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Sample records for paniculata rutaceae estudo

  1. Isoflavonoids in the Rutaceae family: 1. Fortunella obovata, Murraya paniculata and four Citrus species.

    PubMed

    Lapcík, Oldrich; Klejdus, Borivoj; Davidová, Michaela; Kokoska, Ladislav; Kubán, Vlastimil; Moravcová, Jitka

    2004-01-01

    Several types of compounds with immunoreactivity similar to isoflavonoids were detected in water: ethanol extracts of leaves of Fortunella obovata Hort. ex Tanaka, Murraya paniculata Jack. and four Citrus species, namely C. aurantium L, C. grandis Osbeck, C. limonia Osbeck., and C. sinensis Osbeck (Rutaceae). The chromatographic mobilities of the immunoreactive substances were compared with those of authentic standards, revealing a spectrum of isoflavonoid metabolites in all plants studied. Aglycones as well as glycosides were recognized, namely daidzin, genistin, daidzein, genistein, formononetin, biochanin A, prunetin, and several incompletely characterized isoflavonoids. A subsequent HPLC-MS study verified the identities of the main immunoreactive isoflavonoids and established the identities of several others, viz. glycitein, glycitin, ononin and sissotrin, including the malonylated and acetylated isoflavonoid glucosides. The estimated content of the individual immunoreactive entities ranged from a few microg to about 2 mg/kg (dry weight). It is concluded that the isoflavonoid metabolic pathway is present throughout the Rutaceae family.

  2. Isolation and structure elucidation of a new prenylcoumarin from Murraya paniculata var. omphalocarpa (Rutaceae).

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, Takeshi; Shimada, Motoko

    2002-01-01

    A new C-8 prenylated 5,7-dimethoxycoumarin named omphamurrayin was isolated from the leaves of Murraya paniculata var. omphalocarpa, and its structure was established as 5,7-dimethoxy-8-(1-oxo-2-senecioyl-3-methyl-3-butenyl)-2H-1-benzopyran-2-one on the basis of the spectroscopic evidence. The taxonomic status of M. paniculata var. omphalocarpa is briefly discussed, along with its synonymity to M. paniculata from the chemosystematic viewpoint.

  3. Comparative analysis of the essential oil composition of Murraya paniculata and M. exotica.

    PubMed

    Lv, Hai-Ning; Guo, Xiao-Yu; Tu, Peng-Fei; Jiang, Yong

    2013-10-01

    Murrayae Folium et Cacumen (MFC) is a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) derived from the leaves and twigs of two aromatic species of Rutaceae: Murraya paniculata (L.) Jack and M. exotica L. It has long been used as a folk medicine in South China for the treatment of a variety of disorders, particularly for inflammatory lesions and pains. In the present study, a detailed chemical examination as well as a comparative analysis of the essential oil composition of M. paniculata and M. exotica was conducted by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 141 volatile components were identified from the essential oil of these two plants. Sesquiterpenes were found to be the predominant constituents, accounting for 92.8% of the oil from M. paniculata and 87.9% of that from M. exotica. A comparative analysis of the essential oil composition of these two plants revealed a high level of similarity in their main constituents, such as the co-occurrence of E-caryophyllene, spathulenol and delta-elemene, which gave the chemical evidence for their equal medicinal application as MFC in TCMs. Moreover, in combination with literature reports, E-caryophyllene was theoretically deduced as one of the pharmacologically effective components of MFC that is responsible for treating inflammatory lesions and for local anaesthesia.

  4. Triterpenoids from Brazilian Ginseng, Pfaffia paniculata

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two new nortriterpenoids pfaffine A and B (1-2) were isolated from the roots of Pfaffia paniculata Kuntze, along with ten known compounds including four ecdysteroids, ecdysone (3), 20-hydroxyecdysone (4), pterosterone (5), rapisterone (6), five triterpenoids, pfaffic acid (7), pfameric acid (8), me...

  5. A new coumarin from Murraya paniculata.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, Muhammad Iqbal; Azizuddin; Khalid, Asaad; Sultani, Shaikh Ziauddin; Atta-ur-Rahman

    2002-01-01

    A new natural product, 2'-O-ethylmurrangatin (1) was isolated along with two previously known compounds murranganone (2) and paniculatin (3) from the leaves of Murraya paniculata. The structure of compound 1 was elucidated with the help of spectroscopic studies and by chemical reactions. Compounds 2 and 3 have been found to be cholinesterase inhibitors.

  6. Two new coumarins from Murraya paniculata.

    PubMed

    Saied, Sumayya; Nizami, Shaikh Sirajuddin; Anis, Itrat

    2008-01-01

    Two new coumarins, murrmeranzin (1) and murralonginal (2), together with four known compounds minumicrolin (3), murrangatin (4), meranzin hydrate (5) and hainanmurpanin (6) have been isolated from the aerial parts of Murraya paniculata. The structures of these compounds were determined through spectral analysis. Minumicrolin (3) showed mild butyrylcholinesterase inhibition activity.

  7. Antioxidant action of Andrographis paniculata on lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Verma, Nibha; Vinayak, Manjula

    2008-12-01

    Regulation of the balance between production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by cellular processes and its removal by antioxidant defense system maintains normal physiological processes. Any condition leading to increased ROS results in oxidative stress which has been related with a number of diseases including cancer. Improvement in antioxidant defense system is required to overcome the damaging effects of oxidative stress. Therefore in the present study, effect of the aqueous extract of a medicinal plant Andrographis paniculata (AP) on antioxidant defense system in liver is investigated in lymphoma bearing AKR mice. Estimating catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione S transferase monitored the antioxidant action. Oral administration of the aqueous extract of A. paniculata in different doses causes a significant elevation of catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione S transferase activities. It reveals the antioxidant action of the aqueous extract of AP, which may play a role in the anticarcinogenic activity by reducing the oxidative stress. LDH activity is known to increase in various cancers due to hypoxic condition. Lactate dehydrogenase is used as tumor marker. We find a significant decrease in LDH activity on treatment with AP, which indicates a decrease in carcinogenic activity. A comparison with Doxorubicin (DOX), an anticancerous drug, indicates that the aqueous extract of AP is more effective than DOX with respect to its effect on catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione S transferase as well as on lactate dehydrogenase activities in liver of lymphoma bearing mice.

  8. Andrographis paniculata Extract (HMPL-004) for Active Ulcerative Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Sandborn, William J; Targan, Stephan R; Byers, Vera S; Rutty, Dean A; Mu, Hua; Zhang, Xun; Tang, Tom

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Andrographis paniculata has in vitro inhibitory activity against TNF-α, IL-1β and NF-κB. A pilot study of A. paniculata extract (HMPL-004) suggested similar efficacy to mesalamine for ulcerative colitis. METHODS: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial evaluated the efficacy of A. paniculata extract (HMPL-004) in 224 adults with mild-to-moderate ulcerative colitis. Patients were randomized to A. paniculata extract (HMPL-004) 1,200 mg or 1,800 mg daily or placebo for 8 weeks. RESULTS: In total, 45 and 60% of patients receiving A. paniculata 1,200 mg and 1,800 mg daily, respectively, were in clinical response at week 8, compared with 40% of those who received placebo (P=0.5924 for 1,200 mg vs. placebo and P=0.0183 for 1,800 mg vs. placebo). In all, 34 and 38% of patients receiving A. paniculata 1,200 mg and 1,800 mg daily, respectively, were in clinical remission at week 8, compared with 25% of those who received placebo (P=0.2582 for 1,200 mg vs. placebo and P=0.1011 for 1,800 mg vs. placebo). Adverse events developed in 60 and 53% of patients in the A. paniculata 1,200 mg and 1,800 mg daily groups, respectively, and 60% in the placebo group. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with mildly to moderately active ulcerative colitis treated with A. paniculata extract (HMPL-004) at a dose of 1,800 mg daily were more likely to achieve clinical response than those receiving placebo. PMID:23044768

  9. Antiplasmodial Isoflavanes and Pterocarpans from Apoplanesia paniculata.

    PubMed

    Su, Qingxi; Krai, Priscilla; Goetz, Michael; Cassera, Maria B; Kingston, David G I

    2015-08-01

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of an EtOH extract of the roots of the plant Apoplanesia paniculata (Fabaceae) led to the isolation of the three known compounds amorphaquinone (1), pendulone (2), and melilotocarpan C (3), and the two new pterocarpans 4 and 5. Compounds 1 and 2 exhibited good antiplasmodial activity with IC50 values of 5.7 ± 1.5 and 7.0 ± 0.8 µM, respectively. Compound 3 exhibited weak antiplasmodial activity (41.8 ± 5.2 µM), while compounds 4 and 5 were inactive. Compound 6 was synthesized to confirm the structure of 5, and it showed enhanced antiplasmodial activity (15.8 ± 1.4 µM) compared to its analogues 3-5.

  10. Antiplasmodial Isoflavanes and Pterocarpans from Apoplanesia paniculata

    PubMed Central

    Su, Qingxi; Krai, Priscilla; Goetz, Michael; Cassera, Maria B.; Kingston, David G. I.

    2015-01-01

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of an EtOH extract of the roots of the plant Apoplanesia paniculata (Fabaceae) led to the isolation of the three known compounds amorphaquinone (1), pendulone (2) and melilotocarpan C (3) and the two new pterocarpans 4 and 5. Compounds 1 and 2 exhibited good antiplasmodial activity with IC50 values of 5.7 ± 1.5 and 7.0 ± 0.8 µM, respectively. Compound 3 exhibited weak antiplasmodial activity (41.8 ± 5.2 µM), while compounds 4 and 5 were inactive. Compound 6 was synthesized to confirm the structure of 5, and it showed enhanced antiplasmodial activity (15.8 ± 1.4 µM) compared to its analogues 3 – 5. PMID:26018916

  11. Biofabrication of silver nanoparticles using Andrographis paniculata.

    PubMed

    Kotakadi, Venkata S; Gaddam, Susmila Aparna; Subba Rao, Y; Prasad, T N V K V; Varada Reddy, A; Sai Gopal, D V R

    2014-02-12

    New and novel strategies are of recent interest in the development of silver nanoparticles. The plant extracts are eco-friendly, economical and cost effective for synthesis of nanoparticles. In this paper, we represent biofabrication of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using Andrographis paniculata and the synthesized AgNPs was monitored by ultra-violet visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis). The morphology and crystalline nature of AgNPs were determined from scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), X-ray diffraction patterns (XRD), Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The size and the stability were detected by using Nanoparticle analyzer. The average size of the AgNPs was found to be 54 ± 2 nm and the Zeta potential was found to be -50.7 mV. The synthesized AgNPs have very good antifungal activity.

  12. Coumarins from Murraya paniculata var. zollingeri endemic to the Timor Islands.

    PubMed

    Teshima, Naoko; Yamada, Hiromi; Ju-ichi, Motoharu; Uji, Tahan; Kinoshita, Takeshi; Ito, Chihiro

    2015-02-01

    Four new coumarins, murrangatin-1'-senecioate (1), 5-methoxypanial (2), mexoticin-2'-senecioate (3) and murralongic acid (4), were isolated from the leaves of Murraya paniculata var. zollingeri, together with 23 known coumarins. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated based on spectroscopic data. The taxonomic status of M. paniculata var. zollingeri is briefly discussed, along with its similarity to M. paniculata.

  13. [Pathogenicity of Phylloporia chrysita (Aphyllophorales: Hymenochaetaceae) on Erythrochiton gymnanthus (Rutaceae)].

    PubMed

    Esquivel, R E; Carranza, J

    1996-12-01

    The pathogenicity of Phylloporia chrysita (Berk.) Ryv. on Erythrochiton gymnanthus K. (Rutaceae) was studied in Carara Biological Reserve, seasonal Pacific of Costa Rica. Growth rate and distribution of basidiocarps were determined on health and diseased plants. P. chrysita caused 52% growth reduction on diseased plants. Fungal hyphae were observed on epidermis, parenchyma and vascular tissue, where they caused cellular breakdown.

  14. New triterpenoidal saponins from Koelreuteria paniculata

    PubMed Central

    Mostafa, Ahmad E.; El-Hela, Atef A.; Mohammad, Abd-Elsalam I.; Cutler, Stephen J.; Ross, Samir A.

    2016-01-01

    Bioassay guided fractionation and chemical investigation of the ethanolic extract of the aerial parts of Koelreuteria paniculata Laxm. (Sapindaceae), resulted in the isolation and identification of three new triterpenoid saponins 1–3 named Paniculatosoid A–C, along with eleven known compounds. The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated using 1D and 2D NMR experiments, HRESIMS, and comparison with literature data. The occurrence of tridesmosidic saponin is reported for the first time from family Sapindaceae, as well as it is rarely found in natural saponins. Compounds 4–13 were evaluated for their antibacterial, antifungal, antimalarial and antileishmanial activities. Compound 12 showed weak antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli with an IC50 value of 101 μM. Compounds 12 and 13 showed antimalarial activity against chloroquine-sensitive (D6) Plasmodium falciparum protozoan with IC50 values of 6.46 and 6.95 μM, and against chloroquine-resistant (W2) Plasmodium falciparum protozoan with IC50 values of 9.34 and 4.18 μM. PMID:28250867

  15. Paniculacin, a new coumarin derivative from Murraya paniculata.

    PubMed

    Saeed, Sumayya; Shah, Shazia; Mehmood, Rashad; Malik, Abdul

    2011-08-01

    Paniculacin (1), a new coumarin derivative, has been isolated from the ethyl acetate soluble fraction of the ethanolic extract of Murraya paniculata along with umbelliferone, scopoletin, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, trans-cinnamic acid, and β-sitosterol. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectral data.

  16. Hepatoprotective activity of Andrographis paniculata and Swertia chirayita.

    PubMed

    Nagalekshmi, R; Menon, Aditya; Chandrasekharan, Dhanya K; Nair, Cherupally Krishnan Krishnan

    2011-12-01

    Andrographis paniculata (Family: Acanthaceae) and Swertia chirayita (Family: Gentianaceae) are two controversial medicinal plants used as Kiriyattu, having similar therapeutic action and are used as a hepatoprotective and hepatostimulative agent. A. paniculata grows in southern parts of India and S. chirayita in the Himalayan region. The present work concerns on the ability of the extracts of these plants to offer protection against acute hepatotoxicity induced by paracetamol (150 mg/kg) in Swiss albino mice. Oral administration of A. paniculata or S. chirayita extract (100-200mg/kg) offered a significant dose dependent protection against paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity as assessed in terms of biochemical and histopathological parameters. The paracetamol induced elevated levels of serum marker enzymes such as serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT), serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and bilirubin in peripheral blood serum and distorted hepatic tissue architecture along with increased levels of lipid peroxides (LPO) and reduction of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, reduced glutathione (GSH) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in liver tissue. Administration of the plant extracts after paracetamol insult restored the levels of these parameters to control (untreated) levels. Thus the present study revealed that the extracts of A. paniculata or S. chirayita offered protection against hepatotoxicity induced by paracetamol.

  17. A new diterpenoid from the aerial parts of Andrographis paniculata.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chun-Hua; Li, Wen; Qiu, Rui-Xia; Jiang, Miao-Miao; Li, Guo-Qiang

    2014-01-01

    One new and seven known diterpenoids were isolated from the aerial parts of Andrographis paniculata, and their structures elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic and spectrometric analysis, as well as chemical methods. The in vitro antiviral activities of these compounds against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) were assayed.

  18. Phylogenetic Relationships and Evolution of the Androecia in Ruteae (Rutaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Lai; Xiang, Xiao-guo; Wang, Yin-zheng; Li, Zhen-yu

    2015-01-01

    Ruta, which belongs to tribe Ruteae, is the type genus of the subfamily Rutoideae and the family Rutaceae. Molecular systematic studies have shown that the genera in Ruteae are closer related to Aurantioideae than to most other genera of Rutoideae, some of the genera traditionally placed in Ruteae have been shown to be nested within the Aurantioideae clade, but the diagnostic characters for determining new patterns in the relationship are poor. In this study, we investigated the floral development of Boenninghausenia in Ruteae (sensu stricto), Haplophyllum in the basal position of Aurantioideae and Murraya in traditional Aurantioideae using scanning electron microscopy. The androecium of Boenninghausenia is obdiplostemony. As androecia in other genera within Ruteae (s.s.) are also obdiplostemonous, reconstruction of the ancestral state indicates that obdiplostemony is an ancestral character in this clade. Because the androecia of Haplophyllum and Murraya are also obdiplostemonous, obdiplostemony is also an ancestral character in Aurantioideae clade. The ancestral state reconstruction indicates this character can serve as a synapomorphy of the Ruteae-Aurantioideae clade. The results of our work also shed light on the evolution of the androecium in Rutaceae, as the obdiplostemony of this group is clearly derived from haplostemony in the ancestral genera in Rutaceae and has develop into polyandry by increasing antepetalous stamens. PMID:26332986

  19. Elicitation of andrographolide in the suspension cultures of Andrographis paniculata.

    PubMed

    Gandi, Suryakala; Rao, Kiranmayee; Chodisetti, Bhuvaneswari; Giri, Archana

    2012-12-01

    Andrographis paniculata belonging to the family Acanthaceae produces a group of diterpene lactones, one of which is the pharmaceutically important-andrographolide. It is known to possess various important biological properties like anticancer, anti-HIV, anti-inflammatory, etc. This is the first report on the production of andrographolide in the cell suspension cultures of Andrographis paniculata by 'elicitation'. Elicitation was attempted to enhance the andrographolide content in the suspension cultures of Andrographis paniculata and also to ascertain its stimulation under stress conditions or in response to pathogen attack. The maximum andrographolide production was found to be 1.53 mg/g dry cell weight (DCW) at the end of stationary phase during the growth curve. The biotic elicitors (yeast, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Agrobacterium rhizogenes 532 and Agrobacterium tumefaciens C 58) were more effective in eliciting the response when compared to the abiotic elicitors (CdCl(2), AgNO(3), CuCl(2) and HgCl(2)). Yeast has shown to stimulate maximum accumulation of 13.5 mg/g DCW andrographolide, which was found to be 8.82-fold higher than the untreated cultures.

  20. [Genetic diversity analysis of Andrographis paniculata in China based on SRAP and SNP].

    PubMed

    Chen, Rong; Wang, Xiao-Yun; Song, Yu-Ning; Zhu, Yun-feng; Wang, Peng-liang; Li, Min; Zhong, Guo-Yue

    2014-12-01

    In order to reveal genetic diversity of domestic Andrographis paniculata and its impact on quality, genetic backgrounds of 103 samples from 7 provinces in China were analyzed using SRAP marker and SNP marker. Genetic structures of the A. paniculata populations were estimated with Powermarker V 3.25 and Mega 6.0 software, and polymorphic SNPs were identified with CodonCode Aligner software. The results showed that the genetic distances of domestic A. paniculata germplasm ranged from 0. 01 to 0.09, and no polymorphic SNPs were discovered in coding sequence fragments of ent-copalyl diphosphate synthase. A. paniculata germplasm from various regions in China had poor genetic diversity. This phenomenon was closely related to strict self-fertilization and earlier introduction from the same origin. Therefore, genetic background had little impact on variable qualities of A. paniculata in domestic market. Mutation breeding, polyploid breeding and molecular breeding were proposed as promising strategies in germplasm innovation.

  1. A six nuclear gene phylogeny of Citrus (Rutaceae) taking into account hybridization and lineage sorting

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Citrus (Rutaceae) comprises of many important cultivated species which generally hybridize easily. Phylogenetic study of a group showing extensive hybridization is challenging. Since the genus Citrus has diverged recently (4-12 Ma), incomplete lineage sorting of ancestral polymorphisms...

  2. Isolation of flindersiamine, isoflindersiamine, and a new alkaloid, heliparvifoline, from Helietta parvifolia (Rutaceae).

    PubMed

    Chang, P T; Aynilian, G H; Cordell, G A; Tin-Wa, M; Fong, H H; Perdue, R E; Farnsworth, N R

    1976-04-01

    A phytochemical investigation of the leaves and twigs of Helietta parvifolia (Rutaceae) resulted in the isolation of heliparvifoline, a new furoquinoline alkaloid, in addition to the known bases flindersiamine and isoflindersiamine.

  3. [A new taxonomic system of the genus Murraya (Rutaceae) based on integration of morphology-based taxonomy and chemotaxonomy; and a philological survey on M. exotica in view of the relationship between Okinawa and China].

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, Takeshi

    2014-01-01

    This review concerns the taxonomic status of the genus Murraya in tribe Clausenae, subfamily Aurantioideae, family Rutaceae, and presents a new system integrating both morphology-based taxonomy and chemotaxonomy. This genus has been morphologically divided into the sects Murraya and Bergera. This dichotomy is justified by the noticeable difference of secondary metabolites with 3-prenylindoles in Murraya and carbazoles in Bergera. As for other metabolites of genus Murraya, coumarins are found in both sects, but differ clearly in types; 8-prenylcoumarins occur throughout the sect Murraya whereas geranylated furocoumarins are known from some species of the sect Bergera. As far as chemical properties are concerned, sect Bergera is much closer to genus Clausena than sect Murraya, suggesting the dichotomy of genus Murraya to be generic rather than sectional. 8-Prenylcoumarins characterizing sect Murraya play a decisive role in the distinction of M. exotica from M. paniculata that occurs most widely in subtropical and tropical Asia and is well known for morphologic as well as chemical diversity. Though the morphological difference between the two species is slight only in leaves and leaflets, the distinction is well substantiated by the following chemical feature: 7-OMe-8-prenylcoumarins occur in M. exotica whereas 5,7-di-OMe-8-prenylcoumarins in M. paniculata. Sect Murraya has a very close relation to genus Merrillia that is chemically characterized by similar types of 8-prenylcoumarins, and is also related to a certain extent to genus Micromelum. M. exotica is philologically surveyed in view of the delicate relationships between Okinawa, the only habitat of this plant in Japan, and China in order to clarify its historical background.

  4. Effect of Andrographis paniculata leaf extract on wound healing in rats.

    PubMed

    Al-Bayaty, Fouad Hussain; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen; Abu Hassan, Mohamed Ibrahim; Ali, Hapipah Mohd

    2012-01-01

    This work was carried out to study the effect of topical application of Andrographis paniculata on the rate of wound enclosure and its histological features. A wound was created in four groups of rat in posterior neck region. Blank placebo was applied topically to the wounds of Group 1. Groups 2 and 3 were dressed with placebo containing 5% and 10% extracts of A. paniculata, respectively. Intrasite gel was applied topically to the wounds of Group 4. Macroscopical examination revealed that the rate of wound healing was significantly accelerated in the wound dressed with A. paniculata extract compared to the blank placebo. The wounds dressed with 10% extract or Intrasite gel healed earlier compared to the wounds dressed with placebo containing 5% A. paniculata extract. Histologically, wounds dressed with A. paniculata extracts showed markedly less scar width and contained large amounts of fibroblast proliferation. More collagen and less angiogenesis with absence of inflammatory cells were seen for wounds dressed with 10% A. paniculata compared to the blank placebo. Conclusion, A. paniculata extracts significantly enhanced rate of wound healing in rats.

  5. Andrographidine G, a new flavone glucoside from Andrographis paniculata.

    PubMed

    Hapuarachchi, Swarna D; Ali, Zulfiqar; Abe, Naohito; Sugandhika, Suresh T; Sandun, Senerath T P; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2013-03-01

    A new flavone glucoside, andrographidine G (1), was isolated from Andrographis paniculata together with 13 known compounds, including flavonoids, diterpenoids, and iridoids. The structure of 1 was established by spectroscopic and spectrometric techniques, including HR-ESI-TOF-MS, 1D and 2D NMR, and chemical methods. The known compounds were identified as andrographidine A (2), (2R)-5-hydroxy-7,8-dimethoxyflavanone-5-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (3), acanthoside B (4), neoandrographiside (5), andropanoside (6), andrographiside (7), andrographolide (8), 14-deoxy-11,12-didehydroandrographiside (9), 14-deoxy-11,12-didehydroandrographolide (10), procumbide (11), procumboside (12), 6-epi-8-O-acetylharpagide (13), and curvifloruside F (14).

  6. A new flavonoid from the aerial parts of Andrographis paniculata.

    PubMed

    Chen, Li-Xia; He, Hao; Xia, Gui-Yang; Zhou, Kai-Lan; Qiu, Feng

    2014-01-01

    A new flavonoid, 7,8-dimethoxy-2'-hydroxy-5-O-β-d-glucopyranosyloxyflavone (1), along with 15 known flavonoids (2-16), was isolated from the aerial parts of Andrographis paniculata Nees. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of chemical and spectroscopic analyses. Most of them have uncommon O-substitution patterns involving 5-, 7-, 8-, 2'-, 3'-, 4'- and 5'-O-substituents. The antiproliferative effects of these flavonoids against human leukaemia HL-60 cells were investigated. Among them, 13 was the most active, displaying potent antiproliferative activity with IC50 of 3.50 μM. The structure-activity relationships of these isolated compounds were discussed.

  7. Perinatal toxicology of Ruta chalepensis (Rutaceae) in mice.

    PubMed

    Zeichen de Sa, R; Rey, A; Argañaraz, E; Bindstein, E

    2000-02-01

    Dried leaf infusions of Ruta chalepensis L. (Rutaceae), 'rue', 'ruda', were found to cause perinatal changes in mice, at daily doses of 0.16, 0.80 and 1.60 g/kg, administered p.o. from 1 to 14 days post coitum. Significant decreases in the appearance time of physical signs, righting reflex and cliff avoidance together with minus scores in string test and swimming ability were observed. Moreover, histological studies showed progressive angiogenic development on placenta blood supply and weakness at blood barrier in brain, thymus and pery-lymph vestibule. We found out that the results tend to confirm the embryotoxic effect of the plant and its harmful use.

  8. Antitussive arabinogalactan of Andrographis paniculata demonstrates synergistic effect with andrographolide.

    PubMed

    Nosáľová, Gabriela; Majee, Sujay Kumar; Ghosh, Kanika; Raja, Washim; Chatterjee, Udipta Ranjan; Jureček, Ludovít; Ray, Bimalendu

    2014-08-01

    Traditional Indian medicines have been used in humans for thousands of years. While the link to a particular indication has been established in man, the active principle of the formulations often remains unknown. In this study, we aim to investigate the structural features and antitussive activity of fractions from Andrographis paniculata leaves. In vivo investigations of water extract (WE), and both ethanol-soluble (WES) and precipitated (WEP) fractions from WE on the citric-acid induced cough efforts and airways smooth muscle reactivity in guinea pigs were performed. Chemical, chromatographic and spectroscopic analysis revealed the existence of a highly branched pectic arabinogalactan (109kDa) in WEP and andrographolide in WES. WEP showed significant antitussive activity while the potencies of WE and WES are even higher. Neither WE nor WES significantly alter specific airway smooth muscle reactivity. Remarkably, the antitussive activity of arabinogalactan could be increased by synergistic action with andrographolide. Finally, traditional aqueous extraction method provides an arabinogalactan from A. paniculata, which stimulate biological response but without addiction.

  9. Jasmonate-induced biosynthesis of andrographolide in Andrographis paniculata.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Shiv Narayan; Jha, Zenu; Sinha, Rakesh Kumar; Geda, Arvind Kumar

    2015-02-01

    Andrographolide is a prominent secondary metabolite found in Andrographis paniculata that exhibits enormous pharmacological effects. In spite of immense value, the normal biosynthesis of andrographolide results in low amount of the metabolite. To induce the biosynthesis of andrographolide, we attempted elicitor-induced activation of andrographolide biosynthesis in cell cultures of A. paniculata. This was carried out by using methyl jasmonate (MeJA) as an elicitor. Among the various concentrations of MeJA tested at different time periods, 5 µM MeJA yielded 5.25 times more andrographolide content after 24 h of treatment. The accumulation of andrographolide was correlated with the expression level of known regulatory genes (hmgs, hmgr, dxs, dxr, isph and ggps) of mevalonic acid (MVA) and 2-C-methyl-d-erythritol-4-phosphate (MEP) pathways. These results established the involvement of MeJA in andrographolide biosynthesis by inducing the transcription of its biosynthetic pathways genes. The coordination of isph, ggps and hmgs expression highly influenced the andrographolide biosynthesis.

  10. [Cloning and functional characterization of phytoene desaturase in Andrographis paniculata].

    PubMed

    Shen, Qin-qin; Li, Li-xia; Zhan, Peng-lin; Wang, Qiang

    2015-10-01

    A full-length cDNA of phytoene desaturase (PDS) gene from Andrographis paniculata was obtained through RACE-PCR. The cDNA sequence consists of 2 224 bp with an intact ORF of 1 752 bp (GeneBank: KP982892), encoding a ploypeptide of 584 amino acids. Homology analysis showed that the deduced protein has extensive sequence similarities to PDS from other plants, and contains a conserved NAD ( H) -binding domain of plant dehydrase cofactor binding-domain in N-terminal. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that ApPDS was more related to PDS of Sesamum indicum and Pogostemon cablin. The semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed that ApPDS expressed in whole aboveground tissues with the highest expression in leaves. Virus induced gene silencing (VIGS) was performed to characterize the functional of ApPDS in planta. Significant photobleaching was not observed in infiltrated leaves, while the PDS gene has been down-regulated significantly at the yellowish area. To the best of our knowledge, this represents the first report of PDS gene cloning and functional characterization from A. paniculata, which lays the foundation for further investigation of new genes, especially that correlative to andrographolide biosynthetic pathway.

  11. [Research on UPLC-PDA fingerprint of andrographis paniculata and quantitative determination of 4 major constituents].

    PubMed

    Huang, Jing-Yi; Liu, Xiao-Lin; Zhou, Shui-Ping; Tong, Ling; Ding, Li

    2014-11-01

    Andrographis paniculata from different parts and origins were analyzed by UPLC-PDA fingerprint to provide refererice for related preparation technology. Using the peak of andrographolide as reference, 27 common peaks were identified, and digitized UPLC-PDA fingerprints for 23 batches of andrographis paniculata were established in this research. Principal component analysis (PCA) was carried out after feature extraction. The contents of andrographolide, neoandrographolide, deoxyandrographolide, dehydroandrographolide were determined by external standard method. The Plackett-Burman design combined with pareto chart was used to analyze the factors influencing the robustness of the method. It was found that the medicinal part has a more remarkable influence on the quality of andrographis paniculata than the origin. The contents of the 4 lactones the differ greatly in the different parts of andrographis paniculata, and the pH of the mobile phase is an important factor that influenced the robustness of the method.

  12. Prophylactic effect of Andrographis paniculata extracts against Streptococcus agalactiae infection in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

    PubMed

    Rattanachaikunsopon, Pongsak; Phumkhachorn, Parichat

    2009-05-01

    Six herbs were assessed for their antimicrobial activity against Streptococcus agalactiae, a major fish pathogen causing streptococcosis. Each herb was extracted with 3 solvents: water, 95% ethanol, and methanol. Using swab paper disc assays, aqueous extracts of Andrographis paniculata and Allium sativum produced the largest (27.5 mm) and smallest (10.3 mm) inhibition zones, respectively. Determination of minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of herb extracts against S. agalactiae showed that the aqueous extract of A. paniculata had the lowest MIC value (31.25 microg/mL). Aqueous extract of A. sativum was the only herb extract with a MIC > 500 microg/mL. Based on mortalities in 2 weeks after intraperitoneal S. agalactiae injection, the median lethal dose (LD(50)) of S. agalactiae for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) was 3.79 x 10(5) CFU/mL. In vivo experiments showed that fish feed supplemented with either A. paniculata leaf powder or dried matter of A. paniculata aqueous extract reduced mortality of S. agalactiae infected Nile tilapia. In addition, no mortality was found in fish receiving dried matter of A. paniculata aqueous extract supplemented feeds at ratios (w/w) of 4:36 and 5:35. During 2 weeks of feeding with A. paniculata supplemented feeds, no adverse effects on appearance, behavior, or feeding responses were observed.

  13. Chemopreventive Efficacy of Andrographis paniculata on Azoxymethane-Induced Aberrant Colon Crypt Foci In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Al-Henhena, Nawal; Ying, Rozaida Poh Yuen; Ismail, Salmah; Najm, Wala; Khalifa, Shaden A. M.; El-Seedi, Hesham; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen

    2014-01-01

    Andrographis paniculata is a grass-shaped medicinal herb, traditionally used in Southeast Asia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the chemoprotective effects of A. paniculata on colorectal cancer. A. paniculata ethanol extract was tested on azoxymethane (AOM)-induced aberrant crypt foci (ACF) in vivo and in vitro. A. paniculata treated groups showed a significant reduction in the number of ACF of the treated rats. Microscopically, ACF showed remarkably elongated and stratified cells, and depletion of the submucosal glands of AOM group compared to the treated groups. Histologically, staining showed slightly elevated masses above the surrounding mucosa with oval or slit-like orifices. Immunohistochemically, expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and β-catenin protein were down-regulated in the A. paniculata treated groups compared to the AOM group. When colon tissue was homogenized, malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO) levels were significantly decreased, whereas superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was increased in the treated groups compared to the AOM group. A. paniculata ethanol extract showed antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity, as elucidated by the measure of oxidative stress markers. Further, the active fractions were assessed against cell lines of CCD841 and HT29 colon cancer cells. PMID:25390042

  14. Chemopreventive efficacy of Andrographis paniculata on azoxymethane-induced aberrant colon crypt foci in vivo.

    PubMed

    Al-Henhena, Nawal; Ying, Rozaida Poh Yuen; Ismail, Salmah; Najm, Walaa; Najm, Wala; Khalifa, Shaden A M; El-Seedi, Hesham; Ameen Abdulla, Mahmood; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen

    2014-01-01

    Andrographis paniculata is a grass-shaped medicinal herb, traditionally used in Southeast Asia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the chemoprotective effects of A. paniculata on colorectal cancer. A. paniculata ethanol extract was tested on azoxymethane (AOM)-induced aberrant crypt foci (ACF) in vivo and in vitro. A. paniculata treated groups showed a significant reduction in the number of ACF of the treated rats. Microscopically, ACF showed remarkably elongated and stratified cells, and depletion of the submucosal glands of AOM group compared to the treated groups. Histologically, staining showed slightly elevated masses above the surrounding mucosa with oval or slit-like orifices. Immunohistochemically, expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and β-catenin protein were down-regulated in the A. paniculata treated groups compared to the AOM group. When colon tissue was homogenized, malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO) levels were significantly decreased, whereas superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was increased in the treated groups compared to the AOM group. A. paniculata ethanol extract showed antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity, as elucidated by the measure of oxidative stress markers. Further, the active fractions were assessed against cell lines of CCD841 and HT29 colon cancer cells.

  15. New cytotoxic lupane triterpenoids from the twigs of Coussarea paniculata.

    PubMed

    Prakash Chaturvedula, V S; Schilling, Jennifer K; Johnson, Randall K; Kingston, David G I

    2003-03-01

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of a CH(2)Cl(2)-MeOH extract of the twigs of Coussarea paniculata using a yeast-based assay for potential DNA-damaging agents resulted in the isolation of three new lupane triterpenoids, 1-3, in addition to eight known triterpenoids, lupeol (4), lupeyl acetate (5), betulin (6), betulinic acid (7), 3-epi-betulinic acid (8), 3-epi-betulinaldehyde (9), oleanolic acid (10), and ursolic acid (11). The structures of the new compounds were established as lup-20(29)-en-3beta,25-diol (1), lup-20(29)-en-11alpha-ol-25,3beta-lactone (2), and 3-deoxybetulonic acid (3), on the basis of extensive 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic data interpretation and chemical conversion.

  16. Andrographis paniculata ameliorates carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-dependent hepatic damage and toxicity: diminution of oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Koh, Pei Hoon; Mokhtar, Ruzaidi Azli Mohd; Iqbal, Mohammad

    2011-01-01

    Andrographis paniculata (hempedu bumi) is a plant that possesses many medicinal values in treating several diseases and for health care maintenance. However, its hepatoprotective activity and mechanism of action have not been fully investigated. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the hepatoprotective effects of A. paniculata and its mechanism of action in rats. Carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)) challenge of rats at a dose of 1.2 ml/kg body weight-induced oxidative stress in the liver. This was evidenced by augmentation in lipid peroxidation, which was accompanied by a decrease in the activities of antioxidant enzymes and depletion in the level of reduced glutathione (P < 0.05). Parrallel to these changes, CCl(4) challenge too, enhanced hepatic damage as evidenced by sharp increase in serum transaminases (e.g. alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and lactate dehydrogenase) (P < 0.05). Additionally, the impairment of liver function corresponded to histolopathological changes. However, most of these changes were reversed in a dose-dependent fashion by pre-treatment of animals with A. paniculata (P < 0.05). The ability of A. paniculata to scavenge the 2,2-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical was determined through its EC(50) value. The EC(50) value of A. paniculata was 583.60 ± 4.25 µg/ml. In addition, A. paniculata was found to contain 65.37 ± 1.20 mg/g total phenolics expressed as gallic acid equivalent. From these studies, it is concluded that A. paniculata could be used as a hepatoprotective agent and possesses the potential to treat or prevent degenerative diseases where oxidative stress is implicated.

  17. Growth and Heavy Metal Accumulation of Koelreuteria Paniculata Seedlings and Their Potential for Restoring Manganese Mine Wastelands in Hunan, China

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Zhihong; Xiang, Wenhua; Ma, Yu’e; Lei, Pifeng; Tian, Dalun; Deng, Xiangwen; Yan, Wende; Fang, Xi

    2015-01-01

    The planting of trees on mine wastelands is an effective, long-term technique for phytoremediation of heavy metal-contaminated wastes. In this study, a pot experiment with seedlings of Koelreuteria paniculata under six treatments of local mine wastes was designed to determine the major constraints on tree establishment and to evaluate the feasibility of planting K. paniculata on manganese mine wastelands. Results showed that K. paniculata grew well in mine tailings, and also under a regime of equal amounts of mine tailings and soil provided in adjacent halves of pots. In contrast, mine sludge did not favor survival and growth because its clay texture limited fine root development. The bio-concentration factor and the translocation factor were mostly less than 1, indicating a low phytoextraction potential for K. paniculata. K. paniculata is suited to restore manganese mine sludge by mixing the mine sludge with local mine tailings or soil. PMID:25654773

  18. An azole, an amide and a limonoid from Vepris uguenensis (Rutaceae).

    PubMed

    Cheplogoi, Peter K; Mulholland, Dulcie A; Coombes, Philip H; Randrianarivelojosia, Milijaona

    2008-04-01

    The limonoid derivative, methyl uguenenoate, the azole, uguenenazole, and the amide, uguenenonamide, together with the known furoquinoline alkaloids flindersiamine and maculosidine, and syringaldehyde have been isolated from the root of the East African Rutaceae Vepris uguenensis. While methyl uguenenoate and the furoquinoline alkaloids displayed mild antimalarial activity, the azole and amide were completely inactive.

  19. Coumarins and flavonoid from Murraya paniculata (L.) Jack: Antibacterial and anti-inflammation activity.

    PubMed

    Rodanant, Pirasut; Khetkam, Pichit; Suksamrarn, Apichart; Kuvatanasuchati, Jintakorn

    2015-11-01

    The ethyl acetate extract of leaves of Murraya paniculata (L.) Jack was described in the previous in vitro study on the inhibition effect on the growth of periodontopathic bacteria and the reduction of cytokines from LPS-stimulated macrophages. In this study, four coumarins including murrangatin (1), murrangatin acetate (2), murranganonesenecionate (3), micropubescin (4) and one flavonoid, 3', 4', 5', 7-tetramethoxyflavone (5) were isolated from the leaves of ethyl acetate extract of M. paniculata. MTT assay was used to test cytotoxicity on human gingival fibroblast and monocytes. The isolated compounds were evaluated for their antibacterial effect against Porphyromonas gingivalis (ATCC33277) and anti-inflammation on lipopolysaccharide-stimulated inflammation using monocyte cells. All isolated compounds exhibited antibacterial activity against P. gingivalis (ATCC 33277). Murranganonesenecionate (3) was highly potent anti-inflammation properties. The coumarin constituents from M. paniculata leaves might be potential lead molecules for the development of antimicrobial drugs for treating periodontal disease.

  20. Improvement in the yield and quality of kalmegh (Andrographis paniculata Nees) under the sustainable production system.

    PubMed

    Verma, Rajesh Kumar; Verma, Sanjeet K; Pankaj, Umesh; Gupta, Anand K; Khan, Khushboo; Shankar, Karuna

    2015-02-01

    Andrographis paniculata Nees is an annual erect herb with wide medicinal and pharmacological applications due to the presence of andrographolide and other active chemical constituents. The large-scale cultivation of the kalmegh is not in practice. The aim of this study was to establish sustainable production systems of A. paniculata cv CIM-Megha with the application of different bioinoculants and chemical fertilisers. A. paniculata herb and andrographolide yield in the dried leaves was found to be highest (218% and 61.3%, respectively) in treatment T3 (NPK+Bacillus sp.) compared with T1 (control). The soil organic carbon, soil microbial respiration, soil enzymes activity and available nutrients improved significantly with combined application of bioinoculants and chemical fertilisers.

  1. Phytochemical analysis of Andrographis paniculata and Orthosiphon stamineus leaf extracts for their antibacterial and antioxidant potential.

    PubMed

    Malahubban, M; Alimon, A R; Sazili, A Q; Fakurazi, S; Zakry, F A

    2013-09-01

    Leaves of Andrographis paniculata and Orthosiphon stamineus were extracted with water, ethanol, methanol and chloroform to assess their potential as antibacterial and antioxidant agents. High performance liquid chromatography analysis showed that the methanolic extracts of A. paniculata and O. stamineus leaves gave the highest amounts of andrographolide and rosmarinic acid, respectively. These leaf extracts exhibited antimicrobial and antioxidant activities and, at the highest concentration tested (200 mg/mL), showed greater inhibitory effects against the Gram positive bacteria Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus than 10% acetic acid. Andrographis paniculata and O. stamineus methanolic and ethanolic leaf extracts also showed the strongest antioxidant activity as compared with the other extracts tested. The bioactive compounds present in these leaf extracts have the potential to be developed into natural antibacterial and antioxidant agents that may have applications in animal and human health.

  2. Vasorelaxing activity of two coumarins from Murraya paniculata leaves.

    PubMed

    Cuong, Nguyen Manh; Khanh, Pham Ngoc; Duc, Ho Viet; Huong, Tran Thu; Tai, Bui Huu; Binh, Nguyen Quoc; Durante, Miriam; Fusi, Fabio

    2014-01-01

    In the search for novel chemical scaffolds leading to potential antihypertensive agents, the methanol extract of Murraya paniculata leaves was assessed for its effects on isolated rat aorta rings. The vasorelaxing effect of the chloroform fraction of the methanol plant extract was the most potent for its vasorelaxing activity on rat aorta rings contracted by 60 mM K(+) (K60). Two coumarins were isolated from the chloroform fraction: the novel kimcuongin (1) and the known murracarpin (2). Their structures were determined from spectroscopic evidences including (1)H- and (13)C-NMR, correlation spectroscopy (COSY), nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy (NOESY), heteronuclear multiple bond correlation (HMBC), heteronuclear single quantum correlation (HSQC), and high resolution mass spectrometry (HR-MS). Kimcuongin and, to a lesser extent, murracarpin, showed vasorelaxing activity with IC50 values of 37.7 µM and 139.3 µM, respectively. The coumarins kimcuongin and murracarpin may thus represent a novel class of vasodilators of natural source.

  3. Anti-Diabetic Activity and Metabolic Changes Induced by Andrographis paniculata Plant Extract in Obese Diabetic Rats.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Muhammad Tayyab; Bin Mohd Sarib, Mohamad Syakir; Ismail, Intan Safinar; Abas, Faridah; Ismail, Amin; Lajis, Nordin Hj; Shaari, Khozirah

    2016-08-09

    Andrographis paniculata is an annual herb and widely cultivated in Southeast Asian countries for its medicinal use. In recent investigations, A. paniculata was found to be effective against Type 1 diabetes mellitus (Type 1 DM). Here, we used a non-genetic out-bred Sprague-Dawley rat model to test the antidiabetic activity of A. paniculata against Type 2 diabetes mellitus (Type 2 DM). Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (¹H-NMR) spectroscopy in combination with multivariate data analyses was used to evaluate the A. paniculata and metformin induced metabolic effects on the obese and obese-diabetic (obdb) rat models. Compared to the normal rats, high levels of creatinine, lactate, and allantoin were found in the urine of obese rats, whereas, obese-diabetic rats were marked by high glucose, choline and taurine levels, and low lactate, formate, creatinine, citrate, 2-oxoglutarate, succinate, dimethylamine, acetoacetate, acetate, allantoin and hippurate levels. Treatment of A. paniculata leaf water extract was found to be quite effective in restoring the disturbed metabolic profile of obdb rats back towards normal conditions. Thisstudy shows the anti-diabetic potential of A. paniculata plant extract and strengthens the idea of using this plant against the diabetes. Further classical genetic methods and state of the art molecular techniques could provide insights into the molecular mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus and anti-diabetic effects of A. paniculata water extract.

  4. Andrographis paniculata extracts and major constituent diterpenoids inhibit growth of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma cells by inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Suriyo, Tawit; Pholphana, Nanthanit; Rangkadilok, Nuchanart; Thiantanawat, Apinya; Watcharasit, Piyajit; Satayavivad, Jutamaad

    2014-05-01

    Andrographis paniculata is an important herbal medicine widely used in several Asian countries for the treatment of various diseases due to its broad range of pharmacological activities. The present study reports that A. paniculata extracts potently inhibit the growth of liver (HepG2 and SK-Hep1) and bile duct (HuCCA-1 and RMCCA-1) cancer cells. A. paniculata extracts with different contents of major diterpenoids, including andrographolide, 14-deoxy-11,12-didehydroandrographolide, neoandrographolide, and 14-deoxyandrographolide, exhibited a different potency of growth inhibition. The ethanolic extract of A. paniculata at the first true leaf stage, which contained a high amount of 14-deoxyandrographolide but a low amount of andrographolide, showed a cytotoxic effect to cancer cells about 4 times higher than the water extract of A. paniculata at the mature leaf stage, which contained a high amount of andrographolide but a low amount of 14-deoxyandrographolide. Andrographolide, not 14-deoxy-11,12-didehydroandrographolide, neoandrographolide, or 14-deoxyandrographolide, possessed potent cytotoxic activity against the growth of liver and bile duct cancer cells. The cytotoxic effect of the water extract of A. paniculata at the mature leaf stage could be explained by the present amount of andrographolide, while the cytotoxic effect of the ethanolic extract of A. paniculata at the first true leaf stage could not. HuCCA-1 cells showed more sensitivity to A. paniculata extracts and andrographolide than RMCCA-1 cells. Furthermore, the ethanolic extract of A. paniculata at the first true leaf stage increased cell cycle arrest at the G0/G1 and G2/M phases, and induced apoptosis in both HuCCA-1 and RMCCA-1 cells. The expressions of cyclin-D1, Bcl-2, and the inactive proenzyme form of caspase-3 were reduced by the ethanolic extract of A. paniculata in the first true leaf stage treatment, while a proapoptotic protein Bax was increased. The cleavage of poly (ADP

  5. Bisandrographolide from Andrographis paniculata activates TRPV4 channels.

    PubMed

    Smith, Paula L; Maloney, Katherine N; Pothen, Randy G; Clardy, Jon; Clapham, David E

    2006-10-06

    Many transient receptor potential (TRP) channels are activated or blocked by various compounds found in plants; two prominent examples include the activation of TRPV1 channels by capsaicin and the activation of TRPM8 channels by menthol. We sought to identify additional plant compounds that are active on other types of TRP channels. We screened a library of extracts from 50 Chinese herbal plants using a calcium-imaging assay to find compounds active on TRPV3 and TRPV4 channels. An extract from the plant Andrographis paniculata potently activated TRPV4 channels. The extract was fractionated further, and the active compound was identified as bisandrographolide A (BAA). We used purified compound to characterize the activity of BAA on certain TRPV channel subtypes. Although BAA activated TRPV4 channels with an EC(50) of 790-950 nm, it did not activate or block activation of TRPV1, TRPV2, or TRPV3 channels. BAA activated a large TRPV4-like current in immortalized mouse keratinocytes (308 cells) that have been shown to express TRPV4 protein endogenously. This compound also activated TRPV4 currents in cell-free outside-out patches from HEK293T cells overexpressing TRPV4 cDNA, suggesting that BAA can activate the channel in a membrane-delimited manner. Another related compound, andrographolide, found in abundance in the plant Andrographis was unable to activate or block activation of TRPV4 channels. These experiments show that BAA activates TRPV4 channels, and we discuss the possibility that activation of TRPV4 by BAA could play a role in some of the effects of Andrographis extract described in traditional medicine.

  6. Antimicrobial Compounds from Leaf Extracts of Jatropha curcas, Psidium guajava, and Andrographis paniculata

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, M. M.; Ahmad, S. H.; Mohamed, M. T. M.; Ab Rahman, M. Z.

    2014-01-01

    The present research was conducted to discover antimicrobial compounds in methanolic leaf extracts of Jatropha curcas and Andrographis paniculata and ethanolic leaf extract of Psidium guajava and the effectiveness against microbes on flower preservative solution of cut Mokara Red orchid flowers was evaluated. The leaves were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. A total of nine, 66, and 29 compounds were identified in J. curcas, P. guajava, and A. paniculata leaf extracts, with five (88.18%), four (34.66%), and three (50.47%) having unique antimicrobial compounds, respectively. The experimental design on vase life was conducted using a completely randomized design with 10 replications. The flower vase life was about 6 days in the solution containing the P. guajava and A. paniculata leaf extracts at 15mg/L. Moreover, solution with leaf extracts of A. paniculata had the lowest bacterial count compared to P. guajava and J. curcas. Thus, these leaf extracts revealed the presence of relevant antimicrobial compounds. The leaf extracts have the potential as a cut flower solution to minimize microbial populations and extend flower vase life. However, the activities of specific antimicrobial compounds and double or triple combination leaf extracts to enhance the effectiveness to extend the vase life need to be tested. PMID:25250382

  7. Yuehchukene, a Novel Anti-implantation Indole Alkaloid from Murraya paniculata.

    PubMed

    Kong, Y C; Ng, K H; Wat, K H; Wong, A; Saxena, I F; Cheng, K F; But, P P; Chang, H T

    1985-08-01

    Yuehchukene, 11beta-(3'-indolyl-7,9alpha,9beta-trimethyl-5beta,8,9,10beta-tetrahydroindano-[2,3- B]indole, a novel dimeric indole alkaloid from the roots of MURRAY A PANICULATA has potent anti-implantation activity in rats at 3 mg/kg P. O. dosing on pregnancy day 2.

  8. Antimicrobial compounds from leaf extracts of Jatropha curcas, Psidium guajava, and Andrographis paniculata.

    PubMed

    Rahman, M M; Ahmad, S H; Mohamed, M T M; Ab Rahman, M Z

    2014-01-01

    The present research was conducted to discover antimicrobial compounds in methanolic leaf extracts of Jatropha curcas and Andrographis paniculata and ethanolic leaf extract of Psidium guajava and the effectiveness against microbes on flower preservative solution of cut Mokara Red orchid flowers was evaluated. The leaves were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. A total of nine, 66, and 29 compounds were identified in J. curcas, P. guajava, and A. paniculata leaf extracts, with five (88.18%), four (34.66%), and three (50.47%) having unique antimicrobial compounds, respectively. The experimental design on vase life was conducted using a completely randomized design with 10 replications. The flower vase life was about 6 days in the solution containing the P. guajava and A. paniculata leaf extracts at 15 mg/L. Moreover, solution with leaf extracts of A. paniculata had the lowest bacterial count compared to P. guajava and J. curcas. Thus, these leaf extracts revealed the presence of relevant antimicrobial compounds. The leaf extracts have the potential as a cut flower solution to minimize microbial populations and extend flower vase life. However, the activities of specific antimicrobial compounds and double or triple combination leaf extracts to enhance the effectiveness to extend the vase life need to be tested.

  9. Immunostimulant, cerebroprotective & nootropic activities of Andrographis paniculata leaves extract in normal & type 2 diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Radhika, P.; Annapurna, A.; Rao, S. Nageswara

    2012-01-01

    Background & objectives: A large number of plants have been recognized to be effective in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. Persistent hyperglycaemia is associated with decreased function of immune system and cerebral ischaemia mainly due to increased oxidative stress and inflammatory response. Andrographis paniculata is a medicinal plant widely used in folk medicine for various purposes. In this study the effect of chronic administration (7 days) of methanolic extract of A. paniculata leaves was studied in rats with experimentally induced diabetes, nootropic and immunostimulant activities were evaluated. The effect of acute administration of methanolic extract of A. paniculata leaves was also studied for cerebroprotective activity. Methods: Type 2 diabetes was induced in rats by streptozotocin (STZ) (65 mg/kg) + nicotinamide (150 mg/kg). Various biochemical parameters were estimated using standard methods. Results: A significant (P<0.05) increase in cognitive function was observed in both normal and type 2 diabetic rats. Nootropic activity in terms of per cent reduction in latency period was more in type 2 diabetic rats. A significant increase in blood lymphocyte count, splenic lymphocyte count and peritoneal macrophage count was observed in both normal and type 2 diabetic rats. Immunostimulant activity was observed more in type 2 diabetic rats. The per cent decrease in cerebral infarction was more in type 2 diabetic rats when compared to normal rats. The per cent increase in superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels was more in type 2 diabetic rats. Interpretation & conclusions: The antioxidant activity of the methanolic extract of A. paniculata leaves was evident by decreased tissue malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and increased SOD levels. These properties may be responsible for the observed cerebroprotective activity. The methanolic leaf extract of A. paniculata showed significant immunostimulant, cerebroprotective and nootropic activities in normal and type 2 diabetic

  10. Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics and Meat Yield of Boer Goats Fed Diets Containing Leaves or Whole Parts of Andrographis paniculata

    PubMed Central

    Yusuf, A. L.; Goh, Y. M.; Samsudin, A. A.; Alimon, A. R.; Sazili, A. Q.

    2014-01-01

    The study was conducted to determine the effect of feeding diets containing Andrographis paniculata leaves (APL), whole Andrographis paniculata plant (APWP) and a control without Andrographis paniculata (AP0), on growth performance, carcass characteristics and meat yield of 24 intact Boer bucks. The results obtained indicated that inclusion of Andrographis paniculata significantly improved feed intake, weight gain, feed efficiency and live weight. The ratios of carcass to fat, lean to bone, lean to fat, and composition of meat were also improved. In addition, there were significant differences (p<0.05) between the dietary treatments in dressing percentage and chilling loss. Goats fed on AP0 (control) had significantly higher proportions of fat and bone, as well as thicker back fat than the supplemented animals (APL and APWP). Higher gut fill in animals fed Andrographis paniculata suggested slow rate of digestion, which could have improved utilization and absorption of nutrients by the animals. Goats fed Andrographis paniculata also produced higher meat yield and relatively lower fat contents (p<0.05). PMID:25049980

  11. Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics and Meat Yield of Boer Goats Fed Diets Containing Leaves or Whole Parts of Andrographis paniculata.

    PubMed

    Yusuf, A L; Goh, Y M; Samsudin, A A; Alimon, A R; Sazili, A Q

    2014-04-01

    The study was conducted to determine the effect of feeding diets containing Andrographis paniculata leaves (APL), whole Andrographis paniculata plant (APWP) and a control without Andrographis paniculata (AP0), on growth performance, carcass characteristics and meat yield of 24 intact Boer bucks. The results obtained indicated that inclusion of Andrographis paniculata significantly improved feed intake, weight gain, feed efficiency and live weight. The ratios of carcass to fat, lean to bone, lean to fat, and composition of meat were also improved. In addition, there were significant differences (p<0.05) between the dietary treatments in dressing percentage and chilling loss. Goats fed on AP0 (control) had significantly higher proportions of fat and bone, as well as thicker back fat than the supplemented animals (APL and APWP). Higher gut fill in animals fed Andrographis paniculata suggested slow rate of digestion, which could have improved utilization and absorption of nutrients by the animals. Goats fed Andrographis paniculata also produced higher meat yield and relatively lower fat contents (p<0.05).

  12. Structural features of a water soluble gum polysaccharide from Murraya paniculata fruits.

    PubMed

    Mondal, S K; Ray, B; Ghosal, P K; Teleman, A; Vuorinen, T

    2001-10-22

    A water soluble gum polysaccharide was isolated from Murraya paniculata fruits. Hydrolytic experiments, methylation analysis, periodate oxidation studies and NMR data revealed that the polysaccharide was extensively branched and it consisted of 1,3-, and 1,3,6-linked beta-D-galactopyranosyl units, terminal beta-D-galactopyranosyl units and terminal alpha-D-glucopyranosyl 1,4-beta-D-galactopyranosyl units. Small amounts of 4-O-methylglucuronic acid residues were also present.

  13. Chemical composition of Melicope belahe (Baill.) T. G. Hartley (Rutaceae) leaf essential oil from Madagascar.

    PubMed

    Rabehaja, Delphin J R; Garcia, Gabriel; Charmillon, Julie-Marie; Désiré, Odile; Paoli, Mathieu; Ramanoelina, Panja A R; Tomi, Félix

    2017-01-01

    Melicope belahe (Baill.) T.G. Hartley (Rutaceae) is an endemic species to Madagascar. The chemical composition of leaf essential oil is reported for the first time. A sample was extracted by hydrodistillation and analysis was carried out by combination of chromatographic (GC), spectroscopic and spectrometric (MS, (13)C NMR) techniques. In total, 56 compounds have been identified. The chemical composition was dominated by α-pinene (42.6%) followed by linalool (6.2%) and (E)-β-caryophyllene (5.2%).

  14. Leaf oil from Vepris madagascarica (Rutaceae), source of (E)-anethole.

    PubMed

    Rabehaja, Delphin J R; Ihandriharison, Harilala; Ramanoelina, Panja A R; Ratsimamanga-Urverg, Suzanne; Bighelli, Ange; Casanova, Joseph; Tomi, Félix

    2013-08-01

    The volatile components isolated from leaves of Vepris madagascarica (Baillon) H. Perier (Rutaceae), an endemic species of north-eastern, sub-humid forests of Madagascar, were investigated by GC (Retention Indices), GC-MS and 13C NMR spectroscopy. Oil samples obtained on laboratory and industrial scales exhibited similar composition, dominated by phenylpropanoids. (E)-anethole (78.2% and 78.6%) was the major component followed by estragole (15.6% and 15.4%). In addition, trunk bark oil also contained (E)-anethole as its major component (84.6%), as well as various sesquiterpenes in low contents.

  15. Alkaloids from stems of Esenbeckia leiocarpa Engl. (Rutaceae) as potential treatment for Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Cardoso-Lopes, Elaine Monteiro; Maier, James Andreas; da Silva, Marcelo Rogério; Regasini, Luis Octávio; Simote, Simone Yasue; Lopes, Norberto Peporine; Pirani, José Rubens; Bolzani, Vanderlan da Silva; Young, Maria Cláudia Marx

    2010-12-13

    Esenbeckia leiocarpa Engl. (Rutaceae), popularly known as guarantã, goiabeira, is a native tree from Brazil. Bioactivity-guided fractionation of the ethanol stems extract afforded the isolation of six alkaloids: leiokinine A, leptomerine, kokusaginine, skimmianine, maculine and flindersiamine. All isolated compounds were tested for acetyl cholinesterase inhibition, in vitro and displayed anticholinesterasic activity. The alkaloid leptomerine showed the highest activity (IC₅₀ = 2.5 mM), similar to that of the reference compound galanthamine (IC₅₀ = 1.7 mM). The results showed for the first time the presence of alkaloids leptomerine and skimmianine in E. leiocarpa (Engl.) with potent anticholinesterasic activity.

  16. Association of ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’, the causal agent of citrus huanglongbing in Murraya paniculata and Diaphorina citri in Thailand

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Orange jasmine, Murraya paniculata, is a preferred alternative host for the Asian citrus psyllid, the primary vector of citrus Huanglongbing (HLB) disease caused by ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ (Las). M. paniculata plant samples and psyllids on the Murraya plants from ten diverse geographical...

  17. Andrographis paniculata extract protect against isoproterenol-induced myocardial injury by mitigating cardiac dysfunction and oxidative injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Ojha, Shreesh; Bharti, Saurabh; Golechha, Mahaveer; Sharma, Ashok K; Rani, Neha; Kumari, Santosh; Arya, Dharamvir Singh

    2012-01-01

    Present study evaluated the cardioprotective effect of Andrographis paniculata (100, 200 or 400 mg/kg) against isoproterenol (85 mg/kg, b.w.)-induced cardiotoxicity referred as myocardial infarction in rats. Isoproterenol significantly (p < 0.05) decreased mean arterial pressure, heart rate, contractility and relaxation and increased left ventricular end diastolic pressure. Isoproterenol also significantly (p < 0.05) decreased antioxidants, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione and increased leakage of cardiac injury markers; creatine phosphokinase-MB isoenzyme, lactate dehydrogenase concomitant to increased lipid peroxidation and histopathological perturbations. However, pretreatment with A. paniculata favorably restored hemodynamic parameters and left ventricular function and significantly (p < 0.05) prevented the depletion of endogenous antioxidants and myocyte marker enzymes as well as inhibited lipid peroxidation. Significant (p < 0.05) reversal of almost all the hemodynamic, biochemical and histopathological parameters by A. paniculata pretreatment in isoproterenol-induced cardiotoxicity depicted the cardioprotective effect of A. paniculata. Results showed that A. paniculata protected heart against cardiotoxic effects of isoproterenol by boosting endogenous antioxidant network, restoring ventricular function and maintaining structural integrity of heart.

  18. Volatile profiles of young leaves of Rutaceae spp. varying in susceptibility to the Asian citrus psyllid,(Hemiptera: Psyllidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant volatiles were identified from six species in the family Rutaceae. These species had varying degrees of susceptibility to the Asian citrus psyllid as determined by direct counts of life stages. Using a push system involving charcoal-filtered humidified air, volatiles were adsorbed on SuperQ pa...

  19. Biting deterrence, repellency, and larvicidal activity of Ruta chalepensis (Sapindales: Rutaceae) essential oil and its major individual constituents against mosquitoes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The essential oil from aerial parts of Ruta chalepensis L. (Rutaceae) was obtained by hydrodistillation and its chemical profile was identified using gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. 2-Undecanone (43.2% ± 0.8), 2-nonanone (27.9% ± 0.8) and 2-nonyl acetate (10.6% ± 0.2) we...

  20. Anointing chemicals and ectoparasites: responses by ticks and mosquitoes to Citrus (Rutaceae) peel exudates and monoterpene constituents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Some birds and mammals rub their feathers or fur with the fruits or leaves of Citrus spp. or other Rutaceae, presumably to deter ectoparasites. We measured avoidance and other responses by the lone star tick (Amblyomma americanum) and the yellow fever mosquito (Aedes aegypti) to lemon peel exudate a...

  1. A Classical Genetic Solution to Enhance the Biosynthesis of Anticancer Phytochemicals in Andrographis paniculata Nees

    PubMed Central

    Talei, Daryush; Abdul Kadir, Mihdzar; Rafii, Mohd Yusop; Sagineedu, Sreenivasa Rao

    2014-01-01

    Andrographolides, the diterpene lactones, are major bioactive phytochemicals which could be found in different parts of the medicinal herb Andrographis paniculata. A number of such compounds namely andrographolide (AG), neoandrographolide (NAG), and 14-deoxy-11,12-didehydroandrographolide (DDAG) have already attracted a great deal of attention due to their potential therapeutic effects in hard-to-treat diseases such as cancers and HIV. Recently, they have also been considered as substrates for the discovery of novel pharmaceutical compounds. Nevertheless, there is still a huge gap in knowledge on the genetic pattern of the biosynthesis of these bioactive compounds. Hence, the present study aimed to investigate the genetic mechanisms controlling the biosynthesis of these phytochemicals using a diallel analysis. The high performance liquid chromatography analysis of the three andrographolides in 210 F1 progenies confirmed that the biosynthesis of these andrographolides was considerably increased via intraspecific hybridization. The results revealed high, moderate and low heterosis for DDAG, AG and NAG, respectively. Furthermore, the preponderance of non-additive gene actions was affirmed in the enhancement of the three andrographolides contents. The consequence of this type of gene action was the occurrence of high broad-sense and low narrow-sense heritabilities for the above mentioned andrographolides. The prevalence of non-additive gene action suggests the suitability of heterosis breeding and hybrid seed production as a preferred option to produce new plant varieties with higher andrographolide contents using the wild accessions of A. paniculata. Moreover, from an evolutionary point of view, the occurrence of population bottlenecks in the Malaysian accessions of A. paniculata was unveiled by observing a low level of additive genetic variance (VA) for all the andrographolides. PMID:24586262

  2. De novo Assembly of Leaf Transcriptome in the Medicinal Plant Andrographis paniculata

    PubMed Central

    Cherukupalli, Neeraja; Divate, Mayur; Mittapelli, Suresh R.; Khareedu, Venkateswara R.; Vudem, Dashavantha R.

    2016-01-01

    Andrographis paniculata is an important medicinal plant containing various bioactive terpenoids and flavonoids. Despite its importance in herbal medicine, no ready-to-use transcript sequence information of this plant is made available in the public data base, this study mainly deals with the sequencing of RNA from A. paniculata leaf using Illumina HiSeq™ 2000 platform followed by the de novo transcriptome assembly. A total of 189.22 million high quality paired reads were generated and 1,70,724 transcripts were predicted in the primary assembly. Secondary assembly generated a transcriptome size of ~88 Mb with 83,800 clustered transcripts. Based on the similarity searches against plant non-redundant protein database, gene ontology, and eukaryotic orthologous groups, 49,363 transcripts were annotated constituting upto 58.91% of the identified unigenes. Annotation of transcripts—using kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes database—revealed 5606 transcripts plausibly involved in 140 pathways including biosynthesis of terpenoids and other secondary metabolites. Transcription factor analysis showed 6767 unique transcripts belonging to 97 different transcription factor families. A total number of 124 CYP450 transcripts belonging to seven divergent clans have been identified. Transcriptome revealed 146 different transcripts coding for enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of terpenoids of which 35 contained terpene synthase motifs. This study also revealed 32,341 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) in 23,168 transcripts. Assembled sequences of transcriptome of A. paniculata generated in this study are made available, for the first time, in the TSA database, which provides useful information for functional and comparative genomic analysis besides identification of key enzymes involved in the various pathways of secondary metabolism. PMID:27582746

  3. De novo Assembly of Leaf Transcriptome in the Medicinal Plant Andrographis paniculata.

    PubMed

    Cherukupalli, Neeraja; Divate, Mayur; Mittapelli, Suresh R; Khareedu, Venkateswara R; Vudem, Dashavantha R

    2016-01-01

    Andrographis paniculata is an important medicinal plant containing various bioactive terpenoids and flavonoids. Despite its importance in herbal medicine, no ready-to-use transcript sequence information of this plant is made available in the public data base, this study mainly deals with the sequencing of RNA from A. paniculata leaf using Illumina HiSeq™ 2000 platform followed by the de novo transcriptome assembly. A total of 189.22 million high quality paired reads were generated and 1,70,724 transcripts were predicted in the primary assembly. Secondary assembly generated a transcriptome size of ~88 Mb with 83,800 clustered transcripts. Based on the similarity searches against plant non-redundant protein database, gene ontology, and eukaryotic orthologous groups, 49,363 transcripts were annotated constituting upto 58.91% of the identified unigenes. Annotation of transcripts-using kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes database-revealed 5606 transcripts plausibly involved in 140 pathways including biosynthesis of terpenoids and other secondary metabolites. Transcription factor analysis showed 6767 unique transcripts belonging to 97 different transcription factor families. A total number of 124 CYP450 transcripts belonging to seven divergent clans have been identified. Transcriptome revealed 146 different transcripts coding for enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of terpenoids of which 35 contained terpene synthase motifs. This study also revealed 32,341 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) in 23,168 transcripts. Assembled sequences of transcriptome of A. paniculata generated in this study are made available, for the first time, in the TSA database, which provides useful information for functional and comparative genomic analysis besides identification of key enzymes involved in the various pathways of secondary metabolism.

  4. A classical genetic solution to enhance the biosynthesis of anticancer phytochemicals in Andrographis paniculata Nees.

    PubMed

    Valdiani, Alireza; Talei, Daryush; Tan, Soon Guan; Abdul Kadir, Mihdzar; Maziah, Mahmood; Rafii, Mohd Yusop; Sagineedu, Sreenivasa Rao

    2014-01-01

    Andrographolides, the diterpene lactones, are major bioactive phytochemicals which could be found in different parts of the medicinal herb Andrographis paniculata. A number of such compounds namely andrographolide (AG), neoandrographolide (NAG), and 14-deoxy-11,12-didehydroandrographolide (DDAG) have already attracted a great deal of attention due to their potential therapeutic effects in hard-to-treat diseases such as cancers and HIV. Recently, they have also been considered as substrates for the discovery of novel pharmaceutical compounds. Nevertheless, there is still a huge gap in knowledge on the genetic pattern of the biosynthesis of these bioactive compounds. Hence, the present study aimed to investigate the genetic mechanisms controlling the biosynthesis of these phytochemicals using a diallel analysis. The high performance liquid chromatography analysis of the three andrographolides in 210 F1 progenies confirmed that the biosynthesis of these andrographolides was considerably increased via intraspecific hybridization. The results revealed high, moderate and low heterosis for DDAG, AG and NAG, respectively. Furthermore, the preponderance of non-additive gene actions was affirmed in the enhancement of the three andrographolides contents. The consequence of this type of gene action was the occurrence of high broad-sense and low narrow-sense heritabilities for the above mentioned andrographolides. The prevalence of non-additive gene action suggests the suitability of heterosis breeding and hybrid seed production as a preferred option to produce new plant varieties with higher andrographolide contents using the wild accessions of A. paniculata. Moreover, from an evolutionary point of view, the occurrence of population bottlenecks in the Malaysian accessions of A. paniculata was unveiled by observing a low level of additive genetic variance (VA ) for all the andrographolides.

  5. Prenylated Coumarins from Heracleum stenopterum, Peucedanum praeruptorum, Clausena lansium, and Murraya paniculata.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiang-Mei; Jiang, Xian-Jun; Yang, Ku; Wang, Li-Xia; Wen, Shi-Zhen; Wang, Fei

    2016-10-01

    Four hitherto unknown prenylated coumarins, namely 6″-O-β-D-apiofuranosylapterin (1), 4'-O-isobutyroylpeguangxienin (2), 6-(3-methyl-2-oxobutyroyl)-7-methoxycoumarin (3), and 6-hydroxycoumurrayin (4), were isolated from the ethanol extract of Heracleum stenopterum, Peucedanum praeruptorum, Clausena lansium, and Murraya paniculata, respectively. Their chemical structures were established on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis. Compound 2 exhibited in vitro cytotoxic activity against five human cancer cell lines (HL-60, A-549, SMMC-7721, MCF-7, and SW-480) with IC50 values ranging from 15.9 to 23.2 μM.

  6. Antimycobacterial Efficacy of Andrographis paniculata Leaf Extracts Under Intracellular and Hypoxic Conditions.

    PubMed

    Bhatter, Purva; Gupta, Pooja; Daswani, Poonam; Tetali, Pundarikakshudu; Birdi, Tannaz

    2015-01-01

    The inhibition of the growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis by the extracts of Andrographis paniculata has been studied using intracellular and axenic hypoxic conditions. The inhibition (confirmed using the gold standard colony forming unit assay) was found to increase with "double stimuli" or higher concentration of the extract. Organic solvent extracts were found to inhibit bacterial growth more than the aqueous extracts under microaerophilic conditions mimicked through axenic and intracellular assays. This could be further explored to evaluate the potential of the plant to be used against nonreplicating/dormant bacilli.

  7. Modulation of the antibiotic activity against multidrug resistant strains of coumarins isolated from Rutaceae species.

    PubMed

    Madeiro, Sara A L; Borges, Nathalie H P B; Souto, Augusto L; de Figueiredo, Pedro T R; Siqueira-Junior, José P; Tavares, Josean F

    2017-03-01

    The first occurrences and dissemination of resistant microorganisms led to the inefficacy of many antibiotics, available in the market nowadays, therefore, the search for new substances with antimicrobial activity from natural sources has gained a great importance. The purpose of this work is to evaluate the antibacterial activity and modulation of drug resistance in Staphylococcus aureus by coumarins such as bergapten, xantotoxin, isopimpinellin and imperatorin obtained from two Rutaceae species (Metrodorea mollis and Pilocarpus spicatus). The antimicrobial activity was assessed based on the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), using the microdilution method. The MIC was >256 g/mL for all coumarins tested. Regarding the modulation of drug resistance assay, the isopimpinellin reducted the MIC of erytromicin by 4 times, whereas imperatorin exhibited the best result, reducing the MIC of tetracycline (2 times), erytomicin (4 times) and norfloxacin (4 times). By reducing the MIC of ethidium bromide, the imperatorin is consider in fact, as a putative efflux pump inhibitor of bacteria.

  8. Development of microsatellite markers for the clonal shrub Orixa japonica (Rutaceae) using 454 sequencing1

    PubMed Central

    Tamaki, Ichiro; Setsuko, Suzuki; Sugai, Kyoko; Yanagisawa, Nao

    2016-01-01

    Premise of the study: Microsatellite markers were developed for a dioecious shrub, Orixa japonica (Rutaceae). Because O. japonica vigorously propagates by vegetative growth, microsatellite markers can be used to identify clonal relationships among its ramets. Methods and Results: Sixteen polymorphic microsatellite markers were identified by 454 next-generation sequencing. The number of alleles and expected heterozygosity for each locus among four populations ranged from two to 10 and from 0.140 to 0.875, respectively. Five of the 16 loci showed a low null allele frequency. Because Orixa is a monotypic genus, cross-amplification in a consubfamilial species, Skimmia japonica, was tested, and only one locus showed polymorphism. Conclusions: These microsatellite markers developed for O. japonica contribute to clone identification for studies examining the clonal structure and true sex ratio in the wild. Moreover, five markers that have a low null allele frequency can also be used for estimating mating systems or performing parentage analysis. PMID:27785383

  9. Integration of Andrographis paniculata as Potential Medicinal Plant in Chir Pine (Pinus roxburghii Sarg.) Plantation of North-Western Himalaya.

    PubMed

    Sanwal, Chandra Shekher; Kumar, Raj; Bhardwaj, S D

    2016-01-01

    The integration of Andrographis paniculata under Pinus roxburghii (Chir pine) plantation has been studied to evaluate the growth and yield for its economic viability and conservation. It was grown on three topographical aspects, namely, northern, north-western, and western, at a spacing of 30 cm × 30 cm, followed by three tillage depths, namely, minimum (0 cm), medium (up to 10 cm), and deep (up to 15 cm) tillage. The growth parameters, namely, plant height and number of branches per plant, were recorded as significantly higher on western aspect and lowest on northern aspect except for leaf area index which was found nonsignificant. However under all tillage practices all the growth parameters in both understorey and open conditions were found to be nonsignificant except for plant height which was found to be significantly highest under deep tillage and lowest under minimum tillage. The study of net returns for Andrographis paniculata revealed that it had positive average annual returns even in understorey conditions which indicate its possible economic viability under integration of Chir pine plantations. Hence net returns can be enhanced by integrating Andrographis paniculata and this silvimedicinal system can be suggested which will help utilizing an unutilized part of land and increase total productivity from such lands besides conservation of the A. paniculata in situ.

  10. Dormancy and Germination In Vitro Response of Hydrangea Macrophylla and Hydrangea paniculata Seed to Light, Stratification, and Gibberellic Acid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seed germination was optimized for ten Hydrangea macrophylla cultivars and two Hydrangea paniculata cultivars in vitro. Methods were also developed to assay seed physiology. Best results were obtained with 0.5X Gamborgs solid media in conjunction with Plant Preservative Mixture (PPM), and by sterili...

  11. Integration of Andrographis paniculata as Potential Medicinal Plant in Chir Pine (Pinus roxburghii Sarg.) Plantation of North-Western Himalaya

    PubMed Central

    Sanwal, Chandra Shekher; Bhardwaj, S. D.

    2016-01-01

    The integration of Andrographis paniculata under Pinus roxburghii (Chir pine) plantation has been studied to evaluate the growth and yield for its economic viability and conservation. It was grown on three topographical aspects, namely, northern, north-western, and western, at a spacing of 30 cm × 30 cm, followed by three tillage depths, namely, minimum (0 cm), medium (up to 10 cm), and deep (up to 15 cm) tillage. The growth parameters, namely, plant height and number of branches per plant, were recorded as significantly higher on western aspect and lowest on northern aspect except for leaf area index which was found nonsignificant. However under all tillage practices all the growth parameters in both understorey and open conditions were found to be nonsignificant except for plant height which was found to be significantly highest under deep tillage and lowest under minimum tillage. The study of net returns for Andrographis paniculata revealed that it had positive average annual returns even in understorey conditions which indicate its possible economic viability under integration of Chir pine plantations. Hence net returns can be enhanced by integrating Andrographis paniculata and this silvimedicinal system can be suggested which will help utilizing an unutilized part of land and increase total productivity from such lands besides conservation of the A. paniculata in situ. PMID:27563482

  12. Major Clades of Australasian Rutoideae (Rutaceae) Based on rbcL and atpB Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Bayly, Michael J.; Holmes, Gareth D.; Forster, Paul I.; Cantrill, David J.; Ladiges, Pauline Y.

    2013-01-01

    Background Rutaceae subfamily Rutoideae (46 genera, c. 660 species) is diverse in both rainforests and sclerophyll vegetation of Australasia. Australia and New Caledonia are centres of endemism with a number of genera and species distributed disjunctly between the two regions. Our aim was to generate a high-level molecular phylogeny for the Australasian Rutoideae and identify major clades as a framework for assessing morphological and biogeographic patterns and taxonomy. Methodology/Principal Findings Phylogenetic analyses were based on chloroplast genes, rbcL and atpB, for 108 samples (78 new here), including 38 of 46 Australasian genera. Results were integrated with those from other molecular studies to produce a supertree for Rutaceae worldwide, including 115 of 154 genera. Australasian clades are poorly matched with existing tribal classifications, and genera Philotheca and Boronia are not monophyletic. Major sclerophyll lineages in Australia belong to two separate clades, each with an early divergence between rainforest and sclerophyll taxa. Dehiscent fruits with seeds ejected at maturity (often associated with myrmecochory) are inferred as ancestral; derived states include woody capsules with winged seeds, samaras, fleshy drupes, and retention and display of seeds in dehisced fruits (the last two states adaptations to bird dispersal, with multiple origins among rainforest genera). Patterns of relationship and levels of sequence divergence in some taxa, mostly species, with bird-dispersed (Acronychia, Sarcomelicope, Halfordia and Melicope) or winged (Flindersia) seeds are consistent with recent long-distance dispersal between Australia and New Caledonia. Other deeper Australian/New Caledonian divergences, some involving ant-dispersed taxa (e.g., Neoschmidia), suggest older vicariance. Conclusions/Significance This comprehensive molecular phylogeny of the Australasian Rutoideae gives a broad overview of the group’s evolutionary and biogeographic history

  13. Characterization and cloning of an 11S globulin with hemagglutination activity from Murraya paniculata.

    PubMed

    Singh, Anamika; Selvakumar, Purushotham; Saraswat, Akhilesh; Tomar, Prabhat P S; Mishra, Manisha; Singh, Pradhyumna K; Sharma, Ashwani K

    2015-01-01

    A ~56 kDa protein having hemagglutination activity was purified and characterized from the Murraya paniculata seeds. The gel electrophoresis studies demonstrated that protein is primarily of two different subunits, molecular weight ~ 35 and 21 kDa held together by disulfide-linkages and predominantly by secondary forces. The cloning and sequence analysis revealed that the protein exhibited a substantial sequence identity to seed storage 11S globulin family proteins. The sequence analysis of Murraya paniculata globulin (MPG) demonstrated higher and lower molecular weight polypeptides to be acidic (α) and basic (β) respectively. The sequence analysis further showed that it possesses a characteristic bi-cupin motif and a putative metal binding pocket. CD analysis revealed that the MPG was a β/α protein with a slightly higher content of the former. Conformational changes in protein have been studied by fluorescence spectrometry by using various chemical treatments. The results demonstrated that MPG belongs to 11S globulin family and exhibit's hemagglutination activity, which implicates it to be possessing lectin-like property.

  14. Establishment of in vitro adventitious root cultures and analysis of andrographolide in Andrographis paniculata.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Shiv Narayan; Jha, Zenu; Sinha, Rakesh Kumar

    2013-08-01

    Andrographolide is the principal bioactive component of the medicinal plant Andrographis paniculata, to which various diverse pharmacological properties are attributed. Traditionally, andrographolide was extracted from the leaves, stems and other parts of the plant. Leaves have the highest andrographolide content (2-3%) in comparison with the other plant parts. Adventitious root culture of leaf explants of A. paniculata was studied using different strength MS medium supplemented by different concentrations of auxins and a combination of NAA + kinetin for growth and andrographolide production. Among the different auxin treatments in adventitious root culture, only NAA was able to induce adventitious roots. Adventitious roots grown in modified strength MS medium showed the highest root growth (26.7 +/- 1.52), as well as the highest amount of andrographolide (133.3 +/- 1.5 mg/g DW) as compared with roots grown in half- and full-strength MS medium. Growth kinetics showed maximum biomass production after five weeks of culture in different strength MS liquid medium. The produced andrographolide content was 3.5 - 5.5 folds higher than that of the natural plant, depending on the medium strength.

  15. Pancreatic effect of andrographolide isolated from Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f.) Nees.

    PubMed

    Nugroho, Agung Endro; Rais, Ichwan Ridwan; Setiawan, Iwan; Pratiwi, Pramita Yuli; Hadibarata, Tony; Tegar, Maulana; Pramono, Suwidjiyo

    2014-01-01

    Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f.) Nees is a plant that originates from India and grows widely to Southeast which used for several purposes mainly as treatment of diabetes mellitus so the aim of this study was evaluate andrographolide for its pancreatic effect in neonatal streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats, a model of type 2 diabetic rats. Diabetic condition was induced with an intraperitoneal injection of 90 mg kg(-1) streptozotocin in two-day-old rats. After three months, the neonatal STZ-induced diabetic rats were treated with andrographolide or andrographolide-enriched extract of A. paniculata (AEEAP) for 8 consecutive days. Pancreatic effect was evaluated by estimating mainly the preprandial and postprandial blood glucose levels and other parameters such as morphology of pancreatic islet, beta cells density and morphology and immunohistochemically pancreatic insulin. Andrographolide significantly (p < 0.05) decreased the levels of blood glucose and improved diabetic rat islet and beta cells. However, AEEAP exhibited moderate hypoglycaemic effects on the blood glucose levels. Moderate changes in beta cells were observed after AEEAP treatment. They could restore decreasing of pancreatic insulin contents. Based on these results andrographolide and AEEAP exhibited pancreatic actions in neonatal STZ-induced diabetic rats. The activity of andrographolide was more effective than this of AEEAP.

