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Sample records for par emission acoustique

  1. Detection de l'initiation de la delamination des materiaux composites par suivi de l'emission acoustique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silversides, Ian

    Cette étude, basée sur la surveillance des ondes d'émission acoustique (E.A.), présente le développement d'une approche de prédiction de l'initiation de la délamination de pièces composites soumises à des chargements statiques et en fatigue. La surveillance des ondes d'E.A. fait parti d'un nombre restreint de méthodes pouvant détecter, en continu, l'apparition et la croissance de dommages dans les matériaux composites. L'approche est comparée à des méthodes conventionnelles ainsi qu'à une modélisation numérique pour des composites à fibre de carbone unidirectionnels et tissés, sur une gamme de rapports de mode mixte. Le présent mémoire met en lumière les différentes étapes abordées durant l'étude. L'utilisation des matériaux composites est mise en contexte au premier chapitre. La complexité des matériaux composites ainsi que la nécessité de modèles de prédiction fiables sont soulignées. Le deuxième chapitre contient une revue de la littérature et présente les outils disponibles pour analyser le délaminage et bâtir un modèle prédictif de sa propagation. Les sujets traités sont la délamination dans un contexte de mécanique de la rupture, la modélisation numérique d'une propagation de fissure, l'approche du monitorage par émission acoustique puis l'analyse fractographiques des surfaces de rupture. Les résultats des essais mécaniques et de la modélisation sont présentés sous forme d'article dans le troisième chapitre. Des essais statiques et en fatigue ont permis de calculer le taux de restitution d'énergie de déformation à l'initiation de la délamination selon des méthodes classiques pour ensuite les comparer à une méthode développée, basée sur le suivi des ondes d'émission acoustique. Une série d'essais de propagation de la délamination en fatigue ont permis d'observer des corrélations entre les émissions acoustiques, la longueur de la délamination, la vitesse de croissance des fissures et la s

  2. Mesure de profils sans contact mécanique par interférométrie acoustique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olive, F.; Waintal, A.; Buévoz, J. L.; Reynaud, J. C.

    1992-10-01

    The analysis of the Acoustical Material Signature is mandatory in order to explain the image formation in an acoustical microscope. We have developed and experimental setup including a dedicated electronic system which allows for the measurement of the phase of the reflected acoustical signal, with respect to a fixed reference. As a consequence, the acoustical microscope can be operated as an interferometer allowing the characterization of micron size mechanical profiles without contact other than the water droplet which permits the acoustical coupling between the lens and the sample. The method has been evaluated on numerous patterns etched on different materials. In all the measurement accuracy was at least similar to results obtained by means of the best mechanical profilometers. L'analyse de la signature acoustique des matériaux est indispensable à la compréhension des images de microscopie acoustique. Nous avons développé un dispositif expérimental dont l'électronique originale permet la mesure de la phase du signal acoustique réfléchi, par rapport à uen référence fixe. Le microscope acoustique peut ainsi être utilisé comme un interféromètre, dont la principale application est la mesure de profils mécaniques, de dimensions microniques, sans contact si ce n'est avec la goutte d'eau qui assure le couplage de l'onde acoustique entre la lentille et l'échantillon. Les performances de la méthode ont été évaluées sur plusieurs motifs gravés sur différents matériaux. Dans tous les cas, la précision des mesures est au moins égale à celle obtenue par les meilleurs profilomètres mécaniques.

  3. Étude par microscopie acoustique de couches minces de Ag2S déposées par spray

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amlouk, M.; Brunet, N.; Cros, B.; Belgacem, S.; Barjon, D.

    1997-09-01

    Silver sulfide Ag2S thin films have been prepared on pyrex glass substrates by the spray pyrolysis technique at 250 °C. We have analyzed by acoustic microscopy and particularly by acoustic signature V(z) these films with various thickness (0.4 2 μm). The acoustic signature, performed at 50, 130 and 570 MHz allow us to reach elastic properties of Ag2S material and specially Young modulus. Its value, of the order of 180 GPa, is consistent with the relative low linkage of Ag^+ in the structure and the character of fast-ion conductor of Ag2S. Besides elastic properties and using MEB and AFM investigations, we have shown that the V(z) signature gives valuable information about the bulk defects in the material. Finally, the experimental results have been discussed related to the dispersion curves of velocity of the first mode of Ag2S/pyrex system. Des couches minces de sulfure d'argent Ag2S sont préparées sur substrat de pyrex, à la température de 250 °C, par la technique de pulvérisation chimique réactive en phase liquide ou “spray". Ces dépôts, d'épaisseur variable (0,4 2 μm), sont analysés par microscopie acoustique et, plus particulièrement, par la méthode de relevé de la signature acoustique V(z). Cette signature, effectuée à différentes fréquences (50, 130, 570 MHz), a permis de caractériser les propriétés élastiques du matériau Ag2S. La valeur du module d'Young, de l'ordre de 180 GPa, est en accord avec la faible cohésion de la liaison Ag-S et le caractère de conducteur ionique rapide de Ag2S. Les observations par MEB et AFM permettent d'expliquer l'allure des courbes V(z) par les défauts de compacité liés à la méthode de préparation. Les résultats expérimentaux sont discutés en liaison avec la courbe de dispersion de vitesses du premier mode du système Ag2S/pyrex.

  4. Etude par émission acoustique de la dynamique des dislocations pendant la déformation cyclique de polycristaux d'aluminium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slimani, A.; Fleischmann, P.; Fougères, R.

    1992-06-01

    The cyclic plasticity of 5N polycrystalline aluminium have been studied at room temperature by measuring the continuous acoustic emission (A.E.) due to dislocations movements in the metal. In this study, original data have been obtained in the understanding of continuous A.E. sources. In comparison with classical interpretation given in the literature, the fact that dislocations are arranged according to a dislocation cell structure from the first cycle has been included in the analysis of the results. From this, it has been shown that the amplitude of the A.E. signal is not directly connected with the plastic strain rate prescribed to the fatigue sample and that the probability density function of dislocation loops created during the cycling can be determined. La plasticité cyclique de l'AI 5N polycristallin a été étudiée à la température ambiante à partir de mesures d'émission acoustique continue (E.A.). L'application de la technique de l'E.A. nous a permis d'obtenir des données originales quant aux mécanismes sources d'E.A. Par rapport aux interprétations classiques de la littérature, nous avons fait intervenir le fait que, dès les premiers cycles, une structure cellulaire de dislocations est établie. Nous montrons que l'amplitude du signal d'E.A. n'est plus liée directement à la vitesse de déformation plastique macroscopique. A partir de cette donnée, l'analyse des résultats d'E.A. permet d'obtenir des informations sur la fonction distribution des boucles de dislocations créées au cours de la déformation cyclique.

  5. Étude de l'efficacité des modes de Lamb dans la signature acoustique V(z) d'une couche mince par la théorie de la résonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramdani, Abderrafi; Augereau, Franck; Despaux, Gilles

    1996-05-01

    Experimental acoustic signatures measured on thin films are perturbated by an interference process between the different Lamb waves generated at various incident angular values. This disables the correct determination of the layer's acoustic parameters and for this reason, it is helpful to develop a powerful method to study the influence of each layer parameter on these modes. For this purpose, a technique based on the calculation of the half-height width on resonance peaks of the reflectance power has been elaborated. From these simulations, we may determine which modes will be more efficiently extracted from acoustic signatures for steel and glass films. This result has been confirmed experimentally using ultrasonic frequencies optimized versus the sample thicknesses for glass and steel plates. Indeed, from experimental acoustic signatures, we have next been able to retrieve the acoustic parameters of these samples. Les relevés expérimentaux des signatures acoustiques sur des couches minces sont difficiles à interpréter car tous les modes de Lamb générés à differents angles d'incidence vont interférer, ce qui rend impossible toute détermination des paramètres acoustiques de la couche. Il est alors nécessaire de mettre en oeuvre une méthode d'analyse rapide afin d'étudier l'influence de chacun des paramètres de la couche sur ces modes afin de déterminer les conditions optimales de mesure. La méthode d'analyse basée sur la détermination de la largeur à mi-hauteur des pics de résonance du pouvoir réflecteur est un moyen original de résolution du problème direct, qui permet de montrer que certains modes sont plus efficaces que d'autres, et donc plus faciles à détecter sur les signatures expérimentales. Grâce aux résulats théoriques obtenus, les fréquences d'observation ont pu être optimisées pour des épaisseurs de plaques d'acier et de verre utilisées dans la partie expérimentale de ce travail. De ces mesures et en utilisant notre

  6. Developpement d'un vibrateur acoustique pour precipiter les defauts latents de circuits electroniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lafleur, Francois

    2003-08-01

    Le procede de deverminage, ou Environmental Stress Screening (ESS), est employe principalement dans le domaine de l'electronique pour reduire les mortalites infantiles des produits avant leur livraison. Il utilise usuellement des stimulations environnementales telles que les vibrations ou la temperature produites a l'aide d'equipements conventionnels d'essais qui sont tres couteux et difficiles a implanter. Le but de cette recherche est le developpement d'une nouvelle methode d'excitation vibratoire des plaques de circuits electroniques a moindre cout par l'emploi de l'excitation acoustique. Le projet a mene au developpement d'un vibrateur acoustique pouvant etre utilise lors d'implantations du procede ESS en milieu industriel. L'utilisation de cette nouvelle technologie et des methodes novatrices de personnalisation des spectres ESS proposees dans cette these permettent la precipitation de defaillances latentes presentes dans les produits electroniques de facon efficace et securitaire et ce, a moindre cout par rapport aux technologies concurrentes. La methodologie des travaux presentes dans cette these inclus: (1) La generation acoustique des vibrations sur les circuits; (2) L'analyse modale acoustique des circuits par des methodes a reference unique et a references multiples; (3) La precipitation de defauts latents typiques des circuits electroniques; (4) Une methode d'individualisation des spectres vibratoires tenant compte des caracteristiques structurelles des circuits; (5) La presentation de la configuration de l'equipement acoustique et les resultats d'implantation du procede. Nonobstant la fabrication, l'installation et la mise en service d'un equipement en milieu industriel (depuis le mois de mai 2002), ces travaux ont permis l'obtention de trois familles de brevets et la publication de six articles de conference: trois portant sur l'analyse modale a reference unique, un portant sur l'analyse modale a references multiples, un autre portant sur la

  7. Caracterisation des proprietes acoustiques des materiaux poreux a cellules ouvertes et a matrice rigide ou souple

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salissou, Yacoubou

    L'objectif global vise par les travaux de cette these est d'ameliorer la caracterisation des proprietes macroscopiques des materiaux poreux a structure rigide ou souple par des approches inverses et indirectes basees sur des mesures acoustiques faites en tube d'impedance. La precision des approches inverses et indirectes utilisees aujourd'hui est principalement limitee par la qualite des mesures acoustiques obtenues en tube d'impedance. En consequence, cette these se penche sur quatre problemes qui aideront a l'atteinte de l'objectif global precite. Le premier probleme porte sur une caracterisation precise de la porosite ouverte des materiaux poreux. Cette propriete en est une de passage permettant de lier la mesure des proprietes dynamiques acoustiques d'un materiau poreux aux proprietes effectives de sa phase fluide decrite par les modeles semi-phenomenologiques. Le deuxieme probleme traite de l'hypothese de symetrie des materiaux poreux selon leur epaisseur ou un index et un critere sont proposes pour quantifier l'asymetrie d'un materiau. Cette hypothese est souvent source d'imprecision des methodes de caracterisation inverses et indirectes en tube d'impedance. Le critere d'asymetrie propose permet ainsi de s'assurer de l'applicabilite et de la precision de ces methodes pour un materiau donne. Le troisieme probleme vise a mieux comprendre le probleme de transmission sonore en tube d'impedance en presentant pour la premiere fois un developpement exact du probleme par decomposition d'ondes. Ce developpement permet d'etablir clairement les limites des nombreuses methodes existantes basees sur des tubes de transmission a 2, 3 ou 4 microphones. La meilleure comprehension de ce probleme de transmission est importante puisque c'est par ce type de mesures que des methodes permettent d'extraire successivement la matrice de transfert d'un materiau poreux et ses proprietes dynamiques intrinseques comme son impedance caracteristique et son nombre d'onde complexe. Enfin, le

  8. Caracterisation experimentale de la transmission acoustique de structures aeronautiques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pointel, Vincent

    Le confort des passagers à l'intérieur des avions pendant le vol est un axe en voie d'amélioration constante. L'augmentation de la proportion des matériaux composites dans la fabrication des structures aéronautiques amène de nouvelles problématiques à résoudre. Le faible amortissement de ces structures, en contre partie de leur poids/raideur faible, est non favorable sur le plan acoustique, ce qui oblige les concepteurs à devoir trouver des moyens d'amélioration. De plus, les mécanismes de transmission du son au travers d'un système double paroi de type aéronautique ne sont pas complètement compris, c'est la raison qui motive cette étude. L'objectif principal de ce projet est de constituer une base de données pour le partenaire industriel de ce projet : Bombardier Aéronautique. En effet, les données expérimentales de performance d'isolation acoustique, de systèmes complets représentatifs d'un fuselage d'avion sont très rares dans la littérature scientifique. C'est pourquoi une méthodologie expérimentale est utilisée dans ce projet. Deux conceptions différentes de fuselage sont comparées. La première possède une peau (partie extérieure du fuselage) métallique raidie, alors que la deuxième est constituée d'un panneau sandwich composite. Dans les deux cas, un panneau de finition de fabrication sandwich est utilisé. Un traitement acoustique en laine de verre est placé à l'intérieur de chacun des fuselages. Des isolateurs vibratoires sont utilisés pour connecter les deux panneaux du fuselage. La simulation en laboratoire de la couche limite turbulente, qui est la source d'excitation prépondérante pendant la phase de vol, n'est pas encore possible hormis en soufflerie. C'est pourquoi deux cas d'excitation sont considérés pour essayer d'approcher cette sollicitation : une excitation mécanique (pot vibrant) et une acoustique (champ diffus). La validation et l'analyse des résultats sont effectuées par le biais des logiciels

  9. Etude numerique et experimentale de la reponse vibro-acoustique des structures raidies a des excitations aeriennes et solidiennes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mejdi, Abderrazak

    Les fuselages des avions sont generalement en aluminium ou en composite renforces par des raidisseurs longitudinaux (lisses) et transversaux (cadres). Les raidisseurs peuvent etre metalliques ou en composite. Durant leurs differentes phases de vol, les structures d'avions sont soumises a des excitations aeriennes (couche limite turbulente : TBL, champs diffus : DAF) sur la peau exterieure dont l'energie acoustique produite se transmet a l'interieur de la cabine. Les moteurs, montes sur la structure, produisent une excitation solidienne significative. Ce projet a pour objectifs de developper et de mettre en place des strategies de modelisations des fuselages d'avions soumises a des excitations aeriennes et solidiennes. Tous d'abord, une mise a jour des modeles existants de la TBL apparait dans le deuxieme chapitre afin de mieux les classer. Les proprietes de la reponse vibro-acoustique des structures planes finies et infinies sont analysees. Dans le troisieme chapitre, les hypotheses sur lesquelles sont bases les modeles existants concernant les structures metalliques orthogonalement raidies soumises a des excitations mecaniques, DAF et TBL sont reexamines en premier lieu. Ensuite, une modelisation fine et fiable de ces structures est developpee. Le modele est valide numeriquement a l'aide des methodes des elements finis (FEM) et de frontiere (BEM). Des tests de validations experimentales sont realises sur des panneaux d'avions fournis par des societes aeronautiques. Au quatrieme chapitre, une extension vers les structures composites renforcees par des raidisseurs aussi en composites et de formes complexes est etablie. Un modele analytique simple est egalement implemente et valide numeriquement. Au cinquieme chapitre, la modelisation des structures raidies periodiques en composites est beaucoup plus raffinee par la prise en compte des effets de couplage des deplacements planes et transversaux. L'effet de taille des structures finies periodiques est egalement pris en

  10. Developpement et validation d'un outil base sur l'acoustique geometrique pour le diagnostic du bruit de nacelle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minard, Benoit

    De nos jours, la problématique du bruit généré par les avions est devenue un point de développement important dans le domaine de l'aéronautique. C'est ainsi que de nombreuses études sont faites dans le domaine et une première approche consiste à modéliser de façon numérique ce bruit de manière à réduire de façon conséquente les coûts lors de la conception. C'est dans ce contexte qu'un motoriste a demandé à l'université de Sherbrooke, et plus particulièrement au groupe d'acoustique de l'Université de Sherbrooke (GAUS), de développer un outil de calcul de la propagation des ondes acoustiques dans les nacelles mais aussi pour l'étude des effets d'installation. Cet outil de prédiction leur permet de réaliser des études afin d'optimiser les traitements acoustiques (« liners »), la géométrie de ces nacelles pour des études portant sur l'intérieur de la nacelle et des études de positionnement des moteurs et de design pour les effets d'installation. L'objectif de ce projet de maîtrise était donc de poursuivre le travail réalisé par [gousset, 2011] sur l'utilisation d'une méthode de lancer de rayons pour l'étude des effets d'installation des moteurs d'avion. L'amélioration du code, sa rapidité, sa fiabilité et sa généralité étaient les objectifs principaux. Le code peut être utilisé avec des traitements acoustiques de surfaces («liners») et peut prendre en compte le phénomène de la diffraction par les arêtes et enfin peut être utilisé pour réaliser des études dans des environnements complexes tels que les nacelles d'avion. Le code développé fonctionne en 3D et procéde en 3 étapes : (1) Calcul des faisceaux initiaux (division d'une sphère, demi-sphère, maillage des surfaces de la géométrie) (2) Propagation des faisceaux dans l'environnement d'étude : calcul de toutes les caractéristiques des rayons convergents (amplitude, phase, nombre de réflexions, ...) (3) Reconstruction du champ de pression en un ou

  11. D'une ouverture de la voyelle /epsilon/ en finale absolue en francais quebecois : analyse acoustique et perceptive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riverin-Coutlee, Josiane

    Cette contribution est consacree a l'ouverture du /epsilon/ en finale absolue, un phenomene phonetique repute etre en declin en francais quebecois et caracteristique de locuteurs âges, peu scolarises, issus de milieux populaires et s'exprimant en situation de communication informelle. Une analyse acoustique de 480 voyelles /epsilon/ issues de la parole formelle de 40 jeunes etudiants universitaires originaires des centres urbains de Saguenay et de Quebec revele toutefois que le phenomene est encore bien vivant en francais quebecois et qu'il est plus frequent chez les locuteurs de Saguenay, une tendance validee auditivement par accord inter-juges. Les resultats d'un test de discrimination et d'identification mene aupres de 26 etudiants universitaires originaires de ces deux memes villes indiquent que les auditeurs naifs de Saguenay semblent moins sensibles a la variation et moins enclins a juger de l'origine geographique d'un locuteur a partir de sa prononciation de la voyelle /epsilon/ en fin de mot.

  12. Imagerie par modulation acoustique de conductivite electrique destinee au diagnostic du cancer du sein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gendron, Mathieu

    This thesis describes a new medical imaging technique for determining the electrical conductivity distribution of tissues in a body region with a resolution comparable to that of current ultrasound techniques. The new technique, henceforth referred to as "Acousto-Electric Conductivity Modulation" (AECM) imaging, is based on the interaction of a sound wave with an electrical field. In its simplest form, four electrodes located near the region to be imaged apply a low-amplitude electrical current and measure the potential difference arising from current flow in the tissues. A focused ultrasound transducer directs a pressure wave to a voxel of the region of interest, modifying its conductivity distribution and, as a result, the amplitude of the potential measured by the electrodes. An image of the conductivity distribution can thus be constructed point-by-point by moving the electrodes and transducer to scan the object. In this context, the acoustic wave acts as the localization agent while the electrical potential provides a measure of the local conductivity change that occurs in the voxel. The first model presented in the thesis is based on the use of bipolar acoustic waves for excitation. This waveform is generally used with narrow band transducers. Acoustic waves generated by an ultrasound transducer driven with a burst of sine waves consists of alternating compression and rarefaction phases which tend to cancel each other in terms of the conductivity changes they produce. However when the thickness of the target object is small compared to the wavelength of the acoustic wave, this cancelling effect will not occur and the AECM signals will have sufficiently high amplitude to achieve image reconstruction using successive transducer positions to scan the region of interest. By extracting from the spectra of the AECM signals the amplitude of the peak at the excitation frequency, a map of the acousto-electric sensitivity of the system can be obtained. This map is then used to reconstruct the electrical conductivity distribution. The second model presented in the thesis uses a unipolar acoustic wave to generate AECM signals of relatively large amplitude. There are two aspects related to this type of wave. The first aspect is that the acoustic modulation is unidirectional if the applied pressure is unidirectional. As a result, a positive pressure only produces an increase in electrical conductivity and this will result in a large AECM signal even when the thickness of the object is large. The second aspect concerns the shape of the acoustic field. Since the unipolar acoustic wave is not focused, it modulates the conductivity over a large area, and thus the associated AECM signals needs to be processed through a reconstruction algorithm so as to recover local conductivity. In this model, the data required for image reconstruction are acquired by rotating the transducer around the target object. An experimental setup has been developed during our project to get values of certain parameter that are required to define the numerical models. The setup comprises a large tank which is filled with water and in which are immersed the ultrasound transducer, a hydrophone and a measurement cell. The acousto-electric interaction takes place within this cell. A computer controlled positioning system allows precise displacements of the transducer relative to the hydrophone and the measurement cell. This cell comprises a cavity in which the object to be analyzed is placed and that is then filled with an electrolytic solution. The cavity is closed on two sides by an acoustic window to allow propagation of the ultrasound wave and on another side by six Ag/AgCl electrodes that are used to apply current and to measure the resulting electrical potential. Mammography is presently the most widely used medical imaging procedure for breast cancer screening. The average sensitivity of this technique is 80 % but it is less for younger women. According to recent studies, MRI offers a higher sensitivity and the possibility of detecting very small tumors, thus allowing earlier treatment. The operating costs of MRI systems are at the moment too high to consider using the modality for breast cancer screening on a large scale. AECM imaging could eventually provide an interesting compromise between operating costs and the sensitivity required for screening patients of all ages. (Abstract shortened by UMI.).

  13. Étude de l'efficacité des modes de Lamb dans la signature acoustique en fonction du liquide de couplage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunet, N.; Cros, B.; Despaux, G.; Saurel, J.-M.

    1998-06-01

    The acoustic signature allows to measure the velocity of the longitudinal and transverse acoustic waves in bulk materials. From the velocities and density values the elastic properties can be calculated. For thin layer materials, these velocities are not directly measured but computed from the experimentally available velocities: the generalized Lamb waves velocities. These waves velocities are dispersive and their measurement depends on the liquid acting as a coupling fluid. In this study, the two faces of the layer are in contact with the liquid (methanol, water or aqueous solutions of potassium iodide KI_aq. 6 M and potassium hydroxyde KOH_aq. 12 M) chosen according to its acoustic parameters. The acoustic signature modeling allows to know their respective influence, the possible detection of the fast modes and, in general, the velocity measurement accuracy increase for all available modes. The experimental studies bear out that each mode characterization may be optimized by the appropriate choice of the frequency and of the coupling liquid according to its velocity, density and attenuation. L'étude de la signature acoustique permet de mesurer les vitesses de propagation des ondes acoustiques longitudinale et transverse dans les matériaux massifs, vitesses à partir desquelles on détermine leurs propriétés mécaniques. Pour des matériaux en couche mince, ces vitesses ne sont plus mesurées directement mais calculées à partir des vitesses accessibles expérimentalement : celles des modes de Lamb généralisés. Ces modes ont des vitesses dispersives et leur mesure dépend du liquide servant de couplant, dans lequel la couche est immergée. Dans cette étude, les liquides de couplage (méthanol, eau et solutions aqueuses de iodure de potassium KI_aq. 6 M et d'hydroxyde de potassium KOH_aq. 12 M) sont choisis en fonction de leurs paramètres acoustiques. La modélisation de la signature acoustique permet de prévoir leur influence respective, comment ils

  14. Modelisation de photodetecteurs a base de matrices de diodes avalanche monophotoniques pour tomographie d'emission par positrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corbeil Therrien, Audrey

    La tomographie d'emission par positrons (TEP) est un outil precieux en recherche preclinique et pour le diagnostic medical. Cette technique permet d'obtenir une image quantitative de fonctions metaboliques specifiques par la detection de photons d'annihilation. La detection des ces photons se fait a l'aide de deux composantes. D'abord, un scintillateur convertit l'energie du photon 511 keV en photons du spectre visible. Ensuite, un photodetecteur convertit l'energie lumineuse en signal electrique. Recemment, les photodiodes avalanche monophotoniques (PAMP) disposees en matrice suscitent beaucoup d'interet pour la TEP. Ces matrices forment des detecteurs sensibles, robustes, compacts et avec une resolution en temps hors pair. Ces qualites en font un photodetecteur prometteur pour la TEP, mais il faut optimiser les parametres de la matrice et de l'electronique de lecture afin d'atteindre les performances optimales pour la TEP. L'optimisation de la matrice devient rapidement une operation difficile, car les differents parametres interagissent de maniere complexe avec les processus d'avalanche et de generation de bruit. Enfin, l'electronique de lecture pour les matrices de PAMP demeure encore rudimentaire et il serait profitable d'analyser differentes strategies de lecture. Pour repondre a cette question, la solution la plus economique est d'utiliser un simulateur pour converger vers la configuration donnant les meilleures performances. Les travaux de ce memoire presentent le developpement d'un tel simulateur. Celui-ci modelise le comportement d'une matrice de PAMP en se basant sur les equations de physique des semiconducteurs et des modeles probabilistes. Il inclut les trois principales sources de bruit, soit le bruit thermique, les declenchements intempestifs correles et la diaphonie optique. Le simulateur permet aussi de tester et de comparer de nouvelles approches pour l'electronique de lecture plus adaptees a ce type de detecteur. Au final, le simulateur vise a

  15. Diurnal and seasonal variation of monoterpene emission rates for two typical Mediterranean species ( Pinus pinea and Quercus ilex) from field measurements—relationship with temperature and PAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabillón, Danelia; Cremades, Lázaro V.

    Two of the most typical Mediterranean tree species ( Pinus pinea [ Pp] and Quercus ilex [ Qi]) were screened for emissions of monoterpenes during the period of June 1997-July 1998 in the field at a semi-rural location near Terrassa (Barcelona, Spain) using a bag-enclosure sampling method followed by gas chromatography analysis with mass selective detection (GC/MSD). A mean of about eight samples per day were measured. A periodical sampling throughout 1 yr allowed to examine data for long-term influences. The main compounds emitted from Pp were linalool, limonene, trans-ocimene and 1,8-cineole (80% on average). Eighty percent of total emissions in Qi were β-pinene, α-pinene, myrcene and sabinene, followed by limonene, β-phellandrene, γ-terpinene and trans-ocimene (20%). On average, the standard monoterpene emission rate from Qi was approximately three times higher than from Pp. Diurnal and seasonal emission variations were characterized with regard to temperature and PAR. For both species a statistically significant variation in monoterpene emissions was observed between seasons for 1 yr period. For Pp, the seasonal variability not accounted for by PAR and temperature is also estimated and compared with existing models in the literature.

  16. Détermination des temps d'arrivée de fronts d'onde acoustiques divergents dans une lame anisotrope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mourad, André; Castagnède, Bemard

    1993-10-01

    The present work is an attempt to extend to the acoustics of anisotropic media the basic principles of optics (i.e. Fermat, and Huyghens principles). The acoustical case is much more intricate because of the possibility of existence of the cuspidal caustics. Firstly, one discusses the mathematical transformation between phase and group wavespeeds. Then, the problem of the reflection of a divergent acoustical ray onto an interface is studied with the help of Huyghens construction. A generalization of the classical refraction law is obtained. Such a result can also be derived from Fermat principle. It is possible to numerically verify the absence of precursor on the converted mode, due to the non-existence of caustics after reflection. A discussion on the so-called Cagniard-de-Hoop contours is introduced, as well as a numerical procedure to compute the direction of the reflected ray. Different cases, depending on the source dimension (point-like or line) and on the orientation cut of the anisotropic solid, are discussed. The extension of the study to several reflections is proposed. Special attention is also devoted to the analysis of the head wavefront reflection. Last, some experimental results dealing with the measurements of group wavespeeds in a transversely isotropic composite material are described. The present study will be followed by the computation of the Green functions and the comparison with experimental displacement fields for various anisotropic solids. Ce travail cherche à étendre les principes de base de l'optique (principe de Fermat et principe d'Huyghens) à l'acoustique cristalline, cas plus complexe par nature, notamment du fait de la possibilité de présence des caustiques en forme de “corne de croissant”. Après une discussion sur la transformation mathématique entre vitesses de phase et vitesses de groupe, l'étude de la réflexion d'un rayon acoustique divergent sur un interface est abordée à l'aide de la construction d

  17. Cristallisation par onde acoustique : le cas de l'héliumCrystallization by acoustic waves: the case of helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben Amar, Martine; Brenner, Michael P.; Rice, James R.

    2003-09-01

    We establish a theoretical model to explain the nucleation of a crystal of helium by an acoustic over-pressure. We explain the interfacial laws for this ultra-fast cristallization, close to the sound speed. Assuming spherical symmetry and taking into account the experimental data, we recover the dynamics of the growth and melting during an over-pressure impulse. To cite this article: M. Ben Amar et al., C. R. Mecanique 331 (2003).

  18. Suivi in situ de cultures tridimensionnelles en bioreacteur a perfusion grace a la tomographie d'emission par positrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chouinard, Julie

    The continuous assessment of developing tissue substitutes is crucial to understand their evolution over time. However, this represents quite a challenge when thick samples must be evaluated with standard microscopy techniques. Common characterization methods are time consuming and usually result in the destruction of the culture. Real-time, in situ, non-invasive and non-destructives methods are needed to monitor the growth of large non-transparent constructs in tissue engineering. Medical imaging modalities, which can provide information on the structure and function of internal organs and tissues in living organisms, have the potential of allowing repetitive monitoring of these 3D cultures in vitro. The working hypothesis of this thesis was to establish standard noninvasive and nondestructive real-time bioreactor imaging protocols for in situ monitoring of the viability and metabolism of endothelial cells when grown in perfused 3D fibrin gel scaffolds. To achieve this goal, a culture chamber with hollow fibers was designed and a pulsatile perfusion bioreactor system, able to promote cell survival and proliferation, was constructed and validated. Standard imaging protocols in Positron Emission Tomography (PET) are not adapted to image bioreactor systems. A suitable method had to be devised using the well-known radiotracer 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose ( 18FDG), a marker of glucose metabolism. Optimal uptake conditions were determined using cell monolayers and the best parameters were then applied on perfused 3D cultures to evaluate perfusion, cell viability and emerging cell structures. After only 12 hours of culture, the cell density could be estimated and cell structures were localized within the fibrin gels after 1-2 weeks of culture. PET is a promising tool for tissue engineering with many specific tracers available that might eventually be able to reveal new information on tissue development. Key words: Endothelial cells, Perfusion bioreactor, Positron Emission

  19. Etude de l'impact de la valorisation energetique de pneus hors d'usage, dans une cimenterie, sur les emissions gazeuses par modelisation de la dispersion atmospherique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bredin, Nathalie

    La génération incéssante de déchets nécessite le développement de nouvelles technologies, telle que la valorisation énergétique, pour en disposer. Une filière appropriée pour valoriser énergétiquement les déchets est le procédé cimentier. L'industrie du ciment est une des grandes consommatrices d'énergie. La température nécessaire à la préparation du ciment se situe aux environs de 1450°C pour faire réagir la matière première (cru) qui est sous forme poudreuse et constituée principalement de roches calcaires, argileuses, schisteuses,... Les gaz de combustion ont un long temps de résidence dans les fours. De plus, le mode de fonctionnement des fours est responsable d'un effet de lessivage des gaz acides par le cru alcalin. Ces propriétés font du procédé cimentier un bon candidat pour la valorisation énergétique des déchets. Les déchets interessants pour les cimenteries sont, entre autres, les huiles usées, les solvants usés et les pneus usés qui ont un pouvoir calorifique équivalent à celui du charbon. Les rejets à l'atmosphère des cimenteries sont principalement des émissions gazeuses. Ainsi, l'impact de la valorisation de pneus usés sur les émissions gazeuses de la cimenterie Saint-Laurent de Joliette a été étudié, à l'aide de l'outil qu'est la modélisation de la dispersion atmosphérique. Le modèle utilisé ISC-ST2, Industrial Source Complex-Short Term, est de type gaussien. L'analyse des concentrations maximales horaires et moyennes sur différentes périodes de temps (1 heure, 8 heures, ..., 1 an) des émissions gazeuses dans l'air ambiant montre que celles-ci sont en deçà des normes émises par le gouvernement québécois et par la Communauté Urbaine de Montréal. L'étude de la distribution géographique des polluants, d'après les concentrations annuelles, dans un rayon de 5 km autour de la cimenterie montre que le fait d'utiliser des pneus comme combustible de substitution n'a qu'un faible impact sur la

  20. Land use change emissions from oil palm expansion in Pará, Brazil depend on proper policy enforcement on deforested lands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yui, Sahoko; Yeh, Sonia

    2013-12-01

    Brazil aims to increase palm oil production to meet the growing national and global demand for edible oil and biodiesel while preserving environmentally and culturally significant areas. As land use change (LUC) is the result of complex interactions between socio-economic and biophysical drivers operating at multiple temporal and spatial scales, the type and location of LUC depend on drivers such as neighboring land use, conversion elasticity, access to infrastructure, distance to markets, and land suitability. The purpose of this study is to develop scenarios to measure the impact of land conversion under three different enforcement scenarios (none, some, and strict enforcement). We found that converting 22.5 million hectares of land can produce approximately 29 billion gallons (110 billion liters) of biodiesel a year. Of that, 22-71% of the area can come from forest land, conservation units, wetland and indigenous areas, emitting 14-84 gCO2e MJ-1. This direct land use emission alone can be higher than the carbon intensity of diesel that it intends to displace for lowering greenhouse gas emissions. This letter focuses narrowly on GHG emissions and does not address socio-economic-ecological prospects for these degraded lands for palm oil or for other purposes. Future studies should carefully evaluate these tradeoffs.

  1. Etude par Imagerie à faible Niveau dans le proche Infrarouge d'une Emission de la haute Atmosphère

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pautet, Pierre-Dominique

    2000-12-01

    requises pour de bonnes observations dans le domaine du proche infrarouge ont aussi été étudiées. Ensuite, la construction d'une station mobile de prise de vues est détaillée. Celle-ci doit permettre d'observer l'émission et d'obtenir des résultats exploitables par la suite. Trois méthodes d'observation ont été décrites: visuelle, photographique et à l'aide d'un détecteur CCD. La troisième, qui a été retenue, a été vue plus en détail. Le matériel utilisé, de la caméra à la plate-forme de prise de vues en passant par les objectifs et les filtres optiques, est ensuite décrit. Lorsque le matériel a été choisi, un protocole d'observation a été défini et mis au point. Le choix du site d'observation a été crucial. Plusieurs lieux géographiques ont été retenus et sont présentés dans le mémoire. Le déroulement d'une séance de prise de vue a été décrit afin de faciliter un futur programme d'observation. Deux séquences types d'observations ont été plus particulièrement détaillées: -la réalisation de panoramas permettant une étude des structures que fait apparaître l'émission, -la réalisation de séquences vidéos afin d'étudier la dynamique du phénomène. Dans une quatrième partie, je décris les méthodes de traitement des images qui ont été développées. Tout d'abord, des prétraitements sont appliqués aux images pour corriger les défauts (champ plat, offset,?). Ensuite, une méthode de restitution géographique permet d'obtenir une image plus exploitable de la couche émissive ; elle n'est alors plus observée à partir d'une station au sol, mais en employant une caméra virtuelle située à la verticale du site d'observation. Différents problèmes liés à cette méthode ont aussi été traités: réfraction atmosphérique proche de l'horizon, passage d'une surface atmosphérique à la surface du pixel correspondant, et effet de Van Rhijn. Plusieurs traitements ont été appliqués aux images pour faciliter leur

  2. THE MEASURES PAR PROJECT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frouin, R. J.; Franz, B.

    2009-12-01

    The solar energy available for photosynthesis, known as PAR, controls the growth of phytoplankton and, therefore, regulates the composition and evolution of marine ecosystems. Knowing the spatial and temporal distribution of PAR over the oceans is critical to understanding biogeochemical cycles of carbon, nutrients, and oxygen, and to address important climate and global change issues such as the fate of anthropogenic atmospheric carbon dioxide. In view of this, a 12-year time series of PAR at the ocean surface, starting in September 1997, is being produced by the NASA Ocean Biology Processing Group from SeaWiFS, MODIS-Terra, and MODIS-Aqua data. The product covers the global oceans, with a spatial resolution of about 9.3x9.3 km (equal area grid) and a temporal resolution of one day. PAR is computed as the difference between the 400-700 nm solar flux incident on the top of the atmosphere (known) and reflected back to space by the atmosphere and surface (derived from satellite radiance), taking into account atmospheric absorption (modeled). Knowledge of pixel composition is not required, eliminating the need for cloud screening and arbitrary assumptions about sub-pixel cloudiness. Combining data from satellite sensors with different equatorial crossing times accounts for the diurnal variability of clouds and, therefore, increases accuracy on a daily time scale. The processing system, including routine check of accuracy and control of quality, is designed to operate during the entire lifetime of SeaWiFS and MODIS, and to accommodate future sensors with ocean-color capabilities. Maps of daily, weekly, and monthly PAR obtained from individual sensors are presented, as well as merged products. Accuracy is quantified in comparisons with other satellite estimates, the National Centers for Environmental Prediction reanalysis product, and in-situ measurements from fixed buoys and platforms. The good statistical performance makes the satellite PAR product suitable for large

  3. La pelade par plaques

    PubMed Central

    Spano, Frank; Donovan, Jeff C.

    2015-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Présenter aux médecins de famille des renseignements de base pour faire comprendre l’épidémiologie, la pathogenèse, l’histologie et l’approche clinique au diagnostic de la pelade par plaques. Sources des données Une recension a été effectuée dans PubMed pour trouver des articles pertinents concernant la pathogenèse, le diagnostic et le pronostic de la pelade par plaques. Message principal La pelade par plaques est une forme de perte pileuse auto-immune dont la prévalence durant une vie est d’environ 2 %. Des antécédents personnels ou familiaux de troubles auto-immuns concomitants, comme le vitiligo ou une maladie de la thyroïde, peuvent être observés dans un petit sous-groupe de patients. Le diagnostic peut souvent être posé de manière clinique en se fondant sur la perte de cheveux non cicatricielle et circulaire caractéristique, accompagnée de cheveux en « point d’exclamation » en périphérie chez ceux dont le problème en est aux premiers stades. Le diagnostic des cas plus complexes ou des présentations inhabituelles peut être facilité par une biopsie et un examen histologique. Le pronostic varie largement et de mauvais résultats sont associés à une apparition à un âge précoce, une perte importante, la variante ophiasis, des changements aux ongles, des antécédents familiaux ou des troubles auto-immuns concomitants. Conclusion La pelade par plaques est une forme auto-immune de perte de cheveux périodiquement observée en soins primaires. Les médecins de famille sont bien placés pour identifier la pelade par plaques, déterminer la gravité de la maladie et poser le diagnostic différentiel approprié. De plus, ils sont en mesure de renseigner leurs patients à propos de l’évolution clinique de la maladie ainsi que du pronostic général selon le sous-type de patients.

  4. La pelade par plaques

    PubMed Central

    Spano, Frank; Donovan, Jeff C.

    2015-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Présenter aux médecins de famille des renseignements de base pour faire comprendre les schémas thérapeutiques et les résultats des traitements pour la pelade par plaques, de même que les aider à identifier les patients pour qui une demande de consultation en dermatologie pourrait s’imposer. Sources des données Une recension a été effectuée dans PubMed pour trouver des articles pertinents concernant le traitement de la pelade par plaques. Message principal La pelade par plaques est une forme auto-immune de perte pileuse qui touche à la fois les enfants et les adultes. Même s’il n’y a pas de mortalité associée à la maladie, la morbidité découlant des effets psychologiques de la perte des cheveux peut être dévastatrice. Lorsque la pelade par plaques et le sous-type de la maladie sont identifiés, un schéma thérapeutique approprié peut être amorcé pour aider à arrêter la chute des cheveux et possiblement faire commencer la repousse. Les traitements de première intention sont la triamcinolone intralésionnelle avec des corticostéroïdes topiques ou du minoxidil ou les 2. Les médecins de famille peuvent prescrire ces traitements en toute sécurité et amorcer ces thérapies. Les cas plus avancés ou réfractaires pourraient avoir besoin de diphénylcyclopropénone topique ou d’anthraline topique. On peut traiter la perte de cils avec des analogues de la prostaglandine. Les personnes ayant subi une perte de cheveux abondante peuvent recourir à des options de camouflage ou à des prothèses capillaires. Il est important de surveiller les troubles psychiatriques en raison des effets psychologiques profonds de la perte de cheveux. Conclusion Les médecins de famille verront de nombreux patients qui perdent leurs cheveux. La reconnaissance de la pelade par plaques et la compréhension du processus pathologique sous-jacent permettent d’amorcer un schéma thérapeutique approprié. Les cas plus graves ou r

  5. Brulures par Diluant

    PubMed Central

    Benbrahim, A.; Jerrah, H.; Diouri, M.; Bahechar, N.; Boukind, E.H.

    2009-01-01

    Summary La flamme de diluant est une cause non rare de brûlure dans le contexte marocain. Nous avons jugé intéressant de faire une étude épidémiologique sur la brûlure par flamme de diluant (BFD) au centre national des brûlés (CNB) du CHU Ibn-Rochd de Casablanca. Ce travail a été réalisé sur une période de 10 mois (septembre 2007/juin 2008). Le but du travail est de montrer les caractéristiques de ce type de brûlures pour les prévenir et ce par l'information sur le diluant, produit causant ces brûlures, et ses différents dangers, la brûlure notamment. Durant cette période, nous avons colligé 17 cas de BFD sur un total de 356 patients admis au CNB pour brûlures aiguës toute étiologie confondue. La moyenne d'age des patients concernés est de 32 ans. Ils sont presque tous de sexe masculin (16 hommes/1 femme) et ont des antécédents de toxicomanie et/ou de délinquance. Tous nos patients sont de bas niveau socio-économique et habitent dans des bidonvilles pour la plupart. La brûlure est souvent secondaire à une agression dans la rue (92% des cas). Concernant les caractéristiques de la brûlure, la surface cutanée brûlée moyenne est de 23%; elle est souvent profonde et siège surtout au niveau des membres supérieurs et du tronc. PMID:21991179

  6. Contribution au contrôle de la fluidisation des sédiments marins par ultrasons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bresson, J.; Daïf, A.; Longuemard, J. P.; Mevel, Y.

