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Sample records for papaya touch decreases

  1. Papaya

    MedlinePlus

    Papaya is a plant. The leaves are used to make medicine. Papaya is used for preventing and treating gastrointestinal tract ... of the lymphatic system caused by parasitic worms. Papaya contains a chemical called papain, which is commonly ...

  2. Papaya

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Papaya is a tropical crop that is widely grown in household gardens and also commercially in plantations. However, papaya production has been severely limited by papaya ringspot virus (PRSV), the most widespread and damaging virus that affects papaya. In Hawaii, PRSV had been present since the 194...

  3. Papaya (Carica papaya L.).

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yun J; Fitch, Maureen M M; Moore, Paul H

    2006-01-01

    Transgenic papaya plants were initially obtained using particle bombardment, a method having poor efficiency in producing intact, single-copy insertion of transgenes. Single-copy gene insertion was improved using Agrobacterium tumefaciens. With progress being made in genome sequencing and gene discovery, there is a need for more efficient methods of transformation in order to study the function of these genes. We describe a protocol for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation using carborundum-wounded papaya embryogenic calli. This method should lead to high-throughput transformation, which on average produced at least one plant that was positive in polymerase chain reaction (PCR), histochemical staining, or by Southern blot hybridization from 10 to 20% of the callus clusters that had been co-cultivated with Agrobacterium. Plants regenerated from the callus clusters in 9 to 13 mo.

  4. Papaya Ringspot Virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The term papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) was coined by Jensen in 1949, to describe a papaya disease in Hawaii. Later work showed that diseases such as papaya mosaic and watermelon mosaic virus-1 were caused by PRSV. The primary host range of PRSV is papaya and cucurbits, with Chenopium amaranticolor ...

  5. Papaya nutritional analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Papayas are sweet, flavorful tropical fruit, rich in vitamin C and carotenoids. Multiple interactions among preharvest environmental conditions, genetics, and physiology determine papaya nutritional composition at harvest. Selecting a cultivar with the genetic potential for high nutrient content and...

  6. Effects of chloroformic extracts from washed and unwashed papaya seeds (Carica papaya) on the sperm concentration of dogs.

    PubMed

    Ortega-Pacheco, A; Jiménez-Coello, M; Gutiérrez-Blanco, E; Acosta-Viana, K Y; Guzmán-Marín, E; Zavala-Sánchez, M A; Montalvo-Beltrán, N E; Pérez-Gutiérrez, M S

    2010-12-01

    Papaya seeds (Carica papaya Linn) have been found to have a significant effect on sperm characteristics in some mammals, including humans, but no studies have investigated the effects on dogs. In the present study, a significant decrease in sperm concentration was observed in a group of dogs treated with extracts from washed papaya seeds, but no decrease was observed in the group of dogs treated with non-washed seeds. An important effect of extract components from washed seeds such as fatty acids is probably involved in the reduction of sperm production because of Sertoli cell damage, as has been suggested for langur monkeys. Dilution of the active components in the non-washed papaya seeds or interference with some of the components may reduce the expected effect on spermatogenesis. This first report on the effects of a chloroformic extract of papaya seeds in dogs suggests that an increased dose is necessary to achieve azoospermia.

  7. Touch Affordances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slegers, Karin; de Roeck, Dries; Arnall, Timo

    The workshop “Touch Affordances” addresses a concept relevant to human computer interactions based on touch. The main topic is the challenge of applying the notion of affordances to domains related to touch interactions (e.g. (multi)touch screens, RFID & NFC, ubiquitous interfaces). The goals of this workshop are to launch a community of researchers, designers, etc. interested in this topic, to create a common understanding of the field of touch affordances and to generate ideas for new research areas for intuitive touch interactions. The workshop will be highly interactive and will have a creative, generative character.

  8. Assaying for pollen drift from transgenic Rainbow to nontransgenic Kapoho papaya under commercial and experimental field conditions in Hawaii

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 1992 papaya ringpsot virus (PRSV) was discovered in Puna district of Hawaii Island where 95% of the state of Hawaii’s papaya was being grown. By 1998 production in Puna had decreased 50% from 1998 levels. A PRSV-resistant transgenic papaya ‘Rainbow’ expressing the coat protein gene of PRSV was ...

  9. Post-irradiation identification of papaya ( Carica papaya L.) fruit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatterjee, Suchandra; Variyar, Prasad S.; Sharma, Arun

    2012-03-01

    Impact of radiation processing on the volatile essential oil profile of papaya ( Carica papaya) was investigated. Gamma-radiation processing resulted in the appearance of a new peak in the GLC profile that was identified as phenol. The observed dose dependent increase in phenol content suggested possible use of this compound as a marker for radiation processed papaya.

  10. Anther culture of papaya (Carica papaya L.).

    PubMed

    Tsay, H S; Su, C Y

    1985-02-01

    Papaya (Carica papaya L.) anther containing microspores in tetrad to early-binucleate stages were successfully cultured on 1/2 strength MS salts and vitamins with full strength Na-Fe-EDTA supplemented with 2 mg/l NAA, 1 mg/l BA and 6% sucrose for callus initiation and formation. Highest frequencies of callus induction were obtained when anthers at the uninucleate stage were cultured in the dark. Haploid plantlets and pollen-derived embryoids were obtained from anthers cultured at the uninucleate stage on solidified MS medium containing 3% sucrose without any growth regulators under a low light intensity (1,500 lux). Large quantities of embryoids were obtained when the original embryoids were transferred to MS medium with 3% sucrose and no growth regulators. Cytology of root tips of embryoid-derived plants confirmed the haploid chromosome number of 9 indicating that the embryoids originated from pollen.

  11. Effects of chemical treatments on fresh-cut papaya.

    PubMed

    Albertini, Silvana; Lai Reyes, Andrés Enrique; Trigo, Juliana Moreno; Sarriés, Gabriel Adrián; Spoto, Marta Helena Fillet

    2016-01-01

    Four treatments (control, 0.1% cinnamaldehyde, 0.75% calcium chloride and combination of 0.1% cinnamaldehyde and 0.75% calcium chloride) were used to evaluate chemical effects on shelf life, quality and sensory acceptability of fresh-cut papaya (Carica papaya L.). Papaya slices were packed and covered with polypropylene film, stored at 5 °C; and evaluated after 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, and 15 days for microbiological and physicochemical changes. A sensory evaluation was performed at 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 days. There was no occurrence of Salmonella, Escherichia coli or psychotropic bacteria. The cinnamaldehyde alone and a combination of cinnamaldehyde and calcium chloride treatments yielded better control of the total coliforms. The combination treatment decreased the CO2 concentration and increased the maintenance of papaya firmness. All the treatments had acceptability. The combination treatment was the most effective treatment for flavor, taste, and preservation until day 12.

  12. Papaya ringspot virus (Potyviridae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Papaya ringspot virus, a member of the family Potyviridae, is single stranded RNA plant virus with a monocistronic genome of about 10,326 nucleotides that is expressed via a large polyprotein subsequently cleaved into functional proteins. It causes severe damage on cucurbit crops such as squash and...

  13. Carica papaya microRNAs are responsive to Papaya meleira virus infection.

    PubMed

    Abreu, Paolla M V; Gaspar, Clicia G; Buss, David S; Ventura, José A; Ferreira, Paulo C G; Fernandes, Patricia M B

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNAs are implicated in the response to biotic stresses. Papaya meleira virus (PMeV) is the causal agent of sticky disease, a commercially important pathology in papaya for which there are currently no resistant varieties. PMeV has a number of unusual features, such as residence in the laticifers of infected plants, and the response of the papaya to PMeV infection is not well understood. The protein levels of 20S proteasome subunits increase during PMeV infection, suggesting that proteolysis could be an important aspect of the plant defense response mechanism. To date, 10,598 plant microRNAs have been identified in the Plant miRNAs Database, but only two, miR162 and miR403, are from papaya. In this study, known plant microRNA sequences were used to search for potential microRNAs in the papaya genome. A total of 462 microRNAs, representing 72 microRNA families, were identified. The expression of 11 microRNAs, whose targets are involved in 20S and 26S proteasomal degradation and in other stress response pathways, was compared by real-time PCR in healthy and infected papaya leaf tissue. We found that the expression of miRNAs involved in proteasomal degradation increased in response to very low levels of PMeV titre and decreased as the viral titre increased. In contrast, miRNAs implicated in the plant response to biotic stress decreased their expression at very low level of PMeV and increased at high PMeV levels. Corroborating with this results, analysed target genes for this miRNAs had their expression modulated in a dependent manner. This study represents a comprehensive identification of conserved miRNAs inpapaya. The data presented here might help to complement the available molecular and genomic tools for the study of papaya. The differential expression of some miRNAs and identifying their target genes will be helpful for understanding the regulation and interaction of PMeV and papaya.

  14. Biogasification of papaya processing wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, P.Y.; Weitzenhoff, M.H.; Moy, J.H.

    1984-01-01

    Biogasification of papaya processing wastes for pollution control and energy utilization is feasible. The biogasification process with sludge recycling permits smaller reactor volume without any deterioration of CH4 production rate and CH4 content. Appropriate design and operational criteria for biogasification processing of papaya wastes were developed.

  15. Touch sense

    PubMed Central

    Roudaut, Yann; Lonigro, Aurélie; Coste, Bertrand; Hao, Jizhe; Delmas, Patrick; Crest, Marcel

    2012-01-01

    Cutaneous mechanoreceptors are localized in the various layers of the skin where they detect a wide range of mechanical stimuli, including light brush, stretch, vibration and noxious pressure. This variety of stimuli is matched by a diverse array of specialized mechanoreceptors that respond to cutaneous deformation in a specific way and relay these stimuli to higher brain structures. Studies across mechanoreceptors and genetically tractable sensory nerve endings are beginning to uncover touch sensation mechanisms. Work in this field has provided researchers with a more thorough understanding of the circuit organization underlying the perception of touch. Novel ion channels have emerged as candidates for transduction molecules and properties of mechanically gated currents improved our understanding of the mechanisms of adaptation to tactile stimuli. This review highlights the progress made in characterizing functional properties of mechanoreceptors in hairy and glabrous skin and ion channels that detect mechanical inputs and shape mechanoreceptor adaptation. PMID:23146937

  16. Wound-healing potential of an ethanol extract of Carica papaya (Caricaceae) seeds.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Bijoor Shivananda; Ramdeen, Ria; Adogwa, Andrew; Ramsubhag, Adash; Marshall, Julien Rhodney

    2012-12-01

    Carica papaya L. (Linn) (Caricaceae) is traditionally used to treat various skin disorders, including wounds. It is widely used in developing countries as an effective and readily available treatment for various wounds, particularly burns. This study evaluated the wound-healing and antimicrobial activity of C. papaya seed extract. Ethanol extract of C. papaya seed (50 mg/kg/day) was evaluated for its wound-healing activity in Sprague-Dawley rats using excision wound model. Animals were randomly divided into four groups of six each (group 1 served as control, group 2 treated with papaya seed extract, group 3 treated with a standard drug mupirocin and papaya seed extract (1:1 ratio) and group 4 treated with a mupirocin ointment. Rate of wound contraction and hydroxyproline content were determined to assess the wound-healing activity of the seed extract. The group 2 animals showed a significant decrease in wound area of 89% over 13 days when compared with groups 1 (82%), 3 (86%) and 4 (84%) respectively. The hydroxyproline content was significantly higher with the granulation tissue obtained from group 2 animals which were treated with C. papaya seed extract. Histological analysis of granulation tissue of the group 2 animals showed the deposition of well-organized collagen. The extract exhibited antimicrobial activity against Salmonella choleraesuis and Staphylococcus aureus. Our results suggest that C. papaya promotes significant wound healing in rats and further evaluation for this activity in humans is suggested.

  17. Label-free quantitative proteomic analysis of pre-flowering PMeV-infected Carica papaya L.

    PubMed

    Soares, Eduardo de A; Werth, Emily G; Madroñero, Leidy J; Ventura, José A; Rodrigues, Silas P; Hicks, Leslie M; Fernandes, Patricia M B

    2017-01-16

    Papaya meleira virus (PMeV) infects papaya (Carica papaya L.) and leads to Papaya Sticky Disease (PSD) or "Meleira", characterized by a spontaneous exudation of latex from fruits and leaves only in the post-flowering developmental stage. The latex oxidizes in contact with air and accumulates as a sticky substance on the plant organs, impairing papaya fruit's marketing and exportation. To understand pre-flowering C. papaya resistance to PMeV, an LC-MS/MS-based label-free proteomics approach was used to assess the differential proteome of PMeV-infected pre-flowering C. papaya vs. uninfected (control) plants. In this study, 1333 proteins were identified, of which 111 proteins showed a significant abundance change (57 increased and 54 decreased) and supports the hypothesis of increased photosynthesis and reduction of 26S-proteassoma activity and cell-wall remodeling. All of these results suggest that increased photosynthetic activity has a positive effect on the induction of plant immunity, whereas the reduction of caspase-like activity and the observed changes in the cell-wall associated proteins impairs the full activation of defense response based on hypersensitive response and viral movement obstruction in pre-flowering C. papaya plants.

  18. Complete Genome Sequence of Papaya Ringspot Virus Isolated from Genetically Modified Papaya in Hainan Island, China

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Guangyuan; Shen, Wentao; Tuo, Decai; Li, Xiaoying

    2015-01-01

    The complete genome sequence (10,326 nucleotides) of a papaya ringspot virus isolate infecting genetically modified papaya in Hainan Island of China was determined through reverse transcription (RT)-PCR. The virus shares 92% nucleotide sequence identity with the isolate that is unable to infect PRSV-resistant transgenic papaya. PMID:26358610

  19. Managing papaya ringspot virus: Impact of grass barriers on alate aphid immigration into papaya orchards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Papaya ringspot virus, transmitted by alate aphids, is the most limiting factor of papaya production in the Caribbean region. Although there are transgenic papaya varieties that provide protection from this virus, these varieties are effective only in certain regions against certain strains of the v...

  20. Protection and coexistence of conventional papaya productions with PRSV resistant transgenic papaya

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) is a devastating disease that has a detrimental impact on both commercial papaya production and Caricaceae germplasm conservation. Transgenic line 55-1 and derived progeny ‘SunUp’ and ‘Rainbow’ are resistant to PRSV and have saved the papaya industry in Hawaii. In small...

  1. Allergenicity assessment of the Papaya ringspot virus coat protein expressed in transgenic Rainbow papaya

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The virus-resistant, transgenic commercial papaya cultivars Rainbow and SunUp (Carica papaya L.) have been consumed locally in Hawaii and elsewhere in the mainland US and Canada since their release to planters in Hawaii in 1998. These cultivars are derived from transgenic papaya line 55-1 and carry ...

  2. Effects of freezing and canning of papaya slices on their carotenoid composition.

    PubMed

    Cano, M P; de Ancos, B; Lobo, G; Monreal, M

    1996-04-01

    An HPLC study of the carotenoid composition of fresh, frozen and canned papaya fruit slices was done. There were no qualitative differences between the carotenoid patterns of fresh and frozen papaya fruit slices (cultivar Sunrise). The major carotenoids found in papaya extracts were lycopene and carotenol fatty acid esters of beta-cryptoxanthin and beta-cryptoxanthin-5, 6-epoxide. Other xanthophylls detected were beta-cryptoxanthin, trans-zeaxanthin and cryptoflavin. It was possible to determine the quantitative losses of carotenoids in papaya slices as a result of the freezing process and frozen storage, since samples of these fruits were available before processing. The pigment pattern of the canned product showed lycopene as being a major pigment. Thermal treatment induced the degradation of carotenol fatty acid esters of xanthophylls. The freezing and canning processing of papaya slices led to significant decreases in the total carotenoids quantified by HPLC, with frozen female slices and canned samples showing lower amounts of pigments. Hunter colour values of frozen slices were similar to those of fresh papaya fruit slices.

  3. Physical-chemical analyses of irradiated papayas ( Carica papaya L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camargo, R. J.; Tadini, C. C.; Sabato, S. F.

    2007-11-01

    Papaya is cultivated in Espírito Santo State/Brazil and as it stands up to irradiation, it is important to validate this technology, since it is already being applied in some countries. Penetration energy, ratio (relation between soluble solids and titrable acidity) and skin color were evaluated to verify the influence of four different doses of irradiation (0.0, 0.5, 0.75 and 1.00 kGy) on papayas, during 21 days. As a result for the skin color and the penetration energy, it was found that in the first days after irradiation, these variables increased with increase in radiation dose; however, after a time lapse, the tendency inverted and the irradiated fruits had a slower ripening process. For the ratio, a very important variable that it is responsible for the fruit taste, no difference was found between irradiated and the control fruit. Color and texture measurements are dependent on the storage temperature.

  4. Potential threat of a new pathotype of Papaya leaf distortion mosaic virus infecting transgenic papaya resistant to Papaya ringspot virus.

    PubMed

    Bau, H-J; Kung, Y-J; Raja, J A J; Chan, S-J; Chen, K-C; Chen, Y-K; Wu, H-W; Yeh, S-D

    2008-07-01

    A virus identified as a new pathotype of Papaya leaf distortion mosaic virus (PLDMV, P-TW-WF) was isolated from diseased papaya in an isolated test-field in central Taiwan, where transgenic papaya lines resistant to Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) were evaluated. The infected plants displayed severe mosaic, distortion and shoe-stringing on leaves; stunting in apex; and water-soaking on petioles and stems. This virus, which did not react in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with the antiserum to the PRSV coat protein, infected only papaya, but not the other 18 plant species tested. Virions studied under electron microscope exhibited morphology and dimensions of potyvirus particles. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction conducted using potyvirus-specific primers generated a 1,927-nucleotide product corresponding to the 3' region of a potyvirus, showing high sequence identity to the CP gene and 3' noncoding region of PLDMV. Search for similar isolates with the antiserum against CP of P-TW-WF revealed scattered occurrence of PLDMV in Taiwan. Phylogenetic analysis of PLDMV isolates of Taiwan and Japan indicated that the Taiwan isolates belong to a separate genetic cluster. Since all the Taiwan isolates infected only papaya, unlike the cucurbit-infecting Japanese P type isolates, the Taiwan isolates are considered a new pathotype of PLDMV. Susceptibility of all our PRSV-resistant transgenic papaya lines to PLDMV indicates that the virus is an emerging threat for the application of PRSV-resistant transgenic papaya in Taiwan and elsewhere.

  5. Touch influences perceived gloss

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Wendy J.; Kerrigan, Iona S.; Graf, Erich W.

    2016-01-01

    Identifying an object’s material properties supports recognition and action planning: we grasp objects according to how heavy, hard or slippery we expect them to be. Visual cues to material qualities such as gloss have recently received attention, but how they interact with haptic (touch) information has been largely overlooked. Here, we show that touch modulates gloss perception: objects that feel slippery are perceived as glossier (more shiny).Participants explored virtual objects that varied in look and feel. A discrimination paradigm (Experiment 1) revealed that observers integrate visual gloss with haptic information. Observers could easily detect an increase in glossiness when it was paired with a decrease in friction. In contrast, increased glossiness coupled with decreased slipperiness produced a small perceptual change: the visual and haptic changes counteracted each other. Subjective ratings (Experiment 2) reflected a similar interaction – slippery objects were rated as glossier and vice versa. The sensory system treats visual gloss and haptic friction as correlated cues to surface material. Although friction is not a perfect predictor of gloss, the visual system appears to know and use a probabilistic relationship between these variables to bias perception – a sensible strategy given the ambiguity of visual clues to gloss. PMID:26915492

  6. Anticancer activity of Carica papaya: a review.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thao T T; Shaw, Paul N; Parat, Marie-Odile; Hewavitharana, Amitha K

    2013-01-01

    Carica papaya is widely cultivated in tropical and subtropical countries and is used as food as well as traditional medicine to treat a range of diseases. Increasing anecdotal reports of its effects in cancer treatment and prevention, with many successful cases, have warranted that these pharmacological properties be scientifically validated. A bibliographic search was conducted using the key words "papaya", "anticancer", and "antitumor" along with cross-referencing. No clinical or animal cancer studies were identified and only seven in vitro cell-culture-based studies were reported; these indicate that C. papaya extracts may alter the growth of several types of cancer cell lines. However, many studies focused on specific compounds in papaya and reported bioactivity including anticancer effects. This review summarizes the results of extract-based or specific compound-based investigations and emphasizes the aspects that warrant future research to explore the bioactives in C. papaya for their anticancer activities.

  7. Characterization of chromoplasts and carotenoids of red- and yellow-fleshed papaya (Carica papaya L.).

    PubMed

    Schweiggert, Ralf M; Steingass, Christof B; Heller, Annerose; Esquivel, Patricia; Carle, Reinhold

    2011-11-01

    Chromoplast morphology and ultrastructure of red- and yellow-fleshed papaya (Carica papaya L.) were investigated by light and transmission electron microscopy. Carotenoid analyses by LC-MS revealed striking similarity of nutritionally relevant carotenoid profiles in both the red and yellow varieties. However, while yellow fruits contained only trace amounts of lycopene, the latter was found to be predominant in red papaya (51% of total carotenoids). Comparison of the pigment-loaded chromoplast ultrastructures disclosed tubular plastids to be abundant in yellow papaya, whereas larger crystalloid substructures characterized most frequent red papaya chromoplasts. Exclusively existent in red papaya, such crystalloid structures were associated with lycopene accumulation. Non-globular carotenoid deposition was derived from simple solubility calculations based on carotenoid and lipid contents of the differently colored fruit pulps. Since the physical state of carotenoid deposition may be decisive regarding their bioavailability, chromoplasts from lycopene-rich tomato fruit (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) were also assessed and compared to red papaya. Besides interesting analogies, various distinctions were ascertained resulting in the prediction of enhanced lycopene bioavailability from red papaya. In addition, the developmental pathway of red papaya chromoplasts was investigated during fruit ripening and carotenogenesis. In the early maturation stage of white-fleshed papaya, undifferentiated proplastids and globular plastids were predominant, corresponding to incipient carotenoid biosynthesis. Since intermediate plastids, e.g., amyloplasts or chloroplasts, were absent, chromoplasts are likely to emerge directly from proplastids.

  8. Effect of heat treatment on ethylene and CO2 emissions rates during papaya (Carica papaya L.) fruit ripening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva, M. G.; Santos, E. O.; Sthel, M. S.; Cardoso, S. L.; Cavalli, A.; Monteiro, A. R.; de Oliveira, J. G.; Pereira, M. G.; Vargas, H.

    2003-01-01

    Ripening studies of nontreated and treated papaya (papaya L) are accomplished by monitoring the ethylene and CO2 emission rates of that climacteric fruit, to evaluate its shelf life. The treatments simulate the commercial Phitosanitarian process used to avoid the fly infestation. Ethylene emission was measured using a commercial CO2 laser driven photoacoustic setup and CO2, using a commercial gas analysis also based on the photothermal effect. The results show a marked change in ethylene and CO2 emission rate pattern for treated fruits when compared to the ones obtained for nontreated fruits and a displacement of the climacteric pick shown that the treatment causes a decrease of shelf life of fruit.

  9. Dengue fever treatment with Carica papaya leaves extracts

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Nisar; Fazal, Hina; Ayaz, Muhammad; Abbasi, Bilal Haider; Mohammad, Ijaz; Fazal, Lubna

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of the current study is to investigate the potential of Carica papaya leaves extracts against Dengue fever in 45 year old patient bitten by carrier mosquitoes. For the treatment of Dengue fever the extract was prepared in water. 25 mL of aqueous extract of C. papaya leaves was administered to patient infected with Dengue fever twice daily i.e. morning and evening for five consecutive days. Before the extract administration the blood samples from patient were analyzed. Platelets count (PLT), White Blood Cells (WBC) and Neutrophils (NEUT) decreased from 176×103/µL, 8.10×103/µL, 84.0% to 55×103/µL, 3.7×103/µL and 46.0%. Subsequently, the blood samples were rechecked after the administration of leaves extract. It was observed that the PLT count increased from 55×103/µL to 168×103/µL, WBC from 3.7×103/µL to 7.7×103/µL and NEUT from 46.0% to 78.3%. From the patient feelings and blood reports it showed that Carica papaya leaves aqueous extract exhibited potential activity against Dengue fever. Furthermore, the different parts of this valuable specie can be further used as a strong natural candidate against viral diseases. PMID:23569787

  10. Dengue fever treatment with Carica papaya leaves extracts.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Nisar; Fazal, Hina; Ayaz, Muhammad; Abbasi, Bilal Haider; Mohammad, Ijaz; Fazal, Lubna

    2011-08-01

    The main objective of the current study is to investigate the potential of Carica papaya leaves extracts against Dengue fever in 45 year old patient bitten by carrier mosquitoes. For the treatment of Dengue fever the extract was prepared in water. 25 mL of aqueous extract of C. papaya leaves was administered to patient infected with Dengue fever twice daily i.e. morning and evening for five consecutive days. Before the extract administration the blood samples from patient were analyzed. Platelets count (PLT), White Blood Cells (WBC) and Neutrophils (NEUT) decreased from 176×10(3)/µL, 8.10×10(3)/µL, 84.0% to 55×10(3)/µL, 3.7×10(3)/µL and 46.0%. Subsequently, the blood samples were rechecked after the administration of leaves extract. It was observed that the PLT count increased from 55×10(3)/µL to 168×10(3)/µL, WBC from 3.7×10(3)/µL to 7.7×10(3)/µL and NEUT from 46.0% to 78.3%. From the patient feelings and blood reports it showed that Carica papaya leaves aqueous extract exhibited potential activity against Dengue fever. Furthermore, the different parts of this valuable specie can be further used as a strong natural candidate against viral diseases.

  11. Generation of transgenic papaya with double resistance to Papaya ringspot virus and Papaya leaf-distortion mosaic virus.

    PubMed

    Kung, Yi-Jung; Bau, Huey-Jiunn; Wu, Yi-Ling; Huang, Chiung-Huei; Chen, Tsui-Miao; Yeh, Shyi-Dong

    2009-11-01

    During the field tests of coat protein (CP)-transgenic papaya lines resistant to Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV), another Potyvirus sp., Papaya leaf-distortion mosaic virus (PLDMV), appeared as an emerging threat to the transgenic papaya. In this investigation, an untranslatable chimeric construct containing the truncated CP coding region of the PLDMV P-TW-WF isolate and the truncated CP coding region with the complete 3' untranslated region of PRSV YK isolate was transferred into papaya (Carica papaya cv. Thailand) via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation to generate transgenic plants with resistance to PLDMV and PRSV. Seventy-five transgenic lines were obtained and challenged with PRSV YK or PLDMV P-TW-WF by mechanical inoculation under greenhouse conditions. Thirty-eight transgenic lines showing no symptoms 1 month after inoculation were regarded as highly resistant lines. Southern and Northern analyses revealed that four weakly resistant lines have one or two inserts of the construct and accumulate detectable amounts of transgene transcript, whereas nine resistant lines contain two or three inserts without significant accumulation of transgene transcript. The results indicated that double virus resistance in transgenic lines resulted from double or more copies of the insert through the mechanism of RNA-mediated posttranscriptional gene silencing. Furthermore, three of nine resistant lines showed high levels of resistance to heterologous PRSV strains originating from Hawaii, Thailand, and Mexico. Our transgenic lines have great potential for controlling a number of PRSV strains and PLDMV in Taiwan and elsewhere.

  12. Toxicity assessment of transgenic papaya ringspot virus of 823-2210 line papaya fruits.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hsin-Tang; Yen, Gow-Chin; Huang, Ting-Tzu; Chan, Lit-Fu; Cheng, Ying-Huey; Wu, Jhaol-Huei; Yeh, Shyi-Dong; Wang, Sheng-Yang; Liao, Jiunn-Wang

    2013-02-20

    The transgenic papaya is a valuable strategy for creating plants resistant to papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) infection and increasing production. This study was further performed to evaluate the comparative toxicity effects of the newly developed transgenic line of the fruits of two backcross transgenic papaya lines (2210 and 823) and one hybrid line (823-2210) and compare to their parent non-transgenic (TN-2) counterparts. The stability analysis of coat protein (CP) of PRSV was investigated using the digestion stability assays in simulated gastric fluid (SGF), simulated intestinal fluid (SIF), and bile salts to detect the CP fragments. Results revealed that the CP fragments were rapidly hydrolyzed in SGF and were undetectable in organs and gastrointestinal contents in rats. For the genotoxicity, three in vitro assays were conducted and exhibited that non-transgenic and backcross transgenic papaya fruits were negative. Moreover, a repeated animal feeding study was conducted by feeding 2 g/kg of body weight (bw) of non-transgenic and backcross transgenic papaya fruits for 28 days in rats. There were no biological or toxicological significances between non-transgenic and backcross transgenic papaya fruits in rats. The results demonstrated that the backcross transgenic papaya fruit can be recognized as an equivalent substitution for traditional papaya in food safety.

  13. Characterization and expression analysis of genes encoding ubiquitin conjugating domain-containing enzymes in Carica papaya

    PubMed Central

    Jue, Dengwei; Sang, Xuelian; Shu, Bo; Liu, Liqin; Wang, Yicheng; Jia, Zhiwei; Zou, Yu; Shi, Shengyou

    2017-01-01

    Background Ripening affects the quality and nutritional contents of fleshy fruits and is a crucial process of fruit development. Although several studies have suggested that ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme (E2s or UBC enzymes) are involved in the regulation of fruit ripening, little is known about the function of E2s in papaya (Carica papaya). Methodology/Principal findings In the present study, we searched the papaya genome and identified 34 putative UBC genes, which were clustered into 17 phylogenetic subgroups. We also analyzed the nucleotide sequences of the papaya UBC (CpUBC) genes and found that both exon-intron junctions and sequence motifs were highly conserved among the phylogenetic subgroups. Using real-time PCR analysis, we also found that all the CpUBC genes were expressed in roots, stems, leaves, male and female flowers, and mature fruit, although the expression of some of the genes was increased or decreased in one or several specific organs. We also found that the expression of 13 and two CpUBC genes were incresesd or decreased during one and two ripening stages, respectively. Expression analyses indicates possible E2s playing a more significant role in fruit ripening for further studies. Conclusions To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported genome-wide analysis of the papaya UBC gene family, and the results will facilitate further investigation of the roles of UBC genes in fruit ripening and will aide in the functional validation of UBC genes in papaya. PMID:28231288

  14. Erwinia mallotivora sp., a new pathogen of papaya (Carica papaya) in Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Amin, Noriha Mat; Bunawan, Hamidun; Redzuan, Rohaiza Ahmad; Jaganath, Indu Bala S

    2010-12-24

    Erwinia mallotivora was isolated from papaya infected with dieback disease showing the typical symptoms of greasy, water-soaked lesions and spots on leaves. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the strain belonged to the genus Erwinia and was united in a monophyletic group with E. mallotivora DSM 4565 (AJ233414). Earlier studies had indicated that the causal agent for this disease was E. papayae. However, our current studies, through Koch's postulate, have confirmed that papaya dieback disease is caused by E. mallotivora. To our knowledge, this is the first new discovery of E. mallotivora as a causal agent of papaya dieback disease in Peninsular Malaysia. Previous reports have suggested that E. mallotivora causes leaf spot in Mallotus japonicus. However, this research confirms it also to be pathogenic to Carica papaya.

  15. Diversity of Papaya ringspot virus isolates in Puerto Rico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) devastates papaya production worldwide. In Puerto Rico, papaya fields can be completely infected with PRSV within a year of planting. Information about the diversity of the Puerto Rican PRSV population is relevant in order to establish a control strategy in the island. T...

  16. Habitat fragmentation threatens wild populations of Carica papaya (Caricaceae) in a lowland rainforest.

    PubMed

    Chávez-Pesqueira, Mariana; Suárez-Montes, Pilar; Castillo, Guillermo; Núñez-Farfán, Juan

    2014-07-01

    • Premise of the study: Wild populations of domesticated species constitute a genetic reservoir and are fundamental to the evolutionary potential of species. Wild papaya (Carica papaya) is a rare, short-lived, gap-colonizing, dioecious tree that persists in the forest by continuous dispersal. Theoretically, these life-history characteristics render wild papaya highly susceptible to habitat fragmentation, with anticipated negative effects on its gene pool. Further, species dioecy may cause founder effects to generate local biases in sex ratio, decreasing effective population size.• Methods: We contrasted the genetic diversity and structure of C. papaya between wild populations from rainforest fragments and continuous forest at Los Tuxtlas, Mexico. We evaluated recent migration rates among populations as well as landscape resistance to gene flow. Finally, we calculated the sex ratio of the populations in both habitats.• Key results: Populations of wild papaya in rainforest fragments showed lower genetic diversity and higher population differentiation than populations in continuous rainforest. Estimates of recent migration rates showed a higher percentage of migrants moving from the continuous forest to the forest fragments than in the opposite direction. Agricultural land and cattle pasture were found to be the most resistant matrices to gene flow. Finally, biased sex ratios were seen to affect the effective population size in both habitats.• Conclusions: The mating system, rarity, and short life cycle of C. papaya are exacerbating the effects of rainforest fragmentation on its genetic diversity, threatening the persistence of its natural populations in the proposed place of origin as well as its genetic reservoir.

  17. Correlation between ethylene emission and skin colour changes during papaya (Carica papaya L.) fruit ripening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva, M. G.; Oliveira, J. G.; Vitoria, A. P.; Corrêa, S. F.; Pereira, M. G.; Campostrini, E.; Santos, E. O.; Cavalli, A.; Vargas, H.

    2005-06-01

    The skin colour changes and ethylene emission rates were monitored during papaya (C. papaya L.) fruit ripening. Two groups of papaya (‘Formosa’ and ‘Solo’) were applied in this study. The total colour difference was used as measured parameter and the corresponding half time of its saturation was used as correlation parameter. A high correlation factor between the saturation half time and corresponding climacteric peak time was found. It was concluded that high ethylene emission rate in ‘Solo’ fruit promotes a quick change of the total colour difference.

  18. Quantification of the antiplasmodial alkaloid carpaine in papaya (Carica papaya) leaves.

    PubMed

    Julianti, Tasqiah; Oufir, Mouhssin; Hamburger, Matthias

    2014-08-01

    Daily consumption of papaya (Carica papaya) leaves as greens and an herbal infusion is common in some parts of Indonesia as a means for preventing malaria. Antiplasmodial activity of the leaf extracts and of the main alkaloid carpaine were recently confirmed. A quantitative assay for determination of carpaine in papaya leaves was developed and validated. The assay involved pressurized liquid extraction and quantification with the aid of ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy. Extraction conditions were optimized with respect to solvent, temperature, and number of extraction cycles. The ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy assay was validated over a range of 20-5000 ng/mL (R(2) of 0.9908). A total of 29 papaya leaf samples were analyzed, and carpaine concentration in dry leaves was found to range from 0.02 to 0.31%. No obvious dependence on geographic origin and leaf maturity was observed.

  19. Effects of the Papaya meleira virus on papaya latex structure and composition.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Silas P; Da Cunha, Maura; Ventura, José A; Fernandes, Patricia Machado Bueno

    2009-05-01

    Spontaneous latex exudation is the main symptom of papaya sticky (meleira) disease caused by the Papaya meleira virus (PMeV), a double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) virus. This paper describes different effects of PMeV on papaya latex. Latex samples were subjected to different histochemical tests to evaluate their chemical composition. Additionally, the integrity of the latex particles was assessed by transmission and scanning electron microscopy analysis. Biochemical and micro- and macro-element measurements were performed. PMeV dsRNA extraction was performed to evaluate the interaction of the virus with the latex particles. Sticky diseased latex was positive for alkaloid biosynthesis and showed an accumulation of calcium oxalate crystals. PMeV also increased H(2)O(2) synthesis within sticky diseased laticifers. The protein, sugar and water levels were altered, probably due to chemical changes. The morphology of the latex particles was further altered; PMeV particles seemed to be bound to the latex particles. The alkaloid and H(2)O(2) biosynthesis in the papaya laticifers indicate a papaya defense response against PMeV. However, such efforts failed, as the virus affected the plant latex. The effects described here suggest some advantages of the infection process, including facilitating the movement of the virus within the papaya plant.

  20. Gene Technology for Papaya Ringspot Virus Disease Management

    PubMed Central

    Azad, Md. Abul Kalam; Sidik, Nik Marzuki

    2014-01-01

    Papaya (Carica papaya) is severely damaged by the papaya ringspot virus (PRSV). This review focuses on the development of PRSV resistant transgenic papaya through gene technology. The genetic diversity of PRSV depends upon geographical distribution and the influence of PRSV disease management on a sequence of PRSV isolates. The concept of pathogen-derived resistance has been employed for the development of transgenic papaya, using a coat protein-mediated, RNA-silencing mechanism and replicase gene-mediated transformation for effective PRSV disease management. The development of PRSV-resistant papaya via post-transcriptional gene silencing is a promising technology for PRSV disease management. PRSV-resistant transgenic papaya is environmentally safe and has no harmful effects on human health. Recent studies have revealed that the success of adoption of transgenic papaya depends upon the application, it being a commercially viable product, bio-safety regulatory issues, trade regulations, and the wider social acceptance of the technology. This review discusses the genome and the genetic diversity of PRSV, host range determinants, molecular diagnosis, disease management strategies, the development of transgenic papaya, environmental issues, issues in the adoption of transgenic papaya, and future directions for research. PMID:24757435

  1. Gene technology for papaya ringspot virus disease management.

    PubMed

    Azad, Md Abul Kalam; Amin, Latifah; Sidik, Nik Marzuki

    2014-01-01

    Papaya (Carica papaya) is severely damaged by the papaya ringspot virus (PRSV). This review focuses on the development of PRSV resistant transgenic papaya through gene technology. The genetic diversity of PRSV depends upon geographical distribution and the influence of PRSV disease management on a sequence of PRSV isolates. The concept of pathogen-derived resistance has been employed for the development of transgenic papaya, using a coat protein-mediated, RNA-silencing mechanism and replicase gene-mediated transformation for effective PRSV disease management. The development of PRSV-resistant papaya via post-transcriptional gene silencing is a promising technology for PRSV disease management. PRSV-resistant transgenic papaya is environmentally safe and has no harmful effects on human health. Recent studies have revealed that the success of adoption of transgenic papaya depends upon the application, it being a commercially viable product, bio-safety regulatory issues, trade regulations, and the wider social acceptance of the technology. This review discusses the genome and the genetic diversity of PRSV, host range determinants, molecular diagnosis, disease management strategies, the development of transgenic papaya, environmental issues, issues in the adoption of transgenic papaya, and future directions for research.

  2. Origin and domestication of papaya Yh chromosome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sex in papaya is controlled by a pair of nascent sex chromosomes. Females are XX, and two slightly different Y chromosomes distinguish males (XY) and hermaphrodites (XYh). The hermaphrodite-specific region of the Yh chromosome (HSY) and its X chromosome counterpart were sequenced and analyzed previo...

  3. Papaya seed represents a rich source of biologically active isothiocyanate.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Yoshimasa; Yoshimoto, Motoko; Murata, Yoshiyuki; Shimoishi, Yasuaki; Asai, Yumi; Park, Eun Young; Sato, Kenji; Nakamura, Yasushi

    2007-05-30

    In the present study, papaya (Carica papaya) seed and edible pulp were carefully separated and then the contents of benzyl isothiocyanate and the corresponding glucosinolate (benzyl glucosinolate, glucotropaeolin) quantified in each part. The papaya seed with myrosinase inactivation contained >1 mmol of benzyl glucosinolate in 100 g of fresh seed. This content is equivalent to that of Karami daikon (the hottest Japanese white radish) or that of cress. The papaya seed extract also showed a very high activity of myrosinase and, without myrosinase inactivation, produced 460 micromol of benzyl isothiocyanate in 100 g of seed. In contrast, papaya pulp contained an undetectable amount of benzyl glucosinolate and showed no significant myrosinase activity. The n-hexane extract of the papaya seed homogenate was highly effective in inhibiting superoxide generation and apoptosis induction in HL-60 cells, the activities of which are comparable to those of authentic benzyl isothiocyanate.

  4. Anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties of Carica papaya.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Saurabh; Cabot, Peter J; Shaw, P Nicholas; Hewavitharana, Amitha K

    2016-07-01

    Chronic inflammation is linked with the generation and progression of various diseases such as cancer, diabetes and atherosclerosis, and anti-inflammatory drugs therefore have the potential to assist in the treatment of these conditions. Carica papaya is a tropical plant that is traditionally used in the treatment of various ailments including inflammatory conditions. A literature search was conducted by using the keywords "papaya", "anti-inflammatory and inflammation" and "immunomodulation and immune" along with cross-referencing. Both in vitro and in vivo investigation studies were included. This is a review of all studies published since 2000 on the anti-inflammatory activity of papaya extracts and their effects on various immune-inflammatory mediators. Studies on the anti-inflammatory activities of recognized phytochemicals present in papaya are also included. Although in vitro and in vivo studies have shown that papaya extracts and papaya-associated phytochemicals possess anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties, clinical studies are lacking.

  5. Getting in Touch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyrli, Kurt O.

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses the growing demand of using touchscreen interface. Consumers are now seeing touchscreens in a wide variety of electronics, not only in competitors to the iPhone from Sony, Samsung, Motorola, LG and T-Mobile, but also in desktop PCs, printers and copiers, televisions, and MP3 players. Teens, if they don't have a touch-enabled…

  6. Touched by Turner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    This is a personal reflection on an encounter with the works of the nineteenth-century painter J. M. W. Turner in London's Tate Britain exhibition "Late Turner: Painting Set Free". The article discusses the deeply subjective nature of engaging with artworks, and touches upon theories that might account for the ineffable but moving…

  7. Touch massage, a rewarding experience.

    PubMed

    Lindgren, Lenita; Jacobsson, Maritha; Lämås, Kristina

    2014-12-01

    This study aims to describe and analyze healthy individuals' expressed experiences of touch massage (TM). Fifteen healthy participants received whole body touch massage during 60 minutes for two separate occasions. Interviews were analyzed by narrative analysis. Four identifiable storyline was found, Touch massage as an essential need, in this storyline the participants talked about a desire and need for human touch and TM. Another storyline was about, Touch massage as a pleasurable experience and the participants talked about the pleasure of having had TM. In the third storyline Touch massage as a dynamic experience, the informants talked about things that could modulate the experience of receiving TM. In the last storyline, Touch massage influences self-awareness, the participants described how TM affected some of their psychological and physical experiences. Experiences of touch massage was in general described as pleasant sensations and the different storylines could be seen in the light of rewarding experiences.

  8. Host susceptibility of the papaya mosaic virus in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Rajapakse, R H; Herath, H M

    1981-01-01

    75 plant species from 11 families were tested in Sri Lanka for their susceptibility to transferring the papaya mosaic virus. After inoculation with this virus, six species, Cucurbita pepo, Cucumis sativus, Nicotiana tabacum, Chenopodium amaranticolor, Gomphrena globosa and Lycopersicum esculentum, developed such symptoms, and after re-isolation from the host plant the virus again infected papaya plants. Thus these species are possible alternate hosts of papaya mosaic virus in Sri Lanka.

  9. Seeing Touches Early in Life

    PubMed Central

    Addabbo, Margaret; Longhi, Elena; Bolognini, Nadia; Senna, Irene; Tagliabue, Paolo; Macchi Cassia, Viola; Turati, Chiara

    2015-01-01

    The sense of touch provides fundamental information about the surrounding world, and feedback about our own actions. Although touch is very important during the earliest stages of life, to date no study has investigated infants’ abilities to process visual stimuli implying touch. This study explores the developmental origins of the ability to visually recognize touching gestures involving others. Looking times and orienting responses were measured in a visual preference task, in which participants were simultaneously presented with two videos depicting a touching and a no-touching gesture involving human body parts (face, hand) and/or an object (spoon). In Experiment 1, 2-day-old newborns and 3-month-old infants viewed two videos: in one video a moving hand touched a static face, in the other the moving hand stopped before touching it. Results showed that only 3-month-olds, but not newborns, differentiated the touching from the no-touching gesture, displaying a preference for the former over the latter. To test whether newborns could manifest a preferential visual response when the touched body part is different from the face, in Experiment 2 newborns were presented with touching/no-touching gestures in which a hand or an inanimate object—i.e., a spoon- moved towards a static hand. Newborns were able to discriminate a hand-to-hand touching gesture, but they did not manifest any preference for the object-to-hand touch. The present findings speak in favour of an early ability to visually recognize touching gestures involving the interaction between human body parts. PMID:26366563

  10. Enhancing Interaction through Positive Touch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pardew, E. Michelle; Bunse, Carol

    2005-01-01

    Positive touch is an application of the ancient practice of infant massage. Positive touch provides families and caregivers with simple and positive ways to touch their child that contribute to the overall goal of providing a nurturing environment that supports the child's growth and development. This article describes infant massage techniques in…

  11. Physical Characteristics of the Leaves and Latex of Papaya Plants Infected with the Papaya meleira Virus

    PubMed Central

    Magaña-Álvarez, Anuar; Vencioneck Dutra, Jean Carlos; Carneiro, Tarcio; Pérez-Brito, Daisy; Tapia-Tussell, Raúl; Ventura, Jose Aires; Higuera-Ciapara, Inocencio; Fernandes, Patricia Machado Bueno; Fernandes, Antonio Alberto Ribeiro

    2016-01-01

    Sticky disease, which is caused by Papaya meleira virus (PMeV), is a significant papaya disease in Brazil and Mexico, where it has caused severe economic losses, and it seems to have spread to Central and South America. Studies assessing the pathogen-host interaction at the nano-histological level are needed to better understand the mechanisms that underlie natural resistance. In this study, the topography and mechanical properties of the leaf midribs and latex of healthy and PMeV-infected papaya plants were observed by atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Healthy plants displayed a smooth surface with practically no roughness of the leaf midribs and the latex and a higher adhesion force than infected plants. PMeV promotes changes in the leaf midribs and latex, making them more fragile and susceptible to breakage. These changes, which are associated with increased water uptake and internal pressure in laticifers, causes cell disruption that leads to spontaneous exudation of the latex and facilitates the spread of PMeV to other laticifers. These results provide new insights into the papaya-PMeV interaction that could be helpful for controlling papaya sticky disease. PMID:27092495

  12. Physical Characteristics of the Leaves and Latex of Papaya Plants Infected with the Papaya meleira Virus.

    PubMed

    Magaña-Álvarez, Anuar; Vencioneck Dutra, Jean Carlos; Carneiro, Tarcio; Pérez-Brito, Daisy; Tapia-Tussell, Raúl; Ventura, Jose Aires; Higuera-Ciapara, Inocencio; Fernandes, Patricia Machado Bueno; Fernandes, Antonio Alberto Ribeiro

    2016-04-15

    Sticky disease, which is caused by Papaya meleira virus (PMeV), is a significant papaya disease in Brazil and Mexico, where it has caused severe economic losses, and it seems to have spread to Central and South America. Studies assessing the pathogen-host interaction at the nano-histological level are needed to better understand the mechanisms that underlie natural resistance. In this study, the topography and mechanical properties of the leaf midribs and latex of healthy and PMeV-infected papaya plants were observed by atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Healthy plants displayed a smooth surface with practically no roughness of the leaf midribs and the latex and a higher adhesion force than infected plants. PMeV promotes changes in the leaf midribs and latex, making them more fragile and susceptible to breakage. These changes, which are associated with increased water uptake and internal pressure in laticifers, causes cell disruption that leads to spontaneous exudation of the latex and facilitates the spread of PMeV to other laticifers. These results provide new insights into the papaya-PMeV interaction that could be helpful for controlling papaya sticky disease.

  13. The draft genome of the transgenic tropical fruit tree papaya (Carica papaya Linnaeus).

    PubMed

    Ming, Ray; Hou, Shaobin; Feng, Yun; Yu, Qingyi; Dionne-Laporte, Alexandre; Saw, Jimmy H; Senin, Pavel; Wang, Wei; Ly, Benjamin V; Lewis, Kanako L T; Salzberg, Steven L; Feng, Lu; Jones, Meghan R; Skelton, Rachel L; Murray, Jan E; Chen, Cuixia; Qian, Wubin; Shen, Junguo; Du, Peng; Eustice, Moriah; Tong, Eric; Tang, Haibao; Lyons, Eric; Paull, Robert E; Michael, Todd P; Wall, Kerr; Rice, Danny W; Albert, Henrik; Wang, Ming-Li; Zhu, Yun J; Schatz, Michael; Nagarajan, Niranjan; Acob, Ricelle A; Guan, Peizhu; Blas, Andrea; Wai, Ching Man; Ackerman, Christine M; Ren, Yan; Liu, Chao; Wang, Jianmei; Wang, Jianping; Na, Jong-Kuk; Shakirov, Eugene V; Haas, Brian; Thimmapuram, Jyothi; Nelson, David; Wang, Xiyin; Bowers, John E; Gschwend, Andrea R; Delcher, Arthur L; Singh, Ratnesh; Suzuki, Jon Y; Tripathi, Savarni; Neupane, Kabi; Wei, Hairong; Irikura, Beth; Paidi, Maya; Jiang, Ning; Zhang, Wenli; Presting, Gernot; Windsor, Aaron; Navajas-Pérez, Rafael; Torres, Manuel J; Feltus, F Alex; Porter, Brad; Li, Yingjun; Burroughs, A Max; Luo, Ming-Cheng; Liu, Lei; Christopher, David A; Mount, Stephen M; Moore, Paul H; Sugimura, Tak; Jiang, Jiming; Schuler, Mary A; Friedman, Vikki; Mitchell-Olds, Thomas; Shippen, Dorothy E; dePamphilis, Claude W; Palmer, Jeffrey D; Freeling, Michael; Paterson, Andrew H; Gonsalves, Dennis; Wang, Lei; Alam, Maqsudul

    2008-04-24

    Papaya, a fruit crop cultivated in tropical and subtropical regions, is known for its nutritional benefits and medicinal applications. Here we report a 3x draft genome sequence of 'SunUp' papaya, the first commercial virus-resistant transgenic fruit tree to be sequenced. The papaya genome is three times the size of the Arabidopsis genome, but contains fewer genes, including significantly fewer disease-resistance gene analogues. Comparison of the five sequenced genomes suggests a minimal angiosperm gene set of 13,311. A lack of recent genome duplication, atypical of other angiosperm genomes sequenced so far, may account for the smaller papaya gene number in most functional groups. Nonetheless, striking amplifications in gene number within particular functional groups suggest roles in the evolution of tree-like habit, deposition and remobilization of starch reserves, attraction of seed dispersal agents, and adaptation to tropical daylengths. Transgenesis at three locations is closely associated with chloroplast insertions into the nuclear genome, and with topoisomerase I recognition sites. Papaya offers numerous advantages as a system for fruit-tree functional genomics, and this draft genome sequence provides the foundation for revealing the basis of Carica's distinguishing morpho-physiological, medicinal and nutritional properties.

  14. Proteomic analysis of papaya (Carica papaya L.) displaying typical sticky disease symptoms.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Silas P; Ventura, José A; Aguilar, Clemente; Nakayasu, Ernesto S; Almeida, Igor C; Fernandes, Patricia M B; Zingali, Russolina B

    2011-07-01

    Papaya (Carica papaya L.) hosts the only described laticifer-infecting virus (Papaya meleira virus, PMeV), which is the causal agent of papaya sticky disease. To understand the systemic effects of PMeV in papaya, we conducted a comprehensive proteomic analysis of leaf samples from healthy and diseased plants grown under field conditions. First, a reference 2-DE map was established for proteins from healthy samples. A total of 486 reproducible spots were identified, and MALDI-TOF-MS/MS data identified 275 proteins accounting for 159 distinct proteins from 231 spots that were annotated. Second, the differential expression of proteins from healthy and diseased leaves was determined through parallel experiments, using 2-DE and DIGE followed by MALDI-TOF-MS/MS and LC-IonTrap-MS/MS, respectively. Conventional 2-DE analysis revealed 75 differentially expressed proteins. Of those, 48 proteins were identified, with 26 being upregulated (U) and 22 downregulated (D). In general, metabolism-related proteins were downregulated, and stress-responsive proteins were upregulated. This expression pattern was corroborated by the results of the DIGE analysis, which identified 79 differentially expressed proteins, with 23 identified (17 U and 6 D). Calreticulin and the proteasome subunits 20S and RPT5a were shown to be upregulated during infection by both 2-DE and DIGE analyses. These data may help shed light on plant responses against stresses and viral infections.

  15. Digital transcriptome analysis of putative sex-determination genes in papaya (Carica papaya).

    PubMed

    Urasaki, Naoya; Tarora, Kazuhiko; Shudo, Ayano; Ueno, Hiroki; Tamaki, Moritoshi; Miyagi, Norimichi; Adaniya, Shinichi; Matsumura, Hideo

    2012-01-01

    Papaya (Carica papaya) is a trioecious plant species that has male, female and hermaphrodite flowers on different plants. The primitive sex chromosomes genetically determine the sex of the papaya. Although draft sequences of the papaya genome are already available, the genes for sex determination have not been identified, likely due to the complicated structure of its sex-chromosome sequences. To identify the candidate genes for sex determination, we conducted a transcriptome analysis of flower samples from male, female and hermaphrodite plants using high-throughput SuperSAGE for digital gene expression analysis. Among the short sequence tags obtained from the transcripts, 312 unique tags were specifically mapped to the primitive sex chromosome (X or Y(h)) sequences. An annotation analysis revealed that retroelements are the most abundant sequences observed in the genes corresponding to these tags. The majority of tags on the sex chromosomes were located on the X chromosome, and only 30 tags were commonly mapped to both the X and Y(h) chromosome, implying a loss of many genes on the Y(h) chromosome. Nevertheless, candidate Y(h) chromosome-specific female determination genes, including a MADS-box gene, were identified. Information on these sex chromosome-specific expressed genes will help elucidating sex determination in the papaya.

  16. Influence of ripening stages on antioxidant properties of papaya fruit (Carica papaya L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Addai, Zuhair Radhi; Abdullah, Aminah; Mutalib, Sahilah Abd.

    2013-11-01

    Papaya (Carica papaya L. cv Eksotika) is one of the most commonly consumed tropical fruits by humans, especially Malaysians. The objective of this study was to determine the phenolic compounds and antioxidants activity in different ripening stages of papaya fruit. The fruits were harvested at five different, stages RS1, RS2, RS3, RS4, and RS5 corresponding to 12, 14, 16, 18, and 20 weeks after anthesis, respectively. Papayas fruit at five different stage of ripening were obtained from farms at Pusat Flora Cheras, JabatanPertanian and Hulu Langat Semenyih, Selangor, Malaysia. The antioxidants activity were analyzed using the total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), ferric reducing antioxidant Power (FRAP) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). The analyses were conducted in triplicate and the data were subjected to statistical analysis using SPSS. The results showed significant differences (P< 0.05) were found at different stages of ripening. The total phenol content TPC, TFC, FRAP and DPPH values increased significantly (P<0.05) with the ripening process. The results showed the important role of the ripening stage in increasing the antioxidant content of papaya fruits.

  17. Papaya (Carica papaya) leaf methanolic extract modulates in vitro rumen methanogenesis and rumen biohydrogenation.

    PubMed

    Jafari, Saeid; Goh, Yong M; Rajion, Mohamed A; Jahromi, Mohammad F; Ahmad, Yusof H; Ebrahimi, Mahdi

    2017-02-01

    Papaya leaf methanolic extract (PLE) at concentrations of 0 (CON), 5 (LLE), 10 (MLE) and 15 (HLE) mg/250 mg dry matter (DM) with 30 mL buffered rumen fluid were incubated for 24 h to identify its effect on in vitro ruminal methanogenesis and ruminal biohydrogenation (BH). Total gas production was not affected (P > 0.05) by addition of PLE compared to the CON at 24 h of incubation. Methane (CH4 ) production (mL/250 mg DM) decreased (P < 0.05) with increasing levels of PLE. Acetate to propionate ratio was lower (P <0.05) in MLE (2.02) and HLE (1.93) compared to the CON (2.28). Supplementation of the diet with PLE significantly (P <0.05) decreased the rate of BH of C18:1n-9 (oleic acid; OA), C18:2n-6 (linoleic acid; LA), C18:3n-3 (linolenic acid; LNA) and C18 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) compared to CON after 24 h incubation, which resulted in higher concentrations of BH intermediates such as C18:1 t11 (vaccenic acid; VA), c9t11 conjugated LA (CLA) (rumenic acid; RA) and t10c12 CLA. Real-time PCR analysis indicated that the total bacteria, total protozoa, Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens and methanogen population in HLE decreased (P <0.05) compared to CON, but the total bacteria and B. fibrisolvens population were higher (P < 0.05) in CON compared to the PLE treatment groups.

  18. Vitreous touch after phacoemulsification.

    PubMed

    Schimek, R A

    1978-11-01

    Three cases with touch of an intact anterior vitreous face to the cornea following phacoemulsification had moderate corneal edema. In each patient, a different method successfully removed the touch of the anterior vitreous face to the corneal endothelium with subsequent prompt clearing of the corneal edema. Although uncommon, an intact anterior vetreous face against the corneal endothelium is possible when a wide opening has been made in the posterior capsule and the underlying vitreous face remains intact. In one case the recognition of anterior vitreous face contact to the cornea was delayed by the severity of the corneal edema. Of the 3 methods of treatment used, the pars plana anterior vitrectomy approach seemed the most effective and the medical approach with 4% cocaine seemed to be the least predictable.

  19. Virus Resistant Transgenic Papaya: Commercial Development and Regulatory and Environmental Issues

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In Hawaii, transgenic papaya resistant to Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) was developed starting in the 1980s and released commercially in 1998 to combat the wide spread destruction of Hawaii’s papaya industry. This review describes the proactive development of the transgenic papaya and its impact on ...

  20. Inhibition of Platelet Aggregation by the Leaf Extract of Carica papaya During Dengue Infection: An In Vitro Study.

    PubMed

    Chinnappan, Shobia; Ramachandrappa, Vijayakumar Shettikothanuru; Tamilarasu, Kadhiravan; Krishnan, Uma Maheswari; Pillai, Agiesh Kumar Balakrishna; Rajendiran, Soundravally

    2016-04-01

    Dengue cases were reported to undergo platelet activation and thrombocytopenia by a poorly understood mechanism. Recent studies suggested that Carica papaya leaf extract could recover the platelet count in dengue cases. However, no studies have attempted to unravel the mechanism of the plant extract in platelet recovery. Since there are no available drugs to treat dengue and considering the significance of C. papaya in dengue treatment, the current study aimed to evaluate two research questions: First one is to study if the C. papaya leaf extract exerts its action directly on platelets and second one is to understand if the extract can specifically inhibit the platelet aggregation during dengue viral infection. Sixty subjects with dengue positive and 60 healthy subjects were recruited in the study. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and platelet-poor plasma were prepared from both the dengue-infected and healthy control blood samples. Effect of the leaf extract obtained from C. papaya leaves was assessed on plasma obtained as well as platelets collected from both healthy and dengue-infected individuals. Platelet aggregation was significantly reduced when leaf extract preincubated with dengue plasma was added into control PRP, whereas no change in aggregation when leaf extract incubated-control plasma was added into control PRP. Upon direct addition of C. papaya leaf extract, both dengue PRP and control PRP showed a significant reduction in platelet aggregation. Within the dengue group, PRP from severe and nonsevere cases showed a significant decrease in aggregation without any difference between them. From the study, it is evident that C. papaya leaf extract can directly act on platelet. The present study, the first of its kind, found that the leaf extract possesses a dengue-specific neutralizing effect on dengue viral-infected plasma that may exert a protective role on platelets.

  1. Diffraction studies of papaya mosaic virus.

    PubMed

    Tollin, P; Bancroft, J B; Richardson, J F; Payne, N C; Beveridge, T J

    1979-10-15

    X-ray and optical diffraction studies of the flexuous papaya mosaic virus are described. The virus is constructed so that there are 35 coat protein subunits in 4 turns of the helix. The virus contains about 1410 protein subunits and 6800 nucleotides and has a molecular weight of about 33 x 10(6). The structure of tubes assembled in vitro from coat protein both in the presence and absence of nucleic acid resembles that of the native virus.

  2. Papaya Ringspot Virus: Characteristics, Pathogenicity, Sequence Variability and Control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Taxonomy: Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) is an aphid-transmitted plant virus belonging to the genus Potyvirus of the family Potyviridae with a positive sense RNA genome. PRSV isolates belong to either one of two major strains, P-type or W-type. The P-type infects both papaya and cucurbits whereas th...

  3. 75 FR 22207 - Importation of Papayas From Colombia and Ecuador

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-28

    ... field sanitation, hot water treatment, and fruit fly trapping in papaya production areas. This action... quarantine pests, and that fruit fly trapping, field sanitation, and hot water treatment be employed to... with a hot water dip. The dip requires that papayas from Colombia and Ecuador be held for 20 minutes...

  4. Effect of the potassium permanganate during papaya fruit ripening: Ethylene production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corrêa, S. F.; Filho, M. B.; da Silva, M. G.; Oliveira, J. G.; Aroucha, E. M. M.; Silva, R. F.; Pereira, M. G.; Vargas, H.

    2005-06-01

    The effect of potassium permanganate (KMnO4) on the ripening process of papaya fruits by monitoring the ethylene emission rates is reported. The ethylene emission was monitored by a photoacoustic spectrometer. Two experimental conditions were applied, being one of them just putting the fruit alone inside the sampling chamber and the second, modifying the atmosphere by the presence of KMnO4. The use of the ethylene absorber reduces the autocatalytic process of ethylene during papaya fruit ripening. For 20 g of KMnO4 the maximal intensity of the ethylene emission decreases by a factor two. Using the same amount of KMnO4, a reduction of about 2.2% in the concentration of ethylene for a mixture of 1ppmv of ethylene in synthetic air was observed.

  5. 76 FR 13972 - Notice of Availability of a Pest Risk Analysis for the Importation of Fresh Papaya Fruit From...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-15

    ... Importation of Fresh Papaya Fruit From Malaysia Into the Continental United States AGENCY: Animal and Plant... of fresh papaya (Carica papaya) fruit from Malaysia into the continental United States. Based on our... edible fresh fruit of papaya (Carica papaya) into the continental United States. Currently, fresh...

  6. In situ earthworm breeding in orchards significantly improves the growth, quality and yield of papaya (Carica papaya L.)