  16. Review on liver inflammation and antiinflammatory activity of Andrographis paniculata for hepatoprotection.

    PubMed

    Chua, Lee Suan

    2014-11-01

    Till to date, the advancement of medical science and technology is still unable to provide inclusive treatment to liver inflammation caused by neither microbial invasion nor antibiotics nor environmental toxins. Therefore, this article provides the basic knowledge of liver inflammation up to the cellular level and its current medical treatment for inflammatory symptom suppression. Because of the adverse effects of drug treatment, people start looking for comprehensive alternative nowadays. Herbal medicine is believed to be the best of choice because it is being practiced until now for centuries. Although numerous herbal plants have been reported for their efficacies in liver protection, Andrographis paniculata is the most widely used herb for hepatoprotection, particularly in Ayurveda and traditional Chinese medicine. This review covers the significant observation on the biochemical responses due to the experimental induction of liver damage in vitro and in vivo using the marker compound of the herb, namely andrographolide and its derivatives. The standardized extract of A. paniculata with the right phytochemical composition of diterpenic labdanes is likely to have tremendous potential for the development of hepatoprotective medicine. This standardized herbal medicine may not provide immediate remedy, but it can be considered as a comprehensive therapy for liver inflammation.

  17. [Preparation of hydrophilic matrix sustained release tablets of total lactones from Andrographis paniculata and study on its in vitro release mechanism].

    PubMed

    Xu, Fang-Fang; Shi, Wei; Zhang, Hui; Guo, Qing-Ming; Wang Zhen-Zhong; Bi, Yu-An; Wang, Zhi-Min; Xiao, Wei

    2015-01-01

    In this study, hydrophilic matrix sustained release tablets of total lactones from Andrographis paniculata were prepared and the in vitro release behavior were also evaluated. The optimal prescription was achieved by studying the main factor of the type and amount of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) using single factor test and evaluating through cumulative release of three lactones. No burst drug release from the obtained matrix tablets was observed. Drug release sustained to 14 h. The release mechanism of three lactones from A. paniculata was accessed by zero-order, first-order, Higuchi and Peppas equation. The release behavior of total lactones from A. paniculata was better agreed with Higuchi model and the drug release from the tablets was controlled by degradation of the matrix. The preparation of hydrophilic matrix sustained release tablets of total lactones from A. paniculata with good performance of drug release was simple.

  18. The Antiaging Properties of Andrographis paniculata by Activation Epidermal Cell Stemness.

    PubMed

    You, Jiyoung; Roh, Kyung-Baeg; Li, Zidan; Liu, Guangrong; Tang, Jian; Shin, Seoungwoo; Park, Deokhoon; Jung, Eunsun

    2015-09-22

    Andrographis paniculata (A. paniculata, Chuanxinlian), a medicinal herb with an extremely bitter taste that is native to China and other parts of Southeast Asia, possesses immense therapeutic value; however, its therapeutic properties have rarely been applied in the field of skin care. In this study, we investigated the effect of an A. paniculata extract (APE) on human epidermal stem cells (EpSCs), and confirmed its anti-aging effect through in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo study. An MTT assay was used to determine cell proliferation. A flow cytometric analysis, with propidium iodide, was used to evaluate the cell cycle. The expression of integrin β1 (CD29), the stem cell marker, was detected with antibodies, using flow cytometry in vitro, and immunohistochemical assays in ex vivo. Type 1 collagen and VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). During the clinical study, skin hydration, elasticity, wrinkling, sagging, and dermal density were evaluated before treatment and at four and eight weeks after the treatment with the test product (containing the APE) on the face. The proliferation of the EpSCs, treated with the APE, increased significantly. In the cell cycle analysis, the APE increased the G2/M and S stages in a dose-dependent manner. The expression of integrin β1, which is related to epidermal progenitor cell expansion, was up-regulated in the APE-treated EpSCs and skin explants. In addition, the production of VEGF in the EpSCs increased significantly in response to the APE treatment. Consistent with these results, the VEGF and APE-treated EpSCs conditioned medium enhanced the Type 1 collagen production in normal human fibroblasts (NHFs). In the clinical study, the APE improved skin hydration, dermal density, wrinkling, and sagging significantly. Our findings revealed that the APE promotes a proliferation of EpSCs, through the up-regulation of the integrin β1 and VEGF expression. The VEGF

  19. Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology of Andrographis paniculata and Its Major Bioactive Phytoconstituent Andrographolide

    PubMed Central

    Jayakumar, Thanasekaran; Hsieh, Cheng-Ying; Lee, Jie-Jen; Sheu, Joen-Rong

    2013-01-01

    Andrographis paniculata (Burm. F) Nees, generally known as “king of bitters,” is an herbaceous plant in the family Acanthaceae. In China, India, Thailand, and Malaysia, this plant has been widely used for treating sore throat, flu, and upper respiratory tract infections. Andrographolide, a major bioactive chemical constituent of the plant, has shown anticancer potential in various investigations. Andrographolide and its derivatives have anti-inflammatory effects in experimental models asthma, stroke, and arthritis. In recent years, pharmaceutical chemists have synthesized numerous andrographolide derivatives, which exhibit essential pharmacological activities such as those that are anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antitumor, antidiabetic, anti-HIV, antifeedant, and antiviral. However, what is noteworthy about this paper is summarizing the effects of andrographolide against cardiovascular disease, platelet activation, infertility, and NF-κB activation. Therefore, this paper is intended to provide evidence reported in relevant literature on qualitative research to assist scientists in isolating and characterizing bioactive compounds. PMID:23634174

  20. Inhibition of Helicobacter pylori and Its Associate Urease by Labdane Diterpenoids Isolated from Andrographis paniculata.

    PubMed

    Shaikh, Rafik U; Dawane, Ashwini A; Pawar, Rajendra P; Gond, Dhananjay S; Meshram, Rohan J; Gacche, Rajesh N

    2016-03-01

    The present study was carried out to evaluate anti-Helicobacter pylori and its associated urease activity of labdane diterpenoids isolated from Andrographis paniculata. A molecular docking analysis was performed by using ArgusLab 4.0.1 software. The results obtained indicate that compound A possesses strong inhibition to H. pylori, 28 ± 2.98 (minimum inhibitory concentration, 9 µg/mL), and its urease, 85.54 ± 2.62% (IC50 , 20.2 µg/mL). Compounds B, C, and D also showed moderate inhibition to H. pylori and its urease. The obtained results were in agreement with the molecular docking analysis of compounds. The phytochemicals under investigation were found to be promising antibacterial agents. Moreover, the isolated compounds can be considered as a resource for searching novel anti-H. pylori agents possessing urease inhibition.

  1. Determination of phytochemicals, antioxidant activity and total phenolic content in Andrographis paniculata using chromatographic methods.

    PubMed

    Kurzawa, Marzanna; Filipiak-Szok, Anna; Kłodzińska, Ewa; Szłyk, Edward

    2015-07-15

    Antioxidant activity, total phenolics content and selected phytochemicals (alkaloids and andrographolides) were determined in Andrographis paniculata and in dietary supplements containing this plant. Antioxidant activity was measured by FRAP, CUPRAC and DPPH procedures and ranged from 503.36 to 6164.09μmol TE/100g d.m. depending on methods, part of plant and kind of dietary supplement. The total phenolics (175.13-1723.79mg GAE/100g) and andrographolides content (19.44-85.13mg/g) in the studied samples were correlated with antioxidant activities determined by CUPRAC, FRAP and DPPH (r>0.95, p<0.05 level). Purine alkaloids: caffeine, theobromine, theophylline and indole alkaloids: harmine, harmane, harmol, yohimbine, brucine and strychnine were detected in the studied samples by different chromatographic techniques (HPLC-DAD, LC-MS/MS, GC-MS). The total alkaloids content in APs-roots and APs-leaves varies from 50.71±0.36mg/g d.m. to 78.71±0.48mg/g d.m., respectively, whereas for dietary supplements (Pn and DK) TAC was found between 19.52±0.15mg/g and 22.18±0.15mg/g d.m.. The highest concentration of andrographolides was found in A. paniculata leaves, whereas the lowest in dietary supplement Pn. Moreover principal component analysis, cluster analysis and one-way ANOVA follow by Duncan's tests were also performed.

  2. Hybrid analysis (barcode-high resolution melting) for authentication of Thai herbal products, Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Wall.ex Nees

    PubMed Central

    Osathanunkul, Maslin; Suwannapoom, Chatmongkon; Khamyong, Nuttaluck; Pintakum, Danupol; Lamphun, Santisuk Na; Triwitayakorn, Kanokporn; Osathanunkul, Kitisak; Madesis, Panagiotis

    2016-01-01

    Background: Andrographis paniculata Nees is a medicinal plant with multiple pharmacological properties. It has been used over many centuries as a household remedy. A. paniculata products sold on the markets are in processed forms so it is difficult to authenticate. Therefore buying the herbal products poses a high-risk of acquiring counterfeited, substituted and/or adulterated products. Due to these issues, a reliable method to authenticate products is needed. Materials and Methods: High resolution melting analysis coupled with DNA barcoding (Bar-HRM) was applied to detect adulteration in commercial herbal products. The rbcL barcode was selected to use in primers design for HRM analysis to produce standard melting profile of A. paniculata species. DNA of the tested commercial products was isolated and their melting profiles were then generated and compared with the standard A. paniculata. Results: The melting profiles of the rbcL amplicons of the three closely related herbal species (A. paniculata, Acanthus ebracteatus and Rhinacanthus nasutus) are clearly separated so that they can be distinguished by the developed method. The method was then used to authenticate commercial herbal products. HRM curves of all 10 samples tested are similar to A. paniculata which indicated that all tested products were contained the correct species as labeled. Conclusion: The method described in this study has been proved to be useful in aiding identification and/or authenticating A. paniculata. This Bar-HRM analysis has allowed us easily to determine the A. paniculata species in herbal products on the markets even they are in processed forms. SUMMARY We propose the use of DNA barcoding combined with High Resolution Melting analysis for authenticating of Andrographis paniculata products.The developed method can be used regardless of the type of the DNA template (fresh or dried tissue, leaf, and stem).rbcL region was chosen for the analysis and work well with our samplesWe can easily

  3. An effective vacuum assisted extraction method for the optimization of labdane diterpenoids from Andrographis paniculata by response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ya-Qi; Wu, Zhen-Feng; Ke, Gang; Yang, Ming

    2014-12-31

    An effective vacuum assisted extraction (VAE) technique was proposed for the first time and applied to extract bioactive components from Andrographis paniculata. The process was carefully optimized by response surface methodology (RSM). Under the optimized experimental conditions, the best results were obtained using a boiling temperature of 65 °C, 50% ethanol concentration, 16 min of extraction time, one extraction cycles and a 12:1 liquid-solid ratio. Compared with conventional ultrasonic assisted extraction and heat reflux extraction, the VAE technique gave shorter extraction times and remarkable higher extraction efficiency, which indicated that a certain degree of vacuum gave the solvent a better penetration of the solvent into the pores and between the matrix particles, and enhanced the process of mass transfer. The present results demonstrated that VAE is an efficient, simple and fast method for extracting bioactive components from A. paniculata, which shows great potential for becoming an alternative technique for industrial scale-up applications.

  4. Effects of Andrographis paniculata and Orthosiphon stamineus extracts on the glucuronidation of 4-methylumbelliferone in human UGT isoforms.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Sabariah; Hanapi, Nur Aziah; Ab Halim, Mohd Rohaimi; Uchaipichat, Verawan; Mackenzie, Peter I

    2010-05-14

    The effects of Andrographis paniculata and Orthosiphon stamineus extracts on the in vitro glucuronidation of 4-methylumbelliferone (4MU) by recombinant human UGTs, UGT1A1, UGT1A3, UGT1A6, UGT1A7, UGT1A8, UGT1A10, UGT2B7 and UGT2B15 were determined. The potential inhibitory effects of both of the extracts on the activity of each of the UGT isoforms were investigated using 4MU as the substrate. Incubations contained UDP-glucuronic acid (UDPGA) as the cofactor, MgCl(2), cell lysate of respective isoform, and 4MU at the approximate apparent K(m) or S(50) value of each isoform. Final concentrations of Andrographis paniculata and Orthosiphon stamineus extracts used were 0.025, 0.25, 2.5, 25 and 50 microg/mL and 0.01, 0.10, 1.0, 10 and 50 microg/mL respectively. Both extracts variably inhibited the activity of most of the isoforms in a concentration dependent manner. Andrographis paniculata extract was the better inhibitor of all the isoforms studied (IC(50) 1.70 microg/mL for UGT1A3, 2.57 microg/mL for UGT1A8, 2.82 microg/mL for UGT2B7, 5.00 micorg/mL for UGT1A1, 5.66 microg/mL for UGT1A6, 9.88 microg/mL for UGT1A7 and 15.66 microg/mL for UGT1A10). Both extracts showed less than 70% inhibition of UGT2B15, so the IC(50) values were >50 microg/mL. The inhibition of human UGTs by Andrographis paniculata and Orthosiphon stamineus extracts in vitro suggests a potential for drug-herbal extract interactions in the therapeutic setting.

  5. Beneficial effects of an Andrographis paniculata extract and andrographolide on cognitive functions in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Thakur, Ajit Kumar; Rai, Geeta; Chatterjee, Shyam Sunder; Kumar, Vikas

    2016-09-01

    Context Andrographolide containing Andrographis paniculata (Burm. F.) Wall. Ex Nees (Acanthaceae) extracts is often used for treatments of diabetes and other inflammatory disorders commonly accompanying cognitive and other psychiatric disorders. Objective To compare the efficacies of a standardised A. paniculata extract (AP) and pure andrographolide on cognitive functions, oxidative stress and cholinergic function in diabetic rats. Materials and methods Streptozotocin-induced diabetic Charles Foster albino rats treated orally with a hydro-methanolic A. paniculata leaf extract (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg/day), or with pure andrographolide (15, 30 and 60 mg/kg/day) for 10 consecutive days, were subjected to Morris water maze test. After the test, acetylcholinesterase, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) activities and lipid peroxidation (LPO) in brain tissues were assessed. Results Acetylcholinesterase activity in pre-frontal cortex and hippocampus of diabetic rats was 2.1 and 2.6 times higher compared to nondiabetic rats. LPO was 1.6 times higher and decreased SOD (56.3%) and CAT (44.9%) activities in pre-frontal cortex of diabetic rats compared to nondiabetic rats. AP or andrographolide treatments dose dependently attenuated cognitive deficits, reduced acetylcholinesterase activity, oxidative stress, improved diabetic hyperglycemia and insulin deficiency. All observed effects of AP were quantitatively almost equal to those expected from its analytically quantified andrographolide content. Discussion and conclusion Reported observations are the very first ones suggesting beneficial effects of andrographolide against diabetes associated cognitive deficits, increased acetylcholinesterase activity and deteriorated antioxidative status. Efforts to exploit A. paniculata extracts enriched in andrographolide as preventive measures against such disorders can be warranted.

  6. Singlet Oxygen Scavenging Activity and Cytotoxicity of Essential Oils from Rutaceae

    PubMed Central

    Ao, Yoko; Satoh, Kazue; Shibano, Katsushige; Kawahito, Yukari; Shioda, Seiji

    2008-01-01

    Since we have been exposed to excessive amounts of stressors, aromatherapy for the relaxation has recently become very popular recently. However, there is a problem which responds to light with the essential oil used by aromatherapy. It is generally believed that singlet oxygen is implicated in the pathogenesis of various diseases such as light-induced skin disorders and inflammatory responses. Here we studied whether essential oils can effectively scavenge singlet oxygen upon irradiation, using the electron spin resonance (ESR) method. Green light was used to irradiate twelve essential oils from rutaceae. Among these twelve essential oils, eight were prepared by the expression (or the compression) method (referred to as E oil), and four samples were prepared by the steam distillation method (referred to as SD oil). Five E oils enhanced singlet oxygen production. As these essential oils may be phototoxic, it should be used for their use whit light. Two E oils and three SD oils showed singlet oxygen scavenging activity. These results may suggest that the antioxidant activity of essential oils are judged from their radical scavenging activity. Essential oils, which enhance the singlet oxygen production and show higher cytotoxicity, may contain much of limonene. These results suggest that limonene is involved not only in the enhancement of singlet oxygen production but also in the expression of cytotoxic activity, and that attention has to be necessary for use of blended essential oils. PMID:18648659

  7. Phylogenetic relationships of Zieria (Rutaceae) inferred from chloroplast, nuclear, and morphological data

    PubMed Central

    Morton, Cynthia M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Zieria Sm. (Rutaceae, Boronieae) is predominantly native to eastern Australia except for one species, which is endemic to New Caledonia. For this study, sequence data of two non-coding chloroplast regions (trnL-trnF, and rpl32-trnL), one nuclear region (ITS region) and various morphological characters, based on Armstrong’s (2002) taxonomic revision of Zieria, from 32 of the 42 described species of Zieria were selected to study the phylogenetic relationships within this genus. Zieria was supported as a monophyletic group in both independent and combined analyses herein (vs. Armstrong). On the basis of Armstrong’s (2002) non-molecular phylogenetic study, six major taxon groups were defined for Zieria. The Maximum-parsimony and the Bayesian analyses of the combined morphological and molecular datasets indicate a lack of support for any of these six major taxon groups. On the basis of the combined Bayesian analysis consisting of molecular and morphological characters, eight major taxon groups are described for Zieria: 1. Zieria cytisoides group, 2. Zieria granulata group, 3. Zieria laevigata group, 4. Zieria smithii group, 5. Zieria aspalathoides group, 6. Zieria furfuracea group, 7. Zieria montana group, and 8. Zieria robusta group. These informal groups, except for of the groups Zieria robusta and Zieria cytisoides, correspond to the clades with posterior probability values of 100. PMID:25698892

  8. Phylogenetic relationships of Vepris (Rutaceae) inferred from chloroplast, nuclear, and morphological data.

    PubMed

    Morton, Cynthia M

    2017-01-01

    The tribe Toddalieae Hook. F. (Rutaceae) has been controversial since its inception by Bentham and Hooker. The nine taxa examined, Acronychia J.R. & G.Foster, Diphasia Pierre, Diphasiopsis Mendonca, Fagaropsis Mildbr.ex. Siebenl., Oricia Pierre, Teclea Delile, Toddaliopsis Engl., Toddalia Juss. and Vepris Comm. ex. A. Juss, have been recognized under the tribe Toddalieae or Tribes Acronychia, Phellodendron and Toddalia. More recently Araliopsis Engl., Diphasia, Diphasiopsis, Oricia, Teclea, and Toddaliopsis have been incorporated into the genus Vepris, while Toddalia and Fagaropsis have continued to be recognized as closely related. For this study, sequence data of one non-coding chloroplast region (trnL-F) and one nuclear region (ITS) and various morphological characters, based on Mziray's taxonomic studies were examined to try to elucidate these relationships. This study found that the taxa Diphasia, Diphasiopsis, Oricia, Teclea, Toddaliopsis, Vepris, Toddalia eugeniifolia Engl. and Toddalia glomerata F. Hoffm. form a monophyletic group. Due to the amount of intrageneric and intraspecific variation, species delimitations were difficult to determine; however, these genera should be united into Vepris. The analyses also confirmed that Toddalia asiatica (L.) Lam., Zanthoxylon sp. and Fagaropsis angolensis (Engl.) H.M. Gardner are the closest relatives to this group.

  9. Phylogenetic relationships of Vepris (Rutaceae) inferred from chloroplast, nuclear, and morphological data

    PubMed Central

    Morton, Cynthia M.

    2017-01-01

    The tribe Toddalieae Hook. F. (Rutaceae) has been controversial since its inception by Bentham and Hooker. The nine taxa examined, Acronychia J.R. & G.Foster, Diphasia Pierre, Diphasiopsis Mendonca, Fagaropsis Mildbr.ex. Siebenl., Oricia Pierre, Teclea Delile, Toddaliopsis Engl., Toddalia Juss. and Vepris Comm. ex. A. Juss, have been recognized under the tribe Toddalieae or Tribes Acronychia, Phellodendron and Toddalia. More recently Araliopsis Engl., Diphasia, Diphasiopsis, Oricia, Teclea, and Toddaliopsis have been incorporated into the genus Vepris, while Toddalia and Fagaropsis have continued to be recognized as closely related. For this study, sequence data of one non-coding chloroplast region (trnL-F) and one nuclear region (ITS) and various morphological characters, based on Mziray’s taxonomic studies were examined to try to elucidate these relationships. This study found that the taxa Diphasia, Diphasiopsis, Oricia, Teclea, Toddaliopsis, Vepris, Toddalia eugeniifolia Engl. and Toddalia glomerata F. Hoffm. form a monophyletic group. Due to the amount of intrageneric and intraspecific variation, species delimitations were difficult to determine; however, these genera should be united into Vepris. The analyses also confirmed that Toddalia asiatica (L.) Lam., Zanthoxylon sp. and Fagaropsis angolensis (Engl.) H.M. Gardner are the closest relatives to this group. PMID:28273098

  10. Phylogenetic relationships of Zieria (Rutaceae) inferred from chloroplast, nuclear, and morphological data.

    PubMed

    Morton, Cynthia M

    2015-01-01

    Zieria Sm. (Rutaceae, Boronieae) is predominantly native to eastern Australia except for one species, which is endemic to New Caledonia. For this study, sequence data of two non-coding chloroplast regions (trnL-trnF, and rpl32-trnL), one nuclear region (ITS region) and various morphological characters, based on Armstrong's (2002) taxonomic revision of Zieria, from 32 of the 42 described species of Zieria were selected to study the phylogenetic relationships within this genus. Zieria was supported as a monophyletic group in both independent and combined analyses herein (vs. Armstrong). On the basis of Armstrong's (2002) non-molecular phylogenetic study, six major taxon groups were defined for Zieria. The Maximum-parsimony and the Bayesian analyses of the combined morphological and molecular datasets indicate a lack of support for any of these six major taxon groups. On the basis of the combined Bayesian analysis consisting of molecular and morphological characters, eight major taxon groups are described for Zieria: 1. Zieriacytisoides group, 2. Zieriagranulata group, 3. Zierialaevigata group, 4. Zieriasmithii group, 5. Zieriaaspalathoides group, 6. Zieriafurfuracea group, 7. Zieriamontana group, and 8. Zieriarobusta group. These informal groups, except for of the groups Zieriarobusta and Zieriacytisoides, correspond to the clades with posterior probability values of 100.

  11. Inhibition of Group IIA Secretory Phospholipase A2 and its Inflammatory Reactions in Mice by Ethanolic Extract of Andrographis paniculata, a Well-known Medicinal Food

    PubMed Central

    Kishore, V.; Yarla, N. S.; Zameer, F.; Nagendra Prasad, M. N.; Santosh, M. S.; More, S. S.; Rao, D. G.; Dhananjaya, Bhadrapura Lakkappa

    2016-01-01

    Andrographis paniculata Nees is an important medicinal plant found in the tropical regions of the world, which has been traditionally used in Indian and Chinese medicinal systems. It is also used as medicinal food. A. paniculata is found to exhibit anti-inflammatory activities; however, its inhibitory potential on inflammatory Group IIA phospholipases A2 (PLA2) and its associated inflammatory reactions are not clearly understood. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the inhibitory/neutralizing potential of ethanolic extract of A. paniculata on the isolated inflammatory PLA2 (VRV-PL-VIIIa) from Daboii rusellii pulchella (belonging to Group IIA inflammatory secretory PLA2 [sPLA2]) and its associated edema-induced activities in Swiss albino mice. A. paniculata extract dose dependently inhibited the Group IIA sPLA2 enzymatic activity with an IC50 value of 10.3 ± 0.5 μg/ml. Further, the extract dose dependently inhibited the edema formation, when co-injected with enzyme indicating that a strong correlation exists between lipolytic and pro-inflammatory activities of the enzyme. In conclusion, results of this study shows that the ethanolic extract of A. paniculata effectively inhibits Group IIA sPLA2 and its associated inflammatory activities, which substantiate its anti-inflammatory properties. The results of the present study warranted further studies to develop bioactive compound (s) in ethanolic extract of A. paniculata as potent therapeutic agent (s) for inflammatory diseases. SUMMARY This study emphasis the anti-inflammatory effect of A. paniculata by inhibiting the inflammatory Group IIA sPLA2 and its associated inflammatory activities such as edema. It was found that there is a strong correlation between lipolytic activity and pro-inflammatory activity inhibition. Therefore, the study suggests that the extract processes potent anti-inflammatory agents, which could be developed as a potential therapeutic agent against inflammatory and related diseases

  12. Phytochemical Screening and Antinociceptive and Antidiarrheal Activities of Hydromethanol and Petroleum Benzene Extract of Microcos paniculata Barks

    PubMed Central

    Moushome, Rafath Ara; Akter, Mst. Irin

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Microcos paniculata is traditionally used for treating diarrhea, wounds, cold, fever, hepatitis, dyspepsia, and heat stroke. Objective. To investigate the qualitative phytochemical constituents of hydromethanol (HMPB) and petroleum benzene extract of Microcos paniculata barks (PBMPB) and to evaluate their antinociceptive and antidiarrheal activities. Methods. Phytochemical constituents and antinociceptive and antidiarrheal activities were determined and evaluated by different tests such as Molisch's, Fehling's, Mayer's, Wagner's, Dragendorff's, frothing, FeCl3, alkali, Pew's, and Salkowski's test, general test of glycosides, Baljet and NH4OH test, formalin-induced paw licking, acetic acid-induced writhing, tail immersion, and hot plate tests, and castor oil and MgSO4 induced diarrheal tests. Results. These extracts revealed the presence of saponins, flavonoids, and triterpenoids and significantly (⁎P < 0.05, versus control) reduced paw licking and abdominal writhing of mice. At 30 min after their administration, PBMPB revealed significant increase in latency (⁎P < 0.05, versus control) in tail immersion test. In hot plate test, HMPB and PBMPB 200 mg/kg showed significant increase in response latency (⁎P < 0.05, versus control) at 30 min after their administration. Moreover, both extracts significantly (⁎P < 0.05, versus control) inhibited percentage of diarrhea in antidiarrheal models. Conclusion. Study results indicate that M. paniculata may provide a source of plant compounds with antinociceptive and antidiarrheal activities. PMID:27777944

  13. Pfaffosidic Fraction from Hebanthe paniculata Induces Cell Cycle Arrest and Caspase-3-Induced Apoptosis in HepG2 Cells

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Tereza Cristina; Cogliati, Bruno; Latorre, Andréia Oliveira; Akisue, Gokithi; Nagamine, Márcia Kazumi; Haraguchi, Mitsue; Hansen, Daiane; Sanches, Daniel Soares; Dagli, Maria Lúcia Zaidan

    2015-01-01

    Hebanthe paniculata roots (formerly Pfaffia paniculata and popularly known as Brazilian ginseng) show antineoplastic, chemopreventive, and antiproliferative properties. Functional properties of these roots and their extracts are usually attributed to the pfaffosidic fraction, which is composed mainly by pfaffosides A–F. However, the therapeutic potential of this fraction in cancer cells is not yet entirely understood. This study aimed to analyze the antitumoral effects of the purified pfaffosidic fraction or saponinic fraction on the human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cell line. Cellular viability, proliferation, and apoptosis were evaluated, respectively, by MTT assay, BrdU incorporation, activated caspase-3 immunocytochemistry, and DNA fragmentation assay. Cell cycle was analyzed by flow cytometry and the cell cycle-related proteins were analyzed by quantitative PCR and Western blot. The cells exposed to pfaffosidic fraction had reduced viability and cellular growth, induced G2/M at 48 h or S at 72 h arrest, and increased sub-G1 cell population via cyclin E downregulation, p27KIP1 overexpression, and caspase-3-induced apoptosis, without affecting the DNA integrity. Antitumoral effects of pfaffosidic fraction from H. paniculata in HepG2 cells originated by multimechanisms of action might be associated with cell cycle arrest in the S phase, by CDK2 and cyclin E downregulation and p27KIP1 overexpression, besides induction of apoptosis through caspase-3 activation. PMID:26075002

  14. Effects of Atmospheric Pressure Air Plasma Pretreatment on the Seed Germination and Early Growth of Andrographis paniculata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, Jiayun; He, Rui; Zhang, Xiaoli; Zhan, Ruoting; Chen, Weiwen; Yang, Size

    2014-03-01

    The objective of this paper is to demonstrate whether air plasma can change the seed germination characteristics, seedling emergence, as well as biochemical reactivity, in Andrographis paniculata (A. paniculata) seedlings by modifying the seed coat and finding a beneficial treatment dose. Eight treatment doses and one control were used to conduct electrical conductivity determination, a germination test, a seedling emergence test and a biochemical assay. The results showed that after being treated with air plasma excited at 5950 V for 10 s, the permeability of the seeds was improved significantly, resulting in the acceleration of seed germination and seedling emergence. In the meantime, the catalase activity and catalase isoenzyme expression were also improved, while the malondialdehyde content in the seedlings was decreased (which means greater counteraction with environmental stress). After being treated with 4250 V for 10 s and 5950 V for 20 s, the seed germination was enhanced, but without an obvious change in seedling emergence. However, after treatment with 3400 V for 20 s and 5100 V for 10 s, the permeability of the seeds was decreased, resulting in a delay in seedling emergence. These results indicate that air plasma can change the physiological and biochemical characteristics of Andrographis paniculata seeds by modifying the seed coat, combined with the effects of the active plasma species, and that different treating doses have different effects.

  15. In vitro comparative evaluation of non-leaves and leaves extracts of Andrographis paniculata on modulation of inflammatory mediators.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekaran, C V; Murali, B; Deepak, M; Agarwal, Amit

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate and compare the inhibitory property of extracts of Andrographis paniculata leaves [methanolic (AP1), hydroalcoholic (AP2), successive water (AP3)] and non-leaves [methanolic (AP4), hydroalcoholic (AP5), successive water (AP6)] towards inflammatory mediators (NO, IL-1 beta, IL-6, TNF alpha, PGE2, TXB2 and LTB4). Stimulant induced J774A.1 murine macrophages and HL-60 promyelocytic leukemic cells were used to study the inhibitory potential of extracts of A. paniculata on inflammatory mediators. Results revealed that AP1 and AP4 exhibited inhibitory effect on all the inflammatory mediators excluding PGE2 and TNF-alpha. AP2 and AP5 exhibited inhibitory effect towards IL-1 beta, TXB2 and did not show inhibitory effect towards other mediators. However, AP3 and AP6 failed to show inhibitory activity against any of the inflammatory mediators at the tested concentrations. Further, we observed that the magnitude of inhibitory effect displayed by A. paniculata extracts depends on the andrographolide content, although, it does not appear to influence the inhibitory effect towards LTB4 production.

  16. Photo-activated DNA binding and antimicrobial activities of furoquinoline and pyranoquinolone alkaloids from rutaceae.

    PubMed

    Hanawa, Fujinori; Fokialakis, Nikolas; Skaltsounis, Alexios-Leandros

    2004-06-01

    To find novel photo-active compounds of potential use in photochemotherapy from higher plants, photo-activated antimicrobial and DNA binding activities of the furoquinolines, skimmianine, kokusaginine, and haplopine, and a pyranoquinolone, flindersine, from two species of Rutaceae plants were investigated. TLC overlay assays against a methichillin-resistant strain of Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans were employed to test antimicrobial properties. All of the tested compounds showed photo-activated antimicrobial activity against S. aureus in the order of kokusaginine > haplopine, flindersine > skimmianine. Weaker activity was found for C. albicans. Photo-activated DNA binding activity of these compounds was investigated by a method using restriction enzymes and a specially designed 1.5 kb DNA fragment. Kokusaginine showed inhibition against all of the 16 restriction enzymes. Haplopine showed a similar inhibition pattern but the binding activity against Asc I and Sma I with restriction sequences consisting only of G and C was very weak. Skimmianine showed binding activity against Xba I, BciV I, Sal I, Pst I, Sph I and Hind III, but very weak or no activity was found for the other restriction enzymes. A pyranoquinolone, flindersine, showed no activity against any of the restriction enzymes. Photo-activated DNA binding activity of furoquinolines was therefore in the order of kokusaginine > haplopine > skimmianine, which was the same order as their photo-activated antimicrobial activity against S. aureus. Therefore, it was concluded that DNA is one of the cellular targets for the furoquinolines to exert their biological activities, similar to psoralens. However, because flindersine showed photo-activated antimicrobial activity against S. aureus but did not show photo-activated DNA binding activity, it is clear that there are other cellular target components for this compound to exert photo-toxic activity.

  17. Anti-diabetic potentials of Momordica charantia and Andrographis paniculata and their effects on estrous cyclicity of alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Reyes, B A S; Bautista, N D; Tanquilut, N C; Anunciado, R V; Leung, A B; Sanchez, G C; Magtoto, R L; Castronuevo, P; Tsukamura, H; Maeda, K-I

    2006-04-21

    Momordica charantia and Andrographis paniculata are the commonly used herbs by the diabetic patients in Pampanga, Philippines. While the anti-diabetic potential of Momordica charantia is well established in streptozocin- or alloxan-induced diabetic animals, the anti-diabetic potential of Andrographis paniculata in alloxan-induced diabetic rat is not known. Neither the effects of these herbs on estrous cyclicity of alloxan-induced diabetic rats are elucidated. Thus, in these experiments, Momordica charantia fruit juice or Andrographis paniculata decoction was orally administered to alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Rats that were treated with Momordica charantia and Andrographis paniculata had higher body weight (BW) compared with diabetic positive control (P < 0.01) from day 22 to day 27 (D27) but exhibited lower BW than the non-diabetic control (P < 0.05). These rats had lower feed (P < 0.05) and liquid intakes (P < 0.01) compared with diabetic positive control from day 17 to D27, but similar with the non-diabetic control. The blood glucose levels in these groups were significantly reduced from day 12 to D27 compared with diabetic positive control (P < 0.01), however, comparable with non-diabetic control. The diabetic positive control had extended mean estrous cycles (8 days) compared to Momordica charantia and Andrographis paniculata-treated diabetic rats (5 days; P < 0.05). Our results suggest that the anti-diabetic potentials of Momordica charantia and Andrographis paniculata could restore impaired estrous cycle in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

  18. Nano-preparation of Andrographis paniculata extract by casein micelle for antidiabetic agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arbianti, Rita; Dewi, Veronica; Imansari, Farisa; Hermansyah, Heri; Sahlan, Muhamad

    2017-02-01

    Side effects caused by oral medications for person with diabetic are the background of the development of alternative treatments by traditional medicine, herbs. Andrographis paniculata (AP) is one of the herbs that is potent to be anti-diabetic agent. The active compound of AP, andrographolide have been examined to have anti-diabetic activity as α-glucosidase enzyme inhibitor. This research aims to encapsulate sambiloto's extract with casein micelle and produce nanoparticles which have anti-diabetic activity as α-glucosidase inhibitor. Extract of AP is encapsulated by casein micelle and made into nano size using sonicator. The dominant active compounds in AP extract coated by casein are andrographolide, neoandrographolide, 14-deoxy-11,12didehydroandrographolide with encapsulation efficiency of 68.83%, 89.15% and 81.69%, the average diameter of the particles is about 120.57 nm and its loading capacity is 28.85%. AP's extract has antidiabetic activity as α-glucosidase inhibitor with percent inhibition of 95%. The morphology of nanoencapsulated AP's extract analyzed by FE-SEM, were similar with casein micelle.

  19. Intraspecific Crossability in Andrographis paniculata Nees: A Barrier against Breeding of the Species

    PubMed Central

    Valdiani, Alireza; Abdul Kadir, Mihdzar; Said Saad, Mohd; Talei, Daryush; Omidvar, Vahid; Hua, Chia Sok

    2012-01-01

    The ambiguity of crossability in Andrographis paniculata (AP) was pointed out in the present research. Accordingly, the effects of different style length and crossing time on intraspecific crossability of seven AP accessions in 21 possible combinations were investigated. The best results came out between 08:00 to 11:00 h for manual out-crossing of AP, while the time from 12:00 to 18:00 h showed a decreasing trend. Moreover, 12 mm style length was found as the most proper phenological stage in terms of stigmatic receptivity to perform out-crossing in this plant. All in all, AP behaved unlikely in each combination, and a significant difference was observed in crossability of AP accessions (P < 0.01). The lowest and highest crossability rate was found in hybrids 21 (11261NS × 11344K) and 27 (11322PA × 11350T) with 0.25% and 13.33%, respectively. Furthermore, a significant negative relationship between style length and crossibility (r2 = 0.762∗∗) was recorded in this research. As a final conclusion, crossing time and proper style length can improve the intraspecific crossability in the species, considerably. Despite all the mentioned contrivances, we still believe that a genetic incongruity should be involved as an additional obstacle in crossability of those combinations that failed or responded deficiently to outcrossing. PMID:22701352

  20. Leaves of orange jasmine (Murraya paniculata) as indicators of airborne heavy metal in Bangkok, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Titseesang, Teerawet; Wood, Timothy; Panich, Noppaporn

    2008-10-01

    Orange jasmine (Murraya paniculata) leaves were collected from three different sites in the area of Bangkok and in a remote area as a control site. The leaf samples were digested and the concentrations of Cu, Fe, Pb, Mn, Ni, Cr, and Zn were then quantified by using inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). All three Bangkok sites were polluted with heavy metals compared with the background site. Fe was found as the highest mean concentration of the metals studied, while Pb was the lowest. There was a high correlation coefficient between metals Cu-Mn, Cu-Zn, Cu-Pb, and Mn-Zn. However, Fe was not correlated with other metals. There was no significant difference in Pb between sites. The significant difference in other metals found in the study could be attributed to different anthropogenic activities between sites. The principal-component analysis (PCA) identified two factors according to the sources of metals making up the anthropogenic (traffic) and natural (soil) sources. Traffic emission was found to be the main source of metal pollution in the atmosphere of Bangkok.

  1. A new biocompatible microemulsion increases extraction yield and bioavailability of Andrographis paniculata.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao-Yan; Niu, Xin; Feng, Qian-Jin; Yang, Xue-Zhi; Wang, Dan-Wei; Zhao, Tong; Li, Lei; DU, Hong

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to design and prepare a biocompatible microemulsion of Andrographis paniculata (BMAP) containing both fat-soluble and water-soluble constituents. We determined the contents of active constituents of BMAP and evaluated its bioavailability. The biocompatible microemulsion (BM), containing lecithin and bile salts, was optimized in the present study, showing a good physical stability. The mean droplet size was 19.12 nm, and the average polydispersity index (PDI) was 0.153. The contents of andrographolide and dehydroandrographolide in BMAP, as determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), were higher than that in ethanol extraction. The pharmacokinetic results of BMAP showed that the AUC0-7 and AUC0→∞ values of BMAP were 2.267 and 27.156 μg·mL(-1)·h(-1), respectively, and were about 1.41-fold and 6.30-fold greater than that of ethanol extraction, respectively. These results demonstrated that the bioavailability of and rographolide extracted by BMAP was significantly higher than that extracted by ethanol. In conclusion, the BMAP preparation displayed ann improved dose form for future clinical applications.

  2. Analysis of the anticancer phytochemicals in Andrographis paniculata Nees. under salinity stress.

    PubMed

    Talei, Daryush; Valdiani, Alireza; Maziah, Mahmood; Sagineedu, Sreenivasa Rao; Saad, Mohd Said

    2013-01-01

    Salinity causes the adverse effects in all physiological processes of plants. The present study aimed to investigate the potential of salt stress to enhance the accumulation of the anticancer phytochemicals in Andrographis paniculata accessions. For this purpose, 70-day-old plants were grown in different salinity levels (0.18, 4, 8, 12, and 16 dSm(-1)) on sand medium. After inducing a period of 30-day salinity stress and before flowering, all plants were harvested and the data on morphological traits, proline content and the three anticancer phytochemicals, including andrographolide (AG), neoandrographolide (NAG), and 14-deoxy-11,12-didehydroandrographolide (DDAG), were measured. The results indicated that salinity had a significant effect on the aforementioned three anticancer phytochemicals. In addition, the salt tolerance index (STI) was significantly decreased, while, except for DDAG, the content of proline, the AG, and NAG was significantly increased (P ≤ 0.01). Furthermore, it was revealed that significant differences among accessions could happen based on the total dry weight, STI, AG, and NAG. Finally, we noticed that the salinity at 12 dSm(-1) led to the maximum increase in the quantities of AG, NAG, and DDAG. In other words, under salinity stress, the tolerant accessions were capable of accumulating the higher amounts of proline, AG, and NAG than the sensitive accessions.

  3. Interaction with bovine serum albumin of an anti-oxidative pectic arabinogalactan from Andrographis paniculata.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Udipta R; Ray, Sayani; Micard, Valérie; Ghosh, Debjani; Ghosh, Kanika; Bandyopadhyay, Shruti S; Ray, Bimalendu

    2014-01-30

    A pectic arabinogalactan was obtained from the leaves of Andrographis paniculata by aqueous extraction followed by α-amylase treatment, deproteination, and anion exchange chromatography. Methylation analysis, Smith degradation, and NMR spectroscopy indicated that it was a highly branched arabinogalactan containing a (1→3)-linked β-d-Galp main chain, substituted at O-6 by (1→6)-linked β-d-Galp side chains. The latter residues were substituted at O-3 by (1→5)- and (1→3)-linked α-l-Araf chains, and non reducing end-units of α-l-Araf and β-d-Galp. This homogeneous arabinogalactan (36 kDa), which contained phenolic acids, showed dose-dependent anti-oxidative properties. The phenolic acid moieties might be the functional sites. This arabinogalactan can form a complex with bovine serum albumin having binding constant K=6.48 × 10(6)/M. Thus, this study is an important step forward to investigate the involvement of arabinogalactan in processes including interaction with biologically important transport proteins.

  4. Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f.) Wall. ex Nees: a review of ethnobotany, phytochemistry, and pharmacology.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Md Sanower; Urbi, Zannat; Sule, Abubakar; Hafizur Rahman, K M

    2014-01-01

    As aboriginal sources of medications, medicinal plants are used from the ancient times. Andrographis paniculata is one of the highly used potential medicinal plants in the world. This plant is traditionally used for the treatment of common cold, diarrhoea, fever due to several infective cause, jaundice, as a health tonic for the liver and cardiovascular health, and as an antioxidant. It is also used to improve sexual dysfunctions and serve as a contraceptive. All parts of this plant are used to extract the active phytochemicals, but the compositions of phytoconstituents widely differ from one part to another and with place, season, and time of harvest. Our extensive data mining of the phytoconstituents revealed more than 55 ent-labdane diterpenoids, 30 flavonoids, 8 quinic acids, 4 xanthones, and 5 rare noriridoids. In this review, we selected only those compounds that pharmacology has already reported. Finally we focused on around 46 compounds for further discussion. We also discussed ethnobotany of this plant briefly. Recommendations addressing extraction process, tissue culture, and adventitious rooting techniques and propagation under abiotic stress conditions for improvement of phytoconstituents are discussed concisely in this paper. Further study areas on pharmacology are also proposed where needed.

  5. Preferentially Cytotoxic Constituents of Andrographis paniculata and their Preferential Cytotoxicity against Human Pancreatic Cancer Cell Lines.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sullim; Morita, Hiroyuki; Tezuka, Yasuhiro

    2015-07-01

    In the course of our search for anticancer agents based on a novel anti-austerity strategy, we found that the 70% EtOH extract of the crude drug Andrographis Herba (aerial parts of Andrographis paniculata), used in Japanese Kampo medicines, killed PANC-1 human pancreatic cancer cells preferentially in nutrient-deprived medium (NDM). Phytochemical investigation of the 70% EtOH extract led to the isolation of 21 known compounds consisting of six labdane-type diterpenes (11, 15, 17-19, 21), six flavones (5, 7, 10, 12, 14, 20), three flavanones (2, 6, 16), two sterols (3, 8), a fatty acid (1), a phthalate (4), a triterpene (9), and a monoterpene (13). Among them, 14-deoxy-11,12-didehydroandrographolide (17) displayed the most potent preferential cytotoxicity against PANC-1 and PSN-1 cells with PC50 values of 10.0 μM and 9.27 μM, respectively. Microscopical observation, double staining with ethidium bromide (EB) and acridine orange (AO), and flow cytometry with propidium iodide/annexin V double staining indicated that 14-deoxy-11,12-didehydroandrographolide (17) triggered apoptosis-like cell death in NDM with an amino acids and/or serum-sensitive mode.

  6. Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f.) Wall. ex Nees: A Review of Ethnobotany, Phytochemistry, and Pharmacology

    PubMed Central

    Sule, Abubakar; Rahman, K. M. Hafizur

    2014-01-01

    As aboriginal sources of medications, medicinal plants are used from the ancient times. Andrographis paniculata is one of the highly used potential medicinal plants in the world. This plant is traditionally used for the treatment of common cold, diarrhoea, fever due to several infective cause, jaundice, as a health tonic for the liver and cardiovascular health, and as an antioxidant. It is also used to improve sexual dysfunctions and serve as a contraceptive. All parts of this plant are used to extract the active phytochemicals, but the compositions of phytoconstituents widely differ from one part to another and with place, season, and time of harvest. Our extensive data mining of the phytoconstituents revealed more than 55 ent-labdane diterpenoids, 30 flavonoids, 8 quinic acids, 4 xanthones, and 5 rare noriridoids. In this review, we selected only those compounds that pharmacology has already reported. Finally we focused on around 46 compounds for further discussion. We also discussed ethnobotany of this plant briefly. Recommendations addressing extraction process, tissue culture, and adventitious rooting techniques and propagation under abiotic stress conditions for improvement of phytoconstituents are discussed concisely in this paper. Further study areas on pharmacology are also proposed where needed. PMID:25950015

  7. Structure–function relationships of inhibition of mosquito cytochrome P450 enzymes by flavonoids of Andrographis paniculata.

    PubMed

    Kotewong, Rattanawadee; Duangkaew, Panida; Srisook, Ekaruth; Sarapusit, Songklod; Rongnoparut, Pornpimol

    2014-09-01

    The cytochrome P450 monooxygenases are known to play a major role in pyrethroid resistance, by means of increased rate of insecticide detoxification as a result of their overexpression. Inhibition of detoxification enzymes may help disrupting insect detoxifying defense system. The Anopheles minimus CYP6AA3 and CYP6P7 have shown pyrethroid degradation activity and been implicated in pyrethroid resistance. In this study inhibition of the extracts and constituents of Andrographis paniculata Nees. leaves and roots was examined against benzyloxyresorufin O-debenzylation (BROD) of CYP6AA3 and CYP6P7. Four purified flavones (5,7,4′-trihydroxyflavone, 5-hydroxy-7,8-dimethoxyflavone, 5-hydroxy-7,8,2′,3′-tetramethoxyflavone, and 5,4′-dihydroxy-7,8,2′,3′-tetramethoxyflavone), one flavanone (5-hydroxy-7,8-dimethoxyflavanone) and a diterpenoid (14-deoxy-11,12-didehydroandrographolide) containing inhibitory effects toward both enzymes were isolated from A. paniculata. Structure–function relationships were observed for modes and kinetics of inhibition among flavones, while diterpenoid and flavanone were inferior to flavones. Docking of flavones onto enzyme homology models reinforced relationships on flavone structures and inhibition modes. Cell-based inhibition assays employing 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-y-l)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) cytotoxicity assays revealed that these flavonoids efficiently increased susceptibility of CYP6AA3- and CYP6P7-expressing Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) cells to cypermethrin toxicity, due to inhibition effects on mosquito enzymes. Thus synergistic effects on cypermethrin toxicity of A. paniculata compounds as a result of enzyme inhibition could be useful for mosquito vector control and insecticide resistance management in the future.

  8. Starter substrate specificities of wild-type and mutant polyketide synthases from Rutaceae.

    PubMed

    Lukacin, Richard; Schreiner, Stephan; Silber, Katrin; Matern, Ulrich

    2005-02-01

    Chalcone synthases (CHSs) and acridone synthases (ACSs) belong to the superfamily of type III polyketide synthases (PKSs) and condense the starter substrate 4-coumaroyl-CoA or N-methylanthraniloyl-CoA with three malonyl-CoAs to produce flavonoids and acridone alkaloids, respectively. ACSs which have been cloned exclusively from Ruta graveolens share about 75-85% polypeptide sequence homology with CHSs from other plant families, while 90% similarity was observed with CHSs from Rutaceae, i.e., R. graveolens, Citrus sinensis and Dictamnus albus. CHSs cloned from many plants do not accept N-methylanthraniloyl-CoA as a starter substrate, whereas ACSs were shown to possess some side activity with 4-coumaroyl-CoA. The transformation of an ACS to a functional CHS with 10% residual ACS activity was accomplished previously by substitution of three amino acids through the corresponding residues from Ruta-CHS1 (Ser132Thr, Ala133Ser and Val265Phe). Therefore, the reverse triple mutation of Ruta-CHS1 (mutant R2) was generated, which affected only insignificantly the CHS activity and did not confer ACS activity. However, competitive inhibition of CHS activity by N-methylanthraniloyl-CoA was observed for the mutant in contrast to wild-type CHSs. Homology modeling of ACS2 with docking of 1,3-dihydroxy-N-methylacridone suggested that the starter substrates for CHS or ACS reaction are placed in different topographies in the active site pocket. Additional site specific substitutions (Asp205Pro/Thr206Asp/His207Ala or Arg60Thr and Val100Ala/Gly218Ala, respectively) diminished the CHS activity to 75-50% of the wild-type CHS1 without promoting ACS activity. The results suggest that conformational changes in the periphery beyond the active site cavity volumes determine the product formation by ACSs vs. CHSs in R. graveolens. It is likely that ACS has evolved from CHS, but the sole enlargement of the active site pocket as in CHS1 mutant R2 is insufficient to explain this process.

  9. Photosynthetic and carbohydrate status of easy and difficult-to-acclimate sea oats (Uniola Paniculata L.) genotypes during in vitro culture and ex vitro acclimation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Photosynthesis and carbohydrate status of an easy-to-acclimatize (EK 16-3) and a difficult-to-acclimatize (EK 11-1) genotype of sea oats (Uniola paniculata), a native dune species of the southeastern U.S., were evaluated during in vitro culture and ex vitro greenhouse acclimatization. During in vitr...

  10. Titers of 'Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus' in Murraya paniculata and Murraya-reared Diaphorina citri are much lower than in citrus and citrus-reared psyllids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Huanglongbing, one of the most devastating diseases of citrus, is associated with the bacterium Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus vectored by the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri, in North America. Murraya paniculata is a common ornamental plant that is an alternate host of Ca. L. asiaticus an...

  11. Molecular cytogenetics and tandem repeat sequence evolution in the allopolyploid Nicotiana rustica compared with diploid progenitors N. paniculata and N. undulata.

    PubMed

    Lim, K Y; Matyasek, R; Kovarik, A; Fulnecek, J; Leitch, A R

    2005-01-01

    Nicotiana rustica (2n = 4x = 48) is a natural allotetraploid composed of P and U genomes which are closely related to genomes of diploid species N. paniculata and N. undulata. Genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) also confirms that the diploid parents, or close relatives, are the ancestors of N. rustica. In order to study genetic interactions between ancestral genomes in the allotetraploid, we isolated three families of repetitive sequences, two from N. paniculata (NPAMBE and NPAMBO) and one from N. undulata (NUNSSP). Southern blot hybridization revealed that the sequences are digested with a range of restriction enzymes into regular ladder patterns indicating a tandem arrangement of high copy repeats possessing monomeric units of about 180 bp. The three-tandem sequences belong to a larger Nicotiana tandem repeat family called here the HRS-60 family. Members of this family are found in all Nicotiana species studied. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis localized the satellite repeats to subtelomeric regions of most chromosomes of N. paniculata and N. undulata. The pattern of sequence distribution on the P- and U-genomes of N. rustica was similar to the putative parents N. paniculata and N. undulata respectively. However, NPAMBO repeats appear to be reduced and rearranged in N. rustica that may suggest evolution within the P genome. GISH and FISH with the tandem repeat probes failed to reveal intergenomic translocations as might be predicted from the nucleocytoplasmic interaction hypothesis.

  12. Andrographis paniculata Extract and Andrographolide Modulate the Hepatic Drug Metabolism System and Plasma Tolbutamide Concentrations in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Haw-Wen; Huang, Chin-Shiu; Liu, Pei-Fen; Li, Chien-Chun; Liu, Cheng-Tzu; Chiang, Jia-Rong; Yao, Hsien-Tsung; Lii, Chong-Kuei

    2013-01-01

    Andrographolide is the most abundant terpenoid of A. paniculata which is used in the treatment of diabetes. In this study, we investigated the effects of A. paniculata extract (APE) and andrographolide on the expression of drug-metabolizing enzymes in rat liver and determined whether modulation of these enzymes changed the pharmacokinetics of tolbutamide. Rats were intragastrically dosed with 2 g/kg/day APE or 50 mg/kg/day andrographolide for 5 days before a dose of 20 mg/kg tolbutamide was given. APE and andrographolide reduced the AUC0–12 h of tolbutamide by 37% and 18%, respectively, compared with that in controls. The protein and mRNA levels and enzyme activities of CYP2C6/11, CYP1A1/2, and CYP3A1/2 were increased by APE and andrographolide. To evaluate whether APE or andrographolide affected the hypoglycemic action of tolbutamide, high-fat diet-induced obese mice were used and treated in the same manner as the rats. APE and andrographolide increased CYP2C6/11 expression and decreased plasma tolbutamide levels. In a glucose tolerance test, however, the hypoglycemic effect of tolbutamide was not changed by APE or andrographolide. These results suggest that APE and andrographolide accelerate the metabolism rate of tolbutamide through increased expression and activity of drug-metabolizing enzymes. APE and andrographolide, however, do not impair the hypoglycemic effect of tolbutamide. PMID:23997806

  13. Harnessing the medicinal properties of Andrographis paniculata for diseases and beyond: a review of its phytochemistry and pharmacology

    PubMed Central

    Okhuarobo, Agbonlahor; Falodun, Joyce Ehizogie; Erharuyi, Osayemwenre; Imieje, Vincent; Falodun, Abiodun; Langer, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Andrographis paniculata Wall (family Acanthaceae) is one of the most popular medicinal plants used traditionally for the treatment of array of diseases such as cancer, diabetes, high blood pressure, ulcer, leprosy, bronchitis, skin diseases, flatulence, colic, influenza, dysentery, dyspepsia and malaria for centuries in Asia, America and Africa continents. It possesses several photochemical constituents with unique and interesting biological properties. This review describes the past and present state of research on Andrographis paniculata with respect to the medicinal usage, phytochemistry, pharmacological activities, toxicity profile and therapeutic usage, in order to bridge the gap requiring future research opportunities. This review is based on literature study on scientific journals and books from library and electronic sources. Diterpenes, flavonoids, xanthones, noriridoides and other miscellaneous compounds have been isolated from the plant. Extract and pure compounds of the plant have been reported for their anti-microbial, cytotoxicity, anti-protozoan, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, immunostimulant, anti-diabetic, anti-infective, anti-angiogenic, hepato-renal protective, sex hormone/sexual function modulation, liver enzymes modulation insecticidal and toxicity activities. The results of numerous toxicity evaluations of extracts and metabolites isolated from this plant did not show any significant acute toxicity in experimental animals. Detailed and more comprehensive toxicity profile on mammalian tissues and organs is needed in future studies.

  14. Toxicological evaluation of Terminalia paniculata bark extract and its protective effect against CCl4-induced liver injury in rodents

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Based on the reported antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potential of Terminalia paniculata, the bark aqueous extract (TPW) was investigated against liver damage. Methods Intrinsic cytotoxicity was tested on normal human liver (Chang) cell lines, followed by acute and sub-chronic toxicity studies in mice. TPW was then evaluated against CCl4-induced liver toxicity in rats. Liver enzymes (AST, ALT, and ALP) and antioxidant markers were assessed. The effect of TPW on isolated hepatic cells, post-CCl4 administration, was assessed by isolated mitochondrial membrane staining. The actions of TPW on apoptotic pathway in CCl4-treated Chang cells were also elucidated. Results TPW was found to be safe at all doses tested in both in vitro and in vivo toxicity studies. TPW (400 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly (*p <0.05) improved liver enzyme activity as compared to CCl4. Also, it improved antioxidant status (GSH, GST, MDA and total thiol) and preserved hepatic cell architecture. TPW pre-treatment significantly attenuated the levels of phospho-p53, p53, cleaved caspase-3, phospho-Bad, Bad and cleaved PARP in CCl4-treated Chang cells, improving the viability considerably. Conclusion The findings support a protective role for Terminalia paniculata in pathologies involving oxidative stress. PMID:23742226

  15. Andrographis paniculata Leaf Extract Prevents Thioacetamide-Induced Liver Cirrhosis in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Bardi, Daleya Abdulaziz; Halabi, Mohammed Farouq; Hassandarvish, Pouya; Rouhollahi, Elham; Paydar, Mohammadjavad; Moghadamtousi, Soheil Zorofchian; Al-Wajeeh, Nahla Saeed; Ablat, Abdulwali; Abdullah, Nor Azizan; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the hepatoprotective effects of ethanolic Andrographis paniculata leaf extract (ELAP) on thioacetamide-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. An acute toxicity study proved that ELAP is not toxic in rats. To examine the effects of ELAP in vivo, male Sprague Dawley rats were given intraperitoneal injections of vehicle 10% Tween-20, 5 mL/kg (normal control) or 200 mg/kg TAA thioacetamide (to induce liver cirrhosis) three times per week. Three additional groups were treated with thioacetamide plus daily oral silymarin (50 mg/kg) or ELAP (250 or 500 mg/kg). Liver injury was assessed using biochemical tests, macroscopic and microscopic tissue analysis, histopathology, and immunohistochemistry. In addition, HepG2 and WRL-68 cells were treated in vitro with ELAP fractions to test cytotoxicity. Rats treated with ELAP exhibited significantly lower liver/body weight ratios and smoother, more normal liver surfaces compared with the cirrhosis group. Histopathology using Hematoxylin and Eosin along with Masson’s Trichrome stain showed minimal disruption of hepatic cellular structure, minor fibrotic septa, a low degree of lymphocyte infiltration, and minimal collagen deposition after ELAP treatment. Immunohistochemistry indicated that ELAP induced down regulation of proliferating cell nuclear antigen. Also, hepatic antioxidant enzymes and oxidative stress parameters in ELAP-treated rats were comparable to silymarin-treated rats. ELAP administration reduced levels of altered serum liver biomarkers. ELAP fractions were non-cytotoxic to WRL-68 cells, but possessed anti-proliferative activity on HepG2 cells, which was confirmed by a significant elevation of lactate dehydrogenase, reactive oxygen species, cell membrane permeability, cytochrome c, and caspase-8,-9, and, -3/7 activity in HepG2 cells. A reduction of mitochondrial membrane potential was also detected in ELAP-treated HepG2 cells. The hepatoprotective effect of 500 mg/kg of ELAP is proposed to result

  16. Andrographis paniculata leaf extract prevents thioacetamide-induced liver cirrhosis in rats.

    PubMed

    Abdulaziz Bardi, Daleya; Halabi, Mohammed Farouq; Hassandarvish, Pouya; Rouhollahi, Elham; Paydar, Mohammadjavad; Moghadamtousi, Soheil Zorofchian; Al-Wajeeh, Nahla Saeed; Ablat, Abdulwali; Abdullah, Nor Azizan; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the hepatoprotective effects of ethanolic Andrographis paniculata leaf extract (ELAP) on thioacetamide-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. An acute toxicity study proved that ELAP is not toxic in rats. To examine the effects of ELAP in vivo, male Sprague Dawley rats were given intraperitoneal injections of vehicle 10% Tween-20, 5 mL/kg (normal control) or 200 mg/kg TAA thioacetamide (to induce liver cirrhosis) three times per week. Three additional groups were treated with thioacetamide plus daily oral silymarin (50 mg/kg) or ELAP (250 or 500 mg/kg). Liver injury was assessed using biochemical tests, macroscopic and microscopic tissue analysis, histopathology, and immunohistochemistry. In addition, HepG2 and WRL-68 cells were treated in vitro with ELAP fractions to test cytotoxicity. Rats treated with ELAP exhibited significantly lower liver/body weight ratios and smoother, more normal liver surfaces compared with the cirrhosis group. Histopathology using Hematoxylin and Eosin along with Masson's Trichrome stain showed minimal disruption of hepatic cellular structure, minor fibrotic septa, a low degree of lymphocyte infiltration, and minimal collagen deposition after ELAP treatment. Immunohistochemistry indicated that ELAP induced down regulation of proliferating cell nuclear antigen. Also, hepatic antioxidant enzymes and oxidative stress parameters in ELAP-treated rats were comparable to silymarin-treated rats. ELAP administration reduced levels of altered serum liver biomarkers. ELAP fractions were non-cytotoxic to WRL-68 cells, but possessed anti-proliferative activity on HepG2 cells, which was confirmed by a significant elevation of lactate dehydrogenase, reactive oxygen species, cell membrane permeability, cytochrome c, and caspase-8,-9, and, -3/7 activity in HepG2 cells. A reduction of mitochondrial membrane potential was also detected in ELAP-treated HepG2 cells. The hepatoprotective effect of 500 mg/kg of ELAP is proposed to result from

  17. Efficacy of crude extracts of Andrographis paniculata nees. on Callosobruchus chinensis L. during post harvest storage of cowpea.

    PubMed

    Bright, A A; Babu, A; Ignacimuth, S; Dorn, S

    2001-07-01

    Bioefficacy of different solvent fractions of A. paniculata was tested against the cowpea weevil, C. chinensis in terms of its effect on adult mortality, total egg output and emergence of F1 adults. All the extracts were effective against the weevil, the efficacy was however more significant with respect to methanol and ethyl acetate extracts at the highest concentrations (1,000 ppm) which lead to 72.01 and 67.69% adult mortality respectively. The efficacy was dose dependent. Total egg and percent emergence of Fl adults were lowest for methanol followed by ethyl acetate fractions. Possible role of the principal chemical constituents of this plant in bringing about mortality of the pest, reduction in egg laying and adult emergence are discussed.

  18. Andrographis Paniculata shows anti-nociceptive effects in an animal model of sensory hypersensitivity associated with migraine.

    PubMed

    Greco, Rosaria; Siani, Francesca; Demartini, Chiara; Zanaboni, Annamaria; Nappi, Giuseppe; Davinelli, Sergio; Scapagnini, Giovanni; Tassorelli, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Administration of nitroglycerin (NTG) to rats induces a hyperalgesic condition and neuronal activation of central structures involved in migraine pain. In order to identify therapeutic strategies for migraine pain, we evaluated the anti-nociceptive activity of Andrographis Paniculata (AP), a herbaceous plant, in the hyperalgesia induced by NTG administration in the formalin test. We also analyzed mRNA expression of cytokines in specific brain areas after AP treatment. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were pre-treated with AP extract 30 minutes before NTG or vehicle injection. The data show that AP extract significantly reduced NTG-induced hyperalgesia in phase II of the test, 4 hours after NTG injection. In addition, AP extract reduced IL-6 mRNA expression in the medulla and mesencephalon and also mRNA levels of TNFalpha in the mesencephalic region. These findings suggest that AP extract may be a potential therapeutic approach in the treatment of general pain, and possibly of migraine.

  19. An effective protein extraction method for two-dimensional electrophoresis in the anticancer herb Andrographis paniculata Nees.

    PubMed

    Talei, Daryush; Valdiani, Alireza; Puad, Mohd Abdullah

    2013-01-01

    Proteomic analysis of plants relies on high yields of pure protein. In plants, protein extraction and purification present a great challenge due to accumulation of a large amount of interfering substances, including polysaccharides, polyphenols, and secondary metabolites. Therefore, it is necessary to modify the extraction protocols. A study was conducted to compare four protein extraction and precipitation methods for proteomic analysis. The results showed significant differences in protein content among the four methods. The chloroform-trichloroacetic acid-acetone method using 4-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1-piperazineethanesulfonic acid (HEPES) buffer provided the best results in terms of protein content, pellets, spot resolution, and intensity of unique spots detected. An overall of 83 qualitative or quantitative significant differential spots were found among the four methods. Based on the 2-DE gel map, the method is expected to benefit the development of high-level proteomic and biochemical studies of Andrographis paniculata, which may also be applied to other recalcitrant medicinal plant tissues.

  20. Gold nanoparticles: sonocatalytic synthesis using ethanolic extract of Andrographis paniculata and functionalization with polycaprolactone-gelatin composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babu, Punuri Jayasekhar; Saranya, Sibyala; Sharma, Pragya; Tamuli, Ranjan; Bora, Utpal

    2012-09-01

    Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were synthesized by sonication using ethanolic leaf extract of Andrographis paniculata. We investigated the optimum parameters for AuNP synthesis and functionalization with polycaprolactone-gelatin (PCL-GL) composites. The AuNPs were characterized with various biophysical techniques such as TEM, XRD, FT-IR and EDX spectroscopy. TEM images showed that nanoparticles were spherical in shape with a size range from 5 to 75 nm. EDX analysis revealed the presence of molecular oxygen and carbon on the surface of AuNPs. The synthesized AuNPs were tested for their effect on HeLa (human cervical cancer) and MCF-7 (human breast cancer) cell lines and found to be nontoxic and biocompatible, which are potential carriers for hydrophobic drugs.

  1. Effects of Andrographis paniculata Nees on growth, development and reproduction of malarial vector Anopheles stephensi Liston (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Kuppusamy, C; Murugan, K

    2010-12-01

    The use of environment friendly and easily biodegradable natural insecticides of plant origin has received progressively more attention as insecticide alternatives for the control of medically important mosquito vectors. The ethanol and methanol extracts of Andrographis paniculata Nees were evaluated for its effects on growth, development and reproduction of malarial vector Anopheles stephensi Liston. After 8 days of treatment, 88.60 and 85.25% of the larvae treated at 35p.p.m. failed to emerge in ethanol and methanol extracts respectively. In addition, the duration of larval instars and the total development time were prolonged, while female longevity and fecundity were markedly decreased. The suppression of pupation and adult emergence was probably due to juvenile hormone analog similarities in combination with growth regulators and toxicity, which reduced the overall performance of the malaria vector An. stephensi.

  2. Eclipta yellow vein virus enhances chlorophyll destruction, singlet oxygen production and alters endogenous redox status in Andrographis paniculata.

    PubMed

    Khan, Asifa; Luqman, Suaib; Masood, Nusrat; Singh, Dhananjay Kumar; Saeed, Sana Tabanda; Samad, Abdul

    2016-07-01

    The infection of Eclipta yellow vein virus [EcYVV-IN, Accession No. KC476655], recently reported for the first time, on Andrographis paniculata was studied for redox-mediated alteration mechanism in infected plants. A. paniculata, an important medicinal plant, is used in traditional Indian, Chinese and modern system of medicine. Andrographolide, one of the foremost components of this plant, is known for its varied pharmacological properties. Our investigation provides insight into the effect of virus-induced changes in the singlet oxygen quenching due to the alteration in pigment content (chlorophyll and carotenoids) as well as activation of plant secondary metabolism along with defense activation leading to changes in enzymatic and non-enzymatic redox status. Due to infection, a reduction in carotenoid content was observed which leads to reduced quenching of singlet oxygen. An increased level of enzymatic (SOD and APX) and non-enzymatic antioxidant (DPPH, FRAP, RP, NO, TAC and TP) activities were also observed in virus-infected plants with a positive correlation (>0.9). However, CAT activity was diminished which could be either due to its proteolytic degradation or inactivation by superoxide anions (O(2-.)), NO or peroxynitrite radicals. A significant (p < 0.05) increase in total phenolic content was observed in the infected plants while no considerable difference was seen in the total flavonoid content. Our results highlighted the alteration in redox status caused by virus-induced biotic stress on the plants and could be useful for understanding the after effects of viral infection This study could also be helpful in developing biomimetic methods for improving the production of secondary metabolites of pharmaceutical importance.

  3. Antiulcer activity of Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) wall. against cysteamine-induced duodenal ulcer in rats.

    PubMed

    Saranya, P; Geetha, A

    2011-07-01

    Antiulcer activity of Andrographis paniculata was evaluated by cysteamine induced duodenal ulcer model in rats. Male albino Wistar rats were pre-administered with 200 mg/kg body wt. of hydroalcoholic extact of Andrographis paniculata (HAEAP) orally, for 30 days prior to i.p. administration of 420 mg/kg body wt. of cysteamine as a single dose. Rats preadministered with 30 mg/kg body wt. of ranitidine served as standard drug. Ulcer index, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, mucin, glutathione peroxidase and myeloperoxidase activities, reduced glutathione/oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) ratio, glycoproteins and membrane bound enzyme activities were measured in duodenum of experimental animals. The ulcer score and myeloperoxidase activity were significantly minimized in rats treated with HAEAP. Mucin content was found to be preserved in rats treated with the extract. GSH/GSSG ratio and glutathione peroxidase activities were found to be maintained by the HAEAP. Level of lipid peroxidation products was found to be significantly low in HAEAP treated rats compared to ulcer control rats. The basolateral and brush border membrane bound enzyme activities which were depleted significantly in ulcer control rats were found to be maintained in rats pre-treated with the extract. The ulcer preventing effect was comparable to that of ranitidine treated rats. Level of glycoproteins was also found to be preserved in rats treated with the extract. The normal rats treated with the HAEAP did not show any abnormal alterations in the parameters studied. Histopathological observations also showed the ulcer preventing effect of the HAEAP. It is suggested that the ulcer preventing effect may be due to its mucin preserving and antioxidant nature.

  4. Liquid and solid self-microemulsifying drug delivery systems for improving the oral bioavailability of andrographolide from a crude extract of Andrographis paniculata.

    PubMed

    Sermkaew, Namfa; Ketjinda, Wichan; Boonme, Prapaporn; Phadoongsombut, Narubodee; Wiwattanapatapee, Ruedeekorn

    2013-11-20

    The purpose of this study was to develop self-microemulsifying formulations of an Andrographis paniculata extract in liquid and pellet forms for an improved oral delivery of andrographolide. The optimized liquid self-microemulsifying drug delivery system (SMEDDS) was composed of A. paniculata extract (11.1%), Capryol 90 (40%), Cremophor RH 40 (40%) and Labrasol (8.9%). This liquid SMEDDS was further adsorbed onto colloidal silicon dioxide and microcrystalline cellulose, and converted to SMEDDS pellets by the extrusion/spheronization technique. The microemulsion droplet sizes of the liquid and pellet formulations after dilution with water were in the range of 23.4 and 30.3 nm. The in vitro release of andrographolide from the liquid SMEDDS and SMEDDS pellets was 97.64% (SD 1.97%) and 97.74% (SD 3.36%) within 15 min, respectively while the release from the initial extract was only 10%. The oral absorption of andrographolide was determined in rabbits. The C(max) value of andrographolide from the A. paniculata extract liquid SMEDDS and SMEDDS pellet formulations (equivalent to 17.5mg/kg of andrographolide) was 6-fold and 5-fold greater than the value from the initial extract in aqueous suspension (equivalent to 35 mg/kg of andrographolide), respectively. In addition, the AUC(0-12h) was increased 15-fold by the liquid SMEDDS and 13-fold by the SMEDDS pellets compared to the extract in aqueous suspension, respectively. The results clearly indicated that the liquid and solid SMEDDS could be effectively used to improve the dissolution and oral bioavailability that would also enable a reduction in the dose of the poorly water soluble A. paniculata extract.

  5. A Phenylurea Cytokinin, CPPU, Elevated Reducing Sugar and Correlated to Andrographolide Contents in Leaves of Andrographis paniculata (Burm. F.) Wall. Ex Nees.

    PubMed

    Worakan, Phapawee; Karaket, Netiya; Maneejantra, Nuchada; Supaibulwatana, Kanyaratt

    2017-02-01

    Cytokinins are phytohormones that play multiple roles to control plant growth and development. In this study, leaf biomass and the production of andrographolide compounds in a medicinal plant Andrographis paniculata were significantly increased after exogenously treating with the synthetic cytokinin cytokinin-1-(2-chloro-4-pyridyl)-3-phenylurea (CPPU) at 0 (water), 5, or 10 mg L(-1) and observed the results for 24 h, 48 h, and 7 days of treatment. It was found that CPPU could significantly enhance new axillary bud formation and further promote branching 4.6-5.6-fold higher, resulting in higher fresh weight (FW) and dry weight (DW) than the control. Application of CPPU at 5 mg L(-1) significantly promoted the highest contents of total reducing sugar at 2.5-fold in leaves and at 1.5-fold in roots. Although treatments of CPPU significantly affected the increasing contents of chlorophyll and carotenoid (1.2-1.6-fold), CPPU at 10 mg L(-1) slightly caused leaf stress and chlorophyll reduction. Interestingly, 5 mg L(-1) CPPU could enhance andrographolide content, an active anti-infectious compound in Andrographis paniculata (2.2-fold higher than the control) that reached the highest content at 24 h after treatment. This study suggested that CPPU should be suitable for field application to promote leaf yields and induce the production of useful pharmaceutical compounds in Andrographis paniculata.

  6. Extraction of three bioactive diterpenoids from Andrographis paniculata: effect of the extraction techniques on extract composition and quantification of three andrographolides using high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Satyanshu; Dhanani, Tushar; Shah, Sonal

    2014-10-01

    Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) wall.ex Nees (Acanthaceae) or Kalmegh is an important medicinal plant finding uses in many Ayurvedic formulations. Diterpenoid compounds andrographolides (APs) are the main bioactive phytochemicals present in leaves and herbage of A. paniculata. The efficiency of supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) using carbon dioxide was compared with the solid-liquid extraction techniques such as solvent extraction, ultrasound-assisted solvent extraction and microwave-assisted solvent extraction with methanol, water and methanol-water as solvents. Also a rapid and validated reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection method was developed for the simultaneous determination of the three biologically active compounds, AP, neoandrographolide and andrograpanin, in the extracts of A. paniculata. Under the best SFE conditions tested for diterpenoids, which involved extraction at 60°C and 100 bar, the extractive efficiencies were 132 and 22 µg/g for AP and neoandrographolide, respectively. The modifier percentage significantly affected the extraction efficiency.

  7. Inhibitory effects of Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam. (Rutaceae) against the infection and infectivity of macrophages by Leishmania amazonensis.

    PubMed

    Melo, Bernardo; Leitão, Joseana M S R; Oliveira, Luciano G C; Santos, Sérgio E M; Carneiro, Sabrina M P; Rodrigues, Klinger A F; Chaves, Mariana H; Arcanjo, Daniel D R; Carvalho, Fernando A A

    2016-01-01

    Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam. (Rutaceae) has been traditionally used in the treatment of microbial infections and parasitic diseases. In the present study, the antileishmanial effect induced by the ethanol extract of stem barks from Z. rhoifolium (ZR-EEtOH) and its n-hexane fraction (ZR-FHEX) on infection and infectivity of murine macrophages by promastigote forms of Leishmania amazonensis were investigated. In different set of experiments, macrophages or promastigotes were pretreated with ZR-EEtOH or ZR-FHEX at non-lethal concentrations for 24 hours, and then macrophages were submitted to infection by promastigotes. Moreover, their effects on activation of macrophages, as well as on the DNA content, size and number of promastigotes by flow cytometry were also evaluated. The infection rate and the number of internalized amastigote forms were markedly decreased after pretreatment of macrophages or promastigotes when compared with non-treated cells. The increase in phagocytic capability and nitrite content was also observed. Furthermore, the decrease of DNA content, size and number of promastigotes was also observed. In conclusion, ZR-EEtOH and ZR-FHEX promoted a markedly significant antileishmanial effect and reduction of infection of macrophages, probably underlying defense mechanisms activation in macrophages. These findings reinforce the potential application of Z. rhoifolium in the treatment of leishmaniasis.

  8. Evaluation of the Leishmanicidal Activity of Rutaceae and Lauraceae Ethanol Extracts on Golden Syrian Hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) Peritoneal Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Chávez Enciso, N A; Coy-Barrera, E D; Patiño, O J; Cuca, L E; Delgado, Gabriela

    2014-05-01

    Traditional medicine has provided a number of therapeutic solutions for the control of infectious agents, cancers, and other diseases. After screening a wide variety of Colombian plant extracts, we have identified promising antileishmanial activity in ethanol extracts from Ocotea macrophylla (Lauraceae) and Zanthoxyllum monophyllum (Rutaceae). In this study, we evaluated the in vitro activity of two ethanol extracts, one from Ocotea macrophylla and the other from Zanthoxyllum monophyllum and one alkaloid fraction of ethanol extract of Zanthoxyllum monophyllum, on peritoneal macrophages isolated from golden Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) infected with Leishmania panamensis and Leishmania major promastigotes. All of the extracts studied displayed promising (≥2) selectivity indices (S/I), the most significant of which were for ethanol extract of Zanthoxyllum monophyllum against Leishmania panamensis (S/I=12) and alkaloid fraction of ethanol extract of Zanthoxyllum monophyllum against Leishmania major (S/I=11). These results support the use of ethanol extracts and alkaloid fractions isolated from Ocotea macrophylla and Zanthoxyllum monophyllum, respectively; as therapeutic options for cutaneous leishmaniasis.

  9. Pharmacognostic study and development of quality control parameters for fruit, bark and leaf of Zanthoxylum armatum (Rutaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Alam, Fiaz; Us Saqib, Qazi Najam

    2015-01-01

    Context: Zanthoxylum armatum (Rutaceae) fruit, bark and leaves are used for various conditions of ailments in traditional systems of medicine since ancient times. Aims: This study is designed to lay down the various pharmacognostic and phytochemical standards which will be helpful to ensure the purity, safety, and efficacy of this medicinal plant. Materials and Methods: Various methods including macroscopic, microscopic, physicochemical, and phytochemical methods were applied to determine the diagnostic features for the identification and standardization of intact and powdered drug of Z. armatum leaf, fruit, and bark. Results: The shape, size, color, odor, surface characteristics were determined for the intact drug and powdered materials of leaf, bark and fruit of Z. armatum. Light and electron microscope images of cross-section of leaf and powdered microscopy revealed useful diagnostic features. Histochemical, phytochemical, physicochemical including fluorescence analysis of powdered drug proved useful to differentiate the powdered drug material. High performance liquid chromatography analysis showed the presence of important phytoconstituents such as gallic acid and rutin. Conclusion: The data generated from this study would be of help in the authentication of various parts of Z. armatum, an important constituent of various herbal drug formulations. The qualitative and quantitative microscopic features would prove useful for laying down pharmacopoeial standards. Morphology as well as various pharmacognostic aspects of different parts of the plant were studied and have been described here along with phytochemical, physicochemical studies, which will help in authentication and quality control. PMID:26120229

  10. Evaluation of the Leishmanicidal Activity of Rutaceae and Lauraceae Ethanol Extracts on Golden Syrian Hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) Peritoneal Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Chávez Enciso, N. A.; Coy-barrera, E. D.; Patiño, O. J.; Cuca, L. E.; Delgado, Gabriela

    2014-01-01

    Traditional medicine has provided a number of therapeutic solutions for the control of infectious agents, cancers, and other diseases. After screening a wide variety of Colombian plant extracts, we have identified promising antileishmanial activity in ethanol extracts from Ocotea macrophylla (Lauraceae) and Zanthoxyllum monophyllum (Rutaceae). In this study, we evaluated the in vitro activity of two ethanol extracts, one from Ocotea macrophylla and the other from Zanthoxyllum monophyllum and one alkaloid fraction of ethanol extract of Zanthoxyllum monophyllum, on peritoneal macrophages isolated from golden Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) infected with Leishmania panamensis and Leishmania major promastigotes. All of the extracts studied displayed promising (≥2) selectivity indices (S/I), the most significant of which were for ethanol extract of Zanthoxyllum monophyllum against Leishmania panamensis (S/I=12) and alkaloid fraction of ethanol extract of Zanthoxyllum monophyllum against Leishmania major (S/I=11). These results support the use of ethanol extracts and alkaloid fractions isolated from Ocotea macrophylla and Zanthoxyllum monophyllum, respectively; as therapeutic options for cutaneous leishmaniasis. PMID:25035529

  11. Melicope balgooyi Appelhans, W.L. Wagner & K.R. Wood, a new species and new record in Melicope section Melicope (Rutaceae) for the Austral Islands

    PubMed Central

    Appelhans, Marc S.; Wagner, Warren L.; Wood, Kenneth R.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Melicope balgooyi, a new species of Melicope (Rutaceae) is described. It is known only from the Austral Islands in the South Pacific (French Polynesia). However, it is not closely related to the other two species previously known from the Austral Islands, which are part of Melicope section Vitiflorae. The new species belongs to Melicope section Melicope and is most closely related to species from New Zealand, the Kermadec Islands, and the Society Islands. The new species has alternate to sub-opposite leaves, which is a very rare arrangement in Melicope and has only been described for two other species of the genus so far. PMID:25197227

  12. Hepatoprotective Effect of A Polyherbal Extract Containing Andrographis Paniculata, Tinospora Cordifolia and Solanum Nigrum Against Paracetamol Induced Hepatotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Dewasya Pratap; Awasthi, Harshika; Luqman, Suaib; Singh, Saudan; Mani, Dayanandan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Traditionally, a number of medicinal plants are used to treat various types of hepatic disorders but few of them were pharmacologically evaluated for their safety and efficacy. The combination of Andrographis paniculata (Kalmegha), Tinospora cordifolia (Guduchi), and Solanum nigrum (Kakmachi) was traditionally used in Indian System of Medicine (Ayurveda) for the treatment of various liver-related disorders. Objective: In the present study, an attempt was made to substantiate the ethnopharmacological use of a traditional formulation in hepatoprotection against paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity. Subjects and Methods: Swiss albino mice (weight 20–25 g) were used for this study. Intraperitoneal injection of paracetamol (500 mg/kg body weight) was used to induce hepatotoxicity. Serum levels of alanine transaminase, aspartate aminotransferase, bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase, were used as indices of liver injury. In addition total cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein, high-density lipoprotein and creatinine were also assayed using the standard procedure. Results: Among the two different doses, pretreatment with Polyherbal extract at 500 mg/kg body weight exhibited a significant (P < 0.05) hepatoprotective activity as compared to paracetamol group. Conclusion: The polyherbal extract exhibits a significant hepatoprotective effect in vivo. The study contributes to its use in traditional Ayurveda system for the management of liver diseases. SUMMARY Traditionally, a number of medicinal plants are used to treat various types of liver disorders but few of them were pharmacologically evaluated for their safety and efficacy. Combination of Andrographis paniculata (Kalmegha), Tinospora cordifolia (Guduchi), and Solanum nigrum (Kakmachi) was traditionally used in Ayurveda for the treatment of various liver related disorders. In the present study an attempt was made to validate the ethnopharmacological use of a traditional formulation in hepatoprotection

  13. Anointing chemicals and hematophagous arthropods: responses by ticks and mosquitoes to citrus (Rutaceae) peel exudates and monoterpene components.