    1994-08-01

    The authors present an original method based on acoustic propagation of longitudinal waves to determine the state of fluidisation in marine sediments as a function of wave characteristics. Indeed, the pressure variations due to the wave in permeable marine sediments contributes to the desegregation of the inter granular structure. This approach have been tested in wave's channel before being experiment in sea environment. Après avoir présenté le phénomène de fluidisation des sédiments marins et sa modélisation simple, les auteurs étudient dans un canal à houle et expérimentent en mer une méthode, basée sur la propagation d'ondes ultrasonores longitudinales, permettant de détecter l'état de fluidisation du sédiment marin en fonction des caractéristiques de la houle. En effet, les variations de pression engendrées par la houle, dans les sédiments marins perméables, détruisent la liaison du "squelette" inter granulaire existant dans celui-ci quand il est consolidé. Il n'y a plus de contact grain à grain, mais un mince film d'eau sépare complètement ces derniers. On assiste alors à la fluidisation des sédiments près du fond. Cet état est détecté par moyens acoustiques.

  7. Par Pond vegetation status 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Mackey, H.E. Jr.; Riley, R.S.

    1996-12-01

    The water level of Par Pond was lowered approximately 20 feet in mid-1991 in order to protect downstream residents from possible dam failure suggested by subsidence on the downstream slope of the dam and to repair the dam. This lowering exposed both emergent and nonemergent macrophyte beds to drying conditions resulting in extensive losses. A survey of the newly emergent, shoreline aquatic plant communities of Par Pond began in June 1995, three months after the refilling of Par Pond to approximately 200 feet above mean sea level. These surveys continued in July, September, and late October, 1995, and into the early spring and late summer of 1996. Communities similar to the pre-drawdown, Par Pond aquatic plant communities continue to become re-established. Emergent beds of maidencane, lotus, waterlily, watershield, and Pontederia are extensive and well developed. Measures of percent cover, width of beds, and estimates of area of coverage with satellite data indicate regrowth within two years of from 40 to 60% of levels prior to the draw down. Cattail occurrence continued to increase during the summer of 1996, especially in the former warm arm of Par Pond, but large beds common to Par Pond prior to the draw down still have not formed. Lotus has invaded and occupies many of the areas formerly dominated by cattail beds. To track the continued development of macrophytes in Par Pond, future surveys through the summer and early fall of 1997, along with the evaluation of satellite data to map the extent of the macrophyte beds of Par Pond, are planned.

  8. Exploration of locomotion in the ParA/ParB system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jindal, Lavisha; Emberly, Eldon

    2015-03-01

    In many bacteria the ParA/ParB system is responsible for actively segregating DNA during replication. ParB precessively moves by hydrolyzing DNA bound ParA-ATP forming a depleted ParA region in its wake. Recent in-vitro experiments have shown that a ParB covered bead can traverse a ParA bound DNA substrate. It has been suggested that the formation of a gradient in ParA leads to diffusion-ratchet like motion of the ParB bead but its origin and potential consequences requires investigation. We have developed a deterministic model for the in-vitro ParA/ParB system and show that any amount of spatial noise in ParA can lead to the spontaneous formation of its gradient. The velocity of the bead is independent of this noise but depends on the scale over which ParA exerts a force on the bead and the scale over which ParB hydrolyzes ParA from the substrate. There is a particular ratio of these scales at which the velocity is a maximum. We also explore the effects of cooperative vs independent rebinding of ParA to the substrate. Our model shows how the driving force for ParB originates and highlights necessary conditions for directed motion in the in-vitro system that may provide insight into the in-vivo behaviour of the ParA/ParB system.

  9. Developpement de mesures non destructives, par ondes ultrasonores, d'epaisseurs de fronts de solidification dans les reacteurs metallurgiques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Floquet, Jimmy

    Dans les cuves d'electrolyse d'aluminium, le milieu de reaction tres corrosif attaque les parois de la cuve, ce qui diminue leur duree de vie et augmente les couts de production. Le talus, qui se forme sous l'effet des pertes de chaleur qui maintiennent un equilibre thermique dans la cuve, sert de protection naturelle a la cuve. Son epaisseur doit etre controlee pour maximiser cet effet. Advenant la resorption non voulue de ce talus, les degats generes peuvent s'evaluer a plusieurs centaines de milliers de dollars par cuve. Aussi, l'objectif est de developper une mesure ultrasonore de l'epaisseur du talus, car elle serait non intrusive et non destructive. La precision attendue est de l'ordre du centimetre pour des mesures d'epaisseurs comprenant 2 materiaux, allant de 5 a 20 cm. Cette precision est le facteur cle permettant aux industriels de controler l'epaisseur du talus de maniere efficace (maximiser la protection des parois tout en maximisant l'efficacite energetique du procede), par l'ajout d'un flux thermique. Cependant, l'efficacite d'une mesure ultrasonore dans cet environnement hostile reste a demontrer. Les travaux preliminaires ont permis de selectionner un transducteur ultrasonore a contact ayant la capacite a resister aux conditions de mesure (hautes temperatures, materiaux non caracterises...). Differentes mesures a froid (traite par analyse temps-frequence) ont permis d'evaluer la vitesse de propagation des ondes dans le materiau de la cuve en graphite et de la cryolite, demontrant la possibilite d'extraire l'information pertinente d'epaisseur du talus in fine. Fort de cette phase de caracterisation des materiaux sur la reponse acoustique des materiaux, les travaux a venir ont ete realises sur un modele reduit de la cuve. Le montage experimental, un four evoluant a 1050 °C, instrumente d'une multitude de capteurs thermique, permettra une comparaison de la mesure intrusive LVDT a celle du transducteur, dans des conditions proches de la mesure

  10. Les Traits acoustiques (Acoustic Features)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossi, Mario

    1977-01-01

    An analysis of the theory of distinctive features advanced by Roman Jakobson, Gunnar Fant and Morris Halle in "Preliminaries to Speech Analysis." The notion of binarism, the criterion of distinctiveness and the definition of features are discussed. Questions leading to further research are raised. (Text is in French.) (AMH)

  11. Par Pond Fish, Water, and Sediment Chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Paller, M.H.; Wike, L.D.

    1996-06-01

    The objectives of this report are to describe the Par Pond fish community and the impact of the drawdown and refill on the community, describe contaminant levels in Par Pond fish, sediments, and water and indicate how contaminant concentrations and distributions were affected by the drawdown and refill, and predict possible effects of future water level fluctuations in Par Pond.

  12. Directed and persistent movement arises from mechanochemistry of the ParA/ParB system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Longhua; Vecchiarelli, Anthony G.; Mizuuchi, Kiyoshi; Neuman, Keir C.; Liu, Jian

    The segregation of DNA prior to cell division is essential for faithful genetic inheritance. In many bacteria, segregation of the low-copy-number plasmids involves an active partition system composed of ParA ATPase and its stimulator protein ParB. Recent experiments suggest that ParA/ParB system motility is driven by a diffusion-ratchet mechanism in which ParB-coated plasmid both creates and follows a ParA gradient on the nucleoid surface. However, the detailed mechanism of ParA/ParB-mediated directed and persistent movement remains unknown. We develop a theoretical model describing ParA/ParB-mediated motility. We show that the ParA/ParB system can work as a Brownian ratchet, which effectively couples the ATPase-dependent cycling of ParA-nucleoid affinity to the motion of the ParB bound cargo. Paradoxically, the resulting processive motion relies on quenching diffusive plasmid motion through a large number of transient ParA/ParB-mediated tethers to the nucleoid surface. Our work sheds light on a new emergent phenomenon in which non-motor proteins work collectively via mechanochemical coupling to propel cargos -- an ingenious solution shaped by evolution to cope with the lack of processive motor proteins in bacteria.

  13. suPAR: The Molecular Crystal Ball

    PubMed Central

    Thunø, Maria; Macho, Betina; Eugen-Olsen, Jesper

    2009-01-01

    soluble urokinase Plasminogen Activator Receptor (suPAR) levels reflect inflammation and elevated suPAR levels are found in several infectious diseases and cancer. suPAR exists in three forms; suPARI-III, suPARII-III and suPARI which show different properties due to structural differences. Studies suggest that full-length suPAR is a regulator of uPAR/uPA by acting as uPA-scavenger, whereas the cleaved suPARII-III act as a chemotactic agent promoting the immune response via the SRSRY sequence in the linker-region. This review focus on the various suPAR fragments and their involvement in inflammation and pathogenic processes. We focus on the molecular mechanisms of the suPAR fragments and the link to the inflammatory process, as this could lead to medical applications in infectious and pathological conditions. PMID:19893210

  14. Targeting uPAR with antagonistic recombinant human antibodies in aggressive breast cancer.

    PubMed

    LeBeau, Aaron M; Duriseti, Sai; Murphy, Stephanie T; Pepin, Francois; Hann, Byron; Gray, Joe W; VanBrocklin, Henry F; Craik, Charles S

    2013-04-01

    Components of the plasminogen activation system, which are overexpressed in aggressive breast cancer subtypes, offer appealing targets for development of new diagnostics and therapeutics. By comparing gene expression data in patient populations and cultured cell lines, we identified elevated levels of the urokinase plasminogen activation receptor (uPAR, PLAUR) in highly aggressive breast cancer subtypes and cell lines. Recombinant human anti-uPAR antagonistic antibodies exhibited potent binding in vitro to the surface of cancer cells expressing uPAR. In vivo these antibodies detected uPAR expression in triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) tumor xenografts using near infrared imaging and (111)In single-photon emission computed tomography. Antibody-based uPAR imaging probes accurately detected small disseminated lesions in a tumor metastasis model, complementing the current clinical imaging standard (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose at detecting non-glucose-avid metastatic lesions. A monotherapy study using the antagonistic antibodies resulted in a significant decrease in tumor growth in a TNBC xenograft model. In addition, a radioimmunotherapy study, using the anti-uPAR antibodies conjugated to the therapeutic radioisotope (177)Lu, found that they were effective at reducing tumor burden in vivo. Taken together, our results offer a preclinical proof of concept for uPAR targeting as a strategy for breast cancer diagnosis and therapy using this novel human antibody technology.

  15. Urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) as a promising new imaging target: potential clinical applications

    PubMed Central

    Persson, Morten; Kjaer, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) has been shown to be of special importance during cancer invasion and metastasis. However, currently, tissue samples are needed for measurement of uPAR expression limiting the potential as a clinical routine. Therefore, non-invasive methods are needed. In line with this, uPAR has recently been identified as a very promising imaging target candidate. uPAR consists of three domains attached to the cell membrane via a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor and binds it natural ligand uPA with high affinity to localize plasminogen activation at the cell surface. Due to the importance of uPAR in cancer invasion and metastasis, a number of high-affinity ligands have been identified during the last decades. These ligands have recently been used as starting point for the development of a number of ligands for imaging of uPAR using various imaging modalities such as optical imaging, magnetic resonance imaging, single photon emission computer tomography (SPECT) and positron emission topography (PET). In this review, we will discuss recent advances in the development of uPAR-targeted imaging ligands according to imaging modality. In addition, we will discuss the potential future clinical application for uPAR imaging as a new imaging biomarker. PMID:23701192

  16. PAR for the Course: A Congruent Pedagogical Approach for a PAR Methods Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammond, Joyce D.; Hicks, Maria; Kalman, Rowenn; Miller, Jason

    2005-01-01

    In the past two years, three graduate students and a senior faculty member have co-taught a participatory action research (PAR) course to undergraduate and graduate students. In this article the co-teachers advocate a set of pedagogical principles and practices in a PAR-oriented classroom that establishes congruency with community PAR projects in…

  17. The Pars Interarticularis Stress Reaction, Spondylolysis, and Spondylolisthesis Progression

    PubMed Central

    Motley, Gina; Nyland, John; Jacobs, Jake; Caborn, David N. M.

    1998-01-01

    Objective: To review the classification, etiology, clinical and radiologic evaluation, and management of the pars interarticularis stress reaction, spondylolysis, and spondylolisthesis progression. Data Sources: Grateful Med was searched from 1980 to 1998 using the terms “spondylolysis,” “spondylolisthesis,” “female athlete” “spondylogenic,” and “pars interarticularis.” Data Synthesis: The progression from pars interarticularis stress reaction through spondylolysis to spondylolisthesis is common in adolescent athletes, and, because of hormonal influences and cheerleading and gymnastic maneuvers, females are particularly at risk. Proper diagnosis and management include a thorough evaluation, radiographs (possibly with technetium bone scan or single-photon emission computed tomography), activity modification, dietary counseling, a therapeutic exercise program focusing on proper trunk and hip muscle strength and extensibility balances, and education regarding proper back postures, positioning, lifting mechanics, and jump landings. Conclusions/Recommendations: The athletic trainer plays an integral part in managing this injury progression, particularly with identifying at-risk individuals and intervening appropriately. ImagesFigure 4. PMID:16558534

  18. Par Pond vegetation status Summer 1995 -- Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Mackey, H.E. Jr.; Riley, R.S.

    1996-01-01

    The water level of Par Pond was lowered approximately 20 feet in mid-1991 in order to protect downstream residents from possible dam failure suggested by subsidence on the downstream slope of the dam and to repair the dam. This lowering exposed both emergent and nonemergent macrophyte beds to drying conditions resulting in extensive losses. A survey of the newly emergent, shoreline aquatic plant communities of Par Pond began in June 1995, three months after the refilling of Par Pond to approximately 200 feet above mean sea level. These surveys continued in July, September, and late October, 1995. Communities similar to the pre-drawdown, Par Pond aquatic plant communities are becoming re-established. Emergent beds of maidencane, lotus, waterlily, and watershield are extensive and well developed. Cattail occurrence continued to increase during the summer, but large beds common to Par Pond prior to the drawdown have not formed. Estimates from SPOT HRV, remote sensing satellite data indicated that as much as 120 hectares of emergent wetlands vegetation may have been present along the Par Pond shoreline by early October, 1995. To track the continued development of macrophytes in Par Pond, future surveys throughout 1996 and 1997, along with the continued evaluation of satellite data to map the areal extent of the macrophyte beds of Par Pond, are planned.

  19. Comparative cactus architecture and par interception

    SciTech Connect

    Geller, G.N.; Nobel, P.S. )

    1987-07-01

    Because CO{sup 2} uptake by cacti can be limited by low levels of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and because plant form affects PAR interception, various cactus forms were studied using a computer model, field measurements, and laboratory phototropic studies. Model predictions indicated that CO{sub 2} uptake by individual stems at an equinox was greatest when the stem were vertical, but at the summer and the winter solstice CO{sub 2} uptake was greatest for stems titled 30{degree} away from the equator. Stem tilting depended on form and taxonomic group. Not only can the shape of cacti be affected by PAR, but also shape influences PAR interception and hence CO{sub 2} uptake.

  20. Techniques for measuring intercepted and absorbed PAR in corn canopies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallo, K. P.; Daughtry, C. S. T.

    1984-01-01

    The quantity of radiation potentially available for photosynthesis that is captured by the crop is best described as absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (PAR). Absorbed PAR (APAR) is the difference between descending and ascending fluxes. The four components of APAR were measured above and within two planting densities of corn (Zea mays L.) and several methods of measuring and estimating APAR were examined. A line quantum sensor that spatially averages the photosynthetic photon flux density provided a rapid and portable method of measuring APAR. PAR reflectance from the soil (Typic Argiaquoll) surface decreased from 10% to less than 1% of the incoming PAR as the canopy cover increased. PAR reflectance from the canopy decreased to less than 3% at maximum vegetative cover. Intercepted PAR (1 - transmitted PAR) generally overestimated absorbed PAR by less than 4% throughout most of the growing season. Thus intercepted PAR appears to be a reasonable estimate of absorbed PAR.

  1. Protease-activated receptor (PAR) 1 and PAR4 differentially regulate factor V expression from human platelets.

    PubMed

    Duvernay, Matthew; Young, Summer; Gailani, David; Schoenecker, Jonathan; Hamm, Heidi E; Hamm, Heidi

    2013-04-01

    With the recent interest of protease-activated receptors (PAR) 1 and PAR4 as possible targets for the treatment of thrombotic disorders, we compared the efficacy of protease-activated receptor (PAR)1 and PAR4 in the generation of procoagulant phenotypes on platelet membranes. PAR4-activating peptide (AP)-stimulated platelets promoted thrombin generation in plasma up to 5 minutes earlier than PAR1-AP-stimulated platelets. PAR4-AP-mediated factor V (FV) association with the platelet surface was 1.6-fold greater than for PAR1-AP. Moreover, PAR4 stimulation resulted in a 3-fold greater release of microparticles, compared with PAR1 stimulation. More robust FV secretion and microparticle generation with PAR4-AP was attributable to stronger and more sustained phosphorylation of myosin light chain at serine 19 and threonine 18. Inhibition of Rho-kinase reduced PAR4-AP-mediated FV secretion and microparticle generation to PAR1-AP-mediated levels. Thrombin generation assays measuring prothrombinase complex activity demonstrated 1.5-fold higher peak thrombin levels on PAR4-AP-stimulated platelets, compared with PAR1-AP-stimulated platelets. Rho-kinase inhibition reduced PAR4-AP-mediated peak thrombin generation by 25% but had no significant effect on PAR1-AP-mediated thrombin generation. In conclusion, stimulation of PAR4 on platelets leads to faster and more robust thrombin generation, compared with PAR1 stimulation. The greater procoagulant potential is related to more efficient FV release from intracellular stores and microparticle production driven by stronger and more sustained myosin light chain phosphorylation. These data have implications about the role of PAR4 during hemostasis and are clinically relevant in light of recent efforts to develop PAR antagonists to treat thrombotic disorders.

  2. PAR2 regulates regeneration, transdifferentiation, and death

    PubMed Central

    Piran, Ron; Lee, Seung-Hee; Kuss, Pia; Hao, Ergeng; Newlin, Robbin; Millán, José Luis; Levine, Fred

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms by which cells sense and respond to injury is central to developing therapies to enhance tissue regeneration. Previously, we showed that pancreatic injury consisting of acinar cell damage+β-cell ablation led to islet cell transdifferentiation. Here, we report that the molecular mechanism for this requires activating protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR2), a G-protein-coupled receptor. PAR2 modulation was sufficient to induce islet cell transdifferentiation in the absence of β-cells. Its expression was modulated in an islet cell type-specific manner in murine and human type 1 diabetes (T1D). In addition to transdifferentiation, PAR2 regulated β-cell apoptosis in pancreatitis. PAR2's role in regeneration is broad, as mice lacking PAR2 had marked phenotypes in response to injury in the liver and in digit regeneration following amputation. These studies provide a pharmacologically relevant target to induce tissue regeneration in a number of diseases, including T1D. PMID:27809303

  3. ATP-regulated interactions between P1 ParA, ParB and non-specific DNA that are stabilized by the plasmid partition site, parS

    PubMed Central

    Havey, James C.; Vecchiarelli, Anthony G.; Funnell, Barbara E.

    2012-01-01

    Localization of the P1 plasmid requires two proteins, ParA and ParB, which act on the plasmid partition site, parS. ParB is a site-specific DNA-binding protein and ParA is a Walker-type ATPase with non-specific DNA-binding activity. In vivo ParA binds the bacterial nucleoid and forms dynamic patterns that are governed by the ParB–parS partition complex on the plasmid. How these interactions drive plasmid movement and localization is not well understood. Here we have identified a large protein–DNA complex in vitro that requires ParA, ParB and ATP, and have characterized its assembly by sucrose gradient sedimentation and light scattering assays. ATP binding and hydrolysis mediated the assembly and disassembly of this complex, while ADP antagonized complex formation. The complex was not dependent on, but was stabilized by, parS. The properties indicate that ParA and ParB are binding and bridging multiple DNA molecules to create a large meshwork of protein–DNA molecules that involves both specific and non-specific DNA. We propose that this complex represents a dynamic adaptor complex between the plasmid and nucleoid, and further, that this interaction drives the redistribution of partition proteins and the plasmid over the nucleoid during partition. PMID:21965538

  4. Humanizing the Protease-Activated Receptor (PAR) Expression Profile in Mouse Platelets by Knocking PAR1 into the Par3 Locus Reveals PAR1 Expression Is Not Tolerated in Mouse Platelets

    PubMed Central

    French, Shauna L.; Paramitha, Antonia C.; Moon, Mitchell J.; Dickins, Ross A.; Hamilton, Justin R.

    2016-01-01

    Anti-platelet drugs are the mainstay of pharmacotherapy for heart attack and stroke prevention, yet improvements are continually sought. Thrombin is the most potent activator of platelets and targeting platelet thrombin receptors (protease-activated receptors; PARs) is an emerging anti-thrombotic approach. Humans express two PARs on their platelets–PAR1 and PAR4. The first PAR1 antagonist was recently approved for clinical use and PAR4 antagonists are in early clinical development. However, pre-clinical studies examining platelet PAR function are challenging because the platelets of non-primates do not accurately reflect the PAR expression profile of human platelets. Mice, for example, express Par3 and Par4. To address this limitation, we aimed to develop a genetically modified mouse that would express the same repertoire of platelet PARs as humans. Here, human PAR1 preceded by a lox-stop-lox was knocked into the mouse Par3 locus, and then expressed in a platelet-specific manner (hPAR1-KI mice). Despite correct targeting and the predicted loss of Par3 expression and function in platelets from hPAR1-KI mice, no PAR1 expression or function was detected. Specifically, PAR1 was not detected on the platelet surface nor internally by flow cytometry nor in whole cell lysates by Western blot, while a PAR1-activating peptide failed to induce platelet activation assessed by either aggregation or surface P-selectin expression. Platelets from hPAR1-KI mice did display significantly diminished responsiveness to thrombin stimulation in both assays, consistent with a Par3-/- phenotype. In contrast to the observations in hPAR1-KI mouse platelets, the PAR1 construct used here was successfully expressed in HEK293T cells. Together, these data suggest ectopic PAR1 expression is not tolerated in mouse platelets and indicate a different approach is required to develop a small animal model for the purpose of any future preclinical testing of PAR antagonists as anti-platelet drugs. PMID

  5. PET imaging of urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) in prostate cancer: current status and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Skovgaard, Dorthe; Persson, Morten; Kjaer, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Overexpression of urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptors (uPAR) represents an important biomarker for aggressiveness in most common malignant diseases, including prostate cancer (PC). Accordingly, uPAR expression either assessed directly in malignant PC tissue or assessed directly in plasma (intact/cleaved forms)-provides independent additional clinical information to that contributed by PSA, Gleason score, and other relevant pathological and clinical parameters. In this respect, non-invasive molecular imaging by positron emission tomography (PET) offers a very attractive technology platform, which can provide the required quantitative information on the uPAR expression profile, without the need for invasive procedures and the risk of missing the target due to tumor heterogeneity. These observations support non-invasive PET imaging of uPAR in PC as a clinically relevant diagnostic and prognostic imaging method. In this review, we will focus on the recent development of uPAR PET and the relevance within prostate cancer imaging. Novel antibody and small-molecule radiotracers-targeting uPAR, including a series of uPAR-targeting PET ligands, based on the high affinity peptide ligand AE105, have been synthesized and tested in vitro and in vivo in preclinical murine xenograft models and, recently, in a first-ever clinical uPAR PET study in cancer patients, including patients with PC. In this phase I study, a high and specific uptake of the tracer (64)Cu-DOTA-AE105 was found in both primary tumors and lymph node metastases. The results are encouraging and support large-scale clinical trials to determine the utility of uPAR PET in the management of patients with PC with the goal of improving outcome.

  6. ParA and ParB coordinate chromosome segregation with cell elongation and division during Streptomyces sporulation

    PubMed Central

    Donczew, Magdalena; Mackiewicz, Paweł; Wróbel, Agnieszka; Flärdh, Klas; Zakrzewska-Czerwińska, Jolanta

    2016-01-01

    In unicellular bacteria, the ParA and ParB proteins segregate chromosomes and coordinate this process with cell division and chromosome replication. During sporulation of mycelial Streptomyces, ParA and ParB uniformly distribute multiple chromosomes along the filamentous sporogenic hyphal compartment, which then differentiates into a chain of unigenomic spores. However, chromosome segregation must be coordinated with cell elongation and multiple divisions. Here, we addressed the question of whether ParA and ParB are involved in the synchronization of cell-cycle processes during sporulation in Streptomyces. To answer this question, we used time-lapse microscopy, which allows the monitoring of growth and division of single sporogenic hyphae. We showed that sporogenic hyphae stop extending at the time of ParA accumulation and Z-ring formation. We demonstrated that both ParA and ParB affect the rate of hyphal extension. Additionally, we showed that ParA promotes the formation of massive nucleoprotein complexes by ParB. We also showed that FtsZ ring assembly is affected by the ParB protein and/or unsegregated DNA. Our results indicate the existence of a checkpoint between the extension and septation of sporogenic hyphae that involves the ParA and ParB proteins. PMID:27248800

  7. ParA and ParB coordinate chromosome segregation with cell elongation and division during Streptomyces sporulation.

    PubMed

    Donczew, Magdalena; Mackiewicz, Paweł; Wróbel, Agnieszka; Flärdh, Klas; Zakrzewska-Czerwińska, Jolanta; Jakimowicz, Dagmara

    2016-04-01

    In unicellular bacteria, the ParA and ParB proteins segregate chromosomes and coordinate this process with cell division and chromosome replication. During sporulation of mycelial Streptomyces, ParA and ParB uniformly distribute multiple chromosomes along the filamentous sporogenic hyphal compartment, which then differentiates into a chain of unigenomic spores. However, chromosome segregation must be coordinated with cell elongation and multiple divisions. Here, we addressed the question of whether ParA and ParB are involved in the synchronization of cell-cycle processes during sporulation in Streptomyces To answer this question, we used time-lapse microscopy, which allows the monitoring of growth and division of single sporogenic hyphae. We showed that sporogenic hyphae stop extending at the time of ParA accumulation and Z-ring formation. We demonstrated that both ParA and ParB affect the rate of hyphal extension. Additionally, we showed that ParA promotes the formation of massive nucleoprotein complexes by ParB. We also showed that FtsZ ring assembly is affected by the ParB protein and/or unsegregated DNA. Our results indicate the existence of a checkpoint between the extension and septation of sporogenic hyphae that involves the ParA and ParB proteins.

  8. suPAR and Team Nephrology

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Primary focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) accounts for nearly 10 % of patients who require renal replacement therapy. Elevated circulating levels of soluble urokinase receptor (suPAR) have been identified as a biomarker to discriminate primary FSGS from other glomerulopathies. Subsequent reports have questioned the diagnostic utility of this test. In a study in BMC Medicine, Huang et al. demonstrate that urinary soluble urokinase receptor (suPAR) excretion assists in distinguishing primary FSGS from other glomerular diseases, and that high plasma suPAR concentrations are not directly linked to a decline in glomerular filtration rate (GFR). This observation suggests that further investigation of suPAR is warranted in patients with FSGS. It should be interpreted in light of a recent report that B7-1 is expressed in the podocytes of a subset of patients with FSGS, and that blocking this molecule may represent the first successful targeted intervention for this disease. These advances highlight the rapid pace of scientific progress in the field of nephrology. Nephrologists should work together, share resources, and expedite the design of protocols to evaluate these novel biomarkers in a comprehensive and scientifically valid manner. Please see related article http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7015/12/81. PMID:24885021

  9. PAR Corneal Topography System (PAR CTS): the clinical application of close-range photogrammetry.

    PubMed

    Belin, M W; Cambier, J L; Nabors, J R; Ratliff, C D

    1995-11-01

    The PAR Corneal Topography System (CTS) is a computer-driven corneal imaging system which uses close-range photogrammetry (rasterphotogrammetry) to measure and produce a topographic map of the corneal surface. The PAR CTS makes direct point-by-point measurements of surface elevation using a stereo-triangulation technique. The CTS uses a grid pattern composed of horizontal and vertical lines spaced about 0.2 mm (200 microns) apart. Each grid intersection comprises a surface feature which can be located in multiple images and used to generate an (x,y,z) coordinate. Unlike placido disc-based videokeratoscopes, the PAR CTS requires neither a smooth reflective surface nor precise spatial alignment for accurate imaging. In addition to surface elevation, the PAR CTS computes axial and tangential curvatures and refractive power. Difference maps are available in all curvatures, refractive power, and in absolute elevation.

  10. Specific activation, signalling and secretion profiles of human platelets following PAR-1 and PAR-4 stimulation.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Kim Anh; Hamzeh-Cognasse, Hind; Laradi, Sandrine; Pozzetto, Bruno; Garraud, Olivier; Cognasse, Fabrice

    2015-01-01

    Blood platelets play a central haemostatic function; however, they also play a role in inflammation and are capable of secreting various cytokines, chemokines and related products. The purpose of this study was to identify subtle variations in platelet physiology using proteomics. We compared the levels of membrane proteins (n = 3), α and δ granule proteins (n = 18), and signalling proteins (n = 30) from unstimulated platelets with those of protease-activated receptor (PAR)-1- and PAR-4-stimulated platelets (n = 10). The vast majority of these proteins responded similarly to PAR-1 or PAR-4 engagement. However, differences were observed within membrane CD40L expressed, and α granule GRO-α and MDC secreted proteins.

  11. Élaboration de films de molécules organiques par ablation par laser UV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez-Perez, M. A.; Garapon, C.; Champeaux, C.; Coleman, A. W.

    2006-12-01

    Les potentialités des méthodes de dépôt par ablation laser (PLD) pour la préparation de films minces de matériaux organiques sont illustrées par un bref rappel bibliographique et par des résultats expérimentaux concernant des molécules d'intérêt biologique (acides aminés, calix-arènes, protéines). Les films sont préparés par PLD avec un laser KrF sans dégradation de la structure chimique des molécules dans une gamme de fluences de quelques dizaines à quelques centaines de mJ/cm2. Les propriétés structurales et optiques des films sont étudiées en fonction de la fluence du laser et mettent en évidence des arrangements moléculaires particuliers induits par cette méthode de dépôt. Le guidage optique a été obtenu pour des films de toutes ces molécules.

  12. Kallikrein 6 Signals through PAR1 and PAR2 to Promote Neuron Injury and Exacerbate Glutamate Neurotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Hyesook; Radulovic, Maja; Wu, Jianmin; Blaber, Sachiko I.; Blaber, Michael; Fehlings, Michael G.; Scarisbrick, Isobel A.

    2014-01-01

    CNS trauma generates a proteolytic imbalance contributing to secondary injury, including axonopathy and neuron degeneration. Kallikrein 6 (Klk6) is a serine protease implicated in neurodegeneration and here we investigate the role of protease activated receptors 1 (PAR1) and PAR2 in mediating these effects. First we demonstrate Klk6 and the prototypical activator of PAR1, thrombin, as well as PAR1 and PAR2, are each elevated in murine experimental traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) at acute or subacute time points. Recombinant Klk6 triggered ERK1/2 signaling in cerebellar granule neurons and in the NSC34 spinal cord motoneuron cell line, in a PI3K and MEK-dependent fashion. Importantly, lipopeptide inhibitors of PAR1 or PAR2, and PAR1 genetic deletion, each reduced Klk6-ERK1/2 activation. In addition, Klk6 and thrombin promoted degeneration of cerebellar neurons and exacerbated glutamate neurotoxicity. Moreover, genetic deletion of PAR1 blocked thrombin-mediated cerebellar neurotoxicity and reduced the neurotoxic effects of Klk6. Klk6 also increased glutamate-mediated Bim signaling, PARP cleavage and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release in NSC34 motoneurons and these effects were blocked by PAR1 and PAR2 lipopeptide inhibitors. Taken together these data point to a novel Klk6-signaling axis in CNS neurons that is mediated by PAR1 and PAR2 and is positioned to contribute to neurodegeneration. PMID:23647384

  13. A Combined Global and Local Approach to Elucidate Spatial Organization of the Mycobacterial ParB-parS Partition Assembly

    SciTech Connect

    B Chaudhuri; S Gupta; V Urban; M Chance; R DMello; L Smith; K Lyons; J Gee

    2011-12-31

    Combining diverse sets of data at global (size, shape) and local (residue) scales is an emerging trend for elucidating the organization and function of the cellular assemblies. We used such a strategy, combining data from X-ray and neutron scattering with H/D-contrast variation and X-ray footprinting with mass spectrometry, to elucidate the spatial organization of the ParB-parS assembly from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The ParB-parS participates in plasmid and chromosome segregation and condensation in predivisional bacterial cells. ParB polymerizes around the parS centromere(s) to form a higher-order assembly that serves to recruit cyto-skeletal ParA ATPases and SMC proteins for chromosome segregation. A hybrid model of the ParB-parS was built by combining and correlating computational models with experiment-derived information about size, shape, position of the symmetry axis within the shape, internal topology, DNA-protein interface, exposed surface patches, and prior knowledge. This first view of the ParB-parS leads us to propose how ParB spread on the chromosome to form a larger assembly.

  14. A Combined Global and Local Approach to Elucidate Spatial Organization of the Mycobacterial ParB-parS Partition

    SciTech Connect

    Chaudhuri, Barnali; Gupta, Sayan; Urban, Volker S; Chance, Mark; D'Mello, Rhijuta; Smith, Lauren; Lyons, Kelly; Gee, Jessica

    2010-01-01

    Combining diverse sets of data at global (size, shape) and local (residue) scales is an emerging trend for elucidating the organization and function of the cellular assemblies. We used such a strategy, combining data from X-ray and neutron scattering with H/D-contrast variation and X-ray footprinting with mass spectrometry, to elucidate the spatial organization of the ParB-parS assembly from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The ParB-parS participates in plasmid and chromosome segregation and condensation in predivisional bacterial cells. ParB polymerizes around the parS centromere(s) to form a higher-order assembly that serves to recruit cyto-skeletal ParA ATPases and SMC proteins for chromosome segregation. A hybrid model of the ParB-parS was built by combining and correlating computational models with experiment-derived information about size, shape, position of the symmetry axis within the shape, internal topology, DNA-protein interface, exposed surface patches, and prior knowledge. This first view of the ParB-parS leads us to propose how ParB spread on the chromosome to form a larger assembly.

  15. Host response biomarker in sepsis: suPAR detection.

    PubMed

    Giamarellos-Bourboulis, Evangelos J; Georgitsi, Marianna

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies of our group have shown that suPAR may complement APACHE II score for risk assessment in sepsis. suPAR may be measured in serum of patients by an enzyme immunosorbent assay developed by Virogates (suPARnostic™). Production of suPAR from circulating neutrophils and monocytes may be assessed after isolation of neutrophils and monocytes and ex vivo culture. This is followed by measurement of suPAR in culture supernatants.

  16. Drosophila 14-3-3/PAR-5 is an essential mediator of PAR-1 function in axis formation.

    PubMed

    Benton, Richard; Palacios, Isabel M; St Johnston, Daniel

    2002-11-01

    PAR-1 kinases are required to determine the anterior-posterior (A-P) axis in C. elegans and Drosophila, but little is known about their molecular function. We identified 14-3-3 proteins as Drosophila PAR-1 interactors and show that PAR-1 binds a domain of 14-3-3 distinct from the phosphoserine binding pocket. PAR-1 kinases phosphorylate proteins to generate 14-3-3 binding sites and may therefore directly deliver 14-3-3 to these targets. 14-3-3 mutants display identical phenotypes to par-1 mutants in oocyte determination and the polarization of the A-P axis. Together, these results indicate that PAR-1's function is mediated by the binding of 14-3-3 to its substrates. The C. elegans 14-3-3 protein, PAR-5, is also required for A-P polarization, suggesting that this is a conserved mechanism by which PAR-1 establishes cellular asymmetries.

  17. [Ambroise Paré and Latin].

    PubMed

    Drouin, Emmanuel

    2010-06-01

    We report a study of a medical book written by Antoine Mizaud (Memorabilium utilium, in ac iucundorum aphorismos Arcanorum omnis generis locupletes, perpulchre digestae), which was written in Latin, but has been extensively annotated in French.The book is from the personal collection of one of the physicians of Napoleon III. There is an oral tradition within his family that one of the works in the book had been annotated by Ambroise Paré. We know very little, apart from a few receipts and his signature, about the writing of the master of French surgery. Did he understand the language of Galen? There are many annotated passages in the works of Pare which are in the book. We examine whether these annotations were actually made by Ambroise Paré or whether they were done for him.

  18. [Ambroise Paré in French literature].

    PubMed

    Dumaitre, P

    1995-01-01

    The 16th century by its passionate side has been the favourite one of authors of historical novels in which among the heroes of "cloak and dagger stories" appears sometime Ambroise Paré. Alexandre Dumas (the father) has shown him at the court of Charles IX in La Reine Margot (1845) where he does not however play a great role. On the contrary, Balzac in Le Martyr calviniste (1842) has given him a capital part close to the dying François II, whom he intended to trepanize but had to give up this idea as a consequence of the opposition of the queen-mother Catherine de Médicis. In the present century, Robert Merle in Paris ma bonne ville (Fortune de France, 3, 1980) shows Paré at the time of the Saint Barthélemy.

  19. Les Brulures Chimiques Par Le Laurier Rose

    PubMed Central

    Bakkali, H.; Ababou, M.; Nassim Sabah, T.; Moussaoui, A.; Ennouhi, A.; Fouadi, F.Z.; Siah, S.; Ihrai, H.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Le laurier rose ou Nerium oleander est un arbuste qui pousse naturellement dans les régions méditerranéennes. Au Maroc on le trouve dans les lieux humides. Il est réputé par ses risques de toxicité systémique en cas d'empoisonnement à cause de la présence de deux alcaloïdes, surtout l'oléandrine. La littérature illustre des cas d'utilisation locale des feuilles de cette plante contre la gale, les hémorroïdes et les furoncles. Nous rapportons deux cas de brûlures chimiques par le laurier rose de gravité différente. Cela doit aboutir à une information élargie de la population, ainsi qu'une réglementation stricte de sa commercialisation. PMID:21991211

  20. TEMPORAL VARIABILITY IN BASAL ISOPRENE EMISSION FACTOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Seasonal variability in basal isoprene emission factor (micrograms C /g hr or nmol/ m2 sec, leaf temperature at 30 degrees C and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) at 1000 micromol/ m2 sec) was studied during the 1998 growing season at Duke Forest in the North Carolina Pie...

  1. Critical Role for PAR1 in Kallikrein 6-Mediated Oligodendrogliopathy

    PubMed Central

    Burda, Joshua E.; Radulovic, Maja; Yoon, Hyesook; Scarisbrick, Isobel A.

    2014-01-01

    Kallikrein 6 (Klk6) is a secreted serine protease preferentially expressed by oligodendroglia in CNS white matter. Elevated levels of Klk6 occur in actively demyelinating multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions and in cases of spinal cord injury (SCI), stroke and glioblastoma. Taken with recent evidence establishing Klk6 as a CNS-endogenous activator of protease-activated receptors (PARs), we hypothesized that Klk6 activates a subset of PARs to regulate oligodendrocyte physiology and potentially pathophysiology. Here, primary oligodendrocyte cultures derived from wild type or PAR1-deficient mice and the murine oligodendrocyte cell line, Oli-neu, were used to demonstrate that Klk6 mediates loss of oligodendrocyte processes and impedes morphological differentiation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) in a PAR1-dependent fashion. Comparable gliopathy was also elicited by the canonical PAR1 agonist, thrombin, as well as PAR1-activating peptides (PAR1-APs). Klk6 also exacerbated ATP-mediated oligodendrogliopathy in vitro, pointing to a potential role in augmenting excitotoxicity. In addition, Klk6 suppressed the expression of proteolipid protein (PLP) RNA in cultured oligodendrocytes by a mechanism involving PAR1-mediated Erk1/2 signaling. Microinjection of PAR1 agonists, including Klk6 or PAR1-APs, into the dorsal column white matter of PAR+/+ but not PAR−/− mice promoted vacuolating myelopathy and a loss of immunoreactivity for myelin basic protein (MBP) and CC-1+ oligodendrocytes. These results demonstrate a functional role for Klk6-PAR1 signaling in oligodendroglial pathophysiology and suggest that PAR1 or PAR1-agonists may represent new targets to moderate demyelination and to promote myelin regeneration in cases of CNS white matter injury or disease. PMID:23832758

  2. Conception et calibration d'un sonoreacteur pour l'oxydation de la cellulose par le systeme TEMPO/NaOCl/NaBr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paquin, Michel

    grande consommation d'energie et de reactif qui rend le procede difficilement accessible au milieu industriel. L'utilisation des ultrasons lors de la reaction d'oxydation permet de reduire de 50% le temps de reaction et d'autant la consommation de produits chimiques. Actuellement le processus d'oxydation s'effectue en mode discontinu pour une quantite de 20 grammes de pate dans un reacteur en verre dans un bain a ultrason. L'objectif principal de ce travail est d'elaborer un sonoreacteur en mode semi-continu afin d'etre en mesure de transferer une reaction d'oxydation du mode discontinu en mode semi-continu. Le transfert de reaction sera effectue en realisant la calibration de l'activite acoustique des deux differents reacteurs, discontinu et semi-continu, par la methode de Weissler. La methode de Weissler quantifie le taux de production radicalaire en mesurant la formation d'iode moleculaire d'une solution aqueuse d'iodure de potassium sous ultrason. Suite a sa calibration, le sonoreacteur pilote (mode semi-continu) a demontre une augmentation de la production radicalaire de 683 % a 170 kHz en comparaison avec l'utilisation d'un bain a ultrason a la meme frequence. Lors de la reaction d'oxydation, la puissance optimale utilisee dans le bain a ultrason a 170 kHz est de 1000 W. La puissance utilisee selon les resultats de calibration obtenue dans le sonoreacteur pilote est de 125 W soit une diminution de l'energie appliquee de 87,5 %. Lors de la reaction d'oxydation, le taux de production des groupements carboxylates est de 2,6 mmol COOH kg/min dans le bain a ultrason et de 6,87 mmol COOH kg/min dans le sonoreacteur pilote soit une augmentation de 164% du taux de formation. Selon les resultats obtenus, l'utilisation d'un sonoreacteur en mode continu peut etre envisageable pour la reaction d'oxydation de la cellulose par le systeme TEMPO-NaOCl-NaBr en industrie au niveau industriel.

