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Sample records for pancreatic pseudocyst filled

  1. Traumatic pancreatic pseudocysts.

    PubMed

    Popoola, D; Lou, M A; Sims, E H

    1983-05-01

    At the Martin Luther King, Jr, General Hospital in Los Angeles, during the period from June 1972 to April 1981, seven patients underwent surgery for traumatic pancreatic pseudocysts. The overall average age was 28 and the average hospital stay was 31 days. Ultrasound was the most useful test for diagnosis and follow-up. Preoperatively, serum amylases were not consistently elevated. Overall recurrences and complications totaled 57 percent. There were no deaths. The authors consider a large cystogastrostomy the treatment of choice for mature cysts that are satisfactorily adherent to the stomach. The second preference is a Roux-en-Y cystojejunostomy. External drainage was employed for acute cysts that required drainage. A distal pancreatectomy was performed for patients with small pancreatic tail pseudocysts. Patients who underwent acute drainage were usually drained externally and had a poorer outcome than patients who were operated on later with internal drainage. When compared with another group of 15 alcoholic patients who were operated on for pancreatic pseudocysts, patients with traumatic pseudocysts had a poorer outcome.

  2. [Mediastinal Pancreatic Pseudocyst with Pancreatic Pleural Effusion].

    PubMed

    Sasajima, Motoko; Kawai, Hideki; Suzuki, Yohei; Saito, Yoshitaro; Eto, Takeshi

    2017-06-01

    A 72-year-old man with chronic alcohol related pancreatitis was admitted for dyspnea and pain at the upper body. Chest X-ray showed right massive pleural effusion. Chest and abdominal contrast enhanced thin slice computed tomography revealed the route from the pancreatic head reaching the right thoracic cavity via the esophagus hiatus and the communication between the cystic lesion and main pancreatic duct. We drained the pleural effusion that showed abnormally high amylase activity. We diagnosed his illness as mediastinal pancreatic pseudocyst with pancreatic pleural effusion. Endoscopic Nasopancreatic Drainage catheter was placed in the main pancreatic duct, and the pleural effusion disappeared.

  3. [Pancreatic pseudocyst. Case report and literature review].

    PubMed

    Guardado-Bermúdez, Fernando; Azuara-Turrubiates, Armando Javier; Ardisson-Zamora, Fernando Josafat; Guerrero-Silva, Luis Alberto; Villanueva-Rodríguez, Estefanie; Gómez-de Leija, Nubia Alondra

    2014-01-01

    The most frequent etiology of pancreatic pseudocyst is acute pancreatitis and exacerbations of chronic pancreatitis, presenting spontaneous resolution in 50% of the cases. Treatment is indicated in symptomatic or complicated persistent pseudocysts. The OBJECTIVE of this article is to present a case and management options of pancreatic pseudocyst defined as a collection of fluid in the omental bursa. We present the case of a 59-year-old female patient with a history of laparoscopic cholecystectomy and necrotizing pancreatitis. She presented abdominal pain, early satiety, and nausea during the previous 2 months. Presence of pancreatic pseudocysts of 92 and 62 mm was demonstrated by computed tomography. The patient was submitted to a laparoscopic cyst-gastric anastomosis. Laparoscopic cyst-gastric anastomosis is the ideal treatment for pancreatic pseudocyst management because it offers continuous drainage, low rate of recurrence and few complications, exceeding the RESULTS of endoscopic management and imaging-guided drainage along with the benefits of a minimally invasive procedure.

  4. Pseudocyst in the pancreatic tail associated with chronic pancreatitis successfully treated by transpapillary cyst drainage.

    PubMed

    Naitoh, Itaru; Ohara, Hirotaka; Okayama, Yasutaka; Nakazawa, Takahiro; Ando, Tomoaki; Hayashi, Kazuki; Okumura, Fumihiro; Kitajima, Yasuhiro; Ban, Tessin; Miyabe, Katsuyuki; Ueno, Koichiro; Joh, Takashi; Sano, Hitoshi

    2008-09-01

    We report a 50-year-old male with pseudocysts in the pancreatic tail associated with chronic pancreatitis successfully treated by transpapillary cyst drainage. He had previously undergone ultrasonography-guided percutaneous cyst drainage for a pancreatic pseudocyst in our hospital. He was readmitted due to abdominal pain and fever. Computed tomography showed recurrence of a pseudocyst in the pancreatic tail measuring 5 cm in diameter. Since conservative treatment failed, endoscopic retrograde pancreatography was performed. There was communication between the pseudocyst and the main pancreatic duct, and pancreatic duct stenosis proximal to the pseudocyst. First, transpapillary pancreatic duct drainage was performed using a plastic stent, but the pseudocyst did not decrease in size and became infected. After removal of the stent, a pigtail type nasocystic catheter was placed in the pseudocyst via the pancreatic duct. The pseudocyst infection immediately disappeared, and the pseudocyst gradually decreased and disappeared. After removal of the nasocystic catheter, no recurrence was observed. As transpapillary drainage of pancreatic pseudocyst, cyst drainage and pancreatic duct drainage have been reported. In our patient with pseudocyst in the pancreatic tail, duct drainage was ineffective and the pseudocyst was infected, whereas cyst drainage was very effective. We considered that cyst drainage by a nasocystic catheter was the first-line therapy as the transpapillary drainage of the pancreatic pseudocyst.

  5. Pseudocyst in the Pancreatic Tail Associated with Chronic Pancreatitis Successfully Treated by Transpapillary Cyst Drainage

    PubMed Central

    Naitoh, Itaru; Ohara, Hirotaka; Okayama, Yasutaka; Nakazawa, Takahiro; Ando, Tomoaki; Hayashi, Kazuki; Okumura, Fumihiro; Kitajima, Yasuhiro; Ban, Tessin; Miyabe, Katsuyuki; Ueno, Koichiro; Joh, Takashi; Sano, Hitoshi

    2008-01-01

    We report a 50-year-old male with pseudocysts in the pancreatic tail associated with chronic pancreatitis successfully treated by transpapillary cyst drainage. He had previously undergone ultrasonography-guided percutaneous cyst drainage for a pancreatic pseudocyst in our hospital. He was readmitted due to abdominal pain and fever. Computed tomography showed recurrence of a pseudocyst in the pancreatic tail measuring 5 cm in diameter. Since conservative treatment failed, endoscopic retrograde pancreatography was performed. There was communication between the pseudocyst and the main pancreatic duct, and pancreatic duct stenosis proximal to the pseudocyst. First, transpapillary pancreatic duct drainage was performed using a plastic stent, but the pseudocyst did not decrease in size and became infected. After removal of the stent, a pigtail type nasocystic catheter was placed in the pseudocyst via the pancreatic duct. The pseudocyst infection immediately disappeared, and the pseudocyst gradually decreased and disappeared. After removal of the nasocystic catheter, no recurrence was observed. As transpapillary drainage of pancreatic pseudocyst, cyst drainage and pancreatic duct drainage have been reported. In our patient with pseudocyst in the pancreatic tail, duct drainage was ineffective and the pseudocyst was infected, whereas cyst drainage was very effective. We considered that cyst drainage by a nasocystic catheter was the first-line therapy as the transpapillary drainage of the pancreatic pseudocyst. PMID:21897788

  6. Chronic pancreatitis with multiple pseudocysts and pancreatic panniculitis: A case report.

    PubMed

    Gu, Yuqing; Qian, Zhuyin

    2018-06-01

    Pancreatic pseudocyst can present single or multiple, inside or outside the pancreas. Pancreatic panniculitis is a rare skin lesion in pancreatic disease patients. The purpose of this study is to report a case of chronic pancreatitis coexisting with multiple pseudocysts and pancreatic panniculitis. A 46-year-old man with chronic pancreatitis presented multiple small cystic lesions inside the head of the pancreas and two large cystic lesions adjacent to the tail of the pancreas. The patient also developed subcutaneous nodules involving upper and lower limbs, hands, and lower abdomen bilaterally. The patient was diagnosed with pancreatic pseudocyst and pancreatic panniculitis resulted from chronic pancreatitis. Bile duct stent and pancreatic duct stent placement was performed endoscopicly. Panniculitis faded three weeks later and the pancreatic pseudocysts disappeared six weeks later. Clinicians should be aware of the manifestation of multiple pancreatic pseudocyst and pancreatic panniculitis, and endoscopic transpapillary drainage may be a effective way in this scenario.

  7. Endoscopic drainage for pancreatic pseudocyst in children.

    PubMed

    Patty, I; Kalaoui, M; Al-Shamali, M; Al-Hassan, F; Al-Naqeeb, B

    2001-03-01

    The authors report here the results of endoscopic cystogastrostomy performed on 3 children aged 11, 3, and 2.5 years with nonresolving pancreatic pseudocyst (PP) of 12, 9.5, and 7 cm in diameter. The etiology of PP was abdominal trauma in 2 and idiopathic acute pancreatitis in 1 case. Ultrasound and computed tomography scans confirmed the diagnosis and suitability for gastric drainage. After the puncture of cyst, a double pig-tail stent was placed for the permanent drainage of cystogastrostomy. Complete regression was confirmed by follow-up ultrasonography at 8, 6, and 7 weeks, respectively. There were no procedure-related complications, nor was there a recurrence of cyst during the 2 years of follow-up. This report suggests that children with nonresolving PP, that are anatomically accessible, can be treated successfully and safely by endoscopic drainage.

  8. Risk factors and nomogram for pancreatic pseudocysts in chronic pancreatitis: A cohort of 1998 patients.

    PubMed

    Hao, Lu; Pan, Jun; Wang, Dan; Bi, Ya-Wei; Ji, Jun-Tao; Xin, Lei; Liao, Zhuan; Du, Ting-Ting; Lin, Jin-Huan; Zhang, Di; Zeng, Xiang-Peng; Ye, Bo; Zou, Wen-Bin; Chen, Hui; Xie, Ting; Li, Bai-Rong; Zheng, Zhao-Hong; Hu, Liang-Hao; Li, Zhao-Shen

    2017-07-01

    Pancreatic pseudocyst is a common complication of chronic pancreatitis. The identification of risk factors and development of a nomogram for pancreatic pseudocysts in chronic pancreatitis patients may contribute to the early diagnosis and intervention of pancreatic pseudocysts. Patients with chronic pancreatitis admitted to our center from January 2000 to December 2013 were enrolled. Cumulative rates of pancreatic pseudocysts after the onset of chronic pancreatitis and after the diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis were calculated. Patients were randomly assigned, in a 2:1 ratio, to the training and validation cohort. Based on the training cohort, risk factors were identified through Cox proportional hazards regression model, and nomogram was developed. Internal and external validations were performed based on the training and validation cohort, respectively. With a total of 1998 patients, pancreatic pseudocysts were detected in 228 (11.41%) patients. Age at the onset of chronic pancreatitis, smoking, and severe acute pancreatitis were identified risk factors for pancreatic pseudocysts development while steatorrhea and pancreatic stones were protective factors. Incorporating these five factors, the nomogram achieved good concordance indexes of 0.735 and 0.628 in the training and validation cohorts, respectively, with well-fitted calibration curves. The nomogram achieved an individualized prediction of pancreatic pseudocysts development in chronic pancreatitis. It may help the early diagnosis and management of pancreatic pseudocysts. © 2017 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  9. [Pancreatic pseudocyst in children: what is the best therapeutic approach?].

    PubMed

    Nouira, F; Ben Ahmed, Y; Sarrai, N; Ghorbel, S; Jlidi, S; Chaouachi, B

    2011-11-01

    Pancreatic pseudocyst is an uncommon disorder in children and the majority of reported cases are secondary to trauma. Treatment options range from medical management to different forms of drainage procedure. The aim of this study was to discuss therapeutic strategies. The authors report herein pancreatic pseudocyst in four children aged 7, 9, 12, and 13 years with non-resolving pancreatic pseudocyst over a 2-year period from January 2006 to July 2008. The etiology of pancreatic pseudocyst was abdominal trauma in two cases and acute pancreatitis in two cases. Ultrasound and computed tomography scans confirmed the diagnosis. Two patients had endoscopic drainage. There were no procedure-related complications, nor was there a recurrence of the cyst. In one case, the pancreatic pseudocyst resolved spontaneously. This report suggests that children with non-spontaneously resolving pancreatic pseudocyst can be treated successfully and safely with endoscopic drainage. Surgical treatment remains an important alternative in the therapeutic armamentarium of this affection. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Endoscopic management of pancreatic pseudocysts at atypical locations.

    PubMed

    Bhasin, Deepak Kumar; Rana, Surinder Singh; Nanda, Mohit; Chandail, Vijant Singh; Masoodi, Ibrahim; Kang, Mandeep; Kalra, Navin; Sinha, Saroj Kant; Nagi, Birinder; Singh, Kartar

    2010-05-01

    There is paucity of data on endoscopic management of pseudocysts at atypical locations. We evaluated the efficacy of endoscopic transpapillary nasopancreatic drain (NPD) placement in the management of pseudocysts of pancreas at atypical locations. Eleven patients with pseudocysts at atypical locations were treated with attempted endoscopic transpapillary nasopancreatic drainage. On endoscopic retrograde pancreatography (ERP), a 5-F NPD was placed across/near the site of duct disruption. Three patients each had mediastinal, intrahepatic, and intra/perisplenic pseudocysts and one patient each had renal and pelvic pseudocyst. Nine patients had chronic pancreatitis whereas two patients had acute pancreatitis. The size of the pseudocysts ranged from 2 to 15 cm. On ERP, the site of ductal disruption was in the body of pancreas in five patients (45.4%), and tail of pancreas in six patients (54.6%). All the patients had partial disruption of pancreatic duct. The NPD was successfully placed across the disruption in 10 of the 11 patients (90.9%) and pseudocysts resolved in 4-8 weeks. One of the patients developed fever, 5 days after the procedure, which was successfully treated by intravenous antibiotics. In another patient, NPD became blocked 12 days after the procedure and was successfully opened by aspiration. The NPD slipped out in one of the patient with splenic pseudocyst and was replaced with a stent. There was no recurrence of symptoms or pseudocysts during follow-up of 3-70 months. Pancreatic pseudocysts at atypical locations with ductal communication and partial ductal disruption that is bridged by NPD can also be effectively treated with endoscopic transpapillary NPD placement.

  11. Black pleural effusion due to pancreatic pseudocyst: A case report.

    PubMed

    Guo, Feng; Wu, Junli; Peng, Yunpeng; Tu, Min; Xiao, Bin; Dai, Cuncai; Jiang, Kuirong; Gao, Wentao; Li, Qiang; Wei, Jishu; Chen, Jianmin; Xi, Chunhua; Lu, Zipeng; Miao, Yi

    2017-12-01

    Black pleural effusion (BPE) is an extremely uncommon type of pleural fluid, which can be due to infection, primary or metastatic malignancy, and hemorrhage. As reported in previous studies, BPE is also observed in some patients with pancreatic pseudocyst. We herein reported a case of a 14-year-old female patient who was admitted to our center with a history of cough for 1 and a half months and right chest pain for 1 month. Before this, she was consecutively hospitalized in 3 different hospitals due to the same symptoms. However, the previous treatments were ineffective due to the lack of a definitive diagnosis. Laboratory examination of the pleural effusion showed BPE with a high amylase concentration. Chest x-ray and computed tomography (CT) showed massive pleural effusion, more prominent in the right chest. CT and MRCP of the abdomen showed a cystic lesion located in the tail of the pancreas, which entered the chest cavity via an esophageal hiatal hernia. DIAGNOSES:: pancreatic pseudocyst. After confirming that the tumor was a pancreatic pseudocyst by intraoperative biopsy, internal drainage to the jejunum was performed. The postoperative recovery was rapid and without complications, and the final discharge diagnosis was idiopathic pancreatic pseudocyst (without history of pancreatitis or pancreatic injuries) with BPE of the right chest. This case demonstrates that massive BPE could present as a rare complication of pancreatic pseudocyst, and surgery is a potential treatment for such patients. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Varicocoele caused by a pancreatic pseudocyst.

    PubMed Central

    Dixon, J M; Armstrong, C P; Eremin, O

    1983-01-01

    Pseudocysts of the pancreas, when large, can compress adjacent structures giving rise to a series of clinical symptoms and signs. We present a patient whose pseudocyst compressed the left renal and testicular veins, resulting in a left sided varicocoele. We can find no evidence of such a complication having been previously reported. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:6840618

  13. Endoscopic drainage and cystoduodedonstomy in a child with pancreatic pseudocyst.

    PubMed

    Ateş, Ufuk; Küçük, Gönül; Çınar, Kubilay; Bahadır, Berktuğ; Bektaş, Mehmet; Göllü, Gülnur; Bingöl Koloğlu, Meltem

    2017-11-01

    An 11-year-old morbidly obese boy was diagnosed with pancreatic pseudocyst. Following fine needle aspiration, the cyst recurred in 1-month follow-up. Therefore, endoscopic drainage and cystoduodenostomy was performed following endosonography. Control ultrasonography (USG) revealed a completely shrunken cyst. During the 3 years of follow-up, the patient was asymptomatic with no evidence of cyst on computerized tomography scans. Endoscopic drainage and cystoduodenostomy is a minimally invasive, effective, and safe approach in the management of pancreatic pseudocysts in children.

  14. Treatment of retrogastric pancreatic pseudocysts by laparoscopic transgastric cystogastrostomy.

    PubMed

    Wu, Tian-Ming; Jin, Zhong-Kui; He, Qiang; Zhao, Xin; Kou, Jian-Tao; Fan, Hua

    2017-10-01

    This paper discusses variations of laparoscopic transgastric cystogastrostomy in management of retrogastric pancreatic pseudocysts for 8 patients with symptom or pseudocysts (larger than 6 cm) companied with clinical manifestations. Using a Harmonic scalpel, two 3-5-cm incisions were made in the anterior and posterior gastric wall respectively. In the last step, the anterior gastrotomy was closed with an Endo-GIA stapler. All cases were successfully treated without large blood loss and without conversion to open surgery. The mean operative time was 114.29±19.24 min, blood loss was 157.14±78.70 mL, and mean hospital stay was 8.29±2.98 days. Gastric fistula occurred in one case on the postoperative day 7, and closed 1 month later. No bleeding was seen in all patients during the perioperative follow-up period. CT scans, given one month after the surgeries, displayed that the pancreatic pseudocysts disappeared or decreased in size, and ultrasounds showed no fluid or food residue in stomas at the third and fifth month following surgery. No patient experienced a recurrence during the follow-up period. Transgastric laparoscopic cystogastrostomy is a minimally invasive surgical procedure with a high rate of success and a low rate of recurrence, accompanied by rapid recovery. It is easy to master, safe to perform and may be the preferred option to treat retrogastric pancreatic pseudocysts.

  15. Fatal acute pancreatitis complicated by pancreatic pseudocysts in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Cairoli, Ernesto; Pérez, Gerardo; Briva, Arturo; Cancela, Mario; Alonso, Juan

    2010-03-01

    Pancreatitis is a relatively rare but severe manifestation in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients. We report a case of a 39-year-old woman with previous SLE diagnose treated with prednisone and mycophenolate mofetil who developed an acute pancreatitis complicated by pancreatic pseudocysts within the context of a severe lupus flare. Elevated serum amylase and computerized tomography confirmed the diagnosis and mechanical obstruction or toxic-metabolic etiologies were ruled out. In the present case, we opted for the clinical surveillance of pancreatic pseudocyst and not perform invasive medical procedures to drainage. A steroid therapy was started in order to achieve SLE and pancreatitis remission, however, it was unable to avoid the development of multiorgan failure and patient died a few days after diagnosis was made.

  16. [Delayed complications after pancreatic surgery: Pancreatic insufficiency, malabsorption syndrome, pancreoprivic diabetes mellitus and pseudocysts].

    PubMed

    Nitsche, U; Siveke, J; Friess, H; Kleeff, J

    2015-06-01

    Benign and malignant pathologies of the pancreas can result in a relevant chronic disease burden. This is aggravated by morbidities resulting from surgical resections as well as from progression of the underlying condition. The aim was to summarize the current evidence regarding epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment of endocrine and exocrine pancreatic insufficiency, as well as of pancreatic pseudocysts. A selective literature search was performed and a summary of the currently available data on the surgical sequelae after pancreatic resection is given. Reduction of healthy pancreatic parenchyma down to 10-15 % leads to exocrine insufficiency with malabsorption and gastrointestinal complaints. Orally substituted pancreatic enzymes are the therapy of choice. Loss of pancreatic islets and/or islet function leads to endocrine insufficiency and pancreoprivic diabetes mellitus. Inflammatory, traumatic and iatrogenic injuries of the pancreas can lead to pancreatic pseudocysts, which require endoscopic, interventional or surgical drainage if symptomatic. Finally, pancreatic surgery harbors the long-term risk of gastrointestinal anastomotic ulcers, bile duct stenosis, portal vein thrombosis and chronic pain syndrome. As the evidence is limited, an interdisciplinary and individually tailored approach for delayed pancreatic morbidity is recommended.

  17. Use of disposable stapler in operative cystogastrostomy for pancreatic pseudocyst.

    PubMed

    Yunoki, Y; Takeuchi, H; Yasui, Y; Tanakaya, K; Konaga, E; Hamazaki, K

    1999-01-01

    Surgical stapling techniques are widely used in gastrointestinal surgery. These procedures are excellent in convenience and safety. We describe here a new practical application of the surgical disposable stapler, Auto Suture Premium Plus CEEA 34 circular stapler, for the operative drainage of a large symptomatic pancreatic pseudocyst. A 68 year-old man underwent an operative cystogastrostomy using this instrument. His post-operative recovery was uneventful. He is free from symptoms, and abdominal tomography shows complete disappearance of the cystic cavity. We believe that this is the first clinical paper that reports on the stapled cystogastrostomy. This instrument is very useful for creating a stapled cystogastrostomy, similar to one created in the standard open approach.

  18. Unique usage of a partially covered metal stent for drainage of a pancreatic pseudocyst via endosonography-guided transcystgastrostomy.

    PubMed

    Nici, Anthony J; Hussain, Syed A; Kim, Sang H; Mehta, Preeti

    2012-05-01

    Pancreatic pseudocysts are frequent complications of pancreatitis episodes. The current therapeutic modalities for drainage of pancreatic pseudocysts include surgical, percutaneous, and endoscopic drainage modalities. Endosonography-assisted endoscopic drainage of these pseudocysts with the placement of multiple plastic or fully covered self-expanding biliary metal stents is becoming more commonly carried out. The present case report discusses the unique and successful drainage of a pancreatic pseudocyst with the placement of a partially covered self-expanding metal stent. © 2012 The Authors. Digestive Endoscopy © 2012 Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society.

  19. Infeasibility of endoscopic transmural drainage due to pancreatic pseudocyst wall calcifications - case report.

    PubMed

    Krajewski, Andrzej; Lech, Gustaw; Makiewicz, Marcin; Kluciński, Andrzej; Wojtasik, Monika; Kozieł, Sławomir; Słodkowski, Maciej

    2017-02-28

    Postinflammatory pancreatic pseudocysts are one of the most common complications of acute pancreatitis. In most cases, pseudocysts self-absorb in the course of treatment of pancreatitis. In some patients, pancreatic pseudocysts are symptomatic and cause pain, problems with gastrointestinal transit, and other complications. In such cases, drainage or resection should be performed. Among the invasive methods, mini invasive procedures like endoscopic transmural drainage through the wall of the stomach or duodenum play an important role. For endoscopic transmural drainage, it is necessary that the cyst wall adheres to the stomach or duodenum, making a visible impression. We present a very rare case of infeasibility of endoscopic drainage of a postinflammatory pancreatic pseudocyst, impressing the stomach, due to cyst wall calcifications. A 55-year-old man after acute pancreatitis presented with a 1-year history of epigastric pain and was admitted due to a postinflammatory pseudocyst in the body and tail of pancreas. On admission, blood tests, including CA 19-9 and CEA, were normal. An ultrasound examination revealed a 100-mm pseudocyst in the tail of pancreas, which was confirmed on CT and EUS. Acoustic shadowing caused by cyst wall calcifications made the cyst unavailable to ultrasound assessment and percutaneous drainage. Gastroscopy revealed an impression on the stomach wall from the outside. The patient was scheduled for endoscopic transmural drainage. After insufflation of the stomach, a large mass protruding from the wall was observed. The stomach mucosa was punctured with a cystotome needle knife, and the pancreatic cyst wall was reached. Due to cyst wall calcifications, endoscopic drainage of the cyst was unfeasible. Profuse submucosal bleeding at the puncture site was stopped by placing clips. The patient was scheduled for open surgery, and distal pancreatectomy with splenectomy was performed. The histopathological examination confirmed the initial diagnosis

  20. Transmural endoscopic necrosectomy of infected pancreatic necroses and drainage of infected pseudocysts: a tailored approach.

    PubMed

    Rische, Susanne; Riecken, Bettina; Degenkolb, Johannes; Kayser, Thomas; Caca, Karel

    2013-02-01

    Transmural endoscopic drainage and necrosectomy have become favored treatment modes for infected pancreatic pseudocysts and necroses. In this analysis, we summarize the outcome of 40 patients with complicated course of acute pancreatitis after endoscopic treatment. From January 2006 through May 2011, 40 patients of our department with complicated pancreatitis were included in this retrospective analysis. All patients underwent endosonographic transgastric puncture followed by wire-guided insertion of one or more double pigtail stents. Patients with extensive necroses were treated repeatedly with transgastric necrosectomy. Treatment success was determined by clinical, laboratory, and radiological parameters. Nine patients had interstitial pancreatitis (IP) with pancreatic pseudocysts. Thirty-one patients had necrotizing pancreatitis (NP) with acute pancreatic necroses (n = 4) or walled-off pancreatic necrosis (n = 27). All patients with IP and nine patients with NP had pseudocysts without solid material and underwent transgastric drainage only. In this group major complications occurred in 11.1% and no mortality was observed. Twenty-two NP patients were treated with additional repeated necrosectomy. In patients with localized peripancreatic necroses (n = 10) no need of surgery or mortality was observed, major complications occurred in 10%. In patients with extensive necroses reaching the lower abdomen (n = 12), three needed subsequent surgery and three died. Transgastric endoscopy is an effective minimally invasive procedure even in patients with advanced pancreatic necroses. Complication rate is low particularly in patients with sole pseudocysts or localized necroses. The extent of the fluid collections and necroses is a new predictive parameter for the outcome of the patients.

  1. EUS-guided drainage is more successful in pancreatic pseudocysts compared with abscesses

    PubMed Central

    Sadik, Riadh; Kalaitzakis, Evangelos; Thune, Anders; Hansen, Jan; Jönson, Claes

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To compare the results for endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided drainage of clear fluid pancreatic pseudocysts with the results for abscess drainage. METHODS: All patients referred for endoscopic drainage of a fluid collection were prospectively included. The outcome was recorded. RESULTS: Altogether 26 pseudocysts or abscesses were treated in 25 (6 female) patients. One endoscopist performed the procedures. Non-infected pseudocysts were present in 15 patients and 10 patients had infected fluid collections. The cyst size ranged between 28 cm × 13 cm and 5 cm × 5 cm. The EUS drainage was successful in 94% of the pseudocysts and in 80% of the abscesses (P = 0.04). The complication rate in pseudocysts was 6% and in abscesses was 30% (P = 0.02). Recurrence of a pseudocyst occurred in one patient (4%) after 6 mo; the patient was successfully retreated. CONCLUSION: EUS-guided drainage of pseudocysts is associated with a higher success rate and a lower complication rate compared with abscess drainage. PMID:21274380

  2. Gastroduodenal artery aneurysm - Post traumatic pancreatic pseudocyst drainage - An interesting case.

    PubMed

    Zarin, Mohammad; Ali, Sajid; Majid, Abdul; Jan, ZakaUllah

    2018-01-01

    Pseudoaneurysms of the gastroduodenal artery (GDA) are rare and mostly associated with pancreatitis. However, they can occur as a possible complication following gastric or pancreatic surgery and thus prior recognition and prompt treatment is mandatory (Lee et al., 2009 [1]). We report a case of a ruptured GDA aneurysm in a patient who underwent roux-en-y-cystojejunostomy for traumatic pancreatic pseudocyst and this has rarely been reported in the literature. Our patient presented with melena one month post operatively. CT Angiogram showed pseudoaneurysm of the GDA and the origin of right gastroepiploic artery which was embolised. Our case highlights that GDA aneurysm must be considered in the differential for a patient who presents with melena following drainage of traumatic pancreatic pseudocyst and that it can be managed successfully with angioembolization. A young boy was operated for traumatic pancreatic pseudocyst. One month later, he presented with the complaints of melena. Patient was resuscitated initially and then CT Angiogram was planned that showed pseudo aneurysm of the GDA and the origin of right gastroepiploic artery. The aneurysm was embolised and patient was sent home later on. On two months follow up the patient was doing well and had no episode of melena. GDA aneurysm are rare and should be suspected in a patient with GI hemorrhage after surgery for traumatic pancreatic pseudocyst. The investigation of choice is CT Angiography and endovascular angioembolization is the treatment modality of choice. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Pancreatic mediastinal pseudocyst: report of two cases simulating intrathoracic disease.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, N; Auld, C D; Lawrence, J R; Watson, G D

    1991-10-01

    Mediastinal pseudocysts of the pancreas are extremely rare. Intra-thoracic symptoms such as dysphagia or dyspnoea due to compression or associated pleural effusions are common and urgent decompression by percutaneous or internal drainage is often necessary.

  4. Successful treatment of a pancreatic pseudocyst accompanied by massive hemothorax: a case report.

    PubMed

    Li, Chiao-Ching; Hsu, Chin-Wen; Li, Chiao-Zhu; Kuo, Shyh-Ming; Wu, Yu-Chiuan

    2015-12-29

    It is rare to encounter massive hemothorax as a complication of pancreatic pseudocyst. In addition, as no obvious hypotension and abdominal discomfort were noted, it was difficult to consider gastrointestinal lesion a possibility. A 54-year-old Taiwanese man had tightness on the left side of his chest and shortness of breath for 3 days. He had a history of acute pancreatitis 3 months ago. After history taking and a series of examinations including thoracocentesis and computed tomography of his abdomen and chest, the diagnosis was finally confirmed based on the high amylase levels in his pleural fluid. Treatment with distal pancreatectomy and splenectomy was subsequently successfully performed. Based on our experience, we briefly discuss the currently available treatment options for pancreatic pseudocyst.

  5. A case of transgastric gallbladder puncture as a complication during endoscopic ultrasound-guided drainage of a pancreatic pseudocyst.

    PubMed

    Hikichi, Takuto; Irisawa, Atsushi; Takagi, Tadayuki; Shibukawa, Goro; Wakatsuki, Takeru; Imamura, Hidemichi; Takahashi, Yuta; Sato, Ai; Sato, Masaki; Oyama, Hitoshi; Sato, Naoto; Yamamoto, Go; Mokonuma, Tatsuyuki; Obara, Katsutoshi; Ohira, Hiromasa

    2007-06-01

    A 43-year-old man, a regular drinker, developed a pseudocyst in the pancreatic tail as a result of acutely worsening chronic pancreatitis. Because the pseudocyst, 10 cm in diameter, did not disappear despite conservative treatment, an internal drainage stent was placed transgastrically under endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) guidance. However, cyst infection occurred, and EUS-guided drainage was performed, when the gallbladder was punctured inadvertently. Immediately a nasocystic drain was placed in the gallbladder. Owing to this timely measure, only mild and localized peritonitis developed. Conservative treatment with fasting and an antibiotic was administered, and peritonitis subsided quickly. On the same day, another nasocystic drain was placed for the pancreatic pseudocyst, and it disappeared. As far as we know, this is the first case in which gallbladder puncture was inadvertently performed during EUS-guided drainage of a pancreatic pseudocyst.

  6. [THE STATE OF HEPATIC AND SPLANCHNIC BLOOD FLOW IN VARIOUS TYPES OF COMPLICATED PANCREATIC PSEUDOCYSTS].

    PubMed

    Kryvoruchko, I A; Goncharova, N M; Andreyeshchev, S A; Yavorska, T P

    2015-05-01

    Investigations were conducted in 37 patients, suffering complicated pancreatic pseudocysts. In accordance to data of ultrasound Doppler flowmetry for the blood flow along portal vein, a. hepatis communis, a. mesenterica superior in complicated pancreatic pseudocysts compensatory--adaptive reactions on level of hepatic--spanchnic blood flow are directed towards restriction of the blood inflow through the portal vein system. This is accompanied by the common peripheral vascular resistence raising in basin of a. mesenterica superior, which have depended upon the patients' state severity, caused by reduction of the volume blood flow in a certan vascular collector. The oxygen debt of the liver in these patients is compensated by the volume blood flow enhancement along a. hepatis communis.

  7. Relationship between stent characteristics and treatment outcomes in endoscopic transmural drainage of uncomplicated pancreatic pseudocysts.

    PubMed

    Bang, Ji Young; Wilcox, C Mel; Trevino, Jessica M; Ramesh, Jayapal; Hasan, Muhammad; Hawes, Robert H; Varadarajulu, Shyam

    2014-10-01

    Transmural stents are placed at endoscopy to drain pancreatic fluid collections. This study evaluated the relationship between stent placement and treatment outcomes in patients undergoing endoscopic transmural drainage of uncomplicated pancreatic pseudocysts. This is a retrospective study of all patients who underwent endoscopic drainage of uncomplicated pancreatic pseudocysts over a 10-year period. After dilating the transmural tracts in the range of 8-15 mm, single or multiple, 7 or 10Fr double-pigtail plastic stents were deployed. The main outcome measure was to evaluate the relationship between stent characteristics and the number of endoscopic interventions required to achieve resolution of the pancreatic pseudocyst (treatment success). Of 122 patients, 45 (36.9%) had 10Fr stents of which 30 patients (66.7%) had more than one stent; the remaining 77 (63.1%) patients had 7Fr stents of which 56 (72.7%) had more than one stent. The overall treatment success was 94.3%. Treatment was successful in 102 patients (83.6%) with one intervention; 13 patients (10.7%) required re-intervention for successful drainage and 7 patients (5.7%) failed endoscopic treatment. There was no significant difference in the number of interventions required for treatment success between patients with 7 or 10Fr stents (one intervention required in 87.7 vs. 90.5%, respectively; p = 0.766) and between patients with 1 or >1 stent (one intervention required in 88.9 vs. 88.6%, respectively; p = 0.999). On multiple logistic regression analysis, the stent size (OR 1.54; 95% CI 0.23-10.4) and number (OR 1.15; 95% CI 0.25-5.25) were not associated with the number of interventions required for treatment success when adjusted for pseudocyst size, location, drainage modality, the presence or absence of pancreatic duct stent and luminal compression. There appears to be no relationship between the number of interventions required for treatment success and stent characteristics in patients undergoing

  8. Pancreatic pseudocyst drainage performed with a new prototype forward-viewing linear echoendoscope.

    PubMed

    Fernández de Castro, Cristina; Cañete, Ángel; Sanz de Villalobos, Eduardo; Ferreiro, Reyes; Albillos Martínez, Agustín; Vázquez Sequeiros, Enrique

    2016-10-01

    Interventional endoscopy is a field that continues to grow rapidly. A novel prototype forward-viewing echoendoscope (FV-EUS) has been recently developed in an attempt to overcome some of the limitations of conventional curved linear-array echoendoscopes (OV-EUS). We present a case of a successful endoscopic ultrasound-guided drainage of a pancreatic pseudocyst using a forward-viewing echoendoscope. Although the utilization use of this newly developed echoendoscope has not yet become widespread, its unique characteristics can help to easily perform routine therapeutic procedures and contribute to the expansion of interventional endoscopic utrasoundultrasound.

  9. Can outcome of pancreatic pseudocysts be predicted? Proposal for a new scoring system.

    PubMed

    Şenol, Kazım; Akgül, Özgür; Gündoğdu, Salih Burak; Aydoğan, İhsan; Tez, Mesut; Coşkun, Faruk; Tihan, Deniz Necdet

    2016-03-01

    The spontaneous resolution rate of pancreatic pseudocysts (PPs) is 86%, and the serious complication rate is 3-9%. The aim of the present study was to develop a scoring system that would predict spontaneous resolution of PPs. Medical records of 70 patients were retrospectively reviewed. Two patients were excluded. Demographic data and laboratory measurements were obtained from patient records. Mean age of the 68 patients included was 56.6 years. Female:male ratio was 1.34:1. Causes of pancreatitis were stones (48.5%), alcohol consumption (26.5%), and unknown etiology (25%). Mean size of PP was 71 mm. Pseudocysts disappeared in 32 patients (47.1%). With univariate analysis, serum direct bilirubin level (>0.95 mg/dL), cyst carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) level (>1.5), and cyst diameter (>55 mm) were found to be significantly different between patients with and without spontaneous resolution. In multivariate analysis, these variables were statistically significant. Scores were calculated with points assigned to each variable. Final scores predicted spontaneous resolution in approximately 80% of patients. The scoring system developed to predict resolution of PPs is simple and useful, but requires validation.

  10. Telomerase activity is a useful marker to distinguish malignant pancreatic cystic tumors from benign neoplasms and pseudocysts.

    PubMed

    Yeh, T S; Cheng, A J; Chen, T C; Jan, Y Y; Hwang, T L; Jeng, L B; Chen, M F; Wang, T C

    1999-12-01

    Pancreatic serous cystadenoma, mucinous cystic neoplasms, ductal adenocarcinoma with cystic change, and pseudocysts are a spectrum of pancreatic cystic lesions. Their management strategy and prognosis are extremely diverse. Imaging study, cytology, and analysis of the tumor markers of cyst fluid are not always reliable in differentiation of these disease entities. Fifteen patients with pancreatic cystic neoplasms (including six mucinous cystadenocarcinomas, two mucinous cystic neoplasms with borderline malignancy, two mucinous cystadenomas, and five serous cystadenomas), 4 patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas with cystic change, and 10 patients with pseudocysts were studied. Echo-guided or computed tomography-guided biopsies of pancreatic cystic lesions and their normal counterparts were conducted on all patients prior to operation or other management. The specimens were assayed for telomerase activity by using TRAP (telomere repeat amplification protocol). The level of telomerase activity in each specimen was semiquantitated as strong, moderate, weak, and none. The final diagnoses were made from histopathological examination of surgically resected or biopsied specimens. The efficacy of telomerase activity as a tumor marker to predict malignancy of pancreatic cystic lesions was evaluated. Three of the four pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas with cystic change had strong or moderate telomerase activity; four of the six mucinous cystadenocarcinomas had moderate or weak telomerase activity; one of the two mucinous cystadenomas with borderline malignancy had weak telomerase activity; and none of their normal counterparts had detectable telomerase activity. In contrast, none of the two mucinous cystadenomas, five serous cystadenomas, and 10 pseudocysts had detectable telomerase activity. Based on these results, the sensitivity of telomerase activity for prediction of malignancy or premalignancy of pancreatic cystic lesions was 67%, the specificity was 100

  11. Pancreatic pseudocyst

    MedlinePlus

    ... eds. Goldman-Cecil Medicine . 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 144. Nealon WH. The management ... eds. Current Surgical Therapy . 12th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2017:516-523. Tenner SC, Steinberg WM. Acute ...

  12. Pancreatitis, panniculitis and polyarthritis (PPP-) syndrome caused by post-pancreatitis pseudocyst with mesenteric fistula. Diagnosis and successful surgical treatment. Case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Dieker, Wulf; Derer, Johannes; Henzler, Thomas; Schneider, Alexander; Rückert, Felix; Wilhelm, Torsten J; Krüger, Bernd

    2017-01-01

    Pancreatitis, panniculitis and polyarthritis syndrome is a very rare extra-pancreatic complication of pancreatic diseases. While in most cases this syndrome is caused by acute or chronic pancreatitis, we report a case of a 62-year-old man presenting with extensive intraosseous fat necrosis, polyarthritis and panniculitis caused by a post-pancreatitis pseudocyst with a fistula to the superior mesenteric vein and extremely high blood levels of lipase. This became symptomatic 2.5 years after an episode of acute pancreatitis and as in most cases abdominal symptoms were absent. Treatment by surgical resection of the pancreatic head with the pseudocyst and mesenteric fistula led to complete remission of all symptoms. A review of the literature revealed that all publications are limited to case reports. Most authors hypothesize that an unspecific damage can cause a secretion of pancreatic enzymes to the bloodstream leading to a systemic lipolysis and fat tissue necrosis, especially of subcutaneous tissue, bone marrow, inducing panniculitis, polyarthritis and osteonecrosis. Even if caused by an acute pancreatitis abdominal symptoms are often mild or absent in most cases leading to misdiagnosis and poor prognosis. While symptomatic treatment with NSAR and cortisone showed poor to moderate response, causal treatment can be successful depending on the underlying pancreatic disease. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. A comparison of anterior and posterior approaches for the surgical treatment of pancreatic pseudocyst using laparoscopic cystogastrostomy.

    PubMed

    Barragan, Barnard; Love, Lance; Wachtel, Mitchell; Griswold, John A; Frezza, Eldo E

    2005-12-01

    Laparoscopic treatment of pancreatic pseudocyst allows for definitive drainage with faster recovery. Although many groups have reported their experience with an anterior approach, only a few have done so with a posterior approach. This paper compares the approaches, analyzing their potential benefits and pitfalls. Seven females and one male underwent laparoscopic cystgastrostomy to treat pancreatic pseudocysts. The anterior approach was performed by opening the stomach anteriorly, localizing the pseudocyst ultrasonographically, draining the cyst with a needle and, via the same opening, using a stapler to form a cystgastrostomy. The posterior approach was performed by directly visualizing the posterior gastric wall and the pseudocyst, opening and draining the cyst with a needle, and using a stapler and running sutures for closure. All patients had gallstone pancreatitis. Cystgastrostomy via the anterior approach was used in 4 patients and via the posterior approach in 4 patients. Dense adhesions required one attempted posterior cystgastrostomy to be converted to an anterior approach. The mean age of the anterior group was 38 years (range, 18-58 years) and hospital stay was 6 days (range, 4-8 days): for the posterior group, mean age was 42 years (range, 40-44 years) and length of stay was 3 days (range, 2-4 days). Although both approaches had good results with no complications and short hospital stays, the posterior approach is safer, with a more precise cyst visualization and dissection that permits more tissue to be sent for histopathologic examination. Furthermore, the posterior approach?s larger anastomosis would seem to yield fewer occlusions, which are commonly seen with the anterior approach. The anterior approach is easier to learn, but it requires the opening of the anterior stomach and the use of ultrasound.

  14. Lap-Protector and Circular Stapler Are Useful in Cystogastrostomy for Large Pancreatic Pseudocyst with Severe Infection

    PubMed Central

    Kadowaki, Yoshihiko; Kurokawa, Takefumi; Tamura, Ryuji; Okamoto, Takahiro; Ishido, Nobuhiro; Mori, Takashi

    2010-01-01

    Lap-Protector, which is an abdominal wall sealing device, is usually used for wound protection from implantation of malignant cells or pyogenic fluid. A circular stapler is a common easy-to-use device for anastomosis of the digestive tract. We report the case of an infected pancreatic pseudocyst which was treated by surgical procedure using these useful devices. A 69-year-old man was followed up in our hospital after severe acute pancreatitis. He had undergone drainage surgeries twice for intractable pancreatic abscess followed by severe acute pancreatitis. He was admitted to our hospital complaining of loss of appetite, hiccups, and high fever. Computed tomography of the abdomen revealed an infected pancreatic pseudocyst which compressed the gastric wall. Internal drainage into the stomach was performed using Lap-Protector and circular stapler. The patient recovered uneventfully. Recently many endoscopic or laparoscopic procedures in cystogastrostomy are reported; however, a conventional open surgical approach is also important. This easy method may be useful for operative cystogastrostomy. PMID:20805947

  15. Pancreatic Cysts

    MedlinePlus

    ... enzymes become prematurely active and irritate the pancreas (pancreatitis). Pseudocysts can also result from injury to the ... alcohol use and gallstones are risk factors for pancreatitis, and pancreatitis is a risk factor for pseudocysts. ...

  16. Clinical outcomes of EUS-guided drainage of debris-containing pancreatic pseudocysts: a large multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Yang, Dennis; Amin, Sunil; Gonzalez, Susana; Mullady, Daniel; Edmundowicz, Steven A; DeWitt, John M; Khashab, Mouen A; Wang, Andrew Y; Nagula, Satish; Buscaglia, Jonathan M; Bucobo, Juan Carlos; Wagh, Mihir S; Draganov, Peter V; Stevens, Tyler; Vargo, John J; Khara, Harshit S; Diehl, David L; Keswani, Rajesh N; Komanduri, Srinadh; Yachimski, Patrick S; Prabhu, Anoop; Kwon, Richard S; Watson, Rabindra R; Goodman, Adam J; Benias, Petros; Carr-Locke, David L; DiMaio, Christopher J

    2017-02-01

    Background and study aims  Data on clinical outcomes of endoscopic drainage of debris-free pseudocysts (PDF) versus pseudocysts containing solid debris (PSD) are very limited. The aims of this study were to compare treatment outcomes between patients with PDF vs. PSD undergoing endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided drainage via transmural stents. Patients and methods  Retrospective review of 142 consecutive patients with pseudocysts who underwent EUS-guided transmural drainage (TM) from 2008 to 2014 at 15 academic centers in the United States. Main outcome measures included TM technical success, treatment outcomes (symptomatic and radiologic resolution), need for endoscopic re-intervention at follow-up, and adverse events (AEs). Results  TM was performed in 90 patients with PDF and 52 with PSD. Technical success: PDF 87 (96.7 %) vs. PSD 51 (98.1 %). There was no difference in the rates for endoscopic re-intervention (5.5 % in PDF vs. 11.5 % in PSD; P =  0.33) or AEs (12.2 % in PDF vs. 19.2 % in PSD; P  = 0.33). Median long-term follow-up after stent removal was 297 days (interquartile range [IQR]: 59 - 424 days) for PDF and 326 days (IQR: 180 - 448 days) for PSD ( P  = 0.88). There was a higher rate of short-term radiologic resolution of PDF (45; 66.2 %) vs. PSD (21; 51.2 %) (OR = 0.30; 95 % CI: 0.13 - 0.72; P  = 0.009). There was no difference in long-term symptomatic resolution (PDF: 70.4 % vs. PSD: 66.7 %; P  = 0.72) or radiologic resolution (PDF: 68.9 % vs. PSD: 78.6 %; P  = 0.72) Conclusions  There was no difference in need for endoscopic re-intervention, AEs or long-term treatment outcomes in patients with PDF vs. PSD undergoing EUS-guided drainage with transmural stents. Based on these results, the presence of solid debris in pancreatic fluid collections does not appear to be associated with a poorer outcome.

  17. [Estimation of efficacy of the ozone-quant therapy in prophylaxis and treatment of the purulent-necrotic complications of pancreatic pseudocysts].

    PubMed

    Hazdiuk, P V

    2009-01-01

    There were analyzed the tactics and the results of 132 patients complex surgical treatment , suffering pancreatic gland pseudocysts (PGP). The original method of the ozone-quant therapy (OQTH), using biophysical factors, such as the ozonized solution of sodium chloride and low-intensity laser irradiation, was applied for prophylaxis and treatment of PGP purulent-necrotic complications (PNC). The data obtained, witness about efficacy of the proposed OQTH method in prophylaxis and treatment of PGP PNC.

  18. Filling defects in the pancreatic duct on endoscopic retrograde pancreatography.

    PubMed

    Taylor, A J; Carmody, T J; Schmalz, M J; Wiedmeyer, D A; Stewart, E T

    1992-12-01

    Filling defects in the pancreatic duct are a frequent finding during endoscopic retrograde pancreatography (ERP) and have a variety of causes. Some filling defects may be artifactual or related to technical factors and, once their origin is recognized, can be disregarded. Others may be due to acute changes of pancreatitis and should prompt more careful injection of contrast material into the duct. Intraluminal masses may represent calculi or a neoplasm, either of which may require surgery or endoscopic intervention. The exact nature of these filling defects may not be apparent on radiographs, and other studies may be needed. This article reviews our approach to the evaluation of filling defects in the pancreatic duct.

  19. Late migration of a metal stent after EUS-drainage of a pancreatic pseudocyst abscess.

    PubMed

    Maldonado Pérez, Belén; Guerra Veloz, María Fernanda; Romero Castro, Rafael

    2018-04-01

    Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided drainage of pancreatic collections has replaced surgery as the first line of treatment due its accuracy and safety profile. A higher success rate and fewer adverse events has been observed using fully covered metal stent for the drainage. However, complications of EUS-guided drainage can appear. We present a case of late migration of the stent.

  20. One-step endosonography-guided drainage of a pancreatic pseudocyst: a new technique of stent delivery through the echo endoscope.

    PubMed

    Vilmann, P; Hancke, S; Pless, T; Schell-Hincke, J D; Henriksen, F W

    1998-10-01

    We report here the first case of a one-step endosonography(EUS)-guided pseudocyst drainage. A prototype large channel curved array echo endoscope (Pentax FG-38 UX) and a prototype delivery system for placement of an endoprosthesis was used for the procedure. The delivery system (GIP MedicinTechnik GmbH/Medi-Globe Corporation) consists of a handle part with a piston, a metal ring sheath, a plastic catheter with a diathermy needle and a double pigtail endoprosthesis (8.5 Fr). When mounted on the endoscope the endoprosthesis can be advanced out of the distal end of the endoscope. The introduction of the stent as well as the stent release can be monitored entirely by ultrasound. The procedure was tested in a 76-year-old woman with a pseudocyst measuring 60 mm in diameter located in the tail of the pancreas. The procedure was well tolerated by the patient, and there were no procedural complications. The advantage of a large channel echo endoscope and our new prototype delivery system is that the endoprosthesis can be inserted in to a pancreatic cyst guided exclusively by EUS without exchange of endoscopes, catheters or guide wires. Further studies are warranted.

  1. Laparoscopic pancreatic cystogastrostomy.

    PubMed

    Obermeyer, Robert J; Fisher, William E; Salameh, Jihad R; Jeyapalan, Manjula; Sweeney, John F; Brunicardi, F Charles

    2003-08-01

    The purpose of the review was to evaluate the feasibility and outcome of laparoscopic pancreatic cystogastrostomy for operative drainage of symptomatic pancreatic pseudocysts. A retrospective review of all patients who underwent laparoscopic pancreatic cystogastrostomy between June 1997 and July 2001 was performed. Data regarding etiology of pancreatitis, size of pseudocyst, operative time, complications, and pseudocyst recurrence were collected and reported as median values with ranges. Laparoscopic pancreatic cystogastrostomy was attempted in 6 patients. Pseudocyst etiology included gallstone pancreatitis (3), alcohol-induced pancreatitis (2), and post-ERCP pancreatitis (1). The cystogastrostomy was successfully performed laparoscopically in 5 of 6 patients. However, the procedure was converted to open after creation of the cystgastrostomy in 1 of these patients. There were no complications in the cases completed laparoscopically and no deaths in the entire group. No pseudocyst recurrences were observed with a median followup of 44 months (range 4-59 months). Laparoscopic pancreatic cystgastrostomy is a feasible surgical treatment of pancreatic pseudocysts with a resultant low pseudocyst recurrence rate, length of stay, and low morbidity and mortality.

  2. Examine the patient not the hernia: identification of an asymptomatic giant primary retroperitoneal pseudocyst. A case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Karim, Lawen; Larkin, David; Sadat, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    We present the case of a 70-year-old man with a giant right-sided retroperitoneal pseudocyst, confirmed histologically after resection to be benign with appearances dissimilar to pancreatic and adrenal tissue. The cyst was noted incidentally on table at the time of laparoscopic surgery. Retroperitoneal pseudocysts most commonly arise from the pancreas and adrenal glands occurring as a result of an inflammatory process. Primary retroperitoneal pseudocysts are a rare entity. This case highlights the importance of examining the patient thoroughly and not focusing on the obvious. The mass was not palpated on initial review prior to listing for surgery, and the patient was asymptomatic from the mass. PMID:27190202

  3. [Hemorrhagic adrenal pseudocyst: case report].

    PubMed

    Basile, G; Buffone, A; Cicciarella, G; di Mari, P; Cirino, E

    2004-01-01

    Adrenal cysts are usually asymptomatic; they are usually identified occasionally during ultrasound or C.T. scans (incidentaloma). Among adrenal cysts the most common types are epithelial cysts and pseudocysts. Intracystic haemorrhage is one of the possible complications of adrenal pseudocysts. We report a case of a young woman with right superior abdominal pain, fever and acute anemia. A C.T. scan showed a 10 cm. mass between the liver and the right kidney. To be sure of the nature of this mass also M.R., urography and C.T.-guided biopsy were carried out. This latter only let us make the final diagnosis of hemorrhagic adrenal pseudocyst. Thereafter, a laparotomic right adrenalectomy was performed, with full recovery of the patient. Adrenal cysts may cause differential diagnostic problems with masses of contiguous organs like kidney, liver and gallbladder. For this reason, ultrasound and C.T. scans may not be sufficient and must be completed by M.R., urography and/or C.T.-guided biopsy. Intracystic hamorrhage, spontaneous or post-traumatic, may cause to the patient acute anemia which, as soon as the diagnosis is confirmed, indicates surgery. The operation usually is a laparotomic adrenalectomy, since the laparoscopic approach is not sufficient to control large masses with active bleeding inside.

  4. Management of pancreatic pseudocysts—A retrospective analysis

    PubMed Central

    Nötzel, Bärbel; Phillip, Veit; Lahmer, Tobias; Schmid, Roland M.; Algül, Hana

    2017-01-01

    Background Pancreatic pseudocysts arise mostly in patients with alcohol induced chronic pancreatitis causing various symptoms and complications. However, data on the optimal management are rare. To address this problem, we analysed patients with pancreatic pseudocysts treated at our clinic retrospectively. Methods We searched our clinical database for the diagnosis pancreatitis from 2004 till 2014, selected patients with pseudocysts larger than 10 mm and entered all relevant information in a database for statistical analysis. Results In total, 129 patients with pancreatic pseudocysts were treated at our institution during the study period. Most patients suffered from alcohol induced chronic pancreatitis (43.4%; 56/129). Pseudocysts were more frequent in female than in male (2:1) and were mainly located in the pancreatic head (47.3%; 61/129). Local complications like obstructive jaundice were associated with the diameter of the cysts (AUC 0.697 in ROC-curve analysis). However, even cysts up to a diameter of 160 mm can regress spontaneously. Besides a lower re-intervention rate in surgically treated patients, endoscopic, percutaneous and surgical drainage are equally effective. Most treatment related complications occur in large pseudocysts located in the pancreatic head. Conclusion Conservative management of large pseudocysts is successful in many patients. Therefore, indication for treatment should be made carefully considering the presence and risk of local complications. Endoscopic and surgical drainage are equally effective. PMID:28877270

  5. Acute pancreatitis in sickle cell crisis.

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, A.; Posner, G.; Marsh, F.; Bellvue, R.; Dosik, H.

    1989-01-01

    A case of acute pancreatitis, complicated by pseudocyst formation, is described in a patient with sickle cell crisis. The differential diagnosis is discussed and the literature reviewed. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:2724361

  6. [External pancreatic fistulas management].

    PubMed

    Stepan, E V; Ermolov, A S; Rogal', M L; Teterin, Yu S

    The main principles of treatment of external postoperative pancreatic fistulas are viewed in the article. Pancreatic trauma was the reason of pancreatic fistula in 38.7% of the cases, operations because of acute pancreatitis - in 25.8%, and pancreatic pseudocyst drainage - in 35.5%. 93 patients recovered after the treatment. Complex conservative treatment of EPF allowed to close fistulas in 74.2% of the patients with normal patency of the main pancreatic duct (MPD). The usage of octreotide 600-900 mcg daily for at least 5 days to decrease pancreatic secretion was an important part of the conservative treatment. Endoscopic papillotomy was performed in patients with major duodenal papilla obstruction and interruption of transporting of pancreatic secretion to duodenum. Stent of the main pancreatic duct was indicated in patients with extended pancreatic duct stenosis to normalize transport of pancreatic secretion to duodenum. Surgical formation of anastomosis between distal part of the main pancreatic duct and gastro-intestinal tract was carried out when it was impossible to fulfill endoscopic stenting of pancreatic duct either because of its interruption and diastasis between its ends, or in the cases of unsuccessful conservative treatment of external pancreatic fistula caused by drainage of pseudocyst.

  7. Endoscopic Therapies for Chronic Pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Adler, Jeffrey M; Gardner, Timothy B

    2017-07-01

    Chronic pancreatitis is a fibroinflammatory disease of the pancreas leading to varying degrees of endocrine and exocrine dysfunction. Treatment options are generally designed to control the pain of chronic pancreatitis, and endoscopic therapy is one of the main treatment modalities. Herein, we describe the endoscopic management of pancreatic duct calculi and strictures, entrapment of the intrapancreatic bile duct, celiac plexus interventions, and drainage of pancreatic pseudocysts.

  8. Pancreatic injury.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Nasim; Vernick, Jerome J

    2009-12-01

    Injury to the pancreas, because of its retroperitoneal location, is a rare occurrence, most commonly seen with penetrating injuries (gun shot or stab wounds). Blunt trauma to the pancreas accounts for only 25% of the cases. Pancreatic injuries are associated with high morbidity and mortality due to accompanying vascular and duodenal injuries. Pancreatic injuries are not always easy to diagnose resulting in life threatening complications. Physical examination as well as serum amylase is not diagnostic following blunt trauma. Computed tomography (CT) scan can delineate the injury or transaction of the pancreas. Endoscopic retrograde pancreaticography (ERCP) is the main diagnostic modality for evaluation of the main pancreatic duct. Unrecognized ductal injury leads to pancreatic pseudocyst, fistula, abscess, and other complications. Management depends upon the severity of the pancreatic injury as well as associated injuries. Damage control surgery in hemodynamic unstable patients reduces morbidity and mortality.

  9. Pancreatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... the hormones insulin and glucagon into the bloodstream. Pancreatitis is inflammation of the pancreas. It happens when digestive enzymes start digesting the pancreas itself. Pancreatitis can be acute or chronic. Either form is ...

  10. Incidence, risk factors and clinical course of pancreatic fluid collections in acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Cui, Mei Lan; Kim, Kook Hyun; Kim, Ho Gak; Han, Jimin; Kim, Hyunsoo; Cho, Kwang Bum; Jung, Min Kyu; Cho, Chang Min; Kim, Tae Nyeun

    2014-05-01

    Acute pancreatitis is an acute inflammatory process of the pancreas with variable involvement of other regional tissues or remote organ systems. Acute fluid collections and pseudocyst formation are the most frequent complications of acute pancreatitis. The aims of this study were to evaluate the incidence, risk factors, and clinical course of pancreatic fluid collections and pseudocyst formation following acute pancreatitis. A prospective multicenter study was conducted in five participating centers with 302 patients diagnosed with acute pancreatitis from January 2011 to July 2012. The incidence of pancreatic fluid collections and pseudocyst was 42.7 and 6.3 %, respectively. Patients with fluid collections were significantly younger, compared to those without fluid collections (51.5 ± 15.9 vs. 60.4 ± 16.5 years, P = 0.000). The proportion of alcoholic etiology (54.3 %) in patients with fluid collections was significantly higher compared to other etiologies (P = 0.000). C-reactive protein (CRP) (48 h) was significantly higher in patients with fluid collections, compared to patients without fluid collections (39.2 ± 77.4 vs. 15.1 ± 36.2 mg/dL, P = 0.016). LDH (48 h) was significantly higher in patients with pseudocyst formation, compared to patients with complete resolution (1,317.6 ± 706.4 vs. 478.7 ± 190.5 IU/L, P = 0.000). Pancreatic fluid collections showed spontaneous resolution in 69.8 % (90/129) and 84.2 % of the pseudocysts disappeared or decreased in size during follow up. Age, CRP (48 h), and alcohol etiology are risk factors for pancreatic fluid collections. LDH (48 h) appears to be a risk factor for pseudocyst formation. Most pseudocysts showed a decrease in size or spontaneous resolution with conservative management.

  11. Chronic pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Kleeff, Jorg; Whitcomb, David C; Shimosegawa, Tooru; Esposito, Irene; Lerch, Markus M; Gress, Thomas; Mayerle, Julia; Drewes, Asbjørn Mohr; Rebours, Vinciane; Akisik, Fatih; Muñoz, J Enrique Domínguez; Neoptolemos, John P

    2017-09-07

    Chronic pancreatitis is defined as a pathological fibro-inflammatory syndrome of the pancreas in individuals with genetic, environmental and/or other risk factors who develop persistent pathological responses to parenchymal injury or stress. Potential causes can include toxic factors (such as alcohol or smoking), metabolic abnormalities, idiopathic mechanisms, genetics, autoimmune responses and obstructive mechanisms. The pathophysiology of chronic pancreatitis is fairly complex and includes acinar cell injury, acinar stress responses, duct dysfunction, persistent or altered inflammation, and/or neuro-immune crosstalk, but these mechanisms are not completely understood. Chronic pancreatitis is characterized by ongoing inflammation of the pancreas that results in progressive loss of the endocrine and exocrine compartment owing to atrophy and/or replacement with fibrotic tissue. Functional consequences include recurrent or constant abdominal pain, diabetes mellitus (endocrine insufficiency) and maldigestion (exocrine insufficiency). Diagnosing early-stage chronic pancreatitis is challenging as changes are subtle, ill-defined and overlap those of other disorders. Later stages are characterized by variable fibrosis and calcification of the pancreatic parenchyma; dilatation, distortion and stricturing of the pancreatic ducts; pseudocysts; intrapancreatic bile duct stricturing; narrowing of the duodenum; and superior mesenteric, portal and/or splenic vein thrombosis. Treatment options comprise medical, radiological, endoscopic and surgical interventions, but evidence-based approaches are limited. This Primer highlights the major progress that has been made in understanding the pathophysiology, presentation, prevalence and management of chronic pancreatitis and its complications.

  12. Imaging of a cat with perirenal pseudocysts.

    PubMed

    Essman, S C; Drost, W T; Hoover, J P; Lemire, T D; Chalman, J A

    2000-01-01

    A 16-year-old, neutered male, domestic short hair cat had abdominal distension and systemic hypertension. Radiography, ultrasonography, excretory urography, and renal scintigraphy were performed to establish the diagnosis and implement appropriate treatment. Bilateral perirenal pseudocysts were confirmed surgically and histopathologically. Following bilateral renal capsulectomy, systemic hypertension decreased and global glomerular filtration rate improved to normal limits. Multiple imaging modalities helped establish the diagnosis and guided implementation of appropriate treatment.

  13. Robotic transgastric cystgastrostomy and pancreatic debridement in the management of pancreatic fluid collections following acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Kirks, Russell C; Sola, Richard; Iannitti, David A; Martinie, John B; Vrochides, Dionisios

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic and peripancreatic fluid collections may develop after severe acute pancreatitis. Organized fluid collections such as pancreatic pseudocyst and walled-off pancreatic necrosis (WOPN) that mature over time may require intervention to treat obstructive or constitutional symptoms related to the size and location of the collection as well as possible infection. Endoscopic, open surgical and minimally invasive techniques are described to treat post-inflammatory pancreatic fluid collections. Surgical intervention may be required to treat collections containing necrotic pancreatic parenchyma or in locations not immediately apposed to the stomach or duodenum. Comprising a blend of the surgical approach and the clinical benefits of minimally invasive surgery, the robot-assisted technique of pancreatic cystgastrostomy with pancreatic debridement is described.

  14. Hereditary chronic pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Rosendahl, Jonas; Bödeker, Hans; Mössner, Joachim; Teich, Niels

    2007-01-01

    Hereditary chronic pancreatitis (HCP) is a very rare form of early onset chronic pancreatitis. With the exception of the young age at diagnosis and a slower progression, the clinical course, morphological features and laboratory findings of HCP do not differ from those of patients with alcoholic chronic pancreatitis. As well, diagnostic criteria and treatment of HCP resemble that of chronic pancreatitis of other causes. The clinical presentation is highly variable and includes chronic abdominal pain, impairment of endocrine and exocrine pancreatic function, nausea and vomiting, maldigestion, diabetes, pseudocysts, bile duct and duodenal obstruction, and rarely pancreatic cancer. Fortunately, most patients have a mild disease. Mutations in the PRSS1 gene, encoding cationic trypsinogen, play a causative role in chronic pancreatitis. It has been shown that the PRSS1 mutations increase autocatalytic conversion of trypsinogen to active trypsin, and thus probably cause premature, intrapancreatic trypsinogen activation disturbing the intrapancreatic balance of proteases and their inhibitors. Other genes, such as the anionic trypsinogen (PRSS2), the serine protease inhibitor, Kazal type 1 (SPINK1) and the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) have been found to be associated with chronic pancreatitis (idiopathic and hereditary) as well. Genetic testing should only be performed in carefully selected patients by direct DNA sequencing and antenatal diagnosis should not be encouraged. Treatment focuses on enzyme and nutritional supplementation, pain management, pancreatic diabetes, and local organ complications, such as pseudocysts, bile duct or duodenal obstruction. The disease course and prognosis of patients with HCP is unpredictable. Pancreatic cancer risk is elevated. Therefore, HCP patients should strongly avoid environmental risk factors for pancreatic cancer. PMID:17204147

  15. Severe acute pancreatitis and pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Robertson, K W; Stewart, I S; Imrie, C W

    2006-01-01

    For most patients with pregnancy-associated pancreatitis there is little maternal survival threat and only occasionally are there foetal deaths. We describe 4 young women with pregnancy-associated severe acute pancreatitis who each had gallstones. Their ages were 17, 18, 20 and 24 years. Each was a tertiary referral to our unit in Glasgow and each pursued a life-threatening course with hospital stays ranging from 37 to 90 days. One patient required pancreatic necrosectomy for infected necrosis, another had percutaneous management of a pancreatic abscess and 2 had cystogastrostomy as treatment for pancreatic pseudocyst. All underwent early endoscopic sphincterotomy and later cholecystectomy. It is important to be aware that pregnancy-associated acute pancreatitis may be severe, posing a survival threat even in the youngest patients. Gallstones, as we reported almost 20 years ago, are the most common aetiological factor in such patients. Copyright (c) 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel and IAP.

  16. A unifying concept: pancreatic ductal anatomy both predicts and determines the major complications resulting from pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Nealon, William H; Bhutani, Manoop; Riall, Taylor S; Raju, Gottumukkala; Ozkan, Orhan; Neilan, Ryan

    2009-05-01

    Precepts about acute pancreatitis, necrotizing pancreatitis, and pancreatic fluid collections or pseudocyst rarely include the impact of pancreatic ductal injuries on their natural course and outcomes. We previously examined and established a system to categorize ductal changes. We sought a unifying concept that may predict course and direct therapies in these complex patients. We use our system categorizing ductal changes in pseudocyst of the pancreas and severe necrotizing pancreatitis (type I, normal duct; type II, duct stricture; type III, duct occlusion or "disconnected duct"; and type IV, chronic pancreatitis). From 1985 to 2006, a policy was implemented of routine imaging (cross-sectional, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, or magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography). Clinical outcomes were measured. Among 563 patients with pseudocyst, 142 resolved spontaneously (87% of type I, 5% of type II, and no type III, and 3% of type IV). Percutaneous drainage was successful in 83% of type I, 49% of type II, and no type III or type IV. Among 174 patients with severe acute pancreatitis percutaneous drainage was successful in 64% of type I, 38% of type II, and no type III. Operative debridement was required in 39% of type I and 83% and 85% of types II and III, respectively. Persistent fistula after debridement occurred in 27%, 54%, and 85% of types I, II, and III ducts, respectively. Late complications correlated with duct injury. Pancreatic ductal changes predict spontaneous resolution, success of nonoperative measures, and direct therapies in pseudocyst. Ductal changes also predict patients with necrotizing pancreatitis who are most likely to have immediate and delayed complications.

  17. Asparaginase-associated pancreatitis in children.

    PubMed

    Raja, Raheel Altaf; Schmiegelow, Kjeld; Frandsen, Thomas Leth

    2012-10-01

    l-asparaginase has been an element in the treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma since the late 1960s and remains an essential component of their combination chemotherapy. Among the major toxicities associated with l-asparaginase therapy are pancreatitis, allergic reactions, thrombotic events, hepatotoxicity and hyperlipidaemia. Acute pancreatitis is one of the most common reasons for stopping treatment with l-asparaginase. Short-term complications of asparaginase-associated pancreatitis include development of pseudocysts and pancreatic necrosis. Long-term complications include chronic pancreatitis and diabetes. The pathophysiology of asparaginase-associated pancreatitis remains to be uncovered. Individual clinical and genetic risk factors have been identified, but they are only weak predictors of pancreatitis. This review explores the definition, possible risk factors, treatment and complications of asparaginase-associated pancreatitis. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. New technique for treating pseudocyst of the auricle.

    PubMed

    Zhu, L X; Wang, X Y

    1990-01-01

    Although pseudocyst of the auricle is a common disease in China, its cause and mechanism are still not clear. Several methods of treatment have been advocated: repeated aspirations combined with physiotherapy, and incision and drainage with contour pressure dressing, magnetotherapy etc. In recent years, a new technique with a drainage tube inserted into the pseudocyst using a guide needle has been used in our hospital in the treatment of this condition. We report 45 cases treated by this method, none of whom had the condition previously.

  19. Management of patients after recovering from acute severe biliary pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Dedemadi, Georgia; Nikolopoulos, Manolis; Kalaitzopoulos, Ioannis; Sgourakis, George

    2016-09-14

    Cholelithiasis is the most common cause of acute pancreatitis, accounting 35%-60% of cases. Around 15%-20% of patients suffer a severe attack with high morbidity and mortality rates. As far as treatment is concerned, the optimum method of late management of patients with severe acute biliary pancreatitis is still contentious and the main question is over the correct timing of every intervention. Patients after recovering from an acute episode of severe biliary pancreatitis can be offered alternative options in their management, including cholecystectomy, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) and sphincterotomy, or no definitive treatment. Delaying cholecystectomy until after resolution of the inflammatory process, usually not earlier than 6 wk after onset of acute pancreatitis, seems to be a safe policy. ERCP and sphincterotomy on index admission prevent recurrent episodes of pancreatitis until cholecystectomy is performed, but if used for definitive treatment, they can be a valuable tool for patients unfit for surgery. Some patients who survive severe biliary pancreatitis may develop pseudocysts or walled-off necrosis. Management of pseudocysts with minimally invasive techniques, if not therapeutic, can be used as a bridge to definitive operative treatment, which includes delayed cholecystectomy and concurrent pseudocyst drainage in some patients. A management algorithm has been developed for patients surviving severe biliary pancreatitis according to the currently published data in the literature.

  20. Conservative treatment of chronic pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Löhr, J-Matthias; Haas, Stephen L; Lindgren, Fredrik; Enochsson, Lars; Hedström, Aleksandra; Swahn, Fredrik; Segersvärd, Ralf; Arnelo, Urban

    2013-01-01

    Chronic pancreatitis is a progressive inflammatory disease giving rise to several complications that need to be treated accordingly. Because pancreatic surgery has significant morbidity and mortality, less invasive therapy seems to be an attractive option. This paper reviews current state-of-the-art strategies to treat chronic pancreatitis without surgery and the current guidelines for the medical therapy of chronic pancreatitis. Endoscopic therapy of complications of chronic pancreatitis such as pain, main pancreatic duct strictures and stones as well as pseudocysts is technically feasible and safe. The long-term outcome, however, is inferior to definitive surgical procedures such as resection or drainage. On the other hand, the medical therapy of pancreatic endocrine and exocrine insufficiency is well established and evidence based. Endoscopic therapy may be an option to bridge for surgery and in children/young adolescents and those unfit for surgery. Pain in chronic pancreatitis as well as treatment of pancreatic exocrine insufficiency follows established guidelines. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. [Acute pancreatitis associated with hypercalcaemia].

    PubMed

    Tun-Abraham, Mauro Enrique; Obregón-Guerrero, Gabriela; Romero-Espinoza, Larry; Valencia-Jiménez, Javier

    2015-01-01

    Hypercalcaemia due to primary hyperparathyroidism is a rare cause of acute pancreatitis, with a reported prevalence of 1.5 to 8%. There is no clear pathophysiological basis, but elevated parathyroid hormone and high serum calcium levels could be responsible for calcium deposit in the pancreatic ducts and activation of pancreatic enzymes, which may be the main risk factor for developing acute pancreatitis. The aim of this report is to describe four cases. Four cases are reported of severe pancreatitis associated with hypercalcaemia secondary to primary hyperparathyroidism; three of them with complications (two pseudocysts and one pancreatic necrosis). Cervical ultrasound, computed tomography, and scintigraphy using 99mTc-Sestambi, studies showed the parathyroid adenoma. Surgical resection was the definitive treatment in all four cases. None of the patients had recurrent acute pancreatitis events during follow-up. Acute pancreatitis secondary to hypercalcaemia of primary hyperparathyroidism is rare; however, when it occurs it is associated with severe pancreatitis. It is suspected in patients with elevated serum calcium and high parathyroid hormone levels. Imaging techniques such as cervical ultrasound, computed tomography, and scintigraphy using 99mTc-Sestambi, should be performed, to confirm clinical suspicion. Surgical resection is the definitive treatment with excellent results. Copyright © 2015 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  2. [Internal pancreatic fistula. Presentation of a new case].