    PubMed

    Weldon, Paul J; Carroll, John F; Kramer, Matthew; Bedoukian, Robert H; Coleman, Russell E; Bernier, Ulrich R

    2011-04-01

    Some birds and mammals roll on or wipe themselves with the fruits or leaves of Citrus spp. or other Rutaceae. These anointing behaviors, as with anointing in general, are thought to function in the topical acquisition of chemicals that deter consumers, including hematophagous arthropods. We measured avoidance and other responses by nymphal lone star ticks (Amblyomma americanum) and adult female yellow fever mosquitoes (Aedes aegypti) to lemon peel exudate and to 24 volatile monoterpenes (racemates and isomers), including hydrocarbons, alcohols, aldehydes, acetates, ketones, and oxides, present in citrus fruits and leaves in order to examine their potential as arthropod deterrents. Ticks allowed to crawl up vertically suspended paper strips onto a chemically treated zone avoided the peel exudate and geraniol, citronellol, citral, carveol, geranyl acetate, α-terpineol, citronellyl acetate, and carvone. Ticks confined in chemically treated paper packets subsequently were impaired in climbing and other behaviors following exposure to the peel exudate and, of the compounds tested, most impaired to carveol. Mosquitoes confined in chambers with chemically treated feeding membranes landed and fed less, and flew more, when exposed to the peel exudate than to controls, and when exposed to aldehydes, oxides, or alcohols versus most hydrocarbons or controls. However, attraction by mosquitoes in an olfactometer was not inhibited by either lemon peel exudate or most of the compounds we tested. Our results support the notion that anointing by vertebrates with citrus-derived chemicals deters ticks. We suggest that some topically applied compounds are converted into more potent arthropod deterrents when oxidized on the integument of anointed animals.

  14. Gastroprotective activity of alkaloid extract and 2-phenylquinoline obtained from the bark of Galipea longiflora Krause (Rutaceae).

    PubMed

    Zanatta, Francielle; Gandolfi, Renan Becker; Lemos, Marivane; Ticona, Juan Carlos; Gimenez, Alberto; Clasen, Bruna Kurz; Cechinel Filho, Valdir; de Andrade, Sérgio Faloni

    2009-07-15

    As part of our continuing search for bioactive natural products from plants, the present study was carried out in order to evaluate the gastroprotective properties of alkaloid extract and 2-phenylquinoline obtained from the bark of Galipea longiflora (Rutaceae). Anti-ulcer assays were performed using the following protocols in mice: nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)/bethanecol-induced ulcer, ethanol/HCl-induced ulcer, and stress-induced ulcer. The effects of the extract on gastric content volume, pH and total acidity were also evaluated, using the pylorus ligated model. Treatment using doses of 50, 125 and 250 mg/kg of G. longiflora alkaloid extract and positive controls (omeprazol or cimetidine) significantly diminished the lesion index, total lesion area, and percentage of lesion, in comparison with the negative control groups in all the models evaluated. Regarding the model of gastric secretion, a reduction in volume of gastric juice and total acidity was observed, as well as an increase in gastric pH. The main alkaloid of the plant, 2-phenylquinoline, was also evaluated in the ethanol-induced ulcer model. The results showed that at a dose of 50 mg/kg, it significantly inhibited ulcerative lesions. However, this effect was less than that of the alkaloid extract. All these results taken together show that G. longiflora displays gastroprotective activity, as evidenced by its significant inhibition of the formation of ulcers induced by different models. There are indications that mechanisms involved in anti-ulcer activity are related to a decrease in gastric secretion and an increase in gastric mucus content. Also, there is evidence of involvement of NO in the gastroprotector mechanisms. These effects may be attributed, at least in part, to the presence of some alkaloids, particularly 2-phenylquinoline.

  15. Chemogeography and antimicrobial activity of essential oils from Geijera parviflora and Geijera salicifolia (Rutaceae): two traditional Australian medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Sadgrove, Nicholas J; Gonçalves-Martins, Maximilien; Jones, Graham L

    2014-08-01

    Essential oils were hydrodistilled from 27 specimens of Geijera parviflora Lindl., (Rutaceae) and nine specimens of Geijera salicifolia Schott, collected over a wide geographic range in New South Wales, Queensland and South Australia. Essential oils were produced by traditional hydrodistillation and characterised using GC-MS. From one specimen a serendipitous discovery was made of bioactive coumarins dissolved in the hydrosol, which were the coumarins isopsoralen, xanthyletine and osthole. These coumarins were not present in the essential oil from that specimen. Using essential oil composition from all specimens, principal component analysis (PCA) demonstrated nine clusters for G. parviflora and three for G. salicifolia. Some clusters are representative of previously described chemotypes and some are reflective of possible chemotypes requiring more comprehensive sampling for confirmation. Thus, another three or four possible chemotypes of G. parviflora and one of G. salicifolia have been tentatively identified. Using micro-titre plate broth dilution assays, antibacterial and antifungal activity of all chemotypes was investigated. In this regard, the 'green oil' chemotype, restricted to G. parviflora, with major components linalool, geijerene/pregeijerene, 1,8-cineol and bicyclogermacrene, demonstrated the highest antimicrobial and free radical scavenging activity. Thus, in the light of traditional use reports of local analgaesia and bioactivity demonstrated in the current study, oils from select chemotypes of G. parviflora may be useful in suitably compounded lotions and creams designed for topical antimicrobial applications and local pain relief. In addition, because major components are known for insecticidal activities, such lotions may also be useful as topically applied insect repellents.

  16. Phylogeny of Acronychia (Rutaceae) and First Insights into Its Historical Biogeography and the Evolution of Fruit Characters

    PubMed Central

    Holzmeyer, Laura; Duretto, Marco; Crayn, Darren; Hörandl, Elvira; Heslewood, Margaret; Jayanthan, Janani; Appelhans, Marc S.

    2015-01-01

    Background The genus Acronychia (Citrus family, Rutaceae) contains 49 species of trees and shrubs that are found mainly in rain forest. The genus has a large distributional range from mainland southern Asia to Australia and New Caledonia, but most species are endemic to either New Guinea or Australia. This study aimed to provide the first detailed molecular phylogeny of Acronychia and use it to test the taxonomic value of fruit morphological characters, and infer the historical biogeography of the genus. Methodology Phylogenetic analyses (Bayesian Inference, Maximum Likelihood) were undertaken on nucleotide sequence data from two plastid (psbA-trnH, trnL-trnF) and three nuclear markers (ETS, ITS, NIAi3) from 29 Acronychia species (59% of the genus) and representatives of related genera. Results and Conclusions The results indicate that the South-East Asian genus Maclurodendron is nested phylogenetically within Acronychia and must be synonymized to render Acronychia monophyletic. Fruit morphological characters have been used previously to infer relationships within Acronychia and our analyses show that these characters are informative for some subclades but are homoplasious for the group as a whole. Apocarpous fruits are the ancestral state in Acronychia and subapocarpous and fully syncarpous fruits are derived. The unisexual flowers of Maclurodendron are derived from bisexual flowers, which are found in all species of Acronychia as well as its relatives. Acronychia probably first evolved on Australia with range expansion to New Guinea via stepping-stone dispersal or direct land connections within the Sahul Shelf, followed by two independent dispersals to areas west of New Guinea. Most species of Acronychia occur in either Australia or New Guinea, but no species occurs in both regions. This is surprising given the close proximity of the landmasses, but might be explained by ecological factors. PMID:26301574

  17. Larvicidal and repellent activity of essential oils from wild and cultivated Ruta chalepensis L. (Rutaceae) against Aedes albopictus Skuse (Diptera: Culicidae), an arbovirus vector.

    PubMed

    Conti, Barbara; Leonardi, Michele; Pistelli, Luisa; Profeti, Raffaele; Ouerghemmi, Ines; Benelli, Giovanni

    2013-03-01

    Rutaceae are widely recognized for their toxic and repellent activity exerted against mosquitoes. In our research, the essential oils extracted from fresh leaves of wild and cultivated plants of Ruta chalepensis L. (Rutaceae) were evaluated for larvicidal and repellent activity against the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus Skuse (Diptera: Culicidae), currently the most invasive mosquito worldwide. In this research, gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses of the essential oils from wild and cultivated plants showed only quantitative differences, in particular relatively to the amounts of ketone derivatives, while the qualitative profile evidenced a similar chemical composition. Both essential oils from wild and cultivated R. chalepensis plants were able to exert a very good toxic activity against A. albopictus larvae (wild plants, LC(50) = 35.66 ppm; cultivated plants, LC(50) = 33.18 ppm), and mortality was dosage dependent. These data are the first evidence of the toxicity of R. chalepensis against mosquitoes. Furthermore, the R. chalepensis essential oil from wild plants was an effective repellent against A. albopictus, also at lower dosages: RD(50) was 0.000215 μL/cm(2) of skin, while RD(90) was 0.007613 μL/cm(2). Our results clearly evidenced that the larvicidal and repellent activity of R. chalepensis essential oil could be used for the development of new and safer products against the Asian tiger mosquito.

  18. Some morphological and anatomical studies of leaves and flowers of Murraya paniculata (Jack) Linn. in vivo and in vitro.

    PubMed

    Taha, Rosna Mat; Haron, Noorma Wati

    2008-04-01

    In the present study, various explants of Murraya paniculata (Jack) Linn., such as cotyledons, shoots and young stems were cultured on MS medium supplemented with various concentrations of Benzyl Amino Purine (BAP) under 25 +/- 1 degree C with 16 h light and 8 h dark and also 8 h light and 16 h dark to obtain complete plant regeneration. In vitro flowering was observed from shoot explants cultured on MS supplemented with 0.5-2.0 mg L(-1) Naphthalene Acetic Acid (NAA) and also on MS basal medium under similar conditions. The leaves and flowers obtained from both in vivo and in vitro conditions were examined and compared. Morphological studies such as leaf clearing, epidermal peeling were studied using light and scanning electron microscope. Macromorphological studies of the flowers produced from in vivo and in vitro conditions were also examined. Morphologically, there were no differences between in vivo and in vitro flowers except the flowers produced from tissue culture systems were smaller in size with protruding stigmas. Differences were also found in the number of layers of palisade cells and the presence or absence of epicuticle layer of the leaves. Leaves produced from tissue culture system were smaller in size with membranous texture. Stomata were present only on the abaxial surfaces of both in vivo and in vitro leaves but the stomata were raised above the epidermis in the latter.

  19. Improvement of friable callus production of Boerhaavia paniculata Rich and the investigation of its lipid profile by GC/MS.

    PubMed

    Souza, Joanne M M; Berkov, Strahill; Santos, Alberdan S

    2014-09-01

    In this study, a protocol to induce high amount of friable callus of Boerhaavia paniculata RICH and a lipidomics technique were applied to investigate the profile of lipids to relate to those present in the roots of this plant that presented anti-inflammatory activity in the crude hexane extract. The callus culture was induced from seeds in solidified Murashige and Skoog medium containing different amounts of glucose and different concentrations of 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. The explants were kept in a germination chamber at 30±2°C with a photoperiod of 16 h under light intensity of 27 µmol m-2 s-1 for 4 weeks. The best results for friable callus formation and development of the biomass were obtained in the treatment containing 2.26 µM 2.4-D and glucose (1.5 %; w/v). Lipidomics techniques were applied in hexane fraction showing higher concentrations of the steroids β-sitosterol (3.53 mg/100 g dc-dry cells), and fatty acids, especially 2-hydroxy-tetracosanoic acid (0.34 mg/100 g dc), eicosanoic acid (86.25 mg/100 g dc), stearic acid (420.83 mg/100 g dc), tetradecanoic acid (10.74 mg/100 g dc) and linoleic acid (100.61 mg/100 g dc). The lipid profile of callus versus that found in the roots of wild plant is described in this work.

  20. [Impact of canopy structural characteristics on inner air temperature and relative humidity of Koelreuteria paniculata community in summer].

    PubMed

    Qin, Zhong; Li, Zhan-dong; Cheng, Fang-yun; Sha, Hai-feng

    2015-06-01

    To investigate the diurnal variation of the correlations between the cooling and humidifying effects and canopy structural characteristics of the Koelreuteria paniculata community, the measurements of air temperature, relative humidity, canopy density, leaf area index (LAI) and mean leaf angle (MLA) were performed on calm sunny summer days in the community in Beijing Olympic Forest Park, China. There were significant correlations between the canopy density, LAI and MLA, which affected the cooling and humidifying effects together. The cooling effect reached its maximum by 12:00, whereas the humidifying effect reached its peak at 10:00. Compared with the control open space site, the community appeared to lower the air temperature by 0.43 to 7.53 °C and to increase the relative humidity by 1%-22% during the daytime. However, the cooling and humidifying effects seem to be not effective during the night. The canopy density and LAI were better for determining the cooling and humidifying effects from 9:00 to 12:00. However, these effects were largely controlled only by the canopy density from 12:00 to 14:00 and were significantly correlated with the canopy density and LAI afterwards until 18:00.

  1. Protective effect of total flavonoids extracted from the leaves of Murraya paniculata (L.) Jack on diabetic nephropathy in rats.

    PubMed

    Zou, Jingtao; Yu, Xiaofeng; Qu, Shaochun; Li, Xuwen; Jin, Yongri; Sui, Dayuan

    2014-02-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the effects of total flavonoids extracted from the leaves of Murraya paniculata (L.) Jack (TFMP) on diabetic nephropathy. High fat diet and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were treated with the TFMP (35 or 70 mg/kg) for 13 weeks. Changes of renal function parameters were examined at the end of administration. Some kidneys were collected for histological and immunohistochemistry studies, the other ones for biochemical parameters analysis. TFMP significantly decreased the levels of serum blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine, creatinine clearance, interleukin-6, urinary albumin, 24h-urinary albumin excretion rate, kidney weight to body weight ratio and fasting blood glucose in diabetic rats. Meanwhile, the levels of triglycerides, total and LDL cholesterols in the TFMP treated diabetic rats were lower and the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level was higher than that in the diabetic rats. TFMP treatment significantly blocked the decrease of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase and increase of malondialdehyde levels in diabetic rats. Furthermore, the TFMP not only decreased the expression of TGF-β1 and CTGF protein, but also reduced diabetes-induced morphological alterations of the kidney. These results suggest that TFMP is a protective agent against renal damage in diabetic nephropathy.

  2. Phytochemical Analysis and Modulation of Antibiotic Activity by Luehea paniculata Mart. & Zucc. (Malvaceae) in Multiresistant Clinical Isolates of Candida Spp.

    PubMed Central

    Calixto Júnior, João T.; Morais, Selene M.; Martins, Clécio G.; Vieira, Larissa G.; Morais-Braga, Maria Flaviana B.; Carneiro, Joara N. P.; Machado, Antonio J. P.; Menezes, Irwin R. A.; Tintino, Saulo R.; Coutinho, Henrique D. M.

    2015-01-01

    The high incidence of fungal infections has led to the continuous search for new drugs. Extracts of Luehea paniculata, a tree of multiple medicinal uses, were evaluated for anti-Candida activity, as well as its modulator potential of the Fluconazole antibiotic. Chemical prospecting of ethanol extracts of leaf and bark was carried out, the quantification of total phenols and flavonoids, characterized by the HPLC-DAD technique. The rosmarinic acid and the vitexin flavonoid were observed as major constituents in ELELP and ESWELP, respectively. Antioxidant activity was also evaluated by the method of scavenging the free radical DPPH, and quercetin was used as standard, obtaining IC50 values: 0.341 (mg/mL) for ELELP and 0.235 (mg/mL) for ESWELP. The microdilution assay was performed for antifungal activity against strains of Candida albicans, C. krusei, and C. tropicalis and showed minimum inhibitory concentrations values ≥1024 μg/mL. In the modulator action of extracts on Fluconazole against multiresistant clinical isolates of Candida (subinhibitory concentration minimum of 128 μg/mL), a significant synergism was observed, indicating that the extracts potentiated the antifungal effect against C. tropicalis, where antioxidant flavonoids could be responsible. This is the first report about modifying activity of the antibiotic action of a species of the genus Luehea. PMID:25821822

  3. Nain-e Havandi Andrographis paniculata present yesterday, absent today: a plenary review on underutilized herb of Iran's pharmaceutical plants.

    PubMed

    Valdiani, Alireza; Kadir, Mihdzar Abdul; Tan, Soon Guan; Talei, Daryush; Abdullah, Mohd Puad; Nikzad, Sonia

    2012-05-01

    Nain-e Havandi (Andrographis paniculata Nees.) (AP) is an annual herbaceous plant belonging to the family Acanthacea. Only a few species of Andrographis genus out of 28 are medicinally concerned of which AP is the most important. Knowledge about the arrival of AP to Iran is extremely lacking but most probably it has been imported from India. However, evidence implies the familiarity of Iran's folkloric medicine with this plant, but it has been disappeared from contemporary medicine for unknown reasons. Presence of active ingredients from diterpenoids group such as andrographolide, neoandrographolide and 14-deoxy-11,12-didehydroandrographolide has given incredible unique medicinal properties to the plant. Traditionally, Nain-e Havandi has been used in the role of a non-farm plant as a remedy for skin problems, flu, respiratory disease, and snakebite in East and Southeast Asia for centuries. Recently, it has been utilized as a treatment for HIV, hepatitis, diabetes, cancer and kidney disorders. Intensive cultivation of the herb started only in the past decade in countries such as China, India, Thailand, Indonesia, West Indies, Mauritius and to some extent, in Malaysia. Availability of different ecological zones in Iran complies with reestablishment of AP in tropical and temperate regions of the country. This is killing two birds with one stone, supporting the conservational and economic aspects.

  4. A polysaccharide from Andrographis paniculata induces mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis in human hepatoma cell line (HepG2).

    PubMed

    Zou, Yanmei; Xiong, Hua; Xiong, Huihua; Lu, Tao; Zhu, Feng; Luo, Zhiyong; Yuan, Xianglin; Wang, Yihua

    2015-07-01

    In the present study, we investigated the effects and action mechanisms of a purified polysaccharide (APWP) from Andrographis paniculata, on human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) HepG2 cells. The results showed that APWP was able to suppress the proliferation of HepG2 cells via inducing apoptosis. Western blot analysis revealed that dose-dependent increase in proapoptotic Bax protein and no change in antiapoptotic Bcl-2 protein in APWP-treated cells. Furthermore, exposure of tumor cells to APWP resulted in a loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and the release of cytochrome c from the mitochondria to the cytosol. Besides, caspase-9 and caspase-3 were activated while caspase-8 was not affected in HepG2 cells followed by APWP treatment. All these results point clearly to the involvement of mitochondria-mediated signaling pathway in APWP-induced apoptosis and strongly suggest that APWP seems to be safe and effective in the prevention and treatment of HCC.

  5. Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Interaction of Andrographolide and Standardized Extract of Andrographis paniculata (Nees) with Nabumetone in Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Balap, Aishwarya; Lohidasan, Sathiyanarayanan; Sinnathambi, Arulmozhi; Mahadik, Kakasaheb

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the herb-drug interaction of Andrographis paniculata Nees (Acanthaceae) and Andrographolide (AN) with nabumetone (NAB) in wistar rats. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions were studied after co-administration of APE and AN with NAB in Wistar rats. In pharmacokinetic studies, significant decrease in Cmax, AUC0-t and AUC0-∞ of 6-MNA after co-administration with pure AN and APE has been observed. Tmax of 6-MNA has been increased to 2 h from 1.5 h in AN + NAB treated group. Changes in mean residential time, clearance and volume of distribution of 6-MNA in APE + NAB treated group and AN + NAB treated group indicated interference of other components of APE other than AN. In pharmacodynamic study, significant decrease in antiarthritic activity of NAB on concomitant administration with APE and AN has been observed. The study concludes that NAB exhibits pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions with APE and AN in rats thus alarms the concomitant use of herbal preparations containing APE and AN with NAB. Further study is needed to understand the mechanism and predict the herb-drug interaction in humans. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Proteomic analysis of the salt-responsive leaf and root proteins in the anticancer plant Andrographis paniculata Nees.

    PubMed

    Talei, Daryush; Valdiani, Alireza; Rafii, Mohd Yusop; Maziah, Mahmood

    2014-01-01

    Separation of proteins based on the physicochemical properties with different molecular weight and isoelectric points would be more accurate. In the current research, the 45-day-old seedlings were treated with 0 (control) and 12 dS m(-1) of sodium chloride in the hydroponic system. After 15 days of salt exposure, the total protein of the fresh leaves and roots was extracted and analyzed using two-dimensional electrophoresis system (2-DE). The analysis led to the detection of 32 induced proteins (19 proteins in leaf and 13 proteins in the root) as well as 12 upregulated proteins (four proteins in leaf and eight proteins in the root) in the salt-treated plants. Of the 44 detected proteins, 12 were sequenced, and three of them matched with superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase and ribulose-1, 5-bisphosphate oxygenase whereas the rest remained unknown. The three known proteins associate with plants response to environmental stresses and could represent the general stress proteins in the present study too. In addition, the proteomic feedback of different accessions of A. paniculata to salt stress can potentially be used to breed salt-tolerant varieties of the herb.

  7. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of Andrographis paniculata by rapid resolution liquid chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Song, Yong-Xi; Liu, Shi-Ping; Jin, Zhao; Qin, Jian-Fei; Jiang, Zhi-Yuan

    2013-09-30

    A rapid resolution liquid chromatography/time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (RRLC-TOF/MS) method was developed for qualitative and quantitative analysis of the major chemical constituents in Andrographis paniculata. Fifteen compounds, including flavonoids and diterpenoid lactones, were unambiguously or tentatively identified in 10 min by comparing their retention times and accurate masses with standards or literature data. The characteristic fragmentation patterns of flavonoids and diterpenoid lactones were summarized, and the structures of the unknown compounds were predicted. Andrographolide, dehydroandrographolide and neoandrographolide were further quantified as marker substances. It was found that the calibration curves for all analytes showed good linearity (R² > 0.9995) within the test ranges. The overall limits of detection (LODs) and limits of quantification (LOQs) were 0.02 μg/mL to 0.06 μg/mL and 0.06 μg/mL to 0.2 μg/mL, respectively. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) for intra- and inter-day precisions were below 3.3% and 4.2%, respectively. The mean recovery rates ranged from 96.7% to 104.5% with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) less than 2.72%. It is concluded that RRLC-TOF/MS is powerful and practical in qualitative and quantitative analysis of complex plant samples due to time savings, sensitivity, precision, accuracy and lowering solvent consumption.

  8. Salt stress-induced protein pattern associated with photosynthetic parameters and andrographolide content in Andrographis paniculata Nees.

    PubMed

    Talei, Daryush; Valdiani, Alireza; Maziah, Mahmood; Sagineedu, Sreenivasa Rao; Abiri, Rambod

    2015-01-01

    Andrographis paniculata is a multifunctional medicinal plant and a potent source of bioactive compounds. Impact of environmental stresses such as salinity on protein diversification, as well as the consequent changes in the photosynthetic parameters and andrographolide content (AG) of the herb, has not yet been thoroughly investigated. The present study showed that the salinity affects the protein pattern, and subsequently, it decreased the photosynthetic parameters, protein content, total dry weight, and total crude extract. Exceptionally, the AG content was increased (p ≤ 0.01). Moreover, it was noticed that the salinity at 12 dS m(-1) led to the maximum increase in AG content in all accessions. Interestingly, the leaf protein analysis revealed that the two polymorphic protein bands as low- and medium-sized of 17 and 45 kDa acted as the activator agents for the photosynthetic parameters and AG content. Protein sequencing and proteomic analysis can be conducted based on the present findings in the future.

  9. Protective activity of andrographolide and arabinogalactan proteins from Andrographis paniculata Nees. against ethanol-induced toxicity in mice.

    PubMed

    Singha, Prajjal K; Roy, Somenath; Dey, Satyahari

    2007-04-20

    To find out the active principles against ethanol-induced toxicity in mice, Andrographis paniculata Nees. (Ap) was chosen and isolated andrographolide (ANDRO) and arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs). ANDRO was detected by HPTLC, FTIR and quantified by HPLC (10mg/g of Ap powder). AGPs was detected by beta-glucosyl Yariv staining of SDS-PAGE gel, FTIR and quantified by single radial gel diffusion assay with beta-glucosyl Yariv reagent (0.5mg/g Ap powder). The mice are pretreated intra-peritoneally (i.p.) with different doses (62.5, 125, 250, and 500mg/kg) of body weight of mice] of ANDRO and AGPs for 7 days and then ethanol (7.5g/kg of body weight) was injected, i.p. Besides, silymarin was used as standard hepatoprotective agent for comparative study with ANDRO and AGPs. The ameliorative activity of ANDRO and AGP against hepatic renal alcohol toxicity was measured by assessing GOT, GPT, ACP, ALP and LP levels in liver and kidney. It has been observed that pretreatment of mice with ANDRO and AGPs at 500mg/kg of body weight and 125mg/kg of body weight respectively could able to minimize the toxicity in compare to ethanol treated group as revealed by the different enzymatic assay in liver and kidney tissues and the results were comparable with silymarin. Hence, out of several ill-defined compounds present in Ap, ANDRO and AGPs are the potential bioactive compounds responsible for protection against ethanol-induced toxicity.

  10. Morpho-molecular analysis as a prognostic model for repulsive feedback of the medicinal plant "Andrographis paniculata" to allogamy.

    PubMed

    Valdiani, Alireza; Talei, Daryush; Javanmard, Arash; Tan, Soon Guan; Kadir, Mihdzar Abdul; Maziah, Mahmood

    2014-06-01

    Andrographis paniculata Nees. (AP) is a self-pollinated medicinal herb with a wide range of pharmaceutical properties, facing a low diversity in Malaysia. Cross-pollination of AP accessions leads to considerable rates of heterosis in the agro-morphological characteristics and anticancer phytochemicals of this eminent medicinal herb. However, the poor crossability of the plant at the interpopulation or intraspecific levels is an obstacle from the evolutionary and breeding points of view as an average of 4.56% crossability was recorded for AP in this study. Hence, this research aimed to elicit the impact of parental genetic distances (GDs) on the rate of crossability of AP using seven accessions in 21 possible cross combinations. To this end, a set of 55 randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) primers and a total of 13 agro-morphological markers were employed to test the hypothesis. Twenty-two out of the 55 RAPD primers amplified a total of 257 bands of which 107 bands were found to be polymorphic. The principal component analysis (PCA) based on the RAPD markers revealed that the studied AP accessions were distributed to three distinct groups. Furthermore, it was noticed that even a minor increase in GD between two parents can cause a decline in their crossability. Unlike, the morphological-based GDs acted neutrally to crossability. This finding suggests that, despite the low genetic diversity among the Malaysian APs, a population prescreening using RAPD markers would be useful to enhance the rate of fruit set through selecting the genetically adjacent parents.

  11. Involvement of an ent-copalyl diphosphate synthase in tissue-specific accumulation of specialized diterpenes in Andrographis paniculata.

    PubMed

    Misra, Rajesh Chandra; Garg, Anchal; Roy, Sudeep; Chanotiya, Chandan Singh; Vasudev, Prema G; Ghosh, Sumit

    2015-11-01

    Ent-labdane-related diterpene (ent-LRD) specialized (i.e. secondary) metabolites of the medicinal plant kalmegh (Andrographis paniculata) have long been known for several pharmacological activities. However, our understanding of the ent-LRD biosynthetic pathway has remained largely incomplete. Since ent-LRDs accumulate in leaves, we carried out a comparative transcriptional analysis using leaf and root tissues, and identified 389 differentially expressed transcripts, including 223 transcripts that were preferentially expressed in leaf tissue. Analysis of the transcripts revealed various specialized metabolic pathways, including transcripts of the ent-LRD biosynthetic pathway. Two class II diterpene synthases (ApCPS1 and ApCPS2) along with one (ApCPS1') and two (ApCPS2' and ApCPS2″) transcriptional variants that were the outcomes of alternative splicing of the precursor mRNA and alternative transcriptional termination, respectively, were identified. ApCPS1 and ApCPS2 encode for 832- and 817-amino acids proteins, respectively, and are phylogenetically related to the dicotyledons ent-copalyl diphosphate synthases (ent-CPSs). The spatio-temporal patterns of ent-LRD metabolites accumulation and gene expression suggested a likely role for ApCPS1 in general (i.e. primary) metabolism, perhaps by providing precursor for the biosynthesis of phytohormone gibberellin (GA). However, ApCPS2 is potentially involved in tissue-specific accumulation of ent-LRD specialized metabolites. Bacterially expressed recombinant ApCPS2 catalyzed the conversion of (E,E,E)-geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP), the general precursor of diterpenes to ent-copalyl diphosphate (ent-CPP), the precursor of ent-LRDs. Taken together, these results advance our understanding of the tissue-specific accumulation of specialized ent-LRDs of medicinal importance.

  12. Protective effects of Andrographis paniculata extract and pure andrographolide against chronic stress-triggered pathologies in rats.

    PubMed

    Thakur, Ajit Kumar; Soni, Upendra Kumar; Rai, Geeta; Chatterjee, Shyam Sunder; Kumar, Vikas

    2014-11-01

    This study was designed to experimentally verify the possibility that Andrographis paniculata could be another medicinal herb potentially useful for prevention of diverse spectrums of pathologies commonly associated with chronic unavoidable environmental stress, and whether andrographolide could as well be its quantitatively major bioactive secondary metabolite. Preventive effects of 21 daily oral 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg doses of a therapeutically used extract of the plant (AP) and 30 and 60 mg/kg/day of pure andrographolide were compared in rats subjected to 1-h daily unavoidable foot-shocks. A pharmaceutically well-standardized Withania somnifera (WS) root extract was used as a reference herbal anti-stress agent in all experiments. Effects of the treatments on stress-induced alterations in body weight, gastric ulcer, adrenal and spleen weights, and depressive state and sexual behavior in male rats were quantified. Other parameters quantified were plasma cortisol levels, and expressions of the cytokines TNF-α, IL-10 and IL-1β in blood and brain. All observed stress-induced pathological changes were less pronounced or completely prevented by both AP and pure andrographolide. Even the lowest tested doses of AP (50 mg/kg/day) or of andrographolide (30 mg/kg/day) suppressed almost maximally the blood IL-1β and IL-10 as well as brain TNF-α and IL-10 expressions induced by chronic stress. Qualitatively, the observed activity profiles of both of them were similar to those of WS dose tested. These results reveal that both AP and andrographolide are pharmacologically polyvalent anti-stress agents, and that biological processes regulating corticosterone and cytokine homeostasis are involved in their modes of actions.

  13. Warfarin and coumarin-like Murraya paniculata extract down-regulate EpCAM-mediated cell adhesion: individual components versus mixture for studying botanical metastatic chemopreventives.

    PubMed

    Shao, Jingwei; Zhou, Suxia; Jiang, Zhou; Chi, Ting; Ma, Ji; Kuo, Minliang; Lee, Alan Yueh-Luen; Jia, Lee

    2016-08-02

    We recently defined cancer metastatic chemoprevention as utilizing safe and effective molecules to comprehensively prevent the spark of activation-adhesion-extravasation-proliferation metastatic cascade caused by circulating tumor cells (CTCs). The strategy focuses on preventing the most important starting point of the cascade. We identified an extract from a well-known medical plant Murraya paniculata, which inhibited both embryonic implantation to human endometrium as traditionally-used for abortion and CTC adhesion to human endothelium. Here, we separated and characterized five coumarin-containing components (Z1-Z5) from the botanic extract. Flow cytometry revealed that within 1-100 μg/mL, Z3 and Z5 down-regulated EpCAM expression in human colon HCT116, whereas, Z1 and Z2 did oppositely. Warfarin and Z1-Z5 component mixture (CM) also down-regulated EpCAM expression. The down-regulation of EpCAM by Z3, Z5, CM and warfarin was confirmed by western blotting, and caused inhibition on adhesion of cancer cells to human endothelial cells. Rat coagulation study showed that warfarin prolonged prothrombin time, whereas, Z3 did not. The present studies revealed that, for the first time, warfarin and coumarin-like components Z3, Z5 and CM from Murraya paniculata could directly inhibit EpCAM-mediated cell-cell adhesion.

  14. Warfarin and coumarin-like Murraya paniculata extract down-regulate EpCAM-mediated cell adhesion: individual components versus mixture for studying botanical metastatic chemopreventives

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Jingwei; Zhou, Suxia; Jiang, Zhou; Chi, Ting; Ma, Ji; Kuo, Minliang; Lee, Alan Yueh-Luen; Jia, Lee

    2016-01-01

    We recently defined cancer metastatic chemoprevention as utilizing safe and effective molecules to comprehensively prevent the spark of activation-adhesion-extravasation-proliferation metastatic cascade caused by circulating tumor cells (CTCs). The strategy focuses on preventing the most important starting point of the cascade. We identified an extract from a well-known medical plant Murraya paniculata, which inhibited both embryonic implantation to human endometrium as traditionally-used for abortion and CTC adhesion to human endothelium. Here, we separated and characterized five coumarin-containing components (Z1–Z5) from the botanic extract. Flow cytometry revealed that within 1–100 μg/mL, Z3 and Z5 down-regulated EpCAM expression in human colon HCT116, whereas, Z1 and Z2 did oppositely. Warfarin and Z1-Z5 component mixture (CM) also down-regulated EpCAM expression. The down-regulation of EpCAM by Z3, Z5, CM and warfarin was confirmed by western blotting, and caused inhibition on adhesion of cancer cells to human endothelial cells. Rat coagulation study showed that warfarin prolonged prothrombin time, whereas, Z3 did not. The present studies revealed that, for the first time, warfarin and coumarin-like components Z3, Z5 and CM from Murraya paniculata could directly inhibit EpCAM-mediated cell-cell adhesion. PMID:27480614

  15. Quantitative analysis of four major diterpenoids in Andrographis paniculata by 1H NMR and its application for quality control of commercial preparations.

    PubMed

    Yang, Minghua; Wang, Junsong; Kong, Lingyi

    2012-11-01

    A quantitative proton nuclear magnetic resonance technique (qHNMR) has been successfully introduced to quantify andrographolide, dehydroandrographolide, deoxyandrographolide and neoandrographolide in Andrographis paniculata, a commonly used important traditional Chinese medicine. Creative use of trifluoroacetic acid-d, which satisfactorily resolved the overlapping signals of these compounds in crowded regions of δ 4.5-5.6 ppm in (1)H NMR spectrum, made their quantification possible. Optimization of other experimental conditions, including internal standard, NMR pulse sequence, and NMR relaxation delay time, finally established the (1)H NMR based quantification approach, which was validated with satisfactory accuracy, precision, repeatability, and recovery. Except for deoxyandrographolide and neoandrographolide in two compound recipes, this method was successfully applied to quantify the four major components in fourteen raw herb materials and five commercial preparations, providing quantification results in good agreement with those determined by HPLC. The inherent advantages of qHNMR, such as its rapidity and simplicity, make itself a feasible alternative to HPLC for the quality control of A. paniculata raw material and herbal preparations.

  16. The effects of Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Nees extract and diterpenoids on the CYP450 isoforms' activities, a review of possible herb-drug interaction risks.

    PubMed

    Tan, Mei Lan; Lim, Lin Ee

    2015-01-01

    Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Nees is a popular medicinal plant and its components are used in various traditional product preparations. However, its herb-drug interactions risks remain unclear. This review specifically discusses the various published studies carried out to evaluate the effects of Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Nees plant extracts and diterpenoids on the CYP450 metabolic enzyme and if the plant components pose a possible herb-drug interaction risk. Unfortunately, the current data are insufficient to indicate if the extracts or diterpenoids can be labeled as in vitro CYP1A2, CYP2C9 or CYP3A4 inhibitors. A complete CYP inhibition assay utilizing human liver microsomes and the derivation of relevant parameters to predict herb-drug interaction risks may be necessary for these isoforms. However, based on the current studies, none of the extracts and diterpenoids exhibited CYP450 induction activity in human hepatocytes or human-derived cell lines. It is crucial that a well-defined experimental design is needed to make a meaningful herb-drug interaction prediction.

  17. Citrus medica L. cv Diamante (Rutaceae) peel extract improves glycaemic status of Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats and protects against oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Menichini, Francesco; Tundis, Rosa; Loizzo, Monica R; Bonesi, Marco; D'Angelo, Danila; Lombardi, Pietro; Mastellone, Vincenzo

    2016-12-01

    This study aimed to investigate the antidiabetic, antilipidaemic and antioxidant activities of Citrus medica cv Diamante (Rutaceae) hydroalcoholic (CD) peel extract in Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats. The ability of CD to protect against oxidative stress was investigated by using different in vitro assays and in vivo by using the reactive oxygen metabolites-derived compounds (d-ROMs) test and the biological antioxidant potential test (BAP). Two different doses of CD extract (300 and 600 mg/kg/die) were administered at ZDF rats for 4 weeks. CD reduced cholesterol and triglycerides levels. A dose-dependent effect on body weight and serum glucose levels was observed. A decrease of d-ROMs and an increase of BAP were recorded by using the dose of 600 mg/kg. The extract inhibited lipid peroxidation (IC50 value of 0.23 mg/ml). These findings suggest as an efficient phytotherapeutic approach in combating hyperlipidaemic and hyperglycaemic disorders.

  18. Almeidea A. St.-Hil. Belongs to Conchocarpus J.C. Mikan (Galipeinae, Rutaceae): Evidence from Morphological and Molecular Data, with a First Analysis of Subtribe Galipeinae

    PubMed Central

    Poleselli Bruniera, Carla; Kallunki, Jacquelyn A.; Groppo, Milton

    2015-01-01

    Subtribe Galipeinae (tribe Galipeeae, subfamily Rutoideae) is the most diverse group of Neotropical Rutaceae, with 28 genera and approximately 130 species. One of its genera is Almeidea, whose species are morphologically similar to those of the genus Conchocarpus. Species of Almeidea occur in the Atlantic Rain Forest of Eastern Brazil, with one species (Almeidea rubra) also present in Bolivia. The objective of this study was to perform a phylogenetic analysis of Almeidea, using a broader sampling of Galipeinae and other Neotropical Rutaceae, the first such study focused on this subtribe. To achieve this objective, morphological data and molecular data from the nuclear markers ITS-1 and ITS-2 and the plastid markers trnL-trnF and rps16 were obtained. Representatives of eight genera of Galipeinae and three genera of Pilocarpinae (included also in Galipeeae) and Hortia (closely related to Galipeeae) were used. Five species of Almeidea and seven of Conchocarpus were included, given the morphological proximity between these two genera. Individual (for each molecular marker) and combined phylogenetic analyses were made, using parsimony and Bayesian inference as optimization criteria. Results showed Galipeinae as monophyletic, with the species of Almeidea also monophyletic (supported by the presence of pantocolporate pollen) and nested in a clade with a group of species of Conchocarpus, a non-monophyletic group. Additionally, C. concinnus appeared in a group with Andreadoxa, Erythrochiton, and Neoraputia, other members of Galipeinae. As a result, Conchocarpus would be monophyletic only with the exclusion of a group of species related to C. concinnus and with the inclusion of all species of Almeidea with the group of species of Conchocarpus that includes its type species, C. macrophyllus. Thus, species of Almeidea are transferred to Conchocarpus, and the new combinations are made here. PMID:25951371

  19. Chilean Pitavia more closely related to Oceania and Old World Rutaceae than to Neotropical groups: evidence from two cpDNA non-coding regions, with a new subfamilial classification of the family

    PubMed Central

    Groppo, Milton; Kallunki, Jacquelyn A.; Pirani, José Rubens; Antonelli, Alexandre

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The position of the plant genus Pitavia within an infrafamilial phylogeny of Rutaceae (rue, or orange family) was investigated with the use of two non-coding regions from cpDNA, the trnL-trnF region and the rps16 intron. The only species of the genus, Pitavia punctata Molina, is restricted to the temperate forests of the Coastal Cordillera of Central-Southern Chile and threatened by loss of habitat. The genus traditionally has been treated as part of tribe Zanthoxyleae (subfamily Rutoideae) where it constitutes the monogeneric tribe Pitaviinae. This tribe and genus are characterized by fruits of 1 to 4 fleshy drupelets, unlike the dehiscent fruits typical of the subfamily. Fifty-five taxa of Rutaceae, representing 53 genera (nearly one-third of those in the family) and all subfamilies, tribes, and almost all subtribes of the family were included. Parsimony and Bayesian inference were used to infer the phylogeny; six taxa of Meliaceae, Sapindaceae, and Simaroubaceae, all members of Sapindales, were also used as out-groups. Results from both analyses were congruent and showed Pitavia as sister to Flindersia and Lunasia, both genera with species scattered through Australia, Philippines, Moluccas, New Guinea and the Malayan region, and phylogenetically far from other Neotropical Rutaceae, such as the Galipeinae (Galipeeae, Rutoideae) and Pteleinae (Toddalieae, former Toddalioideae). Additionally, a new circumscription of the subfamilies of Rutaceae is presented and discussed. Only two subfamilies (both monophyletic) are recognized: Cneoroideae (including Dictyolomatoideae, Spathelioideae, Cneoraceae, and Ptaeroxylaceae) and Rutoideae (including not only traditional Rutoideae but also Aurantioideae, Flindersioideae, and Toddalioideae). As a consequence, Aurantioideae (Citrus and allies) is reduced to tribal rank as Aurantieae. PMID:23717188

  20. Simultaneous determination of andrographolide, dehydroandrographolide and neoandrographolide in dog plasma by LC-MS/MS and its application to a dog pharmacokinetic study of Andrographis paniculata tablet.

    PubMed

    Xu, Fang-fang; Fu, Shu-jun; Gu, Sheng-pan; Wang, Zhi-min; Wang, Zhen-zhong; He, Xin; Xiao, Wei

    2015-05-15

    In this study, a sensitive and rapid liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated to simultaneously determinate andrographolide (AP), dehydroandrographolide (DP), and neoandrographolide (NP) in plasma of beagle dogs after oral administration of Andrographis paniculata tablet (A. paniculata). The analytes and bilobalide (internal standard) were separated on an Agilent ZORBAX XDB-C18 column (50mm×2.1mm, 3.5μm) by using gradient elution consisting of methanol and water at a flow rate of 0.50mL/min in 7min. Multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode was performed to quantify data under monitoring precursor-product ion transitions of m/z 348.8→286.9, 330.9→107.9, 479.1→160.8 and 325.0→163.0 for AP, DP, NP and internal standard (IS) at negative ion mode, respectively. This method was developed at linearity ranging from 0.50 to 250ng/mL for AP, 1.00 to 500ng/mL for DP and 0.20 to 100ng/mL for NP. The accuracy of each analyte ranged between 94.8% and 107.1% and the precision was within 14.6%. No significant matrix effect was observed. AP, DP and NP were stable during sample storage, preparation and analytic procedures. Furthermore, this method was successfully applied in the investigation of the pharmacokinetic profile of AP, DP and NP in beagle dogs after oral administration of A. paniculata tablet (49.5mg for AP, 7.0mg for DP, 22.0mg for NP). Biological half-life (t1/2) was 2.08±0.99, 3.13±1.19 and 1.07±0.38h for AP, DP and NP, respectively. The areas under curves (AUC0-t) of AP, DP and NP was 494.50±150.64, 26.01±8.72 and 78.78±18.29ngh/mL, respectively.

  1. Anti-Infective Metabolites of a Newly Isolated Bacillus thuringiensis KL1 Associated with Kalmegh (Andrographis paniculata Nees.), a Traditional Medicinal Herb

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Sudipta; Yasmin, Sahana; Ghosh, Subhadeep; Bhattacharya, Somesankar; Banerjee, Debdulal

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to isolate endophytic bacteria possessing anti-infective property from Kalmegh (Andrographis paniculata Nees.), a well-known medicinal plant. A total of 23 strains were isolated from this plant among which the strain KL1, isolated from surface-sterilized leaf of this medicinal herb, showed broad-spectrum antagonism against an array of Gram-positive and -negative bacterial pathogens. Ethyl acetate extract of KL1-fermented media yielded a greenish amorphous substance retaining anti-infective property. Solvent-extracted crude material was separated by thin-layer chromatography, and the active ingredient was located by autobiogram analysis. The purified anti-infective compound was found as anthracene derivative as analyzed by ultraviolet and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The strain was identified as Bacillus thuringiensis KL1 from cultural, physiochemical, and molecular aspects. The above results indicate the pharmaceutical potential of the candidate isolate. PMID:26997870

  2. Chemical composition, antioxidant properties and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Murraya paniculata leaves from the mountains of Central Cuba.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Elisa Jorge; Ramis-Ramos, Guillermo; Heyden, Yvan Vander; Simó-Alfonso, Ernesto F; Lerma-García, María Jesús; Saucedo-Hernández, Yanelis; Monteagudo, Urbano; Morales, Yeni; Holgado, Beatriz; Herrero-Martínez, José Manuel

    2012-11-01

    The essential oil of Murraya paniculata L leaves from the mountains of the Central Region of Cuba, obtained by hydrodistillation, was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Eighteen compounds, accounting for 95.1% of the oil were identified. The major component was beta-caryophyllene (ca. 30%). The antioxidant activity of essential oil was evaluated against Cucurbita seed oil by peroxide, thiobarbituric acid and p-anisidine methods. The essential oil showed stronger antioxidant activity than that of butylated hydroxyanisole and butylated hydroxytoluene, but lower than that of propyl gallate. Moreover, this antioxidant activity was supported by the complementary antioxidant assay in the linoleic acid system and 2, 2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl. The essential oil also showed good to moderate inhibitory effects against Klebsiellapneumoniae and Bacillus subtilis.

  3. Comparison of total phenolic content, scavenging activity and HPLC-ESI-MS/MS profiles of both young and mature leaves and stems of Andrographis paniculata.

    PubMed

    Chua, Lee Suan; Yap, Ken Choy; Jaganath, Indu Bala

    2013-12-01

    The total phenolic content and radical scavenging activity of Andrographis paniculata has been investigated to estimate the amount of phenolic compounds and diterpene lactones, respectively in the plant extracts. The stem extracts exhibited higher total phenolic content and scavenging activity than those of the leaf extracts from both young and mature plants. A range of 19.6-47.8 mg extract of A. paniculata from different parts of the plant is equivalent to the scavenging activity exhibited by one mg of standard Trolox. HPLC-ESI-MS/MS was also used to identify simultaneously the phytochemicals from the leaves and stems of both young and mature plant samples. Of the identified compounds, seven of the sixteen diterpene lactones, three of the six flavonoids, five of the six phenolic acids and two cyclic acids are reported here for the first time for this species. Multivariate statistical approaches such as Hierarchiral Component Analysis (HCA) and Principle Component Analysis (PCA) have clustered the plant extracts into the leaf and stem groups, regardless of plant age. Further classification based on the phytochemical profiles revealed that mostly phenolic acids and flavonoids were from the young leaf extracts, and diterpenoids and their glycosides from the mature leaf extracts. However, the phytochemical profiles for the stems of both young and mature plants were not significantly different as presented in the dendrogram of HCA and the score plot of PCA. The marker for mature plants might be the m/z 557 ion (dihydroxyl dimethyl 19-[(beta-D-glucopyranosyl)oxy]-19-oxo-ent-labda-8(17),13-dien-16,15-olide), whereas the m/z 521 ion (propyl neoandrographolide) could be the marker for leaf extracts.

  4. Melicope oppenheimeri, section Pelea (Rutaceae), a new species from West Maui, Hawaiian Islands: with notes on its ecology, conservation, and phylogenetic placement

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Kennetah R.; Appelhans, Marc S.; Wagner, Warren L.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Melicope oppenheimeri K.R. Wood, Appelhans & W.L. Wagner (section Pelea (A. Gray) Hook. f., Rutaceae), a rare endemic tree from West Maui, Hawaiian Islands, is described and illustrated with notes on its ecology, conservation, and phylogenetic placement. The new species differs from Hawaiian congeners by its carpels basally connate 1/5, narrowed into a strongly reflexed beak 10–15 mm long. It also differs in a combination of leaves with 7–10 pair of secondary veins; cymes to 3 cm long; peduncles 5–6.5 mm long; flowers perfect; capsules 4–9 × 40–52 mm; and a densely appressed short-sericeous ovary. Melicope oppenheimeri is known only from an isolated cliff-base plateau in upper Waihe‘e Valley, West Maui. Its discovery brings the number of recognized Melicope J.R. Forst. & G. Forst. species in the Hawaiian Islands to 49. A table is included indicating the conservation status of Hawaiian Melicope and Platydesma H. Mann., which is nested within Melicope sect. Pelea. Melicope oppenheimeri falls into the IUCN Critically Endangered (CR) Red List category. PMID:27698584

  5. Chemical Composition and in vitro Biological Activities of Essential Oils from Conchocarpus fontanesianus (A. St.-Hil.) Kallunki & Pirani (Rutaceae).

    PubMed

    Cabral, Rodrigo S; Suffredini, Ivana B; Young, Maria C M

    2016-10-01

    This study aimed at assessing the chemical composition of the essential oils from leaves and fruits of Conchocarpus fontanesianus, an endemic Brazilian species of Rutaceae. The plant material was harvested from two regions of the Atlantic rainforest in the State of São Paulo. The volatile compounds in the essential oils were extracted by hydrodistillation (HD), and analyzed by GC/FID and GC/MS, allowing the quantification and identification of 54 components in total, which comprise about 97% of the total oil composition. From the leaves collected in Caraguatatuba and Juréia-Itatins, the major volatile compounds identified were as follows: spathulenol (22.32% and 16.67%) and α-cadinol (9.7% and 14.76%). However, β-myrcene (34.56%), (+)-epi-bicyclosesquiphellandrene (8.71%), and bicyclogermacrene (5.80%) were dominant in the fruits collected only in Juréia-Itatins. The in vitro biological activities were tested to evaluate the cytotoxic, antifungal, and antioxidant potential of essential oils from leaves and fruits.

  6. Dose and time-dependent sub-chronic toxicity study of hydroethanolic leaf extract of Flabellaria paniculata Cav. (Malpighiaceae) in rodents

    PubMed Central

    Akindele, Abidemi J.; Adeneye, Adejuwon A.; Salau, Oluwole S.; Sofidiya, Margaret O.; Benebo, Adokiye S.

    2014-01-01

    Flabellaria paniculata Cav. (Malpighiaceae) is a climbing shrub, the preparations of which are used in the treatment of wounds and ulcers in Nigeria and Ghana. This study investigated the sub-chronic toxicity profile of the hydroethanolic leaf extract of F. paniculata (HLE-FP). HLE-FP was administered p.o. (20, 100, and 500 mg/kg) for 30 and 60 days to different groups of rats. Control animals received 10 ml/kg distilled water. In the group of animals for reversibility study, HLE-FP administration ceased on the 60th day and animals were monitored for a further 15 days. Results showed that oral treatment with HLE-FP for 30 days caused significant (p < 0.05) reductions in weight gain pattern compared to control. These changes were sustained with 60 days treatment. However, no significant (p > 0.05) differences in relative organ weights between control and treatment groups were observed. HLE-FP-treated rats showed significant (p < 0.05) increases in Hb, PCV and RBC on day 30 and significant (p < 0.05) increases in MCV and MCH indices on day 60 compared to control. There were significant (p < 0.05) elevations in serum K+, urea and creatinine compared to control. The liver function tests showed slight but non-significant alterations in relevant parameters when compared to control. Biochemical findings were supported by histopathological observations of vital organs including the kidney and liver. Toxicities observed in respect of kidney function were irreversible at 15 days of stoppage of treatment. In the acute toxicity study, HLE-FP given p.o. caused no lethality at 5000 mg/kg but behavioral manifestations like restlessness, generalized body tremor, feed, and water refusal were observed. The i.p. LD50 was estimated to be 2951.2 mg/kg. Findings in this study showed that HLE-FP is relatively non-toxic on acute exposure and generally safe on sub-chronic administration, but could be deleterious on the kidneys on prolonged oral exposure at a high dose. Thus, caution should

  7. The Effect of Seasonal Ambient Temperatures on Fire-Stimulated Germination of Species with Physiological Dormancy: A Case Study Using Boronia (Rutaceae).

    PubMed

    Mackenzie, Berin D E; Auld, Tony D; Keith, David A; Hui, Francis K C; Ooi, Mark K J

    2016-01-01

    Dormancy and germination requirements determine the timing and magnitude of seedling emergence, with important consequences for seedling survival and growth. Physiological dormancy is the most widespread form of dormancy in flowering plants, yet the seed ecology of species with this dormancy type is poorly understood in fire-prone vegetation. The role of seasonal temperatures as germination cues in these habitats is often overlooked due to a focus on direct fire cues such as heat shock and smoke, and little is known about the combined effects of multiple fire-related cues and environmental cues as these are seldom assessed in combination. We aimed to improve understanding of the germination requirements of species with physiological dormancy in fire-prone floras by investigating germination responses across members of the Rutaceae from south eastern Australia. We used a fully factorial experimental design to quantify the individual and combined effects of heat shock, smoke and seasonal ambient temperatures on germination of freshly dispersed seeds of seven species of Boronia, a large and difficult-to-germinate genus. Germination syndromes were highly variable but correlated with broad patterns in seed morphology and phylogenetic relationships between species. Seasonal temperatures influenced the rate and/or magnitude of germination responses in six species, and interacted with fire cues in complex ways. The combined effects of heat shock and smoke ranged from neutral to additive, synergistic, unitive or negative and varied with species, seasonal temperatures and duration of incubation. These responses could not be reliably predicted from the effect of the application of single cues. Based on these findings, fire season and fire intensity are predicted to affect both the magnitude and timing of seedling emergence in wild populations of species with physiological dormancy, with important implications for current fire management practices and for population

  8. The Effect of Seasonal Ambient Temperatures on Fire-Stimulated Germination of Species with Physiological Dormancy: A Case Study Using Boronia (Rutaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Auld, Tony D.; Keith, David A.; Hui, Francis K. C.; Ooi, Mark K. J.

    2016-01-01

    Dormancy and germination requirements determine the timing and magnitude of seedling emergence, with important consequences for seedling survival and growth. Physiological dormancy is the most widespread form of dormancy in flowering plants, yet the seed ecology of species with this dormancy type is poorly understood in fire-prone vegetation. The role of seasonal temperatures as germination cues in these habitats is often overlooked due to a focus on direct fire cues such as heat shock and smoke, and little is known about the combined effects of multiple fire-related cues and environmental cues as these are seldom assessed in combination. We aimed to improve understanding of the germination requirements of species with physiological dormancy in fire-prone floras by investigating germination responses across members of the Rutaceae from south eastern Australia. We used a fully factorial experimental design to quantify the individual and combined effects of heat shock, smoke and seasonal ambient temperatures on germination of freshly dispersed seeds of seven species of Boronia, a large and difficult-to-germinate genus. Germination syndromes were highly variable but correlated with broad patterns in seed morphology and phylogenetic relationships between species. Seasonal temperatures influenced the rate and/or magnitude of germination responses in six species, and interacted with fire cues in complex ways. The combined effects of heat shock and smoke ranged from neutral to additive, synergistic, unitive or negative and varied with species, seasonal temperatures and duration of incubation. These responses could not be reliably predicted from the effect of the application of single cues. Based on these findings, fire season and fire intensity are predicted to affect both the magnitude and timing of seedling emergence in wild populations of species with physiological dormancy, with important implications for current fire management practices and for population

  9. Evaluation of anti-bacterial and anti-oxidant potential of andrographolide and echiodinin isolated from callus culture of Andrographis paniculata Nees

    PubMed Central

    Arifullah, Mohmmed; Namsa, Nima Dandu; Mandal, Manabendra; Chiruvella, Kishore Kumar; Vikrama, Paritala; Gopal, Ghanta Rama

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the anti-bacterial and anti-oxidant activity of andrographolide (AND) and echiodinin (ECH) of Andrographis paniculata. Methods In this study, an attempt has been made to demonstrate the anti-microbial and anti-oxidant activity of isolated AND and ECH by broth micro-dilution method and 2,2-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) assay, respectively. Structure elucidation was determined by electro-spray ionization-MSD, NMR (1H and 13C) and IR spectra. Results AND was effective against most of the strains tested including Mycobacterium smegmatis, showing broad spectrum of growth inhibition activity with Minimum inhibitory concentration values against Staphylococcus aureus (100 µg/mL), Streptococcus thermophilus (350 µg/mL) Bacillus subtilis (100 µg/mL), Escherichia coli (50 µg/mL), Mycobacterium smegmatis (200 µg/mL), Klebsiella pneumonia (100 µg/mL), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (200 µg/mL). ECH showed specific anti-bacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa at a concentration higher than 225 µg/mL. Both AND and ECH were not effective against the two yeast strains, Candida albicans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae tested in this study. Conclusion This preliminary study showed promising anti-bacterial activity and moderate free radical scavenging activity of AND and ECH, and it may provide the scientific rationale for its popular folklore medicines. PMID:23905016

  10. Anti-dengue efficacy of bioactive andrographolide from Andrographis paniculata (Lamiales: Acanthaceae) against the primary dengue vector Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Edwin, Edward-Sam; Vasantha-Srinivasan, Prabhakaran; Senthil-Nathan, Sengottayan; Thanigaivel, Annamalai; Ponsankar, Athirstam; Pradeepa, Venkatraman; Selin-Rani, Selvaraj; Kalaivani, Kandaswamy; Hunter, Wayne B; Abdel-Megeed, Ahmed; Duraipandiyan, Veeramuthu; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah

    2016-11-01

    The current study investigated the toxic effect of the leaf extract compound andrographolide from Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f) against the dengue vector Ae. aegypti. GC-MS analysis revealed that andrographolide was recognized as the major chemical constituent with the prominent peak area compared with other compounds. All isolated toxic compounds were purified and confirmed through RP-HPLC against chemical standards. The larvicidal assays established at 25ppm of bioactive compound against the treated instars of Ae. Aegypti showed prominent mortality compared to other treated concentrations. The percent mortality of larvae was directly proportional to concentration. The lethal concentration (LC50) was observed at 12ppm treatment concentration. The bioactive andrographolide considerably reduced the detoxifying enzyme regulations of α- and β- carboxylesterases. In contrast, the levels of GST and CYP450 significantly increase in a dose dependent manner. The andrographolide also showed strong oviposition deterrence effects at the sub-lethal dose of 12ppm. Similarly, the mean number of eggs were also significantly reduced in a dose dependent manner. At the concentration of 12ppm the effective percentage of repellency was greater than 90% with a protection time of 15-210min, compared with control. The histopathology study displayed that larvae treated with bioactive andrographolide had cytopathic effects in the midgut epithelium compared with the control. The present study established that bioactive andrographolide served as a potential useful for dengue vector management.

  11. Effect of Holarrhena antidysentrica (Ha) and Andrographis paniculata (Ap) on the biofilm formation and cell membrane integrity of opportunistic pathogen Salmonella typhimurium.

    PubMed

    Tanwar, Ankit; Chawla, Raman; Chakotiya, Ankita Singh; Thakur, Pallavi; Goel, Rajeev; Basu, Mitra; Arora, Rajesh; Khan, Haider Ali

    2016-12-01

    Increasing occurrence of gastroenteritis outbreaks caused by food borne opportunistic microorganisms has become a major problem in food industry as well as in immunocompromised host. Antimicrobial agents are losing their efficacy due to increase in the microbial resistance. For such reasons, conventional treatment has become limited to manage the infections state. Need of the hour is to instigate the search for safer holistic alternatives. The present study was hence conducted to assess the antibiofilm effect and mode of action of aquo alcoholic extracts of Holarrhena antidysentrica (Ha) and Andrographis paniculata (Ap) against the Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium. Both the extracts were screened for the presence of phytocompounds followed by the characterization using Attenuated Total Reflection (ATR) infrared spectroscopy and bioactivity finger print analysis. Anti-biofilm assays were determined to test the potential of both extracts to inhibit the biofilm formation, while Propidium Iodide (PI) uptake analysis revealed that cell membrane was damaged by the exposure of nutraceuticals for 1 h. This study has demonstrated that both nutraceuticals have anti-biofilm and antimicrobial activity perturbing the membrane integrity of food-borne S. typhimurium and could be used as curative remedy to control the food borne microbial infection.

  12. Total Coumarins from Hydrangea paniculata Protect against Cisplatin-Induced Acute Kidney Damage in Mice by Suppressing Renal Inflammation and Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Jie, Ma; Jingzhi, Yang; Dongjie, Wang; Dongming, Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Aim. Hydrangea paniculata (HP) Sieb. is a medical herb which is widely distributed in southern China, and current study is to evaluate renal protective effect of aqueous extract of HP by cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury (AKI) in animal model and its underlying mechanisms. Materials and Methods. HP extract was prepared and the major ingredients were coumarin glycosides. AKI mouse models were established by single i.p. injection of 20 mg/kg cisplatin, and HP was orally administrated for total five times. The renal biochemical functions, pathological staining, kidney oxidative stress, and inflammatory status were measured. Apoptosis of tubular cells and infiltration of macrophages and neutrophils were also tested. Results. HP administration could improve the renal function by decreasing concentration of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine and attenuates renal oxidative stress and tubular pathological injury and apoptosis; further research demonstrated that HP could inhibit the overproduction of proinflammatory cytokines and regulate caspase and BCL-2 family proteins. HP also reduced renal infiltration of macrophages and neutrophils, and its effect might be by downregulating phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and stat3 signaling pathway. Conclusions. This present study suggests that HP could ameliorate cisplatin induced kidney damage by antioxidation and suppressing renal inflammation and tubular cell apoptosis. PMID:28367225

  13. The paradigm-shifting idea and its practice: from traditional abortion Chinese medicine Murraya paniculata to safe and effective cancer metastatic chemopreventives.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Zhou; Pang, Yaqiong; Yu, Xiaobo; Zhou, Suxia; Qian, Jun; Zheng, Ning; Dong, Haiyan; Shi, Qing; Kuo, Minliang; Jia, Lee

    2016-04-19

    Recent large epidemiological studies demonstrated benefit of oral contraceptives in reducing cancer risk, and our analysis also showed molecular and cellular similarities between embryo implantation and CTCs adhesion-invasion to endothelium. We here hypothesize that abortion traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) may serve well for pre-metastatic chemoprevention. To test the hypothesis, we selected the safe and well-known abortifacient TCM Murraya paniculata and identified a most-promising extracted fraction G (containing flavonoids and coumarins) from its many raw ethanol/dichloromethane extracts by using the bioactivity-guided fast screen assay. G showed free radical scavenging effect, and specifically inhibited both embryo implantation to human endometrial bed and cancer HT29 cells to human endothelium in a concentration-dependent manner (1-30 μg/mL) without significant cytotoxicity demonstrated by its high adhesion inhibition ratio. The inhibition may result from its down-regulation on expression of integrin β1 and α6, and CD44 on HT29 cells, as well as E-selectin on endothelial cells. Furthermore, G inhibited invasion and migration of HT29 cells. Pretreatment followed by one-month oral administration of G to the immunocompetent mice inoculated with mouse melanoma cells produced significant inhibition on lung metastasis without marked side effects. Collectively, this paradigm-shifting study provides, for the first time, a new strategy to discover safe and effective pre-metastatic chemopreventives from abortion TCM.

  14. The paradigm-shifting idea and its practice: from traditional abortion Chinese medicine Murraya paniculata to safe and effective cancer metastatic chemopreventives

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Suxia; Qian, Jun; Zheng, Ning; Dong, Haiyan; Shi, Qing; Kuo, Minliang; Jia, Lee

    2016-01-01

    Recent large epidemiological studies demonstrated benefit of oral contraceptives in reducing cancer risk, and our analysis also showed molecular and cellular similarities between embryo implantation and CTCs adhesion-invasion to endothelium. We here hypothesize that abortion traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) may serve well for pre-metastatic chemoprevention. To test the hypothesis, we selected the safe and well-known abortifacient TCM Murraya paniculata and identified a most-promising extracted fraction G (containing flavonoids and coumarins) from its many raw ethanol/dichloromethane extracts by using the bioactivity-guided fast screen assay. G showed free radical scavenging effect, and specifically inhibited both embryo implantation to human endometrial bed and cancer HT29 cells to human endothelium in a concentration-dependent manner (1–30 μg/mL) without significant cytotoxicity demonstrated by its high adhesion inhibition ratio. The inhibition may result from its down-regulation on expression of integrin β1 and α6, and CD44 on HT29 cells, as well as E-selectin on endothelial cells. Furthermore, G inhibited invasion and migration of HT29 cells. Pretreatment followed by one-month oral administration of G to the immunocompetent mice inoculated with mouse melanoma cells produced significant inhibition on lung metastasis without marked side effects. Collectively, this paradigm-shifting study provides, for the first time, a new strategy to discover safe and effective pre-metastatic chemopreventives from abortion TCM. PMID:26959747

  15. Multi-analysis strategy for metabolism of Andrographis paniculata in rat using liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenlan; Sun, Xiangming; Xu, Ying; Wang, Xuezhi; Bai, Jing; Ji, Yubin

    2015-07-01

    Compared with chemical drugs, it is a huge challenge to identify active ingredients of multicomponent traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). For most TCMs, metabolism investigation of absorbed constituents is a feasible way to clarify the active material basis. Although Andrographis paniculata (AP) has been extensively researched by domestic and foreign scholars, its metabolism has seldom been fully addressed to date. In this paper, high-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry was applied to analysis and characterization of AP metabolism in rat urine and feces samples after oral administration of ethanol extract. The differences in metabolites and metabolic pathways between the two biological samples were further compared. The chemical structures of 20 components were tentatively identified from drug-treated biological samples, including six prototype components and 14 metabolites, which underwent such main metabolic pathways as hydrolyzation, hydrogenation, dehydroxylation, deoxygenation, methylation, glucuronidation, sulfonation and sulfation. Two co-existing components were found in urine and feces samples, suggesting that some ingredients' metabolic processes were not unique. This study provides a comprehensive report on the metabolism of AP in rats, which will be helpful for understanding its mechanism.

  16. Dehydroandrographolide, an iNOS inhibitor, extracted from Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Nees, induces autophagy in human oral cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Ming-Ju; Lin, Chiao-Wen; Chiou, Hui-Ling; Yang, Shun-Fa; Chen, Mu-Kuan

    2015-10-13

    Autophagy, which is constitutively executed at the basal level in all cells, promotes cellular homeostasis by regulating the turnover of organelles and proteins. Andrographolide and dehydroandrographolide (DA) are the two principle components of Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Nees. and are the main contributors to its therapeutic properties. However, the pharmacological activities of dehydroandrographolide (DA) remain unclear. In this study, DA induces oral cancer cell death by activating autophagy. Treatment with autophagy inhibitors inhibited DA-induced human oral cancer cell death. In addition, DA increased LC3-II expression and reduced p53 expression in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, DA induced autophagy and decreased cell viability through modulation of p53 expression. DA-induced autophagy was triggered by an activation of JNK1/2 and an inhibition of Akt and p38. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that DA induced autophagy in human oral cancer cells by modulating p53 expression, activating JNK1/2, and inhibiting Akt and p38. Finally, an administration of DA effectively suppressed the tumor formation in the oral carcinoma xenograft model in vivo. This is the first study to reveal the novel function of DA in activating autophagy, suggesting that DA could serve as a new and potential chemopreventive agent for treating human oral cancer.

  17. Genoproteomics-assisted improvement of Andrographis paniculata: toward a promising molecular and conventional breeding platform for autogamous plants affecting the pharmaceutical industry.

    PubMed

    Valdiani, Alireza; Talei, Daryush; Lattoo, Surrinder K; Ortiz, Rodomiro; Rasmussen, Søren Kjærsgaard; Batley, Jacqueline; Rafii, Mohd Yusop; Maziah, Mahmood; Sabu, Kallevettankuzhy K; Abiri, Rambod; Sakuanrungsirikul, Suchirat; Tan, Soon Guan

    2017-01-03

    Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f.) Wall. ex Nees. (AP) is a hermaphroditic, self-compatible, and habitual inbreeding plant. Its main bioactive component is andrographolide, which is capable of inducing autophagic cell death in some human cancer cells and helps fight HIV/AIDS. Increasing the andrographolide content by investigating the genetic mechanisms controlling its biosynthesis in order to improve and develop high-yielding cultivars are the main breeding targets for AP. However, there might exist some limitations or barriers for crossability within AP accessions. Recently, this problem was addressed in AP by using a combination of crossbreeding and biotechnology-aided genetic methods. This review emphasizes that development of a breeding platform in a hard-to-breed plant, such as AP, requires the involvement of a broad range of methods from classical genetics to molecular breeding. To this end, a phenological stage (for example, flowering and stigma development) can be simplified to a quantitative morphological trait (for example, bud or stigma length) to be used as an index to express the highest level of receptivity in order to manage outcrossing. The outcomes of the basic crossability research can be then employed in diallel mating and crossbreeding. This review explains how genomic data could produce useful information regarding genetic distance and its influence on the crossability of AP accessions. Our review indicates that co-dominant DNA markers, such as microsatellites, are also capable of resolving the evolutionary pathway and cryptic features of plant populations and such information can be used to select the best breeding strategy. This review also highlights the importance of proteomic analysis as a breeding tool. In this regard, protein diversification, as well as the impact of normal and stress-responsive proteins on morphometric and physiological behaviors, could be used in breeding programs. These findings have immense potential for improving

  18. A Simple and Sensitive LC-MS/MS Method for Determination of Four Major Active Diterpenoids from Andrographis paniculata in Human Plasma and Its Application to a Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Pholphana, Nanthanit; Panomvana, Duangchit; Rangkadilok, Nuchanart; Suriyo, Tawit; Ungtrakul, Teerapat; Pongpun, Wanwisa; Thaeopattha, Saichit; Satayavivad, Jutamaad

    2016-01-01

    Andrographis paniculata contains four major active diterpenoids, including andrographolide (1), 14-deoxy-11, 12-didehydroandrographolide (2), neoandrographolide (3), and 14-deoxyandrographolide (4), which exhibit differences in types and/or degrees of their pharmacological activity. Previous pharmacokinetic studies in humans reported only the parameters of compound 1 and its analytical method in human plasma. The purpose of this study was to develop a simple, sensitive, and selective liquid chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry technique for the simultaneous determination of all four major active diterpenoids in the A. paniculata product in human plasma. These four diterpenoids in plasma samples were extracted by a simple protein precipitation method with methanol and separated on a Kinetex C18 column using a gradient system with a mobile phase of acetonitrile and water. The liquid chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry was performed in the negative mode, and the multiple reaction monitoring mode was used for the quantitation. The method showed a good linearity over a wide concentration range of 2.50-500 ng/mL for 1 and over the range of 1.00-500 ng/mL for the other diterpenoids with a correlation coefficient R(2) > 0.995. The lower limit of quantification of 1 was found to be 2.50 ng/mL, while those of the other diterpenoids were 1.00 ng/mL. The intraday and interday accuracy (relative error) ranged from 0.03 % to 10.03 %, and the intraday and interday precisions (relative standard deviation) were in the range of 2.05-9.67 %. The extraction recovery (86.54-111.56 %) with a relative standard deviation of 2.78-8.61 % and the matrix effect (85.15-112.36 %) were within the acceptance criteria. Moreover, these four major active diterpenoids were stable in plasma samples at the studied storage conditions with a relative error ≤-9.79 % and a relative standard deviation ≤ 9.26 %. Hence, this present method was successfully validated

  19. ED-XRF spectrometric analysis of comparative elemental composition of in vivo and in vitro roots of Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Wall. ex Nees--a multi-medicinal herb.

    PubMed

    Behera, P R; Nayak, P; Barik, D P; Rautray, T R; Thirunavoukkarasu, M; Chand, P K

    2010-12-01

    The multi-elemental composition of in vitro--proliferated root tissues of Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Wall. ex Nees was compared with that of the naturally grown in vivo plants. Trace elements namely Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Se, Rb, Sr and Pb in addition to two macro-elements K and Ca were identified and quantified in root tissues of both sources using the energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (ED-XRF) technique. ED-XRF analysis was performed using Mo K X-rays generated from a secondary molybdenum target. The elemental content of in vitro roots was found to be at par with that of naturally grown plants of the same species. This opens up a possibility of exploiting in vitro root cultures as a viable, alternative and renewable source of phytochemicals of relevance, besides providing a means for conservation of the valuable natural resources.

  20. Separation of five compounds from leaves of Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f.) Nees by off-line two-dimensional high-speed counter-current chromatography combined with gradient and recycling elution.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li; Liu, Qi; Yu, Jingang; Zeng, Hualiang; Jiang, Shujing; Chen, Xiaoqing

    2015-05-01

    An off-line two-dimensional high-speed counter-current chromatography method combined with gradient and recycling elution mode was established to isolate terpenoids and flavones from the leaves of Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f.) Nees. By using the solvent systems composed of n-hexane/ethyl acetate/methanol/water with different volume ratios, five compounds including roseooside, 5,4'-dihydroxyflavonoid-7-O-β-d-pyranglucuronatebutylester, 7,8-dimethoxy-2'-hydroxy-5-O-β-d-glucopyranosyloxyflavon, 14-deoxyandrographiside, and andrographolide were successfully isolated. Purities of these isolated compounds were all over 95% as determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Their structures were identified by UV, mass spectrometry, and (1) H NMR spectroscopy. It has been demonstrated that the combination of off-line two-dimensional high-speed counter-current chromatography with different elution modes is an efficient technique to isolate compounds from complex natural product extracts.

  1. Characterization of seventy polymethoxylated flavonoids (PMFs) in the leaves of Murraya paniculata by on-line high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to photodiode array detection and electrospray tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jia-Yu; Li, Ning; Che, Yan-Yun; Zhang, Yun; Liang, Shen-Xuan; Zhao, Ming-Bo; Jiang, Yong; Tu, Peng-Fei

    2011-12-15

    A sensitive HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS method was established to screen and identify the polymethoxylated flavonoids (PMFs) in the leaves of Murraya paniculata (L.) Jack. 16 PMF standards were first to be analyzed in positive mode by the CID-MS/MS. For polymethoxylated flavones, the fragments of [M+H-n×15](+) produced by loss of one or more methyl radicals from the protonated molecule, as well as [M+H-16](+), [M+H-28](+), [M+H-29](+), [M+H-31](+), [M+H-33](+), [M+H-43](+), [M+H-44](+), [M+H-46](+) and [M+H-61](+) fragment ions were detected, which could be taken as their diagnostic characters. For polymethoxylated flavanones and chalcones, their [M+H](+) ions usually underwent RDA cleavage fragmentation of the C-ring prior to the similar loss of diagnostic fragment ions as polymethoxylated flavones, which could be adopted as a shortcut to distinguish them from ordinary flavones rapidly. For the PMF glycosides, the neutral loss of the similar fragments with polymethoxylated flavones from their [aglycone+H](+) could be adopted as a simple method to screen them out from complex mixture. Based on these characterizations of PMFs and the results of EIC-MS/MS experiment, 70 PMFs including 45 flavones, 17 flavanones or chalcones and 8 PMFs glycosides were screened out from the complex extract of the leaves of M. paniculata. Among them, 16 compounds were unambiguously identified by comparison with reference substances. The results indicated that the developed analysis method could be employed as a rapid, effective technique for structural characterization of PMFs.

  2. Metabolomic comparative analysis of the phloem sap of curry leaf tree (Bergera koenegii), orange jasmine (Murraya paniculata), and Valencia sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) supports their differential responses to Huanglongbing.

    PubMed

    Killiny, Nabil

    2016-11-01

    Orange jasmine, Murraya paniculata and curry leaf tree, Bergera koenegii are alternative hosts for Diaphorina citri, the vector of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas), the pathogen of huanglongbing (HLB) in citrus. D. citri feeds on the phloem sap where CLas grows. It has been shown that orange jasmine was a better host than curry leaf tree to D. citri. In addition, CLas can infect orange jasmine but not curry leaf tree. Here, we compared the phloem sap composition of these 2 plants to the main host, Valencia sweet orange, Citrus sinensis. Phloem sap was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry after trimethylsilyl derivatization. Orange jasmine was the highest in proteinogenic, non-proteinogenic amino acids, organic acids, as well as total metabolites. Valencia was the highest in mono- and disaccharides, and sugar alcohols. Curry leaf tree was the lowest in most of the metabolites as well as total metabolites. Interestingly, malic acid was high in Valencia and orange jasmine but was not detected in the curry leaf. On the other hand, tartaric acid which can prevent the formation of malic acid in Krebs cycle was high in curry leaf. The nutrient inadequacy of the phloem sap in curry leaf tree, especially the amino acids could be the reason behind the longer life cycle and the low survival of D. citri and the limitation of CLas growth on this host. Information obtained from this study may help in cultivation of CLas and development of artificial diet for rearing of D. citri.

  3. Double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, pilot clinical trial of ImmunoGuard--a standardized fixed combination of Andrographis paniculata Nees, with Eleutherococcus senticosus Maxim, Schizandra chinensis Bail. and Glycyrrhiza glabra L. extracts in patients with Familial Mediterranean Fever.

    PubMed

    Amaryan, G; Astvatsatryan, V; Gabrielyan, E; Panossian, A; Panosyan, V; Wikman, G

    2003-05-01

    Double blind, randomized, placebo controlled pilot study of ImmunoGuard--a standardized fixed combination of Andrographis paniculata Nees., Eleutherococcus senticosus Maxim., Schizandra chinensis Bail., and Glycyrrhiza glabra L. special extracts standardized for the content of Andrographolide (4 mg/tablet), Eleuteroside E, Schisandrins and Glycyrrhizin, was carried out in two parallel groups of patients. The study was conducted in 24 (3-15 years of both genders) patients with Familial Mediterranean Fever (FMF), 14 were treated with tablets of series A (verum) and 10 patients received series B product (placebo). The study medication was taken three times of four tablets daily for 1 month. Daily dose of the andrographolide--48 mg. The primary outcome measures in physician's evaluation were related to duration, frequency and severity of attacks in FMF patients (attacks characteristics score). The patient's self-evaluation was based mainly on symptoms--abdominal, chest pains, temperature, arthritis, myalgia, erysipelas-like erythema. All of 3 features (duration, frequency, severity of attacks) showed significant improvement in the verum group as compared with the placebo. In both clinical and self evaluation the severity of attacks was found to show the most significant improvement in the verum group. Both the clinical and laboratory results of the present phase II (pilot) clinical study suggest that ImmunoGuard is a safe and efficacious herbal drug for the management of patients with FMF.

  4. Gastroprotective mechanisms of Citrus lemon (Rutaceae) essential oil and its majority compounds limonene and β-pinene: involvement of heat-shock protein-70, vasoactive intestinal peptide, glutathione, sulfhydryl compounds, nitric oxide and prostaglandin E₂.

    PubMed

    Rozza, Ariane Leite; Moraes, Thiago de Mello; Kushima, Hélio; Tanimoto, Alexandre; Marques, Márcia Ortiz Mayo; Bauab, Taís Maria; Hiruma-Lima, Clélia Akiko; Pellizzon, Cláudia Helena

    2011-01-15

    Citrus lemon (CL) belongs to Rutaceae family and is popularly known in Brazil as limão siciliano. The phytochemical analysis of CL fruit bark essential oil showed two majority components, limonene (LIM) and β-pinene (PIN). This study aimed to evaluate the gastroprotective mechanism of action from CL, LIM and PIN in ethanol- and indomethacin-induced gastric ulcers and its in vitro anti-Helicobacter pylori activity. After ethanol-induced gastric ulcer, the ulcer area was measured and the stomachs were destined to histology (HE and PAS), immunohistochemistry for HSP-70 and VIP and glutathione (GSH) measurement. The involvement of nitric oxide (NO) and sulfhydryl (SH) compounds was determined. The ulcer area for indomethacin-induced gastric ulcers was measured. PGE₂ concentration was biochemically measured. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against H. pylori was determined in vitro. In ethanol model, CL and LIM demonstrated 100% of gastroprotection, while PIN did not exert effective gastroprotection (53.26%). In the indomethacin model, CL and LIM offered effective gastroprotection but PIN did not show gastroprotective effect. The gastric ulcer area of rats pretreated with NO-synthase inhibitor or SH-blocker was decreased in comparison to the control group. The MIC obtained for CL was 125 μg/mL, for LIM was 75 μg/mL and for PIN was 500 μg/mL. The gastroprotective effect of CL and LIM was involved with increasing in mucus secretion, HSP-70 and VIP, but not with GSH, NO or SH compounds. CL gastroprotective mechanism is involved with PGE₂. PIN did not present gastroprotective activity.

  5. Furoquinoline alkaloids from the southern African Rutaceae Teclea natalensis.

    PubMed

    Tarus, Paul K; Coombes, Philip H; Crouch, Neil R; Mulholland, Dulcie A; Moodley, B

    2005-03-01

    The chloroform and ethyl acetate extracts of the leaves of Teclea natalensis have yielded two furoquinoline alkaloids, 6-[(2,3-epoxy-3-methylbutyl)oxy]-4,7-dimethoxyfuro[2,3-b]quinoline and 4,7-dimethoxy-6-[(3-methyl-2-butenyl)oxy]furo[2,3-b]quinoline, and the known alkaloids 4,7-dimethoxy-8-[(3-methyl-2-butenyl)oxy]furo[2,3-b]quinoline, flindersiamine and dictamnine.

  6. The effects of host, geographic origin, and gender on the thermal requirements of Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae).

    PubMed

    Nava, Dori E; Gomez-Torres, Mariuxi L; Rodrigues, Marjorie D; Bento, José M S; Haddad, Marinéia L; Parra, José R P

    2010-04-01

    Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) is the vector of the bacteria that causes citrus greening and is considered one of the world's most important citrus diseases. We examined how host, geographic region, and gender affect the thermal requirements of D. citri. The insects were reared in climatic chambers at constant temperatures of 18, 20, 22, 25, 28, 30, and 32 +/- 1 degrees C, 70 +/- 10% RH, and a 14 h photophase. Host plants for D. citri included orange (Citrus sinensis [Rutaceae]) varieties Pêra and Natal, the rootstock, Rungpur lime (C. limonia [Rutaceae]) and the natural host, Orange jessamine (Murraya paniculata [Rutaceae]). To study the influence of geographic origin on thermal requirements, we studied D. citri populations from Piracicaba, SP (warmer region) and Itapetininga, SP (cooler region). The duration and survival of the development stages and the duration of the total development (egg-adult) did not differ significantly on the different hosts, but it did vary with temperature. Nymphs of D. citri created on the different hosts have the same thermal requirements. The thermal requirements for this species collected from the two climate regions were identical; males and females also had the same thermal requirements.

  7. Study of the Local Horizon. (Spanish Title: Estudio del Horizonte Local.) Estudo do Horizonte Local

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ros, Rosa M.

    2009-12-01

    The study of the horizon is fundamental to easy the first observations of the students at any education center. A simple model, to be developed in each center, allows to easy the study and comprehension of the rudiments of astronomy. The constructed model is presented in turn as a simple equatorial clock, other models (horizontal and vertical) may be constructed starting from it. El estudio del horizonte es fundamental para poder facilitar las primeras observaciones de los alumnos en un centro educativo. Un simple modelo, que debe realizarse para cada centro, nos permite facilitar el estudio y la comprensión de los primeros rudimentos astronómicos. El modelo construido se presenta a su vez como un sencillo modelo de reloj ecuatorial y a partir de él se pueden construir otros modelos (horizontal y vertical). O estudo do horizonte é fundamental para facilitar as primeiras observações dos alunos num centro educativo. Um modelo simples, que deve ser feito para cada centro, permite facilitar o estudo e a compreensão dos primeiros rudimentos astronômicos. O modelo construído apresenta-se, por sua vez, como um modelo simples de relógio equatorial e a partir dele pode-se construir outros modelos (horizontal e vertical)

  8. Estudo comparativo entre estrelas centrais de nebulosas planetárias deficientes em hidrogênio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcolino, W. L. F.; de Araújo, F. X.