  3. Modelisation par elements finis du muscle strie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonard, Mathieu

    Ce present projet de recherche a permis. de creer un modele par elements finis du muscle strie humain dans le but d'etudier les mecanismes engendrant les lesions musculaires traumatiques. Ce modele constitue une plate-forme numerique capable de discerner l'influence des proprietes mecaniques des fascias et de la cellule musculaire sur le comportement dynamique du muscle lors d'une contraction excentrique, notamment le module de Young et le module de cisaillement de la couche de tissu conjonctif, l'orientation des fibres de collagene de cette membrane et le coefficient de poisson du muscle. La caracterisation experimentale in vitro de ces parametres pour des vitesses de deformation elevees a partir de muscles stries humains actifs est essentielle pour l'etude de lesions musculaires traumatiques. Le modele numerique developpe est capable de modeliser la contraction musculaire comme une transition de phase de la cellule musculaire par un changement de raideur et de volume a l'aide des lois de comportement de materiau predefinies dans le logiciel LS-DYNA (v971, Livermore Software Technology Corporation, Livermore, CA, USA). Le present projet de recherche introduit donc un phenomene physiologique qui pourrait expliquer des blessures musculaires courantes (crampes, courbatures, claquages, etc.), mais aussi des maladies ou desordres touchant le tissu conjonctif comme les collagenoses et la dystrophie musculaire. La predominance de blessures musculaires lors de contractions excentriques est egalement exposee. Le modele developpe dans ce projet de recherche met ainsi a l'avant-scene le concept de transition de phase ouvrant la porte au developpement de nouvelles technologies pour l'activation musculaire chez les personnes atteintes de paraplegie ou de muscles artificiels compacts pour l'elaboration de protheses ou d'exosquelettes. Mots-cles Muscle strie, lesion musculaire, fascia, contraction excentrique, modele par elements finis, transition de phase

  4. Developpement d'algorithmes de reconstruction statistique appliques en tomographie rayons-X assistee par ordinateur

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thibaudeau, Christian

    La tomodensitometrie (TDM) permet d'obtenir, et ce de facon non invasive, une image tridimensionnelle de l'anatomie interne d'un sujet. Elle constitue l'evolution logique de la radiographie et permet l'observation d'un volume sous differents plans (sagittal, coronal, axial ou n'importe quel autre plan). La TDM peut avantageusement completer la tomographie d'emission par positrons (TEP), un outil de predilection utilise en recherche biomedicale et pour le diagnostic du cancer. La TEP fournit une information fonctionnelle, physiologique et metabolique, permettant la localisation et la quantification de radiotraceurs a l'interieur du corps humain. Cette derniere possede une sensibilite inegalee, mais peut neanmoins souffrir d'une faible resolution spatiale et d'un manque de repere anatomique selon le radiotraceur utilise. La combinaison, ou fusion, des images TEP et TDM permet d'obtenir cette localisation anatomique de la distribution du radiotraceur. L'image TDM represente une carte de l'attenuation subie par les rayons-X lors de leur passage a travers les tissus. Elle permet donc aussi d'ameliorer la quantification de l'image TEP en offrant la possibilite de corriger pour l'attenuation. L'image TDM s'obtient par la transformation de profils d'attenuation en une image cartesienne pouvant etre interpretee par l'humain. Si la qualite de cette image est fortement influencee par les performances de l'appareil, elle depend aussi grandement de la capacite de l'algorithme de reconstruction a obtenir une representation fidele du milieu image. Les techniques de reconstruction standards, basees sur la retroprojection filtree (FBP, filtered back-projection), reposent sur un modele mathematiquement parfait de la geometrie d'acquisition. Une alternative a cette methode etalon est appelee reconstruction statistique, ou iterative. Elle permet d'obtenir de meilleurs resultats en presence de bruit ou d'une quantite limitee d'information et peut virtuellement s'adapter a toutes formes

  5. Emissions Inventory

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page describes the role of emission inventories in the air quality management process, a description of how emission inventories are developed, and where U.S. emission inventory information can be found.

  6. A new model for estimating boreal forest fPAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majasalmi, Titta; Rautiainen, Miina; Stenberg, Pauline

    2014-05-01

    Life on Earth is continuously sustained by the extraterrestrial flux of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR, 400-700 nm) from the sun. This flux is converted to biomass by chloroplasts in green vegetation. Thus, the fraction of absorbed PAR (fPAR) is a key parameter used in carbon balance studies, and is listed as one of the Essential Climate Variables (ECV). Temporal courses of fPAR for boreal forests are difficult to measure, because of the complex 3D structures. Thus, they are most often estimated based on models which quantify the dependency of absorbed radiation on canopy structure. In this study, we adapted a physically-based canopy radiation model into a fPAR model, and compared modeled and measured fPAR in structurally different boreal forest stands. The model is based on the spectral invariants theory, and uses leaf area index (LAI), canopy gap fractions and spectra of foliage and understory as input data. The model differs from previously developed more detailed fPAR models in that the complex 3D structure of coniferous forests is described using an aggregated canopy parameter - photon recollision probability p. The strength of the model is that all model inputs are measurable or available through other simple models. First, the model was validated with measurements of instantaneous fPAR obtained with the TRAC instrument in nine Scots pine, Norway spruce and Silver birch stands in a boreal forest in southern Finland. Good agreement was found between modeled and measured fPAR. Next, we applied the model to predict temporal courses of fPAR using data on incoming radiation from a nearby flux tower and sky irradiance models. Application of the model to simulate diurnal and seasonal values of fPAR indicated that the ratio of direct-to-total incident radiation and leaf area index are the key factors behind the magnitude and variation of stand-level fPAR values.

  7. 2. HI PAR (ACQUISITION RADAR) TOWER AND ENLISTED MEN (EM) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. HI PAR (ACQUISITION RADAR) TOWER AND ENLISTED MEN (EM) BARRACKS WITH RADAR ATTACHED. - Nike Hercules Missile Battery Summit Site, Battery Control Administration & Barracks Building, Anchorage, Anchorage, AK

  8. Taare Zameen Par and dyslexic savants

    PubMed Central

    Chakravarty, Ambar

    2009-01-01

    The film Taare Zameen Par (Stars upon the Ground) portrays the tormented life at school and at home of a child with dyslexia and his eventual success after his artistic talents are discovered by his art teacher at the boarding school. The film hints at a curious neurocognitive phenomenon of creativity in the midst of language disability, as exemplified in the lives of people like Leonardo da Vinci and Albert Einstein, both of whom demonstrated extraordinary creativity even though they were probably affected with developmental learning disorders. It has been hypothesized that a developmental delay in the dominant hemisphere most likely ‘disinhibits’ the nondominant parietal lobe, unmasking talents—artistic or otherwise—in some such individuals. It has been suggested that, in remedial training, children with learning disorders be encouraged to develop such hidden talents to full capacity, rather than be subjected to the usual overemphasis on the correction of the disturbed coded symbol operations. PMID:20142854

  9. Transcriptome profiling reveals links between ParS/ParR, MexEF-OprN, and quorum sensing in the regulation of adaptation and virulence in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The ParS/ParR two component regulatory system plays critical roles for multidrug resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. It was demonstrated that in the presence of antimicrobials, ParR enhances bacterial survival by distinct mechanisms including activation of the mexXY efflux genes, enhancement of lipopolysaccharide modification through the arn operon, and reduction of the expression of oprD porin. Results In this study, we report on transcriptomic analyses of P. aeruginosa PAO1 wild type and parS and parR mutants growing in a defined minimal medium. Our transcriptomic analysis provides the first estimates of transcript abundance for the 5570 coding genes in P. aeruginosa PAO1. Comparative transcriptomics of P. aeruginosa PAO1 and par mutants identified a total of 464 genes regulated by ParS and ParR. Results also showed that mutations in the parS/parR system abolished expression of the mexEF-oprN operon by down-regulating the regulatory gene mexS. In addition to the known effects on drug resistance genes, transcript abundances of the quorum sensing genes (rhlIR and pqsABCDE-phnAB) were higher in both parS and parR mutants. In accordance with these results, a significant portion of the ParS/ParR regulated genes belonged to the MexEF-OprN and quorum sensing regulons. Deletion of the par genes also led to increased phenazine production and swarming motility, consistent with the up-regulation of the phenazine and rhamnolipid biosynthetic genes, respectively. Conclusion Our results link the ParS/ParR two component signal transduction system to MexEF-OprN and quorum sensing systems in P. aeruginosa. These results expand our understanding of the roles of the ParS/ParR system in the regulation of gene expression in P. aeruginosa, especially in the absence of antimicrobials. PMID:24034668

  10. Recombination in the Human Pseudoautosomal Region PAR1

    PubMed Central

    Hinch, Anjali G.; Altemose, Nicolas; Noor, Nudrat; Donnelly, Peter; Myers, Simon R.

    2014-01-01

    The pseudoautosomal region (PAR) is a short region of homology between the mammalian X and Y chromosomes, which has undergone rapid evolution. A crossover in the PAR is essential for the proper disjunction of X and Y chromosomes in male meiosis, and PAR deletion results in male sterility. This leads the human PAR with the obligatory crossover, PAR1, to having an exceptionally high male crossover rate, which is 17-fold higher than the genome-wide average. However, the mechanism by which this obligatory crossover occurs remains unknown, as does the fine-scale positioning of crossovers across this region. Recent research in mice has suggested that crossovers in PAR may be mediated independently of the protein PRDM9, which localises virtually all crossovers in the autosomes. To investigate recombination in this region, we construct the most fine-scale genetic map containing directly observed crossovers to date using African-American pedigrees. We leverage recombination rates inferred from the breakdown of linkage disequilibrium in human populations and investigate the signatures of DNA evolution due to recombination. Further, we identify direct PRDM9 binding sites using ChIP-seq in human cells. Using these independent lines of evidence, we show that, in contrast with mouse, PRDM9 does localise peaks of recombination in the human PAR1. We find that recombination is a far more rapid and intense driver of sequence evolution in PAR1 than it is on the autosomes. We also show that PAR1 hotspot activities differ significantly among human populations. Finally, we find evidence that PAR1 hotspot positions have changed between human and chimpanzee, with no evidence of sharing among the hottest hotspots. We anticipate that the genetic maps built and validated in this work will aid research on this vital and fascinating region of the genome. PMID:25033397

  11. Recombination in the human Pseudoautosomal region PAR1.

    PubMed

    Hinch, Anjali G; Altemose, Nicolas; Noor, Nudrat; Donnelly, Peter; Myers, Simon R

    2014-07-01

    The pseudoautosomal region (PAR) is a short region of homology between the mammalian X and Y chromosomes, which has undergone rapid evolution. A crossover in the PAR is essential for the proper disjunction of X and Y chromosomes in male meiosis, and PAR deletion results in male sterility. This leads the human PAR with the obligatory crossover, PAR1, to having an exceptionally high male crossover rate, which is 17-fold higher than the genome-wide average. However, the mechanism by which this obligatory crossover occurs remains unknown, as does the fine-scale positioning of crossovers across this region. Recent research in mice has suggested that crossovers in PAR may be mediated independently of the protein PRDM9, which localises virtually all crossovers in the autosomes. To investigate recombination in this region, we construct the most fine-scale genetic map containing directly observed crossovers to date using African-American pedigrees. We leverage recombination rates inferred from the breakdown of linkage disequilibrium in human populations and investigate the signatures of DNA evolution due to recombination. Further, we identify direct PRDM9 binding sites using ChIP-seq in human cells. Using these independent lines of evidence, we show that, in contrast with mouse, PRDM9 does localise peaks of recombination in the human PAR1. We find that recombination is a far more rapid and intense driver of sequence evolution in PAR1 than it is on the autosomes. We also show that PAR1 hotspot activities differ significantly among human populations. Finally, we find evidence that PAR1 hotspot positions have changed between human and chimpanzee, with no evidence of sharing among the hottest hotspots. We anticipate that the genetic maps built and validated in this work will aid research on this vital and fascinating region of the genome.

  12. Megestrol acetate NCD oral suspension -- Par Pharmaceutical: megestrol acetate nanocrystal dispersion oral suspension, PAR 100.2, PAR-100.2.

    PubMed

    2007-01-01

    Par Pharmaceutical has developed megestrol acetate (Megace ES) oral suspension for the treatment of anorexia, cachexia and a significant weight loss associated with AIDS. Par Pharmaceutical used Elan Corporation's NanoCrystal Dispersion (NCD) technology to develop an advanced, concentrated formulation of megestrol acetate with improved bioavailability, more rapid onset of action, more convenient dosing and a lower dosing regimen compared with the original marketed formulation of megestrol acetate oral suspension. Patients are administered a teaspoon (5mL) of the new NCD formulation once daily, compared with a daily 20mL dosage cup of the original formulation. The new megestrol acetate NCD formulation represents a line-extension of Par's megestrol acetate oral suspension (800mg/20mL, Megace O/S) that has been marketed for anorexia, cachexia and AIDS-related weight loss since July 2001. Par's megestrol acetate is the generic version of Bristol-Myers Squibb's Megace Oral Suspension. NanoCrystal Dispersion (NCD) is a trademark of Elan Corporation. Par Pharmaceutical will market megestol acetate NCD oral suspension under the Megace brand name. The company licensed the Megace name from Bristol-Myers Squib in August 2003. The US FDA approved megestrol acetate oral suspension (625 mg/mL) in July 2005 for the treatment of anorexia, cachexia or a significant, unexplained weight loss in patients with AIDS. The NDA for the product was accepted for review by the agency in September 2004, following its submission in June of that year.Par Pharmaceutical commenced the first of two phase III clinical trials of megestrol acetate oral suspension (PAR 100.2) in cancer-induced anorexia in the first quarter of 2006. However, this trial was discontinued in September 2006 because of slow patient enrolment. The company intends to discuss future development options in this indication with the FDA.New formulations or dosage forms of megestrol acetate concentrated suspension are also in

  13. Megestrol acetate NCD oral suspension--Par Pharmaceutical: megestrol acetate nanocrystal dispersion oral suspension, PAR 100.2, PAR-100.2.

    PubMed

    2007-01-01

    Par Pharmaceutical has developed megestrol acetate (Megace ES) oral suspension for the treatment of anorexia, cachexia and a significant weight loss associated with AIDS. Par Pharmaceutical used Elan Corporation's NanoCrystal Dispersion (NCD) technology to develop an advanced, concentrated formulation of megestrol acetate with improved bioavailability, more rapid onset of action, more convenient dosing and a lower dosing regimen compared with the original marketed formulation of megestrol acetate oral suspension. Patients are administered a teaspoon (5mL) of the new NCD formulation once daily, compared with a daily 20mL dosage cup of the original formulation. The new megestrol acetate NCD formulation represents a line-extension of Par's megestrol acetate oral suspension (800mg/20mL, Megace O/S) that has been marketed for anorexia, cachexia and AIDS-related weight loss since July 2001. Par's megestrol acetate is the generic version of Bristol-Myers Squibb's Megace Oral Suspension. NanoCrystal Dispersion (NCD) is a trademark of Elan Corporation. Par Pharmaceutical will market megestol acetate NCD oral suspension under the Megace brand name. The company licensed the Megace name from Bristol-Myers Squib in August 2003. The US FDA approved megestrol acetate oral suspension (625 mg/mL) in July 2005 for the treatment of anorexia, cachexia or a significant, unexplained weight loss in patients with AIDS. The NDA for the product was accepted for review by the agency in September 2004, following its submission in June of that year.Par Pharmaceutical commenced the first of two phase III clinical trials of megestrol acetate oral suspension (PAR 100.2) in cancer-induced anorexia in the first quarter of 2006. However, this trial was discontinued in September 2006 because of slow patient enrolment. The company intends to discuss future development options in this indication with the FDA.New formulations or dosage forms of megestrol acetate concentrated suspension are also in

  14. Condensation and localization of the partitioning protein ParB on the bacterial chromosome.

    PubMed

    Broedersz, Chase P; Wang, Xindan; Meir, Yigal; Loparo, Joseph J; Rudner, David Z; Wingreen, Ned S

    2014-06-17

    The ParABS system mediates chromosome segregation and plasmid partitioning in many bacteria. As part of the partitioning mechanism, ParB proteins form a nucleoprotein complex at parS sites. The biophysical basis underlying ParB-DNA complex formation and localization remains elusive. Specifically, it is unclear whether ParB spreads in 1D along DNA or assembles into a 3D protein-DNA complex. We show that a combination of 1D spreading bonds and a single 3D bridging bond between ParB proteins constitutes a minimal model for a condensed ParB-DNA complex. This model implies a scaling behavior for ParB-mediated silencing of parS-flanking genes, which we confirm to be satisfied by experimental data from P1 plasmids. Furthermore, this model is consistent with experiments on the effects of DNA roadblocks on ParB localization. Finally, we show experimentally that a single parS site is necessary and sufficient for ParB-DNA complex formation in vivo. Together with our model, this suggests that ParB binding to parS triggers a conformational switch in ParB that overcomes a nucleation barrier. Conceptually, the combination of spreading and bridging bonds in our model provides a surface tension ensuring the condensation of the ParB-DNA complex, with analogies to liquid-like compartments such as nucleoli in eukaryotes.

  15. Condensation and localization of the partitioning protein ParB on the bacterial chromosome

    PubMed Central

    Broedersz, Chase P.; Wang, Xindan; Meir, Yigal; Loparo, Joseph J.; Rudner, David Z.; Wingreen, Ned S.

    2014-01-01

    The ParABS system mediates chromosome segregation and plasmid partitioning in many bacteria. As part of the partitioning mechanism, ParB proteins form a nucleoprotein complex at parS sites. The biophysical basis underlying ParB–DNA complex formation and localization remains elusive. Specifically, it is unclear whether ParB spreads in 1D along DNA or assembles into a 3D protein–DNA complex. We show that a combination of 1D spreading bonds and a single 3D bridging bond between ParB proteins constitutes a minimal model for a condensed ParB–DNA complex. This model implies a scaling behavior for ParB-mediated silencing of parS-flanking genes, which we confirm to be satisfied by experimental data from P1 plasmids. Furthermore, this model is consistent with experiments on the effects of DNA roadblocks on ParB localization. Finally, we show experimentally that a single parS site is necessary and sufficient for ParB–DNA complex formation in vivo. Together with our model, this suggests that ParB binding to parS triggers a conformational switch in ParB that overcomes a nucleation barrier. Conceptually, the combination of spreading and bridging bonds in our model provides a surface tension ensuring the condensation of the ParB–DNA complex, with analogies to liquid-like compartments such as nucleoli in eukaryotes. PMID:24927534

  16. Scleral Buckling for Rhegmatogenous Retinal Detachment Associated with Pars Planitis

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Jae Kyoun

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate the surgical outcome of scleral buckling (SB) in rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) patients associated with pars planitis. Methods. Retrospective review of RRD patients (32 eyes of pars planitis RRD and 180 eyes of primary RRD) who underwent SB. We compared primary and final anatomical success rates and visual outcomes between two groups. Results. Primary and final anatomical success were achieved in 25 (78.1%) and 31 (96.8%) eyes in the pars planitis RRD group and in 167 eyes (92.7%) and 176 eyes (97.7%) in primary RRD group, respectively. Both groups showed significant visual improvement (p < 0.001) and there were no significant differences in final visual acuity. Pars planitis RRD group was associated with higher rate of postoperative proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) development (12.5% versus 2.8%, p = 0.031). Pars planitis and high myopia were significant preoperative risk factors and pseudophakia was borderline risk for primary anatomical failure after adjusting for various clinical factors. Conclusions. Pars planitis associated RRD showed inferior primary anatomical outcome after SB due to postoperative PVR development. However, final anatomical and visual outcomes were favorable. RRD cases associated with pars planitis, high myopia, and pseudophakia might benefit from different surgical approaches, such as combined vitrectomy and SB. PMID:27688907

  17. The Pars Triangularis in Dyslexia and ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Kibby, Michelle Y.; Kroese, Judith M.; Krebbs, Hillery; Hill, Crystal E.; Hynd, George W.

    2009-01-01

    Limited research has been conducted on the structure of the pars triangularis (PT) in dyslexia despite functional neuroimaging research finding it may play a role in phonological processing. Furthermore, research to date has not examined PT size in ADHD even though the right inferior frontal region has been implicated in the disorder. Hence, one of the purposes of this study was to examine the structure of the PT in dyslexia and ADHD. The other purposes included examining the PT in relation to overall expressive language ability and in relation to several specific linguistic functions given language functioning often is affected in both dyslexia and ADHD. Participants included 50 children: 10 with dyslexia, 15 with comorbid dyslexia/ADHD, 15 with ADHD, and 10 controls. Using a 2 (dyslexia or not) X 2 (ADHD or not) MANCOVA, findings revealed PT length and shape were comparable between those with and without dyslexia. However, children with ADHD had smaller right PT lengths than those without ADHD, and right anterior ascending ramus length was related to attention problems in the total sample. In terms of linguistic functioning, presence of an extra sulcus in the left PT was related to poor expressive language ability. In those with adequate expressive language functioning, left PT length was related to phonological awareness, phonological short-term memory and rapid automatic naming (RAN). Right PT length was related to RAN and semantic processing. Further work on PT morphology in relation to ADHD and linguistic functioning is warranted. PMID:19356794

  18. Multi-scale photoacoustic remote sensing (PARS) (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haji Reza, Parsin; Bell, Kevan; Shi, W.; Zemp, Roger J.

    2016-03-01

    We introduce a novel multi-scale photoacoustic remote sensing (PARS) imaging system. Our system can provide optical resolution details for superficial structures as well as acoustic resolution for deep-tissue imaging down to 5 cm, in a non-contact setting. PARS system does not require any contact with the sample or ultrasound coupling medium. The optical resolution PARS (OR-OARS) system uses optically focused pulsed excitation with optical detection of photoacoustic signatures using a long-coherence interrogation beam co-focused and co-scanned with the excitation spot. In the OR-PARS initial pressures are sampled right at their subsurface origin where acoustic pressures are largest. The Acoustic resolution PARS (AR-PARS) picks up the surface oscillation of the tissue caused by generated photoacoustic signal using a modified version of Michelson interferometry. By taking advantage of 4-meters polarization maintaining single-mode fiber and a green fiber laser we have generated a multi-wavelength source using stimulated Raman scattering. Remote functional imaging using this multi-wavelength excitation source and PARS detection mechanism has been demonstrated. The oxygen saturation estimations are shown for both phantom and in vivo studies. Images of blood vessel structures for an In vivo chicken embryo model is demonstrated. The Phantom studies indicates ~3µm and ~300µm lateral resolution for OR-PARS and AR-PARS respectively. To the best of our knowledge this is the first dual modality non-contact optical and acoustic resolution system used for in vivo imaging.

  19. Predicted PAR1 inhibitors from multiple computational methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ying; Liu, Jinfeng; Zhu, Tong; Zhang, Lujia; He, Xiao; Zhang, John Z. H.

    2016-08-01

    Multiple computational approaches are employed in order to find potentially strong binders of PAR1 from the two molecular databases: the Specs database containing more than 200,000 commercially available molecules and the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) database. By combining the use of popular docking scoring functions together with detailed molecular dynamics simulation and protein-ligand free energy calculations, a total of fourteen molecules are found to be potentially strong binders of PAR1. The atomic details in protein-ligand interactions of these molecules with PAR1 are analyzed to help understand the binding mechanism which should be very useful in design of new drugs.

  20. The Study of Biogenetic Organic Compound Emissions and Ozone in a Subtropical Bamboo Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Jianhui; Guenther, Alex; Turnipseed, Andrew; Duhl, Tiffany; Duhl, Nanhao; van der A, Ronald; Yu, Shuquan; Wang, Bin

    2016-08-01

    Emissions of Biogenic Volatile Organic compounds (BVOCs), Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR), and meteorological parameters were measured in some ecosystems in China. A Relaxed Eddy Accumulation system and an enclosure technique were used to measure BVOC emissions. Obvious diurnal and seasonal variations of BVOC emissions were found. Empirical models of BVOC emissions were developed, the estimated BVOC emissions were in agreement with observations. BVOC emissions in growing seasons in the Inner Mongolia grassland, Chnagbai Mountain temperate forest, LinAn subtropical bamboo forest were estimated. The emission factors of these ecosystems were calculated.

  1. View from northeast to southwest of PAR site sentry station; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View from northeast to southwest of PAR site sentry station; formerly the bachelor's enlisted men's quarter (BEQ) - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Sentry Station, North of Second Avenue & West of Electrical Switch Station No. 2, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  2. PARS: Programs for Analysis and Resizing of Structures, user manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haftka, R. T.; Prasad, B.; Tsach, U.

    1979-01-01

    PARS processors and their use, flutter analysis, sensitivity analysis for stresses, and resizing are presented. Design variable definition and interface with finite element model, static constraints and their derivatives, flutter derivatives, and optimization are discussed.

  3. View from southwest to northeast of PAR site fresh water ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View from southwest to northeast of PAR site fresh water pump house - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Fresh Water Pump House, In Limited Access Area, on Patrol Road next to Open Storage Reservoir No. 736, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  4. Croissance epitaxiale de GaAs sur substrats de Ge par epitaxie par faisceaux chimiques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belanger, Simon

    La situation energetique et les enjeux environnementaux auxquels la societe est confrontee entrainent un interet grandissant pour la production d'electricite a partir de l'energie solaire. Parmi les technologies actuellement disponibles, la filiere du photovoltaique a concentrateur solaire (CPV pour concentrator photovoltaics) possede un rendement superieur et mi potentiel interessant a condition que ses couts de production soient competitifs. La methode d'epitaxie par faisceaux chimiques (CBE pour chemical beam epitaxy) possede plusieurs caracteristiques qui la rendent interessante pour la production a grande echelle de cellules photovoltaiques a jonctions multiples a base de semi-conducteurs III-V. Ce type de cellule possede la meilleure efficacite atteinte a ce jour et est utilise sur les satellites et les systemes photovoltaiques a concentrateur solaire (CPV) les plus efficaces. Une des principales forces de la technique CBE se trouve dans son potentiel d'efficacite d'utilisation des materiaux source qui est superieur a celui de la technique d'epitaxie qui est couramment utilisee pour la production a grande echelle de ces cellules. Ce memoire de maitrise presente les travaux effectues dans le but d'evaluer le potentiel de la technique CBE pour realiser la croissance de couches de GaAs sur des substrats de Ge. Cette croissance constitue la premiere etape de fabrication de nombreux modeles de cellules solaires a haute performance decrites plus haut. La realisation de ce projet a necessite le developpement d'un procede de preparation de surface pour les substrats de germanium, la realisation de nombreuses sceances de croissance epitaxiale et la caracterisation des materiaux obtenus par microscopie optique, microscopie a force atomique (AFM), diffraction des rayons-X a haute resolution (HRXRD), microscopie electronique a transmission (TEM), photoluminescence a basse temperature (LTPL) et spectrometrie de masse des ions secondaires (SIMS). Les experiences ont permis

  5. Molecular Mechanisms of Par-4-Induced Apoptosis in Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-05-01

    Sambrook J, Fritsch EF, Maniatis T. (1989). Molecular Cloning : A Laboratory Manual (Cold Spring Harbor, New York: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory...AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-05-1-0622 TITLE: Molecular Mechanisms of Par-4-Induced...SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Molecular Mechanisms of Par-4-Induced Apoptosis in Prostate Cancer 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-05-1-0622 5c. PROGRAM

  6. Stabilization of Cell Polarity by the C. elegans RING Protein PAR-2

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Yingsong; Boyd, Lynn; Seydoux, Geraldine

    2006-01-01

    Summary Asymmetric localization of PAR proteins is a hallmark of polarized cells, but the mechanisms that create PAR asymmetry are not well understood. In the C. elegans zygote, PAR asymmetry is initiated by a transient actomyosin contraction, which sweeps the PAR-3/PAR-6/PKC-3 complex toward the anterior pole of the egg. The RING finger protein PAR-2 accumulates in a complementary pattern in the posterior cortex. Here we present evidence that PAR-2 participates in a feedback loop to stabilize polarity. PAR-2 is a target of the PKC-3 kinase and is excluded from the anterior cortex by PKC-3-dependent phosphorylation. The RING domain of PAR-2 is required to overcome inhibition by PKC-3 and stabilize PAR-2 on the posterior cortex. Cortical PAR-2 in turn prevents PAR-3/PAR-6/PKC-3 from returning to the posterior, in a PAR-1- and PAR-5-dependent manner. Our findings suggest that reciprocal inhibitory interactions among PAR proteins stabilize polarity by reinforcing an initial asymmetry in PKC-3. PMID:16459299

  7. Pars Planitis: Epidemiology, Clinical Characteristics, Management and Visual Prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Ozdal, Pinar Cakar; Berker, Nilufer; Tugal-Tutkun, Ilknur

    2015-01-01

    Pars planitis is an idiopathic chronic intermediate uveitis which predominantly affects children and adolescents, and accounts for 5-26.7% of pediatric uveitis. Although an autoimmune process with a genetic predisposition has been suggested, its etiology still remains unknown. The most common presenting symptoms are floaters and blurred vision. Diffuse vitreous cells, haze, snowballs and snowbanks are typical findings of pars planitis. Peripheral retinal vasculitis, optic disc edema and anterior segment inflammation are other well-known findings. Although pars planitis is known to be a benign form of uveitis in most cases, it may become a potentially blinding disease due to complications including cataract, cystoid macular edema, vitreous opacities and optic disc edema. Cystoid macular edema is the most common cause of visual morbidity. Band keratopathy, epiretinal membrane formation, vitreous condensation, neovascularizations, vitreous hemorrhage, retinal detachment, cyclitic membranes, glaucoma and amblyopia may develop as a consequence of the chronic course of the disease. Exclusion of infectious and non-infectious causes which may present with intermediate uveitis is of utmost importance before starting treatment. Treatment of pars planitis has been a controversial issue. There is no consensus specifically for treatment of cases with minimal inflammation and relatively good visual acuity. However, current experience shows that pars planitis may cause severe inflammation and needs an aggressive treatment. A stepladder approach including corticosteroids, immunosupressive agents, anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha and pars plana vitrectomy and/or laser photocoagulation is the most commonly used method for treatment of pars planitis. Adequate control of inflammation and prompt detection of associated complications are crucial in order to improve the overall prognosis of the disease. PMID:27051493

  8. Par Pond vegetation status Summer 1995 -- June survey descriptive summary

    SciTech Connect

    Mackey, H.E. Jr.; Riley, R.S.

    1995-06-01

    The water level of Par Pond was lowered approximately 20 feet in mid-1991 in order to protect downstream residents from possible dam failure suggested by subsidence on the downstream slope of the dam and to repair the dam. This lowering exposed both emergent and nonemergent macrophyte beds to drying conditions resulting in extensive losses. A survey of the shoreline aquatic plant communities in June 1995, three months after the refilling of Par Pond to approximately 200 feet above mean sea level, indicated that much of the original plant communities and the intermediate shoreline communities present on the exposed sediments have been lost. The extensive old-field and emergent marsh communities that were present on the exposed shoreline during the drawdown have been flooded and much of the pre-drawdown Par Pond aquatic plant communities have not had sufficient time for re-establishment. The shoreline does, however, have extensive beds of maidencane which extend from the shoreline margin to areas as deep as 2 and perhaps 3 meters. Scattered individual plants of lotus and watershield are common and may indicate likely directions of future wetland development in Par Pond. In addition, within isolated coves, which apparently received ground water seepage and/or stream surface flows during the period of the Par Pond draw down, extensive beds of waterlilies and spike rush are common. Invasion of willow and red maple occurred along the lake shoreline as well. Although not absent from this survey, evidence of the extensive redevelopment of the large cattail and eel grass beds was not observed in this first survey of Par Pond. Future surveys during the growing seasons of 1995, 1996, and 1997 along with the evaluation of satellite date to map the areal extent of the macrophyte beds of Par Pond are planned.

  9. Par Pond vegetation status Summer 1995 -- September survey descriptive summary

    SciTech Connect

    Mackey, H.E. Jr.; Riley, R.S.

    1995-09-01

    The water level of Par Pond was lowered approximately 20 feet in mid-1991 in order to protect downstream residents from possible dam failure suggested by subsidence on the downstream slope of the dam and to repair the dam. This lowering exposed both emergent and nonemergent macrophyte beds to drying conditions resulting in extensive losses. A survey of the emergent shoreline aquatic plant communities began in June 1995, three months after the refilling of Par Pond to approximately 200 feet above mean sea level and continued with this mid-September survey. Communities similar to the pre-drawdown Par Pond aquatic plant communities are becoming re-established; especially, beds of maidencane, lotus, waterlily, and watershield are now extensive and well established. Cattail occurrence continues to increase, but large beds common to Par Pond prior to the drawdown have not formed. Future surveys during the late growing seasons of 1995, and throughout 1996 and 1997, along with the evaluation of satellite data to map the areal extent of the macrophyte beds of Par Pond, are planned.

  10. Par Pond vegetation status Summer 1995 -- October survey descriptive summary

    SciTech Connect

    Mackey, H.E. Jr.; Riley, R.S.

    1995-11-01

    The water level of Par Pond was lowered approximately 20 feet in mid-1991 in order to protect downstream residents from possible dam failure suggested by subsidence on the downstream slope of the dam and to repair the dam. This lowering exposed both emergent and nonemergent macrophyte beds to drying conditions resulting in extensive losses. A survey of the emergent shoreline aquatic plant communities began in June 1995, three months after the refilling of Par Pond to approximately 200 feet above mean sea level and continued with this late October survey. Communities similar to the pre-drawdown Par Pond aquatic plant communities are becoming re-established; especially, beds of maiden cane, lotus, waterlily, and watershield are now extensive and well established. Cattail occurrence continues to increase, but large beds common to Par Pond prior to the drawdown have not formed. Future surveys throughout 1996 and 1997, along with the continued evaluation of satellite data to map the areal extent of the macrophyte beds of Par Pond, are planned.

  11. Couches Minces de Titanate de Baryum Par Depot Organometallique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ousi Benomar, Wahib

    1993-01-01

    Nous avons demontre la possibilite de realiser des couches minces de titanate de baryum par depot organometallique. Les films sont obtenus apres dissolution d'organometalliques choisis dans un solvant et une cuisson a une temperature determinee par thermogravimetrie. Apres un second traitement thermique a des temperatures plus elevees, les echantillons presentent une structure polycristalline tetragonale; les cristallites sont observes par microscopie electronique a balayage. La mesure de la constante dielectrique a permis de mettre en evidence une transition de phase de la structure tetragonale a la structure cubique a une temperature d'environ 125^circC. Les mesures d'indice ont ete effectuees. On note une augmentation de l'indice de refraction des films avec la temperature indiquant une meilleure densification des films. Nous avons aussi montre qu'il etait possible d'utiliser ce materiau en tant que guide d'onde optique pour pouvoir exploiter ses proprietes electrooptiques dans l'avenir.

  12. Protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR2) in cardiovascular system.

    PubMed

    Bucci, Mariarosaria; Roviezzo, Fiorentina; Cirino, Giuseppe

    2005-10-01

    Vascular system is constituted by a complex and articulate network, e.g. arteries, arterioles, venules and veins, that requires a high degree of coordination between different elemental cell types. Proteinase-activated receptors (PARs) constitute a recent described family of 7-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptors that are activated by proteolysis. In recent years several evidence have been accumulated for an involvement of this receptor in the response to endothelial injury in vitro and in vivo experimental settings suggesting a role for PAR2 in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular system. This review will deal with the role of PAR2 receptor in the cardiovascular system analyzing both in vivo and in vitro published data. In particular this review will deal with the role of this receptor in vascular reactivity, ischemia/reperfusion injury, coronary atherosclerotic lesions and angiogenesis.

  13. Both PHYTOCHROME RAPIDLY REGULATED1 (PAR1) and PAR2 Promote Seedling Photomorphogenesis in Multiple Light Signaling Pathways1[C][W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Peng; Song, Meifang; Yang, Qinghua; Su, Liang; Hou, Pei; Guo, Lin; Zheng, Xu; Xi, Yulin; Meng, Fanhua; Xiao, Yang; Yang, Li; Yang, Jianping

    2014-01-01

    Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) seedlings undergo photomorphogenesis in the light and etiolation in the dark. Light-activated photoreceptors transduce the light signals through a series of photomorphogenesis promoting or repressing factors to modulate many developmental processes in plants, such as photomorphogenesis and shade avoidance. CONSTITUTIVE PHOTOMORPHOGENIC1 (COP1) is a conserved RING finger E3 ubiquitin ligase, which mediates degradation of several photomorphogenesis promoting factors, including ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL5 (HY5) and LONG HYPOCOTYL IN FAR-RED1 (HFR1), through a 26S proteasome-dependent pathway. PHYTOCHROME RAPIDLY REGULATED1 (PAR1) was first detected as an early repressed gene in both phytochrome A (phyA)-mediated far-red and phyB-mediated red signaling pathways, and subsequent studies showed that both PAR1 and PAR2 are negative factors of shade avoidance in Arabidopsis. However, the role of PAR1 and PAR2 in seedling deetiolation, and their relationships with other photomorphogenesis promoting and repressing factors are largely unknown. Here, we confirmed that both PAR1 and PAR2 redundantly enhance seedling deetiolation in multiple photoreceptor signaling pathways. Their transcript abundances are repressed by phyA, phyB, and cryptochrome1 under far-red, red, and blue light conditions, respectively. Both PAR1 and PAR2 act downstream of COP1, and COP1 mediates the degradation of PAR1 and PAR2 through the 26S proteasome pathway. Both PAR1 and PAR2 act in a separate pathway from HY5 and HFR1 under different light conditions, except for sharing in the same pathway with HFR1 under far-red light. Together, our results substantiate that PAR1 and PAR2 are positive factors functioning in multiple photoreceptor signaling pathways during seedling deetiolation. PMID:24335334

  14. Isoprene emission from Indian trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varshney, C. K.; Singh, Abhai Pratap

    2003-12-01

    Isoprene is the most dominant non-methane volatile organic compound (NMVOC) emitted by plants. NMVOCs play an important role in regulating the composition of atmospheric trace gases including global concentration of tropospheric ozone. Our present knowledge about NMVOCs emission is mainly from studies on temperate tree species. So far information on biogenic NMVOCs emission from tropical tree species is limited. In this study, isoprene emission rates from 40 tropical Indian tree species belonging to 33 genera and 17 families were measured for the first time using a dynamic flow through enclosure chamber technique. The isoprene emission rate from plants (30°C and PAR 1000 μmolm-2s-1) ranged from undetectable to 81.5 μg g-1 h-1 and values were found to be comparable with other studies on tropical tree species. Tree species screened for isoprene emission in the present study may be grouped into the four categories, proposed by [2001], namely, 18 species were negligible or BDL isoprene emitting (<1 μg g-1 h-1), 6 species were low emitting (1 ≤ to <10 μg g-1 h-1), 5 species were moderate emitting (10≤ to <25 μg g-1 h-1), and 11 species were high isoprene emitting (≥25 μg g-1 h-1). Maximum isoprene emission rate (81.5 μg g-1 h-1) was observed in the case of Dalbergia sissoo Linn. It was interesting to find that Citrus limon Linn., Citrus reticulata Linn., Citrus sinensis Linn., Grevillea robusta A. Cunn., and Morus alba Linn., which were earlier reported as BDL or non isoprene emitters in US [, 1998; , 2001] were found to be appreciably high isoprene emitters (0.61-21.60 μg g-1 h-1) in the present study.

  15. Traumatisme de la main par injection a haute pression

    PubMed Central

    Mabchoure, K.; Diouri, M.; Bahechar, N.; Chlihi, A.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Les traumatismes de la main par injection à haute pression sont des accidents relativement rares et souvent mal connus par le praticien. Les lésions qui dépendent du produit injecté et du site d’injection sont pourvoyeuses de séquelles esthétiques et fonctionnelles lourdes. Le traitement repose sur la chirurgie, l’antibiothérapie et la rééducation précoce et spécifique. Nous rapportons notre expérience ainsi qu’une revue de la littérature. PMID:27857654

  16. PAR-3 oligomerization may provide an actin-independent mechanism to maintain distinct par protein domains in the early Caenorhabditis elegans embryo.

    PubMed

    Dawes, Adriana T; Munro, Edwin M

    2011-09-21

    Par proteins establish discrete intracellular spatial domains to polarize many different cell types. In the single-cell embryo of the nematode worm Caenorhabditis elegans, the segregation of Par proteins is crucial for proper division and cell fate specification. Actomyosin-based cortical flows drive the initial formation of anterior and posterior Par domains, but cortical actin is not required for the maintenance of these domains. Here we develop a model of interactions between the Par proteins that includes both mutual inhibition and PAR-3 oligomerization. We show that this model gives rise to a bistable switch mechanism, allowing the Par proteins to occupy distinct anterior and posterior domains seen in the early C. elegans embryo, independent of dynamics or asymmetries in the actin cortex. The model predicts a sharp loss of cortical Par protein asymmetries during gradual depletion of the Par protein PAR-6, and we confirm this prediction experimentally. Together, these results suggest both mutual inhibition and PAR-3 oligomerization are sufficient to maintain distinct Par protein domains in the early C. elegans embryo.

  17. Emission inventory of evaporative emissions of VOCs in four metro cities in India.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Anjali; née Som Majumdar, Dipanjali

    2010-01-01

    High concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in ambient air of urban areas stress the need for the control of VOC emissions due to the toxic and carcinogenic nature of many VOCs commonly encountered in urban air. Emission inventories are an essential tool in the management of local air quality, which provide a listing of sources of air pollutant emissions within a specific area over a specified period of time. This study intended to provide a level IV emission inventory as par the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) definition for evaporative VOC emissions in the metro cities of India namely Delhi, Mumbai, Chennai, and Kolkata. The vehicular evaporative emissions are found to be the largest contributor to the total evaporative emissions of hydrocarbons followed by evaporative losses related to petrol loading and unloading activities. Besides vehicle-related activities, other major sources contributing to evaporative emissions of hydrocarbons are surface coating, dry cleaning, graphical art applications, printing (newspaper and computer), and the use of consumer products. Various specific preventive measures are also recommended for reducing the emissions.

  18. BOREAS RSS-10 TOMS Circumpolar One-Degree PAR Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dye, Dennis G.; Holben, Brent; Nickeson, Jaime (Editor); Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) Remote Sensing Science (RSS)-10 team investigated the magnitude of daily, seasonal, and yearly variations of Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR) from ground and satellite observations. This data set contains satellite estimates of surface-incident PAR (400-700 nm, MJ/sq m) at one-degree spatial resolution. The spatial coverage is circumpolar from latitudes of 41 to 66 degrees north. The temporal coverage is from May through September for years 1979 through 1989. Eleven-year statistics are also provided: (1) mean, (2) standard deviation, and (3) coefficient of variation for 1979-89. The PAR estimates were derived from the global gridded ultraviolet reflectivity data product (average of 360, 380 nm) from the Nimbus-7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS). Image mask data are provided for identifying the boreal forest zone, and ocean/land and snow/ice-covered areas. The data are available as binary image format data files. The PAR data are available from the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC). The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884).

  19. Par Pond vegetation status summer 1995 - July survey descriptive summary

    SciTech Connect

    Mackey, H.E. Jr.; Riley, R.S.