    PubMed

    Pampin, J L; López, A; Rivera, A; VanderEyden, A; Terrón, F

    1989-09-01

    Internal pancreatic fistulas are a well-known complication of chronic pancreatitis and should be added to the classic complications of malabsorption, diabetes, pain and pseudocyst. The fact that it is an infrequent complication (Bradley compiled about 200 reported cases in 1982) motivated us to make this clinical report. The importance of total parenteral nutrition (NPT), which leads to cure in 50% of these patients, and the usefulness of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) are evaluated in the cases in which surgery is contemplated.

  3. Surgical Management of Complications Associated With Percutaneous and/or Endoscopic Management of Pseudocyst of the Pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Nealon, William H.; Walser, Eric

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study the magnitude of complications associated with the nonoperative management of peripancreatic fluid collections and pseudocysts and to assess the surgical management of these complications. These are compared with complications associated with operative management. Summary Background Data: Pancreatic pseudocysts and peripancreatic fluid collections associated with acute pancreatitis have been managed with success using nonoperative techniques for more than a decade. When successful, these techniques have clear advantages compared with operative management. There has, however, been little focus on the magnitude and outcomes after complications sustained by nonoperative management. Our report focuses on these complications and pseudocysts and on the surgical management. We have been struck by the high percentage of patients who sustain significant and at times life-threatening complications related to the nonoperative management of fluid collections. We further define an association between the main pancreatic ductal anatomy and the likelihood of major complications after nonoperative management. Methods: Between 1992 and 2003, all patients admitted to our service with peripancreatic fluid collections or pseudocysts were monitored. We evaluated complications patients managed with percutaneous (PD) or endoscopic drainage (E). Data were collected regarding patient characteristics, need for intensive care unit (ICU) stays, hemorrhage, hypotension, renal failure, and ventilator support. We further focused on the duration of fistula drainage from patients who have had a percutaneous drainage, and we assessed the necessity for urgent or emergent operation. By protocol, all patients had pancreatic ductal anatomy evaluated by means of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) or magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP). Patients with complications of E and PD were compared with 100 consecutive patients who underwent operative

  4. Management of chronic pancreatitis complicated with a bleeding pseudoaneurysm.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Kun-Chun; Chen, Tsung-Hsing; Hsu, Jun-Te

    2014-11-21

    Chronic pancreatitis is an ongoing disease characterized by persistent inflammation of pancreatic tissues. With disease progression, patients with chronic pancreatitis may develop troublesome complications in addition to exocrine and endocrine pancreatic functional loss. Among them, a pseudoaneurysm, mainly induced by digestive enzyme erosion of vessels in proximity to the pancreas, is a rare and life-threatening complication if bleeding of the pseudoaneurysm occurs. At present, no prospective randomized trials have investigated the therapeutic strategy for this rare but critical situation. The role of arterial embolization, the timing of surgical intervention and even surgical procedures are still controversial. In this review, we suggest that dynamic abdominal computed tomography and angiography should be performed first to localize the bleeders and to evaluate the associated complications such as pseudocyst formation, followed by arterial embolization to stop the bleeding and to achieve early stabilization of the patient's condition. With advances and improvements in endoscopic devices and techniques, therapeutic endoscopy for pancreatic pseudocysts is technically feasible, safe and effective. Surgical intervention is recommended for a bleeding pseudoaneurysm in patients with chronic pancreatitis who are in an unstable condition, for those in whom arterial embolization of the bleeding pseudoaneurysm fails, and when endoscopic management of the pseudocyst is unsuccessful. If a bleeding pseudoaneurysm is located over the tail of the pancreas, resection is a preferential procedure, whereas if the lesion is situated over the head or body of the pancreas, relatively conservative surgical procedures are recommended.

  5. New developments in diagnosis and non-surgical treatment of chronic pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Inui, Kazuo; Yoshino, Junji; Miyoshi, Hironao; Yamamoto, Satoshi; Kobayashi, Takashi

    2013-12-01

    Chronic pancreatitis is progressive and irreversible, leading to digestive and absorptive disorders by destruction of the exocrine pancreas and to diabetes mellitus by destruction of the endocrine pancreas. When complications such as pancreatolithiasis and pseudocyst occur, elevated pancreatic ductal pressure exacerbates pain and induces other complications, worsening the patient's general condition. Combined treatment with extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy and endoscopic lithotripsy is a useful, minimally invasive, first-line treatment approach that can preserve pancreatic exocrine function. Pancreatic duct stenosis elevates intraductal pressure and favor both pancreatolithiasis and pseudocyst formation, making effective treatment vitally important. Endoscopic treatment of benign pancreatic duct stenosis stenting frequently decreases pain in chronic pancreatitis. Importantly, stenosis of the main pancreatic duct increases risk of stone recurrence after treatment of pancreatolithiasis. Recently, good results were reported in treating pancreatic duct stricture with a fully covered self-expandable metallic stent, which shows promise for preventing stone recurrence after lithotripsy in patients with pancreatic stricture. Chronic pancreatitis has many complications including pancreatic carcinoma, pancreatic atrophy, and loss of exocrine and endocrine function, as well as frequent recurrence of stones after treatment of pancreatolithiasis. As early treatment of chronic pancreatitis is essential, the new concept of early chronic pancreatitis, including characteristics findings in endoscopic ultrasonograms, is presented. © 2013 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  6. Serial computed tomography scanning in acute pancreatitis: a prospective study.

    PubMed Central

    London, N J; Neoptolemos, J P; Lavelle, J; Bailey, I; James, D

    1989-01-01

    One hundred and two patients with acute pancreatitis had abdominal computed tomography (CT) scans within 72 hours of admission, at one week and at six weeks. Twenty eight attacks were clinically severe, 74 clinically mild. Ninety three (91%) admission scans, 85 (84%) one week scans, and 52 (51%) six week scans were abnormal. The aetiology of the pancreatitis could be inferred from 28 (27%) of admission scans, the CT sign of fatty liver having a sensitivity of 21% and specificity of 100% for alcoholic aetiology. The sensitivity of CT for gall stone aetiology was 34%, specificity 100%. The pancreatic size indices (max anteroposterior measurement of head x max anteroposterior measurement of body) of those patients with severe attacks were significantly greater than those with mild attacks on admission, at one week and at six weeks (p less than 0.004). Fourteen pseudocysts were detected by CT, five (36%) of which were clinically apparent. The pseudocyst size indices (max anteroposterior x max transverse measurement) of the pseudocysts which were clinically apparent were significantly greater than those which were not apparent (p less than 0.01) and only those pseudocysts with a size index greater than or equal to 15 cm2 required treatment. PMID:2651228

  7. Rheumatoid pseudocyst (geode) of the femoral neck without apparent joint involvement.

    PubMed

    Morrey, B F

    1987-05-01

    Typically, rheumatoid cysts are associated with obvious joint involvement and are located in the subchondral portion of the adjacent joint. Giant pseudocysts (geodes) are uncommon and are characteristically associated with extensive joint destruction. The patient described in this report had a giant pseudocyst of the femoral neck but no joint involvement. To the best of my knowledge, this is the first report of such a manifestation of a giant pseudocyst. As such, it posed a somewhat difficult diagnostic problem.

  8. [Massive pleural effusion complicating chronic pancreatitis. Treatment by endoscopic closure of a pancreatic-mediastinal fistula].

    PubMed

    Trudzinski, F C; Rädle, J; Treiber, G; Kramm, T; Sybrecht, G W

    2008-11-01

    A 53-year-old man was admitted because of anuria, dyspnea and a septic temperature. The patients' history included chronic alcoholism, chronic pancreatitis, COPD and a right nephrectomy because of nephrolithiasis. Urosepsis was initially suspected. The patients' clinical condition and nutritional state were severely reduced. Laboratory findings revealed severe systemic inflammation (leucocyte count: 22.4/nl, CRP: 324 mg/l). Computed tomography showed a large left-sided pleural effusion, encapsulated abdominal fluid below the diaphragm and alongside the pancreatic tail. After aspiration of the pleural effusion the diagnosis of an exsudate with elevated concentration of lipase (56,000 U/l) was confirmed. Endoscopic ultrasound showed a 3-4 cm pseudocystic mass originating in the region of the pancreatic tail. The ERP depicted chronic pancreatitis with strictures and destruction of the pancreatic duct. Two fistulae were identified, one proximal to a ductal stricture in the pancreatic head and a second one in the pancreatic tail which corresponded to the reported pseudocyst. The patient was admitted to the ICU with symptoms of impending sepsis. The pleural effusion was treated with CT-guided chest drainage. The initial endoscopic attempt at stent closure of the fistula failed because it was possible to pass through the ductal stricture only with a thin hydrophilic wire and small-lumen catheter. However, injection of fibrin glue into the proximal pancreatic duct over a length of 2 cm obliterated the fistula and the pleural effusion was resolved. Pancreatic-pleural or pancreatic-mediastinal fistula is a rare complication of pancreatitis associated with unilateral pleural effusion. Combined internal endoscopic drainage and external chest drainage is the treatment of choice. After failure of routine endoscopic therapy, endoscopic closure of fistulas using fibrin glue might offer an alternative treatment strategy.

  9. Chronic pancreatitis

    MedlinePlus

    Chronic pancreatitis - chronic; Pancreatitis - chronic - discharge; Pancreatic insufficiency - chronic; Acute pancreatitis - chronic ... abuse over many years. Repeated episodes of acute pancreatitis can lead to chronic pancreatitis. Genetics may be ...

  10. Conservation of pancreatic tissue by combined gastric, biliary, and pancreatic duct drainage for pain from chronic pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Warshaw, A L

    1985-04-01

    In patients with chronic pancreatitis, the sclerosing process of the pancreas may constrict not only the pancreatic duct for also the bile duct and duodenum. This study analyzes the prevalence of these obstructive lesions in 58 consecutive patients with chronic pancreatitis requiring surgery for either pain (57 patients) or for painless jaundice (1 patient). There was significant biliary obstruction in 21, 4 of whom also had symptomatic duodenal obstruction. All 21 patients with biliary and duodenal obstruction were among the 38 with a dilated pancreatic duct suitable for pancreaticojejunostomy (modified Puestow procedure). None of the 20 patients with small duct pancreatitis had biliary or duodenal obstruction. Pseudocysts were distributed evenly between the two groups (9 of 38 patients with a dilated duct versus 4 of 20 patients with small duct pancreatitis). Pancreaticojejunostomy combined with choledochoenterostomy and gastrojejunostomy in appropriately selected patients provided good to excellent long-term (mean 3.6 years) relief of pain in 30 of 36 patients (83 percent). There was no correlation between successful relief of pain and development of pancreatic exocrine or endocrine insufficiency or calcification. Stenosis of the bile duct developed some years subsequent to pancreaticojejunostomy in four patients and required a second operation for choledochoenterostomy in three. Three other patients required secondary pancreatic resections due to failure of the pancreaticojejunostomy to relieve pain. It is often possible to effect excellent relief of symptoms with maximal conservation of remaining pancreatic functions despite sclerotic obstruction of multiple organ systems.

  11. Non-operative management of a grade IV pancreatic injury

    PubMed Central

    Hiremath, Bharati; Hegde, Nishchit

    2014-01-01

    Isolated pancreatic transection with ductal disruption in blunt abdominal trauma is extremely rare. We report the case of a 14-year-old boy who suffered pancreatic transection at the junction of body and head of the pancreas; yet remarkably recovered after initial conservative management. He was periodically examined clinically and underwent regular abdominal ultrasonography. Nearly 6 months later, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography with pancreatic duct stenting, pancreatic sphincterotomy and cystogastrostomy for the pseudocyst diagnosed during the follow-up period was performed. Acute surgical management of pancreatic transection is fraught with high mortality and morbidity. Through this effort, we highlight the successful role of non-operative management of a haemodynamically stable patient with grade IV pancreatic injury, thereby avoiding radical surgery in the acute stage and preserving exocrine and endocrine function. PMID:24788631

  12. Drug induced acute pancreatitis: incidence and severity.

    PubMed Central

    Lankisch, P G; Dröge, M; Gottesleben, F

    1995-01-01

    To determine the incidence and severity of drug induced acute pancreatitis, data from 45 German centres of gastroenterology were evaluated. Among 1613 patients treated for acute pancreatitis in 1993, drug induced acute pancreatitis was diagnosed in 22 patients (incidence 1.4%). Drugs held responsible were azathioprine, mesalazine/sulfasalazine, 2',3'-dideoxyinosine (ddI), oestrogens, frusemide, hydrochlorothiazide, and rifampicin. Pancreatic necrosis not exceeding 33% of the organ was found on ultrasonography or computed tomography, or both, in three patients (14%). Pancreatic pseudocysts did not occur. A decrease of arterial PO2 reflecting respiratory insufficiency, and an increase of serum creatinine, reflecting renal insufficiency as complications of acute pancreatitis were seen in two (9%) and four (18%) patients, respectively. Artificial ventilation was not needed, and dialysis was necessary in only one (5%) case. Two patients (9%) died of AIDS and tuberculosis, respectively; pancreatitis did not seem to have contributed materially to their death. In conclusion, drugs rarely cause acute pancreatitis, and drug induced acute pancreatitis usually runs a benign course. PMID:7489946

  13. Novel modified surgical treatment of auricular pseudocyst using plastic sheet compression.

    PubMed

    Shan, Yamin; Xu, Jing; Cai, Changping; Wang, Shili; Zhang, Hao

    2014-12-01

    To introduce a novel modified surgical procedure of excision of anterior cartilage of the pseudocyst along with plastic sheet compression for the treatment of auricular pseudocyst and ascertain the effect of the surgical modality of this disease. A retrospective study. Medical college hospital. Eighty-seven auricular pseudocyst patients were subjected to excision of the anterior cartilage of the pseudocyst followed by plastic sheet compression from July 2006 to September 2013. The effects of the operation were evaluated. Eighty patients were males and 7 were females. The median age was 52 years old. The lesions of 86 patients were unilateral and only 1 was bilateral. The clinical features presented a hemispheric painless swelling, which was seen on the ventral side of the auricle, usually the scaphoid and triangular fossa. The average major axis of the pseudocyst was 1.7 ± 0.6 cm. The patients underwent excision of anterior cartilage of the pseudocyst along with plastic sheet compression. The average follow-up period was 51.9 ± 19.1 months. No recurrence was observed with this technique, and the appearance of the auricle was cosmetically acceptable. Our novel modified surgical procedure of excision of anterior cartilage of pseudocyst along with plastic sheet compression is an effective surgical management for the auricular pseudocyst. The advantages of a simple technique, a short-term therapeutic period, and no recurrence made the surgical procedure worth recommending as the definitive treatment of auricular pseudocysts. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2014.

  14. Spectrum and outcome of pancreatic trauma.

    PubMed

    Kantharia, Chetan V; Prabhu, R Y; Dalvi, A N; Raut, Abhijit; Bapat, R D; Supe, Avinash N

    2007-01-01

    Pancreatic trauma is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Diagnosis is often difficult and surgery poses a formidable challenge. Data from 17 patients of pancreatic trauma gathered from a prospectively maintained database were analysed and the following parameters were considered: mode of injury, diagnostic modalities, associated injury, grade of pancreatic trauma and management. Pancreatic trauma was graded from I through IV, as per Modified Lucas Classification. The median age was 39 years (range 19-61). The aetiology of pancreatic trauma was blunt abdominal trauma in 14 patients and penetrating injury in 3. Associated bowel injury was present in 4 cases (3 penetrating injury and 1 blunt trauma) and 1 case had associated vascular injury. 5 patients had grade I, 3 had grade II, 7 had grade III and 2 had grade IV pancreatic trauma. Contrast enhanced computed tomography scan was used to diagnose pancreatic trauma in all patients with blunt abdominal injury. Immediate diagnosis could be reached in only 4 (28.5%) patients. 7 patients responded to conservative treatment. Of the 10 patients who underwent surgery, 6 required it for the pancreas and the duodenum. (distal pancreatectomy with splenectomy-3, pylorus preserving pancreatoduodenectomy-1, debridement with external drainage-1, associated injuries-duodenum-1). Pancreatic fistula, recurrent pancreatitis and pseudocyst formation were seen in 3 (17.05%), 2 (11.7%) and 1 (5.4%) patient respectively. Death occurred in 4 cases (23.5%), 2 each in grades III and IV pancreatic trauma. Contrast enhanced computed tomography scan is a useful modality for diagnosing, grading and following up patients with pancreatic trauma. Although a majority of cases with pancreatic trauma respond to conservative treatment, patients with penetrating trauma, and associated bowel injury and higher grade pancreatic trauma require surgical intervention and are also associated with higher morbidity and mortality.

  15. Peripancreatic fat necrosis worsens acute pancreatitis independent of pancreatic necrosis via unsaturated fatty acids increased in human pancreatic necrosis collections

    PubMed Central

    Noel, Pawan; Patel, Krutika; Durgampudi, Chandra; Trivedi, Ram N; de Oliveira, Cristiane; Crowell, Michael D; Pannala, Rahul; Lee, Kenneth; Brand, Randall; Chennat, Jennifer; Slivka, Adam; Papachristou, Georgios I; Khalid, Asif; Whitcomb, David C; DeLany, James P; Cline, Rachel A; Acharya, Chathur; Jaligama, Deepthi; Murad, Faris M; Yadav, Dhiraj; Navina, Sarah; Singh, Vijay P

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims Peripancreatic fat necrosis occurs frequently in necrotising pancreatitis. Distinguishing markers from mediators of severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) is important since targeting mediators may improve outcomes. We evaluated potential agents in human pancreatic necrotic collections (NCs), pseudocysts (PCs) and pancreatic cystic neoplasms and used pancreatic acini, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and an acute pancreatitis (AP) model to determine SAP mediators. Methods We measured acinar and PBMC injury induced by agents increased in NCs and PCs. Outcomes of caerulein pancreatitis were studied in lean rats coadministered interleukin (IL)-1β and keratinocyte chemoattractant/growth-regulated oncogene, triolein alone or with the lipase inhibitor orlistat. Results NCs had higher fatty acids, IL-8 and IL-1β versus other fluids. Lipolysis of unsaturated triglyceride and resulting unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) oleic and linoleic acids induced necro-apoptosis at less than half the concentration in NCs but other agents did not do so at more than two times these concentrations. Cytokine coadministration resulted in higher pancreatic and lung inflammation than caerulein alone, but only triolein coadministration caused peripancreatic fat stranding, higher cytokines, UFAs, multisystem organ failure (MSOF) and mortality in 97% animals, which were prevented by orlistat. Conclusions UFAs, IL-1β and IL-8 are elevated in NCs. However, UFAs generated via peripancreatic fat lipolysis causes worse inflammation and MSOF, converting mild AP to SAP. PMID:25500204

  16. [Fetal meconium pseudocyst secondary to in utero perforation of colon transversum and meconium peritonitis].

    PubMed

    Markov, D; Jekova, N; Ivanov, St; Diavolov, V; Brankov, O

    2011-01-01

    Fetal bowel intrauterine perforation causes sterile inflammation of the peritoneum, known as meconium peritonitis. In some cases the perforation closes spontaneously, thus forming a meconium pseudocyst between the intestinal loops and the omentum. Meconium peritonitis, complicated by pseudocyst formation, should always be considered when a fetal abdominal mass with diverse echogenicity and hyperechogenic calcifications is observed on prenatal ultrasound. Usually, this is associated with ascites and/or polyhydramnios. The differential diagnosis necessitates exclusion of all other fetal abdominal tumors. We present a case report of meconium pseudocyst diagnosed prenatally at 32 weeks of gestation which was successfully treated by surgery after birth.

  17. Animal models for investigating chronic pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Chronic pancreatitis is defined as a continuous or recurrent inflammatory disease of the pancreas characterized by progressive and irreversible morphological changes. It typically causes pain and permanent impairment of pancreatic function. In chronic pancreatitis areas of focal necrosis are followed by perilobular and intralobular fibrosis of the parenchyma, by stone formation in the pancreatic duct, calcifications in the parenchyma as well as the formation of pseudocysts. Late in the course of the disease a progressive loss of endocrine and exocrine function occurs. Despite advances in understanding the pathogenesis no causal treatment for chronic pancreatitis is presently available. Thus, there is a need for well characterized animal models for further investigations that allow translation to the human situation. This review summarizes existing experimental models and distinguishes them according to the type of pathological stimulus used for induction of pancreatitis. There is a special focus on pancreatic duct ligation, repetitive overstimulation with caerulein and chronic alcohol feeding. Secondly, attention is drawn to genetic models that have recently been generated and which mimic features of chronic pancreatitis in man. Each technique will be supplemented with data on the pathophysiological background of the model and their limitations will be discussed. PMID:22133269

  18. [New guidelines on chronic pancreatitis : interdisciplinary treatment strategies].

    PubMed

    Lerch, M M; Bachmann, K A; Izbicki, J R

    2013-02-01

    Chronic pancreatitis is a common disorder associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Interdisciplinary consensus guidelines have recently updated the definitions and diagnostic criteria for chronic pancreatitis and provide a critical assessment of therapeutic procedures. Diagnostic imaging relies on endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) as the most sensitive technique, whereas computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)/magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) remain a frequent preoperative requirement. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is now used mostly as a therapeutic procedure except for the differential diagnosis of autoimmune pancreatitis. Complications of chronic pancreatitis, such as pseudocysts, duct stricture and intractable pain can be treated with endoscopic interventions as well as open surgery. In the treatment of pseudocysts endoscopic drainage procedures now prevail while pain treatment has greater long-term effectiveness following surgical procedures. Currently, endocopic as well as surgical treatment of chronic pancreatitis require an ever increasing degree of technical and medical expertise and are provided increasingly more often by interdisciplinary centres. Surgical treatment is superior to interventional therapy regarding the outcome of pain control and duodenum-preserving pancreatic head resection is presently the surgical procedure of choice.

  19. Course of alcoholic chronic pancreatitis: a prospective clinicomorphological long-term study.

    PubMed

    Ammann, R W; Heitz, P U; Klöppel, G

    1996-07-01

    The pathogenesis of alcoholic chronic pancreatitis and its relationship to alcoholic acute pancreatitis are debated. According to our recent clinical long-term study, alcoholic chronic pancreatitis seems to evolve from severe acute pancreatits. The aim of this study was to correlate clinical findings to the pancreatic histopathology at early and advanced stages of the disease. Morphological changes (pseudocysts, autodigestive necrosis, calcification, and perilobular and intralobular fibrosis) were recorded in 37 surgical and 46 postmortem pancreas specimens of 73 patients from our long-term series, who progressed from clinically acute to chronic pancreatitis (mean follow-up, 12 years). Pancreatic function was monitored at yearly intervals. Surgical interventions were performed at a mean of 4.1 years from onset. Histologically, focal necrosis (49%) and mild perilobular fibrosis (54%) predominated, Pseudocysts (n = 41, mostly postnecrotic) occurred in 88% within 6 years from onset. Autopsy specimens were obtained at a mean of 12 years. These pancreata often showed severe perilobular and intralobular fibrosis (85%) and calcifications (74%), but rarely necrosis (4%). Fibrosis correlated with progressive pancreatic dysfunction (P < 0.001), particularly in the 10 patients with two histological assessments (mean interval between biopsy and autopsy, 8 years). The data support an evolution from severe alcoholic acute pancreatitis to chronic pancreatitis.

  20. Meconium pseudocyst secondary to ileum volvulus perforation without peritoneal calcification: a case report.

    PubMed

    Valladares, Esther; Rodríguez, David; Vela, Antonio; Cabré, Sergi; Lailla, Josep Maria

    2010-08-31

    A case of giant meconium pseudocyst secondary to ileum volvulus perforation is presented. Conventional radiographic features of meconium peritonitis with secondary meconium pseudocyst formation are well described. Our case is unusual in comparison to other cases reported in the literature and needs to be reported because the meconium pseudocyst presented without the typical ultrasound features (calcifications, polyhydramnios and ascites) and was initially identified as an abdominal mass. We describe the case of a 29-year-old Caucasian woman in her third trimester of pregnancy, in which an abdominal mass was detected in the fetus. The newborn was diagnosed in the early neonatal period with meconium pseudocyst secondary to ileum volvulus perforation. The prenatal appearance of a meconium pseudocyst can be complemented by other signs of bowel obstruction (if present) such as polyhydramnios and fetal bowel dilatation. This is an original case report of interest to all clinicians in the perinatology and fetal ultrasound field. We consider that the utility of this case is the recognition that a meconium pseudocyst might appear without the typical ultrasound features and should be considered as a differential diagnosis when an echogenic intra-abdominal cyst is seen.

  1. Outcome of Acute Pancreatic and Peripancreatic Collections Occurring in Patients With Acute Pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Manrai, Manish; Kochhar, Rakesh; Gupta, Vikas; Yadav, Thakur Deen; Dhaka, Narendra; Kalra, Naveen; Sinha, Saroj K; Khandelwal, Niranjan

    2018-02-01

    To study the outcome of acute collections occurring in patients with acute pancreatitis BACKGROUND:: There are limited data on natural history of acute collections arising after acute pancreatitis (AP). Consecutive patients of AP admitted between July 2011 and December 2012 were evaluated by imaging for development of acute collections as defined by revised Atlanta classification. Imaging was repeated at 1 and 3 months. Spontaneous resolution, evolution, and need for intervention were assessed. Of the 189 patients, 151 patients (79.9%) had acute collections with severe disease and delayed hospitalization being predictors of acute collections. Thirty-six patients had acute interstitial edematous pancreatitis, 8 of whom developed acute peripancreatic fluid collections, of which 1 evolved into pseudocyst. Among the 153 patients with acute necrotizing pancreatitis, 143 (93.4%) developed acute necrotic collection (ANC). Twenty-three of 143 ANC patients died, 21 had resolved collections, whereas 84 developed walled-off necrosis (WON), with necrosis >30% (P = 0.010) and Computed Tomographic Severity Index score ≥7 (P = 0.048) predicting development of WON. Of the 84 patients with WON, 8 expired, 53 patients required an intervention, and 23 were managed conservatively. Independent predictors of any intervention among all patients were Computed Tomographic Severity Index score ≥7 (P < 0.001) and interval between onset of pain to hospitalization >7 days (P = 0.04). Patients with severe AP and delayed hospitalization more often develop acute collections. Pancreatic pseudocysts are a rarity in acute interstitial pancreatitis. A majority of patients with necrotising pancreatitis will develop ANC, more than half of whom will develop WON. Delay in hospitalization and higher baseline necrosis score predict need for intervention.

  2. A prospective evaluation of pancreatic exocrine function in patients with acute pancreatitis: correlation with extent of necrosis and pancreatic endocrine insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Boreham, B; Ammori, B J

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this prospective study was to assess pancreatic exocrine function in patients recovering from a first attack of acute pancreatitis, and to evaluate its relationship to severity of attack, extent of pancreatic necrosis and severity of pancreatic endocrine insufficiency. Between December 2000 and November 2001, 23 patients were prospectively evaluated. Pancreatic exocrine function was measured by the faecal elastase-1 test and insufficiency was classified as moderately impaired or severely impaired. Pancreatic necrosis was determined by contrast-enhanced CT scan, and its extent was categorised according to Balthazar's classification. The severity of pancreatic endocrine insufficiency was categorised according to insulin dependence. Attacks were classified as mild (n = 16) or severe (n = 7) according to the Atlanta criteria. Pancreatic exocrine insufficiency was significantly more frequent in patients recovering from severe attacks than mild (n = 6, 86% vs. n = 2, 13%; p = 0.002), and in those who developed pancreatic necrosis or pseudocyst than those who did not (6 of 7 patients vs. 2 of 16 patients, and 5 of 5 patients vs. 3 of 18 patients respectively; p = 0.002). The development of exocrine insufficiency correlated strongly with the extent of pancreatic necrosis (r = -0.754, p < 0.001), and the severity of pancreatic endocrine insufficiency (n = 4, r = -0.453, p = 0.03). Pancreatic exocrine insufficiency is a common occurrence in patients recovering from severe acute pancreatitis, and its severity correlates with the extent of pancreatic necrosis and the severity of concomitant pancreatic endocrine insufficiency. Copyright 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel and IAP

  3. Surgical management of failed endoscopic treatment of pancreatic disease.

    PubMed

    Evans, Kimberly A; Clark, Colby W; Vogel, Stephen B; Behrns, Kevin E

    2008-11-01

    Endoscopic therapy of acute and chronic pancreatitis has decreased the need for operative intervention. However, a significant proportion of patients treated endoscopically require definitive surgical management for persistent symptoms. Our aim was to determine which patients are likely to fail with endoscopic therapy, and to assess the clinical outcome of surgical management. Patients were identified using ICD-9 codes for pancreatic disease as well as CPT codes for endoscopic therapy followed by surgery. Patients with documented acute or chronic pancreatitis treated endoscopically prior to surgical therapy were included (N = 88). The majority of patients (65%) exhibited chronic pancreatitis due to alcohol abuse. Common indicators for surgery were: persistent symptoms, anatomy not amenable to endoscopic treatment and unresolved common bile duct or pancreatic duct strictures. Surgical salvage procedures included internal drainage of a pseudocyst or an obstructed pancreatic duct (46%), debridement of peripancreatic fluid collections (25%), and pancreatic resection (31%). Death occurred in 3% of patients. The most common complications were hemorrhage (16%), wound infection (13%), and pulmonary complications (11%). Chronic pancreatitis with persistent symptoms is the most common reason for pancreatic surgery following endoscopic therapy. Surgical salvage therapy can largely be accomplished by drainage procedures, but pancreatic resection is common. These complex procedures can be performed with acceptable mortality but also with significant risk for morbidity.

  4. Management of Inflammatory Fluid Collections and Walled-Off Pancreatic Necrosis.

    PubMed

    Shah, Apeksha; Denicola, Richard; Edirisuriya, Cynthia; Siddiqui, Ali A

    2017-12-01

    Pancreatic fluid collections are a frequent complication of acute pancreatitis. The revised Atlanta criterion classifies chronic fluid collections into pseudocysts and walled-off pancreatic necrosis (WON). Symptomatic PFCs require drainage options that include surgical, percutaneous, or endoscopic approaches. With the advent of newer and more advanced endoscopic tools and expertise, minimally invasive endoscopic drainage has now become the preferred approach. An endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS)-guided approach for pancreatic fluid collection drainage is now the preferred endoscopic approach. Both plastic stents and metal stents are efficacious and safe; however, metal stents may offer an advantage, especially in infected pseudocysts and in WON. Direct endoscopic necrosectomy is often required in WON. Lumen apposing metal stents allow for direct endoscopic necrosectomy and debridement through the stent lumen and are now preferred in these patients. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography with pancreatic duct exploration should be performed concurrent to PFC drainage in patients with suspected PD disruption. PD disruption is associated with an increased severity of pancreatitis, an increased risk of recurrent attacks of pancreatitis and long-term complications, and a decreased rate of PFC resolution after drainage. Ideally, pancreatic ductal disruption should be bridged with endoscopic stenting.

  5. Chronic Pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Stram, Michelle; Liu, Shu; Singhi, Aatur D

    2016-12-01

    Chronic pancreatitis is a debilitating condition often associated with severe abdominal pain and exocrine and endocrine dysfunction. The underlying cause is multifactorial and involves complex interaction of environmental, genetic, and/or other risk factors. The pathology is dependent on the underlying pathogenesis of the disease. This review describes the clinical, gross, and microscopic findings of the main subtypes of chronic pancreatitis: alcoholic chronic pancreatitis, obstructive chronic pancreatitis, paraduodenal ("groove") pancreatitis, pancreatic divisum, autoimmune pancreatitis, and genetic factors associated with chronic pancreatitis. As pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma may be confused with chronic pancreatitis, the main distinguishing features between these 2 diseases are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Endoscopic Management of Peri-Pancreatic Fluid Collections.

    PubMed

    Yip, Hon Chi; Teoh, Anthony Yuen Bun

    2017-09-15

    In the past decade, there has been a progressive paradigm shift in the management of peri-pancreatic fluid collections after acute pancreatitis. Refinements in the definitions of fluid collections from the updated Atlanta classification have enabled better communication amongst physicians in an effort to formulate optimal treatments. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided drainage of pancreatic pseudocysts has emerged as the procedure of choice over surgical cystogastrostomy. The approach provides similar success rates with low complications and better quality of life compared with surgery. However, an endoscopic "step up" approach in the management of pancreatic walled-off necrosis has also been advocated. Both endoscopic and percutaneous drainage routes may be used depending on the anatomical location of the collections. New-generation large diameter EUS-specific stent systems have also recently been described. The device allows precise and effective drainage of the collections and permits endoscopic necrosectomy through the stents.

  7. Oxalate nephropathy associated with chronic pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Cartery, Claire; Faguer, Stanislas; Karras, Alexandre; Cointault, Olivier; Buscail, Louis; Modesto, Anne; Ribes, David; Rostaing, Lionel; Chauveau, Dominique; Giraud, Patrick

    2011-08-01

    Enteric overabsorption of oxalate may lead to hyperoxaluria and subsequent acute oxalate nephritis (AON). AON related to chronic pancreatitis is a rare and poorly described condition precluding early recognition and treatment. We collected the clinical characteristics, treatment, and renal outcome of 12 patients with chronic pancreatitis-associated AON followed in four French renal units. Before AON, mild to moderate chronic kidney disease was present in all patients, diabetes mellitus in eight (insulin [n = 6]; oral antidiabetic drugs [n = 2]), and known chronic pancreatitis in only eight. At presentation, pancreas imaging showed gland atrophy/heterogeneity, Wirsung duct dilation, calcification, or pseudocyst. Renal findings consisted of rapidly progressive renal failure with tubulointerstitial profile. Acute modification of glomerular filtration preceded the AON (i.e., diarrhea and diuretics). Increase in urinary oxalate excretion was found in all tested patients and hypocalcemia in nine (<1.5 mmol/L in four patients). Renal biopsy showed diffuse crystal deposits, highly suggestive of oxalate crystals, with tubular necrosis and interstitial inflammatory cell infiltrates. Treatment consisted of pancreatic enzyme supplementation, oral calcium intake, and an oxalate-free diet in all patients and renal replacement therapy in five patients. After a median follow-up of 7 months, three of 12 patients reached end-stage renal disease. AON is an under-recognized severe crystal-induced renal disease with features of tubulointerstitial nephritis that may occur in patients with a long history of chronic pancreatitis or reveal the pancreatic disease. Extrinsic triggering factors should be prevented.

  8. Triple Pancreatic Walled-off Fluid Collections Treated Simultaneously with Endoscopic Transmural Drainage.

    PubMed

    Khalid, Sameen; Abbass, Aamer; Nellis, Eric; Shah, Shashin; Shah, Hiral

    2018-01-09

    Pancreatic pseudocysts and walled-off pancreatic necrosis arise as a complication of pancreatitis. Multiple fluid collections are seen in 5-20% of the patients who have walled-off peripancreatic fluid collections. There is a paucity of data regarding the role of endoscopic transmural drainage in the management of multiple pancreatic fluid collections. In this case report, we present the case of a 72-year-old male with three walled-off pancreatic fluid collections in the setting of acute necrotizing pancreatitis. The patient underwent simultaneous endoscopic ultrasound-assisted cyst gastrostomy and cyst duodenostomy and aggressive irrigation without index endoscopic necrosectomy of the three peripancreatic fluid collections. Significant improvement in the size of the fluid collections was seen on the computed tomography scan, as well as a remarkable immediate clinical improvement after 24 hours of the endoscopic intervention.

  9. Triple bypass for advanced pancreatic head cancer associated with biliary stricture, duodenal stenosis, and recurrent obstructive pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Kudo, Yuzan; Sato, Norihiro; Tamura, Toshihisa; Hirata, Keiji

    2016-12-01

    Bypass surgery for cancer of the pancreatic head is usually done to palliate the obstructive symptoms in the biliary and/or digestive system. However, it is uncommon for patients to require pancreatic duct drainage for recurrent obstructive pancreatitis. In this article, we report a surgical technique of triple bypass consisting of Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy, gastrojejunostomy, and pancreaticojejunostomy for advanced pancreatic cancer. A 76-year-old male patient with locally advanced and metastatic pancreatic head cancer was referred to our department for biliary stricture, duodenal stenosis, and recurrent obstructive pancreatitis associated with persistent pancreatic pseudocyst. In an attempt to resolve all these problems simultaneously, a triple bypass was performed. The patient survived and continued to receive chemotherapy for almost 1 year after surgery without any serious complications. Thus, triple bypass is a useful surgical technique that could relief symptoms and offer better quality of life to patients with advanced pancreatic cancer presenting with biliary stricture, duodenal stenosis, and severe obstructive pancreatitis difficult to treat by medication or endoscopic procedures.

  10. Outcomes analysis of laparoscopic resection of pancreatic neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Pierce, R A; Spitler, J A; Hawkins, W G; Strasberg, S M; Linehan, D C; Halpin, V J; Eagon, J C; Brunt, L M; Frisella, M M; Matthews, B D

    2007-04-01

    Experience with laparoscopic resection of pancreatic neoplasms remains limited. The purpose of this study is to critically analyze the indications for and outcomes after laparoscopic resection of pancreatic neoplasms. The medical records of all patients undergoing laparoscopic resection of pancreatic neoplasms from July 2000 to February 2006 were reviewed. Data are expressed as mean +/- standard deviation. Laparoscopic pancreatic resection was performed in 22 patients (M:F, 8:14) with a mean age of 56.3 +/- 15.1 years and mean body mass index (BMI) of 26.3 +/- 4.5 kg/m2. Nine patients had undergone previous intra-abdominal surgery. Indications for pancreatic resection were cyst (1), glucagonoma (1), gastrinoma (2), insulinoma (3), metastatic tumor (2), IPMT (4), nonfunctioning neuroendocrine tumor (3), and mucinous/serous cystadenoma (6). Mean tumor size was 2.4 +/- 1.6 cm. Laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy was attempted in 18 patients and completed in 17, and enucleation was performed in 4 patients. Laparoscopic ultrasound (n = 10) and a hand-assisted technique (n = 4) were utilized selectively. Mean operative time was 236 +/- 60 min and mean blood loss was 244 +/- 516 ml. There was one conversion to an open procedure because of bleeding from the splenic vein. The mean postoperative LOS was 4.5 +/- 2.0 days. Seven patients experienced a total of ten postoperative complications, including a urinary tract infection (UTI) (1), lower-extremity deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolus (1), infected peripancreatic fluid collection (1), pancreatic pseudocyst (1), and pancreatic fistula (6). Five pancreatic fistulas were managed by percutaneous drainage. The reoperation rate was 4.5% and the overall pancreatic-related complication rate was 36.4%. One patient developed pancreatitis and a pseudocyst 5 months postoperatively, which was managed successfully with a pancreatic duct stent. There was no 30-day mortality. Laparoscopic pancreatic resection is safe and

  11. Pancreatic Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... hormones that help control blood sugar levels. Pancreatic cancer usually begins in the cells that produce the juices. Some risk factors for developing pancreatic cancer include Smoking Long-term diabetes Chronic pancreatitis Certain ...

  12. The effect of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on severity of acute pancreatitis and pancreatic necrosis.

    PubMed

    Baxter, K A; Pucher, P H; Berry, D P; Elberm, H; Abu-Hilal, M; Marangoni, G; Hamady, Zzr

    2018-03-01

    Introduction Acute pancreatitis (AP) is a common emergency presentation and can be disabling. There is significant morbidity and mortality associated with AP, and it places a considerable burden on the healthcare system. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been shown to have a protective effect in some elective contexts. This retrospective study aimed to evaluate the effect of NSAIDs on the course of AP and the severity of the disease. Methods A retrospective analysis was carried out of 324 patients admitted as an emergency with a diagnosis of AP to two UK hospitals. Patients were divided into two groups: those already taking NSAIDs for other co-morbidities and those not taking NSAIDs. Variables compared included: admission to a high dependency or intensive care unit; pancreatic necrosis; pseudocyst development; need for surgery; serum inflammatory markers; modified early warning scores on days 1, 3 and 5; length of stay; and mortality. Results Patients not taking NSAIDs were more likely to have a C-reactive protein level of ≥150mg/l (p=0.007). Patients in the NSAID group experienced less pancreatic necrosis (p=0.019) and lower rates of pseudocyst formation (p=0.010). Other variables showed no difference between the two groups, specifically length of stay and mortality. Conclusions Routine NSAID use may exert a protective effect on the development of AP, its severity, and complications. Therapeutic use of NSAIDs in acute presentations with pancreatitis should be further evaluated.

  13. Endosonography guided management of pancreatic fluid collections

    PubMed Central

    Vilmann, Andreas S; Menachery, John; Tang, Shou-Jiang; Srinivasan, Indu; Vilmann, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The revised Atlanta classification of acute pancreatitis was adopted by international consensus, and is based on actual local and systemic determinants of disease severity. The local determinant is pancreatic necrosis (sterile or infected), and the systemic determinant is organ failure. Local complications of pancreatitis can include acute peri-pancreatic fluid collection, acute necrotic collection, pseudocyst formation, and walled-off necrosis. Interventional endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) has been increasing utilized in managing these local complications. After performing a PubMed search, the authors manually applied pre-defined inclusion criteria or a filter to identify publications relevant to EUS and pancreatic collections (PFCs). The authors then reviewed the utility, efficacy, and risks associated with using therapeutic EUS and involved EUS devices in treating PFCs. Due to the development and regulatory approval of improved and novel endoscopic devices specifically designed for transmural drainage of fluid and necrotic debris (access and patency devices), the authors predict continuing evolution in the management of PFCs. We believe that EUS will become an indispensable part of procedures used to diagnose PFCs and perform image-guided interventions. After draining a PFC, the amount of tissue necrosis is the most important predictor of a successful outcome. Hence, it seems logical to classify these collections based on their percentage of necrotic component or debris present when viewed by imaging methods or EUS. Finally, the authors propose an algorithm for managing fluid collections based on their size, location, associated symptoms, internal echogenic patterns, and content. PMID:26557008

  14. Spanish multicenter study to estimate the incidence of chronic pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Domínguez Muñoz, J Enrique; Lucendo Villarín, Alfredo José; Carballo Álvarez, L Fernando; Tenías, Jose María; Iglesias García, Julio

    2016-07-01

    To estimate the incidence of chronic pancreatitis in Spain as diagnosed with endoscopic ultrasound (EUS), and to assess the risk factors and complications detected. A descriptive, observational study of chronic pancreatitis cases diagnosed in Spanish health care centers with an EUS unit. A structured questionnaire was used to evaluate the incidence of the disease (cases identified over 18 months: from January 2011 to June 2012), risk factors, EUS criteria, Rosemont classification, and frequency of local complications. Twenty-three centers were selected serving a total reference area of 14,752,704 population. During the study period 1,031 chronic pancreatitis cases were diagnosed, with an incidence of 4.66 cases per 105 inhabitants/year (95% CI: 4.65-4.67). Tobacco and alcohol use appear as risk factors in 63.8% and 66.7% of cases, respectively. Of these, 53.3% met > 5 EUS criteria for chronic pancreatitis, and 69% had findings suggestive of or consistent with chronic pancreatitis according to the Rosemont classification. Most prevalent complications included calcifications (34.7%), pseudocysts (16%), and presence of an inflammatory pancreatic tumor (10.4%). The incidence of chronic pancreatitis in Spain is similar to that of other European countries. Given the widespread use of the technique, EUS units are key in detecting the disease, and their activity and results allow to estimate the incidence of chronic pancreatitis over wide, representative population areas.

  15. Chronic pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    DiMagno, Matthew J; DiMagno, Eugene P

    2012-09-01

    We review important new clinical observations in chronic pancreatitis reported in 2011. Smoking increases the risk of nongallstone acute pancreatitis and the progression of acute pancreatitis to chronic pancreatitis. Binge drinking during Oktoberfest did not associate with increased hospital admissions for acute pancreatitis. The unfolded protein response is an adaptive mechanism to maintain pancreatic health in response to noxious stimuli such as alcohol. Onset of diabetes mellitus in chronic pancreatitis is likely due to progressive disease rather than individual variables. Insufficient pancreatic enzyme dosing is common for treatment of pancreatic steatorrhea; 90 000 United States Pharmacopeia units of lipase should be given with meals. Surgical drainage provides sustained, superior pain relief compared with endoscopic treatment in patients advanced chronic pancreatitis with a dilated main duct ± pancreatic stones. The central acting gabapentoid pregabalin affords a modest 12% pain reduction in patients with chronic pancreatitis but approximately 30% of patients have significant side effects. Patients with nongallstone-related acute pancreatitis or chronic pancreatitis of any cause should cease smoking. Results of this year's investigations further elucidated the pancreatic pathobiology due to alcohol, onset of diabetes mellitus in chronic pancreatitis, and the mechanisms and treatment of neuropathic pain in chronic pancreatitis.

  16. Rugby injury-associated pseudocyst of the auricle: report and review of sports-associated dermatoses of the ear.

    PubMed

    Kallini, Joseph R; Cohen, Philip R

    2013-02-15

    To describe a man with pseudocyst of the auricle, summarize the salient features of this condition, and review other sports-associated dermatoses of the ear. Pseudocyst of the auricle is an intracartilaginous collection of viscous straw-colored fluid typically located in the triangular fossa of the upper half of the auricle. It is usually asymptomatic. It can result in a permanent auricular deformity. A 63-year-old man developed a pseudocyst of the auricle following a traumatic rugby-related injury to his left ear. The lesion has persisted for many years; chronic massage has slightly decreased its size. The etiology of pseudocyst of the auricle has been described as either traumatic or developmental. Our patient developed his pseudocyst after a rugby-related injury. This condition is usually unilateral. Aspirate of the content is usually sterile. Histology shows an intracartilaginous cyst devoid of an epithelial lining. Treatment involves either partial removal of the cartilage or chemical irritation to enhance adhesiveness. Subsequent compression (via button bolsters) minimizes recurrence. Pseudocyst of the auricle is a benign cystic dilatation, which is intracartilaginous, devoid of an epithelial lining, and may be traumatic or non-traumatic in origin. A man with rugby-associated trauma to his left ear developed this condition. Auricular pseudocyst can be added to the list of sports-associated dermatoses of the ear.

  17. The role of endoscopic intervention in the management of inflammatory pancreatic fluid collections.

    PubMed

    Parihar, Vikrant; Ridgway, Paul F; Conlon, Kevin C; Huggett, Matthew; Ryan, Barbara M

    2017-04-01

    Pancreatic fluid collections (PFCs) are a frequent complication of pancreatitis, or less commonly, pancreatic trauma or surgery. The revised Atlanta Classification categorizes PFCs as acute or chronic, with further subclassification of acute collections into acute peripancreatic collections and acute necrotic collections and of chronic fluid collections into pseudocysts and walled-off pancreatic necrosis. Acute PFCs are generally only subjected to an intervention when they are infected and not responding to antibiotics and are not managed endoscopically. Chronic PFCs, both pseudocysts and walled-off pancreatic necrosis, require intervention only when symptomatic or enlarging over time. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided drainage has become the mainstay of management for chronic PFCs that require intervention. Developments in medical devices over the past few years have significantly simplified and shortened the duration of the procedure itself, but the optimum choice of stent in different clinical scenarios remains to be defined, as does the place of endoscopic necrosectomy. To optimize outcomes, these patients should undergo a careful preprocedure workup and discussion in a multidisciplinary environment and procedures should be carried out in high-volume pancreatic units.

  18. Percutaneous transgastric irrigation drainage in combination with endoscopic necrosectomy in necrotizing pancreatitis (with videos).

    PubMed

    Raczynski, Susanne; Teich, Niels; Borte, Gudrun; Wittenburg, Henning; Mössner, Joachim; Caca, Karel

    2006-09-01

    Endoscopic drainage of pancreatic acute and chronic pseudocysts and pancreatic necrosectomy have been shown to be beneficial for critically ill patients, with complete endoscopic resolution rates of around 80%. Our purpose was to describe an improved endoscopic technique used to treat pancreatic necrosis. Case report. University hospital. Two patients with large retroperitoneal necroses were treated with percutaneous transgastric retroperitoneal flushing tubes and a percutaneous transgastric jejunal feeding tube by standard percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy access in addition to endoscopic necrosectomy. Intensive percutaneous transgastric flushing in combination with percutaneous normocaloric enteral nutrition and repeated endoscopic necrosectomy led to excellent outcomes in both patients. Small number of patients. The "double percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy" approach for simultaneous transgastric drainage and normocaloric enteral nutrition in severe cases of pancreatic necroses is safe and effective. It could be a promising improvement to endoscopic transgastric treatment options in necrotizing pancreatitis.

  19. Pancreatic tuberculosis with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: A case report and systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Meesiri, Somchai

    2012-01-01

    Pancreatic tuberculosis (TB) is a relatively rare disease that can mimic carcinoma, lymphoma, cystic neoplasia, retroperitoneal tumors, pancreatitis or pseudocysts. Here, I report the case of a 31-year-old immigrant Burmese woman who exhibited epigastralgia, fever, weight loss and an epigastric mass. The patient was diagnosed with pancreatic TB and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, and was treated with antituberculous drugs and percutaneous catheter drainage without a laparotomy. The clinical presentation, radiographic investigation and management of pancreatic TB are summarized in this paper to emphasize the importance of considering this rare disease in the differential diagnosis of pancreatic masses concomitant with human immunodeficiency virus infection. I also emphasize the need for both histopathological and microbiological diagnosis via fine-needle aspiration. PMID:22363146

  20. Pancreatic tuberculosis with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: a case report and systematic review.

    PubMed

    Meesiri, Somchai

    2012-02-21

    Pancreatic tuberculosis (TB) is a relatively rare disease that can mimic carcinoma, lymphoma, cystic neoplasia, retroperitoneal tumors, pancreatitis or pseudocysts. Here, I report the case of a 31-year-old immigrant Burmese woman who exhibited epigastralgia, fever, weight loss and an epigastric mass. The patient was diagnosed with pancreatic TB and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, and was treated with antituberculous drugs and percutaneous catheter drainage without a laparotomy. The clinical presentation, radiographic investigation and management of pancreatic TB are summarized in this paper to emphasize the importance of considering this rare disease in the differential diagnosis of pancreatic masses concomitant with human immunodeficiency virus infection. I also emphasize the need for both histopathological and microbiological diagnosis via fine-needle aspiration.

  1. Vocal fold pseudocyst: results of 46 cases undergoing a uniform treatment algorithm.

    PubMed

    Estes, Christine; Sulica, Lucian

    2014-05-01

    To describe treatment results and identify predictors of the need for surgical intervention in patients with vocal fold pseudocyst. Retrospective cohort study with longitudinal followup via survey. Clinical records were reviewed for demographic information, VHI-10 score, and degree of severity of dysphonia. Videostroboscopic examinations were evaluated for presence of vocal fold pseudocyst, along with additional clinical variables, including laterality, reactive lesion, paresis, varix, and hemorrhage. Follow-up surveys were sent to all participants to evaluate current VHI-10 score and degree of vocal limitation. Results were analyzed to determine predictors of surgery and recurrence of pathology. Forty-six patients (41F:5M) with pseudocyst (40 unilateral: 6 bilateral) were reviewed. Twenty-three (50%) had reactive lesions, nineteen (41%) had paresis by clinical criteria, 10 (22%) had varices, and 6 (13%) had hemorrhage on examination. All underwent initial behavioral management (2-12 sessions of voice therapy; mean of 8 sessions). Seventeen (37%) eventually required surgical intervention. No demographic or clinical variables proved predictive of surgical intervention. Follow-up surveys were completed by 63% of patients, and 79% agreed with the statement that they were not professionally limited by their voices. This experience supports behavioral management as an initial intervention in patients with pseudocyst, sufficient by itself to restore vocal function in approximately two out of three patients. Neither initial severity nor any of the studied clinical findings predicted the need for surgery. The large majority of patients with pseudocyst are able to be treated effectively without impact in their professional function. © 2013 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  2. Frey procedure for surgical management of chronic pancreatitis in children.

    PubMed

    Rollins, Michael D; Meyers, Rebecka L

    2004-06-01

    The authors adopted the Frey procedure for the surgical management of chronic pancreatitis after one of their patients had recurrent disease in the head of the gland after a longitudinal pancreaticojejunostomy (LPJ or modified Puestow procedure). This is the first description of its use in children. A retrospective chart review was performed of all children undergoing a drainage or resection procedure for chronic pancreatitis from 1995 to 2002. Eleven children (6 boys, 5 girls, ages 8 to 18 years) underwent either the LPJ (3) or Frey (8) procedure. Etiologies included: idiopathic (5), familial (2), congenital anomaly of the major papilla (1), pancreatic head mass (1), short bowel syndrome (1), and pancreatic divisum (1). Before surgical therapy, patients had been symptomatic 2.3 years (range, 1 month to 6 years) and had been hospitalized for pancreatitis 4 times (range, 1 to 10). Four patients did not respond to endoscopic stenting, and 5 had a pancreatic pseudocyst. Patients were followed up in clinic an average of 2.5 years, with total time elapsed since surgery averaging 4.6 years. Eight of 11 patients experienced excellent or good results subsequent to surgical intervention. The Frey procedure is effective for children who have not responded to conservative management of chronic pancreatitis and may prevent recurrent disease in the head of the gland.

  3. Evidence-based clinical practice guidelines for chronic pancreatitis 2015.

    PubMed

    Ito, Tetsuhide; Ishiguro, Hiroshi; Ohara, Hirotaka; Kamisawa, Terumi; Sakagami, Junichi; Sata, Naohiro; Takeyama, Yoshifumi; Hirota, Morihisa; Miyakawa, Hiroyuki; Igarashi, Hisato; Lee, Lingaku; Fujiyama, Takashi; Hijioka, Masayuki; Ueda, Keijiro; Tachibana, Yuichi; Sogame, Yoshio; Yasuda, Hiroaki; Kato, Ryusuke; Kataoka, Keisho; Shiratori, Keiko; Sugiyama, Masanori; Okazaki, Kazuichi; Kawa, Shigeyuki; Tando, Yusuke; Kinoshita, Yoshikazu; Watanabe, Mamoru; Shimosegawa, Tooru

    2016-02-01

    Chronic pancreatitis is considered to be an irreversible progressive chronic inflammatory disease. The etiology and pathology of chronic pancreatitis are complex; therefore, it is important to correctly understand the stage and pathology and provide appropriate treatment accordingly. The newly revised Clinical Practice Guidelines of Chronic Pancreatitis 2015 consist of four chapters, i.e., diagnosis, staging, treatment, and prognosis, and includes a total of 65 clinical questions. These guidelines have aimed at providing certain directions and clinically practical contents for the management of chronic pancreatitis, preferentially adopting clinically useful articles. These revised guidelines also refer to early chronic pancreatitis based on the Criteria for the Diagnosis of Chronic Pancreatitis 2009. They include such items as health insurance coverage of high-titer lipase preparations and extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy, new antidiabetic drugs, and the definition of and treatment approach to pancreatic pseudocyst. The accuracy of these guidelines has been improved by examining and adopting new evidence obtained after the publication of the first edition.

  4. Diagnosing Chronic Pancreatitis: Comparison and Evaluation of Different Diagnostic Tools.

    PubMed

    Issa, Yama; van Santvoort, Hjalmar C; van Dieren, Susan; Besselink, Marc G; Boermeester, Marja A; Ahmed Ali, Usama

    2017-10-01

    This study aims to compare the M-ANNHEIM, Büchler, and Lüneburg diagnostic tools for chronic pancreatitis (CP). A cross-sectional analysis of the development of CP was performed in a prospectively collected multicenter cohort including 669 patients after a first episode of acute pancreatitis. We compared the individual components of the M-ANNHEIM, Büchler, and Lüneburg tools, the agreement between tools, and estimated diagnostic accuracy using Bayesian latent-class analysis. A total of 669 patients with acute pancreatitis followed-up for a median period of 57 (interquartile range, 42-70) months were included. Chronic pancreatitis was diagnosed in 50 patients (7%), 59 patients (9%), and 61 patients (9%) by the M-ANNHEIM, Lüneburg, and Büchler tools, respectively. The overall agreement between these tools was substantial (κ = 0.75). Differences between the tools regarding the following criteria led to significant changes in the total number of diagnoses of CP: abdominal pain, recurrent pancreatitis, moderate to marked ductal lesions, endocrine and exocrine insufficiency, pancreatic calcifications, and pancreatic pseudocysts. The Büchler tool had the highest sensitivity (94%), followed by the M-ANNHEIM (87%), and finally the Lüneburg tool (81%). Differences between diagnostic tools for CP are mainly attributed to presence of clinical symptoms, endocrine insufficiency, and certain morphological complications.

  5. Conservative and surgical management of pancreatic trauma in adult patients

    PubMed Central

    Menahem, Benjamin; Lim, Chetana; Lahat, Eylon; Salloum, Chady; Osseis, Michael; Lacaze, Laurence; Compagnon, Philippe; Pascal, Gerard

    2016-01-01

    Background The management of pancreatic trauma is complex. The aim of this study was to report our experience in the management of pancreatic trauma. Methods All patients hospitalized between 2005 and 2013 for pancreatic trauma were included. Traumatic injuries of the pancreas were classified according to the American Association for Surgery of Trauma (AAST) in five grades. Mortality and morbidity were analyzed. Results A total of 30 patients were analyzed (mean age: 38±17 years). Nineteen (63%) patients had a blunt trauma and 12 (40%) had pancreatic injury ≥ grade 3. Fifteen patients underwent exploratory laparotomy and the other 15 patients had nonoperative management (NOM). Four (13%) patients had a partial pancreatectomy [distal pancreatectomy (n=3) and pancreaticoduodenectomy (n=1)]. Overall, in hospital mortality was 20% (n=6). Postoperative mortality was 27% (n=4/15). Mortality of NOM group was 13% (n=2/15) in both cases death was due to severe head injury. Among the patients who underwent NOM, three patients had injury ≥ grade 3, one patient had a stent placement in the pancreatic duct and two patients underwent endoscopic drainage of a pancreatic pseudocyst. Conclusions Operative management of pancreatic trauma leads to a higher mortality. This must not be necessarily related to the pancreas injury alone but also to the associated injuries including liver, spleen and vascular trauma which may cause impaired outcome more than pancreas injury. PMID:28124001

  6. Pancreatic Calculus Causing Biliary Obstruction: Endoscopic Therapy for a Rare Initial Presentation of Chronic Pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Shetty, Anurag J; Pai, C Ganesh; Shetty, Shiran; Balaraju, Girisha

    2015-09-01

    Biliary obstruction in chronic calcific pancreatitis (CCP) is often caused by inflammatory or fibrotic strictures of the bile duct, carcinoma of head of pancreas or less commonly by compression from pseudocysts. Pancreatic calculi causing ampullary obstruction and leading to obstructive jaundice is extremely rare. The medical records of all patients with CCP or biliary obstruction who underwent endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) over 4 years between 2010-2014 at Kasturba Medical College, Manipal were analyzed. Five patients of CCP with impacted pancreatic calculi at the ampulla demonstrated during ERCP were identified. All 5 presented with biliary obstruction and were incidentally detected to have CCP when evaluated for the same; 3 patients had features of cholangitis. All the patients were managed successfully by endoscopic papillotomy and extraction of pancreatic calculi from the ampulla with resolution of biliary obstruction. Pancreatic calculus causing ampullary obstruction, though very rare, should be considered as a possibility in patients with CCP complicated by biliary obstruction. Endoscopic therapy is affective in the resolution of biliary obstruction in such patients.

  7. [Latest advances in acute pancreatitis].

    PubMed

    de-Madaria, Enrique

    2013-10-01

    The present article analyzes the main presentations on acute pancreatitis (AP) in Digestive Disease Week 2013. Perfusion computed tomography allows early diagnosis of pancreatic necrosis. Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin predicts the development of acute renal failure, severe AP and death. Factors associated with greater fluid sequestration in AP are alcoholic etiology, an elevated hematocrit, and the presence of criteria of systemic inflammatory response syndrome; fluid sequestration is associated with a worse outcome. True pseudocysts (fluid collections without necrosis for more than 4 weeks) are a highly infrequent complication in AP. Patients with necrotic collections have a poor prognosis, especially if associated with infection. A meta-analysis on fluid therapy suggests that early aggressive fluid administration is associated with higher mortality and more frequent respiratory complications. According to a meta-analysis, enteral nutrition initiated within 24 hours of admission improves the outcome of AP compared with later initiation of enteral nutrition. Pentoxifylline could be a promising alternative in AP; a double-blind randomized study showed that this drug reduced the length of hospital and intensive care unit stay, as well as the need for intensive care unit admission. The association of octreotide and celecoxib seems to reduce the frequency of organ damage compared with octreotide alone. Mild AP can be managed in the ambulatory setting through hospital-at-home units after a short, 24-hour admission. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  8. Clinical profile and outcome of chronic pancreatitis in children.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, S D; Chacko, A; Ramakrishna, B S; Dutta, A K; Augustine, J; Koshy, A K; Simon, E G; Joseph, A J

    2013-11-08

    To evaluate the etiology, presentation, complications and management of chronic pancreatitis in children. Retrospective chart review. Gastroenterology department at Christian Medical College and Hospital, Vellore, India between January 2005 and December 2010. 99 Children (>18 yrs) diagnosed with chronic pancreatitis based on clinical and imaging features. Etiology, clinical presentation, complications and management of chronic pancreatitis in children. Of 3887 children who attended the Gastroenterology department, 99(2.5%) had chronic pancreatitis, of which 60 (60.6%) were males. In 95(95.9%) patients no definite cause was detected and they were labeled as Idiopathic chronic pancreatitis. All patients had abdominal pain, while 9(9.1%) had diabetes mellitus. Of the 22 children tested for stool fat, 10(45.5%) had steatorrhea. Pancreatic calcification was seen in 69 (69.7%). 68 (71.6%) patients with idiopathic chronic pancreatitis had calcification. Calcific idiopathic chronic pancreatitis was more frequent in males (67.6% vs. 48.1%, P=0.07), and was more commonly associated with diabetes mellitus (13.2% vs. none, P=0.047) and steatorrhea (61.5% vs. 16.7%, P=0.069). Pseudocyst (17.1%) and ascites (9.1%) were the most common complications. All children were treated with pancreatic enzyme supplements for pain relief. 57 patients were followed up. With enzyme supplementation, pain relief was present in 32 (56.1%) patients. Of those who did not improve, 10 underwent endotherapy and 15 underwent surgery. Follow up of 8 patients who underwent endotherapy, showed that 5 (62.5%) had relief. Follow up of 11 patients who underwent surgery showed that only 3 (27%) had pain relief. There was no death. Idiopathic chronic pancreatitis is the predominant form of chronic pancreatitis in children and adolescents. It can present with or without calcification. The calcific variety is an aggressive disease characterized by early morphological and functional damage to the pancreas.

  9. Current surgical treatment for chronic pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Aimoto, Takayuki; Uchida, Eiji; Nakamura, Yoshiharu; Yamahatsu, Kazuya; Matsushita, Akira; Katsuno, Akira; Cho, Kazumitsu; Kawamoto, Masao

    2011-01-01

    Chronic pancreatitis (CP) is a painful, yet benign inflammatory process of the pancreas. Surgical management should be individualized because the pain is multifactorial and its mechanisms vary from patient to patient. Two main pathogenetic theories for the mechanisms of pain in CP have been proposed: the neurogenic theory and the theory of increased intraductal/intraparenchymal pressures. The latter theory is strongly supported by the good results of drainage procedures in the surgical management of CP. Other possible contributing factors include pancreatic ischemia; a centrally sensitized pain state; and the development of complications, such as pseudocysts and stenosis of the duodenum or common bile duct. Common indications for surgery include intractable pain, suspicion of neoplasm, and complications that cannot be resolved with radiological or endoscopic treatments. Operative procedures have been historically classified into 4 categories: decompression procedures for diseased and obstructed pancreatic ducts; resection procedures for the proximal, distal, or total pancreas; denervation procedures of the pancreas; and hybrid procedures. Pancreaticoduodenectomy and pylorus-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy, once the standard operations for patients with CP, have been replaced by hybrid procedures, such as duodenum-preserving pancreatic head resection, the Frey procedure, and their variants. These procedures are safe and effective in providing long-term pain relief and in treating CP-related complications. Hybrid procedures should be the operations of choice for patients with CP.

  10. Acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) ultrasound imaging of pancreatic cystic lesions.

    PubMed

    D'Onofrio, M; Gallotti, A; Salvia, R; Capelli, P; Mucelli, R Pozzi

    2011-11-01

    To evaluate the ARFI ultrasound imaging with Virtual Touch tissue quantification in studying pancreatic cystic lesions, compared with phantom fluid models. Different phantom fluids at different viscosity or density (water, iodinate contrast agent, and oil) were evaluated by two independent operators. From September to December 2008, 23 pancreatic cystic lesions were prospectively studied. All lesions were pathologically confirmed. Non-numerical values on water and numerical values on other phantoms were obtained. Inter-observer evaluation revealed a perfect correlation (rs=1.00; p<0.0001) between all measurements achieved by both operators per each balloon and fluid. Among the pancreatic cystic lesions, 14 mucinous cystadenomas, 4 pseudocysts, 3 intraductal papillary-mucinous neoplasms and 2 serous cystadenomas were studied. The values obtained ranged from XXXX/0-4,85 m/s in mucinous cystadenomas, from XXXX/0-3,11 m/s in pseudocysts, from XXXX/0-4,57 m/s in intraductal papillary-mucinous neoplasms. In serous cystadenomas all values measured were XXXX/0m/s. Diagnostic accuracy in benign and non-benign differentiation of pancreatic cystic lesions was 78%. Virtual Touch tissue quantification can be applied in the analysis of fluids and is potentially able to differentiate more complex (mucinous) from simple (serous) content in studying pancreatic cystic lesions. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Morphologic study of the effect of iron on pseudocyst formation in Trichomonas vaginalis and its interaction with human epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Dias-Lopes, Geovane; Saboia-Vahia, Leonardo; Margotti, Eliane Trindade; Fernandes, Nilma de Souza; Castro, Cássia Luana de Faria; Oliveira, Francisco Odencio; Peixoto, Juliana Figueiredo; Britto, Constança; Silva, Fernando Costa E; Cuervo, Patricia; Jesus, José Batista de

    2017-10-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is the aetiological agent of human trichomoniasis, which is one of the most prevalent sexually transmitted diseases in humans. Iron is an important element for the survival of this parasite and the colonisation of the host urogenital tract. In this study, we investigated the effects of iron on parasite proliferation in the dynamics of pseudocyst formation and morphologically characterised iron depletion-induced pseudocysts. We performed structural and ultrastructural analyses using light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. It was observed that iron depletion (i) interrupts the proliferation of T. vaginalis, (ii) induces morphological changes in typical multiplicative trophozoites to spherical non-proliferative, non-motile pseudocysts, and (iii) induces the arrest of cell division at different stages of the cell cycle; (iv) iron is the fundamental element for the maintenance of typical trophozoite morphology; (v) pseudocysts induced by iron depletion are viable and reversible forms; and, finally, (vi) we demonstrated that pseudocysts induced by iron depletion are able to interact with human epithelial cells maintaining their spherical forms. Together, these data suggest that pseudocysts could be induced as a response to iron nutritional stress and could have a potential role in the transmission and infection of T. vaginalis.

  12. Morphologic study of the effect of iron on pseudocyst formation in Trichomonas vaginalis and its interaction with human epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Dias-Lopes, Geovane; Saboia-Vahia, Leonardo; Margotti, Eliane Trindade; Fernandes, Nilma de Souza; Castro, Cássia Luana de Faria; Oliveira, Francisco Odencio; Peixoto, Juliana Figueiredo; Britto, Constança; Silva, Fernando Costa e; Cuervo, Patricia; de Jesus, José Batista

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND Trichomonas vaginalis is the aetiological agent of human trichomoniasis, which is one of the most prevalent sexually transmitted diseases in humans. Iron is an important element for the survival of this parasite and the colonisation of the host urogenital tract. OBJECTIVES In this study, we investigated the effects of iron on parasite proliferation in the dynamics of pseudocyst formation and morphologically characterised iron depletion-induced pseudocysts. METHODS We performed structural and ultrastructural analyses using light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. FINDINGS It was observed that iron depletion (i) interrupts the proliferation of T. vaginalis, (ii) induces morphological changes in typical multiplicative trophozoites to spherical non-proliferative, non-motile pseudocysts, and (iii) induces the arrest of cell division at different stages of the cell cycle; (iv) iron is the fundamental element for the maintenance of typical trophozoite morphology; (v) pseudocysts induced by iron depletion are viable and reversible forms; and, finally, (vi) we demonstrated that pseudocysts induced by iron depletion are able to interact with human epithelial cells maintaining their spherical forms. MAIN CONCLUSIONS Together, these data suggest that pseudocysts could be induced as a response to iron nutritional stress and could have a potential role in the transmission and infection of T. vaginalis. PMID:28953994

  13. Management of pancreatic fluid collections: A comprehensive review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Tyberg, Amy; Karia, Kunal; Gabr, Moamen; Desai, Amit; Doshi, Rushabh; Gaidhane, Monica; Sharaiha, Reem Z; Kahaleh, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic fluid collections (PFCs) are a frequent complication of pancreatitis. It is important to classify PFCs to guide management. The revised Atlanta criteria classifies PFCs as acute or chronic, with chronic fluid collections subdivided into pseudocysts and walled-off pancreatic necrosis (WOPN). Establishing adequate nutritional support is an essential step in the management of PFCs. Early attempts at oral feeding can be trialed in patients with mild pancreatitis. Enteral feeding should be implemented in patients with moderate to severe pancreatitis. Jejunal feeding remains the preferred route of enteral nutrition. Symptomatic PFCs require drainage; options include surgical, percutaneous, or endoscopic approaches. With the advent of newer and more advanced endoscopic tools and expertise, and an associated reduction in health care costs, minimally invasive endoscopic drainage has become the preferable approach. An endoscopic ultrasonography-guided approach using a seldinger technique is the preferred endoscopic approach. Both plastic stents and metal stents are efficacious and safe; however, metal stents may offer an advantage, especially in infected pseudocysts and in WOPN. Direct endoscopic necrosectomy is often required in WOPN. Lumen apposing metal stents that allow for direct endoscopic necrosectomy and debridement through the stent lumen are preferred in these patients. Endoscopic retrograde cholangio pancreatography with pancreatic duct (PD) exploration should be performed concurrent to PFC drainage. PD disruption is associated with an increased severity of pancreatitis, an increased risk of recurrent attacks of pancreatitis and long-term complications, and a decreased rate of PFC resolution after drainage. Any pancreatic ductal disruption should be bridged with endoscopic stenting. PMID:26900288

  14. Factors predicting mortality in severe acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Compañy, L; Sáez, J; Martínez, J; Aparicio, J R; Laveda, R; Griñó, P; Pérez-Mateo, M

    2003-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis (AP) is a common disorder in which ensuing serious complications may lead to a fatal outcome in patients. To describe a large series of patients with severe AP (SAP) who were admitted to our hospital and to identify factors predicting mortality. In a retrospective study, all patients with SAP diagnosed between February 1996 and October 2000 according to the Atlanta criteria were studied. Out of a total of 363 AP patients, 67 developed SAP. The mean age of the patients was 69; the commonest etiology was biliary; 55.2% developed necrosis; the commonest systemic complication was respiratory failure (44.7%), followed by acute renal failure (35.8%) and shock (20.9%). A total of 31.3% of the patients died. Factors significantly related to mortality were age, upper digestive tract bleeding, acute renal failure, respiratory failure and shock by univariate analysis. However, pseudocysts seemed to have a protective effect. By multivariate analysis, independent prognostic factors were age, acute renal failure and respiratory failure. Patients with SAP mainly died due to systemic complications, especially acute renal failure and respiratory failure. Necrosis (in the absence or presence of infection) was not correlated with increased mortality. A pseudocyst was found to be a protective factor, probably because the definition itself led to the selection of patients who had survived multiorgan failure. Copyright 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel and IAP

  15. English language version of the S3-consensus guidelines on chronic pancreatitis: Definition, aetiology, diagnostic examinations, medical, endoscopic and surgical management of chronic pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Hoffmeister, A; Mayerle, J; Beglinger, C; Büchler, M W; Bufler, P; Dathe, K; Fölsch, U R; Friess, H; Izbicki, J; Kahl, S; Klar, E; Keller, J; Knoefel, W T; Layer, P; Loehr, M; Meier, R; Riemann, J F; Rünzi, M; Schmid, R M; Schreyer, A; Tribl, B; Werner, J; Witt, H; Mössner, J; Lerch, M M

    2015-12-01

    Chronic pancreatitis is a disease of the pancreas in which recurrent inflammatory episodes result in replacement of pancreatic parenchyma by fibrous connective tissue. This fibrotic reorganization of the pancreas leads to a progressive exocrine and endocrine pancreatic insufficiency. In addition, characteristic complications arise, such as pseudocysts, pancreatic duct obstructions, duodenal obstruction, vascular complications, obstruction of the bile ducts, malnutrition and pain syndrome. Pain presents as the main symptom of patients with chronic pancreatitis. Chronic pancreatitis is a risk factor for pancreatic carcinoma. Chronic pancreatitis significantly reduces the quality of life and the life expectancy of affected patients. These guidelines were researched and compiled by 74 representatives from 11 learned societies and their intention is to serve evidence-based professional training as well as continuing education. On this basis they shall improve the medical care of affected patients in both the inpatient and outpatient sector. Chronic pancreatitis requires an adequate diagnostic workup and systematic management, given its severity, frequency, chronicity, and negative impact on the quality of life and life expectancy. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. Pancreatic Enzymes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Contributions to the Pancreatic Cancer Action Network are tax-deductible to the extent permitted by law. The Pancreatic Cancer Action Network’s tax identification number is #33-0841281. Our 13th Consecutive ...

