, Ty B.; Pruett, Timothy L.; Chinnakotla, Srinath; Walker, Sidney P.; Freeman, Martin L.; Trikudanathan, Guru; Arain, Mustafa; Robertson, R. Paul; Wilhelm, Joshua J.; Schwarzenberg, Sarah J.; Bland, Barbara; Beilman, Gregory J.; Bellin, Melena D.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives About two-thirds of patients will remain on insulin therapy after total pancreatectomy with islet autotransplant (TPIAT) for chronic pancreatitis. We investigated the relationship between measured pancreas volume on computerized tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and features of chronic pancreatiits on imaging, with subsequent islet isolation and diabetes outcomes. Methods CT or MRI was reviewed for pancreas volume (Vitrea software), and presence or absence of calcifications, atrophy, and dilated pancreatic duct in 97 patients undergoing TPIAT. Relationship between these features and: (1) islet mass isolated and (2) diabetes status at 1 year post-TPAIT were evaluated. Results Pancreas volume correlated with islet mass measured as total islet equivalents (r=0.50, p<0.0001). Mean islet equivalents was reduced by more than half if any one of calcifications, atrophy, or ductal dilatation were observed. Pancreatic calcifications increased the odds of insulin dependence 4.0 fold (1.1, 15). Collectively, the pancreas volume and 3 imaging features strongly associated with 1 year insulin use (p=0.07), islet graft failure (p=0.003), Hemoglobin A1c (p=0.0004), fasting glucose (p=0.027), and fasting C-peptide level (p=0.008). Conclusions Measures of pancreatic parenchymal destruction on imaging, including smaller pancreas volume and calcifications associate strongly with impaired islet mass and 1 year diabetes outcomes. PMID:26745861

  18. [Classification and choice of surgical procedures for chronic pancreatitis].

    PubMed

    Yang, Yin-Mo; Wan, Yuan-Lian; Zhuang, Yan; Wang, Wei-Min; Yan, Zhong-Yu; Huang, Yan-Ting

    2005-02-01

    To explore the classification, choice of surgical procedures and the clinical outcome of surgical management for chronic pancreatitis. 54 patients with chronic pancreatitis undergoing operation in our hospital from 1983 to 2004 were analyzed retrospectively, who were divided into chronic calcifying pancreatitis and chronic obstructive pancreatitis according to the clinical manifestations. There were 41 men (76%) and 13 women (24%) with a mean age of 54 years. The cause of chronic pancreatitis was alcohol related in 25 cases (46%), cholelithiasis in 21 (39%), and previous episodes of acute pancreatitis in 18 (33%). Clinical manifestations included abdominal pain in 38 cases (70%), obstructive jaundice in 27 cases (50%). There existed a significant difference in some clinical materials between the two groups of chronic calcifying pancreatitis and chronic obstructive pancreatitis, which might mean the different pathologic basis in the two kinds of chronic pancreatitis. A total of 34 patients underwent nine different operations without perioperative deaths. Both the Puestow procedure and the pancreatoduodenectomy was safe and achieved pain relief in a large percentage of patients, which could also improve the exocrine function whereas the endocrine function remained unchanged. Addition of biliary bypass to the Puestow procedure was suitable for the patients with stenosis of common bile duct. Jaundice was the main manifestation in the patients with the inflammatory mass in the head of the pancreas and Whipple's procedure or other resectional procedures should be performed for them. Only drainage of bile duct had a better outcome for the relief of jaundice, but its effect to pancreas need to be further evaluated. The clinicopathologic characteristics of obstructive chronic pancreatitis was more variable and the surgical management should be also different for individuals.

  19. Reference Values for Weight, Height, Head Circumference, and Body Mass Index in Turkish Children.

    PubMed

    Neyzi, Olcay; Bundak, Rüveyde; Gökçay, Gülbin; Günöz, Hülya; Furman, Andrzej; Darendeliler, Feyza; Baş, Firdevs

    2015-12-01

    This study aimed to integrate the existing updated reference standards for the growth of Turkish infants and children and to compare these values with World Health Organization (WHO) reference data, data from some European countries, and also with previous local data. Weight, height, and head circumference measurements were obtained on 2,391 boys and 2,102 girls who were regular attenders of a well child clinic and on 1,100 boys and 1,020 girls attending schools in relatively well-off districts in İstanbul. Mean number of measurements per child was 8.2±3.6 in the age group 0-5 years and 5.5±3.3 in the age group 6-18 years. All children were from well-to-do families and all were healthy. All measurements with the exception of measurements at birth, which were based on reported values, were done by trained personnel. The LMS method was used in the analyses and in the construction of the percentile charts. There is an increase in weight for age and body mass index values for age starting in prepubertal ages, indicating an increasing trend for obesity. Compared to WHO reference data, weight and height values in Turkish children were slightly higher in infants and in children younger than 5 years, while they showed similarity to those reported for children from Norway and Belgium. Head circumference values, which were slightly higher than the WHO references in the first 5 years, were comparable to the data on Belgian and Norwegian children in the first 9 years of life. At older ages, Turkish children showed higher values for head circumference. The relatively larger head circumference values were interpreted to reflect a genetic characteristic.

  20. Chronic Pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Stram, Michelle; Liu, Shu; Singhi, Aatur D

    2016-12-01

    Chronic pancreatitis is a debilitating condition often associated with severe abdominal pain and exocrine and endocrine dysfunction. The underlying cause is multifactorial and involves complex interaction of environmental, genetic, and/or other risk factors. The pathology is dependent on the underlying pathogenesis of the disease. This review describes the clinical, gross, and microscopic findings of the main subtypes of chronic pancreatitis: alcoholic chronic pancreatitis, obstructive chronic pancreatitis, paraduodenal ("groove") pancreatitis, pancreatic divisum, autoimmune pancreatitis, and genetic factors associated with chronic pancreatitis. As pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma may be confused with chronic pancreatitis, the main distinguishing features between these 2 diseases are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Capillary electrophoresis mass spectrometry-based saliva metabolomics identified oral, breast and pancreatic cancer-specific profiles.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, Masahiro; Wong, David T; Hirayama, Akiyoshi; Soga, Tomoyoshi; Tomita, Masaru

    2010-03-01

    Saliva is a readily accessible and informative biofluid, making it ideal for the early detection of a wide range of diseases including cardiovascular, renal, and autoimmune diseases, viral and bacterial infections and, importantly, cancers. Saliva-based diagnostics, particularly those based on metabolomics technology, are emerging and offer a promising clinical strategy, characterizing the association between salivary analytes and a particular disease. Here, we conducted a comprehensive metabolite analysis of saliva samples obtained from 215 individuals (69 oral, 18 pancreatic and 30 breast cancer patients, 11 periodontal disease patients and 87 healthy controls) using capillary electrophoresis time-of-flight mass spectrometry (CE-TOF-MS). We identified 57 principal metabolites that can be used to accurately predict the probability of being affected by each individual disease. Although small but significant correlations were found between the known patient characteristics and the quantified metabolites, the profiles manifested relatively higher concentrations of most of the metabolites detected in all three cancers in comparison with those in people with periodontal disease and control subjects. This suggests that cancer-specific signatures are embedded in saliva metabolites. Multiple logistic regression models yielded high area under the receiver-operating characteristic curves (AUCs) to discriminate healthy controls from each disease. The AUCs were 0.865 for oral cancer, 0.973 for breast cancer, 0.993 for pancreatic cancer, and 0.969 for periodontal diseases. The accuracy of the models was also high, with cross-validation AUCs of 0.810, 0.881, 0.994, and 0.954, respectively. Quantitative information for these 57 metabolites and their combinations enable us to predict disease susceptibility. These metabolites are promising biomarkers for medical screening. ELECTRONIC SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL: The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11306-009-0178-y

  2. Toward optical guidance during endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspirations of pancreatic masses using single fiber reflectance spectroscopy: a feasibility study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stegehuis, Paulien L.; Boogerd, Leonora S. F.; Inderson, Akin; Veenendaal, Roeland A.; van Gerven, P.; Bonsing, Bert A.; Sven Mieog, J.; Amelink, Arjen; Veselic, Maud; Morreau, Hans; van de Velde, Cornelis J. H.; Lelieveldt, Boudewijn P. F.; Dijkstra, Jouke; Robinson, Dominic J.; Vahrmeijer, Alexander L.

    2017-02-01

    Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspirations (EUS-FNA) of pancreatic masses suffer from sample errors and low-negative predictive values. Fiber-optic spectroscopy in the visible to near-infrared wavelength spectrum can noninvasively extract physiological parameters from tissue and has the potential to guide the sampling process and reduce sample errors. We assessed the feasibility of single fiber (SF) reflectance spectroscopy measurements during EUS-FNA of pancreatic masses and its ability to distinguish benign from malignant pancreatic tissue. A single optical fiber was placed inside a 19-gauge biopsy needle during EUS-FNA and at least three reflectance measurements were taken prior to FNA. Spectroscopy measurements did not cause any related adverse events and prolonged procedure time with ˜5 min. An accurate correlation between spectroscopy measurements and cytology could be made in nine patients (three benign and six malignant). The oxygen saturation and bilirubin concentration were significantly higher in benign tissue compared with malignant tissue (55% versus 21%, p=0.038; 166 μmol/L versus 17 μmol/L, p=0.039, respectively). To conclude, incorporation of SF spectroscopy during EUS-FNA was feasible, safe, and relatively quick to perform. The optical properties of benign and malignant pancreatic tissue are different, implying that SF spectroscopy can potentially guide the FNA sampling.

  3. The integration of single fiber reflectance (SFR) spectroscopy during endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspirations (EUS-FNA) in pancreatic masses: a feasibility study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stegehuis, Paulien L.; Boogerd, Leonora S. F.; Inderson, Akin; Veenendaal, Roeland A.; Bonsing, Bert A.; Amelink, Arjen; Vahrmeijer, Alexander L.; Dijkstra, Jouke; Robinson, Dominic J.

    2016-03-01

    EUS-FNA can be used for pathological confirmation of a suspicious pancreatic mass. However, performance depends on an on-site cytologist and time between punction and final pathology results can be long. SFR spectroscopy is capable of extracting biologically relevant parameters (e.g. oxygenation and blood volume) in real-time from a very small tissue volume at difficult locations. In this study we determined feasibility of the integration of SFR spectroscopy during EUSFNA procedures in pancreatic masses. Patients with benign and malignant pancreatic masses who were scheduled for an EUS-FNA were included. The working guide wire inside the 19 gauge endoscopic biopsy needle was removed and the sterile single fiber (300 μm core and 700 μm outer diameter, wide-angle beam, NA 0.22) inserted through the needle. Spectroscopy measurements in the visiblenear infrared wavelength region (400-900 nm) and autofluorescence measurements (excitation at 405 nm) were taken three times, and subsequently cytology was obtained. Wavelength dependent optical properties were compared to cytology results. We took measurements in 13 patients with corresponding cytology results (including mucinous tumor, ductal adenocarcinoma, neuroendocrine tumor, and pancreatitis). In this paper we show the first analyzed results comparing normal pancreatic tissue with cancerous tissue in the same patient. We found a large difference in blood volume fraction, and blood oxygenation was higher in normal tissue. Integration of SFR spectroscopy is feasible in EUS-FNA procedures, the workflow hardly requires changes and it takes little time. The first results differentiating normal from tumor tissue are promising.

  4. Glutathione Ethyl Ester Supplementation during Pancreatic Islet Isolation Improves Viability and Transplant Outcomes in a Murine Marginal Islet Mass Model

    PubMed Central

    Raposo do Amaral, Alexandre S.; Pawlick, Rena L.; Rodrigues, Erika; Costal, Flavia; Pepper, Andrew; Ferreira Galvão, Flávio H.; Correa-Giannella, Maria Lucia; Shapiro, A. M.James

    2013-01-01

    Background The success of pancreatic islet transplantation still faces many challenges, mainly related to cell damage during islet isolation and early post-transplant. The increased generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) during islet isolation and the consumption of antioxidant defenses appear to be an important pathway related to islet damage. Methodology/Principal Findings In the present study we evaluated whether supplementation of glutathione-ethyl-ester (GEE) during islet isolation could improve islet viability and transplant outcomes in a murine marginal islet mass model. We also cultured human islets for 24 hours in standard CMRL media with or without GEE supplementation. Supplementation of GEE decreased the content of ROS in isolated islets, leading to a decrease in apoptosis and maintenance of islet viability. A higher percentage of mice transplanted with a marginal mass of GEE treated islets became euglycemic after transplant. The supplementation of 20 mM GEE in cultured human islets significantly reduced the apoptosis rate in comparison to untreated islets. Conclusions/Significance GEE supplementation was able to decrease the apoptosis rate and intracellular content of ROS in isolated islets and might be considered a potential intervention to improve islet viability during the isolation process and maintenance in culture before islet transplantation. PMID:23424628

  5. Proteomic differential display analysis for TS-1-resistant and -sensitive pancreatic cancer cells using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Kanako; Kuramitsu, Yasuhiro; Murakami, Kohei; Ryozawa, Shomei; Taba, Kumiko; Kaino, Seiji; Zhang, Xiulian; Sakaida, Isao; Nakamura, Kazuyuki

    2011-06-01

    TS-1 is an oral anticancer agent containing two biochemical modulators for 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and tegafur (FT), a metabolically activated prodrug of 5-FU. TS-1 has been recognized as an effective anticancer drug using standard therapies for patients with advanced pancreatic cancer along with gemcitabine. However, a high level of inherent and acquired tumor resistance to TS-1 induces difficulty in the treatment. To identify proteins linked to the TS-1-resistance of pancreatic cancer, we profiled protein expression levels in samples of TS-1-resistant and -sensitive pancreatic cancer cell lines by using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The cytotoxicity of a 5-FU/5-chloro-2,4-dihydroxypyridine (CDHP) combination towards pancreatic cancer cell lines was evaluated by MTS assay. Panc-1, BxPC-3, MiaPaCa-2 and PK59 showed high sensitivity to the 5-FU/CDHP combination (TS-1-sensitive), whereas PK45p and KLM-1 were much less sensitive (TS-1-resistant). Proteomic analysis showed that eleven spots, including T-complex protein 1 subunit beta, ribonuclease inhibitor, elongation factor 1-delta, peroxiredoxin-2 and superoxide dismutase (Cu-Zn), appeared to be down-regulated, and 29 spots, including hypoxia up-regulated protein 1, lamin-A/C, endoplasmin, fascin and annexin A1, appeared to be up-regulated in TS-1-resistant cells compared with -sensitive cells. These results suggest that the identified proteins showing different expression between TS-1-sensitive and -resistant pancreatic cancer cells possibly relate to TS-1-sensitivity. These findings could be useful to overcome the TS-1-resistance of pancreatic cancer cells.

  6. Combating Obesity in Head Start: Outdoor Play and Change in Children's Body Mass Index.

    PubMed

    Ansari, Arya; Pettit, Kierra; Gershoff, Elizabeth

    2015-10-01

    To determine whether increased outdoor play time at Head Start was associated with greater changes in body mass index (BMI) over the course of a preschool year. The authors used data from 2810 children from the Family and Child Experiences Survey 2006 cohort. With children's spring BMI as the outcome (both continuously measured and dichotomized to measure the risk of obesity), the authors conducted weighted regression analyses, controlling for child-level, family-level, and school-level covariates, including preschool entry BMI. Children played outdoors at school for roughly 37 minutes per day, with little variation across half-day and full-day programs. The more children played outdoors, the more their BMI decreased over the preschool year (β = -.05, 95% confidence interval (CI) [-0.08 to -0.01]) and the less likely they were to be obese (odds ratio = 0.99, 95% CI [0.98-0.99]). The difference between high levels and low levels of outdoor play corresponded to 0.18 BMI points and a 42% reduction in children's risk of obesity. Sixty minutes was the "tipping point" for the association between outdoor play time and improvements in children's BMI. These associations were also stronger among children who were obese at the start of the year, less active at home, and living in unsafe neighborhoods. Outdoor play time at Head Start is associated with decreases in children's BMI scores and, thus, may serve as an important means of preventing obesity. Head Start programs should consider establishing clear guidelines encouraging more outdoor time.

  7. Clinical predictors of resectability of pancreatic adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Almadi, Majid A; Alharbi, Othman; Azzam, Nahla; Altayeb, Mohannad; Javed, Moammed; Alsaif, Faisal; Hassanain, Mazen; Alsharabi, Abdulsalam; Al-Saleh, Khalid; Aljebreen, Abdulrahman M

    2013-01-01

    Identifying patient-related factors as well as symptoms and signs that can predict pancreatic cancer at a resectable stage, which could be used in an attempt to identify patients at an early stage of pancreatic cancer that would be appropriate for surgical resection and those at an unresectable stage be sparred unnecessary surgery. A retrospective chart review was conducted at a major tertiary care, university hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The study population included individuals who underwent a computed tomography and a pancreatic mass was reported as well as the endoscopic reporting database of endoscopic procedures where the indication was a pancreatic mass, between April 1996 and April 2012. Any patient with a histologically confirmed diagnosis of adenocarcinoma of the pancreas was included in the analysis. We included patients' demographic information (age, gender), height, weight, body mass index, historical data (smoking, comorbidities), symptoms (abdominal pain and its duration, anorexia and its duration, weight loss and its amount, and over what duration, vomiting, abdominal distention, itching and its duration, change in bowel movements, change in urine color), jaundice and its duration. Other variables were also collected including laboratory values, location of the mass, the investigation undertaken, and the stage of the tumor. A total of 61 patients were included, the mean age was 61.2 ± 1.51 years, 25 (41%) were females. The tumors were located in the head (83.6%), body (10.9%), tail (1.8%), and in multiple locations (3.6%) of the pancreas. Half of the patients (50%) had Stage IV, 16.7% stages IIB and III, and only 8.3% were stages IB and IIA. On univariable analysis a lower hemoglobin level predicted resectability odds ratio 0.65 (95% confidence interval, 0.42-0.98), whereas on multivariable regression none of the variables included in the model could predict resectability of pancreatic cancer. A CA 19-9 cutoff level of 166 ng/mL had a

  8. Local resection of the head of the pancreas combined with longitudinal pancreaticojejunostomy in the management of patients with chronic pancreatitis.

    PubMed Central

    Frey, C F; Amikura, K

    1994-01-01

    OPERATION: Local resection of the head of the pancreas combined with longitudinal pancreaticojejunostomy of the body and tail of the pancreas (LR-LPJ) was designed to improve decompression of the head of the pancreas, which often was not drained well by standard longitudinal pancreaticojejunostomy. This was achieved by excising the head of the pancreas overlying the ducts of Wirsung and Santorini, and duct to the uncinate, along with their tributary ducts. PATIENT MATERIAL: The operation has been performed on 50 patients. There were five late deaths among the 50 patients; two at 6 months, and one each at 24, 26, and 91 months. Eighty percent of the patients were alcoholics, 50% had pseudocysts, and 80% had calcification. ASSESSMENT: Pain was assessed on a scale of 1 to 10, with 10 being most severe. Narcotic intake was considered minimal-Vicodin equivalent (hydrocodone bitartate, 5 mg, acetaminophen, 500 mg; Vicodin, Knoll Pharmaceuticals, Whippany, NJ) once or twice/month; moderate--Vicodin weekly daily; and major--meperidine hydrochloride (Demerol, Winthrop Pharmaceuticals, New York, NY) weekly or daily. RESULTS: Pain relief in 47 patients was excellent (74.5%), improved in 12.75%, and unimproved in 12.75%. Endocrine status in 45 patients was as follows: 69% were not diabetic, and 20% were diabetic preoperatively and postoperatively. Postoperatively, 11% had progression of their diabetes. Exocrine function was not worsened and may have been improved in some patients. Sixty-four percent of 39 patients gained an average of 15.3 pounds. Fifty-nine percent of patients were not working preoperatively or postoperatively. CONCLUSIONS: The LR-LPJ provides good pain relief with a modest increase in endocrine and exocrine insufficiency and a significant increase in weight. Even when relieved of pain, patients seldom return to the work force. PMID:7524454

  9. Colombian reference growth curves for height, weight, body mass index and head circumference.

    PubMed

    Durán, Paola; Merker, Andrea; Briceño, Germán; Colón, Eugenia; Line, Dionne; Abad, Verónica; Del Toro, Kenny; Chahín, Silvia; Matallana, Audrey Mary; Lema, Adriana; Llano, Mauricio; Céspedes, Jaime; Hagenäs, Lars

    2016-03-01

    Published Growth studies from Latin America are limited to growth references from Argentina and Venezuela. The aim of this study was to construct reference growth curves for height, weight, body mass index (BMI) and head circumference of Colombian children in a format that is useful for following the growth of the individual child and as a tool for public health. Prospective measurements from 27 209 Colombian children from middle and upper socio-economic level families were processed using the generalised additive models for location, scale and shape (GAMLSS). Descriptive statistics for length and height, weight, BMI and head circumference for age are given as raw and smoothed values. Final height was 172.3 cm for boys and 159.4 cm for girls. Weight at 18 years of age was 64.0 kg for boys and 54 kg for girls. Growth curves are presented in a ± 3 SD format using logarithmic axes. The constructed reference growth curves are a start for following secular trends in Colombia and are also in the presented layout an optimal clinical tool for health care. ©2015 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Vibrant Soundbridge Implantation: Floating Mass Transducer Coupled with the Stapes Head and Embedded in Fat.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qingsong; Feng, Guodong; Shang, Yingying; Wang, Suju; Gao, Zhiqiang

    2018-04-26

    Subtotal petrosectomy may be performed for refractory chronic middle ear diseases, such as massive cholesteatoma or recurrent otitis media. It involves permanent obliteration of the operative cavity, thus precluding the chance to restore conductive hearing via traditional inertial ossicular prostheses. The Vibrant Soundbridge (VSB) is an alternative option for hearing rehabilitation. Vibrant energy is delivered into the inner ear via a floating mass transducer (FMT), which can be coupled with any part of the middle ear acoustic transmission structure. To restore the hearing of a young woman with cholesteatoma, we combined subtotal petrosectomy with obliteration of the cavity and VSB implantation with an FMT coupled to the stapes head. Two years of follow-up demonstrated excellent auditory rehabilitation, improved sound source localization ability, and a lower speech recognition threshold. This study showed that the FMT works well in an obliterated cavity, and the experience acquired through this successful exploration is worth disseminating. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Circumportal Pancreas-a Must Know Pancreatic Anomaly for the Pancreatic Surgeon.

    PubMed

    Luu, Andreas Minh; Braumann, C; Herzog, T; Janot, M; Uhl, W; Chromik, A M

    2017-02-01

    Circumportal pancreas is a rare congenital pancreatic anomaly with encasement of the portal vein and/or the superior mesenteric vein by pancreatic tissue. It is often overlooked on cross-sectional imaging studies and can be encountered during pancreatic surgery. Pancreatic head resection with circumportal pancreas is technically difficult and bears an increased risk of postoperative pancreatic fistula. A retrospective chart review of our data base for all patients who had undergone pancreatic head resection between 2004 and 2015 was performed. We identified six patients out of 1102 patients who had undergone pancreatic head surgery in the study period. CT-scan and MRI were never able to identify circumportal pancreas prior to surgery. The right hepatic an artery derived from the superior mesenteric artery in four cases (67%). Additional resection of the pancreatic body was always performed. Postoperative course was uneventful in all cases without occurrence of pancreatic fistula. Circumportal pancreas is a rare entity every pancreatic surgeon should be aware of. It is difficult to identify on cross-sectional imaging studies. A right hepatic artery arising from the superior mesenteric artery should raise suspicion of circumportal pancreas. Additional pancreatic tissue resection should be performed during pancreatic head resections to avoid pancreatic fistula.

  12. Pancreatic Cysts

    MedlinePlus

    ... enzymes become prematurely active and irritate the pancreas (pancreatitis). Pseudocysts can also result from injury to the ... alcohol use and gallstones are risk factors for pancreatitis, and pancreatitis is a risk factor for pseudocysts. ...

  13. Pancreatic Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... hormones that help control blood sugar levels. Pancreatic cancer usually begins in the cells that produce the juices. Some risk factors for developing pancreatic cancer include Smoking Long-term diabetes Chronic pancreatitis Certain ...

  14. Positron emission tomography study on pancreatic somatostatin receptors in normal and diabetic rats with 68Ga-DOTA-octreotide: a potential PET tracer for beta cell mass measurement.

    PubMed

    Sako, Takeo; Hasegawa, Koki; Nishimura, Mie; Kanayama, Yousuke; Wada, Yasuhiro; Hayashinaka, Emi; Cui, Yilong; Kataoka, Yosky; Senda, Michio; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi

    2013-12-06

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycemia, and the loss or dysfunction of pancreatic beta cells has been reported before the appearance of clinical symptoms and hyperglycemia. To evaluate beta cell mass (BCM) for improving the detection and treatment of DM at earlier stages, we focused on somatostatin receptors that are highly expressed in the pancreatic beta cells, and developed a positron emission tomography (PET) probe derived from octreotide, a metabolically stable somatostatin analog. Octreotide was conjugated with 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA), a chelating agent, and labeled with (68)Gallium ((68)Ga). After intravenous injection of (68)Ga-DOTA-octreotide, a 90-min emission scan of the abdomen was performed in normal and DM model rats. The PET studies showed that (68)Ga-DOTA-octreotide radioactivity was highly accumulated in the pancreas of normal rats and that the pancreatic accumulation was significantly reduced in the rats administered with an excess amount of unlabeled octreotide or after treatment with streptozotocin, which was used for the chemical induction of DM in rats. These results were in good agreement with the ex vivo biodistribution data. These results indicated that the pancreatic accumulation of (68)Ga-DOTA-octreotide represented specific binding to the somatostatin receptors and reflected BCM. Therefore, PET imaging with (68)Ga-DOTA-octreotide could be a potential tool for evaluating BCM. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. A Novel Absorbable Radiopaque Hydrogel Spacer to Separate the Head of the Pancreas and Duodenum in Radiation Therapy for Pancreatic Cancer.

    PubMed

    Rao, Avani D; Feng, Ziwei; Shin, Eun Ji; He, Jin; Waters, Kevin M; Coquia, Stephanie; DeJong, Robert; Rosati, Lauren M; Su, Lin; Li, Dengwang; Jackson, Juan; Clark, Stephen; Schultz, Jeffrey; Hutchings, Danielle; Kim, Seong-Hun; Hruban, Ralph H; DeWeese, Theodore L; Wong, John; Narang, Amol; Herman, Joseph M; Ding, Kai

    2017-12-01

    We assessed the feasibility and theoretical dosimetric advantages of an injectable hydrogel to increase the space between the head of the pancreas (HOP) and duodenum in a human cadaveric model. Using 3 human cadaveric specimens, an absorbable radiopaque hydrogel was injected between the HOP and duodenum by way of open laparotomy in 1 case and endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) guidance in 2 cases. The cadavers were subsequently imaged using computed tomography and dissected for histologic confirmation of hydrogel placement. The duodenal dose reduction and planning target volume (PTV) coverage were characterized using pre- and postspacer injection stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) plans for the 2 cadavers with EUS-guided placement, the delivery method that appeared the most clinically desirable. Modeling studies were performed using 60 SBRT plans consisting of 10 previously treated patients with unresectable pancreatic cancer, each with 6 different HOP-duodenum separation distances. The duodenal volume receiving 15 Gy (V15), 20 Gy (V20), and 33 Gy (V33) was assessed for each iteration. In the 3 cadaveric studies, an average of 0.9 cm, 1.1 cm, and 0.9 cm HOP-duodenum separation was achieved. In the 2 EUS cases, the V20 decreased from 3.86 cm 3 to 0.36 cm 3 and 3.75 cm 3 to 1.08 cm 3 (treatment constraint <3 cm 3 ), and the V15 decreased from 7.07 cm 3 to 2.02 cm 3 and 9.12 cm 3 to 3.91 cm 3 (treatment constraint <9 cm 3 ). The PTV coverage improved or was comparable between the pre- and postinjection studies. Modeling studies demonstrated that a separation of 8 mm was sufficient to consistently reduce the V15, V20, and V33 to acceptable clinical constraints. Currently, dose escalation has been limited owing to radiosensitive structures adjacent to the pancreas. We demonstrated the feasibility of hydrogel separation of the HOP and duodenum. Future studies will evaluate the safety and efficacy of this technique with the potential for more effective

  16. Vildagliptin preserves the mass and function of pancreatic β cells via the developmental regulation and suppression of oxidative and endoplasmic reticulum stress in a mouse model of diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Hamamoto, S; Kanda, Y; Shimoda, M; Tatsumi, F; Kohara, K; Tawaramoto, K; Hashiramoto, M; Kaku, K

    2013-01-01

    Aim We investigated the molecular mechanisms by which vildagliptin preserved pancreatic β cell mass and function. Methods Morphological, biochemical and gene expression profiles of the pancreatic islets were investigated in male KK-Ay-TaJcl(KK-Ay) and C57BL/6JJcl (B6) mice aged 8 weeks which received either vildagliptin or a vehicle for 4 weeks. Results Body weight, food intake, fasting blood glucose, plasma insulin and active glucagon-like peptide-1 were unchanged with vildagliptin treatment in both mice. In KK-Ay mice treated with vildagliptin, increased plasma triglyceride (TG) level and islet TG content were decreased, insulin sensitivity significantly improved, and the glucose tolerance ameliorated with increases in plasma insulin levels. Furthermore, vildagliptin increased glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, islet insulin content and pancreatic β cell mass in both strains. By vildagliptin, the expression of genes involved in cell differentiation/proliferation was upregulated in both strains, those related to apoptosis, endoplasmic reticulum stress and lipid synthesis was decreased and those related to anti-apoptosis and anti-oxidative stress was upregulated, in KK-Ay mice. The morphological results were consistent with the gene expression profiles. Conclusion Vildagliptin increases β cell mass by not only directly affecting cell kinetics but also by indirectly reducing cell apoptosis, oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum stress in diabetic mice. PMID:22950702

  17. Impact of recipient body mass index on short-term and long-term survival of pancreatic grafts.

    PubMed

    Bédat, Benoît; Niclauss, Nadja; Jannot, Anne-Sophie; Andres, Axel; Toso, Christian; Morel, Philippe; Berney, Thierry

    2015-01-01

    The impact of recipient body mass index on graft and patient survival after pancreas transplantation is not well known. We have analyzed data from all pancreas transplant recipients reported in the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients between 1987 and 2011. Recipients were categorized into BMI classes, as defined by the World Health Organization. Short-term (90 days) and long-term (90 days to 5 years) patient and graft survivals were analyzed according to recipient BMI class using Kaplan-Meier estimates. Hazard ratios were estimated using Cox proportional hazard models. A total of 21,075 adult recipients were included in the analysis. Mean follow-up was 5 ± 1.1 years. Subjects were overweight or obese in 39%. Increasing recipient BMI was an independent predictor of pancreatic graft loss and patient death in the short term (P<0.001), especially for obese class II patient survival (hazard ratio, 2.07; P=0.009). In the long term, obesity, but not overweight, was associated with higher risk of graft failure (P=0.01). Underweight was associated with a higher risk of long-term death (P<0.001). These results question the safety of pancreas transplantation in obese patients and suggest that they may be directed to alternate therapies, such as behavioral modifications or bariatric surgery, before pancreas transplantation is considered.

  18. Cytological Findings of Malignant and Benign Head and Neck Masses in Somalia.

    PubMed

    Baş, Yılmaz

    2018-04-11

    There are no up-to-date records on head and neck masses (HNMs) in Somalia. This cytological study is the first to demonstrate the benefits and findings of fine-needle aspiration cytology in evaluating HNMs in the adult population of Somalia. A total of 116 aspiration samples were taken from different levels of the neck region, except for the thyroid. Cases were classified as salivary gland, lymph node, or soft tissue/cystic lesions. They were classified according to age, gender, and cytological diagnosis. Patients included 54 (46.6%) males and 62 (53.4%) females, with a mean age of 40.6 years. Seventy-two patients (62.1%) had benign lesions, while 44 (37.9%) had malignant lesions. Necrotizing granulomatous lymphadenitis (n = 51, 70.8% of the benign findings) and lymph node metastasis of squamous cell carcinoma (n = 13, 29.5% of the malignant findings) were the most frequent findings. Fine-needle aspiration is a useful procedure in the diagnosis of neck masses. It is a cheap and easy guiding method for diagnosing granulomatous lymphadenitis and advanced-stage metastatic cancers, which are common in this country. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. The Diagnostic Challenges of Autoimmune Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Papp, Kata; Angst, Eliane; Seidel, Stefan; Flury-Frei, Renata; Hetzer, Franc Heinrich

    2015-01-01

    Autoimmune pancreatitis is a rare but important differential diagnosis from pancreatic cancer. This autoimmune disease can mimic pancreatic cancer by its clinical symptoms, including weight loss and jaundice. Furthermore imaging findings may include a mass of the pancreas. Here we present the case of a 67-year-old male patient diagnosed with autoimmune pancreatitis but showing the well-known symptoms of pancreatic cancer. This emphasizes the difficulties of histological findings and the importance of the correct diagnostic process. PMID:25802499

  20. Application of Digital Image Analysis to Determine Pancreatic Islet Mass and Purity in Clinical Islet Isolation and Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ling-jia; Kissler, Hermann J; Wang, Xiaojun; Cochet, Olivia; Krzystyniak, Adam; Misawa, Ryosuke; Golab, Karolina; Tibudan, Martin; Grzanka, Jakub; Savari, Omid; Grose, Randall; Kaufman, Dixon B; Millis, Michael; Witkowski, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic islet mass, represented by islet equivalent (IEQ), is the most important parameter in decision making for clinical islet transplantation. To obtain IEQ, the sample of islets is routinely counted manually under a microscope and discarded thereafter. Islet purity, another parameter in islet processing, is routinely acquired by estimation only. In this study, we validated our digital image analysis (DIA) system developed using the software of Image Pro Plus for islet mass and purity assessment. Application of the DIA allows to better comply with current good manufacturing practice (cGMP) standards. Human islet samples were captured as calibrated digital images for the permanent record. Five trained technicians participated in determination of IEQ and purity by manual counting method and DIA. IEQ count showed statistically significant correlations between the manual method and DIA in all sample comparisons (r >0.819 and p < 0.0001). Statistically significant difference in IEQ between both methods was found only in High purity 100μL sample group (p = 0.029). As far as purity determination, statistically significant differences between manual assessment and DIA measurement was found in High and Low purity 100μL samples (p<0.005), In addition, islet particle number (IPN) and the IEQ/IPN ratio did not differ statistically between manual counting method and DIA. In conclusion, the DIA used in this study is a reliable technique in determination of IEQ and purity. Islet sample preserved as a digital image and results produced by DIA can be permanently stored for verification, technical training and islet information exchange between different islet centers. Therefore, DIA complies better with cGMP requirements than the manual counting method. We propose DIA as a quality control tool to supplement the established standard manual method for islets counting and purity estimation. PMID:24806436

  1. Hypertriglyceridemia-induced pancreatitis: A case-based review

    PubMed Central

    Gan, S Ian; Edwards, Alun L; Symonds, Christopher J; Beck, Paul L

    2006-01-01

    Hypertriglyceridemia is an established cause of pancreatitis. In a case-based approach, we present a review of hypertriglyceridemia and how it can cause pancreatitis. We outline how to investigate and manage such patients. A 35 year old man presented to the emergency department with abdominal pain and biochemical evidence of acute pancreatitis. There was no history of alcohol consumption and biliary imaging was normal. The only relevant past medical history was that of mild hyperlipidemia, treated with diet alone. Physical exam revealed epigastric tenderness, right lateral rectus palsy, lipemia retinalis, bitemporal hemianopsia and a delay in the relaxation phase of his ankle reflexes. Subsequent laboratory investigation revealed marked hypertriglyceridemia and panhypopituarism. An enhanced CT scan of the head revealed a large suprasellar mass impinging on the optic chiasm and hypothalamus. The patient was treated supportively; thyroid replacement and lipid lowering agents were started. He underwent a successful resection of a craniopharyngioma. Post-operatively, the patient did well on hormone replacement therapy. He has had no further attacks of pancreatitis. This case highlights many of the factors involved in the regulation of triglyceride metabolism. We review the common causes of hypertriglyceridemia and the proposed mechanisms resulting in pancreatitis. The incidence and management of hypertriglyceridemia-induced pancreatitis are also discussed. PMID:17131487

  2. Chronic pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    DiMagno, Matthew J; DiMagno, Eugene P

    2012-09-01

    We review important new clinical observations in chronic pancreatitis reported in 2011. Smoking increases the risk of nongallstone acute pancreatitis and the progression of acute pancreatitis to chronic pancreatitis. Binge drinking during Oktoberfest did not associate with increased hospital admissions for acute pancreatitis. The unfolded protein response is an adaptive mechanism to maintain pancreatic health in response to noxious stimuli such as alcohol. Onset of diabetes mellitus in chronic pancreatitis is likely due to progressive disease rather than individual variables. Insufficient pancreatic enzyme dosing is common for treatment of pancreatic steatorrhea; 90 000 United States Pharmacopeia units of lipase should be given with meals. Surgical drainage provides sustained, superior pain relief compared with endoscopic treatment in patients advanced chronic pancreatitis with a dilated main duct ± pancreatic stones. The central acting gabapentoid pregabalin affords a modest 12% pain reduction in patients with chronic pancreatitis but approximately 30% of patients have significant side effects. Patients with nongallstone-related acute pancreatitis or chronic pancreatitis of any cause should cease smoking. Results of this year's investigations further elucidated the pancreatic pathobiology due to alcohol, onset of diabetes mellitus in chronic pancreatitis, and the mechanisms and treatment of neuropathic pain in chronic pancreatitis.

  3. Pancreatic Fat Is Associated With Metabolic Syndrome and Visceral Fat but Not Beta-Cell Function or Body Mass Index in Pediatric Obesity.

    PubMed

    Staaf, Johan; Labmayr, Viktor; Paulmichl, Katharina; Manell, Hannes; Cen, Jing; Ciba, Iris; Dahlbom, Marie; Roomp, Kirsten; Anderwald, Christian-Heinz; Meissnitzer, Matthias; Schneider, Reinhard; Forslund, Anders; Widhalm, Kurt; Bergquist, Jonas; Ahlström, Håkan; Bergsten, Peter; Weghuber, Daniel; Kullberg, Joel

    2017-03-01

    Adolescents with obesity have increased risk of type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome (MetS). Pancreatic fat has been related to these conditions; however, little is known about associations in pediatric obesity. The present study was designed to explore these associations further. We examined 116 subjects, 90 with obesity. Anthropometry, MetS, blood samples, and oral glucose tolerance tests were assessed using standard techniques. Pancreatic fat fraction (PFF) and other fat depots were quantified using magnetic resonance imaging. The PFF was elevated in subjects with obesity. No association between PFF and body mass index-standard deviation score (BMI-SDS) was found in the obesity subcohort. Pancreatic fat fraction correlated to Insulin Secretion Sensitivity Index-2 and Homeostatic Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance in simple regression; however, when using adjusted regression and correcting for BMI-SDS and other fat compartments, PFF correlated only to visceral adipose tissue and fasting glucose. Highest levels of PFF were found in subjects with obesity and MetS. In adolescents with obesity, PFF is elevated and associated to MetS, fasting glucose, and visceral adipose tissue but not to beta-cell function, glucose tolerance, or BMI-SDS. This study demonstrates that conclusions regarding PFF and its associations depend on the body mass features of the cohort.

  4. Impact of pre-operative body mass index in head and neck cancer patients undergoing microvascular reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Hyun, D-J; Joo, Y-H; Kim, M-S

    2017-11-01

    To analyse the relationship of pre-operative body mass index with surgical complications and oncological outcomes in patients undergoing microvascular reconstruction for head and neck squamous cell cancer. A retrospective review was conducted of 259 patients who underwent microvascular free flap reconstruction after head and neck ablative surgery. Mean body mass index was 22.48 kg/m2. There were no correlations between body mass index and: flap failure (p = 0.739), flap ischaemia (p = 0.644), pharyngocutaneous fistula (p = 0.141) or wound infection (p = 0.224). The five-year disease-specific survival rate was 63 per cent. On univariate analysis, the five-year disease-specific survival rate was significantly correlated with pre-operative body mass index, based on Kaplan-Meier survival curves (p = 0.028). The five-year disease-specific survival rates in underweight, normal weight, overweight and obese groups were 47 per cent, 55 per cent, 65 per cent and 80 per cent, respectively. Pre-operative body mass index was a useful predictor for recurrence and survival in patients who underwent microvascular reconstruction for head and neck squamous cell cancer.

  5. High-resolution endoscopic ultrasound imaging and the number of needle passages are significant factors predicting high yield of endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration for pancreatic solid masses without an on-site cytopathologist

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Seok Hoo; Yoon, Hyun Hwa; Kim, Eui Joo; Kim, Yoon Jae; Kim, Yeon Suk; Cho, Jae Hee

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) is the accurate diagnostic method for pancreatic masses and its accuracy is affected by various FNA methods and EUS equipment. Therefore, we aimed to elucidate the instrumental and methodologic factors for determining the diagnostic yield of EUS-FNA for pancreatic solid masses without an on-site cytopathology evaluation. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 260 patients (265 pancreatic solid masses) who underwent EUS-FNA. We compared historical conventional EUS groups with high-resolution imaging devices and finally analyzed various factors affecting EUS-FNA accuracy. In total, 265 pancreatic solid masses of 260 patients were included in this study. The accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of EUS-FNA for pancreatic solid masses without on-site cytopathology evaluation were 83.4%, 81.8%, 100.0%, 100.0%, and 34.3%, respectively. In comparison with conventional image group, high-resolution image group showed the increased accuracy, sensitivity and specificity of EUS-FNA (71.3% vs 92.7%, 68.9% vs 91.9%, and 100% vs 100%, respectively). On the multivariate analysis with various instrumental and methodologic factors, high-resolution imaging (P = 0.040, odds ratio = 3.28) and 3 or more needle passes (P = 0.039, odds ratio = 2.41) were important factors affecting diagnostic yield of pancreatic solid masses. High-resolution imaging and 3 or more passes were the most significant factors influencing diagnostic yield of EUS-FNA in patients with pancreatic solid masses without an on-site cytopathologist. PMID:28079803

  6. Visualizing pancreatic β-cell mass with [11C]DTBZ

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, Norman Ray; Souza, Fabiola; Witkowski, Piotr; Maffei, Antonella; Raffo, Anthony; Herron, Alan; Kilbourn, Michael; Jurewicz, Agata; Herold, Kevan; Liu, Eric; Hardy, Mark Adam; Van Heertum, Ronald; Harris, Paul Emerson

    2013-01-01

    β-Cell mass (BCM) influences the total amount of insulin secreted, varies by individual and by the degree of insulin resistance, and is affected by physiologic and pathologic conditions. The islets of Langerhans, however, appear to have a reserve capacity of insulin secretion and, overall, assessments of insulin and blood glucose levels remain poor measures of BCM, β-cell function and progression of diabetes. Thus, novel noninvasive determinations of BCM are needed to provide a quantitative endpoint for novel therapies of diabetes, islet regeneration and transplantation. Built on previous gene expression studies, we tested the hypothesis that the targeting of vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2), which is expressed by β cells, with [11C]dihydrotetrabenazine ([11C]DTBZ), a radioligand specific for VMAT2, and the use of positron emission tomography (PET) can provide a measure of BCM. In this report, we demonstrate decreased radioligand uptake within the pancreas of Lewis rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes relative to their euglycemic historical controls. These studies suggest that quantitation of VMAT2 expression in β cells with the use of [11C]DTBZ and PET represents a method for noninvasive longitudinal estimates of changes in BCM that may be useful in the study and treatment of diabetes. PMID:17045165

  7. A malignant cause of hypoglycaemia: a metastatic insulin-secreting pancreatic neuroendocrine carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Sandoval, Mark Anthony; Pagsisihan, Daveric; Berberabe, A'Ericson; Palugod-Lopez, Elaine Gayle

    2016-03-18

    Most cases of insulinomas are benign. We report a case of a malignant form of insulinoma. A 46-year-old man presented with behavioural changes associated with hypoglycaemia. Diagnostic work up revealed high serum insulin, high C-peptide and low glucose levels, compatible with endogenous hyperinsulinaemic hypoglycaemia. CT imaging of the abdomen revealed a pancreatic head mass and multiple liver masses. Biopsy of the pancreatic mass revealed a grade three pancreatic neuroendocrine carcinoma. Histological analysis of a liver mass showed that it was identical to the pancreatic mass, confirming its metastatic nature. The patient underwent distal pancreatectomy with en bloc splenectomy. There was persistence of hypoglycaemic symptoms after removal of the pancreatic mass, suggesting that the liver metastases were also functioning. Symptoms were controlled by diazoxide and octreotide long-acting release. The patient is already 1 year postsurgery with no recurrence of severe hypoglycaemia, and he has good functional capacity and has returned to his office job. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  8. A malignant cause of hypoglycaemia: a metastatic insulin-secreting pancreatic neuroendocrine carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Sandoval, Mark Anthony; Pagsisihan, Daveric; Berberabe, A'Ericson; Palugod-Lopez, Elaine Gayle

    2016-01-01

    Most cases of insulinomas are benign. We report a case of a malignant form of insulinoma. A 46-year-old man presented with behavioural changes associated with hypoglycaemia. Diagnostic work up revealed high serum insulin, high C-peptide and low glucose levels, compatible with endogenous hyperinsulinaemic hypoglycaemia. CT imaging of the abdomen revealed a pancreatic head mass and multiple liver masses. Biopsy of the pancreatic mass revealed a grade three pancreatic neuroendocrine carcinoma. Histological analysis of a liver mass showed that it was identical to the pancreatic mass, confirming its metastatic nature. The patient underwent distal pancreatectomy with en bloc splenectomy. There was persistence of hypoglycaemic symptoms after removal of the pancreatic mass, suggesting that the liver metastases were also functioning. Symptoms were controlled by diazoxide and octreotide long-acting release. The patient is already 1 year postsurgery with no recurrence of severe hypoglycaemia, and he has good functional capacity and has returned to his office job. PMID:26994053

  9. A Multicenter comparative trial of a novel EUS-guided core biopsy needle (SharkCore™) with the 22-gauge needle in patients with solid pancreatic mass lesions

    PubMed Central

    Naveed, Mariam; Siddiqui, Ali A.; Kowalski, Thomas E.; Loren, David E.; Khalid, Ammara; Soomro, Ayesha; Mazhar, Syed M.; Yoo, Joseph; Hasan, Raza; Yalamanchili, Silpa; Tarangelo, Nicholas; Taylor, Linda J.; Adler, Douglas G.

    2018-01-01

    Background and Objectives: The ability to obtain adequate tissue of solid pancreatic lesions by EUS-guided remains a challenge. The aim of this study was to compare the performance characteristics and safety of EUS-FNA for evaluating solid pancreatic lesions using the standard 22-gauge needle versus a novel EUS biopsy needle. Methods: This was a multicenter retrospective study of EUS-guided sampling of solid pancreatic lesions between 2009 and 2015. Patients underwent EUS-guided sampling with a 22-gauge SharkCore (SC) needle or a standard 22-gauge FNA needle. Technical success, performance characteristics of EUS-FNA, the number of needle passes required to obtain a diagnosis, diagnostic accuracy, and complications were compared. Results: A total of 1088 patients (mean age = 66 years; 49% female) with pancreatic masses underwent EUS-guided sampling with a 22-gauge SC needle (n = 115) or a standard 22-gauge FNA needle (n = 973). Technical success was 100%. The frequency of obtaining an adequate cytology by EUS-FNA was similar when using the SC and the standard needle (94.1% vs. 92.7%, respectively). The sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic accuracy of EUS-FNA for tissue diagnosis were not significantly different between two needles. Adequate sample collection leading to a definite diagnosis was achieved by the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd pass in 73%, 92%, and 98% of procedures using the SC needle and 20%, 37%, and 94% procedures using the standard needle (P < 0.001), respectively. The median number of passes to obtain a tissue diagnosis using the SC needle was significantly less as compared to the standard needle (1 and 3, respectively; P < 0.001). Conclusions: The EUS SC biopsy needle is safe and technically feasible for EUS-FNA of solid pancreatic mass lesions. Preliminary results suggest that the SC needle has a diagnostic yield similar to the standard EUS needle and significantly reduces the number of needle passes required to obtain a tissue diagnosis. PMID:29451167

  10. Quantifying the robustness of [18F]FDG-PET/CT radiomic features with respect to tumor delineation in head and neck and pancreatic cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Belli, Maria Luisa; Mori, Martina; Broggi, Sara; Cattaneo, Giovanni Mauro; Bettinardi, Valentino; Dell'Oca, Italo; Fallanca, Federico; Passoni, Paolo; Vanoli, Emilia Giovanna; Calandrino, Riccardo; Di Muzio, Nadia; Picchio, Maria; Fiorino, Claudio

    2018-05-01

    To investigate the robustness of PET radiomic features (RF) against tumour delineation uncertainty in two clinically relevant situations. Twenty-five head-and-neck (HN) and 25 pancreatic cancer patients previously treated with 18 F-Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT)-based planning optimization were considered. Seven FDG-based contours were delineated for tumour (T) and positive lymph nodes (N, for HN patients only) following manual (2 observers), semi-automatic (based on SUV maximum gradient: PET_Edge) and automatic (40%, 50%, 60%, 70% SUV_max thresholds) methods. Seventy-three RF (14 of first order and 59 of higher order) were extracted using the CGITA software (v.1.4). The impact of delineation on volume agreement and RF was assessed by DICE and Intra-class Correlation Coefficients (ICC). A large disagreement between manual and SUV_max method was found for thresholds  ≥50%. Inter-observer variability showed median DICE values between 0.81 (HN-T) and 0.73 (pancreas). Volumes defined by PET_Edge were better consistent with the manual ones compared to SUV40%. Regarding RF, 19%/19%/47% of the features showed ICC < 0.80 between observers for HN-N/HN-T/pancreas, mostly in the Voxel-alignment matrix and in the intensity-size zone matrix families. RFs with ICC < 0.80 against manual delineation (taking the worst value) increased to 44%/36%/61% for PET_Edge and to 69%/53%/75% for SUV40%. About 80%/50% of 72 RF were consistent between observers for HN/pancreas patients. PET_edge was sufficiently robust against manual delineation while SUV40% showed a worse performance. This result suggests the possibility to replace manual with semi-automatic delineation of HN and pancreas tumours in studies including PET radiomic analyses. Copyright © 2018 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The Role of Diffusion-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging in the Differentiation of Head and Neck Masses.

    PubMed

    Kanmaz, Lutfi; Karavas, Erdal

    2018-05-29

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the value of diffusion-weighted MRI (DW-MRI) in differentiating benign and malignant head and neck masses by comparing their apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values. The study included 32 patients with a neck mass >1 cm in diameter who were examined with echo planar DW-MRI. Two different diffusion gradients (b values of b = 0 and b = 1000 s/mm²) were applied. DWI and ADC maps of 32 neck masses in 32 patients were obtained. Mean ADC values of benign and malignant neck lesions were measured and compared statistically. A total of 15 (46.9%) malignant masses and 17 (53.1%) benign masses were determined. Of all the neck masses, the ADC value of cystic masses was the highest and that of lymphomas was the lowest. The mean ADC values of benign and malignant neck masses were 1.57 × 10 -3 mm²/s and 0.90 × 10 -3 mm²/s, respectively. The difference between mean ADC values of benign and malignant neck masses was significant ( p < 0.01). Diffusion-weighted MRI with ADC measurements can be useful in the differential diagnosis of neck masses.

  12. Influence of Body Mass Index and Albumin on Perioperative Morbidity and Clinical Outcomes in Resected Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Hendifar, Andrew; Osipov, Arsen; Khanuja, Jasleen; Nissen, Nicholas; Naziri, Jason; Yang, Wensha; Li, Quanlin; Tuli, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a known risk factor for PDA and recent reports suggest obesity has a negative impact on clinical outcomes in patients with PDA. Pretreatment body mass index (BMI) and serum albumin (SA) have been shown to be associated with worse overall survival in patients with advanced and metastatic PDA. However, minimal data exists on the impact of BMI and SA on perioperative and long-term clinical outcomes in patients with early-stage resected PDA. Herein, we report on the impact of these variables on perioperative clinical outcomes, overall survival (OS) and disease free survival (DFS) in patients with resected PDA. With IRB approval, we evaluated 1,545 patients with PDA treated at a single institution from 2007–2013 and identified 106 patients who underwent upfront resection with curative intent. BMI and SA were calculated preoperatively and at the time of last clinical evaluation. Influence of preoperative BMI, SA, change in either variable, and influence of other clinical and pathologic variables on perioperative morbidity and mortality was assessed. The impact of these variables on DFS and OS was assessed with cox regression modeling and ANOVA. Actuarial estimates for DFS and OS were calculated using Kaplan-Meier methods. Median follow up time was 16 months (3–89). Mean age was 68 years. Median survival was 14 months (3–65) and median time to recurrence was 11 months (1–79). Length of hospital stay was associated with BMI (p = .023), change in BMI (p = .003) and SA (p = .004). Post-operative transfusion rate was associated with SA (p = .021). There was a strong correlation between BMI change and positive margin (p = .04) and lymph node status (p = .01). On multivariate analysis, change in SA (p = .03) and node positivity (p = .008) were associated with decreased DFS. Additionally, preoperative SA (p = .023), node positivity (p = .026) and poor differentiation (p = .045) were associated with worse OS on multivariate analysis. Low preoperative SA was

  13. Influence of Body Mass Index and Albumin on Perioperative Morbidity and Clinical Outcomes in Resected Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Hendifar, Andrew; Osipov, Arsen; Khanuja, Jasleen; Nissen, Nicholas; Naziri, Jason; Yang, Wensha; Li, Quanlin; Tuli, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a known risk factor for PDA and recent reports suggest obesity has a negative impact on clinical outcomes in patients with PDA. Pretreatment body mass index (BMI) and serum albumin (SA) have been shown to be associated with worse overall survival in patients with advanced and metastatic PDA. However, minimal data exists on the impact of BMI and SA on perioperative and long-term clinical outcomes in patients with early-stage resected PDA. Herein, we report on the impact of these variables on perioperative clinical outcomes, overall survival (OS) and disease free survival (DFS) in patients with resected PDA. With IRB approval, we evaluated 1,545 patients with PDA treated at a single institution from 2007-2013 and identified 106 patients who underwent upfront resection with curative intent. BMI and SA were calculated preoperatively and at the time of last clinical evaluation. Influence of preoperative BMI, SA, change in either variable, and influence of other clinical and pathologic variables on perioperative morbidity and mortality was assessed. The impact of these variables on DFS and OS was assessed with cox regression modeling and ANOVA. Actuarial estimates for DFS and OS were calculated using Kaplan-Meier methods. Median follow up time was 16 months (3-89). Mean age was 68 years. Median survival was 14 months (3-65) and median time to recurrence was 11 months (1-79). Length of hospital stay was associated with BMI (p = .023), change in BMI (p = .003) and SA (p = .004). Post-operative transfusion rate was associated with SA (p = .021). There was a strong correlation between BMI change and positive margin (p = .04) and lymph node status (p = .01). On multivariate analysis, change in SA (p = .03) and node positivity (p = .008) were associated with decreased DFS. Additionally, preoperative SA (p = .023), node positivity (p = .026) and poor differentiation (p = .045) were associated with worse OS on multivariate analysis. Low preoperative SA was associated

  14. Pancreatic Enzymes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Contributions to the Pancreatic Cancer Action Network are tax-deductible to the extent permitted by law. The Pancreatic Cancer Action Network’s tax identification number is #33-0841281. Our 13th Consecutive ...