    1995-07-01

    A survey of the emergent shoreline aquatic plant, communities began in June 1995, three months after the refilling of Par Pond to approximately 200 feet (61 meters) above mean sea level, and continued with this July survey. Aquatic plant communities, similar to the pre-drawdown Par Pond communities, are becoming reestablished. Beds of maidencane (Panicum hemitomon), lotus (Nelumbo lutea), water lily (Nymphaea odorata), and watershield (Brasenia schreberi) are now extensive and well established. In addition, within isolated coves, extensive beds of water lilies and spike-rush (Eleocharis sp.) are common. Cattail occurrence has increased since refill, but large beds common to Par Pond prior to the drawdown have not formed. Invasion of willow (Salix sp.) and red maple (Acer rubrum) occurred along the lake shoreline during drawdown. The red maples along the present shoreline are beginning to show evidence of stress and mortality from flooding over the past four months. Some of the willows appear to be stressed as well. The loblolly pines (Pinus taeda), which were flooded in all but the shallow shoreline areas, are now dead. Future surveys are planned for the growing seasons of 1995, 1996, and 1997, along with the evaluation of satellite data for mapping the areal extent of the macrophyte beds of Par Pond.

  20. Radiological impact of Par Pond drawdown from liquid effluent pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Carlton, W.H.; Hamby, D.M.

    1991-10-25

    The water level of Par Pond has been lowered over the past several months to reduce the effects in the event of catastrophic dam failure while assessing the condition of the dam and determining if repairs are necessary. In lowering the level of Par Pond, 60 billion liters of water containing low levels of tritium and cesium-137 were discharged to several onsite streams. SRS surface streams flow to the Savannah River. An assessment made to determine the total amount of tritium and Cs-137 discharged and to estimate the consequences to downstream Savannah River users. It is estimated that a total of 160 curies of tritium were displaced from Par Pond to the Savannah River between June 28, 1991 and September 19, 1991. This release could hypothetically result in a maximum individual dose of 3. 2{times}10{sup {minus}4} mrem and a total (80-km and drinking water populations) population dose of 1.4{times}10{sup {minus}2} person-rem. Likewise, a maximum individual dose of 5.0{times}10{sup {minus}2} mrem and a total population dose of 1.7{times}10{sup {minus}1} person- rem are predicted as a result of an estimated 0.21 curies of Cs-137 being discharged from Par Pond to the Savannah River.

  1. Are You Up to PAR? (Program Administrative Review).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southwest Regional Resource Center, Salt Lake City, UT.

    The document focuses on the workings of PAR (Program Administrative Review), a method by which local education agencies (LEAs) and state operated programs (SOPs) in Utah can conduct ongoing self-evaluation and identify areas where additional efforts are needed to improve the quality of programs and services for handicapped children. It is…

  2. Promiscuous stimulation of ParF protein polymerization by heterogeneous centromere binding factors.

    PubMed

    Machón, Cristina; Fothergill, Timothy J G; Barillà, Daniela; Hayes, Finbarr

    2007-11-16

    The segrosome is the nucleoprotein complex that mediates accurate segregation of bacterial plasmids. The segrosome of plasmid TP228 comprises ParF and ParG proteins that assemble on the parH centromere. ParF, which exemplifies one clade of the ubiquitous ParA superfamily of segregation proteins, polymerizes extensively in response to ATP binding. Polymerization is modulated by the ParG centromere binding factor (CBF). The segrosomes of plasmids pTAR, pVT745 and pB171 include ParA homologues of the ParF subgroup, as well as diverse homodimeric CBFs with no primary sequence similarity to ParG, or each other. Centromere binding by these analogues is largely specific. Here, we establish that the ParF homologues of pTAR and pB171 filament modestly with ATP, and that nucleotide hydrolysis is not required for this polymerization, which is more prodigious when the cognate CBF is also present. By contrast, the ParF homologue of plasmid pVT745 did not respond appreciably to ATP alone, but polymerized extensively in the presence of both its cognate CBF and ATP. The co-factors also stimulated nucleotide-independent polymerization of cognate ParF proteins. Moreover, apart from the CBF of pTAR, the disparate ParG analogues promoted polymerization of non-cognate ParF proteins suggesting that filamentation of the ParF proteins is enhanced by a common mechanism. Like ParG, the co-factors may be modular, possessing a centromere-specific interaction domain linked to a flexible region containing determinants that promiscuously stimulate ParF polymerization. The CBFs appear to function as bacterial analogues of formins, microtubule-associated proteins or related ancillary factors that regulate eucaryotic cytoskeletal dynamics.

  3. Re-Signifying Participatory Action Research (PAR) in Higher Education: What Does "P" Stand for in PAR?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santos, Doris

    2016-01-01

    While carrying out a study aimed at understanding the contribution of participatory action research (PAR) to the political realm in contemporary higher education, a problematic situation was found when doing a literature review in the field of action research. This problem concerns the intermittent appearance of the "participatory"…

  4. Emissions Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rohde, John

    2001-01-01

    The Emissions Reduction Project is working in close partnership with the U.S. aircraft engine manufacturers and academia to develop technologies to reduce NO, emissions by 70 percent over the LTO cycle from 1996 ICAO standards with no increase in other emission constituents (carbon monoxide, smoke, and unburned hydrocarbons) and with comparable NO, reduction during cruise operations. These technologies cannot impact the overall combustor and fuel delivery system operability, affordability or maintainability. These new combustion concepts and technologies will include lean burning combustors with higher operating gas temperatures and pressures, fuel staging, ceramic matrix composite material liners with reduced cooling air and possibly advanced controls. Improved physics-based analysis tool will be developed and validated and some longer term technologies that are more revolutionary will be assessed. These improved computational codes will provide improved design tools to increase design confidence and cut the development time to achieve major reductions in NO, emissions. Longer term, revolutionary technologies like active combustion controls, combustion from a large array of micro-injectors, electrostatic fuel injectors, fuel additives and others will be investigated and assessed through proof-of-concept testing.

  5. Targeting a Proteinase-Activated Receptor 4 (PAR4) Carboxyl Terminal Motif to Regulate Platelet Function.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, Rithwik; Mihara, Koichiro; Thibeault, Pierre; Vanderboor, Christina M; Petri, Björn; Saifeddine, Mahmoud; Bouvier, Michel; Hollenberg, Morley D

    2017-04-01

    Thrombin initiates human platelet aggregation by coordinately activating proteinase-activated receptors (PARs) 1 and 4. However, targeting PAR1 with an orthosteric-tethered ligand binding-site antagonist results in bleeding, possibly owing to the important role of PAR1 activation on cells other than platelets. Because of its more restricted tissue expression profile, we have therefore turned to PAR4 as an antiplatelet target. We have identified an intracellular PAR4 C-terminal motif that regulates calcium signaling and β-arrestin interactions. By disrupting this PAR4 calcium/β-arrestin signaling process with a novel cell-penetrating peptide, we were able to inhibit both thrombin-triggered platelet aggregation in vitro and clot consolidation in vivo. We suggest that targeting PAR4 represents an attractive alternative to blocking PAR1 for antiplatelet therapy in humans.

  6. ParCAT: A Parallel Climate Analysis Toolkit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haugen, B.; Smith, B.; Steed, C.; Ricciuto, D. M.; Thornton, P. E.; Shipman, G.

    2012-12-01

    Climate science has employed increasingly complex models and simulations to analyze the past and predict the future of our climate. The size and dimensionality of climate simulation data has been growing with the complexity of the models. This growth in data is creating a widening gap between the data being produced and the tools necessary to analyze large, high dimensional data sets. With single run data sets increasing into 10's, 100's and even 1000's of gigabytes, parallel computing tools are becoming a necessity in order to analyze and compare climate simulation data. The Parallel Climate Analysis Toolkit (ParCAT) provides basic tools that efficiently use parallel computing techniques to narrow the gap between data set size and analysis tools. ParCAT was created as a collaborative effort between climate scientists and computer scientists in order to provide efficient parallel implementations of the computing tools that are of use to climate scientists. Some of the basic functionalities included in the toolkit are the ability to compute spatio-temporal means and variances, differences between two runs and histograms of the values in a data set. ParCAT is designed to facilitate the "heavy lifting" that is required for large, multidimensional data sets. The toolkit does not focus on performing the final visualizations and presentation of results but rather, reducing large data sets to smaller, more manageable summaries. The output from ParCAT is provided in commonly used file formats (NetCDF, CSV, ASCII) to allow for simple integration with other tools. The toolkit is currently implemented as a command line utility, but will likely also provide a C library for developers interested in tighter software integration. Elements of the toolkit are already being incorporated into projects such as UV-CDAT and CMDX. There is also an effort underway to implement portions of the CCSM Land Model Diagnostics package using ParCAT in conjunction with Python and gnuplot. Par

  7. Is There an "F" in Your PAR? Understanding, Teaching and Doing Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorenzetti, Liza; Walsh, Christine Ann

    2014-01-01

    Participatory Action Research (PAR) is increasingly recognized within academic research and pedagogy. What are the benefits of including feminism within participatory action research and teaching? In responding to this question, we discuss the similarities and salient differences between PAR and feminist informed PAR (FPAR). There are eight themes…

  8. Developmental patterns of emission of scent compounds and related gene expression in roses of the cultivar Rosa x hybrida cv. 'Yves Piaget'.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaomin; Baldermann, Susanne; Cao, Shuyan; Lu, Yao; Liu, Caixia; Hirata, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Naoharu

    2015-02-01

    2-Phenylethanol (2PE) and 3,5-dimethoxytoluene (DMT) are characteristic scent compounds in specific roses such as Rosa x hybrida cv. 'Yves Piaget'. We analyzed the endogenous concentrations and emission of 2PE and DMT during the unfurling process in different floral organs, as well as changes in transcript levels of the two key genes, PAR and OOMT2. The emission of both 2PE and DMT increased during floral development to reach peaks at the fully unfurled stage. The relative transcripts of PAR and OOMT2 also increased during floral development. Whereas the maximum for OOMT2 was found at the fully unfurled stage (stage 4), similar expression levels of PAR were detected at stage 4 and the senescence stage (stage 6). The results demonstrate a positive correlation between the expression levels of PAR and OOMT2 and the emission of 2PE and DMT. In addition, endogenous volatiles and relative transcripts showed tissue- and development-specific patterns.

  9. Intraoperative raster photogrammetry--the PAR Corneal Topography System.

    PubMed

    Belin, M W

    1993-01-01

    The PAR Corneal Topography System (CTS) is a computer-driven corneal imaging system that uses close-range raster photogrammetry to measure and produce a topographic map of the corneal surface. The CTS determines distortion in a projected two-dimensional grid. Unlike Placido-disc-based videokeratoscopes, the PAR CTS produces a true topographic map (elevation map) and requires neither a smooth reflective surface nor precise spatial alignment for accurate imaging. Because the system uses two noncoaxial optical paths, it can be integrated into other optical devices. A modified CTS was integrated into an experimental erbium: YAG photoablative laser. The CTS successfully imaged corneas before, after, and during laser photoablation. Its ability to image nonreflective surfaces and to be integrated into other optical systems may make it suitable for intraoperative refractive monitoring.

  10. Endophthalmitis following 27-Gauge Pars Plana Vitrectomy for Vitreous Floaters

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Zhong; Wu, Rong Han; Moonasar, Nived

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To report a case of Staphylococcus epidermidis endophthalmitis following 27-gauge pars plana vitrectomy for symptomatic vitreous floaters. Methods The clinical course and imaging findings, including fundus optomap, and spectral domain optical coherence tomography of a 24-year-old male patient were documented. Results The patient, with a preoperative best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) of 1.0, developed endophthalmitis following 27-gauge pars plana vitrectomy for symptomatic vitreous floaters. After a series of treatments, including emergent vitreous tap and silicone oil injection, antibiotic treatment, and silicone oil removal, the patient regained a BCVA of 0.6. Conclusion Although rare, the potential risk of endophthalmitis should be explicitly discussed with patients considering surgical intervention for vitreous floaters. PMID:28101041

  11. Isoprene emissions from a tundra ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potosnak, M. J.; Baker, B. M.; LeStourgeon, L.; Disher, S. M.; Griffin, K. L.; Bret-Harte, M. S.

    2012-10-01

    Whole-system fluxes of isoprene from a~moist acidic tundra ecosystem and leaf-level emission rates of isoprene from a common species (Salix pulchra) in that same ecosystem were measured during three separate field campaigns. The field campaigns were conducted during the summers of 2005, 2010 and 2011 and took place at the Toolik Field Station (68.6° N, 149.6° W) on the north slope of the Brooks Range in Alaska, USA. The maximum rate of whole-system isoprene flux measured was over 1.2 mg C m-2 h-1 with an air temperature of 22 ° C and a PAR level over 1500 μmol m-2 s-1. Leaf-level isoprene emission rates for S. pulchra averaged 12.4 nmol m-2 s-1 (27.4 μg C gdw-1 h-1) extrapolated to standard conditions (PAR = 1000 μmol m-2 s-1 and leaf temperature = 30° C). Leaf-level isoprene emission rates were well characterized by the Guenther algorithm for temperature, but less so for light. Chamber measurements from a nearby moist acidic tundra ecosystem with less S. pulchra emitted significant amounts of isoprene, but at lower rates (0.45 mg C m-2 h-1). Comparison of our results to predictions from a global model found broad agreement, but a detailed analysis revealed some significant discrepancies. An atmospheric chemistry box model predicts that the observed isoprene emissions have a significant impact on Arctic atmospheric chemistry, including the hydroxyl radical (OH). Our results support the prediction that isoprene emissions from Arctic ecosystems will increase with global climate change.

  12. Isoprene emissions from a tundra ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potosnak, M. J.; Baker, B. M.; LeStourgeon, L.; Disher, S. M.; Griffin, K. L.; Bret-Harte, M. S.; Starr, G.

    2013-02-01

    Whole-system fluxes of isoprene from a moist acidic tundra ecosystem and leaf-level emission rates of isoprene from a common species (Salix pulchra) in that same ecosystem were measured during three separate field campaigns. The field campaigns were conducted during the summers of 2005, 2010 and 2011 and took place at the Toolik Field Station (68.6° N, 149.6° W) on the north slope of the Brooks Range in Alaska, USA. The maximum rate of whole-system isoprene flux measured was over 1.2 mg C m-2 h-1 with an air temperature of 22 °C and a PAR level over 1500 μmol m-2 s-1. Leaf-level isoprene emission rates for S. pulchra averaged 12.4 nmol m-2 s-1 (27.4 μg C gdw-1 h-1) extrapolated to standard conditions (PAR = 1000 μmol m-2 s-1 and leaf temperature = 30 °C). Leaf-level isoprene emission rates were well characterized by the Guenther algorithm for temperature with published coefficients, but less so for light. Chamber measurements from a nearby moist acidic tundra ecosystem with little S. pulchra emitted significant amounts of isoprene, but at lower rates (0.45 mg C m-2 h-1) suggesting other significant isoprene emitters. Comparison of our results to predictions from a global model found broad agreement, but a detailed analysis revealed some significant discrepancies. An atmospheric chemistry box model predicts that the observed isoprene emissions have a significant impact on Arctic atmospheric chemistry, including a reduction of hydroxyl radical (OH) concentrations. Our results support the prediction that isoprene emissions from Arctic ecosystems will increase with global climate change.

  13. Exploration of a new series of PAR1 antagonists.

    PubMed

    Planty, Bruno; Pujol, Chantal; Lamothe, Marie; Maraval, Catherine; Horn, Clemens; Le Grand, Bruno; Perez, Michel

    2010-03-01

    Two series of new PAR1 antagonists have been identified. The first incorporates a cinnamoylpiperidine motif and the second a cinnamoylpyridine pattern. The synthesis, biological activity and structure-activity relationship of these compounds are presented. In each series, one analog showed potent in vivo antithrombotic activity in a rat AV shunt model, with up to 53% inhibition at 1.25mpk iv for compound 30.

  14. Accuracy of the PAR corneal topography system with spatial misalignment.

    PubMed

    Belin, M W; Zloty, P

    1993-01-01

    The PAR Corneal Topography System is a computerized corneal imaging system which uses close-range raster photogrammetry to measure and produce a topographic map of the corneal surface. Raster photogrammetry is a standard method of extracting object information by projecting a known pattern onto an object and recording the distortion when viewed from an oblique angle. Unlike placido disc based videokeratoscopes, the PAR system requires neither a smooth reflective surface nor precise spatial alignment for accurate imaging. We studied both the accuracy of the system with purposeful misalignment (defocusing) of the test object and determined the ability to image freshly deepithelialized, keratectomized, and photoablated corneas. The PAR system was both accurate and reproducible in imaging calibrated spheres within a defined zone in space. Whole cadaver eyes were imaged both before and immediately after removal of the epithelium, lamellar keratectomy, and laser photoablation. The system demonstrated the ability to image irregular, deepithelialized, and keratectomized corneas. The ability to maintain accuracy without precise alignment and the facility to image freshly deepithelialized and keratectomized corneas may make the system suitable for intraoperative refractive monitoring.

  15. La modélisation par Reverse Monte Carlo (RMC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGreevy, R. L.

    2003-09-01

    La technique de modélisation par Reverse Monte Carlo (RMC) est une méthode générale de modélisation structurale à partir d'un ensemble de données expérimentales. Cette méthode étant très souple, elle peut s'appliquer à de nombreux types de données. Jusqu'à présent ces applications comprennent : la diffraction des neutrons (y compris la substitution isotopique), la diffraction des rayons X (y compris la diffusion anomale), la diffraction des électrons, la RMN (les techniques d'angle magique et de 2ème moment) et l'EXAFS. Les systèmes étudiés sont également d'une grande variété : liquides, verres, polymères, cristaux et matériaux magnétiques, par exemple. Ce cours présente les bases de la méthode RMC en signalant certaines des idées fausses répandues. L'accent sera mis sur le fait que les modèles structuraux obtenus par RMC ne sont ni'uniques' ni 'exacts' ; cependant ils sont souvent utiles à la compréhension soit de la structure du système, soit des relations entre structure et autres propriétés physiques.

  16. Two cases of malignant glaucoma unresolved by pars plana vitrectomy

    PubMed Central

    Hosoda, Yoshikatsu; Akagi, Tadamichi; Yoshimura, Nagahisa

    2014-01-01

    Malignant glaucoma, which is characterized by a shallow or flat anterior chamber with high intraocular pressure, can usually be resolved by pars plana vitrectomy with anterior hyaloidectomy. We describe two cases in which malignant glaucoma was refractory to conventional treatment and complete vitrectomy. Case one an 88-year-old woman with pseudoexfoliation glaucoma underwent trabeculotomy and subsequently developed malignant glaucoma. Four months after transient recovery by pars plana vitrectomy, the malignant glaucoma recurred. She underwent peripheral iridectomy and local zonulectomy with successful control of her intraocular pressure. In case two, an 85-year-old man had a history of pseudoexfoliation glaucoma. Seven months after phacoemulsification and intraocular lens implantation, he developed malignant glaucoma that was refractory to pars plana vitrectomy. He underwent peripheral iridectomy, goniosynechialysis and trabectome surgery resulting in the successful control of his intraocular pressure. In rare cases of malignant glaucoma refractive to vitrectomy, peripheral iridectomy with or without local zonulectomy is a reasonable and minimally invasive surgical procedure. PMID:24729683

  17. ParB Partition Proteins: Complex Formation and Spreading at Bacterial and Plasmid Centromeres

    PubMed Central

    Funnell, Barbara E.

    2016-01-01

    In bacteria, active partition systems contribute to the faithful segregation of both chromosomes and low-copy-number plasmids. Each system depends on a site-specific DNA binding protein to recognize and assemble a partition complex at a centromere-like site, commonly called parS. Many plasmid, and all chromosomal centromere-binding proteins are dimeric helix-turn-helix DNA binding proteins, which are commonly named ParB. Although the overall sequence conservation among ParBs is not high, the proteins share similar domain and functional organization, and they assemble into similar higher-order complexes. In vivo, ParBs “spread,” that is, DNA binding extends away from the parS site into the surrounding non-specific DNA, a feature that reflects higher-order complex assembly. ParBs bridge and pair DNA at parS and non-specific DNA sites. ParB dimers interact with each other via flexible conformations of an N-terminal region. This review will focus on the properties of the HTH centromere-binding protein, in light of recent experimental evidence and models that are adding to our understanding of how these proteins assemble into large and dynamic partition complexes at and around their specific DNA sites. PMID:27622187

  18. Specific and non-specific interactions of ParB with DNA: implications for chromosome segregation

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, James A.; Pastrana, Cesar L.; Butterer, Annika; Pernstich, Christian; Gwynn, Emma J.; Sobott, Frank; Moreno-Herrero, Fernando; Dillingham, Mark S.

    2015-01-01

    The segregation of many bacterial chromosomes is dependent on the interactions of ParB proteins with centromere-like DNA sequences called parS that are located close to the origin of replication. In this work, we have investigated the binding of Bacillus subtilis ParB to DNA in vitro using a variety of biochemical and biophysical techniques. We observe tight and specific binding of a ParB homodimer to the parS sequence. Binding of ParB to non-specific DNA is more complex and displays apparent positive co-operativity that is associated with the formation of larger, poorly defined, nucleoprotein complexes. Experiments with magnetic tweezers demonstrate that non-specific binding leads to DNA condensation that is reversible by protein unbinding or force. The condensed DNA structure is not well ordered and we infer that it is formed by many looping interactions between neighbouring DNA segments. Consistent with this view, ParB is also able to stabilize writhe in single supercoiled DNA molecules and to bridge segments from two different DNA molecules in trans. The experiments provide no evidence for the promotion of non-specific DNA binding and/or condensation events by the presence of parS sequences. The implications of these observations for chromosome segregation are discussed. PMID:25572315

  19. Dynamic Filament Formation by a Divergent Bacterial Actin-Like ParM Protein

    PubMed Central

    Brzoska, Anthony J.; Jensen, Slade O.; Barton, Deborah A.; Davies, Danielle S.; Overall, Robyn L.; Skurray, Ronald A.; Firth, Neville

    2016-01-01

    Actin-like proteins (Alps) are a diverse family of proteins whose genes are abundant in the chromosomes and mobile genetic elements of many bacteria. The low-copy-number staphylococcal multiresistance plasmid pSK41 encodes ParM, an Alp involved in efficient plasmid partitioning. pSK41 ParM has previously been shown to form filaments in vitro that are structurally dissimilar to those formed by other bacterial Alps. The mechanistic implications of these differences are not known. In order to gain insights into the properties and behavior of the pSK41 ParM Alp in vivo, we reconstituted the parMRC system in the ectopic rod-shaped host, E. coli, which is larger and more genetically amenable than the native host, Staphylococcus aureus. Fluorescence microscopy showed a functional fusion protein, ParM-YFP, formed straight filaments in vivo when expressed in isolation. Strikingly, however, in the presence of ParR and parC, ParM-YFP adopted a dramatically different structure, instead forming axial curved filaments. Time-lapse imaging and selective photobleaching experiments revealed that, in the presence of all components of the parMRC system, ParM-YFP filaments were dynamic in nature. Finally, molecular dissection of the parMRC operon revealed that all components of the system are essential for the generation of dynamic filaments. PMID:27310470

  20. Developmental Control of a parAB Promoter Leads to Formation of Sporulation-Associated ParB Complexes in Streptomyces coelicolor

    PubMed Central

    Jakimowicz, Dagmara; Mouz, Sebastien; Zakrzewska-Czerwińska, Jolanta; Chater, Keith F.

    2006-01-01

    The Streptomyces coelicolor partitioning protein ParB binds to numerous parS sites in the oriC-proximal part of the linear chromosome. ParB binding results in the formation of large complexes, which behave differentially during the complex life cycle (D. Jakimowicz, B. Gust, J. Zakrzewska-Czerwinska, and K. F. Chater, J. Bacteriol. 187:3572-3580, 2005). Here we have analyzed the transcriptional regulation that underpins this developmentally specific behavior. Analysis of promoter mutations showed that the irregularly spaced complexes present in vegetative hyphae are dependent on the constitutive parABp1 promoter, while sporulation-specific induction of the promoter parABp2 is required for the assembly of arrays of ParB complexes in aerial hyphae and thus is necessary for efficient chromosome segregation. Expression from parABp2 depended absolutely on two sporulation regulatory genes, whiA and whiB, and partially on two others, whiH and whiI, all four of which are needed for sporulation septation. Because of this pattern of dependence, we investigated the transcription of these four whi genes in whiA and whiB mutants, revealing significant regulatory interplay between whiA and whiB. A strain in which sporulation septation (but not vegetative septation) was blocked by mutation of a sporulation-specific promoter of ftsZ showed close to wild-type induction of parABp2 and formed fairly regular ParB-enhanced green fluorescent protein foci in aerial hyphae, ruling out strong morphological coupling or checkpoint regulation between septation and DNA partitioning during sporulation. A model for developmental regulation of parABp2 expression is presented. PMID:16484182

  1. Caracterisation et transformation par hydroviscoreduction du brut lourd de Doba/Tchad: Strategie de pompage par pipeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dehkissia, Soumaine

    Le projet de la these est defini par rapport a la recente exploitation commerciale du brut lourd de Doba, une region du Tchad, pays enclave d'ou le brut ainsi produit doit etre achemine par pipeline. Le but dans ce travail est de caracteriser ce brut et de determiner une strategie thermique de transformation en vue de reduire de la facon la plus economique, la viscosite du brut pour permettre son transport par pipeline. Concernant la partie caracterisation, nous avons utilise entre autres, un rheometre rotatif et des analyseurs (LECO CHN-2000 & LECO S-144DR Elemental Analyzers) pour evaluer respectivement la viscosite et les elements tels que C, H, N, O, S. Sur la base des methodes de transformation disponibles, nous avons determine une strategie simple de transformation thermique par hydroviscoreduction , strategie dans laquelle, la fraction legere du brut comme le naphta (80--180°C), pourrait constituer la source d'hydrogene a utiliser. Le brut de Doba, a une faible teneur en soufre (0.14%) et sa densite specifique de 0.940 a 15.6°C, soit 18.8° API, le classe parmi les bruts lourds. Outre le point initial se situant a 85°C, la distillation du brut a revele que la fraction distillant avant 250°C ne represente que 10% (v/v) et que le craquage thermique du substrat debute a 300°C. Par ailleurs, outre son caractere Newtonien, les densites specifiques de la fraction lourde de l'essence (100--200°C) et de la fraction distillant au-dessus 350°C, etant respectivement de 0.813 (0.813 > 0.800) et de 0.951 (0.930 < 0.951 < 0.975), le brut de Doba est donc de type aromatique. Les viscosites du brut et du brut desasphalte, sont respectivement de 184.4 cSt et 152.4 cSt a 50°C, suggerant que le desasphaltage ne constitue pas une methode efficace pouvant aider au pompage du brut par pipeline, d'ou la necessite de transformation. Les resultats des travaux en autoclave montrent que, si le brut doit etre traite entierement, la viscosite de 25cSt 50°C, recommandee pour le

  2. ParABS Systems of the Four Replicons of Burkholderia cenocepacia: New Chromosome Centromeres Confer Partition Specificity†

    PubMed Central

    Dubarry, Nelly; Pasta, Franck; Lane, David

    2006-01-01

    Most bacterial chromosomes carry an analogue of the parABS systems that govern plasmid partition, but their role in chromosome partition is ambiguous. parABS systems might be particularly important for orderly segregation of multipartite genomes, where their role may thus be easier to evaluate. We have characterized parABS systems in Burkholderia cenocepacia, whose genome comprises three chromosomes and one low-copy-number plasmid. A single parAB locus and a set of ParB-binding (parS) centromere sites are located near the origin of each replicon. ParA and ParB of the longest chromosome are phylogenetically similar to analogues in other multichromosome and monochromosome bacteria but are distinct from those of smaller chromosomes. The latter form subgroups that correspond to the taxa of their hosts, indicating evolution from plasmids. The parS sites on the smaller chromosomes and the plasmid are similar to the “universal” parS of the main chromosome but with a sequence specific to their replicon. In an Escherichia coli plasmid stabilization test, each parAB exhibits partition activity only with the parS of its own replicon. Hence, parABS function is based on the independent partition of individual chromosomes rather than on a single communal system or network of interacting systems. Stabilization by the smaller chromosome and plasmid systems was enhanced by mutation of parS sites and a promoter internal to their parAB operons, suggesting autoregulatory mechanisms. The small chromosome ParBs were found to silence transcription, a property relevant to autoregulation. PMID:16452432

  3. Is PAR a Good Investment? Understanding the Costs and Benefits of Teacher Peer Assistance and Review Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papay, John P.; Johnson, Susan Moore

    2012-01-01

    Peer Assistance and Review (PAR) is a local labor-management initiative designed to improve teacher quality. In PAR, expert "consulting teachers" mentor, support, and evaluate novice and underperforming veteran teachers. Evaluations under PAR can lead to dismissals. The authors examine the costs and benefits of PAR, both financial and…

  4. Structures of actin-like ParM filaments show architecture of plasmid-segregating spindles.

    PubMed

    Bharat, Tanmay A M; Murshudov, Garib N; Sachse, Carsten; Löwe, Jan

    2015-07-02

    Active segregation of Escherichia coli low-copy-number plasmid R1 involves formation of a bipolar spindle made of left-handed double-helical actin-like ParM filaments. ParR links the filaments with centromeric parC plasmid DNA, while facilitating the addition of subunits to ParM filaments. Growing ParMRC spindles push sister plasmids to the cell poles. Here, using modern electron cryomicroscopy methods, we investigate the structures and arrangements of ParM filaments in vitro and in cells, revealing at near-atomic resolution how subunits and filaments come together to produce the simplest known mitotic machinery. To understand the mechanism of dynamic instability, we determine structures of ParM filaments in different nucleotide states. The structure of filaments bound to the ATP analogue AMPPNP is determined at 4.3 Å resolution and refined. The ParM filament structure shows strong longitudinal interfaces and weaker lateral interactions. Also using electron cryomicroscopy, we reconstruct ParM doublets forming antiparallel spindles. Finally, with whole-cell electron cryotomography, we show that doublets are abundant in bacterial cells containing low-copy-number plasmids with the ParMRC locus, leading to an asynchronous model of R1 plasmid segregation.

  5. Urokinase type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) as a new therapeutic target in cancer

    PubMed Central

    Montuori, Nunzia; Pesapane, Ada; Rossi, Francesca W; Giudice, Valentina; De Paulis, Amato; Selleri, Carmine; Ragno, Pia

    2016-01-01

    The urokinase (uPA)-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) is a GPI-anchored receptor that focuses urokinase (uPA) proteolytic activity on the cell surface. uPAR also regulates cell adhesion, migration and proliferation, protects from apoptosis and contributes to epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT), independently of uPA enzymatic activity. Indeed, uPAR interacts with beta1, beta2 and beta3 integrins, thus regulating their activities. uPAR cross-talks with receptor tyrosine kinases through integrins and regulates cancer cell dormancy, proliferation and angiogenesis. Moreover, uPAR mediates uPA-dependent cell migration and chemotaxis induced by fMet-Leu-Phe (fMLF), through its association with fMLF-receptors (fMLF-Rs). Further, uPAR is an adhesion receptor because it binds vitronectin (VN), a component of provisional extracellular matrix. High uPAR expression predicts for more aggressive disease in several cancer types for its ability to increase invasion and metastasis. In fact, uPAR has been hypothesized to be the link between tumor cell dormancy and proliferation that usually precedes the onset of metastasis. Thus, inhibiting uPAR could be a feasible approach to affect tumor growth and metastasis. Here, we review the more recent advances in the development of uPAR-targeted anti-cancer therapeutic agents suitable for further optimization or ready for the evaluation in early clinical trials. PMID:27896223

  6. A model for the condensation of the bacterial chromosome by the partitioning protein ParB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broedersz, Chase; Wingreen, Ned

    2013-03-01

    The molecular machinery responsible for faithful segregation of the chromosome in bacteria such as Caulobacter crescentus and Bacillus subtilis includes the ParABS a.k.a. Spo0J/Soj partitioning system. In Caulobacter, prior to division, hundreds of ParB proteins bind to the DNA near the origin of replication, and localize to one pole of the cell. Subsequently, the ParB-DNA complex is translocated to the far pole by the binding and retraction of the ParA spindle-like apparatus. Remarkably, the localization of ParB proteins to specific regions of the chromosome appears to be controlled by only a few centromeric parS binding sites. Although lateral interactions between DNA-bound ParB are likely to be important for their localization, the long-range order of ParB domains on the chromosome appears to be inconsistent with a picture in which protein-protein interactions are limited to neighboring DNA-bound proteins. We developed a coarse-grained Brownian dynamics model that allows for lateral and 3D protein-protein interactions among bound ParB proteins. Our model shows how such interactions can condense and organize the DNA spatially, and can control the localization and the long-range order of the DNA-bound proteins.

  7. PAR-2 expression in the gingival crevicular fluid reflects chronic periodontitis severity.

    PubMed

    Fukushima, Henrique; Alves, Vanessa Tubero Euzebio; Carvalho, Verônica Franco de; Ambrósio, Lucas Macedo Batitucci; Eichler, Rosangela Aparecida Dos Santos; Carvalho, Maria Helena Catelli de; Saraiva, Luciana; Holzhausen, Marinella

    2017-01-26

    Recent studies investigating protease-activated receptor type 2 (PAR-2) suggest an association between the receptor and periodontal inflammation. It is known that gingipain, a bacterial protease secreted by the important periodontopathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis can activate PAR-2. Previous studies by our group found that PAR-2 is overexpressed in the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) of patients with moderate chronic periodontitis (MP). The present study aimed at evaluating whether PAR-2 expression is associated with chronic periodontitis severity. GCF samples and clinical parameters, including plaque and bleeding on probing indices, probing pocket depth and clinical attachment level, were collected from the control group (n = 19) at baseline, and from MP patients (n = 19) and severe chronic periodontitis (SP) (n = 19) patients before and 6 weeks after periodontal non-surgical treatment. PAR-2 and gingipain messenger RNA (mRNA) in the GCF of 4 periodontal sites per patient were evaluated by Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-qPCR). PAR-2 and gingipain expressions were greater in periodontitis patients than in control group patients. In addition, the SP group presented increased PAR-2 and gingipain mRNA levels, compared with the MP group. Furthermore, periodontal treatment significantly reduced (p <0.05) PAR-2 expression in patients with periodontitis. In conclusion, PAR-2 is associated with chronic periodontitis severity and with gingipain levels in the periodontal pocket, thus suggesting that PAR-2 expression in the GCF reflects the severity of destruction during periodontal infection.

  8. PAR-1 contributes to the innate immune response during viral infection

    PubMed Central

    Antoniak, Silvio; Owens, A. Phillip; Baunacke, Martin; Williams, Julie C.; Lee, Rebecca D.; Weithäuser, Alice; Sheridan, Patricia A.; Malz, Ronny; Luyendyk, James P.; Esserman, Denise A.; Trejo, JoAnn; Kirchhofer, Daniel; Blaxall, Burns C.; Pawlinski, Rafal; Beck, Melinda A.; Rauch, Ursula; Mackman, Nigel

    2013-01-01

    Coagulation is a host defense system that limits the spread of pathogens. Coagulation proteases, such as thrombin, also activate cells by cleaving PARs. In this study, we analyzed the role of PAR-1 in coxsackievirus B3–induced (CVB3-induced) myocarditis and influenza A infection. CVB3-infected Par1–/– mice expressed reduced levels of IFN-β and CXCL10 during the early phase of infection compared with Par1+/+ mice that resulted in higher viral loads and cardiac injury at day 8 after infection. Inhibition of either tissue factor or thrombin in WT mice also significantly increased CVB3 levels in the heart and cardiac injury compared with controls. BM transplantation experiments demonstrated that PAR-1 in nonhematopoietic cells protected mice from CVB3 infection. Transgenic mice overexpressing PAR-1 in cardiomyocytes had reduced CVB3-induced myocarditis. We found that cooperative signaling between PAR-1 and TLR3 in mouse cardiac fibroblasts enhanced activation of p38 and induction of IFN-β and CXCL10 expression. Par1–/– mice also had decreased CXCL10 expression and increased viral levels in the lung after influenza A infection compared with Par1+/+ mice. Our results indicate that the tissue factor/thrombin/PAR-1 pathway enhances IFN-β expression and contributes to the innate immune response during single-stranded RNA viral infection. PMID:23391721

  9. Microscopie en champ proche par réflexion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spajer, M.; Courjon, D.; Sarayeddine, K.; Jalocha, A.; Vigoureux, J.-M.

    1991-01-01

    This communication presents two techniques for high resolution surface analysis. In the first one, the illumination beam is totally reflected under the object surface, which must be transparent. The evanescent wave confined on the surface is frustrated locally by a dielectric probe of nanometric dimension which scans the objetc. A horizontal resolution of 10 nm and a vertical one of 1 nm have been obtained. In the second one, more adapted to metallic objects, the surface is illuminated by the near-field of the stylus, in which the reflected beam is Partially launched. First results dealing with the characterization of the dielectric stylus are presented. Cette communication présente deux techniques permettant l'analyse de surface haute résolution. Dans la première, le faisceau d'éclairage est réfléchi totalement sous la surface de l'objet, nécessairement transparent. L'onde évanescente qui l'accompagne est frustrée localement par une pointe diélectrique de dimension nanométrique balayant la surface. Une résolution de 10 nm horizontalement et de 1nm verticalement a été obtenue. Dans la seconde, qui permet d'étudier un objet opaque, celui-ci est éclairé par le champ proche émis par la pointe, dans laquelle le faisceau réfléchi est partiellement réinjecté. Les premiers résultats concernant la caractérisation de la pointe sont présentés.

  10. [Relationships of rice canopy PAR interception and light use efficiency to grain yield].

    PubMed

    Tang, Liang; Zhu, Xiang-Cheng; Cao, Meng-Ying; Cao, Wei-Xing; Zhu, Yan

    2012-05-01

    Taking two rice cultivars (Liangyoupeijiu and Wuxiangjing 14) with different plant types as test materials, a 2-year field experiment was conducted to study the relationships of rice canopy photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) interception and light use efficiency to grain yield under three planting densities and five nitrogen (N) application rates. From tillering to maturing stage, the average PAR reflectance in all treatments was 3.45%. The ratio of reflected PAR to the total loss of PAR from tillering to heading stage was 10.90%, which was significantly lower than that (22.06%) from heading to maturiting stage. The PAR conversion efficiency from tillering to maturing stage decreased with increasing planting density but increased with increasing nitrogen rate, and the conversion efficiency was significantly higher from tillering to heading than from heading to maturing stage. The PAR use efficiency from tillering to maturing stage increased with the increase of planting density and nitrogen application rate, and the average PAR use efficiency of Liangyoupeijiu (1.83 g x MJ(-1)) was significantly higher than that of Wuxiangjing 14 (1.42 g x MJ(-1)). Due to the longer growth period of Wuxiangjing 14, its incident PAR and intercepted PAR under midium and high planting densities were higher, as compared with Liangyoupeijiu. The grain yield was significantly positively correlated with the canopy PAR interceptance and use efficiency at different growth stages, but less correlated with the PAR conversion efficiency. To increase the canopy PAR use efficiency and conversion efficiency on the basis of maintaining higher PAR interception rate could be an effective way to increase rice yield.

  11. PAR1 is selectively over expressed in high grade breast cancer patients: a cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Hernández, Norma A; Correa, Elma; Avila, Esther P; Vela, Teresa A; Pérez, Víctor M

    2009-01-01

    Background The protease-activated receptor (PAR1) expression is correlated with the degree of invasiveness in cell lines. Nevertheless it has never been directed involved in breast cancer patients progression. The aim of this study was to determine whether PAR1 expression could be used as predictor of metastases and mortality. Methods In a cohort of patients with infiltrating ductal carcinoma studied longitudinally since 1996 and until 2007, PAR1 over-expression was assessed by immunoblotting, immunohistochemistry, and flow citometry. Chi-square and log rank tests were used to determine whether there was a statistical association between PAR1 overexpression and metastases, mortality, and survival. Multivariate analysis was performed including HER1, stage, ER and nodes status to evaluate PAR1 as an independent prognostic factor. Results Follow up was 95 months (range: 2–130 months). We assayed PAR1 in a cohort of patients composed of 136 patients; we found PAR1 expression assayed by immunoblotting was selectively associated with high grade patients (50 cases of the study cohort; P = 0.001). Twenty-nine of 50 (58%) patients overexpressed PAR1, and 23 of these (46%) developed metastases. HER1, stage, ER and PAR1 overexpression were robustly correlated (Cox regression, P = 0.002, P = 0.024 and P = 0.002 respectively). Twenty-one of the 50 patients (42%) expressed both receptors (PAR1 and HER1 P = 0.0004). We also found a statistically significant correlation between PAR1 overexpression and increased mortality (P = 0.0001) and development of metastases (P = 0.0009). Conclusion Our data suggest PAR1 overexpression may be involved in the development of metastases in breast cancer patient and is associated with undifferentiated cellular progression of the tumor. Further studies are needed to understand PAR1 mechanism of action and in a near future assay its potential use as risk factor for metastasis development in high grade breast cancer patients. PMID:19538737

  12. Recalculation of shielding for the addition of a PAR

    SciTech Connect

    Moe, H.J.

    1988-08-01

    The shielding estimates for the Electron and Positron Linacs and the Booster Synchrotron, contained in the 1987 Conceptual Design Report (CDR) of the APS (ANL-87-15), have been reviewed and recalculated, along with newly initiated calculations of the required shielding for the addition of a Positron Accumulator Ring (PAR). Several new assumptions with respect to beam intensity, projected losses in the system, and assumed operational time have been incorporated into the calculations. Details of the previous calculations, which describe the methodology used, may be found in APS Light Source Note LS-90.

  13. BOREAS TE-12 Incoming PAR Through the Forest Canopy Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Papagno, Andrea (Editor); Walter-Shea, Elizabeth A.; Mesarch, Mark A.

    2000-01-01

    The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmospheric Study (BOREAS) TE-12 (Terrestrial Ecology) team collected photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) data sets in support of its efforts to characterize and interpret information on shoot geometry, leaf optical properties, leaf water potential, and leaf gas exchange. The data were collected at the Southern Study Area-Old Black Spruce (SSA-OBS) site from 04-Jul-1996 to 25-Jul-1996. The data are stored in tabular ASCII files. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884), or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).

  14. A systematic computation scheme of PAR-WIG cruising performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ando, Shigenori

    1993-08-01

    A systematic computation scheme is presented for PAR-WIG cruising performance, on a FORTRAN program. It is suitable for implementation on PCs. Effects of many parameters on the transportation efficiency are explored. Two concepts are presented in three views and artist impressions. One is a smallest single-crewman vehicle for experiment, sports, or pleasure. The other is a large vehicle for civil transportation. Both have twin hulls, which are quite suitable for installing a 'SMALL-TAIL-WIG' or 'WIG-let' to establish longitudinal attitude stability.