    2003-08-01

    Apresentamos neste trabalho o resultado de um estudo das principais características espectrais das estrelas centrais de nebulosas planetárias (ECNP) deficientes em hidrogênio. A origem e a evolução dessas estrelas ainda constitui um problema em aberto na evolução estelar. Geralmente esses objetos são divididos em [WCE], [WCL] e [WELS]. Os tipos [WCE] e [WCL] apresentam um espectro típico de uma estrela Wolf-Rayet carbonada de população I e as [WELS] apresentam linhas fracas de carbono e oxigênio em emissão. Existem evidências que apontam a seguinte sequência evolutiva : [WCL] = > [WCE] = > [WELS] = > PG 1159 (pré anã-branca). No entanto, tal cenário apresenta falhas como por exemplo a falta de ECNP entre os tipos [WCL] e [WCE]. Baseados em uma amostra de 24 objetos obtida no telescópio de 1.52m em La Silla, Chile (acordo ESO/ON), ao longo do ano 2000, apresentamos os resultados da comparação das larguras equivalentes de diversas linhas relevantes entre os tipos [WCL], [WCE] e [WELS]. Verificamos que nossos dados estão de acordo com a sequência evolutiva. Baseado nas linhas de C IV, conseguimos dividir pela primeira vez as [WELS] em dois grupos principais. Além disso, os dados reforçam a afirmação de que as [WCE] são as estrelas que possuem a maior temperatura entre as ECNP deficientes em hidrogênio. Discutimos ainda, a escassez de dados disponíveis na literatura e a necessidade da obtenção de parametros físicos para estes objetos.

  9. Estudo espectral em raios-X duros de fontes do tipo Z com o HEXTE/RXTE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Amico, F.; Heindl, W. A.; Rothschild, R. E.

    2003-08-01

    Apresentam-se os resultados de um estudo espectral em raios-X de fontes do tipo Z. As fontes do tipo Z são binárias de raios-X de baixa massa (BXBM) com campo magnético intermediário (B~109G). Esta classe de fontes é composta por apenas 6 fontes Galácticas (a saber: ScoX-1, 9, 7, CygX-2, 5 e 0). A nossa análise se concentra na faixa de raios-X duros (E ~ 20keV), até cerca de 200keV, faixa ótima de operação do telescópio "High Energy X-ray Timing Experiment" (HEXTE), um dos três telescópios de raios-X à bordo do Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE). Nossa motivação para tal estudo, uma busca de caudas em raios-X duros em fontes do tipo Z, foi o pouco conhecimento sobre a emissão nesta faixa de energia das referidas fontes quando comparadas, por exemplo, as fontes do tipo atoll (também BXBM). Apresentam-se a análise/redução de dados e explicita-se a maneira como o HEXTE mede o ru1do de fundo. Especial atenção é direcionada a este item devido a localização das fontes do tipo Z e também ao problema de contaminação por fontes próximas. Com exceção de ScoX-1, nenhuma cauda em raios-X duros foi encontrada para as outras fontes, a despeito de resultados de detecção dessas caudas em algumas fontes pelo satélite BeppoSAX. As interpretações deste resultado serão apresentadas. Do ponto de vista deste estudo, nós deduzimos que a produção de caudas de raios-X duros em fontes do tipo Z é um processo disparado quando, pelo menos, uma condição é satisfeita: o brilho da componente térmica do espectro precisa estar acima de um certo valor limiar de ~4´1036ergs-1.

  10. Studies on effects of indigenous plant extracts on filarial vector Culex tritaeniorhynchus Giles.

    PubMed

    Elango, G; Rahuman, A Abdul; Kamaraj, C; Zahir, A Abduz; Bagavan, A

    2010-06-01

    Mosquito control is facing a threat because of the emergence of resistance to synthetic insecticides. Insecticides of botanical origin may serve as suitable alternative biocontrol techniques in the future. The purpose of the present study was to assess the effect of leaf ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol extracts of Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa ex Roxb (Rutaceae), Andrographis lineata Wallich ex Nees. (Acanthaceae), Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Wall. ex Nees. (Acanthaceae), Cocculus hirsutus (L.) Diels (Menispermaceae), Eclipta prostrata L. (Asteraceae) and Tagetes erecta L. (Compositae) on ovicidal and oviposition-deterrent activities against Culex tritaeniorhynchus Giles (Diptera: Culicidae). The percentage of egg hatching in methanol extracts of Andrographis lineata, Cocculus hirsutus and T. erecta were 16, 12 and 16 exerted at 500 ppm, respectively. The percentage of effective oviposition repellency was 97.77 at 500 ppm and the lowest repellency was 42.06 at 31.25 ppm in methanol and acetone extracts of Andrographis lineata and Andrographis paniculata, respectively. The oviposition activity index values revealed that the solvent plant extracts have deterrent effect, and they caused a remarkable negative response resulting in oviposition of very few eggs. These results suggest that the leaf solvent plant extracts have the potential to be used as an ideal ecofriendly approach for the control of the Culex tritaeniorhynchus.

  11. Um estudo espectrofotométrico da variável cataclísmica V3885 Sgr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro, F. M. A.; Diaz, M. P.

    2003-08-01

    Variáveis Cataclísmicas são sistemas binários cerrados compostos de uma anã vermelha que transfere matéria para uma anã branca, em sistemas não magnéticos ocorre a formação de um disco de acresção em torno da anã branca. V3885 Sgr é uma variável cataclísmica classificada como sendo do tipo nova-like. É apresentado um estudo espectrofotométrico de V3885 Sgr de alta resolução temporal feito na região do visível. A região observada é centrada em Ha e abrange também a linha de HeI 6678. O primeiro resultado obtido neste estudo é a determinação do período orbital a partir de medidas da velocidade radial da linha de Ha como sendo 0,20716071(22) dias, resolvendo inconsistências quanto a esse valor na literatura e definindo uma efeméride a longo prazo para o sistema. Com este período e as medidas de velocidade radial do perfil de linha de Ha foi construído um diagrama de massas, através do qual restringimos as massas das componentes estelares do sistema e limitamos a inclinação orbital do sistema. Foram construídos diagramas de Greenstein para as linhas de Ha e HeI, onde os espectros médios em cada intervalo de fase são representados lado a lado em escala de cinza, indicando a existência de uma emissão intensa proveniente da parte posterior do disco. A partir da tomografia Doppler obtivemos perfis de emissividade radial para o disco tanto para a linha de Ha como para HeI. Os resultados obtidos são comparados com os de outros sistemas estudados com a mesma técnica. Serão apresentados também resultados da tomografia de flickering para o sistema.

  12. [Anthelmintic activity of aqueous extract of Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam. leaves (Rutaceae)].

    PubMed

    Peneluc, Taíse; Domingues, Luciana Ferreira; de Almeida, Gisele Nunes; Ayres, Maria Consuelo Caribé; Moreira, Eduardo Luiz Trindade; da Cruz, Ana Carla Ferreira; dos Santos Calmon de Bittencourt, Thereza Cristina Bório; de Almeida, Maria Angela Ornelas; Batatinha, Maria José Moreira

    2009-12-01

    The study evaluated the anthelmintic activity of aqueous extract of Zanthoxylum rhoifolium leaves in two experiments. In vitro test, cultures of goat fecal samples were treated with different concentrations of extract (134.5 to 335.0 mg.mL(-1)). In vivo test was composed of 20 sheep: G1: treated with 0.63 g.kg(-1), during four days; G2: same dose, for eight days; G3: ivermectin (200 microg.kg(-1)) and G4 untreated group. In vitro results showed a reduction of Haemonchus spp, Trichostrongylus spp. and Oesophagostomum spp. larvae greater than 95% in the concentrations between 335.0 and 193.7 mg.mL(-1). Faecal egg counting reduction was 51, 56 and 90% in G1, G2 and G3, respectively, while immature stages and adults ranged from 0 to 91% in G1 and from 26 to 94% in G2. Ivermectin effectiveness was 99% for L4 and L5 of H. contortus and 100% for other nematodes species. Clinical and biochemical parameters have remained in the normality and histophatologic analyses did not show alteration suggesting absence of toxicity. Although the great effectiveness of Z. rhoifolium leaves extract in vitro test, it displayed poor efficiency in vivo regarding gastrointestinal nematodes reduction.

  13. Fire effects on the population structure of Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam (Rutaceae) in a Brazilian savanna.

    PubMed

    Silva, I A; Valenti, M W; Silva-Matos, D M

    2009-08-01

    Since cerrado fires may impede the growth of seedlings into trees, they may shape the population of woody species. In this study, we assessed the effects of a severe fire on the population structure and spatial distribution of Zanthoxylum rhoifolium, a widespread cerrado tree. We were interested to know the importance of the resprouting and sexual reproduction in regenerating the population. The study area had been for about six years protected from fire, before a severe fire at the end of the dry season in 2006. We sampled and measured all individuals of Z. rhoifolium found in 80 plots of 25 m(2). We found 149 individuals before the fire and 112 after the fire, of which 77 were resprouts from burned seedlings and saplings. We did not find significant differences between the population structure before and after the fire. The spatial distribution of the population remained clumped after the fire. Thus, the Z. rhoifolium population was very resilient to a severe fire. We did not find any new seedlings. As a consequence, resprouting seems to be more important than sexual reproduction in promptly regenerating the Z. rhoifolium populations.

  14. Karyological studies in ten species of Citrus(Linnaeus, 1753) (Rutaceae) of North-East India.

    PubMed

    Hynniewta, Marlykynti; Malik, Surendra Kumar; Rao, Satyawada Rama

    2011-01-01

    Ten Citrus (Linnaeus, 1753) species of North-East India have been karyo-morphologically analysed. All studied species had 2n=18 chromosomes without any evidence of numerical variation. All the chromosomes were found to be of metacentric and sub-metacentric in all the species; the morphology of the chromosomes showing size difference only. Symmetrical karyotype which does not have much difference in the ratio of longest to shortest chromosome in all the species was observed. Three species, Citrus grandis (Osbeck, 1757), Citrus reticulata (Blanco, 1837) and Citrus medica (Linnaeus, 1753) are identified as true basic species from asymmetry studies of karyotypes as they reflect on the primitive nature of their genomes. Citrus indica (Tanaka, 1937)occupies a special taxonomic position within the genus Citrus as a progenitor for other cultivated species.

  15. Zanthoxylum caribaeum (Rutaceae) essential oil: chemical investigation and biological effects on Rhodnius prolixus nymph.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, J; Mourão, S C; Dolabela, I B; Santos, M G; Mello, C B; Kelecom, A; Mexas, R; Feder, D; Fernandes, C P; Gonzalez, M S; Rocha, L

    2014-11-01

    A chemical investigation and bioassays against fifth-instar nymphae of the hematophagous insect Rhodnius prolixus, vector of Chagas disease, were conducted with the essential oil from Zanthoxylum caribaeum. The main results may be summarized as follows: (i) 54 components were identified, corresponding to 90.4% of the relative composition; sesquiterpenes (47.3%) and monoterpenes (41.2%) are the major constituents; (ii) muurola-4,5-trans-diene and isodaucene are described for the first time as chemical constituents of the essential oil from leaves of this species; (iii) topical treatment with the crude essential oil induced high levels of paralysis (from 18.88 to 33.33%) and mortality (from 80 to 98.9%) depending on the dose applied (0.5 to 5.0 μl per insect); (iv) feeding treatment with the crude essential oil also induced high levels of mortality (from 48.8 to 100%) but low levels of paralysis (from 2.22 to 7.77%) depending on the dose applied (0.5 to 5.0 μl/ml of blood); (v) in the continuous treatment, only the dose of 5.0 μl/cm(2) was able to promote statistical significant levels of mortality (63.3%) but no paralysis were detected. However in this group, occasionally, only few insects displayed malformations of legs and wings after treatment; and (vi) any treatment was able to disrupt the metamorphosis process since the low adult stage emergence observed to all groups was due the high insect mortality. These observations suggest the interference of Z. caribaeum compounds on the triatomine neuroendocrine system. The significance of these results in relation to the relevant biological events in R. prolixus as well as the possible use of insect growth regulators present in Z. caribaeum oil in integrated vector control programs against hematophagous triatomine species is herein discussed.

  16. Antifungal activity of Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa (Rutaceae) leaf extract on dermatophytes

    PubMed Central

    Balakumar, S; Rajan, S; Thirunalasundari, T; Jeeva, S

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the in vitro antifungal activity of Aegle marmelos leaf extracts and fractions on the clinical isolates of dermatophytic fungi like Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton rubrum, Microsporum canis, Microsporum gypseum and Epidermophyton floccosum. Methods The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) of various extracts and fractions of the leaves of Aegle marmelos were measured using method of National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS). Results Aegle marmelos leaf extracts and fractions were found to have fungicidal activity against various clinical isolates of dermatophytic fungi. The MIC and MFC was found to be high in water and ethyl alcohol extracts and methanol fractions (200µg/mL) against dermatophytic fungi studied. Conclusions Aegle marmelos leaf extracts significantly inhibites the growth of all dermatophytic fungi studied. If this activity is confirmed by in vivo studies and if the compound is isolated and identified, it could be a remedy for dermatophytosis. PMID:23569781

  17. [Educational status and patterns of weight gain in adulthood in Brazil: Estudo Pró-Saúde].

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Maria de Jesus Mendes da; França, Rosana de Figueiredo; Faerstein, Eduardo; Werneck, Guilherme Loureiro; Chor, Dóra

    2012-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between participant and parental educational status (considered as an indicator of socioeconomic status) and participant pattern of weight gain in adulthood. We analyzed data from 2 582 baseline participants (1999) of Estudo Pró-Saúde (Pro-Health Study), a longitudinal investigation of civil servants from a public university in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Self-administered questionnaires were used to identify patterns of weight gain in adulthood. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were estimated for the association between parental and participant educational status and steady weight gain or weight cycling, with stable weight as a reference, using multinomial logistic regression models. For males, lower paternal educational level entailed a chance about 55% lower of weight cycling as compared to stable weight (OR = 0.45; IC95% = 0.26-0.78), whereas lower maternal schooling was related to increased risk of weight cycling, although without reaching statistical significance (OR = 1.68; IC95% = 0.94-3.00). The association between participant educational status and weight history was not statistically significant among men. In women, lower educational status entailed a chance 94% higher of self-reported weight cycling (OR = 1.94; 95% CI = 1.17-3.23), and there was no association between parental educational level and history of weight gain. In this study, changes in weight throughout life, both steady and cyclic, were associated with parental and participant educational status, with major differences between genders.

  18. AP-1/IRF-3 Targeted Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Andrographolide Isolated from Andrographis paniculata

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Ting; Yang, Woo Seok; Sung, Gi-Ho; Rhee, Man Hee; Poo, Haryoung; Kim, Mi-Yeon; Kim, Kyung-Woon; Kim, Jong Heon; Cho, Jae Youl

    2013-01-01

    Andrographolide (AG) is an abundant component of plants of the genus Andrographis and has a number of beneficial properties including neuroprotective, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and antidiabetic effects. Despite numerous pharmacological studies, the precise mechanism of AG is still ambiguous. Thus, in the present study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms of AG and its target proteins as they pertain to anti-inflammatory responses. AG suppressed the production of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), as well as the mRNA abundance of inducible NO synthase (iNOS), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, and interferon-beta (IFN-β) in a dose-dependent manner in both lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) activated RAW264.7 cells and peritoneal macrophages. AG also substantially ameliorated the symptoms of LPS-induced hepatitis and EtOH/HCl-induced gastritis in mice. Based on the results of luciferase reporter gene assays, kinase assays, and measurement of nuclear levels of transcription factors, the anti-inflammatory effects of AG were found to be clearly mediated by inhibition of both (1) extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)/activator protein (AP)-1 and (2) IκB kinase ε (IKKε)/interferon regulatory factor (IRF)-3 pathways. In conclusion, we detected a novel molecular signaling pathway by which AG can suppress inflammatory responses. Thus, AG is a promising anti-inflammatory drug with two pharmacological targets. PMID:23840248

  19. Low incidence of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus in Diaphorina citri and its host plant Murraya paniculata

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Huanglongbing (HLB) is one of the most devastating diseases of citrus worldwide. Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus is the prevalent species of three HLB-associated Liberibacter species, which is vectored by the psyllid Diaphorina citri. The vector and the bacteria have host plants outside Citrus, ...

  20. First Report of Dodder Transmission of Huanglongbing from Naturally Infected Murraya paniculata to Citrus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Huanglongbing (HLB) or “greening” disease of citrus is caused by phloem-limited, uncultured bacteria in the genus “Candidatus Liberibacter”. HLB is one of the most destructive diseases of citrus worldwide and is considered so dangerous to a U.S. citrus production that the USDA has listed “Ca. Liberi...

  1. Estudo e aplicação do código de desembaraçamento espectral - Korel - em sistemas triplos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, K. B. V.; Vaz, L. P. R.

    2003-08-01

    O código KOREL é uma ferramenta adicional eficiente para a determinação simultânea de parâmetros orbitais espectroscópicos para o desembaraço de espectros individuais de sistemas estelares com até cinco componentes. Estudos já realizados (Torres,KBV,2002, Dissertação de Mestrado DF-ICEx-UFMG) mostram as limitações, aplicabilidade e eficiência do código para sistemas com duas componentes. Apresentamos, neste trabalho, a continuação dos estudos para sistemas com três componentes (sistemas hierárquicos), utilizando espectros sintéticos "gabaritos" de estrelas individuais em órbitas cujos parâmetros são conhecidos "a priori". Geramos os espectros compostos e verificamos como o código reproduz os parâmetros orbitais e espectros individuais em diversas situações físicas. É apresentado, ainda, uma discussão da aplicabilidade do código em sistemas reais como RV Crateris (Machado,ACM,1997, Dissertação de Mestrado DF-ICEx-UFMG), um sistema triplo cujas componentes eclipsantes estão, provavelmente, ainda na fase pré-sequência principal.

  2. A New Species of Haplophyllum A. Juss. (Rutaceae) from the Iberian Peninsula: Evidence from Morphological, Karyological and Molecular Analyses

    PubMed Central

    NAVARRO, F. B.; SUÁREZ-SANTIAGO, V. N.; BLANCA, G.

    2004-01-01

    • Background and Aims The discovery of a new species, Haplophyllum bastetanum F.B. Navarro, V.N. Suárez-Santiago & Blanca sp. nov., in the south-east of Spain has prompted the comparative study of species of the Iberian Peninsula, and others related, through morphological, cytogenetic, molecular, distributional and ecological characterization. • Methods The morphological study involved a quantitative analysis of the species present in the Iberian Peninsula and a comparative analysis of the morphological characteristics between H. bastetanum and other related species. Mitotic analyses were made with root meristems taken from germinating seeds. Phylogenetic analyses of the internal transcribed spacer sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA were performed using neighbour-joining (NJ) and maximum-parsimony methods. • Key Results Haplophyllum bastetanum is a diploid species (2n = 18) distinguished primarily for its non-trifoliate glabrous leaves, lanceolate sepals, dark-green petals with a dorsal band of hairs, and a highly hairy ovary with round-apex locules. The other two Iberian species (H. linifolium and H. rosmarinifolium) are tetraploid (2n = 36) and have yellow petals. Both phylogenetic methods generated a well-supported clade grouping H. linifolium with H. rosmarinifolium. In the NJ tree, the H. linifolium–H. rosmarinifolium clade is a sister group to H. bastetanum, while in the parsimony analysis this occurred only when the gaps were coded as a fifth base and the characters were reweighted according to the rescaled consistency index. This latter group is supported by the sequence divergence among taxa. • Conclusions The phylogenies established from DNA sequences together with morphological and cytogenetic analyses support the separation of H. bastetanum as a new species. The results suggest that the change in the number of chromosomes may be the key mechanism of speciation of the genus Haplophyllum in the Iberian Peninsula. An evolutionary scheme for them is propounded. PMID:15306560

  3. Effect of Clausena excavata Burm. f. (Rutaceae) leaf extract on wound healing and antioxidant activity in rats.

    PubMed

    Albaayit, Shaymaa Fadhel Abbas; Abba, Yusuf; Rasedee, Abdullah; Abdullah, Noorlidah

    2015-01-01

    Clausena excavata is a well-known plant used in folkloric medicine for the treatment of different ailments. This study aimed to determine the in vitro cytoxicity of its leaf solvent extracts as well as the in vivo wound healing and antioxidant activities of the methanolic extracts of C. excavata (MECE). HaCaT (keratocyte) and Vero cell lines were used for evaluation of the in vitro cytotoxic effects, while the in vivo wound healing and antioxidant activities were determined in skin wounds inflicted on rats. Twenty adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into five groups of four animals each. Approximately 3.14 cm(2) excisional wound was inflicted on the nape of each rat following anesthesia. The treatment groups received topical application of MECE at 50 mg/mL (MECE-LD [low dose]), 100 mg/mL (MECE-MD [medium dose]), and 200 mg/mL (MECE-HD [high dose]), while the negative control group was treated with gum acacia in normal saline and the positive control group with intrasite gel. Wound contraction was evaluated on days 5, 10, and 15 after wound infliction, and tissue from wound area was collected at day 15 post-wound infliction for antioxidant enzyme evaluation and histopathological analyses. Generally, Vero cells were more resistant to the cytotoxic effects of the solvent extracts as compared with HaCaT cells. Chloroform (CH) and ethyl acetate (EA) extracts of C. excavata were toxic to HaCaT cells at 200 and 400 µg/mL, but the same concentrations showed higher (P<0.05) viability in Vero cells. There was significantly (P<0.01) greater wound contraction at days 10 and 15 post-wound infliction in all the treatment groups than in the control groups. Histopathologically, the MECE-HD-treated wound showed significantly (P<0.05) lesser inflammatory cell proliferation, degeneration, and distribution of granulation tissue than other groups. Similarly, the degree of collagen maturation, angiogenesis, and collagen distribution were significantly (P<0.05) lower in MECE-HD than in other groups. The MECE-HD, MECE-MD, and intrasite treatment groups showed a significantly (P<0.05) higher number of VEGF-positive and TGF-β1-positive cells in the skin wound than the control groups. The activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase were significantly (P<0.01) higher in the MECE-HD and intrasite treatment groups than in the other groups. Lipid peroxidase activity of the treated groups was significantly (P<0.01) lower than that in the control group. The study showed that MECE is a potent wound healing agent through anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects that enhanced the rate of wound contraction, re-epithelialization, and collagen deposition. The effect of MECE is suggested to be due to its high polyphenolic compound content.

  4. Effects of grapefruit (Citrus paradisi MACF) (Rutaceae) peel oil against developmental stages of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Ivoke, Njoku; Ogbonna, Priscilla C; Ekeh, Felicia N; Ezenwaji, Ngozi E; Atama, Chinedu I; Ejere, Vincent C; Onoja, Uwakwe S; Eyo, Joseph E

    2013-11-01

    Laboratory bioassay of the essential oil extracted from the grapefruit (Citrus paradisi) peel by steam distillation was carried out against the developmental stages of the yellow fever vector Aedes aegypti to evaluate its toxicity, and ovicidal and larvicidal potency. Volatile oil components isolated and characterized by coupled gas chromatography/mass spectrometry included varying levels of monoterpene aldehydes, alcohols, and esters. Test results of the essential oil showed that egg hatching was completely inhibited at 400 ppm, while further development of 1st to 2nd larval stage was inhibited at 100 ppm. Regression analysis results also indicated that the peel essential oil significantly (p<0.01) reduced the viability of the test eggs and inhibited the development of 1st larval stage to 2nd larval instar. The LC50 and LC90 values obtained for 2nd instars (180.460, 334.629 ppm, respectively); and for 4th instars (210.937, 349.489 ppm, respectively) after 24-hour exposure were time but not dose dependent, as each LC value was a product of an inverse relationship between the oil concentration and exposure time. The results indicated that the peel oil could be a potent persistent larvicide.

  5. Leaf-disc grafting for the transmission of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus in citrus (Citrus sinensis; Rutaceae) seedlings1

    PubMed Central

    Tabay Zambon, Flavia; Plant, Karen; Etxeberria, Ed

    2017-01-01

    Premise of the study: The search for resistance/tolerance to the devastating citrus huanglongbing disease (syn. HLB or citrus greening) is generating an increasing number of new plants of diverse genetic makeup. As the increasing number of new plants require more space, resources, and time, the need for faster and more efficient HLB screening tests becomes crucial. Methods and Results: The leaf-disc grafting system described here consists in replacing a disc of leaf tissue with a similar disc from an infected plant. This can be performed in young seedlings not yet big enough to endure other types of grafting. Graft success and infection rates average approximately 80%. Conclusions: We describe the successful adaptation of leaf-disc grafting as a powerful screening tool for HLB. The system requires minimal plant material and can be performed in seedlings at a very young age with increased efficiency in terms of time, space, and resources. PMID:28090406

  6. Effect of Clausena excavata Burm. f. (Rutaceae) leaf extract on wound healing and antioxidant activity in rats

    PubMed Central

    Albaayit, Shaymaa Fadhel Abbas; Abba, Yusuf; Rasedee, Abdullah; Abdullah, Noorlidah

    2015-01-01

    Clausena excavata is a well-known plant used in folkloric medicine for the treatment of different ailments. This study aimed to determine the in vitro cytoxicity of its leaf solvent extracts as well as the in vivo wound healing and antioxidant activities of the methanolic extracts of C. excavata (MECE). HaCaT (keratocyte) and Vero cell lines were used for evaluation of the in vitro cytotoxic effects, while the in vivo wound healing and antioxidant activities were determined in skin wounds inflicted on rats. Twenty adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into five groups of four animals each. Approximately 3.14 cm2 excisional wound was inflicted on the nape of each rat following anesthesia. The treatment groups received topical application of MECE at 50 mg/mL (MECE-LD [low dose]), 100 mg/mL (MECE-MD [medium dose]), and 200 mg/mL (MECE-HD [high dose]), while the negative control group was treated with gum acacia in normal saline and the positive control group with intrasite gel. Wound contraction was evaluated on days 5, 10, and 15 after wound infliction, and tissue from wound area was collected at day 15 post-wound infliction for antioxidant enzyme evaluation and histopathological analyses. Generally, Vero cells were more resistant to the cytotoxic effects of the solvent extracts as compared with HaCaT cells. Chloroform (CH) and ethyl acetate (EA) extracts of C. excavata were toxic to HaCaT cells at 200 and 400 µg/mL, but the same concentrations showed higher (P<0.05) viability in Vero cells. There was significantly (P<0.01) greater wound contraction at days 10 and 15 post-wound infliction in all the treatment groups than in the control groups. Histopathologically, the MECE-HD-treated wound showed significantly (P<0.05) lesser inflammatory cell proliferation, degeneration, and distribution of granulation tissue than other groups. Similarly, the degree of collagen maturation, angiogenesis, and collagen distribution were significantly (P<0.05) lower in MECE-HD than in other groups. The MECE-HD, MECE-MD, and intrasite treatment groups showed a significantly (P<0.05) higher number of VEGF-positive and TGF-β1-positive cells in the skin wound than the control groups. The activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase were significantly (P<0.01) higher in the MECE-HD and intrasite treatment groups than in the other groups. Lipid peroxidase activity of the treated groups was significantly (P<0.01) lower than that in the control group. The study showed that MECE is a potent wound healing agent through anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects that enhanced the rate of wound contraction, re-epithelialization, and collagen deposition. The effect of MECE is suggested to be due to its high polyphenolic compound content. PMID:26203223

  7. Effects of atmosphere CO[sub 2] enrichment on regrowth of sour orange trees (Citrus aurantium; rutaceae) after coppicing

    SciTech Connect

    Idso, S.B.; Kimball, B.A. )

    1994-07-01

    Sixteen sour orange tree (Citrus aurantium L.) seedlings were grown out-of-doors at Phoenix, Arizona, in eight clear-plastic-wall open-top enclosures maintained at four different atmospheric CO[sub 2] concentrations for a period of 2 years. Over the last year of this period, the trees were coppiced five times. The amount of dry matter harvested at each of these cuttings was a linear function of the atmospheric CO[sub 2] concentration to which the trees were exposed. For a 75% increase in atmospheric CO[sub 2] from 400 to 700 microliter per liter ([mu]L liter[sup [minus]1]), total aboveground biomass rose, in the mean, by a factor of 3.19; while for a 400 to 800 [mu]L liter[sup [minus]1] doubling of the air's CO[sub 2] content, it rose by a factor of 3.92. The relative summer (mean air temperature of 32.8 C) response to CO[sub 2] was about 20% greater than the relative winter (mean air temperature of 16.4 C) response. 27 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  8. In vitro acaricidal activity of Murraya koenigii (L.) Spreng (Rutaceae) extracts against synthetic pyrethroid-resistant Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus.

    PubMed

    Singh, Nirbhay Kumar; Jyoti; Vemu, Bhaskar; Singh, Harkirat; Prerna, Mranalini; Daundkar, Prashant S; Sharma, S K; Dumka, V K

    2015-04-01

    Larval packet test was used for detection of resistance status against cypermethrin and deltamethrin, the most commonly used synthetic pyrethroids in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus collected from Faridkot district, Punjab (India). The slope of mortality, lethal concentration for 50 % (LC50) and resistance levels were determined from the regression graphs of probit mortality of ticks plotted against log values of increasing concentrations of cypermethrin and deltamethrin. Results indicated presence of resistance of levels I and II against cypermethrin (resistance factor (RF) = 2.82) and deltamethrin (RF = 8.44), respectively. Adult immersion test was used to assess the acaricidal activity of aqueous (MLAq), ethanol (MLE), chloroform (MLC), acetone (MLA) and hexane (MLH) extracts of leaves of Murraya koenigii against these synthetic pyrethroid (SP)-resistant engorged adult females of R. (B.) microplus by determination of per cent adult mortality, reproductive index (RI), per cent inhibition of oviposition (%IO) and hatching rate. The per cent mortality caused by various extracts at concentrations ranging from 0.625 to 10.0% varied from 0.0 to 100.0% with maximum per cent mortality of 10.0, 100.0, 70.0, 40.0 and 10.0 recorded against MLAq, MLE, MLC, MLA and MLH, respectively. Among all extracts, the highest acaricidal property against SP-resistant R. (B.) microplus was exhibited by the MLE as it showed the minimum LC50 [95% confidence limit (CL)] values of 2.97% (2.82-3.12%), followed by MLC as 10.26% (8.84-11.91 %) and MLA as 18.22% (16.18-20.52%). The average egg mass weight recorded in live ticks treated with various concentrations of different extracts was lower than the respective control group ticks and was significantly (p < 0.01) lower in ticks treated with MLH extract. However, no significant effect on hatchability of eggs of treated groups when compared to control was recorded. A significant (p < 0.05) decrease in the RI was recorded in MLH extract-treated ticks, and the %IO varied from 0.07 to 34.73% with various extracts and was recorded maximum with highest concentration of MLH. The results of the current study indicate that the extracts of M. koenigii can be used for control of SP-resistant ticks.

  9. Isolation of secondary metabolites from Hortia oreadica (Rutaceae) leaves through high-speed counter-current chromatography.

    PubMed

    Severino, Vanessa Gisele Pasqualotto; Cazal, Cristiane de Melo; Forim, Moacir Rossi; da Silva, Maria Fátima das Graças Fernandes; Rodrigues-Filho, Edson; Fernandes, João Batista; Vieira, Paulo Cezar

    2009-05-08

    High-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) with a two-phase solvent system (hexane-ethanol-acetonitrile-water 10:8:1:1, v/v) was applied to examine the leaves of Hortia oreadica, which afforded the known limonoid guyanin (1), the alkaloids rutaecarpin (2) and dictamnine (6), the dihydrocinnamic acid derivatives methyl 5,7-dimethoxy-2,2-dimethyl-2H-1-benzopyran-6-propanoate (3), 5,8-dimethoxy-2,2-dimethyl-2H-1-benzopyran-6-propanoic acid (4), together with the new E-3,4-dimethoxy-alpha(3-hydroxy-4-carbomethoxyphenyl)cinnamic acid (5). The recovery of compounds 1-6 was determined by comparison with LC-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization MS/MS data: 66.2%, 93.1%, 102.5%, 101.2%, 99.0% and 84.9%, respectively. Compound 3 showed IC(50) of 23.6microM against Plasmodium falciparum and 15.6microM against Trypanosoma brucei rhodesienses and was not toxic to KB cells (IC(50)>100microM).

  10. Determination of the antibacterial activity of crude extracts and compounds isolated from Hortia oreadica (Rutaceae) against oral pathogens.

    PubMed

    Severino, Vanessa Gisele Pasqualotto; da Silva, Maria Fátima das Graças Fernandes; Lucarini, Rodrigo; Montanari, Lilian Bueno; Cunha, Wilson Roberto; Vinholis, Adriana Helena Chicharo; Martins, Carlos Henrique Gomes

    2009-07-01

    Extracts from Hortia oreadica afforded four dihydrocinnamic acid derivatives, isolated from the n-hexane extract, as well as limonoid guyanin and the furoquinoline alkaloid dictamnine, both isolated from the dichloromethane extract. The extracts and the isolated compounds were tested against some oral pathogens, so as to investigate their antibacterial activity. The results showed that the n-hexane extract and the compound dictamnine are the most active against the selected microorganisms.

  11. Gastric Ulcers in Middle-Aged Rats: The Healing Effect of Essential Oil from Citrus aurantium L. (Rutaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Polo, C. M.; Moraes, T. M.; Pellizzon, C. H.; Marques, M. O.; Rocha, L. R. M.; Hiruma-Lima, C. A.

    2012-01-01

    The elderly population has experienced increased life expectancy as well as the increased incidence of gastric ulcers. The peels of fruits from Citrus aurantium L., popularly known in Brazil as orange bitter, are commonly used asatea form for the treatment of gastrointestinal tract disorders, such as ulcer and gastritis. We evaluated the healing effects of essential oil from the peels of Citrus aurantium fruits (OEC) on gastric ulcers in middle-aged rats. We examined the effects of a 14-day chronic OEC treatment on gastric mucosa in middle-aged male Wistar rats that were given acetic-acid-induced gastric lesions by morphometric and immunohistological analyses. Oral OEC treatment significantly reduced the lesion area (76%) within the gastric mucosa and significantly increased (P < .05) the height of regenerated mucosa (59%) when compared to the negative control group. Immunohistochemical analysis of the molecular markers such as COX-2, HSP-70, VEGF, and PCNA in the gastric mucosa confirmed that OEC treatment induced healing effects by increasing the number of new blood vessels and by augmenting gastric mucus in the mucosa glands. These results suggest that the oil from Citrus aurantium effectively heals gastric ulcers in middle-aged animals; however, safe use of OEC demands special care and precautions. PMID:23243451

  12. [Four new compounds from the non-polar extract of the plant Amyris brenesii (Rutaceae) from Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    Chavarría, Max; Castro, Victor; Poveda, Luis; Renato, Murillo

    2008-09-01

    Fractionation of a non polar extract of the aerial parts of Amyris brenesii collected in Rio Cuarto, Grecia, Costa Rica has resulted in the isolation of four new compounds, 6-hidroxy-6-O-(3-hidroxymethyl-3-methylalyl)-angelicin 1, 6-(N-acetyl-2-etanamin)-2,2-dimethyl-2H-cromen 2, the lignan 2,5-dehidrohinokinin 3 and N-acetyl-O-(geranyl)-tiramine 4. In addition, we isolated six previously known compounds: the lignans hinokinin 5 and Justicidin E 6, the coumarins scopoletin 7 and marmesin 8, 24-moretenoic acid 9, and the nitrogen compound O-(3,3-dimethylalyl)-halfordinol 10. All the separations were done with chromatographic techniques and the structures were elucidated by using 1D and 2D NMR techniques.

  13. Biting Deterrence, Repellency, and Larvicidal Activity of Ruta chalepensis (Sapindales: Rutaceae) Essential Oil and Its Major Individual Constituents Against Mosquitoes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    and for “spiritual cleansings” (GonzalezÐTrujano et al. 2006). Phytochemical research on R. chalepensis has revealed the presence of alkaloids ...acridone alkaloids . Nat. Prod. Rep. 22: 627Ð646. Ntalli, N. G., F. Ferrari, I. Giannakou, and U. Menkissoglu– Spiroudi. 2011. Synergistic

  14. Citrus (Rutaceae) SNP markers based on Competitive Allele-Specific PCR; transferability across the Aurantioideae subfamily1

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Lor, Andres; Ancillo, Gema; Navarro, Luis; Ollitrault, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    • Premise of the study: Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers based on Competitive Allele-Specific PCR (KASPar) were developed from sequences of three Citrus species. Their transferability was tested in 63 Citrus genotypes and 19 relative genera of the subfamily Aurantioideae to estimate the potential of SNP markers, selected from a limited intrageneric discovery panel, for ongoing broader diversity analysis at the intra- and intergeneric levels and systematic germplasm bank characterization. • Methods and Results: Forty-two SNP markers were developed using KASPar technology. Forty-one were successfully genotyped in all of the Citrus germplasm, where intra- and interspecific polymorphisms were observed. The transferability and diversity decreased with increasing taxonomic distance. • Conclusions: SNP markers based on the KASPar method developed from sequence data of a limited intrageneric discovery panel provide a valuable molecular resource for genetic diversity analysis of germplasm within a genus and should be useful for germplasm fingerprinting at a much broader diversity level. PMID:25202535

  15. Biological activity of Ruta chalepensis (Rutaceae) and Sechium pittieri (Cucurbitaceae) extracts on Hypsipyla grandella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) larvae.

    PubMed

    Mancebo, F; Hilje, L; Mora, G A; Castro, V H; Salazar, R

    2001-06-01

    Biological activity of a plant extract (common rue, Ruta chalepensis) and a semi purified fraction (from "tacaco cimarrón", Sechium pittieri) on mahogany shootborer larvae (Hypsipyla grandella) was studied. A randomized complete block design, with four replications, was used. H. grandella third instar larvae were exposed for 24 h to Cedrela odorata leaf discs dipped in several treatment dissolutions of each extract (0.1, 0.32, 1.0, 3.20, and 10%); afterwards, each larva was transferred to a flask containing an artificial diet and was allowed to complete its development. Variables measured included food consumption (foliar area eaten in 24 h), mortality, and developmental effects (developmental time for each larval instar and the pupa, and pupal weight). The common rue extract showed a clear antifeedant activity at a concentration as low as 0.32%, whereas the "tacaco cimarrón" fraction caused toxicity, especially at the two highest concentrations (3.20 and 10%).

  16. [Phagodeterrence by a crude extract of common rue (Ruta chalepensis, Rutaceae) and its partitions on Hypsipyla grandella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) larvae].

    PubMed

    Barboza, Javier; Hilje, Luko; Durón, Julio; Cartín, Víctor; Calvo, Marco

    2010-03-01

    Hypsipyla grandella (Zeller) larva is maybe the main forest pest in Latin America and the Caribbean, as it bores into the main shoot of trees providing precious woods, such as mahoganies (Swietenia spp.) and cedars (Cedrela spp.). In the search for a preventative method for managing it, the crude leaf extract of common rue (Ruta chalepensis L.), as well as four partitions thereof (water, hexane, dichlorometane, and ethyl acetate), were tested for phagodeterrence. Laboratory bioassays involved increasing concentrations of the crude extract (0.1, 0.32, 1.0, 3.20 and 10.0%w/v) as well as each one of the partitions (in accordance to the yield obtained from the partitioning process), plus rutin, a flavone glycosid. A randomized complete block design, with four replicates, was used. H. grandella instar III larvae were exposed for 24 h to cedar (Cedrela odorata) leaf discs dipped into the respective treatment, after which disc consumption was measured. Strong phagodeterrence was detected at concentrations as low as 0.32 and 0.074%w/v for the crude extract and the hexane partitions, respectively; the ethyl acetate (0.24%w/v) and the water partition (for all of its concentrations), as well as the rutin (starting at 0.064%w/v), caused phagodeterrence, too. Moreover, the crude extract was submitted to a phytochemical screening by means of a number of qualitative tests, to determine possible metabolites causing phagodeterrence, the most important being alkaloids, triterpenes, coumarins and rutin. A particular phytochemical screening was carried out for the hexane partition, which was the most active.

  17. Mexican fruit fly (Diptera: tephritidae) and the phenology of its native host plant, Yellow Chapote (Rutaceae) in Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In northeastern Mexico, the Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Loew), breeds on its native host, yellow chapote, Casimiroa greggii (Wats.), which typically produces fruit in the spring. Peak populations of the fly occur in late spring or early summer when adults emerge from the generation of lar...

  18. Spathelia belizensis, a new species and first record for the genus in Central America (tribe Spathelieae, Rutaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Acevedo-Rodríguez, Pedro; Brewer, Steven W.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Spathelia L. as currently circumscribed is endemic to the western portion of the West Indies, and contains nine species, one endemic to the Bahamas, three endemic to Jamaica and five endemic to Cuba. The discovery of a new species in Belize brings the total number of species in Spathelia to ten and expands its known distribution beyond the West Indies. Spathelia belizensis sp. nov. is herein described, illustrated and contrasted to its most morphologically similar congener. A key to the species of Spathelia is provided. PMID:28127250

  19. Spathelia belizensis, a new species and first record for the genus in Central America (tribe Spathelieae, Rutaceae).

    PubMed

    Acevedo-Rodríguez, Pedro; Brewer, Steven W

    2016-01-01

    Spathelia L. as currently circumscribed is endemic to the western portion of the West Indies, and contains nine species, one endemic to the Bahamas, three endemic to Jamaica and five endemic to Cuba. The discovery of a new species in Belize brings the total number of species in Spathelia to ten and expands its known distribution beyond the West Indies. Spathelia belizensissp. nov. is herein described, illustrated and contrasted to its most morphologically similar congener. A key to the species of Spathelia is provided.

  20. Adulticidal properties of synthesized silver nanoparticles using leaf extracts of Feronia elephantum (Rutaceae) against filariasis, malaria, and dengue vector mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Veerakumar, Kaliyan; Govindarajan, Marimuthu

    2014-11-01

    Mosquito-borne diseases with an economic impact create loss in commercial and labor outputs, particularly in countries with tropical and subtropical climates. Mosquito control is facing a threat because of the emergence of resistance to synthetic insecticides. Extracts from plants may be alternative sources of mosquito control agents because they constitute a rich source of bioactive compounds that are biodegradable into nontoxic products and potentially suitable for use to control mosquitoes. Insecticides of botanical origin may serve as suitable alternative biocontrol techniques in the future. In view of the recently increased interest in developing plant origin insecticides as an alternative to chemical insecticide, in the present study, the adulticidal activity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) synthesized using Feronia elephantum plant leaf extract against adults of Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus was determined. The range of concentrations of synthesized AgNPs (8, 16, 24, 32, and 40 μg mL(-1)) and aqueous leaf extract (40, 80, 120, 160, and 200 μg mL(-1)) were tested against the adults of A. stephensi, A. aegypti, and C. quinquefasciatus. Adults were exposed to varying concentrations of aqueous crude extract and synthesized AgNPs for 24 h. Considerable mortality was evident after the treatment of F. elephantum for all three important vector mosquitoes. The synthesized AgNPs from F. elephantum were highly toxic than crude leaf aqueous extract to three important vector mosquito species. The results were recorded from UV-visible spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis (EDX), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Synthesized AgNPs against the vector mosquitoes A. stephensi, A. aegypti, and C. quinquefasciatus had the following lethal dose (LD)₅₀ and LD₉₀ values: A. stephensi had LD₅₀ and LD₉₀ values of 18.041 and 32.575 μg mL(-1); A. aegypti had LD₅₀ and LD₉₀ values of 20.399 and 37.534 μg mL(-1); and C. quinquefasciatus had LD₅₀ and LD₉₀ values of 21.798 and 39.596 μg mL(-1). No mortality was observed in the control. These results suggest that the leaf aqueous extracts of F. elephantum and green synthesis of AgNPs have the potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of the A. stephensi, A. aegypti, and C. quinquefasciatus. This is the first report on the adulticidal activity of the plant extracts and AgNPs.

  1. Murraya paniculata (orange jasmine), a host and possible inoculum reservoir for Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus, causal agent of Huanglongbing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Huanglongbing (HLB), considered the most serious vectored-pathogen of citrus, is transmitted in nature by the Asian citrus psyllid Diaphorina citri and the African citrus psyllid Trioza erytreae. In 1999, D. citri was discovered in southern Florida and has become established in FL and TX. Huanglon...

  2. [Studies on anti-implantation and hormone activity of yuehchukene, an alkaloid isolated from the root of Murraya paniculata].

    PubMed

    Wang, N G; Guan, M Z; Lei, H P

    1990-01-01

    Oral or subcutaneous administration of yuehchukene to female mice at the dosage of 2 or 4 mg/kg.d on day 1-3 of gestation resulted in 100% anti-implantation effect. However, yuehchukene at 4 mg/kg.d was found to have no anti-implantation effect in hamsters. Allen-Doisy test showed that yuehchukene had obvious estrogenic activity. Treatment of immature mice with yuehchukene at the dosage of 2 or 4 mg/kg.d for 3 days caused an increase of uterine weight. Combined use of yuehchukene with estradiol was shown to have synergistic effect on promoting uterine growth. Experiments showed that the estrogenic activity of yuehchukene was weaker than that of estriol. The affinity of this compound for estrogen receptor was also found to be weaker than that of estriol.

  3. Estudo exaustivo e sistemático de erros nas provas da olimpíada brasileira de astronomia - resultados preliminares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, F. S.; Canalle, J. B. G.; Villas da Rocha, J. F.

    2003-08-01

    A Olimpíada Brasileira de Astronomia (OBA) contou, em sua quinta edição, com a participação de mais de 60 mil alunos dos ensinos fundamental e médio de praticamente todo o território nacional. Uma das formas de controle que a sua coordenação nacional possui sobre a correção, levada a cabo pelos professores que as aplicaram, é a do envio, por parte destes professores, das 10 melhores provas de cada um dos três níveis nos quais a Olimpíada é realizada. Assim, e dado ao caráter discursivo das provas da Olimpíada, a sua coordenação nacional dispõe de um vasto acervo sobre as concepções, certas ou erradas, dos alunos que dela participaram. Este conjunto de dados jamais fora explorado até o presente trabalho que pretende ser, neste sentido, inaugural. Nas provas dos níveis I e II da V OBA, que abrangem todo o conjunto do ensino fundamental, uma das questões versava sobre a noção que os alunos tinham sobre como os habitantes da Terra situam-se sobre sua superfície. Fizemos um estudo sistemático das respostas a esta questão. Primeiramente, todas as modalidades de erros foram levantadas; em seguida, realizamos uma distribuição por idade tanto do índice de acerto como da ocorrência e da distribuição de cada erro. Como resultado, obtivemos que, em ambos os níveis: 1) as concepções errôneas não se apresentam distribuídas aleatoriamente; 2) há uma concentração no tipo de erro apresentado; 3) há uma tendência de progressivo acerto com relação à idade quando os dados são considerados em termos nacionais; 4) esta tendência nacional é fraca ou mesmo não é verificada em alguns dos estados com maior patamar de acerto.

  4. Estudo em microondas do aprisionamento e precipitação de elétrons em explosões solares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosal, A. C.; Costa, J. E. R.

    2003-08-01

    Uma explosão solar é uma variação rápida e intensa do brilho que ocorre nas chamadas regiões ativas da atmosfera, constituídas por um plasma magnetizado com intensa indução magnética. Os modelos de explosões solares atuais, discutidos na literatura, apresentam características de aprisionamento e precipitação de elétrons em ambientes magnéticos simplificados. Neste trabalho, nos propusemos a separar a emissão dos elétrons aprisionados da emissão dos elétrons em precipitação apenas a partir da emissão em microondas, melhorando portanto o controle sobre o conjunto de parâmetros inferidos. A emissão em microondas da população em precipitação é bastante fraca e portanto da nossa base de dados de 130 explosões observadas pelo Rádio Polarímetro de Nobeyama, em sete freqüências, apenas para 32 foi possível separar as duas componentes de emissão com uma boa razão sinal/ruído. A partir de estudos das escalas de tempo das emissões devidas à variação gradual da emissão no aprisionamento e da variação rápida da emissão dos elétrons em precipitação foi possível obter a separação utilizando um filtro temporal nas emissões resultantes. Em nossa análise destas explosões estudamos os espectros girossincrotrônicos da emissão gradual, a qual associamos provir do topo dos arcos magnéticos e da emissão de variação rápida associada aos elétrons em precipitação. Estes espectros foram calculados e dos quais inferimos que a indução magnética efetiva do topo e dos pés foi em média, Btopo = 236 G e Bpés = 577 G, inferidas das freqüências de pico dos espectros em ntopo = 11,8 GHz e npés = 14,6 GHz com leve anisotropia (pequeno alargamento espectral). O índice espectral da distribuição não-térmica de elétrons d, inferido do índice espectral de fótons da emissão em regime opticamente fino, foi de dtopo = 3,3 e dpés = 3,9. Estes parâmetros são típicos da maioria das análises realizadas em ambiente único de

  5. Construção de um catálogo de aglomerados abertos para estudo da dinâmica da estrutura espiral da Galáxia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlos, I. M.; Lépine, J. R. D.

    2003-08-01

    Os aglomerados abertos são objetos de grande valor para o estudo da dinâmica da Galáxia devido esses objetos terem uma faixa de idade relativamente ampla. O trabalho visa estudar a dinâmica da estrutura espiral da Galáxia principalmente através do uso desses aglomerados, uma vez que o estudo da cinemática desses objetos é fundamental para esse objetivo. Nosso grupo trabalha no sentido de construir uma base de dados de aglomerados abertos contendo coordenadas, distância, idade, movimentos próprios e velocidades radiais e já disponibiliza uma nova versão do catálogo de aglomerados abertos o qual é uma compilação de edições anteriores, principalmente Lynga (1987), Mermilliod (1995) e ESO-B (Lauberts 1982). Nossa amostra possui cerca de 1630 aglomerados, mas nem todos os parâmetros acima citados foram determinados em sua totalidade. Para determinarmos esses parâmetros, derivamos as cores intrínsecas das estrelas membro de cada aglomerado a partir de seus tipos espectrais (busca feita no SIMBAD) obtendo assim o excesso de cor individual. A distribuição dos excessos de cor foi então utilizada para derivarmos o avermelhamento médio para cada aglomerado. De maneira similar, os tipos espectrais foram usados para estimar as magnitudes absolutas, e com as magnitudes absolutas e aparentes determinamos a respectiva distribuição do módulo de distância e finalmente a distância. Para determinar as idades foram confeccionados os diagramas cor-magnitude das estrelas de cada aglomerado onde foram superpostas a Seqüência Principal de Idade Zero (ZAMS). Superpomos a ZAMS de Schmidt-Kaler e isócronas de composição solar. Essas isócronas foram usadas para determinação das idades dos aglomerados. Uma vez que não temos ainda resultados finais, apresentamos então alguns diagramas cor-magnitude os quais foram usados para determinação, principalmente, da distância e idade dos aglomerados.

  6. Phylogenetic Relationships of Citrus and Its Relatives Based on matK Gene Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Penjor, Tshering; Uehara, Miki; Ide, Manami; Matsumoto, Natsumi; Matsumoto, Ryoji

    2013-01-01

    The genus Citrus includes mandarin, orange, lemon, grapefruit and lime, which have high economic and nutritional value. The family Rutaceae can be divided into 7 subfamilies, including Aurantioideae. The genus Citrus belongs to the subfamily Aurantioideae. In this study, we sequenced the chloroplast matK genes of 135 accessions from 22 genera of Aurantioideae and analyzed them phylogenetically. Our study includes many accessions that have not been examined in other studies. The subfamily Aurantioideae has been classified into 2 tribes, Clauseneae and Citreae, and our current molecular analysis clearly discriminate Citreae from Clauseneae by using only 1 chloroplast DNA sequence. Our study confirms previous observations on the molecular phylogeny of Aurantioideae in many aspects. However, we have provided novel information on these genetic relationships. For example, inconsistent with the previous observation, and consistent with our preliminary study using the chloroplast rbcL genes, our analysis showed that Feroniella oblata is not nested in Citrus species and is closely related with Feronia limonia. Furthermore, we have shown that Murraya paniculata is similar to Merrillia caloxylon and is dissimilar to Murraya koenigii. We found that “true citrus fruit trees” could be divided into 2 subclusters. One subcluster included Citrus, Fortunella, and Poncirus, while the other cluster included Microcitrus and Eremocitrus. Compared to previous studies, our current study is the most extensive phylogenetic study of Citrus species since it includes 93 accessions. The results indicate that Citrus species can be classified into 3 clusters: a citron cluster, a pummelo cluster, and a mandarin cluster. Although most mandarin accessions belonged to the mandarin cluster, we found some exceptions. We also obtained the information on the genetic background of various species of acid citrus grown in Japan. Because the genus Citrus contains many important accessions, we have

  7. Phylogenetic relationships of citrus and its relatives based on matK gene sequences.

    PubMed

    Penjor, Tshering; Yamamoto, Masashi; Uehara, Miki; Ide, Manami; Matsumoto, Natsumi; Matsumoto, Ryoji; Nagano, Yukio

    2013-01-01

    The genus Citrus includes mandarin, orange, lemon, grapefruit and lime, which have high economic and nutritional value. The family Rutaceae can be divided into 7 subfamilies, including Aurantioideae. The genus Citrus belongs to the subfamily Aurantioideae. In this study, we sequenced the chloroplast matK genes of 135 accessions from 22 genera of Aurantioideae and analyzed them phylogenetically. Our study includes many accessions that have not been examined in other studies. The subfamily Aurantioideae has been classified into 2 tribes, Clauseneae and Citreae, and our current molecular analysis clearly discriminate Citreae from Clauseneae by using only 1 chloroplast DNA sequence. Our study confirms previous observations on the molecular phylogeny of Aurantioideae in many aspects. However, we have provided novel information on these genetic relationships. For example, inconsistent with the previous observation, and consistent with our preliminary study using the chloroplast rbcL genes, our analysis showed that Feroniella oblata is not nested in Citrus species and is closely related with Feronia limonia. Furthermore, we have shown that Murraya paniculata is similar to Merrillia caloxylon and is dissimilar to Murraya koenigii. We found that "true citrus fruit trees" could be divided into 2 subclusters. One subcluster included Citrus, Fortunella, and Poncirus, while the other cluster included Microcitrus and Eremocitrus. Compared to previous studies, our current study is the most extensive phylogenetic study of Citrus species since it includes 93 accessions. The results indicate that Citrus species can be classified into 3 clusters: a citron cluster, a pummelo cluster, and a mandarin cluster. Although most mandarin accessions belonged to the mandarin cluster, we found some exceptions. We also obtained the information on the genetic background of various species of acid citrus grown in Japan. Because the genus Citrus contains many important accessions, we have

  8. Effects of atmospheric CO{sub 2} enrichment and foliar methanol application on net photosynthesis of sour orange tree (Citrus Aurantium; Rutaceae) leaves

    SciTech Connect

    Idso, S.B.; Garcia, R.L.; Kimball, B.A.; Idso, K.E.; Hoober, J.K.

    1995-01-01

    Foliar spray applications of 40% aqueous methanol were made to sunlit leaves of sour orange trees that had been grown continuously in clear-plastic-wall open-top enclosures maintained out-of-doors at Phoenix, Arizona, for over 5.5 years in ambient air of approximately 400 {mu}mol mol{sup -1} CO{sub 2} and in air enriched with CO{sub 2} to a concentration of approximately 700 {mu}mol mol{sup -1}. No unambiguous effects of the methanol applications were detected in photosynthesis measurements made on foliage in either of the two CO{sub 2} treatments. THe 75% increase in CO{sub 2}, however, raised the upper-limiting leaf temperature for positive net photosynthesis by approximately 7 C, which resulted in a 75% enhancement in net photosynthesis at a leaf temperature of 31 C, a 100% enhancement at a leaf temperature of 35 C, and a 200% enhancement at 42 C. 13 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Synergistic effect of the hydroalcoholic extract from Lepidium meyenii (Brassicaceae) and Fagara tessmannii (Rutaceae) on male sexual organs and hormone level in rats

    PubMed Central

    Lembè, Dieudonné Massoma; Gasco, Manuel; Gonzales, G. F.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Lepidium meyenii is a plant, which has been used in folk medicine to treat infertility and to increase sexual desire. However, few reports have investigated the administration of this plant with other plants having the same properties. Objective: The present investigation was designed to evaluate whether the combination of Lepidium meyenii and Fagara tessmannii can improve spermatogenesis and testosterone level in rats. Materials and Method: Twenty male rats were treated daily for 2 weeks with the hydroalcoholic extract of Fagara tessmannii and Lepidium meyenii (Fag + MN) as follow: (vehicle), (0.01 g + 0.5 mg), (0.1 g + 5 mg) and (1 g+ 50 mg)/kg BW. Results: At doses Fag 0.01 g/MN 0.5 mg and Fag 0.1 g/MN 5 mg, the weight of seminal vesicle, prostate, and testis significantly decreased (P < 0.05) while at dose Fag 1 g/MN 50 mg, the weight of epididymis and testis significantly increased (P < 0.05) when compared to the control. We noticed a significant increase of the number of spermatids/test (P < 0.05), epididymis sperm count (P < 0.05), and DSP/test of the rats at dose Fag 1 g/MN 50 mg while at dose Fag 0.01 g/MN 0.5 mg and Fag 0.1 g/MN 5 mg, sperm count was reduced in male organs, particularly in vas deferens (P < 0.05) and epididymis (P < 0.001). The serum testosterone concentration significantly decreased (P < 0.05) at lowest dose Fag 0.01 g/MN 0.5 mg. However, at highest dose Fag 1 g/MN 50 mg, the serum testosterone concentration increased significantly (P < 0.05). The length of stage VII-VIII and IX-I of the seminiferous tubule significantly (P < 0.05) increased while the length of stage II-VI significantly (P < 0.05) decreased. Conclusion: The results indicated that the combination of Lepidium meyenii (Black Maca) with Fagara tessmannii can improve male reproductive organs activities. PMID:24497748

  10. [Phagodeterrent and systemic activity of a fomulation derived from an extract of common rue (Ruta chalepensis, Rutaceae) on Hypsipyla grandella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) larvae].

    PubMed

    Barboza, Javier; Hilje, Luko; Durón, Julio; Cartín, Víctor; Calvo, Marco A

    2010-03-01

    A key neotropical pest of mahoganies (Swietenia spp.) and cedars (Cedrela spp.), the larva of Hypsipyla grandella (Zeller) commonly bores into the main shoot of these valuable timber species, causing forking of the stems. Therefore, it would be desirable to count upon a phagodeterrent and systemic product which could readily protect young tissues. Since crude extracts of common rue foliage (Ruta chalepensis L.) have phagodeterrent activity on H. grandella larva, a product was formulated by combining such an extract with a number of coadjuvants, and was assessed on 75-100 cm tall Spanish cedar (Cedrela odorata L.) trees, inside a greenhouse. A completely randomized design was used, with 10 trees per each one of the following treatments: the formulated product, an absolute control (distilled water), a relative control (carbofuran, 1%m/v in water), and the relative control without the crude extract. Number of attacks to the main shoot, fallen leaves and frass piles were recorded, as well as tunnel length. Regarding these variables, the formulated product provided excellent protection to treated trees, with only 0.1 attacks to the main shoot, on the average, at the end of the evaluation period. Likewise, when the systemic activity of the crude extract was assessed, substances present in it were able to translocate and get assimilated by the trees, thereafter causing phagodeterrence to larvae. Finally, an espectrophotometry analysis (performed at a wavelength of 355 nm) allowed us to determine the concentration (403+/-1 mg/l) and percentage (0.40%) of the flavonoid rutin in the crude extract, which eventually may be used as an analytical marker compound, should an industrial formulation be developed.

  11. Storage behavior and changes in concentrations of abscisic acid and gibberellins during dormancy break and germination in seeds of Phellodendron amurense var. wilsonii (Rutaceae).

    PubMed

    Chen, Shun-Ying; Chien, Ching-Te; Baskin, Jerry M; Baskin, Carol C

    2010-02-01

    The medicinal Asian plant genus Phellodendron is known to contain several very important compounds that have biological action. The main purpose of this study was to determine whether seeds of Phellodendron amurense var. wilsonii can be stored and to characterize their dormancy. Seeds of this taxon stored at -20 and -80 degrees C and in liquid nitrogen retained their high germinability, indicating that they have orthodox storage behavior. Intact seeds from freshly collected fruits were dormant and required 12 weeks of cold stratification at 4 degrees C for complete germination. Scarifying the seed coat was partially effective in breaking seed dormancy. Exogenous gibberellins (GA(3), GA(4) and GA(4+7)) promoted germination of scarified seeds, GA(4) and GA(4+7) being more effective than GA(3). Fluridone, an abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthesis inhibitor, was efficient in breaking dormancy, but it was less effective than GA(4) or GA(4+7) alone. Paclobutrazol, a GA biosynthesis inhibitor, inhibited seed germination, and the inhibitory effect was reversed completely by GA(4) and by GA(4+7). ABA content of seeds subjected to cold stratification or to incubation at 35/10 degrees C, which enhanced seed germination, was reduced about four- to sixfold compared to that of fresh seeds. Higher concentrations of GA(3), GA(4) and GA(7) were detected in nondormant seeds and in seeds with an emerged radicle than in fresh seeds. Present results seem to indicate that dormancy in P. amurense var. wilsonii seeds is imposed partially by the seed coat and partially by high ABA content. ABA content decreased and GA(3), GA(4) and GA(7) content increased during germination.

  12. Effect of niloticin, a protolimonoid isolated from Limonia acidissima L. (Rutaceae) on the immature stages of dengue vector Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Reegan, Appadurai Daniel; Gandhi, Munusamy Rajiv; Paulraj, Micheal Gabriel; Balakrishna, Kedike; Ignacimuthu, Savarimuthu

    2014-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the mosquitocidal activity of fractions and a compound niloticin from the hexane extract of Limonia acidissima L. leaves on eggs, larvae and pupae of Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae). In these bioassays, the eggs, larvae and pupae were exposed to concentrations of 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10.0ppm for fractions and 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0ppm for compound. After 24h, the mortality was assessed and the LC50 and LC90 values were calculated for larvae and pupae. Per cent ovicidal activity was calculated for eggs after 120h post treatment. Among the sixteen fractions screened, fraction 8 from the hexane extract of L. acidissima generated good mosquitocidal activity against Ae. aegypti. The LC50 and LC90 values of fraction 8 were 4.11, 8.04ppm against Ae. aegypti larvae and 4.19, 8.10ppm against Ae. aegypti pupae, respectively. Further, the isolated compound, niloticin recorded strong larvicidal and pupicidal activities. The 2ppm concentration of niloticin showed 100% larvicidal and pupicidal activities in 24h. The LC50 and LC90 values of niloticin on Ae. aegypti larvae were 0.44, 1.17ppm and on pupae were 0.62, 1.45ppm, respectively. Niloticin presented 83.2% ovicidal activity at 2ppm concentration after 120h post treatment and niloticin exhibited significant growth disruption and morphological deformities at sub lethal concentrations against Ae. aegypti. The structure of the isolated compound was identified on the basis of single XRD and spectral data ((1)H NMR and (13)C NMR) and compared with literature spectral data. The results indicate that niloticin could be used as a potential natural mosquitocide.

  13. Low-cost and eco-friendly green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Feronia elephantum (Rutaceae) against Culex quinquefasciatus, Anopheles stephensi, and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Veerakumar, Kaliyan; Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Rajeswary, Mohan; Muthukumaran, Udaiyan

    2014-05-01

    Mosquitoes transmit serious human diseases, causing millions of deaths every year. The use of synthetic insecticides to control vector mosquitoes has caused physiological resistance and adverse environmental effects in addition to high operational cost. Insecticides of synthesized natural products for vector control have been a priority in this area. In the present study, the larvicidal activity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) synthesized using Feronia elephantum plant leaf extract against late third-instar larvae of Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus was determined. The range of concentrations of synthesized AgNPs (5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 μg mL(-1)) and aqueous leaf extract (25, 50, 75, 100, and 125 μg mL(-1)) were tested against the larvae of A. stephensi, A. aegypti, and C. quinquefasciatus. Larvae were exposed to varying concentrations of aqueous crude extract and synthesized AgNPs for 24 h. Considerable mortality was evident after the treatment of F. elephantum for all three important vector mosquitoes. The synthesized AgNPs from F. elephantum were highly toxic than crude leaf aqueous extract to three important vector mosquito species. The results were recorded from UV-visible spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis (EDX). Synthesized AgNPs against the vector mosquitoes A. stephensi, A. aegypti, and C. quinquefasciatus had the following LC50 and LC90 values: A. stephensi had LC50 and LC90 values of 11.56 and 20.56 μg mL(-1); A. aegypti had LC50 and LC90 values of 13.13 and 23.12 μg mL(-1); and C. quinquefasciatus had LC50 and LC90 values of 14.19 and 24.30 μg mL(-1). No mortality was observed in the control. These results suggest that the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using F. elephantum has the potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of A. stephensi, A. aegypti, and C. quinquefasciatus. This is the first report on the mosquito larvicidal activity of the plant extracts and synthesized nanoparticles.

  14. Diversity of the citrus HLB bacterium, ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’, in psyllids (Diaphorina citri) collected from Murraya paniculata and citrus spp. in Thailand

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ (Las) is a phloem inhabiting bacterium that causes huanglongbing disease (HLB), also known as citrus greening associated with three species of a-Proteobacteria in the genus ‘Candidatus Liberibacter sp’. Prophage is an important genetic element of bacterial genomes...

  15. [Effects of exogenous Ca2+ on the seed germination of Koelreuteria paniculata in limestone area of Southwest China under drought stress].

    PubMed

    Cai, Xi-Yue; Chen, Xiao-De; Li, Chao-Zheng; Liu, Cheng

    2013-05-01

    In this paper, different arid environments in the limestone area of Southwest China were simulated by using different concentrations (0%, 5%, 15%, 25%, and 30%) of PEG6000 (polyethylene glycol), and a gradient of exogenous Ca2+ (0, 15, 20, 25, and 30 mmol x L(-1) of CaCl2) was installed to simulate the high calcium soil environments, aimed to study the effects of different concentration PEG6000, CaCl2, and their interactions on the seed germination characteristics of Koelreuteria bipinnata, one of the preferred species in the ecological restoration in limestone area. Under the action of CaCl2 alone, medium or low concentration exogenous Ca2+ had lesser effect on the seed germination parameters, but high concentration exogenous Ca2+ had inhibition effect on the seed germination. Medium or low concentration CaC12 could increase the seedling fresh biomass. When the PEG6000 concentration increased from 0% to 25%, the seed germination rate, germination potential, germination index, and vigor index showed a significant decreasing trend, and the seedling fresh biomass decreased remarkably. When certain concentration of exogenous Ca2+ was exerted to the drought treatment groups, medium or low concentration CaCl2 improved the seed germination characteristics, which compensated the loss from drought stress to a certain degree. When the CaCl2 concentration was up to 30 mmol x L(-1), the seeds were hard to germinate. Additionally, no seeds germinated under the condition of PEG with the concentration of 30%. It was suggested that applying definite concentration of exogenous Ca2+ could increase the seedling fresh biomass under PEG6000 stress, and make the seedlings more adapt to arid environment.

  16. The relevance of Murraya paniculata and related species as potential hosts and inoculum reservoirs of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus, causal agent of Huanglongbing (HLB)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Huanglongbing (HLB), considered the most serious insect-vectored bacterial disease of citrus, is transmitted in nature by the Asian citrus psyllid Diaphorina citri and the African citrus psyllid Trioza erytreae. Diaphorina citri was discovered in southern Florida in 1998 and the HLB disease in 2005...

  17. A Reappraising of Cosmography: the Interface Between Astronomical and Geographic Studies. (Breton Title: Releitura do Conceito de Cosmografia: a Interface Entre os Estudos Astronômicos e Geográficos.) Una Relectura del Concepto de Cosmografía: la Interfase Entre los Estudios Astronómicos y Geográficos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azevedo Sobreira, Paulo Henrique

    2012-12-01

    The concept of "Cosmography" is in disuse since the 80s of the last century, but the astronomical themes previously discussed in the school subjects of Geography and Cosmography remain in current textbooks. The use of term "Cosmography" was rescued in this research, and the study of its re-signification prompted the appearance of the term Geographic Cosmography. The Geographic Cosmography is a field of studies of the Geography, whose set of knowledge and skills is predominantly scholar. It studies the interface between terrestrial and celestial knowledge, and assigns a geographic significance to them. It examines human and natural relationships with Sidereal Space and its consequences for society and nature. O conceito de "Cosmografia" está em desuso desde os anos 80 do século XX, mas os temas astronômicos anteriormente abordados nas disciplinas escolares de Cosmografia e de Geografia permanecem nos atuais livros didáticos. O uso do termo "Cosmografia" foi resgatado nesta pesquisa e o estudo de sua ressignificação proporcionou o surgimento do termo Cosmografia Geográfica. A Cosmografia Geográfica é um campo de estudos da Geografia, cujo conjunto de conhecimentos e habilidades é predominantemente escolar. Estuda a interface entre os conhecimentos terrestres e os celestes e lhes atribui significância geográfica. Analisa as relações humanas e naturais com o Espaço Sideral e suas consequências para a sociedade e a natureza.

    Aunque el concepto de "Cosmografía" no se usa desde la década de los '80 del siglo pasado, los temas astronómicos que se enseñaban anteriormente en las asignaturas escolares de Cosmografía y de Geografía permanecen en los actuales libros didácticos. El uso del término "Cosmografía" fue rescatado en esta investigación y el estudio de su resignificación proporcionó el surgimiento del término Cosmografía Geográfica. La Cosmografía Geográfica es un campo de estudio de la Geografía, donde

  18. Phylogenetic analysis of Rutaceous plants based on single nucleotide polymorphism in chloroplast and nuclear gene sequences

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The family Rutaceae encompasses several genera including the economically important genus Citrus. In this study, we selected 22 citrus relatives belonging to the various sub groups of Rutaceae and compared the sequences of three gene fragments. The accessions selected belong to the subfamily Rutoide...

  19. 7 CFR 319.37-6 - Specific treatment and other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...)) and other insect pests of chestnut and acorn. Guizotia abyssinica (niger) seeds All (see paragraph (c.... (Hemimene juliana (Curtis)) and other insect pests of chestnut and acorn. Rutaceae, seeds of all species...

  20. 7 CFR 319.37-6 - Specific treatment and other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...)) and other insect pests of chestnut and acorn. Guizotia abyssinica (niger) seeds All (see paragraph (c.... (Hemimene juliana (Curtis)) and other insect pests of chestnut and acorn. Rutaceae, seeds of all species...

  1. 7 CFR 319.37-6 - Specific treatment and other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) splendana Hubner, Pammene fusciana L. (Hemimene juliana (Curtis)) and other insect pests of chestnut and... chestnut and acorn. Rutaceae, seeds of all species in the family Afghanistan, Andaman Islands,...

  2. 7 CFR 319.37-6 - Specific treatment and other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...)) and other insect pests of chestnut and acorn. Guizotia abyssinica (niger) seeds All (see paragraph (c.... (Hemimene juliana (Curtis)) and other insect pests of chestnut and acorn. Rutaceae, seeds of all species...

  3. 7 CFR 319.37-6 - Specific treatment and other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...) splendana Hubner, Pammene fusciana L. (Hemimene juliana (Curtis)) and other insect pests of chestnut and... chestnut and acorn. Rutaceae, seeds of all species in the family. Afghanistan, Andaman Islands,...

  4. The Universe in a Box: Introduction to the Study of Astronomy in the Initial Formation of Physics Teachers. (Spanish Title: El Universo Representado en Una Caja: Introducción al Estudio de la Astronomía en la Formación Inicial de Profesores de Física.) O Universo Representado em Uma Caixa: Introdução ao Estudo da Astronomia NA Formação Inicial de Professores de Física

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longhini, Marcos Daniel

    2009-07-01

    This is a report of an activity of introduction to the study of Astronomy developed with a group of future Physics teachers at a Brazilian public university. Such activity had the goal of giving privileged emphasis to notions of spatiality, alternative conceptions of the participants and the process of interaction among peers, and consisted of the representation, in a three dimensional space, of the models of the universe that the participants had. The results, which were categorized as miscellaneous, geocentric, heliocentric and acentric models of the universe, were qualitatively analyzed. Analyses of the activity in the perspective of the participants are indicated and additional considerations are made regarding its use as a resource for teaching Astronomy and for teacher training. Este es el informe de una actividad para presentar un estudio introductorio de la Astronomía, desarrollado con una clase de futuros profesores de física en una universidad pública brasileña. Esta actividad tuvo como objetivo centrar las nociones de espacialidad, las concepciones alternativas de los participantes y el proceso de interacción entre pares, y consistió en la representación en un espacio tridimensional, de los modelos del universo que los participantes habían. Los resultados, que se clasificaron en universo miscelania, geocéntrico, heliocéntrico y acentrico, se analizaron cualitativamente. Son identificadas análisis de la actividad por los participantes, e hizo observaciones sobre su uso como recurso para la enseñanza de la astronomía y la formación de docentes. Trata-se do relato de uma atividade de introdução ao estudo da Astronomia, desenvolvida com uma turma de futuros professores de Física, em uma universidade pública brasileira. Tal atividade teve como meta privilegiar noções de espacialidade, as concepções alternativas dos participantes e o processo de interação entre pares e constou da representação, em um espaço tridimensional, dos

  5. Effect of andrographolide on phosphatases activity and cytotoxicity against Spodoptera litura

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Development of biorational insecticides from plant extracts, holds promise for many farmers in developing countries as an affordable alternative to commercially available pesticides. The chemical andrographolide was isolated using ethanol extraction of the leaves of Andrographis paniculata, an annua...

  6. Coumarin-related compounds as plant growth inhibitors from two rutaceous plants in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Jiwajinda, S; Santisopasri, V; Ohigashi, H

    2000-02-01

    Chemical investigation of naturally occurring plant growth inhibitors from Rutaceous plants in Thailand led us to identify five 7-methoxycoumarins and one 5,7-dimethoxycoumarin from Murraya paniculata, and six furanocoumarins from Citrus aurantifolia. Of these compounds, murranganon senecioate (1) is a new natural compound found in M. paniculata. Minumicrolin (6) was found to be highly active against the 2nd leaf sheath elongation of rice seedlings.

  7. On the Formation of a Study Group to the Realization of Workshops for Teachers: Astronomy in Basic Education in Umuarama-Pr (Spanish Title: De la Formación de un Grupo de Estudios a la Realización de los Talleres Para los Profesores: la Astronomía en la Educación Básica en Umuarama-Pr ) Da Formação de um Grupo de Estudos À Realização de Oficinas Para Professores: a Astronomia na Educação Básica em Umuarama-Pr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belusso, Diane; Akira Sakai, Otávio

    2013-12-01

    In this article, we aimed to present the activities developed by the Astronomy Study Group (ASG) to contribute to the dissemination and improvement of the astronomy teaching-learning. The results of a research carried out in schools of Umuarama-PR are shown, with the intention of checking the students' knowledge and interest in relation to Astronomy. It is reported the realization of workshops for Science teachers linked to the Education Regional Nucleus. The research and the workshop execution promoted the direct contact of the study group with the community; the results were used to diagnose the state of astronomy teaching-learning, in the basic education in Umuarama-PR. En este artículo se intenta presentar las actividades desarrolladas por el Grupo de Estudios de Astronomía (GEA) y contribuir para la divulgación y mejoría de la enseñanza-aprendizaje de la Astronomía. Se presentan los resultados de una investigación realizada en las escuelas de Umuarama-PR, con la intención de determinar el grado de conocimiento y el interés de los estudiantes en relación a la astronomía. Se relata la realización de talleres de capacitación para los profesores de ciencias vinculados al Núcleo Regional del Educación. La ejecución de la investigación y de los talleres promovió el contacto directo del grupo de estudios con la comunidad; los resultados sirvieron de diagnóstico de la enseñanza aprendizaje de la astronomía en la educación básica en Umuarama-PR. Neste artigo, objetiva-se apresentar as atividades desenvolvidas pelo Grupo de Estudos de Astronomia (GEA) e contribuir para a divulgação e melhoria do ensino-aprendizagem de astronomia. São apresentados os resultados de uma pesquisa realizada nas escolas de Umuarama-PR, com o intuito de averiguar o conhecimento e o interesse dos estudantes em relação à astronomia. Relata-se a realização de oficinas de capacitação para professores de ciências vinculados ao Núcleo Regional de Educação. A

  8. Providing Meaningful Learning for Students of the Sixth Grade of Middle School: a Study on the Moon Phases. (Breton Title: Propiciando Aprendizagem Significativa Para Alunos do Sexto Ano do Ensino Fundamental: um Estudo sobre as Fases da Lua.) Propiciando el Aprendizaje Significativo Para Alumnos del Sexto Nivel de la Educación General Básica: un Estudio sobre Las Fases de la Luna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darroz, Luiz Marcelo; Samudio Pérez, Carlos Ariel; da Rosa, Cleci Werner; Heineck, Renato

    2012-07-01

    We relate in this article a didactic experience studying the moon phases with a group of middle school students of a private school of the municipality of Passo Fundo, RS. Based on David Ausubel's Meaningful Learning Theory, we have sought to develop a proposal following a didactic model which simulates the phases of the Moon, as based on the previous conceptions of the students. The signs of learning were evidenced by means of memory registries of the activity. From the obtained results we believe that the proposal achieved its goals, since the students were able to identify, differentiate and transfer the phenomenon of the moon phases to new contexts. Thus, it is concluded that a methodology focused on a meaningful content for the students is fundamental to the construction and genuine grasping of what is being learned. Neste artigo, relata-se uma experiência didática de estudo das fases da Lua com uma turma do 6° ano do Ensino Fundamental, de uma escola privada do município de Passo Fundo, RS. Tendo como fundamentação teórica a Teoria da Aprendizagem Significativa de David Ausubel, buscou-se desenvolver a proposta a partir de um modelo didático que simula as fases da Lua e com base nas concepções prévias dos estudantes. Os indícios da aprendizagem foram constatados através de registros de memórias da atividade. Pelos resultados apresentados, acredita-se que a proposta alcançou seus objetivos, uma vez que os estudantes conseguiram identificar, diferenciar e transferir o fenômeno das fases da Lua para novos contextos. Assim, conclui-se que uma metodologia com enfoque em um conteúdo significativo ao estudante é fundamental para a construção e compreensão genuína do que está sendo aprendido. En este artículo se relata una experiencia didáctica de estudio de las fases de la Luna con una clase de 6º año de la educación general básica de una escuela privada del municipio de Passo Fundo, RS. Teniendo como fundamentación teórica la Teor

  9. Barotrauma em peixes em usinas hidrelétricas: ferramentas para o estudo

    SciTech Connect

    Do Vale Beirao, Bernardo; Castelo Branco Marciano, Natlia; de Souza Dias, Luma; Carvalho Falco, Ricardo; Wander Dias, Edson; Leite Fabrino, Daniela; Barreira Martinez, Carlos; Martins Da Silva, Luiz Gustavo; Walker, Ricardo W.; Brown, Richard S.; Deng, Zhiqun

    2015-09-30

    The main source of electric power generation in Brazil comes from hydropower plants, nevertheless, the installed power is expected to raise 56.8%, reaching a total of 116,000 MW at the year 2020. The increase at the hydroelectric sector will be responsible for a series of fish community impacts. One of the impacts over the fish community is related to fish kills due to downstream passage through turbines or fish entrance at the draft tube from the tailrace. Usually when there is a maneuver and the turbine stops, fish get attracted and enter the draft tube and, just as the downstream passage through a turbine, when the turbine starts, a rapid decompression occurs and can cause barotrauma. When such events happen, according to Boyle’s law (P1V1=P2V2), swim bladder volume expands at the same rate that the pressure decreases, which can lead to the organ’s rupture.

  10. Mixed-Methods Study that Examines Nine Science Teachers' Perceptions of Slooh Robotic Telescope for Teaching Astronomy. (Breton Title: Métodos Mistos de Estudo que Examinam a Percepção de Nove Professores de Ciências sobre o Telescópio Robótico Slooh Para Ensino de Astronomia.) Métodos Mixtos de Estudio que Examinan la Percepcion de Nueve Profesores de Ciencias sobre EL Telescopio Robótico Slooh Para la Enseñanza de la Astronomía

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gershun, Daniel C.; Slater, Timothy F.; Berryhill, Katie J.

    2014-07-01

    Although previous studies show that robotic telescopes have the potential to enhance student learning, there is comparatively little research that focuses on teacher perceptions of this technology. This study investigates: "what is the academic merit of using SLOOH robotic telescopes to teach astronomy as perceived by science teachers?" Our sample consists of nine science teachers of students aged 13-18 years. Pre- and post-tests, interviews, and surveys were collected during two weeks of a summer online course about robotic telescopes. While pre and post-tests do not reveal a statistically significant gain in astronomy content knowledge, analysis of qualitative data reveals five themes which describe the most important aspects of using SLOOH according to participants: "Images," "Interface," "Classroom Application," "Instructor Impact," and "Logistical Issues." Analysis of these themes suggests that SLOOH can provide an interactive and social learning environment with capabilities to incorporate crossdisciplinary themes. Embora estudos anteriores mostram que os telescópios robóticos têm o potencial de melhorar a aprendizagem dos alunos, há relativamente pouca investigação focada nas percepções de professores a respeito desta tecnologia. Este estudo investiga: "qual é o mérito acadêmico da utilização de telescópios robóticos Slooh para ensinar astronomia, tal como percebido pelos professores de ciências?" Nossa amostra é composta por nove professores de ciências de estudantes com idades entre 13-18 anos pré e pós-testes, entrevistas, e levantamentos foram coletados durante duas semanas de um curso on-line de verão sobre telescópios robóticos. Enquanto os testes pré e pós não revelaram um ganho estatisticamente significativo no conhecimento do conteúdo astronomia, a análise de dados qualitativos revela cinco temas que descrevem os aspectos mais importantes da utilização Slooh de acordo aos participantes: "Imagens", "Interface", "Aplica

  11. Antibacterial properties of tropical plants from Puerto Rico.

    PubMed

    Meléndez, P A; Capriles, V A

    2006-03-01

    In an effort to document the antibacterial properties of plants commonly used by the people of Puerto Rico, we studied the effects of 172 plant species, utilizing the disc diffusion method, against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. The methanolic extracts of 14 species showed antibacterial activities during this preliminary screen. These positive plant extracts were tested successively over 15 additional species. The results showed that extracts from Citrus aurantifolia (Rutaceae), Citrus aurantium (Rutaceae), Punica granatum (Punicaceae), Phyllanthus acidus (Euphorbiaceae) and Tamarindus indica (Caesalpiniaceae) possess strong in vitro antibacterial activity against the bacteria tested.

  12. First record of Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) in Ecuador infesting urban citrus and orange jasmine trees.

    PubMed

    Cornejo, J F; Chica, E J

    2014-01-01

    Adults and nymphs of the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), were collected in the Guayaquil, Samborondón, and Durán cantons in coastal Ecuador. Psyllids were found in high numbers in citrus (Citrus spp., Sapindales: Rutaceae) and orange jasmine (Murraya exotica [L.] Jack, Sapindales: Rutaceae) trees within the Guayaquil-Samborondon-Duran conurbation; however, none was found during scoutings in the main citrus producing areas in coastal Ecuador. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of D. citri in Ecuador and the Pacific coastal plain of South America.