  17. Acute pancreatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... that lead to high blood levels of triglycerides. Alternative Names Gallstone pancreatitis; Pancreas - inflammation Patient Instructions Pancreatitis - ... any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed physician should ...

  18. The management of complex pancreatic injuries.

    PubMed

    Krige, J E J; Beningfield, S J; Nicol, A J; Navsaria, P

    2005-08-01

    Major injuries of the pancreas are uncommon, but may result in considerable morbidity and mortality because of the magnitude of associated vascular and duodenal injuries or underestimation of the extent of the pancreatic injury. Prognosis is influenced by the cause and complexity of the pancreatic injury, the amount of blood lost, duration of shock, speed of resuscitation and quality and nature of surgical intervention. Early mortality usually results from uncontrolled or massive bleeding due to associated vascular and adjacent organ injuries. Late mortality is a consequence of infection or multiple organ failure. Neglect of major pancreatic duct injury may lead to life-threatening complications including pseudocysts, fistulas, pancreatitis, sepsis and secondary haemorrhage. Careful operative assessment to determine the extent of gland damage and the likelihood of duct injury is usually sufficient to allow planning of further management. This strategy provides a simple approach to the management of pancreatic injuries regardless of the cause. Four situations are defined by the extent and site of injury: (i) minor lacerations, stabs or gunshot wounds of the superior or inferior border of the body or tail of the pancreas (i.e. remote from the main pancreatic duct), without visible duct involvement, are best managed by external drainage; (ii) major lacerations or gunshot or stab wounds in the body or tail with visible duct involvement or transection of more than half the width of the pancreas are treated by distal pancreatectomy; (iii) stab wounds, gunshot wounds and contusions of the head of the pancreas without devitalisation of pancreatic tissue are managed by external drainage, provided that any associated duodenal injury is amenable to simple repair; and (iv) non-reconstructable injuries with disruption of the ampullary-biliary-pancreatic union or major devitalising injuries of the pancreatic head and duodenum in stable patients are best treated by

  19. External pancreatic fistula as a sequel to management of acute severe necrotizing pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Sikora, Sadiq S; Khare, Ritu; Srikanth, Gadiyaram; Kumar, Ashok; Saxena, Rajan; Kapoor, Vinay K

    2005-01-01

    External pancreatic fistula (EPF) is a common sequel to surgical or percutaneous intervention for infective complications of acute severe pancreatitis. The present study was aimed at studying the clinical profile, course and outcome of patients with EPF following surgical or percutaneous management of these infective complications. A retrospective analysis of clinical data of patients with EPF following intervention (surgical or percutaneous) for acute severe pancreatitis managed between January 1989 and April 2002 recorded on a prospective database was done. Univariate analysis of various factors (etiology, imaging findings prior to intervention, fistula characteristics and management) that could predict early closure of fistula was performed. Of 210 patients with acute severe pancreatitis, 43 (20%) patients developed EPF (mean age 38 (range 16-78) years, M:F ratio 5:1) following intervention for infected pancreatic necrosis (n=23) and pancreatic abscess (n=20) and constituted the study group. The fistula output was categorized as low (<200 ml), moderate (200-500 ml) and high (>500 ml) in 29 (67%), 11 (26%) and 3 (7%) patients, respectively. Fifteen patients (35%) had morbidity in the form of abscess (n=5), bleeding (n=1), pseudoaneurysm (n=2) and fever with no other focus of infection (n=7). Spontaneous closure of the fistula occurred in 38 (88%) patients. The average time to closure of fistula was 109+/- 26 (median 70) days. Fistula closed after intervention in 5 patients (2 after endoscopic papillotomy, 1 after fistulojejunostomy and 2 after downsizing the drains). Of the 38 patients with spontaneous closure, 9 (24%) patients developed a pseudocyst after a mean interval of 123 days of which 7 underwent surgical drainage of the cyst. Univariate analysis of various factors (etiology, imaging findings prior to intervention, fistula characteristics and management) failed to identify any factors that could predict early closure of fistula. EPF is a common sequel

  20. New developments in endoscopic treatment of chronic pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Didden, P; Bruno, M; Poley, J W

    2012-12-01

    The aim of endoscopic therapy of chronic pancreatitis (CP) is to treat pain by draining the pancreatic duct or managing loco-regional complications. Recent decennia were characterized by continuous improvement of endoscopic techniques and devices, resulting in a better clinical outcome. Novel developments now also provide the opportunity to endoscopically treat refractory CP-related complications. Especially suboptimal surgical candidates could potentially benefit from these new developments, consequently avoiding invasive surgery. The use of fully covered self-expandable metal stents (SEMS) has been explored in pancreatic and CP-related biliary duct strictures, resistant to conventional treatment with plastic endoprotheses. Furthermore, endosonography-guided transmural drainage of the main pancreatic duct via duct-gastrostomy is an alternative treatment option in selected cases. Pancreatic pseudocysts represent an excellent indication for endoscopic therapy with some recent case series demonstrating effective drainage with the use of a fully covered SEMS. Although results of these new endoscopic developments are promising, high quality randomized trials are required to determine their definite role in the management of chronic pancreatitis.

  1. Management of pancreatic and duodenal injuries in pediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Plancq, M C; Villamizar, J; Ricard, J; Canarelli, J P

    2000-01-01

    Diagnosis of duodenal and pancreatic injuries is frequently delayed, and optimal treatment is often controversial. Fourteen children with duodenal and/or pancreatic injuries secondary to blunt trauma were treated between 1980 and 1997. The pancreas was injured in all but 1 child. An associated duodenal injury was present in 4. The preoperative diagnosis was suspected in only 6 patients based on clinical signs and ultrasonography. One patient was treated successfully conservatively; all the others required surgical management. At operation, three procedures were used: peripancreatic drainage, suture of the gland or duodenum with drainage, and primary distal pancreatic resection without splenectomy. A duodenal resection with reconstruction by duodeno-duodenostomy was performed in 1 case. The overall complication rate was 14%: 1 fistula and 1 pseudocyst. Pancreatic ductal transection was recognized 3 days after the initial laparotomy by endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). The mortality was 7%; 1 patient died from septic and neurologic complications. When the diagnosis of pancreatic ductal injuries is a major problem, ERCP may be a useful diagnostic procedure. Pancreatic injuries without a transected duct may often be treated conservatively. The surgical or conservative management of duodenal hematomas is still controversial; other duodenal injuries often need surgical treatment.

  2. Pancreatic Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Maitra, Anirban; Hruban, Ralph H.

    2009-01-01

    The past two decades have witnessed an explosion in our understanding of pancreatic cancer, and it is now clear that pancreatic cancer is a disease of inherited (germ-line) and somatic gene mutations. The genes mutated in pancreatic cancer include KRAS2, p16/CDKN2A, TP53, and SMAD4/DPC4, and these are accompanied by a substantial compendium of genomic and transcriptomic alterations that facilitate cell cycle deregulation, cell survival, invasion, and metastases. Pancreatic cancers do not arise de novo, and three distinct precursor lesions have been identified. Experimental models of pancreatic cancer have been developed in genetically engineered mice, which recapitulate the multistep progression of the cognate human disease. Although the putative cell of origin for pancreatic cancer remains elusive, minor populations of cells with stem-like properties have been identified that appear responsible for tumor initiation, metastases, and resistance of pancreatic cancer to conventional therapies. PMID:18039136

  3. Surgical management of chronic pancreatitis: current utilization in the United States.

    PubMed

    Bliss, Lindsay A; Yang, Catherine J; Eskander, Mariam F; de Geus, Susanna W L; Callery, Mark P; Kent, Tara S; Moser, A James; Freedman, Steven D; Tseng, Jennifer F

    2015-09-01

    Surgical intervention is uncommon in chronic pancreatitis. Literature largely describes single institution or international experiences. This study describes US-based chronic pancreatitis surgical management. Retrospective analysis of chronic pancreatitis patients in the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project Florida State Inpatient Database 2007-2011. Patients with malignancy or congenital abnormalities were excluded. Univariate analysis using the chi-square test. The number of readmissions, inpatient length of stay and cost using Wilcoxon's signed-rank test. Multivariate analysis of surgery by logistic regression. Twenty-one thousand four hundred and forty-five patients with chronic pancreatitis. 10.8% (2 307) underwent surgery including 1652 cholecystectomies, 564 drainage procedures and 498 pancreatectomies. Procedures decreased from 12.1% to 8.3% over time (P < 0.001), but intervention within 3 months increased (7.2% to 8.4%; P = 0.017). 15.3% (3 278) had pancreatic cysts/pseudocysts and 43.4% (9 312) had diabetes. The median numbers of admissions were 2 [interquartile range (IQR) 1,5] and 3 (IQR 2,7) among non-surgical and surgical patients, respectively (P < 0.001). Predictors of surgery were fewer co-morbidities, private insurance, and either diabetes mellitus or pancreatic cyst/pseudocyst. Chronic pancreatitis leads to numerous inpatient readmissions, but surgical intervention only occurs in a minority of cases. Complicated patients are more likely to undergo surgery. The complexities of chronic pancreatitis management warrant early multidisciplinary evaluation and ongoing consideration of surgical and non-surgical options. © 2015 International Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Association.

  4. Pancreatic trauma

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharya, S

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Pancreatic trauma occurs in approximately 4% of all patients sustaining abdominal injuries. The pancreas has an intimate relationship with the major upper abdominal vessels, and there is significant morbidity and mortality associated with severe pancreatic injury. Immediate resuscitation and investigations are essential to delineate the nature of the injury, and to plan further management. If main pancreatic duct injuries are identified, specialised input from a tertiary hepatopancreaticobiliary (HPB) team is advised. Methods A comprehensive online literature search was performed using PubMed. Relevant articles from international journals were selected. The search terms used were: ‘pancreatic trauma’, ‘pancreatic duct injury’, ‘radiology AND pancreas injury’, ‘diagnosis of pancreatic trauma’, and ‘management AND surgery’. Articles that were not published in English were excluded. All articles used were selected on relevance to this review and read by both authors. Results Pancreatic trauma is rare and associated with injury to other upper abdominal viscera. Patients present with non-specific abdominal findings and serum amylase is of little use in diagnosis. Computed tomography is effective in diagnosing pancreatic injury but not duct disruption, which is most easily seen on endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreaticography or operative pancreatography. If pancreatic injury is suspected, inspection of the entire pancreas and duodenum is required to ensure full evaluation at laparotomy. The operative management of pancreatic injury depends on the grade of injury found at laparotomy. The most important prognostic factor is main duct disruption and, if found, reconstructive options should be determined by an experienced HPB surgeon. Conclusions The diagnosis of pancreatic trauma requires a high index of suspicion and detailed imaging studies. Grading pancreatic injury is important to guide operative management. The most important

  5. Pancreatic trauma.

    PubMed

    Lahiri, R; Bhattacharya, S

    2013-05-01

    Pancreatic trauma occurs in approximately 4% of all patients sustaining abdominal injuries. The pancreas has an intimate relationship with the major upper abdominal vessels, and there is significant morbidity and mortality associated with severe pancreatic injury. Immediate resuscitation and investigations are essential to delineate the nature of the injury, and to plan further management. If main pancreatic duct injuries are identified, specialised input from a tertiary hepatopancreaticobiliary (HPB) team is advised. A comprehensive online literature search was performed using PubMed. Relevant articles from international journals were selected. The search terms used were: 'pancreatic trauma', 'pancreatic duct injury', 'radiology AND pancreas injury', 'diagnosis of pancreatic trauma', and 'management AND surgery'. Articles that were not published in English were excluded. All articles used were selected on relevance to this review and read by both authors. Pancreatic trauma is rare and associated with injury to other upper abdominal viscera. Patients present with non-specific abdominal findings and serum amylase is of little use in diagnosis. Computed tomography is effective in diagnosing pancreatic injury but not duct disruption, which is most easily seen on endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreaticography or operative pancreatography. If pancreatic injury is suspected, inspection of the entire pancreas and duodenum is required to ensure full evaluation at laparotomy. The operative management of pancreatic injury depends on the grade of injury found at laparotomy. The most important prognostic factor is main duct disruption and, if found, reconstructive options should be determined by an experienced HPB surgeon. The diagnosis of pancreatic trauma requires a high index of suspicion and detailed imaging studies. Grading pancreatic injury is important to guide operative management. The most important prognostic factor is pancreatic duct disruption and in these cases

  6. Chronic pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Dennis; Forsmark, Chris E

    2017-09-01

    Summarize key clinical advances in chronic pancreatitis reported in 2016. Early diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis remains elusive. Recent studies suggest that endoscopic ultrasound may be less accurate than previously thought and new MRI techniques may be helpful. Genetic predisposition may independently affect the clinical course of chronic pancreatitis and the risk for pancreatic cancer. Cigarette smoking may have a greater negative impact on chronic pancreatitis than previously thought and moderate alcohol consumption may be protective. A multidisciplinary approach is necessary for the treatment of type 3 diabetes and nutritional deficiencies in chronic pancreatitis. Although endoscopic therapy remains a reasonable first-line option in treating chronic pancreatitis and its complications, early surgical intervention may be indicated for pain in select patients. Newer endoscopic ultrasound and MRI techniques are being evaluated to help with the early diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis. Both genetic predisposition and cigarette smoking are increasingly recognized as having a major impact in the course of the disease and the risk for pancreatic cancer. Endoscopic therapy is well tolerated and effective for the treatment of chronic pancreatitis and its complications although an early surgical approach for pain may be associated with improved clinical outcomes.

  7. Natural resolution or intervention for fluid collections in acute severe pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Sarathi Patra, P; Das, K; Bhattacharyya, A; Ray, S; Hembram, J; Sanyal, S; Dhali, G K

    2014-12-01

    Revisions in terminology of fluid collections in acute pancreatitis have necessitated reanalysis of their evolution and outcome. The course of fluid collections in patients with acute pancreatitis was evaluated prospectively. Consecutive adults with acute pancreatitis, who had contrast-enhanced CT (CECT) within 5-7 days of symptom onset, were enrolled in a prospective cohort study in a tertiary-care centre. Patients were treated according to standard guidelines. Follow-up transabdominal ultrasonography was done at 4-week intervals for at least 6 months. CECT was repeated at 6-10 weeks, or at any time if there were new or persistent symptoms. Asymptomatic collections were followed until spontaneous resolution. Risk factors for pancreatic pseudocysts or walled-off necrosis (WON) were assessed in multivariable analyses. Of 122 patients with acute pancreatitis, 109 were analysed. Some 91 patients (83·5 per cent) had fluid collections at baseline. Eleven of 29 with interstitial oedematous pancreatitis had acute peripancreatic fluid collections, none of which evolved into pseudocysts. All 80 patients with acute necrotizing pancreatitis had at least one acute necrotizing collection (ANC); of these, five patients died (2 after drainage), three underwent successful drainage within 5 weeks, and collections resolved spontaneously in 33 and evolved into WON in 39. By 6 months' follow-up, WON had required drainage in eight patients, resolved spontaneously in 23 and was persistent but asymptomatic in seven. Factors associated with increased risk of WON were blood urea nitrogen 20 mg/dl or more (odds ratio (OR) 10·96, 95 per cent c.i. 2·57 to 46·73; P = 0·001) and baseline ANC diameter greater than 6 cm (OR 14·57, 1·60 to 132·35; P = 0·017). Baseline ANC diameter over 6 cm was the only independent predictor of either the need for drainage or persistence of such collections beyond 6 months (hazard ratio 6·61, 1·77 to 24·59; P = 0·005

  8. Pentoxifylline Treatment in Acute Pancreatitis (AP)

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-02-21

    Acute Pancreatitis (AP); Gallstone Pancreatitis; Alcoholic Pancreatitis; Post-ERCP/Post-procedural Pancreatitis; Trauma Acute Pancreatitis; Hypertriglyceridemia Acute Pancreatitis; Idiopathic (Unknown) Acute Pancreatitis; Medication Induced Acute Pancreatitis; Cancer Acute Pancreatitis; Miscellaneous (i.e. Acute on Chronic Pancreatitis)

  9. Chronic pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Majumder, Shounak; Chari, Suresh T

    2016-05-07

    Chronic pancreatitis describes a wide spectrum of fibro-inflammatory disorders of the exocrine pancreas that includes calcifying, obstructive, and steroid-responsive forms. Use of the term chronic pancreatitis without qualification generally refers to calcifying chronic pancreatitis. Epidemiology is poorly defined, but incidence worldwide seems to be on the rise. Smoking, drinking alcohol, and genetic predisposition are the major risk factors for chronic calcifying pancreatitis. In this Seminar, we discuss the clinical features, diagnosis, and management of chronic calcifying pancreatitis, focusing on pain management, the role of endoscopic and surgical intervention, and the use of pancreatic enzyme-replacement therapy. Management of patients is often challenging and necessitates a multidisciplinary approach. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Filled Craters

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-05-11

    This MOC image shows adjacent impact craters located north-northwest of the Acheron Fossae region of Mars. The two craters are of similar size and formed by meteor impacts. However, one is much more filled than the other, indicating that it is older

  11. Chronic pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Gupte, Anand R; Forsmark, Chris E

    2014-09-01

    We review selected important clinical observations in chronic pancreatitis reported in 2013. Early diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis remains difficult, although newer techniques utilizing endoscopic ultrasonography-elastography and MRI hold promise. Patients with chronic pancreatitis are at risk of nutritional deficiencies. Osteoporosis, osteopenia, and bone fracture are particularly common in these patients, and require active intervention and treatment. Diabetes caused by chronic pancreatitis, type 3c diabetes, has specific characteristics and requires careful management. Antioxidants and neuromodulators may decrease pain in some patients with chronic pancreatitis. Endoscopic treatment is effective and can be utilized in patients with painful chronic pancreatitis, although randomized trials demonstrate that surgical therapy is somewhat more durable and effective. Although surgery has typically been a last resort, some advocate early surgical intervention but the optimal time remains unknown. Early diagnosis of pancreatitis may be improved by newer techniques associated with endoscopic ultrasonography imaging. Treatment of nutritional deficiencies and diabetes is an important aspect of treating chronic pancreatitis. Pain relief with adjunct means of pain modulation should be tried before starting narcotics for pain control. Endoscopic therapy is appropriate for treating chronic pancreatitis and its local complications and surgical intervention can be considered early in carefully selected individuals.

  12. Acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Talukdar, Rupjyoti; Vege, Santhi S

    2015-09-01

    To summarize recent data on classification systems, cause, risk factors, severity prediction, nutrition, and drug treatment of acute pancreatitis. Comparison of the Revised Atlanta Classification and Determinant Based Classification has shown heterogeneous results. Simvastatin has a protective effect against acute pancreatitis. Young black male, alcohol, smoldering symptoms, and subsequent diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis are risk factors associated with readmissions after acute pancreatitis. A reliable clinical or laboratory marker or a scoring system to predict severity is lacking. The PYTHON trial has shown that oral feeding with on demand nasoenteric tube feeding after 72 h is as good as nasoenteric tube feeding within 24 h in preventing infections in predicted severe acute pancreatitis. Male sex, multiple organ failure, extent of pancreatic necrosis, and heterogeneous collection are factors associated with failure of percutaneous drainage of pancreatic collections. The newly proposed classification systems of acute pancreatitis need to be evaluated more critically. New biomarkers are needed for severity prediction. Further well designed studies are required to assess the type of enteral nutritional formulations for acute pancreatitis. The optimal minimally invasive method or combination to debride the necrotic collections is evolving. There is a great need for a drug to treat the disease early on to prevent morbidity and mortality.

  13. TRAUMATIC PANCREATITIS

    PubMed Central

    Berne, Clarence J.; Walters, Robert L.

    1953-01-01

    Traumatic pancreatitis should be considered as a diagnostic possibility when trauma to the epigastrium is followed by phenomena suggestive of intra-abdominal injury. The presence or absence of hyperamylasemia should be established immediately. Even when traumatic pancreatitis is believed to exist, any suggestion of injury to other viscera should indicate laparotomy. Retroperitoneal rupture of the duodenum may simulate traumatic pancreatitis in all respects, including hyperamylasemia. X-ray studies may be of value in differentiation. Non-complicated traumatic pancreatitis is best treated conservatively. Gunshot and knife wounds of the pancreas should be drained. PMID:13094537

  14. Prenatal MR imaging of a meconium pseudocyst extending to the right subphrenic space with right lung compression.

    PubMed

    Wong, Alex M; Toh, Cheng-Hong; Lien, Reyin; Chao, An-Shine; Wong, Ho-Fai; Ng, Koon-Kwan

    2006-11-01

    Meconium pseudocyst results from a loculated inflammation occurring in response to spillage of meconium into the peritoneal cavity after a bowel perforation. Certain cystic lesions, such as abscesses and dermoid and epidermoid cysts, are known to show reduced water diffusion on DWI. MRI has recently become a valuable adjunct to ultrasonography for fetal gastrointestinal anomalies. Complementary to ultrasonography, prenatal MRI can help further characterize the lesion and can clearly demonstrate the anatomical relationship between the lesion and adjacent organs. We report a case of meconium pseudocyst that was prenatally imaged with ultrasonography and MRI, postnatally complicated by pneumoperitoneum, and proved by postnatal surgery and histopathology. We emphasize the MRI of the pseudocyst, particularly T1-weighted and diffusion-weighted imaging.

  15. Traumatic pulmonary pseudocysts after blunt chest trauma: Prevalence, mechanisms of injury, and computed tomography findings.

    PubMed

    Cho, Hyun Jin; Jeon, Yang Bin; Ma, Dae Sung; Lee, Jung Nam; Chung, Min

    2015-09-01

    Traumatic pulmonary pseudocyst (TPP) is a rare complication of blunt chest trauma and closely related with severe injury. However, it has been poorly documented. We present a retrospective review of TPP cases treated at our hospital. The medical records and chest computed tomography scans of patients with TPP treated from January 2010 to December 2013 were retrospectively studied. A total of 978 patients underwent chest computed tomography for blunt chest trauma during the study period, and 81 (8.3%) had a total of 150 TPPs. The most common mechanism of injury was being struck by a motorized vehicle (n = 25, 30.9%). The mean (SD) Injury Severity Score (ISS) of the 81 patients was 33.2 (11.4). The prevalence of TPP was higher in younger patients (p = 0.011), but the total number of fractured ribs was significantly lower (p = 0.001). In a subgroup analysis performed according to pseudocyst location, the intraparenchymal group had more severe injuries than the subpleural group (ISS, 23.3 vs. 32.4, p < 0.001; chest Abbreviated Injury Scale [AIS] score, 3.4 vs. 4.0, p < 0.001; number of associated injuries, 2.9 vs. 4.0, p = 0.001). By multivariate analysis, ISS, age, and number of associated injuries were significantly different in these two groups (p = 0.038, p = 0.006, and p = 0.045, respectively). The prevalence of TPP among cases of blunt chest trauma was 8.3% and was higher in those struck by a vehicle and younger patients. Intraparenchymal pseudocyst was found to be related to more severe injuries. TPP was a self-limiting condition that does not require specific treatment. Prognostic/epidemiologic study, level IV.

  16. Advances in the endoscopic management of pancreatic collections.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Clavijo, David; de la Higuera, Belen González; Vila, Juan J

    2015-04-16

    Treatment of pancreatic collections has experienced great progress in recent years with the emergence of alternative minimally invasive techniques comparing to the classic surgical treatment. Such techniques have been shown to improve outcomes of morbidity vs surgical treatment. The recent emergence of endoscopic drainage is noteworthy. The advent of endoscopic ultrasonography has been crucial for treatment of these specific lesions. They can be characterized, their relationships with neighboring structures can be evaluated and the drainage guided by this technique has been clearly improved compared with the conventional endoscopic drainage. Computed tomography is the technique of choice to characterize the recently published new classification of pancreatic collections. For this reason, the radiologist's role establishing and classifying in a rigorously manner the collections according to the new nomenclature is essential to making therapeutic decisions. Ideal scenario for comprehensive treatment of these collections would be those centers with endoscopic ultrasound and interventional radiology expertise together with hepatobiliopancreatic surgery. This review describes the different types of pancreatic collections: acute peripancreatic fluid collection, pancreatic pseudocysts, acute necrotic collection and walled-off necrosis; the indications and the contraindications for endoscopic drainage, the drainage technique and their outcomes. The integrated management of pancreatic collections according to their type and evolution time is discussed.

  17. Lumen apposing metal stents for pancreatic fluid collections: Recognition and management of complications.

    PubMed

    DeSimone, Michael L; Asombang, Akwi W; Berzin, Tyler M

    2017-09-16

    For patients recovering from acute pancreatitis, the development of a pancreatic fluid collection (PFC) predicts a more complex course of recovery, and introduces difficult management decisions with regard to when, whether, and how the collection should be drained. Most PFCs resolve spontaneously and drainage is indicated only in pseudocysts and walled-off pancreatic necrosis when the collections are causing symptoms and/or local complications such as biliary obstruction. Historical approaches to PFC drainage have included surgical (open or laparoscopic cystgastrostomy or pancreatic debridement), and the placement of percutaneous drains. Endoscopic drainage techniques have emerged in the last several years as the preferred approach for most patients, when local expertise is available. Lumen-apposing metal stents (LAMS) have recently been developed as a tool to facilitate potentially safer and easier endoscopic drainage of pancreatic fluid collections, and less commonly, for other indications, such as gallbladder drainage. Physicians considering LAMS placement must be aware of the complications most commonly associated with LAMS including bleeding, migration, buried stent, stent occlusion, and perforation. Because of the patient complexity associated with severe pancreatitis, management of pancreatic fluid collections can be a complex and multidisciplinary endeavor. Successful and safe use of LAMS for patients with pancreatic fluid collections requires that the endoscopist have a full understanding of the potential complications of LAMS techniques, including how to recognize and manage expected complications.

  18. CT and MRI assessment of symptomatic organized pancreatic fluid collections and pancreatic duct disruption: an interreader variability study using the revised Atlanta classification 2012.

    PubMed

    Kamal, Ayesha; Singh, Vikesh K; Akshintala, Venkata S; Kawamoto, Satomi; Tsai, Salina; Haider, Maera; Fishman, Elliot K; Kamel, Ihab R; Zaheer, Atif

    2015-08-01

    Compare CT and MRI for fluid/debris component estimate and pancreatic duct (PD) communication with organized pancreatic fluid collections in acute pancreatitis. Evaluate fat density globules on CT as marker for debris. 29 Patients with 46 collections with CECT and MRI performed ≥4 weeks of symptom onset assessed for necrotizing pancreatitis, estimated percentage of fluid volume and PD involvement by two radiologists on separate occasions. T2WI used as standard for estimated percentage of fluid volume. Presence of fat globules and fluid attenuation on CT was recorded. Spearman rank correlation and kappa statistics were used to assess the correlation between imaging techniques and interreader agreement, respectively. Necrotizing pancreatitis seen on CT in 27 (93%, κ 0.119) vs. 20 (69%, κ 0.748) patients on MRI. CT identified 42 WON and 4 pseudocysts vs. 34 WON, and 12 pseudocysts on MRI. Higher interreader agreement for percentage fluid volume on MRI (κ = 0.55) vs. CT (κ = 0.196). Accuracy of CT in evaluation of percentage fluid volume was 65% using T2WI MRI used as standard. Fat globules identified on CT in 13(65%) out of 20 collections containing <75% fluid vs. 4(15%) out of 26 collections containing >75% fluid (p = 0.0001). PD involvement confidently excluded on CT in 68% collections vs. 93% on MRI. MRI demonstrates higher reproducibility for fluid to debris component estimation. Fat globules on CT were frequently seen in organized pancreatic fluid collections with large amount of debris. PD disruption more confidently excluded on MRI. This information may be helpful for pre-procedure planning.

  19. Transforaminal Endoscopic Decompression for a Giant Epidural Gas-Containing Pseudocyst: A Case Report and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Bin; Jiang, Liang; Liu, Xiao Guang

    2017-03-01

    The isolated epidural gas-containing pseudocyst is an uncommon pathogenic factor for severe pain of the lower limb as a result of nerve root compression. After reviewing these rare cases reported in the literature, we found that the name, pathogenesis, and treatment strategy of this pathology remained controversial. The most common treatment is conservative treatment or percutaneous aspiration which might result inpoor pain relief and high recurrence rates. Moreover, the patient who received open surgery had good clinical outcome; however, he or she might experience a significant soft tissue injury.In this study, we report the first case of a patient who had a giant epidural gas-containing pseudocyst and received percutaneous endoscopic surgery. This 57-year-old man had been complaining of severe radicular pain in his right ankle for one year. According to computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) prior to the surgery, the results showed an isolated epidural gas-containing pseudocyst was located in the right lateral recess of S1. At the last follow-up period, postoperative CT scan showed the gas-contained pseudocyst was completely resected and this patient was free from the pain.Due to the great advances in endoscopic techniques and equipment, it is easier to perform lumbar surgery through the endoscope. With this first case of percutaneous endoscopic treatment for the symptomatic epidural gas-containing pseudocyst reported in this study, we believe that this surgical method provides an option to treat this rare condition because it provides sufficient decompression, has a low recurrence rate, and is minimally invasive. Key words: Endoscopic surgery, pseudocyst, epidural gas, intraspinal gas, radiulopathy.

  20. Pancreatitis in Children.

    PubMed

    Sathiyasekaran, Malathi; Biradar, Vishnu; Ramaswamy, Ganesh; Srinivas, S; Ashish, B; Sumathi, B; Nirmala, D; Geetha, M

    2016-11-01

    Pancreatic disease in children has a wide clinical spectrum and may present as Acute pancreatitis (AP), Acute recurrent pancreatitis (ARP), Chronic pancreatitis (CP) and Pancreatic disease without pancreatitis. This article highlights the etiopathogenesis and management of pancreatitis in children along with clinical data from five tertiary care hospitals in south India [Chennai (3), Cochin and Pune].

  1. Pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Vincent, Audrey; Herman, Joseph; Schulick, Rich; Hruban, Ralph H; Goggins, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Substantial progress has been made in our understanding of the biology of pancreatic cancer, and advances in patients’ management have also taken place. Evidence is beginning to show that screening first-degree relatives of individuals with several family members affected by pancreatic cancer can identify non-invasive precursors of this malignant disease. The incidence of and number of deaths caused by pancreatic tumours have been gradually rising, even as incidence and mortality of other common cancers have been declining. Despite developments in detection and management of pancreatic cancer, only about 4% of patients will live 5 years after diagnosis. Survival is better for those with malignant disease localised to the pancreas, because surgical resection at present offers the only chance of cure. Unfortunately, 80–85% of patients present with advanced unresectable disease. Furthermore, pancreatic cancer responds poorly to most chemotherapeutic agents. Hence, we need to understand the biological mechanisms that contribute to development and progression of pancreatic tumours. In this Seminar we will discuss the most common and deadly form of pancreatic cancer, pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. PMID:21620466

  2. Pancreatic surgery.

    PubMed

    Donahue, Timothy R; Reber, Howard A

    2013-09-01

    To summarize published research on pancreatic surgery over the past year. A number of studies aiming to reduce the costs associated with pancreatic surgery were reported. Retrospective analyses confirmed previous findings that neither the routine use of pancreatic duct stents decreases the rate of fistula formation nor does placement of a drain at the time of surgery change the morbidity in patients who develop one. Minimally invasive approaches, both laparoscopic and robot-assisted, are being performed more frequently to remove pancreatic cancers. A randomized trial confirmed that reinforcement of stapled closure during distal pancreatectomy reduces the rate of fistula formation. Controversy remains over whether small pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors need to be surgically resected or can be treated nonoperatively. Patients with chronic pancreatitis should be screened thoroughly before being offered surgical treatment; two studies reported preoperative factors that can be used to identify those most likely to experience pain relief. Studies published on pancreatic surgery last year focused on a wide-range of topics. The morbidity and mortality of patients undergoing pancreatic surgery continues to improve, and we anticipate that incorporation of these new findings will lead to even better outcomes.

  3. Central pancreatectomy for benign pancreatic pathology/trauma: is it a reasonable pancreas-preserving conservative surgical strategy alternative to standard major pancreatic resection?

    PubMed

    Johnson, Maria A; Rajendran, Shanmugasundaram; Balachandar, Tirupporur G; Kannan, Devy G; Jeswanth, Satyanesan; Ravichandran, Palaniappan; Surendran, Rajagopal

    2006-11-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the technical feasibility, safety and outcome of central pancreatectomy (CP) with pancreaticogastrostomy or pancreaticojejunostomy in appropriately selected patients with benign central pancreatic pathology/trauma. Benign lesions/trauma of the pancreatic neck and proximal body pose an interesting surgical challenge. CP is an operation that allows resection of benign tumours located in the pancreatic isthmus that are not suitable for enucleation. Between January 2000 and December 2005, eight central pancreatectomies were carried out. There were six women and two men with a mean age of 35.7 years. The cephalic pancreatic stump is oversewn and the distal stump is anastomosed end-to-end with a Roux-en-Y jejunal loop in two and with the stomach in six patients. The indications for CP were: non-functional islet cell tumours in two patients, traumatic pancreatic neck transection in two and one each for insulinoma, solid pseudopapillary tumour, splenic artery pseudoaneurysm and pseudocyst. Pancreatic exocrine function was evaluated by a questionnaire method. Endocrine function was evaluated by blood glucose level. Morbidity rate was 37.5% with no operative mortality. Mean postoperative hospital stay was 10.5 days. Neither of the patients developed pancreatic fistula nor required reoperations or interventional radiological procedures. At a mean follow up of 26.4 months, no patient had evidence of endocrine or exocrine pancreatic insufficiency, all the patients were alive and well without clinical and imaging evidence of disease recurrence. When technically feasible, CP is a safe, pancreas-preserving pancreatectomy for non-enucleable benign pancreatic pathology/trauma confined to pancreatic isthmus that allows for cure of the disease without loss of substantial amount of normal pancreatic parenchyma with preservation of exocrine/endocrine function and without interruption of enteric continuity.

  4. Hereditary pancreatitis of 3 Chinese children

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Li-Na; Chen, Ying-Wei; Yan, Wei-Hui; Lu, Li-Na; Tao, Yi-Jing; Cai, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Hereditary pancreatitis (HP) is quite rare and is distinguished by incomplete penetrance presentation as early-onset relapsing pancreatitis, usually beginning in childhood. HP is now known to be commonly relevant to mutations in the PRSS1 (gene-encoding cationic trypsinogen), SPINK1 (serine protease inhibitor, Kazal type 1), CFTR (cystic fibrosis), carboxypeptidase A1 (CPA1), and chymotrypsin C (CTRC) genes as reported in some Caucasian studies. HP has a variable spectrum of severity and may develop complications. Methods & Results: We describe the clinical course of 3 preschool children, hospitalized with postprandial abdominal pain, whose laboratory tests showed high serum amylase. Similar episodes of abdominal pain led to readmission, and the patients recovered quickly after using symptomatic therapy. The condition of the first boy, who developed a pancreatic tail pseudocyst and splenic infarction, was especially complicated. The boy underwent 2 endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatographies and stenting, along with a surgical procedure that completely relieved his symptoms for 3 months. The 3 patients and their parents were given genetic testing. All of the patients carried 1 or more gene mutations inherited from their mothers, fathers, or both parents; however, none of the parents were affected. Conclusion: For children with repeated pancreatitis, clinicians should consider HP in the differential diagnosis. It is reliable to perform gene sequencing on suspicious patients and their parents. Multidisciplinary and comprehensive treatment should be recommended to manage HP and its complications. Cholangiopancreatography and stenting is a relatively minimally invasive approach when compared with surgery and can be tried as an early intervention. Surgical procedures should be reserved for patients with complications. PMID:27603351

  5. Acute Hemorrhage into Adrenal Pseudocyst Presenting with Shock: Diagnostic Dilemmas — Report of Three Cases and Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Sivasankar, Amarapathy; Jeswanth, Sathyanesan; Johnson, Maria Antony; Ravichandran, Palaniappan; Rajendran, Shanmugasundaram; Kannan, Devy Gounder; Surendran, Rajagopal

    2006-01-01

    We report three cases of acutely bleeding adrenal pseudocysts presenting as hemorrhagic shock. Pregnancy was associated in two cases. The diagnostic dilemmas are discussed with special reference to their unusual presentations, diagnosis, and treatment. We believe that our cases, complicated by intracystic hemorrhage, may be related to pregnancy. PMID:17619705

  6. Radiofrequency-induced heating versus mechanical stapler for pancreatic stump closure: in vivo comparative study.

    PubMed

    Burdío, Fernando; Dorcaratto, Dimitri; Hernandez, Lourdes; Andaluz, Anna; Moll, Xavier; Quesada, Rita; Poves, Ignasi; Grande, Luis; Cáceres, Marta; Berjano, Enrique

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the capacity of two methods of surgical pancreatic stump closure in terms of reducing the risk of pancreatic fistula formation (POPF): radiofrequency-induced heating versus mechanical stapler. Sixteen pigs underwent a laparoscopic transection of the neck of the pancreas. Pancreatic anastomosis was always avoided in order to work with an experimental model prone to POPF. Pancreatic stump closure was conducted either by stapler (ST group, n = 8) or radiofrequency energy (RF group, n = 8). Both groups were compared for incidence of POPF and histopathological alterations of the pancreatic remnant. Six animals (75%) in the ST group and one (14%) in the RF group were diagnosed with POPF (p = 0.019). One animal in the RF group and three animals in the ST group had a pseudocyst in close contact with both pancreas stumps. On day 30 post-operation (PO), almost complete atrophy of the exocrine distal pancreas was observed when the main pancreatic duct was efficiently sealed. Our findings suggest that RF-induced heating is more effective at closing the pancreatic stump than mechanical stapler and leads to the complete atrophy of the distal remnant pancreas.

  7. Short Hospitalization after Early Intervention in Managing Grade III Pancreatic Injuries in Children: A Possible New Trend

    PubMed Central

    Al-Jazaeri, Ayman H.

    2011-01-01

    The presence of ductal disruption in pancreatic trauma is a major indicator of severity leading to higher morbidities and prolonged hospital stay. However, the adoption of early interventional approach in selected cases of documented grade III pancreatic trauma could result in shorter hospitalization and early recovery. We are describing our approach of early presentation-tailored interventions in managing two consecutive children diagnosed with grade III pancreatic injuries, which constitute the two main ends of the presentations’ spectrum. For the early presenter a spleen preserving distal pancreatectomy was performed, while for the late presenter with large symptomatic pseudocyst endoscopic drainage was attempted. Both early and late presenting children had quick and uneventful recoveries leading to 5 and 6 days of hospitalization, respectively. Both cases continued to be asymptomatic at 4 and 12 months post procedure. In the pseudocyst case, the gastro-cystostomy stents were removed after 10 weeks, and 2.5 months later a completely healed pancreas was demonstrated by magnetic resonance cholangio-pancreatography. Unlike other abdominal solid organ injuries in children, adopting early presentation-tailored intervention can be associated with quicker recovery and short hospitalization for grade III pancreatic injuries. While the series is still small, achieving such remarkable outcomes in two consecutive cases is possible and could set a new trend in managing these injuries in children. PMID:21912067

  8. Extrahepatic portal venous system thrombosis in recurrent acute and chronic alcoholic pancreatitis is caused by local inflammation and not thrombophilia.

    PubMed

    Rebours, Vinciane; Boudaoud, Larbi; Vullierme, Marie-Pierre; Vidaud, Dominique; Condat, Bertrand; Hentic, Olivia; Maire, Frédérique; Hammel, Pascal; Ruszniewski, Philippe; Lévy, Philippe

    2012-10-01

    Extrahepatic portal venous system thrombosis (EPVST) occurs in 13% of patients with either recurrent acute (AP) or chronic (CP) alcoholic pancreatitis. The role of thrombophilia has never been assessed in this entity. All consecutive patients with alcoholic AP or CP were included in a prospective study. All patients underwent a computerized tomography (CT) scan of the pancreas to evaluate EPVST as well as thorough testing for thrombophilia (protein C, S, and antithrombin deficiency, factor II, factor V, and JAK2 gene mutations, homocystein, biological antiphospholipid syndrome). A total of 119 patients (male, n=100 (84%); smokers, n=110 (92%)) were included. EPVST was found in 41 patients (35%). The portal, superior mesenteric, or splenic veins were involved in 34%, 24%, and 93% of patients, respectively. Thrombophilia was identified in 18% (n=22), including the biological antiphospholipid syndrome, factor V Leiden mutation, and factor II G20210A gene mutation in 21 (17.6%), 2 (1.6%), and 1 patient (0.8%), respectively. On univariate analysis, the factors associated with EPVST were smoking (RR=1.6 (1.38-1.85), P=0.03), pseudocysts (RR=2.91 (1.29-6.56), P=0.008), a pseudocyst in the pancreatic tail (P=0.03), a high CT severity index for AP (P=0.007), and pancreatic parenchymal necrosis (P=0.02). The presence of hemostatic risk factors was not associated with an increased risk of EPVST. On multivariate analysis, only pseudocysts were associated with EPVST (hazard ratio: 6.402; 95% confidence interval (1.59-26.54), P=0.009). EPVST is found in 35% of patients with acute/chronic alcoholic pancreatitis. Local inflammation appears to be the major predisposing condition. The presence of some form of thrombophilia does not increase the risk of EPVST and should not be systematically searched for in case of EPVST.

  9. Pancreatic cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... JH, Kastan MB, Tepper JE, eds. Abeloff's Clinical Oncology . 5th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap ... Cancer Network website. NCCN clinical practice guidelines in oncology: pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Version 1.2018. www.nccn.org/ ...

  10. Pancreatitis - children

    MedlinePlus

    ... Stanton BF, St Geme JW, Schor NF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. 20th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; ... Pancreatic disease. In: Marcdante KJ, Kliegman RM, eds. Nelson Essentials of Pediatrics. 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier ...

  11. Asparaginase-associated pancreatitis in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia: an observational Ponte di Legno Toxicity Working Group study.

    PubMed

    Wolthers, Benjamin O; Frandsen, Thomas L; Baruchel, André; Attarbaschi, Andishe; Barzilai, Shlomit; Colombini, Antonella; Escherich, Gabriele; Grell, Kathrine; Inaba, Hiroto; Kovacs, Gábor; Liang, Der-Cherng; Mateos, Marion; Mondelaers, Veerle; Möricke, Anja; Ociepa, Tomasz; Samarasinghe, Sujith; Silverman, Lewis B; van der Sluis, Inge M; Stanulla, Martin; Vrooman, Lynda M; Yano, Michihiro; Zapotocka, Ester; Schmiegelow, Kjeld

    2017-09-01

    Survival for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia surpasses 90% with contemporary therapy; however, patients remain burdened by the severe toxic effects of treatment, including asparaginase-associated pancreatitis. To investigate the risk of complications and risk of re-exposing patients with asparaginase-associated pancreatitis to asparaginase, 18 acute lymphoblastic leukaemia trial groups merged data for this observational study. Patient files from 26 trials run by 18 trial groups were reviewed on children (aged 1·0-17·9 years) diagnosed with t(9;22)-negative acute lymphoblastic leukaemia between June 1, 1996, and Jan 1, 2016, who within 50 days of asparaginase exposure developed asparaginase-associated pancreatitis. Asparaginase-associated pancreatitis was defined by at least two criteria: abdominal pain, pancreatic enzymes at least three times the upper limit of normal (ULN), and imaging compatible with pancreatitis. Patients without sufficient data for diagnostic criteria were excluded. Primary outcomes were defined as acute and persisting complications of asparaginase-associated pancreatitis and risk of re-exposing patients who suffered an episode of asparaginase-associated pancreatitis to asparaginase. Data were collected from Feb 2, 2015, to June 30, 2016, and analysed and stored in a common database at Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark. Of 465 patients with asparaginase-associated pancreatitis, 33 (8%) of 424 with available data needed mechanical ventilation, 109 (26%) of 422 developed pseudocysts, acute insulin therapy was needed in 81 (21%) of 393, and seven (2%) of 458 patients died. Risk of assisted mechanical ventilation, need for insulin, pseudocysts, or death was associated with older age (median age for patients with complications 10·5 years [IQR 6·4-13·8] vs without complications 6·1 years [IQR 3·6-12·2], p<0·0001), and having one or more affected vital signs (fever, hypotension, tachycardia, or tachypnoea; 96 [44%] of 217 patients

  12. [Pancreatic trauma].

    PubMed

    Arvieux, C; Guillon, F; Létoublon, Ch; Oughriss, M

    2003-10-01

    Early diagnosis of pancreatic trauma has always been challenging because of the lack of correlation between the initial clinical symptomatology, radiologic and laboratory findings, and the severity of the injury. Thanks to the improved performance of spiral CT scanning and magnetic resonance pancreatography, it is now often possible to make an early diagnosis of pancreatic contusion, to localize the site of the injury, and (most importantly) to identify injury to the main pancreatic duct which has major implications for the management of the case. When the trauma victim is unstable, radiologic work-up may be impossible and urgent laparotomy is required. Control of hemorrhage is the primary concern here and a damage control approach with packing may be appropriate; if the pancreatic head has been destroyed, a pancreaticoduodenectomy with delayed reconstruction may be required. If the trauma victim is stable, the treatment strategy will be governed by a variety of parameters--age, clinical condition, associated local anatomic findings (pancreatitis, injury to the duodenum or biliary tract), involvement of the pancreatic duct, and localization of the injury within the gland (to right or left of the mesenteric vessels).

  13. Pancreatic Cancer Early Detection Program

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-05-12

    Pancreatic Cancer; Pancreas Cancer; Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma; Familial Pancreatic Cancer; BRCA 1/2; HNPCC; Lynch Syndrome; Hereditary Pancreatitis; FAMMM; Familial Atypical Multiple Mole Melanoma; Peutz Jeghers Syndrome

  14. Unilateral improvement in glomerular filtration rate after permanent drainage of a perinephric pseudocyst in a cat.

    PubMed

    McCord, Kelly; Steyn, Philip F; Lunn, Katharine F

    2008-07-01

    A 12-year-old, 6 kg, castrated male Siamese-cross cat was referred for investigation of an abdominal mass. The cat was found to have a left perinephric pseudocyst (PNP), accompanied by azotemia, with a small right kidney detected on ultrasound. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was determined by renal scintigraphy and was found to be low, with the left kidney contributing 64% of the total GFR. Percutaneous ultrasound-guided drainage of the PNP did not improve the GFR, and fluid reaccumulated within a short period of time. Laparoscopic fenestration of the cyst capsule was performed to allow for permanent drainage. The PNP did not recur, renal values progressively improved, and 8 months after the capsulotomy the GFR of the left kidney had increased by 50%, while renal function remained static on the right side.

  15. Immunotherapy for pancreatic cancer: present and future.

    PubMed

    Aroldi, Francesca; Zaniboni, Alberto

    2017-06-01

    Despite the identification of some efficient drugs for the treatment of metastatic pancreatic cancer, this tumor remains one of the most lethal cancers and is characterized by a strong resistance to therapies. Pancreatic cancer has some unique features including the presence of a microenvironment filled with immunosuppressive mediators and a dense stroma, which is both a physical barrier to drug penetration and a dynamic entity involved in immune system control. Therefore, the immune system has been hypothesized to play an important role in pancreatic cancer. Thus, therapies acting on innate or adaptive immunity are being investigated. Here, we review the literature, report the most interesting results and hypothesize future treatment directions.

  16. Laser Tissue Welding - Distal Pancreatectomy Sealing Study

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-04-20

    Pancreatic Tumor, Benign; Pancreatic Neoplasms; Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma; Pancreatic Pseudocyst; Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumor; Pancreas; Insulinoma; Pancreatic Cyst; Pancreatic Teratoma; Pancreatic Polypeptide Tumor; Pancreatic Vipoma; Pancreatic Cystadenoma; Pancreas Injury; Pancreatic Gastrinoma; Pancreatic Glucagonoma

  17. Predictors of severity in childhood pancreatitis: correlation with nutritional status and racial demographics.

    PubMed

    Vasilescu, Alexandra; Cuffari, Carmen; Santo Domingo, Lisa; Scheimann, Ann O

    2015-04-01

    Acute pancreatitis is one of the leading causes of rising pediatric hospitalizations in North America. The aim of this study was to assess the role of nutritional status and racial influences on the severity of acute pancreatitis in children. The institutional review board approved this retrospective chart review of children with the diagnosis of acute pancreatitis between the ages of 0 and 18 years hospitalized at the Johns Hopkins Hospital between 1998 and 2008. Parameters studied included biochemical markers associated with pancreatitis, review of severity of illness reflected through the length of stay, and pediatric intensive care unit admission. The length of in-patient hospitalization was longer for children with imaging findings of pseudocyst or pancreatic necrosis (23.1 ± 26.4 days vs 4.4 ± 10.6 days; P = 0.0074) and malnourished children versus normal weight and obese children (16.5 days for malnourished vs 10.6 days for normal weight vs 10.7 days for obese; P = 0.04). There was also a significant difference in the need for pediatric intensive care unit admission across ethnic groups (18% African American vs 7% white) (P = 0.04). Ethnicity and nutritional status may influence the severity and duration of hospitalization among children with pancreatitis.

  18. UNDERSTANDING THE INTERNATIONAL CONSENSUS FOR ACUTE PANCREATITIS: CLASSIFICATION OF ATLANTA 2012

    PubMed Central

    de SOUZA, Gleim Dias; SOUZA, Luciana Rodrigues Queiroz; CUENCA, Ronaldo Máfia; JERÔNIMO, Bárbara Stephane de Medeiros; de SOUZA, Guilherme Medeiros; VILELA, Vinícius Martins

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: Contrast computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging are widely used due to its image quality and ability to study pancreatic and peripancreatic morphology. The understanding of the various subtypes of the disease and identification of possible complications requires a familiarity with the terminology, which allows effective communication between the different members of the multidisciplinary team. Aim: Demonstrate the terminology and parameters to identify the different classifications and findings of the disease based on the international consensus for acute pancreatitis ( Atlanta Classification 2012). Methods: Search and analysis of articles in the "CAPES Portal de Periódicos with headings "acute pancreatitis" and "Atlanta Review". Results: Were selected 23 articles containing radiological descriptions, management or statistical data related to pathology. Additional statistical data were obtained from Datasus and Population Census 2010. The radiological diagnostic criterion adopted was the Radiology American College system. The "acute pancreatitis - 2012 Rating: Review Atlanta classification and definitions for international consensus" tries to eliminate inconsistency and divergence from the determination of uniformity to the radiological findings, especially the terminology related to fluid collections. More broadly as "pancreatic abscess" and "phlegmon" went into disuse and the evolution of the collection of patient fluids can be described as "acute peripancreatic collections", "acute necrotic collections", "pseudocyst" and "necrosis pancreatic walled or isolated". Conclusion: Computed tomography and magnetic resonance represent the best techniques with sequential images available for diagnosis. Standardization of the terminology is critical and should improve the management of patients with multiple professionals care, risk stratification and adequate treatment. PMID:27759788

  19. [Management of blunt duodenal and pancreatic injuries in children (about a series of 8 cases)].

    PubMed

    Ben Hassine, Lilia; Boughanmi, Nizar; Douira, Wiem; Mormeche, Jihene; Louati, Hela; Hamzaoui, Mourad; Chaouachi, Beji; Bellagha, Ibtissem

    2010-08-01

    The aim of this retrospective study is to report eight cases of blunt duodeno-pancreatic trauma in infants, emphasizing on the role of imaging in acute assessment of the lesions and in further management. We reported eight cases of duodeno-pancreatic injuries between 2006 and 2008, 5 boys and 3 girls with an age ranging from 3 to 12 years (median age: 7 years). Trauma circumstances were: car accident (n=2), domestic injury (n=5) and bicycle's fall injury (n=1). All patients underwent abdominal ultrasonography and CT scan in the initial evaluation and during the follow-up. Imaging showed the following pancreatic lesions: 3 corporeal fractures, 2 caudal fractures and one between the corporeal and the caudal portions. Four pancreatic haematomas were found. The associated lesions were duodenal, splenic, hepatic and renal. Two isolated duodenal haematomas were found. Two patients improved spontaneously, the six others developed complications: 4 acute pancreatitis, two infections, 3 pseudocysts and one retroperitoneal collection. Management was chirurgical in one case, medical in two cases, endoscopic in 2 cases and three percutaneaous drainages were performed. Blunt duodeno-pancreatic injuries in children have to be evaluated by an early imaging modality, in order to perform acute assessment of the lesions. Primary conservative treatment is advocated while clinic, biologic and imaging follow-up is required to detect complications, which management can be endoscopic, percutaneous or surgical.

  20. Diagnosis and classification of pancreatic and duodenal injuries in emergency radiology.

    PubMed

    Linsenmaier, Ulrich; Wirth, Stefan; Reiser, Maximilian; Körner, Markus

    2008-10-01

    Pancreatic and duodenal injuries after blunt abdominal trauma are rare; however, delays in diagnosis and treatment can significantly increase morbidity and mortality. Multidetector computed tomography (CT) has a major role in early diagnosis of pancreatic and duodenal injuries. Detecting the often subtle signs of injury with whole-body CT can be difficult because this technique usually does not include a dedicated protocol for scanning the pancreas. Specific injury patterns in the pancreas and duodenum often have variable expression at early posttraumatic multidetector CT: They may be hardly visible, or there may be considerable exudate, hematomas, organ ruptures, or active bleeding. An accurate multidetector CT technique allows optimized detection of subtle abnormalities. In duodenal injuries, differentiation between a contusion of the duodenal wall or mural hematoma and a duodenal perforation is vital. In pancreatic injuries, determination of involvement of the pancreatic duct is essential. The latter conditions require immediate surgical intervention. Use of organ injury scales and a surgical classification adapted for multidetector CT enables classification of organ injuries for trauma scoring, treatment planning, and outcome control. In addition, multidetector CT reliably demonstrates potential complications of duodenal and pancreatic injuries, such as posttraumatic pancreatitis, pseudocysts, fistulas, exudates, and abscesses. (c) RSNA, 2008.

  1. [Pancreatic ultrasonography].

    PubMed

    Fernández-Rodríguez, T; Segura-Grau, A; Rodríguez-Lorenzo, A; Segura-Cabral, J M

    2015-04-01

    Despite the recent technological advances in imaging, abdominal ultrasonography continues to be the first diagnostic test indicated in patients with a suspicion of pancreatic disease, due to its safety, accessibility and low cost. It is an essential technique in the study of inflammatory processes, since it not only assesses changes in pancreatic parenchyma, but also gives an indication of the origin (bile or alcoholic). It is also essential in the detection and tracing of possible complications as well as being used as a guide in diagnostic and therapeutic punctures. It is also the first technique used in the study of pancreatic tumors, detecting them with a sensitivity of around 70% and a specificity of 90%. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  2. Autoimmune Pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Majumder, Shounak; Takahashi, Naoki; Chari, Suresh T

    2017-07-01

    Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) is a chronic fibroinflammatory disease of the pancreas that belongs to the spectrum of immunoglobulin G-subclass4-related diseases (IgG4-RD) and typically presents with obstructive jaundice. Idiopathic duct-centric pancreatitis (IDCP) is a closely related but distinct disease that mimics AIP radiologically but manifests clinically most commonly as recurrent acute pancreatitis in young individuals with concurrent inflammatory bowel disease. IgG4 levels are often elevated in AIP and normal in IDCP. Histologically, lymphoplasmacytic acinar inflammation and storiform fibrosis are seen in both. In addition, the histologic hallmark of IDCP is the granulocyte epithelial lesion: intraluminal and intraepithelial neutrophils in medium-sized and small ducts with or without granulocytic acinar inflammation often associated with destruction of ductal architecture. Initial treatment of both AIP and IDCP is with oral corticosteroids for duration of 4 weeks followed by a gradual taper. Relapses are common in AIP and relatively uncommon in IDCP, a relatively rare disease for which the natural history is not well understood. For patients with relapsing AIP, treatment with immunomodulators and more recently rituximab has been recommended. Although rare instances of pancreaticobiliary malignancy has been reported in patients with AIP, overall the lifetime risk of developing pancreatic cancer does not appear to be elevated.

  3. Incidence and predictors of 30-day readmissions in patients hospitalized with chronic pancreatitis: A nationwide analysis.

    PubMed

    Shah, Rushikesh; Haydek, Christopher; Mulki, Ramzi; Qayed, Emad

    2018-06-01

    Patients with chronic pancreatitis are prone to frequent readmissions. The aim of this study is to evaluate the rate and predictors of 30-day readmissions in patients with chronic pancreatitis using the Nationwide Readmission Database (NRD). We performed a retrospective analysis of all adult patients with the principal discharge diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis from 2010 through 2014. We excluded patients who died during the hospitalization. Multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression was performed to identify demographic, clinical, and hospital factors that associated with 30-day unplanned readmissions. During the study period, 25,259 patients had the principal discharge diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis and survived the index hospitalization. Of these, 6477 (26.7%) were readmitted within 30 days. Younger age group, males, length of stay >5 days, admission to a large, metropolitan hospital, and several comorbidities (renal failure, rheumatic disease, chronic anemia, heart failure, depression, drug abuse, psychosis, and diabetes) were independently associated with increased risk of 30-day readmission. ERCP, pancreatic surgery, and obesity were associated with lower risk. The most common reasons for readmissions were acute pancreatitis (30%), chronic pancreatitis (17%), pseudocyst (2%), and abdominal pain (6%). One in four patients with chronic pancreatitis is readmitted within 30 days (26.7%). Pancreatic disease accounts for at least half of all readmissions. Several baseline comorbidities and characteristics are associated with 30-day readmission risk after index admission. Knowledge of these predictors can help design interventions to target high-risk patients and reduce readmissions and costs of care. Copyright © 2018 IAP and EPC. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Is Pancreatic Cancer Hereditary?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Trials Database Supporting Research Raising Awareness Our Blog Patient Education Pancreas News Basics of Pancreatic Cancer FAQs The ... Detection- Goggins Lab Sol Goldman Center Discussion Board Patient Education / Basics of Pancreatic Cancer Is pancreatic cancer hereditary? ...

  5. What is the role of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography in assessing traumatic rupture of the pancreatic in children?

    PubMed

    Keil, Radan; Drabek, Jiri; Lochmannova, Jindra; Stovicek, Jan; Rygl, Michal; Snajdauf, Jiri; Hlava, Stepan

    2016-01-01

    Trauma is one of the most common causes of morbidity and mortality in the pediatric population. The diagnosis of pancreatic injury is based on clinical presentation, laboratory and imaging findings, and endoscopic methods. CT scanning is considered the gold standard for diagnosing pancreatic trauma in children. This retrospective study evaluates data from 25 pediatric patients admitted to the University Hospital Motol, Prague, with blunt pancreatic trauma between January 1999 and June 2013. The exact grade of injury was determined by CT scans in 11 patients (47.8%). All 25 children underwent endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). Distal pancreatic duct injury (grade III) was found in 13 patients (52%). Proximal pancreatic duct injury (grade IV) was found in four patients (16 %). Major contusion without duct injury (grade IIB) was found in six patients (24%). One patient experienced duodeno-gastric abruption not diagnosed on the CT scan. The diagnosis was made endoscopically during ERCP. Grade IIB pancreatic injury was found in this patient. One patient (4%) with pancreatic pseudocyst had a major contusion of pancreas without duct injury (grade IIA). Four patients (16%) with grade IIB, III and IV pancreatic injury were treated exclusively and nonoperatively with a pancreatic stent insertion and somatostatine. Two patients (8%) with a grade IIB injury were treated conservatively only with somatostatine without drainage. Eighteen (72 %) children underwent surgical intervention within 24 h after ERCP. ERCP is helpful when there is suspicion of pancreatic duct injury in order to exclude ductal leakage and the possibility of therapeutic intervention. ERCP can speed up diagnosis of higher grade of pancreatic injuries.

  6. Demographic and clinicopathological profile of patients with chronic pancreatitis in a tertiary referral teaching hospital of West Bengal: Personal experience.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharjee, Prosanta Kumar; Mukerjee, Aishik; Adhikary, Chandranath

    2015-09-01

    There is a paucity of data on the demographic and clinicopathological profiles of patients with chronic pancreatitis from the eastern part of India. This study documents the demographic and clinicopathological profiles of patients with chronic pancreatitis presenting to a general surgery unit of a tertiary referral hospital of Kolkata. The records of 145 patients presenting with chronic pancreatitis over a 5-year period were scrutinized and their demographics, clinical profile, and complications and morphological changes of the pancreas are described. Of the 145 patients, more than 50% were under the age of 30 years. Males were affected more frequently than females (M/F = 3.8:1). While idiopathic pancreatitis was the most common form of chronic pancreatitis (41.4%), alcohol was found to be the most common etiology (37.9%). Pain was the most common presenting symptom (n = 143; 98.6%). Sixty-five subjects (45%) had diabetes of which 32 subjects were insulin-dependent. On contrast-enhanced computed tomography, ductal dilatation was seen in 80 (55.17%) subjects, while ductal calculi and ductal dilatation in 54 cases (37.2%). Parenchymal calcification was seen in 45 patients of whom 40 patients (89%) were under the age of 30 years. Pseudocyst was the most common complication (n = 16) followed by biliary obstruction (n = 8) and portal hypertension (n = 4). Patients with alcoholic pancreatitis had significantly higher frequency of severe abdominal pain, diabetes, and local complications as compared to the other forms of pancreatitis in our study. Idiopathic pancreatitis was the most common form of chronic pancreatitis in this study, followed by alcoholic pancreatitis and then tropical pancreatitis.

  7. Surgical approaches to chronic pancreatitis: indications and imaging findings.

    PubMed

    Hafezi-Nejad, Nima; Singh, Vikesh K; Johnson, Stephen I; Makary, Martin A; Hirose, Kenzo; Fishman, Elliot K; Zaheer, Atif

    2016-10-01

    Chronic pancreatitis (CP) is an irreversible, inflammatory process characterized by progressive fibrosis of the pancreas that can result in abdominal pain, exocrine insufficiency, and diabetes. Inadequate pain relief using medical and/or endoscopic therapies is an indication for surgery. The surgical management of CP is centered around three main operations including pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD), duodenum-preserving pancreatic head resection (DPPHR) and drainage procedures, and total pancreatectomy with islet autotransplantation (TPIAT). PD is the method of choice when there is a high suspicion for malignancy. Combined drainage and resection procedures are associated with pain relief, higher quality of life, and superior short-term and long-term survival in comparison with the PD. TPIAT is a reemerging treatment that may be promising in subjects with intractable pain and impaired quality of life. Imaging examinations have an extensive role in pre-operative and post-operative evaluation of CP patients. Pre-operative advanced imaging examinations including CT and MRI can detect hallmarks of CP such as calcifications, pancreatic duct dilatation, chronic pseudocysts, focal pancreatic enlargement, and biliary ductal dilatation. Post-operative findings may include periportal hepatic edema, pneumobilia, perivascular cuffing and mild pancreatic duct dilation. Imaging can also be useful in the detection of post-operative complications including obstructions, anastomotic leaks, and vascular lesions. Imaging helps identify unique post-operative findings associated with TPIAT and may aid in predicting viability and function of the transplanted islet cells. In this review, we explore surgical indications as well as pre-operative and post-operative imaging findings associated with surgical options that are typically performed for CP patients.

  8. Clinical spectrum of lamellar macular defects including pseudoholes and pseudocysts defined by optical coherence tomography

    PubMed Central

    Chen, J C; Lee, L R

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To present the clinical spectrum of lamellar macular defects and describe the different subtypes based on their optical coherence tomography (OCT) configuration and visual prognosis. Methods: The retrospective observational case series reviewed OCT scans of 92 eyes with lamellar macular defects. Lamellar macular defects were categorised into subtypes of macular pseudohole (MPH), lamellar macular hole (LMH) and foveal pseudocyst (FP) according to their OCT morphology. The defects were quantitatively characterised in terms of base diameter, depth and central foveal thickness, and examined for the presence of associated epiretinal membranes (ERM). Results: Visual acuity (VA) was significantly correlated with the central foveal thickness and depth of the lamellar defect. MPH was associated with better VA compared with LMH and FP. MPH was of a smaller base diameter and had a greater central foveal thickness than that of LMH and FP. Fifty-per cent of all lamellar defects had an associated ERM. Conclusions: Different profiles of lamellar macular defects were characterised and quantified by OCT. Deeper and wider lamellar defects were associated with poorer visual outcome. Such objective parameters lamellar macular defects are of value when explaining to patients regarding their decreased acuity. Future prospective investigations are required to study the natural history of lamellar defects of different aetiology and surgical indications. PMID:18684752

  9. About Dental Amalgam Fillings

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Medical Procedures Dental Devices Dental Amalgam About Dental Amalgam Fillings Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ... should I have my fillings removed? What is dental amalgam? Dental amalgam is a dental filling material ...

  10. Asparaginase-associated pancreatitis in children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in the NOPHO ALL2008 protocol.

    PubMed

    Raja, Raheel A; Schmiegelow, Kjeld; Albertsen, Birgitte K; Prunsild, Kaie; Zeller, Bernward; Vaitkeviciene, Goda; Abrahamsson, Jonas; Heyman, Mats; Taskinen, Mervi; Harila-Saari, Arja; Kanerva, Jukka; Frandsen, Thomas L

    2014-04-01

    L-asparaginase is an important drug in the treatment of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). Treatment is associated with several toxicities, including acute pancreatitis. Clinical course, presentation, re-exposure to L-asparginase after pancreatitis and risk of recurrent pancreatitis within an asparaginase-intensive protocol has been poorly reported. Children (1-17 years) on the ongoing Nordic Society of Paediatric Haematology and Oncology (NOPHO) ALL2008 protocol with asparaginase-associated pancreatitis (AAP) diagnosed between 2008 and 2012 were identified through the online NOPHO ALL toxicity registry. NOPHO ALL2008 includes eight or 15 doses of intramuscular pegylated L-asparginase (PEG-asparaginase) 1000 iu/m(2) /dose at 2-6 weeks intervals, with a total of 30 weeks of exposure to PEG-asparaginase (clinicaltrials.gov no: NCT00819351). Of 786 children, 45 were diagnosed with AAP with a cumulative risk of AAP of 5·9%. AAP occurred after a median of five doses (range 1-13), and 11 d (median) from the latest administration of PEG-Asparaginase. Thirteen patients developed pseudocysts (30%) and 11 patients developed necrosis (25%). One patient died from pancreatitis. Twelve AAP patients were re-exposed to L-asparginase, two of whom developed mild AAP once more, after four and six doses respectively. In conclusion, re-exposure to PEG-asparaginase in ALL patients with mild AAP seems safe. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Non-neoplastic cystic and cystic-like lesions of the pancreas: may mimic pancreatic cystic neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Goh, Brian K P; Tan, Yu-Meng; Chung, Yaw-Fui A; Chow, Pierce K H; Ong, Hock-Soo; Lim, Dennis T H; Wong, Wai-Keong; Ooi, London L P J

    2006-05-01

    Cystic lesions of the pancreas consist of a broad range of pathological entities. With the exception of the pancreatic pseudocyst, these are usually caused by pancreatic cystic neoplasms. Non-neoplastic pancreatic cystic and cystic-like lesions are extremely rare. In the present article, the surgical experience with these unusual entities over a 14-year period is reported. Between 1991 and 2004, all patients who underwent surgical exploration for a cystic lesion of the pancreas were retrospectively reviewed. Patients with a pancreatic pseudocyst were excluded. There were 106 patients of whom 8 (7.5%) had a final pathological diagnosis consistent with a non-neoplastic pancreatic cystic or cystic-like lesion, including 3 patients with a benign epithelial cyst, 2 with a pancreatic abscess (one tuberculous and one foreign body), 2 with mucous retention cysts and 1 with a mucinous non-neoplastic cyst. These eight patients are the focus of this study. There were six female and two male patients with a median age of 61.5 years (range, 41-71 years). All the patients were of Asian origin including seven Chinese and one Indian. Four of the patients were asymptomatic and their pancreatic cysts were discovered incidentally on radiological imaging for other indications. All the patients underwent preoperative radiological investigations, including ultrasonography, computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging, which showed a cystic lesion of the pancreas. Three patients, all of whom were symptomatic, were diagnosed preoperatively with a malignant cystic neoplasm on the basis of radiological imaging. Two patients were eventually found to have a pancreatic abscess, one tuberculous and the other, secondary to foreign body perforation. The third patient was found on final histology to have chronic pancreatitis with retention cysts. The remaining five patients had a preoperative diagnosis of an indeterminate cyst; on pathological examination, they were found to have a benign

  12. Pancreatic cystic tumors.

    PubMed

    Salvia, R; Festa, L; Butturini, G; Tonsi, A; Sartori, N; Biasutti, C; Capelli, P; Pederzoli, P

    2004-04-01

    Cystic tumors of the pancreas are less frequent than other tumors in neoplastic pancreatic pathology, but in recent years the literature has reported an increasing number. After the first report by Becourt in 1830, cystic tumors were classified into 2 different types by Compagno and Oertel in 1978: benign tumors with glycogen-rich cells and mucinous cystic neoplasms with overt and latent malignancy. The WHO classification of exocrine tumors of the pancreas, published in 1996, is based on the histopathological features of the epithelial wall, which are the main factor in differential diagnosis with cystic lesions of the pancreas. Thanks to the knowledge acquired up to now, a surgical procedure is not always required because the therapeutic choice is conditioned by the correct classification of this heterogeneous group of tumors. Clinical signs are not really useful in the clinical work up, most patients have no symptoms and when clinical signs are present, they may help us to pinpoint the organ of origin but never to identify the type of pathology. In the last few years, the great improvement in imaging has enabled us not only to discriminate cystic from solid lesions, but also to identify the features of the lesions and label them preoperatively. More invasive diagnostic procedures such as fine needle aspiration and intracystic fluid tumor marker level are not really useful because they are not sensitive and the cystic wall can show different degrees of dysplasia and de-epithelialization. These are the reasons for sending the entire specimen to pathology. Good cooperation between surgeons, pathologists, radiologists and gastroenterologists is mandatory to increase the chances of making a proper diagnosis. Therefore, we must analyze all the information we have, such as age, sex, clinical history, location of the tumor and radiological features, in order to avoid the mistake of treating a cystic neoplasm as a benign lesion or as a pseudocyst, as described in the

  13. Role of somatostatin and its analogues in the treatment of acute and chronic pancreatitis.

    PubMed Central

    Büchler, M W; Binder, M; Friess, H

    1994-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis is caused by the activation of digestive enzymes in the pancreas and a possible treatment, therefore, is the inhibition of enzyme secretion. This approach is somewhat controversial, however, as it is not clear whether pancreatic secretion continues to occur during the course of acute pancreatitis. Animal studies show an appreciable reduction of secretion in the inflamed pancreas, but studies in humans are not conclusive. The use of somatostatin or its analogue, octreotide, has been investigated in several clinical studies. A meta analysis of six individual studies in which somatostatin was given for acute pancreatitis showed that somatostatin significantly reduces mortality. A trial in patients with moderate to severe acute pancreatitis showed a lower rate (although not statistically significant) of complications in patients treated with 3 x 200 and 3 x 500 micrograms/day octreotide, compared with controls and patients receiving a lower dose of octreotide. A further study showed a significant reduction in patient controlled analgesics in patients treated with octreotide compared with controls. Pain is the important clinical symptom of chronic pancreatitis, possibly resulting from an increased intraductal pressure during secretion. The effect on pain of the inhibition of pancreatic secretion by octreotide has been investigated in two studies. One showed no significant reduction in pain after treatment with octreotide for three days. In the other, in which octreotide was used for three weeks, significantly less pain and analgesic use was recorded during octreotide treatment than during placebo. The most common complication of chronic pancreatitis is the formation of pseudocysts. There is some evidence that octreotide may be useful in their treatment. PMID:7911442

  14. Autoimmune pancreatitis can develop into chronic pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) has been recognized as a distinct type of pancreatitis that is possibly caused by autoimmune mechanisms. AIP is characterized by high serum IgG4 and IgG4-positive plasma cell infiltration in affected pancreatic tissue. Acute phase AIP responds favorably to corticosteroid therapy and results in the amelioration of clinical findings. However, the long-term prognosis and outcome of AIP remain unclear. We have proposed a working hypothesis that AIP can develop into ordinary chronic pancreatitis resembling alcoholic pancreatitis over a long-term course based on several clinical findings, most notably frequent pancreatic stone formation. In this review article, we describe a series of study results to confirm our hypothesis and clarify that: 1) pancreatic calcification in AIP is closely associated with disease recurrence; 2) advanced stage AIP might have earlier been included in ordinary chronic pancreatitis; 3) approximately 40% of AIP patients experience pancreatic stone formation over a long-term course, for which a primary risk factor is narrowing of both Wirsung’s and Santorini’s ducts; and 4) nearly 20% of AIP patients progress to confirmed chronic pancreatitis according to the revised Japanese Clinical Diagnostic Criteria, with independent risk factors being pancreatic head swelling and non-narrowing of the pancreatic body duct. PMID:24884922

  15. The epidemiology of pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Dhiraj; Lowenfels, Albert B

    2013-06-01

    Acute pancreatitis is one of the most frequent gastrointestinal causes of hospital admission in the United States. Chronic pancreatitis, although lower in incidence, significantly reduces patients' quality of life. Pancreatic cancer is associated with a high mortality rate and is one of the top 5 causes of death from cancer. The burden of pancreatic disorders is expected to increase over time. The risk and etiology of pancreatitis differ with age and sex, and all pancreatic disorders affect the black population more than any other race. Gallstones are the most common cause of acute pancreatitis, and early cholecystectomy eliminates the risk of future attacks. Alcohol continues to be the single most important risk factor for chronic pancreatitis. Smoking is an independent risk factor for acute and chronic pancreatitis, and its effects could synergize with those of alcohol. Significant risk factors for pancreatic cancer include smoking and non-O blood groups. Alcohol abstinence and smoking cessation can alter the progression of pancreatitis and reduce recurrence; smoking cessation is the most effective strategy to reduce the risk of pancreatic cancer. Copyright © 2013 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Autoimmune pancreatitis can develop into chronic pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Maruyama, Masahiro; Watanabe, Takayuki; Kanai, Keita; Oguchi, Takaya; Asano, Jumpei; Ito, Tetsuya; Ozaki, Yayoi; Muraki, Takashi; Hamano, Hideaki; Arakura, Norikazu; Kawa, Shigeyuki

    2014-05-21

    Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) has been recognized as a distinct type of pancreatitis that is possibly caused by autoimmune mechanisms. AIP is characterized by high serum IgG4 and IgG4-positive plasma cell infiltration in affected pancreatic tissue. Acute phase AIP responds favorably to corticosteroid therapy and results in the amelioration of clinical findings. However, the long-term prognosis and outcome of AIP remain unclear. We have proposed a working hypothesis that AIP can develop into ordinary chronic pancreatitis resembling alcoholic pancreatitis over a long-term course based on several clinical findings, most notably frequent pancreatic stone formation. In this review article, we describe a series of study results to confirm our hypothesis and clarify that: 1) pancreatic calcification in AIP is closely associated with disease recurrence; 2) advanced stage AIP might have earlier been included in ordinary chronic pancreatitis; 3) approximately 40% of AIP patients experience pancreatic stone formation over a long-term course, for which a primary risk factor is narrowing of both Wirsung's and Santorini's ducts; and 4) nearly 20% of AIP patients progress to confirmed chronic pancreatitis according to the revised Japanese Clinical Diagnostic Criteria, with independent risk factors being pancreatic head swelling and non-narrowing of the pancreatic body duct.