    PubMed Central

    Xiang, Huimin; Guo, Lei; Zhao, Benliang

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of four fertilizer applications—control (C), chemical fertilizer (F), compost (O), and in situ earthworm breeding (E)—on the growth, quality and yield of papaya (Carica papaya L.). In this study, 5 g plant−1 urea (CH4N2O, %N = 46.3%) and 100 g plant−1 microelement fertilizer was applied to each treatment. The fertilizer applications of these four treatments are different from each other. The results showed that the E treatment had the highest growth parameters over the whole growth period. At 127 days after transplantation, the order of plant heights from greatest to smallest was E > F > O > C, and the stem diameters were E > F > O > C, with significant differences between all treatments. Soluble-solid, sugar, vitamin C, and protein content significantly increased in the E treatment. In addition, the total acid and the electrical conductivity of the fruit significantly decreased in the E treatment. Fruit firmness clearly increased in the O treatment, and decreased in the F treatment. The fresh individual fruit weights, fruit numbers, and total yields were greatly improved in the F and E treatments, and the total yield of the E treatment was higher than that in the F treatment. In conclusion, the in situ earthworm breeding treatment performed better than conventional compost and chemical fertilizer treatments. Furthermore, in situ earthworm breeding may be a potential organic fertilizer application in orchards because it not only improves the fruit quality and yield but also reduces the amount of organic wastes from agriculture as a result of the activities of earthworms. PMID:27994969

  7. A single amino acid of niapro of papaya ringspot virus determines host specificity for infection of papaya.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kuan-Chun; Chiang, Chu-Hui; Raja, Joseph A J; Liu, Fang-Lin; Tai, Chun-Hsi; Yeh, Shyi-Dong

    2008-08-01

    Most strains of Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) belong to type W, causing severe loss on cucurbits worldwide, or type P, devastating papaya in tropical areas. While the host range of PRSV W is limited to plants of the families Chenopodiaceae and Cucuribitaceae, PRSV P, in addition, infects plants of the family Caricaceae (papaya family). To investigate one or more viral genetic determinants for papaya infection, recombinant viruses were constructed between PRSV P-YK and PRSV W-CI. Host reactions to recombinant viruses indicated that the viral genomic region covering the C-terminal region (142 residues) of NIaVPg, full NIaPro, and N-terminal region (18 residues) of NIb, is critical for papaya infection. Sequence analysis of this region revealed residue variations at position 176 of NIaVPg and positions 27 and 205 of NIaPro between type P and W viruses. Host reactions to the constructed mutants indicated that the amino acid Lys27 of NIaPro determines the host-specificity of PRSV for papaya infection. Predicted three-dimensional structures of NIaPros of parental viruses suggested that Lys27 does not affect the protease activity of NIaPro. Recovery of the infected plants from certain papaya-infecting mutants implied involvement of other viral factors for enhancing virulence and adaptation of PRSV on papaya.

  8. Antiulcerogenic activity of Carica papaya seed in rats.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Lorraine Aparecida; Cordeiro, Kátia Wolff; Carrasco, Viviane; Carollo, Carlos Alexandre; Cardoso, Cláudia Andréa Lima; Argadoña, Eliana Janet Sanjinez; Freitas, Karine de Cássia

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the gastroprotective and healing effects of the methanolic extract of the seed of the papaya Carica papaya L. (MECP) in rats. Models of acute gastric ulcer induction by ethanol and indomethacin and of chronic ulcer by acetic acid were used. The gastric juice and mucus parameters were evaluated using the pylorus ligation model, and the involvement of sulfhydryl compounds (GSH) and nitric oxide in the gastroprotective effect was analyzed using the ethanol model. The toxicity was assessed through toxicity tests. No signs of toxicity were observed when the rats received a single dose of 2000 mg/kg of extract. The MECP in doses of 125, 250, and 500 mg/kg significantly reduced the gastric lesion with 56, 76, and 82 % inhibition, respectively, and a dose of 30 mg/kg lansoprazole showed 79 % inhibition in the ethanol model. MECP (125, 250, 500 mg/kg) and cimetidine (200 mg/kg) reduced the gastric lesion in the indomethacin model, with 62, 67, 81, and 85 % inhibition, respectively. The MECP (500 mg/kg) and cimetidine (200 mg/kg) treatments showed a reduction in ulcerative symptoms induced by acetic acid by 84 and 73 %, respectively. The antiulcerogenic activity seems to involve GSH because the inhibition dropped from 72 to 13 % in the presence of a GSH inhibitor. Moreover, the MECP showed systemic action, increasing the mucus production and decreasing gastric acidity. Treatments with MECP induce gastroprotection without signs of toxicity. This effect seems to involve sulfhydryl compounds, increased mucus, and reduced gastric acidity.

  9. Touch Accelerates Visual Awareness

    PubMed Central

    Lo Verde, Luca; Alais, David

    2017-01-01

    To efficiently interact with the external environment, our nervous system combines information arising from different sensory modalities. Recent evidence suggests that cross-modal interactions can be automatic and even unconscious, reflecting the ecological relevance of cross-modal processing. Here, we use continuous flash suppression (CFS) to directly investigate whether haptic signals can interact with visual signals outside of visual awareness. We measured suppression durations of visual gratings rendered invisible by CFS either during visual stimulation alone or during visuo-haptic stimulation. We found that active exploration of a haptic grating congruent in orientation with the suppressed visual grating reduced suppression durations both compared with visual-only stimulation and to incongruent visuo-haptic stimulation. We also found that the facilitatory effect of touch on visual suppression disappeared when the visual and haptic gratings were mismatched in either spatial frequency or orientation. Together, these results demonstrate that congruent touch can accelerate the rise to consciousness of a suppressed visual stimulus and that this unconscious cross-modal interaction depends on visuo-haptic congruency. Furthermore, since CFS suppression is thought to occur early in visual cortical processing, our data reinforce the evidence suggesting that visuo-haptic interactions can occur at the earliest stages of cortical processing. PMID:28210486

  10. Affectionate Touch between Fathers and Preadolescent Sons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salt, Robert E.

    1991-01-01

    Investigated father and son dyads' (n=39) attitudes and perceptions about their touching interaction and observed their touching behavior. Results supported integrated father-son touch theory and showed negative relationship between son's age and amount of touch sons received. Both fathers and sons were more accepting of fathers touching sons…

  11. Development of Transgenic Papaya through Agrobacterium-Mediated Transformation

    PubMed Central

    Azad, Md. Abul Kalam; Rabbani, Md. Golam; Amin, Latifah; Sidik, Nik Marzuki

    2013-01-01

    Transgenic papaya plants were regenerated from hypocotyls and immature zygotic embryo after cocultivation with Agrobacterium tumefaciens LBA-4404 carrying a binary plasmid vector system containing neomycin phosphotransferase (nptII) gene as the selectable marker and β-glucuronidase (GUS) as the reporter gene. The explants were co-cultivated with Agrobacterium tumefaciens on regeneration medium containing 500 mg/L carbenicillin + 200 mg/L cefotaxime for one week. The cocultivated explants were transferred into the final selection medium containing 500 mg/L carbenicillin + 200 mg/L cefotaxime + 50 mg/L kanamycin for callus induction as well as plant regeneration. The callus derived from the hypocotyls of Carica papaya cv. Shahi showed the highest positive GUS activities compared to Carica papaya cv. Ranchi. The transformed callus grew vigorously and formed embryos followed by transgenic plantlets successfully. The result of this study showed that the hypocotyls of C. papaya cv. Shahi and C. papaya cv. Ranchi are better explants for genetic transformation compared to immature embryos. The transformed C. papaya cv. Shahi also showed the maximum number of plant regeneration compared to that of C. papaya cv. Ranchi. PMID:24066284

  12. Whole genome sequence analysis of unidentified genetically modified papaya for development of a specific detection method.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Kosuke; Kondo, Kazunari; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Ishigaki, Takumi; Noguchi, Akio; Katsumata, Hiroshi; Takasaki, Kazuto; Futo, Satoshi; Sakata, Kozue; Fukuda, Nozomi; Mano, Junichi; Kitta, Kazumi; Tanaka, Hidenori; Akashi, Ryo; Nishimaki-Mogami, Tomoko

    2016-08-15

    Identification of transgenic sequences in an unknown genetically modified (GM) papaya (Carica papaya L.) by whole genome sequence analysis was demonstrated. Whole genome sequence data were generated for a GM-positive fresh papaya fruit commodity detected in monitoring using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The sequences obtained were mapped against an open database for papaya genome sequence. Transgenic construct- and event-specific sequences were identified as a GM papaya developed to resist infection from a Papaya ringspot virus. Based on the transgenic sequences, a specific real-time PCR detection method for GM papaya applicable to various food commodities was developed. Whole genome sequence analysis enabled identifying unknown transgenic construct- and event-specific sequences in GM papaya and development of a reliable method for detecting them in papaya food commodities.

  13. Yeast ratio is a critical factor for sequential fermentation of papaya wine by Williopsis saturnus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Lee, Pin-Rou; Kho, Stephanie Hui Chern; Yu, Bin; Curran, Philip; Liu, Shao-Quan

    2013-07-01

    The growth kinetics and fermentation performance of Williopsis saturnus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae at ratios of 10:1, 1:1 and 1:10 (W.:S.) were studied in papaya juice with initial 7-day fermentation by W.saturnus, followed by S. cerevisiae. The growth kinetics of W. saturnus were similar at all ratios, but its maximum cell count decreased as the proportion of S. cerevisiae was increased. Conversely, there was an early death of S. cerevisiae at the ratio of 10:1. Williopsis saturnus was the dominant yeast at 10:1 ratio that produced papaya wine with elevated concentrations of acetate esters. On the other hand, 1:1 and 1:10 ratios allowed the coexistence of both yeasts which enabled the flavour-enhancing potential of W.saturnus as well as the ethyl ester and alcohol-producing abilities of S. cerevisiae. In particular, 1:1 and 1:10 ratios resulted in production of more ethyl esters, alcohols and 2-phenylethyl acetate. However, the persistence of both yeasts at 1:1 and 1:10 ratios led to formation of high levels of acetic acid. The findings suggest that yeast ratio is a critical factor for sequential fermentation of papaya wine by W.saturnus and S. cerevisiae as a strategy to modulate papaya wine flavour.

  14. Subassembly aggregates of papaya mosaic virus protein.

    PubMed

    Erickson, J W; Hallett, F R; Bancroft, J B

    1983-08-01

    An examination of the number of subunits in small aggregates of papaya mosaic virus (PMV) coat protein is presented based on a model system which gives results consistent with the experimental observation that the 14 S subassembly species is a double disc, composed of two rows of nine subunits each. The estimated hydration of the disc, about 0.85 g 1H20/9 protein, is unusually large and indicates a cavitated structure for the disc. Comparison with other rod-shaped viruses suggests that the flexuous nature of PMV is a consequence of sparse axial inter-subunit contacts at high radius.

  15. Plant lipases: partial purification of Carica papaya lipase.

    PubMed

    Rivera, Ivanna; Mateos-Díaz, Juan Carlos; Sandoval, Georgina

    2012-01-01

    Lipases from plants have very interesting features for application in different fields. This chapter provides an overview on some of the most important aspects of plant lipases, such as sources, applications, physiological functions, and specificities. Lipases from laticifers and particularly Carica papaya lipase (CPL) have emerged as a versatile autoimmobilized biocatalyst. However, to get a better understanding of CPL biocatalytic properties, the isolation and purification of individual C. papaya lipolytic enzymes become necessary. In this chapter, a practical protocol for partial purification of the latex-associated lipolytic activity from C. papaya is given.

  16. Isolation and functional characterization of a lycopene beta-cyclase gene that controls fruit colour of papaya (Carica papaya L.).

    PubMed

    Devitt, Luke C; Fanning, Kent; Dietzgen, Ralf G; Holton, Timothy A

    2010-01-01

    The colour of papaya fruit flesh is determined largely by the presence of carotenoid pigments. Red-fleshed papaya fruit contain lycopene, whilst this pigment is absent from yellow-fleshed fruit. The conversion of lycopene (red) to beta-carotene (yellow) is catalysed by lycopene beta-cyclase. This present study describes the cloning and functional characterization of two different genes encoding lycopene beta-cyclases (lcy-beta1 and lcy-beta2) from red (Tainung) and yellow (Hybrid 1B) papaya cultivars. A mutation in the lcy-beta2 gene, which inactivates enzyme activity, controls lycopene production in fruit and is responsible for the difference in carotenoid production between red and yellow-fleshed papaya fruit. The expression level of both lcy-beta1 and lcy-beta2 genes is similar and low in leaves, but lcy-beta2 expression increases markedly in ripe fruit. Isolation of the lcy-beta2 gene from papaya, that is preferentially expressed in fruit and is correlated with fruit colour, will facilitate marker-assisted breeding for fruit colour in papaya and should create possibilities for metabolic engineering of carotenoid production in papaya fruit to alter both colour and nutritional properties.

  17. Feeling Touched: Emotional Modulation of Somatosensory Potentials to Interpersonal Touch.

    PubMed

    Ravaja, N; Harjunen, V; Ahmed, I; Jacucci, G; Spapé, M M

    2017-01-12

    Although the previous studies have shown that an emotional context may alter touch processing, it is not clear how visual contextual information modulates the sensory signals, and at what levels does this modulation take place. Therefore, we investigated how a toucher's emotional expressions (anger, happiness, fear, and sadness) modulate touchee's somatosensory-evoked potentials (SEPs) in different temporal ranges. Participants were presented with tactile stimulation appearing to originate from expressive characters in virtual reality. Touch processing was indexed using SEPs, and self-reports of touch experience were collected. Early potentials were found to be amplified after angry, happy and sad facial expressions, while late potentials were amplified after anger but attenuated after happiness. These effects were related to two stages of emotional modulation of tactile perception: anticipation and interpretation. The findings show that not only does touch affect emotion, but also emotional expressions affect touch perception. The affective modulation of touch was initially obtained as early as 25 ms after the touch onset suggesting that emotional context is integrated to the tactile sensation at a very early stage.

  18. Feeling Touched: Emotional Modulation of Somatosensory Potentials to Interpersonal Touch

    PubMed Central

    Ravaja, N.; Harjunen, V.; Ahmed, I.; Jacucci, G.; Spapé, M. M.

    2017-01-01

    Although the previous studies have shown that an emotional context may alter touch processing, it is not clear how visual contextual information modulates the sensory signals, and at what levels does this modulation take place. Therefore, we investigated how a toucher’s emotional expressions (anger, happiness, fear, and sadness) modulate touchee’s somatosensory-evoked potentials (SEPs) in different temporal ranges. Participants were presented with tactile stimulation appearing to originate from expressive characters in virtual reality. Touch processing was indexed using SEPs, and self-reports of touch experience were collected. Early potentials were found to be amplified after angry, happy and sad facial expressions, while late potentials were amplified after anger but attenuated after happiness. These effects were related to two stages of emotional modulation of tactile perception: anticipation and interpretation. The findings show that not only does touch affect emotion, but also emotional expressions affect touch perception. The affective modulation of touch was initially obtained as early as 25 ms after the touch onset suggesting that emotional context is integrated to the tactile sensation at a very early stage. PMID:28079157

  19. Efficacy and safety of Carica papaya leaf extract in the dengue: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Charan, Jaykaran; Saxena, Deepak; Goyal, Jagdish Prasad; Yasobant, Sandul

    2016-01-01

    Background: Dengue is an infectious disease associated with high mortality and morbidity. Being a viral disease, there is no specific drug available for treatment. There are some reports that Carica papaya leaf extract may improve the clinical condition of dengue patients; however, to support this, at present, there is no systematically searched and synthesized evidence available. Objectives: This systematic review and meta-analysis was designed to search the available evidence related to the efficacy and safety of C. papaya leaf extract in dengue and to synthesize the evidence in meaningful form through meta-analysis so that inference can be drawn. Materials and Methods: Randomized controlled trials related to the efficacy and safety of C. papaya leaf extract in dengue were searched from PubMed, Cochrane Clinical Trial Registry and Google Scholar. The primary endpoint was mortality, and secondary endpoints were increase in platelet count, hospitalization days, and Grade 3 and 4 adverse events. Data related to primary and secondary endpoints were pooled together and analyzed by review manager (Review Manager (RevMan) Copenhagen: The Nordic Cochrane Centre, The Cochrane Collaboration, Denmark) software. The random effect model was used. The bias was analyzed by the Cochrane risk of bias tool. Results: Total four trials enrolling 439 subjects were included in the analysis. Of 439 subjects, data of 377 subjects were available for analysis. C. papaya leaf extract was found to be associated with increase in platelet count in the overall analysis (mean difference [MD] =20.27 [95% confidence interval (CI) 6.21–34.73; P = 0.005]) and analysis after 4th day (MD = 28.25 [95% CI 14.14–42.37; P < 0.0001]). After 48 h, there was no significant difference between C. papaya and control group (MD = 13.38 [95% CI − 7.71–34.51; P = 0.21]). There was significant decrease in hospitalization days in the C. papaya group (MD = 1.90 [95% CI 1.62–2.18; P < 0.00001]). Because of

  20. Pleasant human touch is represented in pregenual anterior cingulate cortex.

    PubMed

    Lindgren, Lenita; Westling, Göran; Brulin, Christine; Lehtipalo, Stefan; Andersson, Micael; Nyberg, Lars

    2012-02-15

    Touch massage (TM) is a form of pleasant touch stimulation used as treatment in clinical settings and found to improve well-being and decrease anxiety, stress, and pain. Emotional responses reported during and after TM have been studied, but the underlying mechanisms are still largely unexplored. In this study, we used functional magnetic resonance (fMRI) to test the hypothesis that the combination of human touch (i.e. skin-to-skin contact) with movement is eliciting a specific response in brain areas coding for pleasant sensations. The design included four different touch conditions; human touch with or without movement and rubber glove with or without movement. Force (2.5 N) and velocity (1.5 cm/s) were held constant across conditions. The pleasantness of the four different touch stimulations was rated on a visual analog scale (VAS-scale) and human touch was rated as most pleasant, particularly in combination with movement. The fMRI results revealed that TM stimulation most strongly activated the pregenual anterior cingulate cortex (pgACC). These results are consistent with findings showing pgACC activation during various rewarding pleasant stimulations. This area is also known to be activated by both opioid analgesia and placebo. Together with these prior results, our finding furthers the understanding of the basis for positive TM treatment effects.

  1. Fermented Papaya Preparation Restores Age-Related Reductions in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cell Cytolytic Activity in Tube-Fed Patients

    PubMed Central

    Fujita, Yuhzo; Tsuno, Haruo; Nakayama, Jiro

    2017-01-01

    Tube-fed elderly patients are generally supplied with the same type of nutrition over long periods, resulting in an increased risk for micronutrient deficiencies. Dietary polyphenols promote immunity and have anti-inflammatory, anti-carcinogenic, and anti-oxidative properties. Carica papaya Linn. is rich in several polyphenols; however, these polyphenols are poorly absorbed from the digestive tract in their original polymerized form. Therefore, we determined the molecular components of a fermented Carica papaya Linn. preparation, as well as its effects on immunity and the composition of gut microbiota in tube-fed patients. Different doses of the fermented C. papaya L. preparation were administered to three groups of tube-fed patients for 30 days. Its effects on fecal microbiota composition and immunity were assessed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and immune-marker analysis, respectively. The chemical composition of the fermented C. papaya L. preparation was analyzed by capillary electrophoresis- and liquid chromatography- time of flight mass spectrometry. The fermented C. papaya L. preparation restored peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) cytolytic activity; however, no other biomarkers of immunity were observed. Treatment with the preparation (9 g/day) significantly reduced the abundance of Firmicutes in the fecal microbiota. In particular, treatment reduced Clostridium scindens and Eggerthella lenta in most patients receiving 9 g/day. Chemical analysis identified low-molecular-weight phenolic acids as polyphenol metabolites; however, no polymerized, large-molecular-weight molecules were detected. Our study indicates that elderly patients who are tube-fed over the long-term have decreased PBMC cytolytic activity. In addition, low-molecular-weight polyphenol metabolites fermented from polymerized polyphenols restore PBMC cytolytic activity and modulate the composition of gut microbiota in tube-fed patients. PMID:28060858

  2. 78 FR 48628 - Importation of Papayas From Peru

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-09

    ... more than one-quarter yellow, surrounded by light green) and appear to be free of all injurious insect... fruit flies or other injurious insect pests during transit. The package containing the papayas would...

  3. New approach for papaya latex storage without virus degradation

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Silas P.; Andrade, Josemar S.; Ventura, José A.; Fernandes, Patricia M. B.

    2009-01-01

    Papaya meleira virus (PMeV) is the causal agent of papaya (Carica papaya L.) sticky disease, which has been detected through analysis of its double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) genome from plant latex. In this work we demonstrate that PMeV dsRNA is protected during 25 days when latex is diluted in citrate buffer pH 5.0 (1:1 v/v) and maintained at -20ºC. At the same temperature, some protection was observed for pure latex or latex diluted in ultra-pure water. Conversely, the dsRNA was almost completely degraded after 25 days when maintained at 25ºC, indicating the need for freezing. The proper procedures to collect and store papaya latex described here will contribute to efficient and large scale use of molecular diagnosis of PMeV. PMID:24031329

  4. ESR detection procedure of irradiated papaya containing high water content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikuchi, Masahiro; Shimoyama, Yuhei; Ukai, Mitsuko; Kobayashi, Yasuhiko

    2011-05-01

    ESR signals were recorded from irradiated papaya at liquid nitrogen temperature (77 K), and freeze-dried irradiated papaya at room temperature (295 K). Two side peaks from the flesh at the liquid nitrogen temperature indicated a linear dose response for 3-14 days after the γ-irradiation. The line shapes recorded from the freeze-dried specimens were sharper than those at liquid nitrogen temperature.

  5. Touching the problem.

    PubMed

    Pendergast, M

    1999-01-01

    This article discusses the stand of the Catholic Church concerning HIV prevention through the use of condoms or any other forms of artificial contraception. It is a known fact that the problem of HIV/AIDS needs worldwide attention, and yet the Vatican rails against HIV prevention programs which appear to promote condom use. The primary intention to use condoms as one means to prevent the spread of HIV is not principally contraceptive. For not recognizing the integral yet complex relationship between different levels if HIV prevention and treatment and care responses, they confuse their opposition to artificial contraception with a higher principle and commitment to preserve life. With their criticism they fail to understand the fundamental principles of health promotion. In the struggle against HIV/AIDS, as with so many issues, the Catholic Church must engage with those who are touching the problem. It is also an opportunity to begin a proper dialogue wherein diversity can be celebrated, and values of responsible choices can be shared.

  6. Molecular detection of Papaya meleira virus in the latex of Carica papaya by RT-PCR.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Marília Mendes Melo de; Tavares, Eder Torres; Silva, Felipe Rodrigues da; Marinho, Vera Lúcia de Almeida; Júnior, Manoel Teixeira Souza

    2007-12-01

    A RT-PCR assay was developed for early and accurate detection of Papaya meleira virus (PMeV) in the latex from infected papayas. The meleira disease is characterized by an excessive exudation of more fluidic latex from fruits, leaves and stems. This latex oxidises and gives the fruit a "sticky" texture. In the field, disease symptoms are seen almost exclusively on fruit. However, infected plants can be a source of virus for dissemination by insects. Primers specific for PMeV were designed based on nucleotide sequences of the viral dsRNA obtained using a RT-RAPD approach. When tested for RT-PCR amplification, one of these primers (C05-3') amplified a 669-nucleotide fragment using dsRNA obtained from purified virus particles as a template. The translated sequence of this DNA fragment showed a certain degree of similarity to the amino acid sequence of RNA-dependent RNA polymerases from other dsRNA viruses. When used as the single primer in two RT-PCR kits available commercially, primer C05-3' also amplified the DNA fragment from papaya latex of infected, but not from healthy plants. The RT-PCR-based method developed in this study could simplify early plant disease diagnosis, assist in monitoring the dissemination of the pathogen within and between fields, and assist in guiding plant disease management.

  7. Multivariate analysis to determine the genetic distance among backcross papaya (Carica papaya) progenies.

    PubMed

    Ramos, H C C; Pereira, M G; Gonçalves, L S A; Berilli, A P C G; Pinto, F O; Ribeiro, E H

    2012-05-14

    Morpho-agronomic and molecular (RAPD and ISSR markers) data were used to evaluate genetic distances between papaya backcross progenies in order to help identify agronomically superior genotypes. Thirty-two papaya progenies were evaluated based on 15 morpho-agronomic characteristics, 20 ISSR and 19 RAPD primers. Manhattan, Jaccard and Gower distances were used to estimate differences based on continuous and binary data and combined analyses, respectively. Except for production, there were significant differences in the continuous variables among the genotypes. The molecular analysis revealed 193 dominant markers (ISSR and RAPD), being 53 polymorphic loci. Among the various clusters that were generated, the one based on a combined analysis of morpho-agronomic and molecular data gave the highest cophenetic correlation (0.72) compared to individual analysis, consistently allocating the progenies into six groups. We found that the Gower algorithm was more coherent in the discrimination of the genotypes, demonstrating that a combination of molecular and agronomic data is valuable for studies of genetic dissimilarity in papaya.

  8. NIa-pro of Papaya ringspot virus interacts with papaya methionine sulfoxide reductase B1.

    PubMed

    Gao, Le; Shen, Wentao; Yan, Pu; Tuo, Decai; Li, Xiaoying; Zhou, Peng

    2012-12-05

    A chloroplast-localized papaya methionine sulfoxide reductase B1 (PaMsrB1) interacting with Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) NIa-Pro was identified using a Sos recruitment two-hybrid system (SRS). SRS analysis of several deletion mutants of PRSV NIa-Pro and PaMsrB1 demonstrated that the C-terminal (residues 133-239) fragment of PRSV NIa-Pro and residues 112-175 of PaMsrB1 were necessary for this interaction between PRSV NIa-Pro and PaMsrB1. MsrB1 can repair Met-oxidized proteins damaged by reactive oxygen species (ROS). We confirmed that PRSV infection leads to ROS accumulation and a slight upregulation of level PaMsrB1 mRNA in papaya. This interaction between PaMsrB1 with PRSV NIa-Pro may disturb the import of PaMsrB1 into the chloroplasts. These results suggest that this specific interaction could interfere with PaMsrB1 into the chloroplasts to scavenge ROS caused by PRSV infection. This may be a novel mechanism of PRSV towards the host defense.

  9. Genetic-molecular characterization of backcross generations for sexual conversion in papaya (Carica papaya L.).

    PubMed

    Ramos, H C C; Pereira, M G; Pereira, T N S; Barros, G B A; Ferreguetti, G A

    2014-12-04

    The low number of improved cultivars limits the expansion of the papaya crop, particularly because of the time required for the development of new varieties using classical procedures. Molecular techniques associated with conventional procedures accelerate this process and allow targeted improvements. Thus, we used microsatellite markers to perform genetic-molecular characterization of papaya genotypes obtained from 3 backcross generations to monitor the inbreeding level and parental genome proportion in the evaluated genotypes. Based on the analysis of 20 microsatellite loci, 77 genotypes were evaluated, 25 of each generation of the backcross program as well as the parental genotypes. The markers analyzed were identified in 11 of the 12 linkage groups established for papaya, ranging from 1 to 4 per linkage group. The average values for the inbreeding coefficient were 0.88 (BC1S4), 0.47 (BC2S3), and 0.63 (BC3S2). Genomic analysis revealed average values of the recurrent parent genome of 82.7% in BC3S2, 64.4% in BC1S4, and 63.9% in BC2S3. Neither the inbreeding level nor the genomic proportions completely followed the expected average values. This demonstrates the significance of molecular analysis when examining different genotype values, given the importance of such information for selection processes in breeding programs.

  10. Complete genome sequence of an isolate of papaya leaf distortion mosaic virus from commercialized PRSV-resistant transgenic papaya in China.

    PubMed

    Tuo, D; Shen, W; Yan, P; Li, Ch; Gao, L; Li, X; Li, H; Zhou, P

    2013-01-01

    Papaya leaf distortion mosaic virus is highly destructive to commercial papaya production. Here, the complete genome sequence was determined for an isolate of papaya leaf distortion mosaic virus, designated PLDMV-DF, infecting the commercialized papaya ringspot virus (PRSV)-resistant transgenic papaya from China. Excluding the 3'-poly (A) tail, the sequence shares high sequence identity to several PLDMV isolates from Taiwan and Japan and is phylogenetically most closely related to the isolate from Japan. Infection of PLDMV-DF in transgenic PRSV-resistant papaya may indicate emergence of this disease in genetically engineered plants. The reported sequence for this isolate may help generate bi-transgenic papaya resistant to PRSV and PLDMV.

  11. Sex determination in flowering plants: papaya as a model system.

    PubMed

    Aryal, Rishi; Ming, Ray

    2014-03-01

    Unisexuality in flowering plants evolved from a hermaphrodite ancestor. Transition from hermaphrodite to unisexual flowers has occurred multiple times across the different lineages of the angiosperms. Sexuality in plants is regulated by genetic, epigenetic and physiological mechanisms. The most specialized mechanism of sex determination is sex chromosomes. The sex chromosomes ensure the stable segregation of sexual phenotypes by preventing the recombination of sex determining genes. Despite continuous efforts, sex determining genes of dioecious plants have not yet been cloned. Concerted efforts with various model systems are necessary to understand the complex mechanism of sex determination in plants. Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is a tropical fruit tree with three sex forms, male, hermaphrodite, and female. Sexuality in papaya is determined by an XY chromosome system that is in an early evolutionary stage. The male and hermaphrodite of papaya are controlled by two different types of Y chromosomes: Y and Y(h). Large amounts of information in the area of genetics, genomics, and epigenetics of papaya have been accumulated over the last few decades. Relatively short lifecycle, small genome size, and readily available genetic and genomic resources render papaya an excellent model system to study sex determination and sex chromosomes in flowering plants.

  12. Semen study of papaya workers exposed to ethylene dibromide

    SciTech Connect

    Ratcliffe, J.M.; Schrader, S.M.; Steenland, K.; Clapp, D.; Turner, T.

    1984-01-01

    A cross sectional semen and cytogenetic study was performed on male workers exposed to ethylene-dibromide (EDB) in the papaya fumigation industry in Hawaii. Semen analyses were conducted on 46 men in six fumigation facilities with an average length of employment of 5 years and airborne exposures to EDB ranging from 16 to 213 parts per billion. Statistically significant decreases in sperm count per ejaculate and the percentage of viable and motile sperm and increases in the proportion of specific morphological abnormalities were observed among exposed men when compared with controls. Semen volume and sperm concentration were also lower in the exposed group. No effect of exposure to EDB on sperm velocity, the overall proportion of sperm with normal morphology or YFF bodies was noted. The authors conclude that based on the decreases in sperm count, viability and motility and increases in certain types of morphological abnormalities among workers exposed to EDB, EDB may increase the risk of reproductive impairment in workers at exposure levels near the NIOSH recommended limit of 45 parts per billion and far below the current OSHA standard of 20 parts per million.

  13. Efficacy of four plant extracts on nematodes associated with papaya in Sindh, Pakistan

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This investigation examines the effect of ethanol extracts of four plant species--Azadirachta indica (neem), Withania somnifera (ashwagandha), Tagetes erecta (marigold) and Eucalyptus citriodora (eucalyptus)--against nematodes associated with papaya (Carica papaya), and it assesses their influence o...

  14. Rapid sex identification of papaya (Carica papaya) using multiplex loop-mediated isothermal amplification (mLAMP).

    PubMed

    Hsu, Te-Hua; Gwo, Jin-Chywan; Lin, Kuan-Hung

    2012-10-01

    Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is established as a cash crop throughout the tropical and subtropical regions due to its easy adaptation to diverse agricultural conditions, high yields, and prompt returns. The sex types of papaya plants are hermaphrodite, male, and female. Among them, hermaphroditic plants are the major type in papaya production, because the fruit has commercial advantages over that of the other sexes. Sex inheritance in papaya is determined by the M and M(h) dominant alleles in males and hermaphrodites, respectively, and a recessive m allele in females. Currently, all hermaphrodite seeds are not available due to the lethality of dominant homozygosity. Therefore, in this study, six male-hermaphrodite-specific markers were developed for a rapid sex identification using multiplex loop-mediated isothermal amplification (mLAMP) to efficiently and precisely select hermaphroditic individuals in the seedling or early growth stage. The LM1-LAMP assay consisted of two sex-LAMP reactions for amplifying two male-specific markers (T12 and Cpsm90) in one reaction, and showed several advantages in terms of a rapid reaction time (<1 h), isothermal conditions (less equipment required), a high efficiency (0.5 ng of DNA required in the reaction mixture), and an economical reaction system (5 μl in volume). The established method can be easily performed in the field by visual inspection and facilitates the selection of all hermaphroditic individuals in papaya production.

  15. A Sensitive, Reliable Inexpensive Touch Detector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anger, Douglas; Schachtman, Todd R.

    2007-01-01

    Research in a laboratory required a sensitive, reliable, inexpensive touch detector for use with rats to test the reinforcement of inhibition. A small touch detector was also desirable so that the detector could be mounted on the rat's cage close to the object being touched by the rat, whose touches in turn were being detected by current passing…

  16. Significance of Touch in Young Children's Lives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Frances M.

    2005-01-01

    Touch matters. Humans need nurturing touch for optimum emotional, physical, and cognitive development and health--especially in infancy. Positive touch lowers levels of the stress hormone cortisol in the brain. Drawing on research and anecdotal evidence to support the importance of touch to children's well-being, the author makes a case for…

  17. Transparent and conformal 'piezoionic' touch sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    us Sarwar, Mirza S.; Dobashi, Yuta; Scabeni Glitz, Ettore F.; Farajollahi, Meisam; Mirabbasi, Shahriar; Naficy, Sina; Spinks, Geoffrey M.; Madden, John D. W.

    2015-04-01

    A polyurethane hydrogel based touch sensor with high transparency and conformability is demonstrated. Polyurethane hydrogels swollen with various electrolytes were compressed at a pressure of 30 kPa, simulating a fingertap on a conventional touch screen device. Unlike ionic polymer metal composite and conducting polymer trilayer sensors, where electrodes render the sensors opaque and relatively rigid, the electrodes used in this work are metal wires or strips, separated from each other by regions of transparent film, enabling transparency and compliance. The voltages and currents observed when the perturbation is above one electrode are on the order of 10-2 V and 10-7 A, relative to a second electrode that is approximately 1 cm away. The sign of voltage and current signals detected from perturbations made between electrodes is determined by relative proximity to each electrode, and the magnitude appears to decrease with increasing distance from the electrodes. These observations suggest that it may be possible to discriminate the location of touch based on signals transmitted to the edges of an ionically conductive film. A model to describe the inhomogeneous ionic distribution and predict the resultant voltage and current is presented to qualitatively explain the sensing, based on the Donnan potential.

  18. Nucleotide sequence of papaya mosaic virus RNA.

    PubMed

    Sit, T L; Abouhaidar, M G; Holy, S

    1989-09-01

    The RNA genome of papaya mosaic virus is 6656 nucleotides long [excluding the poly(A) tail] with six open reading frames (ORFs) more than 200 nucleotides long. The four nearest the 5' end each overlap with adjacent ORFs and could code for proteins with Mr 176307, 26248, 11949 and 7224 (ORFs 1 to 4). The fifth ORF produces the capsid protein of Mr 23043 and the sixth ORF, located completely within ORF1, could code for a protein with Mr 14113. The translation products of ORFs 1 to 3 show strong similarity with those of other potexviruses but the ORF 4 protein has only limited similarity with the other potexvirus ORF 4 proteins of 7K to 11K.

  19. Origin and domestication of papaya Yh chromosome

    PubMed Central

    VanBuren, Robert; Zeng, Fanchang; Chen, Cuixia; Zhang, Jisen; Wai, Ching Man; Han, Jennifer; Aryal, Rishi; Gschwend, Andrea R.; Wang, Jianping; Na, Jong-Kuk; Huang, Lixian; Zhang, Lingmao; Miao, Wenjing; Gou, Jiqing; Arro, Jie; Guyot, Romain; Moore, Richard C.; Wang, Ming-Li; Zee, Francis; Charlesworth, Deborah; Moore, Paul H.; Yu, Qingyi; Ming, Ray

    2015-01-01

    Sex in papaya is controlled by a pair of nascent sex chromosomes. Females are XX, and two slightly different Y chromosomes distinguish males (XY) and hermaphrodites (XYh). The hermaphrodite-specific region of the Yh chromosome (HSY) and its X chromosome counterpart were sequenced and analyzed previously. We now report the sequence of the entire male-specific region of the Y (MSY). We used a BAC-by-BAC approach to sequence the MSY and resequence the Y regions of 24 wild males and the Yh regions of 12 cultivated hermaphrodites. The MSY and HSY regions have highly similar gene content and structure, and only 0.4% sequence divergence. The MSY sequences from wild males include three distinct haplotypes, associated with the populations’ geographic locations, but gene flow is detected for other genomic regions. The Yh sequence is highly similar to one Y haplotype (MSY3) found only in wild dioecious populations from the north Pacific region of Costa Rica. The low MSY3-Yh divergence supports the hypothesis that hermaphrodite papaya is a product of human domestication. We estimate that Yh arose only ∼4000 yr ago, well after crop plant domestication in Mesoamerica >6200 yr ago but coinciding with the rise of the Maya civilization. The Yh chromosome has lower nucleotide diversity than the Y, or the genome regions that are not fully sex-linked, consistent with a domestication bottleneck. The identification of the ancestral MSY3 haplotype will expedite investigation of the mutation leading to the domestication of the hermaphrodite Yh chromosome. In turn, this mutation should identify the gene that was affected by the carpel-suppressing mutation that was involved in the evolution of males. PMID:25762551

  20. Protection and conservation of Caricaceae germplasm with PRSV resistant transgenic papaya

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) is a devastating disease that has a detrimental impact on both commercial papaya production and Caricaceae germplasm conservation. The PRSV coat protein transgenic line 55-1 and derived progeny are resistant to PRSV and have saved the papaya industry in Hawaii. Here we ...

  1. 7 CFR 319.56-25 - Papayas from Central America and South America.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Papayas from Central America and South America. 319.56... Vegetables § 319.56-25 Papayas from Central America and South America. Commercial consignments of the Solo type of papaya may be imported into the United States only in accordance with this section and...

  2. 7 CFR 319.56-25 - Papayas from Central America and South America.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Papayas from Central America and South America. 319.56... Vegetables § 319.56-25 Papayas from Central America and South America. Commercial consignments of the Solo type of papaya may be imported into the United States only in accordance with this section and...

  3. 7 CFR 319.56-25 - Papayas from Central America and South America.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Papayas from Central America and South America. 319.56... Vegetables § 319.56-25 Papayas from Central America and South America. Commercial consignments of the Solo type of papaya may be imported into the United States only in accordance with this section and...

  4. 7 CFR 319.56-25 - Papayas from Central America and South America.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Papayas from Central America and South America. 319.56... Vegetables § 319.56-25 Papayas from Central America and South America. Commercial consignments of the Solo type of papaya may be imported into the United States only in accordance with this section and...

  5. Application of a qualitative and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction method for detecting genetically modified papaya line 55-1 in papaya products.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Kosuke; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Yuki; Kobayashi, Tomoko; Noguchi, Akio; Ohmori, Kiyomi; Kasahara, Masaki; Kitta, Kazumi; Nakazawa, Hiroyuki; Kondo, Kazunari; Teshima, Reiko

    2013-01-15

    Genetically modified (GM) papaya (Carica papaya L.) line 55-1 (55-1), which is resistant to papaya ringspot virus infection, has been marketed internationally. Many countries have mandatory labeling regulations for GM foods, and there is a need for specific methods for detecting 55-1. Here, an event- and construct-specific real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method was developed for detecting 55-1 in papaya products. Quantitative detection was possible for fresh papaya fruit up to dilutions of 0.001% and 0.01% (weight per weight [w/w]) for homozygous SunUp and heterozygous Rainbow cultivars, respectively, in non-GM papaya. The limit of detection and quantification was as low as 250 copies of the haploid genome according to a standard reference plasmid. The method was applicable to qualitative detection of 55-1 in eight types of processed products (canned papaya, pickled papaya, dried fruit, papaya-leaf tea, jam, puree, juice, and frozen dessert) containing papaya as a main ingredient.

  6. Quality of Golden papaya stored under controlled atmosphere conditions.

    PubMed

    Martins, Derliane Ribeiro; de Resende, Eder Dutra

    2013-10-01

    This work evaluated physicochemical parameters of Golden papaya stored under refrigeration in controlled atmospheres. The fruits were kept at 13  in chambers containing either 3 or 6% O2 combined with 6%, 10% or 15% CO2. Moreover, a normal atmosphere was produced with 20.8% O2 and 0.03% CO2 with ethylene scrubbing, and a control treatment was used with ambient conditions. Evaluations were performed at the following times: before storage, after 30 days of storage in controlled atmosphere, and after removal from controlled atmosphere and storage for 7 days in the cold room. At the lower O2 levels and higher CO2 levels, the ripening rate was decreased. The drop in pulp acidity was avoided after 30 days of storage at 3% O2, but the fruits reached normal acidity after removal from controlled atmosphere and storage for 7 days in the cold room. The reducing sugars remained at a higher concentration after 30 days under 3% O2 and 15% CO2 even 7 days after removal from controlled atmosphere and storage in the cold room. This atmosphere also preserved the content of ascorbic acid at a higher level.

  7. Potentiating Cancer Immunotherapy Using Papaya Mosaic Virus-Derived Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Lebel, Marie-Ève; Chartrand, Karine; Tarrab, Esther; Savard, Pierre; Leclerc, Denis; Lamarre, Alain

    2016-03-09

    The recent development of novel immunotherapies is revolutionizing cancer treatment. These include, for example, immune checkpoint blockade, immunomodulation, or therapeutic vaccination. Although effective on their own, combining multiple approaches will most likely be required in order to achieve the maximal therapeutic benefit. In this regard, the papaya mosaic virus nanoparticle (PapMV) has shown tremendous potential as (i) an immunostimulatory molecule, (ii) an adjuvant, and (iii) a vaccine platform through its intrinsic capacity to activate the innate immune response in an IFN-α-dependent manner. Here, we demonstrate that intratumor administration of PapMV significantly slows down melanoma progression and prolongs survival. This correlates with enhanced chemokine and pro-inflammatory-cytokine production in the tumor and increased immune-cell infiltration. Proportions of total and tumor-specific CD8(+) T cells dramatically increase following PapMV treatment whereas those of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) concomitantly decrease. Moreover, systemic PapMV administration prevents metastatic tumor-implantation in the lungs. Importantly, PapMV also synergistically improves the therapeutic benefit of dendritic cell (DC)-based vaccination and PD-1 blockade by potentiating antitumor immune responses. This study illustrates the immunostimulatory potential of a plant virus-derived nanoparticle for cancer therapy either alone or in conjunction with other promising immunotherapies in clinical development.

  8. Touch Perception Altered by Chronic Pain and by Opioid Blockade1,2,3

    PubMed Central

    Gracely, John L.; Richards, Emily A.; Olausson, Håkan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Touch plays a significant role in human social behavior and social communication, and its rewarding nature has been suggested to involve opioids. Opioid blockade in monkeys leads to increased solicitation and receipt of grooming, suggesting heightened enjoyment of touch. We sought to study the role of endogenous opioids in perception of affective touch in healthy adults and in patients with fibromyalgia, a chronic pain condition shown to involve reduced opioid receptor availability. The pleasantness of touch has been linked to the activation of C-tactile fibers, which respond maximally to slow gentle touch and correlate with ratings of pleasantness. We administered naloxone to patients and healthy controls to directly observe the consequences of µ-opioid blockade on the perceived pleasantness and intensity of touch. We found that at baseline chronic pain patients showed a blunted distinction between slow and fast brushing for both intensity and pleasantness, suggesting reduced C-tactile touch processing. In addition, we found a differential effect of opioid blockade on touch perception in healthy subjects and pain patients. In healthy individuals, opioid blockade showed a trend toward increased ratings of touch pleasantness, while in chronic pain patients it significantly decreased ratings of touch intensity. Further, in healthy individuals, naloxone-induced increase in touch pleasantness was associated with naloxone-induced decreased preference for slow touch, suggesting a possible effect of opioid levels on processing of C-tactile fiber input. These findings suggest a role for endogenous opioids in touch processing, and provide further evidence for altered opioid functioning in chronic pain patients. PMID:27022625

  9. The dsRNA Virus Papaya Meleira Virus and an ssRNA Virus Are Associated with Papaya Sticky Disease

    PubMed Central

    Sá Antunes, Tathiana Ferreira; Amaral, Raquel J. Vionette; Ventura, José Aires; Godinho, Marcio Tadeu; Amaral, Josiane G.; Souza, Flávia O.; Zerbini, Poliane Alfenas; Zerbini, Francisco Murilo

    2016-01-01

    Papaya sticky disease, or “meleira”, is one of the major diseases of papaya in Brazil and Mexico, capable of causing complete crop loss. The causal agent of sticky disease was identified as an isometric virus with a double stranded RNA (dsRNA) genome, named papaya meleira virus (PMeV). In the present study, PMeV dsRNA and a second RNA band of approximately 4.5 kb, both isolated from latex of papaya plants with severe symptoms of sticky disease, were deep-sequenced. The nearly complete sequence obtained for PMeV dsRNA is 8,814 nucleotides long and contains two putative ORFs; the predicted ORF1 and ORF2 display similarity to capsid proteins and RdRp's, respectively, from mycoviruses tentatively classified in the family Totiviridae. The sequence obtained for the second RNA is 4,515 nucleotides long and contains two putative ORFs. The predicted ORFs 1 and 2 display 48% and 73% sequence identity, respectively, with the corresponding proteins of papaya virus Q, an umbravirus recently described infecting papaya in Ecuador. Viral purification in a sucrose gradient allowed separation of particles containing each RNA. Mass spectrometry analysis indicated that both PMeV and the second RNA virus (named papaya meleira virus 2, PMeV2) were encapsidated in particles formed by the protein encoded by PMeV ORF1. The presence of both PMeV and PMeV2 was confirmed in field plants showing typical symptoms of sticky disease. Interestingly, PMeV was detected alone in asymptomatic plants. Together, our results indicate that sticky disease is associated with double infection by PMeV and PMeV2. PMID:27166626

  10. The dsRNA Virus Papaya Meleira Virus and an ssRNA Virus Are Associated with Papaya Sticky Disease.

    PubMed

    Sá Antunes, Tathiana Ferreira; Amaral, Raquel J Vionette; Ventura, José Aires; Godinho, Marcio Tadeu; Amaral, Josiane G; Souza, Flávia O; Zerbini, Poliane Alfenas; Zerbini, Francisco Murilo; Fernandes, Patricia Machado Bueno

    2016-01-01

    Papaya sticky disease, or "meleira", is one of the major diseases of papaya in Brazil and Mexico, capable of causing complete crop loss. The causal agent of sticky disease was identified as an isometric virus with a double stranded RNA (dsRNA) genome, named papaya meleira virus (PMeV). In the present study, PMeV dsRNA and a second RNA band of approximately 4.5 kb, both isolated from latex of papaya plants with severe symptoms of sticky disease, were deep-sequenced. The nearly complete sequence obtained for PMeV dsRNA is 8,814 nucleotides long and contains two putative ORFs; the predicted ORF1 and ORF2 display similarity to capsid proteins and RdRp's, respectively, from mycoviruses tentatively classified in the family Totiviridae. The sequence obtained for the second RNA is 4,515 nucleotides long and contains two putative ORFs. The predicted ORFs 1 and 2 display 48% and 73% sequence identity, respectively, with the corresponding proteins of papaya virus Q, an umbravirus recently described infecting papaya in Ecuador. Viral purification in a sucrose gradient allowed separation of particles containing each RNA. Mass spectrometry analysis indicated that both PMeV and the second RNA virus (named papaya meleira virus 2, PMeV2) were encapsidated in particles formed by the protein encoded by PMeV ORF1. The presence of both PMeV and PMeV2 was confirmed in field plants showing typical symptoms of sticky disease. Interestingly, PMeV was detected alone in asymptomatic plants. Together, our results indicate that sticky disease is associated with double infection by PMeV and PMeV2.

  11. Touch for Socioemotional and Physical Well-Being: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Tiffany

    2010-01-01

    This review briefly summarizes recent empirical research on touch. The research includes the role of touch in early development, touch deprivation, touch aversion, emotions that can be conveyed by touch, the importance of touch for interpersonal relationships and how friendly touch affects compliance in different situations. MRI data are reviewed…

  12. ANTIOXIDANT AND IMMUNOSTIMULANT EFFECT OF CARICA PAPAYA LINN. AQUEOUS EXTRACT IN ACRYLAMIDE INTOXICATED RATS

    PubMed Central

    Mohamed Sadek, Kadry

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The present study was conducted to evaluate the antioxidant and immunostimulant effects of The Carica papaya fruit aqueous extract (CPF, Caricaceae) against acrylamide induced oxidative stress and improvement of Immune functions which affected by free radicals liberating acrylamide in rats. Material and methods: Sixty male wistar albino rats (195-230g) were assigned to four groups, (fifteen/group). The first group used as control group and received normal physiological saline orally daily. The second group was supplemented with acrylamide 0.05% in drinking water. The third group was gastro-gavaged with 250 mg/kg of papaya fruit extract orally on daily basis. The fourth group was supplemented with acrylamide 0.05% in drinking water and gastro-gavaged with 250 mg/kg of papaya fruit extract orally on daily basis. The chosen dose of papaya fruit extract was based on the active pharmacological dose range obtained from the orientation study earlier conducted. The experimental period was extended to forty day. At the expiration of the experimental period and night fasting, blood samples were collected from the orbital venous sinus. The sera were separated and used for determining of IgG and IgM and the stomach, liver and kidney homogenates for estimation of MDA, GSH level, SOD and CAT activity as a biomarker of lipid peroxidation and antioxidative stress. Results and discussion: The obtained results revealed that, acrylamide caused significant increases in MDA and decrease of GSH level, SOD and CAT activity due to the oxidative stress induced by acrylamide on membrane polyunsaturated fatty acids in rat’s stomach, liver and kidney while administration of CPF aqueous extract, was significantly ameliorated the increased levels of MDA and decline of GSH, SOD and CAT activity in the stomach, liver and kidney tissues caused by acrylamide toxicity. Meanwhile, CPF aqueous extract significantly increased immune functions (IgG and IgM) while acrylamide significantly

  13. Analysis of ripening-related gene expression in papaya using an Arabidopsis-based microarray

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is a commercially important crop that produces climacteric fruits with a soft and sweet pulp that contain a wide range of health promoting phytochemicals. Despite its importance, little is known about transcriptional modifications during papaya fruit ripening and their control. In this study we report the analysis of ripe papaya transcriptome by using a cross-species (XSpecies) microarray technique based on the phylogenetic proximity between papaya and Arabidopsis thaliana. Results Papaya transcriptome analyses resulted in the identification of 414 ripening-related genes with some having their expression validated by qPCR. The transcription profile was compared with that from ripening tomato and grape. There were many similarities between papaya and tomato especially with respect to the expression of genes encoding proteins involved in primary metabolism, regulation of transcription, biotic and abiotic stress and cell wall metabolism. XSpecies microarray data indicated that transcription factors (TFs) of the MADS-box, NAC and AP2/ERF gene families were involved in the control of papaya ripening and revealed that cell wall-related gene expression in papaya had similarities to the expression profiles seen in Arabidopsis during hypocotyl development. Conclusion The cross-species array experiment identified a ripening-related set of genes in papaya allowing the comparison of transcription control between papaya and other fruit bearing taxa during the ripening process. PMID:23256600

  14. To Touch or Not to Touch: That Is the Question!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Gene Allen

    2011-01-01

    People attend museums to see artifacts and learn from them! Ideally, they want to see them, touch them, and learn the story about them. Artifacts have an uncanny ability to mute the passage of time, and unite young and old on common ground. During its sixty-plus-years in existence, the Fort Worth Museum of Science and History has displayed…

  15. Touch, compliance, and awareness of tactile contact.

    PubMed

    Joule, Robert-Vincent; Guéguen, Nicolas

    2007-04-01

    Many experimental studies have shown that touch increases compliance with a request; however, the difference between the effect of touch on compliance between participants who notice and those who do not notice such contact remains in question. An experiment was conducted in which a female confederate asked 368 female smokers to give her a cigarette. In the Touch condition, when making her request, the confederate slightly touched the participant on her forearm. Analysis showed the touch was associated with significantly higher compliance to the request, and a difference was evident in the Touch condition between subjects who had noticed the tactile contact and those who had not.

  16. Development of plants resistant to Papaya leaf distortion mosaic virus by intergeneric hybridization between Carica papaya and Vasconcellea cundinamarcensis

    PubMed Central

    Tarora, Kazuhiko; Shudo, Ayano; Kawano, Shinji; Yasuda, Keiji; Ueno, Hiroki; Matsumura, Hideo; Urasaki, Naoya

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we confirmed that Vasconcellea cundinamarcensis resists Papaya leaf distortion mosaic virus (PLDMV), and used it to produce intergeneric hybrids with Carica papaya. From the cross between C. papaya and V. cundinamarcensis, we obtained 147 seeds with embryos. Though C. papaya is a monoembryonic plant, multiple embryos were observed in all 147 seeds. We produced 218 plants from 28 seeds by means of embryo-rescue culture. All plants had pubescence on their petioles and stems characteristic of V. cundinamarcensis. Flow cytometry and PCR of 28 plants confirmed they were intergeneric hybrids. To evaluate virus resistance, mechanical inoculation of PLDMV was carried out. The test showed that 41 of 134 intergeneric hybrid plants showed no symptoms and were resistant. The remaining 93 hybrids showed necrotic lesions on the younger leaves than the inoculated leaves. In most of the 93 hybrids, the necrotic lesions enclosed the virus and prevented further spread. These results suggest that the intergeneric hybrids will be valuable material for PLDMV-resistant papaya breeding. PMID:28163589

  17. Development of plants resistant to Papaya leaf distortion mosaic virus by intergeneric hybridization between Carica papaya and Vasconcellea cundinamarcensis.

    PubMed

    Tarora, Kazuhiko; Shudo, Ayano; Kawano, Shinji; Yasuda, Keiji; Ueno, Hiroki; Matsumura, Hideo; Urasaki, Naoya

    2016-12-01

    In this study, we confirmed that Vasconcellea cundinamarcensis resists Papaya leaf distortion mosaic virus (PLDMV), and used it to produce intergeneric hybrids with Carica papaya. From the cross between C. papaya and V. cundinamarcensis, we obtained 147 seeds with embryos. Though C. papaya is a monoembryonic plant, multiple embryos were observed in all 147 seeds. We produced 218 plants from 28 seeds by means of embryo-rescue culture. All plants had pubescence on their petioles and stems characteristic of V. cundinamarcensis. Flow cytometry and PCR of 28 plants confirmed they were intergeneric hybrids. To evaluate virus resistance, mechanical inoculation of PLDMV was carried out. The test showed that 41 of 134 intergeneric hybrid plants showed no symptoms and were resistant. The remaining 93 hybrids showed necrotic lesions on the younger leaves than the inoculated leaves. In most of the 93 hybrids, the necrotic lesions enclosed the virus and prevented further spread. These results suggest that the intergeneric hybrids will be valuable material for PLDMV-resistant papaya breeding.

  18. Physico-chemical characteristics of papaya (Carica papaya L.) seed oil of the Hong Kong/Sekaki variety.

    PubMed

    Yanty, Noorzianna Abdul Manaf; Marikkar, Jalaldeen Mohammed Nazrim; Nusantoro, Bangun Prajanto; Long, Kamariah; Ghazali, Hasanah Mohd

    2014-01-01

    A study was carried out to determine the physicochemical characteristics of the oil derived from papaya seeds of the Hong Kong/Sekaki variety. Proximate analysis showed that seeds of the Hong Kong/Sekaki variety contained considerable amount of oil (27.0%). The iodine value, saponification value, unsaponifiable matter and free fatty acid contents of freshly extracted papaya seed oil were 76.9 g I2/100g oil, 193.5 mg KOH/g oil, 1.52% and 0.91%, respectively. The oil had a Lovibond color index of 15.2Y + 5.2B. Papaya seed oil contained ten detectable fatty acids, of which 78.33% were unsaturated. Oleic (73.5%) acid was the dominant fatty acids followed by palmitic acid (15.8%). Based on the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis, seven species of triacylglycerols (TAGs) were detected. The predominant TAGs of papaya seed oil were OOO (40.4%), POO (29.1%) and SOO (9.9%) where O, P, and S denote oleic, palmitic and stearic acids, respectively. Thermal analysis by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) showed that papaya seed oil had its major melting and crystallization transitions at 12.4°C and -48.2°C, respectively. Analysis of the sample by Z-nose (electronic nose) instrument showed that the sample had a high level of volatile compounds.

  19. Simultaneous detection of papaya ringspot virus, papaya leaf distortion mosaic virus, and papaya mosaic virus by multiplex real-time reverse transcription PCR.

    PubMed

    Huo, P; Shen, W T; Yan, P; Tuo, D C; Li, X Y; Zhou, P

    2015-12-01

    Both the single infection of papaya ringspot virus (PRSV), papaya leaf distortion mosaic virus (PLDMV) or papaya mosaic virus (PapMV) and double infection of PRSV and PLDMV or PapMV which cause indistinguishable symptoms, threaten the papaya industry in Hainan Island, China. In this study, a multiplex real-time reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) was developed to detect simultaneously the three viruses based on their distinctive melting temperatures (Tms): 81.0±0.8°C for PRSV, 84.7±0.6°C for PLDMV, and 88.7±0.4°C for PapMV. The multiplex real-time RT-PCR method was specific and sensitive in detecting the three viruses, with a detection limit of 1.0×10(1), 1.0×10(2), and 1.0×10(2) copies for PRSV, PLDMV, and PapMV, respectively. Indeed, the reaction was 100 times more sensitive than the multiplex RT-PCR for PRSV, and 10 times more sensitive than multiplex RT-PCR for PLDMV. Field application of the multiplex real-time RT-PCR demonstrated that some non-symptomatic samples were positive for PLDMV by multiplex real-time RT-PCR but negative by multiplex RT-PCR, whereas some samples were positive for both PRSV and PLDMV by multiplex real-time RT-PCR assay but only positive for PLDMV by multiplex RT-PCR. Therefore, this multiplex real-time RT-PCR assay provides a more rapid, sensitive and reliable method for simultaneous detection of PRSV, PLDMV, PapMV and their mixed infections in papaya.

  20. Removal of hazardous pharmaceutical dyes by adsorption onto papaya seeds.

    PubMed

    Weber, Caroline Trevisan; Collazzo, Gabriela Carvalho; Mazutti, Marcio Antonio; Foletto, Edson Luiz; Dotto, Guilherme Luiz

    2014-01-01

    Papaya (Carica papaya L.) seeds were used as adsorbent to remove toxic pharmaceutical dyes (tartrazine and amaranth) from aqueous solutions, in order to extend application range. The effects of pH, initial dye concentration, contact time and temperature were investigated. The kinetic data were evaluated by the pseudo first-order, pseudo second-order and Elovich models. The equilibrium was evaluated by the Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin isotherm models. It was found that adsorption favored a pH of 2.5, temperature of 298 K and equilibrium was attained at 180-200 min. The adsorption kinetics followed the pseudo second-order model, and the equilibrium was well represented by the Langmuir model. The maximum adsorption capacities were 51.0 and 37.4 mg g(-1) for tartrazine and amaranth, respectively. These results revealed that papaya seeds can be used as an alternative adsorbent to remove pharmaceutical dyes from aqueous solutions.

  1. Folate levels and polyglutamylation profiles of papaya (Carica papaya cv. Maradol) during fruit development and ripening.

    PubMed

    Ramos-Parra, Perla A; García-Salinas, Carolina; Hernández-Brenes, Carmen; de la Garza, Rocío I Díaz

    2013-04-24

    Folates are essential micronutrients for humans, and their deficiency causes several detrimental effects on human health. Papaya fruit is an important natural source of some micronutrients. This paper presents a first complete characterization of folate derivatives accumulated in cv. Maradol papaya during fruit development and ripening processes. During postharvest ripening, the fruit accumulated up to 24.5% of the daily folate recommended dietary allowance (RDA) for an adult in a 1 cup (145 g) portion. Tetrahydrofolate (THF) and 5-methyl-THF were the predominant folate classes observed. Surprisingly, an unusually long polyglutamylation profile of tentatively up to 17 glutamates linked to 5-methyl-THF was detected; to the authors' knowledge, this very long polyglutamyl tail has not been reported for any organism, and it is probably characteristic of this plant species. This polyglutamylation degree changed throughout fruit development and ripening, showing the largest differences at the onset of ripening. This work raises questions about the functional role of folate derivatives in fruit development.

  2. Purification of a thermostable alkaline laccase from papaya (Carica papaya) using affinity chromatography.

    PubMed

    Jaiswal, Nivedita; Pandey, Veda P; Dwivedi, Upendra N

    2015-01-01

    A laccase from papaya leaves was purified to homogeneity by a two step procedure namely, heat treatment (at 70 °C) and Con-A affinity chromatography. The procedure resulted in 1386.7-fold purification of laccase with a specific activity of 41.3 units mg(-1) and an overall yield of 61.5%. The native purified laccase was found to be a hexameric protein of ∼ 260 kDa. The purified enzyme exhibited acidic and alkaline pH optima of 6.0 and 8.0 with the non-phenolic substrate (ABTS) and phenolic substrate (catechol), respectively. The purified laccase was found to be thermostable up to 70 °C such that it retained ∼ 80% activity upon 30 min incubation at 70 °C. The Arrhenius energy of activation for purified laccase was found to be 7.7 kJ mol(-1). The enzyme oxidized various phenolic and non-phenolic substrates having catalytic efficiency (K(cat)/K(m)) in the order of 7.25>0.67>0.27 mM(-1) min(-1) for ABTS, catechol and hydroquinone, respectively. The purified laccase was found to be activated by Mn(2+), Cd(2+), Ca(2+), Na(+), Fe(2+), Co(2+) and Cu(2+) while weakly inhibited by Hg(2+). The properties such as thermostability, alkaline pH optima and metal tolerance exhibited by the papaya laccase make it a promising candidate enzyme for industrial exploitation.

  3. Oxidative Stress in Patients with Alzheimer's Disease: Effect of Extracts of Fermented Papaya Powder

    PubMed Central

    Barbagallo, Mario; Marotta, Francesco; Dominguez, Ligia J.

    2015-01-01

    Brain tissue is particularly susceptible to oxidative stress (OS). Increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), reduced antioxidant systems, and decreased efficiency in repairing mechanisms have been linked to Alzheimer's disease (AD). Postmortem studies in AD patients' brains have shown oxidative damage markers (i.e., lipid peroxidation, protein oxidative damage, and glycoxidation). Fermented papaya (FPP, a product of Carica papaya Linn fermentation with yeast) is a nutraceutical supplement with favorable effects on immunological, hematological, inflammatory, and OS parameters in chronic/degenerative diseases. We studied 40 patients (age 78.2 ± 1.1 years), 28 AD patients, and 12 controls. Urinary 8-OHdG was measured to assess OS. Twenty AD patients were supplemented with FPP (Immunage, 4.5 grams/day) for 6 months, while controls did not receive any treatment. At baseline, 8-OHdG was significantly higher in patients with AD versus controls (13.7 ± 1.61 ng/mL versus 1.6 ± 0.12 ng/mL, P < 0.01). In AD patients FPP significantly decreased 8-OHdG (14.1 ± 1.7 ng/mL to 8.45 ± 1.1 ng/mL, P < 0.01), with no significant changes in controls. AD is associated with increased OS, and FPP may be helpful to counteract excessive ROS in AD patients. PMID:25944987

  4. Direct Learning in Dynamic Touch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michaels, Claire F.; Arzamarski, Ryan; Isenhower, Robert W.; Jacobs, David M.