  13. Shoot regeneration of mesophyll protoplasts transformed by Agrobacterium tumefaciens, not achievable with untransformed protoplasts.

    PubMed

    Steffen, A; Eriksson, T; Schieder, O

    1986-04-01

    Alternative methods for shoot regeneration in protoplast derived cultures were developed in Nicotiana paniculata and Physalis minima. In both species protoplast derived callus is not regeneratable to shoots by conventional methods, e.g. hormone treatment. Leaf discs and stem segments of N. paniculata and P. minima were incubated with Agrobacterium tumefaciens "shooter" strains harbouring pGV 2215 or pGV 2298 or wildtype strain B6S3. After 36 h of co-incubation protoplasts were prepared. (Leaf disc and stem segment cloning). Co-cultivation experiments were also undertaken with protoplasts of both species. Transformed clones, characterized by their hormone independent growth and octopine production, could be isolated after about two months. Transformation frequencies of "leaf disc and stem segment cloning" and co-cultivation experiments varied from 5×10(-3) to 5×10(-5). After about one year of cultivation on hormone-free culture medium, shoots could be recovered from colonies of N. paniculata, transformed by the strain harbouring pGV 2298. In protoplast derived colonies of P. minima, shoot induction was obtained only after transformation by bacteria carrying pGV 2215. This demonstrates the importance of the particular "shooter" mutant, as well as the response of the host plant. Transformed shoots of P. minima produced octopine, whereas octopine production in transformed shoots and callus of N. paniculata was undetectable after one year of cultivation, though T-DNA was still present in the plant genome. Transformed shoots of N. paniculata and P. minima do not produce any roots. Shoots of N. paniculata have an especially tumerous phenotype. Shoots of both species were successfully grafted to normal donor plants of N. tabacum.

  14. A third species of Polyspatha, an Africanendemic genus of Commelinaceae

    PubMed Central

    Faden, Robert B.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Polyspatha oligospatha Faden, the third species in a small African endemic genus of Commelinaceae, is described. It is widespread but has been overlooked because of its small stature and resemblance to small plants of Polyspatha paniculata. It differs from both Polyspatha paniculata and Polyspatha hirsuta, the two other species, by its leaf pubescence, fewer, more widely spaced and usually patent spathes, deeply ridged seeds with numerous knobby, transversely interrupted ridges, and morning anthesis. It occurs throughout the Congolian forests from Cameroon to Uganda, but it is also disjunct in Ivory Coast, across the Dahomey gap. PMID:22171175

  15. Asian citrus psyllids and shade: Survival of Diaphorina citri on Murraya exotica foliage exposed to different levels of light

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Using shade cloths of different densities, potted individuals of Murraya exotica (Rutaceae) were exposed to levels of photosynthetic radiation (PAR) varying from 48 µmol photons per meter2 per second to 1562 µmol photons per meter2 per second (average of three readings taken at noon during condition...

  16. Furoquinoline alkaloids from Melicope bonwickii (F.Muell.) T.Hartley.

    PubMed

    Komala, Ismiarni; Rahmani, Mawardi; Sukari, Mohd Aspollah; Mohd Ismail, Hazar Bebe; Cheng Lian, Gwendoline Ee; Rahmat, Asmah

    2006-04-01

    Investigation on the leaves of Melicope bonwickii (F.Muell.) T.Hartley (Rutaceae) afforded a new 7-(2'-hydroxy-3'-chloroprenyloxy)-4-methoxyfuroquinoline (1) together with the known 7-(2',3'-epoxyprenyloxy)-4-methoxyfuroquinoline (2), evellerine (3) kokusaginine (4) and an amide aurantiamide acetate (5). Compounds 1 and 2 showed significant activity against cervical cell lines (Hela).

  17. Effect of chemical compounds on the ‘Cadidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ infected pomelo (Citrus maxima)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Huanglongbing (HLB), also known as citrus greening, is one of the most destructive diseases affecting Rutaceae plants in many parts of the world. HLB is associated with three species of ‘Candidatus Liberibacter’ with ‘Ca. L. asiaticus’ (Las), being the most widely distributed in Thailand and Asia. T...

  18. Abundance of citrus leafminer larvae on citrus and citrus-related germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The citrus leafminer, Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae), is a key pest in most citrus growing regions worldwide. Adult citrus leafminers oviposit primarily on young elongating flush of citrus as well as other Rutaceae and some ornamental plants. Larvae feed on the epiderm...

  19. Production of Correa 'Mannii' as a potted plant - propagation, nutrition management, and controlled flowering

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Australian natives, Correa ‘Mannii’ and C. reflexa (Rutaceae), are considered suitable as a flowering pot plant. However, comprehensive information on the most effective propagation method and nutrition management and their impact on propagation and flowering is unavailable. The influence of temper...

  20. [Biological evaluation of Cuban plants. V].

    PubMed

    Jiménez Misas, C A; Rojas Hernandez, N M; López Abraham, A M

    1979-01-01

    The study of the antimicrobial activity of aqueuos, alcoholic and ketonic extracts from plants growing in Cuba is pursued. Six species of the families Rutaceae, Portulacaceae, Borraglinaceae and Jasminaceae were analyzed, and their activity on bacteria with a human clinical interest was assessed. The best results were obtained from Heliotropium campechianum, Jazminum sambac and Portulaca oleracea.

  1. Simultaneous determination of aegeline and six coumarins from different parts of the plant Aegle marmelos using UHPLC-PDA-MS and chiral separation of aegeline using HPLC-ToF-MS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A fast UHPLC-PDA method was developed for the simultaneous analysis of one alkaloid, aegeline, and six coumarins namely: umbelliferone; scopoletin; marmesinin; 8-hydroxypsoralen angelicin and marmelosin from leaf, fruit, root and bark of Aegle marmelos (L.) Corrêa (Rutaceae). The method was validate...

  2. The Raputindoles: Novel Cyclopentyl Bisindole Alkaloids from Raputia simulans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A novel class of bisindole alkaloids is established by the isolation and structural determination of Raputindoles A-D (1-4) from the Amazonian plant Raputia simulans Kallunki (Rutaceae). Complete spectroscopic characterization was accomplished by means of NMR spectroscopy and APCI (+) HRMS. Raputind...

  3. Field ID guide to citrus relative hosts of Asian citrus psyllid & Huanglongbing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Rutaceae family of plants includes not only species within the genus Citrus, but also several other genera and species that may not be easily recognized as having any relationship to citrus at all. However, many of these citrus relatives are used for ornamental, culinary, or religious purposes. ...

  4. 75 FR 17289 - Citrus Seed Imports; Citrus Greening and Citrus Variegated Chlorosis

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-06

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 7 CFR Part 319 RIN 0579-AD07 Citrus Seed Imports; Citrus... States of plants and plant parts, except fruit and seeds, of all genera, species, and varieties of the... of nursery stock to prohibit the importation of propagative seed of several Rutaceae (citrus...

  5. Bionomics of Asian citrus psyllid (Hemiptera: Liviidae) associated with orange jasmine hedges in southest central Florida, with special reference to biological control by Tamarixia radiata

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, is an important pest in Florida because it vectors bacteria responsible for citrus huanglongbing disease. In addition to infesting citrus, orange jasmine (Murraya paniculata) is one of ACP’s favorite host plants and is widely grown as an orn...

  6. Bionomics of Asian citrus psyllid associated with orange jasmine hedges in Florida, with special reference to biological control by Tamarixia radiata

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP) is an important invasive citrus pest because it vectors a bacterium responsible for a devastating disease of citrus known as huanglongbing. Orange jasmine (Murraya paniculata) is a favored alternate ACP host plant and is widely grown as an ornamental plant in urban ar...

  7. Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus is present in orange jasmine and Asian citrus psyllid reared from jasmine at low titers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Orange jasmine, Murraya paniculata, is a common horticultural plant in Florida, and an alternate host of the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama. Orange jasmine has also been reported to harbor the bacteria Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus, the causal agent of huanglongbing disease. We ...

  8. Sources of the anti-implantation alkaloid yuehchukene in the genus Murraya.

    PubMed

    Kong, Y C; Ng, K H; But, P P; Li, Q; Yu, S X; Zhang, H T; Cheng, K F; Soejarto, D D; Kan, W S; Waterman, P G

    1986-02-01

    The genus Murraya has been widely used in traditional medicine in east Asia. In view of the recent isolation of the anti-implantation alkaloid yuehchukene from M. paniculata a search has now been made for other natural sources of this alkaloid within the genus. In this paper we report findings for nine taxa of Murraya.

  9. Klebsiella pneumoniae Planktonic and Biofilm Reduction by Different Plant Extracts: In Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    da Rocha Santos, Carlos Eduardo; Camargo Reis Mello, Daphne; Nishiama Theodoro, Lígia; De Oliveira, Felipe Eduardo; Back Brito, Graziella N.; Campos Junqueira, Juliana; Cardoso Jorge, Antonio Olavo; Dias de Oliveira, Luciane

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the action of Pfaffia paniculata K., Juglans regia L., and Rosmarius officinalis L. extracts against planktonic form and biofilm of Klebsiella pneumoniae (ATCC 4352). Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum microbicidal concentration (MMC) values were determined for each extract by microdilution broth method, according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Next, antimicrobial activity of the extracts on biofilm was analyzed. For this, standardized suspension at 107 UFC/mL of K. pneumoniae was distributed into 96-well microplates (n = 10) and after 48 h at 37°C and biofilm was subjected to treatment for 5 min with the extracts at a concentration of 200 mg/mL. ANOVA and Tukey tests (5%) were used to verify statistical significant reduction (p < 0.05) of planktonic form and biofilm. P paniculata K., R. officinalis L., and J. regia L. showed reductions in biomass of 55.6, 58.1, and 18.65% and cell viability reduction of 72.4, 65.1, and 31.5%, respectively. The reduction obtained with P. paniculata and R. officinalis extracts was similar to the reduction obtained with chlorhexidine digluconate 2%. In conclusion, all extracts have microbicidal action on the planktonic form but only P. paniculata K. and R. officinalis L. were effective against biofilm. PMID:28004034

  10. A comparison of plant species for rearing Asian citrus psyllid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Five plant genotypes were compared with respect to Asian citrus psyllid (ACP) reproduction potential: Bergera koenigii, Citrus aurantiifolia, C. macrophylla, C. taiwanica and Murraya paniculata. Asian citrus psyllid reproduction is dependent on young flush and thus Asian citrus psyllid production po...

  11. Comparison of the emergence of three Brassicaceae species of different origins grown in Spain and USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thlaspi arvense, Camelina sativa, C. microcarpa and Neslia paniculata are four Brassicaceae family species that are becoming rare in North-Eastern Spain. Conversely, both T. arvense and C. sativa are being investigated as oilseed crops in North America for industrial/biofuel purposes. C. microcarpa ...

  12. Revista de Documentacao de Estudos em Linguistica Teorica e Aplicada (DELTA): Novos Estudos em Gamatica Gerativa, 2001 (Journal of Documentary Studies in Theoretical and Applied Linguistics [DELTA]: New Studies in Generative Grammar, 2001).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbara, Leila, Ed.; Rajagopalan, Kanavillil, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    These two issues of volume 17, include the following articles: "The Competing Motivation Model in the Functional Domains of Negation" (M. Angelica Furtado da Cunha); "Discursive Resonance and Politeness in Reading and Writing Practices" (Silvana Serrani Infante); "The Acquisition of Relative Clauses in Brazilian…

  13. Revista de Documentacao de Estudos em Linguistica Teorica e Aplicada (DELTA): Novos Estudos em Gamatica Gerativa (Journal of Documentary Studies in Theoretical and Applied Linguistics [DELTA]: New Studies in Generative Grammar).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Revista de Documentacao de Estudos em Linguistica Teorica e Aplicada, 2000

    2000-01-01

    This issue contains the following articles: "Resumption and Last Resort" (Joseph Aoun); "Existentials, A-Chains, and Reconstruction" (Norbert Hornstein); "How Long Was the Nineteenth Century" (David Lightfoot); "Formal Features and Parameter Setting: A View From Portuguese Past Participles and Romance Future…

  14. Efficacy of indigenous plant extracts on the malaria vector Anopheles subpictus Grassi (Diptera: Culicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Elango, G.; Zahir, A. Abduz; Bagavan, A.; Kamaraj, C.; Rajakumar, G.; Santhoshkumar, T.; Marimuthu, S.; Rahuman, A. Abdul

    2011-01-01

    Background & objectives: Mosquito control is facing a threat due to the emergence of resistance to synthetic insecticides. Insecticides of plant origin may serve as suitable alternative biocontrol techniques in the future. The purpose of the present study was to assess the ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol extracts of Andrographis paniculata, Eclipta prostrata and Tagetes erecta leaves tested for oviposition-deterrent, ovicidal and repellent activities against malaria vector, Anopheles subpictus Grassi (Diptera: Culicidae). Methods: The dried leaves of the three plants were powdered mechanically and extracted with ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol. One gram of crude extract was first dissolved in 100 ml of acetone (stock solution). From the stock solution, test solution concentrations of 31.21- 499.42 mg/l for oviposition- deterrence assay and repellency and 15.60 - 998.85 mg/l were used in ovicidal assay. The percentage oviposition- deterrence, hatching rate of eggs and protection time were calculated. One-way analysis of variance was used for the multiple concentration tests and for per cent mortality to determine significant treatment differences. Results: The percentage of effective oviposition repellency was highest at 499.42 mg/l and the lowest at 31.21 mg/l in ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol extracts of A. paniculata, E. prostrata and T. erecta. The oviposition activity index (OAI) value of ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol extracts of A. paniculata, E. prostrata and T. erecta at 499.42 mg/l were -0.91, -0.93, -0.84, -0.84, -0.87, -0.82, -0.87, -0.89 and -0.87, respectively. Mortality (no egg hatchability) was 100 per cent with ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of A. paniculata, E. prostrata and T. erecta at 998.85 mg/l. The maximum adult repellent activity was observed at 499.42 mg/l in ethyl acetate extracts of A. paniculata, E. prostrata and methanol extracts of T. erecta, and the mean complete protection time ranged from 120 to 150 min with

  15. Estudo de soluções locais e cosmológicas em teorias do tipo tensor-escalar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva E Costa, S.

    2003-08-01

    Teorias do tipo tensor-escalar são a mais simples extensão possí vel da Relatividade Geral. Nessas teorias, cujo modelo padrão é a teoria de Brans-Dicke, a curvatura do espaço-tempo, descrita por componentes tensoriais, aparece acoplada a um campo escalar que, de certo modo, representa uma variação na constante de acoplamento da gravitação. Tais teorias apresentam soluções locais e cosmológicas que, em determinados limites, recaem nas apresentadas pela Relatividade Geral, mas que em outros limites trazem novidades, tais como conseqüências observacionais da evolução de flutuações primordiais distintas daquelas previstas pela Relatividade Geral (ver, por ex., Nagata et al., PRD 66, p. 103510 (2002)). Graças a esta possibilidade de trazer à luz novidades em relação à gravitação, teorias do tipo tensor-escalar podem ser vistas como um interessante campo alternativo de pesquisas para soluções dos problemas de massa faltante (ou escura) e/ou energia escura. Seguindo tal linha, este trabalho, ainda em sua fase inicial, apresenta soluções gerais de teorias do tipo tensor-escalar para diversas situações, verificando-se em que consiste a divergência dessas soluções dos casos tradicionais possí veis na Relatividade Geral. Como exemplos das soluções aqui apresentadas pode-se destacar uma expressão geral para diferentes soluções cosmológicas englobando diferentes tipos de matéria (representados por diferentes equações de estado), e a expressão para uma solução local representando um buraco negro com rotação, similar à solução de Kerr da Relatividade Geral. Por fim, é importante ressaltar que, embora aqui apresentem-se poucos resultados novos, na literatura sobre o assunto a maior parte das soluções apresentadas limita-se a uns poucos casos especí ficos, tal como soluções cosmológicas apenas com curvatura nula, e que mesmo as soluções disponí veis são, em geral, pouco divulgadas e, portanto, pouco conhecidas, e é tal situação que este trabalho busca, em parte, reverter.

  16. Phylogeny, evolutionary trends and classification of the Spathelia–Ptaeroxylon clade: morphological and molecular insights

    PubMed Central

    Appelhans, M. S.; Smets, E.; Razafimandimbison, S. G.; Haevermans, T.; van Marle, E. J.; Couloux, A.; Rabarison, H.; Randrianarivelojosia, M.; Keßler, P. J. A.

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims The Spathelia–Ptaeroxylon clade is a group of morphologically diverse plants that have been classified together as a result of molecular phylogenetic studies. The clade is currently included in Rutaceae and recognized at a subfamilial level (Spathelioideae) despite the fact that most of its genera have traditionally been associated with other families and that there are no obvious morphological synapomorphies for the clade. The aim of the present study is to construct phylogenetic trees for the Spathelia–Ptaeroxylon clade and to investigate anatomical characters in order to decide whether it should be kept in Rutaceae or recognized at the familial level. Anatomical characters were plotted on a cladogram to help explain character evolution within the group. Moreover, phylogenetic relationships and generic limits within the clade are also addressed. Methods A species-level phylogenetic analysis of the Spathelia–Ptaeroxylon clade based on five plastid DNA regions (rbcL, atpB, trnL–trnF, rps16 and psbA–trnH) was conducted using Bayesian, maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood methods. Leaf and seed anatomical characters of all genera were (re)investigated by light and scanning electron microscopy. Key Results With the exception of Spathelia, all genera of the Spathelila–Ptaeroxylon clade are monophyletic. The typical leaf and seed anatomical characters of Rutaceae were found. Further, the presence of oil cells in the leaves provides a possible synapomorphy for the clade. Conclusions The Spathelia–Ptaeroxylon clade is well placed in Rutaceae and it is reasonable to unite the genera into one subfamily (Spathelioideae). We propose a new tribal classification of Spathelioideae. A narrow circumscription of Spathelia is established to make the genus monophyletic, and Sohnreyia is resurrected to accommodate the South American species of Spathelia. The most recent common ancestor of Spathelioideae probably had leaves with secretory cavities

  17. Plant mites of the Dominican Republic, with a description of a new species of Petrobia (Tetranychina) Wainstein, 1960 (Acari, Prostigmata, Tetranychidae) and a key to the species of this subgenus.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Leocadia Sánchez; Flechtmann, Carlos H W; De Moraes, Gilberto J

    2014-08-05

    Fourteen mite species of plant-associated mites of the suborder Prostigmata are reported from the Dominican Republic. Four of these refer to new findings for the country, including Petrobia (Tetranychina) hispaniola n. sp. Sánchez & Flechtmann, described from specimens collected from leaves of Citrus sp. (Rutaceae) and Rosa sp. (Rosaceae). A key for the separation of the world species of Petrobia (Tetranychina) is presented. 

  18. Antiplasmodial activities of furoquinoline alkaloids from Teclea afzelii.

    PubMed

    Wansi, Jean Duplex; Hussain, Hidayat; Tcho, Alain Tadjong; Kouam, Simeon F; Specht, Sabine; Sarite, Salem Ramadan; Hoerauf, Achim; Krohn, Karsten

    2010-05-01

    The study of the chemical constituents of the stem bark of Teclea afzelii (Rutaceae) has resulted in the isolation and characterization of four furoquinoline alkaloids, namely kokusaginine (1), tecleaverdoornine (2), maculine (3) and montrifoline (4) together with lupeol (5) and beta-sitosterol glucopyranoside (6). The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated based on spectroscopic studies. The antimalarial activity of compounds 1-4 against Plasmodium falciparum in vitro shows partial suppression of parasitic growth.

  19. Alkaloids from Esenbeckia pilocarpoides.

    PubMed

    Bevalot, F; Fournet, A; Moretti, C; Vaquette, J

    1984-12-01

    A preliminary screening showed the occurrence of alkaloids only in root bark and roots of ESENBECKIA PILOCARPOIDES H. B. K., (Rutaceae). Six alkaloids have been isolated and identified from root bark: one acridone, 1-hydroxy-3-methoxy- N-methyl-acridone; four furoquinolines, maculine, flindersiamine, kokusaginine, kokusagine; the sixth, isomaculine, a furo-4-quinolone, known as a synthetic product, has been isolated for the first time from a natural source.

  20. Isolation and 2D NMR Studies of Alkaloids from Comptonella sessilifoliola1.

    PubMed

    Pusset, J; Lopez, J L; Pais, M; Neirabeyeh, M A; Veillon, J M

    1991-04-01

    Six known furanoquinoline alkaloids have been isolated from the wood and trunk bark of COMPTONELLA SESSILIFOLIOLA (Guillaumin) Hartley (Rutaceae). 2D NMR experiments gave the assignment of all the signals for both (1)H- and (13)C-NMR spectra. Pteleine and kokusaginine were used as models. The two-dimensional carbon-proton correlation experiments, performed for the first time on furanoquinoline alkaloids, led us to correct (13)C-NMR assignments previously described in the literature.

  1. Antibacterial activity of methanol extract of Ruta chalapensis (L), Quercus infectoria (Oliver) and Canthium parviflorum (Lam)

    PubMed Central

    Priya, P. Sathiya; Sasikumar, J.M.; Gowsigan, G.

    2009-01-01

    The present study aimed at evaluating the antibacterial activity of methanol extract of Ruta chalapensis, L., (Rutaceae), Quercus infectoria Oliver., (Fagaceae) and Canthium parviflorum Lam., (Rubiaceae) against Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterococcus faecalis, Klebsiella oxytocoa, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Proteus mirabilis. The experiment was carried out using disc diffusion method. The results revealed that the methanol extract of aerial parts of Ruta chalepensis (L) presented the highest zone of inhibition against tested pathogens. Other plants showed significant zone of inhibition. PMID:22557348

  2. New limonoids from Hortia oreadica and unexpected coumarin from H. superba using chromatography over cleaning Sephadex with sodium hypochlorite.

    PubMed

    Severino, Vanessa G P; de Freitas, Sâmya D L; Braga, Patrícia A C; Forim, Moacir Rossi; das G F da Silva, M Fátima; Fernandes, João B; Vieira, Paulo C; Venâncio, Tiago

    2014-08-12

    Previous investigations of H. oreadica reported the presence of a wide spectrum of complex limonoids and dihydrocinnamic acids. Our interest in the Rutaceae motivated a reinvestigation of H. oreadica, H. brasiliana and H. superba searching for other secondary metabolites present in substantial amounts for taxonomic analysis. In a continuation of the investigation of the H. oreadica, three new limonoids have now been isolated 9α-hydroxyhortiolide A, 11β-hydroxyhortiolide C and 1(S*)-acetoxy-7(R*)-hydroxy-7-deoxoinchangin. All the isolated compounds from the Hortia species reinforce its position in the Rutaceae. With regard to limonoids the genus produces highly specialized compounds, whose structural variations do not occur in any other member of the Rutaceae, thus, it is evident from limonoid data that Hortia takes an isolated position within the family. In addition, H. superba afforded the unexpected coumarin 5-chloro-8-methoxy-psoralen, which may not be a genuine natural product. Solid-state cross-polarisation/magic-angle-spinning 13C nuclear magnetic resonance, X-Ray fluorescence and Field-emission gun scanning electron microscopy experiments show that the Sephadex LH-20 was modified after treatment with NaOCl, suggesting that when xanthotoxin (8-methoxy-psoralen) was extracted from cleaning of the gel column, chlorination of the aromatic system occurred.

  3. Adulticidal and repellent properties of indigenous plant extracts against Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Sivakumar, Rajamohan

    2012-05-01

    Several diseases are associated to the mosquito-human interaction. Mosquitoes are the carriers of severe and well-known illnesses such as malaria, arboviral encephalitis, dengue fever, chikunguniya fever, West Nile virus, and yellow fever. These diseases produce significant morbidity and mortality in humans and livestock around the world. The adulticidal and repellent activities of crude hexane, ethyl acetate, benzene, chloroform, and methanol extracts of leaf of Eclipta alba and Andrographis paniculata were assayed for their toxicity against two important vector mosquitoes, viz., Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae). The adult mortality was observed after 24 h of exposure. All extracts showed moderate adulticide effects; however, the highest adult mortality was found in methanol extract of A. paniculata against the adults of C. quinquefasciatus and A. aegypti with the LC(50) and LC(90) values were 149.81, 172.37 ppm and 288.12, 321.01 ppm, respectively. The results of the repellent activity of hexane, ethyl acetate, benzene, chloroform, and methanol extract of E. alba and A. paniculata plants at three different concentrations of 1.0, 2.5, and 5.0 mg/cm(2) were applied on skin of forearm in man and exposed against adult female mosquitoes. In this observation, these two plant crude extracts gave protection against mosquito bites without any allergic reaction to the test person, and also, the repellent activity is dependent on the strength of the plant extracts. These results suggest that the leaf solvent plant extracts have the potential to be used as an ideal ecofriendly approach for the control of mosquitoes. This is the first report on the mosquito adulticidal and repellent activities of the reported E. alba and A. paniculata plants.

  4. Lectotypifications of six taxa in the Boraginales (Cordiaceae and Heliotropiaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Feuillet, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A large number of specimens used as original material for the description of new species were destroyed in the bombing of the Berlin-Dahlem herbarium, B, in 1943. Six lectotypes are designated here for Cordia discolor Cham., Cordia multispicata Cham., Cordia tobagensis Urb. and its variety broadwayi Urb. in the Cordiaceae and for Tournefortia paniculata Cham. and Tournefortia ulei Vaupel in the Heliotropiaceae. PMID:27212885

  5. The genus Fleischmannia in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil and Paraguay (Eupatorieae, Asteraceae)

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Harold

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Species of the genus Fleischmannia from Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil and Paraguay are reviewed, and keys are provided that cover the species in each country. New taxa described are Fleischmannia hatschbachii, Fleischmannia matogrosensis, Fleischmannia microstemon var. paniculata from Brazil, Fleischmannia hassleri from Paraguay and Fleischmannia neei and Fleischmannia steinbachii from Bolivia, and one new combination for a Fleischmannia prasiifolia variety is provided. The additions bring the total known species of the genus to 102. PMID:26752962

  6. Ex Vivo Antioxidant Activity of Selected Medicinal Plants against Fenton Reaction-Mediated Oxidation of Biological Lipid Substrates

    PubMed Central

    Pai Kotebagilu, Namratha; Reddy Palvai, Vanitha; Urooj, Asna

    2015-01-01

    Free radical-mediated oxidation is often linked to various degenerative diseases. Biological substrates with lipids as major components are susceptible to oxygen-derived lipid peroxidation due to their composition. Lipid peroxide products act as biomarkers in evaluating the antioxidant potential of various plants and functional foods. The study focused on evaluation of the antioxidant potential of two extracts (methanol and 80% methanol) of four medicinal plants, Andrographis paniculata, Costus speciosus, Canthium parviflorum, and Abrus precatorius, against Fenton reaction-mediated oxidation of three biological lipid substrates; cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, and brain homogenate. The antioxidant activity of the extracts was measured by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances method. Also, the correlation between the polyphenol, flavonoid content, and the antioxidant activity in biological substrates was analyzed. Results indicated highest antioxidant potential by 80% methanol extract of Canthium parviflorum (97.55%), methanol extract of Andrographis paniculata (72.15%), and methanol extract of Canthium parviflorum (49.55%) in cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, and brain, respectively. The polyphenol and flavonoid contents of methanol extract of Andrographis paniculata in cholesterol (r = 0.816) and low-density lipoprotein (r = 0.948) and Costus speciosus in brain (r = 0.977, polyphenols, and r = 0.949, flavonoids) correlated well with the antioxidant activity. The findings prove the antioxidant potential of the selected medicinal plants against Fenton reaction in biological lipid substrates. PMID:26933511

  7. Larvicidal activities of three plants against filarial vector Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Rawani, Anjali; Haldar, Koyel Mallick; Ghosh, Anupam; Chandra, Goutam

    2009-10-01

    The present study was carried out to establish the larvicidal properties of crude extracts of three plants, viz. Carica papaya, Murraya paniculata and Cleistanthus collinus against Culex quinquefasciatus as target species. The relative efficacy of the plant extracts in vector control was as follows: C. papaya seed extract > M. paniculata fruit extract > M. paniculata leaf extract > C. collinus leaf extract. Result of log-probit analysis (at 95% confidence level) revealed that LC(50) and LC(95) values gradually decreased with the exposure periods similar to the result in bioassay experiment for each of the plant extract. The results of preliminary qualitative phytochemical analysis of all the plants revealed the presence of many bioactive principles such as steroids, alkaloids, terpenes, saponins, etc. that may be responsible for their biocontrol potentiality. The appropriate lethal concentrations at 24 h for each of the extracts were also studied on non-target organisms such as Diplonychus annulatum and Chironomus circumdatus, and no change in the swimming behaviour and survivality was noticed, which indicates that all the extracts are safe for the aquatic ecosystem.

  8. Revista de Documentacao de Estudos em Linguistica Teorica e Aplicada, 1999 (Journal of Documentary Studies in Linguistic Theory and Application, 1999).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbara, Leila, Ed.; Rajagopalan, Kanavillil, Ed.

    1999-01-01

    These issues include the following articles: "Portuguese Philology in Brazil" (Heitor Megale, Cesar Nardelli Cambraia); "Implications of Brazilian Portuguese Data for Current Controversies in Phonetics: Towards Sharpening Articulatory Phonology" (Eleonora Cavalconte Albano); "Morphological Studies in Brazil: Data and…

  9. Revista de Documentacao de Estudos em Liguistica Teorica e Aplicada, 1998 (Journal of Documentary Studies in Linguistic Theory and Application, 1998).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbara, Leila, Ed.; Rajagopalan, Kanavillil, Ed.

    1998-01-01

    This document consists of three issues of DELTA, comprising its entire output for 1998. DELTA is a journal of theoretical and applied linguistics and covers a wide variety of material related to language, speech, and education. The journal publishes only original research and ideas presented in the form of articles, debates, squibs, overviews,…

  10. Prolegomenos a um estudo da lingua brasileira nos terreiros de origem africana (Prolegomena to a Study of the Brazilian Language of the Voodoo Rites of African Origin).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Megenney, William W.

    Determination of the authenticity of lexical items with Sub-Saharan origin in the voodoo rites of candomble and umbanda in Brazil requires establishing a socio-historical basis for the African diaspora and the current configuration of terreiros. The terreiros demonstrate varying linguistic repertoires according to their affiliation with candomble…

  11. Estudo da Oscilação de Neutrinos Muônicos Usando Dados Atmosféricos e de Acelerador nos Experimentos MINOS e MINOS+

    SciTech Connect

    Medeiros, Michelle Mesquita de

    2015-01-01

    The MINOS (Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search) and MINOS+ experiments were designed to study neutrino oscillations using a muon neutrino beam which is detected in two different locations, in the Near Detector and in the Far Detector. The distance between the detectors allows the beam neutrinos to oscillate to a different flavor. Therefore, a disappearance of the muon neutrinos from the beam is observed in the Far Detector. The Far Detector has a special apparatus which makes possible the selection of atmospheric neutrinos and antineutrinos. These come from interactions of cosmic rays with the Earth’s atmosphere. Both detectors have a magnetic field, allowing the distiction between neutrinos and antineutrinos interactions. This thesis presents the first combined analysis of data from the MINOS and MINOS+ experiments. We have analyzed the combined neutrino energy spectrum from the complete MINOS beam data and the first, more energetic, MINOS+ beam data. The disappearance of the muon neutrinos was observed and the data has shown to be congruent with the oscillation model. Beyond that, we have measured the atmospheric oscillation parameters of the beam and atmospheric neutrinos and antineutrinos from MINOS combined with the atmospheric neutrinos and antineutrinos from MINOS+. Assuming the same oscillation parameters for both neutrinos and antineutrinos, the best fit is obtained for inverted hierarchy and lower octant with Δm2 32 = 2:37 X 10-3 eV2 and sin2 θ 23 = 0:43, and the limits m2 32 = [2,29 - 2,49] 10-3 eV2 (68%) and sin2 θ23 = 0.36 - 0.66 (90%). These results are the most precise measurement of the neutrinos mass splitting using muon neutrino disappearance data only.

  12. First report of Lecanodiaspis dendrobii Douglas, 1892 (Hemiptera: Lecanodiaspididae) and the associated parasitoid Cephaleta sp. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Marsaro Júnior, A L; Peronti, A L B G; Costa, V A; Morais, E G F; Pereira, P R V S

    2016-02-01

    Lecanodiaspis dendrobii Douglas, 1892 (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Lecanodiaspididae) and the associated parasitoid Cephaleta sp. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) are reported for the first time in Brazil. Specimens of this scale insect were collected on branches and stems of Acacia mangium Willd., Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit (Fabaceae), Morus nigra L. (Moraceae), Citrus reticulata Blanco (Rutaceae), Tectona grandis L. f. (Verbenaceae), Anacardium occidentale (Anacardiaceae), Annona squamosa L. and Xylopia aromatica (Lam.) Mart. (Annonaceae), in three municipalities of the Roraima state. All plants here mentioned are recorded for the first time as a host for L. dendrobii. Morphological characters of L. dendrobii and symptoms presented by the host plants infested by this pest are included in this work.

  13. Quinoline alkaloids from Acronychia laurifolia.

    PubMed

    Cui, B; Chai, H; Dong, Y; Horgen, F D; Hansen, B; Madulid, D A; Soejarto, D D; Farnsworth, N R; Cordell, G A; Pezzuto, J M; Kinghorn, A D

    1999-09-01

    Bioassay-directed fractionation of a root extract of Acronychia laurifolia (Rutaceae) using the KB-V1+ human tumor cell line led to the isolation of six quinoline alkaloids. One of these alkaloids is novel, namely, 2,3-methylenedioxy-4,7-dimethoxyquinoline and the other five were identified as the known compounds, evolitrine, gamma-fagarine, skimmianine, kokusaginine and maculosidine. Two known bis-tetrahydrofuran lignans, sesamolin and yangambin, were also identified. The structure of the new alkaloid was determined by spectroscopic methods. All of the isolates were evaluated against a panel of human cancer cell lines; four of the alkaloids showed weak cytotoxic activity.

  14. Biological activity of secondary metabolites from Peltostigma guatemalense.

    PubMed

    Cuca Suarez, Luis Enrique; Pattarroyo, Manuel Elkin; Lozano, Jose Manuel; Delle Monache, Franco

    2009-01-01

    Leaves and wood of Peltostigma guatemalense, a novel species of the family Rutaceae, yielded a total of 14 secondary metabolites, i.e. methyl p-hydroxy benzoate, phenylacetic acid, beta-sitosterol, lupeol, syringaresinol, scopoletin, gardenin B (1), and seven alkaloids: gamma-fagarine (2), skimmianine (3), kokusaginine (4), 7-O-isopentenyl-gamma-fagarine (5), anhydro-evoxine (6), evoxine (7) and 4-methoxy-1-methyl-quinolin-2-one (8). The compounds have been identified by spectroscopic methods. Antibacterial and antimalarial in vitro activity of the isolated compounds were also determined. Methyl p-hydroxy benzoate and quinolone (8) were the most effective on Plasmodium falciparium strains.

  15. Haplophytin B from Maclurodendron porteri.

    PubMed

    Taher, Muhammad; Susanti, Deny; Abd Hamid, Shafida; Edueng, Khadijah; Jaffri, Juliana Md; Adina, Anugerah Budipratama; Rezali, Mohamad Fazlin

    2014-01-01

    An alkaloid from Maclurodendron porteri has been isolated and characterized. Extraction process was conducted by acid-base extraction method followed by column chromatography. The structure was established by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. The compound was identified as haplophytin B which occurs commonly in the Rutaceae family. However, this is the first time this alkaloid was isolated and reported from the species. The compound showed no inhibition against Staphylococus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus cereus and Escherichia coli and no cytotoxic activity against H199 and A549 cell lines.

  16. Responses of the Asian citrus psyllid to volatiles emitted by the flushing shoots of its rutaceous host plants.

    PubMed

    Patt, J M; Sétamou, M

    2010-04-01

    Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) carries Candidatus liberibacter spp., the putative causal agents of Huanglongbing. D. citri reproduces and develops only on the flushing shoots of its rutaceous host plants. Here we examined whether D. citri is attracted to host plant odors and a mixture of synthetic terpenes. Tests conducted in a vertically oriented Y-tube olfactometer showed that both males and females preferentially entered the Y-tube arm containing the odor from the young shoots of Murraya paniculata (L.) Jack and Citrus limon L. Burm. f. cultivar Eureka. Only males exhibited a preference for the odor of C. sinensis L., whereas the odor of C. x paradisi MacFadyen cultivar Rio Red was not attractive to both sexes. The volatiles emitted by young shoots of grapefruit cultivar Rio Red, Meyer lemon (Citrus x limon L. Burm.f.), and M. paniculata were analyzed by gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry. The samples were comprised of monoterpenes, monoterpene esters, and sesquiterpenes. The number of compounds present varied from 2 to 17, whereas the total amount of sample collected over 6 h ranged from 5.6 to 119.8 ng. The quantitatively dominant constituents were (E)-beta-ocimene, linalool, linalyl acetate, and beta-caryophyllene. The attractiveness of a mixture of synthetic terpenes, modeled on the volatiles collected from M. paniculata, was evaluated in screened cages in a no-choice test. At three observation intervals, significantly more individuals were trapped on white targets scented with the mixture than on unscented targets. These results indicate the feasibility of developing D. citri attractants patterned on actual host plant volatiles.

  17. Base Exterior Architecture Plan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-02-01

    Sedlum confusum 00 2-112 Gal Hibiscus rosa-silensis 1 Gal Murraya paniculata u ,-s to be removed 1181 x 00 A.%~ ~ Of\\o SLNnkI -V- -V. Cof 1368 136 1...Carissa grandiflora Natal Plum Codlasumn variegatumn Croton 0Gardenia taitensis Tiare Gardenia DxHibiscus rosa-sinensis Hibiscus 0Impatiens sultani... Hibiscus 1 Gal. or 2-1/2 Gal. Impatiens 1 Gal. Ixora 1 Gal. no Texas Privet 5 Gal. Mock Orange 1 Gal. Oleander 1 Gal. Tobira 2-1/2 to 5 Gal. Bird of Paradise

  18. Screening of anti-dengue activity in methanolic extracts of medicinal plants

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Dengue fever regardless of its serotypes has been the most prevalent arthropod-borne viral diseases among the world population. The development of a dengue vaccine is complicated by the antibody-dependent enhancement effect. Thus, the development of a plant-based antiviral preparation promises a more potential alternative in combating dengue disease. Methods Present studies investigated the antiviral effects of standardised methanolic extracts of Andrographis paniculata, Citrus limon, Cymbopogon citratus, Momordica charantia, Ocimum sanctum and Pelargonium citrosum on dengue virus serotype 1 (DENV-1). Results O. sanctum contained 88.6% of total flavonoids content, an amount that was the highest among all the six plants tested while the least was detected in M. charantia. In this study, the maximum non-toxic dose (MNTD) of the six medicinal plants was determined by testing the methanolic extracts against Vero E6 cells in vitro. Studies also determined that the MNTD of methanolic extract was in the decreasing order of M. charantia >C. limon >P. citrosum, O. sanctum >A. paniculata >C. citratus. Antiviral assay based on cytopathic effects (CPE) denoted by degree of inhibition upon treating DENV1-infected Vero E6 cells with MNTD of six medicinal plants showed that A. paniculata has the most antiviral inhibitory effects followed by M. charantia. These results were further verified with an in vitro inhibition assay using MTT, in which 113.0% and 98.0% of cell viability were recorded as opposed to 44.6% in DENV-1 infected cells. Although methanolic extracts of O. sanctum and C. citratus showed slight inhibition effect based on CPE, a significant inhibition was not reflected in MTT assay. Methanolic extracts of C. limon and P. citrosum did not prevent cytopathic effects or cell death from DENV-1. Conclusions The methanol extracts of A. paniculata and M. charantia possess the ability of inhibiting the activity of DENV-1 in in vitro assays. Both of these plants are

  19. Study on THz spectra of the active ingredients in the TCM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, ShiHua; Wang, WenFeng; Liu, GuiFeng; Ge, Min; Zhu, ZhiYong

    2008-03-01

    Terahertz spectroscopy has tremendous potential for applications to evaluate the quality of the drugs including the TCM. In this paper, the Terahertz Time-Domain Spectroscopy investigated two active ingredients: Andrographolide and Dehydroandrographoline, isolated from Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f.) Nees. We also measured the mixtures of two active ingredients at the different ratio and the quantitative analysis is also applied to determine the contents of compound. The Terahertz spectroscopy is a potential and promising technique in identifying the components, evaluating the drugs sanitation and inspecting the quality of medicine including TCM.

  20. Comparative study of the assay of Artemia salina L. and the estimate of the medium lethal dose (LD50 value) in mice, to determine oral acute toxicity of plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Logarto Parra, A; Silva Yhebra, R; Guerra Sardiñas, I; Iglesias Buela, L

    2001-09-01

    Artemia salina L. (Artemiidae), the brine shrimp larva, is an invertebrate used in the alternative test to determine toxicity of chemical and natural products. In this study the Medium Lethal Concentrations (LC50 value) of 20 plant extracts, Aloe vera (L.) Burm. F. (Aloeaceae), Artemisia absinthium L. (Asteraceae); Citrus aurantium L. (Rutaceae); Cymbopogon citratus (DC. Ex Nees) Stapf (Poaceae); Datura stramonium L. (Solanaceae); Justicia pectoralis Jacq. (Acanthaceae); Musa x paradisiaca L. (Musaceae); Ocimum basilicum L.; O. gratissimum L.; O. tenuiflorum L. (Lamiaceae); Pimenta dioica (L.) Merr. (Myrtaceae); Piper auritum Kunth (Piperaceae); Plantago major L. (Plantaginaceae); Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng. (Lamiaceae); Ruta graveolens L. (Rutaceae); Senna alata (L.) Roxb. (Fabaceae); Stachytarpheta jamaicensis (L.) Vahl (Verbenaceae); and Thuja occidentalis L. (Cupressaceae), were determined using Artemia salina L. (Artemiidae), with the objective of relating the results to the LD50 values reported in mice (tested at three concentrations: 10, 100, and 1000 microg/mL, for each extract). We found good correlation between the in vivo and the in vitro tests (r = 0.85 p < 0.05), and this method is a useful tool for predicting oral acute toxicity in plant extracts.

  1. To What Extent Local Forest Soil Pollen Can Assist Restoration in Subtropical China?

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Zhongyu; Wang, Jun; Ren, Hai; Guo, Qinfeng; Shu, Junwu; Liu, Nan

    2016-01-01

    Long-term ecological data play a vital role in ecological conservation and restoration, however, using information from local forest soil pollen data to assist restoration remains a challenge. This study analyzed two data sets, including 1) surface soil pollen (0–5 cm) and current vegetation data from four near-natural communities and four plantations, and 2) fossil pollen from soil profiles (0–80 cm) from a regional climax community and a degraded land. The pollen representativeness and similarity indexes were calculated. The results showed a low similarity between soil pollen and current vegetation (about 20%) thus forest soil pollen data should be used with caution when defining reference ecosystems. Pollen from Gironniera and Rutaceae which were abundant in broadleaved forest, were also detected in the 40–80 cm layer of a soil profile from the degraded land, which indicates its restoration possibility. Our study considered that the early restoration stage of the study area may benefit from using plant taxa of Pinus, Poaceae, Lonicera, Casuarina, Trema and Quercus. As Pinus, Castanopsis, Gironniera, Rutaceae, Helicia, Randia, Poaceae, Dicranopteris and Pteris always existed during succession, for regional forest restoration under global climate change, the roles of such “stable species” should be considered. PMID:27857187

  2. To What Extent Local Forest Soil Pollen Can Assist Restoration in Subtropical China?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Zhongyu; Wang, Jun; Ren, Hai; Guo, Qinfeng; Shu, Junwu; Liu, Nan

    2016-11-01

    Long-term ecological data play a vital role in ecological conservation and restoration, however, using information from local forest soil pollen data to assist restoration remains a challenge. This study analyzed two data sets, including 1) surface soil pollen (0–5 cm) and current vegetation data from four near-natural communities and four plantations, and 2) fossil pollen from soil profiles (0–80 cm) from a regional climax community and a degraded land. The pollen representativeness and similarity indexes were calculated. The results showed a low similarity between soil pollen and current vegetation (about 20%) thus forest soil pollen data should be used with caution when defining reference ecosystems. Pollen from Gironniera and Rutaceae which were abundant in broadleaved forest, were also detected in the 40–80 cm layer of a soil profile from the degraded land, which indicates its restoration possibility. Our study considered that the early restoration stage of the study area may benefit from using plant taxa of Pinus, Poaceae, Lonicera, Casuarina, Trema and Quercus. As Pinus, Castanopsis, Gironniera, Rutaceae, Helicia, Randia, Poaceae, Dicranopteris and Pteris always existed during succession, for regional forest restoration under global climate change, the roles of such “stable species” should be considered.

  3. A Method for LC-MS/MS Profiling of Coumarins in Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides (Lam.) B. Zepernich and Timler Extracts and Essential Oils.

    PubMed

    Tine, Yoro; Renucci, Franck; Costa, Jean; Wélé, Alassane; Paolini, Julien

    2017-01-22

    The metabolites from the coumarin class, present in tissues of plants belonging mainly to the Rutaceae and Apiaceae families, included compounds with high chemical diversity such as simple coumarins and furocoumarins. These health-promoting components are recognized for their valuable biological activities in herbal preparations but also for their phototoxic effects. In this work, a targeted liquid chromatography (LC) coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (MS²) was developed for the screening of 39 reference standards of coumarins and furocoumarins in essential oils and plant extracts. Chromatographic separation was accomplished on reversed phase column using water/acetonitrile as the mobile phase and detection was performed on a hybrid QqQ/linear ion trap spectrometer fitted with an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) source operating in positive ion mode. This analytical approach was applied to investigate the coumarin compositions of fruit essential oils and methanolic extracts obtained from separated parts (fruit, leaf, stem, trunk, and root) of Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides. Ten coumarins and six furanocoumarins were reported in this species and data analyses were used to assess the suitability of these compounds to the metabolomics-based differentiation of plant organs. The quantification criteria of the metabolites in extract samples included linearity, limit of quantification, limit of detection, and matrix effect were validated. As reported for other species of the Rutaceae family, the concentration of coumarins was drastically higher in Z. zanthoxyloides fruits than in other plant organs.

  4. To What Extent Local Forest Soil Pollen Can Assist Restoration in Subtropical China?

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhongyu; Wang, Jun; Ren, Hai; Guo, Qinfeng; Shu, Junwu; Liu, Nan

    2016-11-18

    Long-term ecological data play a vital role in ecological conservation and restoration, however, using information from local forest soil pollen data to assist restoration remains a challenge. This study analyzed two data sets, including 1) surface soil pollen (0-5 cm) and current vegetation data from four near-natural communities and four plantations, and 2) fossil pollen from soil profiles (0-80 cm) from a regional climax community and a degraded land. The pollen representativeness and similarity indexes were calculated. The results showed a low similarity between soil pollen and current vegetation (about 20%) thus forest soil pollen data should be used with caution when defining reference ecosystems. Pollen from Gironniera and Rutaceae which were abundant in broadleaved forest, were also detected in the 40-80 cm layer of a soil profile from the degraded land, which indicates its restoration possibility. Our study considered that the early restoration stage of the study area may benefit from using plant taxa of Pinus, Poaceae, Lonicera, Casuarina, Trema and Quercus. As Pinus, Castanopsis, Gironniera, Rutaceae, Helicia, Randia, Poaceae, Dicranopteris and Pteris always existed during succession, for regional forest restoration under global climate change, the roles of such "stable species" should be considered.

  5. R-(-)-{beta}-O-methylsynephrine, a natural product, inhibits VEGF-induced angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Nam Hee; Pham, Ngoc Bich; Quinn, Ronald J.; Kwon, Ho Jeong

    2010-08-13

    Research highlights: {yields} R-(-)-{beta}-O-methylsynephrine (OMe-Syn) is a natural compound isolated from a plant of the Rutaceae family. {yields} OMe-Syn possesses lead-like physicochemical properties, conferring good solubility. {yields} OMe-Syn effectively inhibited VEGF-induced angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo. {yields} OMe-Syn could be a novel basis for a small molecule targeting angiogenesis. -- Abstract: R-(-)-{beta}-O-methylsynephrine (OMe-Syn) is an active compound isolated from a plant of the Rutaceae family. We conducted cell proliferation assays on various cell lines and found that OMe-Syn more strongly inhibited the growth of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) than that of other normal and cancer cell lines tested. In angiogenesis assays, it inhibited vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced invasion and tube formation of HUVECs with no toxicity. The anti-angiogenic activity of OMe-Syn was also validated in vivo using the chorioallantonic membrane (CAM) assay in growing chick embryos. Expression of the growth factors VEGF, hepatocyte growth factor, and basic fibroblast growth factor was suppressed by OMe-Syn in a dose-dependent manner. Taken together, our results indicate that this compound could be a novel basis for a small molecule targeting angiogenesis.

  6. Screening of plants acting against Heterometrus laoticus scorpion venom activity on fibroblast cell lysis.

    PubMed

    Uawonggul, Nunthawun; Chaveerach, Arunrat; Thammasirirak, Sompong; Arkaravichien, Tarinee; Chuachan, Chattong; Daduang, Sakda

    2006-01-16

    The aqueous extracts of 64 plant species, listed as animal- or insect-bite antidotes in old Thai drug recipes were screened for their activity against fibroblast cell lysis after Heterometrus laoticus scorpion venom treatment. The venom was preincubated with plant extract for 30 min and furthered treated to confluent fibroblast cells for 30 min. More than 40% efficiency (test/control) was obtained from cell treatment with venom preincubated with extracts of Andrographis paniculata Nees (Acanthaceae), Barringtonia acutangula (L.) Gaertn. (Lecythidaceae), Calamus sp. (Palmae), Clinacanthus nutans Lindau (Acanthaceae), Euphorbia neriifolia L. (Euphorbiaceae), Ipomoea aquatica Forssk (Convolvulaceae), Mesua ferrea L. (Guttiferae), Passiflora laurifolia L. (Passifloraceae), Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng. (Labiatae), Ricinus communis L. (Euphorbiaceae), Rumex sp. (Polygonaceae) and Sapindus rarak DC. (Sapindaceae), indicating that they had a tendency to be scorpion venom antidotes. However, only Andrographis paniculata and Barringtonia acutangula extracts provided around 50% viable cells from extract treatments without venom preincubation. These two plant extracts are expected to be scorpion venom antidotes with low cytotoxicity.

  7. Discrete wetland groundwater discharges revealed with a three-dimensional temperature model and botanical indicators (Boxford, UK)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    House, Andrew R.; Sorensen, James P. R.; Gooddy, Daren C.; Newell, Andrew J.; Marchant, Ben; Mountford, J. Owen; Scarlett, Peter; Williams, Peter J.; Old, Gareth H.

    2015-03-01

    Wetlands provide unique goods and services, as habitats of high biodiversity. Hydrology is the principal control on wetland functioning; hence, understanding the water source is fundamental. However, groundwater inflows may be discrete and easily missed. Research techniques are required with low cost and minimal impact in sensitive settings. In this study, the effectiveness of using a three-dimensional (3D) temperature model and botanical indicators to characterise groundwater discharge is explored at the CEH (Centre for Ecology and Hydrology) River Lambourn Observatory, Boxford, UK. This comprises a 10 ha lowland riparian wetland, designated for its scientific interest and conservation value. Temperature data were collected in winter at multiple depths down to 0.9 m over approximately 3.6 ha and transformed into a 3D model via ordinary kriging. Anomalous warm zones indicated distinct areas of groundwater upwelling which were concurrent with relic channel structures. Lateral heat propagation from the channels was minimal and restricted to within 5-10 m. Vertical temperature sections within the channels suggest varying degrees of groundwater discharge along their length. Hydrochemical analysis showed that warmer peat waters were akin to deeper aquifer waters, confirming the temperature anomalies as areas of groundwater discharge. Subsequently, a targeted vegetation survey identified Carex paniculata as an indicator of groundwater discharge. The upwelling groundwater contains high concentrations of nitrate which is considered to support the spatially restricted growth of Carex paniculata against a background of poor fen communities located in reducing higher-phosphate waters.

  8. Host plant affects morphometric variation of Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae)

    PubMed Central

    Paris, Thomson M.; Hall, David G.; Hentz, Matthew G.; Hetesy, Gabriella; Stansly, Philip A.

    2016-01-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, is one of the most serious citrus pests worldwide due to its role as vector of huanglongbing or citrus greening disease. While some optimal plant species for ACP oviposition and development have been identified, little is known of the influence of host plants on ACP size and shape. Our goal was to determine how size and shape of ACP wing and body size varies when development occurs on different host plants in a controlled rearing environment. ACP were reared on six different rutaceous species; Bergera koenigii, Citrus aurantifolia, Citrus macrophylla, Citrus maxima, Citrus taiwanica and Murraya paniculata. Adults were examined for morphometric variation using traditional and geometric analysis based on 12 traits or landmarks. ACP reared on C. taiwanica were consistently smaller than those reared on the other plant species. Wing aspect ratio also differed between C. maxima and C. taiwanica. Significant differences in shape were detected with those reared on M. paniculata having narrower wings than those reared on C. macrophylla. This study provides evidence of wing size and shape differences of ACP based on host plant species which potentially may impact dispersal. Further study is needed to determine if behavioral and physiological differences are associated with the observed phenotypic differences. PMID:27833820

  9. Increased snow facilitates plant invasion in mixedgrass prairie.

    PubMed

    Blumenthlal, D; Chimner, R A; Welker, J M; Morgan, J A

    2008-07-01

    Although global change is known to influence plant invasion, little is known about interactions between altered precipitation and invasion. In the North American mixedgrass prairie, invasive species are often abundant in wet and nitrogen (N)-rich areas, suggesting that predicted changes in precipitation and N deposition could exacerbate invasion. Here, this possibility was tested by seeding six invasive species into experimental plots of mixedgrass prairie treated with a factorial combination of increased snow, summer irrigation, and N addition. Without added snow, seeded invasive species were rarely observed. Snow addition increased average above-ground biomass of Centaurea diffusa from 0.026 to 66 g m(-2), of Gypsophila paniculata from 0.1 to 7.3 g m(-2), and of Linaria dalmatica from 5 to 101 g m(-2). Given added snow, summer irrigation increased the density of G. paniculata, and N addition increased the density and biomass of L. dalmatica. Plant density responses mirrored those of plant biomass, indicating that increases in biomass resulted, in part, from increases in recruitment. In contrast to seeded invasive species, resident species did not respond to snow addition. These results suggest that increases in snowfall or variability of snowfall may exacerbate forb invasion in the mixedgrass prairie.

  10. Strong synergistic induction of CYP1A1 expression by andrographolide plus typical CYP1A inducers in mouse hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Jaruchotikamol, Atika; Jarukamjorn, Kanokwan Sirisangtrakul, Wanna; Sakuma, Tsutomu; Kawasaki, Yuki; Nemoto, Nobuo

    2007-10-15

    The effects of andrographolide, the major diterpenoid constituent of Andrographis paniculata, on the expression of cytochrome P450 superfamily 1 members, including CYP1A1, CYP1A2, and CYP1B1, as well as on aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) expression in primary cultures of mouse hepatocytes were investigated in comparison with the effects of typical CYP1A inducers, including benz[a]anthracene, {beta}-naphthoflavone, and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin. Andrographolide significantly induced the expression of CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 mRNAs in a concentration-dependent manner, as did the typical CYP1A inducers, but did not induce that of CYP1B1 or AhR. Interestingly, andrographolide plus the typical CYP1A inducers synergistically induced CYP1A1 expression, and the synergism was blocked by an AhR antagonist, resveratrol. The CYP1A1 enzyme activity showed a similar pattern of induction. This is the first report that shows that andrographolide has a potency to induce CYP1A1 enzyme and indicates that andrographolide could be a very useful compound for investigating the regulatory mechanism of the CYP1A1 induction pathway. In addition, our findings suggest preparing advice for rational administration of A. paniculata, according to its ability to induce CYP1A1 expression.

  11. Analgesic, antipyretic, anti-inflammatory and toxic effects of andrographolide derivatives in experimental animals.

    PubMed

    Suebsasana, Supawadee; Pongnaratorn, Panicha; Sattayasai, Jintana; Arkaravichien, Tarinee; Tiamkao, Siriporn; Aromdee, Chantana

    2009-09-01

    Andrographolide (1) and 14-deoxy-11,12-didehydroandrographolide (2) are active constituents of Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f.), family Acanthaceae. A. paniculata extracts are reported to have antiviral, antipyretic, immunostimulant and anticancer activities. In this study, 1 and its 14-acetyl- (4) and 3,19-isopropylidenyl- (3) derivatives, as well as 2 and its 3,19-dipalmitoyl-derivative (5), were intraperitoneally tested for their analgesic, antipyretic, anti-inflammatory and acute toxicity effects in animal models. Analgesic effects were tested in mice using hot plate and writhing tests to distinguish the central and peripheral effects, respectively. The results showed that, at 4 mg/kg, all tested substances have significant analgesic effects, and the highest potency was seen with 3, 4 and 5. Increasing the dose of 3 and 5 to 8 mg/kg did not increase the analgesic effect. In the writhing test, 3 and 5, but not 1, showed significant results. In a baker's yeast-induced fever model, 3 and 5 significantly reduced rats' rectal temperature (p < 0.05). In a carrageenan-induced inflammation model, 1, 3 and 5 significantly reduced rats' paw volume. Doses of 3 and 5 up to 100 mg/kg did not show any serious toxic effects. From this study, 3 and 5 are the most interesting derivatives, showing much greater potency than their parent compounds. These could be further developed as analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory agents, without any serious toxicity.

  12. Eco-toxicological effects of two kinds of lead compounds on forest tree seed in alkaline soil.

    PubMed

    Yang, Nan; Zhou, Fu-Rong; Wang, Jin-Xin

    2016-03-01

    In order to compare the different eco-toxicological effects of lead nitrate and lead acetate on forest tree seed, a biological incubation experiment was conducted to testify the inhibition effects of two lead compounds on rates of seed germination, root and stem elongation, and seedling fresh weight for six plants (Amaorpha fruticosa L., Robinia psedoacacia L., Pinus tabuliformis Carr., Platycladus orientalis L., Koelreuteria paniculata Laxm., Hippophae rhamnoides L.) in soil. The results indicate that the inhibition effects of the two lead compounds on the rates of root elongation of plants were greater than other indices; root elongation can possibly be used as indices to investigate the relationship between lead toxicity and plant response. The response of trees to lead toxicity varied significantly, and the order of tolerance to lead pollution was as follows: Amaorpha fruticosa L. > Platycladus orientalis L. > Koelreuteria paniculata Laxm. > Robinia psedoacacia L. > Pinus tabuliformis Carr. > Hippophae rhamnoides L. Therefore, we suggest that Amaorpha fruticosa L. and Platycladus orientalis L. be used as tolerant plants for soil phytoremediation and Hippophae rhamnoides L. as an indicative plant to diagnose the toxicity of lead pollution on soil quality. Lead nitrate and lead acetate differentially restrain seeds, with seeds being more sensitive to lead nitrate than lead acetate in the soil. Thus, the characteristics of lead compounds should be taken into full consideration to appraise its impact on the environment.

  13. Accumulation and function of trigonelline in non-leguminous plants.

    PubMed

    Ashihara, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Shin

    2014-06-01

    As part of our studies of the occurrence, biosynthesis, function and human use of trigonelline, we looked at trigonelline-accumulating plant species and at the distribution of trigonelline in different organs of trigonelline-accumulating non-leguminous plants. There are many trigonelline-synthesizing plant species, but apart from legume seeds only a few species accumulate high concentrations of trigonelline. We have found only three species that accumulate high levels of trigonelline: Murraya paniculata (orange jessamine), Coffea arabica (coffee) and Mirabilisjalapa (four o'clock flower). Trigonelline was found in all parts of Murraya paniculata seedlings at 4-13 micromol/g fresh weight; more than 70% was distributed in the leaves. In the coffee plant, trigonelline was found in all organs, and the concentrations in the upper stems, including tips (48 micromol/g FW) and seeds (26 micromol/g FW), were higher than in other organs. In Mirabilis jalapa plants, trigonelline was found in leaves, stems, flowers, roots and seeds; the concentration varied from 0.3 to 13 micromol/g FW and was generally higher in young tissues than in mature tissues, except for seeds. Exogenously supplied nicotinamide increases the trigonelline content. The in planta role of trigonelline and the possible use oftrigonelline-accumulating plants in herbal medicine are discussed.

  14. Host plant affects morphometric variation of Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae).

    PubMed

    Paris, Thomson M; Allan, Sandra A; Hall, David G; Hentz, Matthew G; Hetesy, Gabriella; Stansly, Philip A

    2016-01-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, is one of the most serious citrus pests worldwide due to its role as vector of huanglongbing or citrus greening disease. While some optimal plant species for ACP oviposition and development have been identified, little is known of the influence of host plants on ACP size and shape. Our goal was to determine how size and shape of ACP wing and body size varies when development occurs on different host plants in a controlled rearing environment. ACP were reared on six different rutaceous species; Bergera koenigii, Citrus aurantifolia, Citrus macrophylla, Citrus maxima, Citrus taiwanica and Murraya paniculata. Adults were examined for morphometric variation using traditional and geometric analysis based on 12 traits or landmarks. ACP reared on C. taiwanica were consistently smaller than those reared on the other plant species. Wing aspect ratio also differed between C. maxima and C. taiwanica. Significant differences in shape were detected with those reared on M. paniculata having narrower wings than those reared on C. macrophylla. This study provides evidence of wing size and shape differences of ACP based on host plant species which potentially may impact dispersal. Further study is needed to determine if behavioral and physiological differences are associated with the observed phenotypic differences.

  15. Estudo de perturbações orbitais de satélites artificiais, considerando ressonância, através de transformações canônicas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilhena de Moraes, R.

    2003-08-01

    Aplicações recentes de satélites artificiais, principalmente aquelas com finalidades geodinâmicas ou altimétricas, requerem órbitas determinadas com bastante precisão. Em particular os satélites do sistema GPS, que têm sido envolvidos direta ou indiretamente em tais problemas, necessitam de ter suas órbitas muito bem conhecidas. As órbitas dos satélites GPS tem uma peculiaridade: o período orbital está em comensurabilidade 2: 1, aproximada, com o período de rotação da Terra. A existência de ressonâncias faz com que métodos usuais de teoria de perturbações não possam ser usados para se estudar órbitas com esta característica. No presente trabalho são apresentados dois processos para se estudar tal problema. Para tanto o sistema dinâmico que descreve o movimento orbital de satélites artificiais, perturbado por forças que derivem ou não de um potencial, incluindo ressonância, é inicialmente colocado em forma canônica estendida. Um dos processos apresentado é baseado na teoria de Lie-Hori e o outro em uma seqüência de transformações canônicas. Perturbações devidas ao geopotencial, ao arrasto atmosférico, à pressão de radiação solar direta (incluindo o efeito da sobra) e à ressonâncias do movimento orbital com o movimento de rotação da Terra são consideradas. Neste trabalho, sucintamente, os dois processos originais desenvolvidos em colaboração com o autor são apresentados. Simulações são feitas mostrando o efeito da ressonâncias 2: 1 na evolução temporal de elementos orbitais de satélites artificiais. Exemplos são exibidos para diversas órbitas considerando-se diferentes excentricidades e inclinações, incluindo às do tipo GPS.

  16. The effect of Eurycoma longifolia on sperm quality of male rats.

    PubMed

    Chan, Kit-Lam; Low, Bin-Seng; Teh, Chin-Hoe; Das, Prashanta K

    2009-10-01

    The present study investigated the effects of a standardized methanol extract of E. longifolia Jack containing the major quassinoid constituents of 13alpha(21)-epoxyeurycomanone (1), eurycomanone (2), 13alpha,21-dihydroeurycomanone (3) and eurycomanol (4) on the epididymal spermatozoa profile of normal and Andrographis paniculata induced infertile rats. The standardized MeOH extract at doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg, the EtOAc fraction (70 mg/kg), and standardized MeOH extract at 200 mg/kg co-administered with the EtOAc fraction of A. paniculata at 70 mg/kg were each given orally to male Sprague-Dawley albino rats for 48 consecutive days. The spermatozoa count, morphology, motility, plasma testosterone level and Leydig cell count of the animals were statistically analyzed by ANOVA with a post-hoc Tukey HSD test. The results showed that the sperm count of rats given the standardized MeOH extract alone at doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg were increased by 78.9, 94.3 and 99.2%, respectively when compared with that of control (p < 0.01). The low count, poor motility and abnormal morphology of the spermatozoa induced by the A. paniculata fraction were significantly reversed by the standardized MeOH extract of E. longifolia (p < 0.001). The plasma testosterone level of the rats treated with the standardized MeOH extract at 200 mg/kg was significantly increased (p < 0.01) when compared with that of the control and infertile animals. The spermatocytes in the seminiferous tubules and the Leydig cells appeared normal. Testosterone level was significantly higher in the testes (p < 0.01) than in the plasma after 30 days of oral treatment with the standardized MeOH extract. Interestingly, eurycomanone (2) alone was detected in the rat testis homogenates by HPLC-UV and confirmed by LC/MS, and may have contributed towards the improvement of sperm quality. Thus, the plant may potentially be suitable for the management of male infertility.

  17. Fungistatic activity of Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam. bark extracts against fungal plant pathogens and investigation on mechanism of action in Botrytis cinerea.

    PubMed

    Carotenuto, Gennaro; Carrieri, Raffaele; Tarantino, Paola; Alfieri, Mariaevelina; Leone, Antonella; De Tommasi, Nunziatina; Lahoz, Ernesto

    2015-01-01

    Plant-derived compounds are emerging as an alternative choice to synthetic fungicides. Chloroform-methanol extract, obtained from the bark of Zanthoxylum rhoifolium, a member of Rutaceae, showed a fungistatic effect on Botrytis cinerea, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Alternaria alternata, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Clonostachys rosea, when added to the growth medium at different concentrations. A fraction obtained by gel separation and containing the alkaloid O-Methylcapaurine showed significant fungistatic effect against B. cinerea and S. sclerotiorum, two of the most destructive phytopathogenic fungi. The underlying mechanism of such an inhibition was further investigated in B. cinerea, a fungus highly prone to develop fungicide resistance, by analysing the expression levels of a set of genes (BcatrB, P450, CYP51 and TOR). O-Methylcapaurine inhibited the expression of all the analysed genes. In particular, the expression of BcatrB gene, encoding a membrane drug transporter involved in the resistance to a wide range of xenobiotic compounds, was strongly inhibited (91%).

  18. Validation of use of a traditional antimalarial remedy from French Guiana, Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam.

    PubMed

    Jullian, V; Bourdy, G; Georges, S; Maurel, S; Sauvain, M

    2006-07-19

    Zanthoxylum rhoifolium bark (Rutaceae) is a medicinal plant, traditionally used in French Guiana to treat and prevent malaria. Bioassay-guided extractions of Zanthoxylum rhoifolium bark have shown that antiplasmodial activity is concentrated in the alkaloid fraction. Further fractionation of this extract has yielded seven benzophenanthridine alkaloids, dihydroavicine 1, dihydronitidine 2, oxyavicine 3, oxynitidine 4, fagaridine 5, avicine 6 and nitidine 7. Antimalarial activity of the last five compounds has been evaluated, and nitidine was the most potent, displaying an IC(50)<0.27microM against Plasmodium falciparum. Investigation of the traditional remedy, a trunk bark decoction in water, has shown that fagaridine 5, avicine 6 and nitidine 7 are also present in the decoction, therefore justifying the traditional use of Zanthoxylumrhoifolium bark as antimalarial.

  19. Methylenedioxy- and methoxyflavones from Melicope coodeana syn. Euodia simplex.

    PubMed

    Simonsen, Henrik T; Larsen, Michael D; Nielsen, Merete W; Adsersen, Anne; Olsen, Carl Erik; Strasberg, Dominique; Smitt, Ulla W; Jaroszewski, Jerzy W

    2002-08-01

    Three new natural products, 3,8-dimethoxy-5,7-dihydroxy-3',4'-methylenedioxyflavone, 3,6,8-trimethoxy-5,7-dihydroxy-3',4'-methylenedioxyflavone and 3,6,8,3',4'-pentamethoxy-5,7-dihydroxyflavone were isolated from Melicope coodeana syn. Euodia simplex (Rutaceae) along with 3,6,3'-trimethoxy-5,7,4'-trihydroxyflavone and 3,3'-dimethoxy-5,7,4'-trihydroxyflavone. The structural assignments are based on (1)H and (13)C NMR data, including discussion of the chemical shifts of C-2 in 3,5-dihydroxy- and 3-methoxy-5-hydroxyflavones. The presence of highly methoxylated and methylenedioxyflavones is characteristic of the genus Melicope, and the present findings support the recent transfer of Euodia simplex to Melicope.

  20. Biosynthesis and Biotechnology of High-Value p-Menthane Monoterpenes, Including Menthol, Carvone, and Limonene.

    PubMed

    Lange, Bernd Markus

    2015-01-01

    Monoterpenes of the p-menthane group are volatile secondary (or specialized) metabolites found across the plant kingdom. They are dominant constituents of commercially important essential oils obtained from members of the genera Mentha (Lamiaceae), Carum (Apiaceae), Citrus (Rutaceae), and Eucalyptus (Myrtaceae). p-Menthane monoterpenes have also attracted interest as chiral specialty chemicals, and the harvest from natural sources is therefore supplemented by chemical synthesis. More recently, microbial and plant-based platforms for the high-level accumulation of specific target monoterpenes have been developed. In this review chapter, I discuss the properties of the genes and enzymes involved in p-menthane biosynthesis and provide a critical assessment of biotechnological production approaches.

  1. Molecular cloning, functional expression and characterization of (E)-beta farnesene synthase from Citrus junos.

    PubMed

    Maruyama, T; Ito, M; Honda, G

    2001-10-01

    We cloned the gene of the acyclic sesquiterpene synthase, (E)-beta-farnesene synthase (CJFS) from Yuzu (Citrus junos, Rutaceae). The function of CJFS was elucidated by the preparation of recombinant protein and subsequent enzyme assay. CJFS consisted of 1867 nucleotides including 1680 bp of coding sequence encoding a protein of 560 amino acids with a molecular weight of 62 kDa. The deduced amino acid sequence possessed characteristic amino acid residues, such as the DDxxD motif, which are highly conserved among terpene synthases. This is the first report of the cloning of a terpene synthase from a Rutaceous plant. A possible reaction mechanism for terpene biosynthesis is also discussed on the basis of sequence comparison of CJFS with known sesquiterpene synthase genes.

  2. Citrus bergamia essential oil: from basic research to clinical application.

    PubMed

    Navarra, Michele; Mannucci, Carmen; Delbò, Marisa; Calapai, Gioacchino

    2015-01-01

    Citrus bergamia Risso et Poiteau, also known as "Bergamot," is a plant belonging to the Rutaceae family, defined as a hybrid of bitter orange and lemon. It is an endemic plant of the Calabria region (Italy). Bergamot fruit is primarily used for the extraction of its essential oil (bergamot essential oil: BEO), employed in perfume, cosmetics, food, and confections. The aim of this review was to collect recent data from the literature on C. bergamia essential oil and, through a critical analysis, focus on safety and the beneficial effects on human health. Clinical studies on the therapeutic applications of BEO exclusively focus on the field of aromatherapy, suggesting that its use can be useful for reducing anxiety and stress.

  3. Inhibitory effects of furoquinoline alkaloids from Melicope confusa and Dictamnus albus against human phosphodiesterase 5 (hPDE5A) in vitro.

    PubMed

    Nam, Kung-Woo; Je, Kang-Hoon; Shin, Young-Jun; Kang, Sam Sik; Mar, Woongchon

    2005-06-01

    Eight furoquinoline alkaloids were purified from two plants belonging to the Rutaceae family. Kokusaginine, skimmianine, evolitrine, and confusameline were purified from Melicope confusa, and haplopine, robustine, dictamine, and gamma-fagarine from Dictamnus albus. In this study, the eight furoquinoline alkaloids were examined for inhibitory potency against human phosphodiesterase 5 (hPDE5A) in vitro. DNA encoding the catalytic domain of human PDE5A was amplified from the mRNA of T24 cells by RT-PCR and was fused to GST in an expression vector. GST-tagged PDE5A was then purified by glutathione affinity chromatography and used in inhibition assays. Of the eight alkaloids, gamma-fagarine was the most potent inhibitor of PDE5A, and its single methoxy group at the C-8 position was shown to be critical for inhibitory activity. These results clearly illustrate the relationship between PDE5A inhibition and the methoxy group position in furoquinoline alkaloids.

  4. In vitro antiplasmodial activity of extract and constituents from Esenbeckia febrifuga, a plant traditionally used to treat malaria in the Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Dolabela, Maria Fâni; Oliveira, Salma G; Nascimento, José Maria; Peres, José Maria; Wagner, Hildebert; Póvoa, Marinete Marins; de Oliveira, Alaíde Braga

    2008-05-01

    Esenbeckia febrifuga (Rutaceae) is a plant traditionally used to treat malaria in the Brazilian Amazon region. Ethanol extract of stems displayed a good antiplasmodial activity against Plasmodium falciparum strains W-2 (IC(50) 15.5+/-0.71 microg/ml) and 3 D7 (IC(50) 21.0+/-1.4 microg/ml). Two coumarins (bergaptene 1 and isopimpinellin 2), five alkaloids (flindersiamine 3, kokusaginine 4, skimmiamine 5, gamma-fagarine 6 and 1-hydroxy-3-methoxy-N-methylacridone, 7), besides a limonoid (rutaevine 8), have been isolated for the first time from this species. Antiplasmodial activity of compounds 3, 5-8 has been evaluated in vitro against P. falciparum strains (W-2 and 3D7) and the furoquinolines 5 and 6 were the most potent displaying IC(50) values <50 microg/ml; flindersiamine (3) showed a weak activity while alkaloid 7 and rutaevine (8) were inactive (IC(50)>100 microg/ml).

  5. First records of two mealybug species in Brazil and new potential pests of papaya and coffee.

    PubMed

    Culik, Mark P; Martins, David dos Santos; Gullan, Penny J

    2006-01-01

    Five mealybug (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) plant pest species: Dysmicoccus grassii (Leonardi), Ferrisia malvastra (McDaniel), Ferrisia virgata (Cockerell), Phenacoccus tucumanus Granara de Willink, and Pseudococcus elisae Borchsenius are recorded for the first time in the state of Espírito Santo, Brazil. These are the first records of D. grassii in Brazil, from papaya (Carica papaya, Caricaceae), and from coffee (Coffea canephora, Rubiaceae). Ferrisia malvastra is also newly recorded in Brazil, where it was found on Bidens pilosa (Asteraceae). Ferrisia virgata was collected from an unidentified weed and Phenacoccus tucumanus from Citrus sp. (Rutaceae). Plotococcus capixaba Kondo was found on pitanga ( Eugenia cf. pitanga, Myrtaceae) and Pseudococcus elisae on Coffea canephora , which are new host records for these mealybugs.

  6. A new cytotoxic carbazole alkaloid and two new other alkaloids from Clausena excavata.

    PubMed

    Peng, Wen-Wen; Zeng, Guang-Zhi; Song, Wei-Wu; Tan, Ning-Hua

    2013-07-01

    One new carbazole alkaloid, excavatine A (1), and two additional new alkaloids, excavatine B (2) and excavatine C (3), were isolated from the stems and leaves of Clausena excavata Burm.f. (Rutaceae). Their structures were determined on the basis of detailed spectroscopic analyses, especially 2D-NMR and HR-EI-MS data. Compounds 1-3 were tested for their cytotoxic activities against A549, HeLa, and BGC-823 cancer cell lines, and for their antimicrobial activities against Candida albicans and Staphylococcus aureus. Only 1 exhibited cytotoxicity against A549 and HeLa cell lines with the IC50 values of 5.25 and 1.91 μg/ml, respectively.

  7. Antimicrobial activity of grapefruit seed and pulp ethanolic extract.

    PubMed

    Cvetnić, Zdenka; Vladimir-Knezević, Sanda

    2004-09-01

    Antibacterial and antifungal activity of ethanolic extract of grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf., Rutaceae) seed and pulp was examined against 20 bacterial and 10 yeast strains. The level of antimicrobial effects was established using an in vitro agar assay and standard broth dilution susceptibility test. The contents of 3.92% of total polyphenols and 0.11% of flavonoids were determined spectrometrically in crude ethanolic extract. The presence of flavanones naringin and hesperidin in the extract was confirmed by TLC analysis. Ethanolic extract exibited the strongest antimicrobial effect against Salmonella enteritidis (MIC 2.06%, m/V). Other tested bacteria and yeasts were sensitive to extract concentrations ranging from 4.13% to 16.50% (m/V).

  8. First report of Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green, 1908) (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae) and the associated parasitoid Anagyrus kamali Moursi, 1948 (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Marsaro Júnior, A L; Peronti, A L B G; Penteado-Dias, A M; Morais, E G F; Pereira, P R V S

    2013-05-01

    The pink hibiscus mealybug (PHM), Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) and the associated hymenopterous parasitoid, Anagyrus kamali Moursi, 1948 (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), are reported for the first time in Brazil. Specimens of the PHM were collected on nine hosts plants, Annona muricata L. (Anonnaceae), Glycine max (L.) Merr. (Fabaceae), Centrolobium paraensis Tul. (Fabaceae), Inga edulis Mart. (Fabaceae), Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. (Malvaceae), Psidium guajava L. (Myrtaceae), Averrhoa carambola L. (Oxalidaceae), Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck (Rutaceae) and Solanum lycopersicum L. (Solanaceae), in four municipalities in the north-northeast of the state of Roraima. The plants C. paraensis, I. edulis and C. sinensis are recorded for the first time as a hosts for PHM. Characteristic injuries observed on the host plants infested by PHM and suggestions for its management are presented.

  9. HPLC quantification of alkaloids from Haplophyllum extracts and comparison with their cytotoxic properties.

    PubMed

    Fiot, Julien; Jansen, Olivia; Akhmedjanova, Valentina; Angenot, Luc; Balansard, Guy; Ollivier, Evelyne

    2006-01-01

    An efficient system for the analysis of total alkaloids extracted from the aerial parts from different species of genus Haplophyllum (Rutaceae) by HPLC on a reversed-phase column is described. The HPLC method described was validated for its specificity, linearity and precision using external standards (haplopine, skimmianine and haplamine). The chromatographic conditions allowed the separation of alkaloids and the quantification of haplopine, skimmianine and haplamine in different samples of species of Haplophyllum collected in Uzbekistan. The alkaloidal contents of samples were compared with their in vitro cytotoxic properties against two cancer cell lines (HeLa and HCT-116). The cytotoxicity of extracts was correlated with the concentration of haplopine, skimmianine or haplamine in aerial parts of species of Haplophyllum.

  10. First records of two mealybug species in Brazil and new potential pests of papaya and coffee

    PubMed Central

    Culik, Mark P.; dos Santos Martins, David; Gullan, Penny J.

    2006-01-01

    Five mealybug (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) plant pest species: Dysmicoccus grassii (Leonardi), Ferrisia malvastra (McDaniel), Ferrisia virgata (Cockerell), Phenacoccus tucumanus Granara de Willink, and Pseudococcus elisae Borchsenius are recorded for the first time in the state of Espírito Santo, Brazil. These are the first records of D. grassii in Brazil, from papaya (Carica papaya, Caricaceae), and from coffee (Coffea canephora, Rubiaceae). Ferrisia malvastra is also newly recorded in Brazil, where it was found on Bidens pilosa (Asteraceae). Ferrisia virgata was collected from an unidentified weed and Phenacoccus tucumanus from Citrus sp. (Rutaceae). Plotococcus capixaba Kondo was found on pitanga (Eugenia cf. pitanga, Myrtaceae) and Pseudococcus elisae on Coffea canephora, which are new host records for these mealybugs. PMID:19537975

  11. Citrus bergamia essential oil: from basic research to clinical application

    PubMed Central

    Navarra, Michele; Mannucci, Carmen; Delbò, Marisa; Calapai, Gioacchino

    2015-01-01

    Citrus bergamia Risso et Poiteau, also known as “Bergamot,” is a plant belonging to the Rutaceae family, defined as a hybrid of bitter orange and lemon. It is an endemic plant of the Calabria region (Italy). Bergamot fruit is primarily used for the extraction of its essential oil (bergamot essential oil: BEO), employed in perfume, cosmetics, food, and confections. The aim of this review was to collect recent data from the literature on C. bergamia essential oil and, through a critical analysis, focus on safety and the beneficial effects on human health. Clinical studies on the therapeutic applications of BEO exclusively focus on the field of aromatherapy, suggesting that its use can be useful for reducing anxiety and stress. PMID:25784877

  12. An overview on chemical aspects and potential health benefits of limonoids and their derivatives.

    PubMed

    Tundis, Rosa; Loizzo, Monica Rosa; Menichini, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Limonoids are heavily oxygenated, modified triterpenes dominant in Meliaceae and Rutaceae plant families. The term 'limonoid' is derived from limonin, which was first identified as the bitter constituent of Citrus seeds in 1841. This group of secondary metabolites exhibits a wide range of biological properties, including anticancer, antibacterial, antifungal, antimalarial, and antiviral activities. Significant progress on the role of limonoids as promising candidates for cancer chemoprevention and/or therapy has been achieved in particular in recent years. The aim of this review article is to discuss the recent developments on limonoids chemical aspects and biological activities with the relationship between structure and activity, supporting the new possibilities for the medicinal and/or nutraceutical use of these compounds.

  13. Antigenotoxic effects of Citrus aurentium L. fruit peel oil on mutagenicity of two alkylating agents and two metals in the Drosophila wing spot test.

    PubMed

    Demir, Eşref; Kocaoğlu, Serap; Cetin, Huseyin; Kaya, Bülent

    2009-07-01

    Antigenotoxic effects of Citrus aurentium L. (Rutaceae) fruit peel oil (CPO) in combination with mutagenic metals and alkylating agents were studied using the wing spot test of D. melanogaster. The four reference mutagens, potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7), cobalt chloride (CoCl2), ethylmethanesulfonate (EMS), and N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) were clearly genotoxic. CPO alone at doses from 0.1 to 0.5% in Tween 80 was not mutagenic and did not enhance the mutagenic effect of the reference mutagens. However, antigenotoxic effects of CPO were clearly demonstrated in chronic cotreatments with mutagens and oil, by a significant decrease in wing spots induced by all four mutagens. The D. melanogaster wing spot test was found to be a suitable assay for detecting antigenotoxic effects in vivo.