  15. David Kasner, MD, and the Road to Pars Plana Vitrectomy

    PubMed Central

    Blodi, Christopher F.

    2016-01-01

    David Kasner, MD (1927–2001), used his extensive dissections of eye bank eyes and experiences in teaching cataract surgery to resident physicians to realize that excision of vitreous when present in the anterior chamber of eyes undergoing cataract surgery was preferable to prior intraoperative procedures. Noting that eyes tolerated his maneuvers, he then performed planned subtotal open-sky vitrectomies; first on a traumatized eye in 1961, then on two eyes of patients with amyloidosis (1966–1967). The success of these operations was noted by others, most particularly Robert Machemer, MD. Kasner’s work directly led to further surgical developments, including closed pars plana vitrectomy. PMID:27660504

  16. Antibody-based PET of uPA/uPAR signaling with broad applicability for cancer imaging

    PubMed Central

    Dougherty, Casey A.; Lombardi, Rachel; Chen, Daiqin; Van Dort, Marcian E.; Barnhart, Todd E.; Ross, Brian D.; Mazar, Andrew P.; Hong, Hao

    2016-01-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that the urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) and its receptor (uPAR) play a central role in tumor progression. The goal of this study was to develop an 89Zr-labeled, antibody-based positron emission tomography (PET) tracer for quantitative imaging of the uPA/uPAR system. An anti-uPA monoclonal antibody (ATN-291) was conjugated with a deferoxamine (Df) derivative and subsequently labeled with 89Zr. Flow cytometry, microscopy studies, and competitive binding assays were conducted to validate the binding specificity of Df-ATN-291 against uPA. PET imaging with 89Zr-Df-ATN-291 was carried out in different tumors with distinct expression levels of uPA. Biodistribution, histology examination, and Western blotting were performed to correlate tumor uptake with uPA or uPAR expression. ATN-291 retained uPA binding affinity and specificity after Df conjugation. 89Zr-labeling of ATN-291 was achieved in good radiochemical yield and high specific activity. Serial PET imaging demonstrated that, in most tumors studied (except uPA- LNCaP), the uptake of 89Zr-Df-ATN-291 was higher compared to major organs at 120 h post-injection, providing excellent tumor contrast. The tumor-to-muscle ratio of 89Zr-Df-ATN-291 in U87MG was as high as 45.2 ± 9.0 at 120 h p.i. In vivo uPA specificity of 89Zr-Df-ATN-291 was confirmed by successful pharmacological blocking of tumor uptake with ATN-291 in U87MG tumors. Although the detailed mechanisms behind in vivo 89Zr-Df-ATN-291 tumor uptake remained to be further elucidated, quantitative PET imaging with 89Zr-Df-ATN-291 in tumors can facilitate oncologists to adopt more relevant cancer treatment planning. PMID:27729618

  17. Mutations in the gyrB, parC, and parE genes of quinolone-resistant isolates and mutants of Edwardsiella tarda.

    PubMed

    Kim, Myoung Sug; Jun, Lyu Jin; Shin, Soon Bum; Park, Myoung Ae; Jung, Sung Hee; Kim, Kwangil; Moon, Kyung Ho; Jeong, Hyun Do

    2010-12-01

    The full length genes gyrB (2,415 bp), parC (2,277 bp), and parE (1,896 bp) in Edwardsiella tarda were cloned by PCR with degenerate primers based on the sequence of the respective quinolone resistance-determining region (QRDR), followed by elongation of 5' and 3' ends using cassette ligation-mediated PCR (CLMP). Analysis of the cloned genes revealed open reading frames (ORFs) encoding proteins of 804 (GyrB), 758 (ParC), and 631 (ParE) amino acids with conserved gyrase/topoisomerase features and motifs important for enzymatic function. The ORFs were preceded by putative promoters, ribosome binding sites, and inverted repeats with the potential to form cruciform structures for binding of DNA-binding proteins. When comparing the deduced amino acid sequences of E. tarda GyrB, ParC, and ParE with those of the corresponding proteins in other bacteria, they were found to be most closely related to Escherichia coli GyrB (87.6% identity), Klebsiella pneumoniae ParC (78.8% identity) and Salmonella typhimurium ParE (89.5% identity), respectively. The two topoisomerase genes, parC and parE, were found to be contiguous on the E. tarda chromosome. All 18 quinoloneresistant isolates obtained from Korea thus far did not contain subunit alternations apart from a substitution in GyrA (Ser83→Arg). However, an alteration in the QRDR of ParC (Ser84→Ile) following an amino acid substitution in GyrA (Asp87→Gly) was detected in E. tarda mutants selected in vitro at 8 microng/ml ciprofloxacin (CIP). A mutant with a GyrB (Ser464→Leu) and GyrA (Asp87→Gly) substitution did not show a significant increase in the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of CIP. None of the in vitro mutants exhibited mutations in parE. Thus, gyrA and parC should be considered to be the primary and secondary targets, respectively, of quinolones in E. tarda.

  18. Estimating Photosynthetically Available Radiation (PAR) at the Earth's surface from satellite observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frouin, Robert

    1993-01-01

    Current satellite algorithms to estimate photosynthetically available radiation (PAR) at the earth' s surface are reviewed. PAR is deduced either from an insolation estimate or obtained directly from top-of-atmosphere solar radiances. The characteristics of both approaches are contrasted and typical results are presented. The inaccuracies reported, about 10 percent and 6 percent on daily and monthly time scales, respectively, are useful to model oceanic and terrestrial primary productivity. At those time scales variability due to clouds in the ratio of PAR and insolation is reduced, making it possible to deduce PAR directly from insolation climatologies (satellite or other) that are currently available or being produced. Improvements, however, are needed in conditions of broken cloudiness and over ice/snow. If not addressed properly, calibration/validation issues may prevent quantitative use of the PAR estimates in studies of climatic change. The prospects are good for an accurate, long-term climatology of PAR over the globe.

  19. The Par3 polarity protein is an exocyst receptor essential for mammary cell survival

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Syed Mukhtar; Macara, Ian G.

    2017-01-01

    The exocyst is an essential component of the secretory pathway required for delivery of basolateral proteins to the plasma membranes of epithelial cells. Delivery occurs adjacent to tight junctions (TJ), suggesting that it recognizes a receptor at this location. However, no such receptor has been identified. The Par3 polarity protein associates with TJs but has no known function in membrane traffic. We now show that, unexpectedly, Par3 is essential for mammary cell survival. Par3 silencing causes apoptosis, triggered by phosphoinositide trisphosphate depletion and decreased Akt phosphorylation, resulting from failure of the exocyst to deliver basolateral proteins to the cortex. A small region of PAR3 binds directly to Exo70 and is sufficient for exocyst docking, membrane-protein delivery and cell survival. PAR3 lacking this domain can associate with the cortex but cannot support exocyst function. We conclude that Par3 is the long-sought exocyst receptor required for targeted membrane-protein delivery. PMID:28358000

  20. Brulure par Foudre. A Propos d’une Observation

    PubMed Central

    Mradmi, W.; Fassi-Fihri, J.; Mehaji, G.; Ezzoubi, M.; Diouri, M.; Bahechar, N.; Boukind, E.H.

    2005-01-01

    Summary Aussi loin que l’on remonte dans la littérature, on retrouve des récits relatant des accidents consécutifs à la fulguration chez l’homme. La foudre était alors associée à la colère des dieux ou à la notion de châtiment. La fulguration correspond à un transfert d’énergie entre un cumulonimbus de charge négative et un objet de charge positive se trouvant au niveau du sol. Les lésions déterminées sont à la fois thermiques et électrothermiques. Bien que l’arrêt cardiorespiratoire soit une cause bien documentée de décès, la plupart des cas rapportés dans la littérature décrivent un éventail très disparate des séquelles qui surviennent suite à cet accident. Les Auteurs rapportent le cas d’un patient atteint par la foudre en insistant particulièrement sur les complications neurologiques qui sont survenues en cours d’évolution. Se basant sur cette observation et sur une revue de la littérature, les Auteurs soulignent que le pronostic des patients atteints par la foudre est plus favorable que généralement rapporté. PMID:21990993

  1. Biomass Burning Emissions and Deforestation in The Legal Amazon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellicott, E. A.; Vermote, E. F.

    2010-12-01

    Biomass burning, often concomitant with deforestation, is recognized as a significant source of atmospheric trace gases and aerosols and has received attention from the scientific community as an important agent in climate change. Earth observing satellites have made significant contributions to fire and deforestation detection, monitoring, and characterization for nearly three decades. In this work, we demonstrate the application of our approach to estimate fire radiative energy (FRE) released from biomass burning to infer CO2 and organic and black carbon aerosol (OCBC) emissions from biomass burning in the Legal Amazon. We then compared emission estimates with deforestation rates produced by the Brazilian National Institute for Space Research (INPE). Our research offers a new approach and insights to the dynamics of fire, deforestation, emissions. The annual mean CO2 and OCBC emitted for the study period (2001-2009) from the Legal Amazon biomass burning was estimated to be 253 Tg and 2.3 Tg, respectively. This represents 9% and 14% of the global CO2 and OCBC, respectively, emitted from fires. In general, the trend in emission estimates mirrored deforestation rates. However, 2007 was an anomalous year in Brazil as it was one of the highest years in emissions from fire, but a relatively low year for deforestation (Fig. 1). This discrepancy is a result of an abnormally dry year which resulted in a greater frequency of fires not directly associated with deforestation, but which may be tied to agricultural and pasture maintenance fires. A similar discrepancy was observed when comparing deforestation and emission rates from Mato Grosso and Pará; the two states responsible for most of the deforestation (71%) and emissions (~65%) from the Legal Amazon during the study period. Although as of 2006 Pará had annually surpassed Mato Grosso in annual forest loss it wasn’t until 2009 that emissions from Pará were greater. Thus, suggesting the importance of non

  2. Fluoroquinolone Resistance Mutations in the parC, parE, and gyrA Genes of Clinical Isolates of Viridans Group Streptococci

    PubMed Central

    González, Irene; Georgiou, Marios; Alcaide, Fernando; Balas, Delia; Liñares, Josefina; de la Campa, Adela G.

    1998-01-01

    The nucleotide sequences of the quinolone resistance-determining regions (QRDRs) of the parC and gyrA genes from seven ciprofloxacin-resistant (Cpr) isolates of viridans group streptococci (two high-level Cpr Streptococcus oralis and five low-level Cpr Streptococcus mitis isolates) were determined and compared with those obtained from susceptible isolates. The nucleotide sequences of the QRDRs of the parE and gyrB genes from the five low-level Cpr S. mitis isolates and from the NCTC 12261 type strain were also analyzed. Four of these low-level Cpr isolates had changes affecting the subunits of DNA topoisomerase IV: three in Ser-79 (to Phe or Ile) of ParC and one in ParE at a position not previously described to be involved in quinolone resistance (Pro-424). One isolate did not show any mutation. The two high-level Cpr S. oralis isolates showed mutations affecting equivalent residue positions of ParC and GyrA, namely, Ser-79 to Phe and Ser-81 to Phe or Tyr, respectively. The parC mutations were able to transform Streptococcus pneumoniae to ciprofloxacin resistance, while the gyrA mutations transformed S. pneumoniae only when mutations in parC were present. These results suggest that DNA topoisomerase IV is a primary target of ciprofloxacin in viridans group streptococci, DNA gyrase being a secondary target. PMID:9797205

  3. The PARA-suite: PAR-CLIP specific sequence read simulation and processing

    PubMed Central

    Kloetgen, Andreas; Borkhardt, Arndt; Hoell, Jessica I.

    2016-01-01

    Background Next-generation sequencing technologies have profoundly impacted biology over recent years. Experimental protocols, such as photoactivatable ribonucleoside-enhanced cross-linking and immunoprecipitation (PAR-CLIP), which identifies protein–RNA interactions on a genome-wide scale, commonly employ deep sequencing. With PAR-CLIP, the incorporation of photoactivatable nucleosides into nascent transcripts leads to high rates of specific nucleotide conversions during reverse transcription. So far, the specific properties of PAR-CLIP-derived sequencing reads have not been assessed in depth. Methods We here compared PAR-CLIP sequencing reads to regular transcriptome sequencing reads (RNA-Seq) to identify distinctive properties that are relevant for reference-based read alignment of PAR-CLIP datasets. We developed a set of freely available tools for PAR-CLIP data analysis, called the PAR-CLIP analyzer suite (PARA-suite). The PARA-suite includes error model inference, PAR-CLIP read simulation based on PAR-CLIP specific properties, a full read alignment pipeline with a modified Burrows–Wheeler Aligner algorithm and CLIP read clustering for binding site detection. Results We show that differences in the error profiles of PAR-CLIP reads relative to regular transcriptome sequencing reads (RNA-Seq) make a distinct processing advantageous. We examine the alignment accuracy of commonly applied read aligners on 10 simulated PAR-CLIP datasets using different parameter settings and identified the most accurate setup among those read aligners. We demonstrate the performance of the PARA-suite in conjunction with different binding site detection algorithms on several real PAR-CLIP and HITS-CLIP datasets. Our processing pipeline allowed the improvement of both alignment and binding site detection accuracy. Availability The PARA-suite toolkit and the PARA-suite aligner are available at https://github.com/akloetgen/PARA-suite and https

  4. Participation of the urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) in neutrophil transendothelial migration.

    PubMed

    Pliyev, Boris K; Antonova, Olga A; Menshikov, Mikhail

    2011-05-01

    The mechanisms underlying migration of neutrophils across endothelium are not completely understood. The urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) plays a key role in neutrophil adhesion and migration. In the present study, we addressed whether uPAR regulates neutrophil transendothelial migration. We first showed that siRNA-mediated knockdown of uPAR in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) did not affect neutrophil migration across HUVEC monolayers indicating that endothelial uPAR does not regulate neutrophil transmigration. In contrast, the transmigration was significantly inhibited by Fab' fragment of anti-uPAR monoclonal antibody and proteolytically inactive urokinase (uPA), whereas inhibition of proteolytical activity of endogenous uPA (with amiloride or plasminogen activator inhibitor-1) did not affect the transmigration. Both the anti-uPAR Fab' fragment and proteolytically inactive uPA did not exert significant effects upon the transmigration conducted in the presence of F(ab')(2) fragment of blocking antibody to integrin Mac-1 indicating that uPAR regulates Mac-1-dependent transmigration. Mac-1-dependent, but not Mac-1-independent, transmigration was significantly reduced in the presence of N-acetyl-d-glucosamine and d-mannose, the saccharides that disrupt uPAR/Mac-1 association, but was unaffected in the presence of control saccharides (d-sorbitol and sucrose). We conclude that physical association of uPAR with Mac-1 mediates the regulatory effect of uPAR over the transmigration. Finally, we provide evidence that the functional cooperation between uPAR and Mac-1 is essential at both adhesion and diapedesis steps of neutrophil migration across endothelium. Thus, uPAR expressed on neutrophil plasma membrane regulates transendothelial migration independently of uPA proteolytical activity and acting as a cofactor for integrin Mac-1.

  5. Cancer-Selective Apoptotic Effects of Extracellular and Intracellular Par-4

    PubMed Central

    Bhattarai, Tripti Shrestha; Rangnekar, Vivek M.

    2010-01-01

    Selectivity toward cancer cells is the most desirable element in cancer therapeutics. Par-4 is a cancer cell-selective pro-apoptotic protein that functions intracellularly in the cytoplasmic and nuclear compartments, as a tumor suppressor. Moreover, recent findings indicate that the Par-4 protein is secreted by cells, and extracellular Par-4 induces cancer cell-specific apoptosis by interaction with the cell-surface receptor GRP78. This review describes the mechanisms underlying the apoptotic effects of both extracellular and intracellular Par-4 acting via its effector domain SAC. PMID:20440265

  6. Tryptase - PAR2 axis in Experimental Autoimmune Prostatitis, a model for Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Roman, Kenny; Done, Joseph D.; Schaeffer, Anthony J.; Murphy, Stephen F.; Thumbikat, Praveen

    2014-01-01

    Chronic prostatitis/Chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) affects up to 15% of the male population and is characterized by pelvic pain. Mast cells are implicated in the murine experimental autoimmune prostatitis (EAP) model as key to chronic pelvic pain development. The mast cell mediator tryptase-β and its cognate receptor protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2) are involved in mediating pain in other visceral disease models. Prostatic secretions and urines from CP/CPPS patients were examined for the presence of mast cell degranulation products. Tryptase-β and PAR2 expression were examined in murine experimental autoimmune prostatitis (EAP). Pelvic pain and inflammation were assessed in the presence or absence of PAR2 expression and upon PAR2 neutralization. Tryptase-β and carboxypeptidase A3 were elevated in CP/CPPS compared to healthy volunteers. Tryptase-β was capable of inducing pelvic pain and was increased in EAP along with its receptor PAR2. PAR2 was required for the development of chronic pelvic pain in EAP. PAR2 signaling in dorsal root ganglia lead to ERK1/2 phosphorylation and calcium influx. PAR2 neutralization using antibodies attenuated chronic pelvic pain in EAP. The tryptase-PAR2 axis is an important mediator of pelvic pain in EAP and may play a role in the pathogenesis of CP/CPPS. PMID:24726923

  7. A Desired PAR-Achieving Precoder Design for Multiuser MIMO OFDM Based on Concentration of Measure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cha, Hyun-Su; Kim, Dong Ku

    2017-03-01

    For multi-user multiple-input and multiple-output (MIMO) wireless communications in orthogonal frequency di- vision multiplexing systems, we propose a MIMO precoding scheme providing a desired peak-to-average power ratio (PAR) at the minimum cost that is defined as received SNR degradation. By taking advantage of the concentration of measure, we formulate a convex problem with constraint on the desired PAR. Consequently, the proposed scheme almost exactly achieves the desired PAR on average, and asymptotically attains the desired PAR at the 0.001 point of its complementary cumulative distribution function, as the number of subcarriers increases.

  8. TRIM21 is a novel regulator of Par-4 in colon and pancreatic cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Jeffrey Q.; Irby, Rosalyn B.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The prostate apoptosis response protein 4 (Par-4) is a tumor-suppressor that has been shown to induce cancer-cell selective apoptosis in a variety of cancers. The regulation of Par-4 expression and activity is a relatively understudied area, and identifying novel regulators of Par-4 may serve as novel therapeutic targets. To identify novel regulators of Par-4, a co-immunoprecipitation was performed in colon cancer cells, and co-precipitated proteins were identified by mass-spectometry. TRIM21 was identified as a novel interacting partner of Par-4, and further shown to interact with Par-4 endogenously and through its PRY-SPRY domain. Additional studies show that TRIM21 downregulates Par-4 levels in response to cisplatin, and that TRIM21 can increase the resistance of colon cancer cells to cisplatin. Furthermore, forced Par-4 expression can sensitize pancreatic cancer cells to cisplatin. Finally, we demonstrate that TRIM21 expression predicts survival in pancreatic cancer patients. Our work highlights a novel mechanism of Par-4 regulation, and identifies a novel prognostic marker and potential therapeutic target for pancreatic cancer. PMID:27830973

  9. Tryptase-PAR2 axis in experimental autoimmune prostatitis, a model for chronic pelvic pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Roman, Kenny; Done, Joseph D; Schaeffer, Anthony J; Murphy, Stephen F; Thumbikat, Praveen

    2014-07-01

    Chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) affects up to 15% of the male population and is characterized by pelvic pain. Mast cells are implicated in the murine experimental autoimmune prostatitis (EAP) model as key to chronic pelvic pain development. The mast cell mediator tryptase-β and its cognate receptor protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2) are involved in mediating pain in other visceral disease models. Prostatic secretions and urines from CP/CPPS patients were examined for the presence of mast cell degranulation products. Tryptase-β and PAR2 expression were examined in murine EAP. Pelvic pain and inflammation were assessed in the presence or absence of PAR2 expression and upon PAR2 neutralization. Tryptase-β and carboxypeptidase A3 were elevated in CP/CPPS compared to healthy volunteers. Tryptase-β was capable of inducing pelvic pain and was increased in EAP along with its receptor PAR2. PAR2 was required for the development of chronic pelvic pain in EAP. PAR2 signaling in dorsal root ganglia led to extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 phosphorylation and calcium influx. PAR2 neutralization using antibodies attenuated chronic pelvic pain in EAP. The tryptase-PAR2 axis is an important mediator of pelvic pain in EAP and may play a role in the pathogenesis of CP/CPPS.

  10. The polarity protein Par3 regulates APP trafficking and processing through the endocytic adaptor protein Numb.

    PubMed

    Sun, Miao; Asghar, Suwaiba Z; Zhang, Huaye

    2016-09-01

    The processing of amyloid precursor protein (APP) into β-amyloid peptide (Aβ) is a key step in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD), and trafficking dysregulations of APP and its secretases contribute significantly to altered APP processing. Here we show that the cell polarity protein Par3 plays an important role in APP processing and trafficking. We found that the expression of full length Par3 is significantly decreased in AD patients. Overexpression of Par3 promotes non-amyloidogenic APP processing, while depletion of Par3 induces intracellular accumulation of Aβ. We further show that Par3 functions by regulating APP trafficking. Loss of Par3 decreases surface expression of APP by targeting APP to the late endosome/lysosome pathway. Finally, we show that the effects of Par3 are mediated through the endocytic adaptor protein Numb, and Par3 functions by interfering with the interaction between Numb and APP. Together, our studies show a novel role for Par3 in regulating APP processing and trafficking.

  11. Common variants in the human platelet PAR4 thrombin receptor alter platelet function and differ by race

    PubMed Central

    Edelstein, Leonard C.; Simon, Lukas M.; Lindsay, Cory R.; Kong, Xianguo; Teruel-Montoya, Raúl; Tourdot, Benjamin E.; Chen, Edward S.; Ma, Lin; Coughlin, Shaun; Nieman, Marvin; Holinstat, Michael; Shaw, Chad A.

    2014-01-01

    Human platelets express 2 thrombin receptors: protease-activated receptor (PAR)-1 and PAR4. Recently, we reported 3.7-fold increased PAR4-mediated aggregation kinetics in platelets from black subjects compared with white subjects. We now show that platelets from blacks (n = 70) express 14% more PAR4 protein than those from whites (n = 84), but this difference is not associated with platelet PAR4 function. Quantitative trait locus analysis identified 3 common single nucleotide polymorphisms in the PAR4 gene (F2RL3) associated with PAR4-induced platelet aggregation. Among these single nucleotide polymorphisms, rs773902 determines whether residue 120 in transmembrane domain 2 is an alanine (Ala) or threonine (Thr). Compared with the Ala120 variant, Thr120 was more common in black subjects than in white subjects (63% vs 19%), was associated with higher PAR4-induced human platelet aggregation and Ca2+ flux, and generated greater inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate in transfected cells. A second, less frequent F2RL3 variant, Phe296Val, was only observed in blacks and abolished the enhanced PAR4-induced platelet aggregation and 1,4,5-triphosphate generation associated with PAR4-Thr120. PAR4 genotype did not affect vorapaxar inhibition of platelet PAR1 function, but a strong pharmacogenetic effect was observed with the PAR4-specific antagonist YD-3 [1-benzyl-3(ethoxycarbonylphenyl)-indazole]. These findings may have an important pharmacogenetic effect on the development of new PAR antagonists. PMID:25293779

  12. Mapping transmembrane residues of proteinase activated receptor 2 (PAR2) that influence ligand-modulated calcium signaling.

    PubMed

    Suen, J Y; Adams, M N; Lim, J; Madala, P K; Xu, W; Cotterell, A J; He, Y; Yau, M K; Hooper, J D; Fairlie, D P

    2017-03-01

    Proteinase-activated receptor 2 (PAR2) is a G protein-coupled receptor involved in metabolism, inflammation, and cancers. It is activated by proteolysis, which exposes a nascent N-terminal sequence that becomes a tethered agonist. Short synthetic peptides corresponding to this sequence also activate PAR2, while small organic molecules show promising PAR2 antagonism. Developing PAR2 ligands into pharmaceuticals is hindered by a lack of knowledge of how synthetic ligands interact with and differentially modulate PAR2. Guided by PAR2 homology modeling and ligand docking based on bovine rhodopsin, followed by cross-checking with newer PAR2 models based on ORL-1 and PAR1, site-directed mutagenesis of PAR2 was used to investigate the pharmacology of three agonists (two synthetic agonists and trypsin-exposed tethered ligand) and one antagonist for modulation of PAR2 signaling. Effects of 28 PAR2 mutations were examined for PAR2-mediated calcium mobilization and key mutants were selected for measuring ligand binding. Nineteen of twenty-eight PAR2 mutations reduced the potency of at least one ligand by >10-fold. Key residues mapped predominantly to a cluster in the transmembrane (TM) domains of PAR2, differentially influence intracellular Ca(2+) induced by synthetic agonists versus a native agonist, and highlight subtly different TM residues involved in receptor activation. This is the first evidence highlighting the importance of the PAR2 TM regions for receptor activation by synthetic PAR2 agonists and antagonists. The trypsin-cleaved N-terminus that activates PAR2 was unaffected by residues that affected synthetic peptides, challenging the widespread practice of substituting peptides for proteases to characterize PAR2 physiology.

  13. Painful spondylolysis or spondylolisthesis studied by radiography and single-photon emission computed tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Collier, B.D.; Johnson, R.P.; Carrera, G.F.; Meyer, G.A.; Schwab, J.P.; Flatley, T.J.; Isitman, A.T.; Hellman, R.S.; Zielonka, J.S.; Knobel, J.

    1985-01-01

    Planar bone scintigraphy (PBS) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) were compared in 19 adults with radiographic evidence of spondylolysis and/or spondylolisthesis. SPECT was more sensitive than PBS when used to identify symptomatic patients and sites of painful defects in the pars interarticularis. In addition, SPECT allowed more accurate localization than PBS. In 6 patients, spondylolysis or spondylolisthesis was unrealted to low back pain, and SPECT images of the posterior neural arch were normal. The authors conclude that when spondylolysis or spondylolisthesis is the cause of low back pain, pars defects are frequently heralded by increased scintigraphic activity which is best detected and localized by SPECT.

  14. Field studies of isoprene emissions from vegetation in the Northwest Mediterranean region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owen, Susan M.; Boissard, C.; Hagenlocher, B.; Hewitt, C. Nicholas

    1998-10-01

    During the Biogenic Emissions in the Mediterranean Area (BEMA) project field campaigns (1993-1997), 40 native Mediterranean plant species were screened for emissions of isoprene and monoterpenes using a branch enclosure sampling method with subsequent gas chromatographic-flame ionization detector (GC-FID) and GC-mass selective detector (MS) analysis. Thirteen species emitted more than 0.5 μg (C) g-1 dw h-1 isoprene at 30°C and 1000 μmol m-2 s-1 photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), of which nine species emitted more than 20 μg (C) g-1 dw h-1. Emissions of isoprene were strongly correlated with temperature and PAR, and were reasonably well predicted by existing algorithms. There was little intraspecies and day to day variation in base emission rates. In general, median base emission rates were higher in summer compared to autumn for most species. Significant difference in aggregated habitat base emission rates was found between dunes, garrigue, woodland, and riverside sample sites. Although considerable unexplained variability in base emission rates remains to be explored, first estimates of base emission rates for Mediterranean shrublands are presented here.

  15. Solar PAR and UVR modify the community composition and photosynthetic activity of sea ice algae.

    PubMed

    Enberg, Sara; Piiparinen, Jonna; Majaneva, Markus; Vähätalo, Anssi V; Autio, Riitta; Rintala, Janne-Markus

    2015-10-01

    The effects of increased photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and ultraviolet radiation (UVR) on species diversity, biomass and photosynthetic activity were studied in fast ice algal communities. The experimental set-up consisted of nine 1.44 m(2) squares with three treatments: untreated with natural snow cover (UNT), snow-free (PAR + UVR) and snow-free ice covered with a UV screen (PAR). The total algal biomass, dominated by diatoms and dinoflagellates, increased in all treatments during the experiment. However, the smaller biomass growth in the top 10-cm layer of the PAR + UVR treatment compared with the PAR treatment indicated the negative effect of UVR. Scrippsiella complex (mainly Scrippsiella hangoei, Biecheleria baltica and Gymnodinium corollarium) showed UV sensitivity in the top 5-cm layer, whereas Heterocapsa arctica ssp. frigida and green algae showed sensitivity to both PAR and UVR. The photosynthetic activity was highest in the top 5-cm layer of the PAR treatment, where the biomass of the pennate diatom Nitzschia frigida increased, indicating the UV sensitivity of this species. This study shows that UVR is one of the controlling factors of algal communities in Baltic Sea ice, and that increased availability of PAR together with UVR exclusion can cause changes in algal biomass, photosynthetic activity and community composition.

  16. Participatory Action Research (PAR) cum Action Research (AR) in Teacher Professional Development: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morales, Marie Paz E.

    2016-01-01

    This paper reviews Participatory Action Research as an approach to teacher professional development. It maps the origins of Participatory Action Research (PAR) and discusses the benefits and challenges that have been identified by other researchers in utilizing PAR approaches in conducting research. It draws ideas of combining the features of…

  17. Loss of Par3 promotes lung adenocarcinoma metastasis through 14-3-3ζ protein.

    PubMed

    Song, Tong; Tian, Xia; Kai, Fan; Ke, Jiang; Wei, Zhai; Jing-Song, Li; Si-Hua, Wang; Jian-Jun, Wang

    2016-09-27

    Partitioning defective protein 3 (Par3) can activate the Tiam1/Rac pathway to inhibit invasion and metastasis in many cancers; however, the role of Par3 in lung adenocarcinoma remains unknown. Here we show that Par3 is downregulated in lung adenocarcinoma tissues and is associated with higher rates of lymph node metastasis and recurrence. Our functional study demonstrated that knock-down of Par3 promoted lung adenocarcinoma cell growth, cell migration, tumor formation, and metastasis, all of which were effectively inhibited when 14-3-3ζ was silenced. We found that Par3 binded with 14-3-3ζ protein and also showed that Par3 abrogated the binding of 14-3-3ζ to Tiam1, which was responsible for Rac1 activation. Knock-down of 14-3-3ζ inhibited Tiam1/Rac-GTP activation and blocked the invasive behavior of cells lacking Par3. These data suggest that loss of Par3 promotes metastatic behavior in lung adenocarcinoma cells through 14-3-3ζ protein.

  18. 12 CFR 925.19 - Par value and price of stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Par value and price of stock. 925.19 Section 925.19 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK MEMBERS AND HOUSING ASSOCIATES MEMBERS OF THE BANKS Stock Requirements § 925.19 Par value and price of stock. The capital...

  19. Human bronchial epithelial cells express PAR-2 with different sensitivity to thermolysin.

    PubMed

    Ubl, Joachim J; Grishina, Zoryana V; Sukhomlin, Tatiana K; Welte, Tobias; Sedehizade, Fariba; Reiser, Georg

    2002-06-01

    Protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR-2) plays a role in inflammatory reactions in airway physiology. Proteases cleaving the extracellular NH(2) terminus of receptors activate or inactivate PAR, thus possessing a therapeutic potential. Using RT-PCR and immunocytochemistry, we show PAR-2 in human airway epithelial cell lines human bronchial epithelial (HBE) and A549. Functional expression of PAR-2 was confirmed by Ca(2+) imaging studies using the receptor agonist protease trypsin. The effect was abolished by soybean trypsin inhibitor and mimicked by the specific PAR-2 peptide agonist SLIGKV. Amplitude and duration of PAR-2-elicited Ca(2+) response in HBE and A549 cells depend on concentration and time of agonist superfusion. The response is partially pertussis toxin (PTX) insensitive, abolished by the phospholipase C inhibitor U-73122, and diminished by the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor antagonist 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate. Cathepsin G altered neither the resting Ca(2+) level nor PAR-2-elicited Ca(2+) response. Thermolysin, a prototypic bacterial metalloprotease, induced a dose-dependent Ca(2+) response in HBE, but not A549, cells. In both cell lines, thermolysin abolished the response to a subsequent trypsin challenge but not to SLIGKV. Thus different epithelial cell types express different PAR-2 with identical responses to physiological stimuli (trypsin, SLIGKV) but different sensitivity to modifying proteases, such as thermolysin.

  20. Slmb antagonises the aPKC/Par-6 complex to control oocyte and epithelial polarity.

    PubMed

    Morais-de-Sá, Eurico; Mukherjee, Avik; Lowe, Nick; St Johnston, Daniel

    2014-08-01

    The Drosophila anterior-posterior axis is specified when the posterior follicle cells signal to polarise the oocyte, leading to the anterior/lateral localisation of the Par-6/aPKC complex and the posterior recruitment of Par-1, which induces a microtubule reorganisation that localises bicoid and oskar mRNAs. Here we show that oocyte polarity requires Slmb, the substrate specificity subunit of the SCF E3 ubiquitin ligase that targets proteins for degradation. The Par-6/aPKC complex is ectopically localised to the posterior of slmb mutant oocytes, and Par-1 and oskar mRNA are mislocalised. Slmb appears to play a related role in epithelial follicle cells, as large slmb mutant clones disrupt epithelial organisation, whereas small clones show an expansion of the apical domain, with increased accumulation of apical polarity factors at the apical cortex. The levels of aPKC and Par-6 are significantly increased in slmb mutants, whereas Baz is slightly reduced. Thus, Slmb may induce the polarisation of the anterior-posterior axis of the oocyte by targeting the Par-6/aPKC complex for degradation at the oocyte posterior. Consistent with this, overexpression of the aPKC antagonist Lgl strongly rescues the polarity defects of slmb mutant germline clones. The role of Slmb in oocyte polarity raises an intriguing parallel with C. elegans axis formation, in which PAR-2 excludes the anterior PAR complex from the posterior cortex to induce polarity, but its function can be substituted by overexpressing Lgl.

  1. Bacterial DNA segregation dynamics mediated by the polymerizing protein ParF

    PubMed Central

    Barillà, Daniela; Rosenberg, Mark F; Nobbmann, Ulf; Hayes, Finbarr

    2005-01-01

    Prokaryotic DNA segregation most commonly involves members of the Walker-type ParA superfamily. Here we show that the ParF partition protein specified by the TP228 plasmid is a ParA ATPase that assembles into extensive filaments in vitro. Polymerization is potentiated by ATP binding and does not require nucleotide hydrolysis. Analysis of mutations in conserved residues of the Walker A motif established a functional coupling between filament dynamics and DNA partitioning. The partner partition protein ParG plays two separable roles in the ParF polymerization process. ParF is unrelated to prokaryotic polymerizing proteins of the actin or tubulin families, but is a homologue of the MinD cell division protein, which also assembles into filaments. The ultrastructures of the ParF and MinD polymers are remarkably similar. This points to an evolutionary parallel between DNA segregation and cytokinesis in prokaryotic cells, and reveals a potential molecular mechanism for plasmid and chromosome segregation mediated by the ubiquitous ParA-type proteins. PMID:15775965

  2. The parA resolvase performs site-specific genomic excision in Arabidopsis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have designed a site-specific excision detection system in Arabidopsis to study the in planta activity of the small serine recombinase ParA. Using a transient expression assay as well as stable transgenic plant lines, we show that the ParA recombinase is catalytically active and capable of perfo...

  3. Questioning Our Questions: Assessing Question Asking Practices to Evaluate a yPAR Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grace, Sarah; Langhout, Regina Day

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine question asking practices in a youth participatory action research (yPAR) after school program housed at an elementary school. The research question was: In which ways did the adult question asking practices in a yPAR setting challenge and/or reproduce conventional models of power in educational…

  4. Regulation of long-term repopulating hematopoietic stem cells by EPCR/PAR1 signaling

    PubMed Central

    Gur-Cohen, Shiri; Kollet, Orit; Graf, Claudine; Esmon, Charles T.; Ruf, Wolfram; Lapidot, Tsvee

    2016-01-01

    The common developmental origin of endothelial and hematopoietic cells is manifested by coexpression of several cell surface receptors. Adult murine bone marrow (BM) long-term repopulating hematopoietic stem cells (LT-HSCs), endowed with the highest repopulation and self-renewal potential, express endothelial protein C receptor (EPCR), which is used as a marker to isolate them. EPCR/PAR1 signaling in endothelial cells has anticoagulant and anti-inflammatory roles, while thrombin/PAR1 signaling induces coagulation and inflammation. Recent studies define two new PAR1-mediated signaling cascades that regulate EPCR+ LT-HSC BM retention and egress. EPCR/PAR1 signaling facilitates LT-HSC BM repopulation, retention, survival, and chemotherapy resistance by restricting nitric oxide (NO) production, maintaining NOlow LT-HSC BM retention with increased VLA4 expression, affinity, and adhesion. Conversely, acute stress and clinical mobilization upregulate thrombin generation and activate different PAR1 signaling which overcomes BM EPCR+ LT-HSC retention, inducing their recruitment to the bloodstream. Thrombin/PAR1 signaling induces NO generation, TACE-mediated EPCR shedding, and upregulation of CXCR4 and PAR1, leading to CXCL12-mediated stem and progenitor cell mobilization. This review discusses new roles for factors traditionally viewed as coagulation related, which independently act in the BM to regulate PAR1 signaling in bone- and blood-forming progenitor cells, navigating their fate by controlling NO production. PMID:26928241

  5. Loss of Par3 promotes lung adenocarcinoma metastasis through 14-3-3ζ protein

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Song; Xia, Tian; Fan, Kai; Jiang, Ke; Zhai, Wei; Li, Jing-Song; Wang, Si-Hua; Wang, Jian-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Partitioning defective protein 3 (Par3) can activate the Tiam1/Rac pathway to inhibit invasion and metastasis in many cancers; however, the role of Par3 in lung adenocarcinoma remains unknown. Here we show that Par3 is downregulated in lung adenocarcinoma tissues and is associated with higher rates of lymph node metastasis and recurrence. Our functional study demonstrated that knock-down of Par3 promoted lung adenocarcinoma cell growth, cell migration, tumor formation, and metastasis, all of which were effectively inhibited when 14-3-3ζ was silenced. We found that Par3 binded with 14-3-3ζ protein and also showed that Par3 abrogated the binding of 14-3-3ζ to Tiam1, which was responsible for Rac1 activation. Knock-down of 14-3-3ζ inhibited Tiam1/Rac-GTP activation and blocked the invasive behavior of cells lacking Par3. These data suggest that loss of Par3 promotes metastatic behavior in lung adenocarcinoma cells through 14-3-3ζ protein. PMID:27588399

  6. Design and synthesis of peptides from bacterial ParE toxin as inhibitors of topoisomerases.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Luiz Carlos Bertucci; Garrido, Saulo Santesso; Garcia, Anderson; Delfino, Davi Barbosa; Santos, Laura do Nascimento; Marchetto, Reinaldo

    2012-08-01

    Toxin-antitoxin (TA) proteic systems encode a toxin and an antitoxin that regulate the growth and death of bacterial cells under various stress conditions. The ParE protein is a toxin that inhibits DNA gyrase activity and thereby blocks DNA replication. Based on the Escherichia coli ParE structure, a series of linear peptides were designed and synthesized by solid-phase methodology. The ability of the peptides to inhibit the activity of bacterial topoisomerases was investigated. Four peptides (ParELC3, ParELC8, ParELC10 and ParELC12), showed complete inhibition of DNA gyrase supercoiling activity with an IC(100) between 20 and 40 μmol L(-1). In contrast to wild-type ParE, the peptide analogues were able to inhibit the DNA relaxation of topoisomerase IV, another type IIA bacterial topoisomerase, with lower IC(100) values. Interestingly only ParELC12 displayed inhibition of the relaxation activity of human topoisomerase II. Our findings reveal new inhibitors of bacterial topoisomerases and are a good starting point for the development of a new class of antibacterial agents that targets the DNA topoisomerases.

  7. Compression Myelopathy due to Proliferative Changes around C2 Pars Defects without Instability

    PubMed Central

    Kimura, Tetsuya; Tezuka, Fumitake; Abe, Mitsunobu; Yamashita, Kazuta; Takata, Yoichiro; Higashino, Kosaku; Sairyo, Koichi

    2016-01-01

    We report a case with compression myelopathy due to proliferative changes around the C2 pars defects without instability. A 69-year-old man presented with progressive clumsy hands and spastic gait. Plain radiographs showed bilateral spondylolysis (pars defects) at C2 and fusion between C2 and C3 spinous processes. Dynamic views revealed mobility through the pars defects, but there was no apparent instability. Computed tomography showed proliferative changes at the pars defects, which protruded into spinal canal. On magnetic resonance imaging, the spinal cord was compressed and intramedullary high signal change was found. A diagnosis of compression myelopathy due to proliferative changes around the C2 pars defects was made. We performed posterior decompression. Postoperatively, symptoms have been alleviated and images revealed sufficient decompression and no apparent instability. In patients with the cervical spondylolysis, myelopathy caused by instability or slippage have been periodically reported. The present case involving C2 spondylolysis is extremely rare. PMID:27340539

  8. Loss of the Par3 polarity protein promotes breast tumorigenesis and metastasis.

    PubMed

    McCaffrey, Luke Martin; Montalbano, JoAnne; Mihai, Constantina; Macara, Ian G

    2012-11-13

    Loss of epithelial organization is a hallmark of carcinomas, but whether polarity regulates tumor growth and metastasis is poorly understood. To address this issue, we depleted the Par3 polarity gene by RNAi in combination with oncogenic Notch or Ras(61L) expression in the murine mammary gland. Par3 silencing dramatically reduced tumor latency in both models and produced invasive and metastatic tumors that retained epithelial marker expression. Par3 depletion was associated with induction of MMP9, destruction of the extracellular matrix, and invasion, all mediated by atypical PKC-dependant JAK/Stat3 activation. Importantly, Par3 expression is significantly reduced in human breast cancers, which correlates with active aPKC and Stat3. These data identify Par3 as a regulator of signaling pathways relevant to invasive breast cancer.