    2008-01-01

    A dynamic touch paradigm in which participants judged the lengths of rods and pipes was used to test the D. M. Jacobs and C. F. Michaels (2007) theory of perceptual learning. The theory portrays perception as the exploitation of a locus on an information manifold and learning as continuous movement across that manifold to a new locus, as guided by…

  5. Drawing the Sense of Touch.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaupelis, Robert

    1984-01-01

    Techniques to help students do modeled drawings using Conte crayon or chalk are presented. Students must imagine that the crayon is actually touching the form they are drawing, pressing lightly on sections closest to them, and increasing the pressure to create darker tones as they draw the parts farther away. (RM)

  6. Consumer in-store response to irradiated papayas

    SciTech Connect

    Bruhn, C.M.; Noell, J.W.

    1987-09-01

    In this study, purchase behavior of California consumers in response to irradiated papayas is described. The papayas were shipped from Hawaii and irradiated in California under a permit by the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service and approved by the California Department of Food and Agriculture. Results show that the superior appearance of the irradiated fruit appealed to consumers and that two-thirds or more of the people queried indicated that they would buy irradiated produce. It is noted that this marketing took place in a supportive environment with no protestors present. Informational material was available.

  7. Antihyperglycaemic effects of ethanol extracts of Carica papaya and Pandanus amaryfollius leaf in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Sasidharan, Sreenivasan; Sumathi, Vello; Jegathambigai, Naidu Rameshwar; Latha, Lachimanan Yoga

    2011-12-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a global disease that is increasing in an alarming rate. The present study was undertaken to study the antidiabetic effect of the ethanol extracts of Carica papaya and Pandanus amaryfollius on streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. The results of the present study indicated that there was no significant difference in the body weight of the treated groups when compared to diabetic control. Whereas, there was significant (P < 0.05) decrease in the blood glucose level of the plant-treated groups compared to the diabetic control. Histologically the pancreas of the treated groups indicated significant regeneration of the β-cells when compared to the diabetic control. The liver tissues of the treated group indicated a reduction in fatty changes and pyknotic nucleus. The kidney tissues of the treated groups indicated significant recovery in the cuboidal tissue. The results from the phytochemical screening indicated the presence of flavonoids, alkaloids, saponin and tannin in C. papaya and P. amaryfollius. The antidiabetic effect of C. papaya and P. amaryfollius observed in the present study may be due to the presence of these phytochemicals.

  8. Bacterial contamination of computer touch screens.

    PubMed

    Gerba, Charles P; Wuollet, Adam L; Raisanen, Peter; Lopez, Gerardo U

    2016-03-01

    The goal of this study was to determine the occurrence of opportunistic bacterial pathogens on the surfaces of computer touch screens used in hospitals and grocery stores. Opportunistic pathogenic bacteria were isolated on touch screens in hospitals; Clostridium difficile and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus and in grocery stores; methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Enteric bacteria were more common on grocery store touch screens than on hospital computer touch screens.

  9. Instructor Touch Enhanced College Students' Evaluations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Legg, Angela M.; Wilson, Janie H.

    2013-01-01

    Touch between people is associated with several outcomes, including reduced stress, more positive mood, enhanced feelings of closeness, and positive behavioral change. However, the potential utility of touch rarely has been examined in a college sample, with teachers touching their students. In the present study, we used instrumental touch…

  10. Plant sensing: gravity and touch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilroy, S.; Swanson, S.; Massa, G.

    Roots must integrate many stimuli in order to direct their growth as they explore the soil. Gravitropism leads to downward growth but other stimuli such as gradients in nutrients, water, biotic and abiotic stresses and physical obstacles such as rocks all act on the roots sensory systems to modify this gravitropic response. We have therefore investigated the interaction of gravity signaling and response to other stimuli such as a mechanical obstruction to downward growth. A gravitropically directed primary root of Arabidopsis thaliana (growing vertically) senses an obstacle such as a glass plate placed in its direction of growth and initiates an avoidance growth response upon contacting the barrier. This response appears to be caused by an interaction of gravitropic and thigmotropic sensory systems. The touch stimulation of the root cap leads to alteration in growth, initially in the central and later in the distal elongation zone of the root. These growth responses maintain the root tip at an angle of 136 degrees to the barrier as the root grows across the obstacle's surface. Removal of cells in the root cap by laser ablation indicate that all root cap cells are required for this growth response to the barrier. Once the end of the barrier is reached and the root can grow off the obstruciton, gravitropism appears to occur faster than in roots that did not interact with an obstacle, suggesting that the touch stimulation of the barrier may alter gravitropic signaling or response. Touch stimulation of the root cap inhibited the pH-dependent gravity signaling events that are known to be required for gravitropic response. These results imply a transient suppression of gravisensing or graviresponse by touch. Touch stimulation of root cap cells elicited an increase in cytosolic Ca2+ that appears to propagate from cell to cell throughout the cap, suggesting Ca2+ signaling may underlie the communication between gravity and touch sensing cells. Although the pgm1 -1 starch

  11. Mechanical Control of the Sense of Touch by β Spectrin

    PubMed Central

    Krieg, Michael; Dunn, Alexander R.; Goodman, Miriam B.

    2014-01-01

    The ability to sense and respond to mechanical stimuli emanates from sensory neurons and is shared by most, if not all animals. Exactly how such neurons receive and distribute mechanical signals during touch sensation remains mysterious. Here, we show that sensation of mechanical forces depends on a continuous, pre-stressed spectrin cytoskeleton inside neurons. Mutations in the tetramerization domain of C. elegans β-spectrin (UNC-70), an actin-membrane cross-linker, cause defects in sensory neuron morphology under compressive stress in moving animals. Through AFM force spectroscopy experiments on isolated neurons, in vivo laser axotomy and FRET imaging to measure force across single cells and molecules, we show that spectrin is held under constitutive tension in living animals, which contributes to an elevated pre-stress in touch receptor neurons. Genetic manipulations that decrease such spectrin-dependent tension also selectively impair touch sensation, suggesting that such pretension is essential for efficient responses to external mechanical stimuli. PMID:24561618

  12. Acetylated tubulin is essential for touch sensation in mice.

    PubMed

    Morley, Shane J; Qi, Yanmei; Iovino, Loredana; Andolfi, Laura; Guo, Da; Kalebic, Nereo; Castaldi, Laura; Tischer, Christian; Portulano, Carla; Bolasco, Giulia; Shirlekar, Kalyanee; Fusco, Claudia M; Asaro, Antonino; Fermani, Federica; Sundukova, Mayya; Matti, Ulf; Reymond, Luc; De Ninno, Adele; Businaro, Luca; Johnsson, Kai; Lazzarino, Marco; Ries, Jonas; Schwab, Yannick; Hu, Jing; Heppenstall, Paul A

    2016-12-13

    At its most fundamental level, touch sensation requires the translation of mechanical energy into mechanosensitive ion channel opening, thereby generating electro-chemical signals. Our understanding of this process, especially how the cytoskeleton influences it, remains unknown. Here we demonstrate that mice lacking the α-tubulin acetyltransferase Atat1 in sensory neurons display profound deficits in their ability to detect mechanical stimuli. We show that all cutaneous afferent subtypes, including nociceptors have strongly reduced mechanosensitivity upon Atat1 deletion, and that consequently, mice are largely insensitive to mechanical touch and pain. We establish that this broad loss of mechanosensitivity is dependent upon the acetyltransferase activity of Atat1, which when absent leads to a decrease in cellular elasticity. By mimicking α-tubulin acetylation genetically, we show both cellular rigidity and mechanosensitivity can be restored in Atat1 deficient sensory neurons. Hence, our results indicate that by influencing cellular stiffness, α-tubulin acetylation sets the force required for touch.

  13. Administration Dependent Antioxidant Effect of Carica papaya Seeds Water Extract.

    PubMed

    Panzarini, Elisa; Dwikat, Majdi; Mariano, Stefania; Vergallo, Cristian; Dini, Luciana

    2014-01-01

    Carica papaya is widely used in folk medicine as herbal remedy to prevent, protect against, and cure several diseases. These curative properties are based on the presence in different parts of the plant of phytochemical nutrients with antioxidant effect. Seeds are the less exploited part; thus this study is aimed at assessing the antioxidant activities of the C. papaya seeds water extract against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) oxidative stress in human skin Detroit 550 fibroblasts. C. papaya seeds water extract is not toxic and acts as a potent free radical scavenger, providing protection to Detroit 550 fibroblasts that underwent H2O2 oxidative stress. Data show that (i) the maximum protective effect is achieved by the simultaneous administration of the extract with 1 mM H2O2; (ii) the extract in presence of an oxidative stress does not increase catalase activity and prevents the release of cytochrome C and the inner mitochondrial transmembrane potential (Δψ m ) loss; (iii) the extract is more efficient than vitamin C to hamper the oxidative damage; (iv) the purified subfractions of the seeds water extract exert the same antioxidant effect of whole extract. In conclusion, C. papaya seeds water extract is potentially useful for protection against oxidative stress.

  14. Papaya fruit quality management during the postharvest supply chain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Papayas are popular in tropical and subtropical regions and are being exported in large volumes to Europe, the U.S. and Japan. The fruit has excellent taste, exotic flavor and nutritional properties, being rich in vitamins A, C, and antioxidants. However, due to its highly perishable nature it has n...

  15. Papaya Varietal Resistance to Internal Yellowing: Reducing Food Safety Risk

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Internal yellowing (IY) is a bacterial disease of ripening papaya fruit that is caused by the enteric bacterium, Enterobacter cloacae. The disease is characterized by yellow discoloration of flesh, tissue softening and a foul or rotten odor that reduces the quality of fresh fruit and value-added pr...

  16. Genetic diversity of papaya ring spot virus in Puerto Rico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Food and Agriculture Organization estimates that 20-40% of crop yield is lost due to pests and diseases. Viruses are agents that cause diseases which contribute greatly to the global yield loss. Because of this, food production is negatively affected, especially in the tropics. Carica papaya, co...

  17. An ultrasonic system for determining papaya physiological properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrahim, Sallehuddin; Ramli, Azlin; Yunus, Mohd Amri Md

    2015-05-01

    There is an increasing need for high quality fruit. As such it is important to have a fast, accurate and reliable method for measuring and monitoring the quality of fruit from the field to the consumer. This paper presents an investigation on the use of a non-destructive ultrasonic system which can be used to measure the quality of papaya.

  18. Development of a Gene-Centered SSR Atlas as a Resource for Papaya (Carica papaya) Marker-Assisted Selection and Population Genetic Studies

    PubMed Central

    Vidal, Newton Medeiros; Grazziotin, Ana Laura; Ramos, Helaine Christine Cancela; Pereira, Messias Gonzaga; Venancio, Thiago Motta

    2014-01-01

    Carica papaya (papaya) is an economically important tropical fruit. Molecular marker-assisted selection is an inexpensive and reliable tool that has been widely used to improve fruit quality traits and resistance against diseases. In the present study we report the development and validation of an atlas of papaya simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. We integrated gene predictions and functional annotations to provide a gene-centered perspective for marker-assisted selection studies. Our atlas comprises 160,318 SSRs, from which 21,231 were located in genic regions (i.e. inside exons, exon-intron junctions or introns). A total of 116,453 (72.6%) of all identified repeats were successfully mapped to one of the nine papaya linkage groups. Primer pairs were designed for markers from 9,594 genes (34.5% of the papaya gene complement). Using papaya-tomato orthology assessments, we assembled a list of 300 genes (comprising 785 SSRs) potentially involved in fruit ripening. We validated our atlas by screening 73 SSR markers (including 25 fruit ripening genes), achieving 100% amplification rate and uncovering 26% polymorphism rate between the parental genotypes (Sekati and JS12). The SSR atlas presented here is the first comprehensive gene-centered collection of annotated and genome positioned papaya SSRs. These features combined with thousands of high-quality primer pairs make the atlas an important resource for the papaya research community. PMID:25393538

  19. Development of a gene-centered ssr atlas as a resource for papaya (Carica papaya) marker-assisted selection and population genetic studies.

    PubMed

    Vidal, Newton Medeiros; Grazziotin, Ana Laura; Ramos, Helaine Christine Cancela; Pereira, Messias Gonzaga; Venancio, Thiago Motta

    2014-01-01

    Carica papaya (papaya) is an economically important tropical fruit. Molecular marker-assisted selection is an inexpensive and reliable tool that has been widely used to improve fruit quality traits and resistance against diseases. In the present study we report the development and validation of an atlas of papaya simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. We integrated gene predictions and functional annotations to provide a gene-centered perspective for marker-assisted selection studies. Our atlas comprises 160,318 SSRs, from which 21,231 were located in genic regions (i.e. inside exons, exon-intron junctions or introns). A total of 116,453 (72.6%) of all identified repeats were successfully mapped to one of the nine papaya linkage groups. Primer pairs were designed for markers from 9,594 genes (34.5% of the papaya gene complement). Using papaya-tomato orthology assessments, we assembled a list of 300 genes (comprising 785 SSRs) potentially involved in fruit ripening. We validated our atlas by screening 73 SSR markers (including 25 fruit ripening genes), achieving 100% amplification rate and uncovering 26% polymorphism rate between the parental genotypes (Sekati and JS12). The SSR atlas presented here is the first comprehensive gene-centered collection of annotated and genome positioned papaya SSRs. These features combined with thousands of high-quality primer pairs make the atlas an important resource for the papaya research community.

  20. Voluntary self-touch increases body ownership.

    PubMed

    Hara, Masayuki; Pozeg, Polona; Rognini, Giulio; Higuchi, Takahiro; Fukuhara, Kazunobu; Yamamoto, Akio; Higuchi, Toshiro; Blanke, Olaf; Salomon, Roy

    2015-01-01

    Experimental manipulations of body ownership have indicated that multisensory integration is central to forming bodily self-representation. Voluntary self-touch is a unique multisensory situation involving corresponding motor, tactile and proprioceptive signals. Yet, even though self-touch is frequent in everyday life, its contribution to the formation of body ownership is not well understood. Here we investigated the role of voluntary self-touch in body ownership using a novel adaptation of the rubber hand illusion (RHI), in which a robotic system and virtual reality allowed participants self-touch of real and virtual hands. In the first experiment, active and passive self-touch were applied in the absence of visual feedback. In the second experiment, we tested the role of visual feedback in this bodily illusion. Finally, in the third experiment, we compared active and passive self-touch to the classical RHI in which the touch is administered by the experimenter. We hypothesized that active self-touch would increase ownership over the virtual hand through the addition of motor signals strengthening the bodily illusion. The results indicated that active self-touch elicited stronger illusory ownership compared to passive self-touch and sensory only stimulation, and show an important role for active self-touch in the formation of bodily self.

  1. Voluntary self-touch increases body ownership

    PubMed Central

    Hara, Masayuki; Pozeg, Polona; Rognini, Giulio; Higuchi, Takahiro; Fukuhara, Kazunobu; Yamamoto, Akio; Higuchi, Toshiro; Blanke, Olaf; Salomon, Roy

    2015-01-01

    Experimental manipulations of body ownership have indicated that multisensory integration is central to forming bodily self-representation. Voluntary self-touch is a unique multisensory situation involving corresponding motor, tactile and proprioceptive signals. Yet, even though self-touch is frequent in everyday life, its contribution to the formation of body ownership is not well understood. Here we investigated the role of voluntary self-touch in body ownership using a novel adaptation of the rubber hand illusion (RHI), in which a robotic system and virtual reality allowed participants self-touch of real and virtual hands. In the first experiment, active and passive self-touch were applied in the absence of visual feedback. In the second experiment, we tested the role of visual feedback in this bodily illusion. Finally, in the third experiment, we compared active and passive self-touch to the classical RHI in which the touch is administered by the experimenter. We hypothesized that active self-touch would increase ownership over the virtual hand through the addition of motor signals strengthening the bodily illusion. The results indicated that active self-touch elicited stronger illusory ownership compared to passive self-touch and sensory only stimulation, and show an important role for active self-touch in the formation of bodily self. PMID:26617534

  2. Explaining mirror-touch synesthesia.

    PubMed

    Ward, Jamie; Banissy, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    Mirror-touch synesthesia (MTS) is the conscious experience of tactile sensations induced by seeing someone else touched. This paper considers two different, although not mutually exclusive, theoretical explanations and, in the final section, considers the relation between MTS and other forms of synesthesia and also other kinds of vicarious perception (e.g., contagious yawning). The Threshold Theory explains MTS in terms of hyper-activity within a mirror system for touch and/or pain. This offers a good account for some of the evidence (e.g., from fMRI) but fails to explain the whole pattern (e.g., structural brain differences outside of this system; performance on some tests of social cognition). The Self-Other Theory explains MTS in terms of disturbances in the ability to distinguish the self from others. This can be construed in terms of over-extension of the bodily self in to others, or as difficulties in the control of body-based self-other representations. In this account, MTS is a symptom of a broader cognitive profile. We suggest this meets the criteria for synesthesia, despite the proximal causal mechanisms remaining largely unknown, and that the tendency to localize vicarious sensory experiences distinguishes it from other kinds of seemingly related phenomena (e.g., non-localized affective responses to observing pain).

  3. Antagonism or synergism between papaya ringspot virus and papaya mosaic virus in Carica papaya is determined by their order of infection.

    PubMed

    Chávez-Calvillo, Gabriela; Contreras-Paredes, Carlos A; Mora-Macias, Javier; Noa-Carrazana, Juan C; Serrano-Rubio, Angélica A; Dinkova, Tzvetanka D; Carrillo-Tripp, Mauricio; Silva-Rosales, Laura

    2016-02-01

    Antagonism between unrelated plant viruses has not been thoroughly described. Our studies show that two unrelated viruses, papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) and papaya mosaic virus (PapMV) produce different symptomatic outcomes during mixed infection depending on the inoculation order. Synergism occurs in plants infected first with PRSV or in plants infected simultaneously with PRSV and PapMV, and antagonism occurs in plants infected first with PapMV and later inoculated with PRSV. During antagonism, elevated pathogenesis-related (PR-1) gene expression and increased reactive oxygen species production indicated the establishment of a host defense resulting in the reduction in PRSV titers. Polyribosomal fractioning showed that PRSV affects translation of cellular eEF1α, PR-1, β-tubulin, and PapMV RNAs in planta, suggesting that its infection could be related to an imbalance in the translation machinery. Our data suggest that primary PapMV infection activates a defense response against PRSV and establishes a protective relationship with the papaya host.

  4. Purification and characterization of a papaya (Carica papaya L.) pectin methylesterase isolated from a commercial papain preparation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We purified a single stable pectin methylesterase (CpL-PME; EC 3.1.1.11) from a commercial papain preparation, which is isolated from Carica papaya (L.) fruit latex. This CpL-PME was separated from the abundant cysteine endopeptidases activities using sequential hydrophobic interaction and cation-ex...

  5. Portable chlorophyll meter (PCM-502) values are related to total chlorophyll concentration and photosynthetic capacity in papaya (Carica papaya L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was carried out to verify the practical use of the portable chlorophyll meter-PCM502 (PCM) in two papaya cultivars with contrasting green coloring of the leaf blade (‘Golden’: yellowish-green; ‘Solo’: dark green). The relationship was studied between the photosynthetic process and leaf n...

  6. Varietal differences in the bioaccessibility of beta-carotene from mango (Mangifera indica) and papaya (Carica papaya) fruits.

    PubMed

    Veda, Supriya; Platel, Kalpana; Srinivasan, K

    2007-09-19

    Mango and papaya, which are rich sources of beta-carotene, are widely consumed in India. In this study, beta-carotene content and its bioaccessibility were determined in six locally available varieties of mango, namely, Badami, Raspuri, Mallika, Malgoa, Totapuri, and Neelam, and two varieties of papaya, namely, Honey Dew and Surya. Varietal differences were evident in both beta-carotene content and its bioaccessibility in the case of mango. beta-Carotene content in ripe mango ranged from 0.55 +/- 0.03 mg/100 g in the Malgoa variety to 3.21 +/- 0.25 mg/100 g in the Badami variety. Similarly, in the Honey Dew and Surya varieties of papaya, beta-carotene contents were 0.70 +/- 0.10 and 0.74 +/- 0.12 mg/100 g, respectively. Bioaccessibility of beta-carotene ranged from 24.5% in Badami to 39.1% in Raspuri varieties of mango. Considering both the percent bioaccessibility and the inherent beta-carotene content, the amount of bioaccessible beta-carotene was highest in the Mallika variety (0.89 mg/100 g), followed by Badami (0.79 mg/100 g). Because mango and papaya are also consumed as a blend with milk, the influence of the presence of milk on the bioaccessibility of beta-carotene from these fruits was also examined. Addition of milk generally brought about a significant increase in the bioaccessibility of beta-carotene from mango, the increase ranging from 12 to 56%. Bioaccessibility of beta-carotene from the two varieties of papaya examined was similar (31.4-34.3%). Addition of milk increased this bioaccessibility by 19 and 38% in these two varieties. Considering the beta-carotene content of mango and papaya, the latter has to be consumed in amounts roughly 3 times that of mango to derive the same amount of beta-carotene. Thus, this study has indicated that varietal differences exist in the content and bioaccessibility of beta-carotene in mango and that the addition of milk is advantageous in deriving this provitamin A from the fruit pulp of mango and papaya.

  7. Reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for rapid detection of Papaya ringspot virus.

    PubMed

    Shen, Wentao; Tuo, Decai; Yan, Pu; Yang, Yong; Li, Xiaoying; Zhou, Peng

    2014-08-01

    Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) and Papaya leaf distortion mosaic virus (PLDMV), which causes disease symptoms similar to PRSV, threaten commercial production of both non-transgenic-papaya and PRSV-resistant transgenic papaya in China. A reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay to detect PLDMV was developed previously. In this study, the development of another RT-LAMP assay to distinguish among transgenic, PRSV-infected and PLDMV-infected papaya by detection of PRSV is reported. A set of four RT-LAMP primers was designed based on the highly conserved region of the P3 gene of PRSV. The RT-LAMP method was specific and sensitive in detecting PRSV, with a detection limit of 1.15×10(-6)μg of total RNA per reaction. Indeed, the reaction was 10 times more sensitive than one-step RT-PCR. Field application of the RT-LAMP assay demonstrated that samples positive for PRSV were detected only in non-transgenic papaya, whereas samples positive for PLDMV were detected only in commercialized PRSV-resistant transgenic papaya. This suggests that PRSV remains the major limiting factor for non-transgenic-papaya production, and the emergence of PLDMV threatens the commercial transgenic cultivar in China. However, this study, combined with the earlier development of an RT-LAMP assay for PLDMV, will provide a rapid, sensitive and cost-effective diagnostic power to distinguish virus infections in papaya.

  8. Highly stretchable, transparent ionic touch panel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Chong-Chan; Lee, Hyun-Hee; Oh, Kyu Hwan; Sun, Jeong-Yun

    2016-08-01

    Because human-computer interactions are increasingly important, touch panels may require stretchability and biocompatibility in order to allow integration with the human body. However, most touch panels have been developed based on stiff and brittle electrodes. We demonstrate an ionic touch panel based on a polyacrylamide hydrogel containing lithium chloride salts. The panel is soft and stretchable, so it can sustain a large deformation. The panel can freely transmit light information because the hydrogel is transparent, with 98% transmittance for visible light. A surface-capacitive touch system was adopted to sense a touched position. The panel can be operated under more than 1000% areal strain without sacrificing its functionalities. Epidermal touch panel use on skin was demonstrated by writing words, playing a piano, and playing games.

  9. Determining sex and screening for the adventitious presence of transgenic material in Carica papaya L. seed germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Papaya Ringspot Virus (PRSV) is a devastating disease that has a detrimental impact on both commercial papaya production and Caricaceae germplasm conservation. The PRSV coat protein transgenic line 55-1 and derived progeny are resistant to PRSV and have saved the papaya industry in Hawaii. However,...

  10. Applicability of the chymopapain gene used as endogenous reference gene for transgenic huanong no. 1 papaya detection.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jinchao; Yang, Litao; Liu, Xin; Zhang, Haibo; Qian, Bingjun; Zhang, Dabing

    2009-08-12

    The virus-resistant papaya (Carica papaya L.), Huanong no. 1, was the genetically modified (GM) fruit approved for growing in China in 2006. To implement the labeling regulation of GM papaya and its derivates, the development of papaya endogenous reference gene is very necessary for GM papaya detection. Herein, we reported one papaya specific gene, Chymopapain (CHY), as one suitable endogenous reference gene, used for GM papaya identification. Thereafter, we established the conventional and real-time quantitative PCR assays of the CHY gene. In the CHY conventional PCR assay, the limit of detection (LOD) was 25 copies of haploid papaya genome. In the CHY real-time quantitative PCR assay, both the LOD and the limit of quantification (LOQ) were as low as 12.5 copies of haploid papaya genome. Furthermore, we revealed the construct-specific sequence of Chinese GM papaya Huanong no. 1 and developed its conventional and quantitative PCR systems employing the CHY gene as endogenous reference gene. This work is useful for papaya specific identification and GM papaya detection.

  11. First Complete Genome Sequence of Papaya ringspot virus-W Isolated from a Gourd in the United States.

    PubMed

    Ali, Akhtar

    2017-01-12

    In the United States, the Papaya ringspot virus was first reported from papaya in Florida in 1949. Here, we determined the first complete genome sequence (10,302 nucleotides) of a Papaya ringspot virus-W isolate, which was collected from a commercial field of gourd in Tulsa, OK.

  12. 40 CFR 174.515 - Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus...-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS Tolerances and Tolerance Exemptions § 174.515 Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Residues of Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus are...

  13. First Complete Genome Sequence of Papaya ringspot virus-W Isolated from a Gourd in the United States

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT In the United States, the Papaya ringspot virus was first reported from papaya in Florida in 1949. Here, we determined the first complete genome sequence (10,302 nucleotides) of a Papaya ringspot virus-W isolate, which was collected from a commercial field of gourd in Tulsa, OK. PMID:28082489

  14. 40 CFR 174.515 - Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus...-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS Tolerances and Tolerance Exemptions § 174.515 Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Residues of Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus are...

  15. 40 CFR 174.515 - Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus...-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS Tolerances and Tolerance Exemptions § 174.515 Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Residues of Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus are...

  16. 40 CFR 174.515 - Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus...-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS Tolerances and Tolerance Exemptions § 174.515 Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Residues of Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus are...

  17. 40 CFR 174.515 - Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus...-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS Tolerances and Tolerance Exemptions § 174.515 Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Residues of Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus are...

  18. 77 FR 31294 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Importation of Papaya...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-25

    ... Collection; Importation of Papaya From Colombia and Ecuador AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection... with regulations for the importation of commercial shipments of fresh papaya from Colombia and Ecuador... importation of commercial shipments of fresh papaya from Colombia and Ecuador, contact Ms. Dorothy...

  19. 76 FR 49725 - Notice of Decision To Authorize the Importation of Fresh Papaya Fruit From Malaysia into the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-11

    ... Importation of Fresh Papaya Fruit From Malaysia into the Continental United States AGENCY: Animal and Plant... authorize the importation into the continental United States of fresh papaya fruit from Malaysia. Based on... weeds via the importation of fresh papaya fruit from Malaysia. DATES: Effective Date: August 11,...

  20. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT LASER TOUCH AND TECHNOLOGIES, LLC LASER TOUCH MODEL LT-B512

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Environmental Technology Verification report discusses the technology and performance of Laser Touch model LT-B512 targeting device manufactured by Laser Touch and Technologies, LLC, for manual spray painting operations. The relative transfer efficiency (TE) improved an avera...

  1. Enantioselective esterification of (R,S)-2-methylalkanoic acid with Carica papaya lipase in organic solvents.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chun-Sheng; Ho, Ssu-Ching

    2011-11-01

    Isooctane was the best reaction medium for the enantioselective esterification of (R,S)-2-methylalkanoic acid with n-butanol using Carica papaya lipase as catalyst. Increasing linear alkyl-chain length of racemic 2-methylalkanoic acids from ethyl to hexyl increased the enantioselectivity (E) from 2.1 to 98.2 for the esterification of racemic 2-methylalkanoic acids with n-butanol at 35°C. Decreasing reaction temperature from 40 to 20°C increased the enantioselectivity (E) from 14 to 33 for the esterification of racemic 2-methylhexanoic acids with n-butanol. We obtained a maximum enantioselectivity, of E = 24.3, for the enantioselective esterification of racemic 2-methylhexanoic acids with n-butanol in isooctane at water activity 0.33, and at 35°C.

  2. Touch perception throughout working life: effects of age and expertise.

    PubMed

    Reuter, Eva-Maria; Voelcker-Rehage, Claudia; Vieluf, Solveig; Godde, Ben

    2012-01-01

    Fine motor skills including precise tactile and haptic perception are essential to the manipulation of objects. With increasing age, one's perception decreases; however, little is known about the state of touch perception in middle-aged adults. This study investigated the extent to which the decline in touch perception affects adults throughout their working life. In addition, the influence of work-related expertise on tactile and haptic perception was examined in an attempt to determine whether expertise, in the form of the frequent use of the fingers, affects perception and counters age-related losses. The study was conducted with subjects from three age groups (18-25, 34-46, and 54-65 years) with two levels of expertise. Expertise was classified by the subjects' occupations. Five sensory tasks of touch perception were conducted. The results confirmed age-related changes in tactile perception over the span of one's working life. Older workers were proven to have lower tactile performance than younger adults. However, middle-aged workers were hardly affected by the perception losses and did not differ significantly from younger adults. Work-related expertise was not proven to either affect tactile and haptic perception or counteract age-related declines. We conclude that the age-related decline gets steeper in the late working life and that specific work-related expertise does not lead to generally improved touch perception that would result in lower thresholds and improved performance in non-expertise specific tasks.

  3. A bio-hybrid anaerobic treatment of papaya processing wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, P.Y.; Chou, C.Y.

    1987-01-01

    Hybrid anaerobic treatment of papaya processing wastes is technically feasible. At 30/sup 0/C, the optimal organic loading rates for maximizing organic removal efficiency and methane production are 1.3 and 4.8 g TCOD/1/day, respectively. Elimination of post-handling and treatment of digested effluent can also be achieved. The system is more suitable for those processing plants with a waste amount of more than 3,000 metric tons per year.

  4. The amino acid sequence of chymopapain from Carica papaya.

    PubMed Central

    Watson, D C; Yaguchi, M; Lynn, K R

    1990-01-01

    Chymopapain is a polypeptide of 218 amino acid residues. It has considerable structural similarity with papain and papaya proteinase omega, including conservation of the catalytic site and of the disulphide bonding. Chymopapain is like papaya proteinase omega in carrying four extra residues between papain positions 168 and 169, but differs from both papaya proteinases in the composition of its S2 subsite, as well as in having a second thiol group, Cys-117. Some evidence for the amino acid sequence of chymopapain has been deposited as Supplementary Publication SUP 50153 (12 pages) at the British Library Document Supply Centre, Boston Spa., Wetherby, West Yorkshire LS23 7BQ, U.K., from whom copies may be obtained on the terms indicated in Biochem. J. (1990) 265, 5. The information comprises Supplement Tables 1-4, which contain, in order, amino acid compositions of peptides from tryptic, peptic, CNBr and mild acid cleavages, Supplement Fig. 1, showing re-fractionation of selected peaks from Fig. 2 of the main paper. Supplement Fig. 2, showing cation-exchange chromatography of the earliest-eluted peak of Fig. 3 of the main paper, Supplement Fig. 3, showing reverse-phase h.p.l.c. of the later-eluted peak from Fig. 3 of the main paper, and Supplement Fig. 4, showing the separation of peptides after mild acid hydrolysis of CNBr-cleavage fragment CB3. PMID:2106878

  5. Organelle DNA accumulation in the recently evolved papaya sex chromosomes.

    PubMed

    VanBuren, Robert; Ming, Ray

    2013-06-01

    Sex chromosomes are a pair of specialized chromosomes containing a sex determination region that is suppressed for recombination. Without recombination, Y chromosomes are thought to accumulate repetitive DNA sequences which contribute to their degeneration. A pair of primitive sex chromosomes controls sex type in papaya with male and hermaphrodite determined by the slightly different male-specific region of the Y (MSY) and hermaphrodite-specific region of Y(h) (HSY) chromosomes, respectively. Here, we show that the papaya HSY and MSY in the absence of recombination have accumulated nearly 12 times the amount of chloroplast-derived DNA than the corresponding region of the X chromosome and 4 times the papaya genome-wide average. Furthermore, a chloroplast genome fragment containing the rsp15 gene has been amplified 23 times in the HSY, evidence of retrotransposon-mediated duplication. Surprisingly, mitochondria-derived sequences are less abundant in the X and HSY compared to the whole genome. Shared organelle integrations are sparse between X and HSY, with only 11 % of chloroplast and 12 % of mitochondria fragments conserved, respectively, suggesting that the accelerated accumulation of organelle DNA occurred after the HSY was suppressed for recombination. Most of the organelle-derived sequences have divergence times of <7 MYA, reinforcing this notion. The accumulated chloroplast DNA is evidence of the slow degeneration of the HSY.

  6. Identification of a new phospholipase D in Carica papaya latex.

    PubMed

    Abdelkafi, Slim; Abousalham, Abdelkarim; Fendri, Imen; Ogata, Hiroyuki; Barouh, Nathalie; Fouquet, Benjamin; Scheirlinckx, Frantz; Villeneuve, Pierre; Carrière, Frédéric

    2012-05-15

    Phospholipase D (PLD) is a lipolytic enzyme involved in signal transduction, vesicle trafficking and membrane metabolism. It catalyzes the hydrolysis and transphosphatidylation of glycerophospholipids at the terminal phosphodiester bond. The presence of a PLD in the latex of Carica papaya (CpPLD1) was demonstrated by transphosphatidylation of phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho) in the presence of 2% ethanol. Although the protein could not be purified to homogeneity due to its presence in high molecular mass aggregates, a protein band was separated by SDS-PAGE after SDS/chloroform-methanol/TCA-acetone extraction of the latex insoluble fraction. This material was digested with trypsin and the amino acid sequences of the tryptic peptides were determined by micro-LC/ESI/MS/MS. These sequences were used to identify a partial cDNA (723 bp) from expressed sequence tags (ESTs) of C. papaya. Based upon EST sequences, a full-length gene was identified in the genome of C. papaya, with an open reading frame of 2424 bp encoding a protein of 808 amino acid residues, with a theoretical molecular mass of 92.05 kDa. From sequence analysis, CpPLD1 was identified as a PLD belonging to the plant phosphatidylcholine phosphatidohydrolase family.

  7. The potential of papaya leaf extract in controlling Ganoderma boninense

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tay, Z. H.; Chong, K. P.

    2016-06-01

    Basal Stem Rot (BSR) disease causes significant losses to the oil palm industry. Numerous controls have been applied in managing the disease but no conclusive result was reported. This study investigated the antifungal potential of papaya leaf extracts against Ganoderma boninense, the causal pathogen of BSR. Among the five different solvents tested in extraction of compounds from papaya leaf, methanol and acetone gave the highest yield. In vitro antifungal activity of the methanol and acetone extracts were evaluated against G. boninense using agar dilution at four concentrations: 5 mg mL-1, 15 mg mL-1, 30 mg mL-1and 45 mg mL-1. The results indicated a positive correlation between the concentration of leaf extracts and the inhibition of G. boninense. ED50 of methanol and acetone crude extracts were determined to be 32.016 mg mL-1and 65.268 mg mL-1, respectively. The extracts were later semi-purified using solid phase extraction (SPE) and the nine bioactive compounds were identified: decanoic acid, 2-methyl-, Z,Z-10-12-Hexadecadien-1-ol acetate, dinonanoin monocaprylin, 2-chloroethyl oleate, phenol,4-(1-phenylethyl)-, phenol,2,4-bis(1-phenylethyl)-, phenol-2-(1-phenylethyl)-, ethyl iso-allocholate and 1- monolinoleoylglycerol trimethylsilyl ether. The findings suggest that papaya leaf extracts have the ability to inhibit the growth of G. boninense, where a higher concentration of the extract exhibits better inhibition effects.

  8. A polymorphic pseudoautosomal boundary in the Carica papaya sex chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Lappin, Fiona M; Medert, Charles M; Hawkins, Kevin K; Mardonovich, Sandra; Wu, Meng; Moore, Richard C

    2015-08-01

    Sex chromosomes are defined by a non-recombining sex-determining region (SDR) flanked by one or two pseudoautosomal regions (PARs). The genetic composition and evolutionary dynamics of the PAR is also influenced by its linkage to the differentiated non-recombining SDR; however, understanding the effects of this linkage requires a precise definition of the PAR boundary. Here, we took a molecular population genetic approach to further refine the location of the PAR boundary of the evolutionary young sex chromosomes of the tropical plant, Carica papaya. We were able to map the position of the papaya PAR boundary A to a 100-kb region between two genetic loci approximately 2 Mb upstream of the previously genetically identified PAR boundary. Furthermore, this boundary is polymorphic within natural populations of papaya, with an approximately 100-130 kb expansion of the non-recombining SDR found in 16 % of individuals surveyed. The expansion of the PAR boundary in one Y haplotype includes at least one additional gene. Homologs of this gene are involved in male gametophyte and pollen development in other plant species.

  9. Graphene Tribotronics for Electronic Skin and Touch Screen Applications.

    PubMed

    Khan, Usman; Kim, Tae-Ho; Ryu, Hanjun; Seung, Wanchul; Kim, Sang-Woo

    2017-01-01

    Graphene tribotronics is introduced for touch-sensing applications such as electronic skins and touch screens. The devices are based on a coplanar coupling of triboelectrification and current transport in graphene transistors. The touch sensors are ultrasensitive, fast, and stable. Furthermore, they are transparent and flexible, and can spatially map touch stimuli such as movement of a ball, multi-touch, etc.

  10. A current overview of the Papaya meleira virus, an unusual plant virus.

    PubMed

    Abreu, Paolla M V; Antunes, Tathiana F S; Magaña-Álvarez, Anuar; Pérez-Brito, Daisy; Tapia-Tussell, Raúl; Ventura, José A; Fernandes, Antonio A R; Fernandes, Patricia M B

    2015-04-08

    Papaya meleira virus (PMeV) is the causal agent of papaya sticky disease, which is characterized by a spontaneous exudation of fluid and aqueous latex from the papaya fruit and leaves. The latex oxidizes after atmospheric exposure, resulting in a sticky feature on the fruit from which the name of the disease originates. PMeV is an isometric virus particle with a double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) genome of approximately 12 Kb. Unusual for a plant virus, PMeV particles are localized on and linked to the polymers present in the latex. The ability of the PMeV to inhabit such a hostile environment demonstrates an intriguing interaction of the virus with the papaya. A hypersensitivity response is triggered against PMeV infection, and there is a reduction in the proteolytic activity of papaya latex during sticky disease. In papaya leaf tissues, stress responsive proteins, mostly calreticulin and proteasome-related proteins, are up regulated and proteins related to metabolism are down-regulated. Additionally, PMeV modifies the transcription of several miRNAs involved in the modulation of genes related to the ubiquitin-proteasome system. Until now, no PMeV resistant papaya genotype has been identified and roguing is the only viral control strategy available. However, a single inoculation of papaya plants with PMeV dsRNA delayed the progress of viral infection.

  11. Direct LAMP Assay without Prior DNA Purification for Sex Determination of Papaya.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Chi-Chu; Shih, Huei-Chuan; Ko, Ya-Zhu; Wang, Ren-Huang; Li, Shu-Ju; Chiang, Yu-Chung

    2016-09-24

    Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is an economically important tropical fruit tree with hermaphrodite, male and female sex types. Hermaphroditic plants are the major type used for papaya production because their fruits have more commercial advantages than those of female plants. Sex determination of the seedlings, or during the early growth stages, is very important for the papaya seedling industry. Thus far, the only method for determining the sex type of a papaya at the seedling stage has been DNA analysis. In this study, a molecular technique-based on DNA analysis-was developed for detecting male-hermaphrodite-specific markers to examine the papaya's sex type. This method is based on the loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) and does not require prior DNA purification. The results show that the method is an easy, efficient, and inexpensive way to determine a papaya's sex. This is the first report on the LAMP assay, using intact plant materials-without DNA purification-as samples for the analysis of sex determination of papaya. We found that using high-efficiency DNA polymerase was essential for successful DNA amplification, using trace intact plant material as a template DNA source.

  12. Atypical internal yellowing of papaya fruit in Hawaii caused by Enterobacter sakazakii

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Internal yellowing (IY), characterized by yellow discolored tissue around the papaya (Carica papaya) seed cavity, diffuse margins and the presence of a distinctly rotten odor, was first reported in 1987. These symptoms were associated with the causal agent Enterobacter cloacae. Here we report the fo...

  13. Evaluating Hawaii-Grown Papaya for Resistance to Internal Yellowing Disease Caused by Enterobacter cloacae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Papaya (Carica papaya L.) cultivars and breeding lines were evaluated for resistance to Enterobacter cloacae (Jordan) Hormaeche & Edwards, the bacterial causal agent of internal yellowing disease (IY), using a range of concentrations of the bacterium. Linear regression analysis was performed and IY ...

  14. Detection of Papaya leaf distortion mosaic virus by reverse-transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification.

    PubMed

    Shen, Wentao; Tuo, Decai; Yan, Pu; Li, Xiaoying; Zhou, Peng

    2014-01-01

    Papaya leaf distortion mosaic virus (PLDMV) can infect transgenic papaya resistant to a related pathogen, Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV), posing a substantial threat to papaya production in China. Current detection methods, however, are unable to be used for rapid detection in the field. Here, a reverse-transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay was developed for the detection of PLDMV, using a set of four RT-LAMP primers designed based on the conserved sequence of PLDMV CP. The RT-LAMP method detected specifically PLDMV and was highly sensitive, with a detection limit of 1.32×10(-6) μg of total RNA per reaction. Indeed, the reaction was 10 times more sensitive than one-step RT-PCR, while also requiring significantly less time and equipment. The effectiveness of RT-LAMP and one-step RT-PCR in detecting the virus were compared using 90 field samples of non-transgenic papaya and 90 field samples of commercialized PRSV-resistant transgenic papaya from Hainan Island. None of the non-transgenic papaya tested positive for PLDMV using either method. In contrast, 19 of the commercialized PRSV-resistant transgenic papaya samples tested positive by RT-LAMP assay, and 6 of those tested negative by RT-PCR. Therefore, the PLDMV-specific RT-LAMP is a simple, rapid, sensitive, and cost-effective tool in the field diagnosis and control of PLDMV.

  15. A Current Overview of the Papaya meleira virus, an Unusual Plant Virus

    PubMed Central

    Abreu, Paolla M. V.; Antunes, Tathiana F. S.; Magaña-Álvarez, Anuar; Pérez-Brito, Daisy; Tapia-Tussell, Raúl; Ventura, José A.; Fernandes, Antonio A. R.; Fernandes, Patricia M. B.

    2015-01-01

    Papaya meleira virus (PMeV) is the causal agent of papaya sticky disease, which is characterized by a spontaneous exudation of fluid and aqueous latex from the papaya fruit and leaves. The latex oxidizes after atmospheric exposure, resulting in a sticky feature on the fruit from which the name of the disease originates. PMeV is an isometric virus particle with a double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) genome of approximately 12 Kb. Unusual for a plant virus, PMeV particles are localized on and linked to the polymers present in the latex. The ability of the PMeV to inhabit such a hostile environment demonstrates an intriguing interaction of the virus with the papaya. A hypersensitivity response is triggered against PMeV infection, and there is a reduction in the proteolytic activity of papaya latex during sticky disease. In papaya leaf tissues, stress responsive proteins, mostly calreticulin and proteasome-related proteins, are up regulated and proteins related to metabolism are down-regulated. Additionally, PMeV modifies the transcription of several miRNAs involved in the modulation of genes related to the ubiquitin-proteasome system. Until now, no PMeV resistant papaya genotype has been identified and roguing is the only viral control strategy available. However, a single inoculation of papaya plants with PMeV dsRNA delayed the progress of viral infection. PMID:25856636

  16. An umbra-like virus of papaya discovered in Ecuador: detection, occurrence and phylogenetic relatedness

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) extractions from papaya leaves infected with Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) revealed the presence of an unusual 4kb band, in addition to the presumed PRSV-associated 10kb band. Partial sequence of RT-PCR products from the 4kb dsRNA revealed homology to genomes of several me...

  17. Effect of papaya trunk angle on infestation by white peach scale, Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (Hemiptera: Diaspididae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two papaya (Carica papaya L.) seedlings growing in one planting hole often results in angular or non-vertical growth of the trees. Data on trunk angularity, or leaning, (deviation from the vertical line of reference) and white peach scale, Pseudaulacaspis pentagona Targioni-Tozzetti (Hemiptera: Dias...

  18. Release and establishment of Encarsia diaspidicola (Hymenoptera: Aphelididae) against white peach scale in papaya

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    White peach scale, Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (Hemiptera:Diaspididae) is a serious economic pest of papaya, Carica papaya L. The parasitic wasp Encarsia diaspidicola (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) was brought from Samoa into a quarantine containment facility in Hawaii for evaluation and potential release...

  19. Papaya is not a host for Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The economic value of tomato production is threatened by tomato yellow leaf-curl virus TYLCV and its vector, the silverleaf whitefly Bemisia tabaci biotype B (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae). Use of papaya Carica papaya L. as a banker plant for a whitefly parasitoid shows promise as a whitefly m...

  20. Do centrally programmed anticipatory postural adjustments in fast stepping affect performance of an associated "touche" movement?

    PubMed

    Do, M C; Yiou, E

    1999-12-01

    Ensuring maximum speed in executing a sequence of two voluntary movements requires the second movement to be triggered only after some delay. This is due to the existence of a "relative refractory period." If the second movement is initiated during the refractory period, its speed decreases (movement time increases). In the present study we tested the existence of a refractory period during the execution of a sequence of movements involving both the upper and the lower limbs. More precisely, we examined whether the maximal speed of the touche fencing movement is affected by the anticipatory postural adjustments (APA) preceding a voluntary lunge. The touche and the lunge are similar to a pointing task and a stepping forward movement, respectively. touche consists of hitting a target with a foil at maximal velocity. The results show that (a) when the touche was initiated prior to the onset of the APA of the lunge, the maximal foil velocity remains similar to that of an isolated touche, and (b) when the touche is initiated during the development of the APA of the lunge, the maximal foil velocity is lower than in the isolated touche. Furthermore, the maximal foil velocity decreases with the temporal progression of the APA and reaches its minimal value when initiated at the time of voluntary lunge execution ('foot off'). The discussion suggests that the centrally programmed APA that are elicited in the stepping forward movement induces a refractory period which affects performance of the pointing task.

  1. The Place of Touch in the Arts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perricone, Christopher

    2007-01-01

    In this essay, I argue that although philosophers of art have legitimately examined and emphasized the role of sight and hearing in respect to art appreciation, for the most part they have neglected the role of touch. I develop the idea that while sight and hearing form the melody line of art appreciation, touch is its bass line, one that is…

  2. Touch increases autonomic coupling between romantic partners

    PubMed Central

    Chatel-Goldman, Jonas; Congedo, Marco; Jutten, Christian; Schwartz, Jean-Luc

    2014-01-01

    Interpersonal touch is of paramount importance in human social bonding and close relationships, allowing a unique channel for affect communication. So far the effect of touch on human physiology has been studied at an individual level. The present study aims at extending the study of affective touch from isolated individuals to truly interacting dyads. We have designed an ecological paradigm where romantic partners interact only via touch and we manipulate their empathic states. Simultaneously, we collected their autonomic activity (skin conductance, pulse, respiration). Fourteen couples participated to the experiment. We found that interpersonal touch increased coupling of electrodermal activity between the interacting partners, regardless the intensity and valence of the emotion felt. In addition, physical touch induced strong and reliable changes in physiological states within individuals. These results support an instrumental role of interpersonal touch for affective support in close relationships. Furthermore, they suggest that touch alone allows the emergence of a somatovisceral resonance between interacting individuals, which in turn is likely to form the prerequisites for emotional contagion and empathy. PMID:24734009

  3. Touch increases autonomic coupling between romantic partners.

    PubMed

    Chatel-Goldman, Jonas; Congedo, Marco; Jutten, Christian; Schwartz, Jean-Luc

    2014-01-01

    Interpersonal touch is of paramount importance in human social bonding and close relationships, allowing a unique channel for affect communication. So far the effect of touch on human physiology has been studied at an individual level. The present study aims at extending the study of affective touch from isolated individuals to truly interacting dyads. We have designed an ecological paradigm where romantic partners interact only via touch and we manipulate their empathic states. Simultaneously, we collected their autonomic activity (skin conductance, pulse, respiration). Fourteen couples participated to the experiment. We found that interpersonal touch increased coupling of electrodermal activity between the interacting partners, regardless the intensity and valence of the emotion felt. In addition, physical touch induced strong and reliable changes in physiological states within individuals. These results support an instrumental role of interpersonal touch for affective support in close relationships. Furthermore, they suggest that touch alone allows the emergence of a somatovisceral resonance between interacting individuals, which in turn is likely to form the prerequisites for emotional contagion and empathy.

  4. Touch Attenuates Infants' Physiological Reactivity to Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Ruth; Singer, Magi; Zagoory, Orna

    2010-01-01

    Animal studies demonstrate that maternal touch and contact regulate infant stress, and handling during periods of maternal deprivation attenuates the stress response. To measure the effects of touch on infant stress reactivity during simulated maternal deprivation, 53 dyads were tested in two paradigms: still-face (SF) and still-face with maternal…

  5. Genome sequence comparison reveals a candidate gene involved in male-hermaphrodite differentiation in papaya (Carica papaya) trees.

    PubMed

    Ueno, Hiroki; Urasaki, Naoya; Natsume, Satoshi; Yoshida, Kentaro; Tarora, Kazuhiko; Shudo, Ayano; Terauchi, Ryohei; Matsumura, Hideo

    2015-04-01

    The sex type of papaya (Carica papaya) is determined by the pair of sex chromosomes (XX, female; XY, male; and XY(h), hermaphrodite), in which there is a non-recombining genomic region in the Y and Y(h) chromosomes. This region is presumed to be involved in determination of males and hermaphrodites; it is designated as the male-specific region in the Y chromosome (MSY) and the hermaphrodite-specific region in the Y(h) chromosome (HSY). Here, we identified the genes determining male and hermaphrodite sex types by comparing MSY and HSY genomic sequences. In the MSY and HSY genomic regions, we identified 14,528 nucleotide substitutions and 965 short indels with a large gap and two highly diverged regions. In the predicted genes expressed in flower buds, we found no nucleotide differences leading to amino acid changes between the MSY and HSY. However, we found an HSY-specific transposon insertion in a gene (SVP like) showing a similarity to the Short Vegetative Phase (SVP) gene. Study of SVP-like transcripts revealed that the MSY allele encoded an intact protein, while the HSY allele encoded a truncated protein. Our findings demonstrated that the SVP-like gene is a candidate gene for male-hermaphrodite determination in papaya.

  6. Interactions of touch feedback with muscle vibration and galvanic vestibular stimulation in the control of trunk posture.

    PubMed

    Maaswinkel, E; Veeger, H E J; Dieen, J Hv

    2014-02-01

    This study investigated the effect of touch on trunk sway in a seated position. Two touch conditions were included: touching an object with the index finger of the right hand (hand-touch) and maintaining contact with an object at the level of the spine of T10 on the mid back (back-touch). In both touch conditions, the exerted force stayed below 2N. Furthermore, the interaction of touch with paraspinal muscle vibration and galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) was studied. Thirteen healthy subjects with no history of low-back pain participated in this study. Subjects sat on a stool and trunk sway was measured with a motion capture system tracking a cluster marker on the trunk. Subjects performed a total of 12 trials of 60-s duration in a randomized order, combining the experimental conditions of no-touch, hand-touch or back-touch with no sensory perturbation, paraspinal muscle vibration or GVS. The results showed that touch through hand or back decreased trunk sway and decreased the effects of muscle vibration and GVS. GVS led to a large increase in sway whereas the effect of muscle vibration was only observed as an increase of drift and not of sway. In the current experimental set-up, the stabilizing effect of touch was strong enough to mask any effects of perturbations of vestibular and paraspinal muscle spindle afference. In conclusion, tactile information, whenever available, seems to play a dominant role in seated postural sway and therefore has important implications for studying trunk control.

  7. Touch and Emotional Availability in Hearing and Deaf or Hard of Hearing Toddlers and Their Hearing Mothers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pipp-Siegel, Sandra; Blair, Natalie L.; Deas, Ann M.; Pressman, Leah J.; Yoshinaga-Itano, Christine

    1999-01-01

    A study involving 48 hearing mothers and their 2-year-old children with and without hearing impairments found mothers with children with hearing impairments touched each other more and that, unlike hearing dyads, the presence of material hostility was related to a decrease in the number of maternal and child touches. (Contains references.)…

  8. Biotic stress induced demolition of thylakoid structure and loss in photoelectron transport of chloroplasts in papaya leaves.

    PubMed

    Nanda, Rashmi Madhumita; Biswal, Basanti

    2008-04-01

    Papaya mosaic virus (PMV) causes severe mosaic symptoms in the papaya (Carica papaya L.) leaves. The PMV-induced alterations in photosystem II (PS II) structure and photochemical functions were probed. An increase in chlorophyll a (Chl a) fluorescence polarization suggests pathogen-induced transformation of thylakoid membrane to a gel phase. This transformation in physical state of thylakoid membrane may result in alteration in topology of pigments on pigment-binding proteins as reflected in pathogen-induced loss in the efficiency of energy transfer from carotenoids to chlorophylls. The fast Chl a fluorescence induction kinetics of healthy and PMV-infected plants by F(O)-F(J)-F(I)-F(P) transients revealed pathogen-induced perturbation on PS II acceptor side electron transfer equilibrium between Q(A) and Q(B) and in the pool size of electron transport acceptors. Pathogen-induced loss in photosynthetic pigments, changes in thylakoid structure and decrease in the ratio of F(V)/F(M) (photochemical potential of PS II) further correlate with the loss in photoelectron transport of PS II as probed by 2,6-dichlorophenol indophenol (DCPIP)-Hill reaction. Restoration of the loss by 1,5-diphenyl carbazide (DPC), an exogenous electron donor, that donates electron directly to reaction centre II bypassing the oxygen evolving system (OES), leads towards the conclusion that OES is one of the major targets of biotic stress. Further, the data suggest that chlorophyll fluorescence could be used as a non-invasive handy tool to assess the loss in photosynthetic efficiency and symptom severity in infected green tissues vis-a-vis the healthy ones.

  9. Mirror Neurons and Mirror-Touch Synesthesia.

    PubMed

    Linkovski, Omer; Katzin, Naama; Salti, Moti

    2016-05-30

    Since mirror neurons were introduced to the neuroscientific community more than 20 years ago, they have become an elegant and intuitive account for different cognitive mechanisms (e.g., empathy, goal understanding) and conditions (e.g., autism spectrum disorders). Recently, mirror neurons were suggested to be the mechanism underlying a specific type of synesthesia. Mirror-touch synesthesia is a phenomenon in which individuals experience somatosensory sensations when seeing someone else being touched. Appealing as it is, careful delineation is required when applying this mechanism. Using the mirror-touch synesthesia case, we put forward theoretical and methodological issues that should be addressed before relying on the mirror-neurons account.

  10. Touch and Hearing Mediate Osseoperception

    PubMed Central

    Clemente, Francesco; Håkansson, Bo; Cipriani, Christian; Wessberg, Johan; Kulbacka-Ortiz, Katarzyna; Brånemark, Rickard; Fredén Jansson, Karl-Johan; Ortiz-Catalan, Max

    2017-01-01

    Osseoperception is the sensation arising from the mechanical stimulation of a bone-anchored prosthesis. Here we show that not only touch, but also hearing is involved in this phenomenon. Using mechanical vibrations ranging from 0.1 to 6 kHz, we performed four psychophysical measures (perception threshold, sensation discrimination, frequency discrimination and reaction time) on 12 upper and lower limb amputees and found that subjects: consistently reported perceiving a sound when the stimulus was delivered at frequencies equal to or above 400 Hz; were able to discriminate frequency differences between stimuli delivered at high stimulation frequencies (~1500 Hz); improved their reaction time for bimodal stimuli (i.e. when both vibration and sound were perceived). Our results demonstrate that osseoperception is a multisensory perception, which can explain the improved environment perception of bone-anchored prosthesis users. This phenomenon might be exploited in novel prosthetic devices to enhance their control, thus ultimately improving the amputees’ quality of life. PMID:28349945

  11. Transducing touch in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Miriam B; Schwarz, Erich M

    2003-01-01

    Mechanosensation has been studied for decades, but understanding of its molecular mechanism is only now emerging from studies in Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster. In both cases, the entry point proved to be genetic screens that allowed molecules needed for mechanosensation to be identified without any prior understanding of the likely components. In C. elegans, genetic screens revealed molecules needed for touch sensation along the body wall and other regions of force sensitivity. Members of two extensive membrane protein families have emerged as candidate sensory mechanotransduction channels: mec-4 and mec-10, which encode amiloride-sensitive channels (ASCs or DEG/ENaCs), and osm-9, which encodes a TRP ion channel. There are roughly 50 other members of these families whose functions in C. elegans are unknown. This article classifies these channels in C. elegans, with an emphasis on insights into their function derived from mutation. We also review the neuronal cell types in which these channels might be expressed and mediate mechanotransduction.

  12. Cortical commands in active touch.

    PubMed

    Brecht, Michael

    2006-01-01

    The neocortex is an enormous network of extensively interconnected neurons. It has become clear that the computations performed by individual cortical neurons will critically depend on the quantitative composition of cortical activity. Here we discuss quantitative aspects of cortical activity and modes of cortical processing in the context of rodent active touch. Through in vivo whole-cell recordings one observes widespread subthreshold and very sparse evoked action potential (AP) activity in the somatosensory cortex both for passive whisker deflection in anaesthetized animals and during active whisker movements in awake animals. Neurons of the somatosensory cortex become either suppressed during whisking or activated by an efference copy of whisker movement signal that depolarize cells at certain phases of the whisking cycle. To probe the read out of cortical motor commands we applied intracellular stimulation in rat whisker motor cortex. We find that APs in individual cortical neurons can evoke long sequences of small whisker movements. The capacity of an individual neuron to evoke movements is most astonishing given the large number of neurons in whisker motor cortex. Thus, few cortical APs may suffice to control motor behaviour and such APs can be translated into action with the utmost precision. We conclude that there is very widespread subthreshold cortical activity and very sparse, highly specific cortical AP activity.

  13. Contrasting patterns of X/Y polymorphism distinguish Carica papaya from other sex chromosome systems.

    PubMed

    Weingartner, Laura A; Moore, Richard C

    2012-12-01

    The sex chromosomes of the tropical crop papaya (Carica papaya) are evolutionarily young and consequently allow for the examination of evolutionary mechanisms that drive early sex chromosome divergence. We conducted a molecular population genetic analysis of four X/Y gene pairs from a collection of 45 wild papaya accessions. These population genetic analyses reveal striking differences in the patterns of polymorphism between the X and Y chromosomes that distinguish them from other sex chromosome systems. In most sex chromosome systems, the Y chromosome displays significantly reduced polymorphism levels, whereas the X chromosome maintains a level of polymorphism that is comparable to autosomal loci. However, the four papaya sex-linked loci that we examined display diversity patterns that are opposite this trend: the papaya X alleles exhibit significantly reduced polymorphism levels, whereas the papaya Y alleles maintain greater than expected levels of diversity. Our analyses suggest that selective sweeps in the regions of the X have contributed to this pattern while also revealing geographically restricted haplogroups on the Y. We discuss the possible role sexual selection and/or genomic conflict have played in shaping the contrasting patterns of polymorphism found for the papaya X and Y chromosomes.

  14. The Evolutionary Tempo of Sex Chromosome Degradation in Carica papaya.

    PubMed

    Wu, Meng; Moore, Richard C

    2015-06-01

    Genes on non-recombining heterogametic sex chromosomes may degrade over time through the irreversible accumulation of deleterious mutations. In papaya, the non-recombining male-specific region of the Y (MSY) consists of two evolutionary strata corresponding to chromosomal inversions occurring approximately 7.0 and 1.9 MYA. The step-wise recombination suppression between the papaya X and Y allows for a temporal examination of the degeneration progress of the young Y chromosome. Comparative evolutionary analyses of 55 X/Y gene pairs showed that Y-linked genes have more unfavorable substitutions than X-linked genes. However, this asymmetric evolutionary pattern is confined to the oldest stratum, and is only observed when recently evolved pseudogenes are included in the analysis, indicating a slow degeneration tempo of the papaya Y chromosome. Population genetic analyses of coding sequence variation of six Y-linked focal loci in the oldest evolutionary stratum detected an excess of nonsynonymous polymorphism and reduced codon bias relative to autosomal loci. However, this pattern was also observed for corresponding X-linked loci. Both the MSY and its corresponding X-specific region are pericentromeric where recombination has been shown to be greatly reduced. Like the MSY region, overall selective efficacy on the X-specific region may be reduced due to the interference of selective forces between highly linked loci, or the Hill-Robertson effect, that is accentuated in regions of low or suppressed recombination. Thus, a pattern of gene decay on the X-specific region may be explained by relaxed purifying selection and widespread genetic hitchhiking due to its pericentromeric location.

  15. A 1H NMR Investigation of the Interaction between Phenolic Acids Found in Mango (Manguifera indica cv Ataulfo) and Papaya (Carica papaya cv Maradol) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) Free Radicals

    PubMed Central

    López-Martínez, Luis M.; Santacruz-Ortega, Hisila; Navarro, Rosa-Elena; Sotelo-Mundo, Rogerio R.; González-Aguilar, Gustavo A.

    2015-01-01

    The benefits of phenolic acids on human health are very often ascribed to their potential to counteract free radicals to provide antioxidant protection. This potential has been attributed to their acidic chemical structure, which possesses hydroxyl groups in different positions. Phenolic acids can interact between themselves and exhibit an additive, antagonistic or synergistic effect. In this paper, we used 1H NMR to analyze the interactions and mechanisms that are present in major phenolic acids found in mango (gallic, protocatechuic, chlorogenic and vanillic acids) and papaya (caffeic, ferulic and p-coumaric acids), and the DPPH radical was used to evaluate the effect of the antioxidant mixtures. The interactions were found to occur via hydrogen bonds between the -OH and -COOH groups. Moreover, the phenolic acids exhibit two types of mechanisms for the neutralization of the DPPH radical. According to the results, these two mechanisms are Hydrogen Atom Transfer (HAT) and Single Electron Transfer (SET). The ability of the phenolic acid to neutralize the DPPH radical decreases in the following order in mango: gallic > chlorogenic > protocatechuic > vanillic. Moreover, within the acids found in papaya, the order was as follows: caffeic > p-coumaric > ferulic. PMID:26559189

  16. A ¹H NMR Investigation of the Interaction between Phenolic Acids Found in Mango (Manguifera indica cv Ataulfo) and Papaya (Carica papaya cv Maradol) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) Free Radicals.