  14. Ring A-seco limonoids and flavonoids from the Kenyan Vepris uguenensis Engl. and their antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Kiplimo, Joyce J; Shahidul Islam, Md; Koorbanally, Neil A

    2012-11-01

    Two A-seco-limonoids, accorded the trivial names, uguenensene and uguenensone and a C-7 prenylated flavonoid, uguenenprenol were isolated from Vepris uguenensis (Rutaceae). In addition, 11 known compounds, niloticin, chisocheton A, kihadalactone A, limonyl acetate, methyl uguenenoate, 7-O-methylaromadenrin, flindersiamine, 8α,11-elemodiol, tricoccin S₁₃ acetate, skimmianine, and lupeol were isolated. The structures of the compounds were elucidated and characterized by spectroscopic analyses (NMR, GC-MS and IR). Antioxidant activity of the isolated compounds showed that uguenenprenol and 7-O-methylaromadenrin are good antioxidant agents. Significantly high antioxidant activity was also exhibited by 8α,11-elemodiol, which was 72% at 250 μg mL⁻¹ and 57% at 15.62 μg mL⁻¹ when tested with the deoxyribose method. The two liminoids fit nicely into the biosynthetic pathway from niloticin to methyl uguenenoate.

  15. Larvicidal activity and structure activity relationship of cinnamoyl amides from Zanthoxylum armatum and their synthetic analogues against diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Vishal; Reddy, S. G. Eswara; Bhardwaj, Anuja; Dolma, Shudh Kirti; Kumar, Neeraj

    2016-01-01

    Cinnamoyl amides isolated from Zanthoxylum armatum (Rutaceae) and their synthetic analogues were tested for their insecticidal activity against the second instar larvae of diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae) to determine the promising structures with insecticidal activity. Most of the test compounds showed promising activity against larvae of P. xylostella. However, the activities of different compounds varied depending on the presence of different substituents at various positions of both the aromatic rings A and B. Among the tested compounds, 8, N-(3-bromo-4-methoxyphenethyl)cinnamamide showed best larvicidal activity with an LC50 = 62.13 mg/L followed by 6, N-(3׳-bromophenethyl)cinnamamide (LC50=128.49 mg/L) and 2 N-(4׳-methoxyphenylethyl)cinnamamide (LC50 = 225.65 mg/L). PMID:27231477

  16. Anticancer Activity of Key Lime, Citrus aurantifolia

    PubMed Central

    Narang, Nithithep; Jiraungkoorskul, Wannee

    2016-01-01

    Citrus aurantifolia (family: Rutaceae) is mainly used in daily consumption, in many cultural cuisines, and in juice production. It is widely used because of its antibacterial, anticancer, antidiabetic, antifungal, anti-hypertensive, anti-inflammation, anti-lipidemia, and antioxidant properties; moreover, it can protect heart, liver, bone, and prevent urinary diseases. Its secondary metabolites are alkaloids, carotenoids, coumarins, essential oils, flavonoids, phenolic acids, and triterpenoids. The other important constituents are apigenin, hesperetin, kaempferol, limonoids, quercetin, naringenin, nobiletin, and rutin, all of these contribute to its remedial properties. The scientific searching platforms were used for publications from 1990 to present. The abstracts and titles were screened, and the full-text articles were selected. The present review is up-to-date of the phytochemical property of C. aurantifolia to provide a reference for further study. PMID:28082795

  17. Furoquinoline alkaloids isolated from Balfourodendron riedelianum as photosynthetic inhibitors in spinach chloroplasts.

    PubMed

    Veiga, Thiago André Moura; King-Díaz, Beatriz; Marques, Anna Sylvia Ferrari; Sampaio, Olivia Moreira; Vieira, Paulo Cezar; da Silva, Maria Fátima das Graças Fernandes; Lotina-Hennsen, Blas

    2013-03-05

    In the search for natural inhibitors of plant growth, we investigate the mechanism of action of the natural furoquinoline alkaloids isolated from Balfourodendron riedelianum (Rutaceae): evolitrine (1), kokusaginine (2), γ-fagarine (3), skimmianine (4) and maculosidine (5) on the photosynthesis light reactions. Their effect on the electron transport chain on thylakoids was analyzed. Alkaloids 1, 2, 4 and 5 inhibited ATP synthesis, basal, phosphorylating and uncoupled electron transport acting as Hill reaction inhibitors on spinach chloroplasts. Alkaloid 3 was not active. The inhibition and interaction site of alkaloids 1, 2, 4 and 5 on the non-cyclic electron transport chain was studied by polarography and fluorescence of the chlorophyll a (Chl a). The results indicate that the target for 1 was localized on the donor and acceptor side of PS II. In addition alkaloids 2 and 5 affect the PS I electron acceptors on leaf discs.

  18. Cryptophlebia Walsingham, 1900, Thaumatotibia Zacher, 1915, and Archiphlebia Komai & Horak, 2006, in Australia (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae: Olethreutinae: Grapholitini).

    PubMed

    Horak, Marianne; Komai, Furumi

    2016-10-31

    The Australian species of the grapholitine genera Cryptophlebia Walsingham, 1900, Thaumatotibia Zacher, 1915 and Archiphlebia Komai & Horak, 2006, are revised, described and illustrated. A key to species is provided. Five named species of Cryptophlebia, C. ombrodelta (Lower), C. iridosoma (Meyrick), C. rhynchias (Meyrick) and C. pallifimbriana Bradley, are redescribed and three new species, C. wraggae, sp. nov., C. stigmata, sp. nov., and C. caulicola, sp. nov., are described. Cryptophlebia amblyopa Clarke, described from Micronesia, is synonymised with C. iridosoma. Cryptophlebia caulicola, sp. nov., is a borer in twigs of Acacia mangium Willd. in northern Queensland. Thaumatotibia aclyta (Turner) and T. zophophanes (Turner) are redescribed and the new species T. maculata, sp. nov., is described. Fruit of Acronychia spp. (Rutaceae) have been identified as native hosts of T. zophophanes, a pest species which damages macadamia (Proteaceae) and avocado (Lauraceae) on the Atherton Tableland. Archiphlebia endophaga (Meyrick) and A. rutilescens (Turner) are redescribed, and the new species A. gilva, sp. nov., is described.

  19. Targeting excessive free radicals with peels and juices of citrus fruits: grapefruit, lemon, lime and orange.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, Rafaela; Barros, Lillian; Barreira, João C M; Sousa, M João; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2010-01-01

    A comparative study between the antioxidant properties of peel (flavedo and albedo) and juice of some commercially grown citrus fruit (Rutaceae), grapefruit (Citrus paradisi), lemon (Citrus limon), lime (Citrusxaurantiifolia) and sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) was performed. Different in vitro assays were applied to the volatile and polar fractions of peels and to crude and polar fraction of juices: 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity, reducing power and inhibition of lipid peroxidation using beta-carotene-linoleate model system in liposomes and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) assay in brain homogenates. Reducing sugars and phenolics were the main antioxidant compounds found in all the extracts. Peels polar fractions revealed the highest contents in phenolics, flavonoids, ascorbic acid, carotenoids and reducing sugars, which certainly contribute to the highest antioxidant potential found in these fractions. Peels volatile fractions were clearly separated using discriminant analysis, which is in agreement with their lowest antioxidant potential.

  20. Grapefruit as a host for the West Indian fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Mangan, Robert L; Thomas, Donald B; Moreno, Aleena Tarshis; Robacker, David

    2011-02-01

    The most common hosts for the West Indian fruit fly, Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) (Diptera: Tephritidae) are fruit in the family Anacardiaceae (mango [Mangifera L.] and mombin [Spondias L.] species). However, similar to many of the tropical fruit flies of major economic importance, this species attacks several other families of crop fruit, including Annonaceae (cherimoya, Annona cherimola Mill.), Myrtaceae (guava, Psidium L.), Oxalidaceae (carambola, Averrhoa carambola L.), Passifloraceae (granadilla, Passiflora quadrangularis Mill.), and Sapotaceae [mamey sapote, Pouteria sapota (Jacq.) H. E. Moore & Steam]. In the family Rutaceae the economically important genus Citrus has been reported and until recently considered a host for this fruit fly. In this study, we reviewed the taxonomy of A. obliqua, tested specific chemicals that may inhibit oviposition, compared egg-to-adult survival of A. obliqua on preferred hosts and on grapefruit (Citrus X paradisi Macfad.), and measured fruit tissue-specific developmental rates of A. obliqua and the known citrus breeding Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae), from egg to pupae. Our literature review shows much confusion concerning the taxonomy of this and related Anastrepha species, including synonymies and confusion with other species. The deterrent effect of the highest concentration of flavonoids for oviposition, although significant, was not absolute. Experiments carried out under laboratory conditions showed 15-40 times greater survival of A. ludens (whose preferred hosts include Rutaceae) on grapefruit compared with A. obliqua for both tree attached and harvested fruit. Experiments of survival of developing stages over time showed that the two species oviposit into different tissues in the fruit, and mortality is much higher for the West Indian fruit fly in the flavedo and albedo of the fruit compared with the Mexican fruit fly.

  1. Activities of ten essential oils towards Propionibacterium acnes and PC-3, A-549 and MCF-7 cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Zu, Yuangang; Yu, Huimin; Liang, Lu; Fu, Yujie; Efferth, Thomas; Liu, Xia; Wu, Nan

    2010-04-30

    Ten essential oils, namely, mint (Mentha spicata L., Lamiaceae), ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc., Zingiberaceae), lemon (Citrus limon Burm.f., Rutaceae), grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf., Rutaceae), jasmine (Jasminum grandiflora L., Oleaceae), lavender (Mill., Lamiaceae), chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L., Compositae), thyme (Thymus vulgaris L., Lamiaceae), rose (Rosa damascena Mill., Rosaceae) and cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum N. Lauraceae) were tested for their antibacterial activities towards Propionibacterium acnes and in vitro toxicology against three human cancer cell lines. Thyme, cinnamon and rose essential oils exhibited the best antibacterial activities towards P. acnes, with inhibition diameters of 40 +/- 1.2 mm, 33.5 +/- 1.5 mm and 16.5 +/- 0.7 mm, and minimal inhibitory concentrations of 0.016% (v/v), 0.016% (v/v) and 0.031% (v/v), respectively. Time-kill dynamic procedures showed that thyme, cinnamon, rose, and lavender essential oils exhibited the strongest bactericidal activities at a concentration of 0.25% (v/v), and P. acnes was completely killed after 5 min. The thyme essential oil exhibited the strongest cytotoxicity towards three human cancer cells. Its inhibition concentration 50% (IC(50)) values on PC-3, A549 and MCF-7 tumor cell lines were 0.010% (v/v), 0.011% (v/v) and 0.030% (v/v), respectively. The cytotoxicity of 10 essential oils on human prostate carcinoma cell (PC-3) was significantly stronger than on human lung carcinoma (A549) and human breast cancer (MCF-7) cell lines.

  2. Temperature thresholds and degree-day model for Marmara gulosa (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae).

    PubMed

    O'Neal, M J; Headrick, D H; Montez, Gregory H; Grafton-Cardwell, E E

    2011-08-01

    The developmental thresholds for Marmara gulosa Guillén & Davis (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) were investigated in the laboratory by using 17, 21, 25, 29, and 33 degrees C. The lowest mortality occurred in cohorts exposed to 25 and 29 degrees C. Other temperatures caused >10% mortality primarily in egg and first and second instar sap-feeding larvae. Linear regression analysis approximated the lower developmental threshold at 12.2 degrees C. High mortality and slow developmental rate at 33 degrees C indicate the upper developmental threshold is near this temperature. The degree-day (DD) model indicated that a generation requires an accumulation of 322 DD for development from egg to adult emergence. Average daily temperatures in the San Joaquin Valley could produce up to seven generations of M. gulosa per year. Field studies documented two, five, and three overlapping generations of M. gulosa in walnuts (Juglans regia L.; Juglandaceae), pummelos (Citrus maxima (Burm.) Merr.; Rutaceae), and oranges (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck; Rutaceae), for a total of seven observed peelminer generations. Degree-day units between generations averaged 375 DD for larvae infesting walnut twigs; however, availability of green wood probably affected timing of infestations. Degree-day units between larval generations averaged 322 for pummelos and 309 for oranges, confirming the laboratory estimation. First infestation of citrus occurred in June in pummelo fruit and August in orange fruit when fruit neared 60 mm in diameter. Fruit size and degree-day units could be used as management tools to more precisely time insecticide treatments to target the egg stage and prevent rind damage to citrus. Degree-day units also could be used to more precisely time natural enemy releases to target larval instars that are preferred for oviposition.

  3. Pharmacognostic standardisation and antiproliferative activity of Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa leaves in various human cancer cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Bhatti, Rajbir; Singh, J.; Saxena, A. K.; Suri, Nitasha; Ishar, M. P. S.

    2013-01-01

    Therapeutic management of cancer is a great clinical challenge and alternative medicines are being extensively explored to have integrated approach to cure cancer. Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa (Rutaceae) is known for its hypoglycaemic, radioprotective, antidiarrhoeal and many other pharmacological activities. The present study is designed to carryout pharmacognostic standardisation and evaluation of antiproliferative activity of the leaf extracts Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa (Rutaceae) and the chromatographic fractions of the most active extract. Hexane, petroleum ether, chloroform and ethanol extracts of the shade dried leaves were prepared by soxhelation and antiproliferative activity was assessed using human cancer cell lines of lung (A-549), colon (CoLo-05), ovary (IGR-OV-1), prostrate (PC3), leukaemia (THP-1) and breast (MCF-7) cancer. Bioactivity-derived fractionation was carried out for most active extract by column chromatography. The phytochemical studies indicated alkaloids, anthraquinones, terpenoids in the alcohol, chloroform extracts and tannins, terpenoids, reducing sugars in the petroleum ether and hexane extracts. Ethanol extract showed maximum inhibition in colon and breast carcinoma cell lines at a dose of 100 μg/ml. Column chromatography of the ethanol extract yielded five fractions. Out of this, fractions 2, 4 and 5 showed significant inhibition in leukaemia cell line with IC50 of 12.5, 86.2 and >100 μg/ml for fractions 2, 4 and 5, respectively. High-performance thin layer chromatography of the fraction 2 revealed imperatorin as one of the major phytoconstituents. Among the different extracts investigated, ethanol extract exhibited significant antiproliferative activity and its fraction 2 containing furanocoumarin imperatorin showed antiproliferative activity against leukaemia cell line with IC50 of 12.5 μg/ml. PMID:24591736

  4. Native and introduced host plants of Anastrepha fraterculus and Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) in northwestern Argentina.

    PubMed

    Ovruski, Sergio; Schliserman, Pablo; Aluja, Martín

    2003-08-01

    Wild or commercially grown, native and exotic fruit were collected in 30 localities in the Tucumán province (NW Argentina) from January 1990 to December 1995 to determine their status as hosts of Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) and/or Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), the only two fruit fly species of economic and quarantine importance in Argentina. A total of 84,094 fruit (3,466.1 kg) representing 33 species (7 native and 26 exotic) in 15 plant families were sampled. We determined the following 17 host plant associations: Annona cherimola Miller (Annonaceae), Citrus paradisi Macfadyn (Rutaceae), Diospyros kaki L. (Ebenaceae), Eugenia uniflora L., Psidium guajava L., Myrcianthes pungens (Berg) Legrand (Myrtaceae), Ficus carica L. (Moraceae), Juglans australis Grisebach (Juglandaceae), Mangifera indica L. (Anacardiaceae), Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb.) Lindl., Prunus armeniaca L., P. domestica L., and P. persica (L.) Batsch (Rosaceae) were infested by both A. fraterculus and C. capitata. Citrus aurantium L., Citrus reticulata Blanco, Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck (Rutaceae), and Passiflora caerulea L. (Passifloraceae) were only infested by Ceratitis capitata. Out of a total of 99,627 adults that emerged from pupae, 69,180 (approximately 69.5%) were Anastrepha fraterculus, 30,138 (approximately 30.2%) were C. capitata, and 309 (approximately 0.3%) were an unidentified Anastrepha species. Anastrepha fraterculus predominated in native plant species while C. capitata did so in introduced species. Infestation rates (number of larvae/kg of fruit) varied sharply from year to year and between host plant species (overall there was a significant negative correlation between fruit size and infestation level). We provide information on fruiting phenology of all the reported hosts and discuss our findings in light of their practical (e.g., management of A. fraterculus and C. capitata in citrus groves) implications.

  5. Understanding the Antifungal Mechanism of Ag@ZnO Core-shell Nanocomposites against Candida krusei

    PubMed Central

    Das, Bhaskar; Khan, Md. Imran; Jayabalan, R.; Behera, Susanta K.; Yun, Soon-Il; Tripathy, Suraj K.; Mishra, Amrita

    2016-01-01

    In the present paper, facile synthesis of Ag@ZnO core-shell nanocomposites is reported where zinc oxide is coated on biogenic silver nanoparticles synthesized using Andrographis paniculata and Aloe vera leaf extract. Structural features of as synthesized nanocomposites are characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, XRD, and FTIR. Morphology of the above core-shell nanocomposites is investigated by electron microscopy. As synthesized nanocomposite material has shown antimicrobial activity against Candida krusei, which is an opportunistic pathogen known to cause candidemia. The possible mode of activity of the above material has been studied by in-vitro molecular techniques. Our investigations have shown that surface coating of biogenic silver nanoparticles by zinc oxide has increased its antimicrobial efficiency against Candida krusei, while decreasing its toxicity towards A431 human epidermoid carcinoma cell lines. PMID:27812015

  6. Formulation and evaluation of herbal anti-acne moisturizer.

    PubMed

    Rasheed, Arun; Shama, Shaik Neelufar; Joy, Jyothi Mulanjananiyil; Reddy, Bobbu Sravya; Roja, Chirra

    2012-10-01

    The moisture content present in human skin makes it look young and the use of moisturizer results in fastening the moisture with a surface film of oil. Acne vulgaris is one of the most commonly seen diseases among the youth. The present study is focused on the use of herbs as moisturizer for acne treatment. The anti-acne moisturizer was formulated from herbal crude extracts and investigated the physico-chemical parameters as well as antibacterial activity of the formulation. The study revealed that ethanol extract of Andrographis paniculata, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Ocimum sanctum, Azadiracta indica and Green tea possessed the potential for inhibiting acne. It was observed that the optimal formula of anti-acne moisturizer was satisfactorily effective to control acne inducing bacteria i.e., Staphylococcus epidermis and Propionibacterium. The physico-chemical parameters of the formulation were also optimal with no signs of irritation.

  7. The Relation of Carbon Dioxide Compensation and Chlorenchymatous Vascular Bundle Sheaths in Leaves of Dicots

    PubMed Central

    Crookston, R. Kent; Moss, Dale N.

    1970-01-01

    Low CO2 compensation points have been found to be associated with several unusual characteristics related to photosynthesis. One such characteristic is a prominent, chlorenchymatous vascular bundle sheath in the leaves. It has been suggested that the presence of this sheath in dicotyledons can serve as a means of detecting low CO2-compensating species. We collected 88 dicotyledon species from 22 families reported to have chlorenchymatous sheaths. Of the 88, only three, Tribulus terrestris, L., Boerhaavia paniculata, L. C. Rich, and Trianthema portulacastrum L., had low CO2 compensation points. Cross sections of the leaves of the other species revealed that they did have chlorenchymatous vascular bundle sheaths. However, these sheath cells contained chloroplasts which were not specialized for starch formation as were the bundle sheath chloroplasts of the low CO2-compensating species. Images PMID:16657506

  8. Mycosynthesis of silver nanoparticles bearing antibacterial activity

    PubMed Central

    Azmath, Pasha; Baker, Syed; Rakshith, Devaraju; Satish, Sreedharamurthy

    2015-01-01

    Mycosynthesis of silver nanoparticles was achieved by endophytic Colletotrichum sp. ALF2-6 inhabiting Andrographis paniculata. Well dispersed nanoparticles were characterized using UV–Visible spectrometry with maximum absorption conferring at 420 nm. FTIR analysis revealed possible biomolecules reducing the metal salt and stabilization of nanoparticles. XRD analysis depicted the diffraction intensities exhibiting between 20 and 80 °C at 2theta angle thus conferring the crystalline nature of nanoparticles. Morphological characteristic using TEM revealed the polydispersity of nanoparticles with size ranging from 20 to 50 nm. Synthesized nanoparticles exhibited bactericidal activity against selected human pathogens. Nanoparticles mode of action was carried out to reveal DNA damage activity. Thus the present investigation reports facile fabrication of silver nanoparticles from endophytic fungi. PMID:27013906

  9. Essential Oil Variation from Twenty Two Genotypes of Citrus in Brazil-Chemometric Approach and Repellency Against Diaphorina citri Kuwayama.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Moacir Dos Santos; Ribeiro, Leandro do Prado; Borgoni, Paulo Cesar; Silva, Maria Fátima das Graças Fernandes da; Forim, Moacir Rossi; Fernandes, João Batista; Vieira, Paulo Cezar; Vendramin, José Djair; Machado, Marcos Antônio

    2016-06-22

    The chemical composition of volatile oils from 22 genotypes of Citrus and related genera was poorly differentiated, but chemometric techniques have clarified the relationships between the 22 genotypes, and allowed us to understand their resistance to D. citri. The most convincing similarities include the synthesis of (Z)-β-ocimene and (E)-caryophyllene for all 11 genotypes of group A. Genotypes of group B are not uniformly characterized by essential oil compounds. When stimulated with odor sources of 22 genotypes in a Y-tube olfactometer D. citri preferentially entered the arm containing the volatile oils of Murraya paniculata, confirming orange jasmine as its best host. C. reticulata × C. sinensis was the least preferred genotype, and is characterized by the presence of phytol, (Z)-β-ocimene, and β-elemene, which were not found in the most preferred genotype. We speculate that these three compounds may act as a repellent, making these oils less attractive to D. citri.

  10. Modelling the effect of an alternative host population on the spread of citrus Huanglongbing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    d'A. Vilamiu, Raphael G.; Ternes, Sonia; Laranjeira, Francisco F.; de C. Santos, Tâmara T.

    2013-10-01

    The objective of this work was to model the spread of citrus Huanglongbing (HLB) considering the presence of a population of alternative hosts (Murraya paniculata). We developed a compartmental deterministic mathematical model for representing the dynamics of HLB disease in a citrus orchard, including delays in the latency and incubation phases of the disease in the plants and a delay period on the nymphal stage of Diaphorina citri, the insect vector of HLB in Brazil. The results of numerical simulations indicate that alternative hosts should not play a crucial role on HLB dynamics considering a typical scenario for the Recôncavo Baiano region in Brazil . Also, the current policy of removing symptomatic plants every three months should not be expected to significantly hinder HLB spread.

  11. Oxidative potential of some endophytic fungi using 1-indanone as a substrate.

    PubMed

    Fill, Taicia Pacheco; da Silva, Jose Vinicius; de Oliveira, Kleber Thiago; da Silva, Bianca Ferreira; Rodrigues-Fo, Edson

    2012-06-01

    The oxidative potential of the fungus Penicillium brasilianum, a strain isolated as an endophyte from a Meliaceae plant (Melia azedarach), was investigated using 1-indanone as a substrate to track the production of monooxygenases. The fungus produced the dihydrocoumarin from 1-indanone with the classical Baeyer-Villiger reaction regiochemistry, and (-)-(R)-3-hydroxy-1-indanone with 78% ee. Minor compounds resulting from lipase and SAM activities were also detected. The biotransformation procedures were also applied to a collection of Penicillium and Aspergillus fungi obtained from M. azedarach and Murraya paniculata. The results showed that Baeyer-Villiger were mostly active in fungi isolated from M. azedarach. Almost all of the fungi tested produced 3-hydroxy-1-indanone..

  12. Phytoliths of common grasses in the coastal environments of southeastern USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Houyuan; Liu, Kam-biu

    2003-11-01

    Thirty-four grass species were collected for phytolith analysis from a variety of coastal environments in the southeastern USA (Georgia, Florida, and Louisiana), including salt marshes, freshwater/brackish marshes, pine/oak forests, maritime hardwood forests, and sand dunes. Phytoliths produced by these modern grasses include a large diversity of shapes and types. We propose a preliminary relationship between modern coastal plant communities and their predominant phytolith contents. The dominant grasses of coastal sand dunes, such as Uniola paniculata, produce primarily flat tower and two-horned tower phytoliths. Rondel/saddle ellipsoid phytoliths are mainly produced by Spartina alterniflora, the most common plant in coastal salt marshes. Rondel and spool/horned tower phytoliths are common in brackish marsh grasses. Plants from interdune meadow produce primarily dumbbell phytoliths, as well as small cross and Cyperaceae-type phytoliths. These results provide a basis for the interpretation of fossil phytolith assemblages and the reconstruction of coastal environmental changes.

  13. Antimicrobial activity of plant extracts against sexually transmitted pathogens.

    PubMed

    Jadhav, Nutan; Kulkarni, Sangeeta; Mane, Arati; Kulkarni, Roshan; Palshetker, Aparna; Singh, Kamalinder; Joshi, Swati; Risbud, Arun; Kulkarni, Smita

    2015-01-01

    Comprehensive management of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) using vaginal or rectal microbicide-based intervention is one of the strategies for prevention of HIV infection. Herbal products have been used for treating STIs traditionally. Herein, we present in vitro activity of 10 plant extracts and their 34 fractions against three sexually transmitted/reproductive tract pathogens - Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Haemophilus ducreyi and Candida albicans. The plant parts were selected; the extracts/fractions were prepared and screened by disc diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory and minimum cidal concentrations were determined. The qualitative phytochemical analysis of selected extracts/fractions showing activity was performed. Of the extracts/fractions tested, three inhibited C. albicans, ten inhibited N. gonorrhoeae and five inhibited H. ducreyi growth. Our study demonstrated that Terminalia paniculata Roth. extracts/fractions inhibited growth of all three organisms. The ethyl acetate fraction of Syzygium cumini Linn. and Bridelia retusa (L.) Spreng. extracts was found to inhibit N. gonorrhoeae at lowest concentrations.

  14. Simultaneous Estimation of Andrographolide and Wedelolactone in Herbal Formulations

    PubMed Central

    Patel, M. B.; Kadakia, V. M.; Mishra, S. H.

    2008-01-01

    Andrographolide and wedelolactone are active components of Andrographis paniculata and Eclipta alba, respectively. The extracts of these plants are used in many traditional hepatoprotective formulations. An attempt has been made to develop an accurate, precise and specific HPTLC method to quantify simultaneously both these chemical markers of diversified chemical structures in different dosage forms like tablet and syrup. Precoated silica 60F254 plates with toluene:acetone:formic acid (9:6:1) as mobile phase and detection wavelength of 254 nm were used. The method was validated in terms of linearity, accuracy, precision and specificity. The calibration curve was found to be linear between 200 to 400 ng/spot for andrographolide and 100 to 200 ng/spot for wedelolactone. The limit of detection and the limit of quantification for andrographolide were 26.16 and 79.28 ng/spot, respectively and for wedelolactone 5.06 and 15.32 ng/spot, respectively. PMID:21394279

  15. Effect of Traditional Chinese Herbal Medicine with Antiquorum Sensing Activity on Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Shuxin; Jiang, Yan; Zhu, Wei; Zhuang, Xiyi; Fu, Jiangyan

    2013-01-01

    Traditional Chinese herbal medicines (TCHMs) were tested for their ability of antiquorum sensing. Water extracts of Rhubarb, Fructus gardeniae, and Andrographis paniculata show antiquorumsensing activity when using Chromobacterium violaceum CV12472 as reporter; the sub-MIC concentrations of these TCHMs were tested against AHL-dependent phenotypic expressions of PAO1. Results showed significant reduction in pyocyanin pigment, protease, elastase production, and biofilm formation in PAO1 without inhibiting the bacterial growth, revealing that the QSI by the extracts is not related to static or killing effects on the bacteria. The results indicate a potential modulation of bacterial cell-cell communication, P. aeruginosa biofilm, and virulence factors by traditional Chinese herbal medicine. This study introduces not only a new mode of action for traditional Chinese herbal medicines, but also a potential new therapeutic direction for the treatment of bacterial infections, which have QSI activity and might be important in reducing virulence and pathogenicity of pathogenic bacteria. PMID:24319480

  16. Activity of some Mexican medicinal plant extracts on carrageenan-induced rat paw edema.

    PubMed

    Meckes, M; David-Rivera, A D; Nava-Aguilar, V; Jimenez, A

    2004-07-01

    The extracts obtained from 14 plants of the Mexican medicinal flora were assessed for anti-inflammatory activity by carrageenan-induced rat paw edema model. The i.p. administration of the extracts at a dose of 400 mg/kg produced a high reduction of edema with 70% of the plant extracts. Oenothera rosea methanol extract, Sphaeralcea angustifolia chloroform extract, Acaciafarnesiana, Larrea tridentata and Rubus coriifolius methanol extracts as well as the aqueous extract of Chamaedora tepejilote were demonstrated to be particularly active against the induced hind-paw edema. Moderate inhibition of edema formation was also demonstrated with the methanol extracts of Astianthus viminalis, Brickellia paniculata, C. tepejilote and Justicia spicigera.

  17. Induction of Nrf2-dependent Antioxidation and Protection Against Carbon Tetrachloride-induced Liver Damage by Andrographis Herba (穿心蓮chuān xīn lián) Ethanolic Extract

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Haw-Wen; Huang, Yu-Ju; Yao, Hsien-Tsung; Lii, Chong-Kuei

    2012-01-01

    Andrographis paniculata is a traditional Chinese herb and displays diverse biological activities including antioxidation, anti-tumorigenesis, anti-virus, and anti-atherogenesis. In this study, we investigated the up-regulation of ethanolic extract of A. paniculata (APE) on the antioxidant defense in rat livers and whether this enhancement protected against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver damage. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were orally administered (i.g.) 0, 0.75, or 2 g/kg/d APE for 5 d. At d 6, rats were sacrificed and liver tissues were removed. Some animals (n=8) were intraperitoneally injected CCl4 (1 mL/kg, 50% in olive oil) and blood was drawn 24 h after CCl4 treatment. The results showed that APE increased hepatic glutathione (GSH) content and superoxide dismutase, GSH peroxidase, and GSH S-transferase activities in a dose-dependent manner (p < 0.05). Results of immunoblotting and RT-PCR revealed that rats treated with APE had higher glutamate cysteine ligase catalytic and modifier subunits, heme oxygenase 1, superoxide dismutase 1, and GSH S-transferase Ya and Yb protein and mRNA expression than those of control rats. Moreover, APE increased Nrf2 nuclear translocation and Nrf2 binding to DNA in rat liver. In the presence of CCl4, APE decreased hepatic thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances production and plasma aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase activities. These results suggest that APE protection against CCl4 insult is attributed, at least in part, to its up-regulation of antioxidant defense in rat liver. PMID:24716135

  18. Herb–drug interaction prediction based on the high specific inhibition of andrographolide derivatives towards UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 2B7

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Hai-Ying; Sun, Dong-Xue; Cao, Yun-Feng; Ai, Chun-Zhi; Qu, Yan-Qing; Hu, Cui-Min; Jiang, Changtao; Dong, Pei-Pei; Sun, Xiao-Yu; Hong, Mo; Tanaka, Naoki; Gonzalez, Frank J.; and others

    2014-05-15

    Herb–drug interaction strongly limits the clinical application of herbs and drugs, and the inhibition of herbal components towards important drug-metabolizing enzymes (DMEs) has been regarded as one of the most important reasons. The present study aims to investigate the inhibition potential of andrographolide derivatives towards one of the most important phase II DMEs UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs). Recombinant UGT isoforms (except UGT1A4)-catalyzed 4-methylumbelliferone (4-MU) glucuronidation reaction and UGT1A4-catalyzed trifluoperazine (TFP) glucuronidation were employed to firstly screen the andrographolide derivatives' inhibition potential. High specific inhibition of andrographolide derivatives towards UGT2B7 was observed. The inhibition type and parameters (K{sub i}) were determined for the compounds exhibiting strong inhibition capability towards UGT2B7, and human liver microsome (HLMs)-catalyzed zidovudine (AZT) glucuronidation probe reaction was used to furtherly confirm the inhibition behavior. In combination of inhibition parameters (K{sub i}) and in vivo concentration of andrographolide and dehydroandrographolide, the potential in vivo inhibition magnitude was predicted. Additionally, both the in vitro inhibition data and computational modeling results provide important information for the modification of andrographolide derivatives as selective inhibitors of UGT2B7. Taken together, data obtained from the present study indicated the potential herb–drug interaction between Andrographis paniculata and the drugs mainly undergoing UGT2B7-catalyzed metabolic elimination, and the andrographolide derivatives as potential candidates for the selective inhibitors of UGT2B7. - Highlights: • Specific inhibition of andrographolide derivatives towards UGT2B7. • Herb-drug interaction related withAndrographis paniculata. • Guidance for design of UGT2B7 specific inhibitors.

  19. The effects of aluminium on plant growth in a temperate and deciduous aluminium accumulating species

    PubMed Central

    Schmitt, Marco; Watanabe, Toshihiro; Jansen, Steven

    2016-01-01

    Aluminium (Al) is a phytotoxic element affecting the growth and yield of many crop plants, especially in the tropics. Yet, some plants are able to accumulate high levels of Al. The monogeneric family Symplocaceae represents an Al accumulating family including many tropical and evergreen species with high Al levels in their above ground plant tissues. It is unclear, however, whether Al accumulation also characterises temperate species of Symplocos, and whether or not the uptake has a beneficial growth effect. Here, we investigate if the temperate, deciduous species Symplocos paniculata is able to accumulate Al by growing seedlings and saplings in a hydroponic setup at pH 4 with and without Al. Pyrocatechol-violet (PCV) and aluminon staining was performed to visualize Al accumulation in various plant tissues. Both seedlings and saplings accumulate Al in their tissues if available. Mean Al levels in leaves were 4107 (±1474 mg kg−1) and 4290 (±4025 mg kg−1) for the seedlings and saplings, respectively. The saplings treated without Al showed a high mortality rate unlike the Al accumulating ones. The seedlings, however, showed no difference in growth and vitality between the two treatments. The saplings treated with Al showed new twig, leaf and root development, resulting in a considerable biomass increase. PCV and aluminon staining indicated the presence of Al in leaf, wood and bark tissue of the plants. S. paniculata shares the capacity to accumulate Al with its tropical sister species and is suggested to be a facultative accumulator. Whether or not Al has a beneficial effect remains unclear, due to developmental differences between seedlings and saplings. Al is suggested to be transported via the xylem transport system into the leaves, which show the highest Al levels. Radial transport via ray parenchyma to bark tissue is also likely given the high Al concentrations in the bark tissue. PMID:27613876

  20. Bar-HRM for Authentication of Plant-Based Medicines: Evaluation of Three Medicinal Products Derived from Acanthaceae Species.

    PubMed

    Osathanunkul, Maslin; Madesis, Panagiotis; de Boer, Hugo

    2015-01-01

    Medicinal plants are used as a popular alternative to synthetic drugs, both in developed and developing countries. The economic importance of the herbal and natural supplement industry is increasing every year. As the herbal industry grows, consumer safety is one issue that cannot be overlooked. Herbal products in Thai local markets are commonly sold without packaging or labels. Plant powders are stored in large bags or boxes, and therefore buying local herbal products poses a high risk of acquiring counterfeited, substituted and/or adulterated products. Due to these issues, a reliable method to authenticate products is needed. Here DNA barcoding was used in combination with High Resolution Melting analysis (Bar-HRM) to authenticate three medicinal Acanthaceae species (Acanthus ebracteatus, Andrographis paniculata and Rhinacanthus nasutus) commonly used in Thailand. The rbcL barcode was selected for use in primers design for HRM analysis to produce standard melting profiles of the selected species. Melting data from the HRM assay using the designed rbcL primers showed that the three chosen species could be distinguished from each other. HRM curves of all fifteen test samples indicated that three of tested products did not contain the indicated species. Two closely related species (A. paniculata and R. nasutus), which have a high level of morphological similarity, were interchanged with one another in three tested products. Incorrect information on packaging and labels of the tested herbal products was the cause of the results shown here. Morphological similarity among the species of interest also hindered the collection process. The Bar-HRM method developed here proved useful in aiding in the identification and authentication of herbal species in processed samples. In the future, species authentication through Bar-HRM could be used to promote consumer trust, as well as raising the quality of herbal products.

  1. Biochemical and histochemical analyses revealing endophytic Alcaligenes faecalis mediated suppression of oxidative stress in Abelmoschus esculentus challenged with Sclerotium rolfsii.

    PubMed

    Ray, Shatrupa; Singh, Vivek; Singh, Surendra; Sarma, Birinchi Kumar; Singh, Harikesh Bahadur

    2016-12-01

    Sclerotium rolfsii is a highly aggressive pathogen that causes huge economic losses, especially in temperate climates. Alcaligenes faecalis, particularly in endophytic form, has rarely been used to control this fungus. In this study, endophytic Alcaligenes sp. strain BHU 12, BHU 16 (isolated from Abelmoschus esculentus leaf) and BHU M7 (isolated from Andrographis paniculata leaf) were reported to trigger a wide range of host defenses in Okra plant against the collar-rot pathogen S. rolfsii. Endophytic colonization of the strains in ten days old plants was assessed through re-isolation of the rif-tagged strains on rifampicin augmented nutrient agar media. The ability of the endophytic strains to induce systemic defense responses in above-ground organs was assessed by collecting leaf tissues of the Okra plants grown under non-gnotobiotic conditions at different time intervals post seedling bacterization with the endophytic biocontrol agents. The pathogen challenged unprimed plants exhibited flaccidity of the stem and leaves at 48 h post infection (hpi) in contrast to the bioprimed and challenged plants. Biochemical and histochemical analyses explained the above phenomenon as activation of phyto-peroxidases leading to an increased metabolism of the reactive oxygen species (ROS), accompanied by activation of the phenylpropanoid network and a subsequent enhancement in plant phenolics. Interestingly, though the maximum increase in the defense pathways was observed in treatments with native endophytes of Okra plant, yet the enhancement in antioxidant pathway due to A. paniculata borne endophytes was also quite significant. Thus, this work clearly demonstrates how Okra plants respond to the "non-hostile" colonization of bacterial endophytes and how induced defense response can contribute to the biocontrol activity of the endophytic strains.

  2. Bar-HRM for Authentication of Plant-Based Medicines: Evaluation of Three Medicinal Products Derived from Acanthaceae Species

    PubMed Central

    Osathanunkul, Maslin; Madesis, Panagiotis; de Boer, Hugo

    2015-01-01

    Medicinal plants are used as a popular alternative to synthetic drugs, both in developed and developing countries. The economic importance of the herbal and natural supplement industry is increasing every year. As the herbal industry grows, consumer safety is one issue that cannot be overlooked. Herbal products in Thai local markets are commonly sold without packaging or labels. Plant powders are stored in large bags or boxes, and therefore buying local herbal products poses a high risk of acquiring counterfeited, substituted and/or adulterated products. Due to these issues, a reliable method to authenticate products is needed. Here DNA barcoding was used in combination with High Resolution Melting analysis (Bar-HRM) to authenticate three medicinal Acanthaceae species (Acanthus ebracteatus, Andrographis paniculata and Rhinacanthus nasutus) commonly used in Thailand. The rbcL barcode was selected for use in primers design for HRM analysis to produce standard melting profiles of the selected species. Melting data from the HRM assay using the designed rbcL primers showed that the three chosen species could be distinguished from each other. HRM curves of all fifteen test samples indicated that three of tested products did not contain the indicated species. Two closely related species (A. paniculata and R. nasutus), which have a high level of morphological similarity, were interchanged with one another in three tested products. Incorrect information on packaging and labels of the tested herbal products was the cause of the results shown here. Morphological similarity among the species of interest also hindered the collection process. The Bar-HRM method developed here proved useful in aiding in the identification and authentication of herbal species in processed samples. In the future, species authentication through Bar-HRM could be used to promote consumer trust, as well as raising the quality of herbal products. PMID:26011474

  3. Nectar robbery by a hermit hummingbird: association to floral phenotype and its influence on flowers and network structure.

    PubMed

    Maruyama, Pietro Kiyoshi; Vizentin-Bugoni, Jeferson; Dalsgaard, Bo; Sazima, Ivan; Sazima, Marlies

    2015-07-01

    Interactions between flowers and their visitors span the spectrum from mutualism to antagonism. The literature is rich in studies focusing on mutualism, but nectar robbery has mostly been investigated using phytocentric approaches focused on only a few plant species. To fill this gap, we studied the interactions between a nectar-robbing hermit hummingbird, Phaethornis ruber, and the array of flowers it visits. First, based on a literature review of the interactions involving P. ruber, we characterized the association of floral larceny to floral phenotype. We then experimentally examined the effects of nectar robbing on nectar standing crop and number of visits of the pollinators to the flowers of Canna paniculata. Finally, we asked whether the incorporation of illegitimate interactions into the analysis affects plant-hummingbird network structure. We identified 97 plant species visited by P. ruber and found that P. ruber engaged in floral larceny in almost 30% of these species. Nectar robbery was especially common in flowers with longer corolla. In terms of the effect on C. paniculata, the depletion of nectar due to robbery by P. ruber was associated with decreased visitation rates of legitimate pollinators. At the community level, the inclusion of the illegitimate visits of P. ruber resulted in modifications of how modules within the network were organized, notably giving rise to a new module consisting of P. ruber and mostly robbed flowers. However, although illegitimate visits constituted approximately 9% of all interactions in the network, changes in nestedness, modularity, and network-level specialization were minor. Our results indicate that although a flower robber may have a strong effect on the pollination of a particular plant species, the inclusion of its illegitimate interactions has limited capacity to change overall network structure.

  4. Modification of flower architecture during early stages in the evolution of self-fertilization

    PubMed Central

    Vallejo-Marín, Mario; Barrett, Spencer C. H.

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims The evolution of selfing from outcrossing is characterized by a series of morphological changes to flowers culminating in the selfing syndrome. However, which morphological traits initiate increased self-pollination and which are accumulated after self-fertilization establishes is poorly understood. Because the expression of floral traits may depend on the conditions experienced by an individual during flower development, investigation of changes in mating system should also account for environmental and developmental factors. Here, early stages in the evolution of self-pollination are investigated by comparing floral traits among Brazilian populations of Eichhornia paniculata (Pontederiaceae), an annual aquatic that displays variation in selfing rates associated with the breakdown of tristyly to semi-homostyly. Methods Thirty-one Brazilian populations under uniform glasshouse conditions were compared to investigate genetic and environmental influences on flower size and stigma–anther separation (herkogamy), two traits that commonly vary in association with transitions to selfing. Within-plant variation in herkogamy was also examined and plants grown under contrasting environmental conditions were compared to examine to what extent this trait exhibits phenotypic plasticity. Key Results In E. paniculata a reduction in herkogamy is the principal modification initiating the evolution of selfing. Significantly, reduced herkogamy was restricted to the mid-styled morph and occurred independently of flower size. Significant genetic variation for herkogamy was detected among populations and families, including genotypes exhibiting developmental instability of stamen position with bimodal distributions of herkogamy values. Cloned genets exposed to contrasting growth conditions demonstrated environmental control of herkogamy and genotypic differences in plasticity of this trait. Conclusions The ability to modify herkogamy independently of other floral

  5. Mechanisms for success after long-term nutrient enrichment in a boreal forest understory.

    PubMed

    Grainger, Tess Nahanni; Turkington, Roy

    2013-01-01

    Global levels of reactive nitrogen are predicted to rise in the coming decades as a result of increased deposition from the burning of fossil fuels and the large-scale conversion of nitrogen into a useable form for agriculture. Many plant communities respond strongly to increases in soil nitrogen, particularly in northern ecosystems where nitrogen levels are naturally very low. An experiment in northern Canada that was initiated in 1990 has been investigating the effects of long-term nutrient enrichment (fertilizer added annually) on a boreal forest understory community. We used this experiment to investigate why some species increase in abundance under nutrient enrichment whereas others decline. We focused on four species that differed in their responses to fertilization: Mertensia paniculata and Epilobium angustifolium increased in abundance, Achillea millefolium remained relatively constant and Festuca altaica declined. We hypothesized that the two species that were successful in the new high-nutrient, light-limited environment would be taller, have higher specific leaf area, change phenology by growing earlier in the season and be more morphologically plastic than their less successful counterparts. We compared plant height, specific leaf area, growth spurt date and allocation to leaves in plants grown in control and fertilized plots. We demonstrated that each of the two species that came to dominate fertilized plots has a different combination of traits and responses that likely gave them a competitive advantage; M. paniculata has the highest specific leaf area of the four species whereas E. angustifolium is tallest and exhibits morphological plasticity when fertilized by increasing biomass allocation to leaves. These results indicate that rather than one strategy determining success when nutrients become available, a variety of traits and responses may contribute to a species' ability to persist in a nutrient-enriched boreal forest understory.

  6. Educacao Intercultural e a Dificuldade de sua Pratica: Um Estudo da Imagem do Migrante e sua Familia em Livros Didaticos Alemaes. (Intercultural Education and the Difficulty of Its Practice: A Study of the Image of the Migrant and His Family in German Textbooks.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weller, Wivian

    1995-01-01

    Provides a brief historical report on pedagogical efforts to improve the integration of migrants and their families into German society. Examines the way in which the migrants' social situation has been dealt with in textbooks, particularly in books on politics, history, geography, and occupational education. (PA)

  7. Biological activity of natural flavonoids as impacted by protein flexibility: an example of flavanones.

    PubMed

    Ding, Fei; Peng, Wei

    2015-04-01

    Naturally multifunctional Rutaceae hesperidin and its aglycone hesperetin have a great variety of biopharmaceutical activities, e.g. anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and antitumor; however, the influence of the molecular structures of hesperidin and hesperetin, and in particular, the structural properties such as flexibility and dynamic features of protein on the biological activities of these bioactive compounds remains ambiguous. In the present study, the biomolecular recognition of crucial biopolymer - albumin from human serum (HSA) with Rutaceae, the recognition differences between HSA-hesperidin and HSA-hesperetin, the key elements that lead to the discrepancies as well as the structural characters of protein to the recognition processes were comparatively examined by employing biophysical approaches at the molecular scale. The results illustrated distinctly that (1) aglycone hesperetin can form stronger noncovalent bonds with HSA and possess higher recognition stability as compared with hesperidin. This phenomenon suggest that the introduction of glycoside structure into flavanone may possibly not be able to increase the noncovalent recognition of flavanone by a biopolymer, and conversely, this event will probably decrease the recognition capacity. (2) Although hesperidin and hesperetin can be located within subdomains IIA and IIIA, respectively, the conformational stability of flavanones in subdomain IIA is greater than subdomain IIIA; as a result, the recognition ability of subdomain IIIA with flavanones is patently lesser than subdomain IIA. These discrepancies likely originate from the unique characteristics of the respective cavity, or more specifically, subdomain IIA is basically a closed space, whereas subdomain IIIA is a semi-open region. Meanwhile, the detailed analyses of root-mean-square fluctuation interpreted the recognition of flavanones by subdomain IIA on HSA, which would evoke larger conformational alterations in several amino acid

  8. High resolution taxonomic study of the late Eocene (~34 Ma) Florissant palynoflora, Colorado, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouchal, J. M.

    2012-04-01

    .g. Fagaceae, Malvaceae, Onagraceae, Rosaceae, Rutaceae, Platanaceae), to group taxa into representative vegetation units, and to estimate the palaeoclimate. Preliminary results show that the Fagaceae are represented by at least 5 species (including two different Quercus types), the Malvaceae, Rosaceae and Rutaceae are represented by 3 species, and the Onagraceae and the Platanaceae by 2 species. The method used has also allowed the new discovery of the following: rarly occurring pollen grains of Asteraceae, and relatively small grains of Tetracentron (Trochodendraceae).

  9. Large Scale Screening of Ethnomedicinal Plants for Identification of Potential Antibacterial Compounds.

    PubMed

    Panda, Sujogya Kumar; Mohanta, Yugal Kishore; Padhi, Laxmipriya; Park, Young-Hwan; Mohanta, Tapan Kumar; Bae, Hanhong

    2016-03-14

    The global burden of bacterial infections is very high and has been exacerbated by increasing resistance to multiple antibiotics. Antibiotic resistance leads to failed treatment of infections, which can ultimately lead to death. To overcome antibiotic resistance, it is necessary to identify new antibacterial agents. In this study, a total of 662 plant extracts (diverse parts) from 222 plant species (82 families, 177 genera) were screened for antibacterial activity using the agar cup plate method. The aqueous and methanolic extracts were prepared from diverse plant parts and screened against eight bacterial (two Gram-positive and six Gram-negative) species, most of which are involved in common infections with multiple antibiotic resistance. The methanolic extracts of several plants were shown to have zones of inhibition ≥ 12 mm against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The minimum inhibitory concentration was calculated only with methanolic extracts of selected plants, those showed zone of inhibition ≥ 12 mm against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Several extracts had minimum inhibitory concentration ≤ 1 mg/mL. Specifically Adhatoda vasica, Ageratum conyzoides, Alangium salvifolium, Alpinia galanga, Andrographis paniculata, Anogeissus latifolia, Annona squamosa, A. reticulate, Azadirachta indica, Buchanania lanzan, Cassia fistula, Celastrus paniculatus, Centella asiatica, Clausena excavate, Cleome viscosa, Cleistanthus collinus, Clerodendrum indicum, Croton roxburghii, Diospyros melanoxylon, Eleutherine bulbosa, Erycibe paniculata, Eryngium foetidum, Garcinia cowa, Helicteres isora, Hemidesmus indicus, Holarrhena antidysenterica, Lannea coromandelica, Millettia extensa, Mimusops elengi, Nyctanthes arbor-tristis, Oroxylum indicum, Paederia foetida, Pterospermum acerifolium, Punica granatum, Semecarpus anacardium, Spondias pinnata, Terminalia alata and Vitex negundo were shown to have significant antimicrobial activity. The species

  10. Divergent Hydraulic Safety Strategies in Three Co-occurring Anacardiaceae Tree Species in a Chinese Savanna.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shu-Bin; Zhang, Jiao-Lin; Cao, Kun-Fang

    2016-01-01

    Vulnerability segmentation, the condition under which plant leaves are more vulnerable to drought-induced cavitation than stems, may act as a "safety valve" to protect stems from hydraulic failure. Evergreen, winter-deciduous, and drought-deciduous tree species co-occur in tropical savannas, but there have been no direct studies on the role of vulnerability segmentation and stomatal regulation in maintaining hydraulic safety in trees with these three leaf phenologies. To this end, we selected three Anacardiaceae tree species co-occurring in a Chinese savanna, evergreen Pistacia weinmanniifolia, drought-deciduous Terminthia paniculata, and winter-deciduous Lannea coromandelica, to study inter-species differentiation in leaf and stem hydraulic safety. We found that the two deciduous species had significantly higher sapwood-specific hydraulic conductivity and leaf-specific hydraulic conductance than the evergreen species. Moreover, two deciduous species were more vulnerable to stem cavitation than the evergreen species, although both drought-deciduous species and evergreen species had drought-resistance leaves. The evergreen species maintained a wide hydraulic safety margin (HSM) in stems and leaves; which was achieved by embolism resistance of both stems and leaves and isohydric stomatal control. Both deciduous species had limited HSMs in stems and leaves, being isohydric in the winter-deciduous species and anisohydric in drought-deciduous species. The difference in water potential at 50% loss of hydraulic conductivity between the leaves and the terminal stems (P50leaf-stem) was positive in P. weinmanniifolia and L. coromandelica, whereas, T. paniculata exhibited a lack of vulnerability segmentation. In addition, differences in hydraulic architecture were found to be closely related to other structural traits, i.e., leaf mass per area, wood density, and sapwood anatomy. Overall, the winter-deciduous species exhibits a drought-avoidance strategy that maintains the

  11. [Effects of Different Modifier Concentrations on Lead-Zinc Tolerance, Subcellular Distribution and Chemical Forms for Four Kinds of Woody Plants].

    PubMed

    Chen, Yong-hua; Zhang, Fu-yun; Wu, Xiao-fu; Liang, Xi; Yuan, Si-wen

    2015-10-01

    Four kinds of lead-zinc tolerant woody plants: Nerium oleander, Koelreuteria paniculata, Paulownia and Boehmeria were used as materials to estimate their enrichment and transferable capacity of lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) and analyze the subcellular distribution and chemical speciation of Zn and Ph in different parts of plants, under different modifier concentrations (CK group: 100% lead-zinc slag plus a small amount of phosphate fertilizer, improved one: 85% of lead-zinc slag ± 10% peat ± 5% bacterial manure plus a small amount of phosphate fertilizer, improved two: 75% lead-zinc slag ± 20% peat ± 5% bacterial manure ± a small amount of phosphate). Results showed that: (1) The content of Pb, Zn in matrix after planting four kinds of plants was lower than before, no significant difference between improved one and improved two of Nerium oleander and Boehmeria was found, but improved two was better than improved one of Paulownia, while improved one was better than improved two of Koelreuteria paniculata; Four plants had relatively low aboveground enrichment coefficient of Pb and Zn, but had a high transfer coefficient, showed that the appropriate modifier concentration was able to improve the Pb and Zn enrichment and transfer ability of plants. (2) In subcellular distribution, most of Pb and Zn were distributed in plant cell wall components and soluble components while the distribution in cell organelles such as mitochondria, chloroplasts and nucleus component were less. Compared with CK group, two improved group made soluble components of the cell walls of Pb fixation and retention of zinc role in the enhancement. (3) As for the chemical forms of Pb and Zn in plants, the main chemical forms of Pb were hydrochloric acid, sodium chloride and ethanol extractable forms, while other chemical form contents were few, the main chemical forms of Zn were different based on plant type. Compared with CK group, the proportion of the active Pb chemical form in different plant

  12. Divergent Hydraulic Safety Strategies in Three Co-occurring Anacardiaceae Tree Species in a Chinese Savanna

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shu-Bin; Zhang, Jiao-Lin; Cao, Kun-Fang

    2017-01-01

    Vulnerability segmentation, the condition under which plant leaves are more vulnerable to drought-induced cavitation than stems, may act as a “safety valve” to protect stems from hydraulic failure. Evergreen, winter-deciduous, and drought-deciduous tree species co-occur in tropical savannas, but there have been no direct studies on the role of vulnerability segmentation and stomatal regulation in maintaining hydraulic safety in trees with these three leaf phenologies. To this end, we selected three Anacardiaceae tree species co-occurring in a Chinese savanna, evergreen Pistacia weinmanniifolia, drought-deciduous Terminthia paniculata, and winter-deciduous Lannea coromandelica, to study inter-species differentiation in leaf and stem hydraulic safety. We found that the two deciduous species had significantly higher sapwood-specific hydraulic conductivity and leaf-specific hydraulic conductance than the evergreen species. Moreover, two deciduous species were more vulnerable to stem cavitation than the evergreen species, although both drought-deciduous species and evergreen species had drought-resistance leaves. The evergreen species maintained a wide hydraulic safety margin (HSM) in stems and leaves; which was achieved by embolism resistance of both stems and leaves and isohydric stomatal control. Both deciduous species had limited HSMs in stems and leaves, being isohydric in the winter-deciduous species and anisohydric in drought-deciduous species. The difference in water potential at 50% loss of hydraulic conductivity between the leaves and the terminal stems (P50leaf−stem) was positive in P. weinmanniifolia and L. coromandelica, whereas, T. paniculata exhibited a lack of vulnerability segmentation. In addition, differences in hydraulic architecture were found to be closely related to other structural traits, i.e., leaf mass per area, wood density, and sapwood anatomy. Overall, the winter-deciduous species exhibits a drought-avoidance strategy that maintains

  13. Inhibition of Human Cytochrome P450 2c8-catalyzed Amodiaquine N-desethylation: Effect of Five Traditionally and Commonly Used Herbs

    PubMed Central

    Muthiah, Yasotha Devi; Ong, Chin Eng; Sulaiman, Siti Amrah; Ismail, Rusli

    2016-01-01

    Background: In Southeast Asia and many parts of the world, herbal products are increasingly used in parallel with modern medicine. Objective: This study aimed to investigate the effects of herbs commonly used in Southeast Asia on activity of cytochrome P450 2C8 (CYP2C8), an important human hepatic enzyme in drug metabolism. Materials and Methods: The selected herbs, such as Eurycoma longifolia Jack (ELJ), Labisia pumila (LP), Echinacea purpurea (EP), Andrographis paniculata (AP), and Ginkgo biloba (GB), were subjected to inhibition studies using an in vitro CYP2C8 activity marker, amodiaquine N-desethylase assay. Inhibition parameters, inhibitory concentration 50% (IC50), and Ki values were determined to study the potency and mode of inhibition. Results: All herbs inhibited CYP2C8 with the following order of potency: LP > ELJ > GB > AP > EP. LP and ELJ inhibited potently at Ki's of 2 and 4 times the Ki of quercetin, the positive control. The inhibition by LP was uncompetitive in nature as compared to competitive or mixed type inhibition observed with other herbs. GB exhibited moderate inhibitory effect at a Ki6 times larger than quercetin Ki. AP and EP, on the other hand, showed only weak inhibition. Conclusion: The herbs we chose represented the more commonly used herbs in Southeast Asia where collision of tradition and modernization in healthcare, if not properly managed, may lead to therapeutic misadventures. We conclude that concurrent consumption of some herbs, in particular, LP and ELJ, may have relevance in drug-herb interactions via CYP2C8 inhibition in vivo. SUMMARY Herbs are increasingly used in parallel with modern medicines nowadays. In this study five commonly used herbs in Southeast Asia region, ELJ, LP, EP, AP and GB, were investigated for their in vitro inhibitory potency on CYP2C8, an important drug-metaboliz-ing human hepatic enzyme. All herbs inhibited CYP2C8 activity marker, amodiaquine N-desethylation, with potency order of LP > ELJ > GB >AP

  14. Plants used to treat epilepsy by Tanzanian traditional healers.

    PubMed

    Moshi, Mainen J; Kagashe, Godeliver A B; Mbwambo, Zakaria H

    2005-02-28

    A cross-sectional study performed in Temeke District (Dar es Salaam, Tanzania) showed that 5.5% of the traditional healers have knowledge for the treatment of epilepsy. Of the 100 healers interviewed, 30 (30%) believed that epilepsy was caused by witchcraft, while 19 (19%) thought epilepsy has a genetic origin which can be inherited. Other healers thought epilepsy can be caused by head injury or malaria (24%), and the remaining 27% did not know the cause. Most of the healers (92%) could present an accurate account on the symptoms of the disease, including dizziness, loss of consciousness, abrupt falling down, frothing from the mouth, loss of memory, biting of the tongue, confusion, and restlessness. They showed competence in the treatment of the disease, whereby 60 plants that are commonly used were mentioned. Abrus precatorius L. (Leguminosae), Clausena anisata (Willd.) Oliv. (Rutaceae) and Hoslundia opposita Vahl (Lamiaceae), which are among the plants mentioned, have proven anticonvulsant activity, while a few other species on their list have been reported to be useful in the treatment of epilepsy. Biological testing of these plants, using different models of convulsions is, suggested.

  15. Analysis of E. rutaecarpa Alkaloids Constituents In Vitro and In Vivo by UPLC-Q-TOF-MS Combined with Diagnostic Fragment

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shenshen; Tian, Meng; Yuan, Lei; Deng, Haoyue; Wang, Lei; Li, Aizhu; Hou, Zhiguo; Li, Yubo

    2016-01-01

    Evodia rutaecarpa (Juss.) Benth. (Rutaceae) dried ripe fruit is used for dispelling colds, soothing liver, and analgesia. Pharmacological research has proved that alkaloids are the main active ingredients of E. rutaecarpa. This study aimed to rapidly classify and identify the alkaloids constituents of E. rutaecarpa by using UPLC-Q-TOF-MS coupled with diagnostic fragments. Furthermore, the effects of the material base of E. rutaecarpa bioactive ingredients in vivo were examined such that the transitional components in the blood of rats intragastrically given E. rutaecarpa were analyzed and identified. In this study, the type of alcohol extraction of E. rutaecarpa and the corresponding blood sample were used for the analysis by UPLC-Q-TOF-MS in positive ion mode. After reviewing much of the literature and collected information on the fragments, we obtained some diagnostic fragments of the alkaloids. Combining the diagnostic fragments with the technology of UPLC-Q-TOF-MS, we identified the compounds of E. rutaecarpa and blood samples and compared the ion fragment information with that of the alkaloids in E. rutaecarpa. A total of 17 alkaloids components and 6 blood components were identified. The proposed method was rapid, accurate, and sensitive. Therefore, this technique can reliably and practically analyze the chemical constituents in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). PMID:27446630

  16. Satkara (Citrus macroptera) Fruit Protects against Acetaminophen-Induced Hepatorenal Toxicity in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Sudip; Islam, Md. Aminul; Tanvir, E. M.; Ahmed, Romana; Das, Sagarika; Rumpa, Nur-E-Noushin; Hossen, Md. Sakib; Parvez, Mashud; Gan, Siew Hua; Khalil, Md. Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    Although Citrus macroptera (Rutaceae), an indigenous fruit in Bangladesh, has long been used in folk medicine, however, there is a lack of information concerning its protective effects against oxidative damage. The protective effects of an ethanol extract of Citrus macroptera (EECM) against acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity were investigated in rats. Rats (treatment groups) were pretreated with EECM at doses of 250, 500, and 1000 mg/kg, respectively, orally for 30 days followed by acetaminophen administration. Silymarin (100 mg/kg) was administered as a standard drug over a similar treatment period. Our findings indicated that oral administration of acetaminophen induced severe hepatic and renal injuries associated with oxidative stress, as observed by 2-fold higher lipid peroxidation (TBARS) compared to control. Pretreatment with EECM prior to acetaminophen administration significantly improved all investigated biochemical parameters, that is, transaminase activities, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, γ-glutamyl transferase activities and total bilirubin, total cholesterol, triglyceride and creatinine, urea, uric acid, sodium, potassium and chloride ions, and TBARS levels. These findings were confirmed by histopathological examinations. The improvement was prominent in the group that received 1000 mg/kg EECM. These findings suggested that C. macroptera fruit could protect against acetaminophen-induced hepatonephrotoxicity, which might be via the inhibition of lipid peroxidation. PMID:27034701

  17. Contribution to the taxonomy of Garcinia (Clusiaceae) in Africa, including two new species from Gabon and a key to the Lower Guinean species

    PubMed Central

    Sosef, Marc S.M.; Dauby, Gilles

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Garcinia has some 260 species and is often regarded as a genus with a difficult taxonomy. No recent treatment is available for the botanically rich Lower Guinea phytogeographical region. This study aims at partly filling this gap. First, several taxonomic problems are solved. Garcinia chromocarpa is reduced to a variety of Garcinia quadrifaria. Garcinia gnetoides and Garcinia granulata are both synonyms of Garcinia quadrifaria. Garcinia zenkeri is a synonym of Garcinia densivenia and lectotypes are being designated for both names. Garcinia brevipedicellata is a synonym of Garcinia afzelii, as is Garcinia antidysenterica for which a lectotype is designated. Second, two new species endemic to Gabon are described: Garcinia gabonensis Sosef & Dauby and Garcinia obliqua Sosef & Dauby. Finally, an identification key to all species present in the Lower Guinea region is provided. A few remaining West African species names could not be placed with certainty, because the type material was lost or not traced yet. One is a Rutaceae while the remaining three are provisionally to be regarded as synonyms of Garcinia smeathmannii. PMID:23233817

  18. Advances in Studies on Natural Preservativesfor Fruits and Vegetables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Haisheng; Shi, Pengbao; Zhao, Yuhua

    The author introduced g eneral research and application situations of natural preservatives for fruits and vegetables all over the world these years, and summarized application of vegetation of Murraya in Rutaceae, Cinnamomum in Lauraceae, Artemisia in Compositae and other families and genera on fruits and vegetables preservation and fresh-keeping. Decoction or extraction of Chinese traditional medicine, such as Alpinia Officinarum, Amarphalus Konjac K., stemona etc, could be used in fresh-keeping for orange, apple, strawberry, edible fungi and so on. Garlic could be used in fresh-keeping for orange. Phytic acid and fresh-keeping agents compounded with Phytic acid could extend storage periods of easily rotting fruits and vegetables, such as strawberry, banana, cantaloup, edible fungi and so on, and better keep original fresh condition. Extraction of Snow Fresh, Semper Fresh, Arthropod shell extraction, and halite also had better effect on preservation and fresh-keeping for fruits and vegetables. Main problems exsited in the application of natural preservatives for fruits and vegetables were showed in this article and the applying prospect were discussed too.

  19. The Two-step Biosynthesis of Cyclic Peptides from Linear Precursors in a Member of the Plant Family Caryophyllaceae Involves Cyclization by a Serine Protease-like Enzyme*

    PubMed Central

    Barber, Carla J. S.; Pujara, Pareshkumar T.; Reed, Darwin W.; Chiwocha, Shiela; Zhang, Haixia; Covello, Patrick S.

    2013-01-01

    Caryophyllaceae-type cyclic peptides (CPs) of 5–12 proteinogenic amino acids occur in 10 plant families. In Saponaria vaccaria (Caryophyllaceae), they have been shown to be formed from linear peptide precursors derived from ribosomal translation. There is also evidence for such precursors in other members of the Caryophyllaceae, Rutaceae, and Linaceae families. The biosynthesis of CP in the developing seeds of S. vaccaria was investigated with respect to the enzymes involved in precursor processing. Through biochemical assays with seed extracts and synthetic peptides, an enzyme named oligopeptidase 1 (OLP1) was found that catalyzes the cleavage of intermediates at the N terminus of the incipient CP. A second enzyme, peptide cyclase 1 (PCY1), which was separated chromatographically from OLP1, was found to act on the product of OLP1, giving rise to a cyclic peptide and concomitant removal of a C-terminal flanking sequence. PCY1 was partially purified, and using the methods of proteomics, a full-length cDNA clone encoding an enzyme matching the properties of PCY1 was obtained. The substrate specificity of purified recombinant PCY1, believed to be the first cloned plant enzyme whose function is peptide cyclization, was tested with synthetic peptides. The results are discussed in the light of CP biosynthetic systems of other organisms. PMID:23486480

  20. Seasonal change in main alkaloids of jaborandi (Pilocarpus microphyllus Stapf ex Wardleworth), an economically important species from the Brazilian flora

    PubMed Central

    Véras, Leiz Maria Costa; Azevedo, Iábita Fabiana Sousa; Biase, Adriele Giaretta; Costa, Joana; Oliveira, Maria Beatriz P. P.; Mafra, Isabel

    2017-01-01

    Pilocarpus microphyllus Stapf ex Wardleworth (jaborandi, Rutaceae) is one of the most important Brazilian medicinal species owing to its content of pilocarpine (PIL), an alkaloid used for treating glaucoma and xerostomia. This species contains another alkaloid, epiisopiloturine (EPI), which has demonstrated effectiveness against schistosomiasis. The aim of this work was to assess seasonal changes of PIL and EPI in three populations of cultivated P. microphyllus from northeastern Brazil over one year, including the dry and rainy seasons. Alkaloid profiles were correlated to phenotypic and genetic patterns in the morphological and molecular characterizations. PIL was the primary alkaloid and its levels differed among populations in all months except September. The S01 population (green line) showed an especially high PIL content compared to populations S02 and S03 (traditional line), which had similar alkaloid contents. PIL content gradually decreased in the three populations in the rainy season.EPI content was significantly different between the green line (S01) and the traditional line (S02 and S03).S01 had a significantly lower EPI content in all months, demonstrating that it was not the best source for EPI extraction. Inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers and morphological analyses clearly separated S01 from S02 and S03, in agreement with the alkaloid results. This study shows the first correlation between the chemical, morphological, and molecular markers of P. microphyllus and highlights the potential benefits of a multidisciplinary research approach aimed at supporting both industry and conservation of natural resources. PMID:28151972

  1. In vitro anti-Helicobacter pylori action of 30 Chinese herbal medicines used to treat ulcer diseases.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; Xu, Chen; Zhang, Qiang; Liu, Jun Yan; Tan, Ren Xiang

    2005-04-26

    Infection by Helicobacter pylori has been ascertained to be an important etiologic impetus leading usually to chronic active gastritis and gastric ulcer with growing incidences worldwide. Utilizing as the test pathogen a standard and five clinic strains of Helicobacter pylori, the antibacterial action was assessed in vitro with ethanol extracts of 30 Chinese herbal medicines which have been frequently prescribed since ancient times for treating gastritis-like disorders. Among the 30 tested materials, the ethanol extracts of Abrus cantoniensis (Fabaceae), Saussurea lappa (Asteraceae) and Eugenia caryophyllata (Myrtaceae) were strongly inhibitory to all test strains (MICs: approximately 40 microg/ml), and Hippophae rhamnoides (Elaeagnaceae), Fritillaria thunbergii (Liliaceae), Magnolia officinalis and Schisandra chinensis (Magnoliaceae), Corydalis yanhusuo (Papaveraceae), Citrus reticulata (Rutaceae), Bupleurum chinense and Ligusticum chuanxiong (Apiaceae) substantially active with MICs close to 60.0 microg/ml. As to antibacterial actions of the aqueous extracts of the same drugs, those derived from Cassia obtusifolia (Fabaceae), Fritillaria thunbergii and Eugenia caryophyllata were remarkably inhibitory against all the six Helicobacter pylori strains (MICs: approximately 60 microg/ml). The work compared almost quantitatively the magnitude of the anti-Helicobacter pylori actions of the 30 most prescribed gastritis-treating Chinese herbal drugs, and located as well some source plants where potent anti-Helicobacter pylori phytochemicals could be characterized.

  2. Seasonal change in main alkaloids of jaborandi (Pilocarpus microphyllus Stapf ex Wardleworth), an economically important species from the Brazilian flora.

    PubMed

    Lima, David Fernandes; de Lima, Luiza Ianny; Rocha, Jefferson Almeida; de Andrade, Ivanilza Moreira; Grazina, Liliana Gonçalves; Villa, Caterina; Meira, Liliana; Véras, Leiz Maria Costa; Azevedo, Iábita Fabiana Sousa; Biase, Adriele Giaretta; Costa, Joana; Oliveira, Maria Beatriz P P; Mafra, Isabel; Leite, José Roberto de Souza de Almeida

    2017-01-01

    Pilocarpus microphyllus Stapf ex Wardleworth (jaborandi, Rutaceae) is one of the most important Brazilian medicinal species owing to its content of pilocarpine (PIL), an alkaloid used for treating glaucoma and xerostomia. This species contains another alkaloid, epiisopiloturine (EPI), which has demonstrated effectiveness against schistosomiasis. The aim of this work was to assess seasonal changes of PIL and EPI in three populations of cultivated P. microphyllus from northeastern Brazil over one year, including the dry and rainy seasons. Alkaloid profiles were correlated to phenotypic and genetic patterns in the morphological and molecular characterizations. PIL was the primary alkaloid and its levels differed among populations in all months except September. The S01 population (green line) showed an especially high PIL content compared to populations S02 and S03 (traditional line), which had similar alkaloid contents. PIL content gradually decreased in the three populations in the rainy season.EPI content was significantly different between the green line (S01) and the traditional line (S02 and S03).S01 had a significantly lower EPI content in all months, demonstrating that it was not the best source for EPI extraction. Inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers and morphological analyses clearly separated S01 from S02 and S03, in agreement with the alkaloid results. This study shows the first correlation between the chemical, morphological, and molecular markers of P. microphyllus and highlights the potential benefits of a multidisciplinary research approach aimed at supporting both industry and conservation of natural resources.

  3. Anticoccidial effects of the root bark of Dictamnus dasycarpus Turcz extract on experimental Eimeria tenella infection.

    PubMed

    Hong, Sunhwa; Lee, Hyun-A; Kim, Dong-Woo; Oh, Gi-Wook; Kim, Okjin

    2014-12-01

    Anticoccidial effects of the root bark of Dictamnus dasycarpus Turcz (Rutaceae) extract (DDE) were evaluated in chickens following oral infection with Eimeria (E.) tenella. Three-day-old chickens (n=30) were assigned to three groups (control, untreated, and DDE 0.1% treated). Chickens were fed a standard diet supplemented with or without DDE for 1 week prior to infection with E. tenella (10,000 sporulated oocysts per chicken). The effects of DDE on E. tenella infection were assessed by two parameters; fecal oocysts shedding and body weights gain. The DDE-fed chickens produced significantly reduced fecal oocysts (P<0.05) when compared to the E. tenella-infected group fed standard diet. Also, DDE-based diet, improved body weight loss caused by E. tenella infection. Our data demonstrated that DDE had remarkable anticoccidial activities against E. tenella. This finding might have implications for the development of anticoccidial drug. This study is the first to demonstrate anticoccidial effect of DDE on Eimeria parasites.

  4. Differences in Antennal Sensillae of Male and Female Peach Fruit Flies in Relation to Hosts

    PubMed Central

    Awad, Azza A.; Mohamed, Hend O.; Ali, Nashat A.

    2015-01-01

    Antennal sensillae of male and female peach fruit flies, Bactrocera zonata (Saunders) (Diptera: Tephritidae), obtained from three different host fruit species (guava, Psidium guajava L. (Myrtales: Myrtaceae); peach, Prunus persica (L.) Stokes (Rosales: Rosaceae); and orange, Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck (Sapindales: Rutaceae)), were studied with scanning electron microscopy. This study was carried out to describe the different types of sensillae present on the three antennal segments (scape, pedicel, and flagellum or funiculus) of both sexes of B. zonata on different host fruit. The antennal segments of females tended to be larger than those of males feeding on peach and guava fruit. On orange, both sexes were similar (no significant differences were found). The first two antennal segments, scape and pedicel, are reinforced by some bristles and have different types of sensillae, including trichoid I, II, S; basiconic II; and sensilla chaetica in different numbers on different host fruit species. Numerous microtrichia, as well as trichoid (I, II), basiconic (I), clavate, and coeloconic (I, II) sensillae were observed on the funiculus with a great variation in number and length. As a result of feeding on different hosts, differences were found between sexes and some plasticity in size, number, distribution, and position of some sensillae, including trichoid, basiconic, chaetica, and clavate on the antennae of the female B. zonata. These sensillae were significantly larger in females. Also, some morphological and morphemetric differences have been found according to their feeding on different host fruit. PMID:25688086

  5. Hypoglycemic and antihyperglycemic activity of Aegle marmelos seed extract in normal and diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Kesari, Achyut Narayan; Gupta, Rajesh Kumar; Singh, Santosh Kumar; Diwakar, Sandhya; Watal, Geeta

    2006-10-11

    Aegle marmelos Corr. (Rutaceae) is widely used in Indian Ayurvedic medicine for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. The aqueous extract of Aegle marmelos seeds was administered orally at different doses (100, 250 and 500 mg/kg) to normal as well as sub (fasting blood glucose (FBG) normal; glucose tolerance abnormal) and mild (FBG 120-250 mg/dl) diabetic rats. The dose of 250 mg/kg was found to be most effective dose and it decreases blood glucose level (BGL) by 35.1% in normal healthy rats after 6h of administration. The same dose also showed a marked reduction in BGL of 41.2% in sub and 33.2% in mild diabetic rats in glucose tolerance test (GTT) after 2 h. Treatment of severely (FBG >250 mg/dl) diabetic rats for 14 days with a dose of 250 mg/kg reduces the fasting blood glucose by 60.84% and urine sugar by 75% than their pretreatment levels. It brought about fall in level of total cholesterol (TC) by 25.49% with increase of 33.43% in high density lipoprotein (HDL) and decrease of 53.97 and 45.77% in low density lipoprotein (LDL) and triglyceride (TG), respectively. These results clearly indicate that aqueous seed extract of Aegle marmelos possess antidiabetic and hypolipidemic effects in diabetic rats.

  6. Ethnopharmacological survey of medicinal plants in Jeju Island, Korea

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This study aims to analyze and record orally transmitted knowledge of medicinal plants from the indigenous people living in Hallasan National Park of Korea. Methods Data was collected through the participatory rural appraisal method involving interviews, informal meetings, open and group discussions, and overt observations with semi-structured questionnaires. Results In this study, a total of 68 families, 141 genera, and 171 species of plants that showed 777 ways of usage were recorded. Looking into the distribution of the families, 14 species of Asteraceae occupied 11.1% of the total followed by 13 species of Rosaceae, 10 species of Rutaceae, and nine species of Apiaceae which occupied 5.0%, 7.1% and 3.0% of the whole, respectively. 32 kinds of plant-parts were used for 47 various medicinal purposes. Values for the informant consensus factor regarding the ailment categories were for birth related disorders (0.92), followed by respiratory system disorders (0.90), skin disease and disorders (0.89), genitourinary system disorders (0.87), physical pain (0.87), and other conditions. According to fidelity levels, 36 plant species resulted in fidelity levels of 100%. Conclusion Consequently, results of this study will legally utilize to provide preparatory measures against the Nagoya Protocol (2010) about benefit-sharing for traditional knowledge of genetic resources. PMID:23837693

  7. Antibacterial activities of essential oils extracted from leaves of Murraya koenigii by solvent-free microwave extraction and hydro-distillation.

    PubMed

    Erkan, Naciye; Tao, Zhou; Rupasinghe, H P Vasantha; Uysal, Burcu; Oksal, Birsen S

    2012-01-01

    Solvent-free microwave extraction (SFME) for the isolation of essential oil from leaves of Murraya koenigii L. (Rutaceae) has been compared with the conventional hydro-distilled oil (HD) in terms of yield, composition, antioxidant activity, and antibacterial activity against Listeria innocua. The yield of essential oil obtained from 30 min of SFME was similar to that of HD for 180 min. By GC-MS analysis, the major compounds of the essential oil extracted by SFME, which were obtained in somewhat lower amounts than in the essential oil obtained by HD, were alpha-copaene (44.3%), beta-gurjunene (25.5%), isocaryophyllene (12.1%), beta-caryophyllene (8.7%) and germacrene D (2.9%). The content of oxygenated terpenes, slightly higher for the SFME-essential oil (2.3%) than the HD-essential oil (1.4%), were much lower than that of nonoxygenated terpenes in both oils. DPPH radical scavenging activities of both essential oils were relatively low (10%-24%). Complete inhibition of growth of L. innocua was observed with both SFME and HD essential oils, at 400 and 600 microg/mL (minimum inhibitory concentration), respectively. The SFME-essential oil at 300 microg/mL provided 92% inhibition, indicating its potential as a natural antimicrobial agent.

  8. In vitro/in vivo effect of Citrus limon (L. Burm. f.) juice on blood parameters, coagulation and anticoagulation factors in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Riaz, Azra; Khan, Rafeeq Alam; Mirza, Talat; Mustansir, Tazeen; Ahmed, Mansoor

    2014-07-01

    The genus Citrus of the family Rutaceae includes many species e.g. Citrus indica, Citrus aurantifolia and Citrus limon, among which Citrus limon L. Burm. f. has been reported to have highest antimicrobial activity. It is used as antidote against certain venom, due to its platelet inhibitory effect and also reported to have hypocholesterolemic effect. However its anticoagulant and thrombolytic effect were not been investigated, hence a prospective in-vitro/in-vivo study was designed to determine the effect of Citrus limon on blood parameters, coagulation and anticoagulation factors. In-vitro tests revealed highly significant increase in thrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time by Citrus limon, whereas fibrinogen concentration was significantly reduced in comparison to control, however prothrombin time was not affected significantly. In-vivo testing of Citrus limon was done at three different doses i.e. 0.2ml/kg, 0.4ml/kg and 0.6ml/kg in healthy rabbits. Significant changes were observed in hematological parameters such as erythrocytes, hemoglobin and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration. Bleeding time and thrombin time was significantly prolonged and there was increase in protein C and thrombin antithrombin complex levels. These results may be due to inactivation of thrombin because it significantly decreases fibrinogen concentration and inhibit platelet aggregation. Citrus limon showed maximal anticoagulant effect at 0.4ml/kg, which suggest that Citrus limon possesses an anti-thrombin component and could prevent thrombosis playing a cardio protective role.

  9. Diversity and utilization of tree species in Meitei homegardens of Barak Valley, Assam.

    PubMed

    Devi, N Linthoingambi; Das, Ashesh Kumar

    2013-03-01

    An inventory of tree diversity in traditional homegardens of Meitei community was conducted in a Bontarapur village in Cachar district of Barak Valley, Assam. Meitei homegarden locally called Ingkhol exhibits a wide diversity in size, shape, location and composition. Seventy one tree species were enumerated from 50 homegardens belonging to 60 genus and 35 families. Among the families encountered, Rutaceae was the dominant family (4 genus and 7 species) followed by Meliaceae (5 genus and 5 species), Arecaceae (4 genus and 4 species) and Moraceae (3 genus and 5 species). Total 7946 tree individuals were recorded, with the density of 831 No ha(-1) of and total basal area of 9.54 m2 ha(-1). Areco catechu was the dominant species with the maximum number of individuals. Other dominant trees include Mangifera indica, Artocarpus heterophyllus, Citrus grandis, Parkia timoriana, Syzygium cumini and Psidium guajava. Being a cash crop, the intensification of betel nut has been preferred in many homegardens. Homegardens form an important component of land use of Meitei community which fulfills the socio-cultural and economic needs of the family and helps in conserving plant diversity through utilization.

  10. Acute effects of bergamot oil on anxiety-related behaviour and corticosterone level in rats.

    PubMed

    Saiyudthong, Somrudee; Marsden, Charles A

    2011-06-01

    Bergamot essential oil (BEO), Citrus aurantium subsp. bergamia (Risso) Wright & Arn. (Rutaceae), is used widely in aromatherapy to reduce stress and anxiety despite limited scientific evidence. A previous study showed that BEO significantly increased gamma-aminobutyric acid levels in rat hippocampus, suggesting potential anxiolytic properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of BEO (1.0%, 2.5% and 5.0% w/w) administered to rats on both anxiety-related behaviours (the elevated plus-maze (EPM) and hole-board tests) and stress-induced levels of plasma corticosterone in comparison with the effects of diazepam. Inhalation of BEO (1% and 2.5%) and injection of diazepam (1 mg/kg, i.p.) significantly increased the percentage of open arm entries on the EPM. The percentage time spent in the open arms was also significantly enhanced following administration of either BEO (2.5% and 5%) or diazepam. Total arm entries were significantly increased with the highest dose (5%), suggesting an increase in locomotor activity. In the hole-board test, 2.5% BEO and diazepam significantly increased the number of head dips. 2.5% BEO and diazepam attenuated the corticosterone response to acute stress caused by exposure to the EPM. In conclusion, both BEO and diazepam exhibited anxiolytic-like behaviours and attenuated HPA axis activity by reducing the corticosterone response to stress.

  11. Identifying the genome-wide genetic variation between precocious trifoliate orange and its wild type and developing new markers for genetics research

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jin-Zhi; Liu, Sheng-Rui; Hu, Chun-Gen

    2016-01-01

    To increase our understanding of the genes involved in flowering in citrus, we performed genome resequencing of an early flowering trifoliate orange mutant (Poncirus trifoliata L. Raf.) and its wild type. At the genome level, 3,932,628 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), 1,293,383 insertion/deletion polymorphisms (InDels), and 52,135 structural variations were identified between the mutant and its wild type based on the citrus reference genome. Based on integrative analysis of resequencing and transcriptome analysis, 233,998 SNPs and 75,836 InDels were also identified between the mutant and its wild type at the transcriptional level. Also, 272 citrus homologous flowering-time transcripts containing genetic variation were also identified. Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopaedia of Genes and Genomes annotation revealed that the transcripts containing the mutant- and the wild-type-specific InDel were involved in diverse biological processes and molecular function. Among these transcripts, there were 131 transcripts that were expressed differently in the two genotypes. When 268 selected InDels were tested on 32 genotypes of the three genera of Rutaceae for the genetic diversity assessment, these InDel-based markers showed high transferability. This work provides important information that will allow a better understanding of the citrus genome and that will be helpful for dissecting the genetic basis of important traits in citrus. PMID:27106267

  12. seco-limonoids and quinoline alkaloids from Raputia heptaphylla and their antileishmanial activity.