  17. The Epidemiology of Pancreatitis and Pancreatic Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Dhiraj; Lowenfels, Albert B.

    2013-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis is one of the most frequent gastrointestinal causes for hospital admission in the US. Chronic pancreatitis, although lower in incidence, significantly reduces patients’ quality of life. Pancreatic cancer has high mortality and is 1 of the top 5 causes of death from cancer. The burden of pancreatic disorders is expected to increase over time. The risk and etiology of pancreatitis differ with age and sex, and all pancreatic disorders affect Blacks more than any other race. Gallstones are the most common cause of acute pancreatitis, and early cholecystectomy eliminates the risk of future attacks. Alcohol continues to be the single most important risk factor for chronic pancreatitis. Smoking is an independent risk factor for acute and chronic pancreatitis, and its effects could synergize with those of alcohol. Significant risk factors for pancreatic cancer include smoking and non-O blood groups. Alcohol abstinence and smoking cessation can alter progression of pancreatitis and reduce recurrence; smoking cessation is the most effective strategy to reduce the risk of pancreatic cancer. PMID:23622135

  18. Pancreatic fluid collections: What is the ideal imaging technique?

    PubMed

    Dhaka, Narendra; Samanta, Jayanta; Kochhar, Suman; Kalra, Navin; Appasani, Sreekanth; Manrai, Manish; Kochhar, Rakesh

    2015-12-28

    Pancreatic fluid collections (PFCs) are seen in up to 50% of cases of acute pancreatitis. The Revised Atlanta classification categorized these collections on the basis of duration of disease and contents, whether liquid alone or a mixture of fluid and necrotic debris. Management of these different types of collections differs because of the variable quantity of debris; while patients with pseudocysts can be drained by straight-forward stent placement, walled-off necrosis requires multi-disciplinary approach. Differentiating these collections on the basis of clinical severity alone is not reliable, so imaging is primarily performed. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography is the commonly used modality for the diagnosis and assessment of proportion of solid contents in PFCs; however with certain limitations such as use of iodinated contrast material especially in renal failure patients and radiation exposure. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) performs better than computed tomography (CT) in characterization of pancreatic/peripancreatic fluid collections especially for quantification of solid debris and fat necrosis (seen as fat density globules), and is an alternative in those situations where CT is contraindicated. Also magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography is highly sensitive for detecting pancreatic duct disruption and choledocholithiasis. Endoscopic ultrasound is an evolving technique with higher reproducibility for fluid-to-debris component estimation with the added advantage of being a single stage procedure for both diagnosis (solid debris delineation) and management (drainage of collection) in the same sitting. Recently role of diffusion weighted MRI and positron emission tomography/CT with (18)F-FDG labeled autologous leukocytes is also emerging for detection of infection noninvasively. Comparative studies between these imaging modalities are still limited. However we look forward to a time when this gap in literature will be fulfilled.

  19. Novel findings in the management of acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Bolado, Federico; de-Madaria, Enrique

    2016-09-01

    Acute pancreatitis (AP) is a potentially serious disease whose incidence is on the increase. Pancreas divisum does not meet the required criteria to be considered an aetiological factor. Sphincter of Oddi dysfunction may be another cause of idiopathic AP. Less invasive methods cannot replace Sphincter of Oddi manometry in diagnosis. Almost half of patients with systemic inflammatory response syndrome develop organ failure, but the mechanisms involved are not completely understood. Obesity is a risk factor for severity in AP; the cause could be the presence of free unsaturated fatty acids, which have pro-inflammatory activity. Prognosis is better in patients with isolated extra-pancreatic necrosis than in those with parenchymal necrosis or with both. The mortality rate among those with infected pancreatic necrosis is 15-20%. The "moderately severe" group is widely heterogeneous and this category may require redefinition. Laparoscopic treatment of pseudocysts is an alternative to endoscopic drainage and could be the first-line option in patients requiring cholecystectomy. The use of lumen-apposing metal stents to treat pancreatic necrosis is cost-effective. Quality of life in some patients following an attack of AP is significantly impaired even at 1 year. Aggressive fluid therapy is not superior to standard fluid therapy in preventing post-ERCP AP. The role of statins in AP prevention is still unclear. Aggressive fluid resuscitation and the use of lactated Ringer solution seem to be beneficial in the treatment of AP. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. United European Gastroenterology evidence-based guidelines for the diagnosis and therapy of chronic pancreatitis (HaPanEU).

    PubMed

    Löhr, J Matthias; Dominguez-Munoz, Enrique; Rosendahl, Jonas; Besselink, Marc; Mayerle, Julia; Lerch, Markus M; Haas, Stephan; Akisik, Fatih; Kartalis, Nikolaos; Iglesias-Garcia, Julio; Keller, Jutta; Boermeester, Marja; Werner, Jens; Dumonceau, Jean-Marc; Fockens, Paul; Drewes, Asbjorn; Ceyhan, Gürlap; Lindkvist, Björn; Drenth, Joost; Ewald, Nils; Hardt, Philip; de Madaria, Enrique; Witt, Heiko; Schneider, Alexander; Manfredi, Riccardo; Brøndum, Frøkjer J; Rudolf, Sasa; Bollen, Thomas; Bruno, Marco

    2017-03-01

    There have been substantial improvements in the management of chronic pancreatitis, leading to the publication of several national guidelines during recent years. In collaboration with United European Gastroenterology, the working group on 'Harmonizing diagnosis and treatment of chronic pancreatitis across Europe' (HaPanEU) developed these European guidelines using an evidence-based approach. Twelve multidisciplinary review groups performed systematic literature reviews to answer 101 predefined clinical questions. Recommendations were graded using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation system and the answers were assessed by the entire group in a Delphi process online. The review groups presented their recommendations during the 2015 annual meeting of United European Gastroenterology. At this one-day, interactive conference, relevant remarks were voiced and overall agreement on each recommendation was quantified using plenary voting (Test and Evaluation Directorate). After a final round of adjustments based on these comments, a draft version was sent out to external reviewers. The 101 recommendations covered 12 topics related to the clinical management of chronic pancreatitis: aetiology (working party (WP)1), diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis with imaging (WP2 and WP3), diagnosis of pancreatic exocrine insufficiency (WP4), surgery in chronic pancreatitis (WP5), medical therapy (WP6), endoscopic therapy (WP7), treatment of pancreatic pseudocysts (WP8), pancreatic pain (WP9), nutrition and malnutrition (WP10), diabetes mellitus (WP11) and the natural course of the disease and quality of life (WP12). Using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation system, 70 of the 101 (70%) recommendations were rated as 'strong' and plenary voting revealed 'strong agreement' for 99 (98%) recommendations. The 2016 HaPanEU/United European Gastroenterology guidelines provide evidence-based recommendations concerning key aspects

  1. Smoking as a risk factor for complications in chronic pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Luaces-Regueira, María; Iglesias-García, Julio; Lindkvist, Björn; Castiñeira-Alvariño, Margarita; Nieto-García, Laura; Lariño-Noia, José; Domínguez-Muñoz, J Enrique

    2014-03-01

    Several recent studies have demonstrated the association between smoking and chronic pancreatitis (CP). However, less is known about the role of smoking in the development of CP-related complications. Our aim was to investigate the impact of smoking and alcohol consumption on age of onset and complications at CP diagnosis. A cross-sectional case-case study was performed within a prospectively collected cohort of patients with CP. Alcohol consumption and smoking habits were assessed using a standardized questionnaire. Morphologic severity was defined based on endoscopic ultrasound criteria for CP and classified as mild (3-4 criteria), moderate (5-6 criteria), and severe (≥7 criteria or calcifications). Pancreatic exocrine insufficiency (PEI) was diagnosed using the C-mixed triglyceride breath test. Odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) for CP-related complications were calculated using a case-case design. A total of 241 patients were included. Smoking was associated with PEI (OR [95% CI], 2.4 [1.17-5.16]), calcifications (OR [95% CI], 2.33 [1.10-4.95]), and severe morphologic changes (OR [95% CI], 3.41 [1.31-8.85]) but not with pseudocysts or diabetes. Neither smoking nor alcohol consumption was associated with age of onset. Tobacco, but not alcohol, is associated with PEI, calcifications, and severe morphologic (≥7 criteria or calcifications) CP at diagnosis. Smoking cessation should be encouraged in patients with CP.

  2. Extracorporeal Treatment in Severe Hypertriglyceridemia-Induced Pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Zeitler, Heike; Balta, Zeynep; Klein, Burkhard; Strassburg, Christian P

    2015-08-01

    Plasmapheresis is a well-accepted treatment option in severe hypertriglyceridemia-induced pancreatitis (HTGP). The rationale behind this approach is the depletion of triglycerides and the reduction of inflammatory cytokines. The time span between onset of clinical symptoms and start of plasmapheresis might have an important impact on mortality. Hyperviscosity of patients' plasma represents another special challenge for the applied separation technology. The procedures can be performed either by centrifugal device (CFD) or membrane based (MBS) units. The present study reports the outcome of 10 patients suffering from HTG. The expected mortality of the collective was 25%. Plasmapheresis was started after an average 16.3 h (SD ± 6.7 h) after onset of symptoms. No mortality occurred. Apheresis was statistically equally effective with both devices. A median of 3 sessions reduced the TG level to normal and correlated with patients' improvement. During follow up, three patients developed a pancreatic pseudocyst requiring surgical intervention without further complication. © 2015 The Authors. Therapeutic Apheresis and Dialysis © 2015 International Society for Apheresis.

  3. Operative drainage of the pancreatic duct delays functional impairment in patients with chronic pancreatitis. A prospective analysis.

    PubMed

    Nealon, W H; Townsend, C M; Thompson, J C

    1988-09-01

    In a prospective study, 85 patients with chronic pancreatitis have been subjected to evaluation by morphologic analysis (endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography), by exocrine function tests (bentiromide PABA and 72-hour fecal fat testing), and by endocrine function tests (oral glucose tolerance test and fat-stimulated release of pancreatic polypeptide). All patients were graded on a five-point system, with 1 point assessed for an abnormal result in each of the five tests performed. Zero score denoted mild disease; 1-2 points signaled moderate disease; and 3-5 points indicated severe disease. In 68 patients, both an initial and late (mean follow-up period of 14 months) evaluation were performed. Forty-one patients underwent modified Puestow side-to-side Roux-en-Y pancreaticojejunostomy. The Puestow procedure alone was performed in 18 patients. Eight patients also had drainage of pseudocysts, seven also had a biliary bypass, and eight had pseudocyst drainage plus bypass, in addition to the Puestow. There were no deaths. Of the 68 patients who were studied twice, 30 had operations and 38 did not. None of the patients with severe disease improved their grade during follow-up. Of 24 patients who did not undergo operation, 17 (71%) who were graded mild/moderate progressed to a severe grade at follow-up. By contrast, only three of the 19 patients operated on (16%) and who were initially graded as mild/moderate progressed to severe disease at follow-up testing. More than 75% of all of the patients had a history of weight loss. Twenty-six of 30 patients operated on (87%) (all of whom had lost weight before surgery) gained a mean 4.2 kg (range 1.4-2.7 kg) after surgery, compared with no significant weight change (range -3.6-2.7 kg) among patients not operated on. These findings support a policy of early operation for chronic pancreatitis, perhaps even in the absence of disabling abdominal pain.

  4. Operative drainage of the pancreatic duct delays functional impairment in patients with chronic pancreatitis. A prospective analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Nealon, W H; Townsend, C M; Thompson, J C

    1988-01-01

    In a prospective study, 85 patients with chronic pancreatitis have been subjected to evaluation by morphologic analysis (endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography), by exocrine function tests (bentiromide PABA and 72-hour fecal fat testing), and by endocrine function tests (oral glucose tolerance test and fat-stimulated release of pancreatic polypeptide). All patients were graded on a five-point system, with 1 point assessed for an abnormal result in each of the five tests performed. Zero score denoted mild disease; 1-2 points signaled moderate disease; and 3-5 points indicated severe disease. In 68 patients, both an initial and late (mean follow-up period of 14 months) evaluation were performed. Forty-one patients underwent modified Puestow side-to-side Roux-en-Y pancreaticojejunostomy. The Puestow procedure alone was performed in 18 patients. Eight patients also had drainage of pseudocysts, seven also had a biliary bypass, and eight had pseudocyst drainage plus bypass, in addition to the Puestow. There were no deaths. Of the 68 patients who were studied twice, 30 had operations and 38 did not. None of the patients with severe disease improved their grade during follow-up. Of 24 patients who did not undergo operation, 17 (71%) who were graded mild/moderate progressed to a severe grade at follow-up. By contrast, only three of the 19 patients operated on (16%) and who were initially graded as mild/moderate progressed to severe disease at follow-up testing. More than 75% of all of the patients had a history of weight loss. Twenty-six of 30 patients operated on (87%) (all of whom had lost weight before surgery) gained a mean 4.2 kg (range 1.4-2.7 kg) after surgery, compared with no significant weight change (range -3.6-2.7 kg) among patients not operated on. These findings support a policy of early operation for chronic pancreatitis, perhaps even in the absence of disabling abdominal pain. PMID:3421756

  5. Pancreatic Carcinoma: the Disease that Kills.

    PubMed

    Kabashi, Serbeze; Dedushi, Kreshnike; Ramadani, Naser; Mucaj, Sefedin; Hoxhaj, Asrtrit; Jerliu, Naim

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this case report is to demonstrate the clinical symptoms and laboratory changes that have occurred very late and were very few in number even the imaging studies performed at that time showed an intensive local tumor growth associated with the wide infiltration of the both adjacent and distant upper abdominal structures. A 71-year-old male patient who was a chronic alcohol abuser and ex smoker (quit smoking 8 years earlier) presented with symptoms of mild pain on epigastric region that irradiated toward the back and significant weight loss. The initial ultrasonography (US) examination was performed, followed by the lab tests and multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) examination. The diagnostic studies confirmed the presence of the pancreatic's body mass. The ordered laparoscopic evaluation established definitive diagnosis. Initial US examination showed heterogeneous pseudo-cystic changes and slight edema of the pancreatic parenchyma associated with the multiple oval hyperechogenic lesions of liver - the signs highly suggestive of secondary metastatic deposits. The other imaging findings that were obtained with the use of the MDCT confirmed the presence of an expansive primary process of the body of the pancreas associated with the secondary metastatic changes in liver. In addition, the consecutive lymphadenopathy was revealed along hepatoduodenal ligament, retropancreatic region and intraperitoneal compartment. Tumor markers resulted with the high values of the AFP of 2.3, CA19-9 of 423.0 U/mL, and CEA of 219.0 ng/mL. The specimen of the tumor tissue taken during laparoscopic biopsy was sent for histologic examination and the final result was "metastatic adenocarcinoma of pancreas". Pancreatic body carcinoma has always been associated with poor prognosis because diagnosis is made at the advanced stage of the disease. Therefore, poor prognosis might be improved if early diagnosis could be made. Recent researches confirmed genetic predisposition for

  6. Pancreatitis-imaging approach

    PubMed Central

    Busireddy, Kiran K; AlObaidy, Mamdoh; Ramalho, Miguel; Kalubowila, Janaka; Baodong, Liu; Santagostino, Ilaria; Semelka, Richard C

    2014-01-01

    Pancreatitis is defined as the inflammation of the pancreas and considered the most common pancreatic disease in children and adults. Imaging plays a significant role in the diagnosis, severity assessment, recognition of complications and guiding therapeutic interventions. In the setting of pancreatitis, wider availability and good image quality make multi-detector contrast-enhanced computed tomography (MD-CECT) the most used imaging technique. However, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) offers diagnostic capabilities similar to those of CT, with additional intrinsic advantages including lack of ionizing radiation and exquisite soft tissue characterization. This article reviews the proposed definitions of revised Atlanta classification for acute pancreatitis, illustrates a wide range of morphologic pancreatic parenchymal and associated peripancreatic changes for different types of acute pancreatitis. It also describes the spectrum of early and late chronic pancreatitis imaging findings and illustrates some of the less common types of chronic pancreatitis, with special emphasis on the role of CT and MRI. PMID:25133027

  7. Pathogenic mechanisms of pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Manohar, Murli; Verma, Alok Kumar; Venkateshaiah, Sathisha Upparahalli; Sanders, Nathan L; Mishra, Anil

    2017-01-01

    Pancreatitis is inflammation of pancreas and caused by a number of factors including pancreatic duct obstruction, alcoholism, and mutation in the cationic trypsinogen gene. Pancreatitis is represented as acute pancreatitis with acute inflammatory responses and; chronic pancreatitis characterized by marked stroma formation with a high number of infiltrating granulocytes (such as neutrophils, eosinophils), monocytes, macrophages and pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs). These inflammatory cells are known to play a central role in initiating and promoting inflammation including pancreatic fibrosis, i.e., a major risk factor for pancreatic cancer. A number of inflammatory cytokines are known to involve in promoting pancreatic pathogenesis that lead pancreatic fibrosis. Pancreatic fibrosis is a dynamic phenomenon that requires an intricate network of several autocrine and paracrine signaling pathways. In this review, we have provided the details of various cytokines and molecular mechanistic pathways (i.e., Transforming growth factor-β/SMAD, mitogen-activated protein kinases, Rho kinase, Janus kinase/signal transducers and activators, and phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase) that have a critical role in the activation of PSCs to promote chronic pancreatitis and trigger the phenomenon of pancreatic fibrogenesis. In this review of literature, we discuss the involvement of several pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines, such as in interleukin (IL)-1, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8 IL-10, IL-18, IL-33 and tumor necrosis factor-α, in the pathogenesis of disease. Our review also highlights the significance of several experimental animal models that have an important role in dissecting the mechanistic pathways operating in the development of chronic pancreatitis, including pancreatic fibrosis. Additionally, we provided several intermediary molecules that are involved in major signaling pathways that might provide target molecules for future therapeutic treatment strategies for

  8. Unraveling Pancreatic Segmentation.

    PubMed

    Renard, Yohann; de Mestier, Louis; Perez, Manuela; Avisse, Claude; Lévy, Philippe; Kianmanesh, Reza

    2018-04-01

    Limited pancreatic resections are increasingly performed, but the rate of postoperative fistula is higher than after classical resections. Pancreatic segmentation, anatomically and radiologically identifiable, may theoretically help the surgeon removing selected anatomical portions with their own segmental pancreatic duct and thus might decrease the postoperative fistula rate. We aimed at systematically and comprehensively reviewing the previously proposed pancreatic segmentations and discuss their relevance and limitations. PubMed database was searched for articles investigating pancreatic segmentation, including human or animal anatomy, and cadaveric or surgical studies. Overall, 47/99 articles were selected and grouped into 4 main hypotheses of pancreatic segmentation methodology: anatomic, vascular, embryologic and lymphatic. The head, body and tail segments are gross description without distinct borders. The arterial territories defined vascular segments and isolate an isthmic paucivascular area. The embryological theory relied on the fusion plans of the embryological buds. The lymphatic drainage pathways defined the lymphatic segmentation. These theories had differences, but converged toward separating the head and body/tail parts, and the anterior from posterior and inferior parts of the pancreatic head. The rate of postoperative fistula was not decreased when surgical resection was performed following any of these segmentation theories; hence, none of them appeared relevant enough to guide pancreatic transections. Current pancreatic segmentation theories do not enable defining anatomical-surgical pancreatic segments. Other approaches should be explored, in particular focusing on pancreatic ducts, through pancreatic ducts reconstructions and embryologic 3D modelization.

  9. Predictive factors for and incidence of hospital readmissions of patients with acute and chronic pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Suchsland, Till; Aghdassi, Ali; Kühn, Kristina; Simon, Peter; Lerch, Markus M; Mayerle, Julia; Flessa, Steffen

    2015-01-01

    Acute and chronic pancreatitis are common gastroenterological disorders that have a fairly unpredictable long-term course often associated with unplanned hospital readmissions. Little is known about the factors that increase or decrease the risk for a hospital readmission. The aim of this study was to identify positive and negative predictive factors for hospital readmissions of patients with acute and chronic pancreatitis after in-hospital treatment. In a retrospective analysis data from the hospital information and reimbursement data system (HIS) were evaluated for 606 hospital stays for either acute or chronic pancreatitis between 2006 and 2011. Additional clinical data were obtained from a questionnaire covering quality of life and socio-economic status. A total of 973 patient variables were assessed by bivariate and multivariate analysis. Between 2006 and 2011, 373 patients were admitted for acute or chronic pancreatitis; 107 patients of them were readmitted and 266 had only one hospitalization. Predictors for readmission were concomitant liver disease, presence of a pseudocyst or a suspected tumor of the pancreas as well as alcohol, tobacco or substance abuse or coexisting mental disorders. Patients who had undergone a CT-scan were more susceptible to readmission. Lower readmissions rates were found in patients with diabetes mellitus or gallstone disease as co-morbidity. While factors like age and severity of the initial disease cannot be influenced to reduce the readmission rate for pancreatitis, variables like alcohol, tobacco and drug abuse can be addressed in outpatient programs to reduce disease recurrence and readmission rates for pancreatitis. Copyright © 2015 IAP and EPC. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Alopecic and Aseptic Nodules of the Scalp/Pseudocyst of the Scalp: Clinicopathological and Therapeutic Analyses in 11 Korean Patients.

    PubMed

    Seol, Jung Eun; Park, In Ho; Kim, Do Hyeong; Park, So Hee; Kang, Jeong Nan; Kim, Hyojin; Seo, Jong Keun

    2016-01-01

    Alopecic and aseptic nodule of the scalp (AANS) is a rare disease entity first reported in 1992 as pseudocyst of the scalp (PCS). Controversy exists regarding the histopathology and etiology of reported cases. We performed this study to analyze the clinical and histopathologic features of AANS/PCS in Korean patients. A retrospective review of medical records from 2008 to 2013 at Inje University Busan Paik Hospital was performed. Eleven patients were enrolled. All patients were male, and their mean age was 21.6 years. Most patients had a solitary nodule (10/11) located predominantly on the vertex. The mean nodule size was 20 mm. Inflammatory cell infiltration in the deep dermis was a histologic feature of AANS/PCS. Eight patients showed granulomatous infiltration. All patients were treated with short-term antibiotics and intralesional steroid injection. Our results suggest that dermatologists should consider AANS when diagnosing an alopecic nodule on the scalp. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Endocrine pancreatic function changes after acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Deqing; Xu, Yaping; Zeng, Yue; Wang, Xingpeng

    2011-10-01

    This study aimed to investigate the impairment of pancreatic endocrine function and the associated risk factors after acute pancreatitis (AP). Fifty-nine patients were subjected to tests of pancreatic function after an attack of pancreatitis. The mean time after the event was 3.5 years. Pancreatic endocrine function was evaluated by fasting blood glucose (FBG), glycosylated hemoglobin, fasting blood insulin, and C-peptide. Homeostasis model assessment was used to evaluate insulin resistance and islet β-cell function. Pancreatic exocrine function was evaluated by fecal elastase 1. Factors that could influence endocrine function were also investigated. Nineteen patients (32%) were found to have elevated FBG, whereas 5 (8%) had abnormal glycosylated hemoglobin levels. The levels of FBG, fasting blood insulin, and C-peptide were higher in patients than in controls (P < 0.01). The islet β-cell function of patients was lower than that of controls (P < 0.01), whereas insulin resistance index was higher among patients (P < 0.01). Obesity, hyperlipidemia, and diabetes-related symptoms were found to be associated with endocrine insufficiency. Pancreatic exocrine functional impairment was found at the same time. Endocrine functional impairment with insulin resistance was found in patients after AP. Obesity, hyperlipidemia, and diabetes-related symptoms increased the likelihood of developing functional impairment after AP.

  12. Chronic pancreatitis in Eastern India: Experience from a tertiary care center.

    PubMed

    Jha, Ashish Kumar; Goenka, Mahesh Kumar; Goenka, Usha

    2017-03-01

    There is a wide variation in the clinical presentation of chronic pancreatitis (CP) in the different parts of India. Data regarding the clinical profile of CP from eastern India are scarce. We describe the clinical and demographic profiles of patients with CP in eastern India. Consecutive patients were evaluated for the clinical presentation, etiology and complication of CP. One hundred and thirty-nine patients with CP (mean age 39.57±14.88 years; M/F 3.48:1) were included. Idiopathic CP (50.35%) was the most common etiology followed by alcohol (33.81%); 68.34% had calcific CP and 31.65% had noncalcific CP. The median duration of symptoms was 24 (1-240) months. Pain was the most common symptom, being present in 93.52% of the patients. Diabetes, steatorrhea and pseudocyst were present in 45.32%, 14.38% and 7.19% of the cases, respectively. Moderate to severe anemia was revealed in 16.53% of the patients. Benign biliary stricture was diagnosed in 19.42% of the cases (symptomatic in 6.47%). The common radiological findings were the following: pancreatic calculi (68.34%), dilated pancreatic duct (PD) (58.99%), parenchymal atrophy (25.89%) and PD stricture (23.74%). In our center, idiopathic CP followed by alcoholic CP was the most frequent form of CP. Tropical CP was distinctly uncommon.

  13. To fine needle aspiration or not? An endosonographer's approach to pancreatic cystic lesions

    PubMed Central

    But, David Yiu-Kuen; Poley, Jan-Werner

    2014-01-01

    Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) guided fine needle aspiration (FNA) is an established diagnostic tool in the management of pancreatic cystic lesions (PCLs). Due to the proximity to the target lesion, the fine diagnostic needle travels through only minimal normal tissues. The risks of bleeding, pancreatitis and infection are small. Valuable diagnostic morphological information can be obtained by EUS before the use of FNA. The additional cytopathologic and cyst fluid analysis for the conventional markers such as amylase, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and CA19.9 improves the diagnostic capability. Pancreatic cyst fluid CEA concentration of 192 ng/mL is generally the most agreed cutoff to differentiate mucinous from non-mucinous lesion. A fluid amylase level of <250 IU/L excludes the diagnosis of pseudocyst. Technical tips of EUS-FNA and the limitations of the procedure are discussed. Promising technique and FNA needle modifications have been described to improve the diagnostic yield at the cytopathologic analysis. The use of novel cyst fluid proteomics and deoxyribonucleic acid-based biomarkers of the PCLs are reviewed. Although it is considered a safe procedure, EUS-FNA is not a routine in every patient. Recommendations of the role of EUS-FNA at various common clinical scenarios are discussed. PMID:24955337

  14. Pancreatic transection from blunt trauma associated with vascular and biliary lesions: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Baiocchi, Gian Luca; Tiberio, Guido AM; Gheza, Federico; Gardani, Marco; Cantù, Massimiliano; Portolani, Nazario; Giulini, Stefano Maria

    2008-01-01

    Major injuries of the pancreas may result in considerable morbidity and mortality when associated with vascular and visceral injuries. In such cases, a right diagnosis and a prompt surgical intervention are necessary to give a chance to the patient. We herein describe a case of blunt abdominal trauma in a 29-year-old man whose pancreatic rupture was associated with hepatic artery, splenic vein and extrahepatic bile duct damage. Immediate surgery was performed after computer tomography (CT), the haemorrhagic lesions dictate the emergency transfer to the operating room. Spleno-pancreatic resection was done with reconstruction of the hepatic artery, ligation of the splenic vein and a Roux-en-Y bilio-jejunal diversion. The early post-operative course was complicated by stenosis of the arterial reconstruction, which was treated by endovascular angioplasty followed by percutaneous drainage of symptomatic pseudocyst, rest and antibiotics. Finally, the patient was discharged and was alive without clinical problems at the time when we wrote this case report. The present case underlines the clinical relevance of vascular and visceral injuries associated with pancreatic trauma and the problems arising in the diagnostic evaluation and the surgical strategy of complex multiple visceral and vascular lesions in blunt abdominal trauma. PMID:18720548

  15. Pancreatic Carcinoma: the Disease that Kills

    PubMed Central

    Kabashi, Serbeze; Dedushi, Kreshnike; Ramadani, Naser; Mucaj, Sefedin; Hoxhaj, Asrtrit; Jerliu, Naim

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this case report is to demonstrate the clinical symptoms and laboratory changes that have occurred very late and were very few in number even the imaging studies performed at that time showed an intensive local tumor growth associated with the wide infiltration of the both adjacent and distant upper abdominal structures. A 71-year-old male patient who was a chronic alcohol abuser and ex smoker (quit smoking 8 years earlier) presented with symptoms of mild pain on epigastric region that irradiated toward the back and significant weight loss. The initial ultrasonography (US) examination was performed, followed by the lab tests and multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) examination. The diagnostic studies confirmed the presence of the pancreatic’s body mass. The ordered laparoscopic evaluation established definitive diagnosis. Initial US examination showed heterogeneous pseudo-cystic changes and slight edema of the pancreatic parenchyma associated with the multiple oval hyperechogenic lesions of liver - the signs highly suggestive of secondary metastatic deposits. The other imaging findings that were obtained with the use of the MDCT confirmed the presence of an expansive primary process of the body of the pancreas associated with the secondary metastatic changes in liver. In addition, the consecutive lymphadenopathy was revealed along hepatoduodenal ligament, retropancreatic region and intraperitoneal compartment. Tumor markers resulted with the high values of the AFP of 2.3, CA19-9 of 423.0 U/mL, and CEA of 219.0 ng/mL. The specimen of the tumor tissue taken during laparoscopic biopsy was sent for histologic examination and the final result was “metastatic adenocarcinoma of pancreas”. Pancreatic body carcinoma has always been associated with poor prognosis because diagnosis is made at the advanced stage of the disease. Therefore, poor prognosis might be improved if early diagnosis could be made. Recent researches confirmed genetic

  16. Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy Followed by Radiation Therapy and Gemcitabine/Sorafenib/Vorinostat in Pancreatic Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-11-29

    Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma; Stage IA Pancreatic Cancer; Stage IB Pancreatic Cancer; Stage IIA Pancreatic Cancer; Stage IIB Pancreatic Cancer; Stage III Pancreatic Cancer; Recurrent Pancreatic Carcinoma

  17. Long-term results and quality of life of patients undergoing sequential surgical treatment for severe acute pancreatitis complicated by infected pancreatic necrosis.

    PubMed

    Cinquepalmi, Lorenza; Boni, Luigi; Dionigi, Gianlorenzo; Rovera, Francesca; Diurni, Mario; Benevento, Angelo; Dionigi, Renzo

    2006-01-01

    Infected pancreatic necrosis (IPN) is one of the most severe complications of acute pancreatitis (AP). Sequential surgical debridement represents one of the most effective treatments in terms of morbidity and mortality. The aim of this paper is to describe the quality of life and long-term results (e.g., nutritional, muscular, and pancreatic function) of patients treated by sequential necrosectomy at the Department of Surgery of the University of Insubria (Varese, Italy). Data were collected on patients undergoing sequential surgical debridement as treatment for IPN. The severity of AP was evaluated using the Ranson criteria, the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE II) Score, and the Sepsis Score, as well as the extent of necrosis. The surgical approach was through a midline or subcostal laparotomy, followed by exploration of the peritoneal cavity, wide debridement, and peritoneal lavage. The abdomen was either left open or closed partially with a surgical zipper, with multiple re-laparotomies scheduled until debridement of necrotic tissue was complete. The long-term evaluation focused on late morbidity, performance status, and abdominal wall function. In the majority of patients (68%), mixed flora were isolated. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was the microorganism identified most commonly (59%), often associated with Candida albicans or C. glabrata. The mean total hospital stay was 71+/-38 days (range 13-146 days), of which 24+/-19 days (range 0-66 days) were in the intensive care unit. Eight patients died, the deaths being caused by multiple organ dysfunction syndrome in seven patients and hemorrhage from the splenic artery in one. Normal exocrine and endocrine pancreatic function was observed in 28 patients (88%). At discharge, four patients had steatorrhea, which was temporary. Eight patients (23%) developed pancreatic pseudocysts, and in six, cystogastostomy was performed. Most patients (29/32, 91%) developed a post-operative hernia, but only five

  18. Long-term results after endoscopic drainage and necrosectomy of symptomatic pancreatic fluid collections.

    PubMed

    Seewald, Stefan; Ang, Tiing Leong; Richter, Hugo; Teng, Karl Yu Kim; Zhong, Yan; Groth, Stefan; Omar, Salem; Soehendra, Nib

    2012-01-01

    To determine the immediate and long-term results of endoscopic drainage and necrosectomy for symptomatic pancreatic fluid collections. The data of 80 patients with symptomatic pancreatic fluid collections (mean diameter: 11.7 cm, range 3-20; pseudocysts: 24/80, abscess: 20/80, infected walled-off necrosis: 36/80) referred for endoscopic management from October 1997 to March 2008 were analyzed retrospectively. Endoscopic drainage techniques included endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided aspiration (2/80), EUS-guided transenteric drainage (70/80) and non-EUS-guided drainage across a spontaneous transenteric fistula (8/80). Endoscopic necrosectomy was carried out in 49/80 (abscesses: 14/20; infected necrosis: 35/36). Procedural complications were bleeding (12/80), perforation (7/80), portal air embolism (1/80) and Ogilvie Syndrome (1/80). Initial technical success was achieved in 78/80 (97.5%) and clinical resolution of the collections was achieved endoscopically in 67/80 (83.8%), with surgery required in 13/80 (perforation: four; endoscopically inaccessible areas: two; inadequate drainage: seven). Within 6 months five patients required surgery due to recurrent fluid collections; over a mean follow up of 31 months, surgery was required in four more patients due to recurrent collections as a consequence of underlying pancreatic duct abnormalities that could not be treated endoscopically. The long-term success of endoscopic treatment was 58/80 (72.5%). Endoscopic drainage of symptomatic pancreatic fluid collections is safe and effective, with excellent immediate and long-term results. Endoscopic necrosectomy has a risk of serious complications. The underlying pancreatic duct abnormalities must be addressed to prevent recurrence of fluid collections. © 2011 The Authors. Digestive Endoscopy © 2011 Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society.

  19. Screening for Pancreatic Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Brand, Randall E.

    2007-01-01

    Despite improvements in the clinical and surgical management of pancreatic cancer, limited strides have been made in the early detection of this highly lethal malignancy. The majority of localized pancreatic tumors are asymptomatic, and the recognized presenting symptoms of pancreatic adenocarcinoma are often vague and heterogeneous in nature. These factors, coupled with the lack of a sensitive and noninvasive screening method, have made population-based screening for pancreatic cancer impossible. Nevertheless, at least two large institutions have performed multimodality-screening protocols for individuals with high risk of pancreatic cancer based on genetic predisposition and strong family history. Abnormalities noted during these screening protocols prompted further investigation or surgery that resulted in the discovery of benign, potentially malignant, and malignant pancreatic lesions. In addition to ductal epithelial pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia, greater sensitivity has recently been achieved in the identification and characterization of precancerous mucinous pancreatic tumors. Advancements in proteomics and DNA microarray technology may confirm serum-based biomarkers that could be incorporated into future screening algorithms for pancreatic cancer. PMID:21960811

  20. Crack sealer fill characteristics.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2010-06-01

    Laboratory testing was conducted to determine the extent of crack fill for crack sealers composed of methyl methacrylate, : epoxy, urethane, and high molecular weight methacrylate. The test specimens consisted of eight-inch long concrete : cylinders ...

  1. Pyrotechnic filled molding powder

    DOEpatents

    Hartzel, Lawrence W.; Kettling, George E.

    1978-01-01

    The disclosure relates to thermosetting molding compounds and more particularly to a pyrotechnic filled thermosetting compound comprising a blend of unfilled diallyl phthalate molding powder and a pyrotechnic mixture.

  2. Filling the Fighter Gap

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-18

    1 Filling the Fighter Gap by Major Justin DeMarco, USAF The purpose of this paper is to suggest how the Air Force can mitigate the...estimate or any other aspect of this collection of information, including suggestions for reducing this burden, to Washington Headquarters Services...SUBTITLE Filling the Fighter Gap 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER

  3. Filling a Conical Cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nye, Kyle; Eslam-Panah, Azar

    2016-11-01

    Root canal treatment involves the removal of infected tissue inside the tooth's canal system and filling the space with a dense sealing agent to prevent further infection. A good root canal treatment happens when the canals are filled homogeneously and tightly down to the root apex. Such a tooth is able to provide valuable service for an entire lifetime. However, there are some examples of poorly performed root canals where the anterior and posterior routes are not filled completely. Small packets of air can be trapped in narrow access cavities when restoring with resin composites. Such teeth can cause trouble even after many years and lead the conditions like acute bone infection or abscesses. In this study, the filling of dead-end conical cavities with various liquids is reported. The first case studies included conical cavity models with different angles and lengths to visualize the filling process. In this investigation, the rate and completeness at which a variety of liquids fill the cavity were observed to find ideal conditions for the process. Then, a 3D printed model of the scaled representation of a molar with prepared post spaces was used to simulate the root canal treatment. The results of this study can be used to gain a better understanding of the restoration for endodontically treated teeth.

  4. Cystic pancreatic tumors (CPT): predictors of malignant behavior.

    PubMed

    Javle, Milind; Shah, Pankaj; Yu, Jihnhee; Bhagat, Vishal; Litwin, Alan; Iyer, Renuka; Gibbs, John

    2007-03-01

    Due to widespread use of imaging studies, increasing cystic pancreatic tumor (CPT) cases are being detected. The diagnosis of malignancy in CPT cases requires pancreatectomy. Clinical and laboratory characteristics of CPT may predict underlying malignancy. CPT cases treated between 1994 and 2004 at our institution were included. Pseudocysts were excluded. Serous cystadenoma (SCA), mucinous cystadenoma (MCA), intrapapillary mucinous tumor, cystic endocrine tumor, and lymphoepithelial cysts were classified as benign or pre-malignant. Serous cystadenocarcinoma (SCACA), mucinous cystadenocarcinoma (MCACA), and adenocarcinoma (ACA) were classified as malignant. Thirty-five patients had histological confirmation. Median age was 65 years. Male/female ratio was higher in malignant group (P = 0.0284). Weight loss and abdominal mass were more prevalent in malignant group (P = 0.042 and 0.028, respectively). Malignant lesions were larger, associated with local invasion (superior mesenteric artery (SMA), superior mesenteric vein (SMV), portal vein (PV) complex or celiac encasement) and CA 19-9 elevation. On univariate analyses, local invasion (P = 0.0029), negative surgical intervention (P = 0.0010), presence of ACA (P = 0.0044), or malignant CPT (P = 0.0018) were associated with shorter survival. On a multivariate analysis, local invasion was associated with shorter survival [Hazard ratio (HR) = 4.322, P = 0.0218], while surgical intervention was associated with improved survival (HR = 0.179, P = 0.0124). Male sex, abdominal mass, weight loss, larger tumor size, local invasion, and elevated CA 19-9 were associated with malignant CPT.

  5. Pancreatic fibrosis correlates with exocrine pancreatic insufficiency after pancreatoduodenectomy.

    PubMed

    Tran, T C K; van 't Hof, G; Kazemier, G; Hop, W C; Pek, C; van Toorenenbergen, A W; van Dekken, H; van Eijck, C H J

    2008-01-01

    Obstruction of the pancreatic duct can lead to pancreatic fibrosis. We investigated the correlation between the extent of pancreatic fibrosis and the postoperative exocrine and endocrine pancreatic function. Fifty-five patients who were treated for pancreatic and periampullary carcinoma and 19 patients with chronic pancreatitis were evaluated. Exocrine pancreatic function was evaluated by fecal elastase-1 test, while endocrine pancreatic function was assessed by plasma glucose level. The extent of fibrosis, duct dilation and endocrine tissue loss was examined histopathologically. A strong correlation was found between pancreatic fibrosis and elastase-1 level less than 100 microg/g (p < 0.0001), reflecting severe exocrine pancreatic insufficiency. A strong correlation was found between pancreatic fibrosis and endocrine tissue loss (p < 0.0001). Neither pancreatic fibrosis nor endocrine tissue loss were correlated with the development of postoperative diabetes mellitus. Duct dilation alone was neither correlated with exocrine nor with endocrine function loss. The majority of patients develop severe exocrine pancreatic insufficiency after pancreatoduodenectomy. The extent of exocrine pancreatic insufficiency is strongly correlated with preoperative fibrosis. The loss of endocrine tissue does not correlate with postoperative diabetes mellitus. Preoperative dilation of the pancreatic duct per se does not predict exocrine or endocrine pancreatic insufficiency postoperatively. Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. [Chronic pancreatitis diagnosed after the first attack of acute pancreatitis].

    PubMed

    Bojková, Martina; Dítě, Petr; Uvírová, Magdalena; Dvořáčková, Nina; Kianička, Bohuslav; Kupka, Tomáš; Svoboda, Pavel; Klvaňa, Pavel; Martínek, Arnošt

    2016-02-01

    One of the diseases involving a potential risk of developing chronic pancreatitis is acute pancreatitis. Of the overall number of 231 individuals followed with a diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis, 56 patients were initially treated for acute pancreatitis (24.2 %). Within an interval of 12- 24 months from the first attack of acute pancreatitis, their condition gradually progressed to reached the picture of chronic pancreatitis. The individuals included in the study abstained (from alcohol) following the first attack of acute pancreatitis and no relapse of acute pancreatitis was proven during the period of their monitoring. The etiology of acute pancreatitis identified alcohol as the predominant cause (55.3 %), biliary etiology was proven in 35.7 %. According to the revised Atlanta classification, severe pancreatitis was established in 69.6 % of the patients, the others met the criterion for intermediate form, those with the light form were not included. Significant risk factors present among the patients were smoking, obesity and 18 %, resp. 25.8 % had pancreatogenous diabetes mellitus identified. 88.1 % of the patients with acute pancreatitis were smokers. The majority of individuals with chronic pancreatitis following an attack of acute pancreatitis were of a productive age from 25 to 50 years. It is not only acute alcoholic pancreatitis which evolves into chronic pancreatitis, we have also identified this transition for pancreatitis of biliary etiology.

  7. Optimal Filling of Shapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Carolyn L.; Anderson, Joshua A.; Huber, Greg; Glotzer, Sharon C.

    2012-05-01

    We present filling as a type of spatial subdivision problem similar to covering and packing. Filling addresses the optimal placement of overlapping objects lying entirely inside an arbitrary shape so as to cover the most interior volume. In n-dimensional space, if the objects are polydisperse n-balls, we show that solutions correspond to sets of maximal n-balls. For polygons, we provide a heuristic for finding solutions of maximal disks. We consider the properties of ideal distributions of N disks as N→∞. We note an analogy with energy landscapes.

  8. Latest advances in chronic pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Enrique Domínguez-Muñoz, J

    2016-09-01

    This article summarizes some of the recent and clinically relevant advances in chronic pancreatitis. These advances mainly concern the definition of the disease, the etiological diagnosis of idiopathic disease, the correlation between fibrosis degree and pancreatic secretion in the early stages of chronic pancreatitis, the treatment of the disease and of pain, the clinical relevance of pancreatic exocrine insufficiency, and the diagnosis of autoimmune pancreatitis. A new mechanistic definition of chronic pancreatitis has been proposed. Genetic testing is mainly of help in patients with relapsing idiopathic pancreatitis. A significant correlation has been shown between the degree of pancreatic fibrosis as evaluated by elastography and pancreatic secretion of bicarbonate. New data supports the efficacy of antioxidants and simvastatin for the therapy of chronic pancreatitis. The pancreatoscopy-guided intraductal lithotripsy is an effective alternative to extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy in patients with chronic calcifying pancreatitis. The presence of pancreatic exocrine insufficiency in patients with chronic pancreatitis is associated with a significant risk of cardiovascular events. Fine needle biopsy and contrast enhanced harmonic endoscopic ultrasonography are of help for the diagnosis of autoimmune pancreatitis and its differential diagnosis with pancreatic cancer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Acute Pancreatitis in Children.

    PubMed

    Werlin, Steven L.

    2001-10-01

    There are no drugs that cure or abate pancreatitis. The treatment of patients with mild and moderate episodes of pancreatitis (85%) is supportive and expectant. Central issues include the removal of the initiating process (if possible), relief of pain, and maintenance of fluid and electrolyte balance. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography may be required for stone extraction in patients with biliary pancreatitis. Surgery is rarely required. The aims of treatment for patients with severe disease includes treatment of local, systemic, and septic complications in addition to those for mild and moderate disease. Homeostasis is maintained by the correction of hypocalcemia, anemia, hypoalbuminemia, electrolyte imbalances, and hypoxemia. A large number of medications have been used unsuccessfully in an attempt to halt the progression of the autodigestive process within the pancreas and to reduce pancreatic secretions. Nutritional support with either enteral or parenteral feeding is given. Intravenous antibiotics or selective bowel decontamination decrease mortality in patients with severe episodes of pancreatitis. The treatment for these individuals is often prolonged. Surgical treatment of traumatic pancreatitis with ductal rupture includes repair or resection. At times, simple drainage is performed and definitive surgery is deferred until later. Surgical treatment of severe pancreatitis includes debridement of necrotic and infected tissue. The emerging consensus appears to be that necrosectomy and local lavage or open management with planned re-exploration offers better survival than the conventional therapy of resection plus drainage alone.

  10. PKD signaling and pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Jingzhen; Pandol, Stephen J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Acute pancreatitis is a serious medical disorder with no current therapies directed to the molecular pathogenesis of the disorder. Inflammation, inappropriate intracellular activation of digestive enzymes, and parenchymal acinar cell death by necrosis are the critical pathophysiologic processes of acute pancreatitis. Thus, it is necessary to elucidate the key molecular signals that mediate these pathobiologic processes and develop new therapeutic strategies to attenuate the appropriate signaling pathways in order to improve outcomes for this disease. A novel serine/threonine protein kinase D (PKD) family has emerged as key participants in signal transduction, and this family is increasingly being implicated in the regulation of multiple cellular functions and diseases. Methods This review summarizes recent findings of our group and others regarding the signaling pathway and the biological roles of the PKD family in pancreatic acinar cells. In particular, we highlight our studies of the functions of PKD in several key pathobiologic processes associated with acute pancreatitis in experimental models. Results Our findings reveal that PKD signaling is required for NF-κB activation/inflammation, intracellular zymogen activation, and acinar cell necrosis in rodent experimental pancreatitis. Novel small-molecule PKD inhibitors attenuate the severity of pancreatitis in both in vitro and in vivo experimental models. Further, this review emphasizes our latest advances in the therapeutic application of PKD inhibitors to experimental pancreatitis after the initiation of pancreatitis. Conclusions These novel findings suggest that PKD signaling is a necessary modulator in key initiating pathobiologic processes of pancreatitis, and that it constitutes a novel therapeutic target for treatments of this disorder. PMID:26879861

  11. Clinical signs of pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Penny, Steven M

    2012-01-01

    The pancreas consists of complex structures that perform vital functions. Radiologic technologists must comprehend its normal structure and function to perform functional imaging procedures in their daily practice, as well as to know how any deviation from normalcy can disrupt homeostasis. Because pancreatitis is a potentially life-threatening disease, a thorough understanding of the clinical manifestation and imaging characteristics of the various forms of the disease is crucial. This article reviews distinctive pancreatic function and discusses basic pancreas imaging. In addition, acute and chronic pancreatitis is explored, including the role of medical imaging in its diagnosis, complications, and prognosis.

  12. Systolic ventricular filling.

    PubMed

    Torrent-Guasp, Francisco; Kocica, Mladen J; Corno, Antonio; Komeda, Masashi; Cox, James; Flotats, A; Ballester-Rodes, Manel; Carreras-Costa, Francesc

    2004-03-01

    The evidence of the ventricular myocardial band (VMB) has revealed unavoidable coherence and mutual coupling of form and function in the ventricular myocardium, making it possible to understand the principles governing electrical, mechanical and energetical events within the human heart. From the earliest Erasistratus' observations, principal mechanisms responsible for the ventricular filling have still remained obscured. Contemporary experimental and clinical investigations unequivocally support the attitude that only powerful suction force, developed by the normal ventricles, would be able to produce an efficient filling of the ventricular cavities. The true origin and the precise time frame for generating such force are still controversial. Elastic recoil and muscular contraction were the most commonly mentioned, but yet, still not clearly explained mechanisms involved in the ventricular suction. Classical concepts about timing of successive mechanical events during the cardiac cycle, also do not offer understandable insight into the mechanism of the ventricular filling. The net result is the current state of insufficient knowledge of systolic and particularly diastolic function of normal and diseased heart. Here we summarize experimental evidence and theoretical backgrounds, which could be useful in understanding the phenomenon of the ventricular filling. Anatomy of the VMB, and recent proofs for its segmental electrical and mechanical activation, undoubtedly indicates that ventricular filling is the consequence of an active muscular contraction. Contraction of the ascendent segment of the VMB, with simultaneous shortening and rectifying of its fibers, produces the paradoxical increase of the ventricular volume and lengthening of its long axis. Specific spatial arrangement of the ascendent segment fibers, their interaction with adjacent descendent segment fibers, elastic elements and intra-cavitary blood volume (hemoskeleton), explain the physical principles

  13. Laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy preserving the spleen and splenic vessels for benign and low-grade malignant pancreatic neoplasm.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Tetsuo; Yoshiya, Shohei; Toshima, Takeo; Harimoto, Norifumi; Yamashita, Youichi; Ikegami, Toru; Yoshizumi, Tomoharu; Soejima, Yuji; Shirabe, Ken; Maehara, Yoshihiko

    2013-03-01

    Laparoscopic spleen-preserving distal pancreatectomy (LSPDP) is expected to be less invasive than laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy with splenectomy. However, there are few reports regarding the details of the procedure for LSPDP, and its safety remains unclear. This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility and safety of LSPDP. Six patients underwent LSPDP from March 2009 to February 2013 in our center, and their clinical data and outcomes were reviewed retrospectively. A total of six laparoscopic distal pancreatic resections were attempted in four female and two male patients. All of the operations were successful, with an average operative time of 290.7 min (range: 211-377 min) and an average blood loss of 43.5 g (range: 0-142 g). The mean hospital stay was 11.8 days (range: 9-17days). No obvious pancreatic fistulas occurred, although pseudocysts at the stump of the pancreas were recognized in three patients on CT scans performed at 7 days postoperatively. Postoperative pathological examinations revealed two cases of serous cystadenoma in the body and tail of the pancreas, one case of serous oligocystic adenoma, one case of mucinous cystadenoma, one case of neuroendocrine tumor, and one case of solid-pseudopapillary neoplasm. LSPDP is minimally invasive, safe, and feasible for the management of benign pancreatic tail tumors, with the advantages of earlier recovery and less morbidity from complications.

  14. Comparison of complication outcomes in acute pancreatitis following ERCP and conservative management at UKM medical centre: a six years retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Zamri, Z; Razman, J

    2012-11-01

    Acute pancreatitis is one of the common reasons for surgical admission. It is a potentially lethal disease that is increasing in its incidence. The most common causes of acute pancreatitis is from gallstones and alcohol. Other causes of acute pancreatitis include hypertriglyceridaemia, hyperparathyroidism, pancreatic malignancy, Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), trauma, infectious agents, drugs, autoimmunity, and hereditary. The treatment of acute pancreatitis is mainly supportive. The complication of ERCP in acute pancreatitis can be divided into local complication (pancreatic abscess, pseudocyst), systemic complications (renal failure, respiratory failure, cardiogenic shock) and biliary sepsis (acute cholangitis and acute cholecystitis). However, early ERCP and possible sphincterotomy should be kept in mind for patients with severe disease and biliary obstruction who are not improving with medical therapy. This study is done to compare the complication rate of ERCP and conservative management in acute pancreatitis for past 6 years in Pusat Perubatan UKM. The study is conducted retrospectively and the study population was from January 2003 until December 2008. About 100 patients involving 51 males and 49 females were included in this study. All of them were diagnosed acute pancreatitis based on the serum amylase level of 4 times than normal value detected from Chemistry Pathology record, Pathology Department, PPUKM. Then, data were collected from the patient's file which include the demographic data and patient clinical presentation, ultrasound finding, either patient went for ERCP within 72 hours or not. If ERCP not done within 72 hours of admission then it will considered that the patient is under conservative management. From 100 patients that involved in this study about 44% was Malay, 36 % was Chinese, 18 % was Indian and the other 2 % was from other origin. There were 28 cases (28%) where ERCP was done within 72 hours, and the other 72

  15. [Latest advances in chronic pancreatitis].

    PubMed

    Domínguez Muñoz, J Enrique

    2015-09-01

    This article summarizes some of the recent and clinically relevant advances in chronic pancreatitis. These advances mainly concern the early diagnosis of the disease, the treatment of symptoms and complications, mainly pain and pancreatic exocrine insufficiency, and the diagnosis and therapy of autoimmune pancreatitis. The multimodal dynamic endoscopic ultrasound-guided secretin-stimulated evaluation of the pancreas provides relevant morphological and functional information for the diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis at early stages. Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy in patients with calcifying pancreatitis and endoscopic pancreatic stent placement are effective alternatives for pain therapy in patients with chronic pancreatitis. Presence of pancreatic exocrine insufficiency in patients with chronic pancreatitis is associated with a significantly increase of mortality rate. Despite that, pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy is not prescribed in the majority of patients with pancreatic exocrine insufficiency, or it is prescribed at a low dose. The newly developed and commercialized needles for endoscopic ultrasound-guided pancreatic biopsy are effective in retrieving appropriate tissue samples for the histological diagnosis of autoimmune pancreatitis. Maintenance therapy with azathioprine is effective and safe to prevent relapses in patients with autoimmune pancreatitis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Outcomes After Conservative, Endoscopic, and Surgical Treatment of Groove Pancreatitis: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Kager, Liesbeth M; Lekkerkerker, Selma J; Arvanitakis, Marianna; Delhaye, Myriam; Fockens, Paul; Boermeester, Marja A; van Hooft, Jeanin E; Besselink, Marc G

    2017-09-01

    Groove pancreatitis (GP) is a focal form of chronic pancreatitis affecting the paraduodenal groove area, for which consensus on diagnosis and management is lacking. We performed a systematic review of the literature to determine patient characteristics and imaging features of GP and to evaluate clinical outcomes after treatment. Eight studies were included reporting on 335 GP patients with a median age of 47 years (range, 34 to 64 y), with 90% male, 87% smokers, and 87% alcohol consumption, and 47 months (range, 15 to 122 mo) of follow-up. Most patients presented with abdominal pain (91%) and/or weight loss (78%). Imaging frequently showed cystic lesions (91%) and duodenal stenosis (60%).Final treatment was conservative (eg, pain medication) in 29% of patients. Endoscopic treatment (eg, pseudocyst drainage) was applied in 19% of patients-34% of these patients were subsequently referred for surgery. Overall, 59% of patients were treated surgically (eg, pancreatoduodenectomy). Complete symptom relief was observed in 50% of patients who were treated conservatively, 57% who underwent endoscopic treatment, and 79% who underwent surgery. GP is associated with male gender, smoking, and alcohol consumption. The vast majority of patients presents with abdominal pain and with cystic lesions on imaging. Although surgical treatment seems to be the most effective, both conservative and endoscopic treatment are successful in about half of patients. A stepwise treatment algorithm starting with the least invasive treatment options seems advisable.

  17. Endoscopic Ultrasound-Guided Management of Pancreatic Fluid Collections: Update and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Alali, Ali; Mosko, Jeffrey; May, Gary; Teshima, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    Severe acute pancreatitis is often complicated by the development of pancreatic fluid collections (PFCs), which may be associated with significant morbidity and mortality. It is crucial to accurately classify these collections as a pseudocyst or walled-off necrosis (WON) given significant differences in outcomes and management. Interventions for PFCs have increasingly shifted to less invasive strategies, with endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided methods being shown to be safer and equally effective as more invasive surgical techniques. In recent years, many new developments have improved the safety and efficacy of EUS-guided interventions, such as the introduction of lumen-apposing metal stents (LAMS), direct endoscopic necrosectomy (DEN) and multiple other adjunctive techniques. Despite these developments, treatment of PFCs, and infected WON in particular, continues to be associated with significant morbidity and mortality. In this article, we discuss the EUS-guided management of PFCs while reviewing the latest developments and controversies in the field. We end by summarizing our own approach to managing PFCs. PMID:28391671

  18. Microstructure Filled Hohlraums

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, A. S.; Thomas, C. A.; Reese, T. M.

    2017-02-24

    We propose replacing the gas fill in a hohlraum with a low average density, variable uniformity 3D printed structure. This creates a bimodal hohlraum which acts like a vacuum hohlraum initially during the picket, but could protect the capsule from glint or direct illumination, and then once expanded, homogenizes to behave like a variable z gas-fill during peak portion of the drive. This is motivated by a two main aims: 1) reduction of the Au bubble velocity to improve inner beam propagation, and 2) the introduction of a low density, high-Z, x-ray converter to improve x-ray production in the hohlraummore » and uniformity of the radiation field seen by the capsule.« less

  19. Gas filled panel insulation

    DOEpatents

    Griffith, Brent T.; Arasteh, Dariush K.; Selkowitz, Stephen E.

    1993-01-01

    A structural or flexible highly insulative panel which may be translucent, is formed from multi-layer polymeric material in the form of an envelope surrounding a baffle. The baffle is designed so as to minimize heat transfer across the panel, by using material which forms substantially closed spaces to suppress convection of the low conductivity gas fill. At least a portion of the baffle carries a low emissivity surface for suppression of infrared radiation.

  20. Gas filled panel insulation

    DOEpatents

    Griffith, B.T.; Arasteh, D.K.; Selkowitz, S.E.

    1993-12-14

    A structural or flexible highly insulative panel which may be translucent, is formed from multi-layer polymeric material in the form of an envelope surrounding a baffle. The baffle is designed so as to minimize heat transfer across the panel, by using material which forms substantially closed spaces to suppress convection of the low conductivity gas fill. At least a portion of the baffle carries a low emissivity surface for suppression of infrared radiation. 18 figures.

  1. [Necrotic acute pancreatitis in the intensive care unit: a comparison between conservative and surgical medical treatment].

    PubMed

    Milian J, William; Portugal S, José; Laynez Ch, Richard; Rodríguez A, Cesar; Targarona, Javier; Barreda C, Luis

    2010-01-01

    pseudocyst 9/36 (25%) vs. 8/34(23.5%); recurring abdominal pain 3/36 (8.3%) vs. 4/34 (11.8%); and relapsing acute pancreatitis 3/36 (8.3%) vs. 2/34 (5.8%); while 4/36 (11.1%) vs. 3/34 (8.8%) did not show any problem. There were not significant differences between the conservative and the surgical medical treatment, respectively. Patients suffering acute pancreatitis with sterile necrosis can undergo conservative medical treatment which will result in a lower mortality rate, while the hospital stay, in comparison with acute pancreatitis with infected necrosis, will not be affected.

  2. Pancreatic islet cell tumor

    MedlinePlus

    ... JH, Kastan MB, Tepper JE, eds. Abeloff's Clinical Oncology . 5th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap ... Cancer Network website. NCCN clinical practice guidelines in oncology (NCCN guidelines): pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Version 3.2017. www. ...

  3. Hypermutation In Pancreatic Cancer.

    PubMed

    Humphris, Jeremy L; Patch, Ann-Marie; Nones, Katia; Bailey, Peter J; Johns, Amber L; McKay, Skye; Chang, David K; Miller, David K; Pajic, Marina; Kassahn, Karin S; Quinn, Michael C J; Bruxner, Timothy J C; Christ, Angelika N; Harliwong, Ivon; Idrisoglu, Senel; Manning, Suzanne; Nourse, Craig; Nourbakhsh, Ehsan; Stone, Andrew; Wilson, Peter J; Anderson, Matthew; Fink, J Lynn; Holmes, Oliver; Kazakoff, Stephen; Leonard, Conrad; Newell, Felicity; Waddell, Nick; Wood, Scott; Mead, Ronald S; Xu, Qinying; Wu, Jianmin; Pinese, Mark; Cowley, Mark J; Jones, Marc D; Nagrial, Adnan M; Chin, Venessa T; Chantrill, Lorraine A; Mawson, Amanda; Chou, Angela; Scarlett, Christopher J; Pinho, Andreia V; Rooman, Ilse; Giry-Laterriere, Marc; Samra, Jaswinder S; Kench, James G; Merrett, Neil D; Toon, Christopher W; Epari, Krishna; Nguyen, Nam Q; Barbour, Andrew; Zeps, Nikolajs; Jamieson, Nigel B; McKay, Colin J; Carter, C Ross; Dickson, Euan J; Graham, Janet S; Duthie, Fraser; Oien, Karin; Hair, Jane; Morton, Jennifer P; Sansom, Owen J; Grützmann, Robert; Hruban, Ralph H; Maitra, Anirban; Iacobuzio-Donahue, Christine A; Schulick, Richard D; Wolfgang, Christopher L; Morgan, Richard A; Lawlor, Rita T; Rusev, Borislav; Corbo, Vincenzo; Salvia, Roberto; Cataldo, Ivana; Tortora, Giampaolo; Tempero, Margaret A; Hofmann, Oliver; Eshleman, James R; Pilarsky, Christian; Scarpa, Aldo; Musgrove, Elizabeth A; Gill, Anthony J; Pearson, John V; Grimmond, Sean M; Waddell, Nicola; Biankin, Andrew V

    2017-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is molecularly diverse, with few effective therapies. Increased mutation burden and defective DNA repair are associated with response to immune checkpoint inhibitors in several other cancer types. We interrogated 385 pancreatic cancer genomes to define hypermutation and its causes. Mutational signatures inferring defects in DNA repair were enriched in those with the highest mutation burdens. Mismatch repair deficiency was identified in 1% of tumors harboring different mechanisms of somatic inactivation of MLH1 and MSH2. Defining mutation load in individual pancreatic cancers and the optimal assay for patient selection may inform clinical trial design for immunotherapy in pancreatic cancer. Copyright © 2017 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Bacteriological profile of pancreatic juice in patients with chronic pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Parida, Salil Kumar; Pottakkat, Biju; Raja, Kalayarasan; Vijayahari, Ranjit; Lakshmi, Chandrasekharan Padma

    2014-09-28

    Information regarding the association of bacteria in the pancreatic fluid in patients with chronic pancreatitis is limited. This study was designed to analyze the prevalence of bacteria in pancreatic juice in patients with chronic pancreatitis and the association of positive pancreatic fluid culture with pre-operative and post-operative parameters. All patients with chronic pancreatitis who underwent operation from November 2011 to October 2013 were prospectively included in the study. Intra-operatively pancreatic duct fluid was collected and sent for culture sensitivity in all patients. The bacteriology of the fluid was analyzed and was correlated with preoperative, intraoperative and postoperative parameters. A total of 26 patients were analyzed. Two patients underwent endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatography (ERCP) preoperatively. Bacteria was present in pancreatic duct fluid in 11 (42%) patients. Both patients who underwent ERCP had positive cultures. Most common organism observed was Escherichia coli (6/11, 55%) followed by Klebsiella pneumonia (3/11, 27%). Five patients with positive culture developed wound infection. Bacteria isolated from the wound were similar to pancreatic fluid. Bacteria is commonly present in the pancreatic juice in patients with chronic pancreatitis and its presence may have an effect on the post-operative infections following operations. Based on the pancreatic fluid culture results appropriate antibiotic can be given to the patients who will develop septic complications following surgery. Role of bacteria in the pathogenesis of the chronic calcific pancreatitis needs to be investigated in future studies.

  5. Endoscopic pancreatic necrosectomy.

    PubMed

    Fogel, Evan L

    2011-07-01

    Traditionally, patients with symptomatic sterile pancreatic necrosis or infected necrosis have been managed by open surgical debridement and removal of necrotic tissue. Within the last decade, however, reports of endoscopic pancreatic necrosectomy, an alternative minimally invasive approach, have demonstrated high success rates and low mortality rates. This report describes the indications, technique, and study outcome data of the procedure. While our experience with this technique has recently increased, better selection criteria are needed to identify patients who are most suitable for endoscopic therapy.

  6. Management of pancreatic trauma.

    PubMed

    Girard, E; Abba, J; Arvieux, C; Trilling, B; Sage, P Y; Mougin, N; Perou, S; Lavagne, P; Létoublon, C

    2016-08-01

    Pancreatic trauma (PT) is associated with high morbidity and mortality; the therapeutic options remain debated. Retrospective study of PT treated in the University Hospital of Grenoble over a 22-year span. The decision for initial laparotomy depended on hemodynamic status as well as on associated lesions. Main pancreatic duct lesions were always searched for. PT lesions were graded according to the AAST classification. Of a total of 46 PT, 34 were grades II or I. Hemodynamic instability led to immediate laparotomy in 18 patients, for whom treatment was always drainage of the pancreatic bed; morbidity was 30%. Eight patients had grade III injuries, six of whom underwent immediate operation: three underwent splenopancreatectomy without any major complications while the other three who had simple drainage required re-operation for peritonitis, with one death related to pancreatic complications. Four patients had grades IV or V PT: two pancreatoduodenectomies were performed, with no major complication, while one patient underwent duodenal reconstruction with pancreatic drainage, complicated by pancreatic and duodenal fistula requiring a hospital stay of two months. The post-trauma course was complicated for all patients with main pancreatic duct involvement. Our outcomes were similar to those found in the literature. In patients with distal PT and main pancreatic duct involvement, simple drainage is associated with high morbidity and mortality. For proximal PT, the therapeutic options of drainage versus pancreatoduodenectomy must be weighed; pancreatoduodenectomy may be unavoidable when the duodenum is injured as well. Two-stage (resection first, reconstruction later) could be an effective alternative in the emergency setting when there are other associated traumatic lesions. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  7. Filled Crater and Scallops

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-01-28

    In this observation from NASA Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter made for a study of ancient craters, we see the craters filled with smooth material that has subsequently degraded into scallops. These formations might be possibly due to ground ice sublimation. High resolution can help to estimate any differences in roughness on the smoother main mantle and in the eroded hollows. With the enhanced color swath, we might be able to view composition variations of the material. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19288

  8. Dye filled security seal

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, Dennis C. W.

    1982-04-27

    A security seal for providing an indication of unauthorized access to a sealed object includes an elongate member to be entwined in the object such that access is denied unless the member is removed. The elongate member has a hollow, pressurizable chamber extending throughout its length that is filled with a permanent dye under greater than atmospheric pressure. Attempts to cut the member and weld it together are revealed when dye flows through a rupture in the chamber wall and stains the outside surface of the member.

  9. Secretion of pancreatic polypeptide in patients with pancreatic endocrine tumors.

    PubMed

    Adrian, T E; Uttenthal, L O; Williams, S J; Bloom, S R

    1986-07-31

    Pancreatic polypeptide is often secreted by pancreatic endocrine tumors and is considered a marker for such tumors. To investigate the diagnostic value of this marker, we studied 323 patients with proved pancreatic endocrine tumors. We found plasma concentrations of pancreatic polypeptide to be elevated (more than 300 pmol per liter) in 144 patients (diagnostic sensitivity, 45 percent). However, plasma levels of pancreatic polypeptide can also be elevated in the absence of a pancreatic tumor. To ascertain whether the administration of atropine could distinguish between normal and tumor-associated polypeptide secretion, we studied 30 patients with pancreatic tumors and high plasma levels of pancreatic polypeptide, 18 patients without tumors who had elevated levels of pancreatic polypeptide, and eight normal controls. Polypeptide levels in the 18 patients without tumors were substantially lower than in the 30 patients with tumors. Atropine (1 mg intramuscularly) did not suppress polypeptide levels in patients with tumors, but did suppress plasma levels by more than 50 percent in all subjects without tumors. Thus, although its diagnostic sensitivity is low, pancreatic polypeptide appears to be a useful adjunctive marker of many pancreatic endocrine tumors, and the atropine suppression test can be used to distinguish normal from tumor-related secretion of the polypeptide. Identification of the type of pancreatic endocrine tumor still requires measurement of the hormone that is specific for the tumor.

  10. General Information about Pancreatic Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Research Pancreatic Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Pancreatic Cancer Go to Health Professional Version ... the PDQ Adult Treatment Editorial Board . Clinical Trial Information A clinical trial is a study to answer ...

  11. Pancreatic trauma: A concise review

    PubMed Central

    Debi, Uma; Kaur, Ravinder; Prasad, Kaushal Kishor; Sinha, Saroj Kant; Sinha, Anindita; Singh, Kartar

    2013-01-01

    Traumatic injury to the pancreas is rare and difficult to diagnose. In contrast, traumatic injuries to the liver, spleen and kidney are common and are usually identified with ease by imaging modalities. Pancreatic injuries are usually subtle to identify by different diagnostic imaging modalities, and these injuries are often overlooked in cases with extensive multiorgan trauma. The most evident findings of pancreatic injury are post-traumatic pancreatitis with blood, edema, and soft tissue infiltration of the anterior pararenal space. The alterations of post-traumatic pancreatitis may not be visualized within several hours following trauma as they are time dependent. Delayed diagnoses of traumatic pancreatic injuries are associated with high morbidity and mortality. Imaging plays an important role in diagnosis of pancreatic injuries because early recognition of the disruption of the main pancreatic duct is important. We reviewed our experience with the use of various imaging modalities for diagnosis of blunt pancreatic trauma. PMID:24379625

  12. Candida in acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Chakrabarti, Arunaloke; Rao, Pooja; Tarai, Bansidhar; Shivaprakash, Mandya Rudramurthy; Wig, Jaidev

    2007-01-01

    A Candida infection of the pancreas, which previously was considered extremely unusual, has been increasingly reported in recent years. The present study was conducted with the aim of performing a cohort analysis of our patients with acute pancreatitis to find out the incidence, sites, and species of Candida involvement; and to evaluate the risk factors, severity, and course of illness of such patients. A total of 335 patients with acute pancreatitis were investigated for a possible Candida infection of the pancreas from January 2000 to May 2003. The clinical records of all those patients who were positive for Candida spp. isolation from pancreatic tissue were analyzed. The clinical records of 32 more cases, randomly selected from the patients who were investigated for candidal pancreatitis but were negative for Candida spp., were also analyzed in order to compare their findings with those patients with a true Candida infection of the pancreas. A true or possible Candida infection was observed in 41 (12.2%) of those 335 patients and Candida tropicalis was the most common isolate (43.9%). Candida spp. were isolated from pancreatic necrotic tissue in 22 (6.6%) patients (true infection). A possible Candida infection (positive drain fluid effluents at least twice, without any Candida isolation from pre/per operative samples from pancreas) was seen in 19 (5.7%) patients. Candida was also isolated exclusively from the blood in another 19 patients with a clinical diagnosis of acute pancreatitis. A risk factor analysis showed that patients with severe injury to the pancreas, on prophylactic fluconazole, and after surgical intervention were significantly more prone to develop a Candida infection. Patients with a Candida superinfection also had a significantly increased hospital stay and higher mortality. This study thus emphasizes the important role of Candida infection in patients with acute pancreatitis and demonstrates the need for early attention.