    PubMed

    López-Martínez, Luis M; Santacruz-Ortega, Hisila; Navarro, Rosa-Elena; Sotelo-Mundo, Rogerio R; González-Aguilar, Gustavo A

    2015-01-01

    The benefits of phenolic acids on human health are very often ascribed to their potential to counteract free radicals to provide antioxidant protection. This potential has been attributed to their acidic chemical structure, which possesses hydroxyl groups in different positions. Phenolic acids can interact between themselves and exhibit an additive, antagonistic or synergistic effect. In this paper, we used 1H NMR to analyze the interactions and mechanisms that are present in major phenolic acids found in mango (gallic, protocatechuic, chlorogenic and vanillic acids) and papaya (caffeic, ferulic and p-coumaric acids), and the DPPH radical was used to evaluate the effect of the antioxidant mixtures. The interactions were found to occur via hydrogen bonds between the -OH and -COOH groups. Moreover, the phenolic acids exhibit two types of mechanisms for the neutralization of the DPPH radical. According to the results, these two mechanisms are Hydrogen Atom Transfer (HAT) and Single Electron Transfer (SET). The ability of the phenolic acid to neutralize the DPPH radical decreases in the following order in mango: gallic > chlorogenic > protocatechuic > vanillic. Moreover, within the acids found in papaya, the order was as follows: caffeic > p-coumaric > ferulic.

  17. Shape recognition for capacitive touch display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guarneri, I.; Capra, A.; Farinella, G. M.; Battiato, S.

    2013-03-01

    In this paper we present a technique to classify five common classes of shapes acquired with a capacitive touch display: finger, ear, cheek, hand hold, half ear-half cheek. The need of algorithms able to discriminate among the aforementioned shapes comes from the growing diffusion of touch screen based consumer devices (e.g. smartphones, tablet, etc.). In this context, detection and the recognition of fingers are fundamental tasks in many touch based user applications (e.g., mobile games). Shape recognition algorithms are also extremely useful to identify accidental touches in order to avoid involuntary activation of the device functionalities (e.g., accidental calls). Our solution makes use of simple descriptors designed to capture discriminative information of the considered classes of shapes. The recognition is performed through a decision tree based approach whose parameters are learned on a set of labeled samples. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed solution achieves good recognition accuracy.

  18. [The language of touch in care].

    PubMed

    Malaquin-Pavan, Evelyne

    2013-03-01

    At the heart of the care relationship, the hands of the caregiver the body of the patient interact. The language of touch is therefore expressed in addition to the verbal and nonverbal elements of human communication.

  19. Concave points for separating touching particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaves, Deisy; Trujillo, Maria; Barraza, Juan Manuel

    2015-03-01

    Separation of touching objects/particles is a step before measuring morphological characteristics. An approach for identifying and splitting touching char particles is presented. The proposed approach is based on two processes. First, concave points are detected using a concavity measure and a list of touching point candidates is built. Second, separation lines are identified using location, length, blur and size. A decision criterion is derived for deciding whether or not to split a particle. The proposed approach is evaluated using 180 images of char particles and compared to the Watershed algorithm. The evaluation was twofold: quantifying the accuracy of identifying touching particles and measuring the separation quality. Expert criteria are used as a ground truth for qualitative evaluations. A good agreement between the visual judgement and automatic results was obtained, using the proposed approach.

  20. The outcome of tactile touch on stress parameters in intensive care: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Henricson, Maria; Ersson, Anders; Määttä, Sylvia; Segesten, Kerstin; Berglund, Anna-Lena

    2008-11-01

    The study aimed to investigate the effects of a five-day tactile touch intervention in order to find new and unconventional measures to moderate the detrimental influence of patients' stressors during intensive care. The hypothesis was that tactile touch would decrease stress indicators such as anxiety, glucose metabolism, blood pressure, heart rate and requirements of sedative drugs and noradrenalin. A randomized controlled trial was undertaken with 44 patients, which were assigned either to tactile touch or standard treatment (a rest hour). Observations of the stress indicators were made before, during and after the intervention or standard treatment. The study showed that tactile touch led to significantly lower levels of anxiety. The circulatory parameters suggested increased circulatory stability indicated by a reduction in noradrenalin requirement. The results need to be further validated through studies with larger sample sizes.

  1. The role of touch in acupuncture treatment.

    PubMed

    Chae, Younbyoung; Olausson, Håkan

    2017-02-01

    Acupuncture is a therapeutic treatment that is characterised by the insertion of a needle at a particular location on the body. Acupuncture stimulation includes sensory-discriminative and affective-social touch dimensions. In this review, we discuss the role of touch during acupuncture stimulation with an emphasis on the therapeutic, sensory-discriminative and affective-social aspects. In the discriminative dimension, de qi, which is associated with needling, includes a combination of various sensations, such as heaviness, numbness, soreness and distension. Achieving the appropriate de qi sensation appears to be fundamental to the therapeutic outcome following acupuncture treatment. In the affective dimension, the acupuncture procedure typically includes gentle manual touch stimulation, which induces feelings of calm and well-being, perhaps by activating C tactile fibres. Enhanced activity of C tactile afferents may induce a 'limbic touch' response, resulting in emotional and hormonal reactions. Because acupuncture is a 'therapist intensive' and complex intervention, it is necessary to understand the role of social touch between the practitioner and patient. Both sensory-discriminative and affective-social touch aspects play an important role in the therapeutic effect of acupuncture treatment in clinical practice.

  2. [Effect of the addition of tropical fruits--pineapple (Ananas comosus) and papaya (Carica papaya)--on the production of biological silage from fish].

    PubMed

    Bello, R; Cardillo, E; Martínez, R

    1993-09-01

    Microbial Fish Silage was produced from under-utilized fish mixed with juice and waste fruits (pineapple and papaya) at 35 degrees C. Six different products were elaborated as following: A: fish muscle with pineapple juice; B: fish muscle with fruit wastes; C: gutted fish with pineapple juice; D: gutted fish with fruit wastes; E: whole fish with pineapple juice; F: whole fish with fruit wastes. Process development was evaluated by measuring: pH, acidity, non-protein nitrogen, consistency and exudate liquid. Results indicated a slow decrease in pH value and production of acidity during 20 storage days. The addition of fruits to silage did not have any effect on these values. Silage liquefaction or hydrolysis was related to the following parameters: consistency, non-protein nitrogen and exudate liquid. The addition of fruits was related to silage liquefaction or hydrolysis, and it was measured by the consistency. Exudate liquid and non-protein nitrogen increased during storage time. However silage made from whole fish showed highest values in those parameters than other processing conditions. This results suggested that hydrolysis involve first enzymes from guts and second enzymes from muscle and head. Pineapple juice did not contribute to hydrolysis process. Mainly sensory changes in the silage occurs during first 24 hours and they were related to chemical changes. Proximal analysis did not change during silage process and microbial counts indicated the freshness of raw material used i this study.

  3. Touch: An Exploration of Its Role in the Counseling Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guy, Kathleen C.

    1987-01-01

    Explores the efficacy of touch in the counseling situation by examining the importance of tactile communication in human development, the impact of socialization and cultural factors on the meanings of touch, and clinical and research evidence relevant to the use of touch in therapeutic settings. Suggests guidelines for the use of touch in…

  4. Acetylated tubulin is essential for touch sensation in mice

    PubMed Central

    Morley, Shane J; Qi, Yanmei; Iovino, Loredana; Andolfi, Laura; Guo, Da; Kalebic, Nereo; Castaldi, Laura; Tischer, Christian; Portulano, Carla; Bolasco, Giulia; Shirlekar, Kalyanee; Fusco, Claudia M; Asaro, Antonino; Fermani, Federica; Sundukova, Mayya; Matti, Ulf; Reymond, Luc; De Ninno, Adele; Businaro, Luca; Johnsson, Kai; Lazzarino, Marco; Ries, Jonas; Schwab, Yannick; Hu, Jing; Heppenstall, Paul A

    2016-01-01

    At its most fundamental level, touch sensation requires the translation of mechanical energy into mechanosensitive ion channel opening, thereby generating electro-chemical signals. Our understanding of this process, especially how the cytoskeleton influences it, remains unknown. Here we demonstrate that mice lacking the α-tubulin acetyltransferase Atat1 in sensory neurons display profound deficits in their ability to detect mechanical stimuli. We show that all cutaneous afferent subtypes, including nociceptors have strongly reduced mechanosensitivity upon Atat1 deletion, and that consequently, mice are largely insensitive to mechanical touch and pain. We establish that this broad loss of mechanosensitivity is dependent upon the acetyltransferase activity of Atat1, which when absent leads to a decrease in cellular elasticity. By mimicking α-tubulin acetylation genetically, we show both cellular rigidity and mechanosensitivity can be restored in Atat1 deficient sensory neurons. Hence, our results indicate that by influencing cellular stiffness, α-tubulin acetylation sets the force required for touch. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.20813.001 PMID:27976998

  5. ROSETTA lander Philae: Touch-down reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roll, Reinhard; Witte, Lars

    2016-06-01

    The landing of the ROSETTA-mission lander Philae on November 12th 2014 on Comet 67 P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko was planned as a descent with passive landing and anchoring by harpoons at touch-down. Actually the lander was not fixed at touch-down to the ground due to failing harpoons. The lander internal damper was actuated at touch-down for 42.6 mm with a speed of 0.08 m/s while the lander touch-down speed was 1 m/s. The kinetic energy before touch-down was 50 J, 45 J were dissipated by the lander internal damper and by ground penetration at touch-down, and 5 J kinetic energy are left after touch-down (0.325 m/s speed). Most kinetic energy was dissipated by ground penetration (41 J) while only 4 J are dissipated by the lander internal damper. Based on these data, a value for a constant compressive soil-strength of between 1.55 kPa and 1.8 kPa is calculated. This paper focuses on the reconstruction of the touch-down at Agilkia over a period of around 20 s from first ground contact to lift-off again. After rebound Philae left a strange pattern on ground documented by the OSIRIS Narrow Angle Camera (NAC). The analysis shows, that the touch-down was not just a simple damped reflection on the surface. Instead the lander had repeated contacts with the surface over a period of about 20 s±10 s. This paper discusses scenarios for the reconstruction of the landing sequence based on the data available and on computer simulations. Simulations are performed with a dedicated mechanical multi-body model of the lander, which was validated previously in numerous ground tests. The SIMPACK simulation software was used, including the option to set forces at the feet to the ground. The outgoing velocity vector is mostly influenced by the timing of the ground contact of the different feet. It turns out that ground friction during damping has strong impact on the lander outgoing velocity, on its rotation, and on its nutation. After the end of damping, the attitude of the lander can be

  6. Definition Of Touch-Sensitive Zones For Graphical Displays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monroe, Burt L., III; Jones, Denise R.

    1988-01-01

    Touch zones defined simply by touching, while editing done automatically. Development of touch-screen interactive computing system, tedious task. Interactive Editor for Definition of Touch-Sensitive Zones computer program increases efficiency of human/machine communications by enabling user to define each zone interactively, minimizing redundancy in programming and eliminating need for manual computation of boundaries of touch areas. Information produced during editing process written to data file, to which access gained when needed by application program.

  7. Analysis of papaya cell wall-related genes during fruit ripening indicates a central role of polygalacturonases during pulp softening.

    PubMed

    Fabi, João Paulo; Broetto, Sabrina Garcia; da Silva, Sarah Lígia Garcia Leme; Zhong, Silin; Lajolo, Franco Maria; do Nascimento, João Roberto Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is a climacteric fleshy fruit that undergoes dramatic changes during ripening, most noticeably a severe pulp softening. However, little is known regarding the genetics of the cell wall metabolism in papayas. The present work describes the identification and characterization of genes related to pulp softening. We used gene expression profiling to analyze the correlations and co-expression networks of cell wall-related genes, and the results suggest that papaya pulp softening is accomplished by the interactions of multiple glycoside hydrolases. The polygalacturonase cpPG1 appeared to play a central role in the network and was further studied. The transient expression of cpPG1 in papaya results in pulp softening and leaf necrosis in the absence of ethylene action and confirms its role in papaya fruit ripening.

  8. Analysis of Papaya Cell Wall-Related Genes during Fruit Ripening Indicates a Central Role of Polygalacturonases during Pulp Softening

    PubMed Central

    Fabi, João Paulo; Broetto, Sabrina Garcia; da Silva, Sarah Lígia Garcia Leme; Zhong, Silin; Lajolo, Franco Maria; do Nascimento, João Roberto Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is a climacteric fleshy fruit that undergoes dramatic changes during ripening, most noticeably a severe pulp softening. However, little is known regarding the genetics of the cell wall metabolism in papayas. The present work describes the identification and characterization of genes related to pulp softening. We used gene expression profiling to analyze the correlations and co-expression networks of cell wall-related genes, and the results suggest that papaya pulp softening is accomplished by the interactions of multiple glycoside hydrolases. The polygalacturonase cpPG1 appeared to play a central role in the network and was further studied. The transient expression of cpPG1 in papaya results in pulp softening and leaf necrosis in the absence of ethylene action and confirms its role in papaya fruit ripening. PMID:25162506

  9. Complete nucleotide sequence of a monopartite Begomovirus and associated satellites infecting Carica papaya in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Shahid, M S; Yoshida, S; Khatri-Chhetri, G B; Briddon, R W; Natsuaki, K T

    2013-06-01

    Carica papaya (papaya) is a fruit crop that is cultivated mostly in kitchen gardens throughout Nepal. Leaf samples of C. papaya plants with leaf curling, vein darkening, vein thickening, and a reduction in leaf size were collected from a garden in Darai village, Rampur, Nepal in 2010. Full-length clones of a monopartite Begomovirus, a betasatellite and an alphasatellite were isolated. The complete nucleotide sequence of the Begomovirus showed the arrangement of genes typical of Old World begomoviruses with the highest nucleotide sequence identity (>99 %) to an isolate of Ageratum yellow vein virus (AYVV), confirming it as an isolate of AYVV. The complete nucleotide sequence of betasatellite showed greater than 89 % nucleotide sequence identity to an isolate of Tomato leaf curl Java betasatellite originating from Indonesian. The sequence of the alphasatellite displayed 92 % nucleotide sequence identity to Sida yellow vein China alphasatellite. This is the first identification of these components in Nepal and the first time they have been identified in papaya.

  10. [Human chromosome banding with raw extract of fruits or leaves of papaya].

    PubMed

    Solís, M V

    2001-01-01

    One week old human chromosome preparations were treated with filtrate from one liquefied leaf (53 g) of papaya (Carica papaya) in 100 ml of distilled water, and stained with 1.5% Giemsa (pH 6.8). Good chromosome banding was obtained after 2 min of treatment. Solutions that have been frozen even for years are effective and the method is cheaper and easier than others.

  11. Automatic segmentation of overlapping and touching chromosomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Zhiqiang; Chen, Xiaohua; Zhang, Renli; Yu, Chang

    2001-09-01

    This paper describes a technique to segment overlapping and touching chromosomes of human metaphase cells. Automated chromosome classification has been an important pattern recognition problem for decades, numerous attempts were made in the past to characterize chromosome band patterns. But successful separation between touching and overlapping chromosomes is vital for correct classification. Since chromosomes are non-rigid objects, common methods for separation between touching chromosomes are not usable. We proposed a method using shape concave and convex information, topology analysis information, and band pale paths for segmentation of touching and overlapping chromosomes. To detect shape concave and convex information, we should first pre-segment the chromosomes and get the edge of overlapping and touching chromosomes. After filtering the original image using edge-preserving filter, we adopt the Otsu's segmentation method and extract the boundary of chromosomes. Hence the boundary can be used for segment the overlapping and touching chromosomes by detecting the concave and convex information based on boundary information. Most of the traditional boundary-based algorithms detect corners based on two steps: the first step is to acquire the smoothed version of curvature at every point along the contour, and the second step is to detect the positions where curvature maximal occur and threshold the curvature as corner points. Recently wavelet transform has been adopted into corner detection algorithms. Since the metaphase overlapping chromosomes has multi-scale corners, we adopt a multi-scale corner detection method based on Hua's method for corner detection. For touching chromosomes, it is convenient to split them using pale paths. Starting from concave corner points, a search algorithm is represented. The searching algorithm traces three pixels into the object in the direction of the normal vector in order to avoid stopping at the initial boundary until it

  12. Obtaining information by dynamic (effortful) touching

    PubMed Central

    Turvey, M. T.; Carello, Claudia

    2011-01-01

    Dynamic touching is effortful touching. It entails deformation of muscles and fascia and activation of the embedded mechanoreceptors, as when an object is supported and moved by the body. It is realized as exploratory activities that can vary widely in spatial and temporal extents (a momentary heft, an extended walk). Research has revealed the potential of dynamic touching for obtaining non-visual information about the body (e.g. limb orientation), attachments to the body (e.g. an object's height and width) and the relation of the body both to attachments (e.g. hand's location on a grasped object) and surrounding surfaces (e.g. places and their distances). Invariants over the exploratory activity (e.g. moments of a wielded object's mass distribution) seem to ground this ‘information about’. The conception of a haptic medium as a nested tensegrity structure has been proposed to express the obtained information realized by myofascia deformation, by its invariants and transformations. The tensegrity proposal rationalizes the relative indifference of dynamic touch to the site of mechanical contact (hand, foot, torso or probe) and the overtness of exploratory activity. It also provides a framework for dynamic touching's fractal nature, and the finding that its degree of fractality may matter to its accomplishments. PMID:21969694

  13. A New NASA Book: Touch the Sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grice, N. A.

    2005-05-01

    People who are blind or visually impaired rely partly on their sense of touch to help paint pictures of objects and places in their mind's eye; however, astronomy and space science are, by nature, generally inaccessible to the touch. The universe, as seen by the Hubble Space Telescope, was made hands-on in 2002 with the publication of Touch the Universe: A NASA Braille Book of Astronomy. This year, the Sun becomes an accessible object in a new universally designed publication called Touch the Sun. Touch the Sun contains text pages with both print and Braille. It features colorful embossed images from the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) and the Transition Region and Coronal Explorer (TRACE) spacecraft. There is also a close-up picture of a sunspot from the National Solar Observatory at Sacramento Peak. Textures of swirling gas currents, dark sunspots, curving magnetic fields and explosive eruptions emphasize the dynamic nature of the Sun. The prototype images were tested with students from the Colorado School for the Deaf and Blind; the images were revised, based upon their evaluations. Drs. Joe Gurman and Steele Hill from the Goddard Space Flight Center served as scientific consultants. Learn more about this special resource and try out some of the tactile images yourself!

  14. Oral dosing with papaya latex is an effective anthelmintic treatment for sheep infected with Haemonchus contortus

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The cysteine proteinases in papaya latex have been shown to have potent anthelmintic properties in monogastric hosts such as rodents, pigs and humans, but this has not been demonstrated in ruminants. Methods In two experiments, sheep were infected concurrently with 5,000 infective larvae of Haemonchus contortus and 10,000 infective larvae of Trichostrongylus colubriformis and were then treated with the supernatant from a suspension of papaya latex from day 28 to day 32 post-infection. Faecal egg counts were monitored from a week before treatment until the end of the experiment and worm burdens were assessed on day 35 post-infection. Results We found that the soluble fraction of papaya latex had a potent in vivo effect on the abomasal nematode H. contortus, but not on the small intestinal nematode T. colubriformis. This effect was dose-dependent and at tolerated levels of gavage with papaya latex (117 μmol of active papaya latex supernatant for 4 days), the H. contortus worm burdens were reduced by 98%. Repeated treatment, daily for 4 days, was more effective than a single dose, but efficacy was not enhanced by concurrent treatment with the antacid cimetidine. Conclusions Our results provide support for the idea that cysteine proteinases derived from papaya latex may be developed into novel anthelmintics for the treatment of lumenal stages of gastro-intestinal nematode infections in sheep, particularly those parasitizing the abomasum. PMID:21406090

  15. Papain protects papaya trees from herbivorous insects: role of cysteine proteases in latex.

    PubMed

    Konno, Kotaro; Hirayama, Chikara; Nakamura, Masatoshi; Tateishi, Ken; Tamura, Yasumori; Hattori, Makoto; Kohno, Katsuyuki

    2004-02-01

    Many plants contain latex that exudes when leaves are damaged, and a number of proteins and enzymes have been found in it. The roles of those latex proteins and enzymes are as yet poorly understood. We found that papain, a cysteine protease in latex of the Papaya tree (Carica papaya, Caricaceae), is a crucial factor in the defense of the papaya tree against lepidopteran larvae such as oligophagous Samia ricini (Saturniidae) and two notorious polyphagous pests, Mamestra brassicae (Noctuidae) and Spodoptera litura (Noctuidae). Leaves of a number of laticiferous plants, including papaya and a wild fig, Ficus virgata (Moraceae), showed strong toxicity and growth inhibition against lepidopteran larvae, though no apparent toxic factors from these species have been reported. When the latex was washed off, the leaves of these lactiferous plants lost toxicity. Latexes of both papaya and the wild fig were rich in cysteine-protease activity. E-64, a cysteine protease-specific inhibitor, completely deprived the leaves of toxicity when painted on the surface of papaya and fig leaves. Cysteine proteases, such as papain, ficin, and bromelain, all showed toxicity. The results suggest that plant latex and the proteins in it, cysteine proteases in particular, provide plants with a general defense mechanism against herbivorous insects.

  16. Direct LAMP Assay without Prior DNA Purification for Sex Determination of Papaya

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Chi-Chu; Shih, Huei-Chuan; Ko, Ya-Zhu; Wang, Ren-Huang; Li, Shu-Ju; Chiang, Yu-Chung

    2016-01-01

    Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is an economically important tropical fruit tree with hermaphrodite, male and female sex types. Hermaphroditic plants are the major type used for papaya production because their fruits have more commercial advantages than those of female plants. Sex determination of the seedlings, or during the early growth stages, is very important for the papaya seedling industry. Thus far, the only method for determining the sex type of a papaya at the seedling stage has been DNA analysis. In this study, a molecular technique—based on DNA analysis—was developed for detecting male-hermaphrodite-specific markers to examine the papaya’s sex type. This method is based on the loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) and does not require prior DNA purification. The results show that the method is an easy, efficient, and inexpensive way to determine a papaya’s sex. This is the first report on the LAMP assay, using intact plant materials-without DNA purification-as samples for the analysis of sex determination of papaya. We found that using high-efficiency DNA polymerase was essential for successful DNA amplification, using trace intact plant material as a template DNA source. PMID:27669237

  17. The gentle touch receptors of mammalian skin.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Amanda; Bai, Ling; Ginty, David D

    2014-11-21

    The skin is our largest sensory organ, transmitting pain, temperature, itch, and touch information to the central nervous system. Touch sensations are conveyed by distinct combinations of mechanosensory end organs and the low-threshold mechanoreceptors (LTMRs) that innervate them. Here we explore the various structures underlying the diverse functions of cutaneous LTMR end organs. Beyond anchoring of LTMRs to the surrounding dermis and epidermis, recent evidence suggests that the non-neuronal components of end organs play an active role in signaling to LTMRs and may physically gate force-sensitive channels in these receptors. Combined with LTMR intrinsic properties, the balance of these factors comprises the response properties of mechanosensory neurons and, thus, the neural encoding of touch.

  18. The assembly of papaya mosaic virus coat protein with DNA.

    PubMed

    Erickson, J W; Bancroft, J B

    1980-01-01

    Products of specific (pH 8.0-8.5) and nonspecific (pH 6.0) assembly reactions of papaya mosaic virus (PMV) coat protein with DNA are described. The strandedness, topology, and sugar moiety of the nucleic acid are important parameters for assembly in nonspecific conditions. The linear, single-stranded form of lambda DNA, but not the double-stranded form, reacted with PMV protein to form multiply initiated particles whose helical segments apparently annealed to produce continuous tubular particles. With the circular, single-stranded DNA of phi X174, partially tubular, partially extended particles were made. Poly(dA), unlike poly(A) [Erickson JW, AbouHaidar M, Bancroft JB: Virology 90:60, 1978], was not encapsidated by PMV protein under specific assembly conditions. With all DNAs tested, extended particles were the only products formed in specific conditions at pH 8.5.

  19. Identification of gamma-irradiated papaya, melon and watermelon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marín-Huachaca, Nélida S.; Mancini-Filho, Jorge; Delincée, Henry; Villavicencio, Anna Lúcia C. H.

    2004-09-01

    Ionizing radiation can be used to control spoilage microorganisms and to increase the shelf life of fresh fruits and vegetables in replacement for the treatment with chemical fumigants. In order to enforce labelling regulations, methods for detecting the irradiation treatment directly in the produce are required. Recently, a number of detection methods for irradiated food have been adopted by the Codex Comission. A rapid screening method for qualitative detection of irradiation is the DNA Comet Assay. The applicability of the DNA Comet Assay for distinguishing irradiated papaya, melon, and watermelon was evaluated. The samples were treated in a 60Co facility at dose levels of 0.0, 0.5, 0.75, and 1.0kGy. The irradiated samples showed typical DNA fragmentation whereas cells from non-irradiated ones appeared intact. In addition to the DNA Comet Assay also the half-embryo test was applied in melon and watermelon to detect the irradiation treatment.

  20. Partial rootzone drying (PRD) and regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) effects on stomal conductance, growth, photosynthetic capacity, and water-use efficiency of papaya

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Papaya (Carica papaya, L.) is an important economic crop in tropical and subtropical countries in addition to its human health benefits. Papaya is a giant herbaceous species and maintaining adequate tissue turgidity and water availability is necessary to maintain the rigidity of the stem as well as...

  1. The development of anticipation in the fetus: a longitudinal account of human fetal mouth movements in reaction to and anticipation of touch.

    PubMed

    Reissland, N; Francis, B; Aydin, E; Mason, J; Schaal, B

    2014-07-01

    Research suggests that fetuses open or close their mouth in relation to directed movements but it is unclear whether mouth opening anticipates the touch or is a reaction to touch, as there has been no analysis so far of (1) the facial area of touch and (2) the sequential ordering of touch and mouth movements. If there is prenatal development of the anticipation of touch we would expect the frequency of fetal mouth opening immediately preceding the arriving hand at the mouth area to increase with fetal age. Fifteen healthy fetuses, eight girls and seven boys, underwent four additional 4-D scans at 24, 28, 32, and 36 weeks gestation. Changes in the frequency of touch for different facial regions indicated a significant decline in touch of the upper and side parts of the face and a significant increase in touching lower and perioral regions of the face with increasing gestational age. Results supporting the hypothesis showed a significant increase in the proportion of anticipatory mouth movements before touch increasing by around 8% with each week of gestational age. Additionally there was a decrease in the proportion of reactive mouth movements decreasing by around 3% for each week of gestational age.

  2. Antihypertensive effect of Carica papaya via a reduction in ACE activity and improved baroreflex.

    PubMed

    Brasil, Girlandia Alexandre; Ronchi, Silas Nascimento; do Nascimento, Andrews Marques; de Lima, Ewelyne Miranda; Romão, Wanderson; da Costa, Helber Barcellos; Scherer, Rodrigo; Ventura, José Aires; Lenz, Dominik; Bissoli, Nazaré Souza; Endringer, Denise Coutinho; de Andrade, Tadeu Uggere

    2014-11-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the antihypertensive effects of the standardised methanolic extract of Carica papaya, its angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitory effects in vivo, its effect on the baroreflex and serum angiotensin converting enzyme activity, and its chemical composition. The chemical composition of the methanolic extract of C. papaya was evaluated by liquid chromatography-mass/mass and mass/mass spectrometry. The angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitory effect was evaluated in vivo by Ang I administration. The antihypertensive assay was performed in spontaneously hypertensive rats and Wistar rats that were treated with enalapril (10 mg/kg), the methanolic extract of C. papaya (100 mg/kg; twice a day), or vehicle for 30 days. The baroreflex was evaluated through the use of sodium nitroprusside and phenylephrine. Angiotensin converting enzyme activity was measured by ELISA, and cardiac hypertrophy was evaluated by morphometric analysis. The methanolic extract of C. papaya was standardised in ferulic acid (203.41 ± 0.02 µg/g), caffeic acid (172.60 ± 0.02 µg/g), gallic acid (145.70 ± 0.02 µg/g), and quercetin (47.11 ± 0.03 µg/g). The flavonoids quercetin, rutin, nicotiflorin, clitorin, and manghaslin were identified in a fraction of the extract. The methanolic extract of C. papaya elicited angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitory activity. The antihypertensive effects elicited by the methanolic extract of C. papaya were similar to those of enalapril, and the baroreflex sensitivity was normalised in treated spontaneously hypertensive rats. Plasma angiotensin converting enzyme activity and cardiac hypertrophy were also reduced to levels comparable to the enalapril-treated group. These results may be associated with the chemical composition of the methanolic extract of C. papaya, and are the first step into the development of a new phytotherapic product which could be used in the treatment of hypertension.

  3. Cloning and expression analysis of phytoene desaturase and ζ-carotene desaturase genes in Carica papaya.

    PubMed

    Yan, P; Gao, X Z; Shen, W T; Zhou, P

    2011-02-01

    The fruit flesh color of papaya is an important nutritional quality trait and is due to the accumulation of carotenoid. To elucidate the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway in Carica papaya, the phytoene desaturase (PDS) and the ζ-carotene desaturase (ZDS) genes were isolated from papaya (named CpPDS and CpZDS) using the rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) approach, and their expression levels were investigated in red- and yellow-fleshed papaya varieties. CpPDS contains a 1749 bp open reading frame coding for 583 amino acids, while CpZDS contains a 1716 bp open reading frame coding for 572 amino acids. The deduced CpPDS and CpZDS proteins contain a conserved dinucleotide-binding site at the N-terminus and a carotenoid-binding domain at the C-terminus. Papaya genome sequence analysis revealed that CpPDS and CpZDS are single copy; the CpPDS was mapped to papaya chromosome LG6, and the CpZDS was mapped to chromosome LG3. Quantitative PCR showed that both CpPDS and CpZDS were expressed in all tissues examined with the highest expression in maturing fruits, and that the expression of CpPDS and CpZDS were higher in red-fleshed fruits than in yellow-fleshed fruits. These results indicated that the differential accumulation of carotenoids in red- and yellow-fleshed papaya varieties might be partly explained by the transcriptional level of CpPDS and CpZDS.

  4. The Role of Touch in Facilitated Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kezuka, Emiko

    1997-01-01

    A study investigated the role of touch in the use of facilitated communication with Japanese individuals with autism. Five experiments were conducted involving a "telepathy game" using a rod with an attached strain gauge. Results found the facilitator's contact controlled the motor responses of the subjects. (Author/CR)

  5. Mechanosensitive channels: in touch with Piezo.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Rui; Xu, X Z Shawn

    2010-11-09

    Mechanosensory transduction underlies touch, hearing and proprioception and requires mechanosensitive channels that are directly gated by forces; however, the molecular identities of these channels remain largely elusive. A new study has identified Piezo1 and Piezo2 as a novel class of mechanosensitive channels.

  6. Families Talking about Ecology at Touch Tanks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kopczak, Charles; Kisiel, James F.; Rowe, Shawn

    2015-01-01

    Research has demonstrated that conversations among museum, aquarium, and zoo visitors can be a clear indication of active learning, engagement, and participation in scientific reasoning. This descriptive study sought to determine the extent of talk about ecology-related topics exhibited by family groups visiting marine touch tanks at four Pacific…

  7. The Power of Touch: Massage for Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Elaine Fogel

    1996-01-01

    The potential benefits of massage for infants are discussed, including the role of touch on attachment and bonding and implications of massage for special needs infants. Research results on the benefits of massage for the infant and caregiver are covered, including increased bonding and enhanced growth and development. Historical information on…

  8. Touch Screen Tablets and Emergent Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumann, Michelle M.; Neumann, David L.

    2014-01-01

    The use of touch screen tablets by young children is increasing in the home and in early childhood settings. The simple tactile interface and finger-based operating features of tablets may facilitate preschoolers' use of tablet application software and support their educational development in domains such as literacy. This article reviews…

  9. Semen quality in papaya workers with long term exposure to ethylene dibromide.

    PubMed Central

    Ratcliffe, J M; Schrader, S M; Steenland, K; Clapp, D E; Turner, T; Hornung, R W

    1987-01-01

    To examine whether long term occupational exposure to ethylene dibromide (EDB) affects semen quality a cross sectional study of semen quality was conducted among 46 men employed in the papaya fumigation industry in Hawaii, with an average duration of exposure of five years and a geometric mean breathing zone exposure to airborne EDB of 88 ppb (eight hour time weighted average) and peak exposures of up to 262 ppb. The comparison group consisted of 43 unexposed men from a nearby sugar refinery. Statistically significant decreases in sperm count per ejaculate, the percentage of viable and motile sperm, and increases in the proportion of sperm with specific morphological abnormalities (tapered heads, absent heads, and abnormal tails) were observed among exposed men by comparison with controls after consideration of smoking, caffeine and alcohol consumption, subject's age, abstinence, history of urogenital disorders, and other potentially confounding variables. No effect of exposure to EDB on sperm velocity, the overall proportion of sperm with normal morphology, or YFF bodies was observed. These data strongly suggest that EDB may increase the risk of reproductive impairment in workers at exposure levels near the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health recommended limit of 45 ppb (as an eight hour time weighted average) and far below the current standard of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration of 20 ppm. PMID:3297130

  10. Use of microsatellite markers in molecular analysis of segregating populations of papaya (Carica papaya L.) derived from backcrossing.

    PubMed

    Pinto, F O; Pereira, M G; Luz, L N; Cardozo, D L; Ramos, H C C; Macedo, C M P

    2013-07-08

    Brazil is the world leader in papaya production. However, only a small number of cultivars are registered for commercial planting, mainly owing to delays in obtaining cultivars and the high costs of the field phase of breeding programs. These costs can be reduced when molecular tools are combined with conventional breeding methods. In the present study, we conducted a molecular analysis of a self-fertilized population of a first backcrossing generation of BC1S1 papaya plants via microsatellite markers both to monitor the level of homozygosity and the gene/allele transfer that confers the Golden trait (fruit color) and to assess the parental genomic proportion in the genotypes studied. Based on the analysis of 20 polymorphic microsatellite loci, 19 genotypes with the Golden trait belonging to BC1S1 were evaluated in addition to the parental genotypes. Genetic distance was estimated through weighted index. The genotypes were then grouped using the hierarchical nearest neighbor method, and the analysis of principal coordinates was used to measure the proportion of parental genomes in the segregating genotypes. The mean value of the inbreeding coefficient was 0.36. The analysis of the principal coordinates revealed that on average, 64% of the recurrent parent genome was present in the population. Together, the analyses allowed the selection of 3 individuals for the next backcross cycle (33BC1S1-18, 34BC1S1-16, and 37BC1S1-10). These individuals had a higher proportion of the recurrent parent and were grouped close to the recurrent parent in the cluster analysis.

  11. Appetite - decreased

    MedlinePlus

    ... cancer Ovarian cancer Stomach cancer Pancreatic cancer Other causes of decreased appetite include: Chronic liver disease Chronic kidney disease Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) Dementia Heart failure ...

  12. For 'Preemies,' Human Touch May Be a Brain Booster

    MedlinePlus

    ... html For 'Preemies,' Human Touch May Be a Brain Booster Diminished response seen in premature infants who ... 16, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Underscoring the link between brain development and touch, new research suggests premature babies ...

  13. Production of Internal Yellowing Symptoms on Resistant and Susceptible Papaya Cultivars by Enterobacter cloacae at Varying Inoculum Concentrations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Internal yellowing (IY) is a bacterial disease of ripening papaya flesh caused by Enterobacter cloacae and characterized by yellow softening tissue. IY restricts food safety of value-added products like fresh or frozen papaya cubes. The incidence of E. cloacae presumably differs in resistant (R) a...

  14. Identification, Expression and IAA-Amide Synthetase Activity Analysis of Gretchen Hagen 3 in Papaya Fruit (Carica papaya L.) during Postharvest Process

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Kaidong; Wang, Jinxiang; Li, Haili; Zhong, Jundi; Feng, Shaoxian; Pan, Yaoliang; Yuan, Changchun

    2016-01-01

    Auxin plays essential roles in plant development. Gretchen Hagen 3 (GH3) genes belong to a major auxin response gene family and GH3 proteins conjugate a range of acylsubstrates to alter the levels of hormones. Currently, the role of GH3 genes in postharvest physiological regulation of ripening and softening processes in papaya fruit is unclear. In this study, we identified seven CpGH3 genes in a papaya genome database. The CpGH3.1a, CpGH3.1b, CpGH3.5, CpGH3.6, and CpGH3.9 proteins were identified as indole-3-acetic acid (IAA)-specific amido synthetases. We analyzed the changes in IAA-amido synthetase activity using aspartate as a substrate for conjugation and found a large increase (over 5-fold) during the postharvest stages. Ascorbic acid (AsA) application can extend the shelf life of papaya fruit. Our data showed that AsA treatment regulates postharvest fruit maturation processes by promoting endogenous IAA levels. Our findings demonstrate the important role of GH3 genes in the regulation of auxin-associated postharvest physiology in papaya. PMID:27812360

  15. Relationships between SAP-flow measurements, whole-canopy transpiration and reference evapotranspiration in field-grown papaya (Carica papaya L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Whole-canopy gas exchange measurement in papaya can provide a scientific basis to optimize irrigation, and fruit yield and quality. The objectives of this study were to: 1) verify the relationship between xylem sap flow measured by the heat coefficient method and whole canopy transpiration in ‘Gra...

  16. NIa-Pro of Papaya ringspot virus interacts with Carica papaya eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3 subunit G (CpeIF3G).

    PubMed

    Gao, Le; Tuo, Decai; Shen, Wentao; Yan, Pu; Li, Xiaoying; Zhou, Peng

    2015-02-01

    The interaction of papaya eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3 subunit G (CpeIF3G) with Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) NIa-Pro was validated using a bimolecular fluorescence complementation assay in papaya protoplasts based on the previous yeast two-hybrid assay results. The C-terminal (residues 133-239) fragment of PRSV NIa-Pro and the central domain (residues 59-167) of CpeIF3G were required for effective interaction between NIa-Pro and CpeIF3G as shown by a Sos recruitment yeast two-hybrid system with several deletion mutants of NIa-Pro and CpeIF3G. The central domain of CpeIF3G, which contains a C2HC-type zinc finger motif, is required to bind to other eIFs of the translational machinery. In addition, quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR assay confirmed that PRSV infection leads to a 2- to 4.5-fold up-regulation of CpeIF3G mRNA in papaya. Plant eIF3G is involved in various stress response by enhancing the translation of resistance-related proteins. It is proposed that the NIa-Pro-CpeIF3G interaction may impair translation preinitiation complex assembly of defense proteins and interfere with host defense.

  17. Molecular diagnosis of Papaya meleira virus (PMeV) from leaf samples of Carica papaya L. using conventional and real-time RT-PCR.

    PubMed

    Abreu, Paolla M V; Piccin, João G; Rodrigues, Silas P; Buss, David S; Ventura, José A; Fernandes, Patricia M B

    2012-03-01

    Papaya meleira virus (PMeV) is the causal agent of papaya sticky disease. This study describes two methods for molecular diagnosis of PMeV using conventional and real-time PCR. These methods were shown to be more efficient than current methods of viral detection using extraction of PMeV dsRNA and observation of symptoms in the field. The methods described here were used to evaluate the effect of inoculation of papaya plants with purified PMeV dsRNA on the progress of PMeV infection. A single inoculation with PMeV dsRNA was observed to delay the progress of the virus infection by several weeks. The possibility of vertical transmission of PMeV was also investigated. No evidence was found for PMeV transmission through seeds collected from diseased fruit. The implications of these results for the epidemiology of PMeV and the management of papaya sticky disease are discussed.

  18. "A touch of physiotherapy" - the significance and meaning of touch in the practice of physiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Bjorbækmo, Wenche Schrøder; Mengshoel, Anne Marit

    2016-01-01

    Touch, while ubiquitous and ever present in the practice of physiotherapy, is conspicuously absent from physiotherapy-related research. Based on a theoretical perspective inspired by phenomenology, this article explores and elaborates on the meaning and significance of touch in the practice of physiotherapy. The research data were generated through 16 close observations conducted in primary care clinics, and through interviews with 9 physiotherapists and with 9 patients suffering from chronic neck problems. The findings revealed how the use of touch in the practice of physiotherapy brings people into proximity in ways more complex than simple skin-to-skin contact. Through nontouch, touch, and movements, physiotherapists invite their patients to participate in the process of creating and performing therapy; dialogue through touch and movement is vital. Touch in physiotherapy depends on the physiotherapist's embodied skills; those they cultivate in order to respectfully listen to their patients and guide them to explore their own bodily capacity, limits and possibilities. The findings also suggest that observing therapy from outside and from participating in it offer significant different experiences, information, understanding, and meanings. The differences between physiotherapy as observed expression and as lived experience would seem to have important implications for understanding the practice of physiotherapy.

  19. The Effect of Counselor Touch in an Initial Counseling Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubble, Mark A.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Investigated the effect of counselor touch on female clients (N=32) and the moderating effect of clients' field dependence-independence on their response to a counselor's touch. Results indicated that counselors were perceived as significantly more expert when they touched than when they did not. Suggests implications for counseling. (Author)

  20. Friendly touch increases gratitude by inducing communal feelings.

    PubMed

    Simão, Cláudia; Seibt, Beate

    2015-01-01

    Communion among people is easily identifiable. Close friends or relatives frequently touch each other and this physical contact helps identifying the type of relationship they have. We tested whether a friendly touch and benefits elicit the emotion of gratitude given the close link between gratitude and communal relations. In Study 1, we induced a communal mindset and manipulated friendly touch (vs. non-touch) and benefit to female participants by a female confederate. We measured pre- and post-benefit gratitude, communal feelings, and liking toward the toucher, as well as general affect. In Study 2, we manipulated mindset, friendly touch and benefit, and measured the same variables in female pairs (confederate and participants). In both studies the results showed a main effect of touch on pre-benefit gratitude: participants who were touched by the confederate indicated more gratitude than those not touched. Moreover, benefit increased gratitude toward a confederate in the absence of touch, but not in the presence of touch. Additionally, perceiving the relationship as communal, and not merely liking the confederate, or a positive mood mediated the link between touch and gratitude. The results further support a causal model where touch increases communal feelings, which in turn increase gratitude at the end of the interaction, after having received a benefit from the interaction partner. These results support a broader definition of gratitude as an emotion embodied in communal relationship cues.

  1. Therapeutic Touch and Healing Meditation: A Threesome with Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenspan, Marlene

    1994-01-01

    Briefly reviews the use of therapeutic touch in early Western culture and Judaic tradition and by modern practitioners. Discusses modern scientific approaches to therapeutic touch, including its use by nurses. Offers suggestions for and examples of the use of meditation, relaxation exercises, and therapeutic touch with adolescents in classroom and…

  2. Friendly touch increases gratitude by inducing communal feelings

    PubMed Central

    Simão, Cláudia; Seibt, Beate

    2015-01-01

    Communion among people is easily identifiable. Close friends or relatives frequently touch each other and this physical contact helps identifying the type of relationship they have. We tested whether a friendly touch and benefits elicit the emotion of gratitude given the close link between gratitude and communal relations. In Study 1, we induced a communal mindset and manipulated friendly touch (vs. non-touch) and benefit to female participants by a female confederate. We measured pre- and post-benefit gratitude, communal feelings, and liking toward the toucher, as well as general affect. In Study 2, we manipulated mindset, friendly touch and benefit, and measured the same variables in female pairs (confederate and participants). In both studies the results showed a main effect of touch on pre-benefit gratitude: participants who were touched by the confederate indicated more gratitude than those not touched. Moreover, benefit increased gratitude toward a confederate in the absence of touch, but not in the presence of touch. Additionally, perceiving the relationship as communal, and not merely liking the confederate, or a positive mood mediated the link between touch and gratitude. The results further support a causal model where touch increases communal feelings, which in turn increase gratitude at the end of the interaction, after having received a benefit from the interaction partner. These results support a broader definition of gratitude as an emotion embodied in communal relationship cues. PMID:26124737

  3. Handling Pressures: Analysing Touch in American Films about Youth Sport

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chare, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines how films produced in the USA in the past 10 years and featuring the coaching of youth sport, represent the issue of touch during instruction and training. Touch in such films is figured in diverse ways ranging from pats of reassurance and hugs of congratulation to cuffs of disapprobation. Touch is also occasionally depicted…

  4. Data on screening and identification of genetically modified papaya in food supplements.

    PubMed

    Prins, Theo W; Scholtens, Ingrid M J; Bak, Arno W; van Dijk, Jeroen P; Voorhuijzen, Marleen M; Laurensse, Emile J; Kok, Esther J

    2016-12-01

    This article contains data related to the research article entitled "A case study to determine the geographical origin of unknown GM papaya in routine food sample analysis, followed by identification of papaya events 16-0-1 and 18-2-4" (Prins et al., 2016) [1]. Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) with targets that are putatively present in genetically modified (GM) papaya was used as a first screening to narrow down the vast array of candidates. The combination of elements P-nos and nptII was further confirmed by amplification and subsequent sequencing of the P-nos/nptII construct. Next, presence of the candidate GM papayas 16-0-1 and 18-2-4 were investigated by amplification and sequencing of event-spanning regions on the left and right border. This data article reports the Cq values for GM elements, the nucleotide sequence of the P-nos/nptII construct and the presence of GM papaya events 18-2-4 and/or 16-0-1 in five samples that were randomly sampled to be analysed in the framework of the official Dutch GMO monitoring program for food.

  5. Bend, stretch, and touch: Locating a finger on an actively deformed transparent sensor array

    PubMed Central

    Sarwar, Mirza Saquib; Dobashi, Yuta; Preston, Claire; Wyss, Justin K. M.; Mirabbasi, Shahriar; Madden, John David Wyndham

    2017-01-01

    The development of bendable, stretchable, and transparent touch sensors is an emerging technological goal in a variety of fields, including electronic skin, wearables, and flexible handheld devices. Although transparent tactile sensors based on metal mesh, carbon nanotubes, and silver nanowires demonstrate operation in bent configurations, we present a technology that extends the operation modes to the sensing of finger proximity including light touch during active bending and even stretching. This is accomplished using stretchable and ionically conductive hydrogel electrodes, which project electric field above the sensor to couple with and sense a finger. The polyacrylamide electrodes are embedded in silicone. These two widely available, low-cost, transparent materials are combined in a three-step manufacturing technique that is amenable to large-area fabrication. The approach is demonstrated using a proof-of-concept 4 × 4 cross-grid sensor array with a 5-mm pitch. The approach of a finger hovering a few centimeters above the array is readily detectable. Light touch produces a localized decrease in capacitance of 15%. The movement of a finger can be followed across the array, and the location of multiple fingers can be detected. Touch is detectable during bending and stretch, an important feature of any wearable device. The capacitive sensor design can be made more or less sensitive to bending by shifting it relative to the neutral axis. Ultimately, the approach is adaptable to the detection of proximity, touch, pressure, and even the conformation of the sensor surface. PMID:28345045

  6. Design and algorithm research of high precision airborne infrared touch screen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiao-Bing; Wang, Shuang-Jie; Fu, Yan; Chen, Zhao-Quan

    2016-10-01

    There are shortcomings of low precision, touch shaking, and sharp decrease of touch precision when emitting and receiving tubes are failure in the infrared touch screen. A high precision positioning algorithm based on extended axis is proposed to solve these problems. First, the unimpeded state of the beam between emitting and receiving tubes is recorded as 0, while the impeded state is recorded as 1. Then, the method of oblique scan is used, in which the light of one emitting tube is used for five receiving tubes. The impeded information of all emitting and receiving tubes is collected as matrix. Finally, according to the method of arithmetic average, the position of the touch object is calculated. The extended axis positioning algorithm is characteristic of high precision in case of failure of individual infrared tube and affects slightly the precision. The experimental result shows that the 90% display area of the touch error is less than 0.25D, where D is the distance between adjacent emitting tubes. The conclusion is gained that the algorithm based on extended axis has advantages of high precision, little impact when individual infrared tube is failure, and using easily.

  7. Social facial touch in rats.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, Jason; Mende, Carolin; Brecht, Michael

    2011-12-01

    We know much about how rats use their whiskers to discriminate simple tactile properties, but little about how they are used in natural settings. Here we studied whisker motion during social interactions between rats in order to gain a better understanding of natural whisker use in this model system for sensorimotor integration. In the first set of experiments, an intruder was placed in a second rat's home cage. Anogenital sniffing immediately ensued; later in the trial, facial interactions occurred at least as frequently. Whereas much previous work has focused on the importance of anogenital sniffing during social interactions, these facial interactions were accompanied by some of the most intense whisker behaviors described to date. Whisker trimming increased biting but reduced boxing. In addition, whiskers were more protracted and whisking amplitude was larger in aggressive than in nonaggressive interactions. In a second set of experiments, rats interacted facially across a gap. As rats approached each other, whisking amplitude decreased and whiskers were more protracted. Whisker trimming disrupted facial alignment and reduced the frequency of interactions, indicating that whisker use, and possibly whisker protraction, is important for rats to orient themselves with respect to one another. We also found that females whisked with smaller amplitude when interacting with males than with females, and that they held their whiskers less protracted than males. The natural whisker use described here should further our understanding of this important somatosensory system during social interactions.

  8. An Exploration of the Interaction Between Touch Avoidance and the Pleasant Touch (C-Tactile Afferent) System.

    PubMed

    Hielscher, Emily; Mahar, Doug

    2016-08-09

    C-tactile (CT) afferent fibers are optimally stimulated by slow gentle stroking, and an inverted U-shaped relationship exists between stroking velocity and pleasantness ratings of this type of touch. This study investigated whether an additional and potentially important variable, touch avoidance, interacts with this relationship. While a typical U-shaped velocity-pleasantness relationship was expected, those high in touch avoidance were expected to rate CT-targeted touch (1-10 cm/s) as less pleasant than those low in touch avoidance. Thirty-five participants rated the pleasantness of a brush stroked across their forearm at five velocities (0.3, 1, 3, 10, 30 cm/s) administered by a custom-built touch stimulator ("the touch device"). Participants also completed two self-report measures of touch avoidance. There was an inverted U-shaped relationship between velocity and pleasantness ratings, and high touch avoidance resulted in a downward shift of this curve. The downward shift was across all velocities, including those that do not maximally engage CT afferents. It appears that touch avoidance reduces the pleasantness of all kinds of touch in a similar way, and it is unlikely to be specifically related to CT afferent functioning. Other potential mechanisms leading to touch avoidance are discussed.

  9. Modulatory potentials of aqueous leaf and unripe fruit extracts of Carica papaya Linn. (Caricaceae) against carbon tetrachloride and acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity in rats

    PubMed Central

    Awodele, Olufunsho; Yemitan, Omoniyi; Ise, Peter Uduak; Ikumawoyi, Victor Olabowale

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Carica papaya Linn is used in a traditional medicine for hepatobiliary disorders. This study investigated the hepatomodulatory effects of aqueous extracts of C. papaya leaf (CPL) and unripe fruit (CPF) at doses of 100 and 300 mg/kg on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) and acetaminophen (ACM)-induced liver toxicities in rats. Materials and Methods: Rats were administered CCl4 (3 ml/kg in olive oil, i.p.) followed by oral administration of CPL and CPF at 2, 6 and 10 h intervals. The ACM model proceeded with the same method but inclusive of animals treated with N-acetyl cysteine (3 ml/kg i.p). At the end of the study, serum levels of liver biomarkers and antioxidant enzymes were assessed and histology of the liver tissues determined. Results: There was a significant (P < 0.05) reduction in CCl4 and ACM-induced increases in serum levels of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase and direct bilirubin at 100 and 300 mg/kg, respectively. The levels of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase and reduced GSH were decreased in both models with corresponding significantly (P < 0.05) elevated level of malondialdehyde. However, these antioxidant enzymes were significantly (P < 0.05) increased in CPL and CPF-treated rats. Histopathological assessment of the liver confirmed the protective effects of CPL and CPF on CCl4 and ACM-induced hepatic damage evidenced by the normal presentation of liver tissue architecture. Conclusion: These results indicate that aqueous extracts of C. papaya may be useful in preventing CCl4 and ACM-induced liver toxicities. PMID:27069723

  10. Design of portable valuables touch alarm circuit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Biqing; Li, Zhao

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, the name of the alarm is portable touch burglar alarm. It not only has the advantages of high sensitivity, small size and light weight, but it is easy on the trigger, the circuit is simple and easy to be implemented, besides, it works stably. This alarm is featured with simple design, convenient use, strong flexibility and reliable performance, thus it can be installed on the door or window and even can be carried on human's body. When the human body touches the metal valuables that need to be protected, the device will start the alarm equipment so as to make the bell keep ringing, and the alarm sound stops until the power is cut off.

  11. Lamb Wave Multi-touch Ultrasonic Touchscreen.

    PubMed

    Firouzi, Kamyar; Nikoozadeh, Amin; Carver, Thomas; Khuri-Yakub, Butrus

    2016-09-13

    Touchscreen sensors are widely used in many devices such as smart phones, tablets, laptops, etc., with diverse applications. We present the design, analysis, and implementation of an ultrasonic touchscreen system that utilizes interaction of transient Lamb waves with objects in contact with the screen. It attempts to improve on the existing ultrasound technologies, with the potential of addressing some of the weaknesses of the dominant technologies, such as the capacitive or resistive ones. Compared to the existing ultrasonic and acoustic modalities, among other advantages, it provides the capability of detecting several simultaneous touch points, and also a more robust performance. The localization algorithm, given the hardware design, can detect several touch points with a very limited number of measurements (one or two). This in turn can significantly reduce the manufacturing cost.

  12. Comparative activity of antioxidants from wheat sprouts, Morinda citrifolia, fermented papaya and white tea.

    PubMed

    Calzuola, Isabella; Gianfranceschi, Gian Luigi; Marsili, Valeria

    2006-01-01

    Hydroalcoholic extracts from wheat sprouts, white tea, Morinda citrifolia and fermented papaya were analysed to determine their reducing power and antioxidant activity. The results show that the micromoles of potassium ferricyanide reduced by a quantity of extract corresponding to 1 g of the various dehydrated starting tissues are: 12.91+/-0.83 (wheat sprouts), 10.66+/-1.22 (M. citrifolia), 17.06+/-1.24 (white tea), and 1.05+/-0.09 (fermented papaya). In addition the results show a strong oxygen superoxide scavenging activity in the extracts from white tea, M. citrifolia and wheat sprouts. The activity of the fermented papaya extract is the lowest. The thin-layer chromatography and UV spectrophotometry of the extracts show in each source a mixture of antioxidant compounds probably belonging to the families of reducing glycosides and polyphenols. The chromatographic pattern of the antioxidant compounds and the UV spectrum are quite different in the various sources.

  13. Touch receptor of venous flytrap, Dionaea muscipula.

    PubMed

    DiPalma, J R; McMichael, R; DiPalma, M

    1966-04-22

    Numerous small structures (stellate trichomnes) protrude from the surface of marginal hairs, outer leaf surface, and stem of Dionaea muscipula Ellis. None are present inside the trap. Mechanical stimulation causes small action potentials and eventual closure of the trap, independently of the sensitive trigger hairs. Subthreshold stimulation of these structures appears to sensitize the trigger hairs and facilitate closure of the trap. This suiggests that these structures act as touch sensors or receptors.

  14. The neurobiology of Etruscan shrew active touch.

    PubMed

    Brecht, Michael; Naumann, Robert; Anjum, Farzana; Wolfe, Jason; Munz, Martin; Mende, Carolin; Roth-Alpermann, Claudia

    2011-11-12

    The Etruscan shrew, Suncus etruscus, is not only the smallest terrestrial mammal, but also one of the fastest and most tactile hunters described to date. The shrew's skeletal muscle consists entirely of fast-twitch types and lacks slow fibres. Etruscan shrews detect, overwhelm, and kill insect prey in large numbers in darkness. The cricket prey is exquisitely mechanosensitive and fast-moving, and is as big as the shrew itself. Experiments with prey replica show that shape cues are both necessary and sufficient for evoking attacks. Shrew attacks are whisker guided by motion- and size-invariant Gestalt-like prey representations. Shrews often attack their prey prior to any signs of evasive manoeuvres. Shrews whisk at frequencies of approximately 14 Hz and can react with latencies as short as 25-30 ms to prey movement. The speed of attacks suggests that shrews identify and classify prey with a single touch. Large parts of the shrew's brain respond to vibrissal touch, which is represented in at least four cortical areas comprising collectively about a third of the cortical volume. Etruscan shrews can enter a torpid state and reduce their body temperature; we observed that cortical response latencies become two to three times longer when body temperature drops from 36°C to 24°C, suggesting that endothermy contributes to the animal's high-speed sensorimotor performance. We argue that small size, high-speed behaviour and extreme dependence on touch are not coincidental, but reflect an evolutionary strategy, in which the metabolic costs of small body size are outweighed by the advantages of being a short-range high-speed touch and kill predator.

  15. The neurobiology of Etruscan shrew active touch

    PubMed Central

    Brecht, Michael; Naumann, Robert; Anjum, Farzana; Wolfe, Jason; Munz, Martin; Mende, Carolin; Roth-Alpermann, Claudia

    2011-01-01

    The Etruscan shrew, Suncus etruscus, is not only the smallest terrestrial mammal, but also one of the fastest and most tactile hunters described to date. The shrew's skeletal muscle consists entirely of fast-twitch types and lacks slow fibres. Etruscan shrews detect, overwhelm, and kill insect prey in large numbers in darkness. The cricket prey is exquisitely mechanosensitive and fast-moving, and is as big as the shrew itself. Experiments with prey replica show that shape cues are both necessary and sufficient for evoking attacks. Shrew attacks are whisker guided by motion- and size-invariant Gestalt-like prey representations. Shrews often attack their prey prior to any signs of evasive manoeuvres. Shrews whisk at frequencies of approximately 14 Hz and can react with latencies as short as 25–30 ms to prey movement. The speed of attacks suggests that shrews identify and classify prey with a single touch. Large parts of the shrew's brain respond to vibrissal touch, which is represented in at least four cortical areas comprising collectively about a third of the cortical volume. Etruscan shrews can enter a torpid state and reduce their body temperature; we observed that cortical response latencies become two to three times longer when body temperature drops from 36°C to 24°C, suggesting that endothermy contributes to the animal's high-speed sensorimotor performance. We argue that small size, high-speed behaviour and extreme dependence on touch are not coincidental, but reflect an evolutionary strategy, in which the metabolic costs of small body size are outweighed by the advantages of being a short-range high-speed touch and kill predator. PMID:21969684

  16. Influence of the body schema on mirror-touch synesthesia.

    PubMed

    Medina, Jared; DePasquale, Carrie

    2017-03-01

    Individuals with mirror-touch synesthesia (MTS) report feeling touch on their own body when seeing someone else being touched. We examined how the body schema - an on-line representation of body position in space - is involved in mapping touch from a viewed body to one's own body. We showed 45 mirror-touch synesthetes videos of a hand being touched, varying the location of the viewed touch by hand (left, right), skin surface (palmar, dorsal) and finger (index, ring). Participant hand posture was either congruent or incongruent with the posture of the viewed hand. After seeing the video, participants were asked to report whether they felt touch on their own body and, if so, the intensity and location of their percepts. We found that participants reported more frequent and more veridical (i.e., felt at the same somatotopic location as the viewed touch) mirror-touch percepts on posturally congruent versus posturally incongruent trials. Furthermore, participant response patterns varied as a function of postural congruence. Some participants consistently felt sensations on the hand surface that was stimulated in the video - even if their hands were in the opposite posture. Other participants' responses were modulated based on their own hand position, such that percepts were more likely to be felt on the upright, plausible hand surface in the posturally incongruent condition. These results provide evidence that mapping viewed touch to one's own body involves an on-line representation of body position in space.

  17. Sensory and Emotional Perception of Wooden Surfaces through Fingertip Touch

    PubMed Central

    Bhatta, Shiv R.; Tiippana, Kaisa; Vahtikari, Katja; Hughes, Mark; Kyttä, Marketta

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies on tactile experiences have investigated a wide range of material surfaces across various skin sites of the human body in self-touch or other touch modes. Here, we investigate whether the sensory and emotional aspects of touch are related when evaluating wooden surfaces using fingertips in the absence of other sensory modalities. Twenty participants evaluated eight different pine and oak wood surfaces, using sensory and emotional touch descriptors, through the lateral motion of active fingertip exploration. The data showed that natural and smooth wood surfaces were perceived more positively in emotional touch than coated surfaces. We highlight the importance of preserving the naturalness of the surface texture in the process of wood-surface treatment so as to improve positive touch experiences, as well as avoid negative ones. We argue that the results may offer possibilities in the design of wood-based interior products with a view to improving consumer touch experiences. PMID:28348541

  18. Stability and efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells based on papaya-leaf dye.

    PubMed

    Suyitno, Suyitno; Saputra, Trisma Jaya; Supriyanto, Agus; Arifin, Zainal

    2015-09-05

    The present article reports on the enhancement of the performance and stability of natural dye-based dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Natural dyes extracted from papaya leaves (PL) were investigated as sensitizers in TiO2-based DSSCs and evaluated in comparison with N719 dye. The acidity of the papaya-leaf extract dyes was tuned by adding benzoic acid. The TiO2 film-coated fluorine-doped tin oxide glass substrates were prepared using the doctor-blade method, followed by sintering at 450 °C. The counter electrode was coated by chemically deposited catalytic platinum. The working electrodes were immersed in N719 dye and papaya dye solutions with concentrations of 8 g/100 mL. The absorbance spectra of the dyes were obtained by ultra-violet-visible spectroscopy. The energy levels of the dyes were measured by the method of cyclic voltammetry. In addition, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used to determine the characteristic functionalities of the dye molecules. The DSSC based on the N719 dye displayed a highest efficiency of 0.87% whereas those based on papaya-leaf dye achieved 0.28% at pH 3.5. The observed improved efficiency of the latter was attributed to the increased current density value. Furthermore, the DSSCs based on papaya-leaf dye with pH 3.5-4 exhibited better stability than those based on N719 dye. However, further studies are required to improve the current density and stability of natural dye-based DSSCs, including the investigation of alternative dye extraction routes, such as isolating the pure chlorophyll from papaya leaves and stabilizing it.

  19. Biomechanical, biochemical, and morphological mechanisms of heat shock-mediated germination in Carica papaya seed

    PubMed Central

    Webster, Rachel E.; Waterworth, Wanda M.; Stuppy, Wolfgang; West, Christopher E.; Ennos, Roland; Bray, Clifford M.; Pritchard, Hugh W.