  9. Seasonal variations in whole-ecosystem BVOC emissions from a subtropical bamboo plantation in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Jianhui; Guenther, Alex; Turnipseed, Andrew; Duhl, Tiffany; Yu, Shuquan; Wang, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Isoprene and monoterpene emissions and environmental conditions were measured over a six month period in a Lei bamboo (Phyllostachys violascens) forest in a subtropical region in China. Isoprene and monoterpene emissions were measured using a relaxed eddy accumulation (REA) system on an above-canopy tower. From July to November of 2012, isoprene contributed 99.1% of terpenoid emissions. α-pinene, constituting 0.8% of total observed terpenoid emissions, was the only monoterpene for which a significant flux was detected. Emissions of the sesquiterpenes longifolene and α-cedrene were observed at very low rates. Isoprene and α-pinene emissions exhibited strong diurnal variations, with lower emissions in the morning and late evening, and the highest emissions around noon. BVOC peak emissions typically occurred a few hours after the noon PAR peak and coincided with the daily temperature peak. This behavior can be described reasonably well by the MEGANv2.1 biogenic emission model. During the campaign (i.e., from 7 July, 2012 to 19 Jan., 2013), the mean (and maximum) emission fluxes (mg m-2 h-1) were 0.95 (10.32) for isoprene, 0.010 (0.176) for α pinene, 0.001 (0.063) for longifolene, and 2.6 × 10-4 (0.009) for α-cedrene, respectively. During the winter season, when the ground was covered by organic mulch to increase soil temperature and to increase the yield of bamboo shoot, there was no evident impact on BVOC emissions. The observed seasonal variation followed the general behavior predicted by the MEGANv2.1 model, with lower emissions associated with cooler conditions, but the magnitude of the emission decrease was greater than expected indicating driving variables are missing from the model. Emission factors, representing the emission expected for a Leaf Area Index of 5 at a temperature of 30 °C and PAR of 1500 μmol m-2 s-1, during the peak growing season for this site were 0.008 mg m-2 h-1 for α-pinene and 3.3 mg m-2 h-1 for isoprene. The isoprene emission

  10. PAR Interception and Utilization in Different Maize and Soybean Intercropping Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xin; Rahman, Tanzeelur; Yang, Feng; Song, Chun; Yong, Taiwen; Liu, Jiang; Zhang, Cuiying; Yang, Wenyu

    2017-01-01

    The crop intercepted photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and radiation use efficiency (RUE) vary markedly in different intercropping systems. The HHLA (horizontally homogeneous leaf area) and ERCRT (extended row crop radiation transmission) models have been established to calculate the intercepted PAR for intercrops. However, there is still a lack of study on the intercepted PAR and RUE under different intercropping configurations using different models. To evaluate the intercepted PAR and RUE in maize and soybean under different intercropping systems, we tested different strip intercropping configurations (SI1, SI2, and SI3 based on ERCRT model) and a row intercropping configurations (RI based on HHLA model) in comparison to monoculture. Our results showed that the intercepted PAR and RUE of intercropping systems were all higher than those of monoculture. The soybean intercepted PAR in strip intercropping was 1.35 times greater than that in row intercropping. In row intercropping (RI), the lack of soybean intercepted PAR resulted in a significant reduction of soybean dry matter. Therefore, it is not the recommended configuration for soybean. In strip intercropping patterns, with the distance between maize strip increased by 0.2 m, the intercepted PAR of soybean increased by 20%. The SI2 (maize row spacing at 0.4 m and the distance between maize strip at 1.6 m) was the recommended configuration to achieve the highest value of intercepted PAR and RUE among tested strip intercropping configurations. The method of dry matter estimation using intercepted PAR and RUE is useful in simulated experiments. The simulated value was verified in comparison with experimental data, which confirmed the credibility of the simulation model. Moreover, it also provides help in the development of functional-structural plant model (FSPM). PMID:28056056

  11. Light dependency of VOC emissions from selected Mediterranean plant species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owen, S. M.; Harley, P.; Guenther, A.; Hewitt, C. N.

    The light, temperature and stomatal conductance dependencies of volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from ten plant species commonly found in the Mediterranean region were studied using a fully controlled leaf cuvette in the laboratory. At standard conditions of temperature and light (30°C and 1000 μmol m -2 s -1 PAR), low emitting species ( Arbutus unedo, Pinus halepensis, Cistus incanus, Cistus salvifolius, Rosmarinus officinalis and Thymus vulgaris) emitted between 0.1 and 5.0 μg (C) (total VOCs) g -1 dw h -1, a medium emitter ( Pinus pinea) emitted between 5 and 10 μg (C) g -1 dw h -1 and high emitters ( Cistus monspeliensis, Lavendula stoechas and Quercus sp.) emitted more than 10 μg (C) g -1 dw h -1. VOC emissions from all of the plant species investigated showed some degree of light dependency, which was distinguishable from temperature dependency. Emissions of all compounds from Quercus sp. were light dependent. Ocimene was one of several monoterpene compounds emitted by P. pinea and was strongly correlated to light. Only a fraction of monoterpene emissions from C. incanus exhibited apparent weak light dependency but emissions from this plant species were strongly correlated to temperature. Data presented here are consistent with past studies, which show that emissions are independent of stomatal conductance. These results may allow more accurate predictions of monoterpene emission fluxes from the Mediterranean region to be made.

  12. ESO-Hα 574 and Par-Lup 3-4 jets: Exploring the spectral, kinematical, and physical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whelan, E. T.; Bonito, R.; Antoniucci, S.; Alcalá, J. M.; Giannini, T.; Nisini, B.; Bacciotti, F.; Podio, L.; Stelzer, B.; Comerón, F.

    2014-05-01

    In this paper a comprehensive analysis of VLT/X-Shooter observations of two jet systems, namely ESO-Hα 574 a K8 classical T Tauri star and Par-Lup 3-4 a very low mass (0.13 M⊙) M5 star, is presented. Both stars are known to have near-edge on accretion disks. A summary of these first X-shooter observations of jets was given in a 2011 letter. The new results outlined here include flux tables of identified emission lines, information on the morphology, kinematics and physical conditions of both jets and, updated estimates of Ṁout/Ṁacc. Asymmetries in the ESO-Hα 574 flow are investigated while the Par-Lup 3-4 jet is much more symmetric. The density, temperature, and therefore origin of the gas traced by the Balmer lines are investigated from the Balmer decrements and results suggest an origin in a jet for ESO-Hα 574 while for Par-Lup 3-4 the temperature and density are consistent with an accretion flow. Ṁacc is estimated from the luminosity of various accretion tracers. For both targets, new luminosity relationships and a re-evaluation of the effect of reddening and grey extinction (due to the edge-on disks) allows for substantial improvements on previous estimates of Ṁacc. It is found that log(Ṁacc) = -9.15 ± 0.45M⊙ yr-1 and -9.30 ± 0.27M⊙ yr-1 for ESO-Hα 574 and Par-Lup 3-4 respectively. Additionally, the physical conditions in the jets (electron density, electron temperature, and ionisation) are probed using various line ratios and compared with previous determinations from iron lines. The results are combined with the luminosity of the [SII]λ6731 line to derive Ṁout through a calculation of the gas emissivity based on a 5-level atom model. As this method for deriving Ṁout comes from an exact calculation based on the jet parameters (measured directly from the spectra) rather than as was done previously from an approximate formula based on the value of the critical density at an assumed unknown temperature, values of Ṁout are far more

  13. Facteurs de risque de mortalité par tuberculose pulmonaire

    PubMed Central

    Janah, Hicham; Souhi, Hicham; Kouismi, Hatim; Mark, Karima; Zahraoui, Rachida; Benamor, Jouda; Soualhi, Mona; Bourkadi, Jamal Eddine

    2014-01-01

    La tuberculose est une maladie infectieuse transmissible provoquée par myco-bacterium tuberculosis (bacille de Koch ou BK). Elle représente, selon les estimations del'Organisation Mondiale de la Santé (OMS), l'une des pathologies infectieuses causant le plus de décès au niveau mondial avec plus de 1 million de décès par an. Pour déterminer les facteurs de risque de mortalité au cours de la tuberculose pulmonaire à microscopie positive nous avons mené une étude rétrospective portant sur tous les cas de tuberculose pulmonaire à microscopie positive et qui étaient décédés au cours de leur hospitalisation. Cette étude a colligé 1803 cas de tuberculose sur une période de 2 ans et demi dont 46 sont décédés. La prévalence de décès est de 2,55%. La population se répartit en 32 hommes et 14 femmes. L’âge moyen était de 53ans ± 17 ans. Le tabagisme était retrouvé chez la moitié des cas. Une comorbidité était retrouvée dans 43%, avec 17% de diabète. Le délai de diagnostic avait une médiane de 60 jours avec percentile (30j; 105j). La symptomatologie clinique était dominée par la toux, la dyspnée et les expectorations soit respectivement: 97,8%, 69,6% et 67,4% des cas. Sur le plan radiologique les lésions étaient diffuses et bilatérales dans 76,1% des cas. Tous les patients étaient mis sous SRHZ. 11% avaient présenté une toxicité aux antibacillaires (de type hépatiques dans 3 cas et neurologiques dans 2 cas). Le délai médian de décès était de 8,5 jours (5j; 17j). Les causes de décès retrouvées étaient: Une hépatite fulminante (3 cas), une décompensation acido-cétosique (3 cas), un SDRA (2 cas), des hémoptysies foudroyantes (2 cas), et respectivement un cas secondaire à une décompensation de BPCO, une décompensation cardiaque, une hypoglycémie et un tableau d'anasarque. Cette étude suggère que le terrain, le retard diagnostique et les effets secondaires du traitement sont les principaux facteurs de risque de

  14. PAR-2 receptor-induced effects on human eccrine sweat gland cells.

    PubMed

    L Bovell, Douglas; Kofler, Barbara; Lang, Roland

    2009-01-01

    Serine proteases can induce cell signaling by stimulating G-protein-coupled receptors, called proteinase-activated receptors (PAR's) on a variety of epithelial cells. While PAR-2, one such receptor, activates cell signaling in a secretory cell line derived from human sweat glands, there was no information on their presence and effects on intact sweat glands. PAR-2 presence and activation of eccrine sweat glands isolated from human skin samples was investigated using Western blot analysis, immunohistochemistry, electron microscopy (EM) and Ca(2+) imaging. Anti-human PAR-2 antibody demonstrated the presence of these receptors in eccrine sweat glands. EM showed that PAR-2 activation resulted in degranulation of secretory cells. Ca(2+) imaging using PAR-2 activators demonstrated a two phase increase in [Ca(2+)](i) which was dependent on extracellular Ca(2+) for the second phase, and that the response could be blocked by prior incubation with xestospongin, the IP(3) receptor blocker. The results demonstrated that PAR-2 receptors are present in human sweat gland secretory cells and that these receptors are functionally active and can induce changes associated with secretory events in eccrine glands.

  15. Blocking PAR2 Alleviates Bladder Pain and Hyperactivity via TRPA1 Signal.

    PubMed

    Chen, Daihui; Liu, Nian; Li, Mao; Liang, Simin

    2016-01-01

    Bladder disorders associated with interstitial cystitis are frequently characterized by increased contractility and pain. The goals of this study were to examine 1) the effects of blocking proteinase-activated receptor-2 (PAR2) on the exaggerated bladder activity and pain evoked by cystitis and 2) the underlying mechanisms responsible for the role of PAR2 in regulating cystic sensory activity. The protein expression of PAR2 was amplified in rats with cystitis by inducing it with systemic administration of cyclophosphamide (CYP) as compared with control rats. Blocking PAR2 by intrathecal infusion of PAR2 antagonist FSLLRY-NH2 attenuated bladder hyperactivity and pain. In addition, blocking PAR2 attenuated the transient receptor potential A1 (TRPA1) signal pathway, whereas inhibition of the TRPA1 decreased bladder hyperactivity and pain. The data revealed specific signaling pathways leading to CYP-induced bladder hyperactivity and pain, including the activation of PAR2 and TRPA1. Inhibition of these pathways alleviates cystic pain. Targeting one or more of these signaling molecules may present new opportunities for treatment and management of overactive bladder and pain often observed in cystitis.

  16. Evidence for a DNA-relay mechanism in ParABS-mediated chromosome segregation.

    PubMed

    Lim, Hoong Chuin; Surovtsev, Ivan Vladimirovich; Beltran, Bruno Gabriel; Huang, Fang; Bewersdorf, Jörg; Jacobs-Wagner, Christine

    2014-05-23

    The widely conserved ParABS system plays a major role in bacterial chromosome segregation. How the components of this system work together to generate translocation force and directional motion remains uncertain. Here, we combine biochemical approaches, quantitative imaging and mathematical modeling to examine the mechanism by which ParA drives the translocation of the ParB/parS partition complex in Caulobacter crescentus. Our experiments, together with simulations grounded on experimentally-determined biochemical and cellular parameters, suggest a novel 'DNA-relay' mechanism in which the chromosome plays a mechanical function. In this model, DNA-bound ParA-ATP dimers serve as transient tethers that harness the elastic dynamics of the chromosome to relay the partition complex from one DNA region to another across a ParA-ATP dimer gradient. Since ParA-like proteins are implicated in the partitioning of various cytoplasmic cargos, the conservation of their DNA-binding activity suggests that the DNA-relay mechanism may be a general form of intracellular transport in bacteria.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02758.001.

  17. Blocking PAR2 Alleviates Bladder Pain and Hyperactivity via TRPA1 Signal

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Daihui; Liu, Nian; Li, Mao

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Bladder disorders associated with interstitial cystitis are frequently characterized by increased contractility and pain. The goals of this study were to examine 1) the effects of blocking proteinase-activated receptor-2 (PAR2) on the exaggerated bladder activity and pain evoked by cystitis and 2) the underlying mechanisms responsible for the role of PAR2 in regulating cystic sensory activity. The protein expression of PAR2 was amplified in rats with cystitis by inducing it with systemic administration of cyclophosphamide (CYP) as compared with control rats. Blocking PAR2 by intrathecal infusion of PAR2 antagonist FSLLRY-NH2 attenuated bladder hyperactivity and pain. In addition, blocking PAR2 attenuated the transient receptor potential A1 (TRPA1) signal pathway, whereas inhibition of the TRPA1 decreased bladder hyperactivity and pain. The data revealed specific signaling pathways leading to CYP-induced bladder hyperactivity and pain, including the activation of PAR2 and TRPA1. Inhibition of these pathways alleviates cystic pain. Targeting one or more of these signaling molecules may present new opportunities for treatment and management of overactive bladder and pain often observed in cystitis. PMID:28123833

  18. PAR1 activation induces rapid changes in glutamate uptake and astrocyte morphology

    PubMed Central

    Sweeney, Amanda M.; Fleming, Kelsey E.; McCauley, John P.; Rodriguez, Marvin F.; Martin, Elliot T.; Sousa, Alioscka A.; Leapman, Richard D.; Scimemi, Annalisa

    2017-01-01

    The G-protein coupled, protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR1) is a membrane protein expressed in astrocytes. Fine astrocytic processes are in tight contact with neurons and blood vessels and shape excitatory synaptic transmission due to their abundant expression of glutamate transporters. PAR1 is proteolytically-activated by bloodstream serine proteases also involved in the formation of blood clots. PAR1 activation has been suggested to play a key role in pathological states like thrombosis, hemostasis and inflammation. What remains unclear is whether PAR1 activation also regulates glutamate uptake in astrocytes and how this shapes excitatory synaptic transmission among neurons. Here we show that, in the mouse hippocampus, PAR1 activation induces a rapid structural re-organization of the neuropil surrounding glutamatergic synapses, which is associated with faster clearance of synaptically-released glutamate from the extracellular space. This effect can be recapitulated using realistic 3D Monte Carlo reaction-diffusion simulations, based on axial scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) tomography reconstructions of excitatory synapses. The faster glutamate clearance induced by PAR1 activation leads to short- and long-term changes in excitatory synaptic transmission. Together, these findings identify PAR1 as an important regulator of glutamatergic signaling in the hippocampus and a possible target molecule to limit brain damage during hemorrhagic stroke. PMID:28256580

  19. Par-4/NF-κB Mediates the Apoptosis of Islet β Cells Induced by Glucolipotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    QiNan, Wu; XiaGuang, Gan; XiaoTian, Lei; WuQuan, Deng; Ling, Zhang; Bing, Chen

    2016-01-01

    Apoptosis of islet β cells is a primary pathogenic feature of type 2 diabetes, and ER stress and mitochondrial dysfunction play important roles in this process. Previous research has shown that prostate apoptosis response-4 (Par-4)/NF-κB induces cancer cell apoptosis through endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. However, the mechanism by which Par-4/NF-κB induces islet β cell apoptosis remains unknown. We used a high glucose/palmitate intervention to mimic type 2 diabetes in vitro. We demonstrated that the high glucose/palmitate intervention induced the expression and secretion of Par-4. It also causes increased expression and activation of NF-κB, which induced NIT-1 cell apoptosis and dysfunction. Overexpression of Par-4 potentiates these effects, whereas downregulation of Par-4 attenuates them. Inhibition of NF-κB inhibited the Par-4-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, these effects occurred through the ER stress cell membrane and mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis. Our findings reveal a novel role for Par-4/NF-κB in islet β cell apoptosis and type 2 diabetes. PMID:27340675

  20. CERCLA interim action at the Par Pond unit: A case study

    SciTech Connect

    Hickey, H.M.; Matthews, S.S.; Neal, L.W.; Weiss, W.R.

    1993-11-01

    The Par Pond unit designated under CERCLA consists of sediments within a Savannah River Site (SRS) cooling water reservoir. The sediments are contaminated with radionuclides and nonradioactive constituents from nuclear production reactor operations. The mercury in Par Pond is believed to have originated from the Savannah River. Because of Par Pond Dam safety Issues, the water level of the reservoir was drawn down, exposing more than 1300 acres of contaminated sediments and triggering the need for CERCLA interim remedial action. This paper presents the interim action approach taken with Par Pond as a case study. The approach considered the complexity of the Par Pond ecosystem, the large size of Par Pond, the volume of contaminated sediments, and the institutional controls existing at SRS. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) considers units with large volumes of low-concentration wastes, as is the case with Par Pond, to be {open_quotes}special sites.{close_quotes} Accordingly, EPA guidance establishes that the range of alternatives developed focus primarily on containment options and other remedial approaches that mitigate potential risks associated with the {open_quotes}special site.{close_quotes} The remedial alternatives, according to EPA, are not to be prohibitively expensive or difficult to implement. This case study also is representative of the types of issues that will need to be addressed within the Department of Energy (DOE) complex as nuclear facilities are transitioned to inactive status and corrective/remedial actions are warranted.

  1. Protease-activated receptors (PARs)--biology and role in cancer invasion and metastasis.

    PubMed

    Wojtukiewicz, Marek Z; Hempel, Dominika; Sierko, Ewa; Tucker, Stephanie C; Honn, Kenneth V

    2015-12-01

    Although many studies have demonstrated that components of the hemostatic system may be involved in signaling leading to cancer progression, the potential mechanisms by which they contribute to cancer dissemination are not yet precisely understood. Among known coagulant factors, tissue factor (TF) and thrombin play a pivotal role in cancer invasion. They may be generated in the tumor microenvironment independently of blood coagulation and can induce cell signaling through activation of protease-activated receptors (PARs). PARs are transmembrane G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) that are activated by a unique proteolytic mechanism. They play important roles in vascular physiology, neural tube closure, hemostasis, and inflammation. All of these agents (TF, thrombin, PARs-mainly PAR-1 and PAR-2) are thought to promote cancer invasion and metastasis at least in part by facilitating tumor cell migration, angiogenesis, and interactions with host vascular cells, including platelets, fibroblasts, and endothelial cells lining blood vessels. Here, we discuss the role of PARs and their activators in cancer progression, focusing on TF- and thrombin-mediated actions. Therapeutic options tailored specifically to inhibit PAR-induced signaling in cancer patients are presented as well.

  2. Plaies des membres par agression: analyse de 245 dossiers

    PubMed Central

    Boufettal, Monsef; Mahfoud, Mustapha; Ismael, Farid; Kharmaz, Mohamed; Bardouni, Ahmed El; Berrada, Mohamed Saleh; Yaacoubi, Moradh El

    2015-01-01

    Il s'agit d'une étuderétrospective, analytique, monocentrique rentrant dans le cadre d'une étude épidémiologique s’étalant sur une période de trois années (de 2010 à 2012) durant laquelle nous avons revu les dossiers de 245 patients victimes de violence et d'agression. Nous avons exclu les lésions simples traitées en ambulatoire. Par conséquent, nous nous sommes limités aux cas de blessures ayant nécessité une prise en charge spécialisée au bloc opératoire. Les objectifs de notre travail étaient de connaitre la fréquence des agressions au service de traumatologie du CHU de Rabat, classer les différents types de lésions, évaluer leur gravité, mettre la lumière sur les populations les plus touchées et enfin montrer les différentes modalités de prise en charge thérapeutiques. PMID:26918078

  3. Photometric monitoring of the young star Par 1724 in Orion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neuhäuser, R.; Koeltzsch, A.; Raetz, St.; Schmidt, T. O. B.; Mugrauer, M.; Young, N.; Bertoldi, F.; Roell, T.; Eisenbeiss, T.; Hohle, M. M.; Vaňko, M.; Ginski, C.; Rammo, W.; Moualla, M.; Broeg, C.

    2009-05-01

    We report new photometric observations of the ˜ 200 000 year old naked weak-line run-away T Tauri star Par 1724, located north of the Trapezium cluster in Orion. We observed in the broad band filters B, V, R, and I using the 90 cm Dutch telescope on La Silla, the 80 cm Wendelstein telescope, and a 25 cm telescope of the University Observatory Jena in Großschwabhausen near Jena. The photometric data in V and R are consistent with a ˜ 5.7 day rotation period due to spots, as observed before between 1960ies and 2000. Also, for the first time, we present evidence for a long-term 9 or 17.5 year cycle in photometric data (V band) of such a young star, a cycle similar to that to of the Sun and other active stars. Based on observations obtained with telescopes of the University Observatory Jena, which is operated by the Astrophysical Institute of the Friedrich-Schiller-University; a telescope of the University Observatory Munich on Mount Wendelstein, the 0.9m ESO-Dutch telescope on La Silla, Chile, and with the All Sky Automated Survey (ASAS) project (www.astrouw.edu.pl/asas).

  4. [Development of agonists/antagonists for protease-activated receptors (PARs) and the possible therapeutic application to gastrointestinal diseases].

    PubMed

    Sekiguchi, Fumiko

    2005-06-01

    Protease-activated receptors (PARs), a family of G-protein-coupled seven-transmembrane-domain receptors, are activated by proteolytic unmasking of the N-terminal cryptic tethered ligand by certain serine proteases. Among four PAR family members cloned to date, PAR-1, PAR-2, and PAR-4 can also be activated through a non-enzymatic mechanism, which is achieved by direct binding of exogenously applied synthetic peptides based on the tethered ligand sequence, known as PARs-activating peptides, to the body of the receptor. Various peptide mimetics have been synthesized as agonists for PARs with improved potency, selectivity, and stability. Some peptide mimetics and/or nonpeptide compounds have also been developed as antagonists for PAR-1 and PAR-4. PARs are widely distributed in the mammalian body, especially throughout the alimentary systems, and play various roles in physiological/pathophysiological conditions, i.e., modulation of salivary, gastric, or pancreatic glandular exocrine secretion, gastrointestinal smooth muscle motility, gastric mucosal cytoprotection, suppression/facilitation of visceral pain and inflammation, etc. Thus PARs are now considered novel therapeutic targets, and development of selective agonists and/or antagonists for PARs might provide a novel strategy for the treatment of various diseases that are resistant to current therapeutics.

  5. Caractérisation par ellipsométrie spectroscopique de films minces de tellurure de bismuth obtenus par voie électrochimique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmer, A.; Stein, N.; Boulanger, C.; Johann, L.

    2004-12-01

    Des films de tellurure de bismuth (Bi2Te3) d’épaisseur proche de 1 mm ont été développés par voie électrochimique. Leurs indices optiques ont été déterminés par ellipsométrie spectroscopique (SE). Le domaine spectral des indices optiques s’étend de 400 nm à 1300 nm. L’ellipsométrie spectroscopique à angle d’incidence variable (VASE) a été utilisée pour corréler les données SE. Cette partie a été complétée par des analyses par microscopie à force atomique (AFM) qui ont permis de déterminer la rugosité des films. A partir de ces résultats et en associant l’absorption fondamentale des films de Bi2Te3 à une transition indirecte, l’énergie de bande interdite a été évaluée à 0,3 eV. Par ailleurs des mesures associant ellipsométrie spectroscopique à temps réel et électrochimie ont pu être réalisées. Ainsi les premiers instants de croissance ont été observés.

  6. Evaluation of orthodontists' perception of treatment need and the peer assessment rating (PAR) index.

    PubMed

    McGorray, S P; Wheeler, T T; Keeling, S D; Yurkiewicz, L; Taylor, M G; King, G J

    1999-08-01

    This paper examines the relationship between orthodontists' subjective assessment of treatment need and objective measurements obtained during standardized intra- and extraoral examinations. Logistic regression modeling was used to develop predictive models of treatment need. Data were obtained from 1155 eighth-grade students by four orthodontists who used standardized examination forms to assess demographics, trauma, skeletal relationships, morphologic malocclusion traits, and mandibular function. At the conclusion of the examination, the orthodontist rated the subjective treatment need as none, elective, recommended, soon, or immediate. For some analyses, the categories were collapsed to represent no need and need. The peer assessment rating (PAR) index (American validated version) was computed from the clinical exam findings and scoring of dental models; PAR scores were used to document malocclusion severity and treatment difficulty. Spearman rank correlation coefficients quantified the relationship between PAR scores and need categories. Logistic regression analysis modeled treatment need using components of the PAR index as well as other variables. The components of these models, as well as sensitivity and specificity, were compared with malocclusion severity/treatment difficulty scores obtained from malocclusion assessments using the PAR index. The five subjective treatment need categories and the PAR index scores were significantly correlated (rho = 0.62, p<0.001). Significant differences were detected between the need and no need groups for all PAR components (p<0.001). PAR index scores and predicted probabilities from logistic regression models performed equally well for classification purposes (no need, need). The data suggest that the PAR index is highly correlated with orthodontists' subjective assessment of treatment need when that assessment is made in the absence of financial considerations and patient desires.

  7. Small caliber arterial endothelial cells calcium signals elicited by PAR2 are preserved from endothelial dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Hennessey, John C; Stuyvers, Bruno D; McGuire, John J

    2015-01-01

    Endothelial cell (EC)-dependent vasodilation by proteinase-activated receptor 2 (PAR2) is preserved in small caliber arteries in disease states where vasodilation by muscarinic receptors is decreased. In this study, we identified and characterized the PAR2-mediated intracellular calcium (Ca2+)-release mechanisms in EC from small caliber arteries in healthy and diseased states. Mesenteric arterial EC were isolated from PAR2 wild-type (WT) and null mice, after saline (controls) or angiotensin II (AngII) infusion, for imaging intracellular calcium and characterizing the calcium-release system by immunofluorescence. EC Ca2+ signals comprised two forms of Ca2+-release events that had distinct spatial-temporal properties and occurred near either the plasmalemma (peripheral) or center of EC. In healthy EC, PAR2-dependent increases in the densities and firing rates of both forms of Ca2+-release were abolished by inositol 1,4,5- trisphosphate receptor (IP3R) inhibitor, but partially reduced by transient potential vanilloid channels inhibitor ruthenium red (RR). Acetylcholine (ACh)-induced less overall Ca2+-release than PAR2 activation, but enhanced selectively the incidence of central events. PAR2-dependent Ca2+-activity, inhibitors sensitivities, IP3R, small- and intermediate-conductance Ca2+-activated potassium channels expressions were unchanged in EC from AngII WT. However, the same cells exhibited decreases in ACh-induced Ca2+-release, RR sensitivity, and endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression, indicating AngII-induced dysfunction was differentiated by receptor, Ca2+-release, and downstream targets of EC activation. We conclude that PAR2 and muscarinic receptors selectively elicit two elementary Ca2+ signals in single EC. PAR2-selective IP3R-dependent peripheral Ca2+-release mechanisms are identical between healthy and diseased states. Further study of PAR2-selective Ca2+-release for eliciting pathological and/or normal EC functions is warranted. PMID:25729579

  8. KSHV-Mediated Regulation of Par3 and SNAIL Contributes to B-Cell Proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Jha, Hem C.; Sun, Zhiguo; Upadhyay, Santosh K.; El-Naccache, Darine W.; Singh, Rajnish K.; Sahu, Sushil K.; Robertson, Erle S.

    2016-01-01

    Studies have suggested that Epithelial–Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) and transformation is an important step in progression to cancer. Par3 (partitioning-defective protein) is a crucial factor in regulating epithelial cell polarity. However, the mechanism by which the latency associated nuclear antigen (LANA) encoded by Kaposi's Sarcoma associated herpesvirus (KSHV) regulates Par3 and EMTs markers (Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition) during viral-mediated B-cell oncogenesis has not been fully explored. Moreover, several studies have demonstrated a crucial role for EMT markers during B-cell malignancies. In this study, we demonstrate that Par3 is significantly up-regulated in KSHV-infected primary B-cells. Further, Par3 interacted with LANA in KSHV positive and LANA expressing cells which led to translocation of Par3 from the cell periphery to a predominantly nuclear signal. Par3 knockdown led to reduced cell proliferation and increased apoptotic induction. Levels of SNAIL was elevated, and E-cadherin was reduced in the presence of LANA or Par3. Interestingly, KSHV infection in primary B-cells led to enhancement of SNAIL and down-regulation of E-cadherin in a temporal manner. Importantly, knockdown of SNAIL, a major EMT regulator, in KSHV cells resulted in reduced expression of LANA, Par3, and enhanced E-cadherin. Also, SNAIL bound to the promoter region of p21 and can regulate its activity. Further a SNAIL inhibitor diminished NF-kB signaling through upregulation of Caspase3 in KSHV positive cells in vitro. This was also supported by upregulation of SNAIL and Par3 in BC-3 transplanted NOD-SCID mice which has potential as a therapeutic target for KSHV-associated B-cell lymphomas. PMID:27463802

  9. Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer and Airborne Emission Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glavich, T.; Beer, R.

    1996-01-01

    The Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) is an instrument being developed for the NASA Earth Observing System Chemistry Platform. TES will measure the distribution of ozone and its precursors in the lower atmosphere. The Airborne Emission Spectrometer (AES) is an aircraft precursor to TES. Applicable descriptions are given of instrument design, technology challenges, implementation and operations for both.

  10. Modelisation des emissions de particules microniques et nanometriques en usinage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khettabi, Riad

    La mise en forme des pieces par usinage emet des particules, de tailles microscopiques et nanometriques, qui peuvent etre dangereuses pour la sante. Le but de ce travail est d'etudier les emissions de ces particules pour fins de prevention et reduction a la source. L'approche retenue est experimentale et theorique, aux deux echelles microscopique et macroscopique. Le travail commence par des essais permettant de determiner les influences du materiau, de l'outil et des parametres d'usinage sur les emissions de particules. E nsuite un nouveau parametre caracterisant les emissions, nomme Dust unit , est developpe et un modele predictif est propose. Ce modele est base sur une nouvelle theorie hybride qui integre les approches energetiques, tribologiques et deformation plastique, et inclut la geometrie de l'outil, les proprietes du materiau, les conditions de coupe et la segmentation des copeaux. Il ete valide au tournage sur quatre materiaux: A16061-T6, AISI1018, AISI4140 et fonte grise.

  11. Biodiesel Emissions Analysis Program

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Using existing data, the EPA's biodiesel emissions analysis program sought to quantify the air pollution emission effects of biodiesel for diesel engines that have not been specifically modified to operate on biodiesel.

  12. NARSTO EMISSION INVENTORY ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The NARSTO Ozone and Particulate Matter Assessments emphasized that emission inventories are critical to the success of air quality management programs and that emissions inventories in Canada, Mexico, and the United States need improvement to meet expectations for quality, timel...

  13. Control of Emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrish, Clyde F. (Inventor); Chung, Landy (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Methods and apparatus utilizing chlorine dioxide and hydrogen peroxide are useful to reduce NOx emissions, as well as SOx and mercury (or other heavy metal) emissions, from combustion flue gas streams.

  14. What Is Emissions Trading?

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Learn the basics about how emissions trading uses a market-based policy tool used to control large amounts of pollution emissions from a group of sources in order to protect human health and the environment.

  15. Emissions & Measurements - Black Carbon

    EPA Science Inventory

    Emissions and Measurement (EM) research activities performed within the National Risk Management Research Lab NRMRL) of EPA's Office of Research and Development (ORD) support measurement and laboratory analysis approaches to accurately characterize source emissions, and near sour...

  16. Emissions Trading Resources

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Learn about emissions trading programs, also known as cap and trade programs, which are market-based policy tools for protecting human health and the environment by controlling emissions from a group of sources.

  17. Emission scenarios: Explaining differences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iyer, Gokul; Edmonds, James

    2017-01-01

    Carbon dioxide emission scenarios rely on a number of assumptions about how societies will develop in the future, creating uncertainty in projections. Now, research reveals the sensitivity of emission estimates to some of these assumptions.

  18. Prostate apoptosis response 4 (PAR4) expression modulates WNT signaling pathways in MCF7 breast cancer cells: A possible mechanism underlying PAR4-mediated docetaxel chemosensitivity

    PubMed Central

    De Bessa Garcia, Simone Aparecida; Pavanelli, Ana Carolina; Melo, Natália Cruz E; Nagai, Maria Aparecida

    2017-01-01

    Docetaxel is an effective drug for the treatment of metastatic breast cancer. However, the exact mechanisms and/or markers associated with chemosensitivity or resistance to docetaxel remain unclear. We previously showed that the expression of prostate apoptosis response 4 (PAR4) inhibits the growth of MCF7 breast cancer cells and increases their sensitivity to docetaxel. Using cDNA microarray analysis, we evaluated transcriptome changes in MCF7 cells expressing increased levels of PAR4 and control cells before and after docetaxel treatment. Some of the top gene networks generated from the differentially expressed genes were related to the wingless-type MMTV integration 1 (WNT) canonical (WNT/β-catenin) and non-canonical (β-catenin-independent) pathways. The Human WNT signaling pathway RT2 profiler™ PCR array was used to validate the effects of PAR4 on the expression pattern of genes involved in the WNT pathway. CACNAD2A3, GDF5 and IL6 were upregulated and NANOG was downregulated in the MCF7 breast cancer cells expressing increased levels of PAR4 after treatment with docetaxel, likely indicating inactivation of the WNT/β-catenin pathway. Upregulation of FGF7, LEF1 and TWIST1 indicated activation of the WNT/β-catenin pathway. Although preliminary, our findings could be of particular interest for understanding the action of PAR4 in chemosensitivity, particularly to increase the specificity and effectiveness of drug treatment and overcome resistance to chemotherapy. Further studies are needed to better understand the biological roles of PAR4 in the regulation of WNT pathways in breast cancer cells in response to docetaxel and other chemotherapeutic agents. PMID:28259909

  19. Acoustic emission frequency discrimination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sugg, Frank E. (Inventor); Graham, Lloyd J. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    In acoustic emission nondestructive testing, broadband frequency noise is distinguished from narrow banded acoustic emission signals, since the latter are valid events indicative of structural flaws in the material being examined. This is accomplished by separating out those signals which contain frequency components both within and beyond (either above or below) the range of valid acoustic emission events. Application to acoustic emission monitoring during nondestructive bond verification and proof loading of undensified tiles on the Space Shuttle Orbiter is considered.

  20. Developpement de techniques de diagnostic non intrusif par tomographie optique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubot, Fabien

    Que ce soit dans les domaines des procedes industriels ou de l'imagerie medicale, on a assiste ces deux dernieres decennies a un developpement croissant des techniques optiques de diagnostic. L'engouement pour ces methodes repose principalement sur le fait qu'elles sont totalement non invasives, qu'elle utilisent des sources de rayonnement non nocives pour l'homme et l'environnement et qu'elles sont relativement peu couteuses et faciles a mettre en oeuvre comparees aux autres techniques d'imagerie. Une de ces techniques est la Tomographie Optique Diffuse (TOD). Cette methode d'imagerie tridimensionnelle consiste a caracteriser les proprietes radiatives d'un Milieu Semi-Transparent (MST) a partir de mesures optiques dans le proche infrarouge obtenues a l'aide d'un ensemble de sources et detecteurs situes sur la frontiere du domaine sonde. Elle repose notamment sur un modele direct de propagation de la lumiere dans le MST, fournissant les predictions, et un algorithme de minimisation d'une fonction de cout integrant les predictions et les mesures, permettant la reconstruction des parametres d'interet. Dans ce travail, le modele direct est l'approximation diffuse de l'equation de transfert radiatif dans le regime frequentiel tandis que les parametres d'interet sont les distributions spatiales des coefficients d'absorption et de diffusion reduit. Cette these est consacree au developpement d'une methode inverse robuste pour la resolution du probleme de TOD dans le domaine frequentiel. Pour repondre a cet objectif, ce travail est structure en trois parties qui constituent les principaux axes de la these. Premierement, une comparaison des algorithmes de Gauss-Newton amorti et de Broyden- Fletcher-Goldfarb-Shanno (BFGS) est proposee dans le cas bidimensionnel. Deux methodes de regularisation sont combinees pour chacun des deux algorithmes, a savoir la reduction de la dimension de l'espace de controle basee sur le maillage et la regularisation par penalisation de Tikhonov

  1. Regulation of the proapoptotic functions of prostate apoptosis response-4 (Par-4) by casein kinase 2 in prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    de Thonel, A; Hazoumé, A; Kochin, V; Isoniemi, K; Jego, G; Fourmaux, E; Hammann, A; Mjahed, H; Filhol, O; Micheau, O; Rocchi, P; Mezger, V; Eriksson, J E; Rangnekar, V M; Garrido, C

    2014-01-23

    The proapoptotic protein, prostate apoptosis response-4 (Par-4), acts as a tumor suppressor in prostate cancer cells. The serine/threonine kinase casein kinase 2 (CK2) has a well-reported role in prostate cancer resistance to apoptotic agents or anticancer drugs. However, the mechanistic understanding on how CK2 supports survival is far from complete. In this work, we demonstrate both in rat and humans that (i) Par-4 is a new substrate of the survival kinase CK2 and (ii) phosphorylation by CK2 impairs Par-4 proapoptotic functions. We also unravel different levels of CK2-dependent regulation of Par-4 between species. In rats, the phosphorylation by CK2 at the major site, S124, prevents caspase-mediated Par-4 cleavage (D123) and consequently impairs the proapoptotic function of Par-4. In humans, CK2 strongly impairs the apoptotic properties of Par-4, independently of the caspase-mediated cleavage of Par-4 (D131), by triggering the phosphorylation at residue S231. Furthermore, we show that human Par-4 residue S231 is highly phosphorylated in prostate cancer cells as compared with their normal counterparts. Finally, the sensitivity of prostate cancer cells to apoptosis by CK2 knockdown is significantly reversed by parallel knockdown of Par-4. Thus, Par-4 seems a critical target of CK2 that could be exploited for the development of new anticancer drugs.

  2. Methanol and isoprene emissions from the fast growing tropical pioneer species Vismia guianensis (Aubl.) Pers. (Hypericaceae) in the central Amazon forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jardine, Kolby J.; Jardine, Angela B.; Souza, Vinicius F.; Carneiro, Vilany; Ceron, Joao V.; Gimenez, Bruno O.; Soares, Cilene P.; Durgante, Flavia M.; Higuchi, Niro; Manzi, Antonio O.; Gonçalves, José F. C.; Garcia, Sabrina; Martin, Scot T.; Zorzanelli, Raquel F.; Piva, Luani R.; Chambers, Jeff Q.

    2016-05-01

    Isoprene (Is) emissions by plants represent a loss of carbon and energy resources leading to the initial hypothesis that fast growing pioneer species in secondary tropical forests allocate carbon primarily to growth at the expense of isoprenoid defenses. In this study, we quantified leaf isoprene and methanol emissions from the abundant pantropical pioneer tree species Vismia guianensis and ambient isoprene concentrations above a diverse secondary forest in the central Amazon. As photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) was varied (0 to 3000 µmol m-2 s-1) under standard leaf temperature (30 °C), isoprene emissions from V. guianensis increased without saturation up to 80 nmol m-2 s-1. A nonlinear increase in isoprene emissions with respect to net photosynthesis (Pn) resulted in the fraction of Pn dedicated to isoprene emissions increasing with light intensity (up to 2 % of Pn). Emission responses to temperature under standard light conditions (PAR of 1000 µmol m-2 s-1) resulted in the classic uncoupling of isoprene emissions (Topt, iso > 40 °C) from net photosynthesis (Topt, Pn = 30.0-32.5 °C) with up to 7 % of Pn emitted as isoprene at 40 °C. Under standard environmental conditions of PAR and leaf temperature, young V. guianensis leaves showed high methanol emissions, low Pn, and low isoprene emissions. In contrast, mature leaves showed high Pn, high isoprene emissions, and low methanol emissions, highlighting the differential control of leaf phenology over methanol and isoprene emissions. High daytime ambient isoprene concentrations (11 ppbv) were observed above a secondary Amazon rainforest, suggesting that isoprene emissions are common among neotropical pioneer species. The results are not consistent with the initial hypothesis and support a functional role of methanol during leaf expansion and the establishment of photosynthetic machinery and a protective role of isoprene for photosynthesis during high temperature extremes regularly experienced in

  3. ParFit: A Python-Based Object-Oriented Program for Fitting Molecular Mechanics Parameters to ab Initio Data.

    PubMed

    Zahariev, Federico; De Silva, Nuwan; Gordon, Mark S; Windus, Theresa L; Dick-Perez, Marilu

    2017-03-27

    A newly created object-oriented program for automating the process of fitting molecular-mechanics parameters to ab initio data, termed ParFit, is presented. ParFit uses a hybrid of deterministic and stochastic genetic algorithms. ParFit can simultaneously handle several molecular-mechanics parameters in multiple molecules and can also apply symmetric and antisymmetric constraints on the optimized parameters. The simultaneous handling of several molecules enhances the transferability of the fitted parameters. ParFit is written in Python, uses a rich set of standard and nonstandard Python libraries, and can be run in parallel on multicore computer systems. As an example, a series of phosphine oxides, important for metal extraction chemistry, are parametrized using ParFit. ParFit is in an open source program available for free on GitHub ( https://github.com/fzahari/ParFit ).

  4. Role of protease-activated receptors 2 (PAR2) in ocular infections and inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Tripathi, Trivendra; Alizadeh, Hassan

    2015-01-01

    Protease-activated receptors (PARs) belong to a unique family of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) that are cleaved at an activation site within the N-terminal exodomain by a variety of proteinases, essentially of the serine (Ser) proteinase family. After cleavage, the new N-terminal sequence functions as a tethered ligand, which binds intramolecularly to activate the receptor and initiate signaling. Cell signals induced through the activation of PARs appear to play a significant role in innate and adoptive immune responses of the cornea, which is constantly exposed to proteinases under physiological or pathophysiological conditions. Activation of PARs interferes with all aspects of the corneal physiology such as barrier function, transports, innate and adoptive immune responses, and functions of corneal nerves. It is not known whether the proteinase released from the microorganism can activate PARs and triggers the inflammatory responses. The role of PAR2 expressed by the corneal epithelial cells and activation by serine protease released from microorganism is discussed here. Recent evidences suggest that activation of PAR2, by the serine proteinases, play an important role in innate and inflammatory responses of the corneal infection. PMID:26078987

  5. The RNA-binding protein ATX-2 regulates cytokinesis through PAR-5 and ZEN-4

    PubMed Central

    Gnazzo, Megan M.; Uhlemann, Eva-Maria E.; Villarreal, Alex R.; Shirayama, Masaki; Dominguez, Eddie G.; Skop, Ahna R.