  13. Fluid Dynamics of Bottle Filling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGough, Patrick; Gao, Haijing; Appathurai, Santosh; Basaran, Osman

    2011-11-01

    Filling of bottles is a widely practiced operation in a large number of industries. Well known examples include filling of ``large'' bottles with shampoos and cleaners in the household products and beauty care industries and filling of ``small'' bottles in the pharmaceutical industry. Some bottle filling operations have recently drawn much attention from the fluid mechanics community because of the occurrence of a multitude of complex flow regimes, transitions, and instabilities such as mounding and coiling that occur as a bottle is filled with a fluid. In this talk, we present a primarily computational study of the fluid dynamical challenges that can arise during the rapid filling of bottles. Given the diversity of fluids used in filling applications, we consider four representative classes of fluids that exhibit Newtonian, shear-thinning, viscoelastic, and yield-stress rheologies. The equations governing the dynamics of bottle filling are solved either in their full 3D but axisymmetric form or using the slender-jet approximation.

  14. Hypocalcemia in acute pancreatitis revisited

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Armin; Azim, Afzal; Gurjar, Mohan; Baronia, Arvind Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Hypocalcemia is a frequent finding in acute pancreatitis. Severe hypocalcemia can present with neurological as well as cardiovascular manifestations. Correction of hypocalcemia by parenteral calcium infusion remains a controversial topic as intracellular calcium overload is the central mechanism of acinar cell injury in pancreatitis. The current article deals with the art and science of calcium correction in pancreatitis patients. PMID:27076730

  15. Pancreatic Cancer—Patient Version

    Cancer.gov

    Pancreatic cancer can form in exocrine cells and neuroendocrine cells. The exocrine type is more common and is usually found at an advanced stage. Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors are less common but have a better prognosis. Start here to find information on pancreatic cancer treatment, research, and statistics.

  16. The management of pancreatic trauma.

    PubMed

    Khan, M A; Cameron, I

    2010-12-01

    Pancreatic trauma is an uncommon occurrence and so a consensus about optimal management is not readily available. Isolated pancreatic injury occurs only occasionally, as in the majority of cases there is concurrent visceral or vascular injury. Morbidity and mortality are related to delay in diagnosis, concurrent organ injury or the presence and extent of pancreatic duct injury.

  17. Primary Pancreatic Head Tuberculosis: Great Masquerader of Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Dhaval; Patel, Jatin; Rathi, Chetan; Ingle, Meghraj; Sawant, Prabha

    2015-01-01

    Isolated pancreatic tuberculosis (TB) is considered an extremely rare condition, even in the developing countries. Most reported cases of pancreatic TB are diagnosed after exploratory laparotomy or autopsy. Pancreatic TB is a potential mimic of invasive pancreatic malignancy and the presence of vascular invasion does not distinguish one condition from the other. Every effort should be made for the earliest diagnosis of this condition as TB is a treatable condition and it avoids unnecessary management of pancreatic carcinoma. Here we report a rare case of primary pancreatic head TB in a 58-year-old male who presented with hypodense lesion in head of pancreas with double duct sign and portal vein invasion mimicking non-resectable pancreatic carcinoma. PMID:27785295

  18. [Duodenal and pancreatic injuries].

    PubMed

    De Angelis, P; Bergaminelli, C; Pastore, S; Giardiello, C; Salzano, A; Vecchio, G

    2000-04-01

    Pancreatic and duodenal injuries occur rather infrequently and the incidence ranges between 1% and 12% of all abdominal injuries. The high rate of mortality and morbidity (10-40%) depends on associated complication rate of all intra-abdominal organs (90%). Twenty-five cases of pancreatic and duodenal injuries observed between 1987 and 1997, with an incidence of 0.7% of all abdominal injuries, are reported. In 16 cases the cause was penetrating injury (gunshot) and in 9 cases it was blunt abdominal trauma. Only two patients presented an isolated pancreatic lesion, all the others had at least an associated lesion. In all the cases the patients were male and they were submitted to emergency laparotomy. The mortality rate was 20%, the morbidity was 24%. The relatively low incidence of these injuries and the high rate of associated lesions cause a difficult diagnostic and therapeutic approach, the absence of a unified method to follow and the unsatisfactory results observed.

  19. Cyst fluid analysis in the differential diagnosis of pancreatic cystic lesions: a pooled analysis.

    PubMed

    van der Waaij, Laurens A; van Dullemen, Hendrik M; Porte, Robert J

    2005-09-01

    Pancreatic cystic tumors commonly include serous cystadenoma (SCA), mucinous cystadenoma (MCA), and mucinous cystadenocarcinoma (MCAC). A differential diagnosis with pseudocysts (PC) can be difficult. Radiologic criteria are not reliable. The objective of the study is to investigate the value of cyst fluid analysis in the differential diagnosis of benign (SCA, PC) vs. premalignant or malignant (MCA, MCAC) lesions. A search in PubMed was performed with the search terms cyst, pancrea, and fluid. Articles about cyst fluid analysis of pancreatic lesions that contained the individual data of at least 7 patients were included in the study. Data of all individual patients were combined and were plotted in scatter grams. Cutoff levels were determined. Twelve studies were included, which comprised data of 450 patients. Cysts with an amylase concentration <250 U/L were SCA, MCA, or MCAC (sensitivity 44%, specificity 98%) and, thus, virtually excluded PC. A carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) <5 ng/mL suggested a SCA or PC (sensitivity 50%, specificity 95%). A CEA >800 ng/mL strongly suggested MCA or MCAC (sensitivity 48%, specificity 98%). A carbohydrate-associated antigen (CA) 19-9 <37 U/mL strongly suggested PC or SCA (sensitivity 19%, specificity 98%). Cytologic examination revealed malignant cells in 48% of MCAC (n = 111). Most pancreatic cystic tumors should be resected without the need for cyst fluid analysis. However, in asymptomatic patients, in patients with an increased surgical risk, and, in patients in whom there is a diagnostic uncertainty about the presence of a PC, cyst fluid analysis helps to determine the optimal therapeutic strategy.

  20. Hypertriglyceridaemia-induced pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Weston, Natasha; Fernando, Upul; Baskar, Varadarajan

    2013-01-01

    Hypertriglyceridaemia is the third most common cause of acute pancreatitis but is relatively rare and therefore requires a high level of clinical suspicion to be diagnosed. We discuss the case of a 46-year-old man who initially presented to the accident and emergency department with suspected first presentation of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and a normal amylase but who did not respond to DKA treatment. Further history revealed significant cardiovascular risk factors, examination showed an evidence of hyperlipidaemia and investigations revealed acute pancreatitis secondary to hypertriglyceridaemia. We discuss the causes of hypertriglyceridaemia, the difficulty in differentiating primary versus secondary hypertriglyceridaemia, possible pathogenesis and current evidence-based treatments. PMID:23446049

  1. Pathophysiology of chronic pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Behrman, Stephen W; Fowler, Eric S

    2007-12-01

    Although the most common causes of chronic pancreatitis have not changed, it has become clear that a host of modifying biochemical, inflammatory, neural, and genetic deviations allows the disease to progress. Alterations in biochemical composition allow calcific stone formation, whereas various toxins, cytokines, and neuropeptides contribute to the progression of fibrosis and pain production. The basic cellular structure contributing to fibrosis of the pancreas has been elucidated and factors responsible for its activation delineated. Of most importance is the recent recognition of a set of genetic mutations that results in several aberrations of normal pancreatic physiology, which, in conjunction with other inciting insults or by themselves, allow the disease to begin and progress.

  2. [Effects of rectal indomethacin in the prevention of post-ERCP acute pancreatitis].

    PubMed

    Döbrönte, Zoltán; Toldy, Erzsébet; Márk, Levente; Sarang, Krisztina; Lakner, Lilla

    2012-06-24

    Recently non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs have seemed to reduce the frequency of post-ERCP pancreatitis in some prospective controlled trials, but the results have to be confirmed by further studies. To evaluate the efficacy of rectally administered indomethacin for the reduction of incidence of post-ERCP pancreatitis. A prospective randomized placebo-controlled study was conducted in 228 patients who underwent ERCP. Patients were randomized to receive a suppository containing 100 mg indomethacin or an inert placebo 10 mins before ERCP. Patients were evaluated clinically and biochemically by using serum amylase levels measured 24 h after the procedure. Pancreatitis and hyperamylasemia occurred more frequently in the placebo group, but the difference was not significant. In respect to the rate of pancreatitis, this tendency could particularly be observed in females, in patients older than 60 years and in patients with BMI lower than 25; however, it completely failed in cases with pancreatic duct filling or in those with pancreatic EST. Rectal indomethacin given before ERCP did not prove to be statistically effective in the reduction of the incidence of post-procedure pancreatitis. Further, controlled multicenter studies are required to assess safely the potential efficacy of indomethacin in the prevention of pancreatitis following ERCP.

  3. [Pancreatic serous cystadenoma associated with pancreatic heterotopia].

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Hedfi; Dorra, Belghachem; Hela, Bouhafa; Cherif, Abdelhedi; Azza, Sridi; Karim, Sassi; Khadija, Bellil; Adnen, Chouchene

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic heterotopias (HP) are rare. They can occur at any age with a slight male predominance. These lesions are usually asymptomatic and they are often found incidentally during upper or lower GI endoscopy or during the anatomo-pathological examination of an organ which was resected for other reasons; they can be isolated or associated with a digestive pathology. We report, through observation, the association of HP with serous cystadenoma of the pancreas discovered during examinations to identify the etiology of isolated abdominal pain. The aim of this study is to analyse clinical and histological features of this rare pathology.

  4. Environmental risk factors for chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Nitsche, Claudia; Simon, Peter; Weiss, F Ulrich; Fluhr, Gabriele; Weber, Eckhard; Gärtner, Simone; Behn, Claas O; Kraft, Matthias; Ringel, Jörg; Aghdassi, Ali; Mayerle, Julia; Lerch, Markus M

    2011-01-01

    Chronic pancreatitis has long been thought to be mainly associated with immoderate alcohol consumption. The observation that only ∼10% of heavy drinkers develop chronic pancreatitis not only suggests that other environmental factors, such as tobacco smoke, are potent additional risk factors, but also that the genetic component of pancreatitis is more common than previously presumed. Either disease-causing or protective traits have been indentified for mutations in different trypsinogen genes, the gene for the trypsin inhibitor SPINK1, chymotrypsinogen C, and the cystic fibrosis transmembane conductance regulator (CFTR). Other factors that have been proposed to contribute to pancreatitis are obesity, diets high in animal protein and fat, as well as antioxidant deficiencies. For the development of pancreatic cancer, preexisting chronic pancreatitis, more prominently hereditary pancreatitis, is a risk factor. The data on environmental risk factors for pancreatic cancer are, with the notable exception of tobacco smoke, either sparse, unconfirmed or controversial. Obesity appears to increase the risk of pancreatic cancer in the West but not in Japan. Diets high in processed or red meat, diets low in fruits and vegetables, phytochemicals such as lycopene and flavonols, have been proposed and refuted as risk or protective factors in different trials. The best established and single most important risk factor for cancer as well as pancreatitis and the one to clearly avoid is tobacco smoke. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Pancreatic Ribonucleases Superfamily Dynamics

    DOE Data Explorer

    Agarwal, Pratul

    2016-01-01

    This data set consists of molecular dynamics simulations based flexibility/dynamics derived for family members of pancreatic ribonucleases. The results are based on two independent 0.5 microsecond trajectories for each of the 23 members. The flexibility is computed at aggregation of first ten quasi-harmonic modes, and indicated in the temperature factor column of PDB (protein data bank) file format.

  6. Nutrition in chronic pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Henrik Højgaard; Irtun, Oivind; Olesen, Søren Schou; Drewes, Asbjørn Mohr; Holst, Mette

    2013-11-14

    The pancreas is a major player in nutrient digestion. In chronic pancreatitis both exocrine and endocrine insufficiency may develop leading to malnutrition over time. Maldigestion is often a late complication of chronic pancreatic and depends on the severity of the underlying disease. The severity of malnutrition is correlated with two major factors: (1) malabsorption and depletion of nutrients (e.g., alcoholism and pain) causes impaired nutritional status; and (2) increased metabolic activity due to the severity of the disease. Nutritional deficiencies negatively affect outcome if they are not treated. Nutritional assessment and the clinical severity of the disease are important for planning any nutritional intervention. Good nutritional practice includes screening to identify patients at risk, followed by a thoroughly nutritional assessment and nutrition plan for risk patients. Treatment should be multidisciplinary and the mainstay of treatment is abstinence from alcohol, pain treatment, dietary modifications and pancreatic enzyme supplementation. To achieve energy-end protein requirements, oral supplementation might be beneficial. Enteral nutrition may be used when patients do not have sufficient calorie intake as in pylero-duodenal-stenosis, inflammation or prior to surgery and can be necessary if weight loss continues. Parenteral nutrition is very seldom used in patients with chronic pancreatitis and should only be used in case of GI-tract obstruction or as a supplement to enteral nutrition.

  7. Managing Incidental Pancreatic Cysts.

    PubMed

    Phan, Jennifer; Raman Muthusamy, V

    2018-06-09

    The goal of this review is to critically analyze the current literature regarding the management of incidental pancreatic cysts. Given their increased rates of detection due to the frequent use of cross-sectional imaging, correctly identifying the subset of high risk lesions that are appropriate for surgical resection is critical. However, the existing consensus and societal guidelines discussed in this review lack high quality data to create evidence-based recommendations, making achieving this important aim challenging. Several recent studies have focused on the natural history of pancreatic cysts and defining the role of endoscopic ultrasound, which remains unclear. EUS-guided diagnostic tools include molecular analysis of obtained fluid; EUS-guided FNA, FNB, and intracystic forceps biopsy of the cyst wall; and confocal endomicroscopy. While their precise role in diagnosing pancreatic cystic neoplasms remains to be defined, they represent promising innovations that may play a future role in cyst assessment and management. Large, long-term, prospective studies of incidentally identified pancreatic cysts are essential to fully understand their natural history and potential for neoplastic progression. Given the absence of such data at present, an individualized patient approach is recommended.

  8. Pancreatic tumours produce neurotensin.

    PubMed

    Blackburn, A M; Bryant, M G; Adrian, T E; Bloom, S R

    1981-04-01

    Tumour tissue may secrete substances which are not normally secreted by the original tissue. We have found that 6 out of 21 pancreatic tumours producing vasoactive intestinal peptide also produce neurotensin-like peptides. These are sometimes secreted and very high plasma levels of neurotensin-like immunoreactivity may be found in the circulation.

  9. Externalized decondensed neutrophil chromatin occludes pancreatic ducts and drives pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Leppkes, Moritz; Maueröder, Christian; Hirth, Sebastian; Nowecki, Stefanie; Günther, Claudia; Billmeier, Ulrike; Paulus, Susanne; Biermann, Mona; Munoz, Luis E.; Hoffmann, Markus; Wildner, Dane; Croxford, Andrew L.; Waisman, Ari; Mowen, Kerri; Jenne, Dieter E.; Krenn, Veit; Mayerle, Julia; Lerch, Markus M.; Schett, Georg; Wirtz, Stefan; Neurath, Markus F.; Herrmann, Martin; Becker, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Ductal occlusion has been postulated to precipitate focal pancreatic inflammation, while the nature of the primary occluding agents has remained elusive. Neutrophils make use of histone citrullination by peptidyl arginine deiminase-4 (PADI4) in contact to particulate agents to extrude decondensed chromatin as neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). In high cellular density, NETs form macroscopically visible aggregates. Here we show that such aggregates form inside pancreatic ducts in humans and mice occluding pancreatic ducts and thereby driving pancreatic inflammation. Experimental models indicate that PADI4 is critical for intraductal aggregate formation and that PADI4-deficiency abrogates disease progression. Mechanistically, we identify the pancreatic juice as a strong instigator of neutrophil chromatin extrusion. Characteristic single components of pancreatic juice, such as bicarbonate ions and calcium carbonate crystals, induce aggregated NET formation. Ductal occlusion by aggregated NETs emerges as a pathomechanism with relevance in a plethora of inflammatory conditions involving secretory ducts. PMID:26964500

  10. [Chronic Pancreatitis and Pancreatic Cancer - Tumor Risk and Screening].

    PubMed

    Beyer, Georg; D'Haese, Jan G; Ormanns, Steffen; Mayerle, Julia

    2018-06-01

    Chronic pancreatitis is a fibroinflammatory syndrome of the exocrine pancreas, which is characterized by an increasing incidence, high morbidity and lethality. Common etiologies besides alcohol and nicotine consumption include genetic causes and risk factors. The life time risk for the development of pancreatic cancer is elevated 13- to 45-fold depending on the underlying etiology. In patients with chronic pancreatitis clinical, laboratory and imaging surveillance for early detection of complications, including pancreatic cancer, is recommended, although the available methods lack the desired sensitivity and specificity. In this article we review the epidemiology, etiologies and risk factors for chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer and discuss current recommendations for screening and management of patients at risk for tumor development. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. Intermittent Surface Water Connectivity: Fill and Spill vs. Fill ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Intermittent surface connectivity can influence aquatic systems, since chemical and biotic movements are often associated with water flow. Although often referred to as fill and spill, wetlands also fill and merge. We examined the effects of these connection types on water levels, ion concentrations, and biotic communities of eight prairie pothole wetlands between 1979 and 2015. Fill and spill caused pulsed surface water connections that were limited to periods following spring snow melt. In contrast, two wetlands connected through fill and merge experienced a nearly continuous, 20-year surface water connection and had completely coincident water levels. Fill and spill led to minimal convergence in dissolved ions and macroinvertebrate composition, while these constituents converged under fill and merge. The primary factor determining difference in responses was duration of the surface water connection between wetland pairs. Our findings suggest that investigations into the effects of intermittent surface water connections should not consider these connections generically, but need to address the specific types of connections. In particular, fill and spill promotes external water exports while fill and merge favors internal storage. The behaviors of such intermittent connections will likely be accentuated under a future with more frequent and severe climate extremes. Under the Safe and Sustainable Water Resources National Program, work is being done to qu

  12. Intermittent Surface Water Connectivity: Fill and Spill Vs. Fill ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Intermittent surface connectivity can influence aquatic systems, since chemical and biotic movements are often associated with water flow. Although often referred to as fill and spill, wetlands also fill and merge. We examined the effects of these connection types on water levels, ion concentrations, and biotic communities of eight prairie pothole wetlands between 1979 and 2015. Fill and spill caused pulsed surface water connections that were limited to periods following spring snow melt. In contrast, two wetlands connected through fill and merge experienced a nearly continuous, 20-year surface water connection and had completely coincident water levels. Fill and spill led to minimal convergence in dissolved ions and macroinvertebrate composition, while these constituents converged under fill and merge. The primary factor determining difference in responses was duration of the surface water connection between wetland pairs. Our findings suggest that investigations into the effects of intermittent surface water connections should not consider these connections generically, but need to address the specific types of connections. In particular, fill and spill promotes external water exports while fill and merge favors internal storage. The behaviors of such intermittent connections will likely be accentuated under a future with more frequent and severe climate extremes. Under the Safe and Sustainable Water Resources National Program, work is being done to qu

  13. Clinical Profile, Etiology, and Treatment of Chronic Pancreatitis in North American Women: Analysis of a Large Multicenter Cohort.

    PubMed

    Romagnuolo, Joseph; Talluri, Jyothsna; Kennard, Elizabeth; Sandhu, Bimaljit S; Sherman, Stuart; Cote, Gregory A; Al-Kaade, Samer; Gardner, Timothy B; Gelrud, Andres; Lewis, Michele D; Forsmark, Christopher E; Guda, Nalini M; Conwell, Darwin L; Banks, Peter A; Muniraj, Thiruvengadam; Wisniewski, Stephen R; Tian, Ye; Wilcox, C Mel; Anderson, Michelle A; Brand, Randall E; Slivka, Adam; Whitcomb, David C; Yadav, Dhiraj

    2016-08-01

    Historically, chronic pancreatitis (CP) was considered a disease of alcoholic males, but recent data suggest its etiology to be complex. To better understand CP in women, we compared data on women and men with CP in a large, prospectively ascertained multicenter US cohort. Patients with CP enrolled in the NAPS2 Continuation and Validation study were studied. Information on demographics, etiology, risk factors, phenotype, and treatment(s) used was obtained from detailed questionnaires completed by the patients and physicians. Of 521 cases, 45% were women. Women were significantly (P < 0.05) less likely to have alcohol etiology (30% vs 58.5%) and more likely to have nonalcoholic etiologies (idiopathic, 32% vs 18%; obstructive, 12% vs 2.4%; genetic, 12.8% vs 7.3%). Demographics, pain experience, morphologic findings, exocrine and endocrine insufficiency, CP-related disability, and use of medical therapies were mostly similar in both sexes. Sphincterotomy (biliary, 33% vs 24%; pancreatic, 38% vs 28%; P < 0.05) was performed more frequently in women, whereas cyst/pseudocyst operations were more common in men (6.6 vs 2.6%, P = 0.02). Most CP cases in women are from nonalcoholic etiologies. In contrast to many other chronic diseases, clinical phenotype of CP is determined by the disease and is independent of sex.

  14. Endoscopic treatment of large pancreatic fluid collections (PFC) using self-expanding metallic stents (SEMS) - a two-center experience.

    PubMed

    Chaves, Dalton Marques; Mönkemüller, Klaus; Carneiro, Fred; Medrado, Bruno; Dos Santos, Marcos; Wodak, Stephanie; Reimão, Sílvia; Sakai, Paulo; de Moura, Eduardo

    2014-12-01

    Background/study aim: During the last several years, endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided pancreatic fluid collections' (PFC) drainage has evolved into the preferred drainage technique. Recently, self-expanding metallic stents (SEMS) have been used as an alternative to double pigtail stents, with the advantage of providing a larger diameter fistula, thereby decreasing the risk of early obstruction and also allowing for direct endoscopic exploration of the cavity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the technical and clinical success, safety, and outcome of patients undergoing EUS-guided drainage of complex PFC using SEMS. The study was conducted at two tertiary hospitals from January 2010 to January 2013. All patients with PFC referred for endoscopic drainage were enrolled in a prospective database. The inclusion criteria were: (1) patients with pseudocysts or walled-off necrosis based on the revised Atlanta classification; (2) symptomatic patients with thick PFC; (3) PFC that persisted more than 6 weeks; and (4) large PFC diameter (≥ 9 cm). The exclusion criteria consisted of coagulation disorders, PFC bleeding or infection, and failure-to-inform written consent. A total of 16 patients (9 females, 7 males; mean age 52.6, range 20 - 82) underwent EUS drainage with SEMS. There were 14 cases of pseudocysts and 2 cases of walled-off necrosis. The etiologies of the PFC were mainly gallstones (8 of 16 patients, 50 %) and alcohol (5 of 16 patients, 31 %). Technical success was achieved in 100 % of the cases. All patients had a complete resolution of the PFC. Transmural EUS-guided drainage of complex PFC using SEMS is feasible, appears safe, and is efficacious. However, the exchange of the UC (uncovered)-SEMS for plastic stents is mandatory within 1 week. Future prospective studies, preferably multicenter studies, comparing SEMS versus traditional plastic stents for the drainage of PFC are warranted.

  15. Dendritic Cells Promote Pancreatic Viability in Mice with Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Bedrosian, Andrea S.; Nguyen, Andrew H.; Hackman, Michael; Connolly, Michael K.; Malhotra, Ashim; Ibrahim, Junaid; Cieza-Rubio, Napoleon E.; Henning, Justin R.; Barilla, Rocky; Rehman, Adeel; Pachter, H. Leon; Medina-Zea, Marco V.; Cohen, Steven M.; Frey, Alan B.; Acehan, Devrim; Miller, George

    2011-01-01

    Background & Aims Acute pancreatitis increases morbidity and mortality from organ necrosis by mechanisms that are incompletely understood. Dendritic cells (DCs) can promote or suppress inflammation, depending on their subtype and context. We investigated the roles of DC in development of acute pancreatitis. Methods Acute pancreatitis was induced in CD11c.DTR mice using caerulein or L-arginine; DCs were depleted by administration of diphtheria toxin. Survival was analyzed using Kaplan-Meier analysis. Results Numbers of MHC II+CD11c+DC increased 100-fold in pancreas of mice with acute pancreatitis, to account for nearly 15% of intra-pancreatic leukocytes. Intra-pancreatic DC acquired an immune phenotype in mice with acute pancreatitis; they expressed higher levels of MHC II and CD86 and increased production of interleukin-6, membrane cofactor protein (MCP)-1, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. However, rather than inducing an organ-destructive inflammatory process, DC were required for pancreatic viability; the exocrine pancreas died in mice that were depleted of DC and challenged with caerulein or L-arginine. All mice with pancreatitis that were depleted of DC died from acinar cell death within 4 days. Depletion of DC from mice with pancreatitis resulted in neutrophil infiltration and increased levels of systemic markers of inflammation. However, the organ necrosis associated with depletion of DC did not require infiltrating neutrophils, activation of NF-κB, or signaling by mitogen-activated protein kinase or TNF-α. Conclusions DC are required for pancreatic viability in mice with acute pancreatitis and might protect organs against cell stress. PMID:21801698

  16. Endoscopic Ultrasound-guided Bilio-pancreatic Drainage

    PubMed Central

    Giovannini, Marc; Bories, Erwan; Téllez-Ávila, Félix I.

    2012-01-01

    pancreatic pseudocyst (PPC) puncture combines endos-copy with real time endosonography using an interventional echoendoscope. Several authors have described the use of endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) longitudinal scanners for guidance of transmural puncture and drainage procedures. The same technique could be used to access a dilated pancreatic duct in cases in which the duct cannot be drained by conventional ERCP because of complete obstruction. PMID:24949349

  17. Patient Derived Cancer Cell Lines in Identifying Molecular Changes in Patients With Previously Untreated Pancreatic Cancer Receiving Gemcitabine Hydrochloride-Based Chemotherapy

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-09-05

    Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma; Stage IA Pancreatic Cancer; Stage IB Pancreatic Cancer; Stage IIA Pancreatic Cancer; Stage IIB Pancreatic Cancer; Stage III Pancreatic Cancer; Stage IV Pancreatic Cancer

  18. Current Knowledge on Pancreatic Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Iovanna, Juan; Mallmann, Maria Cecilia; Gonçalves, Anthony; Turrini, Olivier; Dagorn, Jean-Charles

    2012-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer death with a median survival of 6 months and a dismal 5-year survival rate of 3–5%. The development and progression of pancreatic cancer are caused by the activation of oncogenes, the inactivation of tumor suppressor genes, and the deregulation of many signaling pathways. Therefore, the strategies targeting these molecules as well as their downstream signaling could be promising for the prevention and treatment of pancreatic cancer. However, although targeted therapies for pancreatic cancer have yielded encouraging results in vitro and in animal models, these findings have not been translated into improved outcomes in clinical trials. This failure is due to an incomplete understanding of the biology of pancreatic cancer and to the selection of poorly efficient or imperfectly targeted agents. In this review, we will critically present the current knowledge regarding the molecular, biochemical, clinical, and therapeutic aspects of pancreatic cancer. PMID:22655256

  19. Advances in Pancreatic CT Imaging.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Renata R; Lo, Grace C; Patino, Manuel; Bizzo, Bernardo; Canellas, Rodrigo; Sahani, Dushyant V

    2018-07-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss the advances in CT acquisition and image postprocessing as they apply to imaging the pancreas and to conceptualize the role of radiogenomics and machine learning in pancreatic imaging. CT is the preferred imaging modality for assessment of pancreatic diseases. Recent advances in CT (dual-energy CT, CT perfusion, CT volumetry, and radiogenomics) and emerging computational algorithms (machine learning) have the potential to further increase the value of CT in pancreatic imaging.

  20. Update on endoscopic management of main pancreatic duct stones in chronic calcific pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Choi, Eun Kwang; Lehman, Glen A

    2012-03-01

    Pancreatic duct stones are a common complication during the natural course of chronic pancreatitis and often contribute to additional pain and pancreatitis. Abdominal pain, one of the major symptoms of chronic pancreatitis, is believed to be caused in part by obstruction of the pancreatic duct system (by stones or strictures) resulting in increasing intraductal pressure and parenchymal ischemia. Pancreatic stones can be managed by surgery, endoscopy, or extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy. In this review, updated management of pancreatic duct stones is discussed.

  1. Early detection of pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ahuja, Nita

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic adenocarcinoma is a low-incident but highly mortal disease. It accounts for only 3% of estimated new cancer cases each year but is currently the fourth common cause of cancer mortality. By 2030, it is expected to be the 2nd leading cause of cancer death. There is a clear need to diagnose and classify pancreatic cancer at earlier stages in order to give patients the best chance at a definitive cure through surgery. Three precursor lesions that distinctly lead to pancreatic adenocarcinoma have been identified, and we have increasing understanding the non-genetic and genetic risk factors for the disease. With increased understanding about the risk factors, the familial patters, and associated accumulation of genetic mutations involved in pancreatic cancer, we know that there are mutations that occur early in the development of pancreatic cancer and that improved genetic risk-based strategies in screening for pancreatic cancer may be possible and successful at saving or prolonging lives. The remaining challenge is that current standards for diagnosing pancreatic cancer remain too invasive and too costly for widespread screening for pancreatic cancer. Furthermore, the promises of noninvasive methods of detection such as blood, saliva, and stool remain underdeveloped or lack robust testing. However, significant progress has been made, and we are drawing closer to a strategy for the screening and early detection of pancreatic cancer. PMID:26361402

  2. [Surgical options for chronic pancreatitis].

    PubMed

    Tan, C L; Nuer, Emms; Abulaiti, Aizezi; Zhang, H; Chen, Y H; Liu, X B

    2016-11-01

    Objective: Discuss the surgical options for the chronic pancreatitis on the basis of anatomical morphological changes. Methods: A retrospective review of chronic pancreatitis patients in Department of Pancreatic Surgery, West China Hospital, Sichuan University between January 2010 and December 2014 was performed. The data of medical records, image feature, surgical types and records of follow-up were collected. Total 295 patients including 275 male and 20 female aged from 14 to 74 years with median age of 51 years. The clinical symptoms included abdominal pain in 280 cases, jaundice in 3 cases, single hemorrhage in digestive tract, diarrhea or mellitus in 12 cases. The anatomical morphological changes included pancreatic fibrosis and atrophy of the main pancreatic duct lesions in 44 cases (14.9%), inflammatory mass in the pancreatic head in 69 cases (22.4%), sporadic stones with calcification in the pancreatic head in 165 cases(55.9%), hyperplasia mass of pancreatic head and body in 14 cases (4.8%), sporadic stones with calcification in whole branch ducts accompanied with different degree of hyperplasia in whole pancreas in 3 cases (1.0%). The surgical options included longitudinal pancreaticojejunostomy, duodenum-preserving pancreatic head resection, Frey/Frey+ distal pancreatectomy, total and subtotal pancreatectomy. All patients were followed-up for 3 to 6 months in the outpatient. A cross-sectional study was carried out by telephone, letters, questionnaire and outpatient from April to June 2016. Results: Among 295 patients, 267 cases were followed-up for an average time of 40 months(18 to 78 months), 28 cases were lost to followed-up(9.5%). Pain remission rate of pancreatic fibrosis and atrophy of the main pancreatic duct lesions patients was 97.0%, of inflammatory mass in the pancreatic head patients was 96.8%, of sporadic stones with calcification in the pancreatic head patients was 96.6%, of hyperplasia mass of pancreatic head and body patients was 12/13, of

  3. Chemoprevention strategies for pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Stan, Silvia D.; Singh, Shivendra V.; Brand, Randall E.

    2010-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer has a poor prognosis and it is often diagnosed at advanced stages, which makes it very difficult to treat. The low survival rate of patients with pancreatic cancer points toward an increased need for novel therapeutic and chemopreventive strategies and early detection. Increased consumption of fruits and vegetables has been associated with a reduced risk of pancreatic cancer. Both synthetic as well as natural, diet-derived bioactive compounds have been evaluated as pancreatic cancer chemopreventive agents and have been shown to have various degrees of efficacy in cellular and in vivo animal models. Some chemopreventive agents (for example curcumin, resveratrol, B-DIM) have also been reported to sensitize pancreatic cancer cells to standard chemotherapeutic drugs (for example gemcitabine or erlotinib), which suggests the potential use of chemopreventive agents as potentiators of standard chemotherapy. Very few clinical trials with pancreatic cancer chemopreventive agents have been completed and some are in early phases. Further development of pancreatic cancer chemopreventive agents may prove to be tremendously valuable for individuals at high-risk of developing pancreatic cancer and patients who present with premalignant lesions. This Review discusses the current state of the pancreatic cancer chemoprevention field and highlights the challenges ahead. PMID:20440279

  4. Overview of exocrine pancreatic pathobiology.

    PubMed

    Pandiri, Arun R

    2014-01-01

    Exocrine pancreas is a source of several enzymes that are essential for the digestive process. The exocrine pancreatic secretion is tightly regulated by the neuroendocrine system. The endocrine pancreas is tightly integrated anatomically and physiologically with the exocrine pancreas and modulates its function. Compound-induced pancreatitis is not a common event in toxicology or drug development, but it becomes a significant liability when encountered. Understanding the species-specific differences in physiology is essential to understand the underlying pathobiology of pancreatic disease in animal models and its relevance to human disease. This review will mainly focus on understanding the morphology and physiology of the pancreas, unique islet-exocrine interactions, and pancreatitis.

  5. [Latest advances in chronic pancreatitis].

    PubMed

    Domínguez-Muñoz, J Enrique

    2014-09-01

    This article summarizes some of the recent and clinically relevant advances in chronic pancreatitis. These advances mainly concern the early diagnosis of the disease, the prediction of the fibrosis degree of the gland, the evaluation of patients with asymptomatic hyperenzimemia, the medical and surgical treatment of abdominal pain and the knowledge of the natural history of the autoimmune pancreatitis. In patients with indetermined EUS findings of chronic pancreatitis, a new endoscopic ultrasound examination in the follow-up is of help to confirm or to exclude the disease. Smoking, number of relapses, results of pancreatic function tests and EUS findings allow predicting the degree of pancreatic fibrosis in patients with chronic pancreatitis. Antioxidant therapy has shown to be effective in reducing pain secondary to chronic pancreatitis, although the type and optimal dose of antioxidants remains to be elucidated. Development of intestinal bacterial overgrowth is frequent in patients with chronic pancreatitis, but its impact on symptoms is unknown and deserves further investigations. Finally, autoimmune pancreatitis relapses in about half of the patients with either type 1 or type 2 disease; relapses frequently occur within the first two years of follow-up. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Food-Induced Acute Pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Manohar, Murli; Verma, Alok K; Upparahalli Venkateshaiah, Sathisha; Goyal, Hemant; Mishra, Anil

    2017-12-01

    Food allergy, a commonly increasing problem worldwide, defined as an adverse immune response to food. A variety of immune-related effector cells such as mast cells, eosinophils, neutrophils, and T cells are involved in food-related allergic responses categorized as IgE mediated, non-IgE mediated, and mixed (IgE and non-IgE) depending upon underlying immunological mechanisms. The dietary antigens mainly target the gastrointestinal tract including pancreas that gets inflamed due to food allergy and leads acute pancreatitis. Reports indicate several food proteins induce pancreatitis; however, detailed underlying mechanism of food-induced pancreatitis is unexplored. The aim of the review is to understand and update the current scenario of food-induced pancreatitis. A comprehensive literature search of relevant research articles has been performed through PubMed, and articles were chosen based on their relevance to food allergen-mediated pancreatitis. Several cases in the literature indicate that acute pancreatitis has been provoked after the consumption of mustard, milk, egg, banana, fish, and kiwi fruits. Food-induced pancreatitis is an ignored and unexplored area of research. The review highlights the significance of food in the development of pancreatitis and draws the attention of physicians and scientists to consider food allergies as a possible cause for initiation of pancreatitis pathogenesis.

  7. [Latest advances in acute pancreatitis].

    PubMed

    de-Madaria, Enrique

    2015-09-01

    The present article analyses the main presentations on acute pancreatitis at Digestive Disease Week 2015. Arterial pseudoaneurysm is an uncommon complication of acute pancreatitis (incidence 0.7%) and mortality from this cause is currently anecdotal. Diabetes mellitus has little impact on the clinical course of acute pancreatitis, unlike cirrhosis, which doubles the risk of mortality. Intake of unsaturated fat could be associated with an increased severity of acute pancreatitis and is a confounding factor in studies evaluating the relationship between obesity and morbidity and mortality. PET-CT (positron emission tomography-computed tomography) could be a non-invasive tool to detect infection of collections in acute pancreatitis. Peripancreatic fat necrosis is less frequent than pancreatic fat necrosis and is associated with a better clinical course. If the clinical course is poor, increasing the calibre of the percutaneous drains used in the treatment of infected necrosis can avoid surgery in 20% of patients. The use of low molecular-weight heparin in moderate or severe pancreatitis could be associated with a better clinical course, specifically with a lower incidence of necrosis. In acute recurrent pancreatitis, simvastatin is a promising drug for prophylaxis of new episodes of acute pancreatitis. Nutritional support through a nasogastric tube does not improve clinical course compared with oral nutrition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Ultrasound imaging of the mouse pancreatic duct using lipid microbubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, B.; McKeown, K. R.; Skovan, B.; Ogram, E.; Ingram, P.; Ignatenko, N.; Paine-Murrieta, G.; Witte, R.; Matsunaga, T. O.

    2012-03-01

    Research requiring the murine pancreatic duct to be imaged is often challenging due to the difficulty in selectively cannulating the pancreatic duct. We have successfully catheterized the pancreatic duct through the common bile duct in severe combined immune deficient (SCID) mice and imaged the pancreatic duct with gas filled lipid microbubbles that increase ultrasound imaging sensitivity due to exquisite scattering at the gas/liquid interface. A SCID mouse was euthanized by CO2, a midline abdominal incision made, the common bile duct cut at its midpoint, a 2 cm, 32 gauge tip catheter was inserted about 1 mm into the duct and tied with suture. The duodenum and pancreas were excised, removed in toto, embedded in agar and an infusion pump was used to instill normal saline or lipid-coated microbubbles (10 million / ml) into the duct. B-mode images before and after infusion of the duct with microbubbles imaged the entire pancreatic duct (~ 1 cm) with high contrast. The microbubbles were cavitated by high mechanical index (HMI) ultrasound for imaging to be repeated. Our technique of catheterization and using lipid microbubbles as a contrast agent may provide an effective, affordable technique of imaging the murine pancreatic duct; cavitation with HMI ultrasound would enable repeated imaging to be performed and clustering of targeted microbubbles to receptors on ductal cells would allow pathology to be localized accurately. This research was supported by the Experimental Mouse Shared Service of the AZ Cancer Center (Grant Number P30CA023074, NIH/NCI and the GI SPORE (NIH/NCI P50 CA95060).

  9. Review of pancreatic trauma.

    PubMed Central

    Glancy, K E

    1989-01-01

    In reviewing the literature on pancreatic trauma (1,984 cases), I found that it resulted from penetrating trauma in 73% and blunt trauma in 27% of cases. Associated injuries were common (average 3.0 per patient). Increased mortality was associated with shotgun wounds, an increasing number of associated injuries, the proximity of the injury to the head of the pancreas, preoperative shock, and massive hemorrhage. High mortality was found for total pancreatectomy, duct reanastomosis, and lack of surgical treatment, with lower mortality for Roux-en-Y anastomoses, suture and drainage, distal pancreatectomy, and duodenal exclusion and diverticulization techniques. Most patients required drainage only. The preoperative diagnosis of pancreatic trauma is difficult, with the diagnosis usually made during surgical repair for associated injuries. Blood studies such as amylase levels, diagnostic peritoneal lavage, and plain radiographs are not reliable. Computed tomographic scanning may be superior, but data are limited. PMID:2669347

  10. /sup 99m/Tc-IDA imaging in the differential diagnosis of acute cholecystitis and acute pancreatitis

    SciTech Connect

    Fonseca, C.; Greenberg, D.; Rosenthall, L.

    1979-02-01

    Technetium-/sup 99m/-labelled dimethly-acetanilide-iminodiacetic acid (/sup 99m/Tc-IDA) hepato-biliary imaging was evaluated for its efficacy in distinguishing acute cholecystitis from acute pancreatitis. In a retrospective review, gallbladders were demonstrated by /sup 99m/Tc-IDA in 13 of 15 patients (87%) with acute pancreatitis. This is significantly higher than reports on the frequency of gallbladder filling with oral and intravenous cholangiography in the presence of acute cholecystitis.

  11. Incidence of and risk factors for developing pancreatic cancer in patients with chronic pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Kudo, Yujin; Kamisawa, Terumi; Anjiki, Hajime; Takuma, Kensuke; Egawa, Naoto

    2011-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer sometimes occurs during the course of chronic pancreatitis. This study aimed to identify risk factors for developing pancreatic cancer associated with chronic pancreatitis. The incidence of pancreatic cancer developing in 218 patients with chronic pancreatitis and clinical features of the chronic pancreatitis patients who developed pancreatic cancer were studied. Nine patients developed pancreatic cancer. Average period from the diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis to the diagnosis of pancreatic cancer was 9.6 years. All pancreatic cancers were diagnosed at an advanced stage. Only 2 patients had been followed-up periodically. There were no significant differences between chronic pancreatitis patients who developed pancreatic cancer and those who did not in male/female ratio (3.5 vs. 8), average age on diagnosis (65.0 vs. 56.5), alcoholic/non-alcoholic chronic pancreatitis (1.6 vs. 2.6), smoking habits (62.5% vs. 70.7%), diabetes mellitus (77.8% vs. 54.4%), and continued alcohol drinking (37.5% vs. 53.1%). Over the period examined, 4% of chronic pancreatitis patients developed pancreatic cancer. Sex ratio, onset age, etiology, smoking habits, diabetes mellitus, and continued alcohol drinking were not significant risk factors for developing pancreatic cancer in chronic pancreatitis patients. Periodic follow-up due to the possibility of pancreatic cancer is necessary in chronic pancreatitis patients.

  12. Pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy.

    PubMed

    Layer, P; Keller, J; Lankisch, P G

    2001-04-01

    Malabsorption due to severe pancreatic exocrine insufficiency is one of the most important late features of chronic pancreatitis. Generally, steatorrhea is more severe and occurs several years prior to malabsorption of other nutrients because synthesis and secretion of lipase are impaired more rapidly, its intraluminal survival is shorter, and the lack of pancreatic lipase activity is not compensated for by nonpancreatic mechanisms. Patients suffer not only from nutritional deficiencies but also from increased nutrient delivery to distal intestinal sites, causing symptoms by profound alteration of upper gastrointestinal secretory and motor functions. Adequate nutrient absorption requires delivery of sufficient enzymatic activity into the duodenal lumen simultaneously with meal nutrients. The following recommendations are based on modern therapeutic concepts: 25,000 to 40,000 units of lipase per meal using pH-sensitive pancreatin microspheres, with dosage increases, compliance checks, and differential diagnosis in case of treatment failure. Still, in most patients, lipid digestion cannot be completely normalized by current standard therapy, and future developments are needed to optimize treatment.

  13. Management of pancreatic trauma.

    PubMed Central

    Jones, R C

    1978-01-01

    Since 1950, 300 patients sustaining pancreatic injuries have been managed. Three-fourths of the injuries were due to penetrating trauma with a 20% mortality and one-fourth due to blunt trauma resulting in an 18% mortality. The pancreatic injury was responsible for death in only 3% of patients. Early onset of shock resulted in 38% mortality whereas only 4% of normotensive patients died. No patient died of an isolated pancreatic injury. Sepsis was the second most common cause of death following hemorrhage. Preoperative serum amylase was elevated more frequently following blunt trauma than penetrating trauma, but did not correlate with injury. There has been a tendency toward more frequent use of distal pancreatectomy for simple penetrating injuries without obvious ductal violation which increases operative time, blood loss and possible intra-abdominal abscess since resection usually requires splenectomy. Patients considered for an 80% distal resection are better managed with a Roux-en-Y limb to the distal pancreas since three patients developed diabetes following an 80% or greater resection. A conservative approach consisting of Penrose and sump drainage is adequate for most injuries. PMID:646495

  14. Sequential changes from minimal pancreatic inflammation to advanced alcoholic pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Noronha, M; Dreiling, D A; Bordalo, O

    1983-11-01

    A correlation of several clinical parameters and pancreatitis morphological alterations observed in chronic alcoholics with and without pancreatic is presented. Three groups of patients were studied: asymptomatic chronic alcoholics (24); non-alcoholic controls (10); and cases with advanced chronic pancreatitis (6). Clinical, biochemical and functional studies were performed. Morphological studies were made on surgical biopsy specimens in light and electron microscopy. The results of this study showed: 1) fat accumulates within pancreatic acinar cells in alcoholics drinking more than 80 g of ethanol per day; 2) ultrastructural changes found in acinar cells of the alcoholics are similar to those described for liver cells; 3) the alterations found in alcoholics without pancreatitis are also observed in those with advanced chronic pancreatitis. An attempt to correlate the sequential changes in the histopathology of alcoholic pancreatic disease with the clinical picture and secretory patterns was made. According to these observations, admitting the ultrastructural similarities between the liver and the pancreas and the recently demonstrated abnormalities of lipid metabolism in pancreatic cells in experimental animal research, the authors postulate a toxic-metabolic mechanism as a likely hypothesis for the pathogenesis of chronic alcoholic inflammation of the pancreas.

  15. Surgical Management of Chronic Pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Parekh, Dilip; Natarajan, Sathima

    2015-10-01

    Advances over the past decade have indicated that a complex interplay between environmental factors, genetic predisposition, alcohol abuse, and smoking lead towards the development of chronic pancreatitis. Chronic pancreatitis is a complex disorder that causes significant and chronic incapacity in patients and a substantial burden on the society. Major advances have been made in the etiology and pathogenesis of this disease and the role of genetic predisposition is increasingly coming to the fore. Advances in noninvasive diagnostic modalities now allow for better diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis at an early stage of the disease. The impact of these advances on surgical treatment is beginning to emerge, for example, patients with certain genetic predispositions may be better treated with total pancreatectomy versus lesser procedures. Considerable controversy remains with respect to the surgical management of chronic pancreatitis. Modern understanding of the neurobiology of pain in chronic pancreatitis suggests that a window of opportunity exists for effective treatment of the intractable pain after which central sensitization can lead to an irreversible pain syndrome in patients with chronic pancreatitis. Effective surgical procedures exist for chronic pancreatitis; however, the timing of surgery is unclear. For optimal treatment of patients with chronic pancreatitis, close collaboration between a multidisciplinary team including gastroenterologists, surgeons, and pain management physicians is needed.

  16. PANCREATIC TRANSPLANTATIONS IN THE SPLEEN

    PubMed Central

    Pratt, Joseph H.; Murphy, Fred T.

    1913-01-01

    Pancreatic tissue implanted in the spleen and separated from its original vascular and nervous connections can live and functionate for months. A small nodule of pancreatic tissue composed of acini without demonstrable islands of Langerhans prevented the development of diabetes. Death occurred 187 days after the extirpation of the pancreas. PMID:19867642

  17. Splanchnic venous thrombosis and pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Nadkarni, Nikhil A; Khanna, Sahil; Vege, Santhi Swaroop

    2013-08-01

    Pancreatitis is an inflammatory process with local and systemic manifestations. One such local manifestation is thrombosis in splanchnic venous circulation, predominantly of the splenic vein. The literature on this important complication is very sparse. This review offers an overview of mechanism of thrombosis, its pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management in the setting of acute as well as chronic pancreatitis.

  18. [Identifying the severe acute pancreatitis].

    PubMed

    Acevedo Tizón, Anais; Targarona Modena, Javier; Málaga Rodríguez, Germán; Barreda Cevasco, Luis

    2011-01-01

    To compare patients with acute necrotizing pancreatitis without any additional complications during their hospital stay (Group A) versus patients with Acute Necrotizing Pancreatitis with additional complications during their hospital stay (Group B). Data obtained from a pre-existing base from hospitalized patients with diagnosis of acute necrotizing pancreatitis in the specialized unit of "Unidad de Pancreatitis Aguda Grave del Hospital Nacional Edgardo Rebagliati Martins" between 2000 and 2010. Data included patients with diagnosis of acute necrotizing pancreatitis, of ages 18 and over. Data from 215 patients with acute necrotizing pancreatitis was included. Patients from Group A represented 32% (68) and from Group B 68% (147). Group A had a average of 39 hospitalized days and Group B had an average of 56 days (p=0.01). From Group A 22% had more than 50% of necrosis while 43% of Group B had this extension of necrosis (p <0.05, OR 3.4, IC (1.12-10)). Of the 14 deaths of the population, all part of Group B, 12 of them had more than 50% of necrosis. Not every patient classified as severe acute pancreatitis, based on the presence of necrosis, behave likewise. It is an extended necrosis, described as more than 50% of pancreatic necrosis, and not the presence itself which will determine additional complications during the course of disease and a greater mortality.

  19. Risk of Recurrent Pancreatitis and Progression to Chronic Pancreatitis After a First Episode of Acute Pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Ahmed Ali, Usama; Issa, Yama; Hagenaars, Julia C; Bakker, Olaf J; van Goor, Harry; Nieuwenhuijs, Vincent B; Bollen, Thomas L; van Ramshorst, Bert; Witteman, Ben J; Brink, Menno A; Schaapherder, Alexander F; Dejong, Cornelis H; Spanier, B W Marcel; Heisterkamp, Joos; van der Harst, Erwin; van Eijck, Casper H; Besselink, Marc G; Gooszen, Hein G; van Santvoort, Hjalmar C; Boermeester, Marja A

    2016-05-01

    Patients with a first episode of acute pancreatitis can develop recurrent or chronic pancreatitis (CP). However, little is known about the incidence or risk factors for these events. We performed a cross-sectional study of 669 patients with a first episode of acute pancreatitis admitted to 15 Dutch hospitals from December 2003 through March 2007. We collected information on disease course, outpatient visits, and hospital readmissions, as well as results from imaging, laboratory, and histology studies. Standardized follow-up questionnaires were sent to all available patients to collect information on hospitalizations and interventions for pancreatic disease, abdominal pain, steatorrhea, diabetes mellitus, medications, and alcohol and tobacco use. Patients were followed up for a median time period of 57 months. Primary end points were recurrent pancreatitis and CP. Risk factors were evaluated using regression analysis. The cumulative risk was assessed using Kaplan-Meier analysis. Recurrent pancreatitis developed in 117 patients (17%), and CP occurred in 51 patients (7.6%). Recurrent pancreatitis developed in 12% of patients with biliary disease, 24% of patients with alcoholic etiology, and 25% of patients with disease of idiopathic or other etiologies; CP occurred in 3%, 16%, and 10% of these patients, respectively. Etiology, smoking, and necrotizing pancreatitis were independent risk factors for recurrent pancreatitis and CP. Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II scores at admission also were associated independently with recurrent pancreatitis. The cumulative risk for recurrent pancreatitis over 5 years was highest among smokers at 40% (compared with 13% for nonsmokers). For alcohol abusers and current smokers, the cumulative risks for CP were similar-approximately 18%. In contrast, the cumulative risk of CP increased to 30% in patients who smoked and abused alcohol. Based on a retrospective analysis of patients admitted to Dutch hospitals, a first

  20. The impact of surgical strategies on outcomes for pediatric chronic pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Sacco Casamassima, Maria G; Goldstein, Seth D; Yang, Jingyan; Gause, Colin D; Abdullah, Fizan; Meoded, Avner; Makary, Martin A; Colombani, Paul M

    2017-01-01

    To review our institutional experience in the surgical treatment of pediatric chronic pancreatitis (CP) and evaluate predictors of long-term pain relief. Outcomes of patients ≤21 years surgically treated for CP in a single institution from 1995 to 2014 were evaluated. Twenty patients underwent surgery for CP at a median of 16.6 years (IQR 10.7-20.6 years). The most common etiology was pancreas divisum (n = 7; 35%). Therapeutic endoscopy was the first-line treatment in 17 cases (85%). Surgical procedures included: longitudinal pancreaticojejunostomy (n = 4, 20%), pancreatectomy (n = 9, 45%), total pancreatectomy with islet autotransplantation (n = 2; 10%), sphincteroplasty (n = 2, 10%) and pseudocyst drainage (n = 3, 15%). At a median follow-up of 5.3 years (IQR 4.2-5.3), twelve patients (63.2%) were pain free and five (26.3%) were insulin dependent. In univariate analysis, previous surgical procedure or >5 endoscopic treatments were associated with a lower likelihood of pain relief (OR 0.06; 95% CI 0.006-0.57; OR 0.07; 95%, CI 0.01-0.89). However, these associations were not present in multivariate analysis. In children with CP, the step-up practice including a limited trial of endoscopic interventions followed by surgery tailored to anatomical abnormalities and gene mutation status is effective in ensuring long-term pain relief and preserving pancreatic function.

  1. Acute Pancreatitis: Etiology, Pathology, Diagnosis, and Treatment.

    PubMed

    Majidi, Shirin; Golembioski, Adam; Wilson, Stephen L; Thompson, Errington C

    2017-11-01

    Acute pancreatitis is a fascinating disease. In the United States, the two most common etiologies of acute pancreatitis are gallstones and excessive alcohol consumption. The diagnosis of acute pancreatitis is made with a combination of history, physical examination, computed tomography scan, and laboratory evaluation. Differentiating patients who will have a benign course of their pancreatitis from patients who will have severe pancreatitis is challenging to the clinician. C-reactive protein, pro-calcitonin, and the Bedside Index for Severity of Acute Pancreatitis appeared to be the best tools for the early and accurate diagnosis of severe pancreatitis. Early laparoscopic cholecystectomy is indicated for patients with mild gallstone pancreatitis. For patients who are going to have a prolonged hospitalization, enteral nutrition is preferred. Total parenteral nutrition should be reserved for patients who cannot tolerate enteral nutrition. Prophylactic antibiotics are not indicated for patients with pancreatic necrosis. Surgical intervention for infected pancreatic necrosis should be delayed as long as possible to improve patient outcomes.

  2. Management of acute pancreatitis in children.

    PubMed

    Abu-El-Haija, Maisam; Lin, Tom K; Nathan, Jaimie D

    2017-10-01

    Pediatric acute pancreatitis has been on the rise in the last decades, with an incidence close to adult pancreatitis. In the majority of cases acute pancreatitis resolves spontaneously, but in a subset of children the disease progresses to severe acute pancreatitis with attendant morbidity and mortality. Pediatric acute pancreatitis in this era is recognized as a separate entity from adult acute pancreatitis given that the causes and disease outcomes are different. There are slow but important advances made in understanding the best management for acute pancreatitis in children from medical, interventional, and surgical aspects. Supportive care with fluids, pain medications, and nutrition remain the mainstay for acute pancreatitis management. For complicated or severe pancreatitis, specialized interventions may be required with endoscopic or drainage procedures. Surgery has an important but limited role in pediatric acute pancreatitis.

  3. Chronic pancreatitis. Some important historical aspects.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Salvador

    2018-06-08

    Since ancient times the increase of size and hardness sometimes presented by the abdominal structure known as the pancreas has attracted attention. Portal was the first to describe the clinical signs of chronic pancreatitis in 1803. In 1815, Fleischman speculated about the potential role of excessive alcohol consumption. Comfort coined the term "chronic relapsing pancreatitis" in 1946 and described hereditary pancreatitis 6 years later. Zuidema defined tropical pancreatitis in 1959 and 2 years later Sarles described another form of pancreatitis to which Yoshida gave the name autoimmune pancreatitis in 1995. Groove pancreatitis was described by Potet in 1970. Obstructive pancreatitis was defined in 1984 and Ammann identified idiopathic pancreatitis 3 years later. This article gives a historical account of the pioneers who developed the knowledge of how to assess the characteristics that allowed the different forms of chronic pancreatitis to be defined. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Safety and efficacy of pancreatic sphincterotomy in chronic pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Ell, C; Rabenstein, T; Schneider, H T; Ruppert, T; Nicklas, M; Bulling, D

    1998-09-01

    Endoscopic pancreatic sphincterotomy (EPS) is being performed with increasing frequency as a prerequisite to interventional measures in the pancreatic duct. The aim of this study was to evaluate EPS with regard to technique, success, complications, and mortality in patients with chronic pancreatitis. Between January 1989 and September 1996, the results of all consecutive EPSs in patients with chronic pancreatitis were documented in a standardized form. Patients were followed by clinical investigation and blood sample analysis at 4, 24, and 48 hours after EPS. Complications were classified according to commonly accepted criteria. EPS was performed in 118 patients with chronic pancreatitis (men 75%, women 25%, 48+/-10 years). Ninety-four patients (80%) underwent guidewire-assisted EPS, and 24 patients (20%) underwent needle-knife EPS. Seventy-seven EPS procedures (65%) were primarily successful (guidewire EPS: 60 of 94, 64%; needle-knife EPS: 17 of 24, 71%). Additional endoscopic cutting techniques (needle-knife papillotomy, biliary endoscopic sphincterotomy) were required in 41 patients (35%). In total, EPS was successful in 116 patients (98%). The complication rate was 4.2% (4 cases of moderate pancreatitis, 1 severe bleeding, no deaths). All complications were managed nonoperatively. In patients with chronic pancreatitis, EPS with a standard sphincterotome or with a needle-knife offers an effective and reliable approach to the pancreatic duct system. Additional cutting techniques may be necessary in approximately one third of cases before an EPS can be successfully performed. The complication rate of EPS in patients with chronic pancreatitis appears to be lower than the complication rate of biliary sphincterotomy for other indications.

  5. The Diagnostic Challenges of Autoimmune Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Papp, Kata; Angst, Eliane; Seidel, Stefan; Flury-Frei, Renata; Hetzer, Franc Heinrich

    2015-01-01

    Autoimmune pancreatitis is a rare but important differential diagnosis from pancreatic cancer. This autoimmune disease can mimic pancreatic cancer by its clinical symptoms, including weight loss and jaundice. Furthermore imaging findings may include a mass of the pancreas. Here we present the case of a 67-year-old male patient diagnosed with autoimmune pancreatitis but showing the well-known symptoms of pancreatic cancer. This emphasizes the difficulties of histological findings and the importance of the correct diagnostic process. PMID:25802499

  6. Targeting Trysin-Inflammation Axis for Pancreatitis Therapy in a Humanized Pancreatitis Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-10-01

    pancreatitis especially due to alcohol and smoking goes onto chronic pancreatitis which, in turn, is a risk factor for pancreatic cancer . Because only a...proportional risk for pancreatic cancer of any known environmental risk factor. Because only a relatively small portion of patients with alcohol...progression to pancreatic cancer . Targeting the ER stress and inflammatory cascade will be beneficial for pancreatitis prevention and therapy. We expect that

  7. Combination Chemotherapy With or Without Oregovomab Followed by Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy and Nelfinavir Mesylate in Treating Patients With Locally Advanced Pancreatic Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-04-24

    Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma; Resectable Pancreatic Carcinoma; Stage I Pancreatic Cancer; Stage IA Pancreatic Cancer; Stage IB Pancreatic Cancer; Stage II Pancreatic Cancer; Stage IIA Pancreatic Cancer; Stage IIB Pancreatic Cancer; Stage III Pancreatic Cancer

  8. Molecular biology of pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Zavoral, Miroslav; Minarikova, Petra; Zavada, Filip; Salek, Cyril; Minarik, Marek

    2011-06-28

    In spite of continuous research efforts directed at early detection and treatment of pancreatic cancer, the outlook for patients affected by the disease remains dismal. With most cases still being diagnosed at advanced stages, no improvement in survival prognosis is achieved with current diagnostic imaging approaches. In the absence of a dominant precancerous condition, several risk factors have been identified including family history, chronic pancreatitis, smoking, diabetes mellitus, as well as certain genetic disorders such as hereditary pancreatitis, cystic fibrosis, familial atypical multiple mole melanoma, and Peutz-Jeghers and Lynch syndromes. Most pancreatic carcinomas, however, remain sporadic. Current progress in experimental molecular techniques has enabled detailed understanding of the molecular processes of pancreatic cancer development. According to the latest information, malignant pancreatic transformation involves multiple oncogenes and tumor-suppressor genes that are involved in a variety of signaling pathways. The most characteristic aberrations (somatic point mutations and allelic losses) affect oncogenes and tumor-suppressor genes within RAS, AKT and Wnt signaling, and have a key role in transcription and proliferation, as well as systems that regulate the cell cycle (SMAD/DPC, CDKN2A/p16) and apoptosis (TP53). Understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms should promote development of new methodology for early diagnosis and facilitate improvement in current approaches for pancreatic cancer treatment.

  9. Redox signaling in acute pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Pérez, Salvador; Pereda, Javier; Sabater, Luis; Sastre, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis is an inflammatory process of the pancreatic gland that eventually may lead to a severe systemic inflammatory response. A key event in pancreatic damage is the intracellular activation of NF-κB and zymogens, involving also calcium, cathepsins, pH disorders, autophagy, and cell death, particularly necrosis. This review focuses on the new role of redox signaling in acute pancreatitis. Oxidative stress and redox status are involved in the onset of acute pancreatitis and also in the development of the systemic inflammatory response, being glutathione depletion, xanthine oxidase activation, and thiol oxidation in proteins critical features of the disease in the pancreas. On the other hand, the release of extracellular hemoglobin into the circulation from the ascitic fluid in severe necrotizing pancreatitis enhances lipid peroxidation in plasma and the inflammatory infiltrate into the lung and up-regulates the HIF–VEGF pathway, contributing to the systemic inflammatory response. Therefore, redox signaling and oxidative stress contribute to the local and systemic inflammatory response during acute pancreatitis. PMID:25778551

  10. Pharmacological challenges in chronic pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Olesen, Anne Estrup; Brokjaer, Anne; Fisher, Iben Wendelboe; Larsen, Isabelle Myriam

    2013-11-14

    Drug absorption in patients with chronic pancreatitis might be affected by the pathophysiology of the disease. The exocrine pancreatic insufficiency is associated with changes in gastrointestinal intraluminal pH, motility disorder, bacterial overgrowth and changed pancreatic gland secretion. Together these factors can result in malabsorption and may also affect the efficacy of pharmacological intervention. The lifestyle of chronic pancreatitis patients may also contribute to gastrointestinal changes. Many patients limit their food intake because of the pain caused by eating and in some cases food intake is more or less substituted with alcohol, tobacco and coffee. Alcohol and drug interaction are known to influence the pharmacokinetics by altering either drug absorption or by affecting liver metabolism. Since patients suffering from chronic pancreatitis experience severe pain, opioids are often prescribed as pain treatment. Opioids have intrinsic effects on gastrointestinal motility and hence can modify the absorption of other drugs taken at the same time. Furthermore, the increased fluid absorption caused by opioids will decrease water available for drug dissolution and may hereby affect absorption of the drug. As stated above many factors can influence drug absorption and metabolism in patients with chronic pancreatitis. The factors may not have clinical relevance, but may explain inter-individual variations in responses to a given drug, in patients with chronic pancreatitis.

  11. Pathophysiology of chronic pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Brock, Christina; Nielsen, Lecia Møller; Lelic, Dina; Drewes, Asbjørn Mohr

    2013-11-14

    Chronic pancreatitis (CP) is an inflammatory disease of the pancreas characterized by progressive fibrotic destruction of the pancreatic secretory parenchyma. Despite the heterogeneity in pathogenesis and involved risk factors, processes such as necrosis/apoptosis, inflammation or duct obstruction are involved. This fibrosing process ultimately leads to progressive loss of the lobular morphology and structure of the pancreas, deformation of the large ducts and severe changes in the arrangement and composition of the islets. These conditions lead to irreversible morphological and structural changes resulting in impairment of both exocrine and endocrine functions. The prevalence of the disease is largely dependent on culture and geography. The etiological risk-factors associated with CP are multiple and involve both genetic and environmental factors. Throughout this review the M-ANNHEIM classification system will be used, comprising a detailed description of risk factors such as: alcohol-consumption, nicotine-consumption, nutritional factors, hereditary factors, efferent duct factors, immunological factors and miscellaneous and rare metabolic factors. Increased knowledge of the different etiological factors may encourage the use of further advanced diagnostic tools, which potentially will help clinicians to diagnose CP at an earlier stage. However, in view of the multi factorial disease and the complex clinical picture, it is not surprising that treatment of patients with CP is challenging and often unsuccessful.

  12. Diagnosing Chronic Pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Anaizi, Ahmad; Hart, Phil A; Conwell, Darwin L

    2017-07-01

    Diagnosing CP can range from routine in those with severe disease and obvious calcifications on CT imaging to elusive in those patients with early changes in CP. The workup of suspected CP should follow a progressively noninvasive to more invasive STEP-wise approach in a patient with a suspicious clinical presentation and risk factors that raise their pretest probability of disease. After a thorough history and physical examination, basic laboratories should be obtained such as lipase, amylase, metabolic panel, and indirect PFTs (fecal elastase-1, serum trypsin). Computed tomography remains the best initial imaging modality to obtain as it has good sensitivity for severe CP and may obviate the need for other diagnostic tests. When equivocal, an MRCP should be obtained for a more detailed evaluation of the both the pancreatic parenchyma and ducts. If the diagnosis remains in doubt, EUS should be performed with or without pancreas function testing. ERCP remains a last-line diagnostic test and seldom should be used outside of therapeutic purposes. Future advances should target optimizing current diagnostic tools to more accurately diagnose early CP, as it is in this population where the benefits of delaying progression of CP may have the most profound effect. Likely the best way at establishing a diagnosis in these patients is via pancreatic function testing in the setting of indeterminate EUS results. Biomarker studies of pancreas fluid may supplement diagnosis.

  13. Pathophysiology of chronic pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Brock, Christina; Nielsen, Lecia Møller; Lelic, Dina; Drewes, Asbjørn Mohr

    2013-01-01

    Chronic pancreatitis (CP) is an inflammatory disease of the pancreas characterized by progressive fibrotic destruction of the pancreatic secretory parenchyma. Despite the heterogeneity in pathogenesis and involved risk factors, processes such as necrosis/apoptosis, inflammation or duct obstruction are involved. This fibrosing process ultimately leads to progressive loss of the lobular morphology and structure of the pancreas, deformation of the large ducts and severe changes in the arrangement and composition of the islets. These conditions lead to irreversible morphological and structural changes resulting in impairment of both exocrine and endocrine functions. The prevalence of the disease is largely dependent on culture and geography. The etiological risk-factors associated with CP are multiple and involve both genetic and environmental factors. Throughout this review the M-ANNHEIM classification system will be used, comprising a detailed description of risk factors such as: alcohol-consumption, nicotine-consumption, nutritional factors, hereditary factors, efferent duct factors, immunological factors and miscellaneous and rare metabolic factors. Increased knowledge of the different etiological factors may encourage the use of further advanced diagnostic tools, which potentially will help clinicians to diagnose CP at an earlier stage. However, in view of the multi factorial disease and the complex clinical picture, it is not surprising that treatment of patients with CP is challenging and often unsuccessful. PMID:24259953

  14. Crack sealing and filling: best practices.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2015-10-01

    This study investigated the current state of practice for crack sealing/filling. In addition, the INDOT crack sealing/filling practice was : experimentally evaluated for the effectiveness of crack sealing/filling, the effectiveness of routing, the pe...

  15. Brain responses to filled gaps.

    PubMed

    Hestvik, Arild; Maxfield, Nathan; Schwartz, Richard G; Shafer, Valerie

    2007-03-01

    An unresolved issue in the study of sentence comprehension is whether the process of gap-filling is mediated by the construction of empty categories (traces), or whether the parser relates fillers directly to the associated verb's argument structure. We conducted an event-related potentials (ERP) study that used the violation paradigm to examine the time course and spatial distribution of brain responses to ungrammatically filled gaps. The results indicate that the earliest brain response to the violation is an early left anterior negativity (eLAN). This ERP indexes an early phase of pure syntactic structure building, temporally preceding ERPs that reflect semantic integration and argument structure satisfaction. The finding is interpreted as evidence that gap-filling is mediated by structurally predicted empty categories, rather than directly by argument structure operations.

  16. Filling carbon nanotubes with particles.

    PubMed

    Kim, Byong M; Qian, Shizhi; Bau, Haim H

    2005-05-01

    The filling of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with fluorescent particles was studied experimentally and theoretically. The fluorescent signals emitted by the particles were visible through the walls of the nanotubes, and the particles inside the tubes were observable with an electron microscope. Taking advantage of the template-grown carbon nanotubes' transparency to fluorescent light, we measured the filling rate of the tubes with particles at room conditions. Liquids such as ethylene glycol, water, and ethylene glycol/water mixtures, laden with 50 nm diameter fluorescent particles, were brought into contact with 500 nm diameter CNTs. The liquid and the particles' transport were observed, respectively, with optical and fluorescence microscopy. The CNTs were filled controllably with particles by the complementary action of capillary forces and the evaporation of the liquid. The experimental results were compared and favorably agreed with theoretical predictions. This is the first report on fluorescence studies of particle transport in carbon nanotubes.

  17. Recent Progress in Pancreatic Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wolfgang, Christopher L.; Herman, Joseph M.; Laheru, Daniel A.; Klein, Alison P.; Erdek, Michael A.; Fishman, Elliot K.; Hruban, Ralph H.

    2013-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is currently one of the deadliest of the solid malignancies. However, surgery to resect neoplasms of the pancreas is safer and less invasive than ever, novel drug combinations have been shown to improve survival, advances in radiation therapy have resulted in less toxicity, and enormous strides have been made in our understanding of the fundamental genetics of pancreatic cancer. These advances provide hope but they also increase the complexity of caring for patients. It is clear that multidisciplinary care that provides comprehensive and coordinated evaluation and treatment is the most effective way to manage patients with pancreatic cancer. PMID:23856911

  18. Necrotizing pancreatitis: challenges and solutions.

    PubMed

    Bendersky, Victoria A; Mallipeddi, Mohan K; Perez, Alexander; Pappas, Theodore N

    2016-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis is a common disease that can progress to gland necrosis, which imposes significant risk of morbidity and mortality. In general, the treatment for pancreatitis is a supportive therapy. However, there are several reasons to escalate to surgery or another intervention. This review discusses the pathophysiology as well as medical and interventional management of necrotizing pancreatitis. Current evidence suggests that patients are best served by delaying interventions for at least 4 weeks, draining as a first resort, and debriding recalcitrant tissue using minimally invasive techniques to promote or enhance postoperative recovery while reducing wound-related complications.

  19. Treatment options for chronic pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Issa, Yama; Bruno, Marco J; Bakker, Olaf J; Besselink, Marc G; Schepers, Nicolien J; van Santvoort, Hjalmar C; Gooszen, Hein G; Boermeester, Marja A

    2014-09-01

    This Review covers the latest developments in the treatment options for chronic pancreatitis. Pain is the most frequent and dominant symptom in patients with chronic pancreatitis, which ranges from severe disabling continuous pain to mild pain attacks and pain-free periods. Conventional treatment strategies and recent changes in the treatment of pain in patients with chronic pancreatitis are outlined. The different treatment options for pain consist of medical therapy, endoscopy or surgery. Their related merits and drawbacks are discussed. Finally, novel insights in the field of genetics and microbiota are summarized, and future perspectives are discussed.

  20. Chronic pancreatitis: A diagnostic dilemma

    PubMed Central

    Duggan, Sinead N; Ní Chonchubhair, Hazel M; Lawal, Oladapo; O’Connor, Donal B; Conlon, Kevin C

    2016-01-01

    Typical clinical symptoms of chronic pancreatitis are vague and non-specific and therefore diagnostic tests are required, none of which provide absolute diagnostic certainly, especially in the early stages of disease. Recently-published guidelines bring much needed structure to the diagnostic work-up of patients with suspected chronic pancreatitis. In addition, novel diagnostic modalities bring promise for the future. The assessment and diagnosis of pancreatic exocrine insufficiency remains challenging and this review contests the accepted perspective that steatorrhea only occurs with > 90% destruction of the gland. PMID:26900292

  1. Paleovalley fills: Trunk vs. tributary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kvale, E.P.; Archer, A.W.

    2007-01-01

    A late Mississippian-early Pennsylvanian eustatic sea level drop resulted in a complex lowstand drainage network being eroded across the Illinois Basin in the eastern United States. This drainage system was filled during the early part of the Pennsylvanian. Distinct differences can be recognized between the trunk and tributary paleovalley fills. Fills preserved within the trunk systems tend to be fluvially dominated and consist of bed-load deposits of coarse- to medium-grained sandstone and conglomerate. Conversely, the incised valleys of tributary systems tend to be filled with dark mudstone, thinly interbedded sandstones, and mudstones and siltstones. These finer grained facies exhibit marine influences manifested by tidal rhythmites, certain traces fossils, and macro- and microfauna. Examples of tributary and trunk systems, separated by no more than 7 km (4.3 mi) along strike, exhibit these styles of highly contrasting fills. Useful analogs for understanding this Pennsylvanian system include the Quaternary glacial sluiceways present in the lower Ohio, White, and Wabash river valleys of Indiana (United States) and the modern Amazon River (Brazil). Both the Amazon River and the Quaternary rivers of Indiana have (or had) trunk rivers that are (were) dominated by large quantities of bed load relative to their tributaries. The trunk valley systems of these analogs aggraded much more rapidly than their tributary valleys, which evolved into lakes because depositional rates along the trunk are (were) so high that the mouths of the tributaries have been dammed by bed-load deposits. These Holocene systems illustrate that sediment yields can significantly influence the nature of fill successions within incised valleys independent of rates of sea level changes or proximity to highstand coastlines. Copyright ?? 2007. The American Association of Petroleum Geologists. All rights reserved.