  15. Acute pancreatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... that lead to high blood levels of triglycerides. Alternative Names Gallstone pancreatitis; Pancreas - inflammation Patient Instructions Pancreatitis - ... any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed physician should ...

  16. Overexpression of PPARγ specifically in pancreatic β-cells exacerbates obesity-induced glucose intolerance, reduces β-cell mass, and alters islet lipid metabolism in male mice.

    PubMed

    Hogh, K-Lynn N; Craig, Michael N; Uy, Christopher E; Nygren, Heli; Asadi, Ali; Speck, Madeline; Fraser, Jordie D; Rudecki, Alexander P; Baker, Robert K; Orešič, Matej; Gray, Sarah L

    2014-10-01

    The contribution of peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ agonism in pancreatic β-cells to the antidiabetic actions of thiazolidinediones has not been clearly elucidated. Genetic models of pancreatic β-cell PPARγ ablation have revealed a potential role for PPARγ in β-cell expansion in obesity but a limited role in normal β-cell physiology. Here we overexpressed PPARγ1 or PPARγ2 specifically in pancreatic β-cells of mice subjected to high-fat feeding using an associated adenovirus (β-PPARγ1-HFD and β-PPARγ2-HFD mice). We show β-cell-specific PPARγ1 or PPARγ2 overexpression in diet-induced obese mice exacerbated obesity-induced glucose intolerance with decreased β-cell mass, increased islet cell apoptosis, and decreased plasma insulin compared with obese control mice (β-eGFP-HFD mice). Analysis of islet lipid composition in β-PPARγ2-HFD mice revealed no significant changes in islet triglyceride content and an increase in only one of eight ceramide species measured. Interestingly β-PPARγ2-HFD islets had significantly lower levels of lysophosphatidylcholines, lipid species shown to enhance insulin secretion in β-cells. Gene expression profiling revealed increased expression of uncoupling protein 2 and genes involved in fatty acid transport and β-oxidation. In summary, transgenic overexpression of PPARγ in β-cells in diet-induced obesity negatively impacts whole-animal carbohydrate metabolism associated with altered islet lipid content, increased expression of β-oxidative genes, and reduced β-cell mass.

  17. [Pancreatic anastomosis in operative treatment of chronic pancreatitis].

    PubMed

    Bellon, E; Izbicki, J R; Bockhorn, M

    2017-01-01

    Chronic pancreatitis (CP) is an irreversible, inflammatory process, which is characterized by progressive fibrosis of the pancreas and leads to abdominal pain, endocrine and exocrine insufficiency. Surgical therapy is indicated by the absence of pain relief and local complications. The target of the surgical approach is to relieve the pancreatic and bile ducts and resection of the fibrotic and calcified parenchyma. Drainage procedures, such as the Partington-Rochelle method, are used in patients with isolated congestion of the pancreatic duct without further organ complications, such as inflammatory processes of the pancreatic head; however, patients with CP often have an inflammatory swelling of the pancreatic head. In this case classical pancreatoduodenectomy (PD) or organ-sparing duodenum-preserving pancreatic head resection (DPPHR) with its various techniques (e.g. Beger, Frey, Bern and V‑shape) can be applied. Due to similar long-term results PD should be carried out in cases of suspicion or detection of malignancies and DPPHR for treatment of CP.

  18. Pancreatic Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Maitra, Anirban; Hruban, Ralph H.

    2009-01-01

    The past two decades have witnessed an explosion in our understanding of pancreatic cancer, and it is now clear that pancreatic cancer is a disease of inherited (germ-line) and somatic gene mutations. The genes mutated in pancreatic cancer include KRAS2, p16/CDKN2A, TP53, and SMAD4/DPC4, and these are accompanied by a substantial compendium of genomic and transcriptomic alterations that facilitate cell cycle deregulation, cell survival, invasion, and metastases. Pancreatic cancers do not arise de novo, and three distinct precursor lesions have been identified. Experimental models of pancreatic cancer have been developed in genetically engineered mice, which recapitulate the multistep progression of the cognate human disease. Although the putative cell of origin for pancreatic cancer remains elusive, minor populations of cells with stem-like properties have been identified that appear responsible for tumor initiation, metastases, and resistance of pancreatic cancer to conventional therapies. PMID:18039136

  19. Pancreatic trauma

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharya, S

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Pancreatic trauma occurs in approximately 4% of all patients sustaining abdominal injuries. The pancreas has an intimate relationship with the major upper abdominal vessels, and there is significant morbidity and mortality associated with severe pancreatic injury. Immediate resuscitation and investigations are essential to delineate the nature of the injury, and to plan further management. If main pancreatic duct injuries are identified, specialised input from a tertiary hepatopancreaticobiliary (HPB) team is advised. Methods A comprehensive online literature search was performed using PubMed. Relevant articles from international journals were selected. The search terms used were: ‘pancreatic trauma’, ‘pancreatic duct injury’, ‘radiology AND pancreas injury’, ‘diagnosis of pancreatic trauma’, and ‘management AND surgery’. Articles that were not published in English were excluded. All articles used were selected on relevance to this review and read by both authors. Results Pancreatic trauma is rare and associated with injury to other upper abdominal viscera. Patients present with non-specific abdominal findings and serum amylase is of little use in diagnosis. Computed tomography is effective in diagnosing pancreatic injury but not duct disruption, which is most easily seen on endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreaticography or operative pancreatography. If pancreatic injury is suspected, inspection of the entire pancreas and duodenum is required to ensure full evaluation at laparotomy. The operative management of pancreatic injury depends on the grade of injury found at laparotomy. The most important prognostic factor is main duct disruption and, if found, reconstructive options should be determined by an experienced HPB surgeon. Conclusions The diagnosis of pancreatic trauma requires a high index of suspicion and detailed imaging studies. Grading pancreatic injury is important to guide operative management. The most important

  20. Pancreatic trauma.

    PubMed

    Lahiri, R; Bhattacharya, S

    2013-05-01

    Pancreatic trauma occurs in approximately 4% of all patients sustaining abdominal injuries. The pancreas has an intimate relationship with the major upper abdominal vessels, and there is significant morbidity and mortality associated with severe pancreatic injury. Immediate resuscitation and investigations are essential to delineate the nature of the injury, and to plan further management. If main pancreatic duct injuries are identified, specialised input from a tertiary hepatopancreaticobiliary (HPB) team is advised. A comprehensive online literature search was performed using PubMed. Relevant articles from international journals were selected. The search terms used were: 'pancreatic trauma', 'pancreatic duct injury', 'radiology AND pancreas injury', 'diagnosis of pancreatic trauma', and 'management AND surgery'. Articles that were not published in English were excluded. All articles used were selected on relevance to this review and read by both authors. Pancreatic trauma is rare and associated with injury to other upper abdominal viscera. Patients present with non-specific abdominal findings and serum amylase is of little use in diagnosis. Computed tomography is effective in diagnosing pancreatic injury but not duct disruption, which is most easily seen on endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreaticography or operative pancreatography. If pancreatic injury is suspected, inspection of the entire pancreas and duodenum is required to ensure full evaluation at laparotomy. The operative management of pancreatic injury depends on the grade of injury found at laparotomy. The most important prognostic factor is main duct disruption and, if found, reconstructive options should be determined by an experienced HPB surgeon. The diagnosis of pancreatic trauma requires a high index of suspicion and detailed imaging studies. Grading pancreatic injury is important to guide operative management. The most important prognostic factor is pancreatic duct disruption and in these cases

  1. Mass Casualty Response of a Modern Deployed Head and Neck Surgical Team

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-01

    tures (maxilla, mandible, frontal sinus), and miscellaneous injuries such as a parotid duct injury. Based on review of the operative log, 6 patients...trained to consider subtle head and neck injuries such as facial nerve or parotid duct transection. The flexibility to operate alongside other trauma

  2. Optimizing Adjuvant Therapy for Resected Pancreatic Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    In this clinical trial, patients with resected pancreatic head cancer will be randomly assigned to receive either gemcitabine with or without erlotinib for 5 treatment cycles. Patients who do not experience disease progression or recurrence will then be r

  3. Chronic pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Dennis; Forsmark, Chris E

    2017-09-01

    Summarize key clinical advances in chronic pancreatitis reported in 2016. Early diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis remains elusive. Recent studies suggest that endoscopic ultrasound may be less accurate than previously thought and new MRI techniques may be helpful. Genetic predisposition may independently affect the clinical course of chronic pancreatitis and the risk for pancreatic cancer. Cigarette smoking may have a greater negative impact on chronic pancreatitis than previously thought and moderate alcohol consumption may be protective. A multidisciplinary approach is necessary for the treatment of type 3 diabetes and nutritional deficiencies in chronic pancreatitis. Although endoscopic therapy remains a reasonable first-line option in treating chronic pancreatitis and its complications, early surgical intervention may be indicated for pain in select patients. Newer endoscopic ultrasound and MRI techniques are being evaluated to help with the early diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis. Both genetic predisposition and cigarette smoking are increasingly recognized as having a major impact in the course of the disease and the risk for pancreatic cancer. Endoscopic therapy is well tolerated and effective for the treatment of chronic pancreatitis and its complications although an early surgical approach for pain may be associated with improved clinical outcomes.

  4. Head-to-head comparison of Microflex LT and Vitek MS systems for routine identification of microorganisms by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry in Chile

    PubMed Central

    García, Patricia; Braun, Stephanie; Ulloa, María Teresa; Lafourcade, Mónica; Montaña, Alisson; Miranda, Carolina; Acosta-Jamett, Gerardo; Weitzel, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Background Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) is a new and revolutionary identification method for microorganisms and has recently been introduced into clinical microbiology in many industrialized countries in Europe and North America. Objectives Our study aimed to compare the performance and practicality of two commercial MALDI-TOF MS platforms in a head-to head manner at a routine laboratory in Chile. Methods During a five-month period in 2012–13, the diagnostic efficiency (correct identification rate) and agreement between Microflex LT (Bruker Daltonics) and Vitek MS (bioMérieux) was compared in a parallel manner to conventional identification including genotypic analysis for difficult-to-identify strains. The study included 804 microbial isolates: 252 Enterobacteriaceae, 126 non-fermenters, 36 other gram-negative rods, 279 gram-positive cocci, 32 gram-positive rods, 32 anaerobes, and 47 yeasts. Other relevant factors of the two devices such as user friendliness and connectivity were also evaluated and compared. Results Both systems correctly identified the vast majority (98%) of the isolates to the genus level. Vitek MS reached higher rates of identification to species and species complex level than Microflex LT (81% vs. 85% and 87% vs. 93%, respectively), which was mainly based on the higher performance among coagulase negative staphylococci and Candida isolates. The evaluation of user friendliness and other technical aspects showed only marginal differences, which slightly favored Vitek MS, mainly due to its ready-to-use supplies, easier connectivity and workflow integration, and availability of local technical support. Conclusions Both MALDI-TOF MS systems permitted fast and accurate identification of most microbial strains and showed a high level of user-friendliness. The observed differences were marginal and slightly favored Vitek MS, mainly due to practicality and connectivity issues within

  5. The impact of diet and arginine supplementation on pancreatic mass, digestive enzyme activity, and insulin-containing cell cluster morphology during the estrous cycle in sheep.

    PubMed

    Keomanivong, F E; Grazul-Bilska, A T; Redmer, D A; Bass, C S; Kaminski, S L; Borowicz, P P; Kirsch, J D; Swanson, K C

    2017-04-01

    To determine the effect of feed intake and arginine treatment during different stages of the estrous cycle on pancreatic mass, digestive enzyme activity, and histological measurements, ewes (n = 120) were randomly allocated to 1 of 3 dietary groups; control (CON; 2.14-Mcal metabolizable energy/kg), underfed (UF; 0.6 × CON), or overfed (OF; 2 × CON) over 2 yr. Estrus was synchronized using a controlled internal drug release device for 14 d. At controlled internal drug release withdrawal, ewes from each dietary group were assigned to 1 of 2 treatments; Arg (L-Arg HCl, 155-μmol/kg BW) or Sal (approximately 10-mL saline). Treatments were administered 3 times daily via jugular catheter and continued until slaughter on d (day) 5 and 10 of the second estrus cycle (early luteal phase, n = 41 and mid-luteal phase, n = 39; yr 1) and d 15 of the first estrus cycle (late luteal phase, n = 40; yr 2). A blood sample collected from jugular catheters for serum insulin analysis before slaughter. The pancreas was then removed, trimmed of mesentery and fat, weighed, and a sample snap-frozen until enzyme analysis. Additional pancreatic samples were fixed in 10% formalin solution for histological examination of size and distribution of insulin-containing cell clusters. Data were analyzed as a completely randomized design with a factorial arrangement of treatments. Diet, treatment, and diet × treatment were blocked by yr and included in the model with initial BW used as a covariate. Day of the estrous cycle was initially included in the model but later removed as no effects (P > 0.10) were observed for any pancreatic variables tested. Overfed ewes had the greatest (P < 0.001) change in BW, final BW, change in BCS, and final BCS. A diet × treatment interaction was observed for change in BW and final BW (P ≤ 0.004). Overfed and CON had increased (P < 0.001) pancreas weight (g) compared with UF ewes. Protein concentration (g/pancreas) was the lowest (P < 0.001) in UF ewes, whereas

  6. Efficacy of an artificial neural network-based approach to endoscopic ultrasound elastography in diagnosis of focal pancreatic masses.

    PubMed

    Săftoiu, Adrian; Vilmann, Peter; Gorunescu, Florin; Janssen, Jan; Hocke, Michael; Larsen, Michael; Iglesias-Garcia, Julio; Arcidiacono, Paolo; Will, Uwe; Giovannini, Marc; Dietrich, Cristoph F; Havre, Roald; Gheorghe, Cristian; McKay, Colin; Gheonea, Dan Ionuţ; Ciurea, Tudorel

    2012-01-01

    By using strain assessment, real-time endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) elastography provides additional information about a lesion's characteristics in the pancreas. We assessed the accuracy of real-time EUS elastography in focal pancreatic lesions using computer-aided diagnosis by artificial neural network analysis. We performed a prospective, blinded, multicentric study at of 258 patients (774 recordings from EUS elastography) who were diagnosed with chronic pancreatitis (n = 47) or pancreatic adenocarcinoma (n = 211) from 13 tertiary academic medical centers in Europe (the European EUS Elastography Multicentric Study Group). We used postprocessing software analysis to compute individual frames of elastography movies recorded by retrieving hue histogram data from a dynamic sequence of EUS elastography into a numeric matrix. The data then were analyzed in an extended neural network analysis, to automatically differentiate benign from malignant patterns. The neural computing approach had 91.14% training accuracy (95% confidence interval [CI], 89.87%-92.42%) and 84.27% testing accuracy (95% CI, 83.09%-85.44%). These results were obtained using the 10-fold cross-validation technique. The statistical analysis of the classification process showed a sensitivity of 87.59%, a specificity of 82.94%, a positive predictive value of 96.25%, and a negative predictive value of 57.22%. Moreover, the corresponding area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.94 (95% CI, 0.91%-0.97%), which was significantly higher than the values obtained by simple mean hue histogram analysis, for which the area under the receiver operating characteristic was 0.85. Use of the artificial intelligence methodology via artificial neural networks supports the medical decision process, providing fast and accurate diagnoses. Copyright © 2012 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Pentoxifylline Treatment in Acute Pancreatitis (AP)

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-02-21

    Acute Pancreatitis (AP); Gallstone Pancreatitis; Alcoholic Pancreatitis; Post-ERCP/Post-procedural Pancreatitis; Trauma Acute Pancreatitis; Hypertriglyceridemia Acute Pancreatitis; Idiopathic (Unknown) Acute Pancreatitis; Medication Induced Acute Pancreatitis; Cancer Acute Pancreatitis; Miscellaneous (i.e. Acute on Chronic Pancreatitis)

  8. Chronic pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Majumder, Shounak; Chari, Suresh T

    2016-05-07

    Chronic pancreatitis describes a wide spectrum of fibro-inflammatory disorders of the exocrine pancreas that includes calcifying, obstructive, and steroid-responsive forms. Use of the term chronic pancreatitis without qualification generally refers to calcifying chronic pancreatitis. Epidemiology is poorly defined, but incidence worldwide seems to be on the rise. Smoking, drinking alcohol, and genetic predisposition are the major risk factors for chronic calcifying pancreatitis. In this Seminar, we discuss the clinical features, diagnosis, and management of chronic calcifying pancreatitis, focusing on pain management, the role of endoscopic and surgical intervention, and the use of pancreatic enzyme-replacement therapy. Management of patients is often challenging and necessitates a multidisciplinary approach. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Chronic pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Gupte, Anand R; Forsmark, Chris E

    2014-09-01

    We review selected important clinical observations in chronic pancreatitis reported in 2013. Early diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis remains difficult, although newer techniques utilizing endoscopic ultrasonography-elastography and MRI hold promise. Patients with chronic pancreatitis are at risk of nutritional deficiencies. Osteoporosis, osteopenia, and bone fracture are particularly common in these patients, and require active intervention and treatment. Diabetes caused by chronic pancreatitis, type 3c diabetes, has specific characteristics and requires careful management. Antioxidants and neuromodulators may decrease pain in some patients with chronic pancreatitis. Endoscopic treatment is effective and can be utilized in patients with painful chronic pancreatitis, although randomized trials demonstrate that surgical therapy is somewhat more durable and effective. Although surgery has typically been a last resort, some advocate early surgical intervention but the optimal time remains unknown. Early diagnosis of pancreatitis may be improved by newer techniques associated with endoscopic ultrasonography imaging. Treatment of nutritional deficiencies and diabetes is an important aspect of treating chronic pancreatitis. Pain relief with adjunct means of pain modulation should be tried before starting narcotics for pain control. Endoscopic therapy is appropriate for treating chronic pancreatitis and its local complications and surgical intervention can be considered early in carefully selected individuals.

  10. Acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Talukdar, Rupjyoti; Vege, Santhi S

    2015-09-01

    To summarize recent data on classification systems, cause, risk factors, severity prediction, nutrition, and drug treatment of acute pancreatitis. Comparison of the Revised Atlanta Classification and Determinant Based Classification has shown heterogeneous results. Simvastatin has a protective effect against acute pancreatitis. Young black male, alcohol, smoldering symptoms, and subsequent diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis are risk factors associated with readmissions after acute pancreatitis. A reliable clinical or laboratory marker or a scoring system to predict severity is lacking. The PYTHON trial has shown that oral feeding with on demand nasoenteric tube feeding after 72 h is as good as nasoenteric tube feeding within 24 h in preventing infections in predicted severe acute pancreatitis. Male sex, multiple organ failure, extent of pancreatic necrosis, and heterogeneous collection are factors associated with failure of percutaneous drainage of pancreatic collections. The newly proposed classification systems of acute pancreatitis need to be evaluated more critically. New biomarkers are needed for severity prediction. Further well designed studies are required to assess the type of enteral nutritional formulations for acute pancreatitis. The optimal minimally invasive method or combination to debride the necrotic collections is evolving. There is a great need for a drug to treat the disease early on to prevent morbidity and mortality.

  11. TRAUMATIC PANCREATITIS

    PubMed Central

    Berne, Clarence J.; Walters, Robert L.

    1953-01-01

    Traumatic pancreatitis should be considered as a diagnostic possibility when trauma to the epigastrium is followed by phenomena suggestive of intra-abdominal injury. The presence or absence of hyperamylasemia should be established immediately. Even when traumatic pancreatitis is believed to exist, any suggestion of injury to other viscera should indicate laparotomy. Retroperitoneal rupture of the duodenum may simulate traumatic pancreatitis in all respects, including hyperamylasemia. X-ray studies may be of value in differentiation. Non-complicated traumatic pancreatitis is best treated conservatively. Gunshot and knife wounds of the pancreas should be drained. PMID:13094537

  12. Fit females and fat polygynous males: seasonal body mass changes in the grey-headed flying fox.

    PubMed

    Welbergen, Justin A

    2011-03-01

    When females and males differ in their timing of maximum reproductive effort, this can result in sex-specific seasonal cycles in body mass. Such cycles are undoubtedly under strong selection, particularly in bats, where they affect flying ability. Flying foxes (Old World fruit bats, Pteropus spp.) are the largest mammals that can sustain powered flight and therefore face critical trade-offs in managing body reserves for reproduction, yet little is known about body mass dynamics in this group. I investigated body mass changes in relation to reproductive behaviour in a large colony of grey-headed flying foxes (Pteropus poliocephalus). In this polygynous mammal, females were predicted to maximise reproductive effort during lactation and males during the breeding season. As predicted, female body condition declined during the nursing period, but did not vary in relation to sexual activity. By contrast, males accumulated body reserves prior to the breeding season, but subsequently lost over 20% of their body mass on territory defence and courtship, and lost foraging opportunities as they also defended their day roost territories at night. Males in better condition had larger testes, particularly during territory establishment, prior to maximum sexual activity. Thus, the seasonality of female mass reflected the high metabolic load that lactation imposes on mothers. However, male mass followed a pattern akin to the "fatted male phenomenon", which is commonly observed in large polygynous mammals with seasonal reproduction, but not in bats. This shows the importance of body reserves for reproduction in flying foxes, despite their severe constraints on body mass.

  13. Defining the diagnostic algorithm in pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Horwhat, John David; Gress, Frank G

    2004-07-01

    Most patients with pancreatic cancer present with a mass on radiologic studies, however, not every pancreatic mass is cancer. Since radiological studies alone are insufficient to establish the diagnosis of a pancreatic mass and patient management depends on a definitive diagnosis; confirmatory cytology or histology is usually required. As a minimally invasive procedure, EUS and EUS FNA avoid the risk of cutaneous or peritoneal contamination that may occur with CT or US-guided investigations and is less invasive than surgical interventions. As a result, EUS FNA of pancreatic masses is becoming the standard for obtaining cytological diagnosis. This chapter presents an EUS-based diagnostic algorithm for the evaluation of pancreatic lesions and is based upon a review of the pertinent literature in the field of pancreatic endosonography that has been the most influential in helping to guide this evolving field. Realizing there is much overlap among the EUS characteristics of various pancreatic lesions, for the sake of simplicity we have structured our discussion in broad terms of solid versus cystic lesions and discuss various pancreatic lesions within this framework. The additional contributors to this round table discussion have been asked to provide a more dedicated, focused discussion of the various subcategories of pancreatic lesions in greater detail than we could hope to achieve here. We provide this final contribution to the round table as a means of bringing the discussion back to the big picture of pancreatic lesions, rather than trying to hone in on the fine details of any one subclass.

  14. Pancreatitis in Children.

    PubMed

    Sathiyasekaran, Malathi; Biradar, Vishnu; Ramaswamy, Ganesh; Srinivas, S; Ashish, B; Sumathi, B; Nirmala, D; Geetha, M

    2016-11-01

    Pancreatic disease in children has a wide clinical spectrum and may present as Acute pancreatitis (AP), Acute recurrent pancreatitis (ARP), Chronic pancreatitis (CP) and Pancreatic disease without pancreatitis. This article highlights the etiopathogenesis and management of pancreatitis in children along with clinical data from five tertiary care hospitals in south India [Chennai (3), Cochin and Pune].

  15. Increase in Pancreatic Proinsulin and Preservation of β-Cell Mass in Autoantibody-Positive Donors Prior to Type 1 Diabetes Onset

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Calvo, Teresa; Zapardiel-Gonzalo, Jose; Amirian, Natalie; Castillo, Ericka; Lajevardi, Yasaman; Krogvold, Lars; Dahl-Jørgensen, Knut

    2017-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes is characterized by the loss of insulin production caused by β-cell dysfunction and/or destruction. The hypothesis that β-cell loss occurs early during the prediabetic phase has recently been challenged. Here we show, for the first time in situ, that in pancreas sections from autoantibody-positive (Ab+) donors, insulin area and β-cell mass are maintained before disease onset and that production of proinsulin increases. This suggests that β-cell destruction occurs more precipitously than previously assumed. Indeed, the pancreatic proinsulin-to-insulin area ratio was also increased in these donors with prediabetes. Using high-resolution confocal microscopy, we found a high accumulation of vesicles containing proinsulin in β-cells from Ab+ donors, suggesting a defect in proinsulin conversion or an accumulation of immature vesicles caused by an increase in insulin demand and/or a dysfunction in vesicular trafficking. In addition, islets from Ab+ donors were larger and contained a higher number of β-cells per islet. Our data indicate that β-cell mass (and function) is maintained until shortly before diagnosis and declines rapidly at the time of clinical onset of disease. This suggests that secondary prevention before onset, when β-cell mass is still intact, could be a successful therapeutic strategy. PMID:28137793

  16. Pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Vincent, Audrey; Herman, Joseph; Schulick, Rich; Hruban, Ralph H; Goggins, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Substantial progress has been made in our understanding of the biology of pancreatic cancer, and advances in patients’ management have also taken place. Evidence is beginning to show that screening first-degree relatives of individuals with several family members affected by pancreatic cancer can identify non-invasive precursors of this malignant disease. The incidence of and number of deaths caused by pancreatic tumours have been gradually rising, even as incidence and mortality of other common cancers have been declining. Despite developments in detection and management of pancreatic cancer, only about 4% of patients will live 5 years after diagnosis. Survival is better for those with malignant disease localised to the pancreas, because surgical resection at present offers the only chance of cure. Unfortunately, 80–85% of patients present with advanced unresectable disease. Furthermore, pancreatic cancer responds poorly to most chemotherapeutic agents. Hence, we need to understand the biological mechanisms that contribute to development and progression of pancreatic tumours. In this Seminar we will discuss the most common and deadly form of pancreatic cancer, pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. PMID:21620466

  17. Pancreatic surgery.

    PubMed

    Donahue, Timothy R; Reber, Howard A

    2013-09-01

    To summarize published research on pancreatic surgery over the past year. A number of studies aiming to reduce the costs associated with pancreatic surgery were reported. Retrospective analyses confirmed previous findings that neither the routine use of pancreatic duct stents decreases the rate of fistula formation nor does placement of a drain at the time of surgery change the morbidity in patients who develop one. Minimally invasive approaches, both laparoscopic and robot-assisted, are being performed more frequently to remove pancreatic cancers. A randomized trial confirmed that reinforcement of stapled closure during distal pancreatectomy reduces the rate of fistula formation. Controversy remains over whether small pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors need to be surgically resected or can be treated nonoperatively. Patients with chronic pancreatitis should be screened thoroughly before being offered surgical treatment; two studies reported preoperative factors that can be used to identify those most likely to experience pain relief. Studies published on pancreatic surgery last year focused on a wide-range of topics. The morbidity and mortality of patients undergoing pancreatic surgery continues to improve, and we anticipate that incorporation of these new findings will lead to even better outcomes.

  18. Association of Body Mass Index With Infectious Complications in Free Tissue Transfer for Head and Neck Reconstructive Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Mohemmed N.; Russo, Jack; Spivack, John; Pool, Christopher; Likhterov, Ilya; Teng, Marita; Genden, Eric M.

    2017-01-01

    Importance Elevated body mass index (BMI) has been proposed as a risk factor for morbidity and mortality among patients undergoing surgery. Conversely, an elevated BMI may confer a protective effect on perioperative morbidity. Objective To examine whether an elevated BMI is an independent risk factor for perioperative and postoperative infectious complications after free tissue transfer in head and neck reconstructive surgery. Design, Setting, and Participants This cohort study included patients undergoing major head and neck surgery requiring free tissue transfer at a tertiary care center. Data were collected for 415 patients treated from January 1, 2007, through December 31, 2014. Main Outcomes and Measures The outcome of interest was postoperative infection and complications after head and neck surgery using free flaps. Covariates considered for adjustment in the statistical model included alcohol consumption (defined as >5 drinks per day [eg, 360 mL of beer, 150 mL of wine, or 45 mL of 80-proof spirits]), type 2 diabetes, prior radiotherapy, anesthesia time, hypothyroidism, smoking, American Society of Anesthesiologists classification, antibiotic regimen received (defined as a standard regimen of a first- or second-generation cephalosporin with or without metronidazole hydrochloride vs an alternative antibiotic regimen for patients allergic to penicillin), and primary surgeon. A multiple logistic regression model was developed for the incidence of the infection end point as a function of elevated BMI (>30.0). Results Among the 415 patients included in this study (277 men [66.7%] and 138 women [33.2%]; mean [SD] age, 61.5 [13.9] years), type 2 diabetes and use of an alternative antibiotic regimen were found to be independently associated with increased infectious complications after free flap surgery of the head and neck, with estimated odds ratios of 2.78 (95% CI, 1.27-6.09) and 2.67 (95% CI, 1.14-6.25), respectively, in the multiple logistic regression model

  19. Long-term outcomes and recurrence patterns of standard versus extended pancreatectomy for pancreatic head cancer: a multicenter prospective randomized controlled study.

    PubMed

    Jang, Jin-Young; Kang, Jae Seung; Han, Youngmin; Heo, Jin Seok; Choi, Seong Ho; Choi, Dong Wook; Park, Sang Jae; Han, Sung-Sik; Yoon, Dong Sup; Park, Joon Seong; Yu, Hee Chul; Kang, Koo Jeong; Kim, Sang Geol; Lee, Hongeun; Kwon, Wooil; Yoon, Yoo-Seok; Han, Ho-Seong; Kim, Sun-Whe

    2017-07-01

    Our previous randomized controlled trial revealed no difference in 2-year overall survival (OS) between extended and standard resection for pancreatic adenocarcinoma. The present study evaluated the 5-year OS and recurrence patterns according to the extent of pancreatectomy. Between 2006 and 2009, 169 consecutive patients were prospectively enrolled and randomized to standard (n = 83) or extended resection (n = 86) groups to compare 5-year OS rate, long-term recurrence patterns and factors associated with long-term survival. The surgical R0 rate was similar between the standard and extended groups (85.5 vs. 90.7%, P = 0.300). Five-year OS (18.4 vs. 14.4%, P = 0.388), 5-year disease-free survival (14.8 vs. 14.0%, P = 0.531), and overall recurrence rates (74.7 vs. 69.9%, P = 0.497) were not significantly different between the two groups, although the incidence of peritoneal seeding was higher in the extended group (25 vs. 8.1%, P = 0.014). Extended pancreatectomy does not have better short-term and long-term survival outcomes, and shows similar R0 rates and overall recurrence rates compared with standard pancreatectomy. Extended pancreatectomy does not have to be performed routinely for all cases of resectable pancreatic adenocarcinoma, especially considering its associated increased morbidity shown in our previous study. © 2017 Japanese Society of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery.

  20. Pancreatic injury.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Nasim; Vernick, Jerome J

    2009-12-01

    Injury to the pancreas, because of its retroperitoneal location, is a rare occurrence, most commonly seen with penetrating injuries (gun shot or stab wounds). Blunt trauma to the pancreas accounts for only 25% of the cases. Pancreatic injuries are associated with high morbidity and mortality due to accompanying vascular and duodenal injuries. Pancreatic injuries are not always easy to diagnose resulting in life threatening complications. Physical examination as well as serum amylase is not diagnostic following blunt trauma. Computed tomography (CT) scan can delineate the injury or transaction of the pancreas. Endoscopic retrograde pancreaticography (ERCP) is the main diagnostic modality for evaluation of the main pancreatic duct. Unrecognized ductal injury leads to pancreatic pseudocyst, fistula, abscess, and other complications. Management depends upon the severity of the pancreatic injury as well as associated injuries. Damage control surgery in hemodynamic unstable patients reduces morbidity and mortality.

  1. Impact of Pretreatment Body Mass Index on Patients With Head-and-Neck Cancer Treated With Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Pai, Ping-Ching; Chuang, Chi-Cheng; Tseng, Chen-Kan

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: To investigate the association of pretreatment body mass index (preT BMI) with outcomes of head-and-neck cancer in patients treated with radiotherapy (RT). Methods and Materials: All 1,562 patients diagnosed with head-and-neck cancer and treated with curative-intent RT to a dose of 60 Gy or higher were retrospectively studied. Body weight was measured both at entry and at the end of RT. Cancer-specific survival (CSS), overall survival (OS), locoregional control (LRC), and distant metastasis (DM) were analyzed by preT BMI (<25 kg/m{sup 2} vs. {>=}25 kg/m{sup 2}). The median follow-up was 8.6 years. Results: Patients with lower preT BMI weremore » statistically significantly associated with poorer CSS and OS than those with higher preT BMI. There was no significant difference between preT BMI groups in terms of LRC and DM. Body weight loss (BWL) during radiation did not influence survival outcomes. However, in the group with higher preT BMI, CSS, OS, and DM-free survival of patients with less BWL during radiation were statistically longer when compared with greater BWL. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that higher preT BMI positively influenced survival outcomes for patients with head-and-neck cancer. Patients with higher preT BMI who were able to maintain their weight during radiation had significantly better survival than patients with greater BWL.« less

  2. Etiology, pathology, management and prognosis of chronic pancreatitis in Chinese population: A retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Camara, Soriba Naby; Ramdany, Sonam; Zhao, Gang; Gou, Shan-Miao; Xiong, Jiong-Xin; Yang, Zhi-Yong; Yin, Tao; Yang, Ming; Balde, Oumar Taibata; Barry, Ahmed Boubacar; Adji, Seid; Li, Xiang; Jin, Yan; Wu, He-Shui; Wang, Chun-You

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the etiology, pathological characteristics, management and prognosis of chronic pancreatitis in the Chinese population. The clinical data of 142 patients with chronic pancreatitis were retrospectively studied. All patients were of Chinese nationality and hospitalized from January 2008 to December 2011. Their ages ranged from 14 to 76 years, with a mean of 43 years. Of 142 patients, there were 72 cases of obstructive chronic pancreatitis (50.70%), 19 cases of alcoholic chronic pancreatitis (13.38%), 14 cases of autoimmune pancreatitis (9.86%) and 37 cases of undetermined etiology (26.06%). Pathologically, the average inflammatory mass diameter was 3.8 ± 3.3 cm, biliary obstruction occurred in 36 cases, gall stones in 70 cases, calcification in 88 cases, ductal dilatation in 61 cases, side branch dilatation in 32 cases, ductal irregularity in 10 cases, lymphocytic inflammation in 23 cases, obliterative phlebitis in 14 cases, extra pancreatic lesion in 19 cases and fibrosis in 142 cases. Location of pancreatic lesion in the region of head (n=97), neck (n=16), body (n=12), tail (n=15) and whole pancreas (n=2) influenced the choice of surgical procedures. Ninety-four patients (66.20%) received surgical treatment and 33.80% received other treatments. After operation, 80.85% of 94 patients experienced decreased pain, and 8.51% of 94 showed recovery of endocrine function but with a complication rate of 12.77%. All the operations were performed successfully. According to the pain scale of European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (QLQ-C30) a decrease from 76 ± 22 to 14 ± 18 was observed. Etiology, pathological characteristics, management and prognosis of chronic pancreatitis in the Chinese population vary from others.

  3. Chronic pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Kleeff, Jorg; Whitcomb, David C; Shimosegawa, Tooru; Esposito, Irene; Lerch, Markus M; Gress, Thomas; Mayerle, Julia; Drewes, Asbjørn Mohr; Rebours, Vinciane; Akisik, Fatih; Muñoz, J Enrique Domínguez; Neoptolemos, John P

    2017-09-07

    Chronic pancreatitis is defined as a pathological fibro-inflammatory syndrome of the pancreas in individuals with genetic, environmental and/or other risk factors who develop persistent pathological responses to parenchymal injury or stress. Potential causes can include toxic factors (such as alcohol or smoking), metabolic abnormalities, idiopathic mechanisms, genetics, autoimmune responses and obstructive mechanisms. The pathophysiology of chronic pancreatitis is fairly complex and includes acinar cell injury, acinar stress responses, duct dysfunction, persistent or altered inflammation, and/or neuro-immune crosstalk, but these mechanisms are not completely understood. Chronic pancreatitis is characterized by ongoing inflammation of the pancreas that results in progressive loss of the endocrine and exocrine compartment owing to atrophy and/or replacement with fibrotic tissue. Functional consequences include recurrent or constant abdominal pain, diabetes mellitus (endocrine insufficiency) and maldigestion (exocrine insufficiency). Diagnosing early-stage chronic pancreatitis is challenging as changes are subtle, ill-defined and overlap those of other disorders. Later stages are characterized by variable fibrosis and calcification of the pancreatic parenchyma; dilatation, distortion and stricturing of the pancreatic ducts; pseudocysts; intrapancreatic bile duct stricturing; narrowing of the duodenum; and superior mesenteric, portal and/or splenic vein thrombosis. Treatment options comprise medical, radiological, endoscopic and surgical interventions, but evidence-based approaches are limited. This Primer highlights the major progress that has been made in understanding the pathophysiology, presentation, prevalence and management of chronic pancreatitis and its complications.

  4. Review of pancreatic trauma.

    PubMed Central

    Glancy, K E

    1989-01-01

    In reviewing the literature on pancreatic trauma (1,984 cases), I found that it resulted from penetrating trauma in 73% and blunt trauma in 27% of cases. Associated injuries were common (average 3.0 per patient). Increased mortality was associated with shotgun wounds, an increasing number of associated injuries, the proximity of the injury to the head of the pancreas, preoperative shock, and massive hemorrhage. High mortality was found for total pancreatectomy, duct reanastomosis, and lack of surgical treatment, with lower mortality for Roux-en-Y anastomoses, suture and drainage, distal pancreatectomy, and duodenal exclusion and diverticulization techniques. Most patients required drainage only. The preoperative diagnosis of pancreatic trauma is difficult, with the diagnosis usually made during surgical repair for associated injuries. Blood studies such as amylase levels, diagnostic peritoneal lavage, and plain radiographs are not reliable. Computed tomographic scanning may be superior, but data are limited. PMID:2669347

  5. Pancreatic cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... JH, Kastan MB, Tepper JE, eds. Abeloff's Clinical Oncology . 5th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap ... Cancer Network website. NCCN clinical practice guidelines in oncology: pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Version 1.2018. www.nccn.org/ ...

  6. Pancreatitis - children

    MedlinePlus

    ... Stanton BF, St Geme JW, Schor NF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. 20th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; ... Pancreatic disease. In: Marcdante KJ, Kliegman RM, eds. Nelson Essentials of Pediatrics. 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier ...

  7. Surgical Approaches to Chronic Pancreatitis: Indications and Techniques.

    PubMed

    Dua, Monica M; Visser, Brendan C

    2017-07-01

    There are a number of surgical strategies for the treatment of chronic pancreatitis. The optimal intervention should provide effective pain relief, improve/maintain quality of life, preserve exocrine and endocrine function, and manage local complications. Pancreaticoduodenectomy was once the standard operation for patients with chronic pancreatitis; however, other procedures such as the duodenum-preserving pancreatic head resections and its variants have been introduced with good long-term results. Pancreatic duct drainage via a lateral pancreaticojejunostomy continues to be effective in ameliorating symptoms and expediting return to normal lifestyle in many patients. This review summarizes operative indications and gives an overview of the different surgical strategies in treating chronic pancreatitis.

  8. Dependence of air masses type on PBL vertical structure retrieved at the Mace Head station during EUCAARI campaign.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milroy, Conor; Martucci, Giovanni; O'Dowd, Colin

    2010-05-01

    During the EUCAARI Intensive Observing Period held at the Mace Head GAW station from mid-May to mid-June, 2008, the PBL depth has been continuously measured by two ceilometers (Vaisala CL31 and Jenoptik CHM15K) and a microwave radiometer (RPG-HATPRO). The Lidar-Ceilometer, through the gradients in aerosol backscatter profiles, and the microwave profiler, through gradients in the specific humidity profiles, were used to remotely-sense the boundary layer structure. An automatic, newly developed Temporal Height-Tracking (THT) algorithm (Martucci et al., 2010) have been applied to both type of instruments data to retrieve the 2-layered structure of the local marine boundary layer. The two layers are defined as a lower, well mixed layer, i.e. the surface mixed layer, and the layer occupying the region below the free Troposphere inversion, i.e. the decoupled residual or convective layer. A categorization of the incoming air masses has been performed based on their origins and been used to asses the correlation with the PBL depths. The study confirmed the dependence of PBL vertical structure on different air masses and different type of advected aerosol.

  9. Positron emission tomography study on pancreatic somatostatin receptors in normal and diabetic rats with {sup 68}Ga-DOTA-octreotide: A potential PET tracer for beta cell mass measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Sako, Takeo; Division of Molecular Imaging, Institute of Biomedical Research and Innovation, 2-2 Minatojima-minamimachi, Chuo-ku, Kobe, Hyogo 650-0047; Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, 7-5-1 Kusunoki-cho, Chuo-ku, Kobe, Hyogo 650-0017

    2013-12-06

    Highlights: •PET images showed high uptake of {sup 68}Ga-DOTA-octreotide in the normal pancreas. •{sup 68}Ga-DOTA-octreotide specifically binds to somatostatin receptors in the pancreas. •The pancreatic uptake of {sup 68}Ga-DOTA-octreotide was decreased in the diabetic rats. •{sup 68}Ga-DOTA-octreotide could be a candidate PET probe to measure the beta cell mass. -- Abstract: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycemia, and the loss or dysfunction of pancreatic beta cells has been reported before the appearance of clinical symptoms and hyperglycemia. To evaluate beta cell mass (BCM) for improving the detection and treatment of DM at earlier stages, we focusedmore » on somatostatin receptors that are highly expressed in the pancreatic beta cells, and developed a positron emission tomography (PET) probe derived from octreotide, a metabolically stable somatostatin analog. Octreotide was conjugated with 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA), a chelating agent, and labeled with {sup 68}Gallium ({sup 68}Ga). After intravenous injection of {sup 68}Ga-DOTA-octreotide, a 90-min emission scan of the abdomen was performed in normal and DM model rats. The PET studies showed that {sup 68}Ga-DOTA-octreotide radioactivity was highly accumulated in the pancreas of normal rats and that the pancreatic accumulation was significantly reduced in the rats administered with an excess amount of unlabeled octreotide or after treatment with streptozotocin, which was used for the chemical induction of DM in rats. These results were in good agreement with the ex vivo biodistribution data. These results indicated that the pancreatic accumulation of {sup 68}Ga-DOTA-octreotide represented specific binding to the somatostatin receptors and reflected BCM. Therefore, PET imaging with {sup 68}Ga-DOTA-octreotide could be a potential tool for evaluating BCM.« less

  10. Pancreatic Cancer Early Detection Program

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-05-12

    Pancreatic Cancer; Pancreas Cancer; Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma; Familial Pancreatic Cancer; BRCA 1/2; HNPCC; Lynch Syndrome; Hereditary Pancreatitis; FAMMM; Familial Atypical Multiple Mole Melanoma; Peutz Jeghers Syndrome

  11. Erlotinib and Cetuximab With or Without Bevacizumab in Treating Patients With Metastatic or Unresectable Kidney, Colorectal, Head and Neck, Pancreatic, or Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-06-10

    Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Recurrent Basal Cell Carcinoma of the Lip; Recurrent Colon Cancer; Recurrent Esthesioneuroblastoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Inverted Papilloma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Lymphoepithelioma of the Nasopharynx; Recurrent Lymphoepithelioma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary; Recurrent Midline Lethal Granuloma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Recurrent Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Recurrent Pancreatic Cancer; Recurrent Rectal Cancer; Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage III Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage III Basal Cell Carcinoma of the Lip; Stage III Colon Cancer; Stage III Esthesioneuroblastoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage III Inverted Papilloma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage III Lymphoepithelioma of the Nasopharynx; Stage III Lymphoepithelioma of the Oropharynx; Stage III Midline Lethal Granuloma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage III Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage III Pancreatic Cancer; Stage III Rectal Cancer; Stage III Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx

  12. Long-term follow-up of nutritional status, pancreatic function, and morphological changes of the pancreatic remnant after pancreatic tumor resection in children.

    PubMed

    Sugito, Kiminobu; Furuya, Takeshi; Kaneda, Hide; Masuko, Takayuki; Ohashi, Kensuke; Inoue, Mikiya; Ikeda, Taro; Koshinaga, Tsugumichi; Tomita, Ryouichi; Maebayashi, Toshiya

    2012-05-01

    The objectives of the present study were to determine nutritional status, pancreatic function, and morphological changes of the pancreatic remnant after pancreatic tumor resection in children. The nutritional status was evaluated by the patterns of growth. Pancreatic function was evaluated by using a questionnaire, the Bristol stool form chart, the serum levels of fasting blood glucose, and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c). Morphological changes of the pancreatic remnant were evaluated by computed tomography, magnetic resonance image, or magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography. The present study consisted of 6 patients with pancreatic tumor (5 solid pseudopapillary tumors of the pancreas and 1 pancreatoblastoma) who underwent the following operations: tumor enucleation (3), distal pancreatectomy with splenectomy (1), and pylorus-preserving pancreatoduodenectomy (PPPD [2]). The serum levels of HbA1c have been gradually elevated in 2 patients with PPPD. A significant decrease in pancreatic parenchymal thickness and dilatation of the main pancreatic duct were observed in 2 patients with PPPD. Endocrine pancreatic insufficiency after PPPD may be explainable by obstructive pancreatitis after operation. Taking together the results of pancreatic endocrine function and morphological changes of pancreatic remnant after PPPD, tumor enucleation should be considered as surgical approach in children with pancreas head tumor whenever possible.

  13. The evolution of the surgical treatment of chronic pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Dana K; Frey, Charles F

    2010-01-01

    To establish the current status of surgical therapy for chronic pancreatitis, recent published reports are examined in the context of the historical advances in the field. The basis for decompression (drainage), denervation, and resection strategies for the treatment of pain caused by chronic pancreatitis is reviewed. These divergent approaches have finally coalesced as the head of the pancreas has become apparent as the nidus of chronic inflammation. The recent developments in surgical methods to treat the complications of chronic pancreatitis and the results of recent prospective randomized trials of operative approaches were reviewed to establish the current best practices. Local resection of the pancreatic head, with or without duct drainage, and duodenum-preserving pancreatic head resection offer outcomes as effective as pancreaticoduodenectomy, with lowered morbidity and mortality. Local resection or excavation of the pancreatic head offers the advantage of lowest cost and morbidity and early prevention of postoperative diabetes. The late incidences of recurrent pain, diabetes, and exocrine insufficiency are equivalent for all 3 surgical approaches. Local resection of the pancreatic head appears to offer best outcomes and lowest risk for the management of the pain of chronic pancreatitis.

  14. Endoscopic ultrasound and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography for obstructing pancreas head masses: combined or separate procedures?

    PubMed

    Aslanian, Harry R; Estrada, Juan D; Rossi, Federico; Dziura, James; Jamidar, Priya A; Siddiqui, Uzma D

    2011-09-01

    Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) are complementary procedures in the evaluation of obstructive jaundice. To determine the feasibility, accuracy, and safety of the combined performance of EUS-guided fine needle aspiration (FNA) and ERCP with biliary stenting in patients with obstructive jaundice. Retrospectively reviewed data from consecutive patients presenting with obstructive jaundice due to a pancreas mass at a tertiary referral hospital between April 2002 and November 2007 who underwent combined (under the same sedation and in the same room) or separate EUS and ERCP. Procedure duration, amount of sedative medication administered, ability to achieve biliary stent placement, and the diagnostic yield of EUS-FNA were evaluated. A total of 47 patients were evaluated: 29 patients underwent combined EUS and ERCP and 18 had separate procedures (median of 5 d between procedures). Stent placement at ERCP was successful in 72% combined procedures versus 88% separate ERCP. EUS-FNA diagnosis of malignancy was positive in 91.6% combined versus 87.5% separate. The only complication was self-limited melena after a combined procedure in 1 patient. The median time for combined procedures was 75 minutes versus 50 minutes for separate EUS and 50 minutes for ERCP. Combined EUS and ERCP can be performed under the same sedation with a median 25 minute greater procedure length and similarly high yields for diagnostic EUS-FNA. A nonsignificant trend toward lower biliary stent placement success rates with combined ERCP procedures merits further study. Benefits of a combined procedure may include expedited patient evaluation and the avoidance of repeated sedation.

  15. Emerging roles for β-arrestin-1 in the control of the pancreatic β-cell function and mass: new therapeutic strategies and consequences for drug screening.

    PubMed

    Dalle, Stéphane; Ravier, Magalie A; Bertrand, Gyslaine

    2011-03-01

    Defective insulin secretion is a feature of type 2 diabetes that results from inadequate compensatory increase in β-cell mass, decreased β-cell survival and impaired glucose-dependent insulin release. Pancreatic β-cell proliferation, survival and secretion are thought to be regulated by signalling pathways linked to G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), such as the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and the pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) receptors. β-arrestin-1 serves as a multifunctional adaptor protein that mediates receptor desensitization, receptor internalization, and links GPCRs to downstream pathways such as tyrosine kinase Src, ERK1/2 or Akt/PKB. Importantly, recent studies found that β-arrestin-1 mediates GLP-1 signalling to insulin secretion, GLP-1 antiapoptotic effect by phosphorylating the proapoptotic protein Bad through ERK1/2 activation, and PACAP potentiation of glucose-induced long-lasting ERK1/2 activation controlling IRS-2 expression. Together, these novel findings reveal an important functional role for β-arrestin-1 in the regulation of insulin secretion and β-cell survival by GPCRs. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. [A Case of Von Hippel-Lindau Disease with Nonfunctioning Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors Treated by Duodenum-Preserving Resection of the Head of the Pancreas and Spleen-Preserving Resection of the Tail of the Pancreas].

    PubMed

    Umehara, Yutaka; Umehara, Minoru; Tokura, Tomohisa; Yachi, Takafumi; Takahashi, Kenichi; Morita, Takayuki; Hakamada, Kenichi

    2015-10-01

    A 26-year-old woman presented to our department with a diagnosis of multiple nonfunctioning pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. She had a family history of pheochromocytoma and a medical history of bilateral adrenalectomy for pheochromocytoma at the age of 25 years. During follow-up treatment for adrenal insufficiency after the surgery, highly enhanced tumors in the pancreas were detected on contrast-enhanced CT. Other examinations found that the patient did not satisfy the clinical criteria for von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease. Considering her age and risk of developing multiple heterotopic and heterochronous tumors, we performed a duodenum-preserving resection of the head of the pancreas and spleen-preserving resection of the tail of the pancreas with informed consent. The histopathological findings revealed that all of the tumors were NET G1. She underwent genetic testing postoperatively and was diagnosed with VHL disease. This diagnosis meant that we were able to create an optimal treatment plan for the patient. If a tumor predisposition syndrome is suspected, VHL disease should be borne in mind and genetic testing after genetic counseling should be duly considered.

  17. [Pancreatic ultrasonography].

    PubMed

    Fernández-Rodríguez, T; Segura-Grau, A; Rodríguez-Lorenzo, A; Segura-Cabral, J M

    2015-04-01

    Despite the recent technological advances in imaging, abdominal ultrasonography continues to be the first diagnostic test indicated in patients with a suspicion of pancreatic disease, due to its safety, accessibility and low cost. It is an essential technique in the study of inflammatory processes, since it not only assesses changes in pancreatic parenchyma, but also gives an indication of the origin (bile or alcoholic). It is also essential in the detection and tracing of possible complications as well as being used as a guide in diagnostic and therapeutic punctures. It is also the first technique used in the study of pancreatic tumors, detecting them with a sensitivity of around 70% and a specificity of 90%. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  18. Lysosome associated membrane proteins maintain pancreatic acinar cell homeostasis: LAMP-2 deficient mice develop pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Mareninova, Olga A; Sendler, Matthias; Malla, Sudarshan Ravi; Yakubov, Iskandar; French, Samuel W; Tokhtaeva, Elmira; Vagin, Olga; Oorschot, Viola; Lüllmann-Rauch, Renate; Blanz, Judith; Dawson, David; Klumperman, Judith; Lerch, Markus M; Mayerle, Julia; Gukovsky, Ilya; Gukovskaya, Anna S

    2015-11-01

    The pathogenic mechanism of pancreatitis is poorly understood. Recent evidence implicates defective autophagy in pancreatitis responses; however, the pathways mediating impaired autophagy in pancreas remain largely unknown. Here, we investigate the role of lysosome associated membrane proteins (LAMPs) in pancreatitis. We analyzed changes in LAMPs in experimental models and human pancreatitis, and the underlying mechanisms: LAMP de-glycosylation and degradation. LAMP cleavage by cathepsin B (CatB) was analyzed by mass spectrometry. We used mice deficient in LAMP-2 to assess its role in pancreatitis. Pancreatic levels of LAMP-1 and LAMP-2 greatly decrease across various pancreatitis models and in human disease. Pancreatitis does not trigger LAMPs' bulk de-glycosylation, but induces their degradation via CatB-mediated cleavage of LAMP molecule close to the boundary between luminal and transmembrane domains. LAMP-2 null mice spontaneously develop pancreatitis that begins with acinar cell vacuolization due to impaired autophagic flux, and progresses to severe pancreas damage characterized by trypsinogen activation, macrophage-driven inflammation, and acinar cell death. LAMP-2 deficiency causes a decrease in pancreatic digestive enzymes content, stimulates the basal and inhibits CCK-induced amylase secretion by acinar cells. The effects of LAMP-2 knockout and acute cerulein pancreatitis overlap, which corroborates the pathogenic role of LAMP decrease in experimental pancreatitis models. The results indicate a critical role for LAMPs, particularly LAMP-2, in maintaining pancreatic acinar cell homeostasis, and provide evidence that defective lysosomal function, resulting in impaired autophagy, leads to pancreatitis. Mice with LAMP-2 deficiency present a novel genetic model of human pancreatitis caused by lysosomal/autophagic dysfunction.