    2016-01-01

    Carica papaya (papaya) seed germinate readily fresh from the fruit, but desiccation induces a dormant state. Dormancy can be released by exposure of the hydrated seed to a pulse of elevated temperature, typical of that encountered in its tropical habitat. Carica papaya is one of only a few species known to germinate in response to heat shock (HS) and we know little of the mechanisms that control germination in tropical ecosystems. Here we investigate the mechanisms that mediate HS-induced stimulation of germination in pre-dried and re-imbibed papaya seed. Exogenous gibberellic acid (GA3 ≥250 µM) overcame the requirement for HS to initiate germination. However, HS did not sensitise seeds to GA3, indicative that it may act independently of GA biosynthesis. Seed coat removal also overcame desiccation-imposed dormancy, indicative that resistance to radicle emergence is coat-imposed. Morphological and biomechanical studies identified that neither desiccation nor HS alter the physical structure or the mechanical strength of the seed coat. However, cycloheximide prevented both seed coat weakening and germination, implicating a requirement for de novo protein synthesis in both processes. The germination antagonist abscisic acid prevented radicle emergence but had no effect on papaya seed coat weakening. Desiccation therefore appears to reduce embryo growth potential, which is reversed by HS, without physically altering the mechanical properties of the seed coat. The ability to germinate in response to a HS may confer a competitive advantage to C. papaya, an opportunistic pioneer species, through detection of canopy removal in tropical forests. PMID:27811004

  20. Stability and efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells based on papaya-leaf dye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suyitno, Suyitno; Saputra, Trisma Jaya; Supriyanto, Agus; Arifin, Zainal

    2015-09-01

    The present article reports on the enhancement of the performance and stability of natural dye-based dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Natural dyes extracted from papaya leaves (PL) were investigated as sensitizers in TiO2-based DSSCs and evaluated in comparison with N719 dye. The acidity of the papaya-leaf extract dyes was tuned by adding benzoic acid. The TiO2 film-coated fluorine-doped tin oxide glass substrates were prepared using the doctor-blade method, followed by sintering at 450 °C. The counter electrode was coated by chemically deposited catalytic platinum. The working electrodes were immersed in N719 dye and papaya dye solutions with concentrations of 8 g/100 mL. The absorbance spectra of the dyes were obtained by ultra-violet-visible spectroscopy. The energy levels of the dyes were measured by the method of cyclic voltammetry. In addition, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used to determine the characteristic functionalities of the dye molecules. The DSSC based on the N719 dye displayed a highest efficiency of 0.87% whereas those based on papaya-leaf dye achieved 0.28% at pH 3.5. The observed improved efficiency of the latter was attributed to the increased current density value. Furthermore, the DSSCs based on papaya-leaf dye with pH 3.5-4 exhibited better stability than those based on N719 dye. However, further studies are required to improve the current density and stability of natural dye-based DSSCs, including the investigation of alternative dye extraction routes, such as isolating the pure chlorophyll from papaya leaves and stabilizing it.

  1. Biomechanical, biochemical, and morphological mechanisms of heat shock-mediated germination in Carica papaya seed.

    PubMed

    Webster, Rachel E; Waterworth, Wanda M; Stuppy, Wolfgang; West, Christopher E; Ennos, Roland; Bray, Clifford M; Pritchard, Hugh W

    2016-12-01

    Carica papaya (papaya) seed germinate readily fresh from the fruit, but desiccation induces a dormant state. Dormancy can be released by exposure of the hydrated seed to a pulse of elevated temperature, typical of that encountered in its tropical habitat. Carica papaya is one of only a few species known to germinate in response to heat shock (HS) and we know little of the mechanisms that control germination in tropical ecosystems. Here we investigate the mechanisms that mediate HS-induced stimulation of germination in pre-dried and re-imbibed papaya seed. Exogenous gibberellic acid (GA3 ≥250 µM) overcame the requirement for HS to initiate germination. However, HS did not sensitise seeds to GA3, indicative that it may act independently of GA biosynthesis. Seed coat removal also overcame desiccation-imposed dormancy, indicative that resistance to radicle emergence is coat-imposed. Morphological and biomechanical studies identified that neither desiccation nor HS alter the physical structure or the mechanical strength of the seed coat. However, cycloheximide prevented both seed coat weakening and germination, implicating a requirement for de novo protein synthesis in both processes. The germination antagonist abscisic acid prevented radicle emergence but had no effect on papaya seed coat weakening. Desiccation therefore appears to reduce embryo growth potential, which is reversed by HS, without physically altering the mechanical properties of the seed coat. The ability to germinate in response to a HS may confer a competitive advantage to C. papaya, an opportunistic pioneer species, through detection of canopy removal in tropical forests.

  2. Modelling and design of a capacitive touch sensor for urinary tract infection detection at the point-of-care.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Cátia; Dong, Tao

    2014-01-01

    Due to great use of touchscreens in mobile telephones and other electronic devices, there has been great evolution in this technology. Its wide applicability makes the touch sensor technology suitable for detection of specific components in urine, responsible for urinary tract infection (UTI). Integration of a touch sensor in a disposable probe tip to be used in UTI detection represents a powerful tool to develop new point-of-care testing (POCT) devices. The simplified structure of an electrodes array touch screen was simulated using the software COMSOL Multiphysics to prove that capacitive based touch screens can be used for detection of UTI. Besides we assumed presence of E.coli, one of the major causes of UTI urine. Results show that global capacitance increases if an E.coli sphere is present near the active electrodes, remaining approximately constant when further apart electrodes are excited. The output simulated voltage varies according to the capacitance value, decreasing when the capacitance is increased.

  3. The mec-7 beta-tubulin gene of Caenorhabditis elegans is expressed primarily in the touch receptor neurons.

    PubMed Central

    Hamelin, M; Scott, I M; Way, J C; Culotti, J G

    1992-01-01

    Mutants of the mec-7 beta-tubulin gene of Caenorhabditis elegans lack the large diameter 15-protofilament microtubules normally found only in the set of six touch receptor neurons. Both a mec-7-lacZ reporter gene and affinity-purified anti-mec-7 antibodies were used to show that mec-7 is expressed primarily in the touch neurons. These data are consistent with a possible instructive role for the mec-7 tubulin in determining microtubule protofilament number. The antibodies and the mec-7-lacZ transgene were also used to examine mec-7 expression in mutants affecting the generation, differentiation or maintenance of the touch neurons. Decreased expression was observed in mutants of unc-86 and mec-3, genes that encode transcription factors essential for touch receptor neuron generation and differentiation, respectively. Images PMID:1639062

  4. The MAGIC Touch: Combining MAGIC-Pointing with a Touch-Sensitive Mouse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drewes, Heiko; Schmidt, Albrecht

    In this paper, we show how to use the combination of eye-gaze and a touch-sensitive mouse to ease pointing tasks in graphical user interfaces. A touch of the mouse positions the mouse pointer at the current gaze position of the user. Thus, the pointer is always at the position where the user expects it on the screen. This approach changes the user experience in tasks that include frequent switching between keyboard and mouse input (e.g. working with spreadsheets). In a user study, we compared the touch-sensitive mouse with a traditional mouse and observed speed improvements for pointing tasks on complex backgrounds. For pointing task on plain backgrounds, performances with both devices were similar, but users perceived the gaze-sensitive interaction of the touch-sensitive mouse as being faster and more convenient. Our results show that using a touch-sensitive mouse that positions the pointer on the user’s gaze position reduces the need for mouse movements in pointing tasks enormously.

  5. Papaya extract to treat dengue: a novel therapeutic option?

    PubMed

    Sarala, N; Paknikar, Ss

    2014-05-01

    Dengue is a viral disease that today affects a vast number of people in over 125 countries and is responsible for a sizable number of deaths. In the absence of an effective antiviral drug to treat the disease, various treatments are being investigated. Studies have indicated that the juice of the leaves of the Carica papaya plant from the family Caricaceae could help to increase the platelet levels in these patients. This review describes some of the published studies on this topic. The search was done independently by the two authors using PubMed, Google and the library database and included relevant articles of the last 10 years. A total of 7 studies were included in this review, which were one animal study, one case report, three case series and two randomized controlled trials. Although many of the studies and case reports published in literature lack adequate information, some of the studies do raise the possibility that this treatment could be an important option in the future. Further large-scale studies could establish the usefulness or ineffectiveness of this natural product in the treatment of dengue.

  6. Papaya Extract to Treat Dengue: A Novel Therapeutic Option?

    PubMed Central

    Sarala, N; Paknikar, SS

    2014-01-01

    Dengue is a viral disease that today affects a vast number of people in over 125 countries and is responsible for a sizable number of deaths. In the absence of an effective antiviral drug to treat the disease, various treatments are being investigated. Studies have indicated that the juice of the leaves of the Carica papaya plant from the family Caricaceae could help to increase the platelet levels in these patients. This review describes some of the published studies on this topic. The search was done independently by the two authors using PubMed, Google and the library database and included relevant articles of the last 10 years. A total of 7 studies were included in this review, which were one animal study, one case report, three case series and two randomized controlled trials. Although many of the studies and case reports published in literature lack adequate information, some of the studies do raise the possibility that this treatment could be an important option in the future. Further large-scale studies could establish the usefulness or ineffectiveness of this natural product in the treatment of dengue. PMID:24971201

  7. Collaborative ring trial of the papaya endogenous reference gene and its polymerase chain reaction assays for genetically modified organism analysis.

    PubMed

    Wei, Jiaojun; Li, Feiwu; Guo, Jinchao; Li, Xiang; Xu, Junfeng; Wu, Gang; Zhang, Dabing; Yang, Litao

    2013-11-27

    The papaya (Carica papaya L.) Chymopapain (CHY) gene has been reported as a suitable endogenous reference gene for genetically modified (GM) papaya detection in previous studies. Herein, we further validated the use of the CHY gene and its qualitative and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays through an interlaboratory collaborative ring trial. A total of 12 laboratories working on detection of genetically modified organisms participated in the ring trial and returned test results. Statistical analysis of the returned results confirmed the species specificity, low heterogeneity, and single-copy number of the CHY gene among different papaya varieties. The limit of detection of the CHY qualitative PCR assay was 0.1%, while the limit of quantification of the quantitative PCR assay was ∼25 copies of haploid papaya genome with acceptable PCR efficiency and linearity. The differences between the tested and true values of papaya content in 10 blind samples ranged from 0.84 to 6.58%. These results indicated that the CHY gene was suitable as an endogenous reference gene for the identification and quantification of GM papaya.

  8. Label-free quantitative proteomics reveals differentially regulated proteins in the latex of sticky diseased Carica papaya L. plants.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Silas P; Ventura, José A; Aguilar, Clemente; Nakayasu, Ernesto S; Choi, HyungWon; Sobreira, Tiago J P; Nohara, Lilian L; Wermelinger, Luciana S; Almeida, Igor C; Zingali, Russolina B; Fernandes, Patricia M B

    2012-06-18

    Papaya meleira virus (PMeV) is so far the only described laticifer-infecting virus, the causal agent of papaya (Carica papaya L.) sticky disease. The effects of PMeV on the laticifers' regulatory network were addressed here through the proteomic analysis of papaya latex. Using both 1-DE- and 1D-LC-ESI-MS/MS, 160 unique papaya latex proteins were identified, representing 122 new proteins in the latex of this plant. Quantitative analysis by normalized spectral counting revealed 10 down-regulated proteins in the latex of diseased plants, 9 cysteine proteases (chymopapain) and 1 latex serine proteinase inhibitor. A repression of papaya latex proteolytic activity during PMeV infection was hypothesized. This was further confirmed by enzymatic assays that showed a reduction of cysteine-protease-associated proteolytic activity in the diseased papaya latex. These findings are discussed in the context of plant responses against pathogens and may greatly contribute to understand the roles of laticifers in plant stress responses.

  9. Carotenoids are more bioavailable from papaya than from tomato and carrot in humans: a randomised cross-over study

    PubMed Central

    Schweiggert, Ralf M.; Kopec, Rachel E.; Villalobos-Gutierrez, Maria G.; Högel, Josef; Quesada, Silvia; Esquivel, Patricia; Schwartz, Steven J.; Carle, Reinhold

    2014-01-01

    Carrot, tomato and papaya represent important dietary sources of β-carotene and lycopene. The main objective of the present study was to compare the bioavailability of carotenoids from these food sources in healthy human subjects. A total of sixteen participants were recruited for a randomised cross-over study. Test meals containing raw carrots, tomatoes and papayas were adjusted to deliver an equal amount of β-carotene and lycopene. For the evaluation of bioavailability, TAG-rich lipoprotein (TRL) fractions containing newly absorbed carotenoids were analysed over 9.5 h after test meal consumption. The bioavailability of β-carotene from papayas was approximately three times higher than that from carrots and tomatoes, whereas differences in the bioavailability of β-carotene from carrots and tomatoes were insignificant. Retinyl esters appeared in the TRL fractions at a significantly higher concentration after the consumption of the papaya test meal. Similarly, lycopene was approximately 2.6 times more bioavailable from papayas than from tomatoes. Furthermore, the bioavailability of β-cryptoxanthin from papayas was shown to be 2.9 and 2.3 times higher than that of the other papaya carotenoids β-carotene and lycopene, respectively. The morphology of chromoplasts and the physical deposition form of carotenoids were hypothesised to play a major role in the differences observed in the bioavailability of carotenoids from the foods investigated. Particularly, the liquid-crystalline deposition of β-carotene and the storage of lycopene in very small crystalloids in papayas were found to be associated with their high bioavailability. In conclusion, papaya was shown to provide highly bioavailable β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin and lycopene and may represent a readily available dietary source of provitamin A for reducing the incidence of vitamin A deficiencies in many subtropical and tropical developing countries. PMID:23931131

  10. Transcriptome Profiling Revealed Stress-Induced and Disease Resistance Genes Up-Regulated in PRSV Resistant Transgenic Papaya.

    PubMed

    Fang, Jingping; Lin, Aiting; Qiu, Weijing; Cai, Hanyang; Umar, Muhammad; Chen, Rukai; Ming, Ray

    2016-01-01

    Papaya is a productive and nutritious tropical fruit. Papaya Ringspot Virus (PRSV) is the most devastating pathogen threatening papaya production worldwide. Development of transgenic resistant varieties is the most effective strategy to control this disease. However, little is known about the genome-wide functional changes induced by particle bombardment transformation. We conducted transcriptome sequencing of PRSV resistant transgenic papaya SunUp and its PRSV susceptible progenitor Sunset to compare the transcriptional changes in young healthy leaves prior to infection with PRSV. In total, 20,700 transcripts were identified, and 842 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) randomly distributed among papaya chromosomes. Gene ontology (GO) category analysis revealed that microtubule-related categories were highly enriched among these DEGs. Numerous DEGs related to various transcription factors, transporters and hormone biosynthesis showed clear differences between the two cultivars, and most were up-regulated in transgenic papaya. Many known and novel stress-induced and disease-resistance genes were most highly expressed in SunUp, including MYB, WRKY, ERF, NAC, nitrate and zinc transporters, and genes involved in the abscisic acid, salicylic acid, and ethylene signaling pathways. We also identified 67,686 alternative splicing (AS) events in Sunset and 68,455 AS events in SunUp, mapping to 10,994 and 10,995 papaya annotated genes, respectively. GO enrichment for the genes displaying AS events exclusively in Sunset was significantly different from those in SunUp. Transcriptomes in Sunset and transgenic SunUp are very similar with noteworthy differences, which increased PRSV-resistance in transgenic papaya. No detrimental pathways and allergenic or toxic proteins were induced on a genome-wide scale in transgenic SunUp. Our results provide a foundation for unraveling the mechanism of PRSV resistance in transgenic papaya.

  11. Transcriptome Profiling Revealed Stress-Induced and Disease Resistance Genes Up-Regulated in PRSV Resistant Transgenic Papaya

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Jingping; Lin, Aiting; Qiu, Weijing; Cai, Hanyang; Umar, Muhammad; Chen, Rukai; Ming, Ray

    2016-01-01

    Papaya is a productive and nutritious tropical fruit. Papaya Ringspot Virus (PRSV) is the most devastating pathogen threatening papaya production worldwide. Development of transgenic resistant varieties is the most effective strategy to control this disease. However, little is known about the genome-wide functional changes induced by particle bombardment transformation. We conducted transcriptome sequencing of PRSV resistant transgenic papaya SunUp and its PRSV susceptible progenitor Sunset to compare the transcriptional changes in young healthy leaves prior to infection with PRSV. In total, 20,700 transcripts were identified, and 842 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) randomly distributed among papaya chromosomes. Gene ontology (GO) category analysis revealed that microtubule-related categories were highly enriched among these DEGs. Numerous DEGs related to various transcription factors, transporters and hormone biosynthesis showed clear differences between the two cultivars, and most were up-regulated in transgenic papaya. Many known and novel stress-induced and disease-resistance genes were most highly expressed in SunUp, including MYB, WRKY, ERF, NAC, nitrate and zinc transporters, and genes involved in the abscisic acid, salicylic acid, and ethylene signaling pathways. We also identified 67,686 alternative splicing (AS) events in Sunset and 68,455 AS events in SunUp, mapping to 10,994 and 10,995 papaya annotated genes, respectively. GO enrichment for the genes displaying AS events exclusively in Sunset was significantly different from those in SunUp. Transcriptomes in Sunset and transgenic SunUp are very similar with noteworthy differences, which increased PRSV-resistance in transgenic papaya. No detrimental pathways and allergenic or toxic proteins were induced on a genome-wide scale in transgenic SunUp. Our results provide a foundation for unraveling the mechanism of PRSV resistance in transgenic papaya. PMID:27379138

  12. Purification and characterization of a papaya (Carica papaya L.) pectin methylesterase isolated from a commercial papain preparation.

    PubMed

    Vasu, Prasanna; Savary, Brett J; Cameron, Randall G

    2012-07-15

    We purified a Carica papaya pectin methylesterase (CpL-PME; EC 3.1.1.11) from a commercial papain preparation. This CpL-PME was separated from the abundant cysteine endopeptidases activities using sequential hydrophobic interaction and cation-exchange chromatographies and then purified by affinity chromatography using Sepharose-immobilized kiwi PME inhibitor protein to obtain a single electrophoretically homogeneous protein. The enzyme was purified 92-fold with 38% yield, providing a specific activity of 1200 U/mg. The molecular weight was determined to be 35,135 by MALDI-TOF-MS in linear mode. MALDI-TOF-MS peptide mass fingerprinting following trypsin digestion indicated CpL-PME represents a novel Carica PME isoform. The CpL-PME required salt for activity, and it showed a broad activity range (pH 6-9) and moderate thermostability (optimum ca. 70°C). A calcium-insensitive methylated lime pectin treated with CpL-PME to reduce degree of methylesterification by 6% converted the substrate to high calcium sensitivity, indicating a processive mode of action. These properties support further research to apply CpL-PME to tailor pectin nanostructure.

  13. Interlaboratory validation data on real-time polymerase chain reaction detection for unauthorized genetically modified papaya line PRSV-YK.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Kosuke; Kondo, Kazunari; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Ishigaki, Takumi; Noguchi, Akio; Katsumata, Hiroshi; Takasaki, Kazuto; Futo, Satoshi; Sakata, Kozue; Fukuda, Nozomi; Mano, Junichi; Kitta, Kazumi; Tanaka, Hidenori; Akashi, Ryo; Nishimaki-Mogami, Tomoko

    2016-06-01

    This article is referred to research article entitled "Whole genome sequence analysis of unidentified genetically modified papaya for development of a specific detection method" (Nakamura et al., 2016) [1]. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) detection method for unauthorized genetically modified (GM) papaya (Carica papaya L.) line PRSV-YK (PRSV-YK detection method) was developed using whole genome sequence data (DDBJ Sequenced Read Archive under accession No. PRJDB3976). Interlaboratory validation datasets for PRSV-YK detection method were provided. Data indicating homogeneity of samples prepared for interlaboratory validation were included. Specificity and sensitivity test data for PRSV-YK detection method were also provided.

  14. Valorization of agroindustrial wastes: Identification by LC-MS and NMR of benzylglucosinolate from papaya (Carica papaya L.) seeds, a protective agent against lipid oxidation in edible oils.

    PubMed

    Castro-Vargas, Henry I; Baumann, Wolfram; Parada-Alfonso, Fabián

    2016-07-01

    In the present study we report the characterization of benzylglucosinolate (BG) isolated from papaya (Carica papaya L.) seeds. A methanolic extract was fractionated and further purified by solid phase extraction (SPE). It was analyzed by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS), and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1) H and (13) C-NMR) as well, and the target compound BG was identified by these two techniques. The effect of BG on lipid oxidation in edible vegetable oil (EO) was shown by observing some lipid oxidation products (linoleic acid hydroperoxides, LHP; hexanal, HEX; nonanal, NON; thiobarbituric acid reactives species, TBARS). BG reduced lipid oxidation production in EO by over 80%, as compared to a control sample and in this way has proved to be a useful antioxidant, even more effective than some antioxidants used by food industry.

  15. Impact of six fruits--banana, guava, mangosteen, pineapple, ripe mango and ripe papaya--on murine hepatic cytochrome P450 activities.

    PubMed

    Chatuphonprasert, Waranya; Jarukamjorn, Kanokwan

    2012-12-01

    The effects of six Thai fruits, namely banana, guava, mangosteen, pineapple, ripe mango and ripe papaya, on cytochrome P450 (P450) activities were investigated. The median inhibitory concentrations (IC(50) ) of each of the fruit juices on CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP2E1 and CYP3A11 activities were determined. Pineapple juice showed the strongest inhibitory effect against all the evaluated P450 isozyme activities in mouse hepatic microsomes, followed by mangosteen, guava, ripe mango, ripe papaya and banana. The study was further performed in male ICR mice given pineapple juice intragastrically at doses of 10, 20 and 40 mg kg(-1) per day for 7 or 28 days. In a concentration-dependent fashion, the pineapple juice raised ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase, aniline hydroxylase and erythromycin N-demethylase activities, which are marker enzymatic reactions responsible for CYP1A1, CYP2E1 and CYP3A11, respectively. The effect of pineapple juice on the expression of CYP1A1, CYP2E1 and CYP3A11 mRNAs corresponded to their enzymatic activities. However, the pineapple juice significantly decreased methoxyresorufin O-demethylase activity. These observations supported that the six Thai fruits were a feasible cause of food-drug interaction or adverse drug effects owing to their potential to modify several essential P450 activities. Individuals consuming large quantities of pineapple for long periods of time should be cautioned of these potential adverse effects.

  16. Assessment study on the use of Pawpaw; Carica papaya seeds to control Oreochromis niloticus breeding.

    PubMed

    Abbas, Hossam H; Abbas, Wafaa T

    2011-12-15

    This study was carried out to assess the ability of using pawpaw (Carica papaya) seeds as a natural reproduction inhibitor for tilapia fish (Oreochromis niloticus) culture to control its breeding. Biochemical, physiological and histopathological effects ofpawpaw seeds on male tilapia fish were also determined. Mature male tilapia were stocked for 4 weeks and treated with low dose (3 g/kg/day) and high dose (6 g/kg/day) of ground dried pawpaw seeds mixed with their feed. The obtained results showed that the pawpaw seeds induced permanent sterility in the high dose treated fish while the low dose treatment showed reversible results. The results also demonstrated that fish treated with high dose of pawpaw exhibited higher biochemical and physiological effects as: low meat quality, a progressive fall in erythrocyte (RBCs) count, hemoglobin (Hb) content and haematocrit values. Also the high dose revealed a significant increase in the leukocytes (WBCs) count, serum glucose, total protein, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), creatinine and uric acid levels. Moreover, serum total lipids revealed a significant decrease compared to control group. On the other hand, the low dose treatment revealed lower biochemical and physiological changes. Histological sections of testis showed disintegration of sperm cells and focal necrosis of seminefrous tubules in the high dose treated fish, hepato-pancreas and posterior kidney tissues also showed severe changes in high dose treated fish. Milder degenerative changes in some necrotic foci and slight changes in hepato-pancreas and posterior kidney were observed in the low dose treated fish. The study concluded that pawpaw seeds which are cheap and easy to obtain, can be incorporated into fish feeds with adjusted amount and be used to control breeding of tilapia fish in growing ponds instead of unfavorable and expensive hormonal use.

  17. Losing touch in the era of superbugs?

    PubMed

    Hass, Leif

    2010-01-01

    Nosocomial infections are increasingly multidrug resistant and at times more virulent. As such, they pose real threats to patients and clinicians. In this essay the author discusses his own methacillin-resistant staphylococcus infection and how it has affected his work in the hospital. In so doing, he reflects on the value of touch in the doctor-patient relationship. In particular, he discusses how gloves serve as a barrier to infection but also create a small distance between the doctors and their patients. The implications of contact precautions must be considered as we reflect on balancing patient-centered care with infection control.

  18. Low-dose gamma irradiation following hot water immersion of papaya (Carica papaya linn.) fruits provides additional control of postharvest fungal infection to extend shelf life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rashid, M. H. A.; Grout, B. W. W.; Continella, A.; Mahmud, T. M. M.

    2015-05-01

    Low-dose gamma irradiation (0.08 kGy over 10 min), a level significantly below that required to satisfy the majority of international quarantine regulations, has been employed to provide a significant reduction in visible fungal infection on papaya fruit surfaces. This is appropriate for local and national markets in producer countries where levels of commercial acceptability can be retained despite surface lesions due to fungal infection. Irradiation alone and in combination with hot-water immersion (50 °C for 10 min) has been applied to papaya (Carica papaya L.) fruits at both the mature green and 1/3 yellow stages of maturity. The incidence and severity of surface fungal infections, including anthracnose, were significantly reduced by the combined treatment compared to irradiation or hot water treatment alone, extending storage at 11 °C by 13 days and retaining commercial acceptability. The combined treatment had no significant, negative impact on ripening, with quality characteristics such as surface and internal colour change, firmness, soluble solids, acidity and vitamin C maintained at acceptable levels.

  19. Chemical and morphological characterization of Costa Rican papaya (Carica papaya L.) hybrids and lines with particular focus on their genuine carotenoid profiles.

    PubMed

    Schweiggert, Ralf M; Steingass, Christof B; Esquivel, Patricia; Carle, Reinhold

    2012-03-14

    Papaya (Carica papaya L.) F1 hybrids and inbred lines grown in Costa Rica were screened for morphological and nutritionally relevant fruit traits. The qualitative composition of carotenoids showed great similarity, being mostly composed of free and esterified β-cryptoxanthins accompanied by β-carotene, lycopene, and biosynthetic precursors. High levels of (all-E)-lycopene and its isomers were distinctive for red-fleshed hybrids, whereas yellow-fleshed fruits were virtually devoid of lycopenes. Because carotenoid levels among the investigated hybrids and lines differed significantly, this study supports the hypothesis of an exploitable genetic variability, and a potential heterotic effect regarding carotenoid expression may be instrumental in papaya-breeding programs. Due to significantly higher levels of provitamin A carotenoids and coinciding high levels of total lycopene, particularly red-fleshed hybrids might represent prospective sources of these compounds. Furthermore, the nutritional value of some genotypes was boosted by substantial amounts of ascorbic acid (up to 73 mg/100 g of fresh weight), which correlated to total soluble solids (R(2) = 0.86).

  20. Thrombocyte counts in mice after the administration of papaya leaf suspension.

    PubMed

    Sathasivam, Kathiresan; Ramanathan, Surash; Mansor, Sharif M; Haris, Mas Rosemal M H; Wernsdorfer, Walther H

    2009-10-01

    Following up a popular use of crude leaf preparations from Carica papaya for the treatment of dengue infections, a suspension of powdered Carica papaya leaves in palm oil has been investigated for its effect on thrombocyte counts in mice, administering by gavage 15 mg of powdered leaves per kg body weight to 5 mice. Equal numbers of animals received corresponding volumes of either palm oil alone or physiological saline solution. Thrombocyte counts before and at 1, 2, 4, 8, 10, 12, 24, 48 and 72 hours after dosing revealed significantly higher mean counts at 1, 2, 4, 8, 10 and 12 after dosing with the C. papaya leaf formulation as compared to the mean count at hour 0. There was only a non-significant rise of thrombocyte counts in the group having received saline solution, possibly the expression of a normal circadian rhythm in mice. The group having received palm oil only showed a protracted increase of platelet counts that was significant at hours 8 and 48 and obviously the result of a hitherto unknown stimulation of thrombocyte release. The results call for a dose-response investigation and for extending the studies to the isolation and identification of the C. papaya substances responsible for the release and/or production of thrombocytes.

  1. Antiplasmodial Properties and Bioassay-Guided Fractionation of Ethyl Acetate Extracts from Carica papaya Leaves.

    PubMed

    Melariri, Paula; Campbell, William; Etusim, Paschal; Smith, Peter

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the antiplasmodial properties of crude extracts from Carica papaya leaves to trace the activity through bioassay-guided fractionation. The greatest antiplasmodial activity was observed in the ethyl acetate crude extract. C. papaya showed a high selectivity for P. falciparum against CHO cells with a selectivity index of 249.25 and 185.37 in the chloroquine-sensitive D10 and chloroquine-resistant DD2 strains, respectively. Carica papaya ethyl acetate extract was subjected to bioassay-guided fractionation to ascertain the most active fraction, which was purified and identified using high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) and GC-MS (Gas chromatography-Mass spectrometry) methods. Linoleic and linolenic acids identified from the ethyl acetate fraction showed IC(50) of 6.88 μg/ml and 3.58 μg/ml, respectively. The study demonstrated greater antiplasmodial activity of the crude ethyl acetate extract of Carica papaya leaves with an IC(50) of 2.96 ± 0.14 μg/ml when compared to the activity of the fractions and isolated compounds.

  2. Efforts to deregulate Rainbow papaya in Japan: Molecular Characterization of Transgene and Vector Inserts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transformation plasmid-derived insert number and insert site sequence in 55-1 line papaya derivatives Rainbow and SunUp was determined as part of a larger petition to allow its import into Japan (Suzuki, et al., 2007, 2008). Three insertions were detected by Southern analysis and their correspondin...

  3. Characterization of insertion sites in Rainbow papaya, the first commercialized transgenic tree-fruit crop

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Inserts and insert sites in transgenic, commercial papaya line 55-1 derivatives Rainbow and SunUp were characterized as part of a petition to Japan to allow import of fresh fruit of these cultivars from the U.S. and to provide data for a larger study aimed at understanding the global impact of DNA t...

  4. Molecular and Clinical Effects of Green Tea and Fermented Papaya Preparation on Diabetes and Cardiovascular Diseases

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-11-14

    Assess the Effect of Green Tea on Diabetes; Assess the Effect of Fermented Papaya Pretration on Diabetes; Effects of Green Tea and FPP on C-reactive Proteins; Effects of Green Tea and FPP of Lipid Profiles in Diabetes; Effect of Green Tea and FPP on Atheroma Formation

  5. Factors affecting the anthelmintic efficacy of papaya latex in vivo: host sex and intensity of infection.

    PubMed

    Luoga, Wenceslaus; Mansur, Fadlul; Lowe, Ann; Duce, Ian R; Buttle, David J; Behnke, Jerzy M

    2015-07-01

    The development of plant-derived cysteine proteinases, such as those in papaya latex, as novel anthelmintics requires that the variables affecting efficacy be fully evaluated. Here, we conducted two experiments, the first to test for any effect of host sex and the second to determine whether the intensity of the worm burden carried by mice would influence efficacy. In both experiments, we used the standard C3H mouse reference strain in which papaya latex supernatant (PLS) consistently shows >80 % reduction in Heligmosomoides bakeri worm burdens, but to broaden the perspective, we also included for comparison mice of other strains that are known to respond more poorly to treatment with papaya latex. Our results confirmed that there is a strong genetic influence affecting efficacy of PLS in removing adult worm burdens. However, there was no effect of host sex on efficacy (C3H and NIH) and no effect of infection intensity (C3H and BALB/c). These results offer optimism that plant-derived cysteine proteinases (CPs), such as these from papaya latex, can function as effective anthelmintics, with neither host sex nor infection intensity presenting further hurdles to impede their development for future medicinal and veterinary usage.

  6. Extraction of light filth from whole leaves of alfalfa, lemon balm, papaya, and spearmint: collaborative study.

    PubMed

    Nakashima, M J; Glaze, L E

    1987-01-01

    Results are reported for a collaborative study to extend AOAC method 44.A06-44.A08 to extraction of light filth from whole leaves of alfalfa, lemon balm, papaya, and spearmint. A 5 g (spearmint) or 10 g (alfalfa, lemon balm, papaya) test portion is defatted with isopropanol in a simple reflux apparatus. Rat hairs, insect fragments, and whole insects are isolated by wet sieving on a No. 230 sieve, a deaerating boil in 40% isopropanol, and flotation with mineral oil-heptane (85 + 15) from Tween 80-Na4EDTA (1 + 1) and 40% isopropanol in a Wildman trap flask. Each product was spiked at a different level. For rat hairs, recoveries averaged 82.2% from alfalfa, 88.9% from lemon balm, 80.6% from papaya, and 79.6% from spearmint. Recoveries of whole or equivalent insects from these products averaged 66.1, 218.8, 69.4, and 85.4%, respectively; recoveries of insect fragments from these products averaged 89.6, 94.4, 94.1, and 88.1%, respectively. The method has been adopted official first action for extraction of light filth from whole leaves of alfalfa, papaya, and spearmint. The extension of the method to lemon balm was not recommended because of interferences by intrinsic whole insects, which were the same species as the spike material.

  7. CHROMOSOMAL LOCATION AND GENE PAUCITY IN THE MALE SPECIFIC REGION ON PAPAYA Y CHROMOSOME

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sex chromosomes in flowering plants evolved recently and many of them remain homomorphic, including those in papaya. We investigated the chromosomal location of papaya’s small male specific region of the hermaphrodite Y (Yh) chromosome (MSY) and its genomic features. We conducted chromosome fluoresc...

  8. High-density linkage mapping revealed suppression of recombination at the sex determination locus in papaya.

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Hao; Moore, Paul H; Liu, Zhiyong; Kim, Minna S; Yu, Qingyi; Fitch, Maureen M M; Sekioka, Terry; Paterson, Andrew H; Ming, Ray

    2004-01-01

    A high-density genetic map of papaya (Carica papaya L.) was constructed using 54 F(2) plants derived from cultivars Kapoho and SunUp with 1501 markers, including 1498 amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers, the papaya ringspot virus coat protein marker, morphological sex type, and fruit flesh color. These markers were mapped into 12 linkage groups at a LOD score of 5.0 and recombination frequency of 0.25. The 12 major linkage groups covered a total length of 3294.2 cM, with an average distance of 2.2 cM between adjacent markers. This map revealed severe suppression of recombination around the sex determination locus with a total of 225 markers cosegregating with sex types. The cytosine bases were highly methylated in this region on the basis of the distribution of methylation-sensitive and -insensitive markers. This high-density genetic map is essential for cloning of specific genes of interest such as the sex determination gene and for the integration of genetic and physical maps of papaya. PMID:15020433

  9. Chemical composition and antifungal activity of Carica papaya Linn. seed essential oil against Candida spp.

    PubMed

    He, X; Ma, Y; Yi, G; Wu, J; Zhou, L; Guo, H

    2017-05-01

    In recent years, the incidence of clinical yeast infections has increased dramatically. Due to the extensive use of broad-spectrum antifungal agents, there has been a notable increase in drug resistance among infections yeast species. As one of the most popular natural antimicrobial agents, essential oils (EOs) have attracted a lot of attention from the scientific community. The aim of this study was to analyse the chemical composition and examine the antifungal activity of the EO extracted from the seeds of Carica papaya Linn. The papaya seed EO was analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The major constituent is benzyl isothiocyanate (99·36%). The filter paper disc diffusion method and broth dilution method were employed. The EO showed inhibitory effect against all the tested Candida strains including C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis and C. tropical with inhibition zone diameters in the range of 14·2-33·2 mm, the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) in the range of 4·0-16·0 μg ml(-1) and the minimum fungicidal concentrations (MFCs) in the range of 16·0-64·0 μg ml(-1) . Here, we found that the papaya seed EO has promising anticandida activity and identify C. papaya L. as a potential natural source of antifungal agents.

  10. Assessment of the anti-protozoal activity of crude Carica papaya seed extract against Trypanosoma cruzi.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Coello, Matilde; Guzman-Marín, Eugenia; Ortega-Pacheco, Antonio; Perez-Gutiérrez, Salud; Acosta-Viana, Karla Y

    2013-10-11

    In order to determine the in vivo activity against the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, two doses (50 and 75 mg/kg) of a chloroform extract of Carica papaya seeds were evaluated compared with a control group of allopurinol. The activity of a mixture of the three main compounds (oleic, palmitic and stearic acids in a proportion of 45.9% of oleic acid, 24.1% of palmitic and 8.52% of stearic acid previously identified in the crude extract of C. papaya was evaluated at doses of 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg. Both doses of the extracts were orally administered for 28 days. A significant reduction (p < 0.05) in the number of blood trypomastigotes was observed in animals treated with the evaluated doses of the C. papaya extract in comparison with the positive control group (allopurinol 8.5 mg/kg). Parasitemia in animals treated with the fatty acids mixture was also significantly reduced (p < 0.05), compared to negative control animals. These results demonstrate that the fatty acids identified in the seed extracts of C. papaya (from ripe fruit) are able to reduce the number of parasites from both parasite stages, blood trypomastigote and amastigote (intracellular stage).

  11. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies of the glutaminyl cyclase from Carica papaya latex

    SciTech Connect

    Azarkan, Mohamed; Clantin, Bernard; Bompard, Coralie; Belrhali, Hassan; Baeyens-Volant, Danielle; Looze, Yvan; Wintjens, René

    2005-01-01

    The glutaminyl cyclase isolated from C. papaya latex has been crystallized using the hanging-drop method. Diffraction data have been collected at ESRF beamline BM14 and processed to 1.7 Å resolution. In living systems, the intramolecular cyclization of N-terminal glutamine residues is accomplished by glutaminyl cyclase enzymes (EC 2.3.2.5). While in mammals these enzymes are involved in the synthesis of hormonal and neurotransmitter peptides, the physiological role played by the corresponding plant enzymes still remains to be unravelled. Papaya glutaminyl cyclase (PQC), a 33 kDa enzyme found in the latex of the tropical tree Carica papaya, displays an exceptional resistance to chemical and thermal denaturation as well as to proteolysis. In order to elucidate its enzymatic mechanism and to gain insights into the structural determinants underlying its remarkable stability, PQC was isolated from papaya latex, purified and crystallized by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystals belong to the orthorhombic space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 62.82, b = 81.23, c = 108.17 Å and two molecules per asymmetric unit. Diffraction data have been collected at ESRF beamline BM14 and processed to a resolution of 1.7 Å.

  12. Chemical Characterization and in Vitro Cytotoxicity on Squamous Cell Carcinoma Cells of Carica papaya Leaf Extracts.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thao T; Parat, Marie-Odile; Hodson, Mark P; Pan, Jenny; Shaw, Paul N; Hewavitharana, Amitha K

    2015-12-24

    In traditional medicine, Carica papaya leaf has been used for a wide range of therapeutic applications including skin diseases and cancer. In this study, we investigated the in vitro cytotoxicity of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Carica papaya leaves on the human oral squamous cell carcinoma SCC25 cell line in parallel with non-cancerous human keratinocyte HaCaT cells. Two out of four extracts showed a significantly selective effect towards the cancer cells and were found to contain high levels of phenolic and flavonoid compounds. The chromatographic and mass spectrometric profiles of the extracts obtained with Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Quadrupole Time of Flight-Mass Spectrometry were used to tentatively identify the bioactive compounds using comparative analysis. The principal compounds identified were flavonoids or flavonoid glycosides, particularly compounds from the kaempferol and quercetin families, of which several have previously been reported to possess anticancer activities. These results confirm that papaya leaf is a potential source of anticancer compounds and warrant further scientific investigation to validate the traditional use of papaya leaf to treat cancer.

  13. Chemical Characterization and in Vitro Cytotoxicity on Squamous Cell Carcinoma Cells of Carica Papaya Leaf Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Thao T.; Parat, Marie-Odile; Hodson, Mark P.; Pan, Jenny; Shaw, Paul N.; Hewavitharana, Amitha K.

    2015-01-01

    In traditional medicine, Carica papaya leaf has been used for a wide range of therapeutic applications including skin diseases and cancer. In this study, we investigated the in vitro cytotoxicity of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Carica papaya leaves on the human oral squamous cell carcinoma SCC25 cell line in parallel with non-cancerous human keratinocyte HaCaT cells. Two out of four extracts showed a significantly selective effect towards the cancer cells and were found to contain high levels of phenolic and flavonoid compounds. The chromatographic and mass spectrometric profiles of the extracts obtained with Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Quadrupole Time of Flight-Mass Spectrometry were used to tentatively identify the bioactive compounds using comparative analysis. The principal compounds identified were flavonoids or flavonoid glycosides, particularly compounds from the kaempferol and quercetin families, of which several have previously been reported to possess anticancer activities. These results confirm that papaya leaf is a potential source of anticancer compounds and warrant further scientific investigation to validate the traditional use of papaya leaf to treat cancer. PMID:26712788

  14. Touch in Computer-Mediated Environments: An Analysis of Online Shoppers' Touch-Interface User Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Sorim

    2016-01-01

    Over the past few years, one of the most fundamental changes in current computer-mediated environments has been input devices, moving from mouse devices to touch interfaces. However, most studies of online retailing have not considered device environments as retail cues that could influence users' shopping behavior. In this research, I examine the…

  15. Does affective touch influence the virtual reality full body illusion?

    PubMed

    de Jong, Jutta R; Keizer, Anouk; Engel, Manja M; Dijkerman, H Chris

    2017-03-13

    The sense of how we experience our physical body as our own represents a fundamental component of human self-awareness. Body ownership can be studied with bodily illusions which are generated by inducing a visuo-tactile conflict where individuals experience illusionary ownership over a fake body or body part, such as a rubber hand. Previous studies showed that different types of touch modulate the strength of experienced ownership over a rubber hand. Specifically, participants experienced more ownership after the rubber hand illusion was induced through affective touch vs non-affective touch. It is, however, unclear whether this effect would also occur for an entire fake body. The aim of this study was, therefore, to investigate whether affective touch modulates the strength of ownership in a virtual reality full body illusion. To elicit this illusion, we used slow (3 cm/s; affective touch) and fast (30 cm/s; non-affective touch) stroking velocities on the participants' abdomen. Both stroking velocities were performed either synchronous or asynchronous (control condition), while participants viewed a virtual body from a first-person-perspective. In our first study, we found that participants experienced more subjective ownership over a virtual body in the affective touch condition, compared to the non-affective touch condition. In our second study, we found higher levels of subjective ownership for synchronous stimulation, compared to asynchronous, for both touch conditions, but failed to replicate the findings from study 1 that show a difference between affective and non-affective touch. We, therefore, cannot conclude unequivocally that affective touch enhances the full-body illusion. Future research is required to study the effects of affective touch on body ownership.

  16. Genes regulating touch cell development in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed Central

    Du, H; Chalfie, M

    2001-01-01

    To identify genes regulating the development of the six touch receptor neurons, we screened the F(2) progeny of mutated animals expressing an integrated mec-2::gfp transgene that is expressed mainly in these touch cells. From 2638 mutated haploid genomes, we obtained 11 mutations representing 11 genes that affected the production, migration, or outgrowth of the touch cells. Eight of these mutations were in known genes, and 2 defined new genes (mig-21 and vab-15). The mig-21 mutation is the first known to affect the asymmetry of the migrations of Q neuroblasts, the cells that give rise to two of the six touch cells. vab-15 is a msh-like homeobox gene that appears to be needed for the proper production of touch cell precursors, since vab-15 animals lacked the four more posterior touch cells. The remaining touch cells (the ALM cells) were present but mispositioned. A similar touch cell phenotype is produced by mutations in lin-32. A more severe phenotype; i.e., animals often lacked ALM cells, was seen in lin-32 vab-15 double mutants, suggesting that these genes acted redundantly in ALM differentiation. In addition to the touch cell abnormalities, vab-15 animals variably exhibit embryonic or larval lethality, cell degenerations, malformation of the posterior body, uncoordinated movement, and defective egg laying. PMID:11333230

  17. A Modified Tactile Brush Algorithm for Complex Touch Gestures

    SciTech Connect

    Ragan, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Several researchers have investigated phantom tactile sensation (i.e., the perception of a nonexistent actuator between two real actuators) and apparent tactile motion (i.e., the perception of a moving actuator due to time delays between onsets of multiple actuations). Prior work has focused primarily on determining appropriate Durations of Stimulation (DOS) and Stimulus Onset Asynchronies (SOA) for simple touch gestures, such as a single finger stroke. To expand upon this knowledge, we investigated complex touch gestures involving multiple, simultaneous points of contact, such as a whole hand touching the arm. To implement complex touch gestures, we modified the Tactile Brush algorithm to support rectangular areas of tactile stimulation.

  18. Children's Learning from Touch Screens: A Dual Representation Perspective.

    PubMed

    Sheehan, Kelly J; Uttal, David H

    2016-01-01

    Parents and educators often expect that children will learn from touch screen devices, such as during joint e-book reading. Therefore an essential question is whether young children understand that the touch screen can be a symbolic medium - that entities represented on the touch screen can refer to entities in the real world. Research on symbolic development suggests that symbolic understanding requires that children develop dual representational abilities, meaning children need to appreciate that a symbol is an object in itself (i.e., picture of a dog) while also being a representation of something else (i.e., the real dog). Drawing on classic research on symbols and new research on children's learning from touch screens, we offer the perspective that children's ability to learn from the touch screen as a symbolic medium depends on the effect of interactivity on children's developing dual representational abilities. Although previous research on dual representation suggests the interactive nature of the touch screen might make it difficult for young children to use as a symbolic medium, the unique interactive affordances may help alleviate this difficulty. More research needs to investigate how the interactivity of the touch screen affects children's ability to connect the symbols on the screen to the real world. Given the interactive nature of the touch screen, researchers and educators should consider both the affordances of the touch screen as well as young children's cognitive abilities when assessing whether young children can learn from it as a symbolic medium.

  19. To touch the science through the experiment!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Słowik, Grzegorz

    2016-04-01

    To touch the science through the experiment! Grzegorz P. Slowik, Gymnasium No. 2 in Zielona Gora, Poland Our School - Gymnasium No. 2 in Zielona Gora - where pupils' age is 13 -16, has for many years organized a lot of exciting events popularizing science among Zielona Gora children and young people, in particular experimental physics and astronomy. The best known in our town is the regular event on physics, - called the physical Festival of Zielona Gora, of which I am the main initiator and organizer. The Festival is directed to students of the last classes of Zielona Góra primary schools. During the Festivities their shows have also physicists and astronomers, from cooperating with us in popularization of science Zielona Gora University. At the festival the students from our Experimental School Group "Archimedes". Presented their own prepared themselves physical experience. With considerable help of students of Gymnasium No. 2 interested in astronomy, we organize the cyclical event, named "Cosmic Santa Claus," where I share with the students the knowledge gained through my active annual participation in the Space Workshop organized by the Science Centre in Warsaw. We all have fun and learn in a great way and with a smile, we touch real science that reveals its secrets!

  20. Movement preparation improves touch perception without awareness.

    PubMed

    van Ede, Freek; van Doren, Thomas I; Damhuis, Jochem; de Lange, Floris P; Maris, Eric

    2015-04-01

    Movements are often directed at external objects, such as when reaching out for a glass to drink from. Surprisingly, however, it is largely unknown how movement plans influence the identification of such external somatosensory stimuli. To address this, we cued participants to prepare for a speeded button press with their left/right thumb and presented a spatially-patterned somatosensory stimulus at either the same or the opposite thumb with equal probability. In contrast to many previous investigations that focused on self-produced somatosensory input and reported attenuated perception, we show that the identification of external stimuli (touch perception) is facilitated by movement preparation. In line with analogous studies in vision, this suggests that movement preparation automatically allocates processing resources (attention) to the location and/or body part of the planned movement. We further show that, in contrast to deliberate somatosensory preparation, participants do not become more confident in their touch perception following movement preparation. These data suggest that the perceptual improvement during movement preparation occurs outside of awareness. Such an unconscious facilitatory process will ensure that relevant parts of the environment are processed with high fidelity, while sparing conscious resources for monitoring other processes in the course of action.

  1. The Complete Nucleotide Sequence and Biotype Variability of Papaya leaf distortion mosaic virus.

    PubMed

    Maoka, Tetsuo; Hataya, Tatsuji

    2005-02-01

    ABSTRACT The complete nucleotide sequence of the genome of Papaya leaf distortion mosaic virus (PLDMV) was determined. The viral RNA genome of strain LDM (leaf distortion mosaic) comprised 10,153 nucleotides, excluding the poly(A) tail, and contained one long open reading frame encoding a polyprotein of 3,269 amino acids (molecular weight 373,347). The polyprotein contained nine putative proteolytic cleavage sites and some motifs conserved in other potyviral polyproteins with 44 to 50% identities, indicating that PLDMV is a distinct species in the genus Potyvirus. Like the W biotype of Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV), the non-papaya-infecting biotype of PLDMV (PLDMV-C) was found in plants of the family Cucurbitaceae. The coat protein (CP) sequence of PLDMV-C in naturally infected-Trichosanthes bracteata was compared with those of three strains of the P biotype (PLDMV-P), LDM and two additional strains M (mosaic) and YM (yellow mosaic), which are biologically different from each other. The CP sequences of three strains of PLDMV-P share high identities of 95 to 97%, while they share lower identities of 88 to 89% with that of PLDMV-C. Significant changes in hydrophobicity and a deletion of two amino acids at the N-terminal region of the CP of PLDMV-C were observed. The finding of two biotypes of PLDMV implies the possibility that the papaya-infecting biotype evolved from the cucurbitaceae-infecting potyvirus, as has been previously suggested for PRSV. In addition, a similar evolutionary event acquiring infectivity to papaya may arise frequently in viruses in the family Cucurbitaceae.

  2. Detection of Papaya ringspot virus type W infecting the cucurbit weed Cucumis melo var. dudaim in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This is the first report of Papaya ringspot virus type W infecting Cucumis melo var. dudaim, a cucurbit weed, in Florida. It provides an overview of this virus reservoir for growers, extension workers, crop consultants and research and regulatory scientists....

  3. Melioration and the transition from touch-typing training to everyday use.

    PubMed

    Yechiam, Eldad; Erev, Ido; Yehene, Vered; Gopher, Daniel

    Previous research shows that success in touch-typing training does not ensure its continuation into everyday use. It is postulated that an important contributor to this problem is melioration--that is, maximizing local rates of reinforcement. In the context of typing, melioration implies an intuitive tendency to choose typing strategies that lead to a better immediate performance level than that obtained by touchtyping. One such strategy is visually guided typing, in which the performer looks at the keys to locate their position. The present research describes a training approach that changes the reinforcement structure by increasing the attractiveness of looking at the screen while typing. This approach is implemented by using a secondary task that requires typists to respond to signals appearing on the screen. In an experiment that evaluated this solution, 22 students were given a touch-typing training course followed by a period in which they had to type their own homework. The results showed that under a modified reinforcement condition, the effect of melioration on touch-typing scores in the posttraining phase decreased. In addition, the experimental manipulation facilitated the acquisition and maintenance of the touch-typing skill. Actual or potential applications of this research include research in training, choice behavior, and human-computer interaction.

  4. Mirror-touch synaesthesia changes representations of self-identity.

    PubMed

    Maister, Lara; Banissy, Michael J; Tsakiris, Manos

    2013-04-01

    Individuals with mirror-touch synaesthesia (MTS) experience touch on their own bodies when observing another person being touched. Whilst somatosensory processing in MTS has been extensively investigated, the extent to which the remapping of observed touch on the synaesthete's body can also lead to changes in the mental representation of the self remains unknown. We adapted the experimental paradigm of the 'enfacement illusion' to quantify the changes in self-face recognition as a result of synaesthetic touch. MTS and control participants observed the face of an unfamiliar person being touched or not, without delivering touch on the participant's face. Changes in self-representation were quantified with a self-face recognition task, using 'morphed' images containing varying proportions of the participant's face and the face of the unfamiliar other. This task was administered before and after the exposure to the other face. While self-recognition performance for both groups was similar during pre-test, MTS individuals showed a significant change in self-recognition performance following the observation of touch delivered to the other face. Specifically, the images that participants had initially perceived as containing equal quantities of self and other became more likely to be recognised as the self after viewing the other being touched. These results suggest that observing touch on others not only elicits a conscious experience of touch in MTS, but also elicits a change in the mental representation of the self, blurring self-other boundaries. This is consistent with a multisensory account of the self, whereby integrated multisensory experiences maintain or update self-representations.

  5. Population dynamics and within-plant distribution of the mite Calacarus flagelliseta (Acari: Eriophyidae) on papaya in Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Fournier, Valerie; Rosenheim, Jay A; Brodeur, Jacques; Johnson, Marshall W

    2004-10-01

    An important element in developing a management strategy for a new pest is the study of its seasonal dynamics and within-plant distribution. Here, we studied the mite Calacarus flagelliseta Fletchmann, De Moraes & Barbosa on papaya, Papaya carica L. (Caricaceae), in Hawaii to quantify 1) patterns of seasonal abundance, 2) its distribution across different vertical strata of the papaya canopy, and 3) shifts in its use of the upper versus the lower surfaces of papaya leaves. Nondestructive sampling conducted in two papaya plantings revealed that 1) populations of C. flagelliseta peak during the summer; 2) mites are most abundant in the middle and lower strata of the plant canopy, and least abundant on the youngest leaves found in the upper canopy; and 3) mites are found more predominantly on the upper leaf surfaces when overall population density peaks, suggesting that individuals move from the lower to the upper leaf surfaces when food resources on the lower leaf surface have been exploited by conspecifics. These results have significant implications for the development of sampling plans for C. flagelliseta in papaya.

  6. Interlaboratory validation study of an event-specific real-time polymerase chain reaction detection method for genetically modified 55-1 papaya.

    PubMed

    Noguchi, Akio; Nakamura, Kosuke; Sakata, Kozue; Kobayashi, Tomoko; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Kondo, Kazunari; Teshima, Reiko; Ohmori, Kiyomi; Kasahara, Masaki; Takabatake, Reona; Kitta, Kazumi

    2013-01-01

    Genetically modified (GM) papaya line 55-1 (55-1) is resistant to papaya ringspot virus infection, and is commercially available in several countries. A specific detection method for 55-1 is required for mandatory labeling regulations. An event-specific real-time PCR method was developed by our laboratory. To validate the method, interlaboratory validation of event-specific qualitative real-time PCR analysis for 55-1 was performed in collaboration with 12 laboratories. DNA extraction and real-time PCR reaction methods were evaluated using 12 blind samples: six non-GM papayas and six GM papayas in each laboratory. Genomic DNA was highly purified from all papayas using an ion-exchange column, and the resulting DNA sample was analyzed using real-time PCR. Papaya endogenous reference gene chymopapain (CHY) and the event-specific 55-1 targeted sequence were detected in GM papayas whereas CHYalone was detected in non-GM papayas in all laboratories. The cycle threshold values of CHYand the 55-1 targeted sequence showed high repeatability (RSD, 0.6-0.8%) and reproducibility (RSDR 2.2-3.6%). This study demonstrates that the 55-1 real-time PCR detection method is a useful and reliable method to monitor 55-1 papaya in foods.

  7. Mechanical touch responses of Arabidopsis TCH1-3 mutant roots on inclined hard-agar surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zha, Guodong; Wang, Bochu; Liu, Junyu; Yan, Jie; Zhu, Liqing; Yang, Xingyan

    2016-01-01

    The gravity-induced mechanical touch stimulus can affect plant root architecture. Mechanical touch responses of plant roots are an important aspect of plant root growth and development. Previous studies have reported that Arabidopsis TCH1-3 genes are involved in mechano-related events, how-ever, the physiological functions of TCH1-3 genes in Arabidopsis root mechanoresponses remain unclear. In the present study, we applied an inclined hard agar plate method to produce mechanical touch stimulus, and provided evidence that altered mechanical environment could influence root growth. Furthermore, tch1-3 Arabidopsis mutants were investigated on inclined agar surfaces to explore the functions of TCH1-3 genes on Arabidopsis root mechanoresponses. The results showed that two tch2 mutants, cml24-2 and cml24-4, exhibited significantly reduced root length, biased skewing, and decreased density of lateral root. In addition, primary root length and density of lateral root of tch3 (cml12-2) was significantly decreased on inclined agar surfaces. This study indicates that the tch2 and tch3 mutants are hypersensitive to mechanical touch stimulus, and TCH2 (CML24-2 and CML24-4) and TCH3 (CML12-2) genes may participate in the mechanical touch response of Arabidopsis roots.

  8. Evaluation of touch-sensitive screen tablet terminal button size and spacing accounting for effect of fingertip contact angle.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, T; Doi, K; Fujimoto, H

    2015-08-01

    Touch-sensitive screen terminals enabling intuitive operation are used as input interfaces in a wide range of fields. Tablet terminals are one of the most common devices with a touch-sensitive screen. They have a feature of good portability, enabling use under various conditions. On the other hand, they require a GUI designed to prevent decrease of usability under various conditions. For example, the angle of fingertip contact with the display changes according to finger posture during operation and how the case is held. When a human fingertip makes contact with an object, the contact area between the fingertip and contact object increases or decreases as the contact angle changes. A touch-sensitive screen detects positions using the change in capacitance of the area touched by the fingertip; hence, differences in contact area between the touch-sensitive screen and fingertip resulting from different forefinger angles during operation could possibly affect operability. However, this effect has never been studied. We therefore conducted an experiment to investigate the relationship between size/spacing and operability, while taking the effect of fingertip contact angle into account. As a result, we have been able to specify the button size and spacing conditions that enable accurate and fast operation regardless of the forefinger contact angle.

  9. Touch sensing analysis using multi-modal acquisition system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Jeffrey S.; Pikula, Dragan; Baharav, Zachi

    2013-03-01

    Touch sensing is ubiquitous in many consumer electronic products. Users are expecting to be able to touch with their finger the surface of a display and interact with it. Yet, the actual mechanics and physics of the touch process are little known, as these are dependent on many independent variables. Ranging from the physics of the fingertip structure, composed of ridges, valleys, and pores, and beyond a few layers of skin and flesh the bone itself. Moreover, sweat glands and wetting are critical as well as we will see. As for the mechanics, the pressure at which one touches the screen, and the manner by which the surfaces responds to this pressure, have major impact on the touch sensing. In addition, different touch sensing methods, like capacitive or optical, will have different dependencies. For example, the color of the finger might impact the latter, whereas the former is insensitive to it. In this paper we describe a system that captures multiple modalities of the touch event, and by post-processing synchronizing all these. This enables us to look for correlation between various effects, and uncover their influence on the performance of the touch sensing algorithms. Moreover, investigating these relations allows us to improve various sensing algorithms, as well as find areas where they complement each other. We conclude by pointing to possible future extensions and applications of this system.

  10. Topography of social touching depends on emotional bonds between humans

    PubMed Central

    Suvilehto, Juulia T.; Glerean, Enrico; Dunbar, Robin I. M.; Hari, Riitta; Nummenmaa, Lauri

    2015-01-01

    Nonhuman primates use social touch for maintenance and reinforcement of social structures, yet the role of social touch in human bonding in different reproductive, affiliative, and kinship-based relationships remains unresolved. Here we reveal quantified, relationship-specific maps of bodily regions where social touch is allowed in a large cross-cultural dataset (N = 1,368 from Finland, France, Italy, Russia, and the United Kingdom). Participants were shown front and back silhouettes of human bodies with a word denoting one member of their social network. They were asked to color, on separate trials, the bodily regions where each individual in their social network would be allowed to touch them. Across all tested cultures, the total bodily area where touching was allowed was linearly dependent (mean r2 = 0.54) on the emotional bond with the toucher, but independent of when that person was last encountered. Close acquaintances and family members were touched for more reasons than less familiar individuals. The bodily area others are allowed to touch thus represented, in a parametric fashion, the strength of the relationship-specific emotional bond. We propose that the spatial patterns of human social touch reflect an important mechanism supporting the maintenance of social bonds. PMID:26504228

  11. Nonverbal Communication in Classroom Interactions: A Pedagogical Perspective of Touch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stamatis, Panagiotis J.

    2011-01-01

    This paper begins by exploring touch as "tactile perception" dimension, which means what human hands could achieve, especially considering the important role of skin receptors. The author moves forward to a description of children's necessity for contact as well as to their touch disorders. Following descriptions further clarify these items in the…

  12. An Empirical Study of User Experience on Touch Mice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chou, Jyh Rong

    2016-01-01

    The touch mouse is a new type of computer mouse that provides users with a new way of touch-based environment to interact with computers. For more than a decade, user experience (UX) has grown into a core concept of human-computer interaction (HCI), describing a user's perceptions and responses that result from the use of a product in a particular…

  13. Sports Coaching in Risk Society: No Touch! No Trust!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piper, Heather; Taylor, Bill; Garratt, Dean

    2012-01-01

    This paper is informed by a UK based Economic and Social Research Council funded research project which developed and deployed a case-study approach to issues of touch between children and professionals in schools and childcare. Outcomes from these settings are referred to, but the focus here is shifted to touch in sports coaching and its…

  14. A Simple 2-Transistor Touch or Lick Detector Circuit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slotnick, Burton

    2009-01-01

    Contact or touch detectors in which a subject acts as a switch between two metal surfaces have proven more popular and arguably more useful for recording responses than capacitance switches, photocell detectors, and force detectors. Components for touch detectors circuits are inexpensive and, except for some special purpose designs, can be easily…

  15. Haptic Interfaces: Getting in Touch with Web-based Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bussell, Linda

    2001-01-01

    Explains haptic computer interfaces for Web sites that relay touch-sensory feedback to the user. Discusses the importance of touch to cognition and learning; whether haptics can improve performance and learning; haptic interfaces for accessibility for blind and physically impaired users; comparisons of haptic devices; barriers to implementation;…

  16. A Comparison of Injuries between Flag and Touch Football.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Stephen L.

    This study was designed to determine whether fewer and less serious injuries result from participation in touch football as compared with flag football. A survey was taken of 30 flag football games and 30 touch football games and the incidence of injuries was recorded on a checklist. Results of the survey suggest the following: (a) intramural or…

  17. Households Touched by Crime, 1987. Bureau of Justice Statistics Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rand, Michael R.; And Others

    For the year 1987, 24.4 % of American households were touched by crime. A household is considered touched by crime if during the year it was affected by a burglarly, auto theft, or household theft or if a household member was raped, robbed, or assaulted or was a victim of personal theft, no matter where the crime occurred. These offenses, which…

  18. Understanding and Creating Accessible Touch Screen Interactions for Blind People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Shaun K.

    2011-01-01

    Using touch screens presents a number of usability and accessibility challenges for blind people. Most touch screen-based user interfaces are optimized for visual interaction, and are therefore difficult or impossible to use without vision. This dissertation presents an approach to redesigning gesture-based user interfaces to enable blind people…

  19. Object apprehension using vision and touch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bajcsy, R.; Stansfield, S. A.

    1987-01-01

    Researchers define object apprehension as the determination of the properties of an object and the relationships among these properties. They contrast this with recognition, which goes a step further to attach a label to the object as a whole. Apprehension is fundamental to manipulation. This is true whether the manipulation is being carried out by an autonomous robot or is the result of teleoperation involving sensory feedback. Researchers present an apprehension paradigm using both vision and touch. In this model, they define a representation for object apprehension in terms of a set of primitives and features, along with their relationships. This representation is the mechanism by which the data from the two modalities are combined. It is also the mechanism which drives the apprehension process.