  2. QENS investigation of filled rubbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Triolo, A.; Lo Celso, F.; Negroni, F.; Arrighi, V.; Qian, H.; Lechner, R. E.; Desmedt, A.; Pieper, J.; Frick, B.; Triolo, R.

    The polymer segmental dynamics is investigated in a series of silica-filled rubbers. The presence of inert fillers in polymers greatly affects the mechanical and physical performance of the final materials. For example, silica has been proposed as a reinforcing agent of elastomers in tire production. Results from quasielastic neutron scattering and Dynamic Mechanical Thermal Analysis (DMTA) measurements are presented on styrene-ran-butadiene rubber filled with silica. A clear indication is obtained of the existence of a bimodal dynamics, which can be rationalized in terms of the relaxation of bulk rubber and the much slower relaxation of the rubber adsorbed on the filler surface.

  3. Surgery for chronic pancreatitis decreases the risk for pancreatic cancer: a multicenter retrospective analysis.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Junji; Tanaka, Masao; Ohtsuka, Takao; Tokunaga, Shoji; Shimosegawa, Tooru

    2013-03-01

    Chronic pancreatitis is suggested to be one of the risk factors for the development of pancreatic cancer. The aim of this study was to confirm the high incidence of pancreatic cancer in patients with chronic pancreatitis in Japan and to determine the factors associated with the risk for pancreatic cancer in patients with chronic pancreatitis. The working group of the Research Committee of Intractable Disease supported by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare of Japan carried out a nationwide survey to investigate the relationship between chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer. This retrospective study included patients diagnosed with chronic pancreatitis who had had at least 2 years of follow-up. They were contacted through 22 Japanese referral centers experienced in the management of chronic pancreatitis. The standardized incidence ratio (95 CI) of pancreatic cancer was 11.8 (7.1-18.4). The incidence of pancreatic cancer was significantly lower in patients who had received surgery for chronic pancreatitis than in those who had not undergone surgery (hazard ratio estimated by Cox regression 0.11; 95% CI, 0.0014-0.80; P = .03). Patients who continued to drink alcohol after diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis showed a significantly higher incidence of pancreatic cancer than those who stopped drinking after diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis (hazard ratio, 5.07; 95% CI, 1.13-22.73; P = .03). This study confirmed that chronic pancreatitis is an important risk factor for the development of pancreatic cancer in Japan. Patients who underwent surgery for the treatment of chronic pancreatitis had significantly lower incidences of pancreatic cancer. Surgery for chronic pancreatitis may inhibit the development of pancreatic cancer in patients with chronic pancreatitis. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Nutritional and Metabolic Derangements in Pancreatic Cancer and Pancreatic Resection.

    PubMed

    Gilliland, Taylor M; Villafane-Ferriol, Nicole; Shah, Kevin P; Shah, Rohan M; Tran Cao, Hop S; Massarweh, Nader N; Silberfein, Eric J; Choi, Eugene A; Hsu, Cary; McElhany, Amy L; Barakat, Omar; Fisher, William; Van Buren, George

    2017-03-07

    Pancreatic cancer is an aggressive malignancy with a poor prognosis. The disease and its treatment can cause significant nutritional impairments that often adversely impact patient quality of life (QOL). The pancreas has both exocrine and endocrine functions and, in the setting of cancer, both systems may be affected. Pancreatic exocrine insufficiency (PEI) manifests as weight loss and steatorrhea, while endocrine insufficiency may result in diabetes mellitus. Surgical resection, a central component of pancreatic cancer treatment, may induce or exacerbate these dysfunctions. Nutritional and metabolic dysfunctions in patients with pancreatic cancer lack characterization, and few guidelines exist for nutritional support in patients after surgical resection. We reviewed publications from the past two decades (1995-2016) addressing the nutritional and metabolic status of patients with pancreatic cancer, grouping them into status at the time of diagnosis, status at the time of resection, and status of nutritional support throughout the diagnosis and treatment of pancreatic cancer. Here, we summarize the results of these investigations and evaluate the effectiveness of various types of nutritional support in patients after pancreatectomy for pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PDAC). We outline the following conservative perioperative strategies to optimize patient outcomes and guide the care of these patients: (1) patients with albumin < 2.5 mg/dL or weight loss > 10% should postpone surgery and begin aggressive nutrition supplementation; (2) patients with albumin < 3 mg/dL or weight loss between 5% and 10% should have nutrition supplementation prior to surgery; (3) enteral nutrition (EN) should be preferred as a nutritional intervention over total parenteral nutrition (TPN) postoperatively; and, (4) a multidisciplinary approach should be used to allow for early detection of symptoms of endocrine and exocrine pancreatic insufficiency alongside implementation of appropriate

  5. Nutritional and Metabolic Derangements in Pancreatic Cancer and Pancreatic Resection

    PubMed Central

    Gilliland, Taylor M.; Villafane-Ferriol, Nicole; Shah, Kevin P.; Shah, Rohan M.; Tran Cao, Hop S.; Massarweh, Nader N.; Silberfein, Eric J.; Choi, Eugene A.; Hsu, Cary; McElhany, Amy L.; Barakat, Omar; Fisher, William; Van Buren, George

    2017-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is an aggressive malignancy with a poor prognosis. The disease and its treatment can cause significant nutritional impairments that often adversely impact patient quality of life (QOL). The pancreas has both exocrine and endocrine functions and, in the setting of cancer, both systems may be affected. Pancreatic exocrine insufficiency (PEI) manifests as weight loss and steatorrhea, while endocrine insufficiency may result in diabetes mellitus. Surgical resection, a central component of pancreatic cancer treatment, may induce or exacerbate these dysfunctions. Nutritional and metabolic dysfunctions in patients with pancreatic cancer lack characterization, and few guidelines exist for nutritional support in patients after surgical resection. We reviewed publications from the past two decades (1995–2016) addressing the nutritional and metabolic status of patients with pancreatic cancer, grouping them into status at the time of diagnosis, status at the time of resection, and status of nutritional support throughout the diagnosis and treatment of pancreatic cancer. Here, we summarize the results of these investigations and evaluate the effectiveness of various types of nutritional support in patients after pancreatectomy for pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PDAC). We outline the following conservative perioperative strategies to optimize patient outcomes and guide the care of these patients: (1) patients with albumin < 2.5 mg/dL or weight loss > 10% should postpone surgery and begin aggressive nutrition supplementation; (2) patients with albumin < 3 mg/dL or weight loss between 5% and 10% should have nutrition supplementation prior to surgery; (3) enteral nutrition (EN) should be preferred as a nutritional intervention over total parenteral nutrition (TPN) postoperatively; and, (4) a multidisciplinary approach should be used to allow for early detection of symptoms of endocrine and exocrine pancreatic insufficiency alongside implementation of appropriate

  6. Magnetic resonance imaging of pancreatitis: An update

    PubMed Central

    Manikkavasakar, Sriluxayini; AlObaidy, Mamdoh; Busireddy, Kiran K; Ramalho, Miguel; Nilmini, Viragi; Alagiyawanna, Madhavi; Semelka, Richard C

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging plays an important role in the diagnosis and staging of acute and chronic pancreatitis and may represent the best imaging technique in the setting of pancreatitis due to its unmatched soft tissue contrast resolution as well as non-ionizing nature and higher safety profile of intravascular contrast media, making it particularly valuable in radiosensitive populations such as pregnant patients, and patients with recurrent pancreatitis requiring multiple follow-up examinations. Additional advantages include the ability to detect early forms of chronic pancreatitis and to better differentiate adenocarcinoma from focal chronic pancreatitis. This review addresses new trends in clinical pancreatic MR imaging emphasizing its role in imaging all types of acute and chronic pancreatitis, pancreatitis complications and other important differential diagnoses that mimic pancreatitis. PMID:25356038

  7. [Pancreatic anastomosis in operative treatment of chronic pancreatitis].

    PubMed

    Bellon, E; Izbicki, J R; Bockhorn, M

    2017-01-01

    Chronic pancreatitis (CP) is an irreversible, inflammatory process, which is characterized by progressive fibrosis of the pancreas and leads to abdominal pain, endocrine and exocrine insufficiency. Surgical therapy is indicated by the absence of pain relief and local complications. The target of the surgical approach is to relieve the pancreatic and bile ducts and resection of the fibrotic and calcified parenchyma. Drainage procedures, such as the Partington-Rochelle method, are used in patients with isolated congestion of the pancreatic duct without further organ complications, such as inflammatory processes of the pancreatic head; however, patients with CP often have an inflammatory swelling of the pancreatic head. In this case classical pancreatoduodenectomy (PD) or organ-sparing duodenum-preserving pancreatic head resection (DPPHR) with its various techniques (e.g. Beger, Frey, Bern and V‑shape) can be applied. Due to similar long-term results PD should be carried out in cases of suspicion or detection of malignancies and DPPHR for treatment of CP.

  8. Pancreatic duct stones in patients with chronic pancreatitis: surgical outcomes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bo-Nan; Zhang, Tai-Ping; Zhao, Yu-Pei; Liao, Quan; Dai, Meng-Hua; Zhan, Han-Xiang

    2010-08-01

    Pancreatic duct stone (PDS) is a common complication of chronic pancreatitis. Surgery is a common therapeutic option for PDS. In this study we assessed the surgical procedures for PDS in patients with chronic pancreatitis at our hospital. Between January 2004 and September 2009, medical records from 35 patients diagnosed with PDS associated with chronic pancreatitis were retrospectively reviewed and the patients were followed up for up to 67 months. The 35 patients underwent ultrasonography, computed tomography, or both, with an overall accuracy rate of 85.7%. Of these patients, 31 underwent the modified Puestow procedure, 2 underwent the Whipple procedure, 1 underwent simple stone removal by duct incision, and 1 underwent pancreatic abscess drainage. Of the 35 patients, 28 were followed up for 4-67 months. There was no postoperative death before discharge or during follow-up. After the modified Puestow procedure, abdominal pain was reduced in patients with complete or incomplete stone clearance (P>0.05). Steatorrhea and diabetes mellitus developed in several patients during a long-term follow-up. Surgery, especially the modified Puestow procedure, is effective and safe for patients with PDS associated with chronic pancreatitis. Decompression of intraductal pressure rather than complete clearance of all stones predicts postoperative outcome.

  9. Pancreatic stellate cell: Pandora's box for pancreatic disease biology.

    PubMed

    Bynigeri, Ratnakar R; Jakkampudi, Aparna; Jangala, Ramaiah; Subramanyam, Chivukula; Sasikala, Mitnala; Rao, G Venkat; Reddy, D Nageshwar; Talukdar, Rupjyoti

    2017-01-21

    Pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) were identified in the early 1980s, but received much attention after 1998 when the methods to isolate and culture them from murine and human sources were developed. PSCs contribute to a small proportion of all pancreatic cells under physiological condition, but are essential for maintaining the normal pancreatic architecture. Quiescent PSCs are characterized by the presence of vitamin A laden lipid droplets. Upon PSC activation, these perinuclear lipid droplets disappear from the cytosol, attain a myofibroblast like phenotype and expresses the activation marker, alpha smooth muscle actin. PSCs maintain their activated phenotype via an autocrine loop involving different cytokines and contribute to progressive fibrosis in chronic pancreatitis (CP) and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Several pathways ( e.g ., JAK-STAT, Smad, Wnt signaling, Hedgehog etc .), transcription factors and miRNAs have been implicated in the inflammatory and profibrogenic function of PSCs. The role of PSCs goes much beyond fibrosis/desmoplasia in PDAC. It is now shown that PSCs are involved in significant crosstalk between the pancreatic cancer cells and the cancer stroma. These interactions result in tumour progression, metastasis, tumour hypoxia, immune evasion and drug resistance. This is the rationale for therapeutic preclinical and clinical trials that have targeted PSCs and the cancer stroma.

  10. Pancreatic stellate cell: Pandora's box for pancreatic disease biology

    PubMed Central

    Bynigeri, Ratnakar R; Jakkampudi, Aparna; Jangala, Ramaiah; Subramanyam, Chivukula; Sasikala, Mitnala; Rao, G Venkat; Reddy, D Nageshwar; Talukdar, Rupjyoti

    2017-01-01

    Pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) were identified in the early 1980s, but received much attention after 1998 when the methods to isolate and culture them from murine and human sources were developed. PSCs contribute to a small proportion of all pancreatic cells under physiological condition, but are essential for maintaining the normal pancreatic architecture. Quiescent PSCs are characterized by the presence of vitamin A laden lipid droplets. Upon PSC activation, these perinuclear lipid droplets disappear from the cytosol, attain a myofibroblast like phenotype and expresses the activation marker, alpha smooth muscle actin. PSCs maintain their activated phenotype via an autocrine loop involving different cytokines and contribute to progressive fibrosis in chronic pancreatitis (CP) and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Several pathways (e.g., JAK-STAT, Smad, Wnt signaling, Hedgehog etc.), transcription factors and miRNAs have been implicated in the inflammatory and profibrogenic function of PSCs. The role of PSCs goes much beyond fibrosis/desmoplasia in PDAC. It is now shown that PSCs are involved in significant crosstalk between the pancreatic cancer cells and the cancer stroma. These interactions result in tumour progression, metastasis, tumour hypoxia, immune evasion and drug resistance. This is the rationale for therapeutic preclinical and clinical trials that have targeted PSCs and the cancer stroma. PMID:28210075

  11. Stages of Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors

    MedlinePlus

    ... Leukemia Liver Cancer Lung Cancer Lymphoma Pancreatic Cancer Prostate Cancer Skin Cancer Thyroid Cancer Uterine Cancer All Cancer ... also called nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (NMRI). Somatostatin receptor scintigraphy : A type of radionuclide scan that may ...

  12. Valsartan-induced acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Can, Burak; Sali, Mursel; Batman, Adnan; Yilmaz, Hasan; Korkmaz, Ugur; Celebi, Altay; Senturk, Omer; Hulagu, Sadettin

    2014-01-01

    Gastrointestinal toxicity is uncommon among patients treated with angiotensin II receptor antagonists. A 58-year-old man presented with nausea, vomiting and constant pain in the epigastrium that radiated to the flanks. He received treatment with valsartan (160 mg daily) for hypertension. The clinical, biochemical and radiological findings were compatible with a diagnosis of acute pancreatitis. After the patient achieved a clinical and biochemical recovery, the valsartan therapy was started again. Six weeks later, he returned to the hospital with an attack of pancreatitis. Subsequently, he returned with repeated attacks of pancreatitis twice, and the valsartan was discontinued. Ten months after the treatment, the patient had no complaints. When severe abdominal symptoms occur for no apparent reason during treatment with valsartan, a diagnosis of pancreatitis should be considered.

  13. Drugs Approved for Pancreatic Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for pancreatic cancer. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters.

  14. Brain Responses to Filled Gaps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hestvik, Arild; Maxfield, Nathan; Schwartz, Richard G.; Shafer, Valerie

    2007-01-01

    An unresolved issue in the study of sentence comprehension is whether the process of gap-filling is mediated by the construction of empty categories (traces), or whether the parser relates fillers directly to the associated verb's argument structure. We conducted an event-related potentials (ERP) study that used the violation paradigm to examine…

  15. Can-Filled Crash Barrier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, A. H.

    1983-01-01

    Crash barrier composed largely of used aluminum beverage cans protects occupants of cars in collisions with poles or trees. Lightweight, can-filled barrier very effective in softening impact of an automobile in head-on and off-angle collisions. Preliminary results indicate barrier is effective in collisions up to 40 mi/h (64 km/h).

  16. Filling in the retinal image

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larimer, James; Piantanida, Thomas

    1990-01-01

    The optics of the eye form an image on a surface at the back of the eyeball called the retina. The retina contains the photoreceptors that sample the image and convert it into a neural signal. The spacing of the photoreceptors in the retina is not uniform and varies with retinal locus. The central retinal field, called the macula, is densely packed with photoreceptors. The packing density falls off rapidly as a function of retinal eccentricity with respect to the macular region and there are regions in which there are no photoreceptors at all. The retinal regions without photoreceptors are called blind spots or scotomas. The neural transformations which convert retinal image signals into percepts fills in the gaps and regularizes the inhomogeneities of the retinal photoreceptor sampling mosaic. The filling-in mechamism plays an important role in understanding visual performance. The filling-in mechanism is not well understood. A systematic collaborative research program at the Ames Research Center and SRI in Menlo Park, California, was designed to explore this mechanism. It was shown that the perceived fields which are in fact different from the image on the retina due to filling-in, control some aspects of performance and not others. Researchers have linked these mechanisms to putative mechanisms of color coding and color constancy.

  17. Space-filling polyhedral sorbents

    DOEpatents

    Haaland, Peter

    2016-06-21

    Solid sorbents, systems, and methods for pumping, storage, and purification of gases are disclosed. They derive from the dynamics of porous and free convection for specific gas/sorbent combinations and use space filling polyhedral microliths with facial aplanarities to produce sorbent arrays with interpenetrating interstitial manifolds of voids.

  18. Erlotinib Hydrochloride in Treating Patients With Pancreatic Cancer That Can Be Removed by Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-10-07

    Intraductal Papillary Mucinous Neoplasm of the Pancreas; Recurrent Pancreatic Cancer; Stage IA Pancreatic Cancer; Stage IB Pancreatic Cancer; Stage IIA Pancreatic Cancer; Stage IIB Pancreatic Cancer; Stage III Pancreatic Cancer

  19. Clinical pancreatic islet transplantation.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, A M James; Pokrywczynska, Marta; Ricordi, Camillo

    2017-05-01

    Clinical pancreatic islet transplantation can be considered one of the safest and least invasive transplant procedures. Remarkable progress has occurred in both the technical aspects of islet cell processing and the outcomes of clinical islet transplantation. With >1,500 patients treated since 2000, this therapeutic strategy has moved from a curiosity to a realistic treatment option for selected patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (that is, those with hypoglycaemia unawareness, severe hypoglycaemic episodes and glycaemic lability). This Review outlines the techniques required for human islet isolation, in vitro culture before the transplant and clinical islet transplantation, and discusses indications, optimization of recipient immunosuppression and management of adjunctive immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory strategies. The potential risks, long-term outcomes and advances in treatment after the transplant are also discussed to further move this treatment towards becoming a more widely available option for patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus and eventually a potential cure.

  20. Pancreatic Cancer, Inflammation and Microbiome

    PubMed Central

    Zambirinis, Constantinos P.; Pushalkar, Smruti; Saxena, Deepak; Miller, George

    2014-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is one of the most lethal cancers worldwide. No effective screening methods exist and available treatment modalities do not effectively treat the disease. Inflammatory conditions such as pancreatitis represent a well-known risk for pancreatic cancer development. Yet only in the past two decades has pancreatic cancer been recognized as an inflammation-driven cancer, and the precise mechanisms underlying the pathogenic role of inflammation are beginning to be explored in detail. A substantial amount of preclinical and clinical evidence suggests that bacteria are likely to influence this process by activating immune receptors and perpetuating cancer-associated inflammation. The recent explosion of investigations into the human microbiome have highlighted how perturbations of commensal bacterial populations can promote inflammation and promote disease processes, including carcinogenesis. The elucidation of the interplay between inflammation and microbiome in the context of pancreatic carcinogenesis will provide novel targets for intervention in order to both prevent and treat pancreatic cancer more efficiently. Further studies towards this direction are urgently needed. PMID:24855007

  1. Pancreatic carcinogenesis: apoptosis and angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Onizuka, Shinya; Kawakami, Shunsuke; Taniguchi, Ken; Fujioka, Hikaru; Miyashita, Kosei

    2004-04-01

    Apoptosis and angiogenesis are critical biologic processes that are altered during carcinogenesis. Both apoptosis and angiogenesis may play an important role in pancreatic carcinogenesis. Despite numerous advances in the diagnosis and treatment of pancreatic cancer, its prognosis remains dismal and a new therapeutic approach is much needed. Recent research has revealed that apoptosis and angiogenesis are closely interrelated. Several reports show that a tumor suppresser gene that is expressed in pancreatic carcinoma and related to malignant potential can induce apoptosis and also inhibit angiogenesis. At present, it is generally accepted that tumor growth in cancers, including pancreatic cancer, depends on angiogenesis. We have identified 2 new angiogenesis inhibitors from a conditioned medium of human pancreatic carcinoma cell line (BxPC-3): antiangiogenic antithrombin III (aaAT-III) and vitamin D binding protein-macrophage activating factor (DBP-maf). These molecules were able to regress tumors in severe combined immunodeficiency disease (SCID) mice, demonstrating potent inhibition of endothelial cell proliferation. Moreover, the angiogenesis inhibitors induced tumor dormancy in the animal model. These results suggest that antiangiogenic therapy using angiogenesis inhibitors may become a new strategy for treatment of pancreatic cancer in the near future.

  2. Pancreatic cancer: Advances in treatment

    PubMed Central

    Mohammed, Somala; Van Buren II, George; Fisher, William E

    2014-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is a leading cause of cancer mortality and the incidence of this disease is expected to continue increasing. While patients with pancreatic cancer have traditionally faced a dismal prognosis, over the past several years various advances in diagnosis and treatment have begun to positively impact this disease. Identification of effective combinations of existing chemotherapeutic agents, such as the FOLFIRINOX and the gemcitabine + nab-paclitaxel regimen, has improved survival for selected patients although concerns regarding their toxicity profiles remain. A better understanding of pancreatic carcinogenesis has identified several pre-malignant precursor lesions, such as pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasias, intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms, and cystic neoplasms. Imaging technology has also evolved dramatically so as to allow early detection of these lesions and thereby facilitate earlier management. Surgery remains a cornerstone of treatment for patients with resectable pancreatic tumors, and advances in surgical technique have allowed patients to undergo resection with decreasing perioperative morbidity and mortality. Surgery has also become feasible in selected patients with borderline resectable tumors as a result of neoadjuvant therapy. Furthermore, pancreatectomy involving vascular reconstruction and pancreatectomy with minimally invasive techniques have demonstrated safety without significantly compromising oncologic outcomes. Lastly, a deeper understanding of molecular aberrations contributing to the development of pancreatic cancer shows promise for future development of more targeted and safe therapeutic agents. PMID:25071330

  3. Pancreatic cancer: advances in treatment.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Somala; Van Buren, George; Fisher, William E

    2014-07-28

    Pancreatic cancer is a leading cause of cancer mortality and the incidence of this disease is expected to continue increasing. While patients with pancreatic cancer have traditionally faced a dismal prognosis, over the past several years various advances in diagnosis and treatment have begun to positively impact this disease. Identification of effective combinations of existing chemotherapeutic agents, such as the FOLFIRINOX and the gemcitabine + nab-paclitaxel regimen, has improved survival for selected patients although concerns regarding their toxicity profiles remain. A better understanding of pancreatic carcinogenesis has identified several pre-malignant precursor lesions, such as pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasias, intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms, and cystic neoplasms. Imaging technology has also evolved dramatically so as to allow early detection of these lesions and thereby facilitate earlier management. Surgery remains a cornerstone of treatment for patients with resectable pancreatic tumors, and advances in surgical technique have allowed patients to undergo resection with decreasing perioperative morbidity and mortality. Surgery has also become feasible in selected patients with borderline resectable tumors as a result of neoadjuvant therapy. Furthermore, pancreatectomy involving vascular reconstruction and pancreatectomy with minimally invasive techniques have demonstrated safety without significantly compromising oncologic outcomes. Lastly, a deeper understanding of molecular aberrations contributing to the development of pancreatic cancer shows promise for future development of more targeted and safe therapeutic agents.

  4. Enteric hyperoxaluria in chronic pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Demoulin, Nathalie; Issa, Zaina; Crott, Ralph; Morelle, Johann; Danse, Etienne; Wallemacq, Pierre; Jadoul, Michel; Deprez, Pierre H

    2017-05-01

    Chronic pancreatitis may lead to steatorrhea, enteric hyperoxaluria, and kidney damage. However, the prevalence and determinants of hyperoxaluria in chronic pancreatitis patients as well as its association with renal function decline have not been investigated.We performed an observational study. Urine oxalate to creatinine ratio was assessed on 2 independent random urine samples in consecutive adult patients with chronic pancreatitis followed at the outpatient clinic from March 1 to October 31, 2012. Baseline characteristics and annual estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) change during follow-up were compared between patients with hyper- and normo-oxaluria.A total of 48 patients with chronic pancreatitis were included. The etiology of the disease was toxic (52%), idiopathic (27%), obstructive (11%), autoimmune (6%), or genetic (4%). Hyperoxaluria (defined as urine oxalate to creatinine ratio >32 mg/g) was found in 23% of patients. Multivariate regression analysis identified clinical steatorrhea, high fecal acid steatocrit, and pancreatic atrophy as independent predictors of hyperoxaluria. Taken together, a combination of clinical steatorrhea, steatocrit level >31%, and pancreatic atrophy was associated with a positive predictive value of 100% for hyperoxaluria. On the contrary, none of the patients with a fecal elastase-1 level >100 μg/g had hyperoxaluria. Longitudinal evolution of eGFR was available in 71% of the patients, with a mean follow-up of 904 days. After adjustment for established determinants of renal function decline (gender, diabetes, bicarbonate level, baseline eGFR, and proteinuria), a urine oxalate to creatinine ratio >32 mg/g was associated with a higher risk of eGFR decline.Hyperoxaluria is highly prevalent in patients with chronic pancreatitis and associated with faster decline in renal function. A high urine oxalate to creatinine ratio in patients with chronic pancreatitis is best predicted by clinical steatorrhea, a high acid

  5. VX15/2503 and Immunotherapy in Resectable Pancreatic and Colorectal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-12-26

    Colon Carcinoma Metastatic in the Liver; Colorectal Adenocarcinoma; Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma; Resectable Pancreatic Carcinoma; Stage I Pancreatic Cancer; Stage IA Pancreatic Cancer; Stage IB Pancreatic Cancer; Stage II Pancreatic Cancer; Stage IIA Pancreatic Cancer; Stage IIB Pancreatic Cancer; Stage III Pancreatic Cancer; Stage IV Colorectal Cancer; Stage IVA Colorectal Cancer; Stage IVB Colorectal Cancer

  6. Safety in Royal Filling Factories

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1950-10-01

    cracks occur in the asphalt and above the level of the destroying solution, a channel of luting or other material should be built up and filled with...destroyed. If of asphalt , any cracks should be treated as recommended in the case of 18(b) above. The Dirty Side should be treated as recommended for...already exist owing to the presence of suitable buildings, could be made at comparatively small expense by mounds of earth about 3 feet thick revetted

  7. Particle-filled microporous materials

    DOEpatents

    McAllister, Jerome W.; Kinzer, Kevin E.; Mrozinski, James S.; Johnson, Eric J.; Dyrud, James F.

    1990-01-01

    A microporous particulate-filled thermoplastic polymeric article is provided. The article can be in the form of a film, a fiber, or a tube. The article has a thermoplastic polymeric structure having a plurality of interconnected passageways to provide a network of communicating pores. The microporous structure contains discrete submicron or low micron-sized particulate filler, the particulate filler being substantially non-agglomerated.

  8. Particle-filled microporous materials

    DOEpatents

    McAllister, Jerome W.; Kinzer, Kevin E.; Mrozinski, James S.; Johnson, Eric J.

    1992-07-14

    A microporous particulate-filled thermoplastic polymeric article is provided. The article can be in the form of a film, a fiber, or a tube. The article has a thermoplastic polymeric structure having a plurality of interconnected passageways to provide a network of communicating pores. The microporous structure contains discrete submicron or low micron-sized particulate filler, the particulate filler being substantially non-agglomerated.

  9. Hard-to-fill vacancies.

    PubMed

    Williams, Ruth

    2010-09-29

    Skills for Health has launched a set of resources to help healthcare employers tackle hard-to-fill entry-level vacancies and provide sustainable employment for local unemployed people. The Sector Employability Toolkit aims to reduce recruitment and retention costs for entry-level posts and repare people for employment through pre-job training programmes, and support employers to develop local partnerships to gain access to wider pools of candidates and funding streams.

  10. Particle-filled microporous materials

    DOEpatents

    McAllister, J.W.; Kinzer, K.E.; Mrozinski, J.S.; Johnson, E.J.; Dyrud, J.F.

    1990-09-18

    A microporous particulate-filled thermoplastic polymeric article is provided. The article can be in the form of a film, a fiber, or a tube. The article has a thermoplastic polymeric structure having a plurality of interconnected passageways to provide a network of communicating pores. The microporous structure contains discrete submicron or low micron-sized particulate filler, the particulate filler being substantially non-agglomerated. 3 figs.

  11. Lipolysis of Visceral Adipocyte Triglyceride by Pancreatic Lipases Converts Mild Acute Pancreatitis to Severe Pancreatitis Independent of Necrosis and Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Krutika; Trivedi, Ram N.; Durgampudi, Chandra; Noel, Pawan; Cline, Rachel A.; DeLany, James P.; Navina, Sarah; Singh, Vijay P.

    2016-01-01

    Visceral fat necrosis has been associated with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) for over 100 years; however, its pathogenesis and role in SAP outcomes are poorly understood. Based on recent work suggesting that pancreatic fat lipolysis plays an important role in SAP, we evaluated the role of pancreatic lipases in SAP-associated visceral fat necrosis, the inflammatory response, local injury, and outcomes of acute pancreatitis (AP). For this, cerulein pancreatitis was induced in lean and obese mice, alone or with the lipase inhibitor orlistat and parameters of AP induction (serum amylase and lipase), fat necrosis, pancreatic necrosis, and multisystem organ failure, and inflammatory response were assessed. Pancreatic lipases were measured in fat necrosis and were overexpressed in 3T3-L1 cells. We noted obesity to convert mild cerulein AP to SAP with greater cytokines, unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs), and multisystem organ failure, and 100% mortality without affecting AP induction or pancreatic necrosis. Increased pancreatic lipase amounts and activity were noted in the extensive visceral fat necrosis of dying obese mice. Lipase inhibition reduced fat necrosis, UFAs, organ failure, and mortality but not the parameters of AP induction. Pancreatic lipase expression increased lipolysis in 3T3-L1 cells. We conclude that UFAs generated via lipolysis of visceral fat by pancreatic lipases convert mild AP to SAP independent of pancreatic necrosis and the inflammatory response. PMID:25579844

  12. Gross anatomy of pancreatic surgery related fascia and fascial spaces.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiaobo; Ding, Zihai

    2014-01-01

    The study aims to provide anatomical basis and identify surgical planes or safe routes for pancreatic surgery by studying adult or fresh cadaver specimens. Thirty formalin-fixed adult cadavers (16 males and 14 females), provided by the Department of Anatomy at Southern Medical University, China, were perfused with red latex through the abdominal aorta, treated with antiseptic and antibacterial agents and then refrigerated. Fifteen abdomen specimens from fresh adult cadavers (Southern Medical body donation reception centers) were also perfused with red latex through the femoral artery and placed in -20 C freezer for 1 week before surgery and anatomic observation. The renal fascia surrounding pancreas and duodenum were mostly filled with loose connective tissues and adipose tissues. They were mutually connected with clear fascial borders but easily to be separated, suitable for surgical operations. Also, the integrating spaces were the connecting borders between different tissues without nerves or blood vessels inside. They may serve as ideal surgical planes for pancreatic surgery. A better understanding of the anatomy of the renal fascia and fascial spaces may provide guidance for identifying surgical landmarks and planes, and help to reduce bleeding and unnecessary side injuries in pancreatic surgery.

  13. Acute and chronic pancreatitis: surgical management.

    PubMed

    Dzakovic, Alexander; Superina, Riccardo

    2012-08-01

    Pancreatitis is becoming increasingly prevalent in children, posing new challenges to pediatric health care providers. Although some general adult treatment paradigms are applicable in the pediatric population, diagnostic workup and surgical management of acute and chronic pancreatitis have to be tailored to anatomic and pathophysiological entities peculiar to children. Nonbiliary causes of acute pancreatitis in children are generally managed nonoperatively with hydration, close biochemical and clinical observation, and early initiation of enteral feeds. Surgical intervention including cholecystectomy or endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography is often required in acute biliary pancreatitis, whereas infected pancreatic necrosis remains a rare absolute indication for pancreatic debridement and drainage via open, laparoscopic, or interventional radiologic procedure. Chronic pancreatitis is characterized by painful irreversible changes of the parenchyma and ducts, which may result in or be caused by inadequate ductal drainage. A variety of surgical procedures providing drainage, denervation, resection, or a combination thereof are well established to relieve pain and preserve pancreatic function. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Role of pancreatic fat in the outcomes of pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Acharya, Chathur; Navina, Sarah; Singh, Vijay P

    2014-01-01

    The role of obesity in relation to various disease processes is being increasingly studied, with reports over the last several years increasingly mentioning its association with worse outcomes in acute disease. Obesity has also gained recognition as a risk factor for severe acute pancreatitis (SAP).The mortality in SAP may be as high as 30% and is usually attributable to multi system organ failure (MSOF) earlier in the disease, and complications of necrotizing pancreatitis later [9-11]. To date there is no specific treatment for acute pancreatitis (AP) and the management is largely expectant and supportive. Obesity in general has also been associated with poor outcomes in sepsis and other pathological states including trauma and burns. With the role of unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) as propagators in SAP having recently come to light and with the recognition of acute lipotoxicity, there is now an opportunity to explore different strategies to reduce the mortality and morbidity in SAP and potentially other disease states associated with such a pathophysiology. In this review we will discuss the role of fat and implications of the consequent acute lipotoxicity on the outcomes of acute pancreatitis in lean and obese states and during acute on chronic pancreatitis. Copyright © 2014 IAP and EPC. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. ROLE OF PANCREATIC FAT IN THE OUTCOMES OF PANCREATITIS

    PubMed Central

    Acharya, Chathur; Navina, Sarah; Singh, Vijay P.

    2014-01-01

    The role of obesity in relation to various disease processes is being increasingly studied, with reports over the last several years increasingly mentioning its association with worse outcomes in acute disease. Obesity has also gained recognition as a risk factor for severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) [1–8]. The mortality in SAP may be as high as 30% and is usually attributable to multi system organ failure (MSOF) earlier in the disease, and complications of necrotizing pancreatitis later [9–11]. To date there is no specific treatment for acute pancreatitis (AP) and the management is largely expectant and supportive. Obesity in general has also been associated with poor outcomes in sepsis and other pathological states including trauma and burns [12–14]. With the role of unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) as propagators in SAP having recently come to light [15] and with the recognition of acute lipotoxicity, there is now an opportunity to explore different strategies to reduce the mortality and morbidity in SAP and potentially other disease states associated with such a pathophysiology. In this review we will discuss the role of fat and implications of the consequent acute lipotoxicity on the outcomes of acute pancreatitis in lean and obese states and during acute on chronic pancreatitis. PMID:25278311

  16. [A case of enterolith ileus secondary to acute pancreatitis associated with a juxtapapillary duodenal diverticulum].

    PubMed

    Morii, Shinji; Doi, Yoko; Makita, Tomoo; Takeda, Shinichiro; Miura, Seiki; Kaneko, Takaaki; Saito, Shuichi; Okabe, Shinichiro

    2015-05-01

    A 63-year-old woman with abdominal pain was referred to our hospital. Her pancreatic enzymes were elevated, and an abdominal computed tomography (CT) scan showed an enlarged pancreas, consistent with pancreatitis, and gas collection containing an impacted stone adjacent to Vater's papilla. This finding raised the suspicion of a duodenal diverticulum. A subsequent ERCP showed a juxtapapillary duodenal diverticulum (JPDD) filled with calculi and pus. The pancreatitis improved with 2 weeks of conservative treatment. Subsequently, the patient underwent resection of the uterus and bilateral adnexa to remove a large ovarian cyst that was also identified on the admission CT scan. On the third postoperative day, she developed abdominal pain and vomiting. CT revealed small bowel obstruction caused by an enterolith expelled from JPDD. Enterotomy was performed to remove the stone. To our knowledge, only three similar cases have been previously reported in Japan.

  17. [Persistence of chronic inflammatory responses, role in the development of chronic pancreatitis, obesity and pancreatic cancer].

    PubMed

    Khristich, T N

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of the review--to analyze the basic data of the role of chronic low-intensity inflammatory response as general biological process in the development and progression of chronic pancreatitis, obesity, and pancreatic cancer. Highlighted evidence from epidemiological studies showing that chronic pancreatitis and obesity are independent risk factors for pancreatic cancer, regardless of diabetes. Studied role of adipokines as Cytokines regulating of immune inflammatory response. Draws attention to the staging of pancreatic cancer in obesity.

  18. Comparative Efficacy of Bilateral Thoracoscopic Splanchnicectomy for Intractable Pain Secondary to Pancreatic Cancer vs Chronic Pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Bhutiani, Neal; Cheadle, Gerald A; Bahr, Michael H; Vitale, Gary C

    2017-04-01

    Splanchnicectomy has been evaluated for treatment of chronic pain in both pancreatic cancer and chronic pancreatitis patients, although its efficacy has not been compared in these 2 patient populations. This study aimed to compare bilateral thoracoscopic splanchnicectomy in treatment of abdominal pain secondary with pancreatic cancer and chronic pancreatitis. A University of Louisville database was evaluated from July 1998 to March 2016 for patients undergoing bilateral thoracoscopic splanchnicectomy for intractable pain secondary to pancreatic cancer (n = 48) or chronic pancreatitis (n = 75). Patients were evaluated pre- and postoperatively with regard to abdominal pain and related symptoms, narcotic analgesic requirements, and hospital admissions. Narcotic use was quantified using the Kentucky All Schedule Prescription Electronic Reporting system. After bilateral thoracoscopic splanchnicectomy, 28% of pancreatic cancer patients continued to experience abdominal pain compared with 57% of chronic pancreatitis patients. Daily narcotic dose decreased for 74% of pancreatic cancer compared with 32% of chronic pancreatitis patients (p < 0.001). Sixty-seven percent of pancreatic cancer patients discontinued pain medications completely compared with 14% of chronic pancreatitis patients (p < 0.001). Hospitalizations decreased significantly in both groups (p < 0.001; p = 0.001), although mean number of postoperative hospitalizations was lower for pancreatic cancer (0.5) compared with chronic pancreatitis patients (2.80) (p < 0.001). Mean follow-up was significantly shorter for pancreatic cancer patients than for chronic pancreatitis patients (8 months vs 32 months; p < 0.001). Bilateral thoracoscopic splanchnicectomy safely, effectively, and durably relieves abdominal pain in patients with both pancreatic cancer and chronic pancreatitis. However, it is more effective in providing pain relief and preventing pain-related hospitalizations in patients with pancreatic

  19. Role of bacterial infections in pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Michaud, Dominique S.

    2013-01-01

    Established risk factors for pancreatic cancer, including tobacco smoking, chronic pancreatitis, obesity and type 2 diabetes, collectively account for less than half of all pancreatic cancer cases. Inflammation plays a key role in pancreatic carcinogenesis, but it is unclear what causes local inflammation, other than pancreatitis. Epidemiological data suggest that Helicobacter pylori may be a risk factor for pancreatic cancer, and more recently, data suggest that periodontal disease, and Porphyromonas gingivalis, a pathogen for periodontal disease, may also play a role in pancreatic carcinogenesis. Individuals with periodontal disease have elevated markers of systemic inflammation, and oral bacteria can disseminate into the blood, stomach, heart and even reach the brain. These infections may contribute to the progression of pancreatic cancer by acting jointly with other pancreatic cancer risk factors that impact the inflammation and immune response, such as smoking and obesity, and the ABO genetic variant, recently linked to pancreatic cancer through genome-wide association studies. The complex interplay between bacteria, host immune response and environmental factors has been examined closely in relation to gastric cancer, but new research suggests bacteria may be playing a role in other gastrointestinal cancers. This review will summarize the literature on epidemiological studies examining infections that have been linked to pancreatic cancer and propose mechanistic pathways that may tie infections to pancreatic cancer. PMID:23843038

  20. Role of bacterial infections in pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Michaud, Dominique S

    2013-10-01

    Established risk factors for pancreatic cancer, including tobacco smoking, chronic pancreatitis, obesity and type 2 diabetes, collectively account for less than half of all pancreatic cancer cases. Inflammation plays a key role in pancreatic carcinogenesis, but it is unclear what causes local inflammation, other than pancreatitis. Epidemiological data suggest that Helicobacter pylori may be a risk factor for pancreatic cancer, and more recently, data suggest that periodontal disease, and Porphyromonas gingivalis, a pathogen for periodontal disease, may also play a role in pancreatic carcinogenesis. Individuals with periodontal disease have elevated markers of systemic inflammation, and oral bacteria can disseminate into the blood, stomach, heart and even reach the brain. These infections may contribute to the progression of pancreatic cancer by acting jointly with other pancreatic cancer risk factors that impact the inflammation and immune response, such as smoking and obesity, and the ABO genetic variant, recently linked to pancreatic cancer through genome-wide association studies. The complex interplay between bacteria, host immune response and environmental factors has been examined closely in relation to gastric cancer, but new research suggests bacteria may be playing a role in other gastrointestinal cancers. This review will summarize the literature on epidemiological studies examining infections that have been linked to pancreatic cancer and propose mechanistic pathways that may tie infections to pancreatic cancer.

  1. Blunt pancreatic trauma: A persistent diagnostic conundrum?

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Atin; Panda, Ananya; Gamanagatti, Shivanand

    2016-01-01

    Blunt pancreatic trauma is an uncommon injury but has high morbidity and mortality. In modern era of trauma care, pancreatic trauma remains a persistent challenge to radiologists and surgeons alike. Early detection of pancreatic trauma is essential to prevent subsequent complications. However early pancreatic injury is often subtle on computed tomography (CT) and can be missed unless specifically looked for. Signs of pancreatic injury on CT include laceration, transection, bulky pancreas, heterogeneous enhancement, peripancreatic fluid and signs of pancreatitis. Pan-creatic ductal injury is a vital decision-making parameter as ductal injury is an indication for laparotomy. While lacerations involving more than half of pancreatic parenchyma are suggestive of ductal injury on CT, ductal injuries can be directly assessed on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or encoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatography. Pancreatic trauma also shows temporal evolution with increase in extent of injury with time. Hence early CT scans may underestimate the extent of injures and sequential imaging with CT or MRI is important in pancreatic trauma. Sequential imaging is also needed for successful non-operative management of pancreatic injury. Accurate early detection on initial CT and adopting a multimodality and sequential imaging strategy can improve outcome in pancreatic trauma. PMID:26981225

  2. Pancreatic Cancer—Health Professional Version

    Cancer.gov

    Exocrine pancreatic cancer is cancer of the exocrine gland of the pancreas, whereas cancer of the endocrine gland usually forms as a collection of tumor cell types referred to as pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. Find evidence-based information on pancreatic cancer treatment, research, and statistics.

  3. Risk of Pancreatic Cancer After a Primary Episode of Acute Pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Rijkers, Anton P; Bakker, Olaf J; Ahmed Ali, Usama; Hagenaars, Julia C J P; van Santvoort, Hjalmar C; Besselink, Marc G; Bollen, Thomas L; van Eijck, Casper H

    2017-09-01

    Acute pancreatitis may be the first manifestation of pancreatic cancer. The aim of this study was to assess the risk of pancreatic cancer after a first episode of acute pancreatitis. Between March 2004 and March 2007, all consecutive patients with a first episode of acute pancreatitis were prospectively registered. Follow-up was based on hospital records audit, radiological imaging, and patient questionnaires. Outcome was stratified based on the development of chronic pancreatitis. We included 731 patients. The median follow-up time was 55 months. Progression to chronic pancreatitis was diagnosed in 51 patients (7.0%). In this group, the incidence rate per 1000 person-years for developing pancreatic cancer was 9.0 (95% confidence interval, 2.3-35.7). In the group of 680 patients who did not develop chronic pancreatitis, the incidence rate per 1000 person-years for developing pancreatic cancer in this group was 1.1 (95% confidence interval, 0.3-3.3). Hence, the rate ratio of pancreatic cancer was almost 9 times higher in patients who developed chronic pancreatitis compared with those who did not (P = 0.049). Although a first episode of acute pancreatitis may be related to pancreatic cancer, this risk is mainly present in patients who progress to chronic pancreatitis.

  4. Alcohol and smoking as risk factors in chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Talamini, G; Bassi, C; Falconi, M; Sartori, N; Salvia, R; Rigo, L; Castagnini, A; Di Francesco, V; Frulloni, L; Bovo, P; Vaona, B; Angelini, G; Vantini, I; Cavallini, G; Pederzoli, P

    1999-07-01

    The aim of this study was to compare alcohol and smoking as risk factors in the development of chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer. We considered only male subjects: (1) 630 patients with chronic pancreatitis who developed 12 pancreatic and 47 extrapancreatic cancers; (2) 69 patients with histologically well documented pancreatic cancer and no clinical history of chronic pancreatitis; and (3) 700 random controls taken from the Verona polling list and submitted to a complete medical check-up. Chronic pancreatitis subjects drink more than control subjects and more than subjects with pancreatic cancer without chronic pancreatitis (P<0.001). The percentage of smokers in the group with chronic pancreatitis is significantly higher than that in the control group [odds ratio (OR) 17.3; 95% CI 12.6-23.8; P<0.001] and in the group with pancreatic carcinomas but with no history of chronic pancreatitis (OR 5.3; 95% CI 3.0-9.4; P<0.001). In conclusion, our study shows that: (1) the risk of chronic pancreatitis correlates both with alcohol intake and with cigarette smoking with a trend indicating that the risk increases with increased alcohol intake and cigarette consumption; (2) alcohol and smoking are statistically independent risk factors for chronic pancreatitis; and (3) the risk of pancreatic cancer correlates positively with cigarette smoking but not with drinking.

  5. Pharmacologic therapy for acute pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Kambhampati, Swetha; Park, Walter; Habtezion, Aida

    2014-01-01

    While conservative management such as fluid, bowel rest, and antibiotics is the mainstay of current acute pancreatitis management, there is a lot of promise in pharmacologic therapies that target various aspects of the pathogenesis of pancreatitis. Extensive review of preclinical studies, which include assessment of therapies such as anti-secretory agents, protease inhibitors, anti-inflammatory agents, and anti-oxidants are discussed. Many of these studies have shown therapeutic benefit and improved survival in experimental models. Based on available preclinical studies, we discuss potential novel targeted pharmacologic approaches that may offer promise in the treatment of acute pancreatitis. To date a variety of clinical studies have assessed the translational potential of animal model effective experimental therapies and have shown either failure or mixed results in human studies. Despite these discouraging clinical studies, there is a great clinical need and there exist several preclinical effective therapies that await investigation in patients. Better understanding of acute pancreatitis pathophysiology and lessons learned from past clinical studies are likely to offer a great foundation upon which to expand future therapies in acute pancreatitis. PMID:25493000

  6. Management strategies in pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Campen, Christopher J; Dragovich, Tomislav; Baker, Amanda F

    2011-04-01

    Current first-line and adjuvant chemotherapeutic strategies for management of patients with pancreatic cancer are reviewed. Pancreatic adenocarcinoma is the 10th most prevalent cancer and the fourth most common cause of cancer deaths in the United States. More than 80% of patients with pancreatic cancer are diagnosed with locally advanced or metastatic disease and are not candidates for surgery; these patients often require multimodal treatment. The most widely used chemotherapy for such patients, as well as patients requiring adjuvant therapy after surgery, is gemcitabine or gemcitabine-based chemotherapy. All current chemotherapies for pancreatic cancer are associated with dose-limiting hematologic toxicity and other adverse effects that require ongoing monitoring and dosage adjustment to balance the benefits and risks of treatment. Pharmacists can play an important role in monitoring and providing drug information and guidance to patients and oncologists. Current investigational strategies include efforts to improve chemotherapy response rates and outcomes through modulation of cell signaling pathways and use of nanotechnology to improve drug delivery. Current management of pancreatic cancer is multifaceted, involving anticancer therapy, supportive care, and toxicity management. Standard systemic therapy with gemcitabine as a single agent or in combination with other cytotoxic agents provides modest benefits in terms of response and symptom control.

  7. PCMdb: Pancreatic Cancer Methylation Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagpal, Gandharva; Sharma, Minakshi; Kumar, Shailesh; Chaudhary, Kumardeep; Gupta, Sudheer; Gautam, Ankur; Raghava, Gajendra P. S.

    2014-02-01

    Pancreatic cancer is the fifth most aggressive malignancy and urgently requires new biomarkers to facilitate early detection. For providing impetus to the biomarker discovery, we have developed Pancreatic Cancer Methylation Database (PCMDB, http://crdd.osdd.net/raghava/pcmdb/), a comprehensive resource dedicated to methylation of genes in pancreatic cancer. Data was collected and compiled manually from published literature. PCMdb has 65907 entries for methylation status of 4342 unique genes. In PCMdb, data was compiled for both cancer cell lines (53565 entries for 88 cell lines) and cancer tissues (12342 entries for 3078 tissue samples). Among these entries, 47.22% entries reported a high level of methylation for the corresponding genes while 10.87% entries reported low level of methylation. PCMdb covers five major subtypes of pancreatic cancer; however, most of the entries were compiled for adenocarcinomas (88.38%) and mucinous neoplasms (5.76%). A user-friendly interface has been developed for data browsing, searching and analysis. We anticipate that PCMdb will be helpful for pancreatic cancer biomarker discovery.

  8. Management of pancreatic exocrine insufficiency: Australasian Pancreatic Club recommendations.

    PubMed

    Toouli, James; Biankin, Andrew V; Oliver, Mark R; Pearce, Callum B; Wilson, Jeremy S; Wray, Nicholas H

    2010-10-18

    Pancreatic exocrine insufficiency (PEI) occurs when the amounts of enzymes secreted into the duodenum in response to a meal are insufficient to maintain normal digestive processes. The main clinical consequence of PEI is fat maldigestion and malabsorption, resulting in steatorrhoea. Pancreatic exocrine function is commonly assessed by conducting a 3-day faecal fat test and by measuring levels of faecal elastase-1 and serum trypsinogen. Pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy is the mainstay of treatment for PEI. In adults, the initial recommended dose of pancreatic enzymes is 25,000 units of lipase per meal, titrating up to a maximum of 80,000 units of lipase per meal. In infants and children, the initial recommended dose of pancreatic enzymes is 500 units of lipase per gram of dietary fat; the maximum daily dose should not exceed 10,000 units of lipase per kilogram of bodyweight. Oral pancreatic enzymes should be taken with meals to ensure adequate mixing with the chyme. Adjunct therapy with acid-suppressing agents may be useful in patients who continue to experience symptoms of PEI despite high-dose enzyme therapy. A dietitian experienced in treating PEI should be involved in patient management. Dietary fat restriction is not recommended for patients with PEI. Patients with PEI should be encouraged to consume small, frequent meals and to abstain from alcohol. Medium-chain triglycerides do not provide any clear nutritional advantage over long-chain triglycerides, but can be trialled in patients who fail to gain or to maintain adequate bodyweight in order to increase energy intake.

  9. Inhibition of secretin stimulated pancreatic secretion by pancreatic polypeptide.

    PubMed

    Adrian, T E; Besterman, H S; Mallinson, C N; Greenberg, G R; Bloom, S R

    1979-01-01

    The effect of PP on secretin-stimulated pancreatic secretion was assessed in five healthy subjects. During an intravenous infusion of BPP at a dose which produced plasma levels similar to those seen after meals in healthy young adults the volume and bicarbonate content of duodenal juice was reduced by 25% (p less than 0.05) and 24% (p less than 0.05) respectively, while protein and bilirubin concentrations were more markedly reduced by 68% (p less than 0.0005) and 67% (p less than 0.0005) respectively. PP, thus, may be an important inhibitory factor in the control of bilirubin and pancreatic enzyme secretion in man.

  10. Impaired pancreatic polypeptide release in chronic pancreatitis with steatorrhoea.

    PubMed

    Adrian, T E; Besterman, H S; Mallinson, C N; Garalotis, C; Bloom, S R

    1979-02-01

    Pancreatic polypeptide (PP) is a newly discovered hormonal peptide localised in a distinct endocrine cell type in the pancreas. PP circulates in plasma and in normal subjects levels rise substantially on the ingestion of food (mean rise 138 pmol/l). In 10 patients with chronic pancreatitis with exocrine deficiency the PP response to a test breakfast was greatly reduced (mean rise 20 pmol/l, P less than 0.001). PP response to the meal was normal in 10 patients with active coeliac disease and 12 patients with acute tropical sprue with steatorrhoea.

  11. Inhibition of secretin stimulated pancreatic secretion by pancreatic polypeptide.

    PubMed Central

    Adrian, T E; Besterman, H S; Mallinson, C N; Greenberg, G R; Bloom, S R

    1979-01-01

    The effect of PP on secretin-stimulated pancreatic secretion was assessed in five healthy subjects. During an intravenous infusion of BPP at a dose which produced plasma levels similar to those seen after meals in healthy young adults the volume and bicarbonate content of duodenal juice was reduced by 25% (p less than 0.05) and 24% (p less than 0.05) respectively, while protein and bilirubin concentrations were more markedly reduced by 68% (p less than 0.0005) and 67% (p less than 0.0005) respectively. PP, thus, may be an important inhibitory factor in the control of bilirubin and pancreatic enzyme secretion in man. PMID:761835

  12. Impaired pancreatic polypeptide release in chronic pancreatitis with steatorrhoea.

    PubMed Central

    Adrian, T E; Besterman, H S; Mallinson, C N; Garalotis, C; Bloom, S R

    1979-01-01

    Pancreatic polypeptide (PP) is a newly discovered hormonal peptide localised in a distinct endocrine cell type in the pancreas. PP circulates in plasma and in normal subjects levels rise substantially on the ingestion of food (mean rise 138 pmol/l). In 10 patients with chronic pancreatitis with exocrine deficiency the PP response to a test breakfast was greatly reduced (mean rise 20 pmol/l, P less than 0.001). PP response to the meal was normal in 10 patients with active coeliac disease and 12 patients with acute tropical sprue with steatorrhoea. PMID:428832

  13. Lateral pancreaticojejunostomy for chronic pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    O'Neil, Stephen J; Aranha, Gerard V

    2003-11-01

    Chronic pancreatitis is a progressive fibrosis of the pancreas that leads to loss of endocrine and exocrine function. The most common symptom in this disease is intractable pain. The etiology of pain in chronic pancreatitis is not clearly understood. However, many of these patients have dilated ducts consisting of saccular dilations and intervening constructions referred to as the "chain of lakes" phenomenon. These patients can be diagnosed with either endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) or computed tomography (CT). These patients are best treated by the Partington Rochelle modification of the Puestow Procedure otherwise known as lateral pancreaticojejunostomy. Overall pain relief in published studies occurs in 50-90% of patients. Another proposed advantage of the lateral pancreaticojejunostomy is preservation of endocrine and exocrine pancreatic function as long as the pancreas is not further damaged by alcohol.

  14. Percutaneous ablation of pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    D’Onofrio, Mirko; Ciaravino, Valentina; De Robertis, Riccardo; Barbi, Emilio; Salvia, Roberto; Girelli, Roberto; Paiella, Salvatore; Gasparini, Camilla; Cardobi, Nicolò; Bassi, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is a highly aggressive tumor with an overall 5-year survival rate of less than 5%. Prognosis and treatment depend on whether the tumor is resectable or not, which mostly depends on how quickly the diagnosis is made. Chemotherapy and radiotherapy can be both used in cases of non-resectable pancreatic cancer. In cases of pancreatic neoplasm that is locally advanced, non-resectable, but non-metastatic, it is possible to apply percutaneous treatments that are able to induce tumor cytoreduction. The aim of this article will be to describe the multiple currently available treatment techniques (radiofrequency ablation, microwave ablation, cryoablation, and irreversible electroporation), their results, and their possible complications, with the aid of a literature review. PMID:27956791

  15. Fluid resuscitation in acute pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Aggarwal, Aakash; Manrai, Manish; Kochhar, Rakesh

    2014-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis remains a clinical challenge, despite an exponential increase in our knowledge of its complex pathophysiological changes. Early fluid therapy is the cornerstone of treatment and is universally recommended; however, there is a lack of consensus regarding the type, rate, amount and end points of fluid replacement. Further confusion is added with the newer studies reporting better results with controlled fluid therapy. This review focuses on the pathophysiology of fluid depletion in acute pancreatitis, as well as the rationale for fluid replacement, the type, optimal amount, rate of infusion and monitoring of such patients. The basic goal of fluid epletion should be to prevent or minimize the systemic response to inflammatory markers. For this review, various studies and reviews were critically evaluated, along with authors’ recommendations, for predicted severe or severe pancreatitis based on the available evidence. PMID:25561779

  16. Hospitalization, frequency of interventions, and quality of life after endoscopic, surgical, or conservative treatment in patients with chronic pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Rutter, Karoline; Ferlitsch, A; Sautner, T; Püspök, A; Götzinger, P; Gangl, A; Schindl, M

    2010-11-01

    Patients with chronic pancreatitis usually have a long and debilitating history of disease with frequent hospital admissions, episodes of intractable pain and multiple interventions. The sequences of treatment at initial presentation, endoscopy, surgery, or conservative treatment may affect the time course and admissions needed for disease control, thereby determining quality of life and overall outcome. A total of 292 patients with initial endoscopic, surgical, or conservative pharmacological treatment were retrospectively analyzed regarding frequency of interventions, days in hospital, symptom-free intervals, morbidity, and mortality. Quality of life (QoL) at the latest follow-up was measured by two standardized quality of life questionnaires (EORTC C30 and PAN26). Endoscopic treatment was initially performed in 150 (51.4%) patients, whereas 99 (33.9%) underwent surgery and 43 (14.7%) patients were treated conservatively at their initial presentation. Patients who underwent surgery had a significantly shorter time in the hospital (25.3 ± 24.6, 34.4 ± 35.1, 61.1 ± 37.9; P < 0.001), fewer subsequent therapies (0.43 ± 1.0, 2.1 ± 2.4, 3.1 ± 3.0; P ≤ 0.001), and a longer relapse-free interval (P = 0.004) compared with endoscopically treated patients. The overall complication rate was 32% both after surgery and endoscopy. Infectious-related complications occurred more often after surgical treatment (P ≤ 0.001), whereas patients after endoscopic intervention developed acute or chronic pancreatitis or pseudocyst formation (P = 0.023). Patients who undergo surgery as their initial treatment for chronic pancreatitis require less consecutive interventions, a shorter hospital stay, and have a better quality of life compared with any other treatment. Surgery should therefore be considered early for the treatment of chronic pancreatitis, when endoscopic or conservative treatment fails and patients require further intervention.

  17. Understanding and treatment of chronic pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Drewes, Asbjørn Mohr

    2013-11-14

    Chronic pancreatitis is characterized by an inflammatory process of the pancreas, which is replaced by fibrosis and progressive destruction. The three major clinical features of chronic pancreatitis are pain, maldigestion, and diabetes. Chronic pancreatitis has a profound impact on social life and employment patterns. In the current issue, different topics highlight experimental models of chronic pancreatitis and bridge findings from recent research to bedside. Although the disease is still difficult to treat the current papers represent useful guidelines on how to approach chronic pancreatitis in the clinical settings with the major aim to improve the patient's suffering and quality of life.

  18. Functional single nucleotide polymorphisms within the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A/2B region affect pancreatic cancer risk

    PubMed Central

    Campa, Daniele; Pastore, Manuela; Gentiluomo, Manuel; Talar-Wojnarowska, Renata; Kupcinskas, Juozas; Malecka-Panas, Ewa; Neoptolemos, John P.; Niesen, Willem; Vodicka, Pavel; Fave, Gianfranco Delle; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Gazouli, Maria; Pacetti, Paola; Di Leo, Milena; Ito, Hidemi; Klüter, Harald; Soucek, Pavel; Corbo, Vincenzo; Yamao, Kenji; Hosono, Satoyo; Kaaks, Rudolf; Vashist, Yogesh; Gioffreda, Domenica; Strobel, Oliver; Shimizu, Yasuhiro; Dijk, Frederike; Andriulli, Angelo; Ivanauskas, Audrius; Bugert, Peter; Tavano, Francesca; Vodickova, Ludmila; Zambon, Carlo Federico; Lovecek, Martin; Landi, Stefano; Key, Timothy J.; Boggi, Ugo; Pezzilli, Raffaele; Jamroziak, Krzysztof; Mohelnikova-Duchonova, Beatrice; Mambrini, Andrea; Bambi, Franco; Busch, Olivier; Pazienza, Valerio; Valente, Roberto; Theodoropoulos, George E.; Hackert, Thilo; Capurso, Gabriele; Cavestro, Giulia Martina; Pasquali, Claudio; Basso, Daniela; Sperti, Cosimo; Matsuo, Keitaro; Büchler, Markus; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Izbicki, Jakob; Costello, Eithne; Katzke, Verena; Michalski, Christoph; Stepien, Anna; Rizzato, Cosmeri; Canzian, Federico

    2016-01-01

    The CDKN2A (p16) gene plays a key role in pancreatic cancer etiology. It is one of the most commonly somatically mutated genes in pancreatic cancer, rare germline mutations have been found to be associated with increased risk of developing familiar pancreatic cancer and CDKN2A promoter hyper-methylation has been suggested to play a critical role both in pancreatic cancer onset and prognosis. In addition several unrelated SNPs in the 9p21.3 region, that includes the CDNK2A, CDNK2B and the CDNK2B-AS1 genes, are associated with the development of cancer in various organs. However, association between the common genetic variability in this region and pancreatic cancer risk is not clearly understood. We sought to fill this gap in a case-control study genotyping 13 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 2,857 pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) patients and 6,111 controls in the context of the Pancreatic Disease Research (PANDoRA) consortium. We found that the A allele of the rs3217992 SNP was associated with an increased pancreatic cancer risk (ORhet=1.14, 95% CI 1.01-1.27, p=0.026, ORhom=1.30, 95% CI 1.12-1.51, p=0.00049). This pleiotropic variant is reported to be a mir-SNP that, by changing the binding site of one or more miRNAs, could influence the normal cell cycle progression and in turn increase PDAC risk. In conclusion, we observed a novel association in a pleiotropic region that has been found to be of key relevance in the susceptibility to various types of cancer and diabetes suggesting that the CDKN2A/B locus could represent a genetic link between diabetes and pancreatic cancer risk. PMID:27486979

  19. Functional single nucleotide polymorphisms within the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A/2B region affect pancreatic cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Campa, Daniele; Pastore, Manuela; Gentiluomo, Manuel; Talar-Wojnarowska, Renata; Kupcinskas, Juozas; Malecka-Panas, Ewa; Neoptolemos, John P; Niesen, Willem; Vodicka, Pavel; Delle Fave, Gianfranco; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Gazouli, Maria; Pacetti, Paola; Di Leo, Milena; Ito, Hidemi; Klüter, Harald; Soucek, Pavel; Corbo, Vincenzo; Yamao, Kenji; Hosono, Satoyo; Kaaks, Rudolf; Vashist, Yogesh; Gioffreda, Domenica; Strobel, Oliver; Shimizu, Yasuhiro; Dijk, Frederike; Andriulli, Angelo; Ivanauskas, Audrius; Bugert, Peter; Tavano, Francesca; Vodickova, Ludmila; Zambon, Carlo Federico; Lovecek, Martin; Landi, Stefano; Key, Timothy J; Boggi, Ugo; Pezzilli, Raffaele; Jamroziak, Krzysztof; Mohelnikova-Duchonova, Beatrice; Mambrini, Andrea; Bambi, Franco; Busch, Olivier; Pazienza, Valerio; Valente, Roberto; Theodoropoulos, George E; Hackert, Thilo; Capurso, Gabriele; Cavestro, Giulia Martina; Pasquali, Claudio; Basso, Daniela; Sperti, Cosimo; Matsuo, Keitaro; Büchler, Markus; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Izbicki, Jakob; Costello, Eithne; Katzke, Verena; Michalski, Christoph; Stepien, Anna; Rizzato, Cosmeri; Canzian, Federico

    2016-08-30

    The CDKN2A (p16) gene plays a key role in pancreatic cancer etiology. It is one of the most commonly somatically mutated genes in pancreatic cancer, rare germline mutations have been found to be associated with increased risk of developing familiar pancreatic cancer and CDKN2A promoter hyper-methylation has been suggested to play a critical role both in pancreatic cancer onset and prognosis. In addition several unrelated SNPs in the 9p21.3 region, that includes the CDNK2A, CDNK2B and the CDNK2B-AS1 genes, are associated with the development of cancer in various organs. However, association between the common genetic variability in this region and pancreatic cancer risk is not clearly understood. We sought to fill this gap in a case-control study genotyping 13 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 2,857 pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) patients and 6,111 controls in the context of the Pancreatic Disease Research (PANDoRA) consortium. We found that the A allele of the rs3217992 SNP was associated with an increased pancreatic cancer risk (ORhet=1.14, 95% CI 1.01-1.27, p=0.026, ORhom=1.30, 95% CI 1.12-1.51, p=0.00049). This pleiotropic variant is reported to be a mir-SNP that, by changing the binding site of one or more miRNAs, could influence the normal cell cycle progression and in turn increase PDAC risk. In conclusion, we observed a novel association in a pleiotropic region that has been found to be of key relevance in the susceptibility to various types of cancer and diabetes suggesting that the CDKN2A/B locus could represent a genetic link between diabetes and pancreatic cancer risk.

  20. Meta-Analysis of Early Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) ± Endoscopic Sphincterotomy (ES) Versus Conservative Management for Gallstone Pancreatitis (GSP).

    PubMed

    Burstow, Matthew J; Yunus, Rossita M; Hossain, Md Belal; Khan, Shahjahan; Memon, Breda; Memon, Muhammed A

    2015-06-01

    The utility of early endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) ± endoscopic sphincterotomy (ES) in the treatment of gallstone pancreatitis (GSP) is still contentious. The aim was to conduct a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) investigating the treatment of GSP by early ERCP ± ES versus conservative management and analyzing the patient outcomes. A search of Medline, Embase, Science Citation Index, Current Contents, PubMed, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews identified all RCTs comparing early ERCP to conservative management in GSP published between January 1970 and January 2014. Search terms included "Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP)"; "Endoscopic sphincterotomy"; "Gallstones"; "Bile duct stones"; "Gallstone pancreatitis"; "Biliary pancreatitis"; "Randomize/Randomised controlled trials"; "Conservative management/treatment"; "Human"; "English." Only prospective RCTs comparing early intervention (ie, between 24 and 72 h) with ERCP ± ES versus conservative management in GSP were included. Data extraction and critical appraisal was carried out independently by 2 authors (M.J.B. and M.A.M.) using predefined data fields. Variables analyzed included severity of pancreatitis (mild or severe), overall mortality, overall complications which included pseudocyst formation, organ failure (renal, respiratory, and cardiac), abnormal coagulation, biliary sepsis, and development of pancreatic abscess/phlegmon. The quality of RCTs was assessed using Jadad's scoring system. Random-effects model was used to calculate the outcomes of both binary and continuous data. Heterogeneity among the outcome variables of these trials was determined by the Cochran Q statistic and I2 index. The meta-analysis was prepared in accordance with PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses) guidelines. Eleven RCTs consisting of 1314 patients (conservative management=662, ERCP=652) were analyzed. There was a

  1. Oxidative stress and NO generation in the rat pancreatitis induced by pancreatic duct ligation.

    PubMed

    Buchwalow, Igor; Schnekenburger, Jürgen; Atiakshin, Dmitri; Samoilova, Vera; Wolf, Eduard; Boecker, Werner; Tiemann, Katharina

    2017-04-01

    The interaction between nitric oxide (NO) and superoxides is critical in the development of an acute pancreatitis. Previously, we reported that the expression of superoxides and of the NO-generating enzyme (NO synthase, NOS) was up-regulated in the human pancreatitis, especially within the exocrine compartment indicating an exceptional susceptibility of the exocrine parenchyma to oxidative stress. The aim of the present study was to compare the regulation of NO signalling pathways in the human pancreatitis and in an animal model of an acute pancreatitis induced by pancreatic duct ligation (PDL) in rats. In the PDL-induced rat pancreatitis, we revealed a similar pattern of oxidative stress and NOS up-regulation in acinar and in ductal compartments, like in the human pancreatitis. This demonstrates that the PDL-induced rat pancreatitis is a proper model for further studies of acute pancreatitis development in humans. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Drug metabolism and pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Flores, John Paul E; Diasio, Robert B; Saif, Muhammad Wasif

    2017-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer remains a fatal disease in the majority of patients. The era of personalized medicine is upon us: customizing therapy according to each patient's individual cancer. Potentially, therapy can be targeted at individuals who would most likely have a favorable response, making it more efficacious and cost effective. This is particularly relevant for pancreatic cancer, which currently portends a very poor prognosis. However, there is much to be done in this field, and more studies are needed to bring this concept to reality.

  3. Bio-inspired dental fillings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deyhle, Hans; Bunk, Oliver; Buser, Stefan; Krastl, Gabriel; Zitzmann, Nicola U.; Ilgenstein, Bernd; Beckmann, Felix; Pfeiffer, Franz; Weiger, Roland; Müller, Bert

    2009-08-01

    Human teeth are anisotropic composites. Dentin as the core material of the tooth consists of nanometer-sized calcium phosphate crystallites embedded in collagen fiber networks. It shows its anisotropy on the micrometer scale by its well-oriented microtubules. The detailed three-dimensional nanostructure of the hard tissues namely dentin and enamel, however, is not understood, although numerous studies on the anisotropic mechanical properties have been performed and evaluated to explain the tooth function including the enamel-dentin junction acting as effective crack barrier. Small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) with a spatial resolution in the 10 μm range allows determining the size and orientation of the constituents on the nanometer scale with reasonable precision. So far, only some dental materials, i.e. the fiber reinforced posts exhibit anisotropic properties related to the micrometer-size glass fibers. Dental fillings, composed of nanostructures oriented similar to the natural hard tissues of teeth, however, do not exist at all. The current X-ray-based investigations of extracted human teeth provide evidence for oriented micro- and nanostructures in dentin and enamel. These fundamental quantitative findings result in profound knowledge to develop biologically inspired dental fillings with superior resistance to thermal and mechanical shocks.

  4. New Insights into the Pathogenesis of Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Sah, Raghuwansh P.; Dawra, Rajinder K.; Saluja, Ashok K.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review In this article, we review important advances in our understanding of the mechanisms of pancreatitis. Recent Findings The relative contribution of intra-pancreatic trypsinogen activation and NFκB activation, the two major early independent cellular events in the etiology of pancreatitis, have been investigated using novel genetic models. Trypsinogen activation has traditionally held the spotlight for many decades as it is believed to be the central pathogenic event of pancreatitis However, recent experimental evidence points to the role of trypsin activation in early acinar cell damage but not in the inflammatory response of acute pancreatitis through NFκB activation. Further, chronic pancreatitis in the caerulein model develops independently of typsinogen activation. Sustained activation of the NFκB pathway, but not persistent intra-acinar expression of active trypsin, was shown to result in chronic pancreatitis. Calcineurin-NFAT signaling was shown to mediate downstream effects of pathologic rise in intracellular calcium. IL-6 was identified as a key cytokine mediating pancreatitis-associated lung injury. Summary Recent advances challenge the long-believed trypsin-centered understanding of pancreatitis. It is becoming increasingly clear that activation of intense inflammatory signaling mechanisms in acinar cells is crucial to the pathogenesis of pancreatitis, which may explain the strong systemic inflammatory response in pancreatitis. PMID:23892538

  5. Acute pancreatitis in cats with hepatic lipidosis.

    PubMed

    Akol, K G; Washabau, R J; Saunders, H M; Hendrick, M J

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the incidence, clinical features, and prognosis of acute pancreatitis in cats with hepatic lipidosis. Of 13 cats histologically diagnosed with hepatic lipidosis between July 1988, and November 1989, 5(38%) were also histologically diagnosed with acute pancreatitis. In cats with hepatic lipidosis alone, the signalment, history, physical examination, and clinicopathologic findings were generally indistinguishable from those of cats with concurrent acute pancreatitis except that cats with acute pancreatitis were more likely to be cachectic and to have coagulation abnormalities. Hepatomegaly was seen on abdominal radiographs in both groups. Of the 5 cats with concurrent acute pancreatitis, abdominal ultrasonography detected 1 cat with a hypoechoic pancreas and 5 with peritoneal effusion; those abnormalities were not seen in cats without concurrent acute pancreatitis. Cats with concurrent acute pancreatitis had only a 20% recovery rate, compared with a 50% recovery rate in cats with hepatic lipidosis alone. We conclude that cats with hepatic lipidosis should be rigorously evaluated for concurrent acute pancreatitis because of 1) the rate of disease coincidence, 2) the inability of signalment, history, physical examination, and clinicopathologic findings to adequately distinguish between hepatic lipidosis and acute pancreatitis, 3) the worse prognosis associated with concurrent acute pancreatitis, and 4) the opposing nutritional strategies for hepatic lipidosis and acute pancreatitis.