  19. Risk factors for pancreatic stone formation in autoimmune pancreatitis over a long-term course.

    PubMed

    Maruyama, Masahiro; Arakura, Norikazu; Ozaki, Yayoi; Watanabe, Takayuki; Ito, Tetsuya; Yoneda, Suguru; Maruyama, Masafumi; Muraki, Takashi; Hamano, Hideaki; Matsumoto, Akihiro; Kawa, Shigeyuki

    2012-05-01

    Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) has the potential to progress to a chronic state that forms pancreatic stones. The aim of this study was to clarify the risk factors underlying pancreatic stone formation in AIP. Sixty-nine patients with AIP who had been followed for at least 3 years were enrolled for evaluation of clinical and laboratory factors as well as computed tomography and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography findings. During the course of this study, increased or de novo stone formation was seen in 28 patients, who were defined as the stone-forming group. No stones were observed in 32 patients, who were defined as the non-stone-forming group. Nine patients who had stones at diagnosis but showed no change during the course of this study were excluded from our cohort. Univariate analysis revealed no significant differences in clinical or laboratory factors associated with AIP-specific inflammation between the two groups. However, pancreatic head swelling (P = 0.006) and narrowing of both Wirsung's and Santorini's ducts in the pancreatic head region (P = 0.010) were significantly more frequent in the stone-forming group. Furthermore, multivariate analysis identified Wirsung and Santorini duct narrowing at diagnosis as a significant independent risk factor for pancreatic stone formation (OR 4.4, P = 0.019). A primary risk factor for pancreatic stone formation in AIP was narrowing of both Wirsung's and Santorini's ducts, which most presumably led to pancreatic juice stasis and stone development.

  20. A Retroperitoneal Neuroendocrine Tumor in Ectopic Pancreatic Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Okasha, Hussein Hassan; Al-Bassiouni, Fahim; El-Ela, Monir Abo; Al-Gemeie, Emad Hamza; Ezzat, Reem

    2013-01-01

    Ectopic pancreas is the relatively uncommon presence of pancreatic tissue outside the normal location of the pancreas. We report a case of abdominal pain due to retroperitoneal neuroendocrine tumor arising from heterotopic pancreatic tissue between the duodenal wall and the head of the pancreas. Patient underwent surgical enucleation of the tumor. PMID:24949389

  1. Autoimmune Pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Majumder, Shounak; Takahashi, Naoki; Chari, Suresh T

    2017-07-01

    Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) is a chronic fibroinflammatory disease of the pancreas that belongs to the spectrum of immunoglobulin G-subclass4-related diseases (IgG4-RD) and typically presents with obstructive jaundice. Idiopathic duct-centric pancreatitis (IDCP) is a closely related but distinct disease that mimics AIP radiologically but manifests clinically most commonly as recurrent acute pancreatitis in young individuals with concurrent inflammatory bowel disease. IgG4 levels are often elevated in AIP and normal in IDCP. Histologically, lymphoplasmacytic acinar inflammation and storiform fibrosis are seen in both. In addition, the histologic hallmark of IDCP is the granulocyte epithelial lesion: intraluminal and intraepithelial neutrophils in medium-sized and small ducts with or without granulocytic acinar inflammation often associated with destruction of ductal architecture. Initial treatment of both AIP and IDCP is with oral corticosteroids for duration of 4 weeks followed by a gradual taper. Relapses are common in AIP and relatively uncommon in IDCP, a relatively rare disease for which the natural history is not well understood. For patients with relapsing AIP, treatment with immunomodulators and more recently rituximab has been recommended. Although rare instances of pancreaticobiliary malignancy has been reported in patients with AIP, overall the lifetime risk of developing pancreatic cancer does not appear to be elevated.

  2. Biliary Stenosis and Gastric Outlet Obstruction: Late Complications After Acute Pancreatitis With Pancreatic Duct Disruption.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, Motokazu; Sonntag, David P; Flint, Greggory S; Boyce, Cody J; Kirkham, John C; Harris, Tyler J; Carr, Sean M; Nelson, Brent D; Bell, Don A; Barton, Joshua G; Traverso, L William

    2018-07-01

    Pancreatic duct disruption (PDD) after acute pancreatitis can cause pancreatic collections in the early phase and biliary stenosis (BS) or gastric outlet obstruction (GOO) in the late phase. We aimed to document those late complications after moderate or severe acute pancreatitis. Between September 2010 and August 2014, 141 patients showed pancreatic collections on computed tomography. Percutaneous drainage was primarily performed for patients with signs or symptoms of uncontrolled pancreatic juice leakage. Pancreatic duct disruption was defined as persistent amylase-rich drain fluid or a pancreatic duct cut-off on imaging. Clinical course of the patients who developed BS or GOO was investigated. Among the 141 patients with collections, 33 patients showed PDD in the pancreatic head/neck area. Among them, 9 patients (27%) developed BS 65 days after onset and required stenting for 150 days, and 5 patients (15%) developed GOO 92 days after onset and required gastric decompression and jejunal tube feeding for 147 days (days shown in median). All 33 patients recovered successfully without requiring surgical intervention. Anatomic proximity of the bile duct or duodenum to the site of PDD and severe inflammation seemed to contribute to the late onset of BS or GOO. Conservative management successfully reversed these complications.

  3. Retinal Parameters as Compared with Head Circumference, Height, Weight, and Body Mass Index in Children in Kenya and Bhutan.

    PubMed

    Grundy, Sara J; Tshering, Lhab; Wanjala, Stanley W; Diamond, Megan B; Audi, Martin S; Prasad, Sashank; Shinohara, Russell T; Rogo, Debora; Wangmo, Dechen; Wangdi, Ugyen; Aarayang, Abi; Tshering, Thukten; Burke, Thomas F; Mateen, Farrah J

    2018-06-11

    The retina shares embryological derivation with the brain and may provide a new measurement of overall growth status, especially useful in resource-limited settings. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) provides detailed quantification of retinal structures. We enrolled community-dwelling children ages 3-11 years old in Siaya, Kenya and Thimphu, Bhutan in 2016. We measured head circumference (age < 5 years only), height, and weight, and standardized these by age and gender. Research staff performed OCT ( iScan ; Optovue, Inc., Fremont, CA), measuring the peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) and macular ganglion cell complex (GCC) thicknesses. A neuro-ophthalmologist performed quality control for centration, motion artifact, and algorithm-derived quality scores. Generalized estimating equations were used to determine the relationship between anthropometric and retinal measurements. Two hundred and fifty-eight children (139 females, average age 6.4 years) successfully completed at least one retinal scan, totaling 1,048 scans. Nine hundred and twenty-two scans (88.0%) were deemed usable. Fifty-three of the 258 children (20.5%) were able to complete all six scans. Kenyan children had a thinner average GCC ( P < 0.001) than Bhutanese children after adjustment for age and gender, but not RNFL ( P = 0.70). In models adjusting for age, gender, and study location, none of standardized height, weight, and body mass index (BMI) were statistically significantly associated with RNFL or GCC. We determined that OCT is feasible in some children in resource-limited settings, particularly those > 4 years old, using the iScan device. We found no evidence for GCC or RNFL as a proxy for height-, weight-, or BMI-for-age. The variation in mean GCC thickness in Asian versus African children warrants further investigation.

  4. A space weather information service based upon remote and in-situ measurements of coronal mass ejections heading for Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartkorn, O. A.; Ritter, B.; Meskers, A. J. H.; Miles, O.; Russwurm, M.; Scully, S.; Roldan, A.; Juestel, P.; Reville, V.; Lupu, S.; Ruffenach, A.

    2014-12-01

    The Earth's magnetosphere is formed as a consequence of the interaction between the planet's magnetic field and the solar wind, a continuous plasma stream from the Sun. A number of different solar wind phenomena have been studied over the past forty years with the intention of understandingand forcasting solar behavior and space weather. In particular, Earth-bound interplanetary coronal mass ejections (CMEs) can significantly disturb the Earth's magnetosphere for a short time and cause geomagnetic storms. We present a mission concept consisting of six spacecraft that are equally spaced in a heliocentric orbit at 0.72 AU. These spacecraft will monitor the plasma properties, the magnetic field's orientation and magnitude, and the 3D-propagation trajectory of CMEs heading for Earth. The primary objective of this mission is to increase space weather forecasting time by means of a near real-time information service, that is based upon in-situ and remote measurements of the CME properties. The mission secondary objective is the improvement of scientific space weather models. In-situ measurements are performed using a Solar Wind Analyzer instrumentation package and flux gate magnetometers. For remote measurements, coronagraphs are employed. The proposed instruments originate from other space missions with the intention to reduce mission costs and to streamline the mission design process. Communication with the six identical spacecraft is realized via a deep space network consisting of six ground stations. This network provides an information service that is in uninterrupted contact with the spacecraft, allowing for continuos space weather monitoring. A dedicated data processing center will handle all the data, and forward the processed data to the SSA Space Weather Coordination Center. This organization will inform the general public through a space weather forecast. The data processing center will additionally archive the data for the scientific community. This concept

  5. An improved protocol for optical projection tomography imaging reveals lobular heterogeneities in pancreatic islet and β-cell mass distribution

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Optical projection tomography (OPT) imaging is a powerful tool for three-dimensional imaging of gene and protein distribution patterns in biomedical specimens. We have previously demonstrated the possibility, by this technique, to extract information of the spatial and quantitative distribution of the islets of Langerhans in the intact mouse pancreas. In order to further increase the sensitivity of OPT imaging for this type of assessment, we have developed a protocol implementing a computational statistical approach: contrast limited adaptive histogram equalization (CLAHE). We demonstrate that this protocol significantly increases the sensitivity of OPT imaging for islet detection, helps preserve islet morphology and diminish subjectivity in thresholding for tomographic reconstruction. When applied to studies of the pancreas from healthy C57BL/6 mice, our data reveal that, at least in this strain, the pancreas harbors substantially more islets than has previously been reported. Further, we provide evidence that the gastric, duodenal and splenic lobes of the pancreas display dramatic differences in total and relative islet and β-cell mass distribution. This includes a 75% higher islet density in the gastric lobe as compared to the splenic lobe and a higher relative volume of insulin producing cells in the duodenal lobe as compared to the other lobes. Altogether, our data show that CLAHE substantially improves OPT based assessments of the islets of Langerhans and that lobular origin must be taken into careful consideration in quantitative and spatial assessments of the pancreas. PMID:21633198

  6. First quantitative high-throughput screen in zebrafish identifies novel pathways for increasing pancreatic β-cell mass

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guangliang; Rajpurohit, Surendra K; Delaspre, Fabien; Walker, Steven L; White, David T; Ceasrine, Alexis; Kuruvilla, Rejji; Li, Ruo-jing; Shim, Joong S; Liu, Jun O; Parsons, Michael J; Mumm, Jeff S

    2015-01-01

    Whole-organism chemical screening can circumvent bottlenecks that impede drug discovery. However, in vivo screens have not attained throughput capacities possible with in vitro assays. We therefore developed a method enabling in vivo high-throughput screening (HTS) in zebrafish, termed automated reporter quantification in vivo (ARQiv). In this study, ARQiv was combined with robotics to fully actualize whole-organism HTS (ARQiv-HTS). In a primary screen, this platform quantified cell-specific fluorescent reporters in >500,000 transgenic zebrafish larvae to identify FDA-approved (Federal Drug Administration) drugs that increased the number of insulin-producing β cells in the pancreas. 24 drugs were confirmed as inducers of endocrine differentiation and/or stimulators of β-cell proliferation. Further, we discovered novel roles for NF-κB signaling in regulating endocrine differentiation and for serotonergic signaling in selectively stimulating β-cell proliferation. These studies demonstrate the power of ARQiv-HTS for drug discovery and provide unique insights into signaling pathways controlling β-cell mass, potential therapeutic targets for treating diabetes. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.08261.001 PMID:26218223

  7. Is Pancreatic Cancer Hereditary?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Trials Database Supporting Research Raising Awareness Our Blog Patient Education Pancreas News Basics of Pancreatic Cancer FAQs The ... Detection- Goggins Lab Sol Goldman Center Discussion Board Patient Education / Basics of Pancreatic Cancer Is pancreatic cancer hereditary? ...

  8. Finite element simulations of the head-brain responses to the top impacts of a construction helmet: Effects of the neck and body mass.

    PubMed

    Wu, John Z; Pan, Christopher S; Wimer, Bryan M; Rosen, Charles L

    2017-01-01

    Traumatic brain injuries are among the most common severely disabling injuries in the United States. Construction helmets are considered essential personal protective equipment for reducing traumatic brain injury risks at work sites. In this study, we proposed a practical finite element modeling approach that would be suitable for engineers to optimize construction helmet design. The finite element model includes all essential anatomical structures of a human head (i.e. skin, scalp, skull, cerebrospinal fluid, brain, medulla, spinal cord, cervical vertebrae, and discs) and all major engineering components of a construction helmet (i.e. shell and suspension system). The head finite element model has been calibrated using the experimental data in the literature. It is technically difficult to precisely account for the effects of the neck and body mass on the dynamic responses, because the finite element model does not include the entire human body. An approximation approach has been developed to account for the effects of the neck and body mass on the dynamic responses of the head-brain. Using the proposed model, we have calculated the responses of the head-brain during a top impact when wearing a construction helmet. The proposed modeling approach would provide a tool to improve the helmet design on a biomechanical basis.

  9. [THE PLACE OF PANCREATICODUODENAL RESECTION IN SURGICAL TREATMENT OF COMPLICATED FORMS OF CHRONIC PANCREATITIS].

    PubMed

    Pylypchuk, V I; Shevchuk, I M; Yavorskiy, A M; Dyriv, O L

    2015-11-01

    Results of surgical treatment of 120 patients, suffering complicated forms of chronic pancreatitis, were analyzed. In 5 patients pancreaticoduodenal resection in accordance to Whipple method have constituted the operation of choice. The indications for operation were: impossibility to exclude completely the malignant process inside pancreatic head; enhancement of the pancreatic head, causing duodenal, common biliary duct and the pancreatoduodenal zone vessels compression; cystic changes of pancreatic head with several episodes of hemorrhage inside the cyst and duodenum. The immediate, short-term and intermediate results of the operation were estimated as good and satisfactory.

  10. Quantitative analysis of N-glycans from human alfa-acid-glycoprotein using stable isotope labeling and zwitterionic hydrophilic interaction capillary liquid chromatography electrospray mass spectrometry as tool for pancreatic disease diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Giménez, Estela; Balmaña, Meritxell; Figueras, Joan; Fort, Esther; de Bolós, Carme; Sanz-Nebot, Victòria; Peracaula, Rosa; Rizzi, Andreas

    2015-03-25

    In this work we demonstrate the potential of glycan reductive isotope labeling (GRIL) using [(12)C]- and [(13)C]-coded aniline and zwitterionic hydrophilic interaction capillary liquid chromatography electrospray mass spectrometry (μZIC-HILIC-ESI-MS) for relative quantitation of glycosylation variants in selected glycoproteins present in samples from cancer patients. Human α1-acid-glycoprotein (hAGP) is an acute phase serum glycoprotein whose glycosylation has been described to be altered in cancer and chronic inflammation. However, it is not clear yet whether some particular glycans in hAGP can be used as biomarker for differentiating between these two pathologies. In this work, hAGP was isolated by immunoaffinity chromatography (IAC) from serum samples of healthy individuals and from those suffering chronic pancreatitis and different stages of pancreatic cancer, respectively. After de-N-glycosylation, relative quantitation of the hAGP glycans was carried out using stable isotope labeling and μZIC-HILIC-ESI-MS analysis. First, protein denaturing conditions prior to PNGase F digestion were optimized to achieve quantitative digestion yields, and the reproducibility of the established methodology was evaluated with standard hAGP. Then, the proposed method was applied to the analysis of the clinical samples (control vs. pathological). Pancreatic cancer samples clearly showed an increase in the abundance of fucosylated glycans as the stage of the disease increases and this was unlike to samples from chronic pancreatitis. The results gained here indicate the mentioned glycan in hAGP as a candidate structure worth to be corroborated by an extended study including more clinical cases; especially those with chronic pancreatitis and initial stages of pancreatic cancer. Importantly, the results demonstrate that the presented methodology combining an enrichment of a target protein by IAC with isotope coded relative quantitation of N-glycans can be successfully used for

  11. Pancreatic Lipomatous Hamartoma: A Hitherto Unrecognized Variant.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Mariko; Ushiku, Tetsuo; Ikemura, Masako; Takazawa, Yutaka; Igari, Toru; Shimizu, Michio; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Fukushima, Noriyoshi; Sakuma, Kei; Arita, Junichi; Sakamoto, Yoshihiro; Hasegawa, Kiyoshi; Watadani, Takeyuki; Nakai, Yousuke; Koike, Kazuhiko; Fukayama, Masashi

    2018-05-04

    Pancreatic masses consisting of lipomatous components clinically include lipoma, liposarcoma, lipomatous pseudohypertrophy of the pancreas, fat-containing neoplasms such as perivascular epithelioid cell tumor, and malignant neoplasm with lipoid degeneration. We present pancreatic lipomatous hamartoma, which has not been reported hitherto. A solid pancreatic mass was detected from a computed tomographic scan check-up in each of 3 cases of Japanese men. Macroscopically, well-demarcated solid lipomatous masses were detected at the uncus, body, and tail of the pancreas, respectively. Microscopically, the masses predominantly consisted of mature adipocytes with no atypia, but contained characteristics components of pancreatic hamartoma, such as small ducts, a well-preserved acinar structure, and/or fibrous stroma. On the basis of the unique features, lack of islets and absence of periductal elastic fibers, these tumors are a distinct variant of pancreatic hamartoma. Furthermore, high-mobility group AT-hook 2 expression in the fibro-adipocytes of this tumor indicated that these cells are an integral component of the pancreatic lipomatous hamartoma. Consequently, the unique tumors described herein are pancreatic lipomatous hamartoma, which must be discriminated from other lipomatous lesions of the pancreas.

  12. Pancreatic stents for the prevention of post-endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography pancreatitis should be inserted up to the pancreatic body or tail.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, Mitsuru; Takagi, Tadayuki; Suzuki, Rei; Konno, Naoki; Asama, Hiroyuki; Sato, Yuki; Irie, Hiroki; Watanabe, Ko; Nakamura, Jun; Kikuchi, Hitomi; Waragai, Yuichi; Takasumi, Mika; Hikichi, Takuto; Ohira, Hiromasa

    2018-06-14

    To investigate the location to which a pancreatic stent should be inserted to prevent post-endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) pancreatitis (PEP). Over a ten-year period at our hospital, 296 patients underwent their first ERCP procedure and had a pancreatic stent inserted; this study included 147 patients who had ERCP performed primarily for biliary investigation and had a pancreatic stent inserted to prevent PEP. We divided these patients into two groups: 131 patients with a stent inserted into the pancreatic head (head group) and 16 patients with a stent inserted up to the pancreatic body or tail (body/tail group). Patient characteristics and ERCP factors were compared between the groups. Pancreatic amylase isoenzyme (p-AMY) levels in the head group were significantly higher than those in the body/tail group [138.5 (7.0-2086) vs 78.5 (5.0-1266.5), P = 0.03] [median (range)]. No cases of PEP were detected in the body/tail group [head group, 12 (9.2%)]. Of the risk factors for post-ERCP hyperamylasemia (≥ p-AMY median, 131 IU/L), procedure time ≥ 60 min [odds ratio (OR) 2.65, 95%CI: 1.17-6.02, P = 0.02) and stent insertion into the pancreatic head (OR 3.80, 95%CI: 1.12-12.9, P = 0.03) were identified as independent risk factors by multivariate analysis. Stent insertion up to the pancreatic body or tail reduces the risk of post-ERCP hyperamylasemia and may reduce the risk of PEP.

  13. Mass-energy and momentum extraction by gravitational wave emission in the merger of two colliding black holes: The non-head-on case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aranha, R. F.; Soares, I. Damião; Tonini, E. V.

    2012-01-01

    We examine numerically the post-merger regime of two nonspining holes in non-head-on collisions in the realm of nonaxisymmetric Robinson-Trautman spacetimes. Characteristic initial data for the system are constructed and evolved via the Robinson-Trautman equation. The numerical integration is performed using a Galerkin spectral method which is sufficiently stable to reach the final configuration of the remnant black hole, when the gravitational wave emission ceases. The initial data contains three independent parameters, the ratio mass α of the individual colliding black holes, their initial premerger infalling velocity and the incidence angle of collision ρ0. The remnant black hole is characterized by its final boost parameter, rest mass and scattering angle. The motion of the remnant black hole is restricted to the plane determined by the directions of the two initial colliding black holes, characterizing a planar collision. The net momentum fluxes carried out by gravitational waves are confined to this plane. We evaluate the efficiency of mass-energy extraction, the total energy and momentum carried out by gravitational waves and the momentum distribution of the remnant black hole for a large domain of initial data parameters. Our analysis is based on the Bondi-Sachs four-momentum conservation laws. The process of mass-energy extraction is shown to be less efficient as the initial data departs from the head-on configuration. Head-on collisions (ρ0=0o) and orthogonal collisions (ρ0=90°) constitute, respectively, upper and lower bounds to the power emission and to the efficiency of mass-energy extraction. On the contrary, head-on collisions and orthogonal collisions constitute, respectively, lower and upper bounds for the momentum of the remnant. Distinct regimes of gravitational wave emission (bursts or quiescent emission) are characterized by the analysis of the time behavior of the gravitational wave power as a function of α. In particular, the net

  14. Is the size of the pancreas useful in diagnosing chronic pancreatitis? An ultrasound based, retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Treiber, Matthias; Einwächter, Henrik; Phillip, Veit; Wagenpfeil, Stefan; Schmid, Roland M; Lersch, Christian

    2016-01-01

    According to the widely accepted "Cambridge Classification", one of the morphological criteria for chronic pancreatitis (CP) is enlargement of the pancreas. Increased size seems to be an obvious feature of an inflammatory disease. However, it has never been validated so far, if CP is indeed accompanied by significant enlargement of the pancreas. In this retrospective study, reference values for the size of the pancreas (head, body and tail measured in the transverse plane by transabdominal ultrasound) were established from 921 patients without pancreatic disease. Measurements were performed by a single investigator. Subsequently, the size of the pancreas from 72 patients with CP was compared to age- and sex-matched controls. Calculating the 5th and 95th percentile, reference values of the pancreatic size were as follows: head 1.5-3.1 cm (mean: 2.2); body 0.6-1.6 cm (mean: 1.1); tail 1.4-3.0 cm (mean: 2.1). The size of the pancreas correlated significantly with body height, weight and body mass index. Patients with CP had only a slightly but statistically significantly larger pancreas than controls. Mean values from the CP group were still between the 5th and 95th percentile of matched controls. Although the pancreas from patients with CP was statistically significantly larger compared to controls, the difference was only marginally. According to these data, it is at least questionable if pancreatic size is a helpful parameter for sonographic evaluation to discriminate chronic pancreatitis from healthy pancreas. Copyright © 2016 IAP and EPC. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The management of complex pancreatic injuries.

    PubMed

    Krige, J E J; Beningfield, S J; Nicol, A J; Navsaria, P

    2005-08-01

    Major injuries of the pancreas are uncommon, but may result in considerable morbidity and mortality because of the magnitude of associated vascular and duodenal injuries or underestimation of the extent of the pancreatic injury. Prognosis is influenced by the cause and complexity of the pancreatic injury, the amount of blood lost, duration of shock, speed of resuscitation and quality and nature of surgical intervention. Early mortality usually results from uncontrolled or massive bleeding due to associated vascular and adjacent organ injuries. Late mortality is a consequence of infection or multiple organ failure. Neglect of major pancreatic duct injury may lead to life-threatening complications including pseudocysts, fistulas, pancreatitis, sepsis and secondary haemorrhage. Careful operative assessment to determine the extent of gland damage and the likelihood of duct injury is usually sufficient to allow planning of further management. This strategy provides a simple approach to the management of pancreatic injuries regardless of the cause. Four situations are defined by the extent and site of injury: (i) minor lacerations, stabs or gunshot wounds of the superior or inferior border of the body or tail of the pancreas (i.e. remote from the main pancreatic duct), without visible duct involvement, are best managed by external drainage; (ii) major lacerations or gunshot or stab wounds in the body or tail with visible duct involvement or transection of more than half the width of the pancreas are treated by distal pancreatectomy; (iii) stab wounds, gunshot wounds and contusions of the head of the pancreas without devitalisation of pancreatic tissue are managed by external drainage, provided that any associated duodenal injury is amenable to simple repair; and (iv) non-reconstructable injuries with disruption of the ampullary-biliary-pancreatic union or major devitalising injuries of the pancreatic head and duodenum in stable patients are best treated by

  16. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging in autoimmune pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, Takao; Kobayashi, Hisato; Nishikawa, Koji; Iida, Etsushi; Michigami, Yoshihiro; Morimoto, Emiko; Yamashita, Rikiya; Miyagi, Ken; Okamoto, Motozumi

    2009-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the usefulness of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI MRI) for the diagnosis and evaluation of autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP). A total of 4 consecutive patients with AIP, 5 patients with chronic alcoholic pancreatitis (CP), and 13 patients without pancreatic disease (controls) were studied. DWI was performed in the axial plane with spin-echo echo-planar imaging single-shot sequence. Apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) were measured in circular regions of interest in the pancreas. In AIP patients, abdominal MRI was performed before, and 2-4 weeks after steroid treatment. Follow-up study was performed chronologically for up to 11 months in two patients. The correlation between ADCs of the pancreas and the immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4) index (serum IgG4 value/serum IgG4 value before steroid treatment) was evaluated. In the AIP patients, DWI of the pancreas showed high signal intensity, and the ADCs of the pancreas (mean +/- SD: 0.97 +/- 0.18 x 10(-3) mm(2)/s) were significantly lower than those in patients with CP (1.45 +/- 0.10 x 10(-3) mm(2)/s) or the controls (1.45 +/- 0.16 x 10(-3) mm(2)/s) (Mann-Whitney U-test, P < 0.05). In one AIP patient with focal swelling of the pancreas head that appeared to be a mass, DWI showed high signal intensity throughout the pancreas, indicating diffuse involvement. The ADCs of the pancreas and IgG4 index were significantly inversely correlated (Spearman's rank correlation coefficient, r (s) = -0.80, P < 0.05). Autoimmune pancreatitis showed high signal intensity on DWI, which improved after steroid treatment. ADCs reflected disease activity. Thus, diffusion-weighted MRI might be useful for diagnosing AIP, determining the affected area, and evaluating the effect of treatment.

  17. Predicting and evaluation the severity in acute pancreatitis using a new modeling built on body mass index and intra-abdominal pressure.

    PubMed

    Fei, Yang; Gao, Kun; Tu, Jianfeng; Wang, Wei; Zong, Guang-Quan; Li, Wei-Qin

    2017-06-03

    Acute pancreatitis (AP) keeps as severe medical diagnosis and treatment problem. Early evaluation for severity and risk stratification in patients with AP is very important. Some scoring system such as acute physiology and chronic health evaluation-II (APACHE-II), the computed tomography severity index (CTSI), Ranson's score and the bedside index of severity of AP (BISAP) have been used, nevertheless, there're a few shortcomings in these methods. The aim of this study was to construct a new modeling including intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) and body mass index (BMI) to evaluate the severity in AP. The study comprised of two independent cohorts of patients with AP, one set was used to develop modeling from Jinling hospital in the period between January 2013 and October 2016, 1073 patients were included in it; another set was used to validate modeling from the 81st hospital in the period between January 2012 and December 2016, 326 patients were included in it. The association between risk factors and severity of AP were assessed by univariable analysis; multivariable modeling was explored through stepwise selection regression. The change in IAP and BMI were combined to generate a regression equation as the new modeling. Statistical indexes were used to evaluate the value of the prediction in the new modeling. Univariable analysis confirmed change in IAP and BMI to be significantly associated with severity of AP. The predict sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy by the new modeling for severity of AP were 77.6%, 82.6%, 71.9%, 87.5% and 74.9% respectively in the developing dataset. There were significant differences between the new modeling and other scoring systems in these parameters (P < 0.05). In addition, a comparison of the area under receiver operating characteristic curves of them showed a statistically significant difference (P < 0.05). The same results could be found in the validating dataset. A new

  18. The epidemiology of pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Dhiraj; Lowenfels, Albert B

    2013-06-01

    Acute pancreatitis is one of the most frequent gastrointestinal causes of hospital admission in the United States. Chronic pancreatitis, although lower in incidence, significantly reduces patients' quality of life. Pancreatic cancer is associated with a high mortality rate and is one of the top 5 causes of death from cancer. The burden of pancreatic disorders is expected to increase over time. The risk and etiology of pancreatitis differ with age and sex, and all pancreatic disorders affect the black population more than any other race. Gallstones are the most common cause of acute pancreatitis, and early cholecystectomy eliminates the risk of future attacks. Alcohol continues to be the single most important risk factor for chronic pancreatitis. Smoking is an independent risk factor for acute and chronic pancreatitis, and its effects could synergize with those of alcohol. Significant risk factors for pancreatic cancer include smoking and non-O blood groups. Alcohol abstinence and smoking cessation can alter the progression of pancreatitis and reduce recurrence; smoking cessation is the most effective strategy to reduce the risk of pancreatic cancer. Copyright © 2013 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The Epidemiology of Pancreatitis and Pancreatic Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Dhiraj; Lowenfels, Albert B.

    2013-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis is one of the most frequent gastrointestinal causes for hospital admission in the US. Chronic pancreatitis, although lower in incidence, significantly reduces patients’ quality of life. Pancreatic cancer has high mortality and is 1 of the top 5 causes of death from cancer. The burden of pancreatic disorders is expected to increase over time. The risk and etiology of pancreatitis differ with age and sex, and all pancreatic disorders affect Blacks more than any other race. Gallstones are the most common cause of acute pancreatitis, and early cholecystectomy eliminates the risk of future attacks. Alcohol continues to be the single most important risk factor for chronic pancreatitis. Smoking is an independent risk factor for acute and chronic pancreatitis, and its effects could synergize with those of alcohol. Significant risk factors for pancreatic cancer include smoking and non-O blood groups. Alcohol abstinence and smoking cessation can alter progression of pancreatitis and reduce recurrence; smoking cessation is the most effective strategy to reduce the risk of pancreatic cancer. PMID:23622135

  20. Comparative proteomic profiling of the serum differentiates pancreatic cancer from chronic pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Saraswat, Mayank; Joenväärä, Sakari; Seppänen, Hanna; Mustonen, Harri; Haglund, Caj; Renkonen, Risto

    2017-07-01

    Finland ranks sixth among the countries having highest incidence rate of pancreatic cancer with mortality roughly equaling incidence. The average age of diagnosis for pancreatic cancer is 69 years in Nordic males, whereas the average age of diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis is 40-50 years, however, many cases overlap in age. By radiology, the evaluation of a pancreatic mass, that is, the differential diagnosis between chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer is often difficult. Preoperative needle biopsies are difficult to obtain and are demanding to interpret. New blood based biomarkers are needed. The accuracy of the only established biomarker for pancreatic cancer, CA 19-9 is rather poor in differentiating between benign and malignant mass of the pancreas. In this study, we have performed mass spectrometry analysis (High Definition MS E ) of serum samples from patients with chronic pancreatitis (13) and pancreatic cancer (22). We have quantified 291 proteins and performed detailed statistical analysis such as principal component analysis, orthogonal partial least square discriminant analysis and receiver operating curve analysis. The proteomic signature of chronic pancreatitis versus pancreatic cancer samples was able to separate the two groups by multiple statistical techniques. Some of the enriched pathways in the proteomic dataset were LXR/RXR activation, complement and coagulation systems and inflammatory response. We propose that multiple high-confidence biomarker candidates in our pilot study including Inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor heavy chain H2 (Area under the curve, AUC: 0.947), protein AMBP (AUC: 0.951) and prothrombin (AUC: 0.917), which should be further evaluated in larger patient series as potential new biomarkers for differential diagnosis. © 2017 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Chronic pancreatitis: A surgical disease? Role of the Frey procedure

    PubMed Central

    Roch, Alexandra; Teyssedou, Jérome; Mutter, Didier; Marescaux, Jacques; Pessaux, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Although medical treatment and endoscopic interventions are primarily offered to patients with chronic pancreatitis, approximately 40% to 75% will ultimately require surgery during the course of their disease. Although pancreaticoduodenectomy has been considered the standard surgical procedure because of its favorable results on pain control, its high postoperative complication and pancreatic exocrine or/and endocrine dysfunction rates have led to a growing enthusiasm for duodenal preserving pancreatic head resection. The aim of this review is to better understand the rationale underlying of the Frey procedure in chronic pancreatitis and to analyze its outcome. Because of its hybrid nature, combining both resection and drainage, the Frey procedure has been conceptualized based on the pathophysiology of chronic pancreatitis. The short and long-term outcome, especially pain relief and quality of life, are better after the Frey procedure than after any other surgical procedure performed for chronic pancreatitis. PMID:25068010

  2. Non-operative management of a grade IV pancreatic injury

    PubMed Central

    Hiremath, Bharati; Hegde, Nishchit

    2014-01-01

    Isolated pancreatic transection with ductal disruption in blunt abdominal trauma is extremely rare. We report the case of a 14-year-old boy who suffered pancreatic transection at the junction of body and head of the pancreas; yet remarkably recovered after initial conservative management. He was periodically examined clinically and underwent regular abdominal ultrasonography. Nearly 6 months later, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography with pancreatic duct stenting, pancreatic sphincterotomy and cystogastrostomy for the pseudocyst diagnosed during the follow-up period was performed. Acute surgical management of pancreatic transection is fraught with high mortality and morbidity. Through this effort, we highlight the successful role of non-operative management of a haemodynamically stable patient with grade IV pancreatic injury, thereby avoiding radical surgery in the acute stage and preserving exocrine and endocrine function. PMID:24788631

  3. Initial experience of EUS-guided radiofrequency ablation of unresectable pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Song, Tae Jun; Seo, Dong Wan; Lakhtakia, Sundeep; Reddy, Nageshwar; Oh, Dong Wook; Park, Do Hyun; Lee, Sang Soo; Lee, Sung Koo; Kim, Myung-Hwan

    2016-02-01

    Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) has been used as a valuable treatment modality for various unresectable malignancies. EUS-guided radiofrequency ablation (EUS-RFA) of the porcine pancreas was reported to be feasible and safe in our previous study, suggesting that EUS-RFA may be applicable as an adjunct and effective alternative treatment method for unresectable pancreatic cancer. This study aimed to assess the technical feasibility and safety of EUS-RFA for unresectable pancreatic cancer. An 18-gauge endoscopic RFA electrode and a radiofrequency generator were used for the procedure. The length of the exposed tip of the RFA electrode was 10 mm. After insertion of the RFA electrode into the mass, the radiofrequency generator was activated to deliver 20 to 50 W ablation power for 10 seconds. Depending on tumor size, the procedure was repeated to sufficiently cover the tumor. EUS-RFA was performed successfully in all 6 patients (median age 62 years, range 43-73 years). Pancreatic cancer was located in the head (n = 4) or body (n = 2) of the pancreas. The median diameter of masses was 3.8 cm (range 3cm-9cm). Four patients had stage 3 disease, and 2 patients had stage 4 disease. After the procedure, 2 patients experienced mild abdominal pain, but there were no other adverse events such as pancreatitis or bleeding. EUS-RFA could be a technically feasible and safe option for patients with unresectable pancreatic cancer. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. SU-E-J-271: Correlation of CT Number Change with Radiation Treatment Response for Pancreatic Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Dalah, E; Tai, A; Oshima, K

    Purpose: It has been reported recently that radiation can induce CT number (CTN) change during radiation therapy (RT) delivery. In the effort to explore whether CTN can be used to assess RT response, we analyze the relationship between the pathological treatment response (PTR) and the changes of CTN, MRI, and PET before and after the neoadjuvant chemoradiation (nCR) for pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Methods: The preand post-nCR CT, MRI, and PET data for a total of 8 patients with resectable, or borderline resectable pancreatic head adenocarcinoma treated with nCR were retrospectively analyzed. Radiographic characteristics were correlated to PTR data. The histograms, meansmore » and standard derivations (SD) of the CTNs in pancreatic head (CTNPH), the GTV defined by ADC (CTNGTV), and the rest of pancreatic head (CTNPH-CTNGTV) were compared. Changes before and after nCR were correlated with the corresponding changes of ADC, lean body mass normalized SUV (SUVlb), and PTR using Pearson’ s correlation coefficient test. Results: The average mean and SD in CTPH for all the patients analyzed were higher in post-nCR (53.17 ± 31.05 HU) compared to those at pre-nCR (28.09 ± 4.253 HU). The CTNGTV were generally higher than CTNPH and CTNPH-CTNGTV, though the differences were not significant. The post-nCR changes of mean CTN, ADC, and SUVlb values in pancreatic head were correlated with PTR (R=0.3273/P=0.5357, R=−0.5455/P<0.0001, and R=0.7638/P=0.0357, respectively). The mean difference in the maximum tumor dimension measured from CTN, ADC, and SUVlb as compared with pathological measurements was −2.1, −0.5, and 0.22 cm, respectively. Conclusion: The radiation-induced change of CTN in pancreas head after chemoradiation therapy of pancreatic cancer was observed, which may be related to treatment responses as assessed by biological imaging and pathology. More data are needed to determine whether the CTN can be used as a quantitative biomarker for response to neoadjuvant

  5. Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor with complete replacement of the pancreas by serous cystic neoplasms in a patient with von Hippel-Lindau disease: a case report.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Shimpei; Motoi, Fuyuhiko; Oana, Shuhei; Ariake, Kyohei; Mizuma, Masamichi; Morikawa, Takanori; Hayashi, Hiroki; Nakagawa, Kei; Kamei, Takashi; Naitoh, Takeshi; Unno, Michiaki

    2017-09-25

    von Hippel-Lindau disease is a dominantly inherited multi-system syndrome with neoplastic hallmarks. Pancreatic lesions associated with von Hippel-Lindau include serous cystic neoplasms, simple cysts, and neuroendocrine tumors. The combination of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors and serous cystic neoplasms is relatively rare, and the surgical treatment of these lesions must consider both preservation of pancreatic function and oncological clearance. We report a patient with von Hippel-Lindau disease successfully treated with pancreas-sparing resection of a pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor where the pancreas had been completely replaced by serous cystic neoplasms, in which pancreatic function was preserved. A 39-year-old female with von Hippel-Lindau disease was referred to our institution for treatment of a pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor. Abdominal computed tomography demonstrated a well-enhanced mass, 4 cm in diameter in the tail of the pancreas, and two multilocular tumors with several calcifications, 5 cm in diameter, in the head of the pancreas. There was complete replacement of the pancreas by multiple cystic lesions with diameters ranging from 1 to 3 cm. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography showed innumerable cystic lesions on the whole pancreas and no detectable main pancreatic duct. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration of the mass in the pancreatic tail showed characteristic features of a neuroendocrine tumor. A diagnosis of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor in the tail of the pancreas and mixed-type serous cystic neoplasms replacing the whole pancreas was made and she underwent distal pancreatectomy while avoiding total pancreatectomy. The stump of the pancreas was sutured as firm as possible using a fish-mouth closure. The patient made a good recovery and was discharged on postoperative day 9. She is currently alive and well with no symptoms of endocrine or exocrine pancreatic insufficiency 8 months after surgery. A pancreas

  6. Utility of Readout-Segmented Echo-Planar Imaging-Based Diffusion Kurtosis Imaging for Differentiating Malignant from Benign Masses in Head and Neck Region.

    PubMed

    Ma, Gao; Xu, Xiao-Quan; Hu, Hao; Su, Guo-Yi; Shen, Jie; Shi, Hai-Bin; Wu, Fei-Yun

    2018-01-01

    To compare the diagnostic performance of readout-segmented echo-planar imaging (RS-EPI)-based diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) and that of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) for differentiating malignant from benign masses in head and neck region. Between December 2014 and April 2016, we retrospectively enrolled 72 consecutive patients with head and neck masses who had undergone RS-EPI-based DKI scan (b value of 0, 500, 1000, and 1500 s/mm 2 ) for pretreatment evaluation. Imaging data were post-processed by using monoexponential and diffusion kurtosis (DK) model for quantitation of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), apparent diffusion for Gaussian distribution (D app ), and apparent kurtosis coefficient (K app ). Unpaired t test and Mann-Whitney U test were used to compare differences of quantitative parameters between malignant and benign groups. Receiver operating characteristic curve analyses were performed to determine and compare the diagnostic ability of quantitative parameters in predicting malignancy. Malignant group demonstrated significantly lower ADC (0.754 ± 0.167 vs. 1.222 ± 0.420, p < 0.001) and D app (1.029 ± 0.226 vs. 1.640 ± 0.445, p < 0.001) while higher K app (1.344 ± 0.309 vs. 0.715 ± 0.249, p < 0.001) than benign group. Using a combination of D app and K app as diagnostic index, significantly better differentiating performance was achieved than using ADC alone (area under curve: 0.956 vs. 0.876, p = 0.042). Compared to DWI, DKI could provide additional data related to tumor heterogeneity with significantly better differentiating performance. Its derived quantitative metrics could serve as a promising imaging biomarker for differentiating malignant from benign masses in head and neck region.

  7. Mechanical Structural Design of a MEMS-Based Piezoresistive Accelerometer for Head Injuries Monitoring: A Computational Analysis by Increments of the Sensor Mass Moment of Inertia †

    PubMed Central

    Messina, Marco; Njuguna, James; Palas, Chrysovalantis

    2018-01-01

    This work focuses on the proof-mass mechanical structural design improvement of a tri-axial piezoresistive accelerometer specifically designed for head injuries monitoring where medium-G impacts are common; for example, in sports such as racing cars or American Football. The device requires the highest sensitivity achievable with a single proof-mass approach, and a very low error (<1%) as the accuracy for these types of applications is paramount. The optimization method differs from previous work as it is based on the progressive increment of the sensor proof-mass mass moment of inertia (MMI) in all three axes. Three different designs are presented in this study, where at each step of design evolution, the MMI of the sensor proof-mass gradually increases in all axes. The work numerically demonstrates that an increment of MMI determines an increment of device sensitivity with a simultaneous reduction of cross-axis sensitivity in the particular axis under study. This is due to the linkage between the external applied stress and the distribution of mass (of the proof-mass), and therefore of its mass moment of inertia. Progressively concentrating the mass on the axes where the piezoresistors are located (i.e., x- and y-axis) by increasing the MMI in the x- and y-axis, will undoubtedly increase the longitudinal stresses applied in that areas for a given external acceleration, therefore increasing the piezoresistors fractional resistance change and eventually positively affecting the sensor sensitivity. The final device shows a sensitivity increase of about 80% in the z-axis and a reduction of cross-axis sensitivity of 18% respect to state-of-art sensors available in the literature from a previous work of the authors. Sensor design, modelling, and optimization are presented, concluding the work with results, discussion, and conclusion. PMID:29351221

  8. Treatment of pancreatic insufficiency using pancreatic extract in patients with advanced pancreatic cancer: a pilot study (PICNIC).

    PubMed

    Zdenkowski, Nicholas; Radvan, George; Pugliese, Leanna; Charlton, Julie; Oldmeadow, Christopher; Fraser, Allison; Bonaventura, Antonino

    2017-06-01

    Survival with advanced pancreatic cancer is less than 12 months. Pancreatic exocrine insufficiency may contribute to pancreatic cancer-related cachexia, via nutrient malabsorption. We aimed to determine the feasibility of prescribing pancreatic extract (Creon®) for patients with advanced pancreatic cancer. Patients with advanced pancreatic cancer, without frank malabsorption, were randomised in this feasibility study to pancreatic extract 50,000 units with meals and 25,000 units with snacks, or placebo. Standardised dietary advice was given. Anti-cancer and supportive care treatments were permitted. Outcomes included weight, body mass index (BMI), quality of life (QLQC30, PAN26), survival and nutritional assessment (PG-SGA). Eighteen patients were randomised before study closure due to slow recruitment. Baseline characteristics were well matched. Weight loss prior to randomisation was numerically greater in the pancreatic extract group (mean 0.7 vs 2.2 kg). Weight loss was numerically greater in the placebo group, however not significantly. No differences in BMI or nutrition score were seen. Quality of life did not differ between study groups. Median overall survival was 17 (95% CI 8.1-48.7) weeks in the control group, and 67.6 (95% CI 14.1-98.4) weeks in the pancreatic extract group (p = 0.1063). Only 17% (18/106) of potentially eligible patients were recruited, related to patient/family reluctance, rapid clinical deterioration and patients already prescribed pancreatic extract. A moderate pill burden was noted. Despite intriguing survival results, this study was not sufficiently feasible to proceed to a fully powered comparative study. A multi-centre study would be required to exclude a significant difference in outcomes.

  9. Combination of TS-021 with metformin improves hyperglycemia and synergistically increases pancreatic β-cell mass in a mouse model of type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Tajima, Atsushi; Hirata, Takashi; Taniguchi, Kazuo; Kondo, Yukiko; Kato, Sota; Saito-Hori, Masako; Ishimoto, Tsuyoshi; Yamamoto, Koji

    2011-10-24

    The objectives of this study were to elucidate the effects of a potent dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP)-IV inhibitor, TS-021, combined with/without metformin on glycemic control and pathological changes in pancreatic islets in high-fat diet and streptozotocin-induced (HFD-STZ) diabetic mice. The anti-diabetic effects of TS-021 and/or metformin in HFD-STZ mice were examined in both acute and chronic treatment studies. In addition, we performed immunohistochemical analysis after repeated administration of TS-021 and/or metformin to HFD-STZ mice twice a day for 5 weeks. In the acute treatment study, TS-021 and/or metformin significantly improved glucose tolerance and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) level, and TS-021 alone or in combination with metformin significantly increased the plasma insulin level after nutrient ingestion. In the chronic treatment study, TS-021 in combination with metformin significantly lowered the glycosylated hemoglobin level, plasma insulin level, and α-cell-to-β-cell area ratio in pancreatic islets. In particular, the combined treatment synergistically increased the insulin-positive area in pancreatic islets from 32.3% in diabetic mice treated with the vehicle to 51.1% (TS-021 alone, 35.3%; metformin alone, 30.6%). The present study demonstrated that the coadministration of TS-021 and metformin synergistically improved the islet morphology by increasing the circulating level of biologically active GLP-1, which is thought to result from two different mechanisms (namely, an increase in GLP-1 secretion and DPP-IV inhibition). These findings strongly support the rationale for combined treatment with DPP-IV inhibitors plus metformin in clinical practice by clearly demonstrating an anti-diabetic effect associated with the remarkable improvement in pancreatic β-cell morphology. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Management of pancreatic pseudocysts—A retrospective analysis

    PubMed Central

    Nötzel, Bärbel; Phillip, Veit; Lahmer, Tobias; Schmid, Roland M.; Algül, Hana

    2017-01-01

    Background Pancreatic pseudocysts arise mostly in patients with alcohol induced chronic pancreatitis causing various symptoms and complications. However, data on the optimal management are rare. To address this problem, we analysed patients with pancreatic pseudocysts treated at our clinic retrospectively. Methods We searched our clinical database for the diagnosis pancreatitis from 2004 till 2014, selected patients with pseudocysts larger than 10 mm and entered all relevant information in a database for statistical analysis. Results In total, 129 patients with pancreatic pseudocysts were treated at our institution during the study period. Most patients suffered from alcohol induced chronic pancreatitis (43.4%; 56/129). Pseudocysts were more frequent in female than in male (2:1) and were mainly located in the pancreatic head (47.3%; 61/129). Local complications like obstructive jaundice were associated with the diameter of the cysts (AUC 0.697 in ROC-curve analysis). However, even cysts up to a diameter of 160 mm can regress spontaneously. Besides a lower re-intervention rate in surgically treated patients, endoscopic, percutaneous and surgical drainage are equally effective. Most treatment related complications occur in large pseudocysts located in the pancreatic head. Conclusion Conservative management of large pseudocysts is successful in many patients. Therefore, indication for treatment should be made carefully considering the presence and risk of local complications. Endoscopic and surgical drainage are equally effective. PMID:28877270

  11. [External pancreatic fistulas management].

    PubMed

    Stepan, E V; Ermolov, A S; Rogal', M L; Teterin, Yu S

    The main principles of treatment of external postoperative pancreatic fistulas are viewed in the article. Pancreatic trauma was the reason of pancreatic fistula in 38.7% of the cases, operations because of acute pancreatitis - in 25.8%, and pancreatic pseudocyst drainage - in 35.5%. 93 patients recovered after the treatment. Complex conservative treatment of EPF allowed to close fistulas in 74.2% of the patients with normal patency of the main pancreatic duct (MPD). The usage of octreotide 600-900 mcg daily for at least 5 days to decrease pancreatic secretion was an important part of the conservative treatment. Endoscopic papillotomy was performed in patients with major duodenal papilla obstruction and interruption of transporting of pancreatic secretion to duodenum. Stent of the main pancreatic duct was indicated in patients with extended pancreatic duct stenosis to normalize transport of pancreatic secretion to duodenum. Surgical formation of anastomosis between distal part of the main pancreatic duct and gastro-intestinal tract was carried out when it was impossible to fulfill endoscopic stenting of pancreatic duct either because of its interruption and diastasis between its ends, or in the cases of unsuccessful conservative treatment of external pancreatic fistula caused by drainage of pseudocyst.

  12. Species-specific vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) expression in mammalian pancreatic beta cells: implications for optimising radioligand-based human beta cell mass (BCM) imaging in animal models

    PubMed Central

    Hartwig, N. R.; Kalmbach, N.; Klietz, M.; Anlauf, M.; Eiden, L. E.; Weihe, E.

    2014-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis Imaging of beta cell mass (BCM) is a major challenge in diabetes research. The vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) is abundantly expressed in human beta cells. Radiolabelled analogues of tetrabenazine (TBZ; a low-molecular-weight, cell-permeant VMAT2-selective ligand) have been employed for pancreatic islet imaging in humans. Since reports on TBZ-based VMAT2 imaging in rodent pancreas have been fraught with confusion, we compared VMAT2 gene expression patterns in the mouse, rat, pig and human pancreas, to identify appropriate animal models with which to further validate and optimise TBZ imaging in humans. Methods We used a panel of highly sensitive VMAT2 antibodies developed against equivalently antigenic regions of the transporter from each species in combination with immunostaining for insulin and species-specific in situ hybridisation probes. Individual pancreatic islets were obtained by laser-capture microdissection and subjected to analysis of mRNA expression of VMAT2. Results The VMAT2 protein was not expressed in beta cells in the adult pancreas of common mouse or rat laboratory strains, in contrast to its expression in beta cells (but not other pancreatic endocrine cell types) in the pancreas of pigs and humans. VMAT2- and tyrosine hydroxylase co-positive (catecholaminergic) innervation was less abundant in humans than in rodents. VMAT2-positive mast cells were identified in the pancreas of all species. Conclusions/interpretation Primates and pigs are suitable models for TBZ imaging of beta cells. Rodents, because of a complete lack of VMAT2 expression in the endocrine pancreas, are a ‘null’ model for assessing interference with BCM measurements by VMAT2-positive mast cells and sympathetic innervation in the pancreas. PMID:23404442

  13. THE PANC 3 SCORE PREDICTING SEVERITY OF ACUTE PANCREATITIS.

    PubMed

    Beduschi, Murilo Gamba; Mello, André Luiz Parizi; VON-Mühlen, Bruno; Franzon, Orli

    2016-03-01

    About 20% of cases of acute pancreatitis progress to a severe form, leading to high mortality rates. Several studies suggested methods to identify patients that will progress more severely. However, most studies present problems when used on daily practice. To assess the efficacy of the PANC 3 score to predict acute pancreatitis severity and its relation to clinical outcome. Acute pancreatitis patients were assessed as to sex, age, body mass index (BMI), etiology of pancreatitis, intensive care need, length of stay, length of stay in intensive care unit and mortality. The PANC 3 score was determined within the first 24 hours after diagnosis and compared to acute pancreatitis grade of the Revised Atlanta classification. Out of 64 patients diagnosed with acute pancreatitis, 58 met the inclusion criteria. The PANC 3 score was positive in five cases (8.6%), pancreatitis progressed to a severe form in 10 cases (17.2%) and five patients (8.6%) died. Patients with a positive score and severe pancreatitis required intensive care more often, and stayed for a longer period in intensive care units. The PANC 3 score showed sensitivity of 50%, specificity of 100%, accuracy of 91.4%, positive predictive value of 100% and negative predictive value of 90.6% in prediction of severe acute pancreatitis. The PANC 3 score is useful to assess acute pancreatitis because it is easy and quick to use, has high specificity, high accuracy and high predictive value in prediction of severe acute pancreatitis.

  14. THE PANC 3 SCORE PREDICTING SEVERITY OF ACUTE PANCREATITIS

    PubMed Central

    BEDUSCHI, Murilo Gamba; MELLO, André Luiz Parizi; VON-MÜHLEN, Bruno; FRANZON, Orli

    2016-01-01

    Background : About 20% of cases of acute pancreatitis progress to a severe form, leading to high mortality rates. Several studies suggested methods to identify patients that will progress more severely. However, most studies present problems when used on daily practice. Objective : To assess the efficacy of the PANC 3 score to predict acute pancreatitis severity and its relation to clinical outcome. Methods : Acute pancreatitis patients were assessed as to sex, age, body mass index (BMI), etiology of pancreatitis, intensive care need, length of stay, length of stay in intensive care unit and mortality. The PANC 3 score was determined within the first 24 hours after diagnosis and compared to acute pancreatitis grade of the Revised Atlanta classification. Results : Out of 64 patients diagnosed with acute pancreatitis, 58 met the inclusion criteria. The PANC 3 score was positive in five cases (8.6%), pancreatitis progressed to a severe form in 10 cases (17.2%) and five patients (8.6%) died. Patients with a positive score and severe pancreatitis required intensive care more often, and stayed for a longer period in intensive care units. The PANC 3 score showed sensitivity of 50%, specificity of 100%, accuracy of 91.4%, positive predictive value of 100% and negative predictive value of 90.6% in prediction of severe acute pancreatitis. Conclusion : The PANC 3 score is useful to assess acute pancreatitis because it is easy and quick to use, has high specificity, high accuracy and high predictive value in prediction of severe acute pancreatitis. PMID:27120730

  15. [Surgical treatment of chronic pancreatitis, 2010].