  20. Can you hear shapes you touch?

    PubMed

    Kim, Jung-Kyong; Zatorre, Robert J

    2010-05-01

    Shape is an inherent property of objects existing in both vision and touch but not audition. Can shape then be represented by sound artificially? It has previously been shown that sound can convey visual information by means of image-to-sound coding, but whether sound can code tactile information is not clear. Blindfolded sighted individuals were trained to recognize tactile spatial information using sounds mapped from abstract shapes. After training, subjects were able to match auditory input to tactually discerned shapes and showed generalization to novel auditory-tactile pairings. Furthermore, they showed complete transfer to novel visual shapes, despite the fact that training did not involve any visual exposure. In addition, we found enhanced tactile acuity specific to the training stimuli. The present study demonstrates that as long as tactile space is coded in a systematic way, shape can be conveyed via a medium that is not spatial, suggesting a metamodal representation.

  1. The no-touch rubber hand paradigm and mirror-touch sensation: Support for the self-other theory of mirror-touch synesthesia.

    PubMed

    White, Rebekah C; Davies, Anne M Aimola

    2015-01-01

    We thoroughly enjoyed Ward and Banissy's Discussion Paper on mirror-touch synesthesia. The authors contrast two theories for explaining this phenomenon-the Threshold Theory and their Self-Other Theory. Ward and Banissy note that the Self-Other Theory garners support from studies that have tested individuals with mirror-touch synesthesia using the rubber hand paradigm. In this Commentary, we provide further support for the Self-Other Theory by drawing on findings from control participants without mirror-touch synesthesia tested with two different no-touch rubber hand paradigms-one paradigm makes it easier while the other makes it more difficult to make the self-other distinction.

  2. Touching character segmentation method for Chinese historical documents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xiaolu; Peng, Liangrui; Ding, Xiaoqing

    2010-01-01

    The OCR technology for Chinese historical documents is still an open problem. As these documents are hand-written or hand-carved in various styles, overlapped and touching characters bring great difficulty for character segmentation module. This paper presents an over-segmentation-based method to handle the overlapped and touching Chinese characters in historic documents. The whole segmentation process includes two parts: over-segmented and segmenting path optimization. In the former part, touching strokes will be found and segmented by analyzing the geometric information of the white and black connected components. The segmentation cost of the touching strokes is estimated with connected components' shape and location, as well as the touching stroke width. The latter part uses local optimization dynamic programming to find best segmenting path. HMM is used to express the multiple choices of segmenting paths, and Viterbi algorithm is used to search local optimal solution. Experimental results on practical Chinese documents show the proposed method is effective.

  3. Genetic interactions affecting touch sensitivity in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Gu, G; Caldwell, G A; Chalfie, M

    1996-06-25

    At least 13 genes (mec-1, mec-2, mec-4-10, mec-12, mec-14, mec-15, and mec-18) are needed for the response to gentle touch by 6 touch receptor neurons in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Several, otherwise recessive alleles of some of these genes act as dominant enhancer mutations of temperature-sensitive alleles of mec-4, mec-5, mec-6, mec-12, and mec-15. Screens for additional dominant enhancers of mec-4 and mec-5 yielded mutations in previously known genes. In addition, some mec-7 alleles showed allele-specific, dominant suppression of the mec-15 touch-insensitive (Mec) phenotype. The dominant enhancement and suppression exhibited by these mutations suggest that the products of several touch genes interact. These results are consistent with a model, supported by the known sequences of these genes, that almost all of the touch function genes contribute to the mechanosensory apparatus.

  4. You can't touch this: touch-free navigation through radiological images.

    PubMed

    Ebert, Lars C; Hatch, Gary; Ampanozi, Garyfalia; Thali, Michael J; Ross, Steffen

    2012-09-01

    Keyboards, mice, and touch screens are a potential source of infection or contamination in operating rooms, intensive care units, and autopsy suites. The authors present a low-cost prototype of a system, which allows for touch-free control of a medical image viewer. This touch-free navigation system consists of a computer system (IMac, OS X 10.6 Apple, USA) with a medical image viewer (OsiriX, OsiriX foundation, Switzerland) and a depth camera (Kinect, Microsoft, USA). They implemented software that translates the data delivered by the camera and a voice recognition software into keyboard and mouse commands, which are then passed to OsiriX. In this feasibility study, the authors introduced 10 medical professionals to the system and asked them to re-create 12 images from a CT data set. They evaluated response times and usability of the system compared with standard mouse/keyboard control. Users felt comfortable with the system after approximately 10 minutes. Response time was 120 ms. Users required 1.4 times more time to re-create an image with gesture control. Users with OsiriX experience were significantly faster using the mouse/keyboard and faster than users without prior experience. They rated the system 3.4 out of 5 for ease of use in comparison to the mouse/keyboard. The touch-free, gesture-controlled system performs favorably and removes a potential vector for infection, protecting both patients and staff. Because the camera can be quickly and easily integrated into existing systems, requires no calibration, and is low cost, the barriers to using this technology are low.

  5. Asymmetric purine-pyrimidine distribution in cellular small RNA population of papaya

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The small RNAs (sRNA) are a regulatory class of RNA mainly represented by the 21 and 24-nucleotide size classes. The cellular sRNAs are processed by RNase III family enzyme dicer (Dicer like in plant) from a self-complementary hairpin loop or other type of RNA duplexes. The papaya genome has been sequenced, but its microRNAs and other regulatory RNAs are yet to be analyzed. Results We analyzed the genomic features of the papaya sRNA population from three sRNA deep sequencing libraries made from leaves, flowers, and leaves infected with Papaya Ringspot Virus (PRSV). We also used the deep sequencing data to annotate the micro RNA (miRNA) in papaya. We identified 60 miRNAs, 24 of which were conserved in other species, and 36 of which were novel miRNAs specific to papaya. In contrast to the Chargaff’s purine-pyrimidine equilibrium, cellular sRNA was significantly biased towards a purine rich population. Of the two purine bases, higher frequency of adenine was present in 23nt or longer sRNAs, while 22nt or shorter sRNAs were over represented by guanine bases. However, this bias was not observed in the annotated miRNAs in plants. The 21nt species were expressed from fewer loci but expressed at higher levels relative to the 24nt species. The highly expressed 21nt species were clustered in a few isolated locations of the genome. The PRSV infected leaves showed higher accumulation of 21 and 22nt sRNA compared to uninfected leaves. We observed higher accumulation of miRNA* of seven annotated miRNAs in virus-infected tissue, indicating the potential function of miRNA* under stressed conditions. Conclusions We have identified 60 miRNAs in papaya. Our study revealed the asymmetric purine-pyrimidine distribution in cellular sRNA population. The 21nt species of sRNAs have higher expression levels than 24nt sRNA. The miRNA* of some miRNAs shows higher accumulation in PRSV infected tissues, suggesting that these strands are not totally functionally redundant. The

  6. Perception of 3-D location based on vision, touch, and extended touch.

    PubMed

    Giudice, Nicholas A; Klatzky, Roberta L; Bennett, Christopher R; Loomis, Jack M

    2013-01-01

    Perception of the near environment gives rise to spatial images in working memory that continue to represent the spatial layout even after cessation of sensory input. As the observer moves, these spatial images are continuously updated. This research is concerned with (1) whether spatial images of targets are formed when they are sensed using extended touch (i.e., using a probe to extend the reach of the arm) and (2) the accuracy with which such targets are perceived. In Experiment 1, participants perceived the 3-D locations of individual targets from a fixed origin and were then tested with an updating task involving blindfolded walking followed by placement of the hand at the remembered target location. Twenty-four target locations, representing all combinations of two distances, two heights, and six azimuths, were perceived by vision or by blindfolded exploration with the bare hand, a 1-m probe, or a 2-m probe. Systematic errors in azimuth were observed for all targets, reflecting errors in representing the target locations and updating. Overall, updating after visual perception was best, but the quantitative differences between conditions were small. Experiment 2 demonstrated that auditory information signifying contact with the target was not a factor. Overall, the results indicate that 3-D spatial images can be formed of targets sensed by extended touch and that perception by extended touch, even out to 1.75 m, is surprisingly accurate.

  7. Increasing compliance with a request: two touches are more effective than one.

    PubMed

    Vaidis, David C F; Halimi-Falkowicz, Séverine G M

    2008-08-01

    Touch procedures have been shown to increase the likelihood of compliance with requests. But the effect of subsequent touches following a classical touch procedure has not been investigated. It was predicted that two touches would lead to more compliance than one touch. 180 male and 180 female bystanders were asked to fill in a short or long questionnaire by a female confederate. They were touched by the confederate either once, twice, or not at all. Results showed that there was more compliance in the two-touch than in the one-touch condition, and when the participants were touched by the confederate. These findings support the hypothesis. Moreover, whereas participants were less likely to fill in the long questionnaire in the no-touch condition, touch procedures led to more compliance whatever the questionnaire length. Also, touch was more effective when a female confederate made the request to a male participant.

  8. Touching Hearts, Touching Minds: Using Emotion-Based Messaging to Promote Healthful Behavior in the Massachusetts WIC Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colchamiro, Rachel; Ghiringhelli, Kara; Hause, Judith

    2010-01-01

    The "Touching Hearts, Touching Minds" initiative was funded through a 2003 United States Department of Agriculture Special Projects grant to revitalize nutrition education and services in the Massachusetts Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) Program. The 30 nutrition education materials and…

  9. The Use of Healing Touch in Integrative Oncology

    PubMed Central

    Hart, Laura K.; Freel, Mildred I.; Haylock, Pam J.; Lutgendorf, Susan K.

    2013-01-01

    The use of complementary therapies by cancer patients has become so prevalent that nurses working in oncology are finding it necessary to understand these therapies and the evidence-based support for their use. The integrative use of the biofield therapy Healing Touch (HT) in conjunction with the chemoradiation received by patients with cervical cancer (stages 1B1 to IVA) during a recent research study is described. Findings indicated effects of HT on the immune response and on depression, in contrast to patients receiving relaxation or standard care. Specifically, HT patients demonstrated a minimal decrease in natural killer cell cytotoxicity (NKCC) over the course of treatment whereas NKCC of patients receiving relaxation therapy (RT) and standard care (SC) declined sharply during radiation (p = 0.018). HT patients also showed significant decreases in depressed mood compared to RT and SC (p < 0.05). These findings, as well as the energetic effects of chemoradiation that were observed, and the proposed mechanisms and potential contributions of biofield therapy are addressed. It is suggested that the appropriate integration of complementary modalities into oncology care has the potential to enhance the impact of conventional care by putting the patient in the best condition to use their innate healing resources. PMID:21951738

  10. Two thumbs and one index: A comparison of manual coordination in touch-typing and mobile-typing.

    PubMed

    Cerni, Tania; Longcamp, Marieke; Job, Remo

    2016-06-01

    It has been extensively demonstrated that in touch-typing, manual alternation is performed faster than manual repetition (see i.e. Rumelhart & Norman, 1982), due to parallel activation of successive keystrokes. In this experiment, we tested whether the manual coordination patterns typical of touch-typing can be observed in mobile-typing. We recruited skilled touch-typists and divided them into two groups depending on their typing habits on the mobile device. The "one-hand" group typed with one index finger on the mobile, and therefore produced words exclusively through manual repetition. The "two-hands" group used two thumbs, and therefore produced words through a combination of mobile-typing repetitions and alternations. The two groups were tested in a typing to dictation task with both a standard keyboard and a mobile keyboard. Results showed that manual alternation and manual repetition patterns are similar in touch-typing and in mobile-typing. For the "two-hands" group, the mean interkeystroke intervals (IKIs) for touch-typing decreased as manual alterations in words increased in both touch- and mobile-typing. The "one-hand" group showed an opposite pattern in mobile-typing. Bigram frequency was correlated with IKIs per bigrams in both tasks and groups, but the correlation for the "one-hand" group in mobile-typing was different. Our results suggest that manual coordination processes are the same in touch-typing and in mobile-typing despite different effectors, provided that both hands are used to type.

  11. 'Kiss, cuddle, squeeze': the experiences and meaning of touch among parents of children with autism attending a Touch Therapy Programme.

    PubMed

    Cullen, Lesley; Barlow, Julie

    2002-09-01

    The aim of this qualitative study was to explore the experiences and meaning of touch between parents and children with autism before and after attending a Touch Therapy Programme. The sample comprised 12 parents (1 father and 11 mothers) of children (1 female and 11 male) with autism. Parents were interviewed before and immediately after the 8-week programme. Pre-programme results suggested that children were controlling the experience of touch. Parents felt 'hurt' in response to the 'aloof nature of autism, and natural parenting instincts (e.g. spontaneous cuddles) were restricted. Post-programme results suggested that children appeared to tolerate touch. Parents reported that routine tasks (e.g. dressing) were accomplished more easily and that children appeared generally more relaxed. Parents reported feeling 'closer' to their children and felt that the touch therapy had opened a communication channel between themselves and their children.

  12. Characterization of the exogenous insert and development of event-specific PCR detection methods for genetically modified Huanong No. 1 papaya.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jinchao; Yang, Litao; Liu, Xin; Guan, Xiaoyan; Jiang, Lingxi; Zhang, Dabing

    2009-08-26

    Genetically modified (GM) papaya (Carica papaya L.), Huanong No. 1, was approved for commercialization in Guangdong province, China in 2006, and the development of the Huanong No. 1 papaya detection method is necessary for implementing genetically modified organism (GMO) labeling regulations. In this study, we reported the characterization of the exogenous integration of GM Huanong No. 1 papaya by means of conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and thermal asymmetric interlaced (TAIL)-PCR strategies. The results suggested that one intact copy of the initial construction was integrated in the papaya genome and which probably resulted in one deletion (38 bp in size) of the host genomic DNA. Also, one unintended insertion of a 92 bp truncated NptII fragment was observed at the 5' end of the exogenous insert. Furthermore, we revealed its 5' and 3' flanking sequences between the insert DNA and the papaya genomic DNA, and developed the event-specific qualitative and quantitative PCR assays for GM Huanong No. 1 papaya based on the 5' integration flanking sequence. The relative limit of detection (LOD) of the qualitative PCR assay was about 0.01% in 100 ng of total papaya genomic DNA, corresponding to about 25 copies of papaya haploid genome. In the quantitative PCR, the limits of detection and quantification (LOD and LOQ) were as low as 12.5 and 25 copies of papaya haploid genome, respectively. In practical sample quantification, the quantified biases between the test and true values of three samples ranged from 0.44% to 4.41%. Collectively, we proposed that all of these results are useful for the identification and quantification of Huanong No. 1 papaya and its derivates.

  13. Decreased somatosensory activity to non-threatening touch in combat veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Badura-Brack, Amy S; Becker, Katherine M; McDermott, Timothy J; Ryan, Tara J; Becker, Madelyn M; Hearley, Allison R; Heinrichs-Graham, Elizabeth; Wilson, Tony W

    2015-08-30

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a severe psychiatric disorder prevalent in combat veterans. Previous neuroimaging studies have demonstrated that patients with PTSD exhibit abnormal responses to non-threatening visual and auditory stimuli, but have not examined somatosensory processing. Thirty male combat veterans, 16 with PTSD and 14 without, completed a tactile stimulation task during a 306-sensor magnetoencephalography (MEG) recording. Significant oscillatory neural responses were imaged using a beamforming approach. Participants also completed clinical assessments of PTSD, combat exposure, and depression. We found that veterans with PTSD exhibited significantly reduced activity during early (0-125 ms) tactile processing compared with combat controls. Specifically, veterans with PTSD had weaker activity in the left postcentral gyrus, left superior parietal area, and right prefrontal cortex in response to nonthreatening tactile stimulation relative to veterans without PTSD. The magnitude of activity in these brain regions was inversely correlated with symptom severity, indicating that those with the most severe PTSD had the most abnormal neural responses. Our findings are consistent with a resource allocation view of perceptual processing in PTSD, which directs attention away from nonthreatening sensory information.

  14. Phytochemistry and heamatological potential of ethanol seed leaf and pulp extracts of Carica papaya (Linn.).

    PubMed

    Ikpeme, E V; Ekaluo, U B; Kooffreh, M E; Udensi, O

    2011-03-15

    This study was aimed at qualitative evaluation of the ethanol seed, leaf and pulp extracts of C. papaya for bioactive compounds and also to investigate their effect on the haematology in male albino rats. A 3 x 4 factorial experimental layout using randomized complete design was adopted. Results show that the phytochemicals found in seed, leaf and pulp were almost the same but however, in varying proportions. Present result also revealed that there were significant effects (p < 0.05) of the extracts on the heamatology of the treated rats, which was blamed on the varying and different variants ofbioactive compounds found in the extracts they were administered with. Suggestively, C. papaya extracts could be used to enhance the production of selected blood parameters, taking issue of dosage into consideration.

  15. Anti-inflammatory activities of ethanolic extract of Carica papaya leaves.

    PubMed

    Owoyele, Bamidele V; Adebukola, Olubori M; Funmilayo, Adeoye A; Soladoye, Ayodele O

    2008-08-01

    The anti-inflammatory activity of an ethanolic extract of Carica papaya leaves was investigated in rats using carrageenan induced paw oedema, cotton pellet granuloma and formaldehyde induced arthritis models. Experimental animals received 25-200 mg/Kg (orally) of the extracts or saline (control group) and the reference group received 5 mg/ Kg of indomethacin. The ulcerogenic activity of the extract was also investigated. The results show that the extracts significantly (p <0.05) reduced paw oedema in the carrageenan test. Likewise the extract produced significant reduction in the amount of granuloma formed from 0.58 +/-0.07 to 0.22 +/-0.03 g. In the formaldehyde arthritis model, the extracts significantly reduced the persistent oedema from the 4th day to the 10th day of the investigation. The extracts also produced slight mucosal irritation at high doses. The study establishes the anti-inflammatory activity of Carica papaya leaves.

  16. First records of two mealybug species in Brazil and new potential pests of papaya and coffee.

    PubMed

    Culik, Mark P; Martins, David dos Santos; Gullan, Penny J

    2006-01-01

    Five mealybug (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) plant pest species: Dysmicoccus grassii (Leonardi), Ferrisia malvastra (McDaniel), Ferrisia virgata (Cockerell), Phenacoccus tucumanus Granara de Willink, and Pseudococcus elisae Borchsenius are recorded for the first time in the state of Espírito Santo, Brazil. These are the first records of D. grassii in Brazil, from papaya (Carica papaya, Caricaceae), and from coffee (Coffea canephora, Rubiaceae). Ferrisia malvastra is also newly recorded in Brazil, where it was found on Bidens pilosa (Asteraceae). Ferrisia virgata was collected from an unidentified weed and Phenacoccus tucumanus from Citrus sp. (Rutaceae). Plotococcus capixaba Kondo was found on pitanga ( Eugenia cf. pitanga, Myrtaceae) and Pseudococcus elisae on Coffea canephora , which are new host records for these mealybugs.

  17. First records of two mealybug species in Brazil and new potential pests of papaya and coffee

    PubMed Central

    Culik, Mark P.; dos Santos Martins, David; Gullan, Penny J.

    2006-01-01

    Five mealybug (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) plant pest species: Dysmicoccus grassii (Leonardi), Ferrisia malvastra (McDaniel), Ferrisia virgata (Cockerell), Phenacoccus tucumanus Granara de Willink, and Pseudococcus elisae Borchsenius are recorded for the first time in the state of Espírito Santo, Brazil. These are the first records of D. grassii in Brazil, from papaya (Carica papaya, Caricaceae), and from coffee (Coffea canephora, Rubiaceae). Ferrisia malvastra is also newly recorded in Brazil, where it was found on Bidens pilosa (Asteraceae). Ferrisia virgata was collected from an unidentified weed and Phenacoccus tucumanus from Citrus sp. (Rutaceae). Plotococcus capixaba Kondo was found on pitanga (Eugenia cf. pitanga, Myrtaceae) and Pseudococcus elisae on Coffea canephora, which are new host records for these mealybugs. PMID:19537975

  18. Nucleotide sequence of the capsid protein gene of papaya leaf-distortion mosaic potyvirus.

    PubMed

    Maoka, T; Kashiwazaki, S; Tsuda, S; Usugi, T; Hibino, H

    1996-01-01

    The DNA complementary to the 3'-terminal 1 404 nucleotides [excluding the poly(A) tail] of papaya leaf-distortion mosaic potyvirus (PLDMV) RNA was cloned and sequenced. The sequence starts within a long open reading frame (ORF) of 1 195 nucleotides and is followed by a 3' non-coding region of 209 nucleotides. Capsid protein (CP) is encoded at the 3' terminus of the ORF. The CP contains 293 residues and has a Mr of 33 277. The CP of PLDMV exhibits 49 to 59% sequence similarity at the amino acid level to the CPs of papaya ringspot potyvirus (PRSV) and other potyviruses. This result is consistent with the absence of a serological relationship between PLDMV and PRSV or other potyviruses. The results support the assignment of PLDMV as a distinct member of the genus Potyvirus.

  19. Beverages of lemon juice and exotic noni and papaya with potential for anticholinergic effects.

    PubMed

    Gironés-Vilaplana, Amadeo; Valentão, Patrícia; Andrade, Paula B; Ferreres, Federico; Moreno, Diego A; García-Viguera, Cristina

    2015-03-01

    Lemon (Citrus limon (L.) Burm. f.) juice beverages enriched either with noni (Morinda citrifolia L.) (LN) or papaya (Carica papaya L.) (LP), were characterized by HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS(n), the antioxidant capacity was evaluated by (DPPH·), superoxide (O2(·-)), hydroxyl radicals (·OH) and hypochlorous acid (HOCl) assays, and their potential as acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) inhibitors was also assessed. The fruits are rich in a wide range of bioactive phenolics. Regarding DPPH·, ·OH and HOCl assays, the LP displayed strong activity, and LN was the most active against O2(·-). Concerning cholinesterases, LP was the most active, mainly due to lemon juice contribution. The effect on the cholinesterases was not as strong as in previous reports on purified extracts, but the bioactive-rich beverages offer the possibility of dietary coadjutants for daily consumption of health-promoting substances by adults with aging-related cognitive or physical disorders.

  20. Development and validation of a multiplex reverse transcription PCR assay for simultaneous detection of three papaya viruses.

    PubMed

    Tuo, Decai; Shen, Wentao; Yang, Yong; Yan, Pu; Li, Xiaoying; Zhou, Peng

    2014-10-21

    Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV), Papaya leaf distortion mosaic virus (PLDMV), and Papaya mosaic virus (PapMV) produce similar symptoms in papaya. Each threatens commercial production of papaya on Hainan Island, China. In this study, a multiplex reverse transcription PCR assay was developed to detect simultaneously these three viruses by screening combinations of mixed primer pairs and optimizing the multiplex RT-PCR reaction conditions. A mixture of three specific primer pairs was used to amplify three distinct fragments of 613 bp from the P3 gene of PRSV, 355 bp from the CP gene of PLDMV, and 205 bp from the CP gene of PapMV, demonstrating the assay's specificity. The sensitivity of the multiplex RT-PCR was evaluated by showing plasmids containing each of the viral target genes with 1.44 × 103, 1.79 × 103, and 1.91 × 102 copies for the three viruses could be detected successfully. The multiplex RT-PCR was applied successfully for detection of three viruses from 341 field samples collected from 18 counties of Hainan Island, China. Rates of single infections were 186/341 (54.5%), 93/341 (27.3%), and 3/341 (0.9%), for PRSV, PLDMV, and PapMV, respectively; 59/341 (17.3%) of the samples were co-infected with PRSV and PLDMV, which is the first time being reported in Hainan Island. This multiplex RT-PCR assay is a simple, rapid, sensitive, and cost-effective method for detecting multiple viruses in papaya and can be used for routine molecular diagnosis and epidemiological studies in papaya.

  1. Development and Validation of a Multiplex Reverse Transcription PCR Assay for Simultaneous Detection of Three Papaya Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Tuo, Decai; Shen, Wentao; Yang, Yong; Yan, Pu; Li, Xiaoying; Zhou, Peng

    2014-01-01

    Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV), Papaya leaf distortion mosaic virus (PLDMV), and Papaya mosaic virus (PapMV) produce similar symptoms in papaya. Each threatens commercial production of papaya on Hainan Island, China. In this study, a multiplex reverse transcription PCR assay was developed to detect simultaneously these three viruses by screening combinations of mixed primer pairs and optimizing the multiplex RT-PCR reaction conditions. A mixture of three specific primer pairs was used to amplify three distinct fragments of 613 bp from the P3 gene of PRSV, 355 bp from the CP gene of PLDMV, and 205 bp from the CP gene of PapMV, demonstrating the assay’s specificity. The sensitivity of the multiplex RT-PCR was evaluated by showing plasmids containing each of the viral target genes with 1.44 × 103, 1.79 × 103, and 1.91 × 102 copies for the three viruses could be detected successfully. The multiplex RT-PCR was applied successfully for detection of three viruses from 341 field samples collected from 18 counties of Hainan Island, China. Rates of single infections were 186/341 (54.5%), 93/341 (27.3%), and 3/341 (0.9%), for PRSV, PLDMV, and PapMV, respectively; 59/341 (17.3%) of the samples were co-infected with PRSV and PLDMV, which is the first time being reported in Hainan Island. This multiplex RT-PCR assay is a simple, rapid, sensitive, and cost-effective method for detecting multiple viruses in papaya and can be used for routine molecular diagnosis and epidemiological studies in papaya. PMID:25337891

  2. Selecting black-spot resistant papaya genotypes derived from backcrossing and hybrids.

    PubMed

    Poltronieri, T P S; Silveira, S F; Vivas, M; Santa Catarina, R; Cortes, D F M; Azevedo, A O N; Pereira, M G

    2017-02-23

    Papaya crop is important to Brazilian agribusiness. However, the expansion of papaya cultivation in the country is affected by the absence of commercial cultivars presenting good disease resistance. The black-spot caused by the fungus Asperisporium caricae is the most damaging foliar disease affecting Brazilian papaya crops. The use of genetically resistant cultivars is a promising strategy to reduce the dependence of papaya crops on fungicides. A field split-plot experiment was carried out in the municipality of Linhares, Espírito Santo State, and included 20 hybrids derived from the cross between 14 superior lines and four elite genotypes ('SS72/12', 'SEKATI', 'JS/12' and '41/7'), two commercial cultivars ('Golden' and 'Tainung 01'), and the superior line '36/7', which were evaluated for resistance to black-spot in the fruits and leaves. The treatments were arranged in a randomized block design with six repetitions of three plants per plot. The incidence and severity of black spot in the fruits and leaves were evaluated at three different times in the 2015-2016 crop season. Lines 4, 9, 21, and the parent SEKATI were notable for their capacity to reduce disease severity in the leaves and fruits. Lines 1, 2, 9, 16, and 19, and the parents 'SEKATI' and 'SS-72/12' had reduced disease incidence in their fruits. The most resistant hybrids 'SS-72/12 X 4', 'SS-72/12 X 6', 'SEKATI X 1', 'SEKATI X 2', 'SEKATI X 6', 'SEKATI X 9', and 'SEKATI X 20' presented negative heterosis values for improved black-spot resistance. The current study allowed the selection of black-spot resistant genotypes and hybrids, which presented a significantly reduced disease index in the field.

  3. Comparative proteomic analysis of somatic embryo maturation in Carica papaya L.

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Somatic embryogenesis is a complex process regulated by numerous factors. The identification of proteins that are differentially expressed during plant development could result in the development of molecular markers of plant metabolism and provide information contributing to the monitoring and understanding of different biological responses. In addition, the identification of molecular markers could lead to the optimization of protocols allowing the use of biotechnology for papaya propagation and reproduction. This work aimed to investigate the effects of polyethylene glycol (PEG) on somatic embryo development and the protein expression profile during somatic embryo maturation in papaya (Carica papaya L.). Results The maturation treatment supplemented with 6% PEG (PEG6) resulted in the greatest number of somatic embryos and induced differential protein expression compared with cultures grown under the control treatment. Among 135 spots selected for MS/MS analysis, 76 spots were successfully identified, 38 of which were common to both treatments, while 14 spots were unique to the control treatment, and 24 spots were unique to the PEG6 treatment. The identified proteins were assigned to seven categories or were unclassified. The most representative class of proteins observed in the control treatment was associated with the stress response (25.8%), while those under PEG6 treatment were carbohydrate and energy metabolism (18.4%) and the stress response (18.4%). Conclusions The differential expression of three proteins (enolase, esterase and ADH3) induced by PEG6 treatment could play an important role in maturation, and these proteins could be characterized as candidate biomarkers of somatic embryogenesis in papaya. PMID:25076862

  4. Phenol induced by irradiation does not impair sensory quality of fenugreek and papaya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatterjee, Suchandra; Variyar, Prasad S.; Sharma, Arun

    2013-11-01

    The effect of radiation processing on the sensory quality of fenugreek and papaya exposed to doses in the range of 2.5-10 kGy and 100 Gy-2.5 kGy respectively was investigated. Despite an increase in the content of phenol in the volatile oil of these food products overall sensory quality of the irradiated and control samples was not significantly affected by radiation processing.

  5. Brain dynamics for perception of tactile allodynia (touch-induced pain) in postherpetic neuralgia

    PubMed Central

    Geha, P. Y.; Baliki, M. N.; Wang, X.; Harden, R. N.; Paice, J. A.; Apkarian, A. V.

    2008-01-01

    Postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) is a debilitating chronic pain condition often accompanied by a sensation of pain when the affected region is touched (tactile allodynia). Here we identify brain regions involved in stimulus-induced touch-evoked pain (dynamical mechanical allodynia, DMA), compare brain activity between DMA and spontaneous pain (described earlier for the same patients in [28], delineate regions that specifically code the magnitude of perceived allodynia, and show the transformation of allodynia-related information in the brain as a time-evolving network. Eleven PHN patients were studied for DMA and its modulation with Lidoderm therapy (patches of 5% lidocaine applied to the PHN affected body part). Continuous ratings of pain while the affected body part was brushed during fMRI were contrasted with non-painful touch when brushing was applied to an equivalent opposite body site, and with fluctuations of a bar observed during scanning, at three sessions relative to Lidoderm treatment. Lidoderm treatment did not decrease DMA ratings but did decrease spontaneous pain. Multiple brain areas showed preferential activity for allodynia. However, mainly responses in the bilateral putamen and left medial temporal gyrus were related to the magnitude of allodynia. Both DMA and spontaneous pain perceptions were best represented within the same sub-cortical structures but with minimal overlap, implying that PHN pain modulates behavioral learning and hedonics. These results have important clinical implications regarding adequate therapy. PMID:18384958

  6. IMPORTANCE OF SPIKE TIMING IN TOUCH: AN ANALOGY WITH HEARING?

    PubMed Central

    Saal, Hannes P.; Wang, Xiaoqin; Bensmaia, Sliman J.

    2017-01-01

    Touch is often conceived as a spatial sense akin to vision. However, touch also involves the transduction and processing of signals that vary rapidly over time, inviting comparisons with hearing. In both sensory systems, first order afferents produce spiking responses that are temporally precise and the timing of their responses carries stimulus information. The precision and informativeness of spike timing in the two systems invites the possibility that both implement similar mechanisms to extract behaviorally relevant information from these precisely timed responses. Here, we explore the putative roles of spike timing in touch and hearing and discuss common mechanisms that may be involved in processing temporal spiking patterns. PMID:27504741

  7. The biobehavioral effects of gentle human touch on preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Modrcin-Talbott, Mary Anne; Harrison, Lynda Law; Groer, Maureen W; Younger, Mary Sue

    2003-01-01

    This study examined the physiological and behavioral effects of a gentle human touch nursing intervention on medically fragile preterm infants (27 to 32 weeks gestational age). The Roy adaptation model of nursing was the framework for the study. The results of this study suggest that the immediate and short-term effects of a gentle human touch nursing intervention were not aversive or stressful to preterm infants of 27 to 32 weeks gestational age; furthermore, the findings document several positive, beneficial behavioral effects of the intervention on preterm infants and indicate this type of touching may be appropriate for infants in the neonatal intensive care unit.

  8. Antifungal Activity in Ethanolic Extracts of Carica papaya L. cv. Maradol Leaves and Seeds.

    PubMed

    Chávez-Quintal, Pedro; González-Flores, Tania; Rodríguez-Buenfil, Ingrid; Gallegos-Tintoré, Santiago

    2011-01-01

    Bioactive compounds from vegetal sources are a potential source of natural antifungic. An ethanol extraction was used to obtain bioactive compounds from Carica papaya L. cv. Maradol leaves and seeds of discarded ripe and unripe fruit. Both, extraction time and the papaya tissue flour:organic solvent ratio significantly affected yield, with the longest time and highest flour:solvent ratio producing the highest yield. The effect of time on extraction efficiency was confirmed by qualitative identification of the compounds present in the lowest and highest yield extracts. Analysis of the leaf extract with phytochemical tests showed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids and terpenes. Antifungal effectiveness was determined by challenging the extracts (LE, SRE, SUE) from the best extraction treatment against three phytopathogenic fungi: Rhizopus stolonifer, Fusarium spp. and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. The leaf extract exhibited the broadest action spectrum. The MIC(50) for the leaf extract was 0.625 mg ml(-1) for Fusarium spp. and >10 mg ml(-1) for C. gloeosporioides, both equal to approximately 20% mycelial growth inhibition. Ethanolic extracts from Carica papaya L. cv. Maradol leaves are a potential source of secondary metabolites with antifungal properties.

  9. Quality Characteristics, Nutraceutical Profile, and Storage Stability of Aloe Gel-Papaya Functional Beverage Blend

    PubMed Central

    Ramachandran, Pushkala; Nagarajan, Srividya

    2014-01-01

    Aloe vera gel, well known for its nutraceutical potential, is being explored as a functional ingredient in a wide array of health foods and drinks. Processing of exotic fruits and herbal botanicals into functional beverage is an emerging sector in food industry. The present study was undertaken to develop a spiced functional RTS beverage blend using Aloe gel (AG) and papaya. Aloe gel (30%), papaya pulp (15%), spice extract (5%), and citric acid (0.1%) were mixed in given proportion to prepare the blend with TSS of 15 °Brix. The product was bottled, pasteurized, and stored at room temperature. The quality characteristics and storage stability of the spiced beverage blend (SAGPB) were compared with spiced papaya RTS beverage (SPB). Periodic analysis was carried out up to five months for various physicochemical parameters, sugar profile, bioactive compounds, microbial quality, instrumental color, and sensory acceptability. The SAGPB exhibited superior quality characteristics compared to SPB both in fresh and in stored samples. The SPB was acceptable up to four months and SAGPB for five months. The results indicate that nutraceutical rich AG could be successfully utilized to develop functional fruit beverages with improved quality and shelf life. PMID:26904652

  10. Reduction of hydrogen peroxide-induced erythrocyte damage by Carica papaya leaf extract

    PubMed Central

    Okoko, Tebekeme; Ere, Diepreye

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the in vitro antioxidant potential of Carica papaya (C. papaya) leaf extract and its effect on hydrogen peroxide-induced erythrocyte damage assessed by haemolysis and lipid peroxidation. Methods Hydroxyl radical scavenging activities, hydrogen ion scavenging activity, metal chelating activity, and the ferrous ion reducing ability were assessed as antioxidant indices. In the other experiment, human erythrocytes were treated with hydrogen peroxide to induce erythrocyte damage. The extract (at various concentrations) was subsequently incubated with the erythrocytes and later analysed for haemolysis and lipid peroxidation as indices for erythrocyte damage. Results Preliminary investigation of the extract showed that the leaf possessed significant antioxidant and free radical scavenging abilities using in vitro models in a concentration dependent manner (P<0.05). The extract also reduced hydrogen peroxide induced erythrocyte haemolysis and lipid peroxidation significantly when compared with ascorbic acid (P<0.05). The IC50 values were 7.33 mg/mL and 1.58 mg/mL for inhibition of haemolysis and lipid peroxidation, respectively. In all cases, ascorbic acid (the reference antioxidant) possessed higher activity than the extract. Conclusions The findings show that C. papaya leaves possess significant bioactive potential which is attributed to the phytochemicals which act in synergy. Thus, the leaves can be exploited for pharmaceutical and nutritional purposes. PMID:23569948

  11. Sequencing papaya X and Yh chromosomes reveals molecular basis of incipient sex chromosome evolution.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianping; Na, Jong-Kuk; Yu, Qingyi; Gschwend, Andrea R; Han, Jennifer; Zeng, Fanchang; Aryal, Rishi; VanBuren, Robert; Murray, Jan E; Zhang, Wenli; Navajas-Pérez, Rafael; Feltus, F Alex; Lemke, Cornelia; Tong, Eric J; Chen, Cuixia; Wai, Ching Man; Singh, Ratnesh; Wang, Ming-Li; Min, Xiang Jia; Alam, Maqsudul; Charlesworth, Deborah; Moore, Paul H; Jiang, Jiming; Paterson, Andrew H; Ming, Ray

    2012-08-21

    Sex determination in papaya is controlled by a recently evolved XY chromosome pair, with two slightly different Y chromosomes controlling the development of males (Y) and hermaphrodites (Y(h)). To study the events of early sex chromosome evolution, we sequenced the hermaphrodite-specific region of the Y(h) chromosome (HSY) and its X counterpart, yielding an 8.1-megabase (Mb) HSY pseudomolecule, and a 3.5-Mb sequence for the corresponding X region. The HSY is larger than the X region, mostly due to retrotransposon insertions. The papaya HSY differs from the X region by two large-scale inversions, the first of which likely caused the recombination suppression between the X and Y(h) chromosomes, followed by numerous additional chromosomal rearrangements. Altogether, including the X and/or HSY regions, 124 transcription units were annotated, including 50 functional pairs present in both the X and HSY. Ten HSY genes had functional homologs elsewhere in the papaya autosomal regions, suggesting movement of genes onto the HSY, whereas the X region had none. Sequence divergence between 70 transcripts shared by the X and HSY revealed two evolutionary strata in the X chromosome, corresponding to the two inversions on the HSY, the older of which evolved about 7.0 million years ago. Gene content differences between the HSY and X are greatest in the older stratum, whereas the gene content and order of the collinear regions are identical. Our findings support theoretical models of early sex chromosome evolution.

  12. Complete genome of Hainan papaya ringspot virus using small RNA deep sequencing.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuliang; Yu, Naitong; Huang, Qixing; Yin, Guohua; Guo, Anping; Wang, Xiangfeng; Xiong, Zhongguo; Liu, Zhixin

    2014-06-01

    Small RNA deep sequencing allows for virus identification, virus genome assembly, and strain differentiation. In this study, papaya plants with virus-like symptoms collected in Hainan province were used for deep sequencing and small RNA library construction. After in silicon subtraction of the papaya sRNAs, small RNA reads were used to in the viral genome assembly using a reference-guided, iterative assembly approach. A nearly complete genome was assembled for a Hainan isolate of papaya ringspot virus (PRSV-HN-2). The complete PRSV-HN-2 genome (accession no.: KF734962) was obtained after a 15-nucleotide gap was filled by direct sequencing of the amplified genomic region. Direct sequencing of several random genomic regions of the PRSV isolate did not find any sequence discrepancy with the sRNA-assembled genome. The newly sequenced PRSV-HN-2 genome shared a nucleotide identity of 96 and 94 % to that of the PRSV-HN (EF183499) and PRSV-HN-1 (HQ424465) isolates, and together with these two isolates formed a new PRSV clade. These data demonstrate that the small RNA deep sequencing technology provides a viable and rapid mean to assemble complete viral genomes in plants.

  13. Quality Characteristics, Nutraceutical Profile, and Storage Stability of Aloe Gel-Papaya Functional Beverage Blend.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, Pushkala; Nagarajan, Srividya

    2014-01-01

    Aloe vera gel, well known for its nutraceutical potential, is being explored as a functional ingredient in a wide array of health foods and drinks. Processing of exotic fruits and herbal botanicals into functional beverage is an emerging sector in food industry. The present study was undertaken to develop a spiced functional RTS beverage blend using Aloe gel (AG) and papaya. Aloe gel (30%), papaya pulp (15%), spice extract (5%), and citric acid (0.1%) were mixed in given proportion to prepare the blend with TSS of 15 °Brix. The product was bottled, pasteurized, and stored at room temperature. The quality characteristics and storage stability of the spiced beverage blend (SAGPB) were compared with spiced papaya RTS beverage (SPB). Periodic analysis was carried out up to five months for various physicochemical parameters, sugar profile, bioactive compounds, microbial quality, instrumental color, and sensory acceptability. The SAGPB exhibited superior quality characteristics compared to SPB both in fresh and in stored samples. The SPB was acceptable up to four months and SAGPB for five months. The results indicate that nutraceutical rich AG could be successfully utilized to develop functional fruit beverages with improved quality and shelf life.

  14. Spatial and temporal diversity of begomoviral complexes in papayas with leaf curl disease.

    PubMed

    Singh-Pant, P; Pant, P; Mukherjee, S K; Mazumdar-Leighton, S

    2012-07-01

    Old World, monopartite begomoviruses associated with satellite DNA β were observed in papaya showing symptoms of leaf curl disease sampled randomly over five years from within a radius of 250 km in north-central India. Three groups of DNA A sequences were evident. One group resembled chili leaf curl virus infecting tomatoes (ChiLCuV). Another group resembled tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (ToLCuNDV). The third group was novel (tentatively named papaya leaf crumple virus, PaLCrV), with less than 89% identity to known begomovirus sequences in the GenBank database. At least seven DNA A sequences were putative recombinants. The AC4-encoding regions exhibited highest numbers of non-synonymous substitutions. Most DNA β sequences resembled tomato leaf curl virus-associated DNA βs. A few DNA β sequences were similar to that of croton yellow vein mosaic virus-associated DNA β (CroYVMVβ). One DNA β sequence was novel and showed <65% similarity to its counterparts. Mixed infections and sequence diversity among 25 cloned av1 genes indicated that papayas grown in plantations, kitchen gardens and feral patches in the region are vulnerable to disease outbreak. No geographic or temporal patterns were discernable in the distribution of these viruses.

  15. Bioseparation of papain from Carica papaya latex by precipitation of papain-poly (vinyl sulfonate) complexes.

    PubMed

    Braia, Mauricio; Ferrero, Maximiliano; Rocha, María Victoria; Loureiro, Dana; Tubio, Gisela; Romanini, Diana

    2013-09-01

    The formation of insoluble complexes between enzymes and polyelectrolytes is a suitable technique for isolating these biomolecules from natural sources, because it is a simple and rapid technique that allows the concentration of the protein. This technique can be used in most purification protocols at the beginning of the downstream process. The aim of this investigation is to isolate papain from Carica papaya latex by precipitation of insoluble complexes between this enzyme and poly (vinyl sulfonate). The papain-poly (vinyl sulfonate) complex was insoluble at pH lower than 6, with a PVS/PAP stoichiometric ratio of 1:279. Ionic strength affected the complex formation. The presence of the polymer increased the enzymatic activity and protected the enzyme from autodegradation. The optimal conditions for the formation of insoluble papain-polyelectrolyte complex formation were applied to C. papaya latex and a high recovery was obtained (around 86%) and a purification factor around 2. This method can be applied as an isolation method of papain from C. papaya latex or as a first step in a larger purification strategy.

  16. Adsorption of saponin compound in Carica papaya leaves extract using weakly basic ion exchanger resin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abidin, Noraziani Zainal; Janam, Anathasia; Zubairi, Saiful Irwan

    2016-11-01

    Adsorption of saponin compound in papaya leaves juice extract using Amberlite® IRA-67 resin was not reported in previous studies. In this research, Amberlite® IRA-67 was used to determine the amount of saponin that can be adsorbed using different weights of dry resin (0.1 g and 0.5 g). Peleg model was used to determine the maximum yield of saponin (43.67 mg) and the exhaustive time (5.7 days) prior to a preliminary resin-saponin adsorption study. After adsorption process, there was no significant difference (p>0.05) in total saponin content (mg) for sample treated with 0.1 g (3.79 ± 0.55 mg) and sample treated with 0.5 g (3.43 ± 0.51 mg) dry weight resin. Long-term kinetic adsorption of resin-saponin method (>24 hours) should be conducted to obtain optimum freed saponin extract. Besides that, sample treated with 0.1 g dry weight resin had high free radical scavenging value of 50.33 ± 2.74% compared to sample treated with 0.5 g dry weight resin that had low free radical scavenging value of 24.54 ± 1.66% dry weights. Total saponin content (mg), total phenolic content (mg GAE) and free radical scavenging activity (%) was investigated to determine the interaction of those compounds with Amberlite® IRA-67. The RP-HPLC analysis using ursolic acid as standard at 203 nm showed no peak even though ursolic acid was one of the saponin components that was ubiquitous in plant kingdom. The absence of peak was due to weak solubility of ursolic acid in water and since it was only soluble in solvent with moderate polarity. The Pearson's correlation coefficient for total saponin content (mg) versus total phenolic content (mg GAE) and radical scavenging activity (%) were +0.959 and +0.807. Positive values showed that whenever there was an increase in saponin content (mg), the phenolic content (mg GAE) and radical scavenging activity (%) would also increase. However, as the resin-saponin adsorption was carried out, there was a significant decrease of radical scavenging activity

  17. Haptic Holography/Touching the Ethereal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Page, Michael

    2013-02-01

    Haptic Holography, was perhaps, first proposed by workers at MIT in the 90s. The Media Lab, headed up by Dr. Stephen Benton, with published papers by Wendy Plesiak and Ravi Pappuh. -1 Recent developments in both the technology of digital holography and haptics have made it practical to conduct further investigations. Haptic holography is auto-stereoscopic and provides co-axial viewing for the user. Haptic holography may find application in medical & surgical training and as a new form of synthetic reality for artists and designers. At OCAD's PHASE Lab (Prototypes for Holographic Art and Science Explorations) workers are exploring hybrid forms of augmented reality, that combine haptics, interactivity and auto-stereoscopic imagery. Conventional Haptic environments, while presenting a 3D physics environment, typically provide a 2D visual work/play space. Orienteering in such an environment creates an uncertain spatial relationship for the user. Our group creates 3d models from which we create holographic constructs. The same model is used to create the physics environment. The two models are super-imposed. The result: Holograms you can touch.

  18. Quantifying touch feel perception: tribological aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, X.; Yue, Z.; Cai, Z.; Chetwynd, D. G.; Smith, S. T.

    2008-08-01

    We report a new investigation into how surface topography and friction affect human touch-feel perception. In contrast with previous work based on micro-scale mapping of surface mechanical and tribological properties, this investigation focuses on the direct measurement of the friction generated when a fingertip is stroked on a test specimen. A special friction apparatus was built for the in situ testing, based on a linear flexure mechanism with both contact force and frictional force measured simultaneously. Ten specimens, already independently assessed in a 'perception clinic', with materials including natural wood, leather, engineered plastics and metal were tested and the results compared with the perceived rankings. Because surface geometrical features are suspected to play a significant role in perception, a second set of samples, all of one material, were prepared and tested in order to minimize the influence of properties such as hardness and thermal conductivity. To minimize subjective effects, all specimens were also tested in a roller-on-block configuration based upon the same friction apparatus, with the roller materials being steel, brass and rubber. This paper reports the detailed design and instrumentation of the friction apparatus, the experimental set-up and the friction test results. Attempts have been made to correlate the measured properties and the perceived feelings for both roughness and friction. The results show that the measured roughness and friction coefficient both have a strong correlation with the rough-smooth and grippy-slippery feelings.

  19. Physicochemical, nutritional, and microbial quality of fresh-cut and frozen papaya prepared from cultivars with varying resistance to internal yellowing disease (Enterobacter cloacae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Quality, nutritional, and microbial analyses were completed for fresh-cut and frozen papaya cubes prepared from cultivars with varying resistance to internal yellowing disease, caused by the bacterium Enterobacter cloacae. In general, fresh-cut and frozen papaya retained nutritional and microbial qu...

  20. Foraging on and consumption of two species of papaya pest mites, Tetranychus kanzawai and Panonychus citri (Acari: tetranychidae) by Mallada basalis (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tetranychus kanzawai Kishida and Panonychus citri (McGregor) are two major acarine pests of the principal papaya variety in Taiwan, and they often co-occur in the same papaya screenhouses. This study measured prey acceptability, foraging schedule, short-term consumption rate, and handling time of la...

  1. Ectopic expression of Dahlia merckii defensin DmAMP1 improves papaya resistance to Phytophthora palmivora by reducing pathogen vigor.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yun J; Agbayani, Ricelle; Moore, Paul H

    2007-06-01

    Phytophthora spp., some of the more important casual agents of plant diseases, are responsible for heavy economic losses worldwide. Plant defensins have been introduced as transgenes into a range of species to increase host resistance to pathogens to which they were originally susceptible. However, the effectiveness and mechanism of interaction of the defensins with Phytophthora spp. have not been clearly characterized in planta. In this study, we expressed the Dahlia merckii defensin, DmAMP1, in papaya (Carica papaya L.), a plant highly susceptible to a root, stem, and fruit rot disease caused by Phytophthora palmivora. Extracts of total leaf proteins from transformed plants inhibited growth of Phytophthora in vitro and discs cut from the leaves of transformed plants inhibited growth of Phytophthora in a bioassay. Results from our greenhouse inoculation experiments demonstrate that expressing the DmAMP1 gene in papaya plants increased resistance against P. palmivora and that this increased resistance was associated with reduced hyphae growth of P. palmivora at the infection sites. The inhibitory effects of DmAMP1 expression in papaya suggest this approach has good potential to impart transgenic resistance against Phytophthora in papaya.

  2. Effect of cassava starch-based edible coating incorporated with lemongrass essential oil on the quality of papaya MJ9

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Praseptiangga, D.; Utami, R.; Khasanah, L. U.; Evirananda, I. P.; Kawiji

    2017-02-01

    Edible films and coatings have emerged as an alternative packaging in food applications and have received much attention due to their advantages. The incorporation of essential oils in film matrices to give antimicrobial properties had been observed recently, and could be used as promising preservation technology. In this study, cassava starch-based edible coating incorporated with lemongrass essential oil (1%) was applied by spraying and dipping methods to preserve papaya MJ9 during storage at room temperature. The quality of papaya MJ9 was analyzed based on its physicochemical and microbiological properties. The addition of lemongrass essential oil (1%) significantly inhibited the microbial growth on papaya MJ9 by reducing the value of total yeast and mold as compared to the control. This study also showed that for parameters of weight loss, total soluble solid, vitamin C, and total titratable acid, papaya MJ9 with cassava starch-based edible coating incorporated with lemongrass essential oil (1%) had the lower values than control, however, they had the higher value than control on firmness parameter. These results indicate that cassava starch-based edible coating incorporated with lemongrass essential oil (1%) can be used as an alternative preservation for papaya MJ9.

  3. DNA extraction method using a silica-base resin type kit for the detection of genetically modified papaya.

    PubMed

    Ohmori, Kiyomi; Tsuchiya, Hisayo; Watanabe, Takahiro; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Maitani, Tamio; Yamada, Toshiharu; Hirayama, Kuni; Satoh, Shuji

    2008-04-01

    Genetically modified (GM) papaya has not yet been approved for importation into, or cultivation in the European Union (EU) and Japan. A DNA extraction method using the Qiagen DNeasy Plant Mini Kit (PM method) and a method using a buffer containing cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB method) have been adopted as the official Japanese methods for detecting GM foods. However, the amounts of DNA extracted from papaya by these methods are very low. Therefore, we investigated an extraction method to obtain a high yield of DNA from raw or freeze-dried fresh papaya using the Promega Wizard DNA Clean-Up Resin System (WCR). The incubation for the extraction was carried out at 58 degrees C without proteinase K for 15 min. The extract was applied to a mini-column, then the column was washed with 80% isopropyl alcohol, and genomic DNA adsorbed on the column was eluted with TE buffer. The WCR method gave a higher yield of genomic DNA, and was simpler and faster than the PM method or CTAB method. In addition, it could be used to extract genomic DNA from fresh papaya at various stages of ripeness. Based on these results, we propose that the present method using WCR is the most practical and useful way to extract genomic DNA for the purpose of detecting GM papaya.

  4. Repeated dose 28-days oral toxicity study of Carica papaya L. leaf extract in Sprague Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Afzan, Adlin; Abdullah, Noor Rain; Halim, Siti Zaleha; Rashid, Badrul Amini; Semail, Raja Hazlini Raja; Abdullah, Noordini; Jantan, Ibrahim; Muhammad, Hussin; Ismail, Zakiah

    2012-04-10

    Carica papaya L. leaves have been used in ethnomedicine for the treatment of fevers and cancers. Despite its benefits, very few studies on their potential toxicity have been described. The aim of the present study was to characterize the chemical composition of the leaf extract from 'Sekaki' C. papaya cultivar by UPLC-TripleTOF-ESI-MS and to investigate the sub-acute oral toxicity in Sprague Dawley rats at doses of 0.01, 0.14 and 2 g/kg by examining the general behavior, clinical signs, hematological parameters, serum biochemistry and histopathology changes. A total of twelve compounds consisting of one piperidine alkaloid, two organic acids, six malic acid derivatives, and four flavonol glycosides were characterized or tentatively identified in the C. papaya leaf extract. In the sub-acute study, the C. papaya extract did not cause mortality nor were treatment-related changes in body weight, food intake, water level, and hematological parameters observed between treatment and control groups. Some biochemical parameters such as the total protein, HDL-cholesterol, AST, ALT and ALP were elevated in a non-dose dependent manner. Histopathological examination of all organs including liver did not reveal morphological alteration. Other parameters showed non-significant differences between treatment and control groups. The present results suggest that C. papaya leaf extract at a dose up to fourteen times the levels employed in practical use in traditional medicine in Malaysia could be considered safe as a medicinal agent.

  5. Cytochalasin D blocks touch learning in Octopus vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Robertson, J D

    1994-10-22

    Supraoesophageal lobes in 11 specimens of Octopus vulgaris were split sagitally into two symmetrical halves and isolated by a thin inert mica barrier. Each half-brain is known to control the four arms on its side of the animal and to be able to learn opposite touch paradigms mediated by its four arms. Powdered cytochalasin D was applied directly in each animal to the subfrontal lobe of one half-brain, and both half-brains were then trained to opposite touch paradigms. The cytochalasin treated half-brains could not learn either touch paradigm whereas the control half-brains learned readily. In another set of four animals, cytochalasin D was similarly applied but to the vertical lobe of one half-brain. In this case all the half-brains learned the touch paradigm.

  6. Animation of Curiosity Rover's First 'Touch and Go'

    NASA Video Gallery

    Animation shows NASA's Mars Curiosity rover touching a rock with aninstrument on its arm, then stowing the arm and driving on.Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech› Curiosity's mission site › Related s...

  7. High Tech, High Touch, as Perceived by Health Professionals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shea, Mary Lou

    1984-01-01

    This article describes the results of a survey of health professionals to determine their perceptions of "high tech, high touch" in health occupations education. Health professionals' concerns related to five major questions are presented. (CT)

  8. Mechanical systems biology of C. elegans touch sensation

    PubMed Central

    Krieg, Michael; Dunn, Alex; Goodman, Miriam B.

    2015-01-01

    The sense of touch informs us of the physical properties of our surroundings and is a critical aspect of communication. Before touches are perceived, mechanical signals are transmitted quickly and reliably from the skin’s surface to mechano-electrical transduction channels embedded within specialized sensory neurons. We are just beginning to understand how soft tissues participate in force transmission and how they are deformed. Here, we review empirical and theoretical studies of single molecules and molecular ensembles thought to be involved in mechanotransmission and apply the concepts emerging from this work to the sense of touch. We focus on the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans as a well-studied model for touch sensation in which mechanics can be studied on the molecular, cellular, and systems level. Finally, we conclude that force transmission is an emergent property of macromolecular cellular structures that mutually stabilize one another. PMID:25597279

  9. Allina Health System's approach to high tech and high touch.

    PubMed

    Tam, T A

    1997-01-01

    All health care providers, regardless of their integration status, must meet customer expectations to maintain market share and viability. The balance between high tech and high touch customer interactions is not a fad or trend. For integrated health systems with the full continuum of medical care, additional challenges are presented by the organization's competing health care delivery and financing components. Allina Health System describes its integrated health system approach to satisfying customer high tech and high touch needs.

  10. Specular vision-touch synaesthesia: two reference frames.

    PubMed

    White, Rebekah C; Aimola Davies, Anne M

    2012-01-01

    Two subtypes of vision-touch synaesthesia (VTS) have been identified. For anatomical VTS, sight of touch on another person elicits synaesthetic tactile sensation at the same location on the observer's own body (e.g., viewed touch on the left cheek elicits sensation on the observer's left cheek). For specular VTS, sight of touch on another person elicits synaesthetic tactile sensation at the mirror-reflected location (e.g., viewed touch on the left cheek elicits sensation on the observer's right cheek). Here we report two distinctly different patterns of sensation within the specular subtype. Both participants experienced synaesthetic tactile sensation on their right hand when they viewed unidirectional brushstrokes administered to a prosthetic left hand (positioned with fingers pointing toward the participant), but the direction of sensation matched the viewed touch in a hand-centred (spatial) reference frame for RS and in an external (viewer-centred) reference frame for NC. Competing reference frames affect how individuals with specular VTS experience synaesthetic tactile sensation.

  11. Atmospheric pressure plasma jets interacting with liquid covered tissue: touching and not-touching the liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norberg, Seth A.; Tian, Wei; Johnsen, Eric; Kushner, Mark J.

    2014-11-01

    In the use of atmospheric pressure plasma jets in biological applications, the plasma-produced charged and neutral species in the plume of the jet often interact with a thin layer of liquid covering the tissue being treated. The plasma-produced reactivity must then penetrate through the liquid layer to reach the tissue. In this computational investigation, a plasma jet created by a single discharge pulse at three different voltages was directed onto a 200 µm water layer covering tissue followed by a 10 s afterglow. The magnitude of the voltage and its pulse length determined if the ionization wave producing the plasma plume reached the surface of the liquid. When the ionization wave touches the surface, significantly more charged species were created in the water layer with H3O+aq, O3-aq, and O2-aq being the dominant terminal species. More aqueous OHaq, H2O2aq, and O3aq were also formed when the plasma plume touches the surface. The single pulse examined here corresponds to a low repetition rate plasma jet where reactive species would be blown out of the volume between pulses and there is not recirculation of flow or turbulence. For these conditions, NxOy species do not accumulate in the volume. As a result, aqueous nitrites, nitrates, and peroxynitrite, and the HNO3aq and HOONOaq, which trace their origin to solvated NxOy, have low densities.

  12. A transparent flexible z-axis sensitive multi-touch panel based on colloidal ITO nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Sangeetha, N M; Gauvin, M; Decorde, N; Delpech, F; Fazzini, P F; Viallet, B; Viau, G; Grisolia, J; Ressier, L

    2015-08-07

    Bottom-up fabrication of a flexible multi-touch panel prototype based on transparent colloidal indium tin oxide (ITO) nanocrystal (NC) films is presented. A series of 7% Sn(4+) doped ITO NCs protected by oleate, octanoate and butanoate ligands are synthesized and characterized by a battery of techniques including, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, (1)H, (13)C and (119)Sn nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and the related diffusion ordered spectroscopy. Electrical resistivities of transparent films of these NCs assembled on flexible polyethylene terephthalate substrates by convective self-assembly from their suspension in toluene decrease with the ligand length, from 220 × 10(3) for oleate ITO to 13 × 10(3)Ω cm for butanoate ITO NC films. A highly transparent, flexible touch panel based on a matrix of strain gauges derived from the least resistive film of 17 nm butanoate ITO NCs sensitively detects the lateral position (x, y) of the touch as well as its intensity over the z-axis. Being compatible with a stylus or bare/gloved finger, a larger version of this module may be readily implemented in upcoming flexible screens, enabling navigation capabilities over all three axes, a feature highly desired by the display industry.

  13. Assessments of cognitive abilities in a mouse model of Parkinson's disease with a touch screen test.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Chuljung; Lim, Chae-Seok; Kaang, Bong-Kiun

    2016-03-15

    Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) experience both motor output deficits and cognitive disabilities. Various PD rodent models have been developed to investigate the genetic and brain circuit-related causes of PD and have contributed to the basic and clinical research and to therapeutic strategies for this disease. Most studies using PD rodent models have focused on the motor output deficits, rather than cognitive disabilities due to the lack of appropriate testing tools that do not require significant motor abilities. In this study, we assessed the cognitive disabilities of PD model mice using a touch screen test that required only little motor ability. We found that the PD model mice, which had motor deficits caused by unilateral striatal dopaminergic degeneration, successfully underwent operant conditioning with a touch screen test. Additionally, we found that the PD model mice demonstrated impaired location discrimination, but intact attention and reversal learning in the cognitive tests. Therefore, the touch screen test is useful for assessing hidden cognitive disabilities in disease model animals with decreased motor function.

  14. Finger pad friction and its role in grip and touch.

    PubMed

    Adams, Michael J; Johnson, Simon A; Lefèvre, Philippe; Lévesque, Vincent; Hayward, Vincent; André, Thibaut; Thonnard, Jean-Louis

    2013-03-06

    Many aspects of both grip function and tactile perception depend on complex frictional interactions occurring in the contact zone of the finger pad, which is the subject of the current review. While it is well established that friction plays a crucial role in grip function, its exact contribution for discriminatory touch involving the sliding of a finger pad is more elusive. For texture discrimination, it is clear that vibrotaction plays an important role in the discriminatory mechanisms. Among other factors, friction impacts the nature of the vibrations generated by the relative movement of the fingertip skin against a probed object. Friction also has a major influence on the perceived tactile pleasantness of a surface. The contact mechanics of a finger pad is governed by the fingerprint ridges and the sweat that is exuded from pores located on these ridges. Counterintuitively, the coefficient of friction can increase by an order of magnitude in a period of tens of seconds when in contact with an impermeably smooth surface, such as glass. In contrast, the value will decrease for a porous surface, such as paper. The increase in friction is attributed to an occlusion mechanism and can be described by first-order kinetics. Surprisingly, the sensitivity of the coefficient of friction to the normal load and sliding velocity is comparatively of second order, yet these dependencies provide the main basis of theoretical models which, to-date, largely ignore the time evolution of the frictional dynamics. One well-known effect on taction is the possibility of inducing stick-slip if the friction decreases with increasing sliding velocity. Moreover, the initial slip of a finger pad occurs by the propagation of an annulus of failure from the perimeter of the contact zone and this phenomenon could be important in tactile perception and grip function.