  6. Silicone Gel-Filled Breast Implants

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Medical Procedures Implants and Prosthetics Breast Implants Silicone Gel-Filled Breast Implants Share Tweet Linkedin Pin ... sharing options Linkedin Pin it Email Print Description: Silicone gel-filled breast implants have a silicone outer ...

  7. Inflammation in acute and chronic pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Habtezion, Aida

    2015-09-01

    This report reviews recent animal model and human studies associated with inflammatory responses in acute and chronic pancreatitis. Animal model and limited human acute and chronic pancreatitis studies unravel the dynamic nature of the inflammatory processes and the ability of the immune cells to sense danger and environmental signals. In acute pancreatitis, such molecules include pathogen-associated molecular pattern recognition receptors such as toll-like receptors, and the more recently appreciated damage-associated molecular pattern molecules or 'alarmin' high mobility group box 1 and IL-33. In chronic pancreatitis, a recent understanding of a critical role for macrophage-pancreatic stellate cell interaction offers a potential targetable pathway that can alter fibrogenesis. Microbiome research in pancreatitis is a new field gaining interest but will require further investigation. Immune cell contribution to the pathogenesis of acute and chronic pancreatitis is gaining more appreciation and further understanding in immune signaling presents potential therapeutic targets that can alter disease progression.

  8. Ultrasonography in diagnosing chronic pancreatitis: New aspects

    PubMed Central

    Dimcevski, Georg; Erchinger, Friedemann G; Havre, Roald; Gilja, Odd Helge

    2013-01-01

    The course and outcome is poor for most patients with pancreatic diseases. Advances in pancreatic imaging are important in the detection of pancreatic diseases at early stages. Ultrasonography as a diagnostic tool has made, virtually speaking a technical revolution in medical imaging in the new millennium. It has not only become the preferred method for first line imaging, but also, increasingly to clarify the interpretation of other imaging modalities to obtain efficient clinical decision. We review ultrasonography modalities, focusing on advanced pancreatic imaging and its potential to substantially improve diagnosis of pancreatic diseases at earlier stages. In the first section, we describe scanning techniques and examination protocols. Their consequences for image quality and the ability to obtain complete and detailed visualization of the pancreas are discussed. In the second section we outline ultrasonographic characteristics of pancreatic diseases with emphasis on chronic pancreatitis. Finally, new developments in ultrasonography of the pancreas such as contrast enhanced ultrasound and elastography are enlightened. PMID:24259955

  9. Pancreatic trauma: demographics, diagnosis, and management.

    PubMed

    Stawicki, Stanislaw Peter; Schwab, C William

    2008-12-01

    Pancreatic injuries are rare, with penetrating mechanisms being causative in majority of cases. They can create major diagnostic and therapeutic challenges and require multiple diagnostic modalities, including multislice high-definition computed tomography, magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, ultrasonography, and at times, surgery and direct visualization of the pancreas. Pancreatic trauma is frequently associated with duodenal and other severe vascular and visceral injuries. Mortality is high and usually related to the concomitant vascular injury. Surgical management of pancreatic and pancreatic-duodenal trauma is challenging, and multiple surgical approaches and techniques have been described, up to and including pancreatic damage control and later resection and reconstruction. Wide surgical drainage is a key to any surgical trauma technique and access for enteral nutrition, or occasionally parenteral nutrition, are important adjuncts. Morbidity associated with pancreatic trauma is high and can be quite severe. Treatment of pancreatic trauma-related complications often requires a combination of interventional, endoscopic, and surgical approaches.

  10. Chronic Pancreatitis and Pancreatic Cancer Risk: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Kirkegård, Jakob; Mortensen, Frank Viborg; Cronin-Fenton, Deirdre

    2017-09-01

    Chronic pancreatitis is a putative risk factor for pancreatic cancer. The aim of this study was to examine the magnitude and temporality of this association. We searched MEDLINE and EMBASE for observational studies investigating the association between chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer. We computed overall effect estimates (EEs) with associated 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using a random-effects meta-analytic model. The EEs were stratified by length of follow-up from chronic pancreatitis diagnosis to pancreatic cancer (lag period). Robustness of the results was examined in sensitivity analyses. We identified 13 eligible studies. Pooled EEs for pancreatic cancer in patients with chronic pancreatitis were 16.16 (95% CI: 12.59-20.73) for patients diagnosed with pancreatic cancer within 2 years from their chronic pancreatitis diagnosis. The risk of pancreatic cancer in patients with chronic pancreatitis decreased when the lag period was increased to 5 years (EE: 7.90; 95% CI: 4.26-14.66) or a minimum of 9 years (EE: 3.53; 95% CI: 1.69-7.38). In conclusion, chronic pancreatitis increases the risk of pancreatic cancer, but the association diminishes with long-term follow-up. Five years after diagnosis, chronic pancreatitis patients have a nearly eight-fold increased risk of pancreatic cancer. We suggest that common practice on inducing a 2-year lag period in these studies may not be sufficient. We also recommend a close follow-up in the first years following a diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis to avoid overlooking a pancreatic cancer.

  11. Pain in chronic pancreatitis: managing beyond the pancreatic duct.

    PubMed

    Talukdar, Rupjyoti; Reddy, D Nageshwar

    2013-10-14

    Chronic pancreatitis (CP) continues to be a clinical challenge. Persistent or recurrent abdominal pain is the most compelling symptom that drives patients to seek medical care. Unfortunately, in spite of using several treatment approaches in the clinical setting, there is no single specific treatment modality that can be earmarked as a cure for this disease. Traditionally, ductal hypertension has been associated with causation of pain in CP; and patients are often subjected to endotherapy and surgery with a goal to decompress the pancreatic duct. Recent studies on humans (clinical and laboratory based) and experimental models have put forward several mechanisms, including neuroimmune alterations, which could be responsible for pain. This might explain the partial or no response to single modality treatment in a significant proportion of patients. The current review discusses the recent concepts of pain generation in CP and evidence based therapeutic approaches (other than ductal decompression) to handle persistent or recurrent pain. We focus primarily on parenchymal and neural components; and discuss the role of antioxidants and the existing controversies, drugs that interfere with neural transmission, pancreatic enzyme supplementation, celiac neurolysis, and pancreatic resection procedures. The review concludes with the treatment approach that we follow at our institute.

  12. Plasma trypsin in chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Adrian, T E; Besterman, H S; Mallinson, C N; Pera, A; Redshaw, M R; Wood, T P; Bloom, S R

    1979-10-01

    We have used a simple and precise radioimmunoassay to measure trypsin in human plasma. Fasting plasma trypsin concentrations were extremely low in patients with chronic pancreatitis with steatorrhoea (5 +/- 2 ng/ml) when compared to healthy controls (86 +/- 7 ng/ml, p less than 0.001). In patients with chronic pancreatitis but no steatorrhoea basal plasma trypsin levels were similar to those of the normal controls (99 +/- 25 ng/ml). A small but significant postprandial rise in plasma trypsin concentrations was observed in normal subjects (mean increment 15 +/- 4%, p less than 0.005, paired t test) but was absent in patients with chronic pancreatitis with steatorrhoea. In contrast to exocrine deficient chronic pancreatitis, other malabsorptive conditions associated with steatorrhoea (active coeliac disease and acute tropical sprue) demonstrated mean fasting trypsin concentrations similar to controls. Patients with adenocarcinoma of the pancreas had basal trypsin concentrations similar to healthy subjects as did patients with adenocarcinoma of the stomach, colon, rectum, brochus, and breast. In some cases measurement of plasma trypsin may be of help in the differential diagnosis of steatorrhoea.

  13. Diagnosing autoimmune pancreatitis with the Unifying-Autoimmune-Pancreatitis-Criteria.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Alexander; Michaely, Henrik; Rückert, Felix; Weiss, Christel; Ströbel, Philipp; Belle, Sebastian; Hirth, Michael; Wilhelm, Torsten J; Haas, Stephan L; Jesenofsky, Ralf; Schönberg, Stefan; Marx, Alexander; Singer, Manfred V; Ebert, Matthias P; Pfützer, Roland H; Löhr, J Matthias

    We had developed the Unifying-Autoimmune-Pancreatitis-Criteria (U-AIP) to diagnose autoimmune pancreatitis (AiP) within the M-ANNHEIM classification of chronic pancreatitis. In 2011, International-Consensus-Diagnostic-Criteria (ICDC) to diagnose AiP have been published. We had applied the U-AIP long before the ICDC were available. The aims of the study were, first, to describe patients with AiP diagnosed by the U-AIP; second, to compare diagnostic accuracies of the U-AIP and other diagnostic systems; third, to evaluate the clinical applicability of the U-AIP. From 1998 until 2008, we identified patients with AiP using U-AIP, Japanese-, Korean-, Asian-, Mayo-HISORt-, Revised-Mayo-HISORt- and Italian-criteria. We retrospectively verified the diagnosis by ICDC and Revised-Japanese-2011-criteria, compared diagnostic accuracies of all systems and evaluated all criteria in consecutive patients with pancreatitis (2009 until 2010, Pancreas-Outpatient-Clinic-Cohort, n = 84). We retrospectively validated our diagnostic approach in consecutive patients with a pancreatic lesion requiring surgery (Surgical-Cohort, n = 98). Overall, we identified 21 patients with AiP. Unifying-Autoimmune-Pancreatitis-Criteria and ICDC presented the highest diagnostic accuracies (each 98.8%), highest Youden indices (each 0.95238), and highest proportions of diagnosed patients (each n = 20/21, U-AIP/ICDC vs. other diagnostic systems, p < 0.05, McNemar test). In the Pancreas-Outpatient-Clinic-Cohort, seven patients were diagnosed with AiP (n = 6 by U-AIP, n = 1 by Asian-criteria). International-Consensus-Diagnostic-Criteria confirmed the diagnosis in these individuals. Based on partial fulfillment of U-AIP, AiP was initially suspected in 13% (n = 10/77) of remaining patients from the Pancreas-Outpatient-Clinic-Cohort. In the Surgical-cohort, we identified one patient with AiP by U-AIP and ICDC. Unifying-Autoimmune-Pancreatitis-Criteria revealed a satisfactory clinical applicability

  14. 7 CFR 58.923 - Filling containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Filling containers. 58.923 Section 58.923 Agriculture... Procedures § 58.923 Filling containers. (a) The filling of small containers with product shall be done in a sanitary manner. The containers shall not contaminate or detract from the quality of the product in any way...

  15. Pancreatic Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Cancer.gov

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing pancreatic cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  16. Neural invasion in pancreatic carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bin; Lu, Kui-Yang

    2002-08-01

    Neural invasion is a special metastatic route in pancreatic cancer and responsible for the high recurrence in curatively resected cases. To summarize the characteristics and mechanisms of neural invasion in pancreatic carcinoma for the better treatment of this disease. The international literatures were reviewed about the definition, incidence and mechanisms of neural invasion and its clinicopathology, diagnosis and treatment. Neural invasion is defined when the medial perineurium is involved by cancer cells, accounting for 45%-100% of all cases. It can be divided into different kinds or stages according to its locations and the number of nerve fascicles involved. Invasion along vascularity, lymphatic vessels, perineural space and neurotropism is considered as its primary mechanisms. No clinicopathologic factors are correlated with neural invasion. Intravascular ultrasound, CT scan and immunostaining K-ras gene analysis can be used to diagnose neural invasion pre-, intra- or postoperatively. Neural invasion is an important prognostic factor for the recurrence of pancreatic carcinoma after pancreatectomy. Because of its high incidence, pancreatectomy with extended radical retroperitoneal dissection should be considered as a basic procedure in the treatment of pancreatic carcinoma.

  17. Pancreatic torsion in a dog

    PubMed Central

    Brabson, Tamera L.; Maki, Lynn C.; Newell, Susan M.; Ralphs, S. Christopher

    2015-01-01

    A 6-month-old male intact Cane Corso mastiff dog was presented for a recent history of vomiting, abdominal pain, and lethargy. A diagnosis of pancreatic torsion was made during abdominal exploratory surgery and was confirmed with histopathology. The dog underwent partial pancreatectomy and recovered with no complications. PMID:25969579

  18. Pancreatic stent insertion after an unintentional guidewire cannulation of the pancreatic duct during ERCP.

    PubMed

    García-Cano, Jesús; Viñuelas Chicano, Miriam; Del Moral Martínez, María; Muñiz Muñoz, Marta; Murillo Matamoros, Claudio; Suárez Matías, Miguel; Valiente González, Laura; Martínez Pérez, Teresa; Martínez Fernández, Raquel; Gómez Ruiz, Carmen Julia; Pérez García, José Ignacio; Morillas Ariño, Julia

    2018-04-24

    the guidewire (GW) may enter the pancreatic duct during common bile duct (CBD) cannulation attempts in endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). After GW passage into the pancreas, the most effective maneuver for CBD cannulation and pancreatitis prevention has not been determined. to study CBD cannulation and post-ERCP pancreatitis rates when a pancreatic stent is inserted after an unintentional GW cannulation of the pancreatic duct. a retrospective analysis of patients undergoing ERCP for biliary drainage that were included prospectively into a database. After unintentional GW cannulation of the pancreatic duct, a straight 5-Fr and 4-cm long plastic stent was inserted. The stents had no internal flaps to facilitate expulsion. CBD cannulation attempts were made above the stent. A pancreatic sphincterotomy was performed in patients older than 60 years before stent insertion. a total of 46 pancreatic stents were inserted during 154 ERCP (29.8%) procedures. In the stent group, CBD cannulation was accomplished in 44/46 (95.6%) subjects. A total of 21/46 (45.6%) pancreatic sphincterotomies were performed. Only 1/46 (2.17%) mild pancreatitis cases were observed and most stents were spontaneously expelled. in this study, the CBD was eventually reached with the insertion of a plastic pancreatic stent after an unintentional GW passage into the pancreatic duct while attempting a CBD cannulation. No adverse events were observed following pancreatic stent insertion.

  19. Circumportal Pancreas-a Must Know Pancreatic Anomaly for the Pancreatic Surgeon.

    PubMed

    Luu, Andreas Minh; Braumann, C; Herzog, T; Janot, M; Uhl, W; Chromik, A M

    2017-02-01

    Circumportal pancreas is a rare congenital pancreatic anomaly with encasement of the portal vein and/or the superior mesenteric vein by pancreatic tissue. It is often overlooked on cross-sectional imaging studies and can be encountered during pancreatic surgery. Pancreatic head resection with circumportal pancreas is technically difficult and bears an increased risk of postoperative pancreatic fistula. A retrospective chart review of our data base for all patients who had undergone pancreatic head resection between 2004 and 2015 was performed. We identified six patients out of 1102 patients who had undergone pancreatic head surgery in the study period. CT-scan and MRI were never able to identify circumportal pancreas prior to surgery. The right hepatic an artery derived from the superior mesenteric artery in four cases (67%). Additional resection of the pancreatic body was always performed. Postoperative course was uneventful in all cases without occurrence of pancreatic fistula. Circumportal pancreas is a rare entity every pancreatic surgeon should be aware of. It is difficult to identify on cross-sectional imaging studies. A right hepatic artery arising from the superior mesenteric artery should raise suspicion of circumportal pancreas. Additional pancreatic tissue resection should be performed during pancreatic head resections to avoid pancreatic fistula.

  20. Pregabalin for decreasing pancreatic pain in chronic pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Gurusamy, Kurinchi Selvan; Lusuku, Charnelle; Davidson, Brian R

    2016-02-02

    Chronic abdominal pain is one of the major symptoms in people with chronic pancreatitis. The role of pregabalin in people with chronic pancreatic pain due to chronic pancreatitis is uncertain. To assess the benefits and harms of pregabalin in people with chronic abdominal pain due to chronic pancreatitis. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in The Cochrane Library 2015, issue 6, and MEDLINE, EMBASE, Science Citation Index Expanded, trials registers until June 2015. We also searched the references of included trials to identify further trials. We considered only randomised controlled trials (RCT) performed in people with chronic pancreatic pain due to chronic pancreatitis, irrespective of language, blinding, or publication status for inclusion in the review. Two review authors independently identified trials and independently extracted data. We calculated the risk ratio (RR) or mean difference (MD) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) with RevMan 5, based on intention-to-treat analysis. Only one study, funded by Pfizer, met the inclusion criteria for the review. A total of 64 participants (with chronic pain due to chronic pancreatitis) were randomly assigned to receive escalating doses of pregabalin (150 mg per day to 600 mg per day; 34 participants) or matching placebo (30 participants). Participants received pregabalin or placebo for three weeks on an outpatient basis; the outcomes were measured at the end of the treatment (i.e. three weeks from commencement of treatment). Potential participants taking concomitant analgesic medication and expected to stay on a stable regime during the trial were allowed to enter the study. This trial was at low risk of bias. The overall quality of evidence was low or moderate.Only the short-term outcomes were available in this trial. The medium and long-term outcomes, number of work days lost, and length of hospital stay due to admissions for pain control were not available. This trial found that

  1. Intracellular proteolysis of pancreatic zymogens.

    PubMed Central

    Gorelick, F. S.; Modlin, I. M.; Leach, S. D.; Carangelo, R.; Katz, M.

    1992-01-01

    Activation of pancreatic digestive zymogens within the pancreatic acinar cell may be an early event in the development of pancreatitis. To detect such activation, an immunoblot assay has been developed that measures the relative amounts of inactive zymogens and their respective active enzyme forms. Using this assay, high doses of cholecystokinin or carbachol were found to stimulate the intracellular conversion of at least three zymogens (procarboxypeptidase A1, procarboxypeptidase B, and chymotrypsinogen 2) to their active forms. Thus, this conversion may be a generalized phenomenon of pancreatic zymogens. The conversion is detected within ten minutes of treatment and is not associated with changes in acinar cell morphology; it has been predicted that the lysosomal thiol protease, cathepsin B, may initiate this conversion. Small amounts of cathepsin B are found in the secretory pathway, and cathepsin B can activate trypsinogen in vitro; however, exposure of acini to a thiol protease inhibitor (E64) did not block this conversion. Conversion was inhibited by the serine protease inhibitor, benzamidine, and by raising the intracellular pH, using chloroquine or monensin. This limited proteolytic conversion appears to require a low pH compartment and a serine protease activity. After long periods of treatment (60 minutes), the amounts of the active enzyme forms began to decrease; this observation suggested that the active enzyme forms were being degraded. Treatment of acini with E64 reduced this late decrease in active enzyme forms, suggesting that thiol proteases, including lysosomal hydrolases, may be involved in the degradation of the active enzyme forms. These findings indicate that pathways for zymogen activation as well as degradation of active enzyme forms are present within the pancreatic acinar cell. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 6 PMID:1340058

  2. Defining the diagnostic algorithm in pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Horwhat, John David; Gress, Frank G

    2004-07-01

    Most patients with pancreatic cancer present with a mass on radiologic studies, however, not every pancreatic mass is cancer. Since radiological studies alone are insufficient to establish the diagnosis of a pancreatic mass and patient management depends on a definitive diagnosis; confirmatory cytology or histology is usually required. As a minimally invasive procedure, EUS and EUS FNA avoid the risk of cutaneous or peritoneal contamination that may occur with CT or US-guided investigations and is less invasive than surgical interventions. As a result, EUS FNA of pancreatic masses is becoming the standard for obtaining cytological diagnosis. This chapter presents an EUS-based diagnostic algorithm for the evaluation of pancreatic lesions and is based upon a review of the pertinent literature in the field of pancreatic endosonography that has been the most influential in helping to guide this evolving field. Realizing there is much overlap among the EUS characteristics of various pancreatic lesions, for the sake of simplicity we have structured our discussion in broad terms of solid versus cystic lesions and discuss various pancreatic lesions within this framework. The additional contributors to this round table discussion have been asked to provide a more dedicated, focused discussion of the various subcategories of pancreatic lesions in greater detail than we could hope to achieve here. We provide this final contribution to the round table as a means of bringing the discussion back to the big picture of pancreatic lesions, rather than trying to hone in on the fine details of any one subclass.

  3. Pancreatic cancer stromal biology and therapy

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Dacheng; Xie, Keping

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is one of the most lethal malignancies. Significant progresses have been made in understanding of pancreatic cancer pathogenesis, including appreciation of precursor lesions or premalignant pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanINs), description of sequential transformation from normal pancreatic tissue to invasive pancreatic cancer and identification of major genetic and epigenetic events and the biological impact of those events on malignant behavior. However, the currently used therapeutic strategies targeting tumor epithelial cells, which are potent in cell culture and animal models, have not been successful in the clinic. Presumably, therapeutic resistance of pancreatic cancer is at least in part due to its drastic desmoplasis, which is a defining hallmark for and circumstantially contributes to pancreatic cancer development and progression. Improved understanding of the dynamic interaction between cancer cells and the stroma is important to better understanding pancreatic cancer biology and to designing effective intervention strategies. This review focuses on the origination, evolution and disruption of stromal molecular and cellular components in pancreatic cancer, and their biological effects on pancreatic cancer pathogenesis. PMID:26114155

  4. Acute pancreatitis in children and adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Mitsuyoshi; Sai, Jin Kan; Shimizu, Toshiaki

    2014-01-01

    In this Topic Highlight, the causes, diagnosis, and treatment of acute pancreatitis in children are discussed. Acute pancreatitis should be considered during the differential diagnosis of abdominal pain in children and requires prompt treatment because it may become life-threatening. The etiology, clinical manifestations, and course of acute pancreatitis in children are often different than in adults. Therefore, the specific features of acute pancreatitis in children must be considered. The etiology of acute pancreatitis in children is often drugs, infections, trauma, or anatomic abnormalities. Diagnosis is based on clinical symptoms (such as abdominal pain and vomiting), serum pancreatic enzyme levels, and imaging studies. Several scoring systems have been proposed for the assessment of severity, which is useful for selecting treatments and predicting prognosis. The basic pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis does not greatly differ between adults and children, and the treatments for adults and children are similar. In large part, our understanding of the pathology, optimal treatment, assessment of severity, and outcome of acute pancreatitis in children is taken from the adult literature. However, we often find that the common management of adult pancreatitis is difficult to apply to children. With advances in diagnostic techniques and treatment methods, severe acute pancreatitis in children is becoming better understood and more controllable. PMID:25400985

  5. Pleiotrophin promotes perineural invasion in pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Yao, Jun; Hu, Xiu-Feng; Feng, Xiao-Shan; Gao, She-Gan

    2013-10-21

    Perineural invasion (PNI) in pancreatic cancer is an important cause of local recurrence, but little is known about its mechanism. Pleiotrophin (PTN) is an important neurotrophic factor. It is of interest that our recent experimental data showed its involvement in PNI of pancreatic cancer. PTN strongly presents in the cytoplasm of pancreatic cancer cells, and high expression of PTN and its receptor may contribute to the high PNI of pancreatic cancer. Correspondingly, PNI is prone to happen in PTN-positive tumors. We thus hypothesize that, as a neurite growth-promoting factor, PTN may promote PNI in pancreatic cancer. PTN is released at the time of tumor cell necrosis, and binds with its high-affinity receptor, N-syndecan on pancreatic nerves, to promote neural growth in pancreatic cancer. Furthermore, neural destruction leads to a distorted neural homeostasis. Neurons and Schwann cells produce more N-syndecan in an effort to repair the pancreatic nerves. However, the abundance of N-syndecan attracts further PTN-positive cancer cells to the site of injury, creating a vicious cycle. Ultimately, increased PTN and N-syndecan levels, due to the continuous nerve injury, may promote cancer invasion and propagation along the neural structures. Therefore, it is meaningful to discuss the relationship between PTN/N-syndecan signaling and PNI in pancreatic cancer, which may lead to a better understanding of the mechanism of PNI in pancreatic cancer.

  6. Pleiotrophin promotes perineural invasion in pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Jun; Hu, Xiu-Feng; Feng, Xiao-Shan; Gao, She-Gan

    2013-01-01

    Perineural invasion (PNI) in pancreatic cancer is an important cause of local recurrence, but little is known about its mechanism. Pleiotrophin (PTN) is an important neurotrophic factor. It is of interest that our recent experimental data showed its involvement in PNI of pancreatic cancer. PTN strongly presents in the cytoplasm of pancreatic cancer cells, and high expression of PTN and its receptor may contribute to the high PNI of pancreatic cancer. Correspondingly, PNI is prone to happen in PTN-positive tumors. We thus hypothesize that, as a neurite growth-promoting factor, PTN may promote PNI in pancreatic cancer. PTN is released at the time of tumor cell necrosis, and binds with its high-affinity receptor, N-syndecan on pancreatic nerves, to promote neural growth in pancreatic cancer. Furthermore, neural destruction leads to a distorted neural homeostasis. Neurons and Schwann cells produce more N-syndecan in an effort to repair the pancreatic nerves. However, the abundance of N-syndecan attracts further PTN-positive cancer cells to the site of injury, creating a vicious cycle. Ultimately, increased PTN and N-syndecan levels, due to the continuous nerve injury, may promote cancer invasion and propagation along the neural structures. Therefore, it is meaningful to discuss the relationship between PTN/N-syndecan signaling and PNI in pancreatic cancer, which may lead to a better understanding of the mechanism of PNI in pancreatic cancer. PMID:24151381

  7. Defect-enhanced void filling and novel filled phases of open-structure skutterudites

    DOE PAGES

    Xi, Lili; Qiu, Yuting; Shi, Xun; ...

    2015-05-14

    Here, we report the design of novel filled CoSb 3 skutterudite phases based on a combination of filling and Sb-substituted Ga/In defects. Ga/In doped skutterudite phases with Li-, Nd-, and Sm-fillings can be formed via this strategy, which can have relatively wider ranges of carrier concentration than other conventional filled skutterudite phases.

  8. Proposed clinical pathway for nonoperative management of high-grade pediatric pancreatic injuries based on a multicenter analysis: A pediatric trauma society collaborative.

    PubMed

    Naik-Mathuria, Bindi J; Rosenfeld, Eric H; Gosain, Ankush; Burd, Randall; Falcone, Richard A; Thakkar, Rajan; Gaines, Barbara; Mooney, David; Escobar, Mauricio; Jafri, Mubeen; Stallion, Anthony; Klinkner, Denise B; Russell, Robert; Campbell, Brendan; Burke, Rita V; Upperman, Jeffrey; Juang, David; St Peter, Shawn; Fenton, Stephon J; Beaudin, Marianne; Wills, Hale; Vogel, Adam; Polites, Stephanie; Pattyn, Adam; Leeper, Christine; Veras, Laura V; Maizlin, Ilan; Thaker, Shefali; Smith, Alexis; Waddell, Megan; Drews, Joseph; Gilmore, James; Armstrong, Lindsey; Sandler, Alexis; Moody, Suzanne; Behrens, Brandon; Carmant, Laurence

    2017-10-01

    Guidelines for nonoperative management (NOM) of high-grade pancreatic injuries in children have not been established, and wide practice variability exists. The purpose of this study was to evaluate common clinical strategies across multiple pediatric trauma centers to develop a consensus-based standard clinical pathway. A multicenter, retrospective review was conducted of children with high-grade (American Association of Surgeons for Trauma grade III-V) pancreatic injuries treated with NOM between 2010 and 2015. Data were collected on demographics, clinical management, and outcomes. Eighty-six patients were treated at 20 pediatric trauma centers. Median age was 9 years (range, 1-18 years). The majority (73%) of injuries were American Association of Surgeons for Trauma grade III, 24% were grade IV, and 3% were grade V. Median time from injury to presentation was 12 hours and median ISS was 16 (range, 4-66). All patients had computed tomography scan and serum pancreatic enzyme levels at presentation, but serial enzyme level monitoring was variable. Pancreatic enzyme levels did not correlate with injury grade or pseudocyst development. Parenteral nutrition was used in 68% and jejunal feeds in 31%. 3Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatogram was obtained in 25%. An organized peripancreatic fluid collection present for at least 7 days after injury was identified in 59% (42 of 71). Initial management of these included: observation 64%, percutaneous drain 24%, and endoscopic drainage 10% and needle aspiration 2%. Clear liquids were started at a median of 6 days (IQR, 3-13 days) and regular diet at a median of 8 days (IQR 4-20 days). Median hospitalization length was 13 days (IQR, 7-24 days). Injury grade did not account for prolonged time to initiating oral diet or hospital length; indicating that the variability in these outcomes was largely due to different surgeon preferences. High-grade pancreatic injuries in children are rare and significant variability exists in

  9. Does autoimmune pancreatitis increase the risk of pancreatic carcinoma?: a retrospective analysis of pancreatic resections.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Rajib; Khosroshahi, Arezou; Shinagare, Shweta; Fernandez, Carlos; Ferrone, Cristina; Lauwers, Gregory Y; Stone, John H; Deshpande, Vikram

    2013-04-01

    To estimate the risk of malignancy in autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP). We examined resected pancreata to compare the prevalence of pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN) in 28 cases of AIP and 30 cases of chronic pancreatitis not otherwise specified (CP-NOS). We also reviewed a cohort of 84 AIP cases. The mean age of the AIP cohort (57 years) was significantly higher than that of the cohort of CP-NOS (47 years) (P = 0.01). Twenty-three cases (82%) of AIP showed PanIN, and 7 cases (25%) showed grade 2 PanIN. Grade 3 PanIN was identified in one case of AIP. There was no statistically significant difference in the number of cases with high-grade PanIN lesions between the cases of type 1 as opposed to type 2 AIP. In comparison to CP-NOS, a comparable percentage of patients with AIP had PanIN (82% of AIP cases vs 63% of CP-NOS cases) (P = NS) and PanIN 2 (25% AIP vs 20% CP-NOS) (P = NS). Of the 84 AIP cases at our institution (mean follow-up, 49 months), 2 cases of pancreatic carcinoma were identified 6 and 10 years after the diagnoses of AIP. These findings raise concern that AIP is associated with an elevated risk of malignancy and should prompt additional studies.

  10. An update on pancreatic pathophysiology (do we have to rewrite pancreatic pathophysiology?).

    PubMed

    Hammer, Heinz F

    2014-02-01

    This review focuses on seven aspects of physiology and pathophysiology of the exocrine pancreas that have been intensively discussed and studied within the past few years: (1) the role of neurohormonal mechanisms like melatonin, leptin, or ghrelin in the stimulation of pancreatic enzyme secretion; (2) the initiation processes of acute pancreatitis, like fusion of zymogen granules with lysosomes leading to intracellular activation of trypsinogen by the lysosomal enzyme cathepsin B, or autoactivation of trypsinogen; (3) the role of genes in the pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis; (4) the role of alcohol and constituents of alcoholic beverages in the pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis; (5) the role of pancreatic hypertension, neuropathy, and central mechanisms for the pathogenesis of pain in chronic pancreatitis; (6) the relation between exocrine pancreatic function and diabetes mellitus; and (7) pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment of pancreatic steatorrhea.

  11. PanScan, the Pancreatic Cancer Cohort Consortium, and the Pancreatic Cancer Case-Control Consortium

    Cancer.gov

    The Pancreatic Cancer Cohort Consortium consists of more than a dozen prospective epidemiologic cohort studies within the NCI Cohort Consortium, whose leaders work together to investigate the etiology and natural history of pancreatic cancer.

  12. Dasatinib and Gemcitabine Hydrochloride or Gemcitabine Hydrochloride Alone in Treating Patients With Pancreatic Cancer Previously Treated With Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-01-05

    Acinar Cell Adenocarcinoma of the Pancreas; Duct Cell Adenocarcinoma of the Pancreas; Recurrent Pancreatic Cancer; Stage IA Pancreatic Cancer; Stage IB Pancreatic Cancer; Stage IIA Pancreatic Cancer; Stage IIB Pancreatic Cancer; Stage III Pancreatic Cancer

  13. Targeting Trypsin-Inflammation Axis for Pancreatitis Therapy in a Humanized Pancreatitis Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-10-01

    Award Number: W81XWH-15-1-0257 TITLE: Targeting Trypsin-Inflammation Axis for Pancreatitis Therapy in a Humanized Pancreatitis Model PRINCIPAL...AND SUBTITLE Targeting Trypsin-Inflammation Axis for Pancreatitis Therapy in a Humanized Pancreatitis Model 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER...remains the same since it is covered under the institutional review. We set up monthly video conferences with our partnership PI to discuss any

  14. Distinct pathophysiological cytokine profiles for discrimination between autoimmune pancreatitis, chronic pancreatitis, and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ghassem-Zadeh, Sahar; Gaida, Matthias M; Szanyi, Szilard; Acha-Orbea, Hans; Frossard, Jean-Louis; Hinz, Ulf; Hackert, Thilo; Strobel, Oliver; Felix, Klaus

    2017-06-02

    Discriminating between autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP), chronic pancreatitis (CP), and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) can be challenging. In this retrospective study, levels of serum and tissue cytokines were analyzed as part of the clinical strategy for the preoperative differentiation between AIP and PDAC. The identification of differential cytokine profiles may help to prevent unnecessary surgical resection and allow optimal treatment of these pathologies. To compare the cytokine profiles of AIP, CP, and PDAC patients, serum and pancreatic tissue homogenates were subjected to multiplex analysis of 17 inflammatory mediators. In total, serum from 73 patients, composed of 29 AIP (14 AIP-1 and 15 AIP-2), 17 CP, and 27 PDAC, and pancreatic tissue from 36 patients, including 12 AIP (six AIP-1 and six AIP-2), 12 CP, and 12 PDAC, were analyzed. Comparing AIP and PDAC patients' serum, significantly higher concentrations were found in AIP for interleukins IL-1β, IL-7, IL-13, and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF). G-CSF also allowed discrimination of AIP from CP. Furthermore, once AIP was divided into subtypes, significantly higher serum levels for IL-7 and G-CSF were measured in both subtypes of AIP and in AIP-2 for IL-1β when compared to PDAC. G-CSF and TNF-α were also significantly differentially expressed in tissue homogenates between AIP-2 and PDAC. The cytokines IL-1β, IL-7, and G-CSF can be routinely measured in patients' serum, providing an elegant and non-invasive approach for differential diagnosis. G-CSF is a good candidate to supplement the currently known serum markers in predictive tests for AIP and represents a basis for a combined blood test to differentiate AIP and particularly AIP-2 from PDAC, enhancing the possibility of appropriate treatment.

  15. Simultaneous characterization of pancreatic stellate cells and other pancreatic components within three-dimensional tissue environment during chronic pancreatitis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Wenyan; Fu, Ling

    2013-05-01

    Pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) and other pancreatic components that play a critical role in exocrine pancreatic diseases are generally identified separately by conventional studies, which provide indirect links between these components. Here, nonlinear optical microscopy was evaluated for simultaneous characterization of these components within a three-dimensional (3-D) tissue environment, primarily based on multichannel detection of intrinsic optical emissions and cell morphology. Fresh rat pancreatic tissues harvested at 1 day, 7 days, and 28 days after induction of chronic pancreatitis were imaged, respectively. PSCs, inflammatory cells, blood vessels, and collagen fibers were identified simultaneously. The PSCs at day 1 of chronic pancreatitis showed significant enlargement compared with those in normal pancreas (p<0.001, analysis of variance linear contrast; n=8 for each group). Pathological events relating to these components were observed, including presence of inflammatory cells, deposited collagen, and phenotype conversion of PSCs. We demonstrate that label-free nonlinear optical microscopy is an efficient tool for dissecting PSCs and other pancreatic components coincidently within 3-D pancreatic tissues. It is a prospect for intravital observation of dynamic events under natural physiological conditions, and might help uncover the key mechanisms of exocrine pancreatic diseases, leading to more effective treatments.

  16. Models of acute and chronic pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Lerch, Markus M; Gorelick, Fred S

    2013-06-01

    Animal models of acute and chronic pancreatitis have been created to examine mechanisms of pathogenesis, test therapeutic interventions, and study the influence of inflammation on the development of pancreatic cancer. In vitro models can be used to study early stage, short-term processes that involve acinar cell responses. Rodent models reproducibly develop mild or severe disease. One of the most commonly used pancreatitis models is created by administration of supraphysiologic concentrations of caerulein, an ortholog of cholecystokinin. Induction of chronic pancreatitis with factors thought to have a role in human disease, such as combinations of lipopolysaccharide and chronic ethanol feeding, might be relevant to human disease. Models of autoimmune chronic pancreatitis have also been developed. Most models, particularly of chronic pancreatitis, require further characterization to determine which features of human disease they include. Copyright © 2013 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. [Correction of indigestion in chronic biliary pancreatitis].

    PubMed

    Trukhan, D I; Tarasova, L V

    2013-01-01

    Chronic pancreatitis (CP) is one of the most urgent and investigated problems in gastroenterology. Despite the variety of the spectrum of etiologic, pathogenetic and provoking factors for CP, one of the leading causes of disease pathology is pathology of biliary tract. A key element in the treatment of CP is a correction of the digestive system, with biliary pancreatitis feature that distinguishes it from other forms of pancreatitis, is a combination of exocrine pancreatic insufficiency with chronic biliary insufficiency. The variety of biochemical and immunological effects of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) can treat it with biliary pancreatitis as the drug of etiological, pathogenetic and substitution therapy. UDCA (Ursosan) in combination with modern mini-microspheroidal polyfermental drugs significantly improves the clinical efficacy of the correction of the digestive system in biliary pancreatitis.

  18. State-of-the-art pancreatic MRI.

    PubMed

    Sandrasegaran, Kumaresan; Lin, Chen; Akisik, Fatih M; Tann, Mark

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss the most current techniques used for pancreatic imaging, highlighting the advantages and disadvantages of state-of-the-art and emerging pulse sequences and their application to pancreatic disease. Given the technologic advances of the past decade, pancreatic MRI protocols have evolved. Most sequences can now be performed in one or a few breath-holds; 3D sequences with thin, contiguous slices offer improved spatial resolution; and better fat and motion suppression allow improved contrast resolution and image quality. The diagnostic potential of MRCP is now almost as good as ERCP, with pancreatic MRI as the main imaging technique to investigate biliopancreatic pain, chronic pancreatitis, and cystic pancreatic tumors at many institutions. In addition, functional information is provided with secretin-enhanced MRCP.

  19. [Chronic pancreatitis: new definition and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Conti Bellocchi, Maria Cristina; De Pretis, Nicolò; Amodio, Antonio; Zerbi, Alessandro; Frulloni, Luca

    2018-01-01

    Chronic pancreatitis has been considered over the past years as a single disease, alcohol-induced and different from acute pancreatitis, in terms of etiology and prognosis. Actually, the introduction of a new concept of chronic pancreatitis, now considered as a fibroinflammatory process caused by multiple factors (toxic-metabolic, genetic, immunologic, obstructive), allow to better understand the pathogenesis of this complex disease. Furthermore, the discover of peculiar forms of chronic pancreatitis (autoimmune, paraduodenal, associated to gene mutations), different in term of clinical aspects, findings at imaging, prognosis and therapy, radically changed the concept of the disease. In this brief review, we described the impact of this new concept in the comprehension of pathogenesis, in the definition of peculiar forms of chronic pancreatitis, and in the clinical and therapeutic approach of chronic pancreatitis.

  20. Lateral Pancreaticojejunostomy for Chronic Pancreatitis and Pancreatic Ductal Dilation in Children.

    PubMed

    Shah, Adil A; Petrosyan, Mikael; Kane, Timothy D

    2018-06-06

    Pancreatic ductal obstruction leading to ductal dilation and recurrent pancreatitis is uncommon in children. Treatment is dependent upon etiology but consists of decompression of the pancreatic duct (PD) proximally, if possible, by endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) intervention or surgical decompression with pancreaticojejunal anastomosis. After institutional review board approval, we retrospectively reviewed the records for 2 children who underwent lateral pancreaticojejunostomy for pancreatic ductal dilation. Data, including demographics, diagnostic studies, operative details, complications, outcomes, and follow-up, were analyzed. Case 1 was a 4-year-old female with pancreatic ductal obstruction with multiple episodes of recurrent pancreatitis and failure of ERCP to clear her PD of stones. She underwent a laparoscopic cholecystectomy with a lateral pancreaticojejunostomy (Puestow procedure). She recovered well with no further episodes of pancreatitis and normal pancreatic function 4 years later. Case 2 was a 2-year-old female who developed recurrent pancreatitis and was found to have papillary stenosis and long common bile-PD channel. Despite multiple sphincterotomies, laparoscopic cholecystectomy, and laparoscopic hepaticoduodenostomy, she continued to experience episodes of pancreatitis. She underwent a laparoscopy converted to open lateral pancreaticojejunostomy. Her recovery was also smooth having had no episodes of pancreatitis or hospital admissions for over 2 years following the Puestow. Indication for lateral pancreaticojejunostomy or Puestow procedure is rare in children and even less often performed using laparoscopy. In our small experience, both patients with pancreatic ductal obstruction managed with Puestow's procedure enjoy durable symptom and pain relief in the long term.

  1. Gene expression analysis of pancreatic cell lines reveals genes overexpressed in pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Alldinger, Ingo; Dittert, Dag; Peiper, Matthias; Fusco, Alberto; Chiappetta, Gennaro; Staub, Eike; Lohr, Matthias; Jesnowski, Ralf; Baretton, Gustavo; Ockert, Detlef; Saeger, Hans-Detlev; Grützmann, Robert; Pilarsky, Christian

    2005-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer-related death. Using DNA gene expression analysis based on a custom made Affymetrix cancer array, we investigated the expression pattern of both primary and established pancreatic carcinoma cell lines. We analyzed the gene expression of 5 established pancreatic cancer cell lines (AsPC-1, BxPC-3, Capan-1, Capan-2 and HPAF II) and 5 primary isolates, 1 of them derived from benign pancreatic duct cells. Out of 1,540 genes which were expressed in at least 3 experiments, we found 122 genes upregulated and 18 downregulated in tumor cell lines compared to benign cells with a fold change >3. Several of the upregulated genes (like Prefoldin 5, ADAM9 and E-cadherin) have been associated with pancreatic cancer before. The other differentially regulated genes, however, play a so far unknown role in the course of human pancreatic carcinoma. By means of immunohistochemistry we could show that thymosin beta-10 (TMSB10), upregulated in tumor cell lines, is expressed in human pancreatic carcinoma, but not in non-neoplastic pancreatic tissue, suggesting a role for TMSB10 in the carcinogenesis of pancreatic carcinoma. Using gene expression profiling of pancreatic cell lines we were able to identify genes differentially expressed in pancreatic adenocarcinoma, which might contribute to pancreatic cancer development. Copyright 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Surgical therapy in chronic pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Neal, C P; Dennison, A R; Garcea, G

    2012-12-01

    Chronic pancreatitis (CP) is an inflammatory disease of the pancreas which causes chronic pain, as well as exocrine and endocrine failure in the majority of patients, together producing social and domestic upheaval and a very poor quality of life. At least half of patients will require surgical intervention at some stage in their disease, primarily for the treatment of persistent pain. Available data have now confirmed that surgical intervention may produce superior results to conservative and endoscopic treatment. Comprehensive individual patient assessment is crucial to optimal surgical management, however, in order to determine which morphological disease variant (large duct disease, distal stricture with focal disease, expanded head or small duct/minimal change disease) is present in the individual patient, as a wide and differing range of surgical approaches are possible depending upon the specific abnormality within the gland. This review comprehensively assesses the evidence for these differing approaches to surgical intervention in chronic pancreatitis. Surgical drainage procedures should be limited to a small number of patients with a dilated duct and no pancreatic head mass. Similarly, a small population presenting with a focal stricture and tail only disease may be successfully treated by distal pancreatectomy. Long-term results of both of these procedure types are poor, however. More impressive results have been yielded for the surgical treatment of the expanded head, for which a range of surgical options now exist. Evidence from level I studies and a recent meta-analysis suggests that duodenum-preserving resections offer benefits compared to pancreaticoduodenectomy, though the results of the ongoing, multicentre ChroPac trial are awaited to confirm this. Further data are also needed to determine which of the duodenum-preserving procedures provides optimal results. In relation to small duct/minimal change disease total pancreatectomy represents the only

  3. New insights into pancreatic cancer biology.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo, M

    2012-09-01

    Pancreatic cancer remains a devastating disease. Over the last few years, there have been important advances in the molecular and biological understanding of pancreatic cancer. This included understanding of the genomic complexity of the disease, the role of pancreatic cancer stem cells, the relevance of the tumor microenvironment, and the unique metabolic adaptation of pancreas cancer cells to obtain nutrients under hypoxic environment. In this paper, we review the most salient developments in these few areas.

  4. Diagnosis and management of pancreatic exocrine insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Nikfarjam, Mehrdad; Wilson, Jeremy S; Smith, Ross C

    2017-08-21

    In 2015, the Australasian Pancreatic Club (APC) published the Australasian guidelines for the management of pancreatic exocrine insufficiency (http://pancreas.org.au/2016/01/pancreatic-exocrine-insufficiency-guidelines). Pancreatic exocrine insufficiency (PEI) occurs when normal digestion cannot be sustained due to insufficient pancreatic digestive enzyme activity. This may be related to a breakdown, at any point, in the pancreatic digestive chain: pancreatic stimulation; synthesis, release or transportation of pancreatic enzymes; or synchronisation of secretions to mix with ingested food. Main recommendations: The guidelines provide advice on diagnosis and management of PEI, noting the following: A high prevalence of PEI is seen in certain diseases and conditions, such as cystic fibrosis, acute and chronic pancreatitis, pancreatic cancer and pancreatic surgery. The main symptoms of PEI are steatorrhoea or diarrhoea, abdominal pain, bloating and weight loss. These symptoms are non-specific and often go undetected and untreated. PEI diagnosis is predominantly based on clinical findings and the presence of underlying disease. The likelihood of PEI in suspected patients has been categorised into three groups: definite, possible and unlikely. If left untreated, PEI may lead to complications related to fat malabsorption and malnutrition, and have an impact on quality of life. Pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy (PERT) remains the mainstay of PEI treatment with the recommended adult initial enzyme dose being 25 000-40 000 units of lipase per meal, titrating up to a maximum of 75 000-80 000 units of lipase per meal. Adjunct acid-suppressing therapy may be useful when patients still experience symptoms of PEI on high dose PERT. Nutritional management by an experienced dietitian is essential. Changes in management as a result of these guidelines: These are the first guidelines to classify PEI as being definite, possible or unlikely, and provide a diagnostic algorithm to

  5. [Fatal acute pancreatitis caused by severe hypertriglyceridaemia].

    PubMed

    Abed, Osama Karim; Lindberg, Mats; Andos, Shadi

    2014-04-14

    We report a case of fatal acute pancreatitis caused by severe hypertriglyceridaemia in a 27-year-old male who was treated with quetiapine. The blood samples were milk-like with markedly elevated triglycerides (> 55 mmol/l). Computer tomography revealed a severe pancreatitis without bile stones or cholestasis. In spite of treatment the patient's condition rapidly worsened and he died 48 hours after admission. We discuss the option of treating hypertriglyceridaemia-induced pancreatitis with apheresis.

  6. The role of pancreatic islets in experimental pancreatic carcinogenicity.

    PubMed Central

    Ishikawa, O.; Ohigashi, H.; Imaoka, S.; Nakai, I.; Mitsuo, M.; Weide, L.; Pour, P. M.

    1995-01-01

    Our previous studies have suggested that the presence of intact islets is essential for the induction of pancreatic exocrine tumors in the Syrian hamster model. To validate this, we investigated the effect of the carcinogen, N-nitrosobis(2-oxo-propyl)amine (BOP) in hamsters, in which homologous isolated intact islets were transplanted into the submandibular gland (SMG). Freshly isolated pure islets from hamster donors were transplanted into the left SMG of 20 female host hamsters. Ten of these hamsters (group 1) received BOP (40 mg/kg) weekly for 3 weeks. Another 10 hamsters (group 2) were kept untreated. In groups 3 and 4 (10 hamsters each) the salt solution or isolated pancreatic ductal cells, respectively, was injected into the gland. In other groups (10 hamsters each) islets were transplanted into the peri-SMG connective tissue (group 5) or into the renal subcapsular space (group 6). Hamsters of group 1 (40 mg/kg, weekly for 3 weeks) as were group 7 hamsters, which served as BOP-treated controls. All BOP-treated hamsters developed pancreatic lesions. Similar hyperplastic and atypical ductal/ductular proliferation and in situ carcinoma were found in the SMG of many group 1 hamsters. No such lesions were found in the SMG, peri-SMG, or renal subcapsular space of the other groups. Islets appear to be involved in carcinogenicity of BOP. The mechanism is obscure. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:7485408

  7. Pharmacological interventions for acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Moggia, Elisabetta; Koti, Rahul; Belgaumkar, Ajay P; Fazio, Federico; Pereira, Stephen P; Davidson, Brian R; Gurusamy, Kurinchi Selvan

    2017-04-21

    In people with acute pancreatitis, it is unclear what the role should be for medical treatment as an addition to supportive care such as fluid and electrolyte balance and organ support in people with organ failure. To assess the effects of different pharmacological interventions in people with acute pancreatitis. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, 2016, Issue 9), MEDLINE, Embase, Science Citation Index Expanded, and trial registers to October 2016 to identify randomised controlled trials (RCTs). We also searched the references of included trials to identify further trials. We considered only RCTs performed in people with acute pancreatitis, irrespective of aetiology, severity, presence of infection, language, blinding, or publication status for inclusion in the review. Two review authors independently identified trials and extracted data. We did not perform a network meta-analysis as planned because of the lack of information on potential effect modifiers and differences of type of participants included in the different comparisons, when information was available. We calculated the odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the binary outcomes and rate ratios with 95% CIs for count outcomes using a fixed-effect model and random-effects model. We included 84 RCTs with 8234 participants in this review. Six trials (N = 658) did not report any of the outcomes of interest for this review. The remaining 78 trials excluded 210 participants after randomisation. Thus, a total of 7366 participants in 78 trials contributed to one or more outcomes for this review. The treatments assessed in these 78 trials included antibiotics, antioxidants, aprotinin, atropine, calcitonin, cimetidine, EDTA (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid), gabexate, glucagon, iniprol, lexipafant, NSAIDs (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs), octreotide, oxyphenonium, probiotics, activated protein C, somatostatin, somatostatin plus omeprazole, somatostatin

  8. Filling of orbital fluid management systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merino, F.; Blatt, M. H.; Thies, N. C.

    1978-01-01

    A study was performed with three objectives: (1) analyze fluid management system fill under orbital conditions; (2) determine what experimentation is needed; and (3) develop an experimental program. The fluid management system was a 1.06m (41.7 in) diameter pressure vessel with screen channel device. Analyses were conducted using liquid hydrogen and N2O4. The influence of helium and autogenous pressurization systems was considered. Analyses showed that fluid management system fill will be more difficult with a cryogen than with an earth storable. The key to a successful fill with cryogens is in devising techniques for filling without vent liquid, and removing trapped vapor from the screen device at tank fill completion. This will be accomplished with prechill, fill, and vapor condensation processes. Refill will require a vent and purge process, to dilute the residual helium, prior to introducing liquid. Neither prechill, chill, nor purge processes will be required for earth storables.

  9. Biomarkers and Targeted Therapy in Pancreatic Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Karandish, Fataneh; Mallik, Sanku

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) constitutes 90% of pancreatic cancers. PDAC is a complex and devastating disease with only 1%–3% survival rate in five years after the second stage. Treatment of PDAC is complicated due to the tumor microenvironment, changing cell behaviors to the mesenchymal type, altered drug delivery, and drug resistance. Considering that pancreatic cancer shows early invasion and metastasis, critical research is needed to explore different aspects of the disease, such as elaboration of biomarkers, specific signaling pathways, and gene aberration. In this review, we highlight the biomarkers, the fundamental signaling pathways, and their importance in targeted drug delivery for pancreatic cancers. PMID:27147897

  10. Biomarkers and Targeted Therapy in Pancreatic Cancer.

    PubMed

    Karandish, Fataneh; Mallik, Sanku

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) constitutes 90% of pancreatic cancers. PDAC is a complex and devastating disease with only 1%-3% survival rate in five years after the second stage. Treatment of PDAC is complicated due to the tumor microenvironment, changing cell behaviors to the mesenchymal type, altered drug delivery, and drug resistance. Considering that pancreatic cancer shows early invasion and metastasis, critical research is needed to explore different aspects of the disease, such as elaboration of biomarkers, specific signaling pathways, and gene aberration. In this review, we highlight the biomarkers, the fundamental signaling pathways, and their importance in targeted drug delivery for pancreatic cancers.

  11. Hipertriglyceridemia induced acute pancreatitis in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Mañas García, María Dolores; Marchán Carranza, Enrique; Galiana Gómez Del Pulgar, Jesús; Fernández de Bobadilla Pascual, Belén

    Hypertrigliceridemia is the third most common cause of acute pancreatitis. The risk of developing acute pancreatitis is 5% in healthy patients and 4% during pregnancy with triglyceride levels >1,000mg/dl. During pregnancy there are changes in the lipid profile that increase between two and four times triglyceride levels. Its increase in excessive form produces an oxidative environment with injury of the endothelium and appearance of complications such as preeclampsia or pancreatitis. We present the case of a pregnant woman with pancreatitis secondary to hypertriglyceridemia. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. [Pancreatic acinar neoplasms : Comparative molecular characterization].

    PubMed

    Bergmann, F

    2016-11-01

    Pancreatic acinar cell carcinomas are biologically aggressive neoplasms for which treatment options are very limited. The molecular mechanisms of tumor initiation and progression are largely not understood and precursor lesions have not yet been identified. In this study, pancreatic acinar cell carcinomas were cytogenetically characterized as well as by molecular and immunohistochemical analyses. Corresponding investigations were carried out on pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas and pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms augmented by functional analyses. We show that pancreatic acinar cell carcinomas display a microsatellite stable, chromosomal unstable genotype, characterized by recurrent chromosomal imbalances that clearly discriminate them from pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas and neuroendocrine neoplasms. Based on findings obtained from comparative genomic hybridization, candidate genes could be identified, such as deleted in colorectal cancer (DCC) and c-MYC. Furthermore, several therapeutic targets were identified in acinar cell carcinomas and other pancreatic neoplasms, including epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), L1 cell adhesion molecule (L1CAM) and heat shock protein 90 (HSP90). Moreover, L1CAM was shown to play a significant role in the tumorigenesis of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Functional analyses in cell lines derived from pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms revealed promising anti-tumorigenic effects using EGFR and HSP90 inhibitors affecting the cell cycle and in the case of HSP90, regulating several other oncogenes. Finally, based on mutational analyses of mitochondrial DNA, molecular evidence is provided that acinar cell cystadenomas (or better cystic acinar transformation) represent non-clonal lesions, suggesting an inflammatory reactive non-neoplastic nature.

  13. Ethanol Administration Impairs Pancreatic Repair Following Injury

    PubMed Central

    Mahan Schneider, Katrina J.; Scheer, Marc; Suhr, Mallory; Clemens, Dahn L.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Alcohol abuse is one of the most common factors associated with acute and chronic pancreatitis. Although it is evident that alcohol abuse can have an important role in the development of pancreatitis, it does not appear that alcohol abuse alone is responsible for this disease. We investigated the involvement of ethanol in impairment of pancreatic repair after induction of pancreatitis. Methods A biologically relevant mouse model of alcoholic pancreatitis, combining chronic ethanol consumption and coxsackievirus infection, was used to investigate the effects of ethanol on pancreatic regeneration. Tissues were harvested and analyzed by RT-PCR and immunoblot. Results These studies demonstrate that chronic ethanol consumption impairs the structural repair of the exocrine pancreas. This is accompanied by a delay in the restitution of lipase expression. Additionally, impaired expression of the critical pancreatic transcription factors, PDX1 and PTF1, and the mediator of Notch signaling, HES1, were observed. Conclusions Chronic ethanol consumption impairs the structural repair and functional restitution of the pancreas after severe injury. These impairments may, in part, be explained by impaired expression of factors important in the development and maintenance of the exocrine pancreas. Impaired pancreatic regeneration may have a role in the pathogenesis of alcoholic pancreatitis. PMID:22617711

  14. Alcohol consumption and pancreatitis mortality in Russia.

    PubMed

    Razvodovsky, Yury E

    2014-07-28

    Pancreatitis is a major public health problem with high associated economic costs. The incidence of pancreatitis has increased in many European countries in recent decade. Accumulated research and empirical evidence suggests that excessive alcohol consumption is a major risk factor for both acute and chronic pancreatitis. The aim of this study was to examine the aggregate-level relation between the alcohol consumption and pancreatitis mortality rates in Russia. Age-standardized sex-specific male and female pancreatitis mortality data for the period 1970-2005 and data on overall alcohol consumption were analyzed by means ARIMA (autoregressive integrated moving average) time series analysis. Alcohol consumption was significantly associated with both male and female pancreatitis mortality rates: a 1 liter increase in overall alcohol consumption would result in a 7.0% increase in the male pancreatitis mortality rate and in 2.3% increase in the female mortality rate. The results of the analysis suggest that 63.1% of all male pancreatitis deaths and 26.8% female deaths in Russia could be attributed to alcohol. Conclusions The outcomes of this study provide indirect support for the hypothesis that unfavorable mixture of higher overall level of alcohol consumption and binge drinking pattern is an important contributor to the pancreatitis mortality rate in Russian Federation.

  15. Legumain is activated in macrophages during pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Wartmann, Thomas; Fleming, Alicia K.; Gocheva, Vasilena; van der Linden, Wouter A.; Withana, Nimali P.; Verdoes, Martijn; Aurelio, Luigi; Edgington-Mitchell, Daniel; Lieu, TinaMarie; Parker, Belinda S.; Graham, Bim; Reinheckel, Thomas; Furness, John B.; Joyce, Johanna A.; Storz, Peter; Halangk, Walter; Bogyo, Matthew; Bunnett, Nigel W.

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatitis is an inflammatory disease of the pancreas characterized by dysregulated activity of digestive enzymes, necrosis, immune infiltration, and pain. Repeated incidence of pancreatitis is an important risk factor for pancreatic cancer. Legumain, a lysosomal cysteine protease, has been linked to inflammatory diseases such as atherosclerosis, stroke, and cancer. Until now, legumain activation has not been studied during pancreatitis. We used a fluorescently quenched activity-based probe to assess legumain activation during caerulein-induced pancreatitis in mice. We detected activated legumain by ex vivo imaging, confocal microscopy, and gel electrophoresis. Compared with healthy controls, legumain activity in the pancreas of caerulein-treated mice was increased in a time-dependent manner. Legumain was localized to CD68+ macrophages and was not active in pancreatic acinar cells. Using a small-molecule inhibitor of legumain, we found that this protease is not essential for the initiation of pancreatitis. However, it may serve as a biomarker of disease, since patients with chronic pancreatitis show strongly increased legumain expression in macrophages. Moreover, the occurrence of legumain-expressing macrophages in regions of acinar-to-ductal metaplasia suggests that this protease may influence reprogramming events that lead to inflammation-induced pancreatic cancer. PMID:27514475

  16. Imaging of Pancreatic and Duodenal Trauma.

    PubMed

    Melamud, Kira; LeBedis, Christina A; Soto, Jorge A

    2015-07-01

    Pancreatic and duodenal injuries are rare but life-threatening occurrences, often occurring in association with other solid organ injuries. Findings of pancreatic and duodenal trauma on computed tomography and MR imaging are often nonspecific, and high levels of clinical suspicion and understanding of mechanism of injury are imperative. Familiarity with the grading schemes of pancreatic and duodenal injury is important because they help in assessing for key imaging findings that directly influence management. This article presents an overview of imaging of blunt and penetrating pancreatic and duodenal injuries, including pathophysiology, available imaging techniques, and variety of imaging features. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Advances in cryoablation for pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Luo, Xiao-Mei; Niu, Li-Zhi; Chen, Ji-Bing; Xu, Ke-Cheng

    2016-01-14

    Pancreatic carcinoma is a common cancer of the digestive system with a poor prognosis. It is characterized by insidious onset, rapid progression, a high degree of malignancy and early metastasis. At present, radical surgery is considered the only curative option for treatment, however, the majority of patients with pancreatic cancer are diagnosed too late to undergo surgery. The sensitivity of pancreatic cancer to chemotherapy or radiotherapy is also poor. As a result, there is no standard treatment for patients with advanced pancreatic cancer. Cryoablation is generally considered to be an effective palliative treatment for pancreatic cancer. It has the advantages of minimal invasion and improved targeting, and is potentially safe with less pain to the patients. It is especially suitable in patients with unresectable pancreatic cancer. However, our initial findings suggest that cryotherapy combined with 125-iodine seed implantation, immunotherapy or various other treatments for advanced pancreatic cancer can improve survival in patients with unresectable or metastatic pancreatic cancer. Although these findings require further in-depth study, the initial results are encouraging. This paper reviews the safety and efficacy of cryoablation, including combined approaches, in the treatment of pancreatic cancer.

  18. Mekong Floods Fill Tonle Sap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The monsoon season in Southeast Asia brings recurring, often devastating floods to countries in the region, but these floods also play a necessary role in the region's water cycle. These MODIS images centered on Cambodia reveal extensive flooding of the Mekong River, which comes in from Laos in the north, to the right of center in the images, and flows south through Cambodia and southeast through Vietnam to empty into the South China Sea. The true-color image shows the brownish, sediment-laden floodwaters filling the Mekong Delta in southern Cambodia and Vietnam on September 15, 2001. The false color image above has been enhanced to bring out the contrast between the floodwaters and the lands, with sediment-carrying floodwaters in purple. Sediment can be seen flowing into the South China Sea as well. This year's floods have affected over a million people, and 100 people have been killed in Vietnam alone. The monsoon floods bring not only devastation, but renewal. The large body of water just left of center in Cambodia is the Tonle Sap. This shallow lake plays a changing role in the regional water cycle. During the dry season, the stream-fed Tonle Sap drains via the Tonle Sab River into the Mekong River. During the wet season (June-November), flooding of the Mekong reverses the course of the Tonle Sab, roughly tripling the lake's size from about 3000 km2 to about 10,000. When the dry season returns, the lake once again begins to drain into the Mekong Delta, where it provides a flow of fresh water that balances the intrusion of salty seawater into the delta's agricultural lands. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  19. Troxacitabine prodrugs for pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Adema, A D; Radi, M; Daft, J; Narayanasamy, J; Hoebe, E K; Alexander, L E; Chu, C K; Peters, G J

    2007-01-01

    Troxacitabine is a cytotoxic deoxycytidine analogue with an unnatural L-configuration, which is activated by deoxycytidine kinase (dCK). The configuration is responsible for differences in the uptake and metabolism of troxacitabine compared to other deoxynucleoside analogues. The main drawback in the use of most nucleoside anticancer agents originates from their hydrophilic nature, which property requires a high and frequent dosage for an intravenous administration. To overcome this problem several troxacitabine prodrugs modified in the aminogroup with a linear aliphatic chain with a higher lipophilicity were developed. To determine whether these prodrugs have an advantage over Troxacitabine pancreatic cancer cell lines were exposed to Troxacitabine and the lipophilic prodrugs. The addition of linear aliphatic chains to troxacitabine increased sensitivity of pancreatic cancer cell lines to the drug > 100-fold, possibly due to a better uptake and retention of the drug.

  20. Specifying pancreatic endocrine cell fates.

    PubMed

    Collombat, Patrick; Hecksher-Sørensen, Jacob; Serup, Palle; Mansouri, Ahmed

    2006-07-01

    Cell replacement therapy could represent an attractive alternative to insulin injections for the treatment of diabetes. However, this approach requires a thorough understanding of the molecular switches controlling the specification of the different pancreatic cell-types in vivo. These are derived from an apparently identical pool of cells originating from the early gut endoderm, which are successively specified towards the pancreatic, endocrine, and hormone-expressing cell lineages. Numerous studies have outlined the crucial roles exerted by transcription factors in promoting the cell destiny, defining the cell identity and maintaining a particular cell fate. This review focuses on the mechanisms regulating the morphogenesis of the pancreas with particular emphasis on recent findings concerning the transcription factor hierarchy orchestrating endocrine cell fate allocation.

  1. Pancreatic injury: accidental or nonaccidental.

    PubMed

    Waseem, Muhammad; Perales, Orlando

    2008-10-01

    The diagnosis of abuse in a child with occult abdominal injuries is difficult. Not many patients with nonaccidental trauma present with a clear history of the injury. The absence of a reliable history in patients with nonaccidental trauma makes determination of an exact mechanism difficult. In most cases, patients present to the emergency department with inaccurate or misleading histories; some give no history of trauma, which may delay recognition of serious abdominal injuries. In addition, the child may have other injuries, such as neurologic or musculoskeletal, which divert attention from occult abdominal injuries. Pancreatic and duodenal injuries are considered specific for abuse. We report a child with pancreatic injury without an appropriate history of trauma, determined to be caused by nonaccidental trauma.

  2. Lysosome associated membrane proteins maintain pancreatic acinar cell homeostasis: LAMP-2 deficient mice develop pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Mareninova, Olga A; Sendler, Matthias; Malla, Sudarshan Ravi; Yakubov, Iskandar; French, Samuel W; Tokhtaeva, Elmira; Vagin, Olga; Oorschot, Viola; Lüllmann-Rauch, Renate; Blanz, Judith; Dawson, David; Klumperman, Judith; Lerch, Markus M; Mayerle, Julia; Gukovsky, Ilya; Gukovskaya, Anna S

    2015-11-01

    The pathogenic mechanism of pancreatitis is poorly understood. Recent evidence implicates defective autophagy in pancreatitis responses; however, the pathways mediating impaired autophagy in pancreas remain largely unknown. Here, we investigate the role of lysosome associated membrane proteins (LAMPs) in pancreatitis. We analyzed changes in LAMPs in experimental models and human pancreatitis, and the underlying mechanisms: LAMP de-glycosylation and degradation. LAMP cleavage by cathepsin B (CatB) was analyzed by mass spectrometry. We used mice deficient in LAMP-2 to assess its role in pancreatitis. Pancreatic levels of LAMP-1 and LAMP-2 greatly decrease across various pancreatitis models and in human disease. Pancreatitis does not trigger LAMPs' bulk de-glycosylation, but induces their degradation via CatB-mediated cleavage of LAMP molecule close to the boundary between luminal and transmembrane domains. LAMP-2 null mice spontaneously develop pancreatitis that begins with acinar cell vacuolization due to impaired autophagic flux, and progresses to severe pancreas damage characterized by trypsinogen activation, macrophage-driven inflammation, and acinar cell death. LAMP-2 deficiency causes a decrease in pancreatic digestive enzymes content, stimulates the basal and inhibits CCK-induced amylase secretion by acinar cells. The effects of LAMP-2 knockout and acute cerulein pancreatitis overlap, which corroborates the pathogenic role of LAMP decrease in experimental pancreatitis models. The results indicate a critical role for LAMPs, particularly LAMP-2, in maintaining pancreatic acinar cell homeostasis, and provide evidence that defective lysosomal function, resulting in impaired autophagy, leads to pancreatitis. Mice with LAMP-2 deficiency present a novel genetic model of human pancreatitis caused by lysosomal/autophagic dysfunction.

  3. Surgical management for chronic pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Howell, J G; Johnson, L W; Sehon, J K; Lee, W C

    2001-05-01

    This study reviewed the results of surgery for chronic pancreatitis. We also attempted to identify any factors that may influence outcome. A 10-year retrospective chart review was carried out on all patients undergoing surgery for the diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis. Twenty-three patients were identified. Alcohol was the most common etiology, but other causes were identified. All but two patients had abnormal ductal anatomy on endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. A total of 23 patients underwent six different operations. There were five complications and no perioperative deaths. Only one patient had to be readmitted for pancreatitis during follow-up. The majority of patients reported some improvement with their pain. Patients who continued to use alcohol had the worst results in regard to weight gain and pain control. The results of our study are consistent with the current literature in regard to morbidity and mortality. Surgical treatment had minimal effect on endocrine and exocrine function. Weight loss was avoided in the majority of patients. Addition of biliary bypass to the Puestow procedure did not increase morbidity. Poorest results were obtained in patients who continued to use alcohol. A basic algorithm for management of this disease process is given.

  4. Saw palmetto-induced pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Jibrin, Ismaila; Erinle, Ayodele; Saidi, Abdulfattah; Aliyu, Zakari Y

    2006-06-01

    Saw palmetto is a frequently used botanical agent in benign prostatic enlargement (BPH). Although it has been reported to cause cholestatic hepatitis and many medical conditions, Saw palmetto has not been implicated in acute pancreatitis. We report a case of a probable Saw palmetto induced acute hepatitis and pancreatitis. A 55-year-old reformed alcoholic, sober for greater than 15 years, presented with severe non-radiating epigastric pain associated with nausea and vomiting. His only significant comorbidity is BPH for which he intermittently took Saw palmetto for about four years. Physical examination revealed normal vital signs, tender epigastrium without guarding or rebound tenderness. Cullen and Gray Turner signs were negative. Complete blood count and basic metabolic profile were normal. Additional laboratory values include a serum amylase: 2,152 mmol/L, lipase: 39,346 mmol/L, serum triglyceride: 38 mmol/L, AST: 1265, ALT: 1232 and alkaline phosphatase was 185. Abdominal ultrasound and magnetic resonance cholangiography revealed sludge without stones. A hepatic indole diacetic acid scan was negative. Patient responded clinically and biochemically to withdrawal of Saw palmetto. Two similar episodes of improvements followed by recurrence were noted with discontinuations and reinstitution of Saw Palmetto. Simultaneous and sustained response of hepatitis and pancreatitis to Saw palmetto abstinence with reoccurrence on reinstitution strongly favors drug effect. "Natural" medicinal preparations are therefore not necessarily safe and the importance of detailed medication history (including "supplements") cannot be over emphasized.

  5. Subchondral pseudocysts in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Rennell, C; Mainzer, F; Multz, C V; Genant, H K

    1977-12-01

    Subchondral cyst formation (geode) is a not uncommon manifestation of rheumatoid arthritis which may at times impede correct radiologic interpretation. Four patients with rheumatoid arthritis who demonstrated striking subarticular cystic erosive disease are described. These cases emphasize the nature and appearance of this interesting finding.

  6. [Surgical treatment of pain in chronic pancreatitis].

    PubMed

    Stefanović, Dejan; Knezević, Srbislav; Djordjević, Zoran; Kerkez, Mirko; Bulajić, Predrag; Marković, Ljiljana

    2006-01-01

    The principal indication for surgical intervention in chronic pancreatitis is intractable pain. Depending upon the presence of dilated pancreatic ductal system, pancreatic duct drainage procedures and different kinds of pancreatic resections are applied. The objective of the study was to show the most appropriate procedure to gain the most possible benefits in dependence of type of pathohistological process in chronic pancreatitis. Our study included 58 patients with intractable pain caused by chronic pancreatitis of alcoholic genesis. The first group consisted of 30 patients with dilated pancreatic ductal system more than 10 mm. The second group involved 28 patients without dilated pancreatic ductal system. Pain relief, weight gain and glucose tolerance were monitored. All patients of Group I (30) underwent latero-lateral pancreaticojejunal--Puestow operation. 80% of patients had no pain after 6 month, 13.6% had rare pain and 2 patients, i.e. 6.4%, who continued to consume alcohol, had strong pain. Group II consisting of 28 patients was without dilated pancreatic ductal system. This group was subjected to various types of pancreatic resections. Whipple procedure (W) was done in 6 patients, pylorus preserving Whipple (PPW) in 7 cases, and duodenum preserving cephalic pancreatectomy (DPCP) was performed in 15 patients. Generally, 89.2% of patients had no pain 6 month after the operation. An average weight gain was 1.9 kg in W group, 2.8 kg in PPW group and 4.1 kg in DPCP group. Insulin-dependent diabetes was recorded in 66.6% in W group, 57.1% in PPW group and 0% in DPCP group. According to our opinion, DPCP may be considered the procedure of choice for surgical treatment of pain in chronic pancreatitis in patients without dilatation of pancreas ductal system because of no serious postoperative metabolic consequences.