    PubMed

    Coy Barrera, Carlos Andres; Coy Barrera, Ericsson David; Granados Falla, Diana Susana; Delgado Murcia, Gabriela; Cuca Suarez, Luis Enrique

    2011-01-01

    A novel seco-limonoid, rel-(1S,5R,9S,7R,8S,9R,10S,11R,13S,14R,15R,17R)-11,19-dihydroxy-7-acetoxy-7-deoxoichangin (raputiolide) (1), and two novel quinolone alkaloids N-methyl-2-phenoxyquinolin-4(1H)-one (heptaphyllone A) (2) and 6-methylbenzofuro[2,3-b]quinolin-4(1H)-one (heptaphyllone B) (3), along with the known seco-limonoid ichangin (4), were isolated from Raputia heptaphylla PITTIER (Rutaceae) stem bark. Five known alkaloids, N-methyl-8-methoxyflindersine (5), skimmianine (6), kokusaginine (7), dictamnine (8) and flindersiamine (9), were also isolated from R. heptaphylla leaves. Their structures were established on the basis of full spectroscopic data interpretation supported by data from the pertinent literature. seco-Limonoid 1 configuration was determined by enhanced nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy (NOESY) experiments and density functional theory (DFT) molecular modeling. The antileishmanial effect of the isolated compounds was evaluated on Leishmania Viannia panamensis (promastigotes and amastigotes). Whereas alkaloids 2-3, 6-8 and limonoid 4 exhibited no significant parasitocide activity against internalized L. (V.) panamensis amastigotes, limonoid 1 and alkaloid 5 had leishmanicidal activity on intracellular amastigotes (EC₅₀: 8.7 µg/ml) and promastigotes (EC(50): 14.3 µg/ml), respectively.

  13. Skimmianine and related furoquinolines function as antagonists of 5-hydroxytryptamine receptors in animals.

    PubMed

    Cheng, J T; Chang, T K; Chen, I S

    1994-10-01

    1. Skimmianine, kokusaginine and confusameline, three furoquinolines extracted from the leaves of Evodia merrillii (Rutaceae), were investigated to characterize their selective effects on subtypes of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) receptors. 2. In the isolated membranes of rat cerebrocortex, using [3H]-5-HT and [3H]-ketanserin as radioligands, skimmianine and the two other furoquinolines displaced radioligand bindings in a concentration-dependent manner. Lower concentrations were required to affect [3H]-ketanserin binding than [3H]-5-HT binding in the order skimmianine > kokusaginine > confusameline. 3. Furoquinolines inhibited 5-HT-induced contraction mediated by 5-HT2 receptors in the presence of methiothepin in rat isolated aorta. Also, the combination of furoquinolines with ketanserin showed an additive antagonism. 4. These furoquinolines were inactive on the 5-carboxamidotryptamine-induced relaxation of guinea-pig ileum, a 5-HT1-mediated event. However, 5-HT-induced contraction via 5-HT2 receptors was reduced by these furoquinolines in a way similar to that in blood vessels. 5. The failure of these compounds to affect the 5-HT-induced Bezold-Jarisch-like reflex in anaesthetized rats, the major 5-HT3-mediated action, ruled out an action on 5-HT3 receptors. 6. The results obtained suggest that three furoquinoline alkaloids may act on 5-HT receptors in animals, more selectively to the 5-HT2 subtype, in the order of skimmianine > kokusaginine > confusameline.

  14. Euodenine A: a small-molecule agonist of human TLR4.

    PubMed

    Neve, Juliette E; Wijesekera, Hasanthi P; Duffy, Sandra; Jenkins, Ian D; Ripper, Justin A; Teague, Simon J; Campitelli, Marc; Garavelas, Agatha; Nikolakopoulos, George; Le, Phuc V; de A Leone, Priscila; Pham, Ngoc B; Shelton, Philip; Fraser, Neil; Carroll, Anthony R; Avery, Vicky M; McCrae, Christopher; Williams, Nicola; Quinn, Ronald J

    2014-02-27

    A small-molecule natural product, euodenine A (1), was identified as an agonist of the human TLR4 receptor. Euodenine A was isolated from the leaves of Euodia asteridula (Rutaceae) found in Papua New Guinea and has an unusual U-shaped structure. It was synthesized along with a series of analogues that exhibit potent and selective agonism of the TLR4 receptor. SAR development around the cyclobutane ring resulted in a 10-fold increase in potency. The natural product demonstrated an extracellular site of action, which requires the extracellular domain of TLR4 to stimulate a NF-κB reporter response. 1 is a human-selective agonist that is CD14-independent, and it requires both TLR4 and MD-2 for full efficacy. Testing for immunomodulation in PBMC cells shows the induction of the cytokines IL-8, IL-10, TNF-α, and IL-12p40 as well as suppression of IL-5 from activated PBMCs, indicating that compounds like 1 could modulate the Th2 immune response without causing lung damage.

  15. The Methanolic Extract from Murraya koenigii L. Inhibits Glutamate-Induced Pain and Involves ATP-Sensitive K+ Channel as Antinociceptive Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Sharmin Ani, Nushrat; Chakraborty, Sudip

    2016-01-01

    Murraya koenigii L. is a perennial shrub, belonging to the family Rutaceae. Traditionally, the leaves of this plant are extensively used in treatment of a wide range of diseases and disorders including pain and inflammation. Although researchers have revealed the antinociceptive effects of this plant's leaves during past few years, the mechanisms underlying these effects are still unknown. Therefore, the present study evaluated some antinociceptive mechanisms of the methanolic extract of M. koenigii (MEMK) leaves along with its antinociceptive potential using several animal models. The antinociceptive effects of MEMK were evaluated using formalin-induced licking and acetic acid-induced writhing tests at the doses of 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg. In addition, we also justified the possible participations of glutamatergic system and ATP-sensitive potassium channels in the observed activities. Our results demonstrated that MEMK significantly (p < 0.01) inhibited the pain thresholds induced by formalin and acetic acid in a dose-dependent manner. MEMK also significantly (p < 0.01) suppressed glutamate-induced pain. Moreover, pretreatment with glibenclamide (an ATP-sensitive potassium channel blocker) at 10 mg/kg significantly (p < 0.05) reversed the MEMK-mediated antinociception. These revealed that MEMK might have the potential to interact with glutamatergic system and the ATP-sensitive potassium channels to exhibit its antinociceptive activities. Therefore, our results strongly support the antinociceptive effects of M. koenigii leaves and provide scientific basis of their analgesic uses in the traditional medicine. PMID:27812367

  16. Production and characterization of polyclonal antibodies in rabbits to 4S-limonene synthase from spearmint (Mentha spicata).

    PubMed

    Alonso, W R; Crock, J E; Croteau, R

    1993-02-15

    Limonene synthase, a monoterpene cyclase from the oil glands of spearmint (Mentha spicata) leaves that catalyzes the conversion of geranyl pyrophosphate to (-)-4S-limonene, was purified, and polyclonal antibodies were generated in rabbits against the sodium dodecyl sulfate-denatured protein. Immunoblotting analysis revealed that the antibodies were very specific for denatured limonene synthase from all Mentha species tested. However, no immunological cross-reactivity was observed with denatured limonene synthases from Valencia oranges (Citrus sinensis, Rutaceae) or wormseed (Chenopodium ambrosioides, Chenopodiaceae). Furthermore, the antibody preparation did not detectably cross-react with other monoterpene cyclases from related angiosperm species of the Lamiaceae, Asteraceae, and Umbellifereae, or from conifer species, and no cross-reactivity was demonstrated toward several sesquiterpene cyclases of higher plant and fungal origin. Although the antibody preparation was highly selective for denatured limonene cyclase from Mentha, the antibodies did not recognize the native protein in several different types of experiments. Nevertheless, specificity for the target enzyme was unambiguously demonstrated when the antibody preparation was shown to cross-react with the cyclase protein expressed in Escherichia coli that harbored the corresponding limonene synthase cDNA gene from M. spicata.

  17. Essential oil of Aegle marmelos as a safe plant-based antimicrobial against postharvest microbial infestations and aflatoxin contamination of food commodities.

    PubMed

    Singh, Priyanka; Kumar, Ashok; Dubey, Nawal K; Gupta, Rajesh

    2009-08-01

    The essential oil of Aegle marmelos L. Correa (Rutaceae) showed strong fungitoxicity against some storage fungi-causing contamination of foodstuffs. The oil also showed efficacy as aflatoxin suppressor at 500 microL/L as it completely arrested the aflatoxin B(1) production by the toxigenic strains (Navjot 4NSt and Saktiman 3NSt) of Aspergillus flavus Link. Keeping in view the side effects of synthetic fungicides, A. marmelos oil may be recommended as an antimicrobial of plant origin to enhance the shelf life of stored food commodities by controlling the fungal growth as well as aflatoxin secretion. This is the 1st report on aflatoxin B(1) inhibitory nature of this oil. A. marmelos oil may be recommended as a novel plant-based antimicrobial in food protection over synthetic preservatives, most of which are reported to incite environmental problems because of their nonbiodegradable nature and side effects on mammals. The LD(50) of Aegle oil was found to be 23659.93 mg/kg body weight in mice (Mus musculus L.) when administered for acute oral toxicity showing nonmammalian toxicity of the oil. GC-MS analysis of the oil found DL-Limonene to be major component.

  18. Toddaculin, a natural coumarin from Toddalia asiatica, induces differentiation and apoptosis in U-937 leukemic cells.

    PubMed

    Vázquez, Ramiro; Riveiro, María E; Vermeulen, Mónica; Mondillo, Carolina; Coombes, Philip H; Crouch, Neil R; Ismail, Fathima; Mulholland, Dulcie A; Baldi, Alberto; Shayo, Carina; Davio, Carlos

    2012-06-15

    Chemotherapeutics represent the main approach for the treatment of leukemia. However, the occurrence of adverse side effects and the complete lack of effectiveness in some cases make it necessary to develop new drugs. As part of our screening program to evaluate the potential chemotherapeutic effect of natural coumarins, we investigated the anti-leukemic activities of a series of six prenylated coumarins isolated from the stem bark of Toddalia asiatica (Rutaceae). Among these, 6-(3-methyl-2-butenyl)-5,7-dimethoxycoumarin (toddaculin) displayed the most potent cytotoxic and anti-proliferative effects in U-937 cells. To determine whether these effects resulted from induction of cell death or differentiation, we further evaluated the expression of several apoptosis and maturation markers. Interestingly, while toddaculin at 250 μM was able to induce apoptosis in U-937 cells, involving decreased phosphorylation levels of ERK and Akt, 50 μM toddaculin exerted differentiating effects, inducing both the capacity of U-937 cells to reduce NBT and the expression of differentiation markers CD88 and CD11b, but no change in p-Akt or p-ERK levels. Taken together, these findings indicate that toddaculin displays a dual effect as a cell differentiating agent and apoptosis inducer in U-937 cells, suggesting it may serve as a pharmacological prototype for the development of novel anti-leukemic agents.

  19. Chemical Profile and Antioxidant Properties of Extracts and Essential Oils from Citrus × limon (L.) Burm. cv. Femminello Comune.

    PubMed

    Loizzo, Monica Rosa; Tundis, Rosa; Bonesi, Marco; Sanzo, Giuseppe Di; Verardi, Alessandra; Lopresto, Catia Giovanna; Pugliese, Alessandro; Menichini, Francesco; Balducchi, Roberto; Calabrò, Vincenza

    2016-05-01

    Citrus × limon cv. Femminello Comune (Rutaceae) from Rocca Imperiale (Italy), one of the six Protected Geographical Indication (PGI) Italian lemon crops, has been recently received renewed interest. In this work, fresh and dried peels and leaves were extracted by hydrodistillation, supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), and Soxhlet apparatus. Chemical profile was assessed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Except for leaves extracts obtained by Soxhlet apparatus, the monoterpene hydrocarbons fraction dominated. Limonene, γ-terpinene, and β-pinene were the main identified compounds. The antioxidant activity was investigated using different in vitro assays namely 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), ABTS, ferric reducing ability power (FRAP), and β-carotene bleaching test. In DPPH test, the essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation of fresh peel exhibited the highest activity (IC50 of 1.17 mg/ml). Leaves extracted by SFE showed a good activity in both DPPH and β-carotene bleaching test with IC50 values of 2.20 and 6.66 mg/ml, respectively. Monoterpene hydrocarbons fraction exhibited a positive Pearson's correlation coefficient with all antioxidant assays. Leaves, often considered waste material, should be considered from a different point because they represent a matrix of indisputable interest.

  20. Pharmacokinetic Profile of µSMIN Plus™, a new Micronized Diosmin Formulation, after Oral Administration in Rats.

    PubMed

    Russo, Rosario; Mancinelli, Angelo; Ciccone, Michele; Terruzzi, Fabio; Pisano, Claudio; Severino, Lorella

    2015-09-01

    Diosmin is a naturally occurring flavonoid present in citrus fruits and other plants belonging to the Rutaceae family. It is used for the treatment of chronic venous insufficiency (CVI) for its pheblotonic and vaso-active properties, safety and tolerability as well. The aim of the current in vivo study was to investigate the pharmacokinetic profile of a branded micronized diosmin (µSMIN Plus™) compared with plain micronized diosmin in male Sprague-Dawley rats. After oral administration by gastric gavage, blood samples were collected via jugular vein catheters at regular time intervals from baseline up to 24 hours. Plasma concentrations were assessed by LC/MS. For each animal, the following pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated using a non-compartmental analysis: maximum plasma drug concentration (Cmax), time to reach Cmax (Tmax), area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC0-last), elimination half-life (t½), and relative oral bioavailability (%F). The results of the current study clearly showed an improvement in the pharmacokinetic parameters in animals treated with µSMIN Plus™ compared with animals treated with micronized diosmin. In particular, µSMIN Plus™ showed a 4-fold increased bioavailability compared with micronized diosmin. In conclusion, the results from the current study provided a preliminary pharmacokinetic profile for µSMIN Plus™, which may represent a new tool for CVI management.

  1. Acridone alkaloids as potent inhibitors of cathepsin V.

    PubMed

    Severino, Richele P; Guido, Rafael V C; Marques, Emerson F; Brömme, Dieter; da Silva, M Fátima das G F; Fernandes, João B; Andricopulo, Adriano D; Vieira, Paulo C

    2011-02-15

    Cathepsin V is a lysosomal cysteine peptidase highly expressed in thymus, testis and corneal epithelium. Eleven acridone alkaloids were isolated from Swinglea glutinosa (Bl.) Merr. (Rutaceae), with eight of them being identified as potent and reversible inhibitors of cathepsin V (IC(50) values ranging from 1.2 to 3.9 μM). Detailed mechanistic characterization of the effects of these compounds on the cathepsin V-catalyzed reaction showed clear competitive inhibition with respect to substrate, with dissociation constants (K(i)) in the low micromolar range (2, K(i)=1.2 μM; 6, K(i)=1.0 μM; 7, K(i)=0.2 μM; and 11, K(i)=1.7 μM). Molecular modeling studies provided important insight into the structural basis for binding affinity and enzyme inhibition. Experimental and computational approaches, including biological evaluation, mode of action assessment and modeling studies were successfully employed in the discovery of a small series of acridone alkaloid derivatives as competitive inhibitors of catV. The most potent inhibitor (7) has a K(i) value of 200 nM.

  2. [Cloning, expression and functional identification of a type III polyketide synthase gene from Huperzia serrata].

    PubMed

    Ye, Jin-cui; Zhang, Ping; Sun, Jie-yin; Guo, Chao-tan; Chen, Guo-shen; Abe, Ikuro; Noguchi, Hiroshi

    2011-10-01

    A cDNA encoding novel type III polyketide synthase (PKS) was cloned and sequenced from young leaves of Chinese club moss Huperzia serrata (Thunb.) Trev. by RT-PCR using degenerated primers based on the conserved sequences of known CHSs, and named as H. serrata PKS2. The terminal sequences of cDNA were obtained by the 3'- and 5'-RACE method. The full-length cDNA of H. serrata PKS2 contained a 1212 bp open reading frame encoding a 46.4 kDa protein with 404 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence of H. serrata PKS2 showed 50%-66% identities to those of other chalcone synthase super family enzymes of plant origin. The recombinant H. serrata PKS2 was functionally expressed in Escherichia coli with an additional hexahistidine tag at the N-terminus and showed unusually versatile catalytic potency to produce various aromatic tetraketides, including chalcones, benzophenones, phloroglucinols, and acridones. In particular, the enzyme accepted bulky starter substrates N-methylanthraniloyl-CoA, and carried out three condensations with malonyl-CoA to produce 1, 3-dihydroxy-N-methylacridone. Interestingly, H. serrata PKS2 lacks most of the consensus active site sequences with acridone synthase from Ruta graveolens (Rutaceae).

  3. Anthelmintic, Antibacterial and Cytotoxicity Activity of Imidazole Alkaloids from Pilocarpus microphyllus Leaves.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Jefferson A; Andrade, Ivanilza M; Véras, Leiz M C; Quelemes, Patrick V; Lima, David F; Soares, Maria J S; Pinto, Pedro L S; Mayo, Simon J; Ivanova, Galya; Rangel, Maria; Correia, Manuela; Mafud, Ana Carolina; Mascarenhas, Yvonne P; Delerue-Matos, Cristina; de Moraes, Josué; Eaton, Peter; Leite, José R S A

    2017-04-01

    Pilocarpus microphyllus Stapf ex Wardlew (Rutaceae), popularly known as jaborandi, is a plant native to the northern and northeastern macroregions of Brazil. Several alkaloids from this species have been isolated. There are few reports of antibacterial and anthelmintic activities for these compounds. In this work, we report the antibacterial and anthelmintic activity of five alkaloids found in P. microphyllus leaves, namely, pilosine, epiisopilosine, isopilosine, epiisopiloturine and macaubine. Of these, only anthelmintic activity of one of the compounds has been previously reported. Nuclear magnetic resonance, HPLC and mass spectrometry were combined and used to identify and confirm the structure of the five compounds. As regards the anthelmintic activity, the alkaloids were studied using in vitro assays to evaluate survival time and damaged teguments for Schistosoma mansoni adult worms. We found epiisopilosine to have anthelmintic activity at very low concentrations (3.125 μg mL(-1) ); at this concentration, it prevented mating, oviposition, reducing motor activity and altered the tegument of these worms. In contrast, none of the alkaloids showed antibacterial activity. Additionally, alkaloids displayed no cytotoxic effect on vero cells. The potent anthelmintic activity of epiisopilosine indicates the potential of this natural compound as an antiparasitic agent. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Evaluation of effects of Zingiber officinale on salivation in rats.

    PubMed

    Chamani, Goli; Zarei, Mohammad Reza; Mehrabani, Mitra; Taghiabadi, Yousef

    2011-01-01

    There are some herbal plants in Iranian traditional system of medicine which are believed to be excellent remedies to alleviate the symptoms of xerostomia. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of systemic administration of seven different herbal extracts on the rate of salivation in rats. The extracts of 7 herbs; Zingiber officinale Roscoe (Zingiberaceae), Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck (Rutaceae), Artemisia absinthium L. (Asteraceae), Cichorium intybus L. (Asteraceae), Pimpinella anisum L.(Apiaceae), Portulaca oleracea L.(Portulacaceae), Tribulus terrestris L. (Zygophyllaceae) were prepared. Nine groups of animals (including negative and positive control groups) were used and seven rats were tested in each group. After the injection of extracts, saliva volume was measured gravimetrically in four continuous seven-minute intervals. The results showed that after injection of ginger extracts salivation was significantly higher as compared to the negative control group and other herbal extracts in all of the four intervals (P<0.01). The peak action of the ginger was during the first 7-minute interval and following this, salivation decreased to some extent. The present study suggests that the extract of Zingiber offiicianle can increase the rate of salivation significantly in animal model. Further investigations on different constituents of ginger seem to be essential to identify the responsible constituent for stimulation of saliva secretion.

  5. Bioactivity of six plant extracts on adults of Demotispa neivai (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    PubMed

    Martínez, Luis C; Plata-Rueda, Angelica; Zanuncio, José C; Serrão, José E

    2015-01-01

    Demotispa neivai Bondar (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) damage oil palm fruits, which makes it necessary to develop products to control this insect. The mortality, repellency, and antifeeding effects on adults of D. neivai of six plant extracts of Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (Sapindales: Meliaceae), Ricinus communis (L.) (Malpighiaes: Euphorbiaceae), Citrus sinensis Oesbek (Sapindales: Rutaceae), Nicotiana tabacum (L.) (Slanales: Solanaceae), Capsicum annuum (L.) (Solanales: Solanaceae), and Artemisia absinthium (L.) (Asterales: Asteraceae) were determined: 1) the lethal concentration LC50-90, lethal time of D. neivai was evaluated after spraying the fruits of oil palm; 2) repellent effects of each ingredient were evaluated by calculating the index of repellency; 3) antifeeding effects with the rate of inhibition calculated between doses of 20 and 24 g/liter. The mortality of D. neivai was higher with the extracts Ci. sinensis, R. communis, N. tabacum, and Ca. annuum. The mortality of D. neivai increased in the first 72 hr in all treatments. The extracts of N. tabacum, Ca. annuum, and A. indica were more repellent to D. neivai that those of Ci. sinensis, Ar. Absinthium, and R. communis. Antifeeding effect was higher with Ci. sinensis and R. communis. The increased mortality of D. neivai by Ci. sinensis can be explained by the effect of this compound on the respiratory system of insects. Extracts of Ci. sinensis, R. communis, N. tabacum, and Ca. annuum repelled and caused mortality of D. neivai and, thus, can be used in integrate pest management programs of this pest in oil palm plantations.

  6. 3′,4′,5′,5,7-Pentamethoxyflavone Sensitizes Cisplatin-Resistant A549 Cells to Cisplatin by Inhibition of Nrf2 Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Xiangyu; Bai, Xupeng; Gou, Xiaoli; Zeng, Hang; Xia, Chen; Zhuang, Wei; Chen, Xinmeng; Zhao, Zhongxiang; Huang, Min; Jin, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is an important redox-sensitive transcription factor that regulates the expression of several cytoprotective genes. More recently, genetic analyses of human tumors have indicated that Nrf2 may cause resistance to chemotherapy. In this study, we found that the expression levels of Nrf2 and its target genes GCLC, HO-1, NQO1 were significantly higher in cisplatin-resistant A549 (A549/CDDP) cells than those in A549 cells, and this resistance was partially reversed by Nrf2 siRNA. 3′,4′,5′,5,7-Pentamethoxyflavone (PMF), a natural flavonoid extracted from Rutaceae plants, sensitized A549/CDDP to CDDP and substantially induced apoptosis compared with that of CDDP alone treated group, and this reversal effect decreased when Nrf2 was downregulated by siRNA. Mechanistically, PMF reduced Nrf2 expression leading to a reduction of Nrf2 downstream genes, and in contrast, this effect was decreased by blocking Nrf2 with siRNA. Taken together, these results demonstrated that PMF could be used as an effective adjuvant sensitizer to increase the efficacy of chemotherapeutic drugs by downregulating Nrf2 signaling pathway. PMID:25843086

  7. Ethnoveterinary medicines used to treat endoparasites and stomach problems in pigs and pets in British Columbia, Canada.

    PubMed

    Lans, Cheryl; Turner, Nancy; Khan, Tonya; Brauer, Gerhard

    2007-09-30

    This paper documents the medicinal plants used to treat endoparasites and stomach problems in dogs, cats and pigs in British Columbia, Canada. Ethnoveterinary data was collected over a 6-month period in 2003. The majority of the information on pets came from 2 naturopaths, 10 herbalists, 5 dog trainers, breeders and pet shop owners, 9 holistic veterinarians and 6 of 27 organic farmers. Two pig farmers joined the study in the final stages. The following plants were used as anthelmintics: Artemisia cina O. Berg and C.F. Schmidt, Artemisia vulgaris L., Artemisia annua, Calendula officinalis L., Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench (all Asteraceae), Mentha piperita L. and Salvia officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) (Allium sativum L. (Alliaceae), Cucurbita pepo L. (Cucurbitaceae), Eugenia caryophyllata Thunb (Myrtaceae), Gentiana lutea L. (Gentianaceae), Hydrastis canadensis L. (Ranunculaceae), Juglans nigra L. (Juglandaceae), Olea europaea L. (Oleaceae) and Ruta graveolens L. (Rutaceae)). Stomach problems were treated with: Achillea millefolium L. (Asteraceae), Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f. (Asphodelaceae), Elytrigia repens (L.) Desv. ex Nevski (Poaceae), Frangula purshiana (DC.) Cooper (Rhamnaceae), Juniperus communis L. (Cupressaceae), Melissa officinalis L. and M. piperita L. (Lamiaceae), Petroselinum crispum L. (Apiaceae), Plantago major L. and Plantago ovata Forssk. (Plantaginaceae) Rumex crispus L. and Rumex obtusifolius L. (Polygonaceae), Ulmus fulva Michx. (Ulmaceae) and Zingiber officinalis Roscoe (Zingiberaceae). There is insufficient information available to assess the anthelmintic efficacies of C. officinalis, Salvia officinalis, Eugenia caryophyllata and O. europaea; the other plants have mid- to high-level validity for their ethnoveterinary uses.

  8. A new blend of white sapote fruit volatiles as potential attractant to Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    González, Ricardo; Toledo, Jorge; Cruz-Lopez, Leopoldo; Virgen, Armando; Santiesteban, Antonio; Malo, Edi A

    2006-12-01

    The behavioral and electrophysiological responses of nonirradiated male and female Anastrepha ludens (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae), to white sapote, Casimiroa edulis Oerst. (Rutaceae), volatiles were investigated. Females flew upwind and landed more often on fruit than on artificial fruit in wind tunnel bioassays. Males flew upwind (but not landed) more frequently on fruit than on artificial fruit. Porapak Q volatile extracts of white sapote also elicited upwind flight and landing on artificial fruit for both sexes. Gas chromatography-electroantennographic detection analysis of white sapote extracts revealed that antennae of both sexes responded to eight compounds. Two peaks were unidentified because they did not separate from the solvent. Subsequent peaks were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry as styrene, myrcene, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, 1,8-cineole, and linalool in a proportion of 50: 21: 0.5: 27: 1.5, respectively. Eight peaks were tentatively identified as beta-trans-ocimene. The number of A. ludens captured in multilure traps baited with the synthetic white sapote blend was higher than the flies captured by the multilure unbaited traps (control) in field cages. However, the number of flies captured by traps baited with the white sapote blend was not different from that of flies captured by traps baited with hydrolyzed protein. Using standard chemical ecology techniques, we found potential attractants from wild sapote fruit for monitoring and management of A. ludens population.

  9. Evaluation of Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Citrus latifolia Tanaka Essential Oil and Limonene in Experimental Mouse Models

    PubMed Central

    Kummer, Raquel; Fachini-Queiroz, Fernanda Carolina; Estevão-Silva, Camila Fernanda; Grespan, Renata; Silva, Expedito Leite; Bersani-Amado, Ciomar Aparecida; Cuman, Roberto Kenji Nakamura

    2013-01-01

    The genus Citrus (Rutaceae) includes several species of plants that produce some of the most cultivated fruits in the world, providing an appreciable content of essential oil. In folk medicine, they are used as a cholagogue, antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, sedative, and antitoxic effects. Lemon essential oil has been used since ancient times for its antiseptic, carminative, diuretic, and eupeptic effects. In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory activity of Citrus latifolia Tanaka essential oil (CLEO) and its main constituent LIM. In the cell viability assay, CLEO and LIM (3, 10, 30, and 90 μg/mL) had low cytotoxicity. In zymosan-induced peritonitis, LIM (500 mg/kg) decreased the infiltration of peritoneal exudate leukocytes and decreased the number of polymorphonuclear leukocytes. In vitro chemotaxis revealed that CLEO and LIM (1, 3, and 10 µg/mL) promoted a significant reduction of neutrophil migration toward fMLP and LTB4. LIM (500 mg/kg) also reduced TNF-α levels but did not alter IL-10 levels in the peritoneal exudate. In conclusion, this study showed that LIM isolated from CLEO had potential anti-inflammatory effects, likely by inhibiting proinflammatory mediators present in inflammatory exudate and leukocyte chemotaxis. PMID:23762165

  10. A bioassay using Artemia salina for detecting phototoxicity of plant coumarins.

    PubMed

    Ojala, T; Vuorela, P; Kiviranta, J; Vuorela, H; Hiltunen, R

    1999-12-01

    Artemia salina (brine shrimp) has been successfully used for toxicity testing, and a screening test for phototoxicity has been developed based on this method. The ability of the method to test the phototoxic potential of seven known compounds was investigated. Athamantin (an angular furanocoumarin) and umbelliferone (a simple coumarin) showed no phototoxicity, while linear furanocoumarins exhibited phototoxic activity in the following order: psoralen > bergapten > peucedanin > xanthotoxin. The applicability of this method was also tested in screening the phototoxicity of plant material. Six plants from Apiaceae [Aegopodium podagraria L., Anethum graveolens L., Angelica archangelica L., Levisticum officinalis Koch, Petroselinum crispum (P. Mill) A. W. Hill., and Peucedanum palustre (L.) Moench] and one from Rutaceae (Ruta graveolens L.) were selected, all of them known to contain furanocoumarins. Extracts from leaves collected at different times during the growth period were used in the screening. Our results were in accordance with the furanocoumarin content of these plants and with the results of other phototoxicity tests. The Artemia salina method proved to be rapid, simple and inexpensive, and is therefore ideal in the initial biological screening of large numbers of samples for simultaneous detection of both toxicity and phototoxicity.

  11. Flavanone glycosides as oviposition stimulants in a papilionid butterfly,Papilio protenor.

    PubMed

    Honda, K

    1986-10-01

    Identification of chemical compounds responsible for the oviposition behavior in a Rutaceae feeder,Papilio protenor demetrius, was undertaken with the epicarp of sour orange (Citrus natsudaidai) which exhibited potent stimulatory activity as did its leaves for egg-laying by the females. The stimulants were present in the hydrosoluble fraction, and the kairomonal activity displayed by the peel was regarded as originating from the synergistic effect of the total chemical complex. One of the active compounds was identified as a flavanone glycoside, naringin (naringenin-7β-neohesperidoside), which, although showing no appreciable effectiveness when bioassayed alone, elicited positive response at the concentration of 0.2% either when admixed with other unidentified components or provided the females had been conditioned with them in advance. Another flavanone glycoside, hesperidin (hesperetin-7β-rutinoside) that was contained in a trace amount in the peel also had a positive effect comparable to that of naringin under similar conditions, while their corresponding aglycones were less active or inactive. In contrast, a flavone glycoside, rhoifolin, coexisting in the peel, and some other flavones and flavonols tested as possible candidates for oviposition stimulants were all found entirely ineffective.

  12. Sex allocation and functional bias of quaternary and quinary flowers on same inflorescence in the hermaphrodite Ruta graveolens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Jing-Yu; Ren, Ming-Xun

    2011-09-01

    Intra-inflorescence variation in floral traits is important to understand the pollination function of an inflorescence and the real reproductive outputs of a plant. Ruta graveolens (Rutaceae) produce both quaternary (four petals and eight stamens) and quinary (five petals and ten stamens) flowers on the same cymes, while their pollination roles and the effects on the reproductive success remained unexplored. We experimentally examined the biomass of female versus male organs and pollen viability and stigma receptivity to explore the sex allocation patterns between the flowers. The breeding systems and reproductive outputs through either female function (seed set) or male function (pollen dispersal) were also studied for quinary and quaternary flowers to determine whether there was functional bias. The results showed that R. graveolens was protandrous, with a mixed mating system. Its stamens could slowly move one by one and only dehisce when positioning at the flower center, which could greatly enhance pollen dispersal. The first-opened quinary flower allocated significantly higher resources (dry biomass) in female organs while quaternary flowers allocated more resource in male organs. The quaternary flowers experienced higher pollen limitation in seed production but were more successful in pollen dispersal and the quinary flowers reproduced both through female and male functions. Our data suggested that quinary and quaternary flower on same inflorescence in R. graveolens functioned mainly as the sex role that most resources were allocated, which probably reflect an adaptation for floral phenology and pollination process in this plant.

  13. Medicinal plants used for the treatment of tuberculosis by Bapedi traditional healers in three districts of the Limpopo Province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Semenya, Sebua Silas; Maroyi, Alfred

    2013-01-01

    The present study was aimed at documenting medicinal plants used for the treatment of tuberculosis (TB) by the Bapedi traditional healers in three districts of the Limpopo Province, South Africa. Fifty two traditional healers from 17 municipalities covering Capricorn, Sekhukhune and Waterberg districts were interviewed between January and July 2011. Twenty one medicinal plant species belonging to 20 genera and 18 families were documented. The majority (61.9%) are indigenous and the rest are exotics, found near homes as weeds or cultivated in home gardens as ornamentals or food plants. Hyacinthaceae, Moraceae and Rutaceae families were the most represented families in terms of species numbers (9.5% each). Herbs and trees (38% each) constituted the largest proportion of the growth forms of the medicinal plants used. Tuberculosis remedies were mostly prepared from leaves (34%) followed by roots (21%). The therapeutic claims made on medicinal plants used to treat TB by the Bapedi traditional healers are well supported by literature, with 71.4% of the species having antimicrobial properties or have similar ethno medicinal uses in other countries. This study therefore, illustrates the importance of medicinal plants in the treatment and management of TB in the Limpopo Province, South Africa.

  14. Anti-inflammatory principles from the fruits of Evodia rutaecarpa and their cellular action mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yong Hwan; Shin, Eun Myoung; Kim, Yeong Shik; Cai, Xing Fu; Lee, Jung Joon; Kim, Hyun Pyo

    2006-04-01

    The fruits of Evodia rutaecarpa Benth (Rutaceae) has long been used for inflammatory disorders and some anti-inflammatory actions of its constituents such as dehydroevodiamine, evodiamine and rutaecarpine were previously reported. Since the pharmacological data is not sufficient to clearly establish the scientific rationale of anti-inflammatory medicinal use of this plant material and the search for its active principles is limited so far, three major constituents (evodiamine, rutaecarpine, goshuyuamide II) were evaluated for their anti-inflammatory cellular action mechanisms in the present study. From the results, evodiamine and rutaecarpine were found to strongly inhibit prostaglandin E2 synthesis from lipopolysaccharide-treated RAW 264.7 cells at 1-10 microM. Evodiamine inhibited cyclooxygenase-2 induction and NF-kappaB activation, while rutaecarpine did not. On the other hand, goshuyuamide II inhibited 5-lipoxygenase from RBL-1 cells (IC50 = 6.6 microM), resulting in the reduced synthesis of leukotrienes. However, these three compounds were not inhibitory against inducible nitric oxide synthase-mediated nitric oxide production from RAW cells up to 50 micorM. These pharmacological properties may provide the additional scientific rationale for anti-inflammatory use of the fruits of E. rutaecarpa.

  15. Comparative analysis of the cytotoxic effect of 7-prenyloxycoumarin compounds and herniarin on MCF-7 cell line

    PubMed Central

    Mousavi, Seyed Hadi; Davari, Atiyeh-Sadat; Iranshahi, Mehrdad; Sabouri-Rad, Sarvenaz; Tayarani Najaran, Zahra

    2015-01-01

    Objective: 7-prenyloxycoumarins are a group of secondary metabolites that are found mainly in plants belonging to the Rutaceae and Umbelliferae families. This study was designed to evaluate and compare the cytotoxic and apoptotic activity of 7-prenyloxycoumarin compounds and herniarin on MCF-7, a breast carcinoma cell line. Materials and Methods: Cells were cultured in RPMI medium and incubated with different concentrations of auraptene, herniarin, umbelliferone, and umbelliprenin. Cell viability was quantified by MTT assay. Apoptotic cells were determined using propidium iodide staining of DNA fragmentation by flow cytometry (sub-G1peak). Bax protein expression was detected by western blot to investigate the underlying mechanism. Results: Doses which induced 50% cell growth inhibition (IC50) against MCF-7 cells with auraptene, herniarin, umbelliferone, and umbelliprenin were calculated (59.7, 207.6, 476.3, and 73.4 µM), respectively. Auraptene induced a sub-G1 peak in the flow cytometry histogram of treated cells compared to control cells, and DNA fragmentation suggested the induction of apoptosis. Western blot analysis showed that auraptene significantly up-regulated Bax expression in MCF-7 cells compared to untreated controls. Conclusion: Auraptene exerts cytotoxic and apoptotic effects in breast carcinoma cell line and can be considered for further mechanistic evaluations in human cancer cells. These results candidate auraptene for further studies to evaluate its biosafety and anti-cancer effects. PMID:26693409

  16. Genetic relationships among wild and cultivated accessions of curry leaf plant (Murraya koenigii (L.) Spreng.), as revealed by DNA fingerprinting methods.

    PubMed

    Verma, Sushma; Rana, T S

    2013-02-01

    Murraya koenigii (L.) Spreng. (Rutaceae), is an aromatic plant and much valued for its flavor, nutritive and medicinal properties. In this study, three DNA fingerprinting methods viz., random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD), directed amplification of minisatellite DNA (DAMD), and inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR), were used to unravel the genetic variability and relationships across 92 wild and cultivated M. koenigii accessions. A total of 310, 102, and 184, DNA fragments were amplified using 20 RAPD, 5 DAMD, and 13 ISSR primers, revealing 95.80, 96.07, and 96.73% polymorphism, respectively, across all accessions. The average polymorphic information content value obtained with RAPD, DAMD, and ISSR markers was 0.244, 0.250, and 0.281, respectively. The UPGMA tree, based on Jaccard's similarity coefficient generated from the cumulative (RAPD, DAMD, and ISSR) band data showed two distinct clusters, clearly separating wild and cultivated accessions in the dendrogram. Percentage polymorphism, gene diversity (H), and Shannon information index (I) estimates were higher in cultivated accessions compared to wild accessions. The overall high level of polymorphism and varied range of genetic distances revealed a wide genetic base in M. koenigii accessions. The study suggests that RAPD, DAMD, and ISSR markers are highly useful to unravel the genetic variability in wild and cultivated accessions of M. koenigii.

  17. Phytochemical Evaluation, Antimicrobial Activity, and Determination of Bioactive Components from Leaves of Aegle marmelos

    PubMed Central

    Mujeeb, Farina; Bajpai, Preeti; Pathak, Neelam

    2014-01-01

    The therapeutic value of Aegle marmelos Correa (Rutaceae), commonly known as ‘‘Bael,” has been recognized as a component of traditional medication for the treatment of various human ailments. The plant, though, being highly explored, still lacks sufficient evidences for the best variety possessing the highest degree of medicinal values. The present study is focused on phytochemical screening of aqueous and methanolic leaf extracts of 18 varieties/accessions of A. marmelos. The crude extracts of A. marmelos revealed the presence of several biologically active phytochemicals with the highest quantity of alkaloids, flavonoids, and phenols in Pant Aparna variety. The antibacterial efficacy was investigated against pathogenic bacterial strains and the highest inhibitory activity of aqueous extract was obtained against S. epidermidis, whereas methanolic extract was found to be most potent against S. aureus at 40 mg/mL concentration. However, in aqueous : ethanol, the best results were observed against E. aerogenes followed by K. pneumonia and S. epidermidis. The MIC of aqueous and methanol extract of Aegle marmelos ranged from 10 mg/mL to 40 mg/mL whereas in aqueous : ethanol it ranged between 40 mg/mL and 160 mg/mL. The GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of many bioactive compounds such as flavonoids, alcohols, aldehydes, aromatic compounds, fatty acid methyl esters, terpenoids, phenolics, and steroids that can be postulated for antibacterial activity. PMID:24900969

  18. In vitro and in vivo activities of Haplophyllum myrtifolium against Leishmania tropica.

    PubMed

    Ostan, Ipek; Saglam, Hüsniye; Limoncu, M Emin; Ertabaklar, Hatice; Toz, Seray Ozensoy; Ozbel, Yusuf; Ozbilgin, Ahmet

    2007-10-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo leishmanicidal activity of an endemic Turkish plant and compare its efficacy with a reference drug. In addition to the in vitro activities of the ethanol, acidified and alkaloid extracts and furoquinoline alkaloids skimmianine and gamma-fagarine, in vivo antileishmanial activitiy of the acidified extract of Haplophyllum myrtifolium Boiss. (Rutaceae) were investigated against Leishmania tropica (L. tropica), a causative agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis. All the extracts and pure compounds showed in vitro inhibitory activity against the promastigotes of. L. tropica. The in vitro 50% inhibitory concentrations of y-fagarine, acidified extract, ethanol extract, skimmianine and alkaloid extract against promastigotes were determined as 8.7, 9.4, 10.9, 25.7 and 25.8 microg/ml respectively. In vivo results of Haplophyllum myrtifolium acidified extract showed that this plant has a limited effect on decreasing the lesion size of experimental mice infected with Leishmania tropica. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time both the in vitro and in vivo antileishmanial activity of Haplophyllum mrytifolium have been reported in the same research.

  19. Development and validation of HPLC methods for the analysis of phenethylamine and indoloquinazoline alkaloids in Evodia species.

    PubMed

    Pellati, Federica; Benvenuti, Stefania; Yoshizaki, Fumihiko; Melegari, Michele

    2006-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the chromatographic performance of a PEG stationary phase, in comparison with those of C18 columns, for the HPLC analysis of phenethylamine ((+/-)-synephrine) and indoloquinazoline (rutaecarpine and evodiamine) alkaloids in methanolic extracts of fruits of Evodia rutaecarpa (Juss.) Benth. and E. rutaecarpa (Juss.) Benth. var. officinalis (Dode) Huang (i.e., E. officinalis Dode) (Rutaceae family). The method was validated and showed good linearity, precision, accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity. The highest content of both phenethylamine and indoloquinazoline alkaloids was found in methanolic fruit extracts of E. rutaecarpa, and it was closely related to the degree of maturity. E. officinalis fruits displayed low amounts of both types of alkaloids. Furthermore, an enantioselective HPLC method for the enantioseparation of (+/-)-synephrine from Evodia fruits was applied, by using a protein-based chiral stationary phase with cellobiohydrolase (CBH) as the chiral selector (Chiral-CBH). Isolation of synephrine from Evodia aqueous fruit extracts was carried out by strong cation-exchange SPE. The results of the application of the method to the analysis of Evodia samples showed that (-)-synephrine was the main component while (+)-synephrine was present in low concentration.

  20. Dietary and demographic correlates of serum ß-glucuronidase activity

    PubMed Central

    Maruti, Sonia S.; Li, Lin; Chang, Jyh-Lurn; Prunty, JoAnn; Schwarz, Yvonne; Li, Shuying S.; King, Irena B.; Potter, John D.; Lampe, Johanna W.

    2010-01-01

    Background β-glucuronidase, an acid hydrolase that deconjugates glucuronides, may increase cancer risk; however, little is known about factors associated with human β-glucuronidase. Objective To examine whether dietary and demographic factors were associated with serum β-glucuronidase activity. Design We conducted a cross-sectional study among 279 healthy men and women, aged 20-40 years. Diet, categorized by botanical families and nutrient intakes, was assessed from 3-day food records and a validated semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. Demographic factors were directly measured or self-reported. Adjusted mean β-glucuronidase activity across categories of exposure variables were calculated by multiple linear regression. Results Higher β-glucuronidase activity was significantly associated with being male, older age (≥30 years), non-Caucasian, overweight (≥ 25 kg/m2), and higher intakes of gamma-tocopherol. Conversely, lower β-glucuronidase activity was significantly associated with higher intakes of calcium, iron, and magnesium. A suggestive decrease in β-glucuronidase activity was observed for the botanical families, Cruciferae, Rutaceae, Compositae, Roseaceae, and Umbelliferae, but tests for trend were not statistically significant. Conclusions Several dietary and nondietary factors were associated with β-glucuronidase activity, however confirmation of these associations are needed. PMID:20099195

  1. Bioefficacy of essential and vegetable oils of Zanthoxylum xanthoxyloides seeds against Acanthoscelides obtectus (Say) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).

    PubMed

    Fogang, Hervet Paulain Dongmo; Womeni, Hilaire Macaire; Piombo, Georges; Barouh, Nathalie; Tapondjou, Léon Azefack

    2012-03-01

    Experiments were conducted in the laboratory to evaluate the bioefficacy of essential and vegetable oils of Zanthoxylum xanthoxyloides (Rutaceae) against Acanthoscelides obtectus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). The chemical composition of the essential oil and the fatty acid composition of the vegetable oil extracted from the seeds of Z. xanthoxyloides were determined. The insecticidal activities of these oils and the associated aromatized clay powder were evaluated against A. obtectus. Both oils were strongly repellent (100% repellency at 0.501 μl/cm² essential oil and 3.144 μl/cm² vegetable oil) and highly toxic (LC₅₀ = 0.118 μl/cm² for essential oil) to this beetle after contact on filter paper. The vapors of the essential oil were highly toxic to adult insects (LC₅₀ = 0.044 μl/cm³), and the aromatized powder made from clay and essential oil was more toxic (LD₅₀ = 0.137 μl/g) than the essential oil alone (LD₅₀ = 0.193 μl/g) after 2 days of exposure on a common bean. Both oils greatly reduced the F₁ insect production and bean weight loss and did not adversely affect the bean seed viability. In general, the results obtained indicate that these plant oils can be used for control of A. obtectus in stored beans.

  2. Pharmacological basis for the medicinal use of Zanthoxylum armatum in gut, airways and cardiovascular disorders.

    PubMed

    Gilani, Syed Naeemuddin; Khan, Arif-Ullah; Gilani, Anwarul Hassan

    2010-04-01

    This study describes the gut, airways and cardiovascular modulatory activities of Zanthoxylum armatum DC. (Rutaceae) to rationalize some of its medicinal uses. The crude extract of Zanthoxylum armatum (Za.Cr) caused concentration-dependent relaxation of spontaneous and high K(+) (80 mM)-induced contractions in isolated rabbit jejunum, being more effective against K(+) and suggestive of Ca(++) antagonist effect, which was confirmed when pretreatment of the tissues with Za.Cr shifted Ca(++) concentration-response curves to the right, like that caused by verapamil. Za.Cr inhibited the castor-oil-induced diarrhea in mice at 300-1000 mg/kg. In rabbit tracheal preparations, Za.Cr relaxed the carbachol (1 microM) and high K(+)-induced contractions, in a pattern similar to that of verapamil. In isolated rabbit aortic rings, Za.Cr exhibited vasodilator effect against phenylephrine (1 microM) and K(+)-induced contractions. When tested in guinea pig atria, Za.Cr caused inhibition of both atrial force and rate of spontaneous contractions, like that caused by verapamil. These results indicate that Zanthoxylum armatum exhibits spasmolytic effects, mediated possibly through Ca(++) antagonist mechanism, which provides pharmacological base for its medicinal use in the gastrointestinal, respiratory and cardiovascular disorders.

  3. Protease inhibitor from Moringa oleifera with potential for use as therapeutic drug and as seafood preservative

    PubMed Central

    Bijina, B.; Chellappan, Sreeja; Krishna, Jissa G.; Basheer, Soorej M.; Elyas, K.K.; Bahkali, Ali H.; Chandrasekaran, M.

    2011-01-01

    Protease inhibitors are well known to have several applications in medicine and biotechnology. Several plant sources are known to return potential protease inhibitors. In this study plants belonging to different families of Leguminosae, Malvaceae, Rutaceae, Graminae and Moringaceae were screened for the protease inhibitor. Among them Moringa oleifera, belonging to the family Moringaceae, recorded high level of protease inhibitor activity after ammonium sulfate fractionation. M. oleifera, which grows throughout most of the tropics and having several industrial and medicinal uses, was selected as a source of protease inhibitor since so far no reports were made on isolation of the protease inhibitor. Among the different parts of M. oleifera tested, the crude extract isolated from the mature leaves and seeds showed the highest level of inhibition against trypsin. Among the various extraction media evaluated, the crude extract prepared in phosphate buffer showed maximum recovery of the protease inhibitor. The protease inhibitor recorded high inhibitory activity toward the serine proteases thrombin, elastase, chymotrypsin and the cysteine proteases cathepsin B and papain which have more importance in pharmaceutical industry. The protease inhibitor also showed complete inhibition of activities of the commercially available proteases of Bacillus licheniformis and Aspergillus oryzae. However, inhibitory activities toward subtilisin, esperase, pronase E and proteinase K were negligible. Further, it was found that the protease inhibitor could prevent proteolysis in a commercially valuable shrimp Penaeus monodon during storage indicating the scope for its application as a seafood preservative. This is the first report on isolation of a protease inhibitor from M. oleifera. PMID:23961135

  4. Secondary metabolites of ponderosa lemon (Citrus pyriformis) and their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and cytotoxic activities.

    PubMed

    Hamdan, Dalia; El-Readi, Mahmoud Zaki; Tahrani, Ahmad; Herrmann, Florian; Kaufmann, Dorothea; Farrag, Nawal; El-Shazly, Assem; Wink, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Column chromatography of the dichloromethane fraction from an aqueous methanolic extract of fruit peel of Citrus pyriformis Hassk. (Rutaceae) resulted in the isolation of seven compounds including one coumarin (citropten), two limonoids (limonin and deacetylnomilin), and four sterols (stigmasterol, ergosterol, sitosteryl-3-beta-D-glucoside, and sitosteryl-6'-O-acyl-3-beta-D-glucoside). From the ethyl acetate fraction naringin, hesperidin, and neohesperidin were isolated. The dichloromethane extract of the defatted seeds contained three additional compounds, nomilin, ichangin, and cholesterol. The isolated compounds were identified by MS (EI, CI, and ESI), 1H, 13C, and 2D-NMR spectral data. The limonoids were determined qualitatively by LC-ESI/MS resulting in the identification of 11 limonoid aglycones. The total methanolic extract of the peel and the petroleum ether, dichloromethane, and ethyl acetate fractions were screened for their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. The ethyl acetate fraction exhibited a significant scavenging activity for DPPH free radicals (IC50 = 132.3 microg/mL). The petroleum ether fraction inhibited 5-lipoxygenase with IC50 = 30.6 microg/mL indicating potential anti-inflammatory properties. Limonin has a potent cytotoxic effect against COS7 cells [IC50 = (35.0 +/- 6.1) microM] compared with acteoside as a positive control [IC50 = (144.5 +/- 10.96) microM].

  5. Phytochemistry and pharmacognosy of the genus Acronychia.

    PubMed

    Epifano, Francesco; Fiorito, Serena; Genovese, Salvatore

    2013-11-01

    The genus Acronychia (Rutaceae) comprise 44 species, most of which are represented by shrubs and small trees, distributed in a wide geographical area of South-Eastern Asia comprising China, India, Malaysia, Indonesia, Australia, and the islands of the western Pacific Ocean. Most of the species of the genus Acronychia have been used for centuries as natural remedies in the ethnomedical traditions of indigenous populations as anti-microbial, anti-fungal, anti-spasmodic, stomachic, anti-pyretic, and anti-haemorragic agent. Moreover fruits and aerial parts are used as food in salads and condiments, while the essential oil obtained from flowers and leaves has been employed in cosmetics production. Phytochemicals isolated from Acronychia spp. include acetophenones, quinoline and acridone alkaloids, flavonoids, cinnamic acids, lignans, coumarins, steroids, and triterpenes. The reported biological activities of the above mentioned natural compounds refer to anti-plasmodial, anti-cancer, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-fungal, and neuroprotective effects. The aim of this review is to examine in detail from a phytochemical and pharmacologically point of view what is reported in the current literature about the properties of phytopreparations or individual active principles obtained from plants belonging to the Acronychia genus.

  6. Anticoccidial effects of the root bark of Dictamnus dasycarpus Turcz extract on experimental Eimeria tenella infection

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Sunhwa; Lee, Hyun-A; Kim, Dong-Woo; Oh, Gi-Wook

    2014-01-01

    Anticoccidial effects of the root bark of Dictamnus dasycarpus Turcz (Rutaceae) extract (DDE) were evaluated in chickens following oral infection with Eimeria (E.) tenella. Three-day-old chickens (n=30) were assigned to three groups (control, untreated, and DDE 0.1% treated). Chickens were fed a standard diet supplemented with or without DDE for 1 week prior to infection with E. tenella (10,000 sporulated oocysts per chicken). The effects of DDE on E. tenella infection were assessed by two parameters; fecal oocysts shedding and body weights gain. The DDE-fed chickens produced significantly reduced fecal oocysts (P<0.05) when compared to the E. tenella-infected group fed standard diet. Also, DDE-based diet, improved body weight loss caused by E. tenella infection. Our data demonstrated that DDE had remarkable anticoccidial activities against E. tenella. This finding might have implications for the development of anticoccidial drug. This study is the first to demonstrate anticoccidial effect of DDE on Eimeria parasites. PMID:25628727

  7. Andrographolide: A New Plant-Derived Antineoplastic Entity on Horizon

    PubMed Central

    Varma, Astha; Padh, Harish; Shrivastava, Neeta

    2011-01-01

    Plant-derived natural products occupy an important position in the area of cancer chemotherapy. Molecules such as vincristine, vinblastine, paclitaxel, camptothecin derivatives, epipodophyllotoxin, and so forth, are invaluable contributions of nature to modern medicine. However, the quest to find out novel therapeutic compounds for cancer treatment and management is a never-ending venture; and diverse plant species are persistently being studied for identification of prospective anticancer agents. In this regard, Andrographis paniculata Nees, a well-known plant of Indian and Chinese traditional system of medicines, has drawn attention of researchers in recent times. Andrographolide, the principal bioactive chemical constituent of the plant has shown credible anticancer potential in various investigations around the globe. In vitro studies demonstrate the capability of the compound of inducing cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis in a variety of cancer cells at different concentrations. Andrographolide also shows potent immunomodulatory and anti-angiogenic activities in tumorous tissues. Synthetic analogues of the compound have also been created and analyzed, which have also shown similar activities. Although it is too early to predict its future in cancer chemotherapy, the prologue strongly recommends further research on this molecule to assess its potential as a prospective anticancer agent. PMID:19752167

  8. Engineered andrographolide nanosystems for smart recovery in hepatotoxic conditions

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Partha; Das, Suvadra; Auddy, Runa Ghosh; Mukherjee, Arup

    2014-01-01

    Andrographolide (AG) is one of the most potent labdane diterpenoid-type free radical scavengers available from plant sources. The compound is the principal bioactive component in Andrographis paniculata leaf extracts, and is responsible for anti-inflammatory, anticancer, and immunomodulatory activity. The application of AG in therapeutics, however, is severely constrained, due to its low aqueous solubility, short biological half-life, and poor cellular permeability. Engineered nanoparticles in biodegradable polymer systems were therefore conceived as one solution to aid in further drug-like applications of AG. In this study, a cationic modified poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid nanosystem was applied for evaluation against experimental mouse hepatotoxic conditions. Biopolymeric nanoparticles of hydrodynamic size of 229.7±17.17 nm and ζ-potential +34.4±1.87 mV facilitated marked restoration in liver functions and oxidative stress markers. Superior dissolution for bioactive AG, hepatic residence, and favorable cytokine regulation in the liver tissues are some of the factors responsible for the newer nanosystem-assisted rapid recovery. PMID:25336950

  9. Herbal and plant therapy in patients with inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Triantafyllidi, Aikaterini; Xanthos, Theodoros; Papalois, Apostolos; Triantafillidis, John K.

    2015-01-01

    The use of herbal therapy in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is increasing worldwide. The aim of this study was to review the literature on the efficacy of herbal therapy in IBD patients. Studies on herbal therapy for IBD published in Medline and Embase were reviewed, and response to treatment and remission rates were recorded. Although the number of the relevant clinical studies is relatively small, it can be assumed that the efficacy of herbal therapies in IBD is promising. The most important clinical trials conducted so far refer to the use of mastic gum, tormentil extracts, wormwood herb, aloe vera, triticum aestivum, germinated barley foodstuff, and boswellia serrata. In ulcerative colitis, aloe vera gel, triticum aestivum, andrographis paniculata extract and topical Xilei-san were superior to placebo in inducing remission or clinical response, and curcumin was superior to placebo in maintaining remission; boswellia serrata gum resin and plantago ovata seeds were as effective as mesalazine, whereas oenothera biennis had similar relapse rates as ω-3 fatty acids in the treatment of ulcerative colitis. In Crohn’s disease, mastic gum, Artemisia absinthium, and Tripterygium wilfordii were superior to placebo in inducing remission and preventing clinical postoperative recurrence, respectively. Herbal therapies exert their therapeutic benefit by different mechanisms including immune regulation, antioxidant activity, inhibition of leukotriene B4 and nuclear factor-kappa B, and antiplatelet activity. Large, double-blind clinical studies assessing the most commonly used natural substances should urgently be conducted. PMID:25830661

  10. Andrographolide induces autophagic cell death in human liver cancer cells through cyclophilin D-mediated mitochondrial permeability transition pore.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei; Feng, Lina; Nie, Hao; Zheng, Xiaodong

    2012-11-01

    Liver cancer is the third leading cause of cancer death worldwide and about half of the patients with liver cancer require adjuvant therapy after surgical resection. Therefore, development of novel agents to eradicate cancer cells may constitute a viable approach to treat patients with liver cancer. Andrographolide, a diterpenoid lactone isolated from Andrographis paniculata, is known to possess potent antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antineoplastic and antiviral properties. In this study, we investigated the cytotoxic effect of andrographolide on human liver cancer cells and explored the cell death mechanism. Andrographolide induced a cell death distinct from apoptosis in multiple human liver cancer cells. The death was characterized by autophagy as evidenced by the accumulation of LC3 II and autophagosomes, and the formation of puncta GFP-LC3. This autophagy as well as cytotoxicity caused by andrographolide could be effectively prevented by 3-methyladenine (a chemical inhibitor of autophagy). Mechanistic study indicated that andrographolide induced autophagic cell death by disruption of mitochondrial transmembrane potential and elevation of reactive oxygen species, which were correlated with mitochondrial permeability transition pore Inhibition of cyclophilin D (a component of MPTP) by cyclosporin A or abrogation of its expression by small interfering RNA significantly suppressed the cytotoxicity of andrographolide, suggesting that cyclophilin D may play an important role in mediating andrographolide-induced cytotoxicity. Taken together, our findings unveil a novel mechanism of drug action by andrographolide in liver cancer cells and suggest that andrographolide may represent a promising novel agent in the treatment of liver cancer.

  11. Interaction of Rhizosphere Bacteria, Fertilizer, and Vesicular-Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi with Sea Oats †

    PubMed Central

    Will, M. E.; Sylvia, D. M.

    1990-01-01

    Plants must be established quickly on replenished beaches in order to stabilize the sand and begin the dune-building process. The objective of this research was to determine whether inoculation of sea oats (Uniola paniculata L.) with bacteria (indigenous rhizosphere bacteria and N2 fixers) alone or in combination with vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi would enhance plant growth in beach sand. At two fertilizer-N levels, Klebsiella pneumoniae and two Azospirillum spp. did not provide the plants with fixed atmospheric N; however, K. pneumoniae increased root and shoot growth. When a sparingly soluble P source (CaHPO4) was added to two sands, K. pneumoniae increased plant growth in sand with a high P content. The phosphorus content of shoots was not affected by bacterial inoculation, indicating that a mechanism other than bacterially enhanced P availability to plants was responsible for the growth increases. When sea oats were inoculated with either K. pneumoniae or Acaligenes denitrificans and a mixed Glomus inoculum, there was no consistent evidence of a synergistic effect on plant growth. Nonetheless, bacterial inoculation increased root colonization by vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi when the fungal inoculum consisted of colonized roots but had no effect on colonization when the inoculum consisted of spores alone. K. pneumoniae was found to increase spore germination and hyphal growth of Glomus deserticola compared with the control. The use of bacterial inoculants to enhance establishment of pioneer dune plants warrants further study. PMID:16348236

  12. Use of asiatic pennywort Centella asiatica aqueous extract as a bath treatment to control columnaris in Nile tilapia.

    PubMed

    Rattanachaikunsopon, P; Phumkhachorn, P

    2010-03-01

    To develop antibiotic-free and chemical-free aquaculture, it is necessary to have natural substances to control diseases of aquatic animals. The aim of this study was to find an herb having therapeutic effect against columnaris, a fish disease caused by the bacterium Flavobacterium columnare. Of all tested herbs (including kalmegh Andrographis paniculata, candle bush Cassia alata, Asiatic pennywort Centella asiatica, mangosteen Garcinia mangostana, pomegranate Punica granatum, and guava Psidium guajava), the aqueous extract of Asiatic pennywort exhibited the strongest antimicrobial activity against F. columnare; the minimal inhibitory concentration was 31.25 lg/mL. It was also found to have a bactericidal effect on F. columnare. When experimental bath exposures of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus to F. columnare were performed, the median lethal dose was determined to be 2.37 x 10(5) colony forming units/mL. For in vivo trials, six different concentrations (0, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 mg/L) of Asiatic pennywort aqueous extract were used as bath treatments to control experimentally induced columnaris in Nile tilapia. The decrease in fish mortality was dose dependent, and at a concentration of 100 mg/L no mortality or adverse effects were noted in the infected fish. This study suggests that Asiatic pennywort aqueous extract has the potential to control disease caused by F. columnare.

  13. Structural variations among monocot emergent and amphibious species from lakes of the semi-arid region of Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Leite, K R B; França, F; Scatena, V I

    2012-02-01

    Temporary lakes are common in the semi-arid region of the State of Bahia and form water mirrors in the rainy season. In this period, various vegetal species appear having different life forms adapted to the seasonality conditions of the rainfall regime. This work surveyed the adaptive anatomical structures of some emergent and amphibious monocot species occurring in these lakes. We studied the anatomy of roots, rhizomes, leaves and scapes of Cyperus odoratus, Oxycaryum cubense, Pycreus macrostachyos (Cyperaceae) - amphibious species; and of Echinodorus grandiflorus (Alismataceae), Eichhornia paniculata (Pontederiaceae) and Habenaria repens (Orchidaceae) - emergent species. The anatomical features of the dermal, fundamental and vascular systems confirming the tendency of the adaptive convergence of these plants to temporary lacustrine the environment include: single layered epidermal cells with a thin cuticle layer in the aerial organs; the presence of air canals in all the organs; few or no supporting tissues; and less numerous conducting elements and thinner cell walls in the xylem. The reduction of the supporting tissues, the number of stomata, which can even be absent, and the number of conducting elements and the degree of cell wall lignification in the xylem of the emergent species is more accentuated than that of the amphibious species. The pattern of distribution of aerenchyma in the roots of the studied species was considered important to distinguish between amphibious and emergent life forms.

  14. Xiang-Qi-Tang and its active components exhibit anti-inflammatory and anticoagulant properties by inhibiting MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathways in LPS-treated rat cardiac microvascular endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    He, Chang-Liang; Yi, Peng-Fei; Fan, Qiao-Jia; Shen, Hai-Qing; Jiang, Xiao-Lin; Qin, Qian-Qian; Song, Zhou; Zhang, Cui; Wu, Shuai-Cheng; Wei, Xu-Bin; Li, Ying-Lun; Fu, Ben-Dong

    2013-04-01

    Xiang-Qi-Tang (XQT) is a Chinese herbal formula containing Cyperus rotundus, Astragalus membranaceus and Andrographis paniculata. Alpha-Cyperone (CYP), astragaloside IV (AS-IV) and andrographolide (AND) are the three major active components in this formula. XQT may modulate the inflammatory or coagulant responses. We therefore assessed the effects of XQT on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory model of rat cardiac microvascular endothelial cells (RCMECs). XQT, CYP, AS-IV and AND inhibited the production of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), and up-regulated the mRNA expression of Kruppel-like factor 2 (KLF2). XQT and CYP inhibited the secretion of tissue factor (TF). To further explore the mechanism, we found that XQT, or its active components CYP, AS-IV and AND significantly inhibited extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), c-jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 phosphorylation protein expression as well as decreased the phosphorylation levels of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) p65 proteins in LPS-stimulated RCMECs. These results suggested that XQT and its active components inhibited the expression of inflammatory and coagulant mediators via mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPKs) and NF-κB signaling pathways. These findings may contribute to future research on the action mechanisms of this formula, as well as therapy for inflammation- or coagulation-related diseases.

  15. Herbal and plant therapy in patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Triantafyllidi, Aikaterini; Xanthos, Theodoros; Papalois, Apostolos; Triantafillidis, John K

    2015-01-01

    The use of herbal therapy in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is increasing worldwide. The aim of this study was to review the literature on the efficacy of herbal therapy in IBD patients. Studies on herbal therapy for IBD published in Medline and Embase were reviewed, and response to treatment and remission rates were recorded. Although the number of the relevant clinical studies is relatively small, it can be assumed that the efficacy of herbal therapies in IBD is promising. The most important clinical trials conducted so far refer to the use of mastic gum, tormentil extracts, wormwood herb, aloe vera, triticum aestivum, germinated barley foodstuff, and boswellia serrata. In ulcerative colitis, aloe vera gel, triticum aestivum, andrographis paniculata extract and topical Xilei-san were superior to placebo in inducing remission or clinical response, and curcumin was superior to placebo in maintaining remission; boswellia serrata gum resin and plantago ovata seeds were as effective as mesalazine, whereas oenothera biennis had similar relapse rates as ω-3 fatty acids in the treatment of ulcerative colitis. In Crohn's disease, mastic gum, Artemisia absinthium, and Tripterygium wilfordii were superior to placebo in inducing remission and preventing clinical postoperative recurrence, respectively. Herbal therapies exert their therapeutic benefit by different mechanisms including immune regulation, antioxidant activity, inhibition of leukotriene B4 and nuclear factor-kappa B, and antiplatelet activity. Large, double-blind clinical studies assessing the most commonly used natural substances should urgently be conducted.

  16. Phenolic composition and antiparasitic activity of plants from the Brazilian Northeast "Cerrado".

    PubMed

    Calixto Júnior, João Tavares; de Morais, Selene Maia; Gomez, Celeste Vega; Molas, Cathia Coronel; Rolon, Miriam; Boligon, Aline Augusti; Athayde, Margareth Linde; de Morais Oliveira, Cícera Datiane; Tintino, Saulo Relison; Henrique Douglas, Melo Coutinho

    2016-05-01

    This work describes the antiparasitic and cytotoxic activities of three plant species from the Cerrado biome, Northeastern Brazil. Significant antiparasitic inhibition was observed against Trypanosoma cruzi (63.86%), Leishmania brasiliensis (92.20%) and Leishmania infantum (95.23%) when using ethanol extract from leaves of Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. (Malvaceae), at a concentration of 500 μg/mL. However, low levels of inhibition were observed when assessing leishmanicidal and trypanocidal (Clone CL-B5) activities of crude ethanol extracts from leaves and bast tissue of Luehea paniculata (Malvaceae) and leaves and bark of Prockia crucis (Salicaceae) at a concentration of 500 μg/mL. The extracts revealed the presence of phenolic acids such as gallic acid, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid and rosmarinic acid, as well as flavonoids such as rutin, luteolin, apigenin and quercetin - the latter detected only in G. ulmifolia. G. ulmifolia extract displayed higher leishmanicidal activity probably due to the presence of quercetin, a potent known leishmanicidal compound. A cytotoxicity test indicated values over 50% at the highest concentration (1000 μg/mL) for all natural products, which were considered cytotoxic. This points out the need for further tests to enable future in vivo trials, including antineoplastic activity on human tumor cells.

  17. Phenolic composition and antiparasitic activity of plants from the Brazilian Northeast “Cerrado”

    PubMed Central

    Calixto Júnior, João Tavares; de Morais, Selene Maia; Gomez, Celeste Vega; Molas, Cathia Coronel; Rolon, Miriam; Boligon, Aline Augusti; Athayde, Margareth Linde; de Morais Oliveira, Cícera Datiane; Tintino, Saulo Relison; Henrique Douglas, Melo Coutinho

    2015-01-01

    This work describes the antiparasitic and cytotoxic activities of three plant species from the Cerrado biome, Northeastern Brazil. Significant antiparasitic inhibition was observed against Trypanosoma cruzi (63.86%), Leishmania brasiliensis (92.20%) and Leishmania infantum (95.23%) when using ethanol extract from leaves of Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. (Malvaceae), at a concentration of 500 μg/mL. However, low levels of inhibition were observed when assessing leishmanicidal and trypanocidal (Clone CL-B5) activities of crude ethanol extracts from leaves and bast tissue of Luehea paniculata (Malvaceae) and leaves and bark of Prockia crucis (Salicaceae) at a concentration of 500 μg/mL. The extracts revealed the presence of phenolic acids such as gallic acid, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid and rosmarinic acid, as well as flavonoids such as rutin, luteolin, apigenin and quercetin – the latter detected only in G. ulmifolia. G. ulmifolia extract displayed higher leishmanicidal activity probably due to the presence of quercetin, a potent known leishmanicidal compound. A cytotoxicity test indicated values over 50% at the highest concentration (1000 μg/mL) for all natural products, which were considered cytotoxic. This points out the need for further tests to enable future in vivo trials, including antineoplastic activity on human tumor cells. PMID:27081371

  18. Andrographolide Stimulates Neurogenesis in the Adult Hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Varela-Nallar, Lorena; Arredondo, Sebastian B.; Tapia-Rojas, Cheril; Hancke, Juan; Inestrosa, Nibaldo C.

    2015-01-01

    Andrographolide (ANDRO) is a labdane diterpenoid component of Andrographis paniculata widely used for its anti-inflammatory properties. We have recently determined that ANDRO is a competitive inhibitor of glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β), a key enzyme of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling cascade. Since this signaling pathway regulates neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus, we evaluated whether ANDRO stimulates this process. Treatment with ANDRO increased neural progenitor cell proliferation and the number of immature neurons in the hippocampus of 2- and 10-month-old mice compared to age-matched control mice. Moreover, ANDRO stimulated neurogenesis increasing the number of newborn dentate granule neurons. Also, the effect of ANDRO was evaluated in the APPswe/PS1ΔE9 transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease. In these mice, ANDRO increased cell proliferation and the density of immature neurons in the dentate gyrus. Concomitantly with the increase in neurogenesis, ANDRO induced the activation of the Wnt signaling pathway in the hippocampus of wild-type and APPswe/PS1ΔE9 mice determined by increased levels of β-catenin, the inactive form of GSK-3β, and NeuroD1, a Wnt target gene involved in neurogenesis. Our findings indicate that ANDRO stimulates neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus suggesting that this drug could be used as a therapy in diseases in which neurogenesis is affected. PMID:26798521

  19. Taxonomic significance of leaf micromorphology in some selected taxa of Acanthaceae (Peninsular Malaysia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nurul-Aini, C. A. C.; Noraini, T.; Latiff, A.; Amirul-Aiman, A. J.; Ruzi, A. R.; Idris, S.

    2014-09-01

    Comparative leaf micromorphology study was conducted in eight taxa of Acanthaceae from Peninsular Malaysia. Eight chosen taxa were Acanthus ebracteatus Vahl, A. ilicifolius L., A. volubilis Wall, A. montanus T. Anderson, Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Wall. ex Nees, Asystasia gangetica subsp. micrantha (Nees) Ensermu, Chroesthes longifolia (Wight) B. Hansen and Peristrophe roxburghiana (Schult.) Bremek. The objective of this study was to identify the leaf micromorphological characteristics that can be used in species identification and also as supportive data in classification. The procedures involved such as dehydration, critical point drying, gold coated and examination under scanning electron microscope. Findings in this study have demonstrated the similarities and variations in leaf micromorphological characteristics such as in type of epicuticular waxes, cuticular ornamentations, stomata characteristics and in the presence of trichomes. Six types of epicuticular waxes and five types of trichomes were observed. Variations in cuticular ornamentations and stomata structure can be used to differentiate species. One diagnostic character was found and proven to be very useful to identify Acanthus via the presence of simple trichomes (short-conicle like). In conclusion, the results of this study have shown that leaf micromorphological characteristics have taxonomic significance that can be useful in classifications and identification especially at species level.

  20. Plant Sensitivity to Burial and Coastal Foredune Morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldstein, E. B.; Moore, L. J.; deVries, E.; Jass, T. L.; Duran Vinent, O.

    2015-12-01

    Coastal dunes arise from a feedback between plant growth and aeolian sediment transport. Dune plants are uniquely adapted to the harsh coastal environment, and are able to tolerate high temperature, drought, salt spray, and burial by sand. Accurate modeling of coastal dunes relies on understanding how coastal plants respond to these stresses, and how the dune building feedback is modified as a result. We use two years of data from an experimental planting on Hog Island, VA, USA to parameterize a logistic growth model that explicitly includes the effects of plant burial on three species of common dune plants on the US East Coast: Spartina patens, Ammophila breviligulata, and Uniola paniculata. We couple this new plant growth model to the Coastal Dune Model of Durán and Moore (2013). Using this enhanced model we explore the consequences of plant sensitivity to burial on coastal dune growth. These results will add to the growing literature on coupled vegetation and sand transport models, specifically the modeling of coastal dunes.

  1. Dune vegetation fertilization by nesting sea turtles.

    PubMed

    Hannan, Laura B; Roth, James D; Ehrhart, Llewellyn M; Weishampel, John F

    2007-04-01

    Sea turtle nesting presents a potential pathway to subsidize nutrient-poor dune ecosystems, which provide the nesting habitat for sea turtles. To assess whether this positive feedback between dune plants and turtle nests exists, we measured N concentration and delta15N values in dune soils, leaves from a common dune plant (sea oats [Uniola paniculata]), and addled eggs of loggerhead (Caretta caretta) and green turtles (Chelonia mydas) across a nesting gradient (200-1050 nests/km) along a 40.5-km stretch of beach in east central Florida, USA. The delta15N levels were higher in loggerhead than green turtle eggs, denoting the higher trophic level of loggerhead turtles. Soil N concentration and delta15N values were both positively correlated to turtle nest density. Sea oat leaf tissue delta15N was also positively correlated to nest density, indicating an increased use of augmented marine-based nutrient sources. Foliar N concentration was correlated with delta15N, suggesting that increased nutrient availability from this biogenic vector may enhance the vigor of dune vegetation, promoting dune stabilization and preserving sea turtle nesting habitat.

  2. Andrographolide sensitizes cisplatin-induced apoptosis via suppression of autophagosome-lysosome fusion in human cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jing; Hu, Shuai-Er; Tan, Shi-Hao; Cao, Ruoxi; Chen, Yiyang; Xia, Dajing; Zhu, Xinqiang; Yang, Xing-Fen; Ong, Choon-Nam; Shen, Han-Ming

    2012-03-01

    Suppression of autophagy has been increasingly recognized as a novel cancer therapeutic approach. Andrographolide (Andro), a diterpenoid lactone isolated from an herbal plant Andrographis paniculata, is known to possess anti-inflammatory and anticancer activity. In this study, we sought to examine the effect of Andro on autophagy, and to evaluate whether such effect is relevant to the sensitization effect of Andro on apoptosis induced by DNA damage agents in cancer cells. First, we found that Andro is able to significantly enhance autophagic markers in various cancer cell lines, including GFP-LC3 puncta and LC3-II level. Interestingly, Andro treatment also led to marked increase of p62 protein level and addition of chloroquine (CQ) failed to further enhance either LC3-II or p62 level, indicating that Andro is likely to suppress autophagic flux at the maturation and degradation stage. Next, we provided evidence that Andro inhibits autophagosome maturation not by affecting the lysosomal function, but by impairing autophagosome-lysosome fusion. Lastly, we demonstrated that treatment with cisplatin, a DNA damage agent, induces autophagy in cancer cells. Importantly, Andro is capable of sensitizing cisplatin-induced cell killing determined with both short-term apoptosis assays and long-term clonogenic test, via suppression of autophagy, a process independent of p53. In summary, these observations collectively suggest that Andro could be a promising anti-cancer agent in combination therapy via its potent inhibitory effect on autophagy by disrupting autophagosome-lysosome fusion.

  3. Andrographolide could inhibit human colorectal carcinoma Lovo cells migration and invasion via down-regulation of MMP-7 expression.

    PubMed

    Shi, Ming-Der; Lin, Hui-Hsuan; Chiang, Tai-An; Tsai, Li-Yu; Tsai, Shu-Mei; Lee, Yi-Chieh; Chen, Jing-Hsien

    2009-08-14

    Andrographolide (Andro), a diterpenoid lactone isolated from a traditional herbal medicine Andrographis paniculata, is known to possess multiple pharmacological activities. In our previous study, Andro had been shown to have potent anti-cancer activity against human colorectal carcinoma Lovo cells by inhibiting cell-cycle progression. To further investigate the mechanism for the anti-cancer properties of Andro, it was used to examine the effect on migration and invasion of Lovo cells. The results of wound-healing assay and in vitro transwell assay revealed that Andro inhibited dose-dependently the migration and invasion of Lovo cells under non-cytotoxic concentrations. Using zymographic assay and RT-PCR, the results revealed that Andro diminished the activity and the mRNA and protein levels of MMP-7, but not MMP-2 or MMP-9. The down-regulation of MMP-7 appeared to be via the inactivation of activator protein-1 (AP-1) since the treatment with Andro suppressed the nuclear protein level of AP-1, which was accompanied by a decrease in DNA-binding level of the factor. Taken together, these results indicated that Andro reduces the MMP-7-mediated cellular events in Lovo cells, and provided a new mechanism for its anti-cancer activity.

  4. Andrographolide inhibits oral squamous cell carcinogenesis through NF-κB inactivation.

    PubMed

    Wang, L-J; Zhou, X; Wang, W; Tang, F; Qi, C-L; Yang, X; Wu, S; Lin, Y-Q; Wang, J-T; Geng, J-G

    2011-10-01

    The NF-κB family of transcription factors is essential for promoting cell proliferation and preventing cell apoptosis. We have previously shown that Andrographolide (Andro) isolated from an herbal plant, Andrographis paniculata, covalently modifies reduced cysteine(62) in the oligonucleotide binding pocket of p50 for inhibition of NF-κB activation. Here we report that Andro, but not its inactive structural analog 4H-Andro, potently suppressed squamous cell carcinogenesis induced by 7,12-dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene (DMBA) in the hamster model of cheek buccal pouch. Compared with 4H-Andro, Andro reduced phosphorylation of p65 (Ser536) and IκBα (Ser32/36) for inhibiting aberrant NF-κB activation, suppressed c-Myc and cyclin D1 expression and attenuated neoplastic cell proliferation, promoted cancerous cell apoptosis, and mitigated tumor-induced angiogenesis. Consistently, Andro retarded growth, decreased proliferation, and promoted apoptosis of Tb cells, a human tongue squamous cell carcinoma cell line, in time- and dose-dependent manners, with concomitant reduction of the expression of NF-κB targeting molecules in vitro. Our results thus demonstrate that NF-κB activation plays important roles in the pathogenesis of chemically induced squamous cell carcinoma. By inhibition of aberrant NF-κB activation, Andro treats chemically induced oral squamous cell carcinogenesis.

  5. Andrographolide inhibits growth of human T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia Jurkat cells by downregulation of PI3K/AKT and upregulation of p38 MAPK pathways.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tingfang; Yao, Shuluan; Zhang, Xianfeng; Guo, Yan

    2016-01-01

    T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) as a prevalent hematologic malignancy is one of the most common malignant tumors worldwide in children. Andrographolide (Andro), the major active component from Andrographis paniculata, has been shown to possess antitumor activities in several types of cancer cells. However, whether Andro would inhibit T-ALL cell growth remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the cytotoxic effect of Andro on human T-ALL Jurkat cells and explored the mechanisms of cell death. Cell apoptosis was assayed by flow cytometry, and the signaling transduction for Andro was analyzed by Western blotting. The results indicated 10 μg/mL Andro could significantly induce Jurkat cells' apoptosis, depending on the inhibition of PI3K/AKT pathway. Moreover, Andro-induced apoptosis is enhanced by AKT-selective inhibitor LY294002. ERK- or JNK-selective inhibitors PD98059 and SP600125 had no effect on Andro-induced apoptosis. In addition, p38 inhibitor SB203580 could reverse Andro-induced apoptosis in Jurkat cells. We also found that the protein expression of p-p53 and p-p38 were increased after Andro treatments. The result of an in vivo study also demonstrated Andro's dose-dependent inhibition in subcutaneous Jurkat xenografts. In conclusion, our findings explained a novel mechanism of drug action by Andro in Jurkat cells and suggested that Andro might be developed into a new candidate therapy for T-ALL patients in the coming days.

  6. Andrographolide suppresses endothelial cell apoptosis via activation of phosphatidyl inositol-3-kinase/Akt pathway.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jiun-Han; Hsiao, George; Lee, An-Rong; Wu, Chin-Chen; Yen, Mao-Hsiung

    2004-04-01

    Andrographolide (Andro), an active component isolated from the Chinese official herbal Andrographis paniculata, which has been reported to prevent oxygen radical production and thus prevent inflammatory diseases. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms and signaling pathways by which Andro protects human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) from growth factor (GF) deprivation-induced apoptosis. Results demonstrated that HUVECs undergo apoptosis after 18 hr of GF deprivation but that this cell death was suppressed by the addition of Andro in a concentration-dependent manner (1-100 microM). Andro suppresses the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis by inhibiting release of cytochrome c into the cytoplasm and dissipation of mitochondrial potential (Deltapsi(m)), as a consequence, prevented caspase-3 and -9 activation. Treatment of endothelial cells with Andro-induced activation of the protein kinase Akt, an anti-apoptotic signal, and phosphorylation of BAD, a down-stream target of Akt. Suppression of Akt activity by wortmannin, by LY-294002 and by using a dominant negative Akt mutant abolished the anti-apoptotic effect of Andro. In contrast, the ERK1/2 activities were not affected by Andro. The ERK1/2 inhibitor, PD98059 failed to antagonize the protective effect of Andro. In conclusion, Andro exerts its anti-apoptotic potential via activation of the Akt-BAD pathway in HUVECs and thus may represent a candidate of therapeutic agent for atherosclerosis.

  7. Andrographolide inhibits osteopontin expression and breast tumor growth through down regulation of PI3 kinase/Akt signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Kumar, S; Patil, H S; Sharma, P; Kumar, D; Dasari, S; Puranik, V G; Thulasiram, H V; Kundu, G C

    2012-09-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers among women in India and around the world. Despite recent advancement in the treatment of breast cancer, the results of chemotherapy to date remain unsatisfactory, prompting a need to identify natural agents that could target cancer efficiently with least side effects. Andrographolide (Andro) is one such molecule which has been shown to possess inhibitory effect on cancer cell growth. In this study, Andro, a natural diterpenoid lactone isolated from Andrographis paniculata has been shown to inhibit breast cancer cell proliferation, migration and arrest cell cycle at G2/M phase and induces apoptosis through caspase independent pathway. Our experimental evidences suggest that Andro attenuates endothelial cell motility and tumor-endothelial cell interaction. Moreover, Andro suppresses breast tumor growth in orthotopic NOD/SCID mice model. The anti-tumor activity of Andro in both in vitro and in vivo model was correlated with down regulation of PI3 kinase/Akt activation and inhibition of pro-angiogenic molecules such as OPN and VEGF expressions. Collectively, these results demonstrate that Andro may act as an effective anti-tumor and anti-angiogenic agent for the treatment of breast cancer.