    PubMed

    Farkas, Gyula

    2011-04-01

    Chronic pancreatitis (CP) is a benign inflammatory process, which can cause enlargement of the pancreatic head accompanied by severe pain and weight loss, and often leads to a significant reduction in quality of life (QoL). Basically, the disease is characterised by pain and functional disorders which are initially treated with conservative therapy, but in case of complications (uncontrollable pain or obstruction) surgical treatment is required. This article reviews the relevant literature of CP treatment, in particular randomized controlled trials and meta-analyses were involved with a comparison of different surgical treatment options for the management of CP complications. Recent studies have demonstrated that surgical procedures are superior to endoscopic therapy as regards long-term results of QoL and pain control. There was no significant difference found in postoperative pain relief and overall mortality when duodenum-preserving pancreatic head resection (DPPHR) of Beger and its modification (duodenum and organ-preserving pancreatic head resection [DOPPHR]) were compared with pancreatoduodenectomy (PD), but hospital stay, weight gain, exocrine and endocrine insufficiency, and QoL were significantly better in the DPPHR and DOPPHR groups. DPPHR and PD seem to be equally effective in terms of postoperative pain relief and overall mortality. However, recent data suggest that DOPPHR is superior in the treatment of CP with regard to several peri- and postoperative outcome parameters and QoL. Therefore, this should be the preferable treatment option for CP complications.

  16. Mass

    SciTech Connect

    Quigg, Chris

    2007-12-05

    In the classical physics we inherited from Isaac Newton, mass does not arise, it simply is. The mass of a classical object is the sum of the masses of its parts. Albert Einstein showed that the mass of a body is a measure of its energy content, inviting us to consider the origins of mass. The protons we accelerate at Fermilab are prime examples of Einsteinian matter: nearly all of their mass arises from stored energy. Missing mass led to the discovery of the noble gases, and a new form of missing mass leads us to the notion of darkmore » matter. Starting with a brief guided tour of the meanings of mass, the colloquium will explore the multiple origins of mass. We will see how far we have come toward understanding mass, and survey the issues that guide our research today.« less

  17. Calcified pancreatic and peripancreatic neoplasms: spectrum of pathologies.

    PubMed

    Verde, Franco; Fishman, Elliot K

    2017-11-01

    A variety of pancreatic and peripancreatic neoplasms may contain calcifications. We present a review of common to uncommon pancreatic neoplasms that may contain calcifications to include ductal adenocarcinoma, pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors, serous cystadenomas, solid pseudopapillary tumors, intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms, mucinous cystic neoplasms, and lymphoepithelial cysts. In addition, duodenal mucinous adenocarcinoma can present as a peripancreatic mass that may contain calcification. Knowledge of the spectrum of calcification patterns can help the interpreting radiologist provide a meaningful differential.

  18. Acoustic radiation force impulse shear wave elastography (ARFI) of acute and chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic tumor.

    PubMed

    Goertz, Ruediger S; Schuderer, Johanna; Strobel, Deike; Pfeifer, Lukas; Neurath, Markus F; Wildner, Dane

    2016-12-01

    Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse (ARFI) elastography evaluates tissue stiffness non-invasively and has rarely been applied to pancreas examinations so far. In a prospective and retrospective analysis, ARFI shear wave velocities of healthy parenchyma, pancreatic lipomatosis, acute and chronic pancreatitis, adenocarcinoma and neuroendocrine tumor (NET) of the pancreas were evaluated and compared. In 95 patients ARFI elastography of the pancreatic head, and also of the tail for a specific group, was analysed retrospectively. Additionally, prospectively in 100 patients ARFI was performed in the head and tail of the pancreas. A total of 195 patients were included in the study. Healthy parenchyma (n=21) and lipomatosis (n=30) showed similar shear wave velocities of about 1.3m/s. Acute pancreatitis (n=35), chronic pancreatitis (n=53) and adenocarcinoma (n=52) showed consecutively increasing ARFI values, respectively. NET (n=4) revealed the highest shear wave velocities amounting to 3.62m/s. ARFI elastography showed relevant differences between acute pancreatitis and chronic pancreatitis or adenocarcinoma. With a cut-off value of 1.74m/s for the diagnosis of a malignant disease the sensitivity was 91.1% whereas the specificity amounted to 60.4%. ARFI shear wave velocities present differences in various pathologies of the pancreas. Acute and chronic pancreatitis as well as neoplastic lesions show high ARFI values. Very high elasticity values may indicate malignant disease of the pancreas. However, there is a considerable overlap between the entities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Texture-Based Analysis of 100 MR Examinations of Head and Neck Tumors - Is It Possible to Discriminate Between Benign and Malignant Masses in a Multicenter Trial?

    PubMed

    Fruehwald-Pallamar, J; Hesselink, J R; Mafee, M F; Holzer-Fruehwald, L; Czerny, C; Mayerhoefer, M E

    2016-02-01

    To evaluate whether texture-based analysis of standard MRI sequences can help in the discrimination between benign and malignant head and neck tumors. The MR images of 100 patients with a histologically clarified head or neck mass, from two different institutions, were analyzed. Texture-based analysis was performed using texture analysis software, with region of interest measurements for 2 D and 3 D evaluation independently for all axial sequences. COC, RUN, GRA, ARM, and WAV features were calculated for all ROIs. 10 texture feature subsets were used for a linear discriminant analysis, in combination with k-nearest-neighbor classification. Benign and malignant tumors were compared with regard to texture-based values. There were differences in the images from different field-strength scanners, as well as from different vendors. For the differentiation of benign and malignant tumors, we found differences on STIR and T2-weighted images for 2 D, and on contrast-enhanced T1-TSE with fat saturation for 3 D evaluation. In a separate analysis of the subgroups 1.5 and 3 Tesla, more discriminating features were found. Texture-based analysis is a useful tool in the discrimination of benign and malignant tumors when performed on one scanner with the same protocol. We cannot recommend this technique for the use of multicenter studies with clinical data. 2 D/3 D texture-based analysis can be performed in head and neck tumors. Texture-based analysis can differentiate between benign and malignant masses. Analyzed MR images should originate from one scanner with an identical protocol. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. Low skeletal muscle mass is a predictive factor for chemotherapy dose-limiting toxicity in patients with locally advanced head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Wendrich, Anne W; Swartz, Justin E; Bril, Sandra I; Wegner, Inge; de Graeff, Alexander; Smid, Ernst J; de Bree, Remco; Pothen, Ajit J

    2017-08-01

    Low skeletal muscle mass (SMM) or sarcopenia is emerging as an adverse prognostic factor for chemotherapy dose-limiting toxicity (CLDT) and survival in cancer patients. Our aim was to determine the impact of low SMM on CDLT in patients with locally advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (LA-HNSCC) treated with primary radiochemotherapy (RCT). Consecutive patients diagnosed with LA-HNSCC and treated with primary RCT between 2007 and 2011 in our center were included. Clinical variables were retrospectively retrieved and SMM was measured at the level of the third cervical vertebra using pre-treatment head and neck CT-scans. After determining a cut-off value for low SMM, multivariate analysis was performed to identify prognostic factors for CDLT. Of 112 patients included, 30.4% experienced CDLT. The optimal cut-off value for low SMM as a predictor of CDLT was ≤43.2cm 2 /m 2 . Using this cut-off, 54.5% patients had low SMM. Patients with low SMM experienced CDLT more frequently than patients with normal SMM (44.3% vs. 13.7%, p<0.001) and received a higher dose of chemotherapy/kg lean body mass (estimated from SMM, p=0.044). At multivariate analysis, low SMM was independently inversely associated with CDLT (OR 0.93, 95%CI: 0.88-0.98). Patients experiencing CDLT had a lower overall survival than patients who did not (mean 36.6vs. 54.2months, p=0.038). Low SMM is an independent risk factor for CDLT in LA-HNSCC patients treated with primary RCT. Pre-therapeutic estimation of SMM using routine CT-scans of the head and neck region may identify patients at risk of CDLT. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Endoscopic versus surgical drainage of the pancreatic duct in chronic pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Cahen, Djuna L; Gouma, Dirk J; Nio, Yung; Rauws, Erik A J; Boermeester, Marja A; Busch, Olivier R; Stoker, Jaap; Laméris, Johan S; Dijkgraaf, Marcel G W; Huibregtse, Kees; Bruno, Marco J

    2007-02-15

    For patients with chronic pancreatitis and a dilated pancreatic duct, ductal decompression is recommended. We conducted a randomized trial to compare endoscopic and surgical drainage of the pancreatic duct. All symptomatic patients with chronic pancreatitis and a distal obstruction of the pancreatic duct but without an inflammatory mass were eligible for the study. We randomly assigned patients to undergo endoscopic transampullary drainage of the pancreatic duct or operative pancreaticojejunostomy. The primary end point was the average Izbicki pain score during 2 years of follow-up. The secondary end points were pain relief at the end of follow-up, physical and mental health, morbidity, mortality, length of hospital stay, number of procedures undergone, and changes in pancreatic function. Thirty-nine patients underwent randomization: 19 to endoscopic treatment (16 of whom underwent lithotripsy) and 20 to operative pancreaticojejunostomy. During the 24 months of follow-up, patients who underwent surgery, as compared with those who were treated endoscopically, had lower Izbicki pain scores (25 vs. 51, P<0.001) and better physical health summary scores on the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form General Health Survey questionnaire (P=0.003). At the end of follow-up, complete or partial pain relief was achieved in 32% of patients assigned to endoscopic drainage as compared with 75% of patients assigned to surgical drainage (P=0.007). Rates of complications, length of hospital stay, and changes in pancreatic function were similar in the two treatment groups, but patients receiving endoscopic treatment required more procedures than did patients in the surgery group (a median of eight vs. three, P<0.001). Surgical drainage of the pancreatic duct was more effective than endoscopic treatment in patients with obstruction of the pancreatic duct due to chronic pancreatitis. (Current Controlled Trials number, ISRCTN04572410 [controlled-trials.com].). Copyright 2007

  2. Head lice

    MedlinePlus

    Pediculosis capitis - head lice ... Head lice infect hair on the head. Tiny eggs on the hair look like flakes of dandruff . However, ... flaking off the scalp, they stay in place. Head lice can live up to 30 days on a ...

  3. Challenges in diagnosis of pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lulu; Sanagapalli, Santosh; Stoita, Alina

    2018-05-21

    Pancreatic cancer is a growing source of cancer related death, yet has poor survival rates which have not improved in the last few decades. Its high mortality rate is attributed to pancreatic cancer biology, difficulty in early diagnosis and the lack of standardised international guidelines in assessing suspicious pancreatic masses. This review aims to provide an update in the current state of play in pancreatic cancer diagnosis and to evaluate the benefits and limitations of available diagnostic technology. The main modalities discussed are imaging with computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, endoscopic ultrasound and positron emission tomography and tissue acquisition with fine needle aspiration. We also review the improvements in the techniques used for tissue acquisition and the opportunity for personalised cancer medicine. Screening of high risk individuals, promising biomarkers and common mimickers of pancreatic cancer are also explored, as well as suggestions for future research directions to allow for earlier detection of pancreatic cancer. Timely and accurate diagnosis of pancreatic cancer can lead to improvements in the current poor outcome of this disease.

  4. Quality of Life in Patients Undergoing Radiation Therapy for Primary Lung Cancer, Head and Neck Cancer, or Gastrointestinal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-05-23

    Anal Cancer; Colorectal Cancer; Esophageal Cancer; Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer; Gallbladder Cancer; Gastric Cancer; Head and Neck Cancer; Liver Cancer; Lung Cancer; Pancreatic Cancer; Small Intestine Cancer

  5. Pancreatitis-imaging approach

    PubMed Central

    Busireddy, Kiran K; AlObaidy, Mamdoh; Ramalho, Miguel; Kalubowila, Janaka; Baodong, Liu; Santagostino, Ilaria; Semelka, Richard C

    2014-01-01

    Pancreatitis is defined as the inflammation of the pancreas and considered the most common pancreatic disease in children and adults. Imaging plays a significant role in the diagnosis, severity assessment, recognition of complications and guiding therapeutic interventions. In the setting of pancreatitis, wider availability and good image quality make multi-detector contrast-enhanced computed tomography (MD-CECT) the most used imaging technique. However, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) offers diagnostic capabilities similar to those of CT, with additional intrinsic advantages including lack of ionizing radiation and exquisite soft tissue characterization. This article reviews the proposed definitions of revised Atlanta classification for acute pancreatitis, illustrates a wide range of morphologic pancreatic parenchymal and associated peripancreatic changes for different types of acute pancreatitis. It also describes the spectrum of early and late chronic pancreatitis imaging findings and illustrates some of the less common types of chronic pancreatitis, with special emphasis on the role of CT and MRI. PMID:25133027

  6. Pathogenic mechanisms of pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Manohar, Murli; Verma, Alok Kumar; Venkateshaiah, Sathisha Upparahalli; Sanders, Nathan L; Mishra, Anil

    2017-01-01

    Pancreatitis is inflammation of pancreas and caused by a number of factors including pancreatic duct obstruction, alcoholism, and mutation in the cationic trypsinogen gene. Pancreatitis is represented as acute pancreatitis with acute inflammatory responses and; chronic pancreatitis characterized by marked stroma formation with a high number of infiltrating granulocytes (such as neutrophils, eosinophils), monocytes, macrophages and pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs). These inflammatory cells are known to play a central role in initiating and promoting inflammation including pancreatic fibrosis, i.e., a major risk factor for pancreatic cancer. A number of inflammatory cytokines are known to involve in promoting pancreatic pathogenesis that lead pancreatic fibrosis. Pancreatic fibrosis is a dynamic phenomenon that requires an intricate network of several autocrine and paracrine signaling pathways. In this review, we have provided the details of various cytokines and molecular mechanistic pathways (i.e., Transforming growth factor-β/SMAD, mitogen-activated protein kinases, Rho kinase, Janus kinase/signal transducers and activators, and phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase) that have a critical role in the activation of PSCs to promote chronic pancreatitis and trigger the phenomenon of pancreatic fibrogenesis. In this review of literature, we discuss the involvement of several pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines, such as in interleukin (IL)-1, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8 IL-10, IL-18, IL-33 and tumor necrosis factor-α, in the pathogenesis of disease. Our review also highlights the significance of several experimental animal models that have an important role in dissecting the mechanistic pathways operating in the development of chronic pancreatitis, including pancreatic fibrosis. Additionally, we provided several intermediary molecules that are involved in major signaling pathways that might provide target molecules for future therapeutic treatment strategies for

  7. A CT-guided fat transversing coaxial biopsy technique for pancreatic lesion biopsy that avoids major organs and vessels

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chia-Ying; Ou, Ming-Ching; Liu, Yi-Sheng; Chuang, Ming-Tsung; Shan, Yan-Shen; Tsai, Hong-Ming; Wang, Chien-Kuo; Tsai, Yi-Shan

    2017-01-01

    Background/Aims: The purpose of this study is to report our results using a computed tomography (CT)-guided fat transversing coaxial biopsy technique for pancreatic lesion biopsy that avoids major organs and vessels. We retrospectively reviewed the records of patients referred to our department for pancreatic mass biopsy. Patients and Methods: The records of patients (from June 2008 to August 2014) in whom biopsy was performed under CT guidance with a coaxial needle using a fat transversing technique were reviewed. Patient demographic data and biopsy outcomes were collected. We aimed to compare differences between lesion size and biopsy outcome, the independent two-samples t-test was used. Results: A total of 122 patients who underwent 17-G coaxial needle biopsy were included. The mean pancreatic lesion size was 3.2 cm, and in 30 patients it was more than 4 cm. The majority of lesions were located in the head of the pancreas (44.3%). No transorgan biopsies were performed. In most patients, the biopsy was performed via a fat traversing detour route (93.4%), and a successful diagnosis was made based on the biopsy outcome in 96.7% patients. Complications occurred in five patients (4.1%); three of the patients developed a fever, and two developed pancreatitis. All patients recovered with symptomatic treatment. Conclusion: CT-guided coaxial core biopsy of pancreatic lesions using a fat detour route appears to be a safe and effective method for obtaining pancreatic lesion biopsies with a high success rate and low complication rate. PMID:29205187

  8. Gastroduodenal artery aneurysm - A rare complication of traumatic pancreatic injury.

    PubMed

    Babu, Annu; Rattan, Amulya; Singhal, Maneesh; Gupta, Amit; Kumar, Subodh

    2016-12-01

    Aneurysm of gastroduodenal artery (GDA) is rare. Most reported cases are due to pancreatitis and atherosclerosis; however, those following pancreatic trauma have not been reported. We encoun- tered GDA aneurysm in a patient of blunt abdominal trauma, who had pancreatic contusion and retroduodenal air on contrast enhanced computed tomography of abdomen. Emergency laparotomy for suspected duodenal injury revealed duodenal wall and pancreatic head contusion, mild hemo- peritoneum and no evidence of duodenal perforation. In the postoperative period, the patient developed upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage on day 5. Repeat imaging revealed GDA aneurysm, which was managed successfully by angioembolization. This case highlights, one, delayed presen- tation of GDA aneurysm after blunt pancreatic trauma and two, its successful management using endovascular technique.

  9. Quantitative Body Mass Characterization Before and After Head and Neck Cancer Radiotherapy: A Challenge of Height-Weight Formulae Using Computed Tomography Measurement

    PubMed Central

    Chamchod, Sasikarn; Fuller, Clifton D.; Mohamed, Abdallah S.R.; Grossberg, Aaron; Messer, Jay A.; Heukelom, Jolien; Gunn, G. Brandon; Kantor, Micheal E.; Eichelberger, Hillary; Garden, Adam S.; Rosenthal, David I.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives We undertook a challenge to determine if one or more height-weight formula(e) can be clinically used as a surrogate for direct CT-based imaging assessment of body composition before and after radiotherapy for head and neck cancer (HNC) patients, who are at risk for cancer- and therapy-associated cachexia/sarcopenia. Materials and Methods This retrospective single-institution study included 215 HNC patients, treated with curative radiotherapy between 2003 and 2013. Height/weight measures were tabulated. Skeletal muscle mass was contoured on pre- and post-treatment CT at the L3 vertebral level. Three common lean body mass (LBM) formulae (Hume, Boer, and James) were calculated, and compared to CT assessment at each time point. Results 156 patients (73%) had tumors arising in the oropharynx and 130 (61%) received concurrent chemotherapy. Mean pretreatment body mass index (BMI) was 28.5 ± 4.9 kg/m2 in men and 27.8 ± 8 kg/m2 in women. Mean post-treatment BMI were 26.2 ± 4.4 kg/m2 in men, 26 ± 7.5 kg/m2 in women. Mean CT-derived LBM decreased from 55.2±11.8 kg pre-therapy to 49.27±9.84 kg post-radiation. Methods comparison revealed 95% limit of agreement of ±12.5–13.2 kg between CT and height-weight formulae. Post-treatment LBM with the three formulae was significantly different from CT (p<0.0001). In all instances, no height-weight formula was practically equivalent to CT within ±5 kg. Conclusion Formulae cannot accurately substitute for direct quantitative imaging LBM measurements. We therefore recommend CT-based LBM assessment as a routine practice of head and neck cancer patient body composition. PMID:27688106

  10. Pancreatic Islet Responses to Metabolic Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Burke, Susan J.; Karlstad, Michael D.; Collier, J. Jason

    2016-01-01

    Carbohydrate, lipid, and protein metabolism are largely controlled by the interplay of various hormones, which includes those secreted by the pancreatic islets of Langerhans. While typically representing only 1–2% of the total pancreatic mass, the islets have a remarkable ability to adapt to disparate situations demanding a change in hormone release, such as peripheral insulin resistance. There are many different routes to the onset of insulin resistance, including obesity, lipodystrophy, glucocorticoid excess, and the chronic usage of atypical anti-psychotic drugs. All of these situations are coupled to an increase in pancreatic islet size, often with a corresponding increase in insulin production. These adaptive responses within the islets are ultimately intended to maintain glycemic control and to promote macronutrient homeostasis during times of stress. Herein, we review the consequences of specific metabolic trauma that lead to insulin resistance and the corresponding adaptive alterations within the pancreatic islets. PMID:26974425

  11. Single center experience in selecting the laparoscopic Frey procedure for chronic pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Chun-Lu; Zhang, Hao; Li, Ke-Zhou

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To share our experience regarding the laparoscopic Frey procedure for chronic pancreatitis (CP) and patient selection. METHODS: All consecutive patients undergoing duodenum-preserving pancreatic head resection from July 2013 to July 2014 were reviewed and those undergoing the Frey procedure for CP were included in this study. Data on age, gender, body mass index (BMI), American Society of Anesthesiologists score, imaging findings, inflammatory index (white blood cells, interleukin (IL)-6, and C-reaction protein), visual analogue score score during hospitalization and outpatient visit, history of CP, operative time, estimated blood loss, and postoperative data (postoperative mortality and morbidity, postoperative length of hospital stay) were obtained for patients undergoing laparoscopic surgery. The open surgery cases in this study were analyzed for risk factors related to extensive bleeding, which was the major reason for conversion during the laparoscopic procedure. Age, gender, etiology, imaging findings, amylase level, complications due to pancreatitis, functional insufficiency, and history of CP were assessed in these patients. RESULTS: Nine laparoscopic and 37 open Frey procedures were analyzed. Of the 46 patients, 39 were male (85%) and seven were female (16%). The etiology of CP was alcohol in 32 patients (70%) and idiopathic in 14 patients (30%). Stones were found in 38 patients (83%). An inflammatory mass was found in five patients (11%). The time from diagnosis of CP to the Frey procedure was 39 ± 19 (9-85) mo. The BMI of patients in the laparoscopic group was 20.4 ± 1.7 (17.8-22.4) kg/m2 and was 20.6 ± 2.9 (15.4-27.7) kg/m2 in the open group. All patients required analgesic medication for abdominal pain. Frequent acute pancreatitis or severe abdominal pain due to acute exacerbation occurred in 20 patients (43%). Pre-operative complications due to pancreatitis were observed in 18 patients (39%). Pancreatic functional insufficiency was observed in

  12. Single center experience in selecting the laparoscopic Frey procedure for chronic pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Tan, Chun-Lu; Zhang, Hao; Li, Ke-Zhou

    2015-11-28

    To share our experience regarding the laparoscopic Frey procedure for chronic pancreatitis (CP) and patient selection. All consecutive patients undergoing duodenum-preserving pancreatic head resection from July 2013 to July 2014 were reviewed and those undergoing the Frey procedure for CP were included in this study. Data on age, gender, body mass index (BMI), American Society of Anesthesiologists score, imaging findings, inflammatory index (white blood cells, interleukin (IL)-6, and C-reaction protein), visual analogue score score during hospitalization and outpatient visit, history of CP, operative time, estimated blood loss, and postoperative data (postoperative mortality and morbidity, postoperative length of hospital stay) were obtained for patients undergoing laparoscopic surgery. The open surgery cases in this study were analyzed for risk factors related to extensive bleeding, which was the major reason for conversion during the laparoscopic procedure. Age, gender, etiology, imaging findings, amylase level, complications due to pancreatitis, functional insufficiency, and history of CP were assessed in these patients. Nine laparoscopic and 37 open Frey procedures were analyzed. Of the 46 patients, 39 were male (85%) and seven were female (16%). The etiology of CP was alcohol in 32 patients (70%) and idiopathic in 14 patients (30%). Stones were found in 38 patients (83%). An inflammatory mass was found in five patients (11%). The time from diagnosis of CP to the Frey procedure was 39 ± 19 (9-85) mo. The BMI of patients in the laparoscopic group was 20.4 ± 1.7 (17.8-22.4) kg/m(2) and was 20.6 ± 2.9 (15.4-27.7) kg/m(2) in the open group. All patients required analgesic medication for abdominal pain. Frequent acute pancreatitis or severe abdominal pain due to acute exacerbation occurred in 20 patients (43%). Pre-operative complications due to pancreatitis were observed in 18 patients (39%). Pancreatic functional insufficiency was observed in 14 patients (30

  13. Prognostic significance of combined pretreatment lymphocyte counts and body mass index in patients with head and neck cancer treated with radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yao-Yu; Chang, Kai-Ping; Lin, Chien-Yu; Pai, Ping-Ching; Wang, Hung-Ming; Hsu, Cheng-Lung; Liao, Chun-Ta; Yen, Tzu-Chen; Fang, Tuan-Jen; Huang, Shiang-Fu; Kang, Chung-Jan; Fang, Ku-Hao; Lin, Wan-Ni; Wang, Yu-Chien; Hsin, Li-Jen; Tsang, Ngan-Ming

    2018-05-23

    We aimed to investigate the prognostic significance of combined pretreatment lymphocyte counts (LCs) and body mass index (BMI) in patients with head and neck cancer (HNC) treated with radiation therapy (RT). Nine hundred and twelve patients with HNC who were treated with RT were retrospectively reviewed. Survival was analyzed by stratifying the patients according to pretreatment LCs and BMI. Patients with low pretreatment LCs and BMI were characterized by a more advanced T stage, fewer nasopharyngeal subsites, less smoking and drinking, and fewer comorbidities. Patients with low pretreatment LCs and BMI had a significantly poorer overall and distant metastasis-free survival than those with high pretreatment LCs and BMI. No significant differences were observed in terms of local or regional recurrence-free survival. Combined pretreatment LCs and BMI may be more effective at predicting overall and distant metastasis-free survival in patients with HNC treated with RT. © 2018 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. [Pancreatic mucinous cystadenoma doubly complicated by acute pancreatitis and retroperitoneal rupture].

    PubMed

    Maghrebi, Houcine; Makni, Amine

    2017-01-01

    Mucinous cystadenomas are benign tumors with malignant potential. They are often revealed by non-specific abdominal pain, jaundice or an episode of acute pancreatitis. We here report an exceptional case of mucinous cystadenoma doubly complicated by acute pancreatitis and retroperitoneal rupture. The study involved a 30-year old non-weighted female patient, presenting with epigastric pain associated with left hypochondrium evolving over the last three months and which had intensified without fever or jaundice in the last 3 days. Clinical examination showed impingement on palpation of the epigastrium and of the left hypochondrium. There was no palpable mass. Laboratory tests were without abnormalities, except for lipasemia that was 8-times the upper normal. Abdominal CT scan showed bi-loculated cystic mass in the pancreas tail, measuring 111 mm * 73 mm, with a thin wall and a fluid content, associated with an infiltration of the left perirenal fascia. MRI (Panel A) showed mucinous cystadenoma with retroperitoneal rupture. The caudal portion of the main pancreatic duct was slightly dilated and communicated with the pancreatic cyst. The patient underwent surgery via bi-sub-costal approach. A cystic mass in the pancreas tail with retroperitoneal rupture associated with acute pancreatitis (outflow of necrotic content from left anterior prerenal space) was found. Caudal splenopancreatectomy was performed (Panel B). The postoperative course was uneventful. The anatomo-pathological examination of the surgical specimen showed pancreatic mucinous cystadenoma with low-grade dysplasia.

  15. Autoimmune pancreatitis: CT patterns and their changes after steroid treatment.

    PubMed

    Manfredi, Riccardo; Graziani, Rossella; Cicero, Calogero; Frulloni, Luca; Carbognin, Giovanni; Mantovani, William; Mucelli, Roberto Pozzi

    2008-05-01

    To retrospectively evaluate the computed tomographic (CT) patterns of autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) and their changes after steroid therapy. Investigational review board approval was obtained, and the informed consent requirement was waived. The medical and imaging data of 21 patients (13 men, eight women; mean age, 47.5 years; age range, 25-79 years) with histopathologically proved AIP who underwent contrast material-enhanced CT at diagnosis and after steroid treatment were included in this study. Image analysis included assessment of the (a) presence or absence and type (focal or diffuse) of pancreatic parenchyma enlargement, (b) contrast enhancement of pancreatic parenchyma, (c) size of the main pancreatic duct (MPD) within the lesion and upstream, and (d) pancreatic parenchyma thickness in the head, body, and tail of the pancreas. The same criteria were applied to follow-up CT examinations, the follow-up data were compared with pretreatment data, and a paired sample t test was applied. Pancreatic parenchyma showed focal enlargement in 14 (67%) patients and diffuse enlargement in seven (33%). Pancreatic parenchyma affected by AIP appeared hypoattenuating in 19 (90%) patients and isoattenuating in two (10%). During the portal venous phase, pancreatic parenchyma showed contrast material retention in 18 (86%) patients and contrast material washout in three (14%). The MPD was never visible within the lesion. After treatment, there was a reduction in the size of pancreatic parenchyma segments affected by AIP (P < .05). Fifteen (71%) of the 21 patients had a normal enhancement pattern in the pancreatic parenchyma, whereas the enhancement pattern remained hypovascular in six (29%). The MPD returned to its normal size within the lesion in all patients at follow-up CT. In one of the eight patients with focal forms of AIP, the upstream MPD remained dilated. AIP appeared as pancreatic parenchyma enlargement, with MPD stenosis within the lesion and upstream dilatation in

  16. Endocrine pancreatic function changes after acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Deqing; Xu, Yaping; Zeng, Yue; Wang, Xingpeng

    2011-10-01

    This study aimed to investigate the impairment of pancreatic endocrine function and the associated risk factors after acute pancreatitis (AP). Fifty-nine patients were subjected to tests of pancreatic function after an attack of pancreatitis. The mean time after the event was 3.5 years. Pancreatic endocrine function was evaluated by fasting blood glucose (FBG), glycosylated hemoglobin, fasting blood insulin, and C-peptide. Homeostasis model assessment was used to evaluate insulin resistance and islet β-cell function. Pancreatic exocrine function was evaluated by fecal elastase 1. Factors that could influence endocrine function were also investigated. Nineteen patients (32%) were found to have elevated FBG, whereas 5 (8%) had abnormal glycosylated hemoglobin levels. The levels of FBG, fasting blood insulin, and C-peptide were higher in patients than in controls (P < 0.01). The islet β-cell function of patients was lower than that of controls (P < 0.01), whereas insulin resistance index was higher among patients (P < 0.01). Obesity, hyperlipidemia, and diabetes-related symptoms were found to be associated with endocrine insufficiency. Pancreatic exocrine functional impairment was found at the same time. Endocrine functional impairment with insulin resistance was found in patients after AP. Obesity, hyperlipidemia, and diabetes-related symptoms increased the likelihood of developing functional impairment after AP.

  17. Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma presenting with acute and chronic pancreatitis as initial presentation: is prognosis better? A comparison study..

    PubMed

    Thorat, Ashok; Huang, Wen-Hsuan; Yeh, Ta-Sen; Jan, Yi-Yan; Hwang, Tsann-Long

    2014-10-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) may present with acute and /or chronic pancreatitis due to pancreatic ductal obstruction causing diagnostic dilemma. The aim of this retrospective study was to investigate the outcome and prognosis of the patients of PDAC presenting with pancreatitis. From 1991 to 2009, 298 patients with PDAC that underwent surgical treatment were retrospectively studied and divided in two groups depending upon initial symptomatic presentation. Group A (n=254) comprised patients without pancreatitis while group B (n=44) patients presented with acute and/or chronic pancreatitis initially. All the patients in studied cohort were surgically treated. Mean age of group A was 63.1 years & for group B it was 62.9 years. Location of tumor was in head of the pancreas in 66.14% of group A patients (n=168) and 61.36% of group B patients (n=27). Although statistically insignificant, the patients in group B had overall better 5-year survival than the patients in group A (20% vs 15.9%). This retrospective study highlights the overall better survival of PDAC patients presenting with acute and/or chronic pancreatitis than those without as contrary to previous reports which stated the poor prognosis of PDAC patients if associated with underlying pancreatitis.

  18. Pancreatic Cancer: Multicenter Prospective Data Collection and Analysis by the Hungarian Pancreatic Study Group.

    PubMed

    Lakatos, Gábor; Balázs, Anita; Kui, Balázs; Gódi, Szilárd; Szücs, Ákos; Szentesi, Andrea; Szentkereszty, Zsolt; Szmola, Richárd; Kelemen, Dezső; Papp, Róbert; Vincze, Áron; Czimmer, József; Pár, Gabriella; Bajor, Judit; Szabó, Imre; Izbéki, Ferenc; Halász, Adrienn; Leindler, László; Farkas, Gyula; Takács, Tamás; Czakó, László; Szepes, Zoltán; Hegyi, Péter; Kahán, Zsuzsanna

    2016-06-01

    Pancreatic cancer is a devastating disease with poor prognosis. There is very limited information available regarding the epidemiology and treatment strategies of pancreatic cancer in Central Europe. The purpose of the study was to prospectively collect and analyze data of pancreatic cancer in the Hungarian population. The Hungarian Pancreatic Study Group (HPSG) organized prospective, uniform data collection. Altogether 354 patients were enrolled from 14 Hungarian centers. Chronic pancreatitis was present in 3.7% of the cases, while 33.7% of the patients had diabetes. Family history for pancreatic cancer was positive in 4.8%. The most frequent presenting symptoms included pain (63.8%), weight loss (63%) and jaundice (52.5%). The reported frequency of smoking and alcohol consumption was lower than expected (28.5% and 27.4%, respectively). The majority of patients (75.6%) were diagnosed with advanced disease. Most patients (83.6%) had a primary tumor located in the pancreatic head. The histological diagnosis was ductal adenocarcinoma in 90.7% of the cases, while neuroendocrine tumor was present in 5.3%. Biliary stent implantation was performed in 166 patients, 59.2% of them received metal stents. Primary tumor resection was performed in 60 (16.9%) patients. Enteral or biliary bypass was done in 35 and 49 patients, respectively. In a multivariate Cox-regression model, smoking status and presence of gemcitabine-based chemotherapy were identified as independent predictors for overall survival. We report the first data from a large cohort of Hungarian pancreatic cancer patients. We identified smoking status and chemotherapy as independent predictors in this cohort.

  19. Head circumference

    MedlinePlus

    ... a child's head circumference. Normal ranges for a child's sex and age (weeks, months), based on values that experts have obtained for normal growth rates of infants' and children's heads. Measurement of the head circumference is an ...

  20. Laparoscopic pancreatic cystogastrostomy.

    PubMed

    Obermeyer, Robert J; Fisher, William E; Salameh, Jihad R; Jeyapalan, Manjula; Sweeney, John F; Brunicardi, F Charles

    2003-08-01

    The purpose of the review was to evaluate the feasibility and outcome of laparoscopic pancreatic cystogastrostomy for operative drainage of symptomatic pancreatic pseudocysts. A retrospective review of all patients who underwent laparoscopic pancreatic cystogastrostomy between June 1997 and July 2001 was performed. Data regarding etiology of pancreatitis, size of pseudocyst, operative time, complications, and pseudocyst recurrence were collected and reported as median values with ranges. Laparoscopic pancreatic cystogastrostomy was attempted in 6 patients. Pseudocyst etiology included gallstone pancreatitis (3), alcohol-induced pancreatitis (2), and post-ERCP pancreatitis (1). The cystogastrostomy was successfully performed laparoscopically in 5 of 6 patients. However, the procedure was converted to open after creation of the cystgastrostomy in 1 of these patients. There were no complications in the cases completed laparoscopically and no deaths in the entire group. No pseudocyst recurrences were observed with a median followup of 44 months (range 4-59 months). Laparoscopic pancreatic cystgastrostomy is a feasible surgical treatment of pancreatic pseudocysts with a resultant low pseudocyst recurrence rate, length of stay, and low morbidity and mortality.

  1. Aerosol properties associated with air masses arriving into the North East Atlantic during the 2008 Mace Head EUCAARI intensive observing period: an overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dall'Osto, M.; Ceburnis, D.; Martucci, G.; Bialek, J.; Dupuy, R.; Jennings, S. G.; Berresheim, H.; Wenger, J.; Healy, R.; Facchini, M. C.; Rinaldi, M.; Giulianelli, L.; Finessi, E.; Worsnop, D.; Ehn, M.; Mikkilä, J.; Kulmala, M.; O'Dowd, C. D.

    2010-09-01

    As part of the EUCAARI Intensive Observing Period, a 4-week campaign to measure aerosol physical, chemical and optical properties, atmospheric structure, and cloud microphysics was conducted from mid-May to mid-June, 2008 at the Mace Head Atmospheric Research Station, located at the interface of Western Europe and the N. E. Atlantic and centered on the west Irish coastline. During the campaign, continental air masses comprising both young and aged continental plumes were encountered, along with polar, Arctic and tropical air masses. Polluted-continental aerosol concentrations were of the order of 3000 cm-3, while background marine air aerosol concentrations were between 400-600 cm-3. The highest marine air concentrations occurred in polar air masses in which a 15 nm nucleation mode, with concentration of 1100 cm-3, was observed and attributed to open ocean particle formation. Continental air submicron chemical composition (excluding refractory sea salt) was dominated by organic matter, closely followed by sulphate mass. Although the concentrations and size distribution spectral shape were almost identical for the young and aged continental cases, hygroscopic growth factors (GF) and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) to total condensation nuclei (CN) concentration ratios were significantly less in the younger pollution plume, indicating a more oxidized organic component to the aged continental plume. The difference in chemical composition and hygroscopic growth factor appear to result in a 40-50% impact on aerosol scattering coefficients and Aerosol Optical Depth, despite almost identical aerosol microphysical properties in both cases, with the higher values been recorded for the more aged case. For the CCN/CN ratio, the highest ratios were seen in the more age plume. In marine air, sulphate mass dominated the sub-micron component, followed by water soluble organic carbon, which, in turn, was dominated by methanesulphonic acid (MSA). Sulphate concentrations were

  2. Aerosol properties associated with air masses arriving into the North East Atlantic during the 2008 Mace Head EUCAARI intensive observing period: an overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dall'Osto, M.; Ceburnis, D.; Martucci, G.; Bialek, J.; Dupuy, R.; Jennings, S. G.; Berresheim, H.; Wenger, J. C.; Sodeau, J. R.; Healy, R. M.; Facchini, M. C.; Rinaldi, M.; Giulianelli, L.; Finessi, E.; Worsnop, D.; O'Dowd, C. D.

    2009-12-01

    As part of the EUCAARI Intensive Observing Period, a 4-week campaign to measure aerosol physical, chemical and optical properties, atmospheric structure, and cloud microphysics was conducted from mid-May to mid-June 2008 at the Mace Head Atmospheric Research Station, located at the interface of Western Europe and the NE Atlantic and centered on the west Irish coastline. During the campaign, continental air masses comprising both young and aged continental plumes were encountered, along with polar, Arctic and tropical air masses. Polluted-continental aerosol concentrations were of the order of 3000 cm-3, while background marine air aerosol concentrations were between 400-600 cm-3. The highest marine air concentrations occurred in polar air masses in which a 15 nm nucleation mode, with concentration of 1100 cm-3, was observed and attributed to open ocean particle formation. Black carbon concentrations in polluted air were between 300-400 ng m-3, and in clean marine air were less than 50 ng m-3. Continental air submicron chemical composition (excluding refractory sea salt) was dominated by organic matter, closely followed by sulphate mass. Although the concentrations and size distribution spectral shape were almost identical for the young and aged continental cases, hygroscopic growth factors (GF) and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) to total condensation nuclei (CN) concentration ratios were significantly less in the younger pollution plume, indicating a more oxidized organic component to the aged continental plume. The difference in chemical composition and hygroscopic growth factor appear to result in a 40-50% impact on aerosol scattering coefficients and Aerosol Optical Depth, despite almost identical aerosol microphysical properties in both cases, with the higher values been recorded for the more aged case. For the CCN/CN ratio, the highest ratios were seen in the more age plume. In marine air, sulphate mass dominated the sub-micron component, followed by water

  3. Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy Followed by Radiation Therapy and Gemcitabine/Sorafenib/Vorinostat in Pancreatic Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-11-29

    Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma; Stage IA Pancreatic Cancer; Stage IB Pancreatic Cancer; Stage IIA Pancreatic Cancer; Stage IIB Pancreatic Cancer; Stage III Pancreatic Cancer; Recurrent Pancreatic Carcinoma

  4. Pancreatoduodenectomy for circumportal pancreas accompanying the retroportal pancreatic duct: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Shonaka, Tatsuya; Inagaki, Mitsuhiro; Akabane, Hiromitsu; Yanagida, Naoyuki; Shomura, Hiroki; Kudo, Takeaki; Orimo, Tatsuya; Oikawa, Futoshi; Aiyama, Takeshi; Yanagawa, Nobuyuki; Oikawa, Kensuke; Nakano, Shiro

    2012-10-01

    Circumportal pancreas (CP) is an extremely rare pancreatic fusion anomaly which is usually asymptomatic. This report presents the case of a patient with a tumor in the head of a CP and the retroportal accessory pancreatic duct in the pancreatic tissue behind the portal vein. A 53-year-old male was diagnosed with a nonfunctioning neuroendocrine tumor of the pancreas and resection of the tumor was scheduled. The patient was revealed to have CP on preoperative computed tomography and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, which showed the pancreatic tissue encircling the portal vein and the retroportal accessory pancreatic duct. The patient safely underwent pylorus-preserving pancreatoduodenectomy reconstructed with pancreaticogastrostomy.

  5. What can be done when the cored specimen in a Frey procedure for chronic pancreatitis is reported as adenocarcinoma?

    PubMed

    Mahesh, S; Lekha, V; Manipadam, John Mathew; Venugopal, A; Ramesh, H

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the outcomes of patients with chronic pancreatitis who underwent the Frey procedure and who had a histologic evidence of adenocarcinoma in the cored out specimen.The type of analysis is retrospective. Out of 523 patients who underwent Frey procedure for chronic pancreatitis, seven (five males and two females; age range 42 to 54 years) had histologically proven adenocarcinoma. In the first four cases, intraoperative frozen section was not done. The diagnosis was made on routine histopathology and only one out of four could undergo attempted curative therapy. In the remaining three cases, intraoperative frozen section confirmation was available, and curative resection performed. Only four out of seven had a clear-cut mass lesion: (a) cancer can occur in chronic pancreatitis in the absence of a mass lesion and (b) intraoperative frozen section of the cored specimen is crucial to exercising curative therapeutic options and must be performed routinely. If frozen section is reported as adenocarcinoma, a head resection with repeat frozen of the margins of resection is appropriate. If the adenocarcinoma is reported on regular histopathology after several days, then a total pancreatectomy may be more appropriate.

  6. MicroRNA-137 promoter methylation in oral rinses from patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck is associated with gender and body mass index.

    PubMed

    Langevin, Scott M; Stone, Roslyn A; Bunker, Clareann H; Grandis, Jennifer R; Sobol, Robert W; Taioli, Emanuela

    2010-05-01

    Head and neck cancer represents 3.3% of all new malignancies and 2.0% of cancer deaths in the USA, the majority of which are squamous in origin. The overall 5 year survival is 60% and worsens with increasing stage at diagnosis. Thus, novel biomarkers for early detection of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN) are needed. MicroRNA-137 (miR-137) plays a role in cell cycle control and seems to undergo promoter methylation in oral squamous cell carcinoma tissue. The main objectives of this study were to ascertain whether miR-137 promoter methylation is detectable in oral rinse samples, assess its association with SCCHN and identify potential risk factors for its occurrence. Oral rinse samples were collected from 99 SCCHN patients with no prior history of cancer and 99 cancer-free controls, frequency matched on gender; tumor tissue for 64 patients was also tested. Methylation of the miR-137 promoter, assessed using methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction, was detected in 21.2% oral rinses from SCCHN patients and 3.0% from controls [odds ratio (OR) = 4.80, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.23-18.82]. Among cases, promoter methylation of miR-137 was associated with female gender (OR = 5.30, 95% CI: 1.20-23.44) and inversely associated with body mass index (BMI) (OR = 0.88, 95% CI: 0.77-0.99). Promoter methylation of miR-137 appears to be a relatively frequently detected event in oral rinse of SCCHN patients and may have future utility as a biomarker in DNA methylation panels. The observed associations with gender and BMI help to shed light on potential risk factors for an altered methylation state in SCCHN.

  7. Screening for Pancreatic Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Brand, Randall E.

    2007-01-01

    Despite improvements in the clinical and surgical management of pancreatic cancer, limited strides have been made in the early detection of this highly lethal malignancy. The majority of localized pancreatic tumors are asymptomatic, and the recognized presenting symptoms of pancreatic adenocarcinoma are often vague and heterogeneous in nature. These factors, coupled with the lack of a sensitive and noninvasive screening method, have made population-based screening for pancreatic cancer impossible. Nevertheless, at least two large institutions have performed multimodality-screening protocols for individuals with high risk of pancreatic cancer based on genetic predisposition and strong family history. Abnormalities noted during these screening protocols prompted further investigation or surgery that resulted in the discovery of benign, potentially malignant, and malignant pancreatic lesions. In addition to ductal epithelial pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia, greater sensitivity has recently been achieved in the identification and characterization of precancerous mucinous pancreatic tumors. Advancements in proteomics and DNA microarray technology may confirm serum-based biomarkers that could be incorporated into future screening algorithms for pancreatic cancer. PMID:21960811

  8. Pancreatitis, panniculitis and polyarthritis (PPP-) syndrome caused by post-pancreatitis pseudocyst with mesenteric fistula. Diagnosis and successful surgical treatment. Case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Dieker, Wulf; Derer, Johannes; Henzler, Thomas; Schneider, Alexander; Rückert, Felix; Wilhelm, Torsten J; Krüger, Bernd

    2017-01-01

    Pancreatitis, panniculitis and polyarthritis syndrome is a very rare extra-pancreatic complication of pancreatic diseases. While in most cases this syndrome is caused by acute or chronic pancreatitis, we report a case of a 62-year-old man presenting with extensive intraosseous fat necrosis, polyarthritis and panniculitis caused by a post-pancreatitis pseudocyst with a fistula to the superior mesenteric vein and extremely high blood levels of lipase. This became symptomatic 2.5 years after an episode of acute pancreatitis and as in most cases abdominal symptoms were absent. Treatment by surgical resection of the pancreatic head with the pseudocyst and mesenteric fistula led to complete remission of all symptoms. A review of the literature revealed that all publications are limited to case reports. Most authors hypothesize that an unspecific damage can cause a secretion of pancreatic enzymes to the bloodstream leading to a systemic lipolysis and fat tissue necrosis, especially of subcutaneous tissue, bone marrow, inducing panniculitis, polyarthritis and osteonecrosis. Even if caused by an acute pancreatitis abdominal symptoms are often mild or absent in most cases leading to misdiagnosis and poor prognosis. While symptomatic treatment with NSAR and cortisone showed poor to moderate response, causal treatment can be successful depending on the underlying pancreatic disease. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Management of splenic and pancreatic trauma.

    PubMed

    Girard, E; Abba, J; Cristiano, N; Siebert, M; Barbois, S; Létoublon, C; Arvieux, C

    2016-08-01

    The spleen and pancreas are at risk for injury during abdominal trauma. The spleen is more commonly injured because of its fragile structure and its position immediately beneath the ribs. Injury to the more deeply placed pancreas is classically characterized by discordance between the severity of pancreatic injury and its initial clinical expression. For the patient who presents with hemorrhagic shock and ultrasound evidence of major hemoperitoneum, urgent "damage control" laparotomy is essential; if splenic injury is the cause, prompt "hemostatic" splenectomy should be performed. Direct pancreatic injury is rarely the cause of major hemorrhage unless a major neighboring vessel is injured, but if there is destruction of the pancreatic head, a two-stage pancreatoduodenectomy (PD) may be indicated. At open laparotomy when the patient's hemodynamic status can be stabilized, it may be possible to control splenic bleeding without splenectomy; it is always essential to search for injury to the pancreatic duct and/or the adjacent duodenum. Pancreatic contusion without ductal rupture is usually treated by drain placement adjacent to the injury; ductal injuries of the pancreatic body or tail are treated by resection (distal pancreatectomy with or without splenectomy), with generally benign consequences. For injuries of the pancreatic head with pancreatic duct disruption, wide drainage is usually performed because emergency PD is a complex gesture prone to poor results. Postoperatively, the placement of a ductal stent by endoscopic retrograde catheterization may be decided, while management of an isolated pancreatic fistula is often straightforward. Non-operative management is the rule for the trauma victim who is hemodynamically stable. In addition to the clinical examination and conventional laboratory tests, investigations should include an abdominothoracic CT scan with contrast injection, allowing identification of all traumatized organs and assessment of the severity of

  10. Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumor with Atypical Radiologic Presentation.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ramandeep; Calhoun, Sean; Shin, Minchul; Katz, Robert

    2008-01-01

    An atypical radiographic presentation of a rare non-functional pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor as seen on US, CT and MRI is described. Radiographic-pathologic correlation via gross autopsy specimens and immuno-histochemical staining demonstrates the pancreas to be markedly enlarged with extensive calcifications and numerous tiny cysts secondary to diffuse neoplastic infiltration without a focal mass.

  11. Combined pancreatic and duodenal transection injury: A case report.

    PubMed

    Mungazi, Simbarashe Gift; Mbanje, Chenesa; Chihaka, Onesai; Madziva, Noah

    2017-01-01

    Combined pancreatic-duodenal injuries in blunt abdominal trauma are rare. These injuries are associated with high morbidity and mortality, and their emergent management is a challenge. We report a case of combined complete pancreatic (through the neck) and duodenal (first part) transections in a 24-year-old male secondary to blunt abdominal trauma following a motor vehicle crash. The duodenal stumps were closed separately and a gastrojejunostomy performed for intestinal continuity. The transacted head of pancreas main duct was suture ligated and parenchyma was over sewn and buttressed with omentum. The edge of the body and tail pancreatic segment was freshened and an end to side pancreatico-jejunostomy was fashioned. A drain was left in situ. Post operatively the patient developed a pancreatic fistula which resolved with conservative management. After ten months of follow up the patient was well and showed no signs and symptoms of pancreatic insufficiency. Lengthy, complex procedures in pancreatic injuries have been associated with poor outcomes. Distal pancreatectomy or Whipple's procedure for trauma are viable options for complete pancreatic transections. But when there is concern that the residual proximal pancreatic tissue is inadequate to provide endocrine or exocrine function, preservation of the pancreatic tissue distal to the injury becomes an option. Combined pancreatic and duodenal injuries are rare and often fatal. Early identification, resuscitation and surgical intervention is warranted. Because of the large number of possible combinations of injuries to the pancreas and duodenum, no one form of therapy is appropriate for all patients. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Head Lice

    MedlinePlus

    What are head lice? Head lice are tiny insects that live on people's heads. Adult lice are about the size of sesame seeds. The eggs, called ... often at the neckline and behind the ears. Head lice are parasites, and they need to feed on ...

  13. Effects of disease severity and necrosis on pancreatic dysfunction after acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Garip, Gokhan; Sarandöl, Emre; Kaya, Ekrem

    2013-11-28

    To evaluate the effects of disease severity and necrosis on organ dysfunctions in acute pancreatitis (AP). One hundred and nine patients treated as AP between March 2003 and September 2007 with at least 6 mo follow-up were included. Patients were classified according to severity of the disease, necrosis ratio and localization. Subjective clinical evaluation and fecal pancreatic elastase-I (FPE-I) were used for exocrine dysfunction evaluation, and oral glucose tolerance test was completed for endocrine dysfunction. The correlation of disease severity, necrosis ratio and localization with exocrine and endocrine dysfunction were investigated. There were 58 male and 51 female patients, and mean age was 56.5 ± 15.7. Of the patients, 35.8% had severe AP (SAP) and 27.5% had pancreatic necrosis. Exocrine dysfunction was identified in 13.7% of the patients [17.9% were in SAP, 11.4% were in mild AP (MAP)] and 34.7% of all of the patients had endocrine dysfunction (56.4% in SAP and 23.2% in MAP). In patients with SAP and necrotizing AP (NAP), FPE-Ilevels were lower than the others (P < 0.05 and 0.001 respectively) and in patients having pancreatic head necrosis or near total necrosis, FPE-1 levels were lower than 200 μg/g stool. Forty percent of the patients who had undergone necrosectomy developed exocrine dysfunction. Endocrine dysfunction was more significant in patients with SAP and NAP (P < 0.001). All of the patients in the necrosectomy group had endocrine dysfunction. Patients with SAP, NAP, pancreatic head necrosis and necrosectomy should be followed for pancreatic functions.