  7. Atorvastatin Use Associated With Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Shih-Wei; Lin, Cheng-Li; Liao, Kuan-Fu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Few data are present in the literature on the relationship between atorvastatin use and acute pancreatitis. The aim of this study was to explore this issue in Taiwan. Using representative claims data established from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Program, this case–control study consisted of 5810 cases aged 20 to 84 years with a first-time diagnosis of acute pancreatitis during the period 1998 to 2011and 5733 randomly selected controls without acute pancreatitis. Both cases and controls were matched by sex, age, comorbidities, and index year of diagnosing acute pancreatitis. Subjects who at least received 1 prescription for other statins or nonstatin lipid-lowering drugs were excluded from the study. If subjects never had 1 prescription for atorvastatin, they were defined as never use of atorvastatin. Current use of atorvastatin was defined as subjects whose last remaining 1 tablet of atorvastatin was noted ≤7 days before the date of diagnosing acute pancreatitis. Late use of atorvastatin was defined as subjects whose last remaining 1 tablet of atorvastatin was noted >7 days before the date of diagnosing acute pancreatitis. The odds ratio with 95% confidence interval of acute pancreatitis associated with atorvastatin use was calculated by using the logistic regression analysis. The logistic regression analysis revealed that the odds ratio of acute pancreatitis was 1.67 for subjects with current use of atorvastatin (95% confidence interval 1.18, 2.38), when compared with subjects with never use of atorvastatin. The odds ratio decreased to 1.15 for those with late use of atorvastatin (95% confidence interval 0.87, 1.52), but without statistical significance. Current use of atorvastatin is associated with the diagnosis of acute pancreatitis. Clinically, clinicians should consider the possibility of atorvastatin-associated acute pancreatitis when patients present with a diagnosis of acute pancreatitis without a definite etiology but are taking

  8. Prophylactic antibiotics in acute pancreatitis: endless debate.

    PubMed

    Mourad, M M; Evans, Rpt; Kalidindi, V; Navaratnam, R; Dvorkin, L; Bramhall, S R

    2017-02-01

    INTRODUCTION The development of pancreatic infection is associated with the development of a deteriorating disease with subsequent high morbidity and mortality. There is agreement that in mild pancreatitis there is no need to use antibiotics; in severe pancreatitis it would appear to be a logical choice to use antibiotics to prevent secondary pancreatic infection and decrease associated mortality. MATERIALS AND METHODS A non-systematic review of current evidence, meta-analyses and randomized controlled trials was conducted to assess the role of prophylactic antibiotics in acute pancreatitis and whether it might improve morbidity and mortality in pancreatitis. RESULTS Mixed evidence was found to support and refute the role of prophylactic antibiotics in acute pancreatitis. Most studies have failed to demonstrate much benefit from its routine use. Data from our unit suggested little benefit of their routine use, and showed that the mortality of those treated with antibiotics was significantly higher compared with those not treated with antibiotics (9% vs 0%, respectively, P = 0.043). In addition, the antibiotic group had significantly higher morbidity (36% vs 5%, respectively, P = 0.002). CONCLUSIONS Antibiotics should be used in patients who develop sepsis, infected necrosis-related systemic inflammatory response syndrome, multiple organ dysfunction syndrome or pancreatic and extra-pancreatic infection. Despite the many other factors that should be considered, prompt antibiotic therapy is recommended once inflammatory markers are raised, to prevent secondary pancreatic infection. Unfortunately, there remain many unanswered questions regarding the indications for antibiotic administration and the patients who benefit from antibiotic treatment in acute pancreatitis.

  9. Management of pain in chronic pancreatitis with emphasis on exogenous pancreatic enzymes.

    PubMed

    Hobbs, Paul M; Johnson, William G; Graham, David Y

    2016-08-06

    One of the most challenging issues arising in patients with chronic pancreatitis is the management of abdominal pain. Many competing theories exist to explain pancreatic pain including ductal hypertension from strictures and stones, increased interstitial pressure from glandular fibrosis, pancreatic neuritis, and ischemia. This clinical problem is superimposed on a background of reduced enzyme secretion and altered feedback mechanisms. Throughout history, investigators have used these theories to devise methods to combat chronic pancreatic pain including: Lifestyle measures, antioxidants, analgesics, administration of exogenous pancreatic enzymes, endoscopic drainage procedures, and surgical drainage and resection procedures. While the value of each modality has been debated over the years, pancreatic enzyme therapy remains a viable option. Enzyme therapy restores active enzymes to the small bowel and targets the altered feedback mechanism that lead to increased pancreatic ductal and tissue pressures, ischemia, and pain. Here, we review the mechanisms and treatments for chronic pancreatic pain with a specific focus on pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy. We also discuss different approaches to overcoming a lack of clinical response update ideas for studies needed to improve the clinical use of pancreatic enzymes to ameliorate pancreatic pain.

  10. Management of pain in chronic pancreatitis with emphasis on exogenous pancreatic enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Hobbs, Paul M; Johnson, William G; Graham, David Y

    2016-01-01

    One of the most challenging issues arising in patients with chronic pancreatitis is the management of abdominal pain. Many competing theories exist to explain pancreatic pain including ductal hypertension from strictures and stones, increased interstitial pressure from glandular fibrosis, pancreatic neuritis, and ischemia. This clinical problem is superimposed on a background of reduced enzyme secretion and altered feedback mechanisms. Throughout history, investigators have used these theories to devise methods to combat chronic pancreatic pain including: Lifestyle measures, antioxidants, analgesics, administration of exogenous pancreatic enzymes, endoscopic drainage procedures, and surgical drainage and resection procedures. While the value of each modality has been debated over the years, pancreatic enzyme therapy remains a viable option. Enzyme therapy restores active enzymes to the small bowel and targets the altered feedback mechanism that lead to increased pancreatic ductal and tissue pressures, ischemia, and pain. Here, we review the mechanisms and treatments for chronic pancreatic pain with a specific focus on pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy. We also discuss different approaches to overcoming a lack of clinical response update ideas for studies needed to improve the clinical use of pancreatic enzymes to ameliorate pancreatic pain. PMID:27602238

  11. Long-term patency, pancreatic function, and pain relief after lateral pancreaticojejunostomy for chronic pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Warshaw, A L; Popp, J W; Schapiro, R H

    1980-08-01

    Ten patients, all with intractable pain due to chronic pancreatitis, were selected for treatment by lateral pancreaticojejunostomy (modified Puestow procedure) after preoperative endoscopic pancreatography in each had revealed dilatation of the main pancreatic duct. Follow-up endoscopic pancreatograms performed 1 yr after surgery show a patent anastomosis in all 10 patients. Eight of these 10 are largely or completely pain-free, but 2 continiue to have pain without improvement after the operation. Surgical success in relieving pain was accompanied neither by improvement in pancreatic function, nor by protection against its further deterioration: Whereas 2 patients had malabsorption and 3 were diabetic preoperatively, 6 had malabsorption and 5 had diabetes postoperatively. This progression of exocrine or endorine pancreatic insufficiency indicates that decompression of the dilated pancreatic duct, although an effective means for relief of pain in chronic pancreatitis, does not prevent continuing destruction of pancreatic glandular tissue.

  12. ECO fill: automated fill modification to support late-stage design changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Greg; Wilson, Jeff; Yu, J. J.; Chiu, Anderson; Chuang, Yao-Jen; Yang, Ricky

    2014-03-01

    One of the most critical factors in achieving a positive return for a design is ensuring the design not only meets performance specifications, but also produces sufficient yield to meet the market demand. The goal of design for manufacturability (DFM) technology is to enable designers to address manufacturing requirements during the design process. While new cell-based, DP-aware, and net-aware fill technologies have emerged to provide the designer with automated fill engines that support these new fill requirements, design changes that arrive late in the tapeout process (as engineering change orders, or ECOs) can have a disproportionate effect on tapeout schedules, due to the complexity of replacing fill. If not handled effectively, the impacts on file size, run time, and timing closure can significantly extend the tapeout process. In this paper, the authors examine changes to design flow methodology, supported by new fill technology, that enable efficient, fast, and accurate adjustments to metal fill late in the design process. We present an ECO fill methodology coupled with the support of advanced fill tools that can quickly locate the portion of the design affected by the change, remove and replace only the fill in that area, while maintaining the fill hierarchy. This new fill approach effectively reduces run time, contains fill file size, minimizes timing impact, and minimizes mask costs due to ECO-driven fill changes, all of which are critical factors to ensuring time-to-market schedules are maintained.

  13. Mutations in the pancreatic secretory enzymes CPA1 and CPB1 are associated with pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Koji; Yu, Jun; Hata, Tatsuo; Suenaga, Masaya; Shindo, Koji; Abe, Toshiya; MacGregor-Das, Anne; Borges, Michael; Wolfgang, Christopher L; Weiss, Matthew J; He, Jin; Canto, Marcia Irene; Petersen, Gloria M; Gallinger, Steven; Syngal, Sapna; Brand, Randall E; Rustgi, Anil; Olson, Sara H; Stoffel, Elena; Cote, Michele L; Zogopoulos, George; Potash, James B; Goes, Fernando S; McCombie, Richard W; Zandi, Peter P; Pirooznia, Mehdi; Kramer, Melissa; Parla, Jennifer; Eshleman, James R; Roberts, Nicholas J; Hruban, Ralph H; Klein, Alison Patricia; Goggins, Michael

    2018-05-01

    To evaluate whether germline variants in genes encoding pancreatic secretory enzymes contribute to pancreatic cancer susceptibility, we sequenced the coding regions of CPB1 and other genes encoding pancreatic secretory enzymes and known pancreatitis susceptibility genes ( PRSS1 , CPA1 , CTRC , and SPINK1 ) in a hospital series of pancreatic cancer cases and controls. Variants in CPB1 , CPA1 (encoding carboxypeptidase B1 and A1), and CTRC were evaluated in a second set of cases with familial pancreatic cancer and controls. More deleterious CPB1 variants, defined as having impaired protein secretion and induction of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in transfected HEK 293T cells, were found in the hospital series of pancreatic cancer cases (5/986, 0.5%) than in controls (0/1,045, P = 0.027). Among familial pancreatic cancer cases, ER stress-inducing CPB1 variants were found in 4 of 593 (0.67%) vs. 0 of 967 additional controls ( P = 0.020), with a combined prevalence in pancreatic cancer cases of 9/1,579 vs. 0/2,012 controls ( P < 0.01). More ER stress-inducing CPA1 variants were also found in the combined set of hospital and familial cases with pancreatic cancer than in controls [7/1,546 vs. 1/2,012; P = 0.025; odds ratio, 9.36 (95% CI, 1.15-76.02)]. Overall, 16 (1%) of 1,579 pancreatic cancer cases had an ER stress-inducing CPA1 or CPB1 variant, compared with 1 of 2,068 controls ( P < 0.00001). No other candidate genes had statistically significant differences in variant prevalence between cases and controls. Our study indicates ER stress-inducing variants in CPB1 and CPA1 are associated with pancreatic cancer susceptibility and implicate ER stress in pancreatic acinar cells in pancreatic cancer development.

  14. 7 CFR 58.730 - Filling containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Filling containers. 58.730 Section 58.730 Agriculture... Procedures § 58.730 Filling containers. Hot fluid cheese from the cookers may be held in hotwells or hoppers... shall effectively measure the desired amount of product into the pouch or container in a sanitary manner...

  15. Treatment of pancreatic insufficiency using pancreatic extract in patients with advanced pancreatic cancer: a pilot study (PICNIC).

    PubMed

    Zdenkowski, Nicholas; Radvan, George; Pugliese, Leanna; Charlton, Julie; Oldmeadow, Christopher; Fraser, Allison; Bonaventura, Antonino

    2017-06-01

    Survival with advanced pancreatic cancer is less than 12 months. Pancreatic exocrine insufficiency may contribute to pancreatic cancer-related cachexia, via nutrient malabsorption. We aimed to determine the feasibility of prescribing pancreatic extract (Creon®) for patients with advanced pancreatic cancer. Patients with advanced pancreatic cancer, without frank malabsorption, were randomised in this feasibility study to pancreatic extract 50,000 units with meals and 25,000 units with snacks, or placebo. Standardised dietary advice was given. Anti-cancer and supportive care treatments were permitted. Outcomes included weight, body mass index (BMI), quality of life (QLQC30, PAN26), survival and nutritional assessment (PG-SGA). Eighteen patients were randomised before study closure due to slow recruitment. Baseline characteristics were well matched. Weight loss prior to randomisation was numerically greater in the pancreatic extract group (mean 0.7 vs 2.2 kg). Weight loss was numerically greater in the placebo group, however not significantly. No differences in BMI or nutrition score were seen. Quality of life did not differ between study groups. Median overall survival was 17 (95% CI 8.1-48.7) weeks in the control group, and 67.6 (95% CI 14.1-98.4) weeks in the pancreatic extract group (p = 0.1063). Only 17% (18/106) of potentially eligible patients were recruited, related to patient/family reluctance, rapid clinical deterioration and patients already prescribed pancreatic extract. A moderate pill burden was noted. Despite intriguing survival results, this study was not sufficiently feasible to proceed to a fully powered comparative study. A multi-centre study would be required to exclude a significant difference in outcomes.

  16. Shear design expressions for concrete filled steel tube and reinforced concrete filled tube components.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2016-06-01

    Concrete-filled steel tubes (CFSTs) and reinforced concrete-filled steel tubes (RCFSTs) are increasingly : used in transportation structures as piers, piles, caissons or other foundation components. While the axial : and flexural properties of CFTs h...

  17. Surgical treatment of childhood recurrent pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Clifton, Matthew S; Pelayo, Juan C; Cortes, Raul A; Grethel, Erich J; Wagner, Amy J; Lee, Hanmin; Harrison, Michael R; Farmer, Diana L; Nobuhara, Kerilyn K

    2007-07-01

    Surgical intervention that improves pancreatic ductal drainage is a reasonable treatment strategy for recurrent pancreatitis in children. This study was approved by the Committee on Human Research (San Francisco, CA). A retrospective chart review was performed on children aged 0 to 17 years given the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision coding diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis who underwent surgical intervention from 1981 to 2005. From 1981 to 2005, 32 children were treated for the diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis. The etiologies were obstructive (n = 13), idiopathic (n = 10), hereditary (n = 6), medications (n = 2), and infection (n = 1). Fifteen patients underwent 17 operations for chronic pancreatitis, including Puestow (n = 9), cystenterostomy (n = 2), Whipple (n = 1), distal pancreatectomy (n = 1), Frey (n = 1), DuVal (n = 1), excision of enteric duplication cyst (n = 1), and pancreatic ductal dilation (n = 1). The mean age at presentation of patients undergoing surgery was 6.0 +/- 4.1 years (mean +/- SD). The mean time from presentation to operation was 3.3 +/- 3.3 years. There were no deaths after surgical intervention. Of 15 patients, 2 (13%) required rehospitalization within 90 days of surgery, one for bowel obstruction, the other for splenic infarction. The median length of stay postoperatively was 8 days (range, 5-66 days). Chronic pancreatitis in children differs markedly in etiology when compared with adults. In most cases seen in our institution, chronic pancreatitis resulted from ineffective ductal drainage. These disorders are amenable to surgical decompression, which, ultimately, can prevent disease recurrence.

  18. [Severe acute pancreatitis associated with gallbladder gangrene].

    PubMed

    Arroyo-Sánchez, Abel S; Aguirre-Mejía, Rosa Y; Echenique-Martínez, Sergio E

    2014-01-01

    We present a diabetic patient who developed severe acute pancreatitis associated to gallbladder gangrene, in this case we assessed the applicability of classification criteria and management of the pathways for acute pancreatitis and also we suggest some topics that could be investigated in the future.

  19. Pancreatitis and agenesis of the dorsal pancreas.

    PubMed

    Oldenburg, B; van Leeuwen, M S; van Berge Henegouwen, G P; Koningsberger, J C

    1998-10-01

    We report a case of agenesis of the dorsal pancreas, complicated by pancreatitis and diabetes mellitus. A 39-year-old woman was referred for evaluation of a chronic pancreatitis. Abdominal spiral CT and ERP and MRCP demonstrated agenesis of the dorsal pancreas. The pathogenesis, clinical features and diagnosis of this very rarely reported disease are discussed.

  20. Betaine Attenuates Alcohol-Induced Pancreatic Steatosis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wenjuan; Gao, Jinhang; Tai, Yang; Chen, Meng; Huang, Luming; Wen, Shilei; Huang, Zhiyin; Liu, Rui; Li, Jing; Tang, Chengwei

    2016-07-01

    To explore the effect of betaine on alcoholic pancreatic steatosis and its mechanism. Rats were randomly assigned to control, ethanol, or ethanol + betaine groups. Changes in pancreatic morphology; serum lipid levels; and pancreatic lipid, amylase and lipase levels were determined. The serum and adipose tissue adiponectin level was measured by an enzyme-linked immunoassay. Adiponectin receptor-1 (AdipoR1), AdipoR2, sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c), SREBP-2, and fatty acid synthetase expression levels were quantified. The SREBP-1c expression in SW1990 cells treated with various concentrations of ethanol or ethanol plus betaine and/or adiponectin was assessed. Alcohol-induced changes in pancreatic morphology were attenuated by betaine. Pancreatic triglyceride, free fatty acid and expression levels of SREBP-1c and fatty acid synthetase were elevated after ethanol feeding but remained at control levels after betaine supplementation. Alcohol-induced decreases in serum and adipose tissue adiponectin, pancreatic AdipoR1, amylase, and lipase were attenuated by betaine. Serum triglyceride and free fatty acid levels were elevated after alcohol consumption and remained higher after betaine supplementation compared with controls. Betaine and/or adiponectin suppressed alcohol-induced SREBP-1c upregulation in vitro. Betaine attenuated alcoholic-induced pancreatic steatosis most likely by suppressing pancreatic SREBP-1c both directly and through the restoration of adiponectin signaling.

  1. Overcoming Drug Resistance in Pancreatic Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Long, Jiang; Zhang, Yuqing; Yu, Xianjun; Yang, Jingxuan; LeBrun, Drake; Chen, Changyi; Yao, Qizhi; Li, Min

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Pancreatic cancer has the worst survival rate of all cancers. The current standard care for metastatic pancreatic cancer is gemcitabine, however, the success of this treatment is poor and overall survival has not improved for decades. Drug resistance (both intrinsic and acquired) is thought to be a major reason for the limited benefit of most pancreatic cancer therapies. Areas covered Previous studies have indicated various mechanisms of drug resistance in pancreatic cancer, including changes in individual genes or signaling pathways, the influence of the tumor microenvironment, and the presence of highly resistant stem cells. This review summarizes recent advances in the mechanisms of drug resistance in pancreatic cancer, and potential strategies to overcome this. Expert Opinion Increasing drug delivery efficiency and decreasing drug resistance is the current aim in pancreatic cancer treatment, and will also benefit the treatment of other cancers. Understanding the molecular and cellular basis of drug resistance in pancreatic cancer will lead to the development of novel therapeutic strategies with the potential to sensitize pancreatic cancer to chemotherapy, and to increase the efficacy of current treatments in a wide variety of human cancers. PMID:21391891

  2. Acute pancreatitis complicating choledochal cysts in children.

    PubMed

    Muthucumaru, Mathievathaniy; Ljuhar, Damir; Panabokke, Gayathri; Paul, Eldho; Nataraja, Ramesh; Ferguson, Peter; Dagia, Charuta; Clarnette, Tom; King, Sebastian

    2017-03-01

    To analyse the characteristics of patients with choledochal cysts presenting with acute pancreatitis. Multicenter retrospective review of all paediatric patients (<18 years) with choledochal cysts managed over a 14-year period (2001-2014) at two tertiary paediatric surgical centres. Patient data were analysed for demographics, presentation, radiological classification of cyst type (Todani), operative interventions, complications and long-term follow-up. A total of 49 patients with choledochal cysts were identified with 15 (31%) being Type I fusiform, 18 (37%) Type I cystic and 16 (32%) Type IV-A. Seventeen (35%) patients presented with acute pancreatitis, one having had an ante-natally diagnosed choledochal cyst. Patients presenting with pancreatitis were older when compared to the non-pancreatitis group (5.1 vs. 1.2 years, P = 0.005). Nine out of 16 (53%) patients with Type IV-A cysts presented with pancreatitis compared to five (33%) of Type I fusiform and three (17%) of Type I cystic. There was however no statistically significant association between Todani types and the development of pancreatitis (Type I fusiform, P = 1.0; Type I cystic, P = 0.063; Type IV-A, P = 0.053). The rate of complications was similar in both groups. Pancreatitis was a common presentation in children with a choledochal cyst, however, there was no clear statistically significant association with Todani types and pancreatitis. © 2016 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (The Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  3. Drug-Induced Acute Pancreatitis: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Mark R.; Hall, Oliver Morgan; Kaye, Adam M.; Kaye, Alan David

    2015-01-01

    Background The majority of drug-induced pancreatitis cases are mild to moderate in severity, but severe and even fatal cases can occur. Management of drug-induced pancreatitis requires withdrawal of the offending agent and supportive care. Methods This review focuses on differential diagnosis, clinical presentation, drug-mediated effects, treatments, and mechanisms of pancreatitis, with an emphasis on drug-induced pancreatitis. Results Although only a minority of cases associated with acute pancreatitis are linked to drugs, clinical presentation and mechanisms of injury to the pancreas are not well understood by clinicians in terms of individual drug effects in the mediation or modulation of injury to the pancreas. In recent years, a large number of commonly prescribed medications has been linked to drug-induced pancreatitis pathogenesis. Although mechanisms are proposed, the exact cause of injury is either not well understood or controversial. Conclusion Future investigation into the mechanisms of pancreatitis and an appreciation by clinicians of the drugs commonly linked to the condition will help establish earlier diagnosis and quicker cessation of offending drugs in the treatment of drug-induced acute pancreatitis. PMID:25829880

  4. [Capillaroscopy in patients with chronic alcoholic pancreatitis].

    PubMed

    Teixeira, G P; de Alencar, R; Fonseca, M de O; Bernardini, E M

    1996-01-01

    The aim of this study was verify frequency and morphological presentations of microangiopathy in patients with alcoholic chronic pancreatitis, using nailfold capillaroscopy. All patients showed morphological and functional capillary abnormalities. None of them had a normal capillaroscopy. Our findings may suggest an important role of microcirculation in Alcoholic Chronic Pancreatitis pathogenesis and/or its course.

  5. Estrogen-associated severe hypertriglyceridemia with pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Aljenedil, Sumayah; Hegele, Robert A; Genest, Jacques; Awan, Zuhier

    Estrogen, whether therapeutic or physiologic, can cause hypertriglyceridemia. Hypertriglyceridemia-induced pancreatitis is a rare complication. We report 2 women who developed estrogen-associated severe hypertriglyceridemia with pancreatitis. The first patient developed pancreatitis secondary to hypertriglyceridemia associated with in vitro fertilization cycles. Marked reduction in her triglyceride was achieved with dietary restrictions and fibrate. The second patient developed pancreatitis secondary to hypertriglyceridemia during her pregnancies. She was noncompliant with the treatment; therefore, her triglyceride remained high after delivery. In both patients, no hypertriglyceridemia-associated genes mutations were identified, although the second patient had strong polygenic susceptibility to hypertriglyceridemia. Estrogen-induced severe hypertriglyceridemia with pancreatitis can be a life-threatening condition. Screening in high-risk patients is crucial to prevent subsequent complications. Copyright © 2016 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Pancreatic panniculitis as a presentation symptom of acinar cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    de Frutos Rosa, Diego; Espinosa Taranilla, Laura; González de Canales de Simón, Pilar; Vélez Velázquez, María Dolores; Guirado Koch, Cristina

    2018-05-01

    Pancreatic panniculitis is a rare skin manifestation associated with pancreatic conditions. This condition has similar characteristics to those of other panniculitis types and its course parallels the triggering condition and may occasionally precede it. We report the case of a female patient with asymptomatic pancreatic panniculitis; the etiologic study identified a pancreatic acinar cell carcinoma with liver metastases.

  7. Timing of cholecystectomy in biliary pancreatitis treatment.

    PubMed

    Demir, Uygar; Yazıcı, Pınar; Bostancı, Özgür; Kaya, Cemal; Köksal, Hakan; Işıl, Gürhan; Bozdağ, Emre; Mihmanlı, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    Gallstone pancreatitis constitutes 40% of all cases with pancreatitis while it constitutes up to 90% of cases with acute pancreatitis. The treatment modality in this patient population is still controversial. In this study, we aimed to compare the results of early and late cholecystectomy for patients with biliary pancreatitis. Patients treated with a diagnosis of acute biliary pancreatitis in our clinics between January 2000 and December 2011 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were divided into two groups: Group A, patients who underwent cholecystectomy during the first pancreatitis attack, Group B, patients who underwent an interval cholecystectomy at least 8 weeks after the first pancreatitis episode. The demographic characteristics, clinical symptoms, number of episodes, length of hospital stay, morbidity and mortality data were recorded. All data were evaluated with Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) 13.0 for windows and p <0.05 was considered as statistically significant. During the last 12 years, a total of 91 patients with surgical treatment for acute biliary pancreatitis were included into the study. There were 62 female and 29 male patients, with a mean age of 57.9±14.6 years (range: 21-89). A concomitant acute cholecystitis was present in 46.2% of the patients. Group A and B included 48 and 43 patients, respectively. The length of hospital stay was significantly higher in group B (9.4 vs. 6.8 days) (p<0,05). More than half of the patients in Group B were readmitted to the hospital for various reasons. No significant difference was observed between the two groups, one patient died due to heart failure in the postoperative period in group B. In-hospital cholecystectomy after remission of acute pancreatitis is feasible. It will not only result in lower recurrence and complication rates but also shorten length of hospital stay. We recommend performing cholecystectomy during the course of the first episode in patients with acute

  8. Acute recurrent pancreatitis: Etiopathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment

    PubMed Central

    Testoni, Pier Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Acute recurrent pancreatitis (ARP) refers to a clinical entity characterized by episodes of acute pancreatitis which occurs on more than one occasion. Recurrence of pancreatitis generally occurs in a setting of normal morpho-functional gland, however, an established chronic disease may be found either on the occasion of the first episode of pancreatitis or during the follow-up. The aetiology of ARP can be identified in the majority of patients. Most common causes include common bile duct stones or sludge and bile crystals; sphincter of oddi dysfunction; anatomical ductal variants interfering with pancreatic juice outflow; obstruction of the main pancreatic duct or pancreatico-biliary junction; genetic mutations; alcohol consumption. However, despite diagnostic technologies, the aetiology of ARP still remains unknown in up to 30% of cases: in these cases the term “idiopathic” is used. Because occult bile stone disease and sphincter of oddi dysfunction account for the majority of cases, cholecystectomy, and eventually the endoscopic biliary and/or pancreatic sphincterotomy are curative in most of cases. Endoscopic biliary sphincterotomy appeared to be a curative procedure per se in about 80% of patients. Ursodeoxycholic acid oral treatment alone has also been reported effective for treatment of biliary sludge. In uncertain cases toxin botulin injection may help in identifying some sphincter of oddi dysfunction, but this treatment is not widely used. In the last twenty years, pancreatic endotherapy has been proven effective in cases of recurrent pancreatitis depending on pancreatic ductal obstruction, independently from the cause of obstruction, and has been widely used instead of more aggressive approaches. PMID:25493002

  9. Evaluation of the short- and long-term effectiveness and safety of fully covered self-expandable metal stents for drainage of pancreatic fluid collections: results of a Spanish nationwide registry.

    PubMed

    Vazquez-Sequeiros, Enrique; Baron, Todd H; Pérez-Miranda, Manuel; Sánchez-Yagüe, Andres; Gornals, Joan; Gonzalez-Huix, Ferran; de la Serna, Carlos; Gonzalez Martin, Juan Angel; Gimeno-Garcia, Antonio Z; Marra-Lopez, Carlos; Castellot, Ana; Alberca, Fernando; Fernandez-Urien, Ignacio; Aparicio, Jose Ramon; Legaz, Maria Luisa; Sendino, Oriol; Loras, Carmen; Subtil, Jose Carlos; Nerin, Juan; Perez-Carreras, Mercedes; Diaz-Tasende, Jose; Perez, Gustavo; Repiso, Alejandro; Vilella, Angels; Dolz, Carlos; Alvarez, Alberto; Rodriguez, Santiago; Esteban, Jose Miguel; Juzgado, Diego; Albillos, Agustin

    2016-09-01

    Initial reports suggest that fully covered self-expandable metal stents (FCSEMSs) may be better suited for drainage of dense pancreatic fluid collections (PFCs), such as walled-off pancreatic necrosis. The primary aim was to analyze the effectiveness and safety of FCSEMSs for drainage of different types of PFCs in a large cohort. The secondary aim was to investigate which type of FCSEMS is superior. This was a retrospective, noncomparative review of a nationwide database involving all hospitals in Spain performing EUS-guided PFC drainage. From April 2008 to August 2013, all patients undergoing PFC drainage with an FCSEMS were included in a database. The main outcome measurements were technical success, short-term (2 weeks) and long-term (6 months) effectiveness, adverse events, and need for surgery. The study included 211 patients (pseudocyst/walled-off pancreatic necrosis, 53%/47%). The FCSEMSs used were straight biliary (66%) or lumen-apposing (34%). Technical success was achieved in 97% of patients (95% confidence interval [CI], 93%-99%). Short-term- and long-term clinical success was obtained in 94% (95% CI, 89%-97%) and 85% (95% CI, 79%-89%) of patients, respectively. Adverse events occurred in 21% of patients (95% CI, 16%-27%): infection (11%), bleeding (7%), and stent migration and/or perforation (3%). By multivariate analysis, patient age (>58 years) and previous failed drainage were the most important factors associated with negative outcome. An FCSEMS is effective and safe for PFC drainage. Older patients with a history of unsuccessful drainage are more likely to fail EUS-guided drainage. The type of FCSEMS does not seem to influence patient outcome. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Selective drainage for pancreatic, biliary, and duodenal obstruction secondary to chronic fibrosing pancreatitis.

    PubMed Central

    Sugerman, H J; Barnhart, G R; Newsome, H H

    1986-01-01

    Twenty-eight patients underwent surgery for intractable pain, duodenal or extrahepatic biliary obstruction secondary to chronic pancreatitis. Eleven had pancreatic duct obstruction alone, six biliary obstruction alone, seven combined pancreatic and biliary, two combined biliary and duodenal, one combined pancreatic and duodenal, and one simultaneous pancreatic, biliary, and duodenal obstruction. Pancreatitis was secondary to alcohol in all but one case. The following operations were performed: longitudinal pancreatojejunostomy (20), choledochoduodenostomy (8), choledochojejunostomy (7), cholecystojejunostomy (1), and gastrojejunostomy (4). Of the 20 patients with pancreatic duct drainage, pain relief was complete in 11 and partial in six. Initial incomplete relief of pain, or recurrence, stimulated further diagnostic procedures, leading to improvement or correction of the problem in five patients. A significant (p less than 0.01) fall in alkaline phosphatase (935 +/- 228 to 219 +/- 61 U/L) occurred following surgery. One patient was subsequently found to have pancreatic carcinoma. Two patients were lost to follow-up and four patients died (one perioperative and three late). In conclusion, the possibility of pancreatic, biliary, and duodenal obstruction must be considered in symptomatic patients with chronic pancreatitis. Surgery must be individualized. Drainage procedures, either alone or in combination, are associated with a low morbidity and improved clinical condition and may be preferable to resection in the surgical management of these patients. Images FIG. 1. FIG. 2. FIG. 4. PMID:3707234

  11. Distribution of type IV collagen in pancreatic adenocarcinoma and chronic pancreatitis.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, C. S.; Montebello, J.; Georgiou, T.; Rode, J.

    1994-01-01

    Changes in the basement membrane are present in various neoplastic conditions such as neurofibrosarcoma, cervical carcinoma, colorectal cancers and hepatoblastoma. This study examines the expression of type IV collagen in the basement membrane, using an immunohistochemical method, in the normal pancreas (n = 10), chronic pancreatitis (n = 15) and pancreatic adenocarcinoma (n = 30). The formalin fixed, paraffin embedded tissue was sectioned and pretreated with protease prior to immunostaining for type IV collagen. There was a statistically significant difference in type IV collagen expression between pancreatic carcinoma and chronic pancreatitis (P = 0.0001; chi 2 test with continuity correction). In pancreatic adenocarcinoma, type IV collagen distribution in the basement membrane was discontinuous and irregular or absent around individual or groups of neoplastic cells (n = 30). Most cases of chronic pancreatitis showed continuous pattern of basement membrane type IV collagen around residual ducts (n = 10). In the normal pancreas, only one of the ten cases showed discontinuous basement membrane around pancreatic ducts, while in the rest of the cases, the pattern was continuous. This study suggests that there is abnormal distribution of type IV collagen in the basement membrane in pancreatic carcinoma, which may be related to either abnormal deposition or degradation of the collagen. Immunostaining for type IV collagen may be of some diagnostic use for distinguishing pancreatic adenocarcinoma from problematic cases of chronic pancreatitis. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:8199008

  12. High serum creatinine in acute pancreatitis: a marker for pancreatic necrosis?

    PubMed

    Lankisch, Paul Georg; Weber-Dany, Bettina; Maisonneuve, Patrick; Lowenfels, Albert B

    2010-05-01

    High serum creatinine is a well-known unfavorable prognostic parameter in acute pancreatitis. Elevated creatinine at 48 h after admission was recently described as a marker for pancreatic necrosis. As pancreatic necrosis is a serious complication of acute pancreatitis and its identification by a simple single laboratory test would be very helpful, the aim of this study was to test that statement. In a prospective multicenter study of 462 patients with a first attack of acute pancreatitis, serum creatinine was determined on admission, and at 24 and 48 h thereafter, and compared with the findings of contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) performed within 96 h of admission. Pancreatic necrosis was present in 62 (13%) of the patients. Serum creatinine levels (abnormal > or = 2 mg/dl) on admission and after 24 and 48 h were evaluated vs. the presence or absence of pancreatic necrosis. Sensitivity rates varied between 14 and 23%, specificity between 95 and 97%, positive predictive values between 41 and 50%, and negative predictive values between 87 and 89%. Receiver operating characteristic curves revealed an area under the curve of between 0.604 and 0.669. An elevated serum creatinine concentration at any time during the first 48 h of admission is not a marker for pancreatic necrosis in a first attack of acute pancreatitis. If serum creatinine is normal, necrotizing pancreatitis is unlikely, and contrast-enhanced CT need not be performed unless complications occur and/or the patient's condition deteriorates.

  13. β-Cell regeneration through the transdifferentiation of pancreatic cells: Pancreatic progenitor cells in the pancreas.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyo-Sup; Lee, Moon-Kyu

    2016-05-01

    Pancreatic progenitor cell research has been in the spotlight, as these cells have the potential to replace pancreatic β-cells for the treatment of type 1 and 2 diabetic patients with the absence or reduction of pancreatic β-cells. During the past few decades, the successful treatment of diabetes through transplantation of the whole pancreas or isolated islets has nearly been achieved. However, novel sources of pancreatic islets or insulin-producing cells are required to provide sufficient amounts of donor tissues. To overcome this limitation, the use of pancreatic progenitor cells is gaining more attention. In particular, pancreatic exocrine cells, such as duct epithelial cells and acinar cells, are attractive candidates for β-cell regeneration because of their differentiation potential and pancreatic lineage characteristics. It has been assumed that β-cell neogenesis from pancreatic progenitor cells could occur in pancreatic ducts in the postnatal stage. Several studies have shown that insulin-producing cells can arise in the duct tissue of the adult pancreas. Acinar cells also might have the potential to differentiate into insulin-producing cells. The present review summarizes recent progress in research on the transdifferentiation of pancreatic exocrine cells into insulin-producing cells, especially duct and acinar cells.

  14. Long-term follow-up of chronic pancreatitis patients with K-ras mutation in the pancreatic juice.

    PubMed

    Kamisawa, Terumi; Takuma, Kensuke; Tabata, Taku; Egawa, Naoto; Yamaguchi, Toshikazu

    2011-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is known to occur during the course of chronic pancreatitis in some patients. This study aimed to identify a high risk group for developing pancreatic cancer associated with chronic pancreatitis, particularly the presence of K-ras mutations in the pancreatic juice. K-ras mutation was analyzed by enriched polymerase chain reaction-enzyme linked mini-sequence assay in endoscopically-collected pancreatic juice of 21 patients with chronic pancreatitis between 1995 and 2000. All of them were followed-up for 6.0 +/- 3.8 (mean +/- SD) years (range, 2.1-14.2 years). K-ras point mutation was observed in the pancreatic juice of 11 patients with chronic pancreatitis (2+, n=2; 1+, n=6; +/-, n=3). Of these, 2 chronic pancreatitis patients with 2+K-ras point mutation developed pancreatic cancer 4.5 and 10.8 years, respectively, after the examination. Two chronic pancreatitis patients with K-ras mutation developed pancreatic cancer 4.5 and 10.8 years later. Semiquantitative analysis of K-ras mutation in endoscopically-collected pancreatic juice appears to be a useful tool for identifying chronic pancreatitis patients at high risk for developing pancreatic cancer.

  15. Pancreatic Cancer Chemoprevention by Phytochemicals

    PubMed Central

    Boreddy, Srinivas Reddy; Srivastava, Sanjay K.

    2012-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is fourth leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States of America. In spite of recent advances in the current therapeutic modalities such as surgery, radiation and chemotherapy patients, the average five year survival rate remains still less than 5%. Recently, compounds from natural sources receive ample of attention as anti-cancer agents. Many epidemiological studies published over the past few decades provide a strong correlation between consumption of vegetables, fruits or plant derived products and reduced incidence of cancer. The present review focuses on the potential antitumor effects of various natural products. PMID:23111102

  16. Chronic Pancreatitis: Current Status and Challenges for Prevention and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Lew, Daniel; Afghani, Elham

    2017-01-01

    This paper reviews the current status of our understanding of the epidemiology, diagnosis, and management of the continuum of pancreatic diseases from acute and recurrent acute pancreatitis to chronic pancreatitis and the diseases that are often linked with pancreatitis including diabetes mellitus and pancreatic cancer. In addition to reviewing the current state of the field, we identify gaps in knowledge that are necessary to address to improve patient outcomes in these conditions. PMID:28501969

  17. Chronic Pancreatitis: Current Status and Challenges for Prevention and Treatment.

    PubMed

    Lew, Daniel; Afghani, Elham; Pandol, Stephen

    2017-07-01

    This paper reviews the current status of our understanding of the epidemiology, diagnosis, and management of the continuum of pancreatic diseases from acute and recurrent acute pancreatitis to chronic pancreatitis and the diseases that are often linked with pancreatitis including diabetes mellitus and pancreatic cancer. In addition to reviewing the current state of the field, we identify gaps in knowledge that are necessary to address to improve patient outcomes in these conditions.

  18. Fluoroscopy-assisted vs fluoroless endoscopic ultrasound-guided transmural drainage of pancreatic fluid collections: A comparative study.

    PubMed

    Consiglieri, Claudia F; Gornals, Joan B; Busquets, Juli; Peláez, Nuria; Secanella, Lluis; De-La-Hera, Meritxell; Sanzol, Resurrección; Fabregat, Joan; Castellote, José

    2018-01-01

    The need for fluoroscopy guidance in patients undergoing endoscopic ultrasound-guided transmural drainage (EUS-TMD) of peripancreatic fluid collections (PFCs) remains unclear. The aim of this study was to compare general outcomes of EUS-TMD of PFCs under fluoroscopy (F) vs fluoroless (FL). This is a comparative study with a retrospective analysis of a prospective and consecutive inclusion database at a tertiary centre, from 2009 to 2015. All patients were symptomatic pseudocyst (PSC) and walled-off pancreatic necrosis (WON). Two groups were assigned depending on availability of fluoroscopy. The groups were heterogeneous in terms of their demographic characteristics, PFCs and procedure. The main outcome measures included technical and clinical success, incidences, adverse events (AEs), and follow-up. Fifty EUS-TMD of PFCs from 86 EUS-guided drainages were included during the study period. Group F included 26 procedures, PSC 69.2%, WON 30.8%, metal stents 61.5% (46.1% lumen-apposing stent) and plastic stents 38.5%. Group FL included 24 procedures, PSC 37.5%, WON 62.5%, and metal stents 95.8% (lumen-apposing stents). Technical success was 100% in both groups, and clinical success was similar (F 88.5%, FL 87.5%). Technical incidences and intra-procedure AEs were only described in group F (7.6% and 11.5%, respectively) and none in group FL. Procedure time was less in group FL (8min, p=0.0341). Fluoroless in the EUS-TMD of PFCs does not involve more technical incidences or intra-procedure AEs. Technical and clinical success was similar in the two groups. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Recurrent pancreatitis in pregnancy after preconception Whipple for pseudopapillary pancreatic tumor.

    PubMed

    Dray, Danielle; Dahlke, Joshua D; Rouse, Dwight J

    2014-08-01

    Solid pseudopapillary pancreatic tumor is a rare tumor affecting young women. Case reports have presented pregnancy outcomes after pancreaticoduodenectomy (Whipple procedure) in pregnancy for this neoplasm. We report a case of a woman who underwent a preconception Whipple procedure for a solid pseudopapillary pancreatic tumor who experienced recurrent pancreatitis confined to pregnancy. A 28-year-old gravida 2 para 1 woman with a history of a Whipple procedure for a solid pseudopapillary pancreatic tumor 2 years prior had three episodes of severe pancreatitis in pregnancy. She was managed conservatively with each episode. She delivered at term and did not have a recurrence in the 8 months since her delivery. Recurrent pancreatitis in pregnancy after a preconception Whipple procedure can be managed conservatively without surgical intervention.

  20. Influence of high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) treatment to the pancreatic function in pancreatic cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yulan; Ying, Xiao; Hu, Xiaoye; Zhao, Jing; Fang, Xuefeng; Wu, Minghui; Chen, Tian Zhou; Shen, Hong

    2015-05-01

    Present study was designed to investigate the pancreatic endocrine and exocrine function damage after High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) therapy in patients with advanced pancreatic cancer. It was a retrospective analysis of blood glucose and amylase changes in 59 advanced pancreatic cancer patients treated with HIFU from 2010 February to 2014 January. The mean glucose and amylase before HIFU treatment were 6.02mmol/L and 59.17 U/L respectively. After HIFU treatment, it was shown that the mean glucose and amylase levels were 5.66mmol/L and 57.86/L respectively. There was no statistical significance between them. No acute pancreatitis was observed. The endocrine and exocrine function of pancreatic cancer patients was not damaged by HIFU treatment. HIFU treatment for the pancreatic cancer patients seems to be safe.

  1. Type 3c (pancreatogenic) diabetes mellitus secondary to chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hart, Phil A; Bellin, Melena D; Andersen, Dana K; Bradley, David; Cruz-Monserrate, Zobeida; Forsmark, Christopher E; Goodarzi, Mark O; Habtezion, Aida; Korc, Murray; Kudva, Yogish C; Pandol, Stephen J; Yadav, Dhiraj; Chari, Suresh T

    2017-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a group of diseases defined by persistent hyperglycaemia. Type 2 diabetes, the most prevalent form, is characterised initially by impaired insulin sensitivity and subsequently by an inadequate compensatory insulin response. Diabetes can also develop as a direct consequence of other diseases, including diseases of the exocrine pancreas. Historically, diabetes due to diseases of the exocrine pancreas was described as pancreatogenic or pancreatogenous diabetes mellitus, but recent literature refers to it as type 3c diabetes. It is important to note that type 3c diabetes is not a single entity; it occurs because of a variety of exocrine pancreatic diseases with varying mechanisms of hyperglycaemia. The most commonly identified causes of type 3c diabetes are chronic pancreatitis, pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, haemochromatosis, cystic fibrosis, and previous pancreatic surgery. In this Review, we discuss the epidemiology, pathogenesis, and clinical relevance of type 3c diabetes secondary to chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, and highlight several important knowledge gaps. PMID:28404095

  2. Histamine regulation of pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer: a review of recent findings

    PubMed Central

    Francis, Taylor; Graf, Allyson; Hodges, Kyle; Kennedy, Lindsey; Hargrove, Laura; Price, Mattie; Kearney, Kate

    2013-01-01

    The pancreas is a dynamic organ that performs a multitude of functions within the body. Diseases that target the pancreas, like pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer, are devastating and often fatal to the suffering patient. Histamine and histamine receptors (H1-H4HRs) have been found to play a critical role in biliary diseases. Accordingly, the biliary tract and the pancreas share similarities with regards to morphological, phenotypical and functional features and disease progression, studies related the role of H1-H4HRs in pancreatic diseases are important. In this review, we have highlighted the role that histamine, histidine decarboxylase (HDC), histamine receptors and mast cells (the main source of histamine in the body) play during both pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer. The objective of the review is to demonstrate that histamine and histamine signaling may be a potential therapeutic avenue towards treatment strategies for pancreatic diseases. PMID:24570946

  3. Issues in Hypertriglyceridemic Pancreatitis - An Update

    PubMed Central

    Scherer, John; Singh, Vijay; Pitchumoni, C. S; Yadav, Dhiraj

    2014-01-01

    Hypertriglyceridemia (HTG) is a well established but underestimated cause of acute (AP) and recurrent AP (RAP). The clinical presentation of HTG-induced pancreatitis (HTG pancreatitis) is similar to other causes. Pancreatitis secondary to HTG is typically seen in the presence of one or more secondary factors (uncontrolled diabetes, alcoholism, medications, pregnancy) in a patient with an underlying common genetic abnormality of lipoprotein metabolism (Familial combined hyperlipidemia or Familial HTG). Less commonly, a patient with rare genetic abnormality (Familial chylomicronemic syndrome) with or without an additional secondary factor is encountered. The risk of AP in patients with serum triglycerides >1000 mg/dl and >2000 mg/dl is ∼5% and 10-20% respectively. It is not clear whether HTG pancreatitis is more severe than when it is due to other causes. Clinical management of HTG pancreatitis is similar to that of other causes. Insulin infusion in diabetic patients with HTG can rapidly reduce triglyceride levels. Use of apheresis is still experimental and better designed studies are needed to clarify its role in management of HTG pancreatitis. Diet, lifestyle changes, control of secondary factors are key to the treatment and medications are useful adjuncts to long term management of triglyceride levels. Control of triglyceride levels to well below 500 mg/dl can effectively prevent recurrences of pancreatitis. PMID:24172179

  4. Pancreatic Lipomatous Hamartoma: A Hitherto Unrecognized Variant.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Mariko; Ushiku, Tetsuo; Ikemura, Masako; Takazawa, Yutaka; Igari, Toru; Shimizu, Michio; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Fukushima, Noriyoshi; Sakuma, Kei; Arita, Junichi; Sakamoto, Yoshihiro; Hasegawa, Kiyoshi; Watadani, Takeyuki; Nakai, Yousuke; Koike, Kazuhiko; Fukayama, Masashi

    2018-05-04

    Pancreatic masses consisting of lipomatous components clinically include lipoma, liposarcoma, lipomatous pseudohypertrophy of the pancreas, fat-containing neoplasms such as perivascular epithelioid cell tumor, and malignant neoplasm with lipoid degeneration. We present pancreatic lipomatous hamartoma, which has not been reported hitherto. A solid pancreatic mass was detected from a computed tomographic scan check-up in each of 3 cases of Japanese men. Macroscopically, well-demarcated solid lipomatous masses were detected at the uncus, body, and tail of the pancreas, respectively. Microscopically, the masses predominantly consisted of mature adipocytes with no atypia, but contained characteristics components of pancreatic hamartoma, such as small ducts, a well-preserved acinar structure, and/or fibrous stroma. On the basis of the unique features, lack of islets and absence of periductal elastic fibers, these tumors are a distinct variant of pancreatic hamartoma. Furthermore, high-mobility group AT-hook 2 expression in the fibro-adipocytes of this tumor indicated that these cells are an integral component of the pancreatic lipomatous hamartoma. Consequently, the unique tumors described herein are pancreatic lipomatous hamartoma, which must be discriminated from other lipomatous lesions of the pancreas.

  5. Challenges in diagnosis of pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lulu; Sanagapalli, Santosh; Stoita, Alina

    2018-05-21

    Pancreatic cancer is a growing source of cancer related death, yet has poor survival rates which have not improved in the last few decades. Its high mortality rate is attributed to pancreatic cancer biology, difficulty in early diagnosis and the lack of standardised international guidelines in assessing suspicious pancreatic masses. This review aims to provide an update in the current state of play in pancreatic cancer diagnosis and to evaluate the benefits and limitations of available diagnostic technology. The main modalities discussed are imaging with computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, endoscopic ultrasound and positron emission tomography and tissue acquisition with fine needle aspiration. We also review the improvements in the techniques used for tissue acquisition and the opportunity for personalised cancer medicine. Screening of high risk individuals, promising biomarkers and common mimickers of pancreatic cancer are also explored, as well as suggestions for future research directions to allow for earlier detection of pancreatic cancer. Timely and accurate diagnosis of pancreatic cancer can lead to improvements in the current poor outcome of this disease.

  6. The management of acute and chronic pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Banks, Peter A; Conwell, Darwin L; Toskes, Phillip P

    2010-02-01

    Pancreatitis, which is most generally described as any inflammation of the pancreas, is a serious condition that manifests in either acute or chronic forms. Chronic pancreatitis results from irreversible scarring of the pancreas, resulting from prolonged inflammation. Six major etiologies for chronic pancreatitis have been identified: toxic/ metabolic, idiopathic, genetic, autoimmune, recurrent and severe acute pancreatitis, and obstruction. The most common symptom associated with chronic pancreatitis is pain localized to the upper-to-middle abdomen, along with food malabsorption, and eventual development of diabetes. Treatment strategies for acute pancreatitis include fasting and short-term intravenous feeding, fluid therapy, and pain management with narcotics for severe pain or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatories for milder cases. Patients with chronic disease and symptoms require further care to address digestive issues and the possible development of diabetes. Dietary restrictions are recommended, along with enzyme replacement and vitamin supplementation. More definitive outcomes may be achieved with surgical or endoscopic methods, depending on the role of the pancreatic ducts in the manifestation of disease.

  7. Advances in Hereditary Colorectal and Pancreatic Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Underhill, Meghan L.; Germansky, Katharine A.; Yurgelun, Matthew B.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Innovations in genetic medicine have lead to improvements in the early detection, prevention, and treatment of cancer for patients with inherited risks of gastrointestinal cancer, particularly hereditary colorectal cancer and hereditary pancreatic cancer. Methods This review provides an update on recent data and key advances that have improved the identification, understanding, and management of patients with hereditary colorectal cancer and hereditary pancreatic cancer. Findings This review details recent and emerging data that highlight the developing landscape of genetics in hereditary colorectal and pancreatic cancer risk. A summary is provided of the current state-of-the-art practices for identifying, evaluating, and managing patients with suspected hereditary colorectal cancer and pancreatic cancer risk. The impact of next-generation sequencing technologies in the clinical diagnosis of hereditary gastrointestinal cancer and also in discovery efforts of novel genes linked to familial cancer risk are discussed. Emerging targeted therapies that may play a particularly important role in the treatment of patients with hereditary forms of colorectal cancer and pancreatic cancer are also reviewed. Current approaches for pancreatic cancer screening and the psychosocial impact of such procedures are also detailed. Implications Given the availability of novel diagnostic, risk-reducing, and therapeutic strategies that exist for patients with hereditary risk for colorectal or pancreatic cancer, it is imperative that clinicians be vigilant about evaluating patients for hereditary cancer syndromes. Continuing to advance genetics research in hereditary gastrointestinal cancers will allow for more progress to be made in personalized medicine and prevention. PMID:27045993

  8. PERVAPORATION USING ADSORBENT-FILLED MEMBRANES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Membranes containing selective fillers, such as zeolites and activated carbon, can improve the separation by pervaporation. Applications of adsorbent-filled membranes in pervaporation have been demonstrated by a number of studies. These applications include removal of organic co...

  9. Sealing And Filling Cracks In Asphalt Pavements

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1999-11-01

    The primary objective of the crack treatment experiment was to determine the most effective and economical materials and methods for conducting crack-sealing and crack-filling operations. Secondary objectives included the identification of performanc...

  10. High density polyethylene pipe fill height table

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2006-11-01

    This report documents a review of nationwide practices with regard to recommendations for fill heights over high density polyethylene (HDPE) pipes. Another item of interest to the investigation was typical use of HDPE pipes by various agencies. The b...

  11. Foam-filled cushions for sliding trays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nahin, S. B.; Robb, P. H.

    1980-01-01

    Polytetrafluoroethylene tube filled with polyurethane foam forms low friction sliding surface that cushions vibrations and absorbs manufacturing tolerances and misalignment. Possible uses include packaging of components for shipping and seals for doors in lockers, cars, and refrigerators.

  12. Viscoelastic Response Of A Highly Filled Polymer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peng, Steven T. J.; Landel, Robert F.

    1992-01-01

    Report describes experimental and theoretical studies of nonlinear viscoelastic response of elastomeric binder material filled with small particles of different material. Studies characterize response with sufficient accuracy for use in designing parts subjected to high strains.

  13. Filled Prescriptions for Opioids After Vaginal Delivery.

    PubMed

    Jarlenski, Marian; Bodnar, Lisa M; Kim, Joo Yeon; Donohue, Julie; Krans, Elizabeth E; Bogen, Debra L

    2017-03-01

    To estimate the prevalence of filled opioid prescriptions after vaginal delivery. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 164,720 Medicaid-enrolled women in Pennsylvania who delivered a liveborn neonate vaginally from 2008 to 2013, excluding women who used opioids during pregnancy or who had an opioid use disorder. We assessed overall filled prescriptions as well as filled prescriptions in the presence or absence of the following pain-inducing conditions: bilateral tubal ligation, perineal laceration, or episiotomy. Outcomes included a binary measure of whether a woman had any opioid prescription fill 5 days or less after delivery and, among those women, a second opioid prescription fill 6-60 days after delivery. Among women with no coded pain-inducing conditions at delivery, we used multivariable logistic regression with standard errors clustered to account for within-hospital correlation to assess the association between patient characteristics and odds of a filled opioid prescription. Twelve percent of women (n=18,131) filled an outpatient opioid prescription 5 days or less after vaginal delivery; among those women, 14% (n=2,592, or 1.6% of the total) filled a second opioid prescription 6-60 days after delivery. Of the former, 5,110 (28.2%) had one or more pain-inducing conditions. Predictors of filled opioid prescriptions with no observed pain-inducing condition at delivery included tobacco use (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1.3, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.2-1.4) and a mental health condition (adjusted OR 1.3, 95% CI 1.2-1.4). Having a diagnosis of substance use disorder other than opioid use disorder was not associated with filling an opioid prescription 5 days or less after delivery, but was associated with having a second opioid prescription 6-60 days after delivery (adjusted OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.2-1.6). More than 1 in 10 Medicaid-enrolled women fill an outpatient opioid prescription after vaginal delivery. National opioid-prescribing recommendations for

  14. Biomineral nanoparticles are space-filling.

    PubMed

    Yang, Li; Killian, Christopher E; Kunz, Martin; Tamura, Nobumichi; Gilbert, P U P A

    2011-02-01

    Sea urchin biominerals have been shown to form from aggregating nanoparticles of amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC), which then crystallize into macroscopic single crystals of calcite. Here we measure the surface areas of these biominerals and find them to be comparable to those of space-filling macroscopic geologic calcite crystals. These biominerals differ from synthetic mesocrystals, which are invariably porous. We propose that space-filling ACC is the structural precursor for echinoderm biominerals.

  15. Less common etiologies of exocrine pancreatic insufficiency

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Vikesh K; Haupt, Mark E; Geller, David E; Hall, Jerry A; Quintana Diez, Pedro M

    2017-01-01

    Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (EPI), an important cause of maldigestion and malabsorption, results from primary pancreatic diseases or secondarily impaired exocrine pancreatic function. Besides cystic fibrosis and chronic pancreatitis, the most common etiologies of EPI, other causes of EPI include unresectable pancreatic cancer, metabolic diseases (diabetes); impaired hormonal stimulation of exocrine pancreatic secretion by cholecystokinin (CCK); celiac or inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) due to loss of intestinal brush border proteins; and gastrointestinal surgery (asynchrony between motor and secretory functions, impaired enteropancreatic feedback, and inadequate mixing of pancreatic secretions with food). This paper reviews such conditions that have less straightforward associations with EPI and examines the role of pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy (PERT). Relevant literature was identified by database searches. Most patients with inoperable pancreatic cancer develop EPI (66%-92%). EPI occurs in patients with type 1 (26%-57%) or type 2 diabetes (20%-36%) and is typically mild to moderate; by definition, all patients with type 3c (pancreatogenic) diabetes have EPI. EPI occurs in untreated celiac disease (4%-80%), but typically resolves on a gluten-free diet. EPI manifests in patients with IBD (14%-74%) and up to 100% of gastrointestinal surgery patients (47%-100%; dependent on surgical site). With the paucity of published studies on PERT use for these conditions, recommendations for or against PERT use remain ambiguous. The authors conclude that there is an urgent need to conduct robust clinical studies to understand the validity and nature of associations between EPI and medical conditions beyond those with proven mechanisms, and examine the potential role for PERT. PMID:29093615

  16. [Genetic aspects of pancreatic cancer].

    PubMed

    Grigor'eva, I N; Efimova, O V; Suvorova, T S; Tov, N L

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the review--to analyze the basic data on modifiable and genetic risk factors of pancreatic cancer (PC). PC is the most fatal disease that kills about 95% of patients. Among the known risk factors for PC only for smoking, obesity, and family history a positive association with the PC risk in meta-analyzes confirmed. The PC etiology remains unclear, more than 90% of patients acquire it sporadically. Currently, the most significant genes for PC include KRAS2, p16/CDKN2, TP53, SMAD4/DPC4. Mutations in the KRAS noted in 90% of cases of pancreatic ducts adenocarcinoma. p16/CDKN2A mutation is accompanied by a 38-fold increased risk of PC compared with the general population. TP53 mutations are associated not only with carcinogenesis but also PC metastasis, as well as SMAD4/DPC4 mutations. Study of the role of genetic aspects in the PC development is necessary both to identify individuals with high PC risk, as well as for the development of gene-specific treatments, such as inhibitors of proteins, histone deacetylase, and histone acetyltransferase (vorinostat, belinostat, entinostat, panobinostat, curcumin) are in clinical trials.

  17. Blood microcirculation of ischemic pancreatitis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dmitrieva, Irina V.; Arakelian, Sergei M.; Antonov, Olga V.

    1998-06-01

    Blood Microcirculation includes many of different components, which are joined by unique multiple system. Capillaries are one of the main link in this morpho-functional chain. Changes in any components of blood microcirculation are revealed by many of pathological processes in different organs and systems of the whole organism. We investigated 250 patients from 30 to 77 ages. Men included 149, women -- 101. The main diagnosis of all patients was the ischaemic pancreatitis. For verification of this diagnosis we used the whole spectrum of clinical, laboratorial and instrumental methods. These were the following: the definition of amylase of blood and urine, sonography and computer's tomography of pancreas, angiography of vessels of pancreas and Doppler's sonography of abdominal aorta and her branches: arteria mesenterica superior (AMS), truncus coeliacus (TC), arteria hepatica communis (AHC) and arteria lienalis (AL). We investigated the blood microcirculation of the mucous of the inferior lip, using Laser Dopplerography. The equipment for this research was LACC-01 with modified computer's program. The normal levels of blood microcirculation were from 120 to 180 Units. But patients with ischaemic pancreatitis had more lower level than in normal situation. This method are suggested as express diagnostic in the cases of abdominal ischaemic pathology. It can used as singel method or in combined with ultrasound Dopplerography.

  18. Lipemia retinalis preceding acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Horton, Matt; Thompson, Kelly

    2011-08-01

    Lipemia retinalis is a visible ophthalmic manifestation of severe hypertriglyceridemia. It may also be the only systemic sign present if triglycerides are acutely elevated in an asymptomatic patient. It may be the harbinger of more serious complications, such as acute pancreatitis and coronary artery disease. A 39-year-old woman presented for a diabetic eye examination. Dilated fundus examination found diffuse whitening of the retinal arteries and veins. The patient was asymptomatic without other remarkable ocular or systemic signs. The patient subsequently experienced an episode of acute pancreatitis. After a relative normalization of the triglyceride levels, the retina returned to baseline appearance. The patient's ocular health is monitored annually, and her endocrinologist modified the treatment regimen for improved lipid control. Although lipemia retinalis does not typically result in vision loss, it is a sign of a systemic condition that can have potentially fatal consequences. While the retinal appearance normalizes soon after resolution of the acute lipid imbalance, a multidisciplinary approach is necessary to obtain the desirable systemic outcome. Optometrists play a critical role in prompt referral of these patients for appropriate management of their lipids. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Lactobacillus plantarum reduces infection of pancreatic necrosis in experimental acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Mangiante, G; Colucci, G; Canepari, P; Bassi, C; Nicoli, N; Casaril, A; Marinello, P; Signoretto, C; Bengmark, S

    2001-01-01

    Infection is the commonest cause of death in acute pancreatitis. Early reduction of commensal flora (particularly Lactobacillus species) and, at the same time, overgrowth of Enterobacteriaceae, especially Escherichia coli, have recently been described during acute pancreatitis. Lactobacillus plantarum has been shown to be effective in reducing the egress of endotoxin and microbial translocation in several experimental models such as chemically induced hepatitis and ulcerative colitis. The aim of the study was to determine whether L. plantarum 299v (Lp 299v) is capable of effectively reducing microbial translocation in experimental pancreatitis. Acute pancreatitis was induced by isolation and ligation of the biliopancreatic duct in Lewis rats weighing 250-350 g. The animals were divided into 3 groups: group A, sham operation; group B, induction of pancreatitis and no further treatment, and group C, induction of pancreatitis + daily administration by gavage of a 5-ml/day suspension of Lp 299v at 0.5-1.0 x 10(9) bacteria/ml for 8 days, 4 days before and 4 days after induction of pancreatitis. All animals were sacrificed after 96 h. Histological studies and microbiological analyses were performed. At sacrifice, 40/55 animals showed signs of severe pancreatitis. Since acute pancreatitis was the specific disease investigated, only these animals were subjected to further study. In group B, we found pathogenic micro-organisms in the mesenteric lymph nodes in 14/20 animals and in the pancreatic tissue in 10/20. The bacterial flora consisted predominantly of E. coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Pseudomonas and Proteus species. In contrast, when the animals were kept under an 'umbrella' of Lp 299v, growth of E. faecalis or E. coli were detected only in 4/20 mesenteric lymph node cultures and in 3/20 pancreatic tissue cultures. Lp 299v is effective in reducing microbial translocation in experimental pancreatitis. Treatment with probiotic bacteria seems to be a promising alternative

  20. Transcatheter embolization of pancreatic arteriovenous malformation associated with recurrent acute pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Rajesh, S; Mukund, Amar; Bhatia, Vikram; Arora, Ankur

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic arteriovenous malformation (PAVM) is extremely rare; even rarer is its association with pancreatitis. The authors report a case of PAVM causing recurrent episodes of acute pancreatitis in a 46-year-old male. Patient refused surgery and was treated with transcatheter arterial embolization using liquid embolic agent (mixture of n-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate glue and lipiodol), which resulted in a significant decrease in the size of the PAVM. PMID:27081231

  1. Alcohol and the pancreas. II. Pancreatic morphology of advanced alcoholic pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Noronha, M; Bordalo, O; Dreiling, D A

    1981-08-01

    The histopathology of advanced chronic alcoholic pancreatitis is dominated by cellular degeneration, atrophy and fibrosis. Sequential changes in the histopathology of alcoholic pancreatic disease has been defined and traced from initial injury to end-stage disease. These sequential histopathologies have been correlated with clinical syndrome and secretory patterns. The data are more consistent with a toxic-metabolic pathogenesis of alcoholic pancreatitis than the previous Big Duct and Small Duct hypotheses.

  2. Drug-associated pancreatitis: facts and fiction.

    PubMed

    Rünzi, M; Layer, P

    1996-07-01

    In the past, numerous reports on drugs probably causing acute pancreatitis have been published. However, most of these case reports were anecdotal with a lack of obvious evidence and did not present a comprehensive summary. Although drug-associated pancreatitis is rare, it is gaining increasing importance with the introduction of several potent new agents, i.e., anti-acquired immunodeficiency syndrome drugs. The following comprehensive review scrutinizes the evidence present in the world literature on drugs associated with acute or chronic pancreatitis and, based on this, categorizes in a definite, probable, or possible causality. In addition, explanations for the pathophysiological mechanisms are discussed.

  3. Post-pancreatitis Fat Necrosis Mimicking Carcinomatosis.

    PubMed

    Smith, Joshua P; Arnoletti, J Pablo; Varadarajulu, Shyam; Morgan, Desiree E

    2008-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis can result in retroperitoneal fat necrosis, typically occurring in the peripancreatic region, with extension into the transverse mesocolon, omentum and mesenteric root. When evaluated with contrast enhanced computed tomography (CECT), acute peripancreatic post necrotic collections typically become lower in attenuation over time, and often appear as homogeneous fluid collections. Saponification as a complication of fat necrosis in patients with acute pancreatitis is a well recognized clinical entity. While retroperitonal fat necrosis is commonly seen on CECT, saponification is not a prominent imaging feature. We present a case of acute pancreatitis complicated by extensive saponification of fat throughout the retroperitoneum and peritoneal lining, mimicking carcinomatosis.

  4. Pancreaticoatmospheric fistula following severe acute necrotising pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Simoneau, Eve; Chughtai, Talat; Razek, Tarek; Deckelbaum, Dan L

    2014-01-01

    Severe acute necrotising pancreatitis is associated with numerous local and systemic complications. Abdominal compartment syndrome requiring urgent decompressive laparotomy is a potential complication of this disease process and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. We describe the case of a pancreaticoatmospheric fistula following decompressive laparotomy in a patient with severe acute necrotising pancreatitis. While this fistula was managed successfully using the current standard of care for pancreatic fistulas, the wound care for in this patient with drainage of the fistula through an open abdomen, is a significant challenge. PMID:25519860

  5. Hereditary pancreatic adenocarcinoma. A clinical perspective.

    PubMed

    Brand, R E; Lynch, H T

    2000-05-01

    Although the total number of patients in these various high-risk groups is relatively small, they nevertheless provide excellent models for studying the cause, natural history, pathogenesis, and treatment of pancreatic cancer. These patients would also benefit greatly from procedures capable of detecting cancer at an early stage. This knowledge would be useful for the much commoner sporadic form of pancreatic cancer, in which diagnosis is almost always late and prognosis fatal. With early diagnosis, surgical resection before the cancer's extension beyond the organ's anatomic confines could be curative. The establishment of a National Familial Pancreatic Cancer Registry is essential and would increase the availability of these invaluable families for medical research.

  6. [Pancreatic pathology in black Africans (excluding diabetes)].

    PubMed

    Sankalé, M

    1984-01-01

    Number of cases of pancreatitis obviously increases in african Black not so much acute forms but mainly chronic calcifying forms of which ethylism represents the main etiology. As in cancers and pancreatic cysts, symptomatology shows no particular characteristic in Negroes. Moreover, because some deficiencies in the sanitary network, lethality remains at a high level. A special form, principally identified in Kerala and Java, is met in some african areas: the juvenile tropical pancreatitis syndrom, with diabetes as main symptom, of which no explanation can be given up to now.

  7. Radiology of pancreatic neoplasms: An update

    PubMed Central

    de la Santa, Luis Gijón; Retortillo, José Antonio Pérez; Miguel, Ainhoa Camarero; Klein, Lea Marie

    2014-01-01

    Diagnostic imaging is an important tool to evaluate pancreatic neoplasms. We describe the imaging features of pancreatic malignancies and their benign mimics. Accurate detection and staging are essential for ensuring appropriate selection of patients who will benefit from surgery and for preventing unnecessary surgeries in patients with unresectable disease. Ultrasound, multidetector computed tomography with multiplanar reconstruction and magnetic resonance imaging can help to do a correct diagnosis. Radiologists should be aware of the wide variety of anatomic variants and pathologic conditions that may mimic pancreatic neoplasms. The knowledge of the most important characteristic key findings may facilitate the right diagnosis. PMID:25232458

  8. Radiology of pancreatic neoplasms: An update.

    PubMed

    de la Santa, Luis Gijón; Retortillo, José Antonio Pérez; Miguel, Ainhoa Camarero; Klein, Lea Marie

    2014-09-15

    Diagnostic imaging is an important tool to evaluate pancreatic neoplasms. We describe the imaging features of pancreatic malignancies and their benign mimics. Accurate detection and staging are essential for ensuring appropriate selection of patients who will benefit from surgery and for preventing unnecessary surgeries in patients with unresectable disease. Ultrasound, multidetector computed tomography with multiplanar reconstruction and magnetic resonance imaging can help to do a correct diagnosis. Radiologists should be aware of the wide variety of anatomic variants and pathologic conditions that may mimic pancreatic neoplasms. The knowledge of the most important characteristic key findings may facilitate the right diagnosis.

  9. Targeting pancreatic expressed PAX genes for the treatment of diabetes mellitus and pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors.

    PubMed

    Martin-Montalvo, Alejandro; Lorenzo, Petra I; López-Noriega, Livia; Gauthier, Benoit R

    2017-01-01

    Four members of the PAX family, PAX2, PAX4, PAX6 and PAX8 are known to be expressed in the pancreas. Accumulated evidences indicate that several pancreatic expressed PAX genes play a significant role in pancreatic development/functionality and alterations in these genes are involved in the pathogenesis of pancreatic diseases. Areas covered: In this review, we summarize the ongoing research related to pancreatic PAX genes in diabetes mellitus and pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. We dissect the current knowledge at different levels; from mechanistic studies in cell lines performed to understand the molecular processes controlled by pancreatic PAX genes, to in vivo studies using rodent models that over-express or lack specific PAX genes. Finally, we describe human studies associating variants on pancreatic-expressed PAX genes with pancreatic diseases. Expert opinion: Based on the current literature, we propose that future interventions to treat pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors and diabetes mellitus could be developed via the modulation of PAX4 and/or PAX6 regulated pathways.

  10. Pancreatic stellate cells promote epithelial-mesenchymal transition in pancreatic cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kikuta, Kazuhiro; Masamune, Atsushi, E-mail: amasamune@med.tohoku.ac.jp; Watanabe, Takashi

    2010-12-17

    Research highlights: {yields} Recent studies have shown that pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) promote the progression of pancreatic cancer. {yields} Pancreatic cancer cells co-cultured with PSCs showed loose cell contacts and scattered, fibroblast-like appearance. {yields} PSCs decreased the expression of epithelial markers but increased that of mesenchymal markers, along with increased migration. {yields} This study suggests epithelial-mesenchymal transition as a novel mechanism by which PSCs contribute to the aggressive behavior of pancreatic cancer cells. -- Abstract: The interaction between pancreatic cancer cells and pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs), a major profibrogenic cell type in the pancreas, is receiving increasing attention. There ismore » accumulating evidence that PSCs promote the progression of pancreatic cancer by increasing cancer cell proliferation and invasion as well as by protecting them from radiation- and gemcitabine-induced apoptosis. Because epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays a critical role in the progression of pancreatic cancer, we hypothesized that PSCs promote EMT in pancreatic cancer cells. Panc-1 and SUIT-2 pancreatic cancer cells were indirectly co-cultured with human PSCs isolated from patients undergoing operation for pancreatic cancer. The expression of epithelial and mesenchymal markers was examined by real-time PCR and immunofluorescent staining. The migration of pancreatic cancer cells was examined by scratch and two-chamber assays. Pancreatic cancer cells co-cultured with PSCs showed loose cell contacts and a scattered, fibroblast-like appearance. The expression of E-cadherin, cytokeratin 19, and membrane-associated {beta}-catenin was decreased, whereas vimentin and Snail (Snai-1) expression was increased more in cancer cells co-cultured with PSCs than in mono-cultured cells. The migration of pancreatic cancer cells was increased by co-culture with PSCs. The PSC-induced decrease of E-cadherin expression was not

  11. A Duodenal Ulcer Caused by Pancreatic Ductal Hypertension with Chronic Pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Imoto, Akira; Masuda, Daisuke; Okuda, Atsushi; Takagi, Wataru; Onda, Saori; Sano, Tatsushi; Mikami, Takashi; Mohamed, Malak; Ogura, Takeshi; Higuchi, Kazuhide

    2015-01-01

    We herein describe the case of a 67-year-old woman with a duodenal ulcer thought to be caused by elevated pancreatic ductal pressure. The patient complained of continuous upper abdominal pain. Her medical history included idiopathic chronic pancreatitis. Endoscopy revealed a huge duodenal ulcer located on the inferior duodenal angle, which had not been seen on endoscopic retrograde pancreatography two months previously. A combination study using endoscopy and contrast imaging confirmed the relationship between the duodenal ulcer and the pancreatic branch duct. To our knowledge, this is the first case of duodenal ulcer thought to be caused by elevated pancreatic ductal pressure.

  12. [Duodenum-preserving total pancreatic head resection and pancreatic head resection with segmental duodenostomy].

    PubMed

    Takada, Tadahiro; Yasuda, Hideki; Nagashima, Ikuo; Amano, Hodaka; Yoshiada, Masahiro; Toyota, Naoyuki

    2003-06-01

    A duodenum-preserving pancreatic head resection (DPPHR) was first reported by Beger et al. in 1980. However, its application has been limited to chronic pancreatitis because of it is a subtotal pancreatic head resection. In 1990, we reported duodenum-preserving total pancreatic head resection (DPTPHR) in 26 cases. This opened the way for total pancreatic head resection, expanding the application of this approach to tumorigenic morbidities such as intraductal papillary mucinous tumor (IMPT), other benign tumors, and small pancreatic cancers. On the other hand, Nakao et al. reported pancreatic head resection with segmental duodenectomy (PHRSD) as an alternative pylorus-preserving pancreatoduodenectomy technique in 24 cases. Hirata et al. also reported this technique as a new pylorus-preserving pancreatoduodenostomy with increased vessel preservation. When performing DPTPHR, the surgeon should ensure adequate duodenal blood supply. Avoidance of duodenal ischemia is very important in this operation, and thus