  8. Andrographolide enhances proliferation and prevents dedifferentiation of rabbit articular chondrocytes: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Luo, Li-Ke; Wei, Qing-Jun; Liu, Lei; Zheng, Li; Zhao, Jin-Min

    2015-01-01

    As the main active constituent of Andrographis paniculata that was applied in treatment of many diseases including inflammation in ancient China, andrographolide (ANDRO) was found to facilitate reduction of edema and analgesia in arthritis. This suggested that ANDRO may be promising anti-inflammatory agent to relieve destruction and degeneration of cartilage after inflammation. In this study, the effect of ANDRO on rabbit articular chondrocytes in vitro was investigated. Results showed that not more than 8 μM ANDRO did no harm to chondrocytes (P < 0.05). DNA content and glycosaminoglycan (GAG) /DNA were, respectively, improved in ANDRO groups comparing to the control (P < 0.05). ANDRO could promote expression of aggrecan, collagen II, and Sox9 genes while downregulating expression of collagen I gene (P < 0.05). Furthermore, hypertrophy that may result in chondrocyte ossification could not be detected in all groups (P > 0.05). The viability assay, hematoxylin-eosin, safranin O, and immunohistochemical staining also showed better performances in ANDRO groups. As to the doses, 3 μM ANDRO showed the best performance. The results indicate that ANDRO can accelerate proliferation of rabbit articular chondrocytes in vitro and meanwhile maintain the phenotype, which may provide valuable references for further exploration on arthritis.

  9. Intracellular glutathione regulates Andrographolide-induced cytotoxicity on hepatoma Hep3B cells.

    PubMed

    Ji, Lili; Shen, Kaikai; Liu, Jun; Chen, Ying; Liu, Tianyu; Wang, Zhengtao

    2009-01-01

    Andrographolide (ANDRO), a diterpenoid lactone isolated from the traditional herbal plant Andrographis paniculata, was reported to induce apoptosis in hepatoma Hep3B cells in our previous study (Ji LL, Liu TY, Liu J, Chen Y, Wang ZT. Andrographolide inhibits human hepatoma-derived Hep3B cells growth through the activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase. Planta Med 2007; 73: 1397-1401). The present investigation was carried out to observe whether cellular reduced glutathione (GSH) plays important roles in ANDRO-induced apoptosis. ANDRO initially increased intracellular GSH levels which then decreased later, while inhibition of cellular GSH synthesis by L-Buthionine-(S,R)-sulfoximine (BSO) augmented ANDRO-induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis in Hep3B cells. On the other hand, the thiol antioxidant dithiothreitol (DTT) rescued ANDRO-depleted cellular GSH, and abrogated ANDRO-induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis. Furthermore, BSO pretreatment augmented ANDRO-decreased expression of antioxidant protein thioredoxin 1 (Trx1), while DTT reversed this decrease. Further results showed that ANDRO increased the activity of the GSH-related antioxidant enzyme glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and the production of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). Taken together, this study demonstrates that the intracellular redox system plays important roles in regulating the cytotoxicity of ANDRO on hepatoma Hep3B cells.

  10. Andrographolide Stimulates Neurogenesis in the Adult Hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Varela-Nallar, Lorena; Arredondo, Sebastian B; Tapia-Rojas, Cheril; Hancke, Juan; Inestrosa, Nibaldo C

    2015-01-01

    Andrographolide (ANDRO) is a labdane diterpenoid component of Andrographis paniculata widely used for its anti-inflammatory properties. We have recently determined that ANDRO is a competitive inhibitor of glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β), a key enzyme of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling cascade. Since this signaling pathway regulates neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus, we evaluated whether ANDRO stimulates this process. Treatment with ANDRO increased neural progenitor cell proliferation and the number of immature neurons in the hippocampus of 2- and 10-month-old mice compared to age-matched control mice. Moreover, ANDRO stimulated neurogenesis increasing the number of newborn dentate granule neurons. Also, the effect of ANDRO was evaluated in the APPswe/PS1ΔE9 transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease. In these mice, ANDRO increased cell proliferation and the density of immature neurons in the dentate gyrus. Concomitantly with the increase in neurogenesis, ANDRO induced the activation of the Wnt signaling pathway in the hippocampus of wild-type and APPswe/PS1ΔE9 mice determined by increased levels of β-catenin, the inactive form of GSK-3β, and NeuroD1, a Wnt target gene involved in neurogenesis. Our findings indicate that ANDRO stimulates neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus suggesting that this drug could be used as a therapy in diseases in which neurogenesis is affected.

  11. Inhibition of the JAK-STAT3 pathway by andrographolide enhances chemosensitivity of cancer cells to doxorubicin.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jing; Ong, Choon-Nam; Hur, Gang-Min; Shen, Han-Ming

    2010-05-01

    Andrographolide (Andro), a diterpenoid lactone isolated from a traditional herbal medicine Andrographis paniculata, is known to possess potent anti-inflammatory and anticancer properties. In this study, we sought to examine the effect of Andro on signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) pathway and evaluate whether suppression of STAT3 activity by Andro could sensitize cancer cells to a chemotherapeutic drug doxorubicin. First, we demonstrated that Andro is able to significantly suppress both constitutively activated and IL-6-induced STAT3 phosphorylation and subsequent nuclear translocation in cancer cells. Such inhibition is found to be achieved through suppression of Janus-activated kinase (JAK)1/2 and interaction between STAT3 and gp130. For understanding the biological significance of the inhibitory effect of Andro on STAT3, we next investigated the effect of Andro on doxorubicin-induced apoptosis in human cancer cells. In our study the constitutive activation level of STAT3 was found to be correlated to the resistance of cancer cells to doxorubicin-induced apoptosis. Both the short-term MTT assay and the long-term colony formation assay showed that Andro dramatically promoted doxorubicin-induced cell death in cancer cells, indicating that Andro enhances the sensitivity of cancer cells to doxorubicin mainly via STAT3 suppression. These observations thus reveal a novel anticancer function of Andro and suggest a potential therapeutic strategy of using Andro in combination with chemotherapeutic agents for treatment of cancer.

  12. Critical roles of cellular glutathione homeostasis and jnk activation in andrographolide-mediated apoptotic cell death in human hepatoma cells.

    PubMed

    Ji, Lili; Shen, Kaikai; Jiang, Ping; Morahan, Grant; Wang, Zhengtao

    2011-08-01

    Andrographolide (ANDRO), isolated from the traditional herbal medicine Andrographis paniculata, is reported to have the potential therapeutic effects for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in our previous reports. Here, we investigated the mechanism of ANDRO-mediated apoptotic cell death, focusing on the involvement of cellular reduced glutathione (GSH) homeostasis and c-Jun NH(2) -Terminal kinase (JNK). Buthionine sulfoximine (BSO), an inhibitor of cellular GSH biosynthesis, significantly augmented ANDRO-induced cytotoxicity in hepatoma Hep3B and HepG2 cells. BSO depleted cellular GSH, and augmented ANDRO-induced apoptosis, inhibition of colony formation and JNK activation in Hep3B cells. All these effects could be reversed by GSH monoethyl ester (GSH.EE), whose deacetylation replenishes cellular GSH. BSO also augmented ANDRO-induced activation of apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1), mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase-4 (MKK4) and c-Jun, which are all up-stream or down-stream signals of JNK. Further results showed that JNK inhibitor SP600125 and 420116 both reversed ANDRO-induced cytotoxicity, and SP600125 also decreased ANDRO-increased intracellular GSH and GCL activity. Finally, we showed that in nude mice bearing xenografted Hep3B tumors, BSO improved the inhibition of tumor growth by ANDRO. Taken together, our results suggest that there is a crosstalk between JNK activation and cellular GSH homeostasis, and ANDRO targets this to induce cytotoxicity in hepatoma cells.

  13. Andrographolide inhibits intracellular Chlamydia trachomatis multiplication and reduces secretion of proinflammatory mediators produced by human epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Hua, Ziyu; Frohlich, Kyla M; Zhang, Yan; Feng, Xiaogeng; Zhang, Jiaxing; Shen, Li

    2015-02-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common sexually transmitted bacterial disease worldwide. Untreated C. trachomatis infections may cause inflammation and ultimately damage tissues. Here, we evaluated the ability of Andrographolide (Andro), a natural diterpenoid lactone component of Andrographis paniculata, to inhibit C. trachomatis infection in cultured human cervical epithelial cells. We found that Andro exposure inhibited C. trachomatis growth in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The greatest inhibitory effect was observed when exponentially growing C. trachomatis was exposed to Andro. Electron micrographs demonstrated the accumulation of unusual, structurally deficient chlamydial organisms, correlated with a decrease in levels of OmcB expressed at the late stage of infection. Additionally, Andro significantly reduced the secretion of interleukin6, CXCL8 and interferon-γ-induced protein10 produced by host cells infected with C. trachomatis. These results indicate the efficacy of Andro to perturb C. trachomatis transition from the metabolically active reticulate body to the infectious elementary body and concurrently reduce the production of a proinflammatory mediator by epithelial cells in vitro. Further dissection of Andro's anti-Chlamydia action may provide identification of novel therapeutic targets.

  14. Andrographolide: antibacterial activity against common bacteria of human health concern and possible mechanism of action.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Malabika; Parai, Debaprasad; Chattopadhyay, Subrata; Mukherjee, Samir Kumar

    2017-01-17

    Increasing bacterial resistance to common drugs is a major public health concern for the treatment of infectious diseases. Certain naturally occurring compounds of plant sources have long been reported to possess potential antimicrobial activity. This study was aimed to investigate the antibacterial activity and possible mechanism of action of andrographolide (Andro), a diterpenoid lactone from a traditional medicinal herb Andrographis paniculata. Extent of antibacterial action was assessed by minimal bactericidal concentration method. Radiolabeled N-acetyl glucosamine, leucine, thymidine, and uridine were used to determine the effect of Andro on the biosyntheses of cell wall, protein, DNA, and RNA, respectively. In addition, anti-biofilm potential of this compound was also tested. Andro showed potential antibacterial activity against most of the tested Gram-positive bacteria. Among those, Staphylococcus aureus was found to be most sensitive with a minimal inhibitory concentration value of 100 μg/mL. It was found to be bacteriostatic. Specific inhibition of intracellular DNA biosynthesis was observed in a dose-dependent manner in S. aureus. Andro mediated inhibition of biofilm formation by S. aureus was also found. Considering its antimicrobial potency, Andro might be accounted as a promising lead for new antibacterial drug development.

  15. Andrographolide sensitizes the cytotoxicity of human colorectal carcinoma cells toward cisplatin via enhancing apoptosis pathways in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hui-Hsuan; Shi, Ming-Der; Tseng, Hsien-Chun; Chen, Jing-Hsien

    2014-05-01

    Andrographolide (Andro), a diterpenoid lactone isolated from a traditional herbal medicine Andrographis paniculata, has been shown to suppress the growth and invasion of human colorectal carcinoma (CRC) Lovo cells, and trigger apoptosis in vitro. The potential of Andro as a chemotherapeutic agent in CRC was evaluated by investigating its cytotoxic effects as a single agent or in coadministration with cisplatin (CDDP). Andro potentiated the cytotoxic effect of CDDP in Lovo cells through apoptosis. The molecular mechanism for these favorable cellular response was further investigated by analyzing the apoptotic profiles, protein levels, and mRNA expression patterns of several key genes after treatments of Andro or/and CDDP. Molecular results indicated that the effect of Andro alone might be mediated via both intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways in Lovo cells. The addition of Andro to CDDP induced synergistic apoptosis, which could be corroborated to the changes in protein and mRNA levels of Bax and Bcl-2, and the increased Fas/FasL association in these cells, resulting in increased release of cytochrome c, and activation of caspases. Pretreatment of Nok-1 monoclonal antibody, a Fas signaling inhibitor, or Bax inhibitor peptide V5 repressed the Andro-induced cleavage of procaspase and the sensitization to CDDP-induced apoptosis. Finally, the combination therapy of Andro with CDDP was evidenced by its synergistic inhibition on the growth of Lovo cells in xenograft tumor studies. The results indicate that Andro, in combination with chemotherapeutics, is likely to represent a potential therapeutic strategy for CRC.

  16. Oral delivery of double-stranded RNAs induces mortality in nymphs and adults of the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri

    PubMed Central

    Galdeano, Diogo Manzano; Breton, Michèle Claire; Lopes, João Roberto Spotti; Falk, Bryce W.

    2017-01-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, is one of the most important citrus pests. ACP is the vector of the phloem-limited bacteria Candidatus Liberibacter americanus and Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus, the causal agents of the devastating citrus disease huanglongbing (HLB). The management of HLB is based on the use of healthy young plants, eradication of infected plants and chemical control of the vector. RNA interference (RNAi) has proven to be a promising tool to control pests and explore gene functions. Recently, studies have reported that target mRNA knockdown in many insects can be induced through feeding with double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). In the current study, we targeted the cathepsin D, chitin synthase and inhibitor of apoptosis genes of adult and nymph ACP by feeding artificial diets mixed with dsRNAs and Murraya paniculata leaves placed in dsRNAs solutions, respectively. Adult ACP mortality was positively correlated with the amount of dsRNA used. Both nymphs and adult ACP fed dsRNAs exhibited significantly increased mortality over time compared with that of the controls. Moreover, qRT-PCR analysis confirmed the dsRNA-mediated RNAi effects on target mRNAs. These results showed that RNAi can be a powerful tool for gene function studies in ACP and perhaps for HLB control. PMID:28282380

  17. In Vitro Production of Echioidinin, 7-O-Methywogonin from Callus Cultures of Andrographis lineata and Their Cytotoxicity on Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Mohammed, Arifullah; Chiruvella, Kishore K.; Rao, Yerra Koteswara; Geethangili, Madamanchi; Raghavan, Sathees C.; Ghanta, Rama Gopal

    2015-01-01

    Andrographis lineata is an herbal medicinal plant used in traditional medicine as a substitute for Andrographis paniculata. Here, using mature leaf explants of A. lineata we demonstrate for the first time the callus induction established on MS medium containing 1.0 mg l–1 IAA. Dried callus was subjected to solvent extraction with acetone. Further the acetone residue was separated by silica gel column chromatography, crystallized and characterized on the basis of nuclear magnetic resonance (proton and c13) and liquid chromatographic mass spectroscopy. This analysis revealed the occurrence of two known flavones namely, 7-O-methylwogonin (MW) and Echioidinin (ED). Furthermore, these compounds were tested for their cytotoxicity against leukemic cell line, CEM. We identify that ED and MW induced cytotoxicity in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Further increase in the LDH release upon treatment with ED and MW further confirmed our cytotoxicity results against leukemic cell line. Strikingly, MW was more potent than ED when compared by trypan blue and MTT assays. Our results recapitulate the utility of callus cultures for the production of plant specific bioactive secondary metabolites instead of using wild plants. Together, our in vitro studies provide new insights of A. lineata callus cultures serving as a source for cancer chemotherapeutic agents. PMID:26488879

  18. Andrographolide activates the canonical Wnt signalling pathway by a mechanism that implicates the non-ATP competitive inhibition of GSK-3β: autoregulation of GSK-3β in vivo.

    PubMed

    Tapia-Rojas, Cheril; Schüller, Andreas; Lindsay, Carolina B; Ureta, Roxana C; Mejías-Reyes, Cristóbal; Hancke, Juan; Melo, Francisco; Inestrosa, Nibaldo C

    2015-03-01

    Wnt/β-catenin signalling is an important pathway that regulates multiple biological processes, including cell adhesion and determination of cell fate during animal development; in the adult nervous system it regulates the structure and function of synapses. Wnt-signalling dysfunction is associated with several neurodegenerative diseases such as schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease. The use of natural compounds is an interesting strategy in the search for drugs with the therapeutic potential to activate this signalling pathway. In the present study, we report that andrographolide (ANDRO), a component of Andrographis paniculata, is a potent activator of Wnt signalling. Our results indicate that ANDRO activates this pathway, inducing the transcription of Wnt target genes by a mechanism that bypasses Wnt ligand binding to its receptor. In vitro kinase assays demonstrate that ANDRO inhibits glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3β by a non-ATP-competitive, substrate-competitive mode of action. In silico analyses suggest that ANDRO interacts with the substrate-binding site of GSK-3β. Finally, we demonstrated that the increase seen in the levels of GSK-3β phosphorylated at Ser⁹ is the result of an autoregulatory mechanism of the kinase in vivo, although not through activation of protein phosphatase type 1. Our results suggest that ANDRO could be used as a potential therapeutic drug for disorders caused by Wnt-signalling dysfunction such as neurodegenerative diseases.

  19. Heavy metal concentrations in marine green, brown, and red seaweeds from coastal waters of Yemen, the Gulf of Aden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Shwafi, Nabil A.; Rushdi, Ahmed I.

    2008-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the concentration levels of heavy metals in different species of the main three marine algal divisions from the Gulf of Aden coastal waters, Yemen. The divisions included Chlorophyta—green plants ( Halimeda tuna, Rhizoclonium kochiamum, Caldophora koiei, Enteromorpha compressa, and Caulerpa racemosa species), Phaeophyta—brown seaweeds ( Padina boryana, Turbinaria elatensis, Sargassum binderi, Cystoseira myrica, and Sargassum boveanum species), and Rhodophyta—red seaweeds ( Hypnea cornuta, Champia parvula, Galaxaura marginate, Laurencia paniculata, Gracilaria foliifere, and species). The heavy metals, which included cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), chromium (Cr), Iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), and vanadium (V) were measured by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAs). The concentrations of heavy metals in all algal species are in the order of Fe >> Cu > Mn > Cr > Zn > Ni > Pb > Cd > V > Co. The results also showed that the uptake of heavy metals by different marine algal divisions was in the order of Chlorophyta > Phaeophyta > Rhodophyta. These heavy metals were several order of magnitude higher than the concentrations of the same metals in seawater. This indicates that marine alga progressively uptake heavy metals from seawater.

  20. Andrographolide Activates Keap1/Nrf2/ARE/HO-1 Pathway in HT22 Cells and Suppresses Microglial Activation by Aβ42 through Nrf2-Related Inflammatory Response

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Ji Yeon; Pyo, Euisun; An, Jin-Pyo; Kim, Jinwoong; Sung, Sang Hyun

    2017-01-01

    Therapeutic approach of Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been gradually diversified. We examined the therapeutic and preventive potential of andrographolide, which is a lactone diterpenoid from Andrographis paniculata, and focused on the Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1)/nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2)-mediated heme oxygenase (HO)-1-inducing effects and the inhibitory activity of amyloid beta (Aβ)42-induced microglial activation related to Nrf2 and nuclear factor κB (NF-κB)-mediated inflammatory responses. Andrographolide induced the expression and translocation of Nrf2 from the cytoplasm to the nucleus, thereby activating antioxidant response element (ARE) gene transcription and HO-1 expression in murine hippocampal HT22 cells. Andrographolide eliminated intracellular Aβ42 in BV-2 cells and decreased the production of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1β, prostaglandin (PG)E2, and nitric oxide (NO) because of artificial phagocytic Aβ42. It decreased pNF-κB accumulation in the nucleus and the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (i-NOS) and cyclooxygenase II (COX-II) in the microglial BV-2 cell line. In summary, andrographolide activates Nrf2-mediated HO-1 expression and inhibits Aβ42-overexpressed microglial BV-2 cell activation. These results suggested that andrographolide might have the potential for further examination of the therapeutics of AD. PMID:28373747

  1. Characterisation and immuno-stimulating activity of polysaccharides from Thai medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Burana-Osot, J; Pattanapanyasat, K; Soonthornchareonnon, N; Sukapirom, K; Toida, T

    2010-09-01

    Water-soluble polysaccharides were isolated from the tubers of Butea superba Roxb. and Pueraria candollei Wall. Ex Benth. var. mirifica (Shaw et Suvat.) C. Niyomdham, the leaves of Centella asiatica (L.) Urb, Ocimum basilicum L., Psidium guajava and Andrographis paniculata (Burn. f.) Nees, the stems of Cymbopogon citratus (Stapf ExG), and the fruits of Psidium guajava and Scaphium scaphigerum. The immunological impacts of the polysaccharides on T-lymphocyte proliferation in vitro was investigated by flow cytometric (immunofluorescence) analysis using staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) as a positive control. It was found that the polysaccharides enhanced T-lymphocyte proliferation, ranging from 4.5 to 27.0% at a concentration of 100 microg mL(-1), while the activity of SEB was 13.3%. The medicinal plants showing the highest immuno-stimulating activity were the tubers of Butea superba Roxb. The water-extracted tubers contained 60.0% (w/w) carbohydrates with 6.6% (w/w) uronic acid. The major constituent monosaccharides of the tubers were 28.2 mol% galactose, 10.5 mol% arabinose and 36.4 mol% glucose.

  2. Anti-inflammatory effect of novel andrographolide derivatives through inhibition of NO and PGE2 production.

    PubMed

    Dai, Gui-Fu; Zhao, Jin; Jiang, Zhi-Wen; Zhu, Li-Ping; Xu, Hai-Wei; Ma, Wen-Yan; Chen, Xiao-Rang; Dong, Rui-Jing; Li, Wei-Yi; Liu, Hong-Min

    2011-12-01

    Andrographolide (1) is a major diterpene lactone exhibiting anti-inflammatory effects and is found in the plant Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f) Nees, which is widely used in Traditional Chinese Medicine. Synthesis of more effective drugs from andrographolide is very interesting and can prove to be highly useful. In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of andrographolide and its derivatives (compounds 2-6) through dimethylbenzene-induced ear edema in mice. Substances under study were administrated intragastrically and the structure-activity relationship was analyzed. Results showed that compounds 5 and 6 significantly inhibited ear edema compared with compound 1 (p<0.05), indicating that the introduction of p-Chlorobenzylidene to C-15 of compound 2 enhances the anti-inflammatory effect. Moreover, compound 6 exhibited the strongest anti-inflammatory effect against ear edema in mice (79.4%; 1.35 mmol/kg, ig) and paw edema in rats (50.4%; 0.90 mmol/kg, ig). In addition, compound 6 significantly (p<0.05) inhibited granuloma formation and reduced the increase in vascular permeability induced by peritoneal injection of 0.6% acetic acid solution in mice. Findings indicate that compound 6 exerts its enhanced anti-inflammatory effects by decreasing serum iNOS activity, NO production, and PGE(2) production.

  3. Toxic compounds in honey.

    PubMed

    Islam, Md Nazmul; Khalil, Md Ibrahim; Islam, Md Asiful; Gan, Siew Hua

    2014-07-01

    There is a wealth of information about the nutritional and medicinal properties of honey. However, honey may contain compounds that may lead to toxicity. A compound not naturally present in honey, named 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), may be formed during the heating or preservation processes of honey. HMF has gained much interest, as it is commonly detected in honey samples, especially samples that have been stored for a long time. HMF is a compound that may be mutagenic, carcinogenic and cytotoxic. It has also been reported that honey can be contaminated with heavy metals such as lead, arsenic, mercury and cadmium. Honey produced from the nectar of Rhododendron ponticum contains alkaloids that can be poisonous to humans, while honey collected from Andromeda flowers contains grayanotoxins, which can cause paralysis of limbs in humans and eventually leads to death. In addition, Melicope ternata and Coriaria arborea from New Zealand produce toxic honey that can be fatal. There are reports that honey is not safe to be consumed when it is collected from Datura plants (from Mexico and Hungary), belladonna flowers and Hyoscamus niger plants (from Hungary), Serjania lethalis (from Brazil), Gelsemium sempervirens (from the American Southwest), Kalmia latifolia, Tripetalia paniculata and Ledum palustre. Although the symptoms of poisoning due to honey consumption may differ depending on the source of toxins, most common symptoms generally include dizziness, nausea, vomiting, convulsions, headache, palpitations or even death. It has been suggested that honey should not be considered a completely safe food.

  4. The in vitro anti-giardial activity of extracts from plants that are used for self-medication by AIDS patients in southern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Sawangjaroen, N; Subhadhirasakul, S; Phongpaichit, S; Siripanth, C; Jamjaroen, K; Sawangjaroen, K

    2005-01-01

    This study evaluated the anti-giardial activity of chloroform, methanol and water extracts of 12 medicinal plants (39 extracts), commonly used as self medication by AIDS patients in southern Thailand. The plant extracts and a standard drug, metronidazole, were incubated with 2x10(5) trophozoites of Giardia intestinalis per millilitre of growth medium in 96-well tissue culture plates under anaerobic conditions for 24 h. The cultures were examined with an inverted microscope and the minimum inhibitory concentration and the IC50 value for each extract was determined. The chloroform extracts from Alpinia galanga, Boesenbergia pandurata, Eclipta prostrata, Piper betle, Piper chaba, Zingiber zerumbet, and the methanol extracts from B. pandurata and E. prostrata were classified as "active", i.e. with an IC50 of <100 microg/ml, whereas the chloroform extract from Murraya paniculata was classified as being "moderately active". This study shows that extracts from some medicinal plants have potential for use as therapeutic agents against G. intestinalis infections.

  5. Roles of olfactory cues, visual cues, and mating status in orientation of Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) to four different host plants.

    PubMed

    Wenninger, Erik J; Stelinski, Lukasz L; Hall, David G

    2009-02-01

    Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) is an important worldwide pest of citrus that vectors bacteria (Candidatus Liberibacter spp.) responsible for huanglongbing (citrus greening disease). We examined the behavioral responses of mated and unmated D. citri of both sexes to odors from host plants in a Y-tube olfactometer, with and without visual cues. The host plants tested were 'Duncan' grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macfayden), sour orange (Citrus aurantium L.), navel orange (C. sinensis L.), and Murraya paniculata L. Jack. Responses varied by plant species, psyllid sex and mating status, and the presence of a visual cue. Evidence of attraction generally was stronger in females and in mated individuals of both sexes relative to virgins. The presence of a visual cue typically enhanced attractiveness of olfactory cues; in no case did unmated individuals show evidence of attraction to host plant odors in the absence of avisual cue. In the absence of visual cues, mated females and males showed evidence of attraction only to odors from sour orange and navel orange, respectively. Psyllids exhibited anemotactic responses when assayed with plant odors alone but showed strong evidence of attraction only when olfactory and visual cues were combined, suggesting that olfactory cues facilitate orientation to host plants but may be insufficient alone. Antennal responses to citrus volatiles were confirmed by electroantennogram. The results reported here provide evidence that D. citri uses olfactory and visual cues in orientation to host plants and suggest the possibility of using plant volatiles in monitoring and management of this pest.

  6. [Selection and purification potential evaluation of woody plant in vertical flow constructed wetlands in the subtropical area].

    PubMed

    Chen, Yong-Hua; Wu, Xiao-Fu; Hao, Jun; Chen, Ming-Li; Zhu, Guang-Yu

    2014-02-01

    In order to solve the problem that wetland herbaceous plants tend to die during winter in subtropics areas, selection and purification potential evaluation experiments were carried out by introducing into the constructed wetlands 16 species of woody wetland plants. Cluster analysis was performed by including the morphological characteristics, physiological characteristics, as well as nitrogen and phosphorus accumulation of the woody wetland plants. The results indicated that there were significant differences among the tested woody plants in their survival rate, height increase, root length increase and vigor, Chlorophyll content, Superoxide dismutase, Malonaldehyde, Proline, Peroxidase, biomass, average concentration and accumulation of nitrogen and phosphorus. Based on the established evaluation system, the tested plants were clustered into 3 groups. The plants in the 1st group possessing high purification potentials are Nerium oleander and Hibiscus syriacus. Those in the 2nd group possessing moderate purification potentials are Trachycarpus fortune, Llex latifolia Thunb., Gardenia jasminoides, Serissa foetida and Ilex crenatacv Convexa. And those in the 3rd group with low purification potentials are Jasminum udiflorum, Hedera helix, Ligustrum vicaryi, Ligustrum lucidum, Buxus sempervives, Murraya paniculata, Osmanthus fragrans, Mahoniafortune and Photinia serrulata.

  7. Can ethnopharmacology contribute to the development of anti-fertility drugs?

    PubMed

    Pei-Gen, X; Nai-Gong, W

    1991-04-01

    China, one of the developing countries with approx. one-fifth of the world population, has been making great efforts in controlling her population size. One of the efforts being stressed is to look into the practicability of employing Chinese herbal medicine for fertility control. The rich ethnopharmacological descriptions in the ancient books of herbal remedy and those scattered in the folklore medicine contribute the possibility of this approach. After a discussion concerning the facets of antifertility drugs linked with male or female fertility regulation, several selected examples are presented, which include yuehchukene (isolated from Murraya paniculata), pseudolarix acids A and B (from Pseudolarix kaempferi), mardekoside A (from Mardenia koi), gardenic acid and gardenodic acid A (from Gardenia jasminoides) as early pregnancy terminating agent, for fertility regulation in females; whereas gossypol (from cottonseed oil) and total glycosides of Tripterygium wilfordii (GTW) as antispermatogenic agent for fertility regulation in males. Further research and development strategies of antifertility drugs from herbal medicines have also been discussed based on a collective research data in this field worldwide.

  8. Development of macrolide lactone antibiotic brefeldin A fermentation process with Eupenicillium brefeldianum ZJB082702.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ya-Jun; Xue, Feng; Wu, Ye-Fei; Xue, Ya-Ping; Zheng, Yu-Guo

    2012-09-01

    In this work, a robust brefeldin A-synthesizing fungus, Eupenicillium brefeldianum ZJB082702, was bred from a Murraya paniculata endophytic fungus E. brefeldianum A1163. Using one-factor-at-a-time experimental design, optimization of media composition for E. brefeldianum ZJB082702 fermenting brefeldin A was conducted. Outcomes indicated that mixed carbon source and mixed nitrogen source were of c ritical importance to brefeldin A fermentation. After 6d culture in the optimized fermentation media, composed of (gl(-1)) 13.33 starch, 26.67 glucose, 1.0 yeast extract powder, 1.0 corn steep liquor, 0.5 soybean meal, 0.75 NaNO(3), 2.5 malt extract, 6.0 CaCO(3), 3.0 MgSO(4), 4.0 KH(2)PO(4), 1.0 × 10(-2) CuSO(4), brefeldin A yield peaked at 1304.7 mgl(-1), 648.2 mgl(-1) in 500 ml baffled flask and 15 l stirred fermentor respectively, formed as a growth associated type of secondary metabolite based on fermentation profile analysis.

  9. Assessing the Capacity of Plant Species to Accumulate Particulate Matter in Beijing, China

    PubMed Central

    Mo, Li; Ma, Zeyu; Xu, Yansen; Sun, Fengbin; Lun, Xiaoxiu; Liu, Xuhui; Chen, Jungang; Yu, Xinxiao

    2015-01-01

    Air pollution causes serious problems in spring in northern China; therefore, studying the ability of different plants to accumulate particulate matter (PM) at the beginning of the growing season may benefit urban planners in their attempts to control air pollution. This study evaluated deposits of PM on the leaves and in the wax layer of 35 species (11 shrubs, 24 trees) in Beijing, China. Differences in the accumulation of PM were observed between species. Cephalotaxus sinensis, Euonymus japonicus, Broussonetia papyriferar, Koelreuteria paniculata and Quercus variabilis were all efficient in capturing small particles. The plants exhibiting high amounts of total PM accumulation (on leaf surfaces and/or in the wax layer), also showed comparatively high levels of PM accumulation across all particle sizes. A comparison of shrubs and trees did not reveal obvious differences in their ability to accumulate particles based on growth form; a combination of plantings with different growth forms can efficiently reduce airborne PM concentrations near the ground. To test the relationships between leaf traits and PM accumulation, leaf samples of selected species were observed using a scanning electron microscope. Growth forms with greater amounts of pubescence and increased roughness supported PM accumulation; the adaxial leaf surfaces collected more particles than the abaxial surfaces. The results of this study may inform the selection of species for urban green areas where the goal is to capture air pollutants and mitigate the adverse effects of air pollution on human health. PMID:26506104

  10. Andrographolide reduces cognitive impairment in young and mature AβPPswe/PS-1 mice.

    PubMed

    Serrano, Felipe G; Tapia-Rojas, Cheril; Carvajal, Francisco J; Hancke, Juan; Cerpa, Waldo; Inestrosa, Nibaldo C

    2014-12-18

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder in which the amyloid-β (Aβ) oligomers are a key factor in synaptic impairment and in spatial memory decline associated with neuronal dysfunction. This impairment includes synaptic failure associated with the loss of synaptic proteins that contribute to AD progression. Interestingly, the use of natural compounds is an emergent conceptual strategy in the search for drugs with therapeutic potentials for treating neurodegenerative disorders. In the present study, we report that andrographolide (ANDRO), which is a labdane diterpene extracted from Andrographis paniculata, increases slope of field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSP) in the CA1 region of hippocampal slices and inhibits long-term depression (LTD), protecting the long-term potentiation (LTP) against the damage induced by Aβ oligomers in vitro, most likely by inhibiting glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β). Additionally, ANDRO prevents changes in neuropathology in two different age groups (7- and 12-month-old mice) of an AβPPswe/PS-1 Alzheimer's model. ANDRO reduces the Aβ levels, changing the ontogeny of amyloid plaques in hippocampi and cortices in 7-month-old mice, and reduces tau phosphorylation around the Aβ oligomeric species in both age groups. Additionally, we observed that ANDRO recovers spatial memory functions that correlate with protecting synaptic plasticity and synaptic proteins in two different age groups. Our results suggest that ANDRO could be used in a potential preventive therapy during AD progression.

  11. Phylogeny and classification of Naucleeae s.l. (Rubiaceae) inferred from molecular (ITS, rBCL, and tRNT-F) and morphological data.

    PubMed

    Razafimandimbison, Sylvain G; Bremer, Birgitta

    2002-07-01

    Parsimony analyses of the tribe Naucleeae sensu lato (s.l.) using the noncoding internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of nuclear rDNA, the protein-coding rbcL and noncoding trnT-F regions of chloroplast DNA, and morphological data were performed to construct new intratribal classification, test the monophyly of previous subtribal circumscriptions, and evaluate the generic status of Naucleeae s.l. Fifty-two ITS, 45 rbcL, and 55 trnT-F new sequences are published here. Our study supports the monophyly of the subtribes Anthocephalidae, Mitragynae, Uncariae all sensu Haviland and Naucleinae sensu Ridsdale. There was no support for Cephalanthidae sensu Haviland and Adininae sensu Ridsdale. Naucleeae can be subdivided into six highly supported and morphologically distinct subtribes, Breoniinae, Cephalanthinae, Corynantheinae, Naucleinae, and Mitragyninae, Uncarinae, plus one, Adininae, which is poorly supported. The relationships among these subtribes were largely unresolved. We maintain the following 22 genera: Adina, Adinauclea, Breonadia, Breonia, Burttdavya, Cephalanthus, Gyrostipula, Haldina, Janotia, Ludekia, Metadina, Mitragyna, Myrmeconauclea, Nauclea, Neolamarckia, Neonauclea, Ochreinauclea, Pausinystalia, Pertusadina, Sarcocephalus, Sinoadina, and Uncaria. Pseudocinchona is reestablished. Corynanthe is restricted to C. paniculata and Hallea is reincluded in Mitragyna. Our results were inconclusive for assessing the relationships among Adina, Adinauclea, Metadina, and Pertusadina due to lack of resolution.

  12. [Hummingbird abundance and flowers use in a template forest from Southeast Mexico].

    PubMed

    Partida Lara, Ruth; Enríquez, Paula L; Rangel-Salazar, José Luis; Lara, Carlos; Martínez Ico, Miguel

    2012-12-01

    Hummingbird abundance varies with plant bloom phenology used for feeding. However, the information on hummingbird-flower interaction is limited for tropical mountain environments. We evaluated hummingbird abundance using mist nest and estimated monthly flowering phenology visited by hummingbirds in three different habitats (oak forest, cloud forest and bush) from January to August 2010 in Huitepec Ecological Reserve. We recorded four hummingbird species (Hylocharis leucotis, Lampornis amethystinus, Lamprolaima rhami and Eugenes fulgens), and their abundance varied among habitats (H3.8=14.8, p=0.001). Seven plant species were visited for hummingbirds and showed the highest number of flower species during dry season. Bush had the highest blossom. Fuchsia paniculata had the highest blossom period but only was visited by H. leucotis. Passiflora membranacea was the only species visited for all hummingbird species. The only positive association was E. fulgens abundance with P.a membranacea bloom (r(S)=0.93, p=0.02). Hummingbird abundance fluctuations in this study are determined for interactions with floral resources and their habitat distribution.

  13. 14-Deoxy-11,12-didehydroandrographolide induces DDIT3-dependent endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated autophagy in T-47D breast carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Tan, Heng Kean; Muhammad, Tengku Sifzizul Tengku; Tan, Mei Lan

    2016-06-01

    14-Deoxy-11,12-didehydroandrographolide (14-DDA), a major diterpenoid isolated from Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Nees, is known to be cytotoxic and elicits a non-apoptotic cell death in T-47D breast carcinoma cells. In this study, the mechanistic toxicology properties of 14-DDA in T-47D cells were further investigated. 14-DDA is found to induce the formation of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) vacuoles and autophagosomes, with concurrent upregulation of LC3-II in the breast carcinoma cells. It stimulated an increase in cytosolic calcium concentration and caused a collapse in mitochondrial membrane potential in these cells. In addition, both DDIT3 and GADD45A, molecules implicated in ER stress pathway, were significantly upregulated. DDIT3 knockdown suppressed the formation of both ER vacuoles and autophagosomes, indicating that 14-DDA-induced ER stress and autophagy is dependent on this transcription factor. Collectively, it is possible that GADD45A/p38 MAPK/DDIT3 pathway is involved in the 14-DDA-induced ER-stress-mediated autophagy in T-47D cells.

  14. Regulation of Inflammatory Gene Expression in PBMCs by Immunostimulatory Botanicals

    PubMed Central

    Denzler, Karen L.; Waters, Robert; Jacobs, Bertram L.; Rochon, Yvan; Langland, Jeffrey O.

    2010-01-01

    Many hundreds of botanicals are used in complementary and alternative medicine for therapeutic use as antimicrobials and immune stimulators. While there exists many centuries of anecdotal evidence and few clinical studies on the activity and efficacy of these botanicals, limited scientific evidence exists on the ability of these botanicals to modulate the immune and inflammatory responses. Using botanogenomics (or herbogenomics), this study provides novel insight into inflammatory genes which are induced in peripheral blood mononuclear cells following treatment with immunomodulatory botanical extracts. These results may suggest putative genes involved in the physiological responses thought to occur following administration of these botanical extracts. Using extracts from immunostimulatory herbs (Astragalus membranaceus, Sambucus cerulea, Andrographis paniculata) and an immunosuppressive herb (Urtica dioica), the data presented supports previous cytokine studies on these herbs as well as identifying additional genes which may be involved in immune cell activation and migration and various inflammatory responses, including wound healing, angiogenesis, and blood pressure modulation. Additionally, we report the presence of lipopolysaccharide in medicinally prepared extracts of these herbs which is theorized to be a natural and active component of the immunostimulatory herbal extracts. The data presented provides a more extensive picture on how these herbs may be mediating their biological effects on the immune and inflammatory responses. PMID:20838436

  15. Oral delivery of double-stranded RNAs induces mortality in nymphs and adults of the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri.

    PubMed

    Galdeano, Diogo Manzano; Breton, Michèle Claire; Lopes, João Roberto Spotti; Falk, Bryce W; Machado, Marcos Antonio

    2017-01-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, is one of the most important citrus pests. ACP is the vector of the phloem-limited bacteria Candidatus Liberibacter americanus and Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus, the causal agents of the devastating citrus disease huanglongbing (HLB). The management of HLB is based on the use of healthy young plants, eradication of infected plants and chemical control of the vector. RNA interference (RNAi) has proven to be a promising tool to control pests and explore gene functions. Recently, studies have reported that target mRNA knockdown in many insects can be induced through feeding with double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). In the current study, we targeted the cathepsin D, chitin synthase and inhibitor of apoptosis genes of adult and nymph ACP by feeding artificial diets mixed with dsRNAs and Murraya paniculata leaves placed in dsRNAs solutions, respectively. Adult ACP mortality was positively correlated with the amount of dsRNA used. Both nymphs and adult ACP fed dsRNAs exhibited significantly increased mortality over time compared with that of the controls. Moreover, qRT-PCR analysis confirmed the dsRNA-mediated RNAi effects on target mRNAs. These results showed that RNAi can be a powerful tool for gene function studies in ACP and perhaps for HLB control.

  16. Andrographolide inhibits intracellular Chlamydia trachomatis multiplication and reduces secretion of proinflammatory mediators produced by human epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Hua, Ziyu; Frohlich, Kyla M.; Zhang, Yan; Feng, Xiaogeng; Zhang, Jiaxing; Shen, Li

    2014-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common sexually transmitted bacterial disease worldwide. Untreated C. trachomatis infections may cause inflammation and ultimately damage tissues. Here, we evaluated the ability of Andrographolide (Andro), a natural diterpenoid lactone component of Andrographis paniculata, to inhibit C. trachomatis infection in cultured human cervical epithelial cells. We found that Andro exposure inhibited C. trachomatis growth in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The greatest inhibitory effect was observed when exponentially growing C. trachomatis was exposed to Andro. Electron micrographs demonstrated the accumulation of unusual, structurally deficient chlamydial organisms, correlated with a decrease in levels of OmcB expressed at the late stage of infection. Additionally, Andro significantly reduced the secretion of interleukin6, CXCL8 and interferon-γ-induced protein10 produced by host cells infected with C. trachomatis. These results indicate the efficacy of Andro to perturb C. trachomatis transition from the metabolically active reticulate body to the infectious elementary body and concurrently reduce the production of a proinflammatory mediator by epithelial cells in vitro. Further dissection of Andro's anti-Chlamydia action may provide identification of novel therapeutic targets. PMID:25854005

  17. Microsatellite in Aeschynomene falcata (Leguminosae): diversity, cross-amplification, and chromosome localization.

    PubMed

    Polido, C A; Mantello, C C; Moraes, A P; Souza, A P; Forni-Martins, E R

    2014-12-04

    Aeschynomene falcata is an important forage species; however, because of low seed production, it is underutilized as forage species. Aeschynomene is a polyphyletic genus with a challenging taxonomic position. Two subgenera have been proposed, and it is suggested that Aeschynomene can be split in 2 genera. Thus, new markers, such as microsatellite sequences, are desirable for improving breeding programs for A. falcata. Based on transferability and in situ localization, these microsatellite sequences can be applied as chromosome markers in the genus Aeschynomene and closely related genera. Here, we report the first microsatellite library developed for this genus; 11 microsatellites were characterized, with observed and expected heterozygosities ranging from 0.0000 to 0.7143 and from 0.1287 to 0.8360, respectively. Polymorphic information content varied from 0.1167 to 0.7786. The departure from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium may have resulted from frequent autogamy, which is characteristic of A. falcata. Of the 11 microsatellites, 9 loci were cross-amplified in A. brevipes and A. paniculata and 7 in Dalbergia nigra and Machaerium vestitum. Five of these 7 cross-amplified microsatellites were applied as probes during the in situ hybridization assay and 2 showed clear signals on A. falcata chromosomes, ensuring their viability as chromosome markers.

  18. Activity of andrographolide against chikungunya virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Wintachai, Phitchayapak; Kaur, Parveen; Lee, Regina Ching Hua; Ramphan, Suwipa; Kuadkitkan, Atichat; Wikan, Nitwara; Ubol, Sukathida; Roytrakul, Sittiruk; Chu, Justin Jang Hann; Smith, Duncan R.

    2015-01-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a re-emerging mosquito-borne alphavirus that has recently engendered large epidemics around the world. There is no specific antiviral for treatment of patients infected with CHIKV, and development of compounds with significant anti-CHIKV activity that can be further developed to a practical therapy is urgently required. Andrographolide is derived from Andrographis paniculata, a herb traditionally used to treat a number of conditions including infections. This study sought to determine the potential of andrographolide as an inhibitor of CHIKV infection. Andrographolide showed good inhibition of CHIKV infection and reduced virus production by approximately 3log10 with a 50% effective concentration (EC50) of 77 μM without cytotoxicity. Time-of-addition and RNA transfection studies showed that andrographolide affected CHIKV replication and the activity of andrographolide was shown to be cell type independent. This study suggests that andrographolide has the potential to be developed further as an anti-CHIKV therapeutic agent. PMID:26384169

  19. Andrographolide Enhances Proliferation and Prevents Dedifferentiation of Rabbit Articular Chondrocytes: An In Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Li-ke; Wei, Qing-jun; Liu, Lei; Zheng, Li; Zhao, Jin-min

    2015-01-01

    As the main active constituent of Andrographis paniculata that was applied in treatment of many diseases including inflammation in ancient China, andrographolide (ANDRO) was found to facilitate reduction of edema and analgesia in arthritis. This suggested that ANDRO may be promising anti-inflammatory agent to relieve destruction and degeneration of cartilage after inflammation. In this study, the effect of ANDRO on rabbit articular chondrocytes in vitro was investigated. Results showed that not more than 8 μM ANDRO did no harm to chondrocytes (P < 0.05). DNA content and glycosaminoglycan (GAG) /DNA were, respectively, improved in ANDRO groups comparing to the control (P < 0.05). ANDRO could promote expression of aggrecan, collagen II, and Sox9 genes while downregulating expression of collagen I gene (P < 0.05). Furthermore, hypertrophy that may result in chondrocyte ossification could not be detected in all groups (P > 0.05). The viability assay, hematoxylin-eosin, safranin O, and immunohistochemical staining also showed better performances in ANDRO groups. As to the doses, 3 μM ANDRO showed the best performance. The results indicate that ANDRO can accelerate proliferation of rabbit articular chondrocytes in vitro and meanwhile maintain the phenotype, which may provide valuable references for further exploration on arthritis. PMID:25802548

  20. Development of andrographolide molecularly imprinted polymer for solid-phase extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Xiaoying; Liu, Qingshan; Jiang, Yifan; Luo, Yongming

    2011-06-01

    A method employing molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) as selective sorbent for solid-phase extraction (SPE) to pretreat samples was developed. The polymers were prepared by precipitation polymerization with andrographolide as template molecule. The structure of MIP was characterized and its static adsorption capacity was measured by the Scatchard equation. In comparison with C 18-SPE and non-imprinted polymer (NIP) SPE column, MIP-SPE column displays high selectivity and good affinity for andrographolide and dehydroandrographolide for extract of herb Andrographis paniculata ( Burm.f.) Nees (APN). MIP-SPE column capacity was 11.9 ± 0.6 μmol/g and 12.1 ± 0.5 μmol/g for andrographolide and dehydroandrographolide, respectively and was 2-3 times higher than that of other two columns. The precision and accuracy of the method developed were satisfactory with recoveries between 96.4% and 103.8% (RSD 3.1-4.3%, n = 5) and 96.0% and 104.2% (RSD 2.9-3.7%, n = 5) for andrographolide and dehydroandrographolide, respectively. Various real samples were employed to confirm the feasibility of method. This developed method demonstrates the potential of molecularly imprinted solid phase extraction for rapid, selective, and effective sample pretreatment.

  1. Antihyperglycaemic effect of 'Ilogen-Excel', an ayurvedic herbal formulation in streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Umamaheswari, Selvaraj; Mainzen Prince, Ponnaian Stanely

    2007-01-01

    'Ilogen-Excel', an Ayurvedic herbal formulation is composed of eight medicinal plants (Curcuma longa, Strychnos potatorum, Salacia oblonga, Tinospora cordifolia, Vetivelia zizanioides, Coscinium fenestratum, Andrographis paniculata and Mimosa pudica). The present study evaluates the antihyperglycemic effect of 'Ilogen-Excel' in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Rats were rendered diabetic by streptozotocin (STZ) (45 mg/kg body weight). Oral administration of 'Ilogen-Excel' (50 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg) for 60 days resulted in significantly lowered levels of blood glucose and significantly increased levels of plasma insulin, hepatic glycogen and total hemoglobin. 'Ilogen-Excel' administration also decreased the levels of glycosylated hemoglobin, plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, hydroperoxides, ceruloplasmin and vitamin E in diabetic rats. Plasma reduced glutathione and vitamin C were significantly elevated by oral administration of 'Ilogen-Excel'. Administration of insulin normalized all the biochemical parameters studied in diabetic rats. The effect at a dose of 100 mg/kg was more pronounced than 50 mg/kg and brought back all the parameters to near normal levels. Thus, our study shows the antihyperglycemic effects of 'Ilogen-Excel' in STZ-induced diabetic rats. Our study also shows that combined therapy is better than individual therapy.

  2. Structure-Activity Relationship of Benzophenanthridine Alkaloids from Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Having Antimicrobial Activity

    PubMed Central

    Tavares, Luciana de C.; Zanon, Graciane; Weber, Andréia D.; Neto, Alexandre T.; Mostardeiro, Clarice P.; Da Cruz, Ivana B. M.; Oliveira, Raul M.; Ilha, Vinicius; Dalcol, Ionara I.; Morel, Ademir F.

    2014-01-01

    Zanthoxylum rhoifolium (Rutaceae) is a plant alkaloid that grows in South America and has been used in Brazilian traditional medicine for the treatment of different health problems. The present study was designed to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of the steam bark crude methanol extract, fractions, and pure alkaloids of Z. rhoifolium. Its stem bark extracts exhibited a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity, ranging from 12.5 to 100 µg/mL using bioautography method, and from 125 to 500 µg/mL in the microdilution bioassay. From the dichloromethane basic fraction, three furoquinoline alkaloids (1–3), and nine benzophenanthridine alkaloids (4–12) were isolated and the antimicrobial activity of the benzophenanthridine alkaloids is discussed in terms of structure-activity relationships. The alkaloid with the widest spectrum of activity was chelerythrine (10), followed by avicine (12) and dihydrochelerythrine (4). The minimal inhibitory concentrations of chelerythrine, of 1.50 µg/mL for all bacteria tested, and between 3.12 and 6.25 µg/mL for the yeast tested, show this compound to be a more powerful antimicrobial agent when compared with the other active alkaloids isolated from Z. rhoifolium. To verify the potential importance of the methylenedioxy group (ring A) of these alkaloids, chelerythrine was selected to represent the remainder of the benzophenanthridine alkaloids isolated in this work and was subjected to a demethylation reaction giving derivative 14. Compared to chelerythrine, the derivative (14) was less active against the tested bacteria and fungi. Kinetic measurements of the bacteriolytic activities of chelerythrine against the bacteria Bacillus subtilis (Gram-positive) and Escherichia coli (Gram-negative) were determined by optical density based on real time assay, suggesting that its mechanism of action is not bacteriolytic. The present study did not detect hemolytic effects of chelerythrine on erythrocytes and found a protective effect

  3. Fumigant, contact, and repellent activities of essential oils against the darkling beetle, Alphitobius diaperinus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xuegui; Li, Qian; Shen, Litao; Yang, Jizhi; Cheng, Huabao; Jiang, Surong; Jiang, Chunxian; Wang, Haijian

    2014-05-30

    The fumigant, contact, and repellent activities of four essential oils extracted from Citrus limonum (Sapindales: Rutaceae), Litsea cubeba (Laurales: Lauraceae), Cinnamomum cassia, and Allium sativum L. (Asparagales: Alliaceae) against 6th instars and adults of the darkling beetle, Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), one of the main pests of materials and products of Juncus effuses L. (Poales: Juncaceae) during the storage period, were assayed, and chemical ingredients were analyzed with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in this study. While the major ingredients found in C. limonum and C. cassia were limonene and (E)-cinnamaldehyde, the main constituents of L. cubea were D-limonene, (E)-3,7-dimethyl-,2,6-octadienal, (Z)-3,7-dimethyl,2 ,6-octadienal, and diallyl disulphide (18.20%), while the main constituents of and A. sativum were di-2-propenyl trisulfide and di-2-propenyl tetrasulfide. The fumigation activities of A. sativum and C. limonum on A. diaperinus adults were better than those of the other two essential oilss. The toxicities of A. sativum and C. limonum were almost equitoxic at 96 hr after treatment. Essential oils from Allium sativum and L. cubeba also showed good contact activities from 24 hr to 48 hr, and toxicities were almost equitoxic 48 hr posttreatment. The repellent activities of A. sativum and L. cubeba oils on 6th instars were also observed, showing repellence indexes of 90.4% and 88.9% at 12 hr after treatment, respectively. The effects of A. sativum on AChE activity of 6th instars of A. diaperinus were strongest compared to the other essential oils, followed by C. limonum, L. cubeba, and C. cassia. These results suggest that the essential oils of C. limonum and A. sativum could serve as effective control agents of A. diaperinus.

  4. Fumigant, Contact, and Repellent Activities of Essential Oils Against the Darkling Beetle, Alphitobius diaperinus

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xuegui; Li, Qian; Shen, Litao; Yang, Jizhi; Cheng, Huabao; Jiang, Surong; Jiang, Chunxian; Wang, Haijian

    2014-01-01

    The fumigant, contact, and repellent activities of four essential oils extracted from Citrus limonum (Sapindales: Rutaceae), Litsea cubeba (Laurales: Lauraceae), Cinnamomum cassia, and Allium sativum L. (Asparagales: Alliaceae) against 6th instars and adults of the darkling beetle, Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), one of the main pests of materials and products of Juncus effuses L. (Poales: Juncaceae) during the storage period, were assayed, and chemical ingredients were analyzed with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in this study. While the major ingredients found in C. limonum and C. cassia were limonene and (E)- cinnamaldehyde, the main constituents of L. cubea were D-limonene, (E)-3,7- dimethyl-,2,6- octadienal, (Z)-3,7- dimethyl- ,2 ,6- octadienal, and diallyl disulphide (18.20%), while the main constituents of and A. sativum were di-2-propenyl trisulfide and di-2- propenyl tetrasulfide. The fumigation activities of A. sativum and C. limonum on A. diaperinus adults were better than those of the other two essential oilss. The toxicities of A. sativum and C. limonum were almost equitoxic at 96 hr after treatment. Essential oils from Allium sativum and L. cubeba also showed good contact activities from 24 hr to 48 hr, and toxicities were almost equitoxic 48 hr post-treatment. The repellent activities of A. sativum and L. cubeba oils on 6th instars were also observed, showing repellence indexes of 90.4% and 88.9% at 12 hr after treatment, respectively. The effects of A. sativum on AChE activity of 6th instars of A. diaperinus were strongest compared to the other essential oils, followed by C. limonum, L. cubeba, and C. cassia. These results suggest that the essential oils of C. limonum and A. sativum could serve as effective control agents of A. diaperinus. PMID:25373222

  5. Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Choisya ternata Kunth Essential Oil, Ternanthranin, and Its Two Synthetic Analogs (Methyl and Propyl N-Methylanthranilates)

    PubMed Central

    Pinheiro, Mariana Martins Gomes; Miltojević, Ana B.; Radulović, Niko S.; Abdul-Wahab, Ikarastika Rahayu; Boylan, Fabio; Fernandes, Patrícia Dias

    2015-01-01

    Choisya ternata Kunth (Rutaceae) is native to North America where it is popularly known as “Mexican orange”. In this study, the anti-inflammatory effects of the essential oil (EO) obtained from the leaves of C. ternata, one of its minor components (ternanthranin—ISOAN) and its two synthetic analogues (methyl and propyl N-methylanthranilate – MAN and PAN) were evaluated. Mice pretreated with the EO (EO) obtained from C. ternata leaves (3–100 mg/kg, p.o.), ISOAN, MAN or PAN (1–30 mg/kg, p.o.) and the reference drugs, morphine (1 mg/kg, p.o.) and acetylsalicylic acid (ASA, 100 mg/kg, p.o.), were evaluated in inflammation models such as formalin and subcutaneous air pouch models, with measurement of cell migration, exudate volume, protein extravasation, nitric oxide and pro-inflammatory cytokines. The EO from C. ternata significantly inhibited the time that the animals spent licking the formalin-injected paw in the second phase of the model at their higher doses (30 and 100 mg/kg, respectively). An inhibition of the inflammatory reaction induced after subcutaneous carrageenan injection into air pouch was also observed. In this model, the EO significantly reduced cell migration, exudate volume, protein extravased, and the increase in levels of inflammatory mediators (nitric oxide, TNF-α and IL-1β). ISOAN, MAN and PAN behaved in the same fashion at much smaller doses. Also, these molecules were able to show significant effects in the reduction of paw edema (at all tested doses) when the phlogistic agent was carrageenan, bradykinin, 5-HT, PGE2, C48/80 or 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-acetate (TPA). None of the tested doses had any effect in reducing histamine-induced edema. Our results indicate that the EO from C. ternata and anthranilate derivatives demonstrates an anti-inflammatory effect. PMID:25807367

  6. Insecticidal Activity of Plant Essential Oils Against the Vine Mealybug, Planococcus ficus

    PubMed Central

    Karamaouna, Filitsa; Kimbaris, Athanasios; Michaelakis, Αntonios; Papachristos, Dimitrios; Polissiou, Moschos

    2013-01-01

    The vine mealybug, Planococcus ficus (Signoret) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), is a pest in grape vine growing areas worldwide. The essential oils from the following aromatic plants were tested for their insecticidal activity against P. ficus: peppermint, Mentha piperita L. (Lamiales: Lamiaceae), thyme-leaved savory, Satureja thymbra L., lavender, Lavandula angustifolia Mill, and basil, Ocimum basilicum L. Essential oils from peels of the following fruits were also tested: lemon, Citrus limon L. (Sapindales: Rutaceae), and orange, C. sinensis L. The reference product was paraffin oil. Bioassays were conducted in the laboratory by using spray applications on grape leaves bearing clusters of P. ficus of one size class, which mainly represented either 3rd instar nymphs or pre-ovipositing adult females. The LC50 values for each essential oil varied depending on the P. ficus life stage but did not significantly differ between 3rd instar nymphs and adult females. The LC50 values of the citrus, peppermint, and thyme-leaved savory essential oils ranged from 2.7 to 8.1 mg/mL, and the LC50 values of lavender and basil oil ranged from 19.8 to 22.5 and 44.1 to 46.8 mg/mL, respectively. The essential oils from citrus, peppermint and thymeleaved savory were more or equally toxic compared to the reference product, whereas the lavender and basil essential oils were less toxic than the paraffin oil. No phytotoxic symptoms were observed on grape leaves treated with the citrus essential oils, and low phytotoxicity was caused by the essential oils of lavender, thyme-leaved savory, and mint, whereas the highest phytotoxicity was observed when basil oil was used. PMID:24766523

  7. Bioactivity of Six Plant Extracts on Adults of Demotispa neivai (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)

    PubMed Central

    Martínez, Luis C.; Plata-Rueda, Angelica; Zanuncio, José C.; Serrão, José E.

    2015-01-01

    Demotispa neivai Bondar (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) damage oil palm fruits, which makes it necessary to develop products to control this insect. The mortality, repellency, and antifeeding effects on adults of D. neivai of six plant extracts of Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (Sapindales: Meliaceae), Ricinus communis (L.) (Malpighiaes: Euphorbiaceae), Citrus sinensis Oesbek (Sapindales: Rutaceae), Nicotiana tabacum (L.) (Slanales: Solanaceae), Capsicum annuum (L.) (Solanales: Solanaceae), and Artemisia absinthium (L.) (Asterales: Asteraceae) were determined: 1) the lethal concentration LC50-90, lethal time of D. neivai was evaluated after spraying the fruits of oil palm; 2) repellent effects of each ingredient were evaluated by calculating the index of repellency; 3) antifeeding effects with the rate of inhibition calculated between doses of 20 and 24 g/liter. The mortality of D. neivai was higher with the extracts Ci. sinensis, R. communis, N. tabacum, and Ca. annuum. The mortality of D. neivai increased in the first 72 hr in all treatments. The extracts of N. tabacum, Ca. annuum, and A. indica were more repellent to D. neivai that those of Ci. sinensis, Ar. Absinthium, and R. communis. Antifeeding effect was higher with Ci. sinensis and R. communis. The increased mortality of D. neivai by Ci. sinensis can be explained by the effect of this compound on the respiratory system of insects. Extracts of Ci. sinensis, R. communis, N. tabacum, and Ca. annuum repelled and caused mortality of D. neivai and, thus, can be used in integrate pest management programs of this pest in oil palm plantations. PMID:25843587

  8. Polyphenolic rich traditional plants and teas improve lipid stability in food test systems.

    PubMed

    Ramsaha, Srishti; Aumjaud, B Esha; Neergheen-Bhujun, Vidushi S; Bahorun, Theeshan

    2015-02-01

    The deleterious effects of lipid autoxidation are of major concern to the food industry and can be prevented by food antioxidants. In this vein, the phenolic contents and antioxidant potential of traditional plants of Mauritius such as P. betle L. (Piperaceae), M. koenigii L. Sprengel. (Rutaceae), O. gratissimum L. (Lamiaceae), O. tenuiflorum L. (Lamiaceae), and commercially available Mauritian green and black teas were evaluated. Their ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) were compared to that of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) with the following order of potency: BHT > "Natural" commercial green tea > "Black Label" commercial black tea > O. gratissimum > P. betle > O. tenuiflorum > M. koenigii. The trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assay reflected a similar antioxidative order for BHT and "Natural" commercial green tea, with however P. betle, O. tenuiflorum and O. gratissimum exhibiting higher activities than "Black Label" commercial black tea and M. koenigii. Based on their potent antioxidant capacity, P. betle (0.2 % m/m) and O. tenuiflorum (0.2 % m/m) extracts, and green tea (0.1 % m/m) infusate were compared with BHT (0.02 % m/m) on their ability to retard lipid oxidation in unstripped sunflower oil and mayonnaise during storage at 40 °C. P. betle and green tea were more effective than BHT in both food systems. Moreover, odour evaluation by a sensory panel showed that the plant extracts and green tea infusate effectively delayed the development of rancid odours in unstripped sunflower oil and mayonnaise (p < 0.05).

  9. Investigating alternatives to traditional insecticides: effectiveness of entomopathogenic fungi and Bacillus thuringiensis against citrus thrips and avocado thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).

    PubMed

    Zahn, Deane K; Morse, Joseph G

    2013-02-01

    Citrus thrips, Scirtothrips citri (Moulton) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), is a plant-feeding pest most widely recognized for causing damage to citrus (Citrus spp. L. [Rutaceae]) and mango (Mangifera indica L. [Anacardiaceae]) fruits. This insect has recently broadened its known host range to become a significant pest of California grown blueberries. Avocado thrips, Scirtothrips. perseae Nakahara (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), is a recent, invasive pest of California avocados, Persea americana Mill. (Laurales: Lauraceae). Effective alternatives to traditional pesticides are desirable for both pests to reduce impacts on natural enemies and broaden control options in an effort to minimize pesticide resistance via rotation of control materials. We evaluated Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) subsp. israelensis proteins (Cyt 1A and Cry 11A, activated and inactivated) and multiple strains (GHA, 1741ss, SFBb1, S44ss, NI1ss, and 3769ss) of Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin against both species. Avocado thrips and citrus thrips were not susceptible to either Bt protein tested, regardless of activation status. All strains of B. bassiana were able to infect both avocado thrips and citrus thrips. However, the commercially available GHA strain was the most effective strain against both species and had a faster rate of infection then the other strains tested. Citrus thrips were more susceptible than avocado thrips to all B. bassiana strains (LC50 and LC95 of 8.6 x 10(4) and 4.8 x 10(6) conidia per ml for citrus thrips, respectively). Investigation of citrus thrips field control using the GHA strain of B. bassiana is therefore justified.

  10. The protective effect of Citrus limon essential oil on hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity induced by aspirin in rats.

    PubMed

    Bouzenna, Hafsia; Dhibi, Sabah; Samout, Noura; Rjeibi, Ilhem; Talarmin, Hélène; Elfeki, Abdelfattah; Hfaiedh, Najla

    2016-10-01

    Citrus limon is a member of the large Rutaceae family characterized by its therapeutic proprieties and has been widely used in traditional medicine to treat various diseases. This study investigates the protective effect of Citrus limon essential oil against a high dose of aspirin-induced acute liver and kidney damage in female Wistar albino rats. Twenty-eight adult female Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups of 7 each: (1) a control group; (2) a group of rats which was kept untreated for 56days then treated with aspirin (A) (600mg/kg) for 4 days; (3) a group fed with essential oil of Citrus limon for 56days then (A) for 4 days; and (4) a group of rats receiving essential oil of Citrus limon for 56 days, then given NaCl for 4 days. Estimations of biochemical parameters in blood were determined. Lipid peroxidation levels (TBARS), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidas (GPx) activities in liver and kidney was determined. A histopathological study was done. Under our experimental conditions, aspirin induced an increase of serum biochemical parameters and it resulted in an oxidative stress in both liver and kidney. This was evidenced by significant increase in TBARS in liver and kidney by 108% and 55%, respectively, compared to control. On the other hand, a decrease in the activities of SOD by 78% and 53%, CAT by 53% and 78%, and GPx by 78% and 51% in liver and kidney, respectively. Administration of EOC to rats attenuated the induced an effect of the high dose of aspirin induced in the afore mentioned serum biochemical parameters. In conclusion, our data suggest that treatment with essential oil of Citrus limon prevented the liver and kidney damage induced by aspirin.

  11. Model-based conservation planning of the genetic diversity of Phellodendron amurense Rupr due to climate change.

    PubMed

    Wan, Jizhong; Wang, Chunjing; Yu, Jinghua; Nie, Siming; Han, Shijie; Zu, Yuangang; Chen, Changmei; Yuan, Shusheng; Wang, Qinggui

    2014-07-01

    Climate change affects both habitat suitability and the genetic diversity of wild plants. Therefore, predicting and establishing the most effective and coherent conservation areas is essential for the conservation of genetic diversity in response to climate change. This is because genetic variance is a product not only of habitat suitability in conservation areas but also of efficient protection and management. Phellodendron amurense Rupr. is a tree species (family Rutaceae) that is endangered due to excessive and illegal harvesting for use in Chinese medicine. Here, we test a general computational method for the prediction of priority conservation areas (PCAs) by measuring the genetic diversity of P. amurense across the entirety of northeast China using a single strand repeat analysis of twenty microsatellite markers. Using computational modeling, we evaluated the geographical distribution of the species, both now and in different future climate change scenarios. Different populations were analyzed according to genetic diversity, and PCAs were identified using a spatial conservation prioritization framework. These conservation areas were optimized to account for the geographical distribution of P. amurense both now and in the future, to effectively promote gene flow, and to have a long period of validity. In situ and ex situ conservation, strategies for vulnerable populations were proposed. Three populations with low genetic diversity are predicted to be negatively affected by climate change, making conservation of genetic diversity challenging due to decreasing habitat suitability. Habitat suitability was important for the assessment of genetic variability in existing nature reserves, which were found to be much smaller than the proposed PCAs. Finally, a simple set of conservation measures was established through modeling. This combined molecular and computational ecology approach provides a framework for planning the protection of species endangered by climate

  12. Characterization of the variation in the imidazole alkaloid profile of Pilocarpus microphyllus in different seasons and parts of the plant by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry fingerprinting and identification of novel alkaloids by tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Abreu, Iika N; Mazzafera, Paulo; Eberlin, Marcos N; Zullo, Marco António T; Sawaya, Alexandra C H F

    2007-01-01

    Pilocarpus microphyllus (Rutaceae), popularly known as jaborandi, is the only commercial source of an imidazole alkaloid named pilocarpine. In the present study, the variation in the profile of imidazole alkaloids in different seasons and in different parts of the P. microphyllus plant during the summer was analyzed by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry in the positive ion mode [ESI(+)-MS]. The fingerprints of these extracts repeatedly presented similar ions which were mass-selected and studied by tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS and ESI-MS/MS/MS) and high-resolution mass spectrometry, resulting in the characterization of eight imidazole alkaloids. The data from the ESI(+)-MS fingerprints were analyzed by principal component analysis (PCA), showing that pilocarpine was present mainly in the summer, whereas in the autumn mainly pilosine and winter anhydropilosine were found. Three alkaloids, reported for the first time in extracts of P. microphyllus, were found. Analysis of the distribution of alkaloids in different parts of the plant during the summer showed that, although pilocarpine was present throughout the plant, 13-nor-8(11)-dihydropilocarpine was found mainly in the stem, pilosine and anhydropilosine were present mainly in the intermediary leaves, and the three new alkaloids were mainly found in the leaflets and petioles. Based on the dissociation patterns of these alkaloids, we observed that there were three structurally related groups of alkaloids differing in their distribution in the plant tissues and responding differently to seasonal variations. These results also indicate that these three groups of alkaloids could belong to intermediate, parallel or competitive pathways for pilocarpine formation biosynthesis.

  13. 3D QSAR studies on binding affinities of coumarin natural products for glycosomal GAPDH of Trypanosoma cruzi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menezes, Irwin R. A.; Lopes, Julio C. D.; Montanari, Carlos A.; Oliva, Glaucius; Pavão, Fernando; Castilho, Marcelo S.; Vieira, Paulo C.; Pupo, M.^onica T.

    2003-05-01

    Drug design strategies based on Comparative Molecular Field Analysis (CoMFA) have been used to predict the activity of new compounds. The major advantage of this approach is that it permits the analysis of a large number of quantitative descriptors and uses chemometric methods such as partial least squares (PLS) to correlate changes in bioactivity with changes in chemical structure. Because it is often difficult to rationalize all variables affecting the binding affinity of compounds using CoMFA solely, the program GRID was used to describe ligands in terms of their molecular interaction fields, MIFs. The program VolSurf that is able to compress the relevant information present in 3D maps into a few descriptors can treat these GRID fields. The binding affinities of a new set of compounds consisting of 13 coumarins, for one of which the three-dimensional ligand-enzyme bound structure is known, were studied. A final model based on the mentioned programs was independently validated by synthesizing and testing new coumarin derivatives. By relying on our knowledge of the real physical data (i.e., combining crystallographic and binding affinity results), it is also shown that ligand-based design agrees with structure-based design. The compound with the highest binding affinity was the coumarin chalepin, isolated from Rutaceae species, with an IC50 value of 55.5 μM towards the enzyme glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gGAPDH) from glycosomes of the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas' disease. The proposed models from GRID MIFs have revealed the importance of lipophilic interactions in modulating the inhibition, but without excluding the dependence on stereo-electronic properties as found from CoMFA fields.

  14. Carbazole alkaloids from Murraya koenigii trigger apoptosis and autophagic flux inhibition in human oral squamous cell carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Utaipan, Tanyarath; Athipornchai, Anan; Suksamrarn, Apichart; Jirachotikoon, Canussanun; Yuan, Xiaohong; Lertcanawanichakul, Monthon; Chunglok, Warangkana

    2017-01-01

    Carbazole alkaloids, a major constituent of Murraya koenigii (L.) Sprengel (Rutaceae), exhibit biological effects such as anticancer activity via the induction of apoptosis, and they represent candidate chemotherapeutic agents. Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is the most prevalent cancer of the oral cavity and a growing and serious health problem worldwide. In this study, we investigated the anticancer properties and mechanisms of action of two carbazole alkaloids derived from M. koenigii leaves, mahanine and isomahanine, in the OSCC cell line CLS-354. At 15 μM, mahanine and isomahanine were cytotoxic to CLS-354 cells, triggering apoptosis via caspase-dependent and -independent mechanisms. Autophagosomes, visualised using monodansylcadaverine (MDC) labelling, were numerous in carbazole alkaloid-treated cells. Mahanine and isomahanine markedly induced the expression of the autophagosome marker microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3, type II (LC3B-II). Genetic and chemical inhibition of autophagy via silencing of the Autophagy protein 5 gene and exposure to bafilomycin A1 (BafA1), respectively, did not arrest carbazole alkaloid-induced apoptosis, indicating that it occurs independently of autophagic activation. Surprisingly, both carbazole alkaloids caused increased accumulation of p62/sequestosome1 (p62/SQSTM1), with coordinated expression of LC3B-II and cleaved caspase-3, suggesting inhibition of autophagic flux. Our results suggest that inhibition of autophagic flux is associated with carbazole alkaloid-induced apoptosis. Our findings provide evidence of a novel cytotoxic action of natural carbazole alkaloids and support their use as candidate chemotherapeutic agents for the treatment of OSCC.

  15. Lipolytic and antiadipogenic effects of (3,3-dimethylallyl) halfordinol on 3T3-L1 adipocytes and high fat and fructose diet induced obese C57/BL6J mice.

    PubMed

    Saravanan, Munisankar; Pandikumar, Perumal; Saravanan, Subramaniam; Toppo, Erenius; Pazhanivel, Natesan; Ignacimuthu, Savarimuthu

    2014-10-05

    Aegle marmelos Correa., (Rutaceae) is a medium sized tree distributed in South East Asia and used traditionally for the management of obestiy and diabetes. In this study the lipolytic and antiadipogenic effects of (3,3-dimethylallyl) halfordinol (Hfn) isolated from leaves of A. marmelos have been investigated. Intracellular lipid accumulation was measured by oil red O staining and glycerol secretion. The expression of genes related to adipocyte differentiation was analyzed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Hfn decreased intracellular triglyceride accumulation and increased glycerol release in a dose dependent manner (5-20 μg/ml) in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. In high fat diet fed C57/BL 6J mice, treatment with Hfn for four weeks reduced plasma glucose, insulin and triglyceride levels and showed a significant reduction in total adipose tissue mass by 37.85% and visceral adipose tissue mass by 62.99% at 50mg/kg b.w. concentration. RT-PCR analyses indicated that Hfn decreased the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and CCAAT enhancer binding protein α (CEBPα) and increased the expression of sterol regulatory enzyme binding protein (SREBP-1c), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα), Adiponectin and Glucose transporter protein 4 (GLUT4) compared to the high fat diet group. These results suggested that Hfn decreased adipocyte differentiation and stimulated lipolysis of adipocytes. This study justifies the folklore medicinal uses and claims about the therapeutic values of this plant for the management of insulin resistance and obesity.

  16. Development and characterization of genomic and expressed SSRs in citrus by genome-wide analysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Sheng-Rui; Li, Wen-Yang; Long, Dang; Hu, Chun-Gen; Zhang, Jin-Zhi

    2013-01-01

    Microsatellites or simple sequence repeats (SSRs) are one of the most popular sources of genetic markers and play a significant role in plant genetics and breeding. In this study, we identified citrus SSRs in the genome of Clementine mandarin and analyzed their frequency and distribution in different genomic regions. A total of 80,708 SSRs were detected in the genome with an overall density of 268 SSRs/Mb. While di-nucleotide repeats were the most frequent microsatellites in genomic DNA sequence, tetra-nucleotides, which had more repeat units than any other SSR types, had the highest cumulative sequence length. We identified 6,834 transcripts as containing 8,989 SSRs in 33,929 Clementine mandarin transcripts, among which, tri-nucleotide motifs (36.0%) were the most common, followed by di-nucleotide (26.9%) and hexa-nucleotide motifs (15.1%). The motif AG (16.7%) was most abundant among these SSRs, while motifs AAG (6.6%), AAT (5.0%), and TAG (2.2%) were most common among tri-nucleotides. Functional categorization of transcripts containing SSRs revealed that 5,879 (86.0%) of such transcripts had homology with known proteins, GO and KEGG annotation revealed that transcripts containing SSRs were those implicated in diverse biological processes in plants, including binding, development, transcription, and protein degradation. When 27 genomic and 78 randomly selected SSRs were tested on Clementine mandarin, 95 SSRs revealed polymorphism. These 95 SSRs were further deployed on 18 genotypes of the three generas of Rutaceae for the genetic diversity assessment, genomic SSRs generally show low transferability in comparison to SSRs developed from expressed sequences. These transcript-markers identified in our study may provide a valuable genetic and genomic tool for further genetic research and varietal development in citrus, such as diversity study, QTL mapping, molecular breeding, comparative mapping and other genetic analyses.

  17. The status of conservation of urban forests in eastern Amazonia.

    PubMed

    Amaral, D D; Vieira, I C G; Salomão, R P; Almeida, S S; Jardim, M A G

    2012-05-01

    This study aims to identify the remnant tree flora in six forest fragments in the metropolitan area of Belém and to analyze these fragments in terms of biological conservation, species richness and diversity in the local urban landscape. The fragments and their respective sampling areas were as follows: Amafrutas reserve (15 ha), Trambioca Is. reserve (2 ha), Bosque Rodrigues Alves city park (15 ha), Combu Is. reserve (10 ha), Gunma Park reserve (10 ha) and Mocambo reserve (5 ha). Inventories were built from lineal plots of 250 m² and included trees with DBH equal to or greater than 10 cm at a height of 1.3 m above ground. Sixty-nine families and 759 species, of which eight were officially listed as endangered (Brazilian National Flora: Ministry of Environment, Normative Instruction of September, 2008; Pará State Flora: Decree Nº. 802 of February 2008) were recorded. These endangered species are: Aspidosperma desmanthum Benth. ex Müll. Arg. (Apocynaceae), Cedrela odorata L. (Meliaceae), Eschweilera piresii S.A Mori (Lecythidaceae), Euxylophora paraensis Huber (Rutaceae), Hymenolobium excelsum Ducke (Leguminosae), Manilkara huberi (Ducke) Chevalier (Sapotaceae), Tabebuia impetiginosa (Mart. ex DC.) Standl. (Bignoniaceae), Mezilaurus itauba (Meisn.) Taub. ex Mez (Lauraceae) and Qualea coerulea Aubl. (Vochysiaceae). Emergency actions such as implementing management plans for already existing Conservation Units, the creation of new such units in areas of primary forest fragments (as in the case of the Amafrutas reserve), as well as the intensification of actions of surveillance and monitoring, should be undertaken by Federal, State, and Municipal environmental agencies so as to ensure the conservation of these last primary forest remnants in the metropolitan area of Belém.

  18. Multiple shoot regeneration and effect of sugars on growth and nitidine accumulation in shoot cultures of Toddalia asiatica

    PubMed Central

    Praveena, Chinthala; Veeresham, Ciddi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Toddalia asiatica (Rutaceae) is an important medicinal plant in traditional medicinal system of India and China. Nitidine production from callus cultures of the plant had been investigated, but in vitro multiplication and secondary metabolite production from shoot cultures is not reported. Objective: The aim of the present work is to establish protocol for in vitro multiple shoot regeneration of T. asiatica and to investigate the secondary metabolite, nitidine production from the shoot cultures. Materials and Methods: Different explants were used for shoot regeneration on MS supplemented with benzyl adenine (BA) either alone or in combination with naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) in different combinations. Effect of different sugars and different concentrations of sucrose on biomass accumulation in shoot cultures in liquid medium was investigated. For in vitro rooting, shoots culture were inoculated to half strength MS medium supplemented with different concentrations of indole butyric acid. Quantitative analysis of shoot culture extracts was done for estimation of nitidine by HPTLC. Results: Shoot cultures were successfully initiated and established from nodal and shoot tip explants on MS medium supplemented with benzyl adenine and sucrose (3% w/v). Sucrose at a concentration of 3 % w/v was found to be optimum for growth and biomass accumulation. In vitro rooting of shoots was achieved on half strength MS medium supplemented with indole butyric acid 3 mg/l. Investigation of secondary metabolite production ability of the in vitro regenerated shoot cultures revealed their ability to biosynthesize nitidine. Conclusion: Shoot cultures were established and nitidine production has been observed. PMID:25298663

  19. A comparative in vitro study on antifungal and antioxidant activities of Nervilia aragoana and Atlantia monophylla.

    PubMed

    Reddy, K Himakar; Sharma, P V G K; Reddy, O V S

    2010-05-01

    Ethyl acetate extract of the whole plant of Nervilia aragoana Gaud. (Orchidaceae) and ethanol extract of the leaves of Atlantia monophylla Linn. (Rutaceae) were evaluated for antifungal and antioxidant activities. At 5 mg/mL concentration of the extracts, the former exhibited more inhibitory activity than the latter against fungi. The order of MIC values for Nervilia aragoana were Saccharomyces cerevisiae (1.4 mg/mL) > Aspergillus niger (1.2 mg/mL) > Aspergillus fumigatus (0.95 mg/mL) > Cryptococcus neoformans (0.75 mg/mL). In the case of Atlantia monophylla values were Cryptococcus neoformans (1 mg/mL) > Candida albicans (0.95 mg/mL) > Aspergillus niger (0.65 mg/mL). TLC-DPPH method assay was carried out to evaluate the antioxidant potential. Further DPPH radical, superoxide, nitric oxide, H(2)O(2) scavenging, and reducing power activities were carried out. N. aragoana (85%) extract exhibited more scavenging activity than that of A. monophylla (66%) by DPPH free radical scavenging method. A. monophylla extract exhibited more superoxide, nitric oxide, H(2)O(2) scavenging activities than that of N. aragoana. The acute toxicity studies of both extracts have shown no mortality rate even up to 3 g/kg body weight in albino rats. Screening for secondary metabolites showed the presence of carbohydrates in both extracts. Flavonoids were found only in the ethyl acetate extract of N. aragoana. Tannins, alkaloids, triterpenoids and steroids were present in A. monophylla. Total phenols present in N. aragoana and A. monophylla were 340 and 560 mg/g extract of gallic acid equivalents, respectively.

  20. Evodiamine Inhibits Insulin-Stimulated mTOR-S6K Activation and IRS1 Serine Phosphorylation in Adipocytes and Improves Glucose Tolerance in Obese/Diabetic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ting; Kusudo, Tatsuya; Takeuchi, Tamaki; Yamashita, Yukari; Kontani, Yasuhide; Okamatsu, Yuko; Saito, Masayuki; Mori, Nozomu; Yamashita, Hitoshi

    2013-01-01

    Evodiamine, an alkaloid extracted from the dried unripe fruit of the tree Evodia rutaecarpa Bentham (Rutaceae), reduces obesity and insulin resistance in obese/diabetic mice; however, the mechanism underlying the effect of evodiamine on insulin resistance is unknown. This study investigated the effect of evodiamine on signal transduction relating to insulin resistance using obese/diabetic KK-Ay mice and an in vitro adipocyte culture. There is a significant decrease in the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and ribosomal S6 protein kinase (S6K) signaling in white adipose tissue (WAT) in KK-Ay mice treated with evodiamine, in which glucose tolerance is improved. In addition, reduction of insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1) serine phosphorylation, an indicator of insulin resistance, was detected in their WAT, suggesting suppression of the negative feedback loop from S6K to IRS1. As well as the stimulation of IRS1 and Akt serine phosphorylation, insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of mTOR and S6K is time-dependent in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, whereas evodiamine does not affect their phosphorylation except for an inhibitory effect on mTOR phosphorylation. Moreover, evodiamine inhibits the insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of mTOR and S6K, leading to down-regulation of IRS1 serine phosphorylation in the adipocytes. Evodiamine also stimulates phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), an important regulator of energy metabolism, which ma