    2016-01-01

    The spindle midzone harbors both microtubules and proteins necessary for furrow formation and the completion of cytokinesis. However, the mechanisms that mediate the temporal and spatial recruitment of cell division factors to the spindle midzone and midbody remain unclear. Here we describe a mechanism governed by the conserved RNA-binding protein ATX-2/Ataxin-2, which targets and maintains ZEN-4 at the spindle midzone. ATX-2 does this by regulating the amount of PAR-5 at mitotic structures, particularly the spindle, centrosomes, and midbody. Preventing ATX-2 function leads to elevated levels of PAR-5, enhanced chromatin and centrosome localization of PAR-5–GFP, and ultimately a reduction of ZEN-4–GFP at the spindle midzone. Codepletion of ATX-2 and PAR-5 rescued the localization of ZEN-4 at the spindle midzone, indicating that ATX-2 mediates the localization of ZEN-4 upstream of PAR-5. We provide the first direct evidence that ATX-2 is necessary for cytokinesis and suggest a model in which ATX-2 facilitates the targeting of ZEN-4 to the spindle midzone by mediating the posttranscriptional regulation of PAR-5. PMID:27559134

  6. Examining relational empowerment for elementary school students in a yPAR program.

    PubMed

    Langhout, Regina Day; Collins, Charles; Ellison, Erin Rose

    2014-06-01

    This paper joins relational empowerment, youth empowerment, and Bridging Multiple Worlds frameworks to examine forms of relational empowerment for children in two intermediary institutions-school and a youth participatory action research after-school program (yPAR ASP). Participants were twelve children, most of whom were Latina/o and from im/migrant families, enrolled in a yPAR ASP for 2 years. A mixed-method approach was utilized; we analyzed children's interviews, self-defined goals, and their social networks to examine their experiences of relational empowerment. We conclude that children experienced each of the five relational empowerment factors-collaborative competence, bridging social divisions, facilitating others' empowerment, mobilizing networks, and passing on a legacy-in the yPAR ASP setting, and some factors in school. These experiences, however, were more pronounced in the yPAR ASP setting. Additionally, social network analyses revealed that a small but meaningful percentage of actors bridged worlds, especially home and family, but by year 2, also school and the yPAR ASP. Finally, most helpers for school-based goals came from school, but a sizable number came from family, friends, and home worlds, and by year 2, also came from the yPAR ASP. Implications range from theoretical to methodological development, including the use of social network analysis as a tool to descriptively examine relational power in context.

  7. Breaking the epithelial polarity barrier in cancer: the strange case of LKB1/PAR-4

    PubMed Central

    Partanen, Johanna I.; Tervonen, Topi A.; Klefström, Juha

    2013-01-01

    The PAR clan of polarity regulating genes was initially discovered in a genetic screen searching for genes involved in asymmetric cell divisions in the Caenorhabditis elegans embryo. Today, investigations in worms, flies and mammals have established PAR proteins as conserved and fundamental regulators of animal cell polarization in a broad range of biological phenomena requiring cellular asymmetries. The human homologue of invertebrate PAR-4, a serine–threonine kinase LKB1/STK11, has caught attention as a gene behind Peutz–Jeghers polyposis syndrome and as a bona fide tumour suppressor gene commonly mutated in sporadic cancer. LKB1 functions as a master regulator of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and 12 other kinases referred to as the AMPK-related kinases, including four human homologues of PAR-1. The role of LKB1 as part of the energy sensing LKB1-AMPK module has been intensively studied, whereas the polarity function of LKB1, in the context of homoeostasis or cancer, has gained less attention. Here, we focus on the PAR-4 identity of LKB1, discussing the weight of evidence indicating a role for LKB1 in regulation of cell polarity and epithelial integrity across species and highlight recent investigations providing new insight into the old question: does the PAR-4 identity of LKB1 matter in cancer? PMID:24062587

  8. Air Emissions Factors and Quantification

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Emissions factors are used in developing air emissions inventories for air quality management decisions and in developing emissions control strategies. This area provides technical information on and support for the use of emissions factors.

  9. Low Emissions Aftertreatment and Diesel Emissions Reduction

    SciTech Connect

    2005-05-27

    Detroit Diesel Corporation (DDC) has successfully completed a five-year Low Emissions Aftertreatment and Diesel Emissions Reduction (LEADER) program under a DOE project entitled: ''Research and Development for Compression-Ignition Direct-Injection Engines (CIDI) and Aftertreatment Sub-Systems''. The objectives of the LEADER Program were to: Demonstrate technologies that will achieve future federal Tier 2 emissions targets; and Demonstrate production-viable technical targets for engine out emissions, efficiency, power density, noise, durability, production cost, aftertreatment volume and weight. These objectives were successfully met during the course of the LEADER program The most noteworthy achievements in this program are listed below: (1) Demonstrated Tier 2 Bin 3 emissions target over the FTP75 cycle on a PNGV-mule Neon passenger car, utilizing a CSF + SCR system These aggressive emissions were obtained with no ammonia (NH{sub 3}) slip and a combined fuel economy of 63 miles per gallon, integrating FTP75 and highway fuel economy transient cycle test results. Demonstrated feasibility to achieve Tier 2 Bin 8 emissions levels without active NOx aftertreatment. (2) Demonstrated Tier 2 Bin 3 emissions target over the FTP75 cycle on a light-duty truck utilizing a CSF + SCR system, synergizing efforts with the DOE-DDC DELTA program. This aggressive reduction in tailpipe out emissions was achieved with no ammonia slip and a 41% fuel economy improvement, compared to the equivalent gasoline engine-equipped vehicle. (3) Demonstrated Tier 2 near-Bin 9 emissions compliance on a light-duty truck, without active NOx aftertreatment devices, in synergy with the DOE-DDC DELTA program. (4) Developed and applied advanced combustion technologies such as ''CLEAN Combustion{copyright}'', which yields simultaneous reduction in engine out NOx and PM emissions while also improving engine and aftertreatment integration by providing favorable exhaust species and temperature

  10. Ocular trauma treated with pars plana vitrectomy: early outcome report

    PubMed Central

    Mansouri, Mohammad Reza; Tabatabaei, Seyed Ali; Soleimani, Mohammad; Kiarudi, Mohammad Yaser; Molaei, Saber; Rouzbahani, Mehdi; Mireshghi, Meysam; Zaeferani, Mohsen; Ghasempour, Mehrbod

    2016-01-01

    AIM To evaluate demographic variables and visual outcomes, among patients with ocular injuries involving the posterior segment, managed with pars plana vitrectomy. METHODS The records of patients were studied retrospectively from March to September 2010, to determine the age, gender, place of occurrence of trauma, visual acuity, anatomical site, nature of injury, wound length, the presence of an afferent pupillary defect, and the timing of vitrectomy. The Ocular Trauma Score was measured. The minimum follow-up from presentation was 6mo. RESULTS Ninety patients (77 males, 13 females), with a mean age of 32.7±15.8y were included over the 6-month period. The majority of cases occurred in the workplace (47 patients), followed by home (14 patients). The mean visual acuity (logMAR) of patients significantly improved from 2.36±0.72 preoperatively to 1.50±1.14 postoperatively. Twenty-three patients had preoperative vision better than 2.0 logMAR, the postoperative visual acuity was significantly better among these patients than patients with worse than 2.0 logMAR (P<0.001). Visual improvement between groups with early vitrectomy (<7d) and delayed vitrectomy (>7d) was not significantly different (P=0.66). Postoperative visual acuity was not significantly different between patients with injury in Zone I and II (P=0.64), but patients with injury in Zone III had significantly poorer visual acuity (P=0.02). Patients with relative afferent pupillary defect had significantly poorer postoperative visual acuity (P=0.02). Preoperative visual acuity, the difference of preoperative and postoperative visual acuity, and postoperative visual acuity were significantly different between groups with different ocular trauma scores (P<0.001). CONCLUSION Trauma is more likely to occur in men under 40y of age and in the workplace. The favorable final visual outcome is associated with the absence of afferent pupillary defect, ocular trauma score and presenting visual acuity as well as the zone

  11. Targeting of peptide conjugated magnetic nanoparticles to urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) expressing cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, Line; Unmack Larsen, Esben Kjær; Nielsen, Erik Holm; Iversen, Frank; Liu, Zhuo; Thomsen, Karen; Pedersen, Michael; Skrydstrup, Troels; Nielsen, Niels Chr.; Ploug, Michael; Kjems, Jørgen

    2013-08-01

    Ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide (USPIO) nanoparticles are currently being used as a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent in vivo, mainly by their passive accumulation in tissues of interest. However, a higher specificity can ideally be achieved when the nanoparticles are targeted towards cell specific receptors and this may also facilitate specific drug delivery by an enhanced target-mediated endocytosis. We report efficient peptide-mediated targeting of magnetic nanoparticles to cells expressing the urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR), a surface biomarker for poor patient prognosis shared by several cancers including breast, colorectal, and gastric cancers. Conjugation of a uPAR specific targeting peptide onto polyethylene glycol (PEG) coated USPIO nanoparticles by click chemistry resulted in a five times higher uptake in vitro in a uPAR positive cell line compared to nanoparticles carrying a non-binding control peptide. In accordance with specific receptor-mediated recognition, a low uptake was observed in the presence of an excess of ATF, a natural ligand for uPAR. The uPAR specific magnetic nanoparticles can potentially provide a useful supplement for tumor patient management when combined with MRI and drug delivery.Ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide (USPIO) nanoparticles are currently being used as a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent in vivo, mainly by their passive accumulation in tissues of interest. However, a higher specificity can ideally be achieved when the nanoparticles are targeted towards cell specific receptors and this may also facilitate specific drug delivery by an enhanced target-mediated endocytosis. We report efficient peptide-mediated targeting of magnetic nanoparticles to cells expressing the urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR), a surface biomarker for poor patient prognosis shared by several cancers including breast, colorectal, and gastric cancers. Conjugation of a uPAR specific

  12. Heat stress-induced disruption of endothelial barrier function is via PAR1 signaling and suppressed by Xuebijing injection.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qiulin; Liu, Jingxian; Wang, Zhenglian; Guo, Xiaohua; Zhou, Gengbiao; Liu, Yanan; Huang, Qiaobing; Su, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Increased vascular permeability leading to acute lung injury (ALI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is central to the pathogenesis of heatstroke. Protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR1), the receptor for thrombin, plays a key role in disruption of endothelial barrier function in response to extracellular stimuli. However, the role of PAR1 in heat stress-induced endothelial hyper-permeability is unknown. In this study, we measured PAR1 protein expression in heat-stressed human umbilical venous endothelial cells (HUVECs), investigated the influences of PAR1 on endothelial permeability, F-actin rearrangement, and moesin phosphorylation by inhibiting PAR1 with its siRNA, neutralizing antibody (anti-PAR1), specific inhibitor(RWJ56110), and Xuebijing injection (XBJ), a traditional Chinese medicine used for sepsis treatment, and evaluated the role of PAR1 in heatstroke-related ALI/ARDS in mice by suppressing PAR1 with RWJ56110, anti-PAR1and XBJ. We found that heat stress induced PAR1 protein expression 2h after heat stress in endothelial cells, caused the release of endothelial matrix metalloprotease 1, an activator of PAR1, after 60 or 120 min of heat stimulation, as well as promoted endothelial hyper-permeability and F-actin rearrangement, which were inhibited by suppressing PAR1 with RWJ56110, anti-PAR1 and siRNA. PAR1 mediated moesin phosphorylation, which caused F-actin rearrangement and disruption of endothelial barrier function. To corroborate findings from in vitro experiments, we found that RWJ56110 and the anti-PAR1 significantly decreased lung edema, pulmonary microvascular permeability, protein exudation, and leukocytes infiltrations in heatstroke mice. Additionally, XBJ was found to suppress PAR1-moesin signal pathway and confer protective effects on maintaining endothelial barrier function both in vitro and in vivo heat-stressed model, similar to those observed above with the inhibition of PAR1. These results suggest that PAR1 is a potential

  13. Post-translational regulation of the cleaved fragment of Par-4 in ovarian and endometrial cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Brasseur, Kevin; Fabi, François; Adam, Pascal; Parent, Sophie; Lessard, Laurent; Asselin, Eric

    2016-01-01

    We recently reported the caspase3-dependent cleavage of Par-4 resulting in the accumulation of a 25kDa cleaved-Par-4 (cl-Par-4) fragment and we investigated in the present study the mechanisms regulating this fragment using cl-Par-4-expressing stable clones derived from ovarian and endometrial cancer cell lines. Cl-Par-4 protein was weakly express in all stable clones despite constitutive expression. However, upon cisplatin treatment, cl-Par-4 levels increased up to 50-fold relative to baseline conditions. Treatment of stable clones with proteasome and translation inhibitors revealed that cisplatin exposure might in fact protect cl-Par-4 from proteasome-dependent degradation. PI3K and MAPK pathways were also implicated as evidenced by an increase of cl-Par-4 in the presence of PI3K inhibitors and a decrease using MAPK inhibitors. Finally using bioinformatics resources, we found diverse datasets showing similar results to those we observed with the proteasome and cl-Par-4 further supporting our data. These new findings add to the complex mechanisms regulating Par-4 expression and activity, and justify further studies addressing the biological significance of this phenomenon in gynaecological cancer cells. PMID:27175591

  14. Iduna is a poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR)-dependent E3 ubiquitin ligase that regulates DNA damage

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Ho Chul; Lee, Yun-Il; Shin, Joo-Ho; Andrabi, Shaida A.; Chi, Zhikai; Gagné, Jean-Philippe; Lee, Yunjong; Ko, Han Seok; Lee, Byoung Dae; Poirier, Guy G.; Dawson, Valina L.; Dawson, Ted M.

    2011-01-01

    Ubiquitin mediated protein degradation is crucial for regulation of cell signaling and protein quality control. Poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) is a cell-signaling molecule that mediates changes in protein function through binding at PAR binding sites. Here we characterize the PAR binding protein, Iduna, and show that it is a PAR-dependent ubiquitin E3 ligase. Iduna’s E3 ligase activity requires PAR binding because point mutations at Y156A and R157A eliminate Iduna’s PAR binding and Iduna’s E3 ligase activity. Iduna’s E3 ligase activity also requires an intact really interesting new gene (RING) domain because Iduna possessing point mutations at either H54A or C60A is devoid of ubiquitination activity. Tandem affinity purification reveals that Iduna binds to a number of proteins that are either PARsylated or bind PAR including PAR polymerase-1, 2 (PARP1, 2), nucleolin, DNA ligase III, KU70, KU86, XRCC1, and histones. PAR binding to Iduna activates its E3 ligase function, and PAR binding is required for Iduna ubiquitination of PARP1, XRCC1, DNA ligase III, and KU70. Iduna’s PAR-dependent ubiquitination of PARP1 targets it for proteasomal degradation. Via PAR binding and ubiquitin E3 ligase activity, Iduna protects against cell death induced by the DNA damaging agent N-methyl-N-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) and rescues cells from G1 arrest and promotes cell survival after γ-irradiation. Moreover, Iduna facilitates DNA repair by reducing apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) sites after MNNG exposure and facilitates DNA repair following γ-irradiation as assessed by the comet assay. These results define Iduna as a PAR-dependent E3 ligase that regulates cell survival and DNA repair. PMID:21825151

  15. A method for estimating the diffuse attenuation coefficient (KdPAR)from paired temperature sensors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Read, Jordan S.; Rose, Kevin C.; Winslow, Luke A.; Read, Emily K.

    2015-01-01

    A new method for estimating the diffuse attenuation coefficient for photosynthetically active radiation (KdPAR) from paired temperature sensors was derived. We show that during cases where the attenuation of penetrating shortwave solar radiation is the dominant source of temperature changes, time series measurements of water temperatures at multiple depths (z1 and z2) are related to one another by a linear scaling factor (a). KdPAR can then be estimated by the simple equation KdPAR ln(a)/(z2/z1). A suggested workflow is presented that outlines procedures for calculating KdPAR according to this paired temperature sensor (PTS) method. This method is best suited for conditions when radiative temperature gains are large relative to physical noise. These conditions occur frequently on water bodies with low wind and/or high KdPARs but can be used for other types of lakes during time periods of low wind and/or where spatially redundant measurements of temperatures are available. The optimal vertical placement of temperature sensors according to a priori knowledge of KdPAR is also described. This information can be used to inform the design of future sensor deployments using the PTS method or for campaigns where characterizing sub-daily changes in temperatures is important. The PTS method provides a novel method to characterize light attenuation in aquatic ecosystems without expensive radiometric equipment or the user subjectivity inherent in Secchi depth measurements. This method also can enable the estimation of KdPAR at higher frequencies than many manual monitoring programs allow.

  16. Detecting Plant Photoprotective Response to Water Stress Through Variation In PAR Reflectance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zygielbaum, A. I.; Arkebauer, T. J.; Walter-Shea, E.

    2012-12-01

    Published papers over several decades have shown increasing leaf-level optical reflectance with decreasing leaf water content. Our experimental results using maize and sorghum showed this increase consistently, caused by variation in optical absorption, in the visible (photosynthetically active radiation - PAR) and middle infrared (MIR) spectral regions. Relatively smaller response, driven by variation in optical scatter, was observed in near infrared (NIR). The concomitant increasing reflectance in the PAR and MIR regions is perplexing. PAR reflectance is dominated by chlorophyll absorption while MIR reflectance is dominated by water molecule absorption. However, changes in chlorophyll concentration, determined by chemical extraction, were too small to account for the variation in PAR reflectance. PAR and MIR reflectances were also influenced by the strength of incident light. Hence PAR reflectance appears to be modulated not only by pigment concentration, the classical description, but also by the strength of incident light and the severity of water deficit. We previously reported that these findings were consistent with chloroplast avoidance movement, a plant photoprotective response, which limits light absorption by pigments. We report here our continuing investigation of this phenomenon. In addition to reflectance measurements, time-lapse microscope images of leaves under increasing water deficit conditions were obtained. These show a brightening between veins which strongly supports our assertion that changes in PAR reflectance accompanying water deficit are caused primarily by chloroplast avoidance movement. Our results suggest that leaf, and possibly canopy, reflectance can therefore be used to detect and measure plant stress. These results also indicate that chloroplast avoidance movement may cause poor estimates of leaf chlorophyll content using techniques based on fluoresced, reflected or transmitted light.

  17. ParsEval: parallel comparison and analysis of gene structure annotations

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Accurate gene structure annotation is a fundamental but somewhat elusive goal of genome projects, as witnessed by the fact that (model) genomes typically undergo several cycles of re-annotation. In many cases, it is not only different versions of annotations that need to be compared but also different sources of annotation of the same genome, derived from distinct gene prediction workflows. Such comparisons are of interest to annotation providers, prediction software developers, and end-users, who all need to assess what is common and what is different among distinct annotation sources. We developed ParsEval, a software application for pairwise comparison of sets of gene structure annotations. ParsEval calculates several statistics that highlight the similarities and differences between the two sets of annotations provided. These statistics are presented in an aggregate summary report, with additional details provided as individual reports specific to non-overlapping, gene-model-centric genomic loci. Genome browser styled graphics embedded in these reports help visualize the genomic context of the annotations. Output from ParsEval is both easily read and parsed, enabling systematic identification of problematic gene models for subsequent focused analysis. Results ParsEval is capable of analyzing annotations for large eukaryotic genomes on typical desktop or laptop hardware. In comparison to existing methods, ParsEval exhibits a considerable performance improvement, both in terms of runtime and memory consumption. Reports from ParsEval can provide relevant biological insights into the gene structure annotations being compared. Conclusions Implemented in C, ParsEval provides the quickest and most feature-rich solution for genome annotation comparison to date. The source code is freely available (under an ISC license) at http://parseval.sourceforge.net/. PMID:22852583

  18. Exacerbation of Apoptosis of Cortical Neurons Following Traumatic Brain Injury in Par-4 Transgenic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Payette, Daniel J; Xie, Jun; Shirwany, Najeeb; Guo, Qing

    2008-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a significant clinical problem, yet few effective strategies for treating it have emerged. People that sustain and survive a TBI are left with significant cognitive, behavioral, and communicative disabilities. Apoptotic neuronal death occurs following TBI. Prostate apoptosis response-4 (Par-4) is a death domain-containing protein initially characterized as a critical regulator of apoptosis in prostate cancer cells. We have recently generated and characterized Par-4 transgenic mice in which the expression of the par-4 transgene was limited to cells of neuronal lineage. We now provide evidence that, in cortical neurons from these mice, Par-4 drastically increases apoptotic neuronal death in both in vitro and in vivo models of TBI. In vitro experiments were performed in 7-day-old primary cultures of cortical neurons using a previously published, scratch-induced mechanical trauma model. Neurons that overexpress Par-4 showed not only a significant decrease in overall neuron survival after TBI compared to wild-type cells, but also exhibited a sharper decrease in mitochondrial transmembrane potential, a higher degree of free radical accumulation, and earlier activation of caspase-3 than wild-type cells did. In vivo experiments were performed utilizing a weight drop TBI model. A significantly increased volume of cortical injury and exacerbated activation of caspase-3 were observed in Par-4 transgenic mice when compared to those in wild-type mice. These data suggests that aberrant Par-4 expression exacerbates neuronal cell death following TBI by altering mitochondrial function, enhancing oxidative damage, and execution of apoptosis via caspase activation. PMID:18784822

  19. Evaluation of treatment and posttreatment changes of protraction facemask treatment using the PAR index.

    PubMed

    Ngan, P; Yiu, C

    2000-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to use the Peer Assesment Rating (PAR) index score to evaluate the treatment and posttreatment changes of Class III patients treated by protraction facemask. The sample consisted of 20 Chinese children, 6 to 11 years old, with Class III skeletal malocclusion who had been treated with maxillary expansion and a protraction facemask. The average treatment time was 8.2 months, followed by 1 year of retention with a Class III functional appliance. Study casts were taken pretreatment (T1), posttreatment (T2), 1 year follow-up (T3), and 2 years follow-up (T4). After treatment, PAR scores were calculated for each time period. Differences among the 4 time periods were analyzed with the Wilcoxin matched-pairs test. Significant reductions in PAR scores were found at T2 (56%), T3 (70%), and T4 (63%) compared with T1. Immediately posttreatment (T2), 17 (85%) of 20 patients had improved PAR scores by a reduction of at least 30%. Reductions were caused primarily by correction of the anterior crossbite. One year after treatment (T3), further reductions in PAR score were noted (P <.01) as a result of better alignment of the anterior segment, improvement of the buccal occlusion, and overbite and midline corrections. Two years after treatment (T4), PAR scores were higher than at the previous time period. The increases were due to relapses in overjet (4 of 20 patients), overbite, and centerline corrections. These results indicate that significant reductions in the severity of Class III malocclusion can be achieved with early orthopedic facemask treatment. In most cases, further improvement in the PAR score can be expected 1 and 2 years after treatment. In a few patients, the benefits of early treatment are negated by relapses in overjet, overbite, and centerline corrections during the follow-up period.

  20. Global Seabird Ammonia Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riddick, S. N.; Blackall, T. D.; Dragosits, U.; Daunt, F. H.; Braban, C. F.; Tang, Y. S.; Trathan, P.; Wanless, S.; Sutton, M. A.

    2010-12-01

    Seabird colonies represent a major source of atmospheric ammonia (NH3) in remote coastal and marine systems in temperate, tropical and polar regions. Previous studies have shown that NH3 emissions from Scottish seabird colonies were substantial - of similar magnitude to the most intensive agricultural point source emissions. The UK data were used to model global seabird NH3 emissions and suggested that penguins are a major source of emissions on and around the Antarctic continent. The largest seabird colonies are in the order of millions of seabirds. Due to the isolation of these colonies from anthropogenic nitrogen sources, they may play a major role in the nitrogen cycle within these ecosystems. A global seabird database was constructed and used in conjunction with a species-specific seabird bioenergetics model to map the locations of NH3 emissions from seabird colonies. The accuracy of the modelled emissions was validated with field data of NH3 emissions measured at key seabird colonies in different climatic regions of the world: temperate (Isle of May, Scotland), tropical (Ascension Island) and polar (Signy Island, South Georgia). The field data indicated good agreement between modelled and measured NH3 emissions. The measured NH3 emissions also showed the variability of emission with climate. Climate dependence of seabird NH3 emissions may have further implications under a changing global climate. Seabird colonies represent NH3 emission ‘hotspots’, often far from anthropogenic sources, and are likely to be the major source of nitrogen input to these remote coastal ecosystems. The direct manuring by seabirds at colony locations may strongly influence species richness and biodiversity. The subsequent volatilisation and deposition of NH3 increases the spatial extent of seabird influence on nitrogen cycling in their local ecosystem. As many seabird populations are fluctuating due to changing food supply, climate change or anthropogenic pressures, these factors

  1. Modeling of Particulate Emissions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-01

    coagulation oxidation.... carbonization 14 Modeling Particulate Emissions Soot Formation Kinetics 2 1016 1 ]HC[kdt dS = Inception: Dimerization of...simulated with peak size for surface growth Sectional Conservation Equation 16 Modeling Particulate Emissions Soot Kinetics Based on OH, O2 and...and empirical tuning to NOx, CO emissionsFuel-spray shear layer Recirculation zones Quench zones Burn-out zones Full set of reaction kinetics and

  2. Toluene emissions from plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heiden, A. C.; Kobel, K.; Komenda, M.; Koppmann, R.; Shao, M.; Wildt, J.

    The emission of toluene from different plants was observed in continuously stirred tank reactors and in field measurements. For plants growing without stress, emission rates were low and ranged from the detection limit up to 2·10-16 mol·cm-2·s-1. Under conditions of stress, the emission rates exceeded 10-14 mol·cm-2·s-1. Exposure of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. cv. Gigantheus) to 13CO2 resulted in 13C-labeling of the emitted toluene on a time scale of hours. Although no biochemical pathway for the production of toluene is known, these results indicate that toluene is synthesized by the plants. The emission rates of toluene from sunflower are dependent on nutrient supply and wounding. Since α-pinene emission rates are also influenced by these factors, toluene and α-pinene emissions show a high correlation. During pathogen attack on Scots pines (Pinus sylvestris L.) significant toluene emissions were observed. In this case emissions of toluene and α-pinene also show a good correlation. Toluene emissions were also found in field experiments with pines using branch enclosures.

  3. Planetary foreshock radio emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuncic, Zdenka; Cairns, Iver H.

    2005-07-01

    The electron foreshock regions upstream of Earth's bow shock and upstream of traveling interplanetary shocks are known to be propitious sites for a variety of energetic particle and plasma wave phenomena, including radio emissions. A quantitative theoretical model has been developed for radio emissions associated with the terrestrial foreshock and for type II radio bursts associated with interplanetary shocks. Here, we generalize this model and apply it to other planetary foreshocks. We present predictions for the levels of planetary foreshock radio emissions and compare these with observations by past and present space missions. One key result is that Mercury can be a strong source of foreshock radio emissions, and this prediction may be testable with the anticipated BepiColombo space mission. Although the terrestrial foreshock radio emissions are the most detectable with existing instruments, our results predict that they are the second strongest in absolute terms, following the Jovian foreshock emissions. Indeed, we predict that the radio instrument on board Ulysses should have detected Jovian foreshock radio emissions, and we suggest that there is some evidence in the data to support this. We also suggest that Cassini was potentially capable of detecting foreshock emissions from Venus during its gravity-assist flybys and may possibly be capable of detecting foreshock emissions from Saturn under favorable solar wind conditions.

  4. Field emission chemical sensor

    DOEpatents

    Panitz, J.A.

    1983-11-22

    A field emission chemical sensor for specific detection of a chemical entity in a sample includes a closed chamber enclosing two field emission electrode sets, each field emission electrode set comprising (a) an electron emitter electrode from which field emission electrons can be emitted when an effective voltage is connected to the electrode set; and (b) a collector electrode which will capture said electrons emitted from said emitter electrode. One of the electrode sets is passive to the chemical entity and the other is active thereto and has an active emitter electrode which will bind the chemical entity when contacted therewith.

  5. Managing Refrigerant Emissions

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Access information on EPA's efforts to address ozone layer depletion by reducing emissions of refrigerants from stationary refrigeration and air conditioning systems and motor vehicle air conditioning systems.

  6. Cortical Polarity of the RING Protein PAR-2 Is Maintained by Exchange Rate Kinetics at the Cortical-Cytoplasmic Boundary.

    PubMed

    Arata, Yukinobu; Hiroshima, Michio; Pack, Chan-Gi; Ramanujam, Ravikrishna; Motegi, Fumio; Nakazato, Kenichi; Shindo, Yuki; Wiseman, Paul W; Sawa, Hitoshi; Kobayashi, Tetsuya J; Brandão, Hugo B; Shibata, Tatsuo; Sako, Yasushi

    2016-08-23

    Cell polarity arises through the spatial segregation of polarity regulators. PAR proteins are polarity regulators that localize asymmetrically to two opposing cortical domains. However, it is unclear how the spatially segregated PAR proteins interact to maintain their mutually exclusive partitioning. Here, single-molecule detection analysis in Caenorhabditis elegans embryos reveals that cortical PAR-2 diffuses only short distances, and, as a result, most PAR-2 molecules associate and dissociate from the cortex without crossing into the opposing domain. Our results show that cortical PAR-2 asymmetry is maintained by the local exchange reactions that occur at the cortical-cytoplasmic boundary. Additionally, we demonstrate that local exchange reactions are sufficient to maintain cortical asymmetry in a parameter-free mathematical model. These findings suggest that anterior and posterior PAR proteins primarily interact through the cytoplasmic pool and not via cortical diffusion.

  7. EBV LMP-1 negatively regulates expression and pro-apoptotic activity of Par-4 in nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeng-Woei; Liu, Po-Fan; Hsu, Lee-Ping; Chen, Peir-Rong; Chang, Chung-Hsing; Shih, Wen-Ling

    2009-07-08

    Latent membrane protein-1 (LMP-1) of the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is closely associated with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), and in this study we sought to determine whether the pro-apoptotic activity of prostate apoptosis response-4 (Par-4) is modulated by LMP-1 in NPC cells. We found that LMP-1 diminished the pro-apoptotic activity of Par-4 and negatively regulated Par-4 protein by de novo synthesis; moreover, although LMP-1 accelerated a Par-4 activator, PKA, we demonstrated that LMP-1 also activated the PI3K/Akt pathway and increased Bcl-2 expression to suppress the activity of Par-4. Consequently, our results revealed a novel negative action of LMP-1 on the pro-apoptosis protein Par-4 by the coordination of multiple signaling pathways.

  8. Spatiotemporal Variability of Global and Diffuse PAR in the Amazon Region and its Significance for Tropical Forest Photosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dye, D. G.

    2003-12-01

    This study examines seasonal and inter-annual variation in surface fluxes of global and diffuse photosynthetically active radiation (PAR, 400-700 nm) in the tropical forest of the Amazon region. Spatial and temporal patterns of global and diffuse PAR are determined from reanalysis data from the National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP), and from the SeaWIFS Solar Surface Irradiance (SSI) data set. The PAR data and satellite-derived estimates of leaf area index (LAI) are applied to an existing sun-shade model of forest canopy photosynthesis. The seasonality of atmospheric scattering (quantified as the diffuse fraction of global PAR) as a determining factor for the relative influence of variation and trends in incident PAR on tropical forest photosynthesis is quantitatively evaluated. The results provide insight into the role of the surface PAR regime in the dynamics of ecosystem-atmosphere carbon exchange in the Amazon and other tropical forest regions.

  9. Active zone proteins are transported via distinct mechanisms regulated by Par-1 kinase

    PubMed Central

    Barber, Kara R.; Sherman, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Disruption of synapses underlies a plethora of neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disease. Presynaptic specialization called the active zone plays a critical role in the communication with postsynaptic neuron. While the role of many proteins at the active zones in synaptic communication is relatively well studied, very little is known about how these proteins are transported to the synapses. For example, are there distinct mechanisms for the transport of active zone components or are they all transported in the same transport vesicle? Is active zone protein transport regulated? In this report we show that overexpression of Par-1/MARK kinase, a protein whose misregulation has been implicated in Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and neurodegenerative disorders, lead to a specific block in the transport of an active zone protein component- Bruchpilot at Drosophila neuromuscular junctions. Consistent with a block in axonal transport, we find a decrease in number of active zones and reduced neurotransmission in flies overexpressing Par-1 kinase. Interestingly, we find that Par-1 acts independently of Tau-one of the most well studied substrates of Par-1, revealing a presynaptic function for Par-1 that is independent of Tau. Thus, our study strongly suggests that there are distinct mechanisms that transport components of active zones and that they are tightly regulated. PMID:28222093

  10. Role of PAR2 in regulating oxaliplatin-induced neuropathic pain via TRPA1.

    PubMed

    Tian, Liujun; Fan, Tianren; Zhou, Nan; Guo, Hui; Zhang, Weijie

    2015-01-01

    Oxaliplatin (OXL) is a third-generation chemotherapeutic agent commonly used to treat metastatic digestive tumors; however, one of the main limiting complications of OXL is neuropathic pain. In this study, the underlying mechanisms responsible for OXL evoked-neuropathic pain were examined. Using a rat model, the results demonstrated that intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of OXL significantly increased mechanical pain and cold sensitivity as compared with control animals (P < 0.05 vs. control rats). Blocking proteinase-activated receptor 2 (PAR2) significantly attenuated mechanical pain and cold sensitivity observed in control rats and OXL rats (P < 0.05 vs. vehicle control). The attenuating effect of PAR2 on mechanical pain and cold sensitivity were significantly smaller in OXL-rats than in control rats. The role played by PAR2 downstream signaling pathways [namely, transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1)] in regulating OXL evoked-neuropathic pain was also examined. The data shows that TRPA1 expression was upregulated in the lumbar dorsal root ganglion (DRG) of OXL rats and blocking TRPA1 inhibited mechanical pain and heightened cold sensitivity (P < 0.05 vs. control rats). Blocking PAR2 also significantly decreased TRPA1 expression in the DRG. Findings in this study show that OXL intervention amplifies mechanical hyperalgesia and cold hypersensitivity and PAR2 plays an important role in regulating OXL-induced neuropathic pain via TRPA1 pathways.

  11. Sensitization of TRPA1 by PAR2 contributes to the sensation of inflammatory pain.

    PubMed

    Dai, Yi; Wang, Shenglan; Tominaga, Makoto; Yamamoto, Satoshi; Fukuoka, Tetsuo; Higashi, Tomohiro; Kobayashi, Kimiko; Obata, Koichi; Yamanaka, Hiroki; Noguchi, Koichi

    2007-07-01

    Proinflammatory agents trypsin and mast cell tryptase cleave and activate PAR2, which is expressed on sensory nerves to cause neurogenic inflammation. Transient receptor potential A1 (TRPA1) is an excitatory ion channel on primary sensory nerves of pain pathway. Here, we show that a functional interaction of PAR2 and TRPA1 in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons could contribute to the sensation of inflammatory pain. Frequent colocalization of TRPA1 with PAR2 was found in rat DRG neurons. PAR2 activation increased the TRPA1 currents evoked by its agonists in HEK293 cells transfected with TRPA1, as well as DRG neurons. Application of phospholipase C (PLC) inhibitors or phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PIP(2)) suppressed this potentiation. Decrease of plasma membrane PIP(2) levels through antibody sequestration or PLC-mediated hydrolysis mimicked the potentiating effects of PAR2 activation at the cellular level. Thus, the increased TRPA1 sensitivity may have been due to activation of PLC, which releases the inhibition of TRPA1 from plasma membrane PIP(2). These results identify for the first time to our knowledge a sensitization mechanism of TRPA1 and a novel mechanism through which trypsin or tryptase released in response to tissue inflammation might trigger the sensation of pain by TRPA1 activation.

  12. Nanomechanical recognition of prognostic biomarker suPAR with DVD-ROM optical technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bache, Michael; Bosco, Filippo G.; Brøgger, Anna L.; Frøhling, Kasper B.; Sonne Alstrøm, Tommy; Hwu, En-Te; Chen, Ching-Hsiu; Eugen-Olsen, Jesper; Hwang, Ing-Shouh; Boisen, Anja

    2013-11-01

    In this work the use of a high-throughput nanomechanical detection system based on a DVD-ROM optical drive and cantilever sensors is presented for the detection of urokinase plasminogen activator receptor inflammatory biomarker (uPAR). Several large scale studies have linked elevated levels of soluble uPAR (suPAR) to infectious diseases, such as HIV, and certain types of cancer. Using hundreds of cantilevers and a DVD-based platform, cantilever deflection response from antibody-antigen recognition is investigated as a function of suPAR concentration. The goal is to provide a cheap and portable detection platform which can carry valuable prognostic information. In order to optimize the cantilever response the antibody immobilization and unspecific binding are initially characterized using quartz crystal microbalance technology. Also, the choice of antibody is explored in order to generate the largest surface stress on the cantilevers, thus increasing the signal. Using optimized experimental conditions the lowest detectable suPAR concentration is currently around 5 nM. The results reveal promising research strategies for the implementation of specific biochemical assays in a portable and high-throughput microsensor-based detection platform.

  13. Nanomechanical recognition of prognostic biomarker suPAR with DVD-ROM optical technology.

    PubMed

    Bache, Michael; Bosco, Filippo G; Brøgger, Anna L; Frøhling, Kasper B; Alstrøm, Tommy Sonne; Hwu, En-Te; Chen, Ching-Hsiu; Eugen-Olsen, Jesper; Hwang, Ing-Shouh; Boisen, Anja

    2013-11-08

    In this work the use of a high-throughput nanomechanical detection system based on a DVD-ROM optical drive and cantilever sensors is presented for the detection of urokinase plasminogen activator receptor inflammatory biomarker (uPAR). Several large scale studies have linked elevated levels of soluble uPAR (suPAR) to infectious diseases, such as HIV, and certain types of cancer. Using hundreds of cantilevers and a DVD-based platform, cantilever deflection response from antibody-antigen recognition is investigated as a function of suPAR concentration. The goal is to provide a cheap and portable detection platform which can carry valuable prognostic information. In order to optimize the cantilever response the antibody immobilization and unspecific binding are initially characterized using quartz crystal microbalance technology. Also, the choice of antibody is explored in order to generate the largest surface stress on the cantilevers, thus increasing the signal. Using optimized experimental conditions the lowest detectable suPAR concentration is currently around 5 nM. The results reveal promising research strategies for the implementation of specific biochemical assays in a portable and high-throughput microsensor-based detection platform.

  14. Lambeaux autofermants pour le traitement des brulures electriques du scalp par haut voltage

    PubMed Central

    Hafidi, J.; El Mazouz, S.; El Mejatti, H.; Fejjal, N.; Gharib, N.E.; Abbassi, A.; Belmahi, A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Les brûlures électriques par haut voltage sont responsables de gros dégâts tissulaires en immédiat et dans les jours suivant l’accident du fait de la chaleur importante dégagée par effet joule et de la thrombose microvasculaire évolutive. Les pertes de substances du scalp secondaires à ces brûlures nécessitent une couverture par lambeaux vu la destruction du périoste et du calvarium en regard. De juin 1997 à juin 2008, 15 patients ont été traités pour des pertes de substance du scalp secondaires à des brûlures électriques par haut voltage de diamètre allant de 8 à 11 cm et siégeant dans la région tonsurale. Ces patients ont été opérés dans la première semaine suivant l’accident. Les pertes de substance du scalp de taille moyenne secondaires à ces brûlures peuvent être couvertes per primam de façon fiable par des lambeaux locaux axialisés et multiples. Nous relatons l’expérience du Service de Chirurgie Plastique du Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Ibn-Sina, Rabat, Maroc, dans la gestion et la prise en charge de ces brûlures. PMID:22262963

  15. Towards an improved LAI collection protocol via simulated field-based PAR sensing

    DOE PAGES

    Yao, Wei; Van Leeuwen, Martin; Romanczyk, Paul; ...

    2016-07-14

    In support of NASA’s next-generation spectrometer—the Hyperspectral Infrared Imager (HyspIRI)—we are working towards assessing sub-pixel vegetation structure from imaging spectroscopy data. Of particular interest is Leaf Area Index (LAI), which is an informative, yet notoriously challenging parameter to efficiently measure in situ. While photosynthetically-active radiation (PAR) sensors have been validated for measuring crop LAI, there is limited literature on the efficacy of PAR-based LAI measurement in the forest environment. This study (i) validates PAR-based LAI measurement in forest environments, and (ii) proposes a suitable collection protocol, which balances efficiency with measurement variation, e.g., due to sun flecks and various-sized canopymore » gaps. A synthetic PAR sensor model was developed in the Digital Imaging and Remote Sensing Image Generation (DIRSIG) model and used to validate LAI measurement based on first-principles and explicitly-known leaf geometry. Simulated collection parameters were adjusted to empirically identify optimal collection protocols. Furthermore, these collection protocols were then validated in the field by correlating PAR-based LAI measurement to the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) extracted from the “classic” Airborne Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS-C) data (R2 was 0.61). The results indicate that our proposed collecting protocol is suitable for measuring the LAI of sparse forest (LAI < 3–5 ( m2/m2)).« less

  16. Towards an improved LAI collection protocol via simulated field-based PAR sensing

    SciTech Connect

    Yao, Wei; Van Leeuwen, Martin; Romanczyk, Paul; van Aardt, Jan; Kelbe, David

    2016-07-14

    In support of NASA’s next-generation spectrometer—the Hyperspectral Infrared Imager (HyspIRI)—we are working towards assessing sub-pixel vegetation structure from imaging spectroscopy data. Of particular interest is Leaf Area Index (LAI), which is an informative, yet notoriously challenging parameter to efficiently measure in situ. While photosynthetically-active radiation (PAR) sensors have been validated for measuring crop LAI, there is limited literature on the efficacy of PAR-based LAI measurement in the forest environment. This study (i) validates PAR-based LAI measurement in forest environments, and (ii) proposes a suitable collection protocol, which balances efficiency with measurement variation, e.g., due to sun flecks and various-sized canopy gaps. A synthetic PAR sensor model was developed in the Digital Imaging and Remote Sensing Image Generation (DIRSIG) model and used to validate LAI measurement based on first-principles and explicitly-known leaf geometry. Simulated collection parameters were adjusted to empirically identify optimal collection protocols. Furthermore, these collection protocols were then validated in the field by correlating PAR-based LAI measurement to the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) extracted from the “classic” Airborne Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS-C) data (R2 was 0.61). The results indicate that our proposed collecting protocol is suitable for measuring the LAI of sparse forest (LAI < 3–5 ( m2/m2)).