  14. Robotic enucleation of benign pancreatic tumors

    PubMed Central

    Ore, Ana Sofia; Barrows, Courtney E.; Solis-Velasco, Monica; Shaker, Jessica

    2017-01-01

    Robot-assisted enucleation provides the dual benefits of a minimally-invasive technique and pancreatic parenchymal conservation to selected patients with functional pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (F-pNETs) and serous cystadenomas. Insulinomas, the most common F-pNETs, are ideal candidates for enucleation when <2 cm given the 80% probability of being benign. Current evidence suggests enucleation for the following: benign, isolated lesions with a distance between tumor and main pancreatic duct ≥3 mm (no focal stricture or dilation), insulinomas, gastrinomas <2 cm, and nonfunctional pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (NF-pNETs) <1–2 cm and low Ki67 mitotic index. Minimally-invasive enucleation is an imaging-dependent procedure that requires recognizable anatomic landmarks for successful completion, including tumor proximity to the pancreatic duct as well as localization relative to major structures such as the gastroduodenal artery, bile duct, and portal vein. Tumor localization often mandates intraoperative ultrasound aided by duplex studies of intratumoral blood flow and frozen section confirmation. Five patients have undergone robot-assisted enucleation at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center between January 2014 and January 2017 with median tumor diameter of 1.3 cm (0.9–1.7 cm) located in the pancreatic head [2] and tail [3]. Surgical indications included insulinoma [2] and NF-pNETs [3]. Median operative time was 204 min (range, 137–347 min) and estimated blood loss of 50 mL. There were no conversions to open or transfusions. Robotic enucleation is a safe and feasible technique that allows parenchymal conservation in a minimally-invasive setting, reducing operative time and length of stay with equivalent pathological outcomes compared to open surgery. PMID:29302427

  15. Hereditary chronic pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Rosendahl, Jonas; Bödeker, Hans; Mössner, Joachim; Teich, Niels

    2007-01-01

    Hereditary chronic pancreatitis (HCP) is a very rare form of early onset chronic pancreatitis. With the exception of the young age at diagnosis and a slower progression, the clinical course, morphological features and laboratory findings of HCP do not differ from those of patients with alcoholic chronic pancreatitis. As well, diagnostic criteria and treatment of HCP resemble that of chronic pancreatitis of other causes. The clinical presentation is highly variable and includes chronic abdominal pain, impairment of endocrine and exocrine pancreatic function, nausea and vomiting, maldigestion, diabetes, pseudocysts, bile duct and duodenal obstruction, and rarely pancreatic cancer. Fortunately, most patients have a mild disease. Mutations in the PRSS1 gene, encoding cationic trypsinogen, play a causative role in chronic pancreatitis. It has been shown that the PRSS1 mutations increase autocatalytic conversion of trypsinogen to active trypsin, and thus probably cause premature, intrapancreatic trypsinogen activation disturbing the intrapancreatic balance of proteases and their inhibitors. Other genes, such as the anionic trypsinogen (PRSS2), the serine protease inhibitor, Kazal type 1 (SPINK1) and the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) have been found to be associated with chronic pancreatitis (idiopathic and hereditary) as well. Genetic testing should only be performed in carefully selected patients by direct DNA sequencing and antenatal diagnosis should not be encouraged. Treatment focuses on enzyme and nutritional supplementation, pain management, pancreatic diabetes, and local organ complications, such as pseudocysts, bile duct or duodenal obstruction. The disease course and prognosis of patients with HCP is unpredictable. Pancreatic cancer risk is elevated. Therefore, HCP patients should strongly avoid environmental risk factors for pancreatic cancer. PMID:17204147

  16. Conservative and surgical management of pancreatic trauma in adult patients

    PubMed Central

    Menahem, Benjamin; Lim, Chetana; Lahat, Eylon; Salloum, Chady; Osseis, Michael; Lacaze, Laurence; Compagnon, Philippe; Pascal, Gerard

    2016-01-01

    Background The management of pancreatic trauma is complex. The aim of this study was to report our experience in the management of pancreatic trauma. Methods All patients hospitalized between 2005 and 2013 for pancreatic trauma were included. Traumatic injuries of the pancreas were classified according to the American Association for Surgery of Trauma (AAST) in five grades. Mortality and morbidity were analyzed. Results A total of 30 patients were analyzed (mean age: 38±17 years). Nineteen (63%) patients had a blunt trauma and 12 (40%) had pancreatic injury ≥ grade 3. Fifteen patients underwent exploratory laparotomy and the other 15 patients had nonoperative management (NOM). Four (13%) patients had a partial pancreatectomy [distal pancreatectomy (n=3) and pancreaticoduodenectomy (n=1)]. Overall, in hospital mortality was 20% (n=6). Postoperative mortality was 27% (n=4/15). Mortality of NOM group was 13% (n=2/15) in both cases death was due to severe head injury. Among the patients who underwent NOM, three patients had injury ≥ grade 3, one patient had a stent placement in the pancreatic duct and two patients underwent endoscopic drainage of a pancreatic pseudocyst. Conclusions Operative management of pancreatic trauma leads to a higher mortality. This must not be necessarily related to the pancreas injury alone but also to the associated injuries including liver, spleen and vascular trauma which may cause impaired outcome more than pancreas injury. PMID:28124001

  17. Pancreatic fibrosis correlates with exocrine pancreatic insufficiency after pancreatoduodenectomy.

    PubMed

    Tran, T C K; van 't Hof, G; Kazemier, G; Hop, W C; Pek, C; van Toorenenbergen, A W; van Dekken, H; van Eijck, C H J

    2008-01-01

    Obstruction of the pancreatic duct can lead to pancreatic fibrosis. We investigated the correlation between the extent of pancreatic fibrosis and the postoperative exocrine and endocrine pancreatic function. Fifty-five patients who were treated for pancreatic and periampullary carcinoma and 19 patients with chronic pancreatitis were evaluated. Exocrine pancreatic function was evaluated by fecal elastase-1 test, while endocrine pancreatic function was assessed by plasma glucose level. The extent of fibrosis, duct dilation and endocrine tissue loss was examined histopathologically. A strong correlation was found between pancreatic fibrosis and elastase-1 level less than 100 microg/g (p < 0.0001), reflecting severe exocrine pancreatic insufficiency. A strong correlation was found between pancreatic fibrosis and endocrine tissue loss (p < 0.0001). Neither pancreatic fibrosis nor endocrine tissue loss were correlated with the development of postoperative diabetes mellitus. Duct dilation alone was neither correlated with exocrine nor with endocrine function loss. The majority of patients develop severe exocrine pancreatic insufficiency after pancreatoduodenectomy. The extent of exocrine pancreatic insufficiency is strongly correlated with preoperative fibrosis. The loss of endocrine tissue does not correlate with postoperative diabetes mellitus. Preoperative dilation of the pancreatic duct per se does not predict exocrine or endocrine pancreatic insufficiency postoperatively. Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. [Chronic pancreatitis diagnosed after the first attack of acute pancreatitis].

    PubMed

    Bojková, Martina; Dítě, Petr; Uvírová, Magdalena; Dvořáčková, Nina; Kianička, Bohuslav; Kupka, Tomáš; Svoboda, Pavel; Klvaňa, Pavel; Martínek, Arnošt

    2016-02-01

    One of the diseases involving a potential risk of developing chronic pancreatitis is acute pancreatitis. Of the overall number of 231 individuals followed with a diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis, 56 patients were initially treated for acute pancreatitis (24.2 %). Within an interval of 12- 24 months from the first attack of acute pancreatitis, their condition gradually progressed to reached the picture of chronic pancreatitis. The individuals included in the study abstained (from alcohol) following the first attack of acute pancreatitis and no relapse of acute pancreatitis was proven during the period of their monitoring. The etiology of acute pancreatitis identified alcohol as the predominant cause (55.3 %), biliary etiology was proven in 35.7 %. According to the revised Atlanta classification, severe pancreatitis was established in 69.6 % of the patients, the others met the criterion for intermediate form, those with the light form were not included. Significant risk factors present among the patients were smoking, obesity and 18 %, resp. 25.8 % had pancreatogenous diabetes mellitus identified. 88.1 % of the patients with acute pancreatitis were smokers. The majority of individuals with chronic pancreatitis following an attack of acute pancreatitis were of a productive age from 25 to 50 years. It is not only acute alcoholic pancreatitis which evolves into chronic pancreatitis, we have also identified this transition for pancreatitis of biliary etiology.

  19. Comparison of Fasting Human Pancreatic Polypeptide Levels Among Patients With Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma, Chronic Pancreatitis, and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Nagpal, Sajan Jiv Singh; Bamlet, William R; Kudva, Yogish C; Chari, Suresh T

    2018-05-17

    Human pancreatic polypeptide (HPP) is a hormone secreted by the ventral pancreas. While postprandial HPP levels have been studied in chronic pancreatitis (CP) and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), there are limited data on fasting HPP in these diseases. Fasting serum HPP was measured in the following groups of patients: CP with diabetes mellitus (DM) (n = 16), CP without DM (n = 34), PDAC with new-onset DM (n = 50), PDAC without DM (n = 49), new-onset type 2 DM (n = 50), and controls without DM (n = 49). Sixty-six had type 3c DM (CP with DM, n = 16; PDAC with new-onset DM, n = 50). Median fasting HPP levels (in picograms per milliliter) were similar among all groups. Median (interquartile range) HPP levels in new-onset type 2 DM (n = 50; 288.3 [80.1-1072.1]) were similar to those in type 3c DM (n = 66; 242.3 [64.9-890.9]) (P = 0.71). In PDAC (n = 99), HPP values were similar in pancreatic head (n = 75) versus body/tail (n = 24) tumors (245.3 [64.3-1091.3] vs 334.7 [136.1-841.5]; P = 0.95), regardless of DM. Fasting HPP levels are similar in CP, PDAC, and controls regardless of glycemic status.

  20. Pancreatic Extraskeletal Osteosarcoma Metastasizing to the Scalp.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young Jae; Kim, Hak Tae; Won, Chong Hyun; Chang, Sung Eun; Lee, Mi Woo; Choi, Jee Ho; Lee, Woo Jin

    2018-06-01

    Extraskeletal osteosarcoma (ESOS) is a rare mesenchymal soft-tissue neoplasm that accounts for approximately 1% of all soft-tissue sarcomas. Over 70% of these malignant tumor progress to local recurrence and metastasis. It commonly metastasizes to the lungs, lymph nodes, bone, and skin and has a poor survival outcome. Cutaneous metastasis is exceedingly rare and known to be a sign of widespread metastases. We present a 57-year-old woman who presented with a rapidly growing protuberant mass on the scalp that was finally diagnosed as metastatic ESOS from a primary pancreatic ESOS. To our knowledge, there has been no reported case of pancreatic ESOS metastasizing to the scalp.

  1. Pancreatic Calculus Causing Biliary Obstruction: Endoscopic Therapy for a Rare Initial Presentation of Chronic Pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Shetty, Anurag J; Pai, C Ganesh; Shetty, Shiran; Balaraju, Girisha

    2015-09-01

    Biliary obstruction in chronic calcific pancreatitis (CCP) is often caused by inflammatory or fibrotic strictures of the bile duct, carcinoma of head of pancreas or less commonly by compression from pseudocysts. Pancreatic calculi causing ampullary obstruction and leading to obstructive jaundice is extremely rare. The medical records of all patients with CCP or biliary obstruction who underwent endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) over 4 years between 2010-2014 at Kasturba Medical College, Manipal were analyzed. Five patients of CCP with impacted pancreatic calculi at the ampulla demonstrated during ERCP were identified. All 5 presented with biliary obstruction and were incidentally detected to have CCP when evaluated for the same; 3 patients had features of cholangitis. All the patients were managed successfully by endoscopic papillotomy and extraction of pancreatic calculi from the ampulla with resolution of biliary obstruction. Pancreatic calculus causing ampullary obstruction, though very rare, should be considered as a possibility in patients with CCP complicated by biliary obstruction. Endoscopic therapy is affective in the resolution of biliary obstruction in such patients.

  2. Current surgical treatment for chronic pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Aimoto, Takayuki; Uchida, Eiji; Nakamura, Yoshiharu; Yamahatsu, Kazuya; Matsushita, Akira; Katsuno, Akira; Cho, Kazumitsu; Kawamoto, Masao

    2011-01-01

    Chronic pancreatitis (CP) is a painful, yet benign inflammatory process of the pancreas. Surgical management should be individualized because the pain is multifactorial and its mechanisms vary from patient to patient. Two main pathogenetic theories for the mechanisms of pain in CP have been proposed: the neurogenic theory and the theory of increased intraductal/intraparenchymal pressures. The latter theory is strongly supported by the good results of drainage procedures in the surgical management of CP. Other possible contributing factors include pancreatic ischemia; a centrally sensitized pain state; and the development of complications, such as pseudocysts and stenosis of the duodenum or common bile duct. Common indications for surgery include intractable pain, suspicion of neoplasm, and complications that cannot be resolved with radiological or endoscopic treatments. Operative procedures have been historically classified into 4 categories: decompression procedures for diseased and obstructed pancreatic ducts; resection procedures for the proximal, distal, or total pancreas; denervation procedures of the pancreas; and hybrid procedures. Pancreaticoduodenectomy and pylorus-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy, once the standard operations for patients with CP, have been replaced by hybrid procedures, such as duodenum-preserving pancreatic head resection, the Frey procedure, and their variants. These procedures are safe and effective in providing long-term pain relief and in treating CP-related complications. Hybrid procedures should be the operations of choice for patients with CP.

  3. A Literature Review of Musculoskeletal Injuries to the Human Neck and the Effects of Head-Supported Mass Worn by Soldier

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-10-01

    in whiplash -type injury studies (Table 1). At the time it was the most sophisticated head - neck model available. This model uses a series of rigid...phase of rear-end whiplash loading (i.e. the extension phase). In this initial phase, the head translates backward, putting the upper spine in local...work to characterize neck response in impact scenarios has been performed, the effect of musculature on head -neck whiplash -type response is still

  4. Strategies for early detection of resectable pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Okano, Keiichi; Suzuki, Yasuyuki

    2014-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is difficult to diagnose at an early stage and generally has a poor prognosis. Surgical resection is the only potentially curative treatment for pancreatic carcinoma. To improve the prognosis of this disease, it is essential to detect tumors at early stages, when they are resectable. The optimal approach to screening for early pancreatic neoplasia has not been established. The International Cancer of the Pancreas Screening Consortium has recently finalized several recommendations regarding the management of patients who are at an increased risk of familial pancreatic cancer. In addition, there have been notable advances in research on serum markers, tissue markers, gene signatures, and genomic targets of pancreatic cancer. To date, however, no biomarkers have been established in the clinical setting. Advancements in imaging modalities touch all aspects of the clinical management of pancreatic diseases, including the early detection of pancreatic masses, their characterization, and evaluations of tumor resectability. This article reviews strategies for screening high-risk groups, biomarkers, and current advances in imaging modalities for the early detection of resectable pancreatic cancer. PMID:25170207

  5. Is the Whipple procedure harmful for long-term outcome in treatment of chronic pancreatitis? 15-years follow-up comparing the outcome after pylorus-preserving pancreatoduodenectomy and Frey procedure in chronic pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Bachmann, Kai; Tomkoetter, Lena; Kutup, Asad; Erbes, Johannes; Vashist, Yogesh; Mann, Oliver; Bockhorn, Maximilian; Izbicki, Jakob R

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study was to report on 15-year long-term results of a randomized controlled trial comparing extended drainage procedure (Frey) and classical resectional procedure [pylorus-preserving pancreatoduodenectomy (PD)] in patients with chronic pancreatitis. Chronic pancreatitis is a common inflammatory disease with a prevalence of 10 to 30 cases per 100,000 inhabitants. It is characterized by the progressive conversion of pancreatic parenchyma to fibrous tissue. Different surgical procedures are used in treatment of persistent pain. Sixty-four patients suffering from chronic pancreatitis with inflammatory mass in the pancreatic head were randomly assigned in 2 treatment groups (PD, n = 32) and (Frey, n = 32). The perioperative course of the randomized controlled trial and the 7 years follow-up have been previously published. All participating patients were contacted with a standardized, validated questionnaire (EORTC QLQ C30) to evaluate the long-term survival, quality-of-life pain, and exocrine and endocrine function. In the 15-year long-term follow-up, the pain control was good and comparable between both groups, but the quality of life was better after Frey procedure in regard of the physical status [PD: 100 (0-100) vs PD: 60 (0-100) (P = 0.011)]. No significant differences in terms of the Pain Score were detected between both groups [PD: 7 (0-100) vs Frey 4 (0-100) P = 0.258]. Seven patients after Frey OP and 6 patients after PD were free of pain. Analyzing the postoperative overall survival, a higher long-term mortality was found after PD (53%) than that found after Frey procedure (30%) resulting in a longer mean survival (14.5 ± 0.8 vs 11.3 ± 0.8 years; P = 0.037). No correlation between endocrine or exocrine pancreatic function and pain was found, whereas continuous alcohol consumption was associated with poorer outcome regarding quality of life (P < 0.001) and pain score (P < 0.001). PD and Frey procedure provide good and permanent pain relief and

  6. Head MRI

    MedlinePlus

    ... the head; MRI - cranial; NMR - cranial; Cranial MRI; Brain MRI; MRI - brain; MRI - head ... the test, tell your provider if you have: Brain aneurysm clips An artificial heart valves Heart defibrillator ...

  7. Latest advances in chronic pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Enrique Domínguez-Muñoz, J

    2016-09-01

    This article summarizes some of the recent and clinically relevant advances in chronic pancreatitis. These advances mainly concern the definition of the disease, the etiological diagnosis of idiopathic disease, the correlation between fibrosis degree and pancreatic secretion in the early stages of chronic pancreatitis, the treatment of the disease and of pain, the clinical relevance of pancreatic exocrine insufficiency, and the diagnosis of autoimmune pancreatitis. A new mechanistic definition of chronic pancreatitis has been proposed. Genetic testing is mainly of help in patients with relapsing idiopathic pancreatitis. A significant correlation has been shown between the degree of pancreatic fibrosis as evaluated by elastography and pancreatic secretion of bicarbonate. New data supports the efficacy of antioxidants and simvastatin for the therapy of chronic pancreatitis. The pancreatoscopy-guided intraductal lithotripsy is an effective alternative to extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy in patients with chronic calcifying pancreatitis. The presence of pancreatic exocrine insufficiency in patients with chronic pancreatitis is associated with a significant risk of cardiovascular events. Fine needle biopsy and contrast enhanced harmonic endoscopic ultrasonography are of help for the diagnosis of autoimmune pancreatitis and its differential diagnosis with pancreatic cancer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Head lice.

    PubMed

    Devore, Cynthia D; Schutze, Gordon E

    2015-05-01

    Head lice infestation is associated with limited morbidity but causes a high level of anxiety among parents of school-aged children. Since the 2010 clinical report on head lice was published by the American Academy of Pediatrics, newer medications have been approved for the treatment of head lice. This revised clinical report clarifies current diagnosis and treatment protocols and provides guidance for the management of children with head lice in the school setting. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  9. Acute Pancreatitis in Children.

    PubMed

    Werlin, Steven L.

    2001-10-01

    There are no drugs that cure or abate pancreatitis. The treatment of patients with mild and moderate episodes of pancreatitis (85%) is supportive and expectant. Central issues include the removal of the initiating process (if possible), relief of pain, and maintenance of fluid and electrolyte balance. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography may be required for stone extraction in patients with biliary pancreatitis. Surgery is rarely required. The aims of treatment for patients with severe disease includes treatment of local, systemic, and septic complications in addition to those for mild and moderate disease. Homeostasis is maintained by the correction of hypocalcemia, anemia, hypoalbuminemia, electrolyte imbalances, and hypoxemia. A large number of medications have been used unsuccessfully in an attempt to halt the progression of the autodigestive process within the pancreas and to reduce pancreatic secretions. Nutritional support with either enteral or parenteral feeding is given. Intravenous antibiotics or selective bowel decontamination decrease mortality in patients with severe episodes of pancreatitis. The treatment for these individuals is often prolonged. Surgical treatment of traumatic pancreatitis with ductal rupture includes repair or resection. At times, simple drainage is performed and definitive surgery is deferred until later. Surgical treatment of severe pancreatitis includes debridement of necrotic and infected tissue. The emerging consensus appears to be that necrosectomy and local lavage or open management with planned re-exploration offers better survival than the conventional therapy of resection plus drainage alone.

  10. PKD signaling and pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Jingzhen; Pandol, Stephen J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Acute pancreatitis is a serious medical disorder with no current therapies directed to the molecular pathogenesis of the disorder. Inflammation, inappropriate intracellular activation of digestive enzymes, and parenchymal acinar cell death by necrosis are the critical pathophysiologic processes of acute pancreatitis. Thus, it is necessary to elucidate the key molecular signals that mediate these pathobiologic processes and develop new therapeutic strategies to attenuate the appropriate signaling pathways in order to improve outcomes for this disease. A novel serine/threonine protein kinase D (PKD) family has emerged as key participants in signal transduction, and this family is increasingly being implicated in the regulation of multiple cellular functions and diseases. Methods This review summarizes recent findings of our group and others regarding the signaling pathway and the biological roles of the PKD family in pancreatic acinar cells. In particular, we highlight our studies of the functions of PKD in several key pathobiologic processes associated with acute pancreatitis in experimental models. Results Our findings reveal that PKD signaling is required for NF-κB activation/inflammation, intracellular zymogen activation, and acinar cell necrosis in rodent experimental pancreatitis. Novel small-molecule PKD inhibitors attenuate the severity of pancreatitis in both in vitro and in vivo experimental models. Further, this review emphasizes our latest advances in the therapeutic application of PKD inhibitors to experimental pancreatitis after the initiation of pancreatitis. Conclusions These novel findings suggest that PKD signaling is a necessary modulator in key initiating pathobiologic processes of pancreatitis, and that it constitutes a novel therapeutic target for treatments of this disorder. PMID:26879861

  11. Management of blunt pancreatic trauma in children: Review of the National Trauma Data Bank☆,☆☆

    PubMed Central

    Englum, Brian R.; Gulack, Brian C.; Rice, Henry E.; Scarborough, John E.; Adibe, Obinna O.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study aims to examine the current management strategies and outcomes after blunt pancreatic trauma in children using a national patient registry. Methods Using the National Trauma Data Bank (NTDB) from 2007–2011, we identified all patients ≤18 years old who suffered blunt pancreatic trauma. Patients were categorized as undergoing nonoperative pancreatic management (no abdominal operation, abdominal operation without pancreatic-specific procedure, or pancreatic drainage alone) or operative pancreatic management (pancreatic resection/repair). Patient characteristics, operative details, clinical outcomes, and factors associated with operative management were examined. Results Of 610,402 pediatric cases in the NTDB, 1653 children (0.3%) had blunt pancreatic injury and 674 had information on specific location of pancreatic injury. Of these 674 cases, 514 (76.3%) underwent nonoperative pancreatic management. The groups were similar in age, gender, and race; however, pancreatic injury grade > 3, moderate to severe injury severity, and bicycle accidents were associated with operative management in multivariable analysis. Children with pancreatic head injuries or GCS motor score < 6 were less likely to undergo pancreatic operation. Overall morbidity and mortality rates were 26.5% and 5.3%, respectively. Most outcomes were similar between treatment groups, including mortality (2.5% vs. 6.7% in operative vs. nonoperative cohorts respectively; p = 0.07). Conclusion Although rare, blunt pancreatic trauma in children continues to be a morbid injury. In the largest analysis of blunt pancreatic trauma in children, we provide data on which to base future prospective studies. Operative management of pancreatic trauma occurs most often in children with distal ductal injuries, suggesting that prospective studies may want to focus on this group. PMID:27577183

  12. Filling defects in the pancreatic duct on endoscopic retrograde pancreatography.

    PubMed

    Taylor, A J; Carmody, T J; Schmalz, M J; Wiedmeyer, D A; Stewart, E T

    1992-12-01

    Filling defects in the pancreatic duct are a frequent finding during endoscopic retrograde pancreatography (ERP) and have a variety of causes. Some filling defects may be artifactual or related to technical factors and, once their origin is recognized, can be disregarded. Others may be due to acute changes of pancreatitis and should prompt more careful injection of contrast material into the duct. Intraluminal masses may represent calculi or a neoplasm, either of which may require surgery or endoscopic intervention. The exact nature of these filling defects may not be apparent on radiographs, and other studies may be needed. This article reviews our approach to the evaluation of filling defects in the pancreatic duct.

  13. Clinical signs of pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Penny, Steven M

    2012-01-01

    The pancreas consists of complex structures that perform vital functions. Radiologic technologists must comprehend its normal structure and function to perform functional imaging procedures in their daily practice, as well as to know how any deviation from normalcy can disrupt homeostasis. Because pancreatitis is a potentially life-threatening disease, a thorough understanding of the clinical manifestation and imaging characteristics of the various forms of the disease is crucial. This article reviews distinctive pancreatic function and discusses basic pancreas imaging. In addition, acute and chronic pancreatitis is explored, including the role of medical imaging in its diagnosis, complications, and prognosis.

  14. [Rapid determination of volatile flavor compounds in soy sauce using head space solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Yan, Liujun; Zhang, Yanfang; Tao, Wenyi; Wang, Liping; Wu, Shengfang

    2008-05-01

    A rapid and simple method was developed for the determination of volatile flavor compounds (VFCs) in soy sauce by head space solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) coupled to capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Five types of SPME fibers, including 85 microm PA, 100 microm PDMS, 75 microm CAR/PDMS, 65 microm PDMS/DVB, 50 microm DVB/CAR/PDMS were investigated. Three parameters for HS-SPME in terms of adsorption time, salt concentration, and extraction temperature were optimized. Adsorption time tested in this study were 20, 40 and 60 minutes; the salt concentrations were 180, 210, 250, 270 and 300 g/L; and extraction temperatures were 25, 35, 45, 55 and 65 degrees C. The concentrations of the compounds were calculated based on their relative peak areas to the internal standard of 2-octanol. An 85 microm PA fiber, adsorption time of 40 min, a temperature of 45 degrees C and NaCl concentration of 250 g/L were selected as th optimum conditions. This optimized method was applied to evaluate a real sample. As a result, 97 compounds in a soy sauce sample were isolated and identified successfully. The results showed that alcohols, carboxylic acids, esters and phenols were the major VFCs of soy sauce. The most important groups of volatile compounds in the soy sauce sample were ethanol, hexadecanoic acid, phenylethyl alcohol and 2,3-butanediol. In addition, some oxo-compounds and heterocyclic compounds were also found. The average relative standard deviation of the relative peak area was 12.1%, and the recoveries were 79.9% - 109.6%. The method is simple, fast and accurate with high reproducibility, high sensitivity and low cost.

  15. Pancreatic cancer surgery: past, present, and future

    PubMed Central

    Poruk, Katherine E.

    2015-01-01

    The history of pancreatic cancer surgery, though fraught with failure and setbacks, is punctuated by periods of incremental progress dependent upon the state of the art and the mettle of the surgeons daring enough to attempt it. Surgical anesthesia and the aseptic techniques developed during the latter half of the 19th century were instrumental in establishing a viable setting for pancreatic surgery to develop. Together, they allowed for bolder interventions and improved survival through the post-operative period. Surgical management began with palliative procedures to address biliary obstruction in advanced disease. By the turn of the century, surgical pioneers such as Alessandro Codivilla and Walther Kausch were demonstrating the technical feasibility of pancreatic head resections and applying principles learned from palliation to perform complicated anatomical reconstructions. Allen O. Whipple, the namesake of the pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD), was the first to take a systematic approach to refining the procedure. Perhaps his greatest contribution was sparking a renewed interest in the surgical management of periampullary cancers and engendering a community of surgeons who advanced the field through their collective efforts. Though the work of Whipple and his contemporaries legitimized PD as an accepted surgical option, it was the establishment of high-volume centers of excellence and a multidisciplinary approach in the later decades of the 20th century that made it a viable surgical option. Today, pancreatic surgeons are experimenting with minimally invasive surgical techniques, expanding indications for resection, and investigating new methods for screening and early detection. In the future, the effective management of pancreatic cancer will depend upon our ability to reliably detect the earliest cancers and precursor lesions to allow for truly curative resections. PMID:26361403

  16. Pancreatic cancer surgery: past, present, and future.

    PubMed

    Griffin, James F; Poruk, Katherine E; Wolfgang, Christopher L

    2015-08-01

    The history of pancreatic cancer surgery, though fraught with failure and setbacks, is punctuated by periods of incremental progress dependent upon the state of the art and the mettle of the surgeons daring enough to attempt it. Surgical anesthesia and the aseptic techniques developed during the latter half of the 19(th) century were instrumental in establishing a viable setting for pancreatic surgery to develop. Together, they allowed for bolder interventions and improved survival through the post-operative period. Surgical management began with palliative procedures to address biliary obstruction in advanced disease. By the turn of the century, surgical pioneers such as Alessandro Codivilla and Walther Kausch were demonstrating the technical feasibility of pancreatic head resections and applying principles learned from palliation to perform complicated anatomical reconstructions. Allen O. Whipple, the namesake of the pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD), was the first to take a systematic approach to refining the procedure. Perhaps his greatest contribution was sparking a renewed interest in the surgical management of periampullary cancers and engendering a community of surgeons who advanced the field through their collective efforts. Though the work of Whipple and his contemporaries legitimized PD as an accepted surgical option, it was the establishment of high-volume centers of excellence and a multidisciplinary approach in the later decades of the 20(th) century that made it a viable surgical option. Today, pancreatic surgeons are experimenting with minimally invasive surgical techniques, expanding indications for resection, and investigating new methods for screening and early detection. In the future, the effective management of pancreatic cancer will depend upon our ability to reliably detect the earliest cancers and precursor lesions to allow for truly curative resections.

  17. Horizontal traumatic laceration of the pancreas head: A rare case report.

    PubMed

    Nanashima, Atsushi; Imamura, Naoya; Tsuchimochi, Yuki; Hamada, Takeomi; Yano, Kouichi; Hiyoshi, Masahide; Fujii, Yoshiro; Kawano, Fumiaki; MitsuruTamura

    2017-01-01

    This case report is intended to inform acute care surgeons about treating rare horizontal laceration of the pancreas head caused by blunt trauma. A 57-year-old woman who sustained blunt abdominal trauma during a car crash was transported to the emergency center of our hospital with unstable vital signs due to hemorrhagic shock. Computed tomography showed transection of the pancreas head and massive intra-abdominal hemorrhage. She was referred for emergency surgery because of a transient response. Laparotomy at five hours after the accident initially revealed consistent massive bleeding from branches of the superior mesenteric artery and vein, which we resolved by suturing the vessels without damaging the main trunks. A horizontal laceration and complete transection of the pancreatic head were then confirmed but the main pancreatic duct remained intact. The lower part of the pancreatic head including the uncus with the attached part of the duodenum was resected, and the pancreatic stump remaining after transection was fixed by suturing. The jejunal limb was attached to the remnant duodenum by side-to-side functional anastomosis. Although gastric emptying was delayed for one month after surgery, the postoperative course was good and the patient recovered at three months thereafter. The embryonic border of pancreas head accompanied with pancreatic divisum was considered for this laceration without disruption of the main pancreatic duct. Blunt pancreatic trauma usually causes vertical transection and thus, horizontal transection is considered rare. The embryological anatomical border between the ventral and dorsal pancreas due to pancreatic divisum was supposed to be transected and therefore the main pancreatic duct was not damaged. Hemorrhagic shock and rare pancreatic head trauma were treated by appropriate intraoperative management. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. [Latest advances in chronic pancreatitis].

    PubMed

    Domínguez Muñoz, J Enrique

    2015-09-01

    This article summarizes some of the recent and clinically relevant advances in chronic pancreatitis. These advances mainly concern the early diagnosis of the disease, the treatment of symptoms and complications, mainly pain and pancreatic exocrine insufficiency, and the diagnosis and therapy of autoimmune pancreatitis. The multimodal dynamic endoscopic ultrasound-guided secretin-stimulated evaluation of the pancreas provides relevant morphological and functional information for the diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis at early stages. Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy in patients with calcifying pancreatitis and endoscopic pancreatic stent placement are effective alternatives for pain therapy in patients with chronic pancreatitis. Presence of pancreatic exocrine insufficiency in patients with chronic pancreatitis is associated with a significantly increase of mortality rate. Despite that, pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy is not prescribed in the majority of patients with pancreatic exocrine insufficiency, or it is prescribed at a low dose. The newly developed and commercialized needles for endoscopic ultrasound-guided pancreatic biopsy are effective in retrieving appropriate tissue samples for the histological diagnosis of autoimmune pancreatitis. Maintenance therapy with azathioprine is effective and safe to prevent relapses in patients with autoimmune pancreatitis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. High readmission rates after surgery for chronic pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Alexander V; Sutton, Jeffrey M; Wilson, Gregory C; Hanseman, Dennis J; Abbott, Daniel E; Smith, Milton T; Schmulewitz, Nathan; Choe, Kyran A; Wang, Jiang; Sussman, Jeffrey J; Ahmad, Syed A

    2014-10-01

    Readmission after complex gastrointestinal surgery is a frequent occurrence that burdens the health care system and leads to increased cost. Recent studies have demonstrated 30- and 90-day readmission rates of 15% and 19%, respectively, following pancreaticoduodenectomy. Given the psychosocial issues often associated with chronic pancreatitis, we hypothesized that readmission rates following surgery for chronic pancreatitis would be higher than previously reported for pancreaticoduodenectomy. We retrospectively reviewed patients undergoing surgery for chronic pancreatitis at a single institution between 2001 and 2013. Patients in this cohort underwent pancreaticoduodenectomy, Berne, Beger, or Frey procedures. Readmission to a primary or secondary hospital was evaluated at both 30 and 90 days after discharge. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors associated with readmission. The records of 111 patients were evaluated, of which 69 (62%) underwent duodenal-preserving pancreatic head resection (Berne, Beger, or Frey), while the remaining 42 (38%) underwent pancreaticoduodenectomy. Within the duodenal-preserving pancreatic head resection arm, readmission rates at 30 and 90 days were 30.4% and 43.5%, respectively. Readmission rates following pancreaticoduodenectomy were similar with 33.3% at 30 days and 40.5% at 90 days. The most common reasons for readmission were pain control, infectious complications, and recurrent pancreatitis. On multivariate analysis, wound infection during the initial hospital stay was a predictor of readmission at both 30 and 90 days (P = .02). To our knowledge, our data represent the first report demonstrating very high readmission rates after surgery for chronic pancreatitis, more than double the previous rates reported for pancreaticoduodenectomy. This cohort of patients requires extensive discharge planning focused on pain control, nutritional optimization, and close postoperative monitoring

  20. Outcomes analysis of laparoscopic resection of pancreatic neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Pierce, R A; Spitler, J A; Hawkins, W G; Strasberg, S M; Linehan, D C; Halpin, V J; Eagon, J C; Brunt, L M; Frisella, M M; Matthews, B D

    2007-04-01

    Experience with laparoscopic resection of pancreatic neoplasms remains limited. The purpose of this study is to critically analyze the indications for and outcomes after laparoscopic resection of pancreatic neoplasms. The medical records of all patients undergoing laparoscopic resection of pancreatic neoplasms from July 2000 to February 2006 were reviewed. Data are expressed as mean +/- standard deviation. Laparoscopic pancreatic resection was performed in 22 patients (M:F, 8:14) with a mean age of 56.3 +/- 15.1 years and mean body mass index (BMI) of 26.3 +/- 4.5 kg/m2. Nine patients had undergone previous intra-abdominal surgery. Indications for pancreatic resection were cyst (1), glucagonoma (1), gastrinoma (2), insulinoma (3), metastatic tumor (2), IPMT (4), nonfunctioning neuroendocrine tumor (3), and mucinous/serous cystadenoma (6). Mean tumor size was 2.4 +/- 1.6 cm. Laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy was attempted in 18 patients and completed in 17, and enucleation was performed in 4 patients. Laparoscopic ultrasound (n = 10) and a hand-assisted technique (n = 4) were utilized selectively. Mean operative time was 236 +/- 60 min and mean blood loss was 244 +/- 516 ml. There was one conversion to an open procedure because of bleeding from the splenic vein. The mean postoperative LOS was 4.5 +/- 2.0 days. Seven patients experienced a total of ten postoperative complications, including a urinary tract infection (UTI) (1), lower-extremity deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolus (1), infected peripancreatic fluid collection (1), pancreatic pseudocyst (1), and pancreatic fistula (6). Five pancreatic fistulas were managed by percutaneous drainage. The reoperation rate was 4.5% and the overall pancreatic-related complication rate was 36.4%. One patient developed pancreatitis and a pseudocyst 5 months postoperatively, which was managed successfully with a pancreatic duct stent. There was no 30-day mortality. Laparoscopic pancreatic resection is safe and

  1. Pancreatic islet cell tumor

    MedlinePlus

    ... JH, Kastan MB, Tepper JE, eds. Abeloff's Clinical Oncology . 5th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap ... Cancer Network website. NCCN clinical practice guidelines in oncology (NCCN guidelines): pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Version 3.2017. www. ...

  2. Hypermutation In Pancreatic Cancer.

    PubMed

    Humphris, Jeremy L; Patch, Ann-Marie; Nones, Katia; Bailey, Peter J; Johns, Amber L; McKay, Skye; Chang, David K; Miller, David K; Pajic, Marina; Kassahn, Karin S; Quinn, Michael C J; Bruxner, Timothy J C; Christ, Angelika N; Harliwong, Ivon; Idrisoglu, Senel; Manning, Suzanne; Nourse, Craig; Nourbakhsh, Ehsan; Stone, Andrew; Wilson, Peter J; Anderson, Matthew; Fink, J Lynn; Holmes, Oliver; Kazakoff, Stephen; Leonard, Conrad; Newell, Felicity; Waddell, Nick; Wood, Scott; Mead, Ronald S; Xu, Qinying; Wu, Jianmin; Pinese, Mark; Cowley, Mark J; Jones, Marc D; Nagrial, Adnan M; Chin, Venessa T; Chantrill, Lorraine A; Mawson, Amanda; Chou, Angela; Scarlett, Christopher J; Pinho, Andreia V; Rooman, Ilse; Giry-Laterriere, Marc; Samra, Jaswinder S; Kench, James G; Merrett, Neil D; Toon, Christopher W; Epari, Krishna; Nguyen, Nam Q; Barbour, Andrew; Zeps, Nikolajs; Jamieson, Nigel B; McKay, Colin J; Carter, C Ross; Dickson, Euan J; Graham, Janet S; Duthie, Fraser; Oien, Karin; Hair, Jane; Morton, Jennifer P; Sansom, Owen J; Grützmann, Robert; Hruban, Ralph H; Maitra, Anirban; Iacobuzio-Donahue, Christine A; Schulick, Richard D; Wolfgang, Christopher L; Morgan, Richard A; Lawlor, Rita T; Rusev, Borislav; Corbo, Vincenzo; Salvia, Roberto; Cataldo, Ivana; Tortora, Giampaolo; Tempero, Margaret A; Hofmann, Oliver; Eshleman, James R; Pilarsky, Christian; Scarpa, Aldo; Musgrove, Elizabeth A; Gill, Anthony J; Pearson, John V; Grimmond, Sean M; Waddell, Nicola; Biankin, Andrew V

    2017-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is molecularly diverse, with few effective therapies. Increased mutation burden and defective DNA repair are associated with response to immune checkpoint inhibitors in several other cancer types. We interrogated 385 pancreatic cancer genomes to define hypermutation and its causes. Mutational signatures inferring defects in DNA repair were enriched in those with the highest mutation burdens. Mismatch repair deficiency was identified in 1% of tumors harboring different mechanisms of somatic inactivation of MLH1 and MSH2. Defining mutation load in individual pancreatic cancers and the optimal assay for patient selection may inform clinical trial design for immunotherapy in pancreatic cancer. Copyright © 2017 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Management of chronic pancreatitis complicated with a bleeding pseudoaneurysm.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Kun-Chun; Chen, Tsung-Hsing; Hsu, Jun-Te

    2014-11-21

    Chronic pancreatitis is an ongoing disease characterized by persistent inflammation of pancreatic tissues. With disease progression, patients with chronic pancreatitis may develop troublesome complications in addition to exocrine and endocrine pancreatic functional loss. Among them, a pseudoaneurysm, mainly induced by digestive enzyme erosion of vessels in proximity to the pancreas, is a rare and life-threatening complication if bleeding of the pseudoaneurysm occurs. At present, no prospective randomized trials have investigated the therapeutic strategy for this rare but critical situation. The role of arterial embolization, the timing of surgical intervention and even surgical procedures are still controversial. In this review, we suggest that dynamic abdominal computed tomography and angiography should be performed first to localize the bleeders and to evaluate the associated complications such as pseudocyst formation, followed by arterial embolization to stop the bleeding and to achieve early stabilization of the patient's condition. With advances and improvements in endoscopic devices and techniques, therapeutic endoscopy for pancreatic pseudocysts is technically feasible, safe and effective. Surgical intervention is recommended for a bleeding pseudoaneurysm in patients with chronic pancreatitis who are in an unstable condition, for those in whom arterial embolization of the bleeding pseudoaneurysm fails, and when endoscopic management of the pseudocyst is unsuccessful. If a bleeding pseudoaneurysm is located over the tail of the pancreas, resection is a preferential procedure, whereas if the lesion is situated over the head or body of the pancreas, relatively conservative surgical procedures are recommended.

  4. Surgical treatment of chronic pancreatitis in young patients.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Feng; Gou, Shan-Miao; Xiong, Jiong-Xin; Wu, He-Shui; Wang, Chun-You; Liu, Tao

    2014-10-01

    The main treatment strategies for chronic pancreatitis in young patients include therapeutic endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatography (ERCP) intervention and surgical intervention. Therapeutic ERCP intervention is performed much more extensively for its minimally invasive nature, but a part of patients are referred to surgery at last. Historical and follow-up data of 21 young patients with chronic pancreatitis undergoing duodenum-preserving total pancreatic head resection were analyzed to evaluate the outcomes of therapeutic ERCP intervention and surgical intervention in this study. The surgical complications of repeated therapeutic ERCP intervention and surgical intervention were 38% and 19% respectively. During the first therapeutic ERCP intervention to surgical intervention, 2 patients developed diabetes, 5 patients developed steatorrhea, and 5 patients developed pancreatic type B pain. During the follow-up of surgical intervention, 1 new case of diabetes occurred, 1 case of steatorrhea recovered, and 4 cases of pancreatic type B pain were completely relieved. In a part of young patients with chronic pancreatitis, surgical intervention was more effective than therapeutic ERCP intervention on delaying the progression of the disease and relieving the symptoms.

  5. [New guidelines on chronic pancreatitis : interdisciplinary treatment strategies].

    PubMed

    Lerch, M M; Bachmann, K A; Izbicki, J R

    2013-02-01

    Chronic pancreatitis is a common disorder associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Interdisciplinary consensus guidelines have recently updated the definitions and diagnostic criteria for chronic pancreatitis and provide a critical assessment of therapeutic procedures. Diagnostic imaging relies on endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) as the most sensitive technique, whereas computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)/magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) remain a frequent preoperative requirement. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is now used mostly as a therapeutic procedure except for the differential diagnosis of autoimmune pancreatitis. Complications of chronic pancreatitis, such as pseudocysts, duct stricture and intractable pain can be treated with endoscopic interventions as well as open surgery. In the treatment of pseudocysts endoscopic drainage procedures now prevail while pain treatment has greater long-term effectiveness following surgical procedures. Currently, endocopic as well as surgical treatment of chronic pancreatitis require an ever increasing degree of technical and medical expertise and are provided increasingly more often by interdisciplinary centres. Surgical treatment is superior to interventional therapy regarding the outcome of pain control and duodenum-preserving pancreatic head resection is presently the surgical procedure of choice.

  6. Bacteriological profile of pancreatic juice in patients with chronic pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Parida, Salil Kumar; Pottakkat, Biju; Raja, Kalayarasan; Vijayahari, Ranjit; Lakshmi, Chandrasekharan Padma

    2014-09-28

    Information regarding the association of bacteria in the pancreatic fluid in patients with chronic pancreatitis is limited. This study was designed to analyze the prevalence of bacteria in pancreatic juice in patients with chronic pancreatitis and the association of positive pancreatic fluid culture with pre-operative and post-operative parameters. All patients with chronic pancreatitis who underwent operation from November 2011 to October 2013 were prospectively included in the study. Intra-operatively pancreatic duct fluid was collected and sent for culture sensitivity in all patients. The bacteriology of the fluid was analyzed and was correlated with preoperative, intraoperative and postoperative parameters. A total of 26 patients were analyzed. Two patients underwent endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatography (ERCP) preoperatively. Bacteria was present in pancreatic duct fluid in 11 (42%) patients. Both patients who underwent ERCP had positive cultures. Most common organism observed was Escherichia coli (6/11, 55%) followed by Klebsiella pneumonia (3/11, 27%). Five patients with positive culture developed wound infection. Bacteria isolated from the wound were similar to pancreatic fluid. Bacteria is commonly present in the pancreatic juice in patients with chronic pancreatitis and its presence may have an effect on the post-operative infections following operations. Based on the pancreatic fluid culture results appropriate antibiotic can be given to the patients who will develop septic complications following surgery. Role of bacteria in the pathogenesis of the chronic calcific pancreatitis needs to be investigated in future studies.

  7. Endoscopic pancreatic necrosectomy.

    PubMed

    Fogel, Evan L

    2011-07-01

    Traditionally, patients with symptomatic sterile pancreatic necrosis or infected necrosis have been managed by open surgical debridement and removal of necrotic tissue. Within the last decade, however, reports of endoscopic pancreatic necrosectomy, an alternative minimally invasive approach, have demonstrated high success rates and low mortality rates. This report describes the indications, technique, and study outcome data of the procedure. While our experience with this technique has recently increased, better selection criteria are needed to identify patients who are most suitable for endoscopic therapy.

  8. Management of pancreatic trauma.

    PubMed

    Girard, E; Abba, J; Arvieux, C; Trilling, B; Sage, P Y; Mougin, N; Perou, S; Lavagne, P; Létoublon, C

    2016-08-01

    Pancreatic trauma (PT) is associated with high morbidity and mortality; the therapeutic options remain debated. Retrospective study of PT treated in the University Hospital of Grenoble over a 22-year span. The decision for initial laparotomy depended on hemodynamic status as well as on associated lesions. Main pancreatic duct lesions were always searched for. PT lesions were graded according to the AAST classification. Of a total of 46 PT, 34 were grades II or I. Hemodynamic instability led to immediate laparotomy in 18 patients, for whom treatment was always drainage of the pancreatic bed; morbidity was 30%. Eight patients had grade III injuries, six of whom underwent immediate operation: three underwent splenopancreatectomy without any major complications while the other three who had simple drainage required re-operation for peritonitis, with one death related to pancreatic complications. Four patients had grades IV or V PT: two pancreatoduodenectomies were performed, with no major complication, while one patient underwent duodenal reconstruction with pancreatic drainage, complicated by pancreatic and duodenal fistula requiring a hospital stay of two months. The post-trauma course was complicated for all patients with main pancreatic duct involvement. Our outcomes were similar to those found in the literature. In patients with distal PT and main pancreatic duct involvement, simple drainage is associated with high morbidity and mortality. For proximal PT, the therapeutic options of drainage versus pancreatoduodenectomy must be weighed; pancreatoduodenectomy may be unavoidable when the duodenum is injured as well. Two-stage (resection first, reconstruction later) could be an effective alternative in the emergency setting when there are other associated traumatic lesions. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  9. [Diagnosis and treatment of duodenal dystrophy in patients with chronic pancreatitis].

    PubMed

    Kriger, A G; Smirnov, A V; Berelavichus, S V; Gorin, D S; Karmazanovskiy, G G; Vetsheva, N N; Nerestyuk, Ya I; Kalinin, D V; Glotov, A V

    to define optimal treatment of duodenal dystrophy in patients with chronic pancreatitis. 515 patients with chronic pancreatitis have been treated for the period 2004-2015 in A.V.Vishnevsky Institute of Surgery. Duodenal dystrophy (DD) was diagnosed in 79 (15.3%) of them. The diagnosis was confirmed by sonography, CT, MRI and endosonography. 5 patients are under observation without surgery. 74 patients were operated after previous medical therapy during 39 months on the average. Pancreatoduodenectomy was performed in 36 patients. Organ-sparing interventions were applied in 34 cases including different duodenal resections in 20 patients and pancreatic head resections in different modifications in 14 cases. 4 patients underwent palliative surgery. Chronic pancreatitis and DD were verified by morphological analysis of specimens. Long-term results were estimated in 47 patients. Median follow-up was 49.9 months. X-ray diagnostics showed that DD was combined with chronic pancreatitis in 87.3% of cases while morphological analysis revealed 93.8%. Clinical signs of DD were caused by striated pancreatitis in 69.6% and ectopic pancreatic tissue in 30.4%. Clinical manifestations of DD did not depend on its cause and were presented by symptoms of chronic pancreatitis. Postoperative complications occurred in 25 (34.7%) patients. There were 33.5% of complications after pancreatoduodenectomy and 70% after duodenal resection. 1 patient died. Overall mortality was 1,3%. In long-term period complete regression of symptoms was observed in 66% of cases, significant improvement - in 32%, absence of the effect - in 2%. Medical therapy should be preferred for patients with DD and chronic pancreatitis. Surgery is indicated in case of persistent pain, complicated course of chronic pancreatitis and duodenal obstruction. Pancreatoduodenectomy and pancreatic head resection are preferred.

  10. Clinical profiles and outcomes in idiopathic duct-centric chronic pancreatitis (type 2 autoimmune pancreatitis): the Mayo Clinic experience.

    PubMed

    Hart, Phil A; Levy, Michael J; Smyrk, Thomas C; Takahashi, Naoki; Abu Dayyeh, Barham K; Clain, Jonathan E; Gleeson, Ferga C; Pearson, Randall K; Petersen, Bret T; Topazian, Mark D; Vege, Santhi S; Zhang, Lizhi; Chari, Suresh T

    2016-10-01

    Idiopathic duct-centric chronic pancreatitis (IDCP), also known as type 2 autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP), is an uncommon subtype of AIP. International Consensus Diagnostic Criteria for IDCP propose that the diagnosis requires pancreatic histology and/or concurrent IBD. We examined our experience with IDCP (type 2 AIP) to assess the appropriateness of these criteria, and identify unique characteristics in patients presenting with acute pancreatitis. We reviewed the Mayo Clinic AIP database through May 2014 to identify subjects with either definitive (n=31) or probable (n=12) IDCP. We compared demographic and clinical factors based on strength of diagnostic confidence (definitive versus probable), presence of IBD, and acute pancreatitis as the presenting manifestation. Relapse-free survival was determined using the Kaplan-Meier method. The clinical profiles were similar irrespective of the diagnostic criteria fulfilled. Common clinical presentations included acute pancreatitis (n=25, 58.1%, 12 of whom (27.9%) had recurrent pancreatitis) and pancreatic mass/obstructive jaundice (n=15, 34.9%). The cumulative relapse rate was 10.6% at 3 years (median follow-up 2.9 years). Relapse-free survival was similar for the different diagnostic categories, but was decreased in those initially presenting with acute pancreatitis (p=0.047) or treated with steroids (vs surgery, p=0.049). The current diagnostic classification of probable IDCP and the inclusion of IBD as a supportive criterion appear valid, because patients have similar clinical profiles and disease-related outcomes to those with definitive IDCP. Concurrent IBD, especially in young patients, may suggest when IDCP is the underlying cause of recurrent acute pancreatitis, but additional studies are needed for validation. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  11. A case of pancreatic AV malformation in an elderly man.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Vipin; Kedia, Saurabh; Sonika, Ujjwal; Madhusudhan, Kumble Seetharama; Pal, Sujoy; Garg, Pramod

    2018-06-01

    A 60-year-old man presented with recurrent abdominal pain and weight loss for 6 months. Abdominal imaging showed a large vascular lesion in the head and neck of pancreas suggestive of arteriovenous malformation (AV malformation). Endoscopic ultrasound was done which showed features of AV malformation with no evidence of pancreatic malignancy. Surgery was planned for definitive treatment of malformation. Digital subtraction angiography with angioembolization was done prior to surgery to reduce vascularity of the lesion. He recovered after a pylorus preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy. Histopathology of the resected specimen confirmed the pancreatic AV malformation. There has been no recurrence at 2 years of follow-up.

  12. Quantitative evaluation of pancreatic tumor fibrosis using shear wave elastography.

    PubMed

    Kuwahara, Takamichi; Hirooka, Yoshiki; Kawashima, Hiroki; Ohno, Eizaburo; Sugimoto, Hiroyuki; Hayashi, Daijuro; Morishima, Tomomasa; Kawai, Manabu; Suhara, Hiroki; Takeyama, Tomoaki; Yamamura, Takeshi; Funasaka, Kohei; Nakamura, Masanao; Miyahara, Ryoji; Watanabe, Osamu; Ishigami, Masatoshi; Shimoyama, Yoshie; Nakamura, Shigeo; Hashimoto, Senju; Goto, Hidemi

    There is no established non-invasive method for diagnosis of pancreatic fibrosis. Shear wave elastography (SW-EG) may be a candidate for this purpose. The aims of this study were to assess the reproducibility of SW-EG in the normal imaging pancreas (Phase 1) and to evaluate the diagnostic performance of SW-EG for pancreatic fibrosis classified histologically (Phase 2). Phase 1: This included 127 cases that underwent SW-EG of the normal imaging pancreas. SW-EG was measured at least five times in the pancreatic parenchyma and the median of repeated measurements was defined as the pancreatic elastic modulus (PEM). Phase 2: This included 53 cases that underwent SW-EG of the pancreatic parenchyma preoperatively and in which pancreas parenchyma were evaluated histologically. Histological fibrosis was graded in 4 stages: normal, mild, moderate, and severe. Phase 1: Median PEM in the head, body, and tail of the pancreas were 3.23, 3.17, and 2.91 kPa, respectively, with no significant difference among regions (P = 0.554). The intraclass correlation coefficient showed good reproducibility (ρ = 0.71) after 5 measurements. Phase 2: There was a significant positive correlation between PEM and the histological pancreatic fibrosis stage (r s  = 0.63, P < 0.001). Areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve for the accuracy of SW-EG for diagnosis of pancreatic fibrosis were 0.85 (≥mild), 0.84 (≥moderate), and 0.87 (severe). SW-EG can be used to determine the stage of pancreatic fibrosis non-invasively with high accuracy and reproducibility. Copyright © 2016 IAP and EPC. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Efficacy of head space solid-phase microextraction coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method for determination of the trace extracellular hydrocarbons of cyanobacteria.