  15. Finger pad friction and its role in grip and touch

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Michael J.; Johnson, Simon A.; Lefèvre, Philippe; Lévesque, Vincent; Hayward, Vincent; André, Thibaut; Thonnard, Jean-Louis

    2013-01-01

    Many aspects of both grip function and tactile perception depend on complex frictional interactions occurring in the contact zone of the finger pad, which is the subject of the current review. While it is well established that friction plays a crucial role in grip function, its exact contribution for discriminatory touch involving the sliding of a finger pad is more elusive. For texture discrimination, it is clear that vibrotaction plays an important role in the discriminatory mechanisms. Among other factors, friction impacts the nature of the vibrations generated by the relative movement of the fingertip skin against a probed object. Friction also has a major influence on the perceived tactile pleasantness of a surface. The contact mechanics of a finger pad is governed by the fingerprint ridges and the sweat that is exuded from pores located on these ridges. Counterintuitively, the coefficient of friction can increase by an order of magnitude in a period of tens of seconds when in contact with an impermeably smooth surface, such as glass. In contrast, the value will decrease for a porous surface, such as paper. The increase in friction is attributed to an occlusion mechanism and can be described by first-order kinetics. Surprisingly, the sensitivity of the coefficient of friction to the normal load and sliding velocity is comparatively of second order, yet these dependencies provide the main basis of theoretical models which, to-date, largely ignore the time evolution of the frictional dynamics. One well-known effect on taction is the possibility of inducing stick–slip if the friction decreases with increasing sliding velocity. Moreover, the initial slip of a finger pad occurs by the propagation of an annulus of failure from the perimeter of the contact zone and this phenomenon could be important in tactile perception and grip function. PMID:23256185

  16. Detection of platypus-type L/D-peptide isomerase activity in aqueous extracts of papaya fruit.

    PubMed

    Arakawa, Kensuke; Koh, Jennifer M S; Crossett, Ben; Torres, Allan M; Kuchel, Philip W

    2012-09-01

    Peptide isomerase catalyses the post-translational isomerisation of the L: - to the D: -form of an amino acid residue around the N/C-termini of substrate peptides. To date, some peptide isomerases have been found in a limited number of animal secretions and cells. We show here that papaya extracts have weak peptide isomerase activity. The activity was detected in each 30-100 kDa fraction of the flesh and the seed extracts of unripe and ripe papaya fruit. The definitive activity was confirmed in the ripe papaya extracts, but even then it was much less active than that of the other peptide isomerases previously reported. The activity was markedly inhibited by methanol, and partly so by amastatin and diethyl pyrocarbonate. This is the first report of peptide isomerase activity in a plant and suggests that perhaps every living organism may have some peptide isomerase activity.

  17. Comparative evaluation of volatiles, phenolics, sugars, organic acids and antioxidant properties of Sel-42 and Tainung papaya varieties.

    PubMed

    Kelebek, Hasim; Selli, Serkan; Gubbuk, Hamide; Gunes, Esma

    2015-04-15

    The present study was designed to determine the phenolic compounds, organic acids, sugars, aroma profiles and antioxidant properties of Sel-42 and Tainung papayas grown in Turkey. High-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionisation tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS) method was used for the phenolic compounds analysis. Twelve phenolic compounds were identified and quantified in the samples. The total phenolic content of Sel-42 was clearly higher than that of Tainung. Protocatechuic acid-hexoside, gallic acid-deoxyhexoside, ferulic acid and chlorogenic acids were the most abundant phenolics in both cultivars. Aroma composition of papaya was analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 46 and 42 aroma compounds, including esters, alcohols, terpenes, lactones, acids, carbonyl compounds, and volatile phenols were identified in the Sel-42 and Tainung, respectively. The significant linear correlation was confirmed between the values for the total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of papaya extracts.

  18. A Touch Sensing Technique Using the Effects of Extremely Low Frequency Fields on the Human Body

    PubMed Central

    Elfekey, Hatem; Bastawrous, Hany Ayad; Okamoto, Shogo

    2016-01-01

    Touch sensing is a fundamental approach in human-to-machine interfaces, and is currently under widespread use. Many current applications use active touch sensing technologies. Passive touch sensing technologies are, however, more adequate to implement low power or energy harvesting touch sensing interfaces. This paper presents a passive touch sensing technique based on the fact that the human body is affected by the surrounding extremely low frequency (ELF) electromagnetic fields, such as those of AC power lines. These external ELF fields induce electric potentials on the human body—because human tissues exhibit some conductivity at these frequencies—resulting in what is called AC hum. We therefore propose a passive touch sensing system that detects this hum noise when a human touch occurs, thus distinguishing between touch and non-touch events. The effectiveness of the proposed technique is validated by designing and implementing a flexible touch sensing keyboard. PMID:27918416

  19. A Touch Sensing Technique Using the Effects of Extremely Low Frequency Fields on the Human Body.

    PubMed

    Elfekey, Hatem; Bastawrous, Hany Ayad; Okamoto, Shogo

    2016-12-02

    Touch sensing is a fundamental approach in human-to-machine interfaces, and is currently under widespread use. Many current applications use active touch sensing technologies. Passive touch sensing technologies are, however, more adequate to implement low power or energy harvesting touch sensing interfaces. This paper presents a passive touch sensing technique based on the fact that the human body is affected by the surrounding extremely low frequency (ELF) electromagnetic fields, such as those of AC power lines. These external ELF fields induce electric potentials on the human body-because human tissues exhibit some conductivity at these frequencies-resulting in what is called AC hum. We therefore propose a passive touch sensing system that detects this hum noise when a human touch occurs, thus distinguishing between touch and non-touch events. The effectiveness of the proposed technique is validated by designing and implementing a flexible touch sensing keyboard.

  20. Energetic optimization of a piezo-based touch-operated button for man-machine interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Hao; de Vries, Theo J. A.; de Vries, Rene; van Dalen, Harry

    2012-03-01

    This paper discusses the optimization of a touch-operated button for man-machine interfaces based on piezoelectric energy harvesting techniques. In the mechanical button, a common piezoelectric diaphragm, is assembled to harvest the ambient energy from the source, i.e. the operator’s touch. Under touch force load, the integrated diaphragm will have a bending deformation. Then, its mechanical strain is converted into the required electrical energy by means of the piezoelectric effect presented to the diaphragm. Structural design (i) makes the piezoceramic work under static compressive stress instead of static or dynamic tensile stress, (ii) achieves a satisfactory stress level and (iii) provides the diaphragm and the button with a fatigue lifetime in excess of millions of touch operations. To improve the button’s function, the effect of some key properties consisting of dimension, boundary condition and load condition on electrical behavior of the piezoelectric diaphragm are evaluated by electromechanical coupling analysis in ANSYS. The finite element analysis (FEA) results indicate that the modification of these properties could enhance the diaphragm significantly. Based on the key properties’ different contributions to the improvement of the diaphragm’s electrical energy output, they are incorporated into the piezoelectric diaphragm’s redesign or the structural design of the piezo-based button. The comparison of the original structure and the optimal result shows that electrical energy stored in the diaphragm and the voltage output are increased by 1576% and 120%, respectively, and the volume of the piezoceramic is reduced to 33.6%. These results will be adopted to update the design of the self-powered button, thus enabling a large decrease of energy consumption and lifetime cost of the MMI.

  1. Performance and touch characteristics of disabled and non-disabled participants during a reciprocal tapping task using touch screen technology.

    PubMed

    Irwin, Curt B; Sesto, Mary E

    2012-11-01

    Touch screens are becoming more prevalent in everyday environments. Therefore, it is important that this technology is accessible to those with varying disabilities. The objective of the current study was to evaluate performance and touch characteristics (forces, impulses, and dwell times) of individuals with and without a movement disorder during a reciprocal tapping touch screen task. Thirty-seven participants with a motor control disability and 15 non-disabled participants participated. Outcome measures include number of correct taps, dwell time, exerted force, and impulse. Results indicate non-disabled participants had 1.8 more taps than participants with fine motor control disabilities and 2.8 times more than those with gross motor impairments (p<0.05). Additionally, people with gross motor control disabilities demonstrated longer dwell times and greater impulses (p<0.05). The average force used to activate the buttons was 6.2 N, although the button activation force was 0.98 N. Differences in reciprocal tapping and touch characteristics exist between those with and without motor control disabilities. Understanding how people (including those with disabilities) interact with touch screens may allow designers and engineers to ultimately improve usability of touch screen technology.

  2. Mirror-touch and ticker tape experiences in synesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Chun, Charlotte A.; Hupé, Jean-Michel

    2013-01-01

    A fundamental question in the field of synesthesia is whether it is associated with other cognitive phenomena. The current study examined synesthesia's connections with phenomenal traits of mirror-touch and ticker tape experiences, as well as the representation of the three phenomena in the population, across gender and domain of work/study. Mirror-touch is the automatic, involuntary experience of tactile sensation on one's own body when others are being touched. For example, seeing another person's arm being stroked can evoke physical touch sensation on one's own arm. Ticker tape is the automatic visualization of spoken words or thoughts, such as a teleprompter. For example, when spoken to, a ticker taper might see mentally the spoken words displayed in front of his face or as coming out of the speaker's mouth. To explore synesthesia's associations with these phenomena, a diverse group (n = 3743) was systematically recruited from eight universities and one public museum in France to complete an online screening. Of the 1017 eligible respondents, synesthetes (across all subtypes) reported higher rates of mirror-touch and ticker tape than non-synesthetes, suggesting that synesthesia is associated with these phenomenal traits. However, effect sizes were small and we could not rule out that response bias influenced these associations. Mirror-touch and ticker tape were independent. No differences were found across gender or domain of work and study in prevalence of synesthesia, mirror-touch or ticker tape. The prevalence of ticker tape, unknown so far, was estimated at about 7%, an intermediate rate between estimates of grapheme-color (2–4%) and sequence-space synesthesia (9–14%). Within synesthesia, grapheme-personification, also called ordinal-linguistic personification (OLP) was the most common subtype and was estimated around 12%. Co-occurences of the different types of synesthesia were higher than chance, though at the level of small effect sizes. PMID

  3. Mirror-touch and ticker tape experiences in synesthesia.

    PubMed

    Chun, Charlotte A; Hupé, Jean-Michel

    2013-01-01

    A fundamental question in the field of synesthesia is whether it is associated with other cognitive phenomena. The current study examined synesthesia's connections with phenomenal traits of mirror-touch and ticker tape experiences, as well as the representation of the three phenomena in the population, across gender and domain of work/study. Mirror-touch is the automatic, involuntary experience of tactile sensation on one's own body when others are being touched. For example, seeing another person's arm being stroked can evoke physical touch sensation on one's own arm. Ticker tape is the automatic visualization of spoken words or thoughts, such as a teleprompter. For example, when spoken to, a ticker taper might see mentally the spoken words displayed in front of his face or as coming out of the speaker's mouth. To explore synesthesia's associations with these phenomena, a diverse group (n = 3743) was systematically recruited from eight universities and one public museum in France to complete an online screening. Of the 1017 eligible respondents, synesthetes (across all subtypes) reported higher rates of mirror-touch and ticker tape than non-synesthetes, suggesting that synesthesia is associated with these phenomenal traits. However, effect sizes were small and we could not rule out that response bias influenced these associations. Mirror-touch and ticker tape were independent. No differences were found across gender or domain of work and study in prevalence of synesthesia, mirror-touch or ticker tape. The prevalence of ticker tape, unknown so far, was estimated at about 7%, an intermediate rate between estimates of grapheme-color (2-4%) and sequence-space synesthesia (9-14%). Within synesthesia, grapheme-personification, also called ordinal-linguistic personification (OLP) was the most common subtype and was estimated around 12%. Co-occurences of the different types of synesthesia were higher than chance, though at the level of small effect sizes.

  4. Investigating Maternal Touch and Infants' Self-Regulatory Behaviours during a Modified Face-to-Face Still-Face with Touch Procedure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jean, Amélie D. L.; Stack, Dale M.; Arnold, Sharon

    2014-01-01

    Maternal touch and infants' self-regulatory behaviours were examined during a modified Still-Face with Touch (SF?+?T) procedure. Mothers and their 5½-month-old infants participated in one period of Normal interaction followed by three SF?+?T periods. Maternal functions of touch, and infants' self-regulatory behaviour, affect, and…

  5. Morphological study of bone marrow to assess the effects of lead acetate on haemopoiesis and aplasia and the ameliorating role of Carica papaya extract.

    PubMed

    Tham, Ching S; Chakravarthi, Srikumar; Haleagrahara, Nagaraja; DE Alwis, Ranjit

    2013-02-01

    Lead causes damage to the body by inducing oxidative stress. The sites of damage include the bone marrow, where marrow hypoplasia and osteosclerosis may be observed. Leaves of Carica papaya, which have antioxidant and haemopoietic properties, were tested against the effect of lead acetate in experimental rats. The rats were divided into 8 groups; control, lead acetate only, Carica papaya (50 mg and 200 mg), post-treatment with Carica papaya (50 mg and 200 mg) following lead acetate administration and pre-treatment with Carica papaya (50 mg and 200 mg) followed by lead acetate administration. The substances were administered for 14 days. The effects were evaluated by measuring protein carbonyl content (PCC) and glutathione content (GC) in the bone marrow. Histological changes in the bone marrow were also observed. The results showed that Carica papaya induced a significant reduction in the PCC activity and significantly increased the GC in the bone marrow. Carica papaya also improved the histology of the bone marrow compared with that of the lead acetate-treated group. In summary, Carica papaya was effective against the oxidative damage caused by lead acetate in the bone marrow and had a stimulatory effect on haemopoiesis.

  6. Carotenoids and Vitamin C during Handling and Distribution of Guava (Psidium guajava L.), Mango (Mangifera indica L.), and Papaya (Carica papaya L.) at Commercial Restaurants.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Daniela Da Silva; Lobato, Alvanice Lemos; Ribeiro, Sônia Machado Rocha; Santana, Angela Maria Campos; Chaves, José Benício Paes; Pinheiro-Sant'Ana, Helena Maria

    2010-05-26

    The content and stability of vitamin C (ascorbic acid, AA, and dehydroascorbic acid, DHA) and carotenoids (beta-carotene, lycopene, and beta-cryptoxanthin) were analyzed in papaya, mango, and guava after the reception, preparation (cleaning, peeling, and slicing), and distribution stages for consumption in a commercial restaurant. The analysis of carotenoids and vitamin C was carried out by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The fruits analyzed were considered excellent sources of vitamin C and carotenoids. There were no significant differences in the vitamin C and carotenoids content during the different fruit handling stages at the commercial restaurant, which demonstrates the excellent stability of the components under the usual handling conditions employed. The results show that customers of the commercial restaurant are directly benefitted since the nutritional quality of the fruits was preserved during all of the handling and distribution periods.

  7. Good vibrations: Global processing can increase the pleasantness of touch.

    PubMed

    Mirams, Laura; Poliakoff, Ellen; Zandstra, Elizabeth H; Hoeksma, Marco; Thomas, Anna; El-Deredy, Wael

    2016-12-01

    Visual-tactile carry-over effects of global/local processing (attention to the whole, versus the details) have been reported under active touch conditions. We investigated whether carry-over effects of global/local processing also occur for passive touch and whether global/local processing has differential effects on affective and discriminative aspects of touch. Participants completed two tactile tasks involving pleasantness rating and discrimination of a set of tactile vibrations before and after completing a version of the Navon task that encouraged a focus on the global (n = 30), local (n = 30), or both (n = 30) features of a series of visual stimuli. In line with previous research suggesting a link between global processing and positive emotion, global processing increased pleasantness ratings of high-frequency (but not low-frequency) tactile vibrations. Local processing did not improve the ability to discriminate between vibrations of different frequencies, however. There was some evidence of a tactile-visual carry-over effect; prior local processing of tactile vibrations reduced global precedence during the Navon task in the control group. We have shown carry-over effects of global versus local processing on passive touch perception. These findings provide further evidence suggesting that a common perceptual mechanism determines processing level across modalities and show for the first time that prior global processing affects the pleasantness of touch.

  8. Therapeutic touch: influence on vital signs of newborns

    PubMed Central

    Ramada, Nadia Christina Oliveira; Almeida, Fabiane de Amorim; Cunha, Mariana Lucas da Rocha

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective>: To compare vital signs before and after the therapeutic touch observed in hospitalized newborns in neonatal intensive care unit. Methods: This was a quasi-experimental study performed at a neonatal intensive care unit of a municipal hospital, in the city of São Paulo (SP), Brazil. The sample included 40 newborns submitted to the therapeutic touch after a painful procedure. We evaluated the vital signs, such as heart and respiratory rates, temperature and pain intensity, before and after the therapeutic touch. Results: The majority of newborns were male (n=28; 70%), pre-term (n=19; 52%) and born from vaginal delivery (n=27; 67%). Respiratory distress was the main reason for hospital admission (n=16; 40%). There was a drop in all vital signs after therapeutic touch, particularly in pain score, which had a considerable reduction in the mean values, from 3.37 (SD=1.31) to 0 (SD=0.0). All differences found were statistically significant by the Wilcoxon test (p<0.05). Conclusion: The results showed that therapeutic touch promotes relaxation of the baby, favoring reduction in vital signs and, consequently in the basal metabolism rate. PMID:24488378

  9. The representation of social facial touch in rat barrel cortex.

    PubMed

    Bobrov, Evgeny; Wolfe, Jason; Rao, Rajnish P; Brecht, Michael

    2014-01-06

    Controlled presentation of stimuli to anesthetized [1] or awake [2] animals suggested that neurons in sensory cortices respond to elementary features [3, 4], but we know little about neuronal responses evoked by social interactions. Here we investigate processing in the barrel cortex of rats engaging in social facial touch [5, 6]. Sensory stimulation by conspecifics differs from classic whisker stimuli such as deflections, contact poles [7, 8], or textures [9, 10]. A large fraction of barrel cortex neurons responded to facial touch. Social touch responses peaked when animals aligned their faces and contacted each other by multiple whiskers with small, irregular whisker movements. Object touch was associated with larger, more regular whisker movements, and object responses were weaker than social responses. Whisker trimming abolished responses. During social touch, neurons in males increased their firing on average by 44%, while neurons in females increased their firing by only 19%. In females, socially evoked and ongoing firing rates were more than 1.5-fold higher in nonestrus than in estrus. Barrel cortex represented socially different contacts by distinct firing rates, and the variation of activity with sex and sexual status could contribute to the generation of gender-specific neural constructs of conspecifics.

  10. Parental Reports on Touch Screen Use in Early Childhood.

    PubMed

    Cristia, Alejandrina; Seidl, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    Touch screens are increasingly prevalent, and anecdotal evidence suggests that young children are very drawn towards them. Yet there is little data regarding how young children use them. A brief online questionnaire queried over 450 French parents of infants between the ages of 5 and 40 months on their young child's use of touch-screen technology. Parents estimated frequency of use, and further completed several checklists. Results suggest that, among respondent families, the use of touch screens is widespread in early childhood, meaning that most children have some exposure to touch screens. Among child users, certain activities are more frequently reported to be liked than others, findings that we discuss in light of current concern for children's employment of time and the cognitive effects of passive media exposure. Additionally, these parental reports point to clear developmental trends for certain types of interactive gestures. These results contribute to the investigation of touch screen use on early development and suggest a number of considerations that should help improve the design of applications geared towards toddlers, particularly for scientific purposes.

  11. Design and implementation of spaceborne high resolution infrared touch screen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Tai-guo; Li, Wen-xin; Dong, Yi-peng; Ma, Wen; Xia, Jia-gao

    2015-10-01

    For the consideration of the special application environment of the electronic products used in aerospace and to further more improve the human-computer interaction of the manned aerospace area. The research is based on the design and implementation way of the high resolution spaceborne infrared touch screen on the basis of FPGA and DSP frame structure. Beside the introduction of the whole structure for the high resolution spaceborne infrared touch screen system, this essay also gives the detail information about design of hardware for the high resolution spaceborne infrared touch screen system, FPGA design, GUI design and DSP algorithm design based on Lagrange interpolation. What is more, the easy makes a comprehensive research of the reliability design for the high resolution spaceborne infrared touch screen for the special purpose of it. Besides, the system test is done after installation of spaceborne infrared touch screen. The test result shows that the system is simple and reliable enough, which has a stable running environment and high resolution, which certainly can meet the special requirement of the manned aerospace instrument products.

  12. Evaluation of the composition of Carica papaya L. seed oil extracted with supercritical CO2.

    PubMed

    Barroso, Pedro T W; de Carvalho, Pedro P; Rocha, Thiago B; Pessoa, Fernando L P; Azevedo, Debora A; Mendes, Marisa F

    2016-09-01

    Among the most important tropical fruit grown in the world today and in Brazil, papaya occupies a prominent place. Native to tropical America, papaya has spread to several regions of the world, and Brazil accounts for 12.74% of the world production, followed by Mexico, Nigeria and India. The culture reached a harvested area of 441,042 ha and production of 12,420,585 t worldwide. The largest interest in this fruit relies on its main constituent compounds, like vitamins A, B and C, alkaloids (carpaine and pseudocarpaine), proteolytic enzymes (papain and quimiopapain) and benzyl isothiocyanate, more known as BITC, which has anthelmintic activity. Because of that, the present work has as objective the evaluation of the efficiency and composition of the oil extracted from Carica papaya L. seeds with supercritical carbon dioxide. The experiments were performed in a unit containing mainly a high-pressure pump and a stainless steel extractor with 42 mL of volume. The sampling was performed at each 20 min until the saturation of the process. About 6.5 g of sample were fed for each experiment done at 40, 60 and 80 °C under the pressures of 100, 150 and 200 bar. Samples of the Carica papaya L. fruit were acquired in a popular market and free for personal use intended for the study. After collection, the seeds were crushed with the help of a pestle, and dried at 60 °C for 60 min. For each operational condition, the extraction curves were constructed relating cumulative mass of oil extracted in function of the operational time. The better efficiencies were found at 40 °C and 200 bar (1.33%) followed by 80 °C and 200 bar (2.56%). Gas chromatography and NMR analysis could identify an insecticide component (BITC) that enables new applications of this residue in pharmaceutical and chemical industries.

  13. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of papaya mosaic virus coat protein.

    PubMed

    Zhang, H; Todderud, E; Stubbs, G

    1993-12-05

    Papaya mosaic virus coat protein has been treated with trypsin and a large fragment of the intact protein has been crystallized in space group P3(1)21 or P3(2)21 (unit cell dimensions: a = b = 110 A, c = 237 A). The crystals diffract to 3.5 A resolution. Crystals of the untreated protein have also been grown. The untreated protein crystals diffract to 4 A resolution, but have a large mosaic spread. They have the same space group as the trypsin-treated protein crystals, but a much smaller unit cell (a = b = 72 A, c = 240 A).

  14. The primary structure of papaya mosaic virus coat protein: a revision.

    PubMed

    Verde, C; Malorni, A; Parente, A

    1989-12-01

    The presence of an acetyl blocking group at the N-terminus of the coat protein of papaya mosaic virus has been identified by FAB mass spectrometry. Furthermore, we have found that the N-terminal sequence of the protein is four amino-acid residues (AC-Ser-Lys-Ser-Ser-) longer than that previously reported, while Glu instead of Gln is the C-terminal residue. The present paper shows that PMV-protein is made up of 215 amino acid residues, with a molecular mass of 22,960 Da.

  15. Imaging of Bacterial and Fungal Cells Using Fluorescent Carbon Dots Prepared from Carica papaya Juice.

    PubMed

    Kasibabu, Betha Saineelima B; D'souza, Stephanie L; Jha, Sanjay; Kailasa, Suresh Kumar

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, we have described a simple hydrothermal method for preparation of fluorescent carbon dots (C-dots) using Carica papaya juice as a precursor. The synthesized C-dots show emission peak at 461 nm with a quantum yield of 7.0 %. The biocompatible nature of C-dots was confirmed by a cytotoxicity assay on E. coli. The C-dots were used as fluorescent probes for imaging of bacterial (Bacillus subtilis) and fungal (Aspergillus aculeatus) cells and emitted green and red colors under different excitation wavelengths, which indicates that the C-dots can be used as a promising material for cell imaging.

  16. An Algorithm of Calculating the Position in a Self-Capacitance Touch Screen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Huan; Peng, Haiyan; Qian, Xiaoli; Ren, Can; Wang, Wentao; Li, Jianjun

    Touch screens have been widely used in many kinds of electronic products. For many capacitive touch sensing devices, they always suffer from a variety of electronic signal noises. So when a finger touches the screen, it is difficult to calculate the exact touch position on the screen. We proposed an algorithm of calculating the position in a self-capacitance touch screen to alleviate noise interference. We determined the touch region by calculating the differences between current data and reference data in every channel. In the touch region we divided it into different ranges to calculate the touch point. The simulation results show that the algorithm that we proposed can alleviate noise interference effectively and obtain the exact positioning on touch screen accurately.

  17. Effect of temperature on the development and survival of immature stages of the carambola fruit fly, Bactrocera carambolae, and the Asian papaya fruit fly, Bactrocera papayae, reared on guava diet.

    PubMed

    Danjuma, Solomon; Thaochan, Narit; Permkam, Surakrai; Satasook, Chutamas

    2014-01-01

    Members of the Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel (Diptera: Tephritidae) complex constitute well-recognized destructive pests of fruits in peninsular Thailand. The development and survival of immature stages of the carambola fruit fly, Bactrocera carambolae Drew & Hancock, and the Asian papaya fruit fly, Bactrocera papayae Drew & Hancock, were compared at six constant temperatures of 15, 20, 25, 27, 30, and 35°C, 70 ± 5% relative humidity, and a photoperiod of 12:12 (L:D). The objectives were to determine the effect of temperature on the developmental stages for optimizing rearing and to understand the geographical pattern of occurrence of these fruit fly species. A strong and positive linear relationship was observed between temperature and developmental rate of immature stages of B. carambolae. Similarly, a strong and positive linear relationship was observed between temperature and developmental rate of B. papayae. A temperature summation model was used to estimate the lower threshold temperature and the thermal constant. Bactrocera papayae was significantly faster in development and higher in survival and appeared to be better adapted to low temperatures than B. carambolae, as it exhibited the lowest threshold temperatures at all immature stages. The observed differences in response to various temperatures revealed to some extent the impact of temperature on these species' distribution in peninsular Thailand and other parts of the world.

  18. Effect of Temperature on the Development and Survival of Immature Stages of the Carambola Fruit Fly, Bactrocera carambolae, and the Asian Papaya Fruit Fly, Bactrocera papayae, Reared On Guava Diet

    PubMed Central

    Danjuma, Solomon; Thaochan, Narit; Permkam, Surakrai; Satasook, Chutamas

    2014-01-01

    Members of the Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel (Diptera: Tephritidae) complex constitute wellrecognized destructive pests of fruits in peninsular Thailand. The development and survival of immature stages of the carambola fruit fly, Bactrocera carambolae Drew & Hancock, and the Asian papaya fruit fly, Bactrocera papayae Drew & Hancock, were compared at six constant temperatures of 15, 20, 25, 27, 30, and 35°C, 70 ± 5% relative humidity, and a photoperiod of 12:12 (L:D). The objectives were to determine the effect of temperature on the developmental stages for optimizing rearing and to understand the geographical pattern of occurrence of these fruit fly species. A strong and positive linear relationship was observed between temperature and developmental rate of immature stages of B. carambolae. Similarly, a strong and positive linear relationship was observed between temperature and developmental rate of B. papayae. A temperature summation model was used to estimate the lower threshold temperature and the thermal constant. Bactrocera papayae was significantly faster in development and higher in survival and appeared to be better adapted to low temperatures than B. carambolae, as it exhibited the lowest threshold temperatures at all immature stages. The observed differences in response to various temperatures revealed to some extent the impact of temperature on these species' distribution in peninsular Thailand and other parts of the world. PMID:25368070

  19. A New Approach to Defining Human Touch Temperature Standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ungar, Eugene; Stroud, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    Defining touch temperature limits for skin contact with both hot and cold objects is important to prevent pain and skin damage, which may affect task performance or become a safety concern. Pain and skin damage depend on the resulting skin temperature during contact, which depends on the object s initial temperature, its material properties and its ability to transfer heat. However, previous spacecraft standards have incorrectly defined touch temperature limits in terms of a single object temperature value for all materials, or have provided limited material-specific values which do not cover the gamut of most designs. A new approach is being used in new NASA standards, which defines touch temperature limits in terms of skin temperature at pain onset for bare skin contact with hot and cold objects. The authors have developed an analytical verification method for safe hot and cold object temperatures for contact times from 1 second to infinity.

  20. A New Approach to Defining Human Touch Temperature Standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ungar, Eugene; Stroud, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    Defining touch temperature limits for skin contact with both hot and cold objects is important to prevent pain and skin damage, which may affect task performance or become a safety concern. Pain and skin damage depend on the skin temperature during contact, which depends on the contact thermal conductance, the object's initial temperature, and its material properties. However, previous spacecraft standards have incorrectly defined touch temperature limits in terms of a single object temperature value for all materials, or have provided limited material-specific values which do not cover the gamut of likely designs. A new approach has been developed for updated NASA standards, which defines touch temperature limits in terms of skin temperature at pain onset for bare skin contact with hot and cold objects. The authors have developed an analytical verification method for safe hot and cold object temperatures for contact times from 1 second to infinity.

  1. Neuro-physical rehabilitation by means of novel touch technologies.

    PubMed

    Confalonieri, Michele; Tomasi, Piergiorgio; Depaul, Miriam; Guandalini, Giovanni; Baldessari, Matteo; Oss, Daniele; Prada, Fabrizio; Mazzalai, Alessandro; Da Lio, Mauro; De Cecco, Mariolino

    2013-01-01

    In this work, we present the results of collaboration between an engineering department and a rehabilitation hospital in using innovative touch interfaces properly designed for both neurocognitive and physical rehabilitation. The novel touch interface also measures force, thereby enabling dexterity training through 'direct' manipulation of virtual objects in 3D. Two dimensions are recorded via touch screen, the third by the force channel. We believe that this tool could increase the degree of effectiveness of traditional rehabilitation treatments thanks to its capability to merge physical and cognitive rehabilitation. Furthermore, the exergames implemented allow an easy personalization of the exercise structure and difficulty level. The effectiveness of the FP technology compared with more traditional methods of rehabilitation is measured according to specific parameters observed in an experimental group in comparison with a control group.

  2. Barrel cortex membrane potential dynamics in social touch.

    PubMed

    Lenschow, Constanze; Brecht, Michael

    2015-02-18

    The impact of social stimuli on the membrane potential dynamics of barrel cortex neurons is unknown. We obtained in vivo whole-cell recordings in the barrel cortex of head-restrained rats while they interacted with conspecifics. Social touch was associated with a depolarization and large membrane potential fluctuations locked to the rat's whisking. Both depolarization and membrane potential fluctuations were already observed prior to contact and did not occur during free whisking. This anticipatory pre-contact depolarization was not seen in passive social touch in anesthetized animals. The membrane potential fluctuations locked to the rat's whisking observed in interactions with awake conspecifics were larger than those seen for whisking onto nonconspecific stimuli (stuffed rats, objects, and the experimenter's hand). Responses did not correlate with whisker movement parameters. We conclude that responses to social touch differ from conventional tactile responses in (1) amplitude, (2) locking to whisking, and (3) pre-contact membrane potential changes.

  3. An ergonomics study of thumb movements on smartphone touch screen.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Jinghong; Muraki, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the relationships between thumb muscle activity and thumb operating tasks on a smartphone touch screen with one-hand posture. Six muscles in the right thumb and forearm were targeted in this study, namely adductor pollicis, flexor pollicis brevis, abductor pollicis brevis (APB), abductor pollicis longus, first dorsal interosseous (FDI) and extensor digitorum. The performance measures showed that the thumb developed fatigue rapidly when tapping on smaller buttons (diameter: 9 mm compared with 3 mm), and moved more slowly in flexion-extension than in adduction-abduction orientation. Meanwhile, the electromyography and perceived exertion values of FDI significantly increased in small button and flexion-extension tasks, while those of APB were greater in the adduction-abduction task. This study reveals that muscle effort among thumb muscles on a touch screen smartphone varies according to the task, and suggests that the use of small touch buttons should be minimised for better thumb performance.

  4. The effect of a touch-typing program on keyboarding skills of higher education students with and without learning disabilities.

    PubMed

    Weigelt Marom, H; Weintraub, N

    2015-12-01

    This study examined the effect of a touch-typing instructional program on keyboarding skills of higher education students. One group included students with developmental learning disabilities (LD, n=44), consisting of students with reading and/or handwriting difficulties. The second group included normally achieving students (NA, n=30). The main goal of the program was to increase keyboarding speed while maintaining accuracy. The program included 14 bi-weekly touch-typing lessons, using the "Easy-Fingers" software (Weigelt Marom & Weintraub, 2010a), that combines a touch-typing instructional program and a keystroke logging program, to document the time and accuracy of each typed key. The effect of the program was examined by comparing keyboarding skills between the beginning (pre-test), the end of the program (post-test) and 3 months after termination of the program (long-term). Results showed that at the end of the program, keyboarding speed of the NA students decreased while the speed of the students with LD somewhat increased. In the long-term evaluation, both groups significantly improved their speed compared to pre-test. In both cases high accuracy (above 95%) was maintained. These results suggest that touch-typing instruction may benefit students in general, and more specific, students with LD studying in higher education, which often use computers in order to circumvent their handwriting difficulties.

  5. How mirror-touch informs theories of synesthesia.

    PubMed

    Meier, Beat; Lunke, Katrin; Rothen, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Ward and Banissy provide an excellent overview of the state of mirror-touch research in order to advance this field. They present a comparison of two prominent theoretical approaches for understanding mirror-touch phenomena. According to the threshold theory, the phenomena arise as a result of a hyperactive mirror neuron system. According to the Self-Other Theory, they are due to disturbances in the ability to distinguish the self from others. Here, we explore how these two theories can inform theories of synesthesia more generally. We conclude that both theories are not suited as general models of synesthesia.

  6. Managing Oriental Fruit Fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae), Using Spinosad-Based Protein Bait Sprays in Papaya Orchards in Hawaii

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The efficacy of GF-120 Fruit Fly Bait was evaluated as a control of female oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) in papaya orchards in Hawaii. Two important components of this study were field sanitation and mass trapping using the male-specific lure methyl eugenol. Three different spray ...

  7. New strains of chickpea chlorotic dwarf virus discovered on diseased papaya and tomato plants in Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Ouattara, Alassane; Tiendrébéogo, Fidèle; Lefeuvre, Pierre; Hoareau, Murielle; Claverie, Sohini; Traoré, Edgar Valentin; Barro, Nicolas; Traoré, Oumar; Varsani, Arvind; Lett, Jean-Michel

    2017-02-22

    This is the first description of full genome sequences of chickpea chlorotic dwarf virus (CpCDV; genus Mastrevirus; family Geminiviridae) identified in papaya and tomato plants sampled in Burkina Faso. The CpCDV full genome sequences from papaya and tomato share the highest pairwise sequence identity (84% and 93.5%) with Sudanese isolates of the CpCDV-K and CpCDV-M strains, respectively. Based on the strain demarcation threshold (>94% identity) for mastreviruses, we propose two new strains, CpCDV-Q and CpCDV-R, identified in papaya and tomato, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed that the sequences belong to a distinct clade of the highly diverse population of CpCDVs. Evidence of inter-strain recombination provided more support for the important role of recombination in CpCDV evolution. The discovery of CpCDV on papaya, a previously unsuspected host, raises many questions about the natural and potential host range of this dicot-infecting mastrevirus species that is reported to be emerging worldwide.

  8. Effects of chitosan-based coatings containing peppermint essential oil on the quality of post-harvest papaya fruit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Edible coatings comprised of antimicrobial polymers based on chitosan are promising technologies to preserve post-harvest fruit quality. In this study, we investigated the potential utility of a coating made from chitosan modified by N-acylation with fatty acid to preserve post-harvest papaya qualit...

  9. Resistance to papaya ringspot virus-watermelon strain (PRSV-W) in the desert watermelon Citrullus colocynthis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The bitter desert watermelon (Citrullus colocynthis) is a valuable source for improving disease or pest resistance in watermelon cultivars. The objective of this study was to identify C. colocynthis accessions displaying resistance to the papaya ringspot virus-watermelon strain (PRSV-W) that could ...

  10. How to become a tree without wood--biomechanical analysis of the stem of Carica papaya L.

    PubMed

    Kempe, A; Lautenschläger, T; Lange, A; Neinhuis, C

    2014-01-01

    Carica papaya L. does not contain wood, according to the botanical definition of wood as lignified secondary xylem. Despite its parenchymatous secondary xylem, these plants are able to grow up to 10-m high. This is surprising, as wooden structural elements are the ubiquitous strategy for supporting height growth in plants. Proposed possible alternative principles to explain the compensation for lack of wood in C. papaya are turgor pressure of the parenchyma, lignified phloem fibres in the bark, or a combination of the two. Interestingly, lignified tissue comprises only 5-8% of the entire stem mass. Furthermore, the phloem fibres do not form a compact tube enclosing the xylem, but instead form a mesh tubular structure. To investigate the mechanism of papaya's unusually high mechanical strength, a set of mechanical measurements were undertaken on whole stems and tissue sections of secondary phloem and xylem. The structural Young's modulus of mature stems reached 2.5 GPa. Since this is low compared to woody plants, the flexural rigidity of papaya stem construction may mainly be based on a higher second moment of inertia. Additionally, stem turgor pressure was determined indirectly by immersing specimens in sucrose solutions of different osmolalities, followed by mechanical tests; turgor pressure was between 0.82 and 1.25 MPa, indicating that turgor is essential for flexural rigidity of the entire stem.

  11. Genetic differentiation of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and C. truncatum associated with Anthracnose disease of papaya (Carica papaya L.) and bell pepper (Capsium annuum L.) based on ITS PCR-RFLP fingerprinting.

    PubMed

    Maharaj, Ariana; Rampersad, Sephra N

    2012-03-01

    Members of the genus Colletotrichum include some of the most economically important fungal pathogens in the world. Accurate diagnosis is critical to devising disease management strategies. Two species, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and C. truncatum, are responsible for anthracnose disease in papaya (Carica papaya L.) and bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) in Trinidad. The ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region of 48 Colletotrichum isolates was sequenced, and the ITS PCR products were analyzed by PCR-RFLP analysis. Restriction site polymorphisms generated from 11 restriction enzymes enabled the identification of specific enzymes that were successful in distinguishing between C. gloeosporioides and C. truncatum isolates. Species-specific restriction fragment length polymorphisms generated by the enzymes AluI, HaeIII, PvuII, RsaI, and Sau3A were used to consistently resolve C. gloeosporioides and C. truncatum isolates from papaya. AluI, ApaI, PvuII, RsaI, and SmaI reliably separated isolates of C. gloeosporioides and C. truncatum from bell pepper. PvuII, RsaI, and Sau3A were also capable of distinguishing among the C. gloeosporioides isolates from papaya based on the different restriction patterns that were obtained as a result of intra-specific variation in restriction enzyme recognition sites in the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 rDNA region. Of all the isolates tested, C. gloeosporioides from papaya also had the highest number of PCR-RFLP haplotypes. Cluster analysis of sequence and PCR-RFLP data demonstrated that all C. gloeosporioides and C. truncatum isolates clustered separately into species-specific clades regardless of host species. Phylograms also revealed consistent topologies which suggested that the genetic distances for PCR-RFLP-generated data were comparable to that of ITS sequence data. ITS PCR-RFLP fingerprinting is a rapid and reliable method to identify and differentiate between Colletotrichum species.

  12. Molecular characterization and infectivity of Papaya leaf curl China virus infecting tomato in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui; Ma, Xin-ying; Qian, Ya-juan; Zhou, Xue-ping

    2010-02-01

    Papaya leaf curl China virus (PaLCuCNV) was previously reported as a distinct begomovirus infecting papaya in southern China. Based on molecular diagnostic survey, 13 PaLCuCNV isolates were obtained from tomato plants showing leaf curl symptoms in Henan and Guangxi Provinces of China. Complete nucleotide sequences of 5 representative isolates (AJ558116, AJ558117, AJ704604, FN256260, and FN297834) were determined to be 2738-2751 nucleotides, which share 91.7%-97.9% sequence identities with PaLCuCNV isolate G2 (AJ558123). DNA-beta was not found to be associated with PaLCuCNV isolates. To investigate the infectivity of PaLCuCNV, an infectious clone of PaLCuCNV-[CN:HeNZM1] was constructed and agro-inoculated into Nicotiana benthamiana, N. tabacum Samsun, N. glutinosa, Solanum lycopersicum and Petunia hybrida plants, which induced severe leaf curling and crinkling symptoms in these plants. Southern blot analysis and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) indicated a systemic infection of test plants by the agro-infectious clone.

  13. Role of genetic recombination in the molecular architecture of Papaya ringspot virus.

    PubMed

    Mangrauthia, Satendra K; Parameswari, B; Jain, R K; Praveen, Shelly

    2008-12-01

    Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) has a single-stranded RNA genome and causes severe economic losses both in cucurbits and papaya worldwide. The extent to which the genome of PRSV is shaped by recombination provides an understanding of the molecular evolution of PRSV and helps in studying features such as host specificity, geographic distribution, and its emergence as new epidemics. The PRSV-P-Indian isolate was completely sequenced and compared with 14 other isolates reported from the rest of the world for their phylogenetic survey of recombination events. Cistron-by-cistron sequence comparison and phylogenetic analysis based on full-genome polyprotein showed two distinct groupings of Asian and American isolates, although PRSV-P and W-India clustered along with the American isolates. Recombination sites were found throughout the genomes, except in the small 6K1 protein gene. A significant proportion of recombination hotspots was found in the P1 gene, followed by P3, cylindrical inclusion (CI), and helper component proteinase (HcPro). Correlations between the presence of recombination sites, geographic distribution, and phylogenetic relationship provide an opportunity to establish the molecular evolution and geographic route of PRSV.

  14. On the evolution and molecular epidemiology of the potyvirus Papaya ringspot virus.

    PubMed

    Bateson, Marion F; Lines, Rosemarie E; Revill, Peter; Chaleeprom, Worawan; Ha, Cuong V; Gibbs, Adrian J; Dale, James L

    2002-10-01

    The potyvirus Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) is found throughout the tropics and subtropics. Its P biotype is a devastating pathogen of papaya crops and its W biotype of cucurbits. PRSV-P is thought to arise by mutation from PRSV-W. However, the relative impact of mutation and movement on the structure of PRSV populations is not well characterized. To investigate this, we have determined the coat protein sequences of isolates of both biotypes of PRSV from Vietnam (50), Thailand (13), India (1) and the Philippines (1), and analysed them together with 28 PRSV sequences already published, so that we can better understand the molecular epidemiology and evolution of PRSV. In Thailand, variation was greater among PRSV-W isolates (mean nucleotide divergence 7.6%) than PRSV-P isolates (mean 2.6%), but in Vietnamese populations the P and W biotypes were more but similarly diverse. Phylogenetic analyses of PRSV also involving its closest known relative, Moroccan watermelon mosaic virus, indicate that PRSV may have originated in Asia, particularly in the Indian subcontinent, as PRSV populations there are most diverse and hence have probably been present longest. Our analyses show that mutation, together with local and long-distance movement, contributes to population variation, and also confirms an earlier conclusion that populations of the PRSV-P biotype have evolved on several occasions from PRSV-W populations.

  15. Identification of miRNAs and miRNA-mediated regulatory pathways in Carica papaya.

    PubMed

    Liang, Gang; Li, Yang; He, Hua; Wang, Fang; Yu, Diqiu

    2013-10-01

    Plant microRNAs (miRNAs) post-transcriptionally regulate target gene expression to modulate growth and development and biotic and abiotic stress responses. By analyzing small RNA deep sequencing data in combination with the genome sequence, we identified 75 conserved miRNAs and 11 novel miRNAs. Their target genes were also predicted. For most conserved miRNAs, the miRNA-target pairs were conserved across plant species. In addition to these conserved miRNA-target pairs, we also identified some papaya-specific miRNA-target regulatory pathways. Both miR168 and miR530 target the Argonaute 1 gene, indicating a second autoregulatory mechanism for miRNA regulation. A non-conserved miRNA was mapped within an intron of Dicer-like 1 (DCL1), suggesting a conserved homeostatic autoregulatory mechanism for DCL1 expression. A 21-nt miRNA triggers secondary siRNA production from its target genes, nucleotide-binding site leucine-rich repeat protein genes. Certain phased-miRNAs were processed from their conserved miRNA precursors, indicating a putative miRNA evolution mechanism. In addition, we identified a Carica papaya-specific miRNA that targets an ethylene receptor gene, implying its function in the ethylene signaling pathway. This work will also advance our understanding of miRNA functions and evolution in plants.

  16. Production of fatty acid butyl esters using the low cost naturally immobilized Carica papaya lipase.

    PubMed

    Su, Erzheng; Wei, Dongzhi

    2014-07-09

    In this work, the low cost naturally immobilized Carica papaya lipase (CPL) was investigated for production of fatty acid butyl esters (FABE) to fulfill the aim of reducing the lipase cost in the enzymatic butyl-biodiesel process. The CPL showed specificities to different alcohol acyl acceptors. Alcohols with more than three carbon atoms did not have negative effects on the CPL activity. The CPL catalyzed butanolysis for FABE production was systematically investigated. The reaction solvent, alcohol/oil molar ratio, enzyme amount, reaction temperature, and water activity all affected the butanolysis process. Under the optimized conditions, the highest conversion of 96% could be attained in 24 h. These optimal conditions were further applied to CPL catalyzed butanolysis of other vegetable oils. All of them showed very high conversion. The CPL packed-bed reactor was further developed, and could be operated continuously for more than 150 h. All of these results showed that the low cost Carica papaya lipase can be used as a promising lipase for biodiesel production.

  17. In silico cloning and characterization of the TGA (TGACG MOTIF-BINDING FACTOR) transcription factors subfamily in Carica papaya.

    PubMed

    Idrovo Espín, Fabio Marcelo; Peraza-Echeverria, Santy; Fuentes, Gabriela; Santamaría, Jorge M

    2012-05-01

    The TGA transcription factors belong to the subfamily of bZIP group D that play a major role in disease resistance and development. Most of the TGA identified in Arabidopsis interact with the master regulator of SAR, NPR1 that controls the expression of PR genes. As a first approach to determine the possible involvement of these transcription factors in papaya defense, we characterized Arabidopsis TGA orthologs from the genome of Carica papaya cv. SunUp. Six orthologs CpTGA1 to CpTGA6, were identified. The predicted CpTGA proteins were highly similar to AtTGA sequences and probably share the same DNA binding properties and transcriptional regulation features. The protein sequences alignment evidenced the presence of conserved domains, characteristic of this group of transcription factors. The phylogeny showed that CpTGA evolved into three different subclades associated with defense and floral development. This is the first report of basal expression patterns assessed by RT-PCR, from the whole subfamily of CpTGA members in different tissues from papaya cv. Maradol mature plants. Overall, CpTGA1, CpTGA3 CpTGA6 and CpTGA4 showed a basal expression in all tissues tested; CpTGA2 expressed strongly in all tissues except in petioles while CpTGA5 expressed only in petals and to a lower extent in petioles. Although more detailed studies in anthers and other floral structures are required, we suggest that CpTGA5 might be tissue-specific, and it might be involved in papaya floral development. On the other hand, we report here for the first time, the expression of the whole family of CpTGA in response to salicylic acid (SA). The expression of CpTGA3, CpTGA4 and CpTGA6 increased in response to SA, what would suggest its involvement in the SAR response in papaya.

  18. Haptic Augmentation of Science Instruction: Does Touch Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, M. Gail; Minogue, James; Tretter, Thomas R.; Negishi, Atsuko; Taylor, Russell

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of haptic augmentation of a science inquiry program on students' learning about viruses and nanoscale science. The study assessed how the addition of different types of haptic feedback (active touch and kinesthetic feedback) combined with computer visualizations influenced middle and high school students'…

  19. Infants & Toddlers: Development--The Power of Touch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honig, Alice Sterling

    2005-01-01

    When a baby is born, parents check for fingers and toes, and over the next few weeks remain alert to whether the baby can see and hear. When babies nurse well, parents are assured that the sense of taste and smell are fine. But what about touch? This crucial sense for babies is often overlooked. In this article, the author discusses how to ensure…

  20. Collaborative Learning with Multi-Touch Technology: Developing Adaptive Expertise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercier, Emma M.; Higgins, Steven E.

    2013-01-01

    Developing fluency and flexibility in mathematics is a key goal of upper primary schooling, however, while fluency can be developed with practice, designing activities that support the development of flexibility is more difficult. Drawing on concepts of adaptive expertise, we developed a task for a multi-touch classroom, NumberNet, that aimed to…

  1. Career and Technical Education with a Delicate Touch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Predmore, Sarah R.

    2005-01-01

    There are some professions in which tradition holds strong, in which one generation schools the next in the techniques of the trade. These services help us maintain some of our dearest possessions--such as an antique watch or a prized violin--with their specialized skill and delicate touch. But not all of these technicians enter the field through…

  2. Coaching, Caring and the Politics of Touch: A Visual Exploration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Robyn L.; Bailey, Jake; Santos, Sofia

    2013-01-01

    This paper has three principal purposes. The first involves locating the "politics of touch" as related to coaching within Noddings' theory of pedagogical caring. Noddings' framework is presented not so much as a prescription of "good practice", but as a potential way to raise the profile and somewhat problematise the…

  3. Entanglement entropy of fermionic quadratic band touching model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiao; Cho, Gil Young; Fradkin, Eduardo

    2014-03-01

    The entanglement entropy has been proven to be a useful tool to diagnose and characterize strongly correlated systems such as topologically ordered phases and some critical points. Motivated by the successes, we study the entanglement entropy (EE) of a fermionic quadratic band touching model in (2 + 1) dimension. This is a fermionic ``spinor'' model with a finite DOS at k=0 and infinitesimal instabilities. The calculation on two-point correlation functions shows that a Dirac fermion model and the quadratic band touching model both have the asymptotically identical behavior in the long distance limit. This implies that EE for the quadratic band touching model also has an area law as the Dirac fermion. This is in contradiction with the expectation that dense fermi systems with a finite DOS should exhibit LlogL violations to the area law of entanglement entropy (L is the length of the boundary of the sub-region) by analogy with the Fermi surface. We performed numerical calculations of entanglement entropies on a torus of the lattice models for the quadratic band touching point and the Dirac fermion to confirm this. The numerical calculation shows that EE for both cases satisfy the area law. We further verify this result by the analytic calculation on the torus geometry. This work was supported in part by the NSF grant DMR-1064319.

  4. 78 FR 37998 - Electronic One Touch Bingo System

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-25

    ... to IGRA, Class II bingo has three elements. First, it must be played for prizes, including monetary... statutory requirements for a game of bingo. The type of one touch game at issue here is played for prizes... policy toward technology, a key distinction for the Committee was that technological aids are...

  5. Biomimetic approaches to bionic touch through a peripheral nerve interface.

    PubMed

    Saal, Hannes P; Bensmaia, Sliman J

    2015-12-01

    State-of-the-art prosthetic hands nearly match the dexterity of the human hand, and sophisticated approaches have been developed to control them intuitively. However, grasping and dexterously manipulating objects relies heavily on the sense of touch, without which we would struggle to perform even the most basic activities of daily living. Despite the importance of touch, not only in motor control but also in affective communication and embodiment, the restoration of touch through bionic hands is still in its infancy, a shortcoming that severely limits their effectiveness. Here, we focus on approaches to restore the sense of touch through an electrical interface with the peripheral nerve. First, we describe devices that can be chronically implanted in the nerve to electrically activate nerve fibers. Second, we discuss how these interfaces have been used to convey basic somatosensory feedback. Third, we review what is known about how the somatosensory nerve encodes information about grasped objects in intact limbs and discuss how these natural neural codes can be exploited to convey artificial tactile feedback. Finally, we offer a blueprint for how these codes could be implemented in a neuroprosthetic device to deliver rich, natural, and versatile tactile sensations.

  6. A task control theory of mirror-touch synesthesia.

    PubMed

    Heyes, Cecilia; Catmur, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    Ward and Banissy's illuminating discussion of mirror-touch synesthesia (MTS) encourages research testing two alternatives to Threshold Theory: Their own Self-Other Theory, and "Task Control Theory". MTS may be due to abnormal mirror activity plus a domain-general, rather than a specifically social, impairment in the ability to privilege processing of task-relevant over task-irrelevant information.

  7. Human Figure Drawings and Children’s Recall of Touching

    PubMed Central

    Bruck, Maggie

    2010-01-01

    In 2 studies, children ages 3 to 7 years were asked to recall a series of touches that occurred during a previous staged event. The recall interview took place 1 week after the event in Study 1 and immediately after the event in Study 2. Each recall interview had 2 sections: In 1 section, children were given human figure drawings (HFDs) and were asked to show where the touching took place; in the other section, the same questions were asked without the HFDs (verbal condition). Children were randomly assigned to 2 different conditions: HFD 1st/verbal 2nd or verbal 1st/HFD 2nd. There were 2 major findings. First, HFDs elicited more errors than the verbal condition when used to probe for information that the child had already been asked. Second, regardless of interview method, children had poor recall of the touches even when these occurred minutes before the interview. It is suggested that cognitive mechanisms involving memory and semantics underlie children’s poor recall of touching in both verbal and HFD conditions. PMID:20025421

  8. Master scaling of perceived intensity of touch, cold and warmth.

    PubMed

    Berglund, Birgitta; Harju, Eva-Liz

    2003-01-01

    A new approach is presented for scaling perceived intensity of touch, cold and warmth based on magnitude estimation. In this method named master scaling thenar is utilized as common reference area for scaling and calibrating perceived intensity. The master scaling is particularly well suited for clinical applications in which the stimulation in pain-affected body areas creates a complex perception (e.g., paradoxical heat for cold stimulation) and/or aberrant psychophysical functions for perceived intensity. The results from three different experiments showed that: (a) All patients and healthy subjects were able to scale adequately the perceived intensity of touch, cold, and warmth at unaffected body areas. (b) Thenar stimulations were shown to be adequate common references in the joint scaling of perceived intensity of other body areas in pain patients as well as healthy persons. (c) Individual thenar psychophysical functions can be used for screening patients and healthy persons with regard to their ability to scale perceived intensity of touch, cold and warmth. (d) Master scaled perceived intensity scales can be used for determining if various pain-unaffected body areas are normal or abnormal in patients and in healthy persons. (e) The interindividual variation in perceived intensity is considerably reduced after master scaling and approaches that of intraindividual variation as found in olfaction and hearing. Finally, empirically based thenar Master Functions of perceived intensity for touch, cold and warmth are proposed to be used in future sensory testing of patients, as well as of healthy persons.

  9. High Touch in a High-Tech World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Cindy L.

    2009-01-01

    In a world of high tech and low touch, it is easy for public relations programs to stray from tried-and-true interpersonal strategies long associated with solid communication planning. New technologies allow communications professionals to quickly send e-mails and telephone calls to selected groups. Social media sites provide users immediate…

  10. Young Children Learning from Touch Screens: Taking a Wider View

    PubMed Central

    Lovato, Silvia B.; Waxman, Sandra R.

    2016-01-01

    Touch screen devices such as smartphones and tablets are now ubiquitous in the lives of American children. These devices permit very young children to engage interactively in an intuitive fashion with actions as simple as touching, swiping and pinching. Yet, we know little about the role these devices play in very young children’s lives or their impact on early learning and development. Here we focus on two areas in which existing research sheds some light on these issues with children under 3 years of age. The first measures transfer of learning, or how well children use information learned from screens to reason about events off-screen, using object retrieval and word learning tasks. The second measures the impact of interactive screens on parent-child interactions and story comprehension during reading time. More research is required to clarify the pedagogical potential and pitfalls of touch screens for infants and very young children, especially research focused on capabilities unique to touch screens and on the social and cultural contexts in which young children use them. PMID:27486421

  11. Trajectory Design Considerations for Small Body Touch-and-Go

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, Mark; Broschart, Stephen; Bonfiglio, Eugene; Bhaskharan, Shyam; Cangahuala, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    Outline: (1) Trajectory Description (2) Design Drivers: (2a) Dynamics (2b) Environment (2c) Spacecraft and Ground and System Capabilities (2d) Mission Objectives (3) Design Choices (4) Historical Precedents (5) Case Studies. What is Touch-and-Go (TAG)? (1) Descent to the surface (2) Brief contact (3) Ascends to a safe distance

  12. The C. elegans touch response facilitates escape from predacious fungi

    PubMed Central

    Maguire, Sean M.; Clark, Christopher M.; Nunnari, John; Pirri, Jennifer K.; Alkema, Mark J.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Predator-prey interactions are vital determinants in the natural selection of behavioral traits. However, we have few insights into both the neural mechanisms and the selective advantage of specific behavioral traits. Gentle touch to the anterior half of the body of Caenorhabditis elegans elicits an escape response in which the animal quickly reverses and suppresses exploratory head movements [1]. Even though the C. elegans touch response has provided one of the rare examples of how neural networks translate sensory input to a coordinated motor output [2], the ecological significance of the escape response is unclear. We investigate predator-prey relationships between C. elegans and predacious fungi that catch nematodes using constricting rings as trapping devices. We show that the constricting rings of Drechslerella doedycoides catch early larval stages with a diameter similar to the trap opening. There is a delay between the ring entry and ring closure, which allows the animal to withdraw from the trap before getting caught. Mutants that fail to suppress head movements in response to touch are caught more efficiently than the wild type in constricting fungal rings. Direct competition experiments show that the suppression of head movements in response to touch is an ecologically relevant behavior that allows the C. elegans to smoothly retract from a fungal noose and evade capture. These results suggest that selective pressures imposed by predacious fungi have shaped the evolution of C. elegans escape behavior. PMID:21802299

  13. [Affective touch and self esteem in the elderly].

    PubMed

    Boudreault, Andréa; Ntetu, Antoine Lutumba

    2006-09-01

    The hospital is an environment which accomodates the elderly persons and in which these last have to make trainings at one time when they are not in full possession with all their physical, psychological and cognitive capacities. They can then live there humiliating situations which generate feelings of discomfort, embarrassment and shame. The presence of interveners not very warm, lacking compassion lack and impressed negative prejudices towards the elderly patients, is another factor which is added to lead them not to feel at ease, involving, inter alia, consequences a fall of their self-esteem. However the affective touch is a strategy which would have the potential to act on the personal value of the elderly patients and to thus improve their self-esteem. It is with a view to popularize the use of the affective touch in practice nurse that a study was carried out in order to check its effects on the self-esteem of the elderly patients. The results confirm that the emotional touch influences positively the self-esteem of the elderly patients. The authors of the study thus recommend the systematization of the affective touch in nursing practice.

  14. Web-Based Spatial Training Using Handheld Touch Screen Devices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin-Dorta, Norena; Saorin, Jose Luis; Contero, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    This paper attempts to harness the opportunities for mobility and the new user interfaces that handheld touch screen devices offer, in a non-formal learning context, with a view to developing spatial ability. This research has addressed two objectives: first, analyzing the effects that training can have on spatial visualisation using the…

  15. Young Children Learning from Touch Screens: Taking a Wider View.

    PubMed

    Lovato, Silvia B; Waxman, Sandra R

    2016-01-01

    Touch screen devices such as smartphones and tablets are now ubiquitous in the lives of American children. These devices permit very young children to engage interactively in an intuitive fashion with actions as simple as touching, swiping and pinching. Yet, we know little about the role these devices play in very young children's lives or their impact on early learning and development. Here we focus on two areas in which existing research sheds some light on these issues with children under 3 years of age. The first measures transfer of learning, or how well children use information learned from screens to reason about events off-screen, using object retrieval and word learning tasks. The second measures the impact of interactive screens on parent-child interactions and story comprehension during reading time. More research is required to clarify the pedagogical potential and pitfalls of touch screens for infants and very young children, especially research focused on capabilities unique to touch screens and on the social and cultural contexts in which young children use them.

  16. Touch screen performance by individuals with and without motor control disabilities.

    PubMed

    Chen, Karen B; Savage, Anne B; Chourasia, Amrish O; Wiegmann, Douglas A; Sesto, Mary E

    2013-03-01

    Touch technology is becoming more prevalent as functionality improves and cost decreases. Therefore, it is important that this technology is accessible to users with diverse abilities. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of button and gap size on performance by individuals with varied motor abilities. Participants with (n = 38) and without (n = 15) a motor control disability completed a digit entry task. Button size ranged from 10 to 30 mm and gap size was either 1 or 3 mm. Results indicated that as button size increased, there was a decrease in misses, errors, and time to complete tasks. Performance for the non-disabled group plateaued at button size 20 mm, with minimal, if any gains observed with larger button sizes. In comparison, the disabled group's performance continued to improve as button size increased. Gap size did not affect user performance. These results may help to improve accessibility of touch technology.

  17. Effects of mediated social touch on affective experiences and trust

    PubMed Central

    Erk, Stefanie M.; Van Erp, Jan B.F.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated whether communication via mediated hand pressure during a remotely shared experience (watching an amusing video) can (1) enhance recovery from sadness, (2) enhance the affective quality of the experience, and (3) increase trust towards the communication partner. Thereto participants first watched a sad movie clip to elicit sadness, followed by a funny one to stimulate recovery from sadness. While watching the funny clip they signaled a hypothetical fellow participant every time they felt amused. In the experimental condition the participants responded by pressing a hand-held two-way mediated touch device (a Frebble), which also provided haptic feedback via simulated hand squeezes. In the control condition they responded by pressing a button and they received abstract visual feedback. Objective (heart rate, galvanic skin conductance, number and duration of joystick or Frebble presses) and subjective (questionnaires) data were collected to assess the emotional reactions of the participants. The subjective measurements confirmed that the sad movie successfully induced sadness while the funny movie indeed evoked more positive feelings. Although their ranking agreed with the subjective measurements, the physiological measurements confirmed this conclusion only for the funny movie. The results show that recovery from movie induced sadness, the affective experience of the amusing movie, and trust towards the communication partner did not differ between both experimental conditions. Hence, feedback via mediated hand touching did not enhance either of these factors compared to visual feedback. Further analysis of the data showed that participants scoring low on Extraversion (i.e., persons that are more introvert) or low on Touch Receptivity (i.e., persons who do not like to be touched by others) felt better understood by their communication partner when receiving mediated touch feedback instead of visual feedback, while the opposite was found for

  18. Dual innervation of neonatal Merkel cells in mouse touch domes.

    PubMed

    Niu, Jingwen; Vysochan, Anna; Luo, Wenqin

    2014-01-01

    Merkel cell-neurite complexes are specialized mechanosensory end organs that mediate discriminative touch sensation. It is well established that type I slowly adapting (SAI) mechanoreceptors, which express neural filament heavy chain (NFH), innervate Merkel cells. It was previously shown that neurotrophic factor NT3 and its receptor TrkC play crucial roles in controlling touch dome Merkel cell innervation of NFH+ fibers. In addition, nerve fibers expressing another neurotrophic tyrosine receptor kinase (NTRK), Ret, innervate touch dome Merkel cells as well. However, the relationship between afferents responsive to NT3/TrkC signaling and those expressing Ret is unclear. It is also controversial if these Ret+ fibers belong to the early or late Ret+ DRG neurons, which are defined based on the co-expression and developmental dependence of TrkA. To address these questions, we genetically traced Ret+ and TrkC+ fibers and analyzed their developmental dependence on TrkA. We found that Merkel cells in neonatal mouse touch domes receive innervation of two types of fibers: one group is Ret+, while the other subset expresses TrkC and NFH. In addition, Ret+ fibers depend on TrkA for their survival and normal innervation whereas NFH+ Merkel cell innervating fibers are almost unaltered in TrkA mutant mice, supporting that Ret+ and NFH+/TrkC+ afferents are two distinct groups. Ret signaling, on the other hand, plays a minor role for the innervation of neonatal touch domes. In contrast, Merkel cells in the glabrous skin are mainly contacted by NFH+/TrkC+ afferents. Taken together, our results suggest that neonatal Merkel cells around hair follicles receive dual innervation while Merkel cells in the glabrous skin are mainly innervated by only SAI mechanoreceptors. In addition, our results suggest that neonatal Ret+ Merkel cell innervating fibers most likely belong to the late but not early Ret+ DRG neurons.