  17. Towards an Improved LAI Collection Protocol via Simulated and Field-Based PAR Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Wei; Kelbe, David; van Leeuwen, Martin; Romanczyk, Paul; van Aardt, Jan

    2016-01-01

    In support of NASA’s next-generation spectrometer—the Hyperspectral Infrared Imager (HyspIRI)—we are working towards assessing sub-pixel vegetation structure from imaging spectroscopy data. Of particular interest is Leaf Area Index (LAI), which is an informative, yet notoriously challenging parameter to efficiently measure in situ. While photosynthetically-active radiation (PAR) sensors have been validated for measuring crop LAI, there is limited literature on the efficacy of PAR-based LAI measurement in the forest environment. This study (i) validates PAR-based LAI measurement in forest environments, and (ii) proposes a suitable collection protocol, which balances efficiency with measurement variation, e.g., due to sun flecks and various-sized canopy gaps. A synthetic PAR sensor model was developed in the Digital Imaging and Remote Sensing Image Generation (DIRSIG) model and used to validate LAI measurement based on first-principles and explicitly-known leaf geometry. Simulated collection parameters were adjusted to empirically identify optimal collection protocols. These collection protocols were then validated in the field by correlating PAR-based LAI measurement to the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) extracted from the “classic” Airborne Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS-C) data (R2 was 0.61). The results indicate that our proposed collecting protocol is suitable for measuring the LAI of sparse forest (LAI < 3–5 (m2/m2)). PMID:27428969

  18. Rassf5 and Ndr kinases regulate neuronal polarity through Par3 phosphorylation in a novel pathway.

    PubMed

    Yang, Rui; Kong, Eryan; Jin, Jing; Hergovich, Alexander; Püschel, Andreas W

    2014-08-15

    The morphology and polarized growth of cells depend on pathways that control the asymmetric distribution of regulatory factors. The evolutionarily conserved Ndr kinases play important roles in cell polarity and morphogenesis in yeast and invertebrates but it is unclear whether they perform a similar function in mammalian cells. Here, we analyze the function of mammalian Ndr1 and Ndr2 (also known as STK38 or STK38L, respectively) in the establishment of polarity in neurons. We show that they act downstream of the tumor suppressor Rassf5 and upstream of the polarity protein Par3 (also known as PARD3). Rassf5 and Ndr1 or Ndr2 are required during the polarization of hippocampal neurons to prevent the formation of supernumerary axons. Mechanistically, the Ndr kinases act by phosphorylating Par3 at Ser383 to inhibit its interaction with dynein, thereby polarizing the distribution of Par3 and reinforcing axon specification. Our results identify a novel Rassf5-Ndr-Par3 signaling cascade that regulates the transport of Par3 during the establishment of neuronal polarity. Their role in neuronal polarity suggests that Ndr kinases perform a conserved function as regulators of cell polarity.

  19. PAR-1 mediated apoptosis of breast cancer cells by V. cholerae hemagglutinin protease.

    PubMed

    Ray, Tanusree; Pal, Amit

    2016-05-01

    Bacterial toxins have emerged as promising agents in cancer treatment strategy. Hemagglutinin (HAP) protease secreted by Vibrio cholerae induced apoptosis in breast cancer cells and regresses tumor growth in mice model. The success of novel cancer therapies depends on their selectivity for cancer cells with limited toxicity for normal tissues. Increased expression of Protease Activated Receptor-1 (PAR-1) has been reported in different malignant cells. In this study we report that HAP induced activation and over expression of PAR-1 in breast cancer cells (EAC). Immunoprecipitation studies have shown that HAP specifically binds with PAR-1. HAP mediated activation of PAR-1 caused nuclear translocation of p50-p65 and the phosphorylation of p38 which triggered the activation of NFκB and MAP kinase signaling pathways. These signaling pathways enhanced the cellular ROS level in malignant cells that induced the intrinsic pathway of cell apoptosis. PAR-1 mediated apoptosis by HAP of malignant breast cells without effecting normal healthy cells in the same environment makes it a good therapeutic agent for treatment of cancer.

  20. Participatory action research (PAR) in middle school: opportunities, constraints, and key processes.

    PubMed

    Ozer, Emily J; Ritterman, Miranda L; Wanis, Maggie G

    2010-09-01

    Late childhood and early adolescence represent a critical transition in the developmental and academic trajectory of youth, a time in which there is an upsurge in academic disengagement and psychopathology. PAR projects that can promote youth's sense of meaningful engagement in school and a sense of efficacy and mattering can be particularly powerful given the challenges of this developmental stage. In the present study, we draw on data from our own collaborative implementation of PAR projects in secondary schools to consider two central questions: (1) How do features of middle school settings and the developmental characteristics of the youth promote or inhibit the processes, outcomes, and sustainability of the PAR endeavor? and (2) How can the broad principles and concepts of PAR be effectively translated into specific intervention activities in schools, both within and outside of the classroom? In particular, we discuss a participatory research project conducted with 6th and 7th graders at an urban middle school as a means of highlighting the opportunities, constraints, and lessons learned in our efforts to contribute to the high-quality implementation and evaluation of PAR in diverse urban public schools.

  1. uPAR induces epithelial–mesenchymal transition in hypoxic breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Lester, Robin D.; Jo, Minji; Montel, Valérie; Takimoto, Shinako; Gonias, Steven L.

    2007-01-01

    Hypoxia activates genetic programs that facilitate cell survival; however, in cancer, it may promote invasion and metastasis. In this study, we show that breast cancer cells cultured in 1.0% O2 demonstrate changes consistent with epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT). Snail translocates to the nucleus, and E-cadherin is lost from plasma membranes. Vimentin expression, cell migration, Matrigel invasion, and collagen remodeling are increased. Hypoxia-induced EMT is accompanied by increased expression of the urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) and activation of cell signaling factors downstream of uPAR, including Akt and Rac1. Glycogen synthase kinase-3β is phosphorylated, and Snail expression is increased. Hypoxia-induced EMT is blocked by uPAR gene silencing and mimicked by uPAR overexpression in normoxia. Antagonizing Rac1 or phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase also inhibits development of cellular properties associated with EMT in hypoxia. Breast cancer cells implanted on chick chorioallantoic membranes and treated with CoCl2, to model hypoxia, demonstrate increased dissemination. We conclude that in hypoxia, uPAR activates diverse cell signaling pathways that cooperatively induce EMT and may promote cancer metastasis. PMID:17664334

  2. Towards an Improved LAI Collection Protocol via Simulated and Field-Based PAR Sensing.

    PubMed

    Yao, Wei; Kelbe, David; Leeuwen, Martin van; Romanczyk, Paul; Aardt, Jan van

    2016-07-14

    In support of NASA's next-generation spectrometer-the Hyperspectral Infrared Imager (HyspIRI)-we are working towards assessing sub-pixel vegetation structure from imaging spectroscopy data. Of particular interest is Leaf Area Index (LAI), which is an informative, yet notoriously challenging parameter to efficiently measure in situ. While photosynthetically-active radiation (PAR) sensors have been validated for measuring crop LAI, there is limited literature on the efficacy of PAR-based LAI measurement in the forest environment. This study (i) validates PAR-based LAI measurement in forest environments, and (ii) proposes a suitable collection protocol, which balances efficiency with measurement variation, e.g., due to sun flecks and various-sized canopy gaps. A synthetic PAR sensor model was developed in the Digital Imaging and Remote Sensing Image Generation (DIRSIG) model and used to validate LAI measurement based on first-principles and explicitly-known leaf geometry. Simulated collection parameters were adjusted to empirically identify optimal collection protocols. These collection protocols were then validated in the field by correlating PAR-based LAI measurement to the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) extracted from the "classic" Airborne Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS-C) data ( R 2 was 0.61). The results indicate that our proposed collecting protocol is suitable for measuring the LAI of sparse forest (LAI < 3-5 ( m 2 / m 2 )).

  3. Participatory Action Research (PAR) in Middle School: Opportunities, Constraints, and Key Processes

    PubMed Central

    Ritterman, Miranda L.; Wanis, Maggie G.

    2010-01-01

    Late childhood and early adolescence represent a critical transition in the developmental and academic trajectory of youth, a time in which there is an upsurge in academic disengagement and psychopathology. PAR projects that can promote youth’s sense of meaningful engagement in school and a sense of efficacy and mattering can be particularly powerful given the challenges of this developmental stage. In the present study, we draw on data from our own collaborative implementation of PAR projects in secondary schools to consider two central questions: (1) How do features of middle school settings and the developmental characteristics of the youth promote or inhibit the processes, outcomes, and sustainability of the PAR endeavor? and (2) How can the broad principles and concepts of PAR be effectively translated into specific intervention activities in schools, both within and outside of the classroom? In particular, we discuss a participatory research project conducted with 6th and 7th graders at an urban middle school as a means of highlighting the opportunities, constraints, and lessons learned in our efforts to contribute to the high-quality implementation and evaluation of PAR in diverse urban public schools. PMID:20676754

  4. Outsourcing CO2 Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, S. J.; Caldeira, K. G.

    2009-12-01

    CO2 emissions from the burning of fossil fuels are the primary cause of global warming. Much attention has been focused on the CO2 directly emitted by each country, but relatively little attention has been paid to the amount of emissions associated with consumption of goods and services in each country. This consumption-based emissions inventory differs from the production-based inventory because of imports and exports of goods and services that, either directly or indirectly, involved CO2 emissions. Using the latest available data and reasonable assumptions regarding trans-shipment of embodied carbon through third-party countries, we developed a global consumption-based CO2 emissions inventory and have calculated associated consumption-based energy and carbon intensities. We find that, in 2004, 24% of CO2 emissions are effectively outsourced to other countries, with much of the developed world outsourcing CO2 emissions to emerging markets, principally China. Some wealthy countries, including Switzerland and Sweden, outsource over half of their consumption-based emissions, with many northern Europeans outsourcing more than three tons of emissions per person per year. The United States is both a big importer and exporter of emissions embodied in trade, outsourcing >2.6 tons of CO2 per person and at the same time as >2.0 tons of CO2 per person are outsourced to the United States. These large flows indicate that CO2 emissions embodied in trade must be taken into consideration when considering responsibility for increasing atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations.

  5. First record of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), in Pará nut, Bertholletia excelsa (Lecythidaceae).

    PubMed

    Gumier-Costa, Fabiano

    2009-01-01

    We report the occurrence of Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) attacking Pará nuts stored in the southeast of Para state. The coffee berry borer successfully colonized and reproduced using Pará nuts as a food source. Based on this observation, the Pará nuts can be used as an alternative food source in rearing the coffee berry borer. Also, attention should be brought to need of proper storage of these nuts to avoid infestation by this pest.

  6. Air Emission Inventory for the INEEL -- 1999 Emission Report

    SciTech Connect

    Zohner, Steven K

    2000-05-01

    This report presents the 1999 calendar year update of the Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The INEEL Air Emission Inventory documents sources and emissions of nonradionuclide pollutants from operations at the INEEL. The report describes the emission inventory process and all of the sources at the INEEL, and provides nonradionuclide emissions estimates for stationary sources.

  7. Emission properties of explosive field emission cathodes

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, Amitava; Patel, Ankur; Menon, Rakhee; Sharma, Archana; Chakravarthy, D. P.; Patil, D. S.

    2011-10-15

    The research results of the explosive field emission cathode plasma expansion velocity and the initial emission area in the planar diode configuration with cathodes made of graphite, stainless steel, polymer velvet, carbon coated, and carbon fiber (needle type) cathodes are presented. The experiments have been performed at the electron accelerator LIA-200 (200 kV, 100 ns, and 4 kA). The diode voltage has been varied from 28-225 kV, whereas the current density has been varied from 86-928 A/cm{sup 2} with 100 ns pulse duration. The experimentally obtained electron beam diode perveance has been compared with the 1 dimensional Child-Langmuir- law. It was found that initially only a part of the cathode take part in the emission process. The plasma expands at 1.7-5.2 cm/{mu}s for 4 mm anode-cathode gap for various cathode materials. It was found that the plasma expansion velocity increases with the decrease in the cathode diameter. At the beginning of the accelerating pulse, the entire cathode area participates in the electron emission process only for the multiple needle type carbon fiber cathode.

  8. Endothelial progenitor cell-dependent angiogenesis requires localization of the full-length form of uPAR in caveolae.

    PubMed

    Margheri, Francesca; Chillà, Anastasia; Laurenzana, Anna; Serratì, Simona; Mazzanti, Benedetta; Saccardi, Riccardo; Santosuosso, Michela; Danza, Giovanna; Sturli, Niccolò; Rosati, Fabiana; Magnelli, Lucia; Papucci, Laura; Calorini, Lido; Bianchini, Francesca; Del Rosso, Mario; Fibbi, Gabriella

    2011-09-29

    Endothelial urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) is thought to provide a regulatory mechanism in angiogenesis. Here we studied the proangiogenic role of uPAR in endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFCs), a cell population identified in human umbilical blood that embodies all of the properties of an endothelial progenitor cell matched with a high proliferative rate. By using caveolae-disrupting agents and by caveolin-1 silencing, we have shown that the angiogenic properties of ECFCs depend on caveolae integrity and on the presence of full-length uPAR in such specialized membrane invaginations. Inhibition of uPAR expression by antisense oligonucleotides promoted caveolae disruption, suggesting that uPAR is an inducer of caveolae organization. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) promoted accumulation of uPAR in ECFC caveolae in its undegraded form. We also demonstrated that VEGF-dependent ERK phosphorylation required integrity of caveolae as well as caveolar uPAR expression. VEGF activity depends on inhibition of ECFC MMP12 production, which results in impairment of MMP12-dependent uPAR truncation. Further, MMP12 overexpression in ECFC inhibited vascularization in vitro and in vivo. Our data suggest that intratumor homing of ECFCs suitably engineered to overexpress MMP12 could have the chance to control uPAR-dependent activities required for tumor angiogenesis and malignant cells spreading.

  9. Transient early neurotrophin release and delayed inflammatory cytokine release by microglia in response to PAR-2 stimulation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chen-Wen; Chen, Qian-Bo; Ouyang, Qing; Sun, Ji-Hu; Liu, Fang-Ting; Song, Dian-Wen; Yuan, Hong-Bin

    2012-06-25

    Activated microglia exerts both beneficial and deleterious effects on neurons, but the signaling mechanism controlling these distinct responses remain unclear. We demonstrated that treatment of microglial cultures with the PAR-2 agonist, 2-Furoyl-LIGRLO-NH2, evoked early transient release of BDNF, while sustained PAR-2 stimulation evoked the delayed release of inflammatory cytokines (IL-1 β and TNF-α) and nitric oxide. Culture medium harvested during the early phase (at 1 h) of microglial activation induced by 2-Furoyl-LIGRLO-NH2 (microglial conditioned medium, MCM) had no deleterious effects on cultured neurons, while MCM harvested during the late phase (at 72 h) promoted DNA fragmentation and apoptosis as indicated by TUNEL and annexin/PI staining. Blockade of PAR-1 during the early phase of PAR-2 stimulation enhanced BDNF release (by 11%, small but significant) while a PAR-1 agonist added during the late phase (24 h after 2-Furoyl-LIGRLO-NH2 addition) suppressed the release of cytokines and NO. The neuroprotective and neurotoxic effects of activated microglial exhibit distinct temporal profiles that are regulated by PAR-1 and PAR-2 stimulation. It may be possible to facilitate neuronal recovery and repair by appropriately timed stimulation and inhibition of microglial PAR-1 and PAR-2 receptors.

  10. Database of emission lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binette, L.; Ortiz, P.; Joguet, B.; Rola, C.

    1998-11-01

    A widely accessible data bank (available through Netscape) and consiting of all (or most) of the emission lines reported in the litterature is being built. It will comprise objects as diverse as HII regions, PN, AGN, HHO. One of its use will be to define/refine existing diagnostic emission line diagrams.

  11. Emission Standards for Particulates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, George W.

    1974-01-01

    Promulgation of standards of performance under Section 111 and national emission standards for hazardous pollutants under Section 112 of the Clean Air Act is the responsibility of the Emission Standards and Engineering Division of the Environmental Protection Agency. The problems encountered and the bases used are examined. (Author/BT)

  12. Diesel Emissions Quantifier (DEQ)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    .The Diesel Emissions Quantifier (Quantifier) is an interactive tool to estimate emission reductions and cost effectiveness. Publications EPA-420-F-13-008a (420f13008a), EPA-420-B-10-035 (420b10023), EPA-420-B-10-034 (420b10034)

  13. Participatory action research (PAR): an approach for improving black women's health in rural and remote communities.

    PubMed

    Etowa, Josephine B; Bernard, Wanda Thomas; Oyinsan, Bunmi; Clow, Barbara

    2007-10-01

    Women are among the most disadvantaged members of any community, and they tend to be at greatest risk of illness. Black women are particularly vulnerable and more prone than White women to illnesses associated with social and economic deprivation, including heart disease and diabetes. They utilize preventive health services less often, and when they fall ill, the health of their families and communities typically suffers as well. This article discusses the process of doing innovative participatory action research (PAR) in southwest Nova Scotia Black communities. The effort resulted in the generation of a database, community action, and interdisciplinary analysis of the intersecting inequities that compromise the health and health care of African Canadian women, their families, and their communities. This particular research effort serves as a case study for explicating the key tenets of PAR and the barriers to and contradictions in implementing PAR in a community-academic collaborative research project.

  14. Potential Ecological Effects of Contaminants in the Exposed Par Pond Sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Paller, M.H.; Wike, L.D.

    1996-08-01

    Sediment and small mammal samples were collected from the exposed sediments of Par Pond in early 1995, shortly before the reservoir was refilled after a 4-year drawdown. Sampling was confined to elevations between 58 and 61 meters (190 and 200 feet) above mean sea level, which includes the sediments likely to be exposed if the Par Pond water level is permitted to fluctuate naturally. Both soil and small mammal samples were analyzed for a number of radionuclides and metals. Some of the soil samples were also analyzed for organic contaminants. The objective of the study was to determine if contaminant levels in the Par Pond sediments were high enough to cause deleterious ecological effects.

  15. The Par complex and integrins direct asymmetric cell division in adult intestinal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Goulas, Spyros; Conder, Ryan; Knoblich, Juergen A

    2012-10-05

    The adult Drosophila midgut is maintained by intestinal stem cells (ISCs) that generate both self-renewing and differentiating daughter cells. How this asymmetry is generated is currently unclear. Here, we demonstrate that asymmetric ISC division is established by a unique combination of extracellular and intracellular polarity mechanisms. We show that Integrin-dependent adhesion to the basement membrane induces cell-intrinsic polarity and results in the asymmetric segregation of the Par proteins Par-3, Par-6, and aPKC into the apical daughter cell. Cell-specific knockdown and overexpression experiments suggest that increased activity of aPKC enhances Delta/Notch signaling in one of the two daughter cells to induce terminal differentiation. Perturbing this mechanism or altering the orientation of ISC division results in the formation of intestinal tumors. Our data indicate that mechanisms for intrinsically asymmetric cell division can be adapted to allow for the flexibility in lineage decisions that is required in adult stem cells.

  16. Peptidomics of the pars intercerebralis-corpus cardiacum complex of the migratory locust, Locusta migratoria.

    PubMed

    Clynen, E; Baggerman, G; Veelaert, D; Cerstiaens, A; Van der Horst, D; Harthoorn, L; Derua, R; Waelkens, E; De Loof, A; Schoofs, L

    2001-04-01

    The pars intercerebralis-corpora cardiaca system (PI-CC) of insects is the endocrinological equivalent of the hypothalamus-pituitary system of vertebrates. Peptide profiles of the pars intercerebralis and the corpora cardiaca were characterized using simple sampling protocols in combination with MALDI-TOF and electrospray ionization double quadrupole time of flight (ESI-Qq-TOF) mass spectrometric technologies. The results were compared with earlier results of conventional sequencing methods and immunocytochemical methods. In addition to many known peptides, several m/z signals corresponding to putative novel peptides were observed in the corpora cardiaca and/or pars intercerebralis. Furthermore, for a number of peptides evidence was provided about their localization and MALDI-TOF analysis of the released material from the corpora cardiaca yielded information on the hormonal status of particular brain peptides.

  17. Analogy electromagnetism-acoustics: Validation and application to local impedance active control for sound absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolas, L.; Furstoss, M.; Galland, M. A.

    1998-10-01

    An analogy between electromagnetism and acoustics is presented in 2D. The propagation of sound in presence of absorbing material is modeled using an open boundary microwave package. Validation is performed through analytical and experimental results. Application to local impedance active control for free field sound absorption is finally described. Une analogie entre acoustique et électromagnétisme est présentée en 2D, afin de modéliser la propagation d'ondes acoustiques, en présence de matériau absorbant et à l'aide d'un logiciel de micro-ondes en domaine ouvert. Cette analogie est validée par des résultats analytiques et expérimentaux. Une application au contrôle actif de l'impédance acoustique de surface de matériaux poreux est finalement décrite.

  18. Observed Barium Emission Rates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stenbaek-Nielsen, H. C.; Wescott, E. M.; Hallinan, T. J.

    1993-01-01

    The barium releases from the CRRES satellite have provided an opportunity for verifying theoretically calculated barium ion and neutral emission rates. Spectra of the five Caribbean releases in the summer of 1991 were taken with a spectrograph on board a U.S. Air Force jet aircraft. Because the line of sight release densities are not known, only relative rates could be obtained. The observed relative rates agree well with the theoretically calculated rates and, together with other observations, confirm the earlier detailed theoretical emission rates. The calculated emission rates can thus with good accuracy be used with photometric observations. It has been postulated that charge exchange between neutral barium and oxygen ions represents a significant source for ionization. If so. it should be associated with emissions at 4957.15 A and 5013.00 A, but these emissions were not detected.

  19. Graphene field emission devices

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, S. Raghavan, S.; Duesberg, G. S.; Pratap, R.

    2014-09-08

    Graphene field emission devices are fabricated using a scalable process. The field enhancement factors, determined from the Fowler-Nordheim plots, are within few hundreds and match the theoretical predictions. The devices show high emission current density of ∼10 nA μm{sup −1} at modest voltages of tens of volts. The emission is stable with time and repeatable over long term, whereas the noise in the emission current is comparable to that from individual carbon nanotubes emitting under similar conditions. We demonstrate a power law dependence of emission current on pressure which can be utilized for sensing. The excellent characteristics and relative ease of making the devices promise their great potential for sensing and electronic applications.

  20. Parádsasvárite, a new member of the malachite-rosasite group from Parádsasvár, Mátra Mountains, Hungary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fehér, Béla; Szakáll, Sándor; Zajzon, Norbert; Mihály, Judith

    2015-08-01

    Parádsasvárite (IMA No. 2012-077) was found in the Nagy-Lápafő area, Parádsasvár, Mátra Mountains, Hungary. It forms pale beige, globular aggregates up to 0.2 mm in diameter on calcite. Associated secondary minerals are smithsonite, hemimorphite, hydrozincite, aurichalcite and rosasite. The mineral was formed as an alteration product of sphalerite and chalcopyrite in a carbonate-rich environment. Parádsasvárite is translucent with a weakly vitreous, dull or silky lustre and white streak. Its Mohs hardness is about 2-3, cleavage and parting were not observed. It is brittle; the fracture is finely fibrous. Average of nine electron-microprobe analyses gave ZnO 58.08, CuO 12.60, PbO 1.27, CO2 (calc.) 19.50, H2O (calc.) 7.94, total 99.39 wt.%, corresponding to the empirical formula (Zn0.62Cu0.36Pb0.01)Σ0.99Zn1.00(CO3)(OH)2. The seven strongest lines in the X-ray powder diffraction pattern are [dhkl in Å (Iobs %, hkl)] 6.054 (67, 200), 5.085 (100, 210), 3.703 (87, 310 and 220), 3.021 (25, 400 and 130), 2.971 (25, -211 and 001), 2.603 (62, -221) and 2.539 (36, 420). According to its X-ray powder diffraction data and chemical formula, parádsasvárite belongs to the malachite-rosasite group and it is isostructural with rosasite. It is monoclinic, space group P21/ a, a = 12.92(1), b = 9.372(7), c = 3.159(4) Å, β = 110.4(1)°, V = 358.5(5) Å3, Z = 4.

  1. Factor Xa stimulates fibroblast procollagen production, proliferation, and calcium signaling via PAR{sub 1} activation

    SciTech Connect

    Blanc-Brude, Olivier P. . E-mail: olivier.blanc-brude@larib.inserm.fr; Archer, Fabienne; Leoni, Patricia; Derian, Claudia; Bolsover, Steven; Laurent, Geoffrey J.; Chambers, Rachel C.

    2005-03-10

    Fibroblast proliferation and procollagen production are central features of tissue repair and fibrosis. In addition to its role in blood clotting, the coagulation cascade proteinase thrombin can contribute to tissue repair by stimulating fibroblasts via proteolytic activation of proteinase-activated receptor-1 (PAR{sub 1}). During hemostasis, the coagulation cascade proteinase factor X is converted into factor Xa. We have previously shown that factor Xa upregulates fibroblast proliferation via production of autocrine PDGF. In this study, we further examined the effects of factor Xa on fibroblast function and aimed to identify its signaling receptor. We showed that factor Xa stimulates procollagen promoter activity and protein production by human and mouse fibroblasts. This effect was independent of PDGF and thrombin production, but dependent on factor Xa proteolytic activity. We also showed that PAR{sub 1}-deficient mouse fibroblasts did not upregulate procollagen production, mobilize cytosolic calcium, or proliferate in response to factor Xa. Desensitization techniques and PAR{sub 1}-specific agonists and inhibitors were used to demonstrate that PAR{sub 1} mediates factor Xa signaling in human fibroblasts. This is the first report that factor Xa stimulates extracellular matrix production. In contrast with endothelial cells and vascular smooth muscle cells, fibroblasts appear to be the only cell type in which the effects of factor Xa are mediated mainly via PAR{sub 1} and not PAR{sub 2}. These findings are critical for our understanding of tissue repair and fibrotic mechanisms, and for the design of novel approaches to inhibit the profibrotic effects of the coagulation cascade without compromising blood hemostasis.

  2. Linking the fPAR, forest albedo and biomass in the northern biomes of Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukeš, Petr; Stenberg, Pauline; Manninen, Terhikki; Rautiainen, Miina; Mõttus, Matti

    2014-05-01

    Land surface albedo and the fraction of photosynthetically active radiation (fPAR) absorbed by plant canopies are two of the essential climate variables controlling the planetary radiative energy budget. Albedo is directly related to the energy exchange between land and the atmosphere as it is the reflectivity of the surface - the higher the albedo, the more incoming solar radiation is reflected and the less absorbed by the surface. The fPAR is related to plant productivity, quantifying the amount of absorbed light available for photosynthesis. It is a key parameter in the modelling of net primary production (NPP) of terrestrial ecosystems. Global climate scenarios are very sensitive to albedo and fPAR estimates, and thus, the effect of changes in canopy structure and density (biomass) on these two variables needs to be quantified reliably. Both parameters are routinely retrieved from current Earth Observation sensors using specialized algorithms. To date, these satellite products have not been linked to extensive forest inventory data sets due to the lack of ground reference data. Data availability for Finland has significantly improved in December 2012, when National Forest Inventory (NFI) data became freely available to the public. The dataset covers the geographical area of Finland (26.1 million hectares) at a spatial resolution of 20 meters including several forest structural variables. In this study, we use the NFI data to study the links between forest albedo, fPAR and forest structure and density during the green vegetation season. More specifically, we investigated the seasonal trends in fPAR and albedo of different spectral regions of northern forests. Empirical relationships between forest albedo, fPAR and total aboveground biomass were established for selected days within the vegetation growing period and across a latitudinal transect of Finland.

  3. Comparing the 7-Day PAR with a Triaxial Accelerometer for Measuring Time in Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Sloane, Richard; Snyder, Denise Clutter; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy; Lobach, David; Kraus, William E.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose The primary study aim was to evaluate associations of estimated weekly minutes of moderate-to-vigorous intensity exercise from self-reports of the telephone-administered 7-Day Physical Activity Recall (PAR) with data captured by the RT3 triaxial accelerometer. Methods This investigation was undertaken as part of the FRESH START study, a randomized clinical trial that tested an iteratively-tailored diet and exercise mailed print intervention among newly diagnosed breast and prostate cancer survivors. A convenience sample of 139 medically-eligible subjects living within a 60-mile radius of the study center provided both 7-Day PAR and accelerometer data at enrollment. Ultimately n=115 substudy subjects were found eligible for the FRESH START study and randomized to one of two study treatment arms. Follow-up assessments at Year 1 (n=103) and Year 2 (n=99) provided both the 7-Day PAR and accelerometer data. Results There was moderate agreement between the 7-Day PAR and the accelerometer with longitudinal serial correlation coefficients of .54 (baseline), .24 (Year 1) and .53 (Year 2), all P-values < .01, though the accelerometer estimates for weekly time in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity were much higher than those of the 7-Day PAR at all time points. The two methods were poorly correlated in assessing sensitivity to change from baseline to Year 1 (rho=.11, P=.30). Using mixed models repeated measures analysis, both methods exhibited similar non-significant treatment arm X time interaction P-values (7-Day PAR=.22, accelerometer=.23). Conclusions The correlations for three serial time points were in agreement with findings of other studies that compared self-reported time in exercise with physical activity captured by accelerometry. However, these methods capture somewhat different dimensions of physical activity and provide differing estimates of change over time. PMID:19461530

  4. Function inferences from a molecular structural model of bacterial ParE toxin

    PubMed Central

    Barbosa, Luiz Carlos Bertucci; Garrido, Saulo Santesso; Garcia, Anderson; Delfino, Davi Barbosa; Marchetto, Reinaldo

    2010-01-01

    Toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems contribute to plasmid stability by a mechanism that relies on the differential stabilities of the toxin and antitoxin proteins and leads to the killing of daughter bacteria that did not receive a plasmid copy at the cell division. ParE is the toxic component of a TA system that constitutes along with RelE an important class of bacterial toxin called RelE/ParE superfamily. For ParE toxin, no crystallographic structure is available so far and rare in vitro studies demonstrated that the target of toxin activity is E. coli DNA gyrase. Here, a 3D Model for E. coli ParE toxin by molecular homology modeling was built using MODELLER, a program for comparative modeling. The Model was energy minimized by CHARMM and validated using PROCHECK and VERIFY3D programs. Resulting Ramachandran plot analysis it was found that the portion residues failing into the most favored and allowed regions was 96.8%. Structural similarity search employing DALI server showed as the best matches RelE and YoeB families. The Model also showed similarities with other microbial ribonucleases but in a small score. A possible homologous deep cleft active site was identified in the Model using CASTp program. Additional studies to investigate the nuclease activity in members of ParE family as well as to confirm the inhibitory replication activity are needed. The predicted Model allows initial inferences about the unexplored 3D structure of the ParE toxin and may be further used in rational design of molecules for structure­function studies. PMID:20975905

  5. K-Area and Par Pond Sewage Sludge Application Sites groundwater monitoring reports, second quarter 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    During second quarter 1992, the three wells at the K-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site (KSS wells) and the three wells at the Par Pond Sewage Sludge Application Site (PSS wells) were sampled for analyses required each quarter or annually by South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Construction Permit 13, 173. This report includes the results of those analyses. None of the analyzed constituents exceeded the Primary Drinking Water Standard or the Savannah River Site Flag 2 criteria at either the K-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site or the Par Pond Sewage Sludge Application Site.

  6. Planar Cell Polarity Breaks the Symmetry of PAR Protein Distribution prior to Mitosis in Drosophila Sensory Organ Precursor Cells.

    PubMed

    Besson, Charlotte; Bernard, Fred; Corson, Francis; Rouault, Hervé; Reynaud, Elodie; Keder, Alyona; Mazouni, Khalil; Schweisguth, François

    2015-04-20

    During development, cell-fate diversity can result from the unequal segregation of fate determinants at mitosis. Polarization of the mother cell is essential for asymmetric cell division (ACD). It often involves the formation of a cortical domain containing the PAR complex proteins Par3, Par6, and atypical protein kinase C (aPKC). In the fly notum, sensory organ precursor cells (SOPs) divide asymmetrically within the plane of the epithelium and along the body axis to generate two distinct cells. Fate asymmetry depends on the asymmetric localization of the PAR complex. In the absence of planar cell polarity (PCP), SOPs divide with a random planar orientation but still asymmetrically, showing that PCP is dispensable for PAR asymmetry at mitosis. To study when and how the PAR complex localizes asymmetrically, we have used a quantitative imaging approach to measure the planar polarization of the proteins Bazooka (Baz, fly Par3), Par6, and aPKC in living pupae. By using imaging of functional GFP-tagged proteins with image processing and computational modeling, we find that Baz, Par6, and aPKC become planar polarized prior to mitosis in a manner independent of the AuroraA kinase and that PCP is required for the planar polarization of Baz, Par6, and aPKC during interphase. This indicates that a "mitosis rescue" mechanism establishes asymmetry at mitosis in PCP mutants. This study therefore identifies PCP as the initial symmetry-breaking signal for the planar polarization of PAR proteins in asymmetrically dividing SOPs.

  7. Molecular networks implicated in speech-related disorders: FOXP2 regulates the SRPX2/uPAR complex.

    PubMed

    Roll, Patrice; Vernes, Sonja C; Bruneau, Nadine; Cillario, Jennifer; Ponsole-Lenfant, Magali; Massacrier, Annick; Rudolf, Gabrielle; Khalife, Manal; Hirsch, Edouard; Fisher, Simon E; Szepetowski, Pierre

    2010-12-15

    It is a challenge to identify the molecular networks contributing to the neural basis of human speech. Mutations in transcription factor FOXP2 cause difficulties mastering fluent speech (developmental verbal dyspraxia, DVD), whereas mutations of sushi-repeat protein SRPX2 lead to epilepsy of the rolandic (sylvian) speech areas, with DVD or with bilateral perisylvian polymicrogyria. Pathophysiological mechanisms driven by SRPX2 involve modified interaction with the plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR). Independent chromatin-immunoprecipitation microarray screening has identified the uPAR gene promoter as a potential target site bound by FOXP2. Here, we directly tested for the existence of a transcriptional regulatory network between human FOXP2 and the SRPX2/uPAR complex. In silico searches followed by gel retardation assays identified specific efficient FOXP2-binding sites in each of the promoter regions of SRPX2 and uPAR. In FOXP2-transfected cells, significant decreases were observed in the amounts of both SRPX2 (43.6%) and uPAR (38.6%) native transcripts. Luciferase reporter assays demonstrated that FOXP2 expression yielded a marked inhibition of SRPX2 (80.2%) and uPAR (77.5%) promoter activity. A mutant FOXP2 that causes DVD (p.R553H) failed to bind to SRPX2 and uPAR target sites and showed impaired down-regulation of SRPX2 and uPAR promoter activity. In a patient with polymicrogyria of the left rolandic operculum, a novel FOXP2 mutation (p.M406T) was found in the leucine-zipper (dimerization) domain. p.M406T partially impaired the FOXP2 regulation of SRPX2 promoter activity, whereas that of the uPAR promoter remained unchanged. Together with recently described FOXP2-CNTNAP2 and SRPX2/uPAR links, the FOXP2-SRPX2/uPAR network provides exciting insights into molecular pathways underlying speech-related disorders.

  8. Biogenic voc emissions development and its impacts on regional o3 in PRD, china

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xuemei; Shuping, Situ; Guenther, Alex; Chen, Fei; Wu, Zhiyong

    2010-05-01

    The new Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN) has been coupled with WRF-Chem to investigate the influence of biogenic violate organic carbon (BVOC ) emissions on the regional distribution of O3 and SOA concentration in the Pearl River Delta (PRD), China. MEGAN first estimate an emission factor which represents the net above-canopy emission rate expected at optimal conditions, and use a number of environmental correction factor based on photosynthetically activated radiation (PAR) and leaf temperature to adjust the emission rate due to deviations from optimal conditions. Total emissions are the sum of emissions estimated for each plant functional type (PFT) in a given grid cell. Our model simulations estimated showed: (1) Total annual BVOCs emissions were 339.01× 106 kg, which is 40.68% of annual AVOCs emissions and 28.91% of total VOCs emission in PRD in 2006. Isoprene, monoterpene, sesquiterpene and OVOCs contributed about 31.94%, 39.23%, 3.27% and 25.56% of the estimated total annual emissions respectively. α- pinene and β- pinene were the major components in monoterpene, which contributed 28.09% and 26.98% to the total annual monoterpene emissions respectively;β-caryophyllene andα-farnesene were two important sesquiterpene, and they contributed to 22.31% and 18.76% of the annual sesquiterpene emissions.(2) BVOCs emissions have large variations in their spatial distributions, which were mainly resulted from the differences in the geographical distribution of vegetation. Their emission amounts were larger in the places where urbanization were relative lower and plants distributions were higher.(3) Emissions of terpenoids had significant annual and diurnal variations and the largest emission rate occurred at 13:00 local time while the amount of emission in summer is the largest.(4) There were significant terpenoids emission rate (≥1.21.2 kg km-2h-1) in the remote areas in PRD region where the emissions of AVOCs were low, and

  9. Vehicle and Fuel Emissions Testing

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA's National Vehicle and Fuel Emissions Laboratory's primary responsibilities include: evaluating emission control technology; testing vehicles, engines and fuels; and determining compliance with federal emissions and fuel economy standards.

  10. MOVES2014: Evaporative Emissions Report

    EPA Science Inventory

    Vehicle evaporative emissions are now modeled in EPA’s MOVES according to physical processes, permeation, tank vapor venting, liquid leaks, and refueling emissions. With this update, the following improvements are being incorporated into MOVES evaporative emissions methodology, a...

  11. Biogenic Emission Inventory System (BEIS)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Biogenic Emission Inventory System (BEIS) estimates volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from vegetation and nitric oxide (NO) emission from soils. Recent BEIS development has been restricted to the SMOKE system

  12. Locating the Vehicle Emissions Label

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The EPA vehicle emissions label is entitled Vehicle Emission Control Information and contains the name and trademark of the manufacturer and an unconditional statement of compliance with EPA emission regulations.

  13. Emission Abatement System

    DOEpatents

    Bromberg, Leslie; Cohn, Daniel R.; Rabinovich, Alexander

    2003-05-13

    Emission abatement system. The system includes a source of emissions and a catalyst for receiving the emissions. Suitable catalysts are absorber catalysts and selective catalytic reduction catalysts. A plasma fuel converter generates a reducing gas from a fuel source and is connected to deliver the reducing gas into contact with the absorber catalyst for regenerating the catalyst. A preferred reducing gas is a hydrogen rich gas and a preferred plasma fuel converter is a plasmatron. It is also preferred that the absorber catalyst be adapted for absorbing NO.sub.x.

  14. Imaging of human pancreatic cancer xenografts by single-photon emission computed tomography with 99mTc-Hynic-PEG-AE105

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, XIN; TIAN, YE; SUN, FANGFANG; FENG, HONGBO; YANG, CHUN; GONG, XIAOYAN; TAN, GUANG

    2015-01-01

    The elevated expression of urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) is associated with the poor prognosis of pancreatic cancer patients. Thus, uPAR is a promising candidate as a molecular target for the non-invasive imaging of pancreatic cancer. The present study aimed to develop a technetium-99m (99mTc)-labeled uPAR-binding peptide for non-invasive single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) assessment of uPAR expression in pancreatic cancer xenograft models. A linear high-affinity uPAR peptide antagonist, Hynic-PEG-AE105, was labeled with 99mTc. Human uPAR-positive pancreatic cancer BxPC-3 cells were inoculated into nude mice. SPECT was performed in the pancreatic cancer xenograft mice models. The results showed that the rate of the 99mTc labeling of Hynic-PEG-AE105 was 97.72±1.73%. The tumor uptake of 99mTc-Hynic-PEG-AE105 was higher than the control inactive peptide 99mTc-Hynic-PEG-AE105mut at 4 h (3.37±0.11 vs. 1.36±0.18; P<0.001) and 6 h (3.64±0.25 vs. 1.28±0.20; P<0.001) (n=10). Moreover, a significant correlation was observed between the tumor uptake of 99mTc-Hynic-PEG-AE105 and uPAR expression (r=0.791, P=0.006). In conclusion, in the present study, a peptide-based SPECT tracer, 99mTc-Hynic-PEG-AE105, with a high purity and specific radioactivity was synthesized. 99mTc-Hynic-PEG-AE105 is a promising agent for the non-invasive determination of uPAR expression in pancreatic cancer. PMID:26622829

  15. AP-3 regulates PAR1 ubiquitin-independent MVB/lysosomal sorting via an ALIX-mediated pathway

    PubMed Central

    Dores, Michael R.; Paing, May M.; Lin, Huilan; Montagne, William A.; Marchese, Adriano; Trejo, JoAnn

    2012-01-01

    The sorting of signaling receptors within the endocytic system is important for appropriate cellular responses. After activation, receptors are trafficked to early endosomes and either recycled or sorted to lysosomes and degraded. Most receptors trafficked to lysosomes are modified with ubiquitin and recruited into an endosomal subdomain enriched in hepatocyte growth factor–regulated tyrosine kinase substrate (HRS), a ubiquitin-binding component of the endosomal-sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) machinery, and then sorted into intraluminal vesicles (ILVs) of multivesicular bodies (MVBs)/lysosomes. However, not all receptors use ubiquitin or the canonical ESCRT machinery to sort to MVBs/lysosomes. This is exemplified by protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR1), a G protein–coupled receptor for thrombin, which sorts to lysosomes independent of ubiquitination and HRS. We recently showed that the adaptor protein ALIX binds to PAR1, recruits ESCRT-III, and mediates receptor sorting to ILVs of MVBs. However, the mechanism that initiates PAR1 sorting at the early endosome is not known. We now report that the adaptor protein complex-3 (AP-3) regulates PAR1 ubiquitin-independent sorting to MVBs through an ALIX-dependent pathway. AP-3 binds to a PAR1 cytoplasmic tail–localized tyrosine-based motif and mediates PAR1 lysosomal degradation independent of ubiquitination. Moreover, AP-3 facilitates PAR1 interaction with ALIX, suggesting that AP-3 functions before PAR1 engagement of ALIX and MVB/lysosomal sorting. PMID:22833563

  16. The Rac-GAP Bcr is a novel regulator of the Par complex that controls cell polarity

    PubMed Central

    Narayanan, Anjana S.; Reyes, Steve B.; Um, Kyongmi; McCarty, Joseph H.; Tolias, Kimberley F.

    2013-01-01

    Cell polarization is essential for many biological processes, including directed cell migration, and loss of polarity contributes to pathological conditions such as cancer. The Par complex (