    PubMed

    Guan, Wenna; Zhu, Tao; Wang, Yuejie; Zhang, Zhongyi; Jin, Zhao; Wang, Cong; Bai, Fali

    2016-09-01

    Hydrocarbons are widespread in cyanobacteria, and the biochemical synthetic pathways were recently identified. Intracellular fatty alka(e)nes of cyanobacteria have been detected by liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). However, whether fatty alka(e)nes can be released to cyanobacterial culture media remains to be clarified. This work develops a sensitive method for analyzing the trace level of extracellular hydrocarbons in cyanobacterial culture media by head space solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) coupled to GC/MS. Headspace (HS) extraction mode using polydimethylsiloxane fiber to extract for 30min at 50°C was employed as the optimal extraction conditions. Five cyanobacterial fatty alka(e)nes analogs including pentadecene (C15:1), pentadecane (C15:0), heptadecene (C17:1), heptadecane (C17:0), nonadecane (C19:0) were analyzed, and the data obtained from HS-SPME-GC/MS method were quantified using internal standard peak area comparisons. Limits of detection (LOD), limits of quantitation (LOQ), linear dynamic range, precisions (RSD) and recovery for the analysis of extracellular fatty alka(e)nes of cyanobacteria by HS-SPME-GC/MS were evaluated. The LODs limits of detection (S/N = 3) varied from 10 to 21 ng L-1. The correlation coefficients (r) of the calibration curves ranged from 0.9873 to 0.9977 with a linearity from 0.1 to 50 μg L-1. The RSD values were ranging from 7.8 to 14.0% and from 4.0 to 8.8% at 1.0 μg L-1 and 10.0 μg L-1 standard solutions, respectively. Comparative analysis of extracellular fatty alka(e)nes in the culture media of model cyanobacteria Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 demonstrated that sensitivity of HS-SPME-GC/MS method was significantly higher than LLE method. Finally, we found that heptadecane can be released into the culture media of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 at the later growth period. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Secretion of pancreatic polypeptide in patients with pancreatic endocrine tumors.

    PubMed

    Adrian, T E; Uttenthal, L O; Williams, S J; Bloom, S R

    1986-07-31

    Pancreatic polypeptide is often secreted by pancreatic endocrine tumors and is considered a marker for such tumors. To investigate the diagnostic value of this marker, we studied 323 patients with proved pancreatic endocrine tumors. We found plasma concentrations of pancreatic polypeptide to be elevated (more than 300 pmol per liter) in 144 patients (diagnostic sensitivity, 45 percent). However, plasma levels of pancreatic polypeptide can also be elevated in the absence of a pancreatic tumor. To ascertain whether the administration of atropine could distinguish between normal and tumor-associated polypeptide secretion, we studied 30 patients with pancreatic tumors and high plasma levels of pancreatic polypeptide, 18 patients without tumors who had elevated levels of pancreatic polypeptide, and eight normal controls. Polypeptide levels in the 18 patients without tumors were substantially lower than in the 30 patients with tumors. Atropine (1 mg intramuscularly) did not suppress polypeptide levels in patients with tumors, but did suppress plasma levels by more than 50 percent in all subjects without tumors. Thus, although its diagnostic sensitivity is low, pancreatic polypeptide appears to be a useful adjunctive marker of many pancreatic endocrine tumors, and the atropine suppression test can be used to distinguish normal from tumor-related secretion of the polypeptide. Identification of the type of pancreatic endocrine tumor still requires measurement of the hormone that is specific for the tumor.

  15. General Information about Pancreatic Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Research Pancreatic Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Pancreatic Cancer Go to Health Professional Version ... the PDQ Adult Treatment Editorial Board . Clinical Trial Information A clinical trial is a study to answer ...

  16. Pancreatic trauma: A concise review

    PubMed Central

    Debi, Uma; Kaur, Ravinder; Prasad, Kaushal Kishor; Sinha, Saroj Kant; Sinha, Anindita; Singh, Kartar

    2013-01-01

    Traumatic injury to the pancreas is rare and difficult to diagnose. In contrast, traumatic injuries to the liver, spleen and kidney are common and are usually identified with ease by imaging modalities. Pancreatic injuries are usually subtle to identify by different diagnostic imaging modalities, and these injuries are often overlooked in cases with extensive multiorgan trauma. The most evident findings of pancreatic injury are post-traumatic pancreatitis with blood, edema, and soft tissue infiltration of the anterior pararenal space. The alterations of post-traumatic pancreatitis may not be visualized within several hours following trauma as they are time dependent. Delayed diagnoses of traumatic pancreatic injuries are associated with high morbidity and mortality. Imaging plays an important role in diagnosis of pancreatic injuries because early recognition of the disruption of the main pancreatic duct is important. We reviewed our experience with the use of various imaging modalities for diagnosis of blunt pancreatic trauma. PMID:24379625

  17. Candida in acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Chakrabarti, Arunaloke; Rao, Pooja; Tarai, Bansidhar; Shivaprakash, Mandya Rudramurthy; Wig, Jaidev

    2007-01-01

    A Candida infection of the pancreas, which previously was considered extremely unusual, has been increasingly reported in recent years. The present study was conducted with the aim of performing a cohort analysis of our patients with acute pancreatitis to find out the incidence, sites, and species of Candida involvement; and to evaluate the risk factors, severity, and course of illness of such patients. A total of 335 patients with acute pancreatitis were investigated for a possible Candida infection of the pancreas from January 2000 to May 2003. The clinical records of all those patients who were positive for Candida spp. isolation from pancreatic tissue were analyzed. The clinical records of 32 more cases, randomly selected from the patients who were investigated for candidal pancreatitis but were negative for Candida spp., were also analyzed in order to compare their findings with those patients with a true Candida infection of the pancreas. A true or possible Candida infection was observed in 41 (12.2%) of those 335 patients and Candida tropicalis was the most common isolate (43.9%). Candida spp. were isolated from pancreatic necrotic tissue in 22 (6.6%) patients (true infection). A possible Candida infection (positive drain fluid effluents at least twice, without any Candida isolation from pre/per operative samples from pancreas) was seen in 19 (5.7%) patients. Candida was also isolated exclusively from the blood in another 19 patients with a clinical diagnosis of acute pancreatitis. A risk factor analysis showed that patients with severe injury to the pancreas, on prophylactic fluconazole, and after surgical intervention were significantly more prone to develop a Candida infection. Patients with a Candida superinfection also had a significantly increased hospital stay and higher mortality. This study thus emphasizes the important role of Candida infection in patients with acute pancreatitis and demonstrates the need for early attention.

  18. Identification of tobacco-derived compounds in human pancreatic juice.

    PubMed

    Prokopczyk, Bogdan; Hoffmann, Dietrich; Bologna, Matthew; Cunningham, A John; Trushin, Neil; Akerkar, Shobha; Boyiri, Telih; Amin, Shantu; Desai, Dhimant; Colosimo, Stephen; Pittman, Brian; Leder, Gerhard; Ramadani, Marco; Henne-Bruns, Doris; Beger, Hans G; El-Bayoumy, Karam

    2002-05-01

    Cancer of the pancreas is the fourth leading cause of cancer mortality in the USA with an estimated 28 900 deaths in 2001. Several factors have been implicated in the etiology of this disease. However, at present, only cigarette smoking has been positively associated with pancreatic cancer. It is our working hypothesis that tobacco-derived compounds can be delivered to the pancreas where, upon metabolic activation, they can initiate carcinogenesis. Our current investigation was conducted to determine whether cotinine and tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNA) are present in human pancreatic juice. Smoking status was assessed by the determination of levels of urinary cotinine and was further supported by quantifying nicotine in hair. The TSNA were extracted from the pancreatic juice of 18 smokers and 9 nonsmokers by supercritical carbon dioxide that contained 10% methanol. The extracts were analyzed for TSNA, namely, 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) and N'-nitrosonornicotine (NNN), by gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection using a selected ion monitoring technique (GC-SIM-MS). Twenty-three extracts of human pancreatic juice were also analyzed for the presence of the NNK metabolite 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL) by GC-SIM-MS and by gas chromatography interfaced wit a thermal energy analyzer (GC-TEA; TEA, a nitrosamine-specific detector). Cotinine was detected in all analyzed samples of pancreatic juice from smokers (129 +/- 150 ng/mL juice; mean +/- standard deviation) and was present in only two of the nine samples of pancreatic juice from nonsmokers. Its levels in these two samples were 7 and 9 ng/mL juice. NNK was detected in 15 of 18 samples (83%) from smokers at levels from 1.37 to 604 ng/mL pancreatic juice. In nine samples of pancreatic juice from nonsmokers, NNK ranged from not detected (in three samples) to 96.8 ng/mL juice. In pancreatic juice from smokers the mean level of NNK (88.7 +/- 161 ng/mL juice

  19. Endoscopic Therapies for Chronic Pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Adler, Jeffrey M; Gardner, Timothy B

    2017-07-01

    Chronic pancreatitis is a fibroinflammatory disease of the pancreas leading to varying degrees of endocrine and exocrine dysfunction. Treatment options are generally designed to control the pain of chronic pancreatitis, and endoscopic therapy is one of the main treatment modalities. Herein, we describe the endoscopic management of pancreatic duct calculi and strictures, entrapment of the intrapancreatic bile duct, celiac plexus interventions, and drainage of pancreatic pseudocysts.

  20. Hypocalcemia in acute pancreatitis revisited

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Armin; Azim, Afzal; Gurjar, Mohan; Baronia, Arvind Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Hypocalcemia is a frequent finding in acute pancreatitis. Severe hypocalcemia can present with neurological as well as cardiovascular manifestations. Correction of hypocalcemia by parenteral calcium infusion remains a controversial topic as intracellular calcium overload is the central mechanism of acinar cell injury in pancreatitis. The current article deals with the art and science of calcium correction in pancreatitis patients. PMID:27076730

  1. Pancreatic Cancer—Patient Version

    Cancer.gov

    Pancreatic cancer can form in exocrine cells and neuroendocrine cells. The exocrine type is more common and is usually found at an advanced stage. Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors are less common but have a better prognosis. Start here to find information on pancreatic cancer treatment, research, and statistics.

  2. The management of pancreatic trauma.

    PubMed

    Khan, M A; Cameron, I

    2010-12-01

    Pancreatic trauma is an uncommon occurrence and so a consensus about optimal management is not readily available. Isolated pancreatic injury occurs only occasionally, as in the majority of cases there is concurrent visceral or vascular injury. Morbidity and mortality are related to delay in diagnosis, concurrent organ injury or the presence and extent of pancreatic duct injury.

  3. Icotinib plus gemcitabine for metastatic pancreatic cancer: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jing; Shen, Hong; Hu, Han-Guang; Huang, Jian-Jin

    2015-01-01

    A large majority of patients diagnosed with pancreatic cancer have advanced metastatic disease with unresectable malignancies. Despite treatment advances, the survival benefit from chemotherapeutic regimens and targeted drugs is limited. Moreover, their application is limited in China because of high toxicity and cost. Recently, inhibitors of epidermal growth factor receptor activity have shown promise for the treatment of solid cancers when used in combination with standard therapy. However, these drugs have not been evaluated extensively for the treatment of pancreatic cancer. Here, we report the treatment of a 64-year-old male with metastatic pancreatic cancer using a novel regimen of icotinib with gemcitabine. Marked shrinkage of the mass was observed after two treatment cycles, and partial remission was achieved. The abdominal pain was relieved. The adverse effects were tolerable and treatment cost was acceptable. This is the first reported case for the treatment of advanced pancreatic cancer with icotinib plus gemcitabine and demonstrates a promising therapeutic alternative. PMID:25805958

  4. Icotinib plus gemcitabine for metastatic pancreatic cancer: a case report.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jing; Shen, Hong; Hu, Han-Guang; Huang, Jian-Jin

    2015-03-21

    A large majority of patients diagnosed with pancreatic cancer have advanced metastatic disease with unresectable malignancies. Despite treatment advances, the survival benefit from chemotherapeutic regimens and targeted drugs is limited. Moreover, their application is limited in China because of high toxicity and cost. Recently, inhibitors of epidermal growth factor receptor activity have shown promise for the treatment of solid cancers when used in combination with standard therapy. However, these drugs have not been evaluated extensively for the treatment of pancreatic cancer. Here, we report the treatment of a 64-year-old male with metastatic pancreatic cancer using a novel regimen of icotinib with gemcitabine. Marked shrinkage of the mass was observed after two treatment cycles, and partial remission was achieved. The abdominal pain was relieved. The adverse effects were tolerable and treatment cost was acceptable. This is the first reported case for the treatment of advanced pancreatic cancer with icotinib plus gemcitabine and demonstrates a promising therapeutic alternative.

  5. Robotic transgastric cystgastrostomy and pancreatic debridement in the management of pancreatic fluid collections following acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Kirks, Russell C; Sola, Richard; Iannitti, David A; Martinie, John B; Vrochides, Dionisios

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic and peripancreatic fluid collections may develop after severe acute pancreatitis. Organized fluid collections such as pancreatic pseudocyst and walled-off pancreatic necrosis (WOPN) that mature over time may require intervention to treat obstructive or constitutional symptoms related to the size and location of the collection as well as possible infection. Endoscopic, open surgical and minimally invasive techniques are described to treat post-inflammatory pancreatic fluid collections. Surgical intervention may be required to treat collections containing necrotic pancreatic parenchyma or in locations not immediately apposed to the stomach or duodenum. Comprising a blend of the surgical approach and the clinical benefits of minimally invasive surgery, the robot-assisted technique of pancreatic cystgastrostomy with pancreatic debridement is described.

  6. [Duodenal and pancreatic injuries].

    PubMed

    De Angelis, P; Bergaminelli, C; Pastore, S; Giardiello, C; Salzano, A; Vecchio, G

    2000-04-01

    Pancreatic and duodenal injuries occur rather infrequently and the incidence ranges between 1% and 12% of all abdominal injuries. The high rate of mortality and morbidity (10-40%) depends on associated complication rate of all intra-abdominal organs (90%). Twenty-five cases of pancreatic and duodenal injuries observed between 1987 and 1997, with an incidence of 0.7% of all abdominal injuries, are reported. In 16 cases the cause was penetrating injury (gunshot) and in 9 cases it was blunt abdominal trauma. Only two patients presented an isolated pancreatic lesion, all the others had at least an associated lesion. In all the cases the patients were male and they were submitted to emergency laparotomy. The mortality rate was 20%, the morbidity was 24%. The relatively low incidence of these injuries and the high rate of associated lesions cause a difficult diagnostic and therapeutic approach, the absence of a unified method to follow and the unsatisfactory results observed.

  7. Hypertriglyceridaemia-induced pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Weston, Natasha; Fernando, Upul; Baskar, Varadarajan

    2013-01-01

    Hypertriglyceridaemia is the third most common cause of acute pancreatitis but is relatively rare and therefore requires a high level of clinical suspicion to be diagnosed. We discuss the case of a 46-year-old man who initially presented to the accident and emergency department with suspected first presentation of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and a normal amylase but who did not respond to DKA treatment. Further history revealed significant cardiovascular risk factors, examination showed an evidence of hyperlipidaemia and investigations revealed acute pancreatitis secondary to hypertriglyceridaemia. We discuss the causes of hypertriglyceridaemia, the difficulty in differentiating primary versus secondary hypertriglyceridaemia, possible pathogenesis and current evidence-based treatments. PMID:23446049

  8. Pathophysiology of chronic pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Behrman, Stephen W; Fowler, Eric S

    2007-12-01

    Although the most common causes of chronic pancreatitis have not changed, it has become clear that a host of modifying biochemical, inflammatory, neural, and genetic deviations allows the disease to progress. Alterations in biochemical composition allow calcific stone formation, whereas various toxins, cytokines, and neuropeptides contribute to the progression of fibrosis and pain production. The basic cellular structure contributing to fibrosis of the pancreas has been elucidated and factors responsible for its activation delineated. Of most importance is the recent recognition of a set of genetic mutations that results in several aberrations of normal pancreatic physiology, which, in conjunction with other inciting insults or by themselves, allow the disease to begin and progress.

  9. Pancreatic Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor after Upper Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage and Performance of Whipple Procedure: A Case Report and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Aziret, Mehmet; Çetinkünar, Süleyman; Aktaş, Elife; İrkörücü, Oktay; Bali, İlhan; Erdem, Hasan

    2015-08-03

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are the most common mesenchymal tumors in the gastrointestinal system. These types of tumors originate from any part of the tract as well as from the intestine, colon, omentum, mesentery or retroperitoneum. GIST is a rare tumor compared to other types of tumors, accounting for less than 1% of all gastrointestinal tumors. A 56-year-old male patient was hospitalized due to an upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage and the start of abdominal pain on the same day. In the upper gastrointestinal endoscopy that was performed, a solitary mass was found in the second section of the duodenum and a blood vessel (Forrest type 2a) was seen. The extent and location of the mass was detected by abdominal tomography. After hemodynamic recovery, a Whipple procedure was performed without any complications. A subsequent histopathological examination detected a c-kit-positive (CD117) pancreatic GIST with high mitotic index. The most effective treatment method for GISTs is surgical resection. In patients with a head of pancreatic GIST, the Whipple procedure can be used more safely and effectively.

  10. [Pancreatic serous cystadenoma associated with pancreatic heterotopia].

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Hedfi; Dorra, Belghachem; Hela, Bouhafa; Cherif, Abdelhedi; Azza, Sridi; Karim, Sassi; Khadija, Bellil; Adnen, Chouchene

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic heterotopias (HP) are rare. They can occur at any age with a slight male predominance. These lesions are usually asymptomatic and they are often found incidentally during upper or lower GI endoscopy or during the anatomo-pathological examination of an organ which was resected for other reasons; they can be isolated or associated with a digestive pathology. We report, through observation, the association of HP with serous cystadenoma of the pancreas discovered during examinations to identify the etiology of isolated abdominal pain. The aim of this study is to analyse clinical and histological features of this rare pathology.

  11. Head Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... won't stop crying complains of head and neck pain (younger or nonverbal children may be more fussy) ... vision pupils of unequal size weakness or paralysis neck pain or stiffness seizure If your child is unconscious: ...

  12. Head Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... before. Often, the injury is minor because your skull is hard and it protects your brain. But ... injuries can be more severe, such as a skull fracture, concussion, or traumatic brain injury. Head injuries ...

  13. Environmental risk factors for chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Nitsche, Claudia; Simon, Peter; Weiss, F Ulrich; Fluhr, Gabriele; Weber, Eckhard; Gärtner, Simone; Behn, Claas O; Kraft, Matthias; Ringel, Jörg; Aghdassi, Ali; Mayerle, Julia; Lerch, Markus M

    2011-01-01

    Chronic pancreatitis has long been thought to be mainly associated with immoderate alcohol consumption. The observation that only ∼10% of heavy drinkers develop chronic pancreatitis not only suggests that other environmental factors, such as tobacco smoke, are potent additional risk factors, but also that the genetic component of pancreatitis is more common than previously presumed. Either disease-causing or protective traits have been indentified for mutations in different trypsinogen genes, the gene for the trypsin inhibitor SPINK1, chymotrypsinogen C, and the cystic fibrosis transmembane conductance regulator (CFTR). Other factors that have been proposed to contribute to pancreatitis are obesity, diets high in animal protein and fat, as well as antioxidant deficiencies. For the development of pancreatic cancer, preexisting chronic pancreatitis, more prominently hereditary pancreatitis, is a risk factor. The data on environmental risk factors for pancreatic cancer are, with the notable exception of tobacco smoke, either sparse, unconfirmed or controversial. Obesity appears to increase the risk of pancreatic cancer in the West but not in Japan. Diets high in processed or red meat, diets low in fruits and vegetables, phytochemicals such as lycopene and flavonols, have been proposed and refuted as risk or protective factors in different trials. The best established and single most important risk factor for cancer as well as pancreatitis and the one to clearly avoid is tobacco smoke. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Pancreaticojejunostomy, hepaticojejunostomy and double Roux-en-Y digestive tract reconstruction for benign pancreatic diseases.

    PubMed

    Jia, Chang-Ku; Lu, Xue-Fei; Yang, Qing-Zhuang; Weng, Jie; Chen, You-Ke; Fu, Yu

    2014-09-28

    Surgery such as digestive tract reconstruction is usually required for pancreatic trauma and severe pancreatitis as well as malignant pancreatic lesions. The most common digestive tract reconstruction techniques (e.g., Child's type reconstruction) for neoplastic diseases of the pancreatic head often encompass pancreaticojejunostomy, choledochojejunostomy and then gastrojejunostomy with pancreaticoduodenectomy, whereas these techniques may not be applicable in benign pancreatic diseases due to an integrated stomach and duodenum in these patients. In benign pancreatic diseases, the aforementioned reconstruction will not only increase the distance between the pancreaticojejunostomy and choledochojejunostomy, but also the risks of traction, twisting and angularity of the jejunal loop. In addition, postoperative complications such as mixed fistula are refractory and life-threatening after common reconstruction procedures. We here introduce a novel pancreaticojejunostomy, hepaticojejunostomy and double Roux-en-Y digestive tract reconstruction in two cases of benign pancreatic disease, thus decreasing not only the distance between the pancreaticojejunostomy and choledochojejunostomy, but also the possibility of postoperative complications compared to common reconstruction methods. Postoperatively, the recovery of these patients was uneventful and complications such as bile leakage, pancreatic leakage and digestive tract obstruction were not observed during the follow-up period.

  15. SU-E-J-122: The CBCT Dose Calculation Using a Patient Specific CBCT Number to Mass Density Conversion Curve Based On a Novel Image Registration and Organ Mapping Method in Head-And-Neck Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, J; Lasio, G; Chen, S

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To develop a CBCT HU correction method using a patient specific HU to mass density conversion curve based on a novel image registration and organ mapping method for head-and-neck radiation therapy. Methods: There are three steps to generate a patient specific CBCT HU to mass density conversion curve. First, we developed a novel robust image registration method based on sparseness analysis to register the planning CT (PCT) and the CBCT. Second, a novel organ mapping method was developed to transfer the organs at risk (OAR) contours from the PCT to the CBCT and corresponding mean HU values of eachmore » OAR were measured in both the PCT and CBCT volumes. Third, a set of PCT and CBCT HU to mass density conversion curves were created based on the mean HU values of OARs and the corresponding mass density of the OAR in the PCT. Then, we compared our proposed conversion curve with the traditional Catphan phantom based CBCT HU to mass density calibration curve. Both curves were input into the treatment planning system (TPS) for dose calculation. Last, the PTV and OAR doses, DVH and dose distributions of CBCT plans are compared to the original treatment plan. Results: One head-and-neck cases which contained a pair of PCT and CBCT was used. The dose differences between the PCT and CBCT plans using the proposed method are −1.33% for the mean PTV, 0.06% for PTV D95%, and −0.56% for the left neck. The dose differences between plans of PCT and CBCT corrected using the CATPhan based method are −4.39% for mean PTV, 4.07% for PTV D95%, and −2.01% for the left neck. Conclusion: The proposed CBCT HU correction method achieves better agreement with the original treatment plan compared to the traditional CATPhan based calibration method.« less

  16. SU-E-J-268: Change of CT Number During the Course of Chemoradiation Therapy for Pancreatic Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, X; Dalah, E; Liu, F

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: It has been observed radiation can induce changes in CT number (CTN) inside tumor during the course of radiation therapy (RT) for several tumor sites including lung and head and neck, suggesting that the CTN change may be potentially used to assess RT response. In this study, we investigate the CTN changes inside tumor during the course of chemoradiation therapy (CRT) for pancreatic cancer. Methods: Daily diagnostic-quality CT data acquired during IGRT for 17 pancreatic head cancer patients using an in-room CT (CTVision, Siemens) were analyzed. All patients were treated with a radiation dose of 50.4 in 1.8 Gymore » per fraction. On each daily CT set, The contour of the pancreatic head, included in the treatment target, was generated by populating the pancreatic head contour from the planning CT or MRI using an auto-segmentation tool based on deformable registration (ABAS, Elekta) with manual editing if necessary. The CTN at each voxel in the pancreatic head contour was extracted and the 3D distribution of the CTNs was processed using MATLAB. The mean value of CTN distribution was used to quantify the daily CTN change in the pancreatic head. Results: Reduction of CTN in pancreatic head was observed during the CRT delivery in 14 out the 17 (82%) patients studied. Although the average reduction is only 3.5 Houncefield Unit (HU), this change is significant (p<0.01). Among them, there are 7 patients who had a CTN drop larger than 5 HU, ranging from 6.0 to 11.8 HU. In contrast to this trend, CTN was increased in 3 patients. Conclusion: Measurable changes in the CT number in tumor target were observed during the course of chemoradiation therapy for the pancreas cancer patients, indicating this radiation-induced CTN change may be used to assess treatment response.« less

  17. Pancreatic Ribonucleases Superfamily Dynamics

    DOE Data Explorer

    Agarwal, Pratul

    2016-01-01

    This data set consists of molecular dynamics simulations based flexibility/dynamics derived for family members of pancreatic ribonucleases. The results are based on two independent 0.5 microsecond trajectories for each of the 23 members. The flexibility is computed at aggregation of first ten quasi-harmonic modes, and indicated in the temperature factor column of PDB (protein data bank) file format.

  18. Nutrition in chronic pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Henrik Højgaard; Irtun, Oivind; Olesen, Søren Schou; Drewes, Asbjørn Mohr; Holst, Mette

    2013-11-14

    The pancreas is a major player in nutrient digestion. In chronic pancreatitis both exocrine and endocrine insufficiency may develop leading to malnutrition over time. Maldigestion is often a late complication of chronic pancreatic and depends on the severity of the underlying disease. The severity of malnutrition is correlated with two major factors: (1) malabsorption and depletion of nutrients (e.g., alcoholism and pain) causes impaired nutritional status; and (2) increased metabolic activity due to the severity of the disease. Nutritional deficiencies negatively affect outcome if they are not treated. Nutritional assessment and the clinical severity of the disease are important for planning any nutritional intervention. Good nutritional practice includes screening to identify patients at risk, followed by a thoroughly nutritional assessment and nutrition plan for risk patients. Treatment should be multidisciplinary and the mainstay of treatment is abstinence from alcohol, pain treatment, dietary modifications and pancreatic enzyme supplementation. To achieve energy-end protein requirements, oral supplementation might be beneficial. Enteral nutrition may be used when patients do not have sufficient calorie intake as in pylero-duodenal-stenosis, inflammation or prior to surgery and can be necessary if weight loss continues. Parenteral nutrition is very seldom used in patients with chronic pancreatitis and should only be used in case of GI-tract obstruction or as a supplement to enteral nutrition.

  19. Managing Incidental Pancreatic Cysts.

    PubMed

    Phan, Jennifer; Raman Muthusamy, V

    2018-06-09

    The goal of this review is to critically analyze the current literature regarding the management of incidental pancreatic cysts. Given their increased rates of detection due to the frequent use of cross-sectional imaging, correctly identifying the subset of high risk lesions that are appropriate for surgical resection is critical. However, the existing consensus and societal guidelines discussed in this review lack high quality data to create evidence-based recommendations, making achieving this important aim challenging. Several recent studies have focused on the natural history of pancreatic cysts and defining the role of endoscopic ultrasound, which remains unclear. EUS-guided diagnostic tools include molecular analysis of obtained fluid; EUS-guided FNA, FNB, and intracystic forceps biopsy of the cyst wall; and confocal endomicroscopy. While their precise role in diagnosing pancreatic cystic neoplasms remains to be defined, they represent promising innovations that may play a future role in cyst assessment and management. Large, long-term, prospective studies of incidentally identified pancreatic cysts are essential to fully understand their natural history and potential for neoplastic progression. Given the absence of such data at present, an individualized patient approach is recommended.

  20. Pancreatic tumours produce neurotensin.

    PubMed

    Blackburn, A M; Bryant, M G; Adrian, T E; Bloom, S R

    1981-04-01

    Tumour tissue may secrete substances which are not normally secreted by the original tissue. We have found that 6 out of 21 pancreatic tumours producing vasoactive intestinal peptide also produce neurotensin-like peptides. These are sometimes secreted and very high plasma levels of neurotensin-like immunoreactivity may be found in the circulation.

  1. Pancreatic tuberculosis with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: A case report and systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Meesiri, Somchai

    2012-01-01

    Pancreatic tuberculosis (TB) is a relatively rare disease that can mimic carcinoma, lymphoma, cystic neoplasia, retroperitoneal tumors, pancreatitis or pseudocysts. Here, I report the case of a 31-year-old immigrant Burmese woman who exhibited epigastralgia, fever, weight loss and an epigastric mass. The patient was diagnosed with pancreatic TB and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, and was treated with antituberculous drugs and percutaneous catheter drainage without a laparotomy. The clinical presentation, radiographic investigation and management of pancreatic TB are summarized in this paper to emphasize the importance of considering this rare disease in the differential diagnosis of pancreatic masses concomitant with human immunodeficiency virus infection. I also emphasize the need for both histopathological and microbiological diagnosis via fine-needle aspiration. PMID:22363146

  2. Pancreatic tuberculosis with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: a case report and systematic review.

    PubMed

    Meesiri, Somchai

    2012-02-21

    Pancreatic tuberculosis (TB) is a relatively rare disease that can mimic carcinoma, lymphoma, cystic neoplasia, retroperitoneal tumors, pancreatitis or pseudocysts. Here, I report the case of a 31-year-old immigrant Burmese woman who exhibited epigastralgia, fever, weight loss and an epigastric mass. The patient was diagnosed with pancreatic TB and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, and was treated with antituberculous drugs and percutaneous catheter drainage without a laparotomy. The clinical presentation, radiographic investigation and management of pancreatic TB are summarized in this paper to emphasize the importance of considering this rare disease in the differential diagnosis of pancreatic masses concomitant with human immunodeficiency virus infection. I also emphasize the need for both histopathological and microbiological diagnosis via fine-needle aspiration.

  3. Laparoscopic lateral pancreaticojejunostomy and laparoscopic Berne modification of Beger procedure for the treatment of chronic pancreatitis: the first UK experience.

    PubMed

    Khaled, Yazan S; Ammori, Basil J

    2014-10-01

    Pancreatic resection and/or ductal drainage are common surgical options in the management of unremitting abdominal pain of chronic pancreatitis (CP). We describe the results of the largest UK series of laparoscopic approach to pancreatic duct drainage and head resection for CP. Patients with CP and intractable abdominal pain requiring duodenum-preserving pancreatic head resection (Berne modification of Beger procedure) or Puestow procedure were offered laparoscopic surgery by a single surgeon. The results shown represent median (range). Six patients (3 males) with CP (alcohol induced, n=4; idiopathic, n=2) underwent surgery between 2009 and 2012. The pancreatic duct diameter was 8.75 (6 to 11) mm. Five patients have had lateral pancreaticojejunostomy and 1 patient underwent Berne modification of Beger procedure, all of which were completed laparoscopically. The operating time was 277.5 (250 to 360) minutes. There were no deaths and 1 patient was readmitted 10 days postoperatively and had laparotomy for pancreatic bleeding after pancreaticojejunostomy (morbidity, 17%). The hospital stay was 5 (5 to 8) days. At a follow-up of 14.2 (10 to 35) months, 4 of the patients were pain free, whereas 2 patients required one third and half of the preoperative oral opioid dose for pain control. The laparoscopic approach to pancreatic duct drainage and duodenum-preserving head resection in carefully selected patients and in experienced hands is feasible and safe with good short-term results and potential advantages. Further expansion of experience and longer follow-up is required.

  4. Externalized decondensed neutrophil chromatin occludes pancreatic ducts and drives pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Leppkes, Moritz; Maueröder, Christian; Hirth, Sebastian; Nowecki, Stefanie; Günther, Claudia; Billmeier, Ulrike; Paulus, Susanne; Biermann, Mona; Munoz, Luis E.; Hoffmann, Markus; Wildner, Dane; Croxford, Andrew L.; Waisman, Ari; Mowen, Kerri; Jenne, Dieter E.; Krenn, Veit; Mayerle, Julia; Lerch, Markus M.; Schett, Georg; Wirtz, Stefan; Neurath, Markus F.; Herrmann, Martin; Becker, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Ductal occlusion has been postulated to precipitate focal pancreatic inflammation, while the nature of the primary occluding agents has remained elusive. Neutrophils make use of histone citrullination by peptidyl arginine deiminase-4 (PADI4) in contact to particulate agents to extrude decondensed chromatin as neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). In high cellular density, NETs form macroscopically visible aggregates. Here we show that such aggregates form inside pancreatic ducts in humans and mice occluding pancreatic ducts and thereby driving pancreatic inflammation. Experimental models indicate that PADI4 is critical for intraductal aggregate formation and that PADI4-deficiency abrogates disease progression. Mechanistically, we identify the pancreatic juice as a strong instigator of neutrophil chromatin extrusion. Characteristic single components of pancreatic juice, such as bicarbonate ions and calcium carbonate crystals, induce aggregated NET formation. Ductal occlusion by aggregated NETs emerges as a pathomechanism with relevance in a plethora of inflammatory conditions involving secretory ducts. PMID:26964500

  5. [Chronic Pancreatitis and Pancreatic Cancer - Tumor Risk and Screening].

    PubMed

    Beyer, Georg; D'Haese, Jan G; Ormanns, Steffen; Mayerle, Julia

    2018-06-01

    Chronic pancreatitis is a fibroinflammatory syndrome of the exocrine pancreas, which is characterized by an increasing incidence, high morbidity and lethality. Common etiologies besides alcohol and nicotine consumption include genetic causes and risk factors. The life time risk for the development of pancreatic cancer is elevated 13- to 45-fold depending on the underlying etiology. In patients with chronic pancreatitis clinical, laboratory and imaging surveillance for early detection of complications, including pancreatic cancer, is recommended, although the available methods lack the desired sensitivity and specificity. In this article we review the epidemiology, etiologies and risk factors for chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer and discuss current recommendations for screening and management of patients at risk for tumor development. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  6. Dendritic Cells Promote Pancreatic Viability in Mice with Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Bedrosian, Andrea S.; Nguyen, Andrew H.; Hackman, Michael; Connolly, Michael K.; Malhotra, Ashim; Ibrahim, Junaid; Cieza-Rubio, Napoleon E.; Henning, Justin R.; Barilla, Rocky; Rehman, Adeel; Pachter, H. Leon; Medina-Zea, Marco V.; Cohen, Steven M.; Frey, Alan B.; Acehan, Devrim; Miller, George

    2011-01-01

    Background & Aims Acute pancreatitis increases morbidity and mortality from organ necrosis by mechanisms that are incompletely understood. Dendritic cells (DCs) can promote or suppress inflammation, depending on their subtype and context. We investigated the roles of DC in development of acute pancreatitis. Methods Acute pancreatitis was induced in CD11c.DTR mice using caerulein or L-arginine; DCs were depleted by administration of diphtheria toxin. Survival was analyzed using Kaplan-Meier analysis. Results Numbers of MHC II+CD11c+DC increased 100-fold in pancreas of mice with acute pancreatitis, to account for nearly 15% of intra-pancreatic leukocytes. Intra-pancreatic DC acquired an immune phenotype in mice with acute pancreatitis; they expressed higher levels of MHC II and CD86 and increased production of interleukin-6, membrane cofactor protein (MCP)-1, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. However, rather than inducing an organ-destructive inflammatory process, DC were required for pancreatic viability; the exocrine pancreas died in mice that were depleted of DC and challenged with caerulein or L-arginine. All mice with pancreatitis that were depleted of DC died from acinar cell death within 4 days. Depletion of DC from mice with pancreatitis resulted in neutrophil infiltration and increased levels of systemic markers of inflammation. However, the organ necrosis associated with depletion of DC did not require infiltrating neutrophils, activation of NF-κB, or signaling by mitogen-activated protein kinase or TNF-α. Conclusions DC are required for pancreatic viability in mice with acute pancreatitis and might protect organs against cell stress. PMID:21801698

  7. Comparing human pancreatic cell secretomes by in vitro aptamer selection identifies cyclophilin B as a candidate pancreatic cancer biomarker

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Partha; Rialon-Guevara, Kristy L.; Veras, Emanuela; Sullenger, Bruce A.; White, Rebekah R.

    2012-01-01

    Most cases of pancreatic cancer are not diagnosed until they are no longer curable with surgery. Therefore, it is critical to develop a sensitive, preferably noninvasive, method for detecting the disease at an earlier stage. In order to identify biomarkers for pancreatic cancer, we devised an in vitro positive/negative selection strategy to identify RNA ligands (aptamers) that could detect structural differences between the secretomes of pancreatic cancer and non-cancerous cells. Using this molecular recognition approach, we identified an aptamer (M9-5) that differentially bound conditioned media from cancerous and non-cancerous human pancreatic cell lines. This aptamer further discriminated between the sera of pancreatic cancer patients and healthy volunteers with high sensitivity and specificity. We utilized biochemical purification methods and mass-spectrometric analysis to identify the M9-5 target as cyclophilin B (CypB). This molecular recognition–based strategy simultaneously identified CypB as a serum biomarker and generated a new reagent to recognize it in body fluids. Moreover, this approach should be generalizable to other diseases and complementary to traditional approaches that focus on differences in expression level between samples. Finally, we suggest that the aptamer we identified has the potential to serve as a tool for the early detection of pancreatic cancer. PMID:22484812

  8. Comparing human pancreatic cell secretomes by in vitro aptamer selection identifies cyclophilin B as a candidate pancreatic cancer biomarker.

    PubMed

    Ray, Partha; Rialon-Guevara, Kristy L; Veras, Emanuela; Sullenger, Bruce A; White, Rebekah R

    2012-05-01

    Most cases of pancreatic cancer are not diagnosed until they are no longer curable with surgery. Therefore, it is critical to develop a sensitive, preferably noninvasive, method for detecting the disease at an earlier stage. In order to identify biomarkers for pancreatic cancer, we devised an in vitro positive/negative selection strategy to identify RNA ligands (aptamers) that could detect structural differences between the secretomes of pancreatic cancer and non-cancerous cells. Using this molecular recognition approach, we identified an aptamer (M9-5) that differentially bound conditioned media from cancerous and non-cancerous human pancreatic cell lines. This aptamer further discriminated between the sera of pancreatic cancer patients and healthy volunteers with high sensitivity and specificity. We utilized biochemical purification methods and mass-spectrometric analysis to identify the M9-5 target as cyclophilin B (CypB). This molecular recognition-based strategy simultaneously identified CypB as a serum biomarker and generated a new reagent to recognize it in body fluids. Moreover, this approach should be generalizable to other diseases and complementary to traditional approaches that focus on differences in expression level between samples. Finally, we suggest that the aptamer we identified has the potential to serve as a tool for the early detection of pancreatic cancer.

  9. Patient Derived Cancer Cell Lines in Identifying Molecular Changes in Patients With Previously Untreated Pancreatic Cancer Receiving Gemcitabine Hydrochloride-Based Chemotherapy

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-09-05

    Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma; Stage IA Pancreatic Cancer; Stage IB Pancreatic Cancer; Stage IIA Pancreatic Cancer; Stage IIB Pancreatic Cancer; Stage III Pancreatic Cancer; Stage IV Pancreatic Cancer

  10. Head Lice.

    PubMed

    Meister, Laura; Ochsendorf, Falk

    2016-11-11

    Conflicting information about the proper treatment of head lice has given rise to uncertainty among patients and treating personnel. For example, the reported efficacy of permethrin fell from 97% in the 1990s to 30% in 2010. Review of the literature based on a selective search of PubMed. In Germany, outbreaks of head lice mainly occur among 5- to 13-year-olds returning to school after the summer vacation. Nymphs hatch from eggs after an average of 8 days and become sexually mature lice over the ensuing 9 days. The main route of transmission is direct head-to-head contact; transmission via inanimate objects is of no relevance. Symptoms arise 4-6 weeks after an initial infestation; many affected persons have no symptoms at all. Wet combing is the most sensitive method of establishing the diagnosis and monitoring treatment. Resistance to neurotoxic pediculocidal drugs is increasing around the world. Dimethicones are the treatment of choice, with 97% efficacy. Outbreaks must be managed with the synchronous treatment of all infested persons to break the chain of infestation. If the agent used is not ovicidal, the treatment must be repeated in 8-10 days and sometimes in a further 7 days as well. Outbreaks of head lice can be successfully terminated by synchronous treatment with ovicidal dimethicones.

  11. The Role of Pancreatic Enzyme Replacement Therapy in Unresectable Pancreatic Cancer: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Saito, Tomotaka; Hirano, Kenji; Isayama, Hiroyuki; Nakai, Yousuke; Saito, Kei; Umefune, Gyotane; Akiyama, Dai; Watanabe, Takeo; Takagi, Kaoru; Hamada, Tsuyoshi; Takahara, Naminatsu; Uchino, Rie; Mizuno, Suguru; Kogure, Hirofumi; Matsubara, Saburo; Yamamoto, Natsuyo; Tada, Minoru; Koike, Kazuhiko

    2017-03-01

    Although patients with pancreatic cancer (PC) are prone to exocrine pancreatic insufficiency, there are little evidence about pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy (PERT) in patients with PC, especially those receiving chemotherapy. This is a prospective consecutive observational study of PERT in patients with unresectable PC. We prospectively enrolled patients receiving chemotherapy for unresectable PC from April 2012 to February 2014 and prescribed oral pancrelipase of 48,000 lipase units per meal (pancrelipase group). N-benzoyl-tryrosyl para-aminobenzoic acid test was performed at baseline. Patients receiving chemotherapy before April 2012 were retrospectively studied as a historical cohort. Data on the nutritional markers at baseline and 16 weeks were extracted, and serial changes, defined as the ratio of markers at 16 weeks/baseline, were compared between 2 groups. A total of 91 patients (46 in the pancrelipase group and 45 in the historical cohort) were analyzed. N-benzoyl-tryrosyl para-aminobenzoic acid test was low in 94% of the pancrelipase group. Serial change in the pancrelipase group versus historical cohort was 1.01 versus 0.95 in body mass index (P < 0.001) and 1.03 versus 0.97 in serum albumin (P = 0.131). The rate of exocrine pancreatic insufficiency in unresectable PC was high, and PERT can potentially improve the nutritional status during chemotherapy.

  12. External Versus Internal Pancreatic Duct Drainage for the Early Efficacy After Pancreaticoduodenectomy: A Retrospectively Comparative Study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Gang; Li, Le; Ma, Yuan; Qu, Feng-Zhi; Zhu, Hong; Lv, Jia-Chen; Jia, Yue-Hui; Wu, Lin-Feng; Sun, Bei

    2016-08-01

    To compare the early efficacy of external versus internal pancreatic duct drainage after pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD), providing clinical evidence for selecting the optimal approach to pancreatic duct drainage. The clinical data of 395 consecutive patients undergoing PD from 2006 to 2013 were analyzed retrospectively. All the patients were divided into external and internal drainage group. Intraoperative blood loss, surgery duration, postoperative hospitalization duration, mortality rate, PF, and other complications were compared between the two groups. The perioperative relative risk factors that might induce PF were analyzed. External drainage significantly reduced the incidences of post-PD PF, delayed gastric emptying, abdominal infection, bowel obstruction, overall complications, and shortened the healing time of PF (p < .05). The univariate analysis showed that the pancreatic duct drainage method, body mass index (BMI), preoperative serum bilirubin level, perioperative blood transfusion, pancreaticojejunostomy approach, pancreatic texture, pancreatic duct diameter, and primary disease differed markedly between the two groups (p < .05). A multivariate analysis revealed that BMI ≥ 25 kg/m(2), internal pancreatic duct drainage, pancreatic duct diameter <3 mm, soft pancreatic texture, and ampullary disease were independent risk factors for PF. External pancreatic duct drainage can effectively reduce the morbidity of PF and overall complications after PD.

  13. Difference gel electrophoresis (DiGE) identifies differentially expressed proteins in endoscopically-collected pancreatic fluid

    PubMed Central

    Paulo, Joao A.; Lee, Linda S.; Banks, Peter A.; Steen, Hanno; Conwell, Darwin L.

    2012-01-01

    Alterations in the pancreatic fluid proteome of individuals with chronic pancreatitis may offer insights into the development and progression of the disease. The endoscopic pancreas function test (ePFT) can safely collect large volumes of pancreatic fluid that are potentially amenable to proteomic analyses using difference gel electrophoresis (DiGE) coupled with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Pancreatic fluid was collected endoscopically using the ePFT method following secretin stimulation from three individuals with severe chronic pancreatitis and three chronic abdominal pain controls. The fluid was processed to minimize protein degradation and the protein profiles of each cohort, as determined by DiGE and LC-MS/MS, were compared. This DiGE-LC-MS/MS analysis reveals proteins that are differentially expressed in chronic pancreatitis compared to chronic abdominal pain controls. Proteins with higher abundance in pancreatic fluid from chronic pancreatitis individuals include: actin, desmoplankin, alpha-1-antitrypsin, SNC73, and serotransferrin. Those of relatively lower abundance include carboxypeptidase B, lipase, alpha-1-antichymotrypsin, alpha-2-macroglobulin, Arp2/3 subunit 4, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, and protein disulfide isomerase. Endoscopic collection (ePFT) in tandem with DiGE-LC-MS/MS is a suitable approach for pancreatic fluid proteome analysis, however, further optimization of our protocol, as outlined herein, may improve proteome coverage in future analyses. PMID:21792986

  14. Current Knowledge on Pancreatic Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Iovanna, Juan; Mallmann, Maria Cecilia; Gonçalves, Anthony; Turrini, Olivier; Dagorn, Jean-Charles

    2012-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer death with a median survival of 6 months and a dismal 5-year survival rate of 3–5%. The development and progression of pancreatic cancer are caused by the activation of oncogenes, the inactivation of tumor suppressor genes, and the deregulation of many signaling pathways. Therefore, the strategies targeting these molecules as well as their downstream signaling could be promising for the prevention and treatment of pancreatic cancer. However, although targeted therapies for pancreatic cancer have yielded encouraging results in vitro and in animal models, these findings have not been translated into improved outcomes in clinical trials. This failure is due to an incomplete understanding of the biology of pancreatic cancer and to the selection of poorly efficient or imperfectly targeted agents. In this review, we will critically present the current knowledge regarding the molecular, biochemical, clinical, and therapeutic aspects of pancreatic cancer. PMID:22655256

  15. Severe acute pancreatitis and pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Robertson, K W; Stewart, I S; Imrie, C W

    2006-01-01

    For most patients with pregnancy-associated pancreatitis there is little maternal survival threat and only occasionally are there foetal deaths. We describe 4 young women with pregnancy-associated severe acute pancreatitis who each had gallstones. Their ages were 17, 18, 20 and 24 years. Each was a tertiary referral to our unit in Glasgow and each pursued a life-threatening course with hospital stays ranging from 37 to 90 days. One patient required pancreatic necrosectomy for infected necrosis, another had percutaneous management of a pancreatic abscess and 2 had cystogastrostomy as treatment for pancreatic pseudocyst. All underwent early endoscopic sphincterotomy and later cholecystectomy. It is important to be aware that pregnancy-associated acute pancreatitis may be severe, posing a survival threat even in the youngest patients. Gallstones, as we reported almost 20 years ago, are the most common aetiological factor in such patients. Copyright (c) 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel and IAP.

  16. [Retrograde pancreatic duct imaging and surgical tactics in hemorrhagic necrotizing pancreatitis. Preliminary report].

    PubMed

    Gebhardt, C; Gall, F P; Lux, G; Riemann, J; Link, W

    1983-12-01

    In patients with haemorrhagic necrotizing pancreatitis who are scheduled for surgery we have been carrying out a preoperative retrograde investigation of the pancreatic duct system for the past months. The results in, to date, ten patients revealed four different morphological findings of importance for the surgical tactic: 1. A normal pancreatic duct system with no signs of fistulae: only peripancreatic necrosectomy is required. - 2. Contrast medium leaks via a ductal fistula: left resection including the removal of the fistulous area must be done. - 3. Normal duct system with complete segmental parenchymal staining, representing total necrosis in this region: left resection of the pancreas. - 4. Duodenoscopically demonstrable perforation into the duodenum of a necrotic cavity in the head of the pancreas: conservative management only, no surgery, since this lesion resulting in drainage of the necrotic cavity into the bowel permits self-healing, while the site of the perforation within the necrotic wall cannot be dealt with by surgery. - The experience gained so far indicates that the surgical tactic can be determined with greater selectivity by the use of ERP.

  17. Frequent Detection of Pancreatic Lesions in Asymptomatic High-Risk Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Canto, Marcia Irene; Hruban, Ralph H.; Fishman, Elliot K.; Kamel, Ihab R.; Schulick, Richard; Zhang, Zhe; Topazian, Mark; Takahashi, Naoki; Fletcher, Joel; Petersen, Gloria; Klein, Alison P.; Axilbund, Jennifer; Griffin, Constance; Syngal, Sapna; Saltzman, John R.; Mortele, Koenraad J.; Lee, Jeffrey; Tamm, Eric; Vikram, Raghunandan; Bhosale, Priya; Margolis, Daniel; Farrell, James; Goggins, Michael

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS The risk of pancreatic cancer is increased in patients with a strong family history of pancreatic cancer or a predisposing germline mutation. Screening can detect curable, non-invasive pancreatic neoplasms, but the optimal imaging approach is not known. We determined the baseline prevalence and characteristics of pancreatic abnormalities using 3 imaging tests to screen asymptomatic, high-risk individuals (HRI). METHODS We screened 225 asymptomatic adult HRI at 5 academic US medical centers once, using computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS). We compared results in a blinded, independent fashion. RESULTS Ninety-two of 216 HRI (42%) were found to have at least 1 pancreatic mass (84 cystic, 3 solid) or a dilated pancreatic duct (n=5) by any of the imaging modalities. Fifty-one of the 84 HRI with a cyst (60.7%) had multiple lesions, typically small (mean 0.55 cm, range 2–39 mm), in multiple locations. The prevalence of pancreatic lesions increased with age; they were detected in 14% of subjects <50 years old, 34% of subjects 50–59 years old, and 53% of subjects 60–69 years old (P<.0001). CT, MRI, and EUS detected a pancreatic abnormality in 11%, 33.3%, and 42.6% of the HRI, respectively. Among these abnormalities, proven or suspected neoplasms were identified in 85 HRI (82 intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms [IPMN] and 3 pancreatic endocrine tumors). Three of 5 HRI who underwent pancreatic resection had high-grade dysplasia in <3 cm IPMNs and in multiple intraepithelial neoplasias. CONCLUSIONS Screening of asymptomatic HRI frequently detects small pancreatic cysts, including curable, non-invasive high-grade neoplasms. EUS and MRI detect pancreatic lesions better than CT. PMID:22245846

  18. Pancreatic β-cell regeneration: Facultative or dedicated progenitors?

    PubMed

    Afelik, Solomon; Rovira, Meritxell

    2017-04-15

    The adult pancreas is only capable of limited regeneration. Unlike highly regenerative tissues such as the skin, intestinal crypts and hematopoietic system, no dedicated adult stem cells or stem cell niche have so far been identified within the adult pancreas. New β cells have been shown to form in the adult pancreas, in response to high physiological demand or experimental β-cell ablation, mostly by replication of existing β cells. The possibility that new β cells are formed from other sources is currently a point of major controversy. Under particular injury conditions, fully differentiated pancreatic duct and acinar cells have been shown to dedifferentiate into a progenitor-like state, however the extent, to which ductal, acinar or other endocrine cells contribute to restoring pancreatic β-cell mass remains to be resolved. In this review we focus on regenerative events in the pancreas with emphasis on the restoration of β-cell mass. We present an overview of regenerative responses noted within the different pancreatic lineages, following injury. We also highlight the intrinsic plasticity of the adult pancreas that allows for inter-conversion of fully differentiated pancreatic lineages through manipulation of few genes or growth factors. Taken together, evidence from a number of studies suggest that differentiated pancreatic lineages could act as facultative progenitor cells, but the extent to which these contribute to β-cell regeneration in vivo is still a matter of contention. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Advances in Pancreatic CT Imaging.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Renata R; Lo, Grace C; Patino, Manuel; Bizzo, Bernardo; Canellas, Rodrigo; Sahani, Dushyant V

    2018-07-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss the advances in CT acquisition and image postprocessing as they apply to imaging the pancreas and to conceptualize the role of radiogenomics and machine learning in pancreatic imaging. CT is the preferred imaging modality for assessment of pancreatic diseases. Recent advances in CT (dual-energy CT, CT perfusion, CT volumetry, and radiogenomics) and emerging computational algorithms (machine learning) have the potential to further increase the value of CT in pancreatic imaging.

  20. Pancreatic mixed serous neuroendocrine neoplasm with clear cells leading to diagnosis of von Hippel Lindau disease.

    PubMed

    Kakkar, Aanchal; Sharma, Mehar C; Yadav, Rajni; Panwar, Rajesh; Mathur, Sandeep R; Iyer, Venkateswaran K; Sahni, Peush

    2016-08-01

    Mixed serous neuroendocrine neoplasms are extremely rare tumors that are usually seen in female patients and are often associated with von Hippel Lindau (VHL) disease. We describe the case of a 38-year-old male who presented with complaints of anorexia, weight loss, and abdominal pain. CT abdomen showed a mass in the head of the pancreas, multiple small nodules in the body of pancreas, and bilateral adrenal masses. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) from the mass showed features of a neuroendocrine tumor, with many of the cells demonstrating abundant clear cytoplasm. Histopathological examination of the pancreaticoduodenectomy specimen showed a mixed serous neuroendocrine neoplasm with two components viz. serous cystadenoma and neuroendocrine tumor (NET) World Health Organization (WHO) grade 2. In addition, he was diagnosed to have bilateral pheochromocytomas and a paraganglioma. The synchronicity of these tumors suggested the possibility of VHL disease. Thus, identification of a NET with clear cells or of a mixed serous neuroendocrine neoplasm should raise suspicion of VHL disease. In a mixed tumor, FNAC may identify only one of the two components. Thorough processing of all pancreatic serous tumors for pathological examination is recommended, as NET may occur as a small nodule within the serous cystadenoma. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Update on endoscopic management of main pancreatic duct stones in chronic calcific pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Choi, Eun Kwang; Lehman, Glen A

    2012-03-01

    Pancreatic duct stones are a common complication during the natural course of chronic pancreatitis and often contribute to additional pain and pancreatitis. Abdominal pain, one of the major symptoms of chronic pancreatitis, is believed to be caused in part by obstruction of the pancreatic duct system (by stones or strictures) resulting in increasing intraductal pressure and parenchymal ischemia. Pancreatic stones can be managed by surgery, endoscopy, or extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy. In this review, updated management of pancreatic duct stones is discussed.