  19. Effects of mediated social touch on affective experiences and trust.

    PubMed

    Erk, Stefanie M; Toet, Alexander; Van Erp, Jan B F

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated whether communication via mediated hand pressure during a remotely shared experience (watching an amusing video) can (1) enhance recovery from sadness, (2) enhance the affective quality of the experience, and (3) increase trust towards the communication partner. Thereto participants first watched a sad movie clip to elicit sadness, followed by a funny one to stimulate recovery from sadness. While watching the funny clip they signaled a hypothetical fellow participant every time they felt amused. In the experimental condition the participants responded by pressing a hand-held two-way mediated touch device (a Frebble), which also provided haptic feedback via simulated hand squeezes. In the control condition they responded by pressing a button and they received abstract visual feedback. Objective (heart rate, galvanic skin conductance, number and duration of joystick or Frebble presses) and subjective (questionnaires) data were collected to assess the emotional reactions of the participants. The subjective measurements confirmed that the sad movie successfully induced sadness while the funny movie indeed evoked more positive feelings. Although their ranking agreed with the subjective measurements, the physiological measurements confirmed this conclusion only for the funny movie. The results show that recovery from movie induced sadness, the affective experience of the amusing movie, and trust towards the communication partner did not differ between both experimental conditions. Hence, feedback via mediated hand touching did not enhance either of these factors compared to visual feedback. Further analysis of the data showed that participants scoring low on Extraversion (i.e., persons that are more introvert) or low on Touch Receptivity (i.e., persons who do not like to be touched by others) felt better understood by their communication partner when receiving mediated touch feedback instead of visual feedback, while the opposite was found for

  20. A transparent flexible z-axis sensitive multi-touch panel based on colloidal ITO nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sangeetha, N. M.; Gauvin, M.; Decorde, N.; Delpech, F.; Fazzini, P. F.; Viallet, B.; Viau, G.; Grisolia, J.; Ressier, L.

    2015-07-01

    Bottom-up fabrication of a flexible multi-touch panel prototype based on transparent colloidal indium tin oxide (ITO) nanocrystal (NC) films is presented. A series of 7% Sn4+ doped ITO NCs protected by oleate, octanoate and butanoate ligands are synthesized and characterized by a battery of techniques including, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, 1H, 13C and 119Sn nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and the related diffusion ordered spectroscopy. Electrical resistivities of transparent films of these NCs assembled on flexible polyethylene terephthalate substrates by convective self-assembly from their suspension in toluene decrease with the ligand length, from 220 × 103 for oleate ITO to 13 × 103 Ω cm for butanoate ITO NC films. A highly transparent, flexible touch panel based on a matrix of strain gauges derived from the least resistive film of 17 nm butanoate ITO NCs sensitively detects the lateral position (x, y) of the touch as well as its intensity over the z-axis. Being compatible with a stylus or bare/gloved finger, a larger version of this module may be readily implemented in upcoming flexible screens, enabling navigation capabilities over all three axes, a feature highly desired by the display industry.Bottom-up fabrication of a flexible multi-touch panel prototype based on transparent colloidal indium tin oxide (ITO) nanocrystal (NC) films is presented. A series of 7% Sn4+ doped ITO NCs protected by oleate, octanoate and butanoate ligands are synthesized and characterized by a battery of techniques including, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, 1H, 13C and 119Sn nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and the related diffusion ordered spectroscopy. Electrical resistivities of transparent films of these NCs assembled on flexible polyethylene terephthalate substrates by convective self-assembly from their suspension in toluene decrease with the ligand length, from 220 × 103 for

  1. A novel useful tool of computerized touch panel-type screening test for evaluating cognitive function of chronic ischemic stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Deguchi, Kentaro; Kono, Syoichiro; Deguchi, Shoko; Morimoto, Nobutoshi; Kurata, Tomoko; Ikeda, Yoshio; Abe, Koji

    2013-10-01

    Cognitive and affective impairments are important non-motor features of ischemic stroke (IS) related to white-matter hyperintensity, including periventricular hyperintensity (PVH). To confirm the usefulness of a novel computerized touch panel-type screening test, we investigated cognitive and affective functioning among 142 IS patients and 105 age-and gender-matched normal control subjects. Assessment using the mini-mental state examination, Hasegawa Dementia Scale-Revised, and frontal assessment battery revealed reduced cognitive function in IS patients, with the most severe reduction exhibited by cardiogenic embolism patients, followed by lacunar infarction patients, and atherothrombotic infarction patients. Our novel touch panel screening test revealed a similar pattern of results. In addition, PVH grading, classified using Fazekas' magnetic resonance imaging method, was also correlated with cognitive decline and touch panel screening test performance. In contrast, affective function, assessed with the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale, vitality index, and apathy scale, was not significantly decreased in IS, and did not correlate with touch panel screening test results or PVH, although the number of microbleeds was correlated with apathy scale results. The present findings revealed that IS and PVH grading were significantly correlated with decline in general cognitive status (mini-mental state examination and Hasegawa Dementia Scale-Revised) and frontal lobe function (frontal assessment battery). Performance on all touch panel screening tests was correlated with IS and PVH grading, but was largely independent of depression or apathy. Touch panel screening tests were easily understood and performed by almost all patients with mild cognitive and motor dysfunction, due to visually clear images and simple methods not involving detailed manual-handling tasks such as writing. Touch panel screening tests may provide a useful tool for the early screening of cognitive

  2. Food as Touch/Touching the Food: The Body In-Place and Out-of-Place in Preschool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossholt, Nina

    2012-01-01

    The article explores the need to eat as a biological and social practice among children in a preschool in Norway. The children in this preschool are aged from one to two years of age, and some of them have just started there. Different events from mealtimes relate to Derrida's concept of touch and Grosz's notion of bodies in-place and…

  3. Finding the Right Touch: Extending the Right-Touch Regulation Approach to the Accreditation of Voluntary Registers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bilton, Douglas; Cayton, Harry

    2013-01-01

    What is "right-touch regulation"? In this article we explain why the Professional Standards Authority for Health and Social Care (the Authority) has focussed much of its policy work in recent times on seeking an answer to this question, and why it wants to know. We explain why the Authority's predecessor body, the Council for Healthcare…

  4. Manipulation of Rumen Microbial Fermentation by Polyphenol Rich Solvent Fractions from Papaya Leaf to Reduce Green-House Gas Methane and Biohydrogenation of C18 PUFA.

    PubMed

    Jafari, Saeid; Meng, Goh Yong; Rajion, Mohamed Ali; Jahromi, Mohammad Faseleh; Ebrahimi, Mahdi

    2016-06-08

    Different solvents (hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, butanol, and water) were used to identify the effect of papaya leaf (PL) fractions (PLFs) on ruminal biohydrogenation (BH) and ruminal methanogenesis in an in vitro study. PLFs at a concentration of 0 (control, CON) and 15 mg/250 mg dry matter (DM) were mixed with 30 mL of buffered rumen fluid and were incubated for 24 h. Methane (CH4) production (mL/250 mg DM) was the highest (P < 0.05) for CON (7.65) and lowest for the chloroform fraction (5.41) compared to those of other PLFs at 24 h of incubation. Acetate to propionate ratio was the lowest for PLFs compared to that of CON. Supplementation of the diet with PLFs significantly (P < 0.05) decreased the rate of BH of C18:1n-9 (oleic acid; OA), C18:2n-6 (linoleic acid; LA), and C18:3n-3 (α-linolenic acid; LNA) compared to that of CON after 24 h of incubation. Real time PCR indicated that total protozoa and total methanogen population in PLFs decreased (P < 0.05) compared to those of CON.

  5. Simplifying touch data from tri-axial sensors using a new data visualization tool.

    PubMed

    Salud, Lawrence H; Kwan, Calvin; Pugh, Carla M

    2013-01-01

    Quantification and evaluation of palpation is a growing field of research in medicine and engineering. A newly developed tri-axial touch sensor has been designed to capture a multi-dimensional profile of touch-loaded forces. We have developed a data visualization tool as a first step in simplifying interpretation of touch for assessing hands-on clinical performance.

  6. Enhancing the Entertainment Experience of Blind and Low-Vision Theatregoers through Touch Tours

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Udo, J. P.; Fels, D. I.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we demonstrate how universal design theory and the research available on museum-based touch tours can be used to develop a touch tour for blind and low-vision theatregoers. We discuss these theoretical and practical approaches with reference to data collected and experience gained from the creation and execution of a touch tour for…

  7. Flexible Organic Tribotronic Transistor Memory for a Visible and Wearable Touch Monitoring System.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Zhang, Chi; Duan, Lian; Zhang, Li Min; Wang, Li Duo; Dong, Gui Fang; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2016-01-06

    A new type of flexible organic tribotronic transistor memory is proposed, which can be written and erased by externally applied touch actions as an active memory. By further coupling with an organic light-emitting diode (OLED), a visible and wearable touch monitoring system is achieved, in which touch triggering can be memorized and shown as the emission from the OLED.

  8. The Use of Touch in Counseling: An Ethical Decision-Making Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calmes, Stephanie A.; Piazza, Nick J.; Laux, John M.

    2013-01-01

    Although some counselors have advocated for the limited use of touch in counseling, others have argued that touch has no place within the counseling relationship. Despite the controversy, the use of touch has been shown to have a number of therapeutic benefits; however, there are few ethical decision-making models that are appropriate for…

  9. 78 FR 6835 - Certain Mobile Handset Devices and Related Touch Keyboard Software; Institution of Investigation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-31

    ... COMMISSION Certain Mobile Handset Devices and Related Touch Keyboard Software; Institution of Investigation... related touch keyboard software by reason of infringement of certain claims of U.S. Patent No. 7,750,891... touch keyboard software that infringe one or more of claims 36, 47, 50-52, and 55-57 of the '891...

  10. Toddlers' Word Learning from Contingent and Noncontingent Video on Touch Screens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkorian, Heather L.; Choi, Koeun; Pempek, Tiffany A.

    2016-01-01

    Researchers examined whether contingent experience using a touch screen increased toddlers' ability to learn a word from video. One hundred and sixteen children (24-36 months) watched an on-screen actress label an object: (a) without interacting, (b) with instructions to touch "anywhere" on the screen, or (c) with instructions to touch a…

  11. The physiological and emotional effects of touch: Assessing a hand-massage intervention with high self-critics.

    PubMed

    Maratos, Frances A; Duarte, Joana; Barnes, Christopher; McEwan, Kirsten; Sheffield, David; Gilbert, Paul

    2017-01-25

    Research demonstrates that highly self-critical individuals can respond negatively to the initial introduction of a range of therapeutic interventions. Yet touch as a form of therapeutic intervention in self-critical individuals has received limited prior investigation, despite documentation of its beneficial effects for well-being. Using the Forms of Self-Criticism/Self-Reassuring Scale, 15 high- and 14 low- self-critical individuals (from a sample of 139 females) were recruited to assess how self-criticism impacts upon a single instance of focused touch. All participants took part in a hand massage- and haptic control- intervention. Salivary cortisol and alpha amylase, as well as questionnaire measures of emotional responding were taken before and after the interventions. Following hand massage, analyses revealed cortisol decreased significantly across all participants; and that significant changes in emotional responding reflected well-being improvements across all participants. Supplementary analyses further revealed decreased alpha amylase responding to hand massage as compared to a compassion-focused intervention in the same (highly self-critical) individuals. Taken together, the physiological and emotional data indicate high self-critical individuals responded in a comparable manner to low self-critical individuals to a single instance of hand massage. This highlights that focused touch may be beneficial when first engaging highly self-critical individuals with specific interventions.

  12. Touch cytology. A quick, simple, sensitive screening test in the diagnosis of infections of the gastrointestinal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Debongnie, J C; Mairesse, J; Donnay, M; Dekoninck, X

    1994-11-01

    To assess the role of touch cytology (imprint from endoscopic biopsy specimens) in the diagnosis of mucosal infections of the gastrointestinal tract, we reviewed all records and specimens of patients seen during a 30-month period. Touch cytology was performed by rolling biopsy specimens on glass slides. After air fixation, a rapid staining method similar to May-Grünwald-Giemsa was used. The following infections and pathogens were diagnosed (in decreasing order of frequency): Helicobacter pylori gastritis (n = 53), Candida albicans esophagitis (n = 40), Giardia lamblia (n = 13), Gastrospirillum hominis (n = 11), and Blastocystis hominis (n = 8). The smear was positive in 45 patients with H pylori, in 35 patients with C albicans, in nine patients with G lamblia, in 11 patients with G hominis, and in eight patients with B hominis. Cytology was the only positive test in eight, nine, four, seven, and eight patients, respectively, and increased thus the diagnostic yield obtained by histologic examination.

  13. RNA interference of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase (ACO1 and ACO2) genes expression prolongs the shelf life of Eksotika (Carica papaya L.) papaya fruit.

    PubMed

    Sekeli, Rogayah; Abdullah, Janna Ong; Namasivayam, Parameswari; Muda, Pauziah; Abu Bakar, Umi Kalsom; Yeong, Wee Chien; Pillai, Vilasini

    2014-06-19

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of using RNA interference in down regulating the expression of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase gene in Eksotika papaya. One-month old embryogenic calli were separately transformed with Agrobacterium strain LBA 4404 harbouring the three different RNAi pOpOff2 constructs bearing the 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase gene. A total of 176 putative transformed lines were produced from 15,000 calli transformed, selected, then regenerated on medium supplemented with kanamycin. Integration and expression of the targeted gene in putatively transformed lines were verified by PCR and real-time RT-PCR. Confined field evaluation of a total of 31 putative transgenic lines planted showed a knockdown expression of the targeted ACO1 and ACO2 genes in 13 lines, which required more than 8 days to achieve the full yellow colour (Index 6). Fruits harvested from lines pRNAiACO2 L2-9 and pRNAiACO1 L2 exhibited about 20 and 14 days extended post-harvest shelf life to reach Index 6, respectively. The total soluble solids contents of the fruits ranged from 11 to 14° Brix, a range similar to fruits from non-transformed, wild type seed-derived plants.

  14. A sensational illusion: vision-touch synaesthesia and the rubber hand paradigm.

    PubMed

    Aimola Davies, Anne M; White, Rebekah C

    2013-03-01

    For individuals with vision-touch synaesthesia, the sight of touch on another person elicits synaesthetic tactile sensation on the observer's own body. Here we used the traditional rubber hand paradigm (Botvinick and Cohen, 1998) and a no-touch rubber hand paradigm to investigate and to authenticate synaesthetic tactile sensation. In the traditional rubber hand paradigm, the participant views a prosthetic hand being touched by the Examiner while the participant's hand - hidden from view - is also touched by the Examiner. Synchronous stimulation of the prosthetic hand and the participant's hidden hand elicits the rubber hand illusion. It may seem to the participant that she is feeling touch at the location of the viewed prosthetic hand - visual capture of touch, and that the prosthetic hand is the participant's own hand - illusion of ownership. Thus, for participants who experience the traditional rubber hand illusion, tactile sensation on the participant's hidden hand is referred to the prosthetic hand. In our no-touch rubber hand paradigm, the participant views a prosthetic hand being touched by the Examiner but the participant's hand - hidden from view - is not touched by the Examiner. Questionnaire ratings indicated that only individuals with vision-touch synaesthesia experienced the no-touch rubber hand illusion. Thus, synaesthetic tactile sensation on the (untouched) hidden hand was referred to the prosthetic hand. These individuals also demonstrated proprioceptive drift (a change, from baseline, in proprioceptively perceived position) of the hidden hand towards the location of the prosthetic hand, and a pattern of increased proprioceptive drift with increased trial duration (60 sec, 180 sec, 300 sec). The no-touch rubber hand paradigm was an excellent method to authenticate vision-touch synaesthesia because participants were naïve about the rubber hand illusion, and they could not have known how they were expected to perform on either the traditional or the

  15. Quantifying the sensory and emotional perception of touch: differences between glabrous and hairy skin

    PubMed Central

    Ackerley, Rochelle; Saar, Karin; McGlone, Francis; Backlund Wasling, Helena

    2014-01-01

    The perception of touch is complex and there has been a lack of ways to describe the full tactile experience quantitatively. Guest et al. (2011) developed a Touch Perception Task (TPT) in order to capture such experiences, and here we used the TPT to examine differences in sensory and emotional aspects of touch at different skin sites. We compared touch on three skin sites: the hairy arm and cheek, and the glabrous palm. The hairy skin contains C-tactile (CT) afferents, which play a role in affective touch, whereas glabrous skin does not contain CT afferents and is involved in more discriminative touch. In healthy volunteers, three different materials (soft brush, sandpaper, fur) were stroked across these skin sites during self-touch or experimenter-applied touch. After each stimulus, participants rated the tactile experience using descriptors in the TPT. Sensory and emotional descriptors were analyzed using factor analyses. Five sensory factors were found: Texture, Pile, Moisture, Heat/Sharp and Cold/Slip, and three emotional factors: Positive Affect, Arousal, and Negative Affect. Significant differences were found in the use of descriptors in touch to hairy vs. glabrous skin: this was most evident in touch on forearm skin, which produced higher emotional content. The touch from another was also judged as more emotionally positive then self-touch, and participants readily discriminated between the materials on all factors. The TPT successfully probed sensory and emotional percepts of the touch experience, which aided in identifying skin where emotional touch was more pertinent. It also highlights the potentially important role for CTs in the affective processing of inter-personal touch, in combination with higher-order influences, such as through cultural belonging and previous experiences. PMID:24574985

  16. Effects of papaya leaves on thrombocyte counts in dengue--a case report.

    PubMed

    Siddique, Osama; Sundus, Ayesha; Ibrahim, Mohammad Faisal

    2014-03-01

    Dengue fever is on the rise in developing nations like India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka and Bangladesh. There is no antiviral chemotherapy or vaccine for dengue virus and management of the disease is done on supportive measures. The decline in the thrombocyte count leads to dengue haemorrhagic fever accounting for complications and mortality. Oral administration of Carica papaya leaves extract is said to have a positive impact on thrombocyte count. A 23-year-old man was administered a calculated dose for five days. Blood samples were tested for complete blood count before and after the administration of the juice. Thrombocyte count had increased from 28000/micro liter to 138000/micro liter at the end of five days. We present our experience here.

  17. Radiation preservation of foods of plant origin. III. Tropical fruits: bananas, mangoes, and papayas

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, P.

    1986-01-01

    The current status of research on the use of ionizing radiation for shelf life improvement and disinfestation of fresh tropical fruits like bananas, mangoes, and papayas are reviewed. The aspects covered are influence of maturity and physiological state of the fruits on delayed ripening and tolerance to radiation; varietal responses; changes in chemical constituents, volatiles, respiration, and ethylene evolution; biochemical mechanisms of delayed ripening and browning of irradiated fruits; and organoleptic quality. The efficacy of the combination of hot water dip and radiation treatments for control of postharvest fungal diseases are considered. The immediate potential of radiation as a quarantine treatment, in place of the currently used chemical fumigants, for disinfestation of fruit flies and mango seed weevil are discussed. Future prospects for irradiation of tropical fruits are discussed in the light of experience gained from studies conducted in different countries.146 references.

  18. Sodium tetrathionate effect on papain purification from different Carica papaya latex crude extracts.

    PubMed

    Llerena-Suster, Carlos R; Priolo, Nora S; Morcelle, Susana R

    2011-01-01

    Papain from latex of Carica papaya was purified up to matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometry homogeneity by salt precipitation from two different crude extract sources: a refined preparation obtained in our laboratory and a commercial one. Sodium tetrathionate was tested in the purification process to preserve the enzymatic activity of the peptidase. Purification was checked by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) and cation exchange chromatography, using commercial pure papain as standard for a rapid comparison. The best purification yields (3.4%) were obtained in presence of 30 mM sodium tetrathionate for the crude extract prepared in our laboratory. The described purification method proved to be robust and reliable to obtain pure papain on a preparative scale.

  19. The minimal 5' sequence for in vitro initiation of papaya mosaic potexvirus assembly.

    PubMed

    Sit, T L; Leclerc, D; AbouHaidar, M G

    1994-02-15

    The minimal 5' initiation of assembly sequence for papaya mosaic virus (PMV) has been determined by the generation of successive 3' deletion clones from a full-length cDNA copy of the PMV genome followed by in vitro assembly of RNA transcripts. Sequences closest to the 5' terminus were cloned into plasmid vectors with synthetic complementary oligonucleotides representing viral sequences. The in vitro initiation sequence has been narrowed down to 38-47 nucleotides at the 5' terminus which are capable of initiation alone or in conjunction with homologous or heterologous sequences. The minimum initiation sequence is rich in adenosine and cytidine and very poor in uridine nucleotides and lacks any discernible secondary structure.

  20. Antioxidant activities and phenolics profiling of different parts of Carica papaya by LCMS-MS.

    PubMed

    Zunjar, V; Mammen, D; Trivedi, B M

    2015-01-01

    This article deals with the comparison of the antioxidant activity of aqueous extracts of various parts of Carica papaya L. The evaluation of total phenolic content and total flavonoid content revealed high antioxidant potential of the seeds and fruits. The free radical-scavenging potential of the aqueous extracts indicated the seeds to have better DPPH-scavenging activity than fruits. The results were augmented by the FRAP activity as well. The phenolics present in the extracts were separated and identified as 5-hydroxy feruloyl quinic acid, acetyl p-coumaryl quinic acid, quercetin-3-O-rhamnoside, syringic acid hexoside, 5-hydroxy caffeic quinic acid, peonidin-3-O-glucoside, sinapic acid-O-hexoside, cyaniding-3-O-glucose and methyl feruloyl glycoside by LCMS-MS technique.

  1. The effect of vibration exposure during haul truck operation on grip strength, touch sensation, and balance.

    PubMed

    Pollard, Jonisha; Porter, William; Mayton, Alan; Xu, Xueyan; Weston, Eric

    2017-01-01

    Falls from mobile equipment are reported at surface mine quarry operations each year in considerable numbers. Research shows that a preponderance of falls occur while getting on/off mobile equipment. Contributing factors to the risk of falls include the usage of ladders, exiting onto a slippery surface, and foot or hand slippage. Balance issues may also contribute to fall risks for mobile equipment operators who are exposed to whole-body vibration (WBV). For this reason, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Office of Mine Safety and Health Research conducted a study at four participating mine sites with seven haul truck operators. The purpose was to ascertain whether WBV and hand-arm vibration (HAV) exposures for quarry haul truck operators were linked to short-term decreases in performance in relation to postural stability, touch sensation threshold, and grip strength that are of crucial importance when getting on/off the trucks. WBV measures of frequency-weighted RMS accelerations (wRMS) and vibration dose value (VDV), when compared to the ISO/ANSI standards, were mostly below levels identified for the Health Guidance Caution Zone (HGCZ), although there were instances where the levels were within and above the specified Exposure Action Value. Comparably, all mean HAV levels, when compared to the ISO/ANSI standards, were below the HGCZ. For the existing conditions and equipment, no significant correlation could be identified between the WBV, HAV, postural stability, touch sensation threshold, and grip strength measures taken during this study.

  2. Developing Mixed Reality Educational Applications: The Virtual Touch Toolkit.

    PubMed

    Mateu, Juan; Lasala, María José; Alamán, Xavier

    2015-08-31

    In this paper, we present Virtual Touch, a toolkit that allows the development of educational activities through a mixed reality environment such that, using various tangible elements, the interconnection of a virtual world with the real world is enabled. The main goal of Virtual Touch is to facilitate the installation, configuration and programming of different types of technologies, abstracting the creator of educational applications from the technical details involving the use of tangible interfaces and virtual worlds. Therefore, it is specially designed to enable teachers to themselves create educational activities for their students in a simple way, taking into account that teachers generally lack advanced knowledge in computer programming and electronics. The toolkit has been used to develop various educational applications that have been tested in two secondary education high schools in Spain.

  3. Human relationships: an exploration of loneliness and touch.

    PubMed

    Playfair, Catherine

    The aim of this article is to provide a cursory review of some of the literature relating to loneliness, existentialism and touch. With reference to the critical incident analysis (see Box 1), a reflection on the learning that has been achieved both intrapersonally and interpersonally will also be provided. A consideration of how exactly this experience of structured reflection may be used to enhance and develop practice will also be explored. The review will analyze the key concepts of loneliness, existentialism, the therapeutic relationship and touch within the realms of nursing practice, specifically in relation to death and dying. This article seeks to highlight the importance of having an understanding of loneliness in nursing, particularly when caring for patients who are dying.

  4. Lipschitz equivalence of self-similar sets with touching structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruan, Huo-Jun; Wang, Yang; Xi, Li-Feng

    2014-06-01

    Lipschitz equivalence of self-similar sets is an important area in the study of fractal geometry. It is known that two dust-like self-similar sets with the same contraction ratios are always Lipschitz equivalent. However, when self-similar sets have touching structures the problem of Lipschitz equivalence becomes much more challenging and intriguing at the same time. So far, all the known results only cover self-similar sets in {R} with no more than three branches. In this study we establish results for the Lipschitz equivalence of self-similar sets with touching structures in {R} with arbitrarily many branches. Key to our study is the introduction of a geometric condition for self-similar sets called substitutable.

  5. Comparing no-touch and tympanic thermometer temperature recordings.

    PubMed

    Woodrow, P; May, V; Buras-Rees, S; Higgs, D; Hendrick, J; Lewis, T; Whitney, S; Cummings, C; Boorman, P; O'Donnell, A; Harris, P; McHenry, M

    Temperature is a vital sign which can be measured using various types of clinical thermometers. Pulmonary artery temperature is considered the 'gold standard', but this measurement is not usually clinically practical. There is currently no consensus for optimal alternative site or equipment. This research compares 178 simultaneous measurements from 5 clinical areas, using two types of thermometers: tympanic and no-touch temporal. No-touch thermometers were all set to oral equivalent. Tympanic thermometers were adjusted to either oral (n=105) or core (n=73) equivalent. Maximum acceptable difference was identified as 1oC. Two data sets (oral/core; oral/oral) were analysed using Bland-Altman method on Excel programmes, comparing all thermometers and separating oral and core-equivalent tympanics. The two thermometers were found not to be equivalent. As a simple comparison between two thermometers, this research cannot identify which thermometer is more accurate.

  6. Numerical Priming Between Touch and Vision Depends on Tactile Discrimination.

    PubMed

    Faivre, Nathan; Salomon, Roy; Vuillaume, Laurène; Blanke, Olaf

    2016-01-01

    Although the interaction between vision and touch is of crucial importance for perceptual and bodily self-consciousness, only little is known regarding the link between conscious access and tactile processing. Here, we tested whether the numerical encoding of tactile stimuli depends on conscious discrimination. On each trial, participants received between zero and three taps at low, medium, or high intensity and had to enumerate the number of visual items subsequently presented as a visual target. We measured tactovisual numerical priming, that is, the modulation of reaction times according to the numerical distance between the visual target and tactile prime values. While numerical priming and repetition priming were respectively elicited by high and medium intensity stimuli, no effect was found for low intensity stimuli that were not discriminable. This suggests that numerical priming between touch and vision depends on tactile discrimination. We discuss our results considering recent advances in unconscious visual numerical priming.

  7. Touch uses frictional cues to discriminate flat materials.

    PubMed

    Gueorguiev, David; Bochereau, Séréna; Mouraux, André; Hayward, Vincent; Thonnard, Jean-Louis

    2016-05-06

    In a forced-choice task, we asked human participants to discriminate by touch alone glass plates from transparent polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) plastic plates. While the surfaces were flat and did not exhibit geometric features beyond a few tens of nanometres, the materials differed by their molecular structures. They produced similar coefficients of friction and thermal effects were controlled. Most participants performed well above chance and participants with dry fingers discriminated the materials especially well. Current models of tactile surface perception appeal to surface topography and cannot explain our results. A correlation analysis between detailed measurements of the interfacial forces and discrimination performance suggested that the perceptual task depended on the transitory contact phase leading to full slip. This result demonstrates that differences in interfacial mechanics between the finger and a material can be sensed by touch and that the evanescent mechanics that take place before the onset of steady slip have perceptual value.

  8. Gender differences when touching something gross: unpleasant? No. Disgusting? Yes!

    PubMed

    Skolnick, Alexander J

    2013-01-01

    While many studies find women self-report higher disgust sensitivity than men, few studies have examined gender differences with behavioral tasks in senses other than vision. On a haptic task, we tested the hypothesis that women would report greater disgust but not greater unpleasantness than men. Forty-four undergraduates (29 women) touched 8 out-of-sight stimuli with sensory (unpleasantness) and emotional (disgust) responses recorded. The stimuli consisted of 2 neutral, 2 pleasant, and 4 unpleasant (3 disgust-evoking) objects. No gender differences were found for reporting stimuli unpleasantness. In contrast, women rated their disgust significantly higher than men when touching the high disgust-evoking objects. Unpleasantness of the stimuli correlated with disgust to the objects, but disgust sensitivity (Disgust Scale-Revised) was not a strong predictor of disgust responses. Besides differentiating unpleasantness from disgust, this was also the first study to show gender differences in a disgust-evoking haptic task.

  9. Matching spatial patterns within and between passive touch and vision.

    PubMed

    Mavlov, L; Minchev, B

    1980-01-01

    A complete design of intramodal and cross-modal matchings of form patterns within and between vision and passive touch was conducted, employing simultaneous or successive mode of stimulation. The simultaneous presentation mode was more efficient than the successive one for vision, but the reverse was valid for passive touch, In intramodal tactual matchings a strategy of detecting the stimulated receptive field overlap was applied by our Ss. In cross-modal conditions, when the visual pattern in a pair was at the first place, performances were more efficient than in the cases when the tactual pattern in a pair went first (V-T greater than T-V). Sex differences were found, young men being superior to young women. "Different" judgements were evidently more difficult than "same" judgments.

  10. Physics Learning Strategies with Multi-touch Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potter, Mark; Ilie, C.; Schofield, D.

    2011-03-01

    Advancements in technology have opened doorways to build new teaching and learning methods. Through conjunctive use of these technologies and methods, a classroom can be enriched to stimulate and improve student learning. The purpose of our research is to ascertain whether or not multi-touch technology enhances students' abilities to better comprehend and retain the knowledge taught in physics. At their basis, students learn via visual, aural, reading/writing, and kinesthetic styles. Labs provide for all but the aural style, while lectures lack kinesthetic learning. Pedagogical research indicates that kinesthetic learning is a fundamental, powerful, and ubiquitous learning style. By using multi-touch technology in lecture, not only can we accommodate kinesthetic learners, but we can also enrich the experiences of visual learners. Ushering to this wider array of students will hopefully lead to an increase in meaningful learning.

  11. Developing Mixed Reality Educational Applications: The Virtual Touch Toolkit

    PubMed Central

    Mateu, Juan; Lasala, María José; Alamán, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present Virtual Touch, a toolkit that allows the development of educational activities through a mixed reality environment such that, using various tangible elements, the interconnection of a virtual world with the real world is enabled. The main goal of Virtual Touch is to facilitate the installation, configuration and programming of different types of technologies, abstracting the creator of educational applications from the technical details involving the use of tangible interfaces and virtual worlds. Therefore, it is specially designed to enable teachers to themselves create educational activities for their students in a simple way, taking into account that teachers generally lack advanced knowledge in computer programming and electronics. The toolkit has been used to develop various educational applications that have been tested in two secondary education high schools in Spain. PMID:26334275

  12. Touch uses frictional cues to discriminate flat materials

    PubMed Central

    Gueorguiev, David; Bochereau, Séréna; Mouraux, André; Hayward, Vincent; Thonnard, Jean-Louis

    2016-01-01

    In a forced-choice task, we asked human participants to discriminate by touch alone glass plates from transparent polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) plastic plates. While the surfaces were flat and did not exhibit geometric features beyond a few tens of nanometres, the materials differed by their molecular structures. They produced similar coefficients of friction and thermal effects were controlled. Most participants performed well above chance and participants with dry fingers discriminated the materials especially well. Current models of tactile surface perception appeal to surface topography and cannot explain our results. A correlation analysis between detailed measurements of the interfacial forces and discrimination performance suggested that the perceptual task depended on the transitory contact phase leading to full slip. This result demonstrates that differences in interfacial mechanics between the finger and a material can be sensed by touch and that the evanescent mechanics that take place before the onset of steady slip have perceptual value. PMID:27149921

  13. Lactogenic Activity of an Enzymatic Hydrolysate from Octopus vulgaris and Carica papaya in SD Rats.

    PubMed

    Cai, Bingna; Chen, Hua; Sun, Han; Sun, Huili; Wan, Peng; Chen, Deke; Pan, Jianyu

    2015-11-01

    The traditional Chinese medicine theory believes that octopus papaya soup can stimulate milk production in lactating women. The objective of this study was to determine whether dietary supplementation with an enzymatic hydrolysate of Octopus vulgaris and Carica papaya (EHOC) could increase milk production and nutritional indexes in Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. Female SD rats (n = 24) were fed a control diet (n = 8), EHOC-supplemented diet, or a positive control diet (Shengruzhi) from day 10 of pregnancy to day 10 of lactation. Maternal serum, mammary gland (day 10 of lactation), milk, and pup weight (daily) were collected for analysis. Results showed that the EHOC diet obviously elevated daily milk yield and pup weight compared to the control group (P < .05). The EHOC diet was found to increase the concentration of prolactin (PRL), progesterone (P), estradiol (E2), and growth hormone (GH) significantly in the circulation and mammary gland. Mammary glands of EHOC-treated dams showed clear lobuloalveolar development and proliferation of myoepithelial cells, but no striking variations were observed among the groups. Furthermore, the nutrition content and immune globulin concentration in the milk of EHOC-supplemented dams were higher than those of the control group, especially the cholesterol, glucose, and IgG were higher by 44.98% (P < .001), 42.76% (P < .01), and 42.23% (P < .01), respectively. In conclusion, this article demonstrates that EHOC administration has beneficial effects on milk production in the dams and on performance of the dam and pup. These results indicate that EHOC could be explored as a potentially lactogenic nutriment for lactating women.

  14. Ionic signaling in plant responses to gravity and touch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fasano, Jeremiah M.; Massa, Gioia D.; Gilroy, Simon

    2002-01-01

    Touch and gravity are two of the many stimuli that plants must integrate to generate an appropriate growth response. Due to the mechanical nature of both of these signals, shared signal transduction elements could well form the basis of the cross-talk between these two sensory systems. However, touch stimulation must elicit signaling events across the plasma membrane whereas gravity sensing is thought to represent transformation of an internal force, amyloplast sedimentation, to signal transduction events. In addition, factors such as turgor pressure and presence of the cell wall may also place unique constraints on these plant mechanosensory systems. Even so, the candidate signal transduction elements in both plant touch and gravity sensing, changes in Ca2+, pH and membrane potential, do mirror the known ionic basis of signaling in animal mechanosensory cells. Distinct spatial and temporal signatures of Ca2+ ions may encode information about the different mechanosignaling stimuli. Signals such as Ca2+ waves or action potentials may also rapidly transfer information perceived in one cell throughout a tissue or organ leading to the systemic reactions characteristic of plant touch and gravity responses. Longer-term growth responses are likely sustained via changes in gene expression and asymmetries in compounds such as inositol-1,4,5-triphosphate (IP3) and calmodulin. Thus, it seems likely that plant mechanoperception involves both spatial and temporal encoding of information at all levels, from the cell to the whole plant. Defining this patterning will be a critical step towards understanding how plants integrate information from multiple mechanical stimuli to an appropriate growth response.

  15. Distinct neural networks underlying empathy for pleasant and unpleasant touch.

    PubMed

    Lamm, Claus; Silani, Giorgia; Singer, Tania

    2015-09-01

    In spite of considerable progress in the understanding of the neural mechanisms underlying the experience of empathy, the majority of previous investigations have focused on how we share negative affective states (and in particular pain) of others, whereas only few studies have targeted empathy for positive emotions. This bias has precluded addressing one of the central tenets of the shared representations account of empathy, which is that different networks should be engaged when empathizing with emotions that are represented on different neural levels. The aim of the present study was to overcome this limitation and to test whether empathy for pleasant and unpleasant affective touch is underpinned by different neural networks. To this end we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), with two independent replication experiments (N = 18, N = 32), and a novel paradigm enabling the joint investigation of first-hand and vicarious responses to pleasant and unpleasant affect induced via visuo-tactile stimulation. This revealed that empathy is subserved by distinct neural networks, with those regions recruited in the first-hand experience of positive or negative affective states also being specifically recruited when empathizing with these respective states in others. More specifically, the first-hand and vicarious experience of pleasant touch commonly recruited medial orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), while unpleasant touch was associated with shared activation in the right fronto-insular cortex. The observation that specifically tailored subsystems of the human brain are engaged to share positive versus negative touch of others brings fresh evidence to one of the major goals of the social neuroscience of empathy: to identify which specific aspects of the affective states of others are shared, and what role this plays in enabling the understanding of the emotions of others.

  16. Infant Imitation from Television Using Novel Touch Screen Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zack, Elizabeth; Barr, Rachel; Gerhardstein, Peter; Dickerson, Kelly; Meltzoff, Andrew N.

    2009-01-01

    Infants learn less from a televised demonstration than from a live demonstration, the "video deficit effect." The present study employs a novel approach, using touch screen technology to examine 15-month olds' transfer of learning. Infants were randomly assigned either to within-dimension (2D/2D or 3D/3D) or cross-dimension (3D/2D or 2D/3D)…

  17. Touch Inventory for Elementary-School-Aged Children.

    PubMed

    Royeen, C B; Fortune, J C

    1990-02-01

    The syndrome of tactile defensiveness, first described by Ayres in 1964, has undergone continued study as well as related theory development. No standardized assessment for tactile defensiveness, however, currently exists. This paper presents a 26-item screening scale, the Touch Inventory for Elementary-School-Aged Children (TIE), as well as its psychometric characteristics. Normative data and precautions for proper use of the TIE are also given.

  18. Methodology to Assess No Touch Audit Software Using Field Data

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, Jie; Braun, James E.; Langner, M. Rois

    2016-10-01

    The research presented in this report builds upon these previous efforts and proposes a set of tests to assess no touch audit tools using real utility bill and on-site data. The proposed assessment methodology explicitly investigates the behaviors of the monthly energy end uses with respect to outdoor temperature, i.e., the building energy signature, to help understand the Tool's disaggregation accuracy. The project team collaborated with Field Diagnosis Services, Inc. (FDSI) to identify appropriate test sites for the evaluation.

  19. The meaning of the virtual Midas touch: an ERP study in economic decision making.

    PubMed

    Spapé, Michiel M; Hoggan, Eve E; Jacucci, Giulio; Ravaja, Niklas

    2015-03-01

    The Midas touch refers to the altruistic effects of a brief touch. Though these effects have often been replicated, they remain poorly understood. We investigate the psychophysiology of the effect using remotely transmitted, precisely timed, tactile messages in an economic decision-making game called Ultimatum. Participants were more likely to accept offers after receiving a remotely transmitted touch. Furthermore, we found distinct effects of touch on event-related potentials evoked by (a) feedback regarding accepted and rejected offers, (b) decision cues related to proposals, and (c) the haptic and auditory cues themselves. In each case, a late positive effect of touch was observed and related to the P3. Given the role of the P3 in memory-related functions, the results indicate an indirect relationship between touch and generosity that relies on memory. This hypothesis was further tested and confirmed in the positive effects of touch on later proposals.

  20. A closed-loop neurobotic system for fine touch sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bologna, L. L.; Pinoteau, J.; Passot, J.-B.; Garrido, J. A.; Vogel, J.; Ros Vidal, E.; Arleo, A.

    2013-08-01

    Objective. Fine touch sensing relies on peripheral-to-central neurotransmission of somesthetic percepts, as well as on active motion policies shaping tactile exploration. This paper presents a novel neuroengineering framework for robotic applications based on the multistage processing of fine tactile information in the closed action-perception loop. Approach. The integrated system modules focus on (i) neural coding principles of spatiotemporal spiking patterns at the periphery of the somatosensory pathway, (ii) probabilistic decoding mechanisms mediating cortical-like tactile recognition and (iii) decision-making and low-level motor adaptation underlying active touch sensing. We probed the resulting neural architecture through a Braille reading task. Main results. Our results on the peripheral encoding of primary contact features are consistent with experimental data on human slow-adapting type I mechanoreceptors. They also suggest second-order processing by cuneate neurons may resolve perceptual ambiguities, contributing to a fast and highly performing online discrimination of Braille inputs by a downstream probabilistic decoder. The implemented multilevel adaptive control provides robustness to motion inaccuracy, while making the number of finger accelerations covariate with Braille character complexity. The resulting modulation of fingertip kinematics is coherent with that observed in human Braille readers. Significance. This work provides a basis for the design and implementation of modular neuromimetic systems for fine touch discrimination in robotics.

  1. Mechanosensitive unpaired innexin channels in C. elegans touch neurons.

    PubMed

    Sangaletti, Rachele; Dahl, Gerhard; Bianchi, Laura

    2014-11-15

    Invertebrate innexin proteins share sequence homology with vertebrate pannexins and general membrane topology with both pannexins and connexins. While connexins form gap junctions that mediate intercellular communication, pannexins are thought to function exclusively as plasma membrane channels permeable to both ions and small molecules. Undoubtedly, certain innexins function as gap junction proteins. However, due to sequence similarity to pannexins, it was postulated that innexins also function as plasma membrane channels. Indeed, some of the leech innexins were found to mediate ATP release as unpaired membrane channels with shared pharmacology to pannexin channels. We show here that Caenorhabditis elegans touch-sensing neurons express a mechanically gated innexin channel with a conductance of ∼1 nS and voltage-dependent and K(+)-selective subconductance state. We also show that C. elegans touch neurons take up ethidium bromide through a mechanism that is activated and blocked by innexin activating stimuli and inhibitors, respectively. Finally, we present evidence that touch neurons' innexins are required for cell death induced by chemical ischemia. Our work demonstrates that innexins function as plasma membrane channels in native C. elegans neurons, where they may play a role in pathological cell death.

  2. Mirror-touch synaesthesia: Difficulties inhibiting the other.

    PubMed

    Santiesteban, Idalmis; Bird, Geoffrey; Tew, Oliver; Cioffi, Maria Cristina; Banissy, Michael J

    2015-10-01

    Individuals with mirror touch synaesthesia (MTS) experience touch on their own body when observing others being touched. A recent account proposes that such rare experiences could be linked to impairment in self-other representations. Here we tested participants with MTS on a battery of social cognition tests and found that compared to non-synaesthete controls, the MTS group showed impairment in imitation-inhibition but not in visual perspective taking or theory of mind. Although all of these socio-cognitive abilities rely on the control of self-other representations, they differ as to whether the self, or the other, should be preferentially represented. For imitation-inhibition, representations of the other should be inhibited and self-representations should be enhanced, whereas the opposite is true for visual perspective taking and theory of mind. These findings suggest that MTS is associated with a specific deficit in inhibiting representation of other individuals and shed light on the fractionability of processes underlying typical social cognition.

  3. Deaf, blind or deaf-blind: Is touch enhanced?

    PubMed

    Papagno, Costanza; Cecchetto, Carlo; Pisoni, Alberto; Bolognini, Nadia

    2016-02-01

    When someone looses one type of sensory input, s/he may compensate by using the sensory information conveyed by other senses. To verify whether loosing a sense or two has consequences on a spared sensory modality, namely touch, and whether these consequences depend on the type of sensory loss, we investigated the effects of deafness and blindness on temporal and spatial tactile tasks in deaf, blind and deaf-blind people. Deaf and deaf-blind people performed the spatial tactile task better than the temporal one, while blind and controls showed the opposite pattern. Deaf and deaf-blind participants were impaired in temporal discrimination as compared to controls, while deaf-blind individuals outperformed blind participants in the spatial tactile task. Overall, sensory-deprived participants did not show an enhanced tactile performance. We speculate that discriminative touch is not so relevant in humans, while social touch is. Probably, more complex tactile tasks would have revealed an increased performance in sensory-deprived people.

  4. Instrumented fingernails: a haptically unobstructive method for touch force input

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mascaro, Stephen A.; Asada, H. Harry; Chang, Kuo Wei

    1998-12-01

    A new type of touch sensor for detecting contact pressure at human fingertips is presented. Fingernails are instrumented with miniature LEDs and photodetectors in order to measure changes in the nail color when the fingers are pressed against a surface, this new sensor allows the fingers to directly contact the environment without obstructing the human's natural haptic rather than the finger pad. Photo- reflective plethysmorgraphy is used for measuring the nail color. A prototype fingernail sensor and is constructed and used to create a fingertip-free electronic glove. Using these new touch senors, a novel human-machine interface, termed 'virtual switch', is developed and applied to robot programming. The virtual switch detects human intention of pressing a switch by measuring the finger touch signal and the hand location. Instead of embedding a physical switch in a wall or panel, the virtual switch requires merely an image of a switch posted on the surface, and hence can be placed on any surface where one wants to place switches.

  5. Huggy Pajama: A Remote Interactive Touch and Hugging System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheok, Adrian David

    Huggy Pajama is a novel wearable system aimed at promoting physical interaction in remote communication between parent and child. This system enables parents and children to hug one another through a hugging interface device and a wearable, hug reproducing pajama connected through the Internet. The hug input device is a small, mobile doll with an embedded pressure sensing circuit that is able to accurately sense varying levels of pressure along the range of human touch produced from natural touch. This device sends hug signals to a haptic jacket that simulates the feeling of being hugged to the wearer. It features air pocket actuators that reproduce hug sensations, heating elements to produce warmth that accompanies hugs, and a color changing pattern and accessory to indicate distance of separation and communicate expressions. In this chapter, we present the system design of Huggy Pajama. We also show results from quantitative and qualitative user studies which show the effectiveness of the system simulating an actual human touch. Results also indicate an increased sense of presence between parents and children when used as an added component to instant messaging and video chat communication.

  6. Mechanosensitive unpaired innexin channels in C. elegans touch neurons

    PubMed Central

    Sangaletti, Rachele; Dahl, Gerhard

    2014-01-01

    Invertebrate innexin proteins share sequence homology with vertebrate pannexins and general membrane topology with both pannexins and connexins. While connexins form gap junctions that mediate intercellular communication, pannexins are thought to function exclusively as plasma membrane channels permeable to both ions and small molecules. Undoubtedly, certain innexins function as gap junction proteins. However, due to sequence similarity to pannexins, it was postulated that innexins also function as plasma membrane channels. Indeed, some of the leech innexins were found to mediate ATP release as unpaired membrane channels with shared pharmacology to pannexin channels. We show here that Caenorhabditis elegans touch-sensing neurons express a mechanically gated innexin channel with a conductance of ∼1 nS and voltage-dependent and K+-selective subconductance state. We also show that C. elegans touch neurons take up ethidium bromide through a mechanism that is activated and blocked by innexin activating stimuli and inhibitors, respectively. Finally, we present evidence that touch neurons' innexins are required for cell death induced by chemical ischemia. Our work demonstrates that innexins function as plasma membrane channels in native C. elegans neurons, where they may play a role in pathological cell death. PMID:25252948

  7. The C. elegans touch response facilitates escape from predacious fungi.

    PubMed

    Maguire, Sean M; Clark, Christopher M; Nunnari, John; Pirri, Jennifer K; Alkema, Mark J

    2011-08-09

    Predator-prey interactions are vital determinants in the natural selection of behavioral traits. Gentle touch to the anterior half of the body of Caenorhabditis elegans elicits an escape response in which the animal quickly reverses and suppresses exploratory head movements [1, 2]. Here, we investigate the ecological significance of the touch response in predator-prey interactions between C. elegans and predacious fungi that catch nematodes using constricting hyphal rings. We show that the constricting rings of Drechslerella doedycoides catch early larval stages with a diameter similar to the trap opening. There is a delay between the ring entry and ring closure, which allows the animal to withdraw from the trap before being caught. Mutants that fail to suppress head movements in response to touch are caught more efficiently than the wild-type. This demonstrates that the coordination of motor programs allows C. elegans to smoothly retract from a fungal noose and evade capture. Our results suggest that selective pressures imposed by predacious fungi have shaped the evolution of C. elegans escape behavior.

  8. Touch sensation by pectoral fins of the catfish Pimelodus pictus

    PubMed Central

    Hardy, Adam R.; Steinworth, Bailey M.

    2016-01-01

    Mechanosensation is fundamental to many tetrapod limb functions, yet it remains largely uninvestigated in the paired fins of fishes, limb homologues. Here we examine whether membranous fins may function as passive structures for touch sensation. We investigate the pectoral fins of the pictus catfish (Pimelodus pictus), a species that lives in close association with the benthic substrate and whose fins are positioned near its ventral margin. Kinematic analysis shows that the pectoral fins are held partially protracted during routine forward swimming and do not appear to generate propulsive force. Immunohistochemistry reveals that the fins are highly innervated, and we observe putative mechanoreceptors at nerve fibre endings. To test for the ability to sense mechanical perturbations, activity of fin ray nerve fibres was recorded in response to touch and bend stimulation. Both pressure and light surface brushing generated afferent nerve activity. Fin ray nerves also respond to bending of the rays. These data demonstrate for the first time that membranous fins can function as passive mechanosensors. We suggest that touch-sensitive fins may be widespread in fishes that maintain a close association with the bottom substrate. PMID:26865307

  9. The posterior parietal cortex remaps touch into external space.

    PubMed

    Azañón, Elena; Longo, Matthew R; Soto-Faraco, Salvador; Haggard, Patrick

    2010-07-27

    Localizing tactile events in external space is required for essential functions such as orienting, haptic exploration, and goal-directed action in peripersonal space. In order to map somatosensory input into a spatiotopic representation, information about skin location must be integrated with proprioceptive information about body posture. We investigated the neural bases of this tactile remapping mechanism in humans by disrupting neural activity in the putative human homolog of the monkey ventral intraparietal area (hVIP), within the right posterior parietal cortex (rPPC), which is thought to house external spatial representations. Participants judged the elevation of touches on their (unseen) forearm relative to touches on their face. Arm posture was passively changed along the vertical axis, so that elevation judgments required the use of an external reference frame. Single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over the rPPC significantly impaired performance compared to a control site (vertex). Crucially, proprioceptive judgments of arm elevation or tactile localization on the skin remained unaffected by rPPC TMS. This selective disruption of tactile remapping suggests a distinct computational process dissociable from pure proprioceptive and somatosensory localization. Furthermore, this finding highlights the causal role of human PPC, putatively VIP, in remapping touch into external space.

  10. Binary Combination of Carica papaya, Areca catechu and Myristica fragrans with Piperonyl Butoxide / MGK-264 against Freshwater Snail Lymnaea acuminata

    PubMed Central

    Hanif, Farhat; Singh, Dinesh Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Piperonyl butoxide (PB) and MGK-264 were used to enhance the toxicity of the active components papain, arecoline and myristicin from the plants Carica papaya, Areca catechu and Myristica fragrans, respectively, against the vector snail Lymnaea acuminata. A time- and dose-dependent relationship was observed for the toxicity of these combinations. The toxic effects of these plant-derived molluscicides in combination with the synergists PB and MGK-264 were several times higher than the effect of the individual treatments. The highest degree of synergism was observed when MGK-264 was used in combination with C. papaya latex (10.47-fold increase) and PB was used with papain (8.35-fold increase). PMID:24575245

  11. Binary Combination of Carica papaya, Areca catechu and Myristica fragrans with Piperonyl Butoxide / MGK-264 against Freshwater Snail Lymnaea acuminata.

    PubMed

    Hanif, Farhat; Singh, Dinesh Kumar

    2013-12-01

    Piperonyl butoxide (PB) and MGK-264 were used to enhance the toxicity of the active components papain, arecoline and myristicin from the plants Carica papaya, Areca catechu and Myristica fragrans, respectively, against the vector snail Lymnaea acuminata. A time- and dose-dependent relationship was observed for the toxicity of these combinations. The toxic effects of these plant-derived molluscicides in combination with the synergists PB and MGK-264 were several times higher than the effect of the individual treatments. The highest degree of synergism was observed when MGK-264 was used in combination with C. papaya latex (10.47-fold increase) and PB was used with papain (8.35-fold increase).

  12. The anthelmintic efficacy of papaya latex in a rodent-nematode model is not dependent on fasting before treatment.

    PubMed

    Luoga, W; Mansur, F; Buttle, D J; Duce, I R; Garnett, M C; Behnke, J M

    2012-09-01

    In earlier studies of the anthelmintic activity of plant cysteine proteinases (CPs), a period of food deprivation was routinely employed before administration of CPs, but there has been no systematic evaluation as to whether this does actually benefit the anthelmintic efficacy. Therefore, we assessed the effect of fasting on the efficacy of CPs from papaya latex (PL) against Heligmosomoides bakeri in C3H mice. We used a refined, supernatant extract of papaya latex (PLS) with known active enzyme content. The animals were divided into three groups (fasted prior to treatment with PLS, not fasted but treated with PLS and fasted but given only water). The study demonstrated clearly that although food deprivation had been routinely employed in much of the earlier work on CPs in mice infected with nematodes, fasting has no beneficial effect on the efficacy of PLS against H. bakeri infections. Administration of CPs to fed animals will also reduce the stress associated with fasting.

  13. Nucleotide sequence and intergeminiviral homologies of the DNA-A of papaya leaf curl geminivirus from India.

    PubMed

    Saxena, S; Hallan, V; Singh, B P; Sane, P V

    1998-06-01

    Coat protein gene, rep protein gene and intergenic region of the genome of a whitefly transmitted geminivirus (WTG) causing severe leaf curl in papaya plants were PCR amplified, cloned and sequenced. Comparison of the amino acid sequence of the putative coat protein product of papaya leaf curl virus (PLCV) with some other mono and bipartite WTGs revealed a maximum of 89.8% homology with Indian cassava mosaic virus. The genomic organization of PLCV-India is similar to other WTGs with bipartite genomes. Comparison of the coat protein N-terminal 70 amino acid sequence (and other biological features) of PLCV with other geminiviruses shows that PLCV is a distinct geminivirus from India and is related to WTGs from the old world.

  14. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of a protease inhibitor from the latex of Carica papaya

    PubMed Central

    Azarkan, Mohamed; Garcia-Pino, Abel; Dibiani, Rachid; Wyns, Lode; Loris, Remy; Baeyens-Volant, Danielle

    2006-01-01

    A Kunitz-type protease inhibitor purified from the latex of green papaya (Carica papaya) fruits was crystallized in the presence and absence of divalent metal ions. Crystal form I, which is devoid of divalent cations, diffracts to a resolution of 2.6 Å and belongs to space group P31 or P32. This crystal form is a merohedral twin with two molecules in the asymmetric unit and unit-cell parameters a = b = 74.70, c = 78.97 Å. Crystal form II, which was grown in the presence of Co2+, diffracts to a resolution of 1.7 Å and belongs to space group P212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 44.26, b = 81.99, c = 140.89 Å. PMID:17142906

  15. Effect of irradiation on the biochemical and organoleptic changes during the ripening of papaya and mango fruits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacroix, Monique; Bernard, Linda; Jobin, Michele; Milot, Sylvain; Gagnon, Marcel

    Papaya and mango rot caused by fungi is a major problem during storage and marketing. Gamma irradiation treatment was used to determine its effect on the quality of papayas and mangoes irradiated at 0,5 to 0,95 kGy. The level of respiration, soluble solids, texture, vitamin C and the sensorial evaluation were effectuated. The results indicate that irradiation treatment reduces significantly (p ⪕ 0,001) the level of respiration and significantly (p ⪕ 0,001) weakens the texture of mangoes. The content of soluble solids and vitamin C are not significantly affected by the irradiation. The sensory evaluation indicates that up to 0,95 kGy the sensorial quality is not changed.

  16. Industrial-hygiene report, walk-through survey, papaya packing/shipping facilities, Hilo, Hawaii, July 1983. [Ethylene dibromide exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Clapp, D.

    1983-07-01

    Worker exposure to ethylene dibromide (EDB) was investigated at three papaya packing and shipping facilities in Hilo, Hawaii. Breathing-zone samples were collected in the three facilities over a three day period. Blind spikes were submitted as a control on time and temperature effects. Blank samples were also prepared. Spike results reflected the effects of time and temperature in shipment from Hawaii to Massachusetts. All spikes were roughly comparable and showed a recovery of about 68%. Overnight laboratory results were adjusted upward by 72% and NIOSH laboratory results by 68%. Six out of 38 samples exceeded the NIOSH recommended amount of 130 ppb. The author concludes that there is a chronic, low-concentration exposure to EDB for all workers in the papaya industry in Hilo. An epidemiological study of reproductive and cytogenetic effects of EDB exposure on these workers is recommended.

  17. Collaborative trial for the validation of event-specific PCR detection methods of genetically modified papaya Huanong No.1.

    PubMed

    Wei, Jiaojun; Le, Huangying; Pan, Aihu; Xu, Junfeng; Li, Feiwu; Li, Xiang; Quan, Sheng; Guo, Jinchao; Yang, Litao

    2016-03-01

    For transferring the event-specific PCR methods of genetically modified papaya Huanong No.1 to other laboratories, we validated the previous developed PCR assays of Huanong No.1 according to the international standard organization (ISO) guidelines. A total of 11 laboratories participated and returned their test results in this trial. In qualitative PCR assay, the high specificity and limit of detection as low as 0.1% was confirmed. For the quantitative PCR assay, the limit of quantification was as low as 25 copies. The quantitative biases among ten blind samples were within the range between 0.21% and 10.04%. Furthermore, the measurement uncertainty of the quantitative PCR results was calculated within the range between 0.28% and 2.92% for these ten samples. All results demonstrated that the Huanong No.1 qualitative and quantitative PCR assays were creditable and applicable for identification and quantification of GM papaya Huanong No.1 in further routine lab analysis.

  18. Physiological Degradation of Pectin in Papaya Cell Walls: Release of Long Chains Galacturonans Derived from Insoluble Fractions during Postharvest Fruit Ripening.

    PubMed

    do Prado, Samira B R; Melfi, Paulo R; Castro-Alves, Victor C; Broetto, Sabrina G; Araújo, Elias S; do Nascimento, João R O; Fabi, João P

    2016-01-01

    Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is a fleshy fruit that presents a rapid pulp softening during ripening. However, the timeline on how papaya pectinases act in polysaccharide solubilization and the consequent modification of the cell wall fractions during ripening is still not clear. In this work, the gene expression correlations between, on one hand, 16 enzymes potentially acting during papaya cell wall disassembling and, on the other hand, the monosaccharide composition of cell wall fractions during papaya ripening were evaluated. In order to explain differences in the ripening of papaya samplings, the molecular mass distribution of polysaccharides from water-soluble and oxalate-soluble fractions (WSF and OSF, respectively), as well as the oligosaccharide profiling from the WSF fraction, were evaluated by high performance size exclusion chromatography coupled to a refractive index detector and high performance anion-exchange chromatography coupled to pulse amperometric detection analyses, respectively. Results showed that up-regulated polygalacturonase and β-galactosidase genes were positively correlated with some monosaccharide profiles. In addition, an overall increase in the retention time of high molecular weight (HMW) and low molecular weight (LMW) polysaccharides in WSF and OSF was shown. The apparent disappearance of one HMW peak of the OSF may result from the conversion of pectin that were crosslinked with calcium into more soluble forms through the action of PGs, which would increase the solubilization of polysaccharides by lowering their molecular weight. Thus, the results allowed us to propose a detailed process of papaya cell wall disassembling that would affect sensorial properties and post-harvesting losses of this commercially important fruit.

  19. Physiological Degradation of Pectin in Papaya Cell Walls: Release of Long Chains Galacturonans Derived from Insoluble Fractions during Postharvest Fruit Ripening

    PubMed Central

    do Prado, Samira B. R.; Melfi, Paulo R.; Castro-Alves, Victor C.; Broetto, Sabrina G.; Araújo, Elias S.; do Nascimento, João R. O.; Fabi, João P.

    2016-01-01

    Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is a fleshy fruit that presents a rapid pulp softening during ripening. However, the timeline on how papaya pectinases act in polysaccharide solubilization and the consequent modification of the cell wall fractions during ripening is still not clear. In this work, the gene expression correlations between, on one hand, 16 enzymes potentially acting during papaya cell wall disassembling and, on the other hand, the monosaccharide composition of cell wall fractions during papaya ripening were evaluated. In order to explain differences in the ripening of papaya samplings, the molecular mass distribution of polysaccharides from water-soluble and oxalate-soluble fractions (WSF and OSF, respectively), as well as the oligosaccharide profiling from the WSF fraction, were evaluated by high performance size exclusion chromatography coupled to a refractive index detector and high performance anion-exchange chromatography coupled to pulse amperometric detection analyses, respectively. Results showed that up-regulated polygalacturonase and β-galactosidase genes were positively correlated with some monosaccharide profiles. In addition, an overall increase in the retention time of high molecular weight (HMW) and low molecular weight (LMW) polysaccharides in WSF and OSF was shown. The apparent disappearance of one HMW peak of the OSF may result from the conversion of pectin that were crosslinked with calcium into more soluble forms through the action of PGs, which would increase the solubilization of polysaccharides by lowering their molecular weight. Thus, the results allowed us to propose a detailed process of papaya cell wall disassembling that would affect sensorial properties and post-harvesting losses of this commercially important fruit. PMID:27512402

  20. Staphylococcal enterotoxin A gene-carrying Staphylococcus aureus isolated from foods and its control by crude alkaloid from papaya leaves.

    PubMed

    Handayani, Lita; Faridah, Didah Nur; Kusumaningrum, Harsi D

    2014-11-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a known pathogen causing intoxication by producing enterotoxins in food. Staphylococcal enterotoxin A is one of the enterotoxins commonly implicated in staphylococcal food poisoning. The ability of crude alkaloid extract from papaya leaves to inhibit the growth of S. aureus and staphylococcal enterotoxin A synthesis was investigated. Staphylococcal enterotoxin A gene-carrying S. aureus was isolated from raw milk and ready-to-eat foods. Crude alkaloid was extracted from ground, dried papaya leaves using ultrasonic-assisted extraction, and a MIC of the alkaloid was determined by the broth macrodilution method. Furthermore, S. aureus isolate was exposed to the crude alkaloid extract at one- and twofold MIC, and the expression of sea was subsequently analyzed using a quantitative reverse transcription real-time PCR. Ten isolates of S. aureus were obtained, and nine of those isolates were sea carriers. The yield of crude alkaloid extract was 0.48 to 1.82% per dry weight of papaya leaves. A MIC of crude alkaloid to S. aureus was 0.25 mg/ml. After exposure to the alkaloid at 0.25 and 0.5 mg/ml for 2 h, a significant increase in cycle threshold values of sea was observed. The sea was expressed 29 and 41 times less when S. aureus was exposed to crude alkaloid at one- and twofold MIC, respectively. This study revealed that crude alkaloid of papaya leaves could control staphylococcal enterotoxin A gene-carrying S. aureus by suppressing the expression of sea, in addition to the ability to inhibit the growth of S. aureus. The expression of sea was successfully quantified.