  2. Results of decompression surgery for pain in chronic pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Terrace, J.D.; Paterson, H.M.; Garden, O.J.; Parks, R.W.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction. A vast majority of patients with chronic pancreatitis require regular opiate/opioid analgesia and recurrent hospital admission for pain. However, the role and timing of operative strategies for pain in chronic pancreatitis is controversial. This study hypothesized that pancreatic decompression surgery reduces analgesia requirement and hospital readmission for pain in selected patients. Patients and methods. This was a retrospective review of patients undergoing longitudinal pancreatico-jejunostomy (LPJ), with or without coring of the pancreatic head (Frey's procedure), between 1995 and 2007 in a single UK centre. Surgery was performed for chronic pain with clinical/radiological evidence of chronic pancreatitis amenable to decompression/head coring. Results. Fifty patients were identified. Thirty-six were male with a median age of 46 years and median follow-up of 30 months. Twenty-eight underwent LPJ and 22underwent Frey's procedure. No significant difference in reduction of analgesia requirement (71% vs 64%, p=0.761) or hospital readmission for pain (21% vs 23%, p=1.000) was observed when comparing LPJ and Frey's procedure. Patients were significantly more likely to be pain-free following surgery if they required non-opiate rather than opiate analgesia preoperatively (75% vs 19%, p=0.0002). Fewer patients required subsequent hospital readmission for pain if taking non-opiate rather than opiate analgesia preoperatively (12.5% vs 31%, p=0.175). Conclusions. In selected patients, LPJ and Frey's procedure have equivalent benefit in short-term pain reduction. Patients should be selected for surgery before the commencement of opiate analgesia. PMID:18345310

  3. Early detection of pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ahuja, Nita

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic adenocarcinoma is a low-incident but highly mortal disease. It accounts for only 3% of estimated new cancer cases each year but is currently the fourth common cause of cancer mortality. By 2030, it is expected to be the 2nd leading cause of cancer death. There is a clear need to diagnose and classify pancreatic cancer at earlier stages in order to give patients the best chance at a definitive cure through surgery. Three precursor lesions that distinctly lead to pancreatic adenocarcinoma have been identified, and we have increasing understanding the non-genetic and genetic risk factors for the disease. With increased understanding about the risk factors, the familial patters, and associated accumulation of genetic mutations involved in pancreatic cancer, we know that there are mutations that occur early in the development of pancreatic cancer and that improved genetic risk-based strategies in screening for pancreatic cancer may be possible and successful at saving or prolonging lives. The remaining challenge is that current standards for diagnosing pancreatic cancer remain too invasive and too costly for widespread screening for pancreatic cancer. Furthermore, the promises of noninvasive methods of detection such as blood, saliva, and stool remain underdeveloped or lack robust testing. However, significant progress has been made, and we are drawing closer to a strategy for the screening and early detection of pancreatic cancer. PMID:26361402

  4. Conservative treatment of chronic pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Löhr, J-Matthias; Haas, Stephen L; Lindgren, Fredrik; Enochsson, Lars; Hedström, Aleksandra; Swahn, Fredrik; Segersvärd, Ralf; Arnelo, Urban

    2013-01-01

    Chronic pancreatitis is a progressive inflammatory disease giving rise to several complications that need to be treated accordingly. Because pancreatic surgery has significant morbidity and mortality, less invasive therapy seems to be an attractive option. This paper reviews current state-of-the-art strategies to treat chronic pancreatitis without surgery and the current guidelines for the medical therapy of chronic pancreatitis. Endoscopic therapy of complications of chronic pancreatitis such as pain, main pancreatic duct strictures and stones as well as pseudocysts is technically feasible and safe. The long-term outcome, however, is inferior to definitive surgical procedures such as resection or drainage. On the other hand, the medical therapy of pancreatic endocrine and exocrine insufficiency is well established and evidence based. Endoscopic therapy may be an option to bridge for surgery and in children/young adolescents and those unfit for surgery. Pain in chronic pancreatitis as well as treatment of pancreatic exocrine insufficiency follows established guidelines. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Chemoprevention strategies for pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Stan, Silvia D.; Singh, Shivendra V.; Brand, Randall E.

    2010-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer has a poor prognosis and it is often diagnosed at advanced stages, which makes it very difficult to treat. The low survival rate of patients with pancreatic cancer points toward an increased need for novel therapeutic and chemopreventive strategies and early detection. Increased consumption of fruits and vegetables has been associated with a reduced risk of pancreatic cancer. Both synthetic as well as natural, diet-derived bioactive compounds have been evaluated as pancreatic cancer chemopreventive agents and have been shown to have various degrees of efficacy in cellular and in vivo animal models. Some chemopreventive agents (for example curcumin, resveratrol, B-DIM) have also been reported to sensitize pancreatic cancer cells to standard chemotherapeutic drugs (for example gemcitabine or erlotinib), which suggests the potential use of chemopreventive agents as potentiators of standard chemotherapy. Very few clinical trials with pancreatic cancer chemopreventive agents have been completed and some are in early phases. Further development of pancreatic cancer chemopreventive agents may prove to be tremendously valuable for individuals at high-risk of developing pancreatic cancer and patients who present with premalignant lesions. This Review discusses the current state of the pancreatic cancer chemoprevention field and highlights the challenges ahead. PMID:20440279

  6. Overview of exocrine pancreatic pathobiology.

    PubMed

    Pandiri, Arun R

    2014-01-01

    Exocrine pancreas is a source of several enzymes that are essential for the digestive process. The exocrine pancreatic secretion is tightly regulated by the neuroendocrine system. The endocrine pancreas is tightly integrated anatomically and physiologically with the exocrine pancreas and modulates its function. Compound-induced pancreatitis is not a common event in toxicology or drug development, but it becomes a significant liability when encountered. Understanding the species-specific differences in physiology is essential to understand the underlying pathobiology of pancreatic disease in animal models and its relevance to human disease. This review will mainly focus on understanding the morphology and physiology of the pancreas, unique islet-exocrine interactions, and pancreatitis.

  7. [Latest advances in chronic pancreatitis].

    PubMed

    Domínguez-Muñoz, J Enrique

    2014-09-01

    This article summarizes some of the recent and clinically relevant advances in chronic pancreatitis. These advances mainly concern the early diagnosis of the disease, the prediction of the fibrosis degree of the gland, the evaluation of patients with asymptomatic hyperenzimemia, the medical and surgical treatment of abdominal pain and the knowledge of the natural history of the autoimmune pancreatitis. In patients with indetermined EUS findings of chronic pancreatitis, a new endoscopic ultrasound examination in the follow-up is of help to confirm or to exclude the disease. Smoking, number of relapses, results of pancreatic function tests and EUS findings allow predicting the degree of pancreatic fibrosis in patients with chronic pancreatitis. Antioxidant therapy has shown to be effective in reducing pain secondary to chronic pancreatitis, although the type and optimal dose of antioxidants remains to be elucidated. Development of intestinal bacterial overgrowth is frequent in patients with chronic pancreatitis, but its impact on symptoms is unknown and deserves further investigations. Finally, autoimmune pancreatitis relapses in about half of the patients with either type 1 or type 2 disease; relapses frequently occur within the first two years of follow-up. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Food-Induced Acute Pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Manohar, Murli; Verma, Alok K; Upparahalli Venkateshaiah, Sathisha; Goyal, Hemant; Mishra, Anil

    2017-12-01

    Food allergy, a commonly increasing problem worldwide, defined as an adverse immune response to food. A variety of immune-related effector cells such as mast cells, eosinophils, neutrophils, and T cells are involved in food-related allergic responses categorized as IgE mediated, non-IgE mediated, and mixed (IgE and non-IgE) depending upon underlying immunological mechanisms. The dietary antigens mainly target the gastrointestinal tract including pancreas that gets inflamed due to food allergy and leads acute pancreatitis. Reports indicate several food proteins induce pancreatitis; however, detailed underlying mechanism of food-induced pancreatitis is unexplored. The aim of the review is to understand and update the current scenario of food-induced pancreatitis. A comprehensive literature search of relevant research articles has been performed through PubMed, and articles were chosen based on their relevance to food allergen-mediated pancreatitis. Several cases in the literature indicate that acute pancreatitis has been provoked after the consumption of mustard, milk, egg, banana, fish, and kiwi fruits. Food-induced pancreatitis is an ignored and unexplored area of research. The review highlights the significance of food in the development of pancreatitis and draws the attention of physicians and scientists to consider food allergies as a possible cause for initiation of pancreatitis pathogenesis.

  9. [Latest advances in acute pancreatitis].

    PubMed

    de-Madaria, Enrique

    2015-09-01

    The present article analyses the main presentations on acute pancreatitis at Digestive Disease Week 2015. Arterial pseudoaneurysm is an uncommon complication of acute pancreatitis (incidence 0.7%) and mortality from this cause is currently anecdotal. Diabetes mellitus has little impact on the clinical course of acute pancreatitis, unlike cirrhosis, which doubles the risk of mortality. Intake of unsaturated fat could be associated with an increased severity of acute pancreatitis and is a confounding factor in studies evaluating the relationship between obesity and morbidity and mortality. PET-CT (positron emission tomography-computed tomography) could be a non-invasive tool to detect infection of collections in acute pancreatitis. Peripancreatic fat necrosis is less frequent than pancreatic fat necrosis and is associated with a better clinical course. If the clinical course is poor, increasing the calibre of the percutaneous drains used in the treatment of infected necrosis can avoid surgery in 20% of patients. The use of low molecular-weight heparin in moderate or severe pancreatitis could be associated with a better clinical course, specifically with a lower incidence of necrosis. In acute recurrent pancreatitis, simvastatin is a promising drug for prophylaxis of new episodes of acute pancreatitis. Nutritional support through a nasogastric tube does not improve clinical course compared with oral nutrition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. [Acute pancreatitis associated with hypercalcaemia].

    PubMed

    Tun-Abraham, Mauro Enrique; Obregón-Guerrero, Gabriela; Romero-Espinoza, Larry; Valencia-Jiménez, Javier

    2015-01-01

    Hypercalcaemia due to primary hyperparathyroidism is a rare cause of acute pancreatitis, with a reported prevalence of 1.5 to 8%. There is no clear pathophysiological basis, but elevated parathyroid hormone and high serum calcium levels could be responsible for calcium deposit in the pancreatic ducts and activation of pancreatic enzymes, which may be the main risk factor for developing acute pancreatitis. The aim of this report is to describe four cases. Four cases are reported of severe pancreatitis associated with hypercalcaemia secondary to primary hyperparathyroidism; three of them with complications (two pseudocysts and one pancreatic necrosis). Cervical ultrasound, computed tomography, and scintigraphy using 99mTc-Sestambi, studies showed the parathyroid adenoma. Surgical resection was the definitive treatment in all four cases. None of the patients had recurrent acute pancreatitis events during follow-up. Acute pancreatitis secondary to hypercalcaemia of primary hyperparathyroidism is rare; however, when it occurs it is associated with severe pancreatitis. It is suspected in patients with elevated serum calcium and high parathyroid hormone levels. Imaging techniques such as cervical ultrasound, computed tomography, and scintigraphy using 99mTc-Sestambi, should be performed, to confirm clinical suspicion. Surgical resection is the definitive treatment with excellent results. Copyright © 2015 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  11. Diagnosis of mild chronic pancreatitis (Cambridge classification): comparative study using secretin injection-magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography and endoscopic retrograde pancreatography.

    PubMed

    Sai, Jin-Kan; Suyama, Masafumi; Kubokawa, Yoshihiro; Watanabe, Sumio

    2008-02-28

    To investigate the usefulness of secretin injection-MRCP for the diagnosis of mild chronic pancreatitis. Sixteen patients having mild chronic pancreatitis according to the Cambridge classification and 12 control subjects with no abnormal findings on the pancreatogram were examined for the diagnostic accuracy of secretin injection-MRCP regarding abnormal branch pancreatic ducts associated with mild chronic pancreatitis (Cambridge Classification), using endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) for comparison. The sensitivity and specificity for abnormal branch pancreatic ducts determined by two reviewers were respectively 55%-63% and 75%-83% in the head, 57%-64% and 82%-83% in the body, and 44%-44% and 72%-76% in the tail of the pancreas. The sensitivity and specificity for mild chronic pancreatitis were 56%-63% and 92%-92%, respectively. Interobserver agreement (kappa statistics) concerning the diagnosis of an abnormal branch pancreatic duct and of mild chronic pancreatitis was good to excellent. Secretin injection-MRCP might be useful for the diagnosis of mild chronic pancreatitis.

  12. [A Case of Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumor with Necrolytic Migratory Erythema].

    PubMed

    Hijikawa, Takeshi; Kitade, Hiroaki; Yanagida, Hidesuke; Yamada, Masanori; Yoshioka, Kazuhiko; Shijimaya, Takako; Kiyohara, Takahiro; Uemura, Yoshiko; Kon, Masanori

    2017-10-01

    A 45-year-old man was admitted because of necrolytic migratory erythema. A computed tomographic scan of the abdomen revealed a 4.5cm mass in the tail of the pancreas. We performed distal pancreatectomy and splenectomy, and a definitive diagnosis of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor(WHO class grade 2)was made histopathologically.

  13. Incidence of and risk factors for developing pancreatic cancer in patients with chronic pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Kudo, Yujin; Kamisawa, Terumi; Anjiki, Hajime; Takuma, Kensuke; Egawa, Naoto

    2011-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer sometimes occurs during the course of chronic pancreatitis. This study aimed to identify risk factors for developing pancreatic cancer associated with chronic pancreatitis. The incidence of pancreatic cancer developing in 218 patients with chronic pancreatitis and clinical features of the chronic pancreatitis patients who developed pancreatic cancer were studied. Nine patients developed pancreatic cancer. Average period from the diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis to the diagnosis of pancreatic cancer was 9.6 years. All pancreatic cancers were diagnosed at an advanced stage. Only 2 patients had been followed-up periodically. There were no significant differences between chronic pancreatitis patients who developed pancreatic cancer and those who did not in male/female ratio (3.5 vs. 8), average age on diagnosis (65.0 vs. 56.5), alcoholic/non-alcoholic chronic pancreatitis (1.6 vs. 2.6), smoking habits (62.5% vs. 70.7%), diabetes mellitus (77.8% vs. 54.4%), and continued alcohol drinking (37.5% vs. 53.1%). Over the period examined, 4% of chronic pancreatitis patients developed pancreatic cancer. Sex ratio, onset age, etiology, smoking habits, diabetes mellitus, and continued alcohol drinking were not significant risk factors for developing pancreatic cancer in chronic pancreatitis patients. Periodic follow-up due to the possibility of pancreatic cancer is necessary in chronic pancreatitis patients.

  14. Head Lice

    MedlinePlus

    ... the-counter shampoos and lotions containing pyrethrin (one brand name: Rid) or permethrin (brand name: Nix) are commonly used to treat head ... hand or by using a special comb (one brand name: LiceMeister comb) to remove them. Comb through ...

  15. Head Start.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenman, Geri

    2000-01-01

    Discusses an art project in which students created drawings of mop heads. Explains that the approach of drawing was more important than the subject. States that the students used the chiaroscuro technique, used by Rembrandt and Caravaggio, in which light appears out of the darkness. (CMK)

  16. Cone Heads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coy, Mary

    2005-01-01

    The author, a middle school art teacher, describes a sculpture project lesson involving Cone Heads (sculptures made from cardboard cones). Discussion of caricatures with exaggerated facial features and interesting profiles helped students understand that the more expressive the face, the better. This project took approximately four to five…

  17. Heads Up

    MedlinePlus

    ... HEADS UP Resources Training Custom PDFs Mobile Apps Videos Graphics Podcasts Social Media File Formats Help: How do I view different file formats (PDF, DOC, PPT, MPEG) on this site? Adobe PDF file Microsoft PowerPoint ... file Apple Quicktime file RealPlayer file Text file ...

  18. Wnt signaling regulates pancreatic β cell proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Rulifson, Ingrid C.; Karnik, Satyajit K.; Heiser, Patrick W.; ten Berge, Derk; Chen, Hainan; Gu, Xueying; Taketo, Makoto M.; Nusse, Roel; Hebrok, Matthias; Kim, Seung K.

    2007-01-01

    There is widespread interest in defining factors and mechanisms that stimulate proliferation of pancreatic islet cells. Wnt signaling is an important regulator of organ growth and cell fates, and genes encoding Wnt-signaling factors are expressed in the pancreas. However, it is unclear whether Wnt signaling regulates pancreatic islet proliferation and differentiation. Here we provide evidence that Wnt signaling stimulates islet β cell proliferation. The addition of purified Wnt3a protein to cultured β cells or islets promoted expression of Pitx2, a direct target of Wnt signaling, and Cyclin D2, an essential regulator of β cell cycle progression, and led to increased β cell proliferation in vitro. Conditional pancreatic β cell expression of activated β-catenin, a crucial Wnt signal transduction protein, produced similar phenotypes in vivo, leading to β cell expansion, increased insulin production and serum levels, and enhanced glucose handling. Conditional β cell expression of Axin, a potent negative regulator of Wnt signaling, led to reduced Pitx2 and Cyclin D2 expression by β cells, resulting in reduced neonatal β cell expansion and mass and impaired glucose tolerance. Thus, Wnt signaling is both necessary and sufficient for islet β cell proliferation, and our study provides previously unrecognized evidence of a mechanism governing endocrine pancreas growth and function. PMID:17404238

  19. Pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy.

    PubMed

    Layer, P; Keller, J; Lankisch, P G

    2001-04-01

    Malabsorption due to severe pancreatic exocrine insufficiency is one of the most important late features of chronic pancreatitis. Generally, steatorrhea is more severe and occurs several years prior to malabsorption of other nutrients because synthesis and secretion of lipase are impaired more rapidly, its intraluminal survival is shorter, and the lack of pancreatic lipase activity is not compensated for by nonpancreatic mechanisms. Patients suffer not only from nutritional deficiencies but also from increased nutrient delivery to distal intestinal sites, causing symptoms by profound alteration of upper gastrointestinal secretory and motor functions. Adequate nutrient absorption requires delivery of sufficient enzymatic activity into the duodenal lumen simultaneously with meal nutrients. The following recommendations are based on modern therapeutic concepts: 25,000 to 40,000 units of lipase per meal using pH-sensitive pancreatin microspheres, with dosage increases, compliance checks, and differential diagnosis in case of treatment failure. Still, in most patients, lipid digestion cannot be completely normalized by current standard therapy, and future developments are needed to optimize treatment.

  20. Traumatic pancreatic pseudocysts.

    PubMed

    Popoola, D; Lou, M A; Sims, E H

    1983-05-01

    At the Martin Luther King, Jr, General Hospital in Los Angeles, during the period from June 1972 to April 1981, seven patients underwent surgery for traumatic pancreatic pseudocysts. The overall average age was 28 and the average hospital stay was 31 days. Ultrasound was the most useful test for diagnosis and follow-up. Preoperatively, serum amylases were not consistently elevated. Overall recurrences and complications totaled 57 percent. There were no deaths. The authors consider a large cystogastrostomy the treatment of choice for mature cysts that are satisfactorily adherent to the stomach. The second preference is a Roux-en-Y cystojejunostomy. External drainage was employed for acute cysts that required drainage. A distal pancreatectomy was performed for patients with small pancreatic tail pseudocysts. Patients who underwent acute drainage were usually drained externally and had a poorer outcome than patients who were operated on later with internal drainage. When compared with another group of 15 alcoholic patients who were operated on for pancreatic pseudocysts, patients with traumatic pseudocysts had a poorer outcome.

  1. Management of pancreatic trauma.

    PubMed Central

    Jones, R C

    1978-01-01

    Since 1950, 300 patients sustaining pancreatic injuries have been managed. Three-fourths of the injuries were due to penetrating trauma with a 20% mortality and one-fourth due to blunt trauma resulting in an 18% mortality. The pancreatic injury was responsible for death in only 3% of patients. Early onset of shock resulted in 38% mortality whereas only 4% of normotensive patients died. No patient died of an isolated pancreatic injury. Sepsis was the second most common cause of death following hemorrhage. Preoperative serum amylase was elevated more frequently following blunt trauma than penetrating trauma, but did not correlate with injury. There has been a tendency toward more frequent use of distal pancreatectomy for simple penetrating injuries without obvious ductal violation which increases operative time, blood loss and possible intra-abdominal abscess since resection usually requires splenectomy. Patients considered for an 80% distal resection are better managed with a Roux-en-Y limb to the distal pancreas since three patients developed diabetes following an 80% or greater resection. A conservative approach consisting of Penrose and sump drainage is adequate for most injuries. PMID:646495

  2. Comparison of the influence of plastic and fully covered metal biliary stents on the accuracy of EUS-FNA for the diagnosis of pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Ali A; Fein, Michael; Kowalski, Thomas E; Loren, David E; Eloubeidi, Mohamad A

    2012-09-01

    Prior studies have reported that the presence of prior biliary stent may interfere with EUS visualization of pancreatic tumors. We aimed to compare the influence of the biliary plastic and fully covered self-expanding metal stents (CSEMS) on the accuracy of EUS-FNA cytology in patients with solid pancreatic masses. We conducted a retrospective study evaluating 677 patients with solid pancreatic head/uncinate lesions and a previous biliary stent in whom EUS-FNA was performed. The patients were stratified into two groups: (1) those with a plastic stents and (2) those with CSEMS. Performance characteristics of EUS-FNA including the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy were compared between the two groups. The frequency of obtaining an adequate cytology by EUS-FNA was similar in both the CSEMS group and the plastic stent group (97 vs. 97.1 % respectively; p = 1.0). The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of EUS-FNA was not significantly different between patients with CSEMS and plastic stents (96.8, 100, 100 % and 97.3, 98, 99.8 %, respectively). The negative predictive value for EUS-FNA was lower in the CSEMS group compared to the plastic stent group (66.6 vs. 78.1 % respectively; p = 0.42). There was one false-positive cytology in the plastic stent group compared to none in the CSEMS group. In a retrospective cohort trial, EUS-FNA was found to be highly accurate and safe in diagnosing patients with suspected pancreatic cancer, even in the presence of a plastic or metallic biliary stent. The presence of a stent did not contribute to a higher false-positive cytology rate.

  3. Sequential changes from minimal pancreatic inflammation to advanced alcoholic pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Noronha, M; Dreiling, D A; Bordalo, O

    1983-11-01

    A correlation of several clinical parameters and pancreatitis morphological alterations observed in chronic alcoholics with and without pancreatic is presented. Three groups of patients were studied: asymptomatic chronic alcoholics (24); non-alcoholic controls (10); and cases with advanced chronic pancreatitis (6). Clinical, biochemical and functional studies were performed. Morphological studies were made on surgical biopsy specimens in light and electron microscopy. The results of this study showed: 1) fat accumulates within pancreatic acinar cells in alcoholics drinking more than 80 g of ethanol per day; 2) ultrastructural changes found in acinar cells of the alcoholics are similar to those described for liver cells; 3) the alterations found in alcoholics without pancreatitis are also observed in those with advanced chronic pancreatitis. An attempt to correlate the sequential changes in the histopathology of alcoholic pancreatic disease with the clinical picture and secretory patterns was made. According to these observations, admitting the ultrastructural similarities between the liver and the pancreas and the recently demonstrated abnormalities of lipid metabolism in pancreatic cells in experimental animal research, the authors postulate a toxic-metabolic mechanism as a likely hypothesis for the pathogenesis of chronic alcoholic inflammation of the pancreas.

  4. [A case of groove pancreatitis associated with duodenal ulcer].

    PubMed

    Iemoto, Takao; Shiomi, Hideyuki; Masuda, Atsuhiro; Sanuki, Tsuyoshi; Kutsumi, Hiromu; Hayakumo, Takanobu; Shinzeki, Makoto; Matsumoto, Ippei; Ku, Yonson; Kanzawa, Maki; Hara, Shigeo; Azuma, Takeshi

    2013-01-01

    We describe a 69-year-old man with a history of multiple gastroduodenal ulcers, presenting with the onset of obstructive jaundice. Abdominal CT, MRI and EUS demonstrated a sheet-like mass in the pancreaticoduodenal groove. EUS-FNA did not reveal malignancy. Conservative treatment did not improve his clinical condition and repeated acute pancreatitis occurred during his treatment. Thus, pancreaticoduodenectomy was performed. Histopathological findings showed a duodenal ulcer penetrating the pancreas and infiltration of inflammatory cells and fibrosis in the pancreaticoduodenal groove. The spread of inflammation associated with the duodenal ulcer may have been one of the causes of groove pancreatitis.

  5. Surgical Management of Chronic Pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Parekh, Dilip; Natarajan, Sathima

    2015-10-01

    Advances over the past decade have indicated that a complex interplay between environmental factors, genetic predisposition, alcohol abuse, and smoking lead towards the development of chronic pancreatitis. Chronic pancreatitis is a complex disorder that causes significant and chronic incapacity in patients and a substantial burden on the society. Major advances have been made in the etiology and pathogenesis of this disease and the role of genetic predisposition is increasingly coming to the fore. Advances in noninvasive diagnostic modalities now allow for better diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis at an early stage of the disease. The impact of these advances on surgical treatment is beginning to emerge, for example, patients with certain genetic predispositions may be better treated with total pancreatectomy versus lesser procedures. Considerable controversy remains with respect to the surgical management of chronic pancreatitis. Modern understanding of the neurobiology of pain in chronic pancreatitis suggests that a window of opportunity exists for effective treatment of the intractable pain after which central sensitization can lead to an irreversible pain syndrome in patients with chronic pancreatitis. Effective surgical procedures exist for chronic pancreatitis; however, the timing of surgery is unclear. For optimal treatment of patients with chronic pancreatitis, close collaboration between a multidisciplinary team including gastroenterologists, surgeons, and pain management physicians is needed.

  6. PANCREATIC TRANSPLANTATIONS IN THE SPLEEN

    PubMed Central

    Pratt, Joseph H.; Murphy, Fred T.

    1913-01-01

    Pancreatic tissue implanted in the spleen and separated from its original vascular and nervous connections can live and functionate for months. A small nodule of pancreatic tissue composed of acini without demonstrable islands of Langerhans prevented the development of diabetes. Death occurred 187 days after the extirpation of the pancreas. PMID:19867642

  7. Splanchnic venous thrombosis and pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Nadkarni, Nikhil A; Khanna, Sahil; Vege, Santhi Swaroop

    2013-08-01

    Pancreatitis is an inflammatory process with local and systemic manifestations. One such local manifestation is thrombosis in splanchnic venous circulation, predominantly of the splenic vein. The literature on this important complication is very sparse. This review offers an overview of mechanism of thrombosis, its pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management in the setting of acute as well as chronic pancreatitis.

  8. [Identifying the severe acute pancreatitis].

    PubMed

    Acevedo Tizón, Anais; Targarona Modena, Javier; Málaga Rodríguez, Germán; Barreda Cevasco, Luis

    2011-01-01

    To compare patients with acute necrotizing pancreatitis without any additional complications during their hospital stay (Group A) versus patients with Acute Necrotizing Pancreatitis with additional complications during their hospital stay (Group B). Data obtained from a pre-existing base from hospitalized patients with diagnosis of acute necrotizing pancreatitis in the specialized unit of "Unidad de Pancreatitis Aguda Grave del Hospital Nacional Edgardo Rebagliati Martins" between 2000 and 2010. Data included patients with diagnosis of acute necrotizing pancreatitis, of ages 18 and over. Data from 215 patients with acute necrotizing pancreatitis was included. Patients from Group A represented 32% (68) and from Group B 68% (147). Group A had a average of 39 hospitalized days and Group B had an average of 56 days (p=0.01). From Group A 22% had more than 50% of necrosis while 43% of Group B had this extension of necrosis (p <0.05, OR 3.4, IC (1.12-10)). Of the 14 deaths of the population, all part of Group B, 12 of them had more than 50% of necrosis. Not every patient classified as severe acute pancreatitis, based on the presence of necrosis, behave likewise. It is an extended necrosis, described as more than 50% of pancreatic necrosis, and not the presence itself which will determine additional complications during the course of disease and a greater mortality.

  9. Relationship between Plasma Triglyceride Level and Severity of Hypertriglyceridemic Pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Sheng-Huei; Chou, Yu-Ching; Shangkuan, Wei-Chuan; Wei, Kuang-Yu; Pan, Yu-Han; Lin, Hung-Che

    2016-01-01

    Hypertriglyceridemia is the third most common cause of acute pancreatitis, but whether the level of triglyceride (TG) is related to severity of pancreatitis is unclear. To evaluate the effect of TG level on the severity of hypertriglyceridemic pancreatitis (HTGP). Retrospective cohort study. We reviewed the records of 144 patients with HTGP from 1999 to 2013 at Tri-Service General Hospital. Patients with possible etiology of pancreatitis, such as gallstones, those consuming alcohol or drugs, or those with infections were excluded. The classification of severity of pancreatitis was based on the revised Atlanta classification. We allocated the patients into high-TG and low-TG groups based on the optimal cut-off value (2648 mg/dL), which was derived from the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve between TG level and severity of HTGP. We then compared the clinical characteristics, pancreatitis severity, and mortality rates of the groups. There were 66 patients in the low-TG group and 78 patients in the high-TG group. There was no significant difference in the age, sex ratio, body mass index, and comorbidity between the 2 groups. The high-TG group had significantly higher levels of glucose (P = 0.022), total cholesterol (P = 0.002), and blood urea nitrogen (P = 0.037), and lower levels of sodium (P = 0.003) and bicarbonate (P = 0.002) than the low-TG group. The incidences of local complication (P = 0.002) and severe and moderate form of pancreatitis (P = 0.004) were significantly higher in the high-TG group than in the low-TG group. The mortality rate was higher in the high-TG group than in the low-TG group (P = 0.07). Higher TG level in patients with HTGP may be associated with adverse prognosis, but randomized and prospective studies are needed in the future verify this relationship.

  10. Risk of Recurrent Pancreatitis and Progression to Chronic Pancreatitis After a First Episode of Acute Pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Ahmed Ali, Usama; Issa, Yama; Hagenaars, Julia C; Bakker, Olaf J; van Goor, Harry; Nieuwenhuijs, Vincent B; Bollen, Thomas L; van Ramshorst, Bert; Witteman, Ben J; Brink, Menno A; Schaapherder, Alexander F; Dejong, Cornelis H; Spanier, B W Marcel; Heisterkamp, Joos; van der Harst, Erwin; van Eijck, Casper H; Besselink, Marc G; Gooszen, Hein G; van Santvoort, Hjalmar C; Boermeester, Marja A

    2016-05-01

    Patients with a first episode of acute pancreatitis can develop recurrent or chronic pancreatitis (CP). However, little is known about the incidence or risk factors for these events. We performed a cross-sectional study of 669 patients with a first episode of acute pancreatitis admitted to 15 Dutch hospitals from December 2003 through March 2007. We collected information on disease course, outpatient visits, and hospital readmissions, as well as results from imaging, laboratory, and histology studies. Standardized follow-up questionnaires were sent to all available patients to collect information on hospitalizations and interventions for pancreatic disease, abdominal pain, steatorrhea, diabetes mellitus, medications, and alcohol and tobacco use. Patients were followed up for a median time period of 57 months. Primary end points were recurrent pancreatitis and CP. Risk factors were evaluated using regression analysis. The cumulative risk was assessed using Kaplan-Meier analysis. Recurrent pancreatitis developed in 117 patients (17%), and CP occurred in 51 patients (7.6%). Recurrent pancreatitis developed in 12% of patients with biliary disease, 24% of patients with alcoholic etiology, and 25% of patients with disease of idiopathic or other etiologies; CP occurred in 3%, 16%, and 10% of these patients, respectively. Etiology, smoking, and necrotizing pancreatitis were independent risk factors for recurrent pancreatitis and CP. Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II scores at admission also were associated independently with recurrent pancreatitis. The cumulative risk for recurrent pancreatitis over 5 years was highest among smokers at 40% (compared with 13% for nonsmokers). For alcohol abusers and current smokers, the cumulative risks for CP were similar-approximately 18%. In contrast, the cumulative risk of CP increased to 30% in patients who smoked and abused alcohol. Based on a retrospective analysis of patients admitted to Dutch hospitals, a first

  11. Strategies for Increasing Pancreatic Tumor Immunogenicity

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Burles A.; Yarchoan, Mark; Lee, Valerie; Laheru, Daniel A.; Jaffee, Elizabeth M.

    2017-01-01

    Immunotherapy has changed the standard of care for multiple deadly cancers including lung, head and neck, gastric, and some colorectal cancers. However, single agent immunotherapy has had little effect in pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Increasing evidence suggests that the PDAC microenvironment is comprised of an intricate network of signals between immune cells, PDAC cells, and stroma, resulting in an immunosuppressive environment resistant to single agent immunotherapies. In this review, we discuss differences between immunotherapy sensitive cancers and PDAC, the complex interactions between PDAC stroma and suppressive tumor infiltrating cells that facilitate PDAC development and progression, the immunologic targets within these complex networks that are drugable, and data supporting combination drug approaches that modulate multiple PDAC signals, which should lead to improved clinical outcomes. PMID:28373364

  12. The diagnostic challenge of the sequelae of acute pancreatitis on CT imaging: a pictorial essay.

    PubMed

    Hughey, Mark; Taffel, Myles; Zeman, Robert K; Patel, Smita; Hill, Michael C

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of the study was to present a pictorial review of the long-term sequelae of acute pancreatitis on CT imaging as these findings can cause diagnostic confusion in the absence of a proper clinical history and/or prior CT imaging. We retrospectively identified 81 patients who had an episode of acute pancreatitis with diagnostic findings on CT and also underwent one or more follow-up CT scans at least 1 month beyond the acute episode. The residual findings on all follow-up CT scans were tabulated, including the time interval since the initial bout of acute pancreatitis. Residual inflammatory changes were present in 19.8% of cases, with a median time period lasting 86 days since the initial episode of acute pancreatitis. Residual fluid collections were seen in 27.2% and persisted for a median of 132 days. Three patients had residual solid-appearing inflammatory masses, which could be mistaken for neoplasms. Other long-term sequelae were also tabulated, including pancreatic ductal dilatation, pancreatic atrophy, new or increased pancreatic calcifications, biliary tract dilatation, central portal venous occlusion, and pseudoaneurysm formation. These residual findings and long-term complications are presented as a pictorial essay. Recognizing the spectrum of residual findings of acute pancreatitis, some of which can be long term, is important in the correct interpretation of a pancreatic CT. These findings can mimic acute pancreatitis or a pancreatic/peripancreatic neoplasm and often cause diagnostic confusion, especially in the absence of prior CT imaging.

  13. ZIP4 silencing improves bone loss in pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jingxuan; Ding, Hao; LeBrun, Drake; Ding, Kai; Houchen, Courtney W.; Postier, Russell G.; Ambrose, Catherine G.; Li, Zhaoshen; Bi, Xiaohong; Li, Min

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic bone disorders are associated with several types of human cancers. Pancreatic cancer patients usually suffer from severe nutrition deficiency, muscle wasting, and loss of bone mass. We have previously found that silencing of a zinc transporter ZIP4 prolongs the survival and reduces the severity of the cachexia in vivo. However, the role of ZIP4 in the pancreatic cancer related bone loss remains unknown. In this study we investigated the effect of ZIP4 knockdown on the bone structure, composition and mechanical properties of femurs in an orthotopic xenograft mouse model. Our data showed that silencing of ZIP4 resulted in increased bone tissue mineral density, decreased bone crystallinity and restoration of bone strength through the RANK/RANKL pathway. The results further support the impact of ZIP4 on the progression of pancreatic cancer, and suggest its potential significance as a therapeutic target for treating patients with such devastating disease and cancer related disorders. PMID:26305676

  14. Case report: Irreversible electroporation for locally advanced pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Orcutt, Sonia; Kis, Bela; Malafa, Mokenge

    2017-01-01

    For patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma who are not candidates for surgical resection, long-term survival is poor, even with currently available systemic and radiation therapy options. However, for those with locally advanced disease who do not have distant metastasis, locoregional control of the tumor has the potential to improve long-term outcomes. A newly developed technology, irreversible electroporation, has advantages over traditional thermal ablation with unresectable cancers in this location. In our case report, we describe the first patient treated with irreversible electroporation at our institution for locally advanced pancreatic cancer. The patient is a 63-year-old man who had a partial response to standard chemotherapy and radiation, but was found on operative assessment to have persistently unresectable disease. He therefore underwent irreversible electroporation to the pancreatic mass. His postoperative course was complicated by delayed gastric emptying and wound infection. Three months after surgery, he had no evidence of distant or recurrent disease. Irreversible electroporation for locally advanced pancreatic cancer is an emerging technique which attempts to improve local control of locally advanced, non-metastatic pancreatic cancer. Early data have demonstrated the potential for improved long-term survival in these patients, although further studies are needed to confirm safety and efficacy of this technique. While there is a positive outlook for the use of irreversible electroporation for locally advanced pancreas cancer, there remain some uncertainties surrounding this therapy, which underscores the importance of future research in this area. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Earlier surgery improves outcomes from painful chronic pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Ke, Nengwen; Jia, Dan; Huang, Wei; Nunes, Quentin M; Windsor, John A; Liu, Xubao; Sutton, Robert

    2018-05-01

    The timing of surgery for painful chronic pancreatitis (CP) may affect outcomes.Clinical course, Izbicki pain scores, and pancreatic function were retrospectively compared and analyzed between patients undergoing either early or late surgery (< 3 or ≥ 3 years from diagnosis) for painful CP in a single center from 2007 to 2012.The early surgery group (n = 98) more frequently than the late group (n = 199) had abdominal pain with jaundice (22.4% vs 9.5%, P = .002) and pancreatic mass +/- ductal dilatation (47% vs 27%, P < .001), but less frequently abdominal pain alone (73.5% vs 85.9%, P = .009), ductal dilatation alone (31% vs 71%, P < .001), parenchymal calcification (91.8% vs 100%, P < .001) or exocrine insufficiency (60% vs 72%, P = .034); there were no other significant differences. The early group had longer hospital stay (14.4 vs 12.2 days, P = .009), but no difference in complications. Significantly greater pain relief followed early surgery (complete 69% vs 47%, partial 22% vs 37%, none 8% vs 16%, P = .01) with lower rates of exocrine (60% vs 80%, P = .005) and endocrine insufficiency (36% vs 53%, P = .033).Our data indicate that early surgery results in higher rates of pain relief and pancreatic sufficiency than late surgery for chronic pancreatitis patients. Frey and Berne procedures showed better results than other surgical procedures.

  16. Circulating 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and Risk of Pancreatic Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael Z.; Jacobs, Eric J.; Arslan, Alan A.; Qi, Dai; Patel, Alpa V.; Helzlsouer, Kathy J.; Weinstein, Stephanie J.; McCullough, Marjorie L.; Purdue, Mark P.; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Snyder, Kirk; Virtamo, Jarmo; Wilkins, Lynn R.; Yu, Kai; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Zheng, Wei; Albanes, Demetrius; Cai, Qiuyin; Harvey, Chinonye; Hayes, Richard; Clipp, Sandra; Horst, Ronald L.; Irish, Lonn; Koenig, Karen; Le Marchand, Loic; Kolonel, Laurence N.

    2010-01-01

    Results from epidemiologic studies examining pancreatic cancer risk and vitamin D intake or 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations (the best indicator of vitamin D derived from diet and sun) have been inconsistent. Therefore, the authors conducted a pooled nested case-control study of participants from 8 cohorts within the Cohort Consortium Vitamin D Pooling Project of Rarer Cancers (VDPP) (1974–2006) to evaluate whether prediagnostic circulating 25(OH)D concentrations were associated with the development of pancreatic cancer. In total, 952 incident pancreatic adenocarcinoma cases occurred among participants (median follow-up, 6.5 years). Controls (n = 1,333) were matched to each case by cohort, age, sex, race/ethnicity, date of blood draw, and follow-up time. Conditional logistic regression analysis was used to calculate smoking-, body mass index-, and diabetes-adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for pancreatic cancer. Clinically relevant 25(OH)D cutpoints were compared with a referent category of 50–<75 nmol/L. No significant associations were observed for participants with lower 25(OH)D status. However, a high 25(OH)D concentration (≥100 nmol/L) was associated with a statistically significant 2-fold increase in pancreatic cancer risk overall (odds ratio = 2.12, 95% confidence interval: 1.23, 3.64). Given this result, recommendations to increase vitamin D concentrations in healthy persons for the prevention of cancer should be carefully considered. PMID:20562185

  17. Acute Pancreatitis: Etiology, Pathology, Diagnosis, and Treatment.

    PubMed

    Majidi, Shirin; Golembioski, Adam; Wilson, Stephen L; Thompson, Errington C

    2017-11-01

    Acute pancreatitis is a fascinating disease. In the United States, the two most common etiologies of acute pancreatitis are gallstones and excessive alcohol consumption. The diagnosis of acute pancreatitis is made with a combination of history, physical examination, computed tomography scan, and laboratory evaluation. Differentiating patients who will have a benign course of their pancreatitis from patients who will have severe pancreatitis is challenging to the clinician. C-reactive protein, pro-calcitonin, and the Bedside Index for Severity of Acute Pancreatitis appeared to be the best tools for the early and accurate diagnosis of severe pancreatitis. Early laparoscopic cholecystectomy is indicated for patients with mild gallstone pancreatitis. For patients who are going to have a prolonged hospitalization, enteral nutrition is preferred. Total parenteral nutrition should be reserved for patients who cannot tolerate enteral nutrition. Prophylactic antibiotics are not indicated for patients with pancreatic necrosis. Surgical intervention for infected pancreatic necrosis should be delayed as long as possible to improve patient outcomes.

  18. Management of acute pancreatitis in children.

    PubMed

    Abu-El-Haija, Maisam; Lin, Tom K; Nathan, Jaimie D

    2017-10-01

    Pediatric acute pancreatitis has been on the rise in the last decades, with an incidence close to adult pancreatitis. In the majority of cases acute pancreatitis resolves spontaneously, but in a subset of children the disease progresses to severe acute pancreatitis with attendant morbidity and mortality. Pediatric acute pancreatitis in this era is recognized as a separate entity from adult acute pancreatitis given that the causes and disease outcomes are different. There are slow but important advances made in understanding the best management for acute pancreatitis in children from medical, interventional, and surgical aspects. Supportive care with fluids, pain medications, and nutrition remain the mainstay for acute pancreatitis management. For complicated or severe pancreatitis, specialized interventions may be required with endoscopic or drainage procedures. Surgery has an important but limited role in pediatric acute pancreatitis.

  19. Chronic pancreatitis. Some important historical aspects.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Salvador

    2018-06-08

    Since ancient times the increase of size and hardness sometimes presented by the abdominal structure known as the pancreas has attracted attention. Portal was the first to describe the clinical signs of chronic pancreatitis in 1803. In 1815, Fleischman speculated about the potential role of excessive alcohol consumption. Comfort coined the term "chronic relapsing pancreatitis" in 1946 and described hereditary pancreatitis 6 years later. Zuidema defined tropical pancreatitis in 1959 and 2 years later Sarles described another form of pancreatitis to which Yoshida gave the name autoimmune pancreatitis in 1995. Groove pancreatitis was described by Potet in 1970. Obstructive pancreatitis was defined in 1984 and Ammann identified idiopathic pancreatitis 3 years later. This article gives a historical account of the pioneers who developed the knowledge of how to assess the characteristics that allowed the different forms of chronic pancreatitis to be defined. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Is endoscopic therapy the treatment of choice in all patients with chronic pancreatitis?

    PubMed

    Jabłońska, Beata

    2013-01-07

    Chronic pancreatitis (CP) is a progressive inflammatory disease of the pancreas characterized by destruction of the pancreatic parenchyma with subsequent fibrosis that leads to pancreatic exocrine and endocrine insufficiency. Abdominal pain and local complications (bile duct or duodenal stenosis and pancreatic tumor) secondary to CP are indications for therapy. At the beginning, medical therapy is used. More invasive treatment is recommended for patients with pancreatic duct stones (PDS) and pancreatic obstruction in whom standard medical therapy is not sufficient. Recently, Clarke et al assessed the long-term effectiveness of endoscopic therapy (ET) in CP patients. The authors compared ET with medical treatment. They reported that ET was clinically successful in 50% of patients with symptomatic CP. In this commentary, current CP treatment, including indications for ET and surgery in CP patients, is discussed. Recommendations for endoscopic treatment of CP according to the European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Clinical Guidelines are reviewed. Different surgical methods used in the treatment of CP patients are also discussed. ET is the most useful in patients with large PDS, pancreatic duct obstruction and dilation. It should be the first-line option because it is less invasive than surgery. Surgery should be the first-line option in patients in whom ET has failed or in those with a pancreatic mass with suspicion of malignancy. ET is a very effective and less invasive procedure, but it cannot be recommended as the treatment of choice in all CP patients.

  1. Safety and efficacy of pancreatic sphincterotomy in chronic pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Ell, C; Rabenstein, T; Schneider, H T; Ruppert, T; Nicklas, M; Bulling, D

    1998-09-01

    Endoscopic pancreatic sphincterotomy (EPS) is being performed with increasing frequency as a prerequisite to interventional measures in the pancreatic duct. The aim of this study was to evaluate EPS with regard to technique, success, complications, and mortality in patients with chronic pancreatitis. Between January 1989 and September 1996, the results of all consecutive EPSs in patients with chronic pancreatitis were documented in a standardized form. Patients were followed by clinical investigation and blood sample analysis at 4, 24, and 48 hours after EPS. Complications were classified according to commonly accepted criteria. EPS was performed in 118 patients with chronic pancreatitis (men 75%, women 25%, 48+/-10 years). Ninety-four patients (80%) underwent guidewire-assisted EPS, and 24 patients (20%) underwent needle-knife EPS. Seventy-seven EPS procedures (65%) were primarily successful (guidewire EPS: 60 of 94, 64%; needle-knife EPS: 17 of 24, 71%). Additional endoscopic cutting techniques (needle-knife papillotomy, biliary endoscopic sphincterotomy) were required in 41 patients (35%). In total, EPS was successful in 116 patients (98%). The complication rate was 4.2% (4 cases of moderate pancreatitis, 1 severe bleeding, no deaths). All complications were managed nonoperatively. In patients with chronic pancreatitis, EPS with a standard sphincterotome or with a needle-knife offers an effective and reliable approach to the pancreatic duct system. Additional cutting techniques may be necessary in approximately one third of cases before an EPS can be successfully performed. The complication rate of EPS in patients with chronic pancreatitis appears to be lower than the complication rate of biliary sphincterotomy for other indications.

  2. Head Lice (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español First Aid: Head Lice KidsHealth / For Parents / First Aid: Head Lice Print A head louse is a tiny, wingless ... Prevention! You can help protect your kids from head lice by teaching them to: avoid head-to-head ...

  3. Pancreatic juice leakage is a risk factor for deep mycosis after pancreatic surgery.

    PubMed

    Iso, Yukihiro; Sawada, Tokihiko; Tagaya, Nobumi; Kato, Masato; Rokkaku, Kyu; Shimoda, Mitsugi; Kita, Junji; Kubota, Keiichi

    2009-01-01

    Deep mycosis (DM) is an opportunistic infection that can be fatal in immunocompromised hosts. Pancreatic surgery is associated with a high degree of stress and patients who undergo pancreatic surgery are considered to be immunocompromised. This study retrospectively evaluated whether DM affects the clinical course after pancreatic surgery. Between January 2005 and April 2007, 67 patients underwent pancreatic surgery. There were 42 males (62.7%) and 25 females (37.3%) with a mean age of 66.7 years. Their diagnoses consisted of cancer of the papilla of Vater (n = 9), pancreatic head cancer (n = 20), pancreatic tail cancer (n = 3), bile duct cancer (n = 17), duodenal cancer (n = 3), and others (n = 15). Surgical procedures included pancreatoduodenectomies (PD; n = 52), hepato-pancreatoduodenectomies (HPD; n = 4), distal pancreatectomies (DP; n = 7), total pancreatectomies (TP; n = 2), and the modified Puestow procedure (m-Pp; n = 2). Patients who were positive for any of CAND-TEC (C-T), beta-D-glucan (beta-D), or culture for mycosis were classified into group 1 (G1; n = 12) and those who were negative for all these examinations were classified into group 2 (G2; n = 55). The preoperative, perioperative, and postoperative data were compared between G1 and G2. An antifungal drug (Micafungin; 75 mg per day) was given to G1 patients. The preoperative data included the neutrophil and lymphocyte counts, total protein, blood urea nitrogen, and amylase, and there were no significant differences in these parameters between the two groups. However, the incidences of diabetes mellitus and total bilirubin at maximum in G1 and G2 were 41.7% and 7.3% (P = 0.04), 4.6 +/- 1.5 and 1.4 +/- 0.9 (P = 0.007), respectively. The mean operation time in G1 and G2 was 548.5 +/- 138.1 and 510.0 +/- 133.7 min (P = 0.39) and intraoperative blood loss was 762.2 +/- 369.5 and 782.5 +/- 599.1 ml (P = 0.88), respectively. The postoperative complications included pneumonia (G1: G2 = 7: 20; P = 0

  4. Targeting Trysin-Inflammation Axis for Pancreatitis Therapy in a Humanized Pancreatitis Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-10-01

    pancreatitis especially due to alcohol and smoking goes onto chronic pancreatitis which, in turn, is a risk factor for pancreatic cancer . Because only a...proportional risk for pancreatic cancer of any known environmental risk factor. Because only a relatively small portion of patients with alcohol...progression to pancreatic cancer . Targeting the ER stress and inflammatory cascade will be beneficial for pancreatitis prevention and therapy. We expect that

  5. Combination Chemotherapy With or Without Oregovomab Followed by Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy and Nelfinavir Mesylate in Treating Patients With Locally Advanced Pancreatic Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-04-24

    Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma; Resectable Pancreatic Carcinoma; Stage I Pancreatic Cancer; Stage IA Pancreatic Cancer; Stage IB Pancreatic Cancer; Stage II Pancreatic Cancer; Stage IIA Pancreatic Cancer; Stage IIB Pancreatic Cancer; Stage III Pancreatic Cancer

  6. Molecular biology of pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Zavoral, Miroslav; Minarikova, Petra; Zavada, Filip; Salek, Cyril; Minarik, Marek

    2011-06-28

    In spite of continuous research efforts directed at early detection and treatment of pancreatic cancer, the outlook for patients affected by the disease remains dismal. With most cases still being diagnosed at advanced stages, no improvement in survival prognosis is achieved with current diagnostic imaging approaches. In the absence of a dominant precancerous condition, several risk factors have been identified including family history, chronic pancreatitis, smoking, diabetes mellitus, as well as certain genetic disorders such as hereditary pancreatitis, cystic fibrosis, familial atypical multiple mole melanoma, and Peutz-Jeghers and Lynch syndromes. Most pancreatic carcinomas, however, remain sporadic. Current progress in experimental molecular techniques has enabled detailed understanding of the molecular processes of pancreatic cancer development. According to the latest information, malignant pancreatic transformation involves multiple oncogenes and tumor-suppressor genes that are involved in a variety of signaling pathways. The most characteristic aberrations (somatic point mutations and allelic losses) affect oncogenes and tumor-suppressor genes within RAS, AKT and Wnt signaling, and have a key role in transcription and proliferation, as well as systems that regulate the cell cycle (SMAD/DPC, CDKN2A/p16) and apoptosis (TP53). Understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms should promote development of new methodology for early diagnosis and facilitate improvement in current approaches for pancreatic cancer treatment.

  7. Redox signaling in acute pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Pérez, Salvador; Pereda, Javier; Sabater, Luis; Sastre, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis is an inflammatory process of the pancreatic gland that eventually may lead to a severe systemic inflammatory response. A key event in pancreatic damage is the intracellular activation of NF-κB and zymogens, involving also calcium, cathepsins, pH disorders, autophagy, and cell death, particularly necrosis. This review focuses on the new role of redox signaling in acute pancreatitis. Oxidative stress and redox status are involved in the onset of acute pancreatitis and also in the development of the systemic inflammatory response, being glutathione depletion, xanthine oxidase activation, and thiol oxidation in proteins critical features of the disease in the pancreas. On the other hand, the release of extracellular hemoglobin into the circulation from the ascitic fluid in severe necrotizing pancreatitis enhances lipid peroxidation in plasma and the inflammatory infiltrate into the lung and up-regulates the HIF–VEGF pathway, contributing to the systemic inflammatory response. Therefore, redox signaling and oxidative stress contribute to the local and systemic inflammatory response during acute pancreatitis. PMID:25778551

  8. Pharmacological challenges in chronic pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Olesen, Anne Estrup; Brokjaer, Anne; Fisher, Iben Wendelboe; Larsen, Isabelle Myriam

    2013-11-14

    Drug absorption in patients with chronic pancreatitis might be affected by the pathophysiology of the disease. The exocrine pancreatic insufficiency is associated with changes in gastrointestinal intraluminal pH, motility disorder, bacterial overgrowth and changed pancreatic gland secretion. Together these factors can result in malabsorption and may also affect the efficacy of pharmacological intervention. The lifestyle of chronic pancreatitis patients may also contribute to gastrointestinal changes. Many patients limit their food intake because of the pain caused by eating and in some cases food intake is more or less substituted with alcohol, tobacco and coffee. Alcohol and drug interaction are known to influence the pharmacokinetics by altering either drug absorption or by affecting liver metabolism. Since patients suffering from chronic pancreatitis experience severe pain, opioids are often prescribed as pain treatment. Opioids have intrinsic effects on gastrointestinal motility and hence can modify the absorption of other drugs taken at the same time. Furthermore, the increased fluid absorption caused by opioids will decrease water available for drug dissolution and may hereby affect absorption of the drug. As stated above many factors can influence drug absorption and metabolism in patients with chronic pancreatitis. The factors may not have clinical relevance, but may explain inter-individual variations in responses to a given drug, in patients with chronic pancreatitis.

  9. Pathophysiology of chronic pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Brock, Christina; Nielsen, Lecia Møller; Lelic, Dina; Drewes, Asbjørn Mohr

    2013-11-14

    Chronic pancreatitis (CP) is an inflammatory disease of the pancreas characterized by progressive fibrotic destruction of the pancreatic secretory parenchyma. Despite the heterogeneity in pathogenesis and involved risk factors, processes such as necrosis/apoptosis, inflammation or duct obstruction are involved. This fibrosing process ultimately leads to progressive loss of the lobular morphology and structure of the pancreas, deformation of the large ducts and severe changes in the arrangement and composition of the islets. These conditions lead to irreversible morphological and structural changes resulting in impairment of both exocrine and endocrine functions. The prevalence of the disease is largely dependent on culture and geography. The etiological risk-factors associated with CP are multiple and involve both genetic and environmental factors. Throughout this review the M-ANNHEIM classification system will be used, comprising a detailed description of risk factors such as: alcohol-consumption, nicotine-consumption, nutritional factors, hereditary factors, efferent duct factors, immunological factors and miscellaneous and rare metabolic factors. Increased knowledge of the different etiological factors may encourage the use of further advanced diagnostic tools, which potentially will help clinicians to diagnose CP at an earlier stage. However, in view of the multi factorial disease and the complex clinical picture, it is not surprising that treatment of patients with CP is challenging and often unsuccessful.

  10. Diagnosing Chronic Pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Anaizi, Ahmad; Hart, Phil A; Conwell, Darwin L

    2017-07-01

    Diagnosing CP can range from routine in those with severe disease and obvious calcifications on CT imaging to elusive in those patients with early changes in CP. The workup of suspected CP should follow a progressively noninvasive to more invasive STEP-wise approach in a patient with a suspicious clinical presentation and risk factors that raise their pretest probability of disease. After a thorough history and physical examination, basic laboratories should be obtained such as lipase, amylase, metabolic panel, and indirect PFTs (fecal elastase-1, serum trypsin). Computed tomography remains the best initial imaging modality to obtain as it has good sensitivity for severe CP and may obviate the need for other diagnostic tests. When equivocal, an MRCP should be obtained for a more detailed evaluation of the both the pancreatic parenchyma and ducts. If the diagnosis remains in doubt, EUS should be performed with or without pancreas function testing. ERCP remains a last-line diagnostic test and seldom should be used outside of therapeutic purposes. Future advances should target optimizing current diagnostic tools to more accurately diagnose early CP, as it is in this population where the benefits of delaying progression of CP may have the most profound effect. Likely the best way at establishing a diagnosis in these patients is via pancreatic function testing in the setting of indeterminate EUS results. Biomarker studies of pancreas fluid may supplement diagnosis.

  11. Pathophysiology of chronic pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Brock, Christina; Nielsen, Lecia Møller; Lelic, Dina; Drewes, Asbjørn Mohr

    2013-01-01

    Chronic pancreatitis (CP) is an inflammatory disease of the pancreas characterized by progressive fibrotic destruction of the pancreatic secretory parenchyma. Despite the heterogeneity in pathogenesis and involved risk factors, processes such as necrosis/apoptosis, inflammation or duct obstruction are involved. This fibrosing process ultimately leads to progressive loss of the lobular morphology and structure of the pancreas, deformation of the large ducts and severe changes in the arrangement and composition of the islets. These conditions lead to irreversible morphological and structural changes resulting in impairment of both exocrine and endocrine functions. The prevalence of the disease is largely dependent on culture and geography. The etiological risk-factors associated with CP are multiple and involve both genetic and environmental factors. Throughout this review the M-ANNHEIM classification system will be used, comprising a detailed description of risk factors such as: alcohol-consumption, nicotine-consumption, nutritional factors, hereditary factors, efferent duct factors, immunological factors and miscellaneous and rare metabolic factors. Increased knowledge of the different etiological factors may encourage the use of further advanced diagnostic tools, which potentially will help clinicians to diagnose CP at an earlier stage. However, in view of the multi factorial disease and the complex clinical picture, it is not surprising that treatment of patients with CP is challenging and often unsuccessful. PMID:24259953

  12. Recent Progress in Pancreatic Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wolfgang, Christopher L.; Herman, Joseph M.; Laheru, Daniel A.; Klein, Alison P.; Erdek, Michael A.; Fishman, Elliot K.; Hruban, Ralph H.

    2013-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is currently one of the deadliest of the solid malignancies. However, surgery to resect neoplasms of the pancreas is safer and less invasive than ever, novel drug combinations have been shown to improve survival, advances in radiation therapy have resulted in less toxicity, and enormous strides have been made in our understanding of the fundamental genetics of pancreatic cancer. These advances provide hope but they also increase the complexity of caring for patients. It is clear that multidisciplinary care that provides comprehensive and coordinated evaluation and treatment is the most effective way to manage patients with pancreatic cancer. PMID:23856911

  13. Necrotizing pancreatitis: challenges and solutions.

    PubMed

    Bendersky, Victoria A; Mallipeddi, Mohan K; Perez, Alexander; Pappas, Theodore N

    2016-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis is a common disease that can progress to gland necrosis, which imposes significant risk of morbidity and mortality. In general, the treatment for pancreatitis is a supportive therapy. However, there are several reasons to escalate to surgery or another intervention. This review discusses the pathophysiology as well as medical and interventional management of necrotizing pancreatitis. Current evidence suggests that patients are best served by delaying interventions for at least 4 weeks, draining as a first resort, and debriding recalcitrant tissue using minimally invasive techniques to promote or enhance postoperative recovery while reducing wound-related complications.

  14. Treatment options for chronic pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Issa, Yama; Bruno, Marco J; Bakker, Olaf J; Besselink, Marc G; Schepers, Nicolien J; van Santvoort, Hjalmar C; Gooszen, Hein G; Boermeester, Marja A

    2014-09-01

    This Review covers the latest developments in the treatment options for chronic pancreatitis. Pain is the most frequent and dominant symptom in patients with chronic pancreatitis, which ranges from severe disabling continuous pain to mild pain attacks and pain-free periods. Conventional treatment strategies and recent changes in the treatment of pain in patients with chronic pancreatitis are outlined. The different treatment options for pain consist of medical therapy, endoscopy or surgery. Their related merits and drawbacks are discussed. Finally, novel insights in the field of genetics and microbiota are summarized, and future perspectives are discussed.

  15. Chronic pancreatitis: A diagnostic dilemma

    PubMed Central

    Duggan, Sinead N; Ní Chonchubhair, Hazel M; Lawal, Oladapo; O’Connor, Donal B; Conlon, Kevin C

    2016-01-01

    Typical clinical symptoms of chronic pancreatitis are vague and non-specific and therefore diagnostic tests are required, none of which provide absolute diagnostic certainly, especially in the early stages of disease. Recently-published guidelines bring much needed structure to the diagnostic work-up of patients with suspected chronic pancreatitis. In addition, novel diagnostic modalities bring promise for the future. The assessment and diagnosis of pancreatic exocrine insufficiency remains challenging and this review contests the accepted perspective that steatorrhea only occurs with > 90% destruction of the gland. PMID:26900292

  16. GLP1 and glucagon co-secreting pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor presenting as hypoglycemia after gastric bypass

    PubMed Central

    Guimarães, Marta; Rodrigues, Pedro; Pereira, Sofia S; Nora, Mário; Gonçalves, Gil; Albrechtsen, Nicolai Wewer; Hartmann, Bolette; Holst, Jens Juul

    2015-01-01

    Summary Post-prandial hypoglycemia is frequently found after bariatric surgery. Although rare, pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (pNET), which occasionally are mixed hormone secreting, can lead to atypical clinical manifestations, including reactive hypoglycemia. Two years after gastric bypass surgery for the treatment of severe obesity, a 54-year-old female with previous type 2 diabetes, developed post-prandial sweating, fainting and hypoglycemic episodes, which eventually led to the finding by ultrasound of a 1.8-cm solid mass in the pancreatic head. The 72-h fast test and the plasma chromogranin A levels were normal but octreotide scintigraphy showed a single focus of abnormal radiotracer uptake at the site of the nodule. There were no other clinical signs of hormone secreting pNET and gastrointestinal hormone measurements were not performed. The patient underwent surgical enucleation with complete remission of the hypoglycemic episodes. Histopathology revealed a well-differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma with low-grade malignancy with positive chromogranin A and glucagon immunostaining. An extract of the resected tumor contained a high concentration of glucagon (26.707 pmol/g tissue), in addition to traces of GLP1 (471 pmol/g), insulin (139 pmol/g) and somatostatin (23 pmol/g). This is the first report of a GLP1 and glucagon co-secreting pNET presenting as hypoglycemia after gastric bypass surgery. Although pNET are rare, they should be considered in the differential diagnosis of the clinical approach to the post-bariatric surgery hypoglycemia patient. Learning points pNETs can be multihormonal-secreting, leading to atypical clinical manifestations.Reactive hypoglycemic episodes are frequent after gastric bypass.pNETs should be considered in the differential diagnosis of hypoglycemia after bariatric surgery. PMID:26266036

  17. Surgery for chronic pancreatitis decreases the risk for pancreatic cancer: a multicenter retrospective analysis.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Junji; Tanaka, Masao; Ohtsuka, Takao; Tokunaga, Shoji; Shimosegawa, Tooru

    2013-03-01

    Chronic pancreatitis is suggested to be one of the risk factors for the development of pancreatic cancer. The aim of this study was to confirm the high incidence of pancreatic cancer in patients with chronic pancreatitis in Japan and to determine the factors associated with the risk for pancreatic cancer in patients with chronic pancreatitis. The working group of the Research Committee of Intractable Disease supported by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare of Japan carried out a nationwide survey to investigate the relationship between chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer. This retrospective study included patients diagnosed with chronic pancreatitis who had had at least 2 years of follow-up. They were contacted through 22 Japanese referral centers experienced in the management of chronic pancreatitis. The standardized incidence ratio (95 CI) of pancreatic cancer was 11.8 (7.1-18.4). The incidence of pancreatic cancer was significantly lower in patients who had received surgery for chronic pancreatitis than in those who had not undergone surgery (hazard ratio estimated by Cox regression 0.11; 95% CI, 0.0014-0.80; P = .03). Patients who continued to drink alcohol after diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis showed a significantly higher incidence of pancreatic cancer than those who stopped drinking after diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis (hazard ratio, 5.07; 95% CI, 1.13-22.73; P = .03). This study confirmed that chronic pancreatitis is an important risk factor for the development of pancreatic cancer in Japan. Patients who underwent surgery for the treatment of chronic pancreatitis had significantly lower incidences of pancreatic cancer. Surgery for chronic pancreatitis may inhibit the development of pancreatic cancer in patients with chronic pancreatitis. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Nutritional and Metabolic Derangements in Pancreatic Cancer and Pancreatic Resection.

    PubMed

    Gilliland, Taylor M; Villafane-Ferriol, Nicole; Shah, Kevin P; Shah, Rohan M; Tran Cao, Hop S; Massarweh, Nader N; Silberfein, Eric J; Choi, Eugene A; Hsu, Cary; McElhany, Amy L; Barakat, Omar; Fisher, William; Van Buren, George

    2017-03-07

    Pancreatic cancer is an aggressive malignancy with a poor prognosis. The disease and its treatment can cause significant nutritional impairments that often adversely impact patient quality of life (QOL). The pancreas has both exocrine and endocrine functions and, in the setting of cancer, both systems may be affected. Pancreatic exocrine insufficiency (PEI) manifests as weight loss and steatorrhea, while endocrine insufficiency may result in diabetes mellitus. Surgical resection, a central component of pancreatic cancer treatment, may induce or exacerbate these dysfunctions. Nutritional and metabolic dysfunctions in patients with pancreatic cancer lack characterization, and few guidelines exist for nutritional support in patients after surgical resection. We reviewed publications from the past two decades (1995-2016) addressing the nutritional and metabolic status of patients with pancreatic cancer, grouping them into status at the time of diagnosis, status at the time of resection, and status of nutritional support throughout the diagnosis and treatment of pancreatic cancer. Here, we summarize the results of these investigations and evaluate the effectiveness of various types of nutritional support in patients after pancreatectomy for pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PDAC). We outline the following conservative perioperative strategies to optimize patient outcomes and guide the care of these patients: (1) patients with albumin < 2.5 mg/dL or weight loss > 10% should postpone surgery and begin aggressive nutrition supplementation; (2) patients with albumin < 3 mg/dL or weight loss between 5% and 10% should have nutrition supplementation prior to surgery; (3) enteral nutrition (EN) should be preferred as a nutritional intervention over total parenteral nutrition (TPN) postoperatively; and, (4) a multidisciplinary approach should be used to allow for early detection of symptoms of endocrine and exocrine pancreatic insufficiency alongside implementation of appropriate

  19. Nutritional and Metabolic Derangements in Pancreatic Cancer and Pancreatic Resection

    PubMed Central

    Gilliland, Taylor M.; Villafane-Ferriol, Nicole; Shah, Kevin P.; Shah, Rohan M.; Tran Cao, Hop S.; Massarweh, Nader N.; Silberfein, Eric J.; Choi, Eugene A.; Hsu, Cary; McElhany, Amy L.; Barakat, Omar; Fisher, William; Van Buren, George

    2017-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is an aggressive malignancy with a poor prognosis. The disease and its treatment can cause significant nutritional impairments that often adversely impact patient quality of life (QOL). The pancreas has both exocrine and endocrine functions and, in the setting of cancer, both systems may be affected. Pancreatic exocrine insufficiency (PEI) manifests as weight loss and steatorrhea, while endocrine insufficiency may result in diabetes mellitus. Surgical resection, a central component of pancreatic cancer treatment, may induce or exacerbate these dysfunctions. Nutritional and metabolic dysfunctions in patients with pancreatic cancer lack characterization, and few guidelines exist for nutritional support in patients after surgical resection. We reviewed publications from the past two decades (1995–2016) addressing the nutritional and metabolic status of patients with pancreatic cancer, grouping them into status at the time of diagnosis, status at the time of resection, and status of nutritional support throughout the diagnosis and treatment of pancreatic cancer. Here, we summarize the results of these investigations and evaluate the effectiveness of various types of nutritional support in patients after pancreatectomy for pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PDAC). We outline the following conservative perioperative strategies to optimize patient outcomes and guide the care of these patients: (1) patients with albumin < 2.5 mg/dL or weight loss > 10% should postpone surgery and begin aggressive nutrition supplementation; (2) patients with albumin < 3 mg/dL or weight loss between 5% and 10% should have nutrition supplementation prior to surgery; (3) enteral nutrition (EN) should be preferred as a nutritional intervention over total parenteral nutrition (TPN) postoperatively; and, (4) a multidisciplinary approach should be used to allow for early detection of symptoms of endocrine and exocrine pancreatic insufficiency alongside implementation of appropriate

  20. Surgical approaches to chronic pancreatitis: indications and imaging findings.

    PubMed

    Hafezi-Nejad, Nima; Singh, Vikesh K; Johnson, Stephen I; Makary, Martin A; Hirose, Kenzo; Fishman, Elliot K; Zaheer, Atif

    2016-10-01

    Chronic pancreatitis (CP) is an irreversible, inflammatory process characterized by progressive fibrosis of the pancreas that can result in abdominal pain, exocrine insufficiency, and diabetes. Inadequate pain relief using medical and/or endoscopic therapies is an indication for surgery. The surgical management of CP is centered around three main operations including pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD), duodenum-preserving pancreatic head resection (DPPHR) and drainage procedures, and total pancreatectomy with islet autotransplantation (TPIAT). PD is the method of choice when there is a high suspicion for malignancy. Combined drainage and resection procedures are associated with pain relief, higher quality of life, and superior short-term and long-term survival in comparison with the PD. TPIAT is a reemerging treatment that may be promising in subjects with intractable pain and impaired quality of life. Imaging examinations have an extensive role in pre-operative and post-operative evaluation of CP patients. Pre-operative advanced imaging examinations including CT and MRI can detect hallmarks of CP such as calcifications, pancreatic duct dilatation, chronic pseudocysts, focal pancreatic enlargement, and biliary ductal dilatation. Post-operative findings may include periportal hepatic edema, pneumobilia, perivascular cuffing and mild pancreatic duct dilation. Imaging can also be useful in the detection of post-operative complications including obstructions, anastomotic leaks, and vascular lesions. Imaging helps identify unique post-operative findings associated with TPIAT and may aid in predicting viability and function of the transplanted islet cells. In this review, we explore surgical indications as well as pre-operative and post-operative imaging findings associated with surgical options that are typically performed for CP patients.

  1. Integrated Proteomic Profiling of Cell Line Conditioned Media and Pancreatic Juice for the Identification of Pancreatic Cancer Biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Makawita, Shalini; Smith, Chris; Batruch, Ihor; Zheng, Yingye; Rückert, Felix; Grützmann, Robert; Pilarsky, Christian; Gallinger, Steven; Diamandis, Eleftherios P.

    2011-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths, for which serological biomarkers are urgently needed. Most discovery-phase studies focus on the use of one biological source for analysis. The present study details the combined mining of pancreatic cancer-related cell line conditioned media and pancreatic juice for identification of putative diagnostic leads. Using strong cation exchange chromatography, followed by LC-MS/MS on an LTQ-Orbitrap mass spectrometer, we extensively characterized the proteomes of conditioned media from six pancreatic cancer cell lines (BxPc3, MIA-PaCa2, PANC1, CAPAN1, CFPAC1, and SU.86.86), the normal human pancreatic ductal epithelial cell line HPDE, and two pools of six pancreatic juice samples from ductal adenocarcinoma patients. All samples were analyzed in triplicate. Between 1261 and 2171 proteins were identified with two or more peptides in each of the cell lines, and an average of 521 proteins were identified in the pancreatic juice pools. In total, 3479 nonredundant proteins were identified with high confidence, of which ∼40% were extracellular or cell membrane-bound based on Genome Ontology classifications. Three strategies were employed for identification of candidate biomarkers: (1) examination of differential protein expression between the cancer and normal cell lines using label-free protein quantification, (2) integrative analysis, focusing on the overlap of proteins among the multiple biological fluids, and (3) tissue specificity analysis through mining of publically available databases. Preliminary verification of anterior gradient homolog 2, syncollin, olfactomedin-4, polymeric immunoglobulin receptor, and collagen alpha-1(VI) chain in plasma samples from pancreatic cancer patients and healthy controls using ELISA, showed a significant increase (p < 0.01) of these proteins in plasma from pancreatic cancer patients. The combination of these five proteins showed an improved area under the receiver

  2. Magnetic resonance imaging of pancreatitis: An update

    PubMed Central

    Manikkavasakar, Sriluxayini; AlObaidy, Mamdoh; Busireddy, Kiran K; Ramalho, Miguel; Nilmini, Viragi; Alagiyawanna, Madhavi; Semelka, Richard C

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging plays an important role in the diagnosis and staging of acute and chronic pancreatitis and may represent the best imaging technique in the setting of pancreatitis due to its unmatched soft tissue contrast resolution as well as non-ionizing nature and higher safety profile of intravascular contrast media, making it particularly valuable in radiosensitive populations such as pregnant patients, and patients with recurrent pancreatitis requiring multiple follow-up examinations. Additional advantages include the ability to detect early forms of chronic pancreatitis and to better differentiate adenocarcinoma from focal chronic pancreatitis. This review addresses new trends in clinical pancreatic MR imaging emphasizing its role in imaging all types of acute and chronic pancreatitis, pancreatitis complications and other important differential diagnoses that mimic pancreatitis. PMID:25356038

  3. Pancreatic duct stones in patients with chronic pancreatitis: surgical outcomes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bo-Nan; Zhang, Tai-Ping; Zhao, Yu-Pei; Liao, Quan; Dai, Meng-Hua; Zhan, Han-Xiang

    2010-08-01

    Pancreatic duct stone (PDS) is a common complication of chronic pancreatitis. Surgery is a common therapeutic option for PDS. In this study we assessed the surgical procedures for PDS in patients with chronic pancreatitis at our hospital. Between January 2004 and September 2009, medical records from 35 patients diagnosed with PDS associated with chronic pancreatitis were retrospectively reviewed and the patients were followed up for up to 67 months. The 35 patients underwent ultrasonography, computed tomography, or both, with an overall accuracy rate of 85.7%. Of these patients, 31 underwent the modified Puestow procedure, 2 underwent the Whipple procedure, 1 underwent simple stone removal by duct incision, and 1 underwent pancreatic abscess drainage. Of the 35 patients, 28 were followed up for 4-67 months. There was no postoperative death before discharge or during follow-up. After the modified Puestow procedure, abdominal pain was reduced in patients with complete or incomplete stone clearance (P>0.05). Steatorrhea and diabetes mellitus developed in several patients during a long-term follow-up. Surgery, especially the modified Puestow procedure, is effective and safe for patients with PDS associated with chronic pancreatitis. Decompression of intraductal pressure rather than complete clearance of all stones predicts postoperative outcome.

  4. Pancreatic stellate cell: Pandora's box for pancreatic disease biology.

    PubMed

    Bynigeri, Ratnakar R; Jakkampudi, Aparna; Jangala, Ramaiah; Subramanyam, Chivukula; Sasikala, Mitnala; Rao, G Venkat; Reddy, D Nageshwar; Talukdar, Rupjyoti

    2017-01-21

    Pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) were identified in the early 1980s, but received much attention after 1998 when the methods to isolate and culture them from murine and human sources were developed. PSCs contribute to a small proportion of all pancreatic cells under physiological condition, but are essential for maintaining the normal pancreatic architecture. Quiescent PSCs are characterized by the presence of vitamin A laden lipid droplets. Upon PSC activation, these perinuclear lipid droplets disappear from the cytosol, attain a myofibroblast like phenotype and expresses the activation marker, alpha smooth muscle actin. PSCs maintain their activated phenotype via an autocrine loop involving different cytokines and contribute to progressive fibrosis in chronic pancreatitis (CP) and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Several pathways ( e.g ., JAK-STAT, Smad, Wnt signaling, Hedgehog etc .), transcription factors and miRNAs have been implicated in the inflammatory and profibrogenic function of PSCs. The role of PSCs goes much beyond fibrosis/desmoplasia in PDAC. It is now shown that PSCs are involved in significant crosstalk between the pancreatic cancer cells and the cancer stroma. These interactions result in tumour progression, metastasis, tumour hypoxia, immune evasion and drug resistance. This is the rationale for therapeutic preclinical and clinical trials that have targeted PSCs and the cancer stroma.

  5. Pancreatic stellate cell: Pandora's box for pancreatic disease biology

    PubMed Central

    Bynigeri, Ratnakar R; Jakkampudi, Aparna; Jangala, Ramaiah; Subramanyam, Chivukula; Sasikala, Mitnala; Rao, G Venkat; Reddy, D Nageshwar; Talukdar, Rupjyoti

    2017-01-01

    Pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) were identified in the early 1980s, but received much attention after 1998 when the methods to isolate and culture them from murine and human sources were developed. PSCs contribute to a small proportion of all pancreatic cells under physiological condition, but are essential for maintaining the normal pancreatic architecture. Quiescent PSCs are characterized by the presence of vitamin A laden lipid droplets. Upon PSC activation, these perinuclear lipid droplets disappear from the cytosol, attain a myofibroblast like phenotype and expresses the activation marker, alpha smooth muscle actin. PSCs maintain their activated phenotype via an autocrine loop involving different cytokines and contribute to progressive fibrosis in chronic pancreatitis (CP) and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Several pathways (e.g., JAK-STAT, Smad, Wnt signaling, Hedgehog etc.), transcription factors and miRNAs have been implicated in the inflammatory and profibrogenic function of PSCs. The role of PSCs goes much beyond fibrosis/desmoplasia in PDAC. It is now shown that PSCs are involved in significant crosstalk between the pancreatic cancer cells and the cancer stroma. These interactions result in tumour progression, metastasis, tumour hypoxia, immune evasion and drug resistance. This is the rationale for therapeutic preclinical and clinical trials that have targeted PSCs and the cancer stroma. PMID:28210075

  6. Detection, Evaluation and Treatment of Diabetes Mellitus in Chronic Pancreatitis: Recommendations from PancreasFest 2012

    PubMed Central

    Rickels, Michael R.; Bellin, Melena; Toledo, Frederico G.S.; Robertson, R. Paul; Andersen, Dana K.; Chari, Suresh T.; Brand, Randall; Frulloni, Luca; Anderson, Michelle A.; Whitcomb, David C.

    2013-01-01

    Description Diabetes and glucose intolerance are common complications of chronic pancreatitis, yet clinical guidance on their detection, classification, and management is lacking. Methods A working group reviewed the medical problems, diagnostic methods, and treatment options for chronic pancreatitis-associated diabetes for a consensus meeting at PancreasFest 2012. Results Guidance Statement 1.1 Diabetes mellitus is common in chronic pancreatitis. While any patient with chronic pancreatitis should be monitored for development of diabetes, those with long-standing duration of disease, prior partial pancreatectomy, and early onset of calcific disease may be at higher risk. Those patients developing diabetes mellitus are likely to have co-existing pancreatic exocrine insufficiency. Guidance Statement 1.2 Diabetes occurring secondary to chronic pancreatitis should be recognized as pancreatogenic diabetes (type 3c diabetes). Guidance Statement 2.1 The initial evaluation should include fasting glucose and HbA1c. These tests should be repeated annually. Impairment in either fasting glucose or HbA1c requires further evaluation. Guidance Statement 2.2 Impairment in either fasting glucose or HbA1c should be further evaluated by a standard 75 gram oral glucose tolerance test. Guidance Statement 2.3 An absent pancreatic polypeptide response to mixed-nutrient ingestion is a specific indicator of type 3c diabetes. Guidance Statement 2.4 Assessment of pancreatic endocrine reserve, and importantly that of functional beta-cell mass, should be performed as part of the evaluation and follow-up for total pancreatectomy with islet autotransplantation (TPIAT). Guidance Statement 3 Patients with pancreatic diabetes shall be treated with specifically tailored medical nutrition and pharmacologic therapies. Conclusions Physicians should evaluate and treat glucose intolerance in patients with pancreatitis. PMID:23890130

  7. Dairy products and pancreatic cancer risk: a pooled analysis of 14 cohort studies.

    PubMed

    Genkinger, J M; Wang, M; Li, R; Albanes, D; Anderson, K E; Bernstein, L; van den Brandt, P A; English, D R; Freudenheim, J L; Fuchs, C S; Gapstur, S M; Giles, G G; Goldbohm, R A; Håkansson, N; Horn-Ross, P L; Koushik, A; Marshall, J R; McCullough, M L; Miller, A B; Robien, K; Rohan, T E; Schairer, C; Silverman, D T; Stolzenberg-Solomon, R Z; Virtamo, J; Willett, W C; Wolk, A; Ziegler, R G; Smith-Warner, S A

    2014-06-01

    Pancreatic cancer has few early symptoms, is usually diagnosed at late stages, and has a high case-fatality rate. Identifying modifiable risk factors is crucial to reducing pancreatic cancer morbidity and mortality. Prior studies have suggested that specific foods and nutrients, such as dairy products and constituents, may play a role in pancreatic carcinogenesis. In this pooled analysis of the primary data from 14 prospective cohort studies, 2212 incident pancreatic cancer cases were identified during follow-up among 862 680 individuals. Adjusting for smoking habits, personal history of diabetes, alcohol intake, body mass index (BMI), and energy intake, multivariable study-specific hazard ratios (MVHR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using the Cox proportional hazards models and then pooled using a random effects model. There was no association between total milk intake and pancreatic cancer risk (MVHR = 0.98, 95% CI = 0.82-1.18 comparing ≥500 with 1-69.9 g/day). Similarly, intakes of low-fat milk, whole milk, cheese, cottage cheese, yogurt, and ice-cream were not associated with pancreatic cancer risk. No statistically significant association was observed between dietary (MVHR = 0.96, 95% CI = 0.77-1.19) and total calcium (MVHR = 0.89, 95% CI = 0.71-1.12) intake and pancreatic cancer risk overall when comparing intakes ≥1300 with <500 mg/day. In addition, null associations were observed for dietary and total vitamin D intake and pancreatic cancer risk. Findings were consistent within sex, smoking status, and BMI strata or when the case definition was limited to pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Overall, these findings do not support the hypothesis that consumption of dairy foods, calcium, or vitamin D during adulthood is associated with pancreatic cancer risk. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Detection, evaluation and treatment of diabetes mellitus in chronic pancreatitis: recommendations from PancreasFest 2012.

    PubMed

    Rickels, Michael R; Bellin, Melena; Toledo, Frederico G S; Robertson, R Paul; Andersen, Dana K; Chari, Suresh T; Brand, Randall; Frulloni, Luca; Anderson, Michelle A; Whitcomb, David C

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes and glucose intolerance are common complications of chronic pancreatitis, yet clinical guidance on their detection, classification, and management is lacking. A working group reviewed the medical problems, diagnostic methods, and treatment options for chronic pancreatitis-associated diabetes for a consensus meeting at PancreasFest 2012. Guidance Statement 1.1: Diabetes mellitus is common in chronic pancreatitis. While any patient with chronic pancreatitis should be monitored for development of diabetes, those with long-standing duration of disease, prior partial pancreatectomy, and early onset of calcific disease may be at higher risk. Those patients developing diabetes mellitus are likely to have co-existing pancreatic exocrine insufficiency. Guidance Statement 1.2: Diabetes occurring secondary to chronic pancreatitis should be recognized as pancreatogenic diabetes (type 3c diabetes). Guidance Statement 2.1: The initial evaluation should include fasting glucose and HbA1c. These tests should be repeated annually. Impairment in either fasting glucose or HbA1c requires further evaluation. Guidance Statement 2.2: Impairment in either fasting glucose or HbA1c should be further evaluated by a standard 75 g oral glucose tolerance test. Guidance Statement 2.3: An absent pancreatic polypeptide response to mixed-nutrient ingestion is a specific indicator of type 3c diabetes. Guidance Statement 2.4: Assessment of pancreatic endocrine reserve, and importantly that of functional beta-cell mass, should be performed as part of the evaluation and follow-up for total pancreatectomy with islet autotransplantation (TPIAT). Guidance Statement 3: Patients with pancreatic diabetes shall be treated with specifically tailored medical nutrition and pharmacologic therapies. Physicians should evaluate and treat glucose intolerance in patients with pancreatitis. Copyright © 2013 IAP and EPC. All rights reserved.

  9. Stages of Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors

    MedlinePlus

    ... Leukemia Liver Cancer Lung Cancer Lymphoma Pancreatic Cancer Prostate Cancer Skin Cancer Thyroid Cancer Uterine Cancer All Cancer ... also called nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (NMRI). Somatostatin receptor scintigraphy : A type of radionuclide scan that may ...

  10. Valsartan-induced acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Can, Burak; Sali, Mursel; Batman, Adnan; Yilmaz, Hasan; Korkmaz, Ugur; Celebi, Altay; Senturk, Omer; Hulagu, Sadettin

    2014-01-01

    Gastrointestinal toxicity is uncommon among patients treated with angiotensin II receptor antagonists. A 58-year-old man presented with nausea, vomiting and constant pain in the epigastrium that radiated to the flanks. He received treatment with valsartan (160 mg daily) for hypertension. The clinical, biochemical and radiological findings were compatible with a diagnosis of acute pancreatitis. After the patient achieved a clinical and biochemical recovery, the valsartan therapy was started again. Six weeks later, he returned to the hospital with an attack of pancreatitis. Subsequently, he returned with repeated attacks of pancreatitis twice, and the valsartan was discontinued. Ten months after the treatment, the patient had no complaints. When severe abdominal symptoms occur for no apparent reason during treatment with valsartan, a diagnosis of pancreatitis should be considered.

  11. Drugs Approved for Pancreatic Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for pancreatic cancer. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters.

  12. Risk factors and nomogram for pancreatic pseudocysts in chronic pancreatitis: A cohort of 1998 patients.

    PubMed

    Hao, Lu; Pan, Jun; Wang, Dan; Bi, Ya-Wei; Ji, Jun-Tao; Xin, Lei; Liao, Zhuan; Du, Ting-Ting; Lin, Jin-Huan; Zhang, Di; Zeng, Xiang-Peng; Ye, Bo; Zou, Wen-Bin; Chen, Hui; Xie, Ting; Li, Bai-Rong; Zheng, Zhao-Hong; Hu, Liang-Hao; Li, Zhao-Shen

    2017-07-01

    Pancreatic pseudocyst is a common complication of chronic pancreatitis. The identification of risk factors and development of a nomogram for pancreatic pseudocysts in chronic pancreatitis patients may contribute to the early diagnosis and intervention of pancreatic pseudocysts. Patients with chronic pancreatitis admitted to our center from January 2000 to December 2013 were enrolled. Cumulative rates of pancreatic pseudocysts after the onset of chronic pancreatitis and after the diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis were calculated. Patients were randomly assigned, in a 2:1 ratio, to the training and validation cohort. Based on the training cohort, risk factors were identified through Cox proportional hazards regression model, and nomogram was developed. Internal and external validations were performed based on the training and validation cohort, respectively. With a total of 1998 patients, pancreatic pseudocysts were detected in 228 (11.41%) patients. Age at the onset of chronic pancreatitis, smoking, and severe acute pancreatitis were identified risk factors for pancreatic pseudocysts development while steatorrhea and pancreatic stones were protective factors. Incorporating these five factors, the nomogram achieved good concordance indexes of 0.735 and 0.628 in the training and validation cohorts, respectively, with well-fitted calibration curves. The nomogram achieved an individualized prediction of pancreatic pseudocysts development in chronic pancreatitis. It may help the early diagnosis and management of pancreatic pseudocysts. © 2017 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  13. Erlotinib Hydrochloride in Treating Patients With Pancreatic Cancer That Can Be Removed by Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-10-07

    Intraductal Papillary Mucinous Neoplasm of the Pancreas; Recurrent Pancreatic Cancer; Stage IA Pancreatic Cancer; Stage IB Pancreatic Cancer; Stage IIA Pancreatic Cancer; Stage IIB Pancreatic Cancer; Stage III Pancreatic Cancer

  14. Distribution of Pancreatic Polypeptide-secreting Endocrine Cells in Nondiabetic and Diabetic Cases.

    PubMed

    Śliwińska-Mossoń, Mariola; Milnerowicz, Halina

    2017-07-01

    The aim of the study was to demonstrate the effects of cigarette smoking and ongoing inflammation in chronic pancreatitis on the functioning of pancreatic polypeptide (PP)-secreting cells and to determine the relationship between the occurrence of an increased number of PP cells in the pancreas, the change in their location, and the intensity of their inflammatory changes in the course of pancreatitis and diabetes. Samples of tissues from healthy persons and from patients were verified histopathologically, and then PP was localized by immunohistochemical staining using the monoclonal anti-human PP antibody. The histopathologic evaluation of the hormone expression intensity in tissue sections was carried out using the semiquantitative method and was calculated with digital image analysis. The present study showed a very strong PP expression in the pancreatic tissue (especially in the head of the pancreas) derived from smoking patients with diabetes. The increase in the percentage of cells in the PP islets, between the acinar cells in smoking patients with diabetes and a statistically significant increase in the expression of PP, indicates a pancreatic endocrine dysfunction and suggests that cigarette smoking has a negative impact on the organ's efficiency. Because of its properties, the PP appears to be a useful marker of the endocrine insufficiency of the pancreas and a specific prognostic parameter of developing diabetes due to chronic pancreatitis.

  15. Cystic dystrophy of the duodenal wall is not always associated with chronic pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Pezzilli, Raffaele; Santini, Donatella; Calculli, Lucia; Casadei, Riccardo; Morselli-Labate, Antonio Maria; Imbrogno, Andrea; Fabbri, Dario; Taffurelli, Giovanni; Ricci, Claudio; Corinaldesi, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    Cystic dystrophy of the duodenal wall is a rare form of the disease which was described in 1970 by French authors who reported the presence of focal pancreatic disease localized in an area comprising the C-loop of the duodenum and the head of the pancreas. German authors have defined this area as a “groove”. We report our recent experience on cystic dystrophy of the paraduodenal space and systematically review the data in the literature regarding the alterations of this space. A MEDLINE search of papers published between 1966 and 2010 was carried out and 59 papers were considered for the present study; there were 19 cohort studies and 40 case reports. The majority of patients having groove pancreatitis were middle aged. Mean age was significantly higher in patients having groove carcinoma. The diagnosis of cystic dystrophy of the duodenal wall can now be assessed by multidetector computer tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and endoscopic ultrasonography. These latter two techniques may also add more information on the involvement of the remaining pancreatic gland not involved by the duodenal malformation and they may help in differentiating “groove pancreatitis” from “groove adenocarcinoma”. In conclusion, chronic pancreatitis involving the entire pancreatic gland was present in half of the patients with cystic dystrophy of the duodenal wall and, in the majority of them, the pancreatitis had calcifications. PMID:22110260

  16. UNDERSTANDING THE INTERNATIONAL CONSENSUS FOR ACUTE PANCREATITIS: CLASSIFICATION OF ATLANTA 2012

    PubMed Central

    de SOUZA, Gleim Dias; SOUZA, Luciana Rodrigues Queiroz; CUENCA, Ronaldo Máfia; JERÔNIMO, Bárbara Stephane de Medeiros; de SOUZA, Guilherme Medeiros; VILELA, Vinícius Martins

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: Contrast computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging are widely used due to its image quality and ability to study pancreatic and peripancreatic morphology. The understanding of the various subtypes of the disease and identification of possible complications requires a familiarity with the terminology, which allows effective communication between the different members of the multidisciplinary team. Aim: Demonstrate the terminology and parameters to identify the different classifications and findings of the disease based on the international consensus for acute pancreatitis ( Atlanta Classification 2012). Methods: Search and analysis of articles in the "CAPES Portal de Periódicos with headings "acute pancreatitis" and "Atlanta Review". Results: Were selected 23 articles containing radiological descriptions, management or statistical data related to pathology. Additional statistical data were obtained from Datasus and Population Census 2010. The radiological diagnostic criterion adopted was the Radiology American College system. The "acute pancreatitis - 2012 Rating: Review Atlanta classification and definitions for international consensus" tries to eliminate inconsistency and divergence from the determination of uniformity to the radiological findings, especially the terminology related to fluid collections. More broadly as "pancreatic abscess" and "phlegmon" went into disuse and the evolution of the collection of patient fluids can be described as "acute peripancreatic collections", "acute necrotic collections", "pseudocyst" and "necrosis pancreatic walled or isolated". Conclusion: Computed tomography and magnetic resonance represent the best techniques with sequential images available for diagnosis. Standardization of the terminology is critical and should improve the management of patients with multiple professionals care, risk stratification and adequate treatment. PMID:27759788

  17. Clinical pancreatic islet transplantation.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, A M James; Pokrywczynska, Marta; Ricordi, Camillo

    2017-05-01

    Clinical pancreatic islet transplantation can be considered one of the safest and least invasive transplant procedures. Remarkable progress has occurred in both the technical aspects of islet cell processing and the outcomes of clinical islet transplantation. With >1,500 patients treated since 2000, this therapeutic strategy has moved from a curiosity to a realistic treatment option for selected patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (that is, those with hypoglycaemia unawareness, severe hypoglycaemic episodes and glycaemic lability). This Review outlines the techniques required for human islet isolation, in vitro culture before the transplant and clinical islet transplantation, and discusses indications, optimization of recipient immunosuppression and management of adjunctive immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory strategies. The potential risks, long-term outcomes and advances in treatment after the transplant are also discussed to further move this treatment towards becoming a more widely available option for patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus and eventually a potential cure.

  18. Can adaptive threshold-based metabolic tumor volume (MTV) and lean body mass corrected standard uptake value (SUL) predict prognosis in head and neck cancer patients treated with definitive radiotherapy/chemoradiotherapy?

    PubMed

    Akagunduz, Ozlem Ozkaya; Savas, Recep; Yalman, Deniz; Kocacelebi, Kenan; Esassolak, Mustafa

    2015-11-01

    To evaluate the predictive value of adaptive threshold-based metabolic tumor volume (MTV), maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) and maximum lean body mass corrected SUV (SULmax) measured on pretreatment positron emission tomography and computed tomography (PET/CT) imaging in head and neck cancer patients treated with definitive radiotherapy/chemoradiotherapy. Pretreatment PET/CT of the 62 patients with locally advanced head and neck cancer who were treated consecutively between May 2010 and February 2013 were reviewed retrospectively. The maximum FDG uptake of the primary tumor was defined according to SUVmax and SULmax. Multiple threshold levels between 60% and 10% of the SUVmax and SULmax were tested with intervals of 5% to 10% in order to define the most suitable threshold value for the metabolic activity of each patient's tumor (adaptive threshold). MTV was calculated according to this value. We evaluated the relationship of mean values of MTV, SUVmax and SULmax with treatment response, local recurrence, distant metastasis and disease-related death. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was done to obtain optimal predictive cut-off values for MTV and SULmax which were found to have a predictive value. Local recurrence-free (LRFS), disease-free (DFS) and overall survival (OS) were examined according to these cut-offs. Forty six patients had complete response, 15 had partial response, and 1 had stable disease 6 weeks after the completion of treatment. Median follow-up of the entire cohort was 18 months. Of 46 complete responders 10 had local recurrence, and of 16 partial or no responders 10 had local progression. Eighteen patients died. Adaptive threshold-based MTV had significant predictive value for treatment response (p=0.011), local recurrence/progression (p=0.050), and disease-related death (p=0.024). SULmax had a predictive value for local recurrence/progression (p=0.030). ROC curves analysis revealed a cut-off value of 14.00 mL for

  19. Pancreatic Cancer, Inflammation and Microbiome

    PubMed Central

    Zambirinis, Constantinos P.; Pushalkar, Smruti; Saxena, Deepak; Miller, George

    2014-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is one of the most lethal cancers worldwide. No effective screening methods exist and available treatment modalities do not effectively treat the disease. Inflammatory conditions such as pancreatitis represent a well-known risk for pancreatic cancer development. Yet only in the past two decades has pancreatic cancer been recognized as an inflammation-driven cancer, and the precise mechanisms underlying the pathogenic role of inflammation are beginning to be explored in detail. A substantial amount of preclinical and clinical evidence suggests that bacteria are likely to influence this process by activating immune receptors and perpetuating cancer-associated inflammation. The recent explosion of investigations into the human microbiome have highlighted how perturbations of commensal bacterial populations can promote inflammation and promote disease processes, including carcinogenesis. The elucidation of the interplay between inflammation and microbiome in the context of pancreatic carcinogenesis will provide novel targets for intervention in order to both prevent and treat pancreatic cancer more efficiently. Further studies towards this direction are urgently needed. PMID:24855007

  20. Pancreatic carcinogenesis: apoptosis and angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Onizuka, Shinya; Kawakami, Shunsuke; Taniguchi, Ken; Fujioka, Hikaru; Miyashita, Kosei

    2004-04-01

    Apoptosis and angiogenesis are critical biologic processes that are altered during carcinogenesis. Both apoptosis and angiogenesis may play an important role in pancreatic carcinogenesis. Despite numerous advances in the diagnosis and treatment of pancreatic cancer, its prognosis remains dismal and a new therapeutic approach is much needed. Recent research has revealed that apoptosis and angiogenesis are closely interrelated. Several reports show that a tumor suppresser gene that is expressed in pancreatic carcinoma and related to malignant potential can induce apoptosis and also inhibit angiogenesis. At present, it is generally accepted that tumor growth in cancers, including pancreatic cancer, depends on angiogenesis. We have identified 2 new angiogenesis inhibitors from a conditioned medium of human pancreatic carcinoma cell line (BxPC-3): antiangiogenic antithrombin III (aaAT-III) and vitamin D binding protein-macrophage activating factor (DBP-maf). These molecules were able to regress tumors in severe combined immunodeficiency disease (SCID) mice, demonstrating potent inhibition of endothelial cell proliferation. Moreover, the angiogenesis inhibitors induced tumor dormancy in the animal model. These results suggest that antiangiogenic therapy using angiogenesis inhibitors may become a new strategy for treatment of pancreatic cancer in the near future.

  1. Pancreatic cancer: Advances in treatment

    PubMed Central

    Mohammed, Somala; Van Buren II, George; Fisher, William E

    2014-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is a leading cause of cancer mortality and the incidence of this disease is expected to continue increasing. While patients with pancreatic cancer have traditionally faced a dismal prognosis, over the past several years various advances in diagnosis and treatment have begun to positively impact this disease. Identification of effective combinations of existing chemotherapeutic agents, such as the FOLFIRINOX and the gemcitabine + nab-paclitaxel regimen, has improved survival for selected patients although concerns regarding their toxicity profiles remain. A better understanding of pancreatic carcinogenesis has identified several pre-malignant precursor lesions, such as pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasias, intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms, and cystic neoplasms. Imaging technology has also evolved dramatically so as to allow early detection of these lesions and thereby facilitate earlier management. Surgery remains a cornerstone of treatment for patients with resectable pancreatic tumors, and advances in surgical technique have allowed patients to undergo resection with decreasing perioperative morbidity and mortality. Surgery has also become feasible in selected patients with borderline resectable tumors as a result of neoadjuvant therapy. Furthermore, pancreatectomy involving vascular reconstruction and pancreatectomy with minimally invasive techniques have demonstrated safety without significantly compromising oncologic outcomes. Lastly, a deeper understanding of molecular aberrations contributing to the development of pancreatic cancer shows promise for future development of more targeted and safe therapeutic agents. PMID:25071330

  2. Pancreatic cancer: advances in treatment.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Somala; Van Buren, George; Fisher, William E

    2014-07-28

    Pancreatic cancer is a leading cause of cancer mortality and the incidence of this disease is expected to continue increasing. While patients with pancreatic cancer have traditionally faced a dismal prognosis, over the past several years various advances in diagnosis and treatment have begun to positively impact this disease. Identification of effective combinations of existing chemotherapeutic agents, such as the FOLFIRINOX and the gemcitabine + nab-paclitaxel regimen, has improved survival for selected patients although concerns regarding their toxicity profiles remain. A better understanding of pancreatic carcinogenesis has identified several pre-malignant precursor lesions, such as pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasias, intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms, and cystic neoplasms. Imaging technology has also evolved dramatically so as to allow early detection of these lesions and thereby facilitate earlier management. Surgery remains a cornerstone of treatment for patients with resectable pancreatic tumors, and advances in surgical technique have allowed patients to undergo resection with decreasing perioperative morbidity and mortality. Surgery has also become feasible in selected patients with borderline resectable tumors as a result of neoadjuvant therapy. Furthermore, pancreatectomy involving vascular reconstruction and pancreatectomy with minimally invasive techniques have demonstrated safety without significantly compromising oncologic outcomes. Lastly, a deeper understanding of molecular aberrations contributing to the development of pancreatic cancer shows promise for future development of more targeted and safe therapeutic agents.

  3. Ceftriaxone-associated pancreatitis captured on serial computed tomography scans.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Nozomu; Ochi, Nobuaki; Yamane, Hiromichi; Honda, Yoshihiro; Nagasaki, Yasunari; Urata, Noriyo; Nakanishi, Hidekazu; Kawamoto, Hirofumi; Takigawa, Nagio

    2018-02-01

    A 74-year-old man was treated with ceftriaxone for 5 days and subsequently experienced epigastric pain. Computed tomography (CT) was performed 7 and 3 days before epigastralgia. Although the first CT image revealed no radiographic signs in his biliary system, the second CT image revealed dense radiopaque material in the gallbladder lumen. The third CT image, taken at symptom onset, showed high density in the common bile duct and enlargement of the pancreatic head. This is a very rare case of pseudolithiasis involving the common bile duct, as captured on a series of CT images.

  4. Morphologic and morphometric evaluation of pancreatic islets in chronic Chagas' disease.

    PubMed

    Saldanha, J C; dos Santos, V M; dos Reis, M A; da Cunha, D F; Antunes Teixeira, V P

    2001-01-01

    Hyperglycemia and abnormal glucose tolerance tests observed in some patients with chronic Chagas' disease suggest the possibility of morphological changes in pancreatic islets and/or denervation. The purpose of this study was to describe the morphology and morphometry of pancreatic islets in chronic Chagas' disease. Morphologic and computerized morphometric studies were performed in fragments of the head, body, and tail regions of the pancreas obtained at necropsies of 8 normal controls and 17 patients with chronic Chagas' disease: 8 with the digestive form (Megas) and 9 with the congestive heart failure form. The Megas group had a larger (p < 0.05) pancreatic islet area in the tail of the pancreas (10649.3 +/- 4408.8 micrometer2) than the normal control (9481.8 +/- 3242.4 micrometer2) and congestive heart failure (9475.1 +/- 2104.9 micrometer2) groups; likewise, the density of the pancreatic islets (PI) was greater (1.2 +/- 0.7 vs. 0.9 +/- 0.6 vs. 1.9 +/- 1.0 PI/mm2, respectively). In the tail region of the pancreas of patients with the Megas form, there was a significant and positive correlation (r = +0.73) between the area and density of pancreatic islets. Discrete fibrosis and leukocytic infiltrates were found in pancreatic ganglia and pancreatic islets of the patients with Chagas' disease. Trypanosoma cruzi nests were not observed in the examined sections. Individuals with the Megas form of Chagas' disease showed increased area and density of pancreatic islets in the tail of the pancreas. The observed morphometric and morphologic alterations are consistent with functional changes in the pancreas, including glycemia and insulin disturbances.

  5. Resection of complex pancreatic injuries: Benchmarking postoperative complications using the Accordion classification

    PubMed Central

    Krige, Jake E; Jonas, Eduard; Thomson, Sandie R; Kotze, Urda K; Setshedi, Mashiko; Navsaria, Pradeep H; Nicol, Andrew J

    2017-01-01

    AIM To benchmark severity of complications using the Accordion Severity Grading System (ASGS) in patients undergoing operation for severe pancreatic injuries. METHODS A prospective institutional database of 461 patients with pancreatic injuries treated from 1990 to 2015 was reviewed. One hundred and thirty patients with AAST grade 3, 4 or 5 pancreatic injuries underwent resection (pancreatoduodenectomy, n = 20, distal pancreatectomy, n = 110), including 30 who had an initial damage control laparotomy (DCL) and later definitive surgery. AAST injury grades, type of pancreatic resection, need for DCL and incidence and ASGS severity of complications were assessed. Uni- and multivariate logistic regression analysis was applied. RESULTS Overall 238 complications occurred in 95 (73%) patients of which 73% were ASGS grades 3-6. Nineteen patients (14.6%) died. Patients more likely to have complications after pancreatic resection were older, had a revised trauma score (RTS) < 7.8, were shocked on admission, had grade 5 injuries of the head and neck of the pancreas with associated vascular and duodenal injuries, required a DCL, received a larger blood transfusion, had a pancreatoduodenectomy (PD) and repeat laparotomies. Applying univariate logistic regression analysis, mechanism of injury, RTS < 7.8, shock on admission, DCL, increasing AAST grade and type of pancreatic resection were significant variables for complications. Multivariate logistic regression analysis however showed that only age and type of pancreatic resection (PD) were significant. CONCLUSION This ASGS-based study benchmarked postoperative morbidity after pancreatic resection for trauma. The detailed outcome analysis provided may serve as a reference for future institutional comparisons. PMID:28396721

  6. TU-G-BRA-06: PET-Based Treatment Response Assessement for Neoadjuvent Chemoradiation for Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Dalah, E; Tai, A; Oshima, K

    Purpose: To address the limitations of the conventional response evaluation criteria in solid tumors (RECIST), and validate PET response criteria in solid tumors (PERCIST1.0). We analyze the relationship between the pathological treatment response (PTR) and PERCIST1.0 for patients treated with neoadjuvent chemoradiation (nCR) for pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Methods: The pre- and post-nCR CT and PET data for a total of 8 patients with resectable, or borderline resectable pancreatic head adenocarcinoma treated with nCR were retrospectively analyzed. These data were compared with the PTR which were graded according to tumor cell destruction (cellularity), with Grade1, 2 or 3 (G1, G2 or G3)more » for good, moderate, and poor responses, respectively. RECIST-based PET (RECISTPET), and PERCIST1.0 were defined using lean body mass normalized SUV (nSUVlb). RECIST-based CT (RECISTCT) was defined by contouring the whole pancreas head (CTPH). Pre- and post-nSUVlb and SUVbw, PERCIST 1.0, were correlated with PTR using Pearson’s correlation coefficient test. Results: The average mean and SD in nSUVlb for all 8 patients analyzed were lower in post-nCR (1.35±0.34) compared to those at pre-nCR (1.38±0.20). Using PERCIST1.0, 5/8 patients showed stable metabolic disease (SMD), 2/8 partial metabolic response (PMR), and 1/8 progressive metabolic disease (PMD). Using RECISTPET 4/8 showed stable disease (STD), 4/8 partial response (PR), whereas 8/8 showed stable disease (STD) using RECISTCT. PTR were correlated with PERCIST1.0 (R=0.3780/P=0.6071). Pathological tumor size was correlated with RECISTCT (R=0.0727/P=0.8679), and RECISTPET, R=−0.3333/P=0.3798. Conclusion: Chemoradiation treatment response assessment based on metabolic tumor activities using PRECIST1.0 and RECISTPET appears to provide better agreement with pathological assessment as compared to the conventional CT-based assessment using RECISTCT. The integration of these additional radiographic metrics in assessing

  7. Enteric hyperoxaluria in chronic pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Demoulin, Nathalie; Issa, Zaina; Crott, Ralph; Morelle, Johann; Danse, Etienne; Wallemacq, Pierre; Jadoul, Michel; Deprez, Pierre H

    2017-05-01

    Chronic pancreatitis may lead to steatorrhea, enteric hyperoxaluria, and kidney damage. However, the prevalence and determinants of hyperoxaluria in chronic pancreatitis patients as well as its association with renal function decline have not been investigated.We performed an observational study. Urine oxalate to creatinine ratio was assessed on 2 independent random urine samples in consecutive adult patients with chronic pancreatitis followed at the outpatient clinic from March 1 to October 31, 2012. Baseline characteristics and annual estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) change during follow-up were compared between patients with hyper- and normo-oxaluria.A total of 48 patients with chronic pancreatitis were included. The etiology of the disease was toxic (52%), idiopathic (27%), obstructive (11%), autoimmune (6%), or genetic (4%). Hyperoxaluria (defined as urine oxalate to creatinine ratio >32 mg/g) was found in 23% of patients. Multivariate regression analysis identified clinical steatorrhea, high fecal acid steatocrit, and pancreatic atrophy as independent predictors of hyperoxaluria. Taken together, a combination of clinical steatorrhea, steatocrit level >31%, and pancreatic atrophy was associated with a positive predictive value of 100% for hyperoxaluria. On the contrary, none of the patients with a fecal elastase-1 level >100 μg/g had hyperoxaluria. Longitudinal evolution of eGFR was available in 71% of the patients, with a mean follow-up of 904 days. After adjustment for established determinants of renal function decline (gender, diabetes, bicarbonate level, baseline eGFR, and proteinuria), a urine oxalate to creatinine ratio >32 mg/g was associated with a higher risk of eGFR decline.Hyperoxaluria is highly prevalent in patients with chronic pancreatitis and associated with faster decline in renal function. A high urine oxalate to creatinine ratio in patients with chronic pancreatitis is best predicted by clinical steatorrhea, a high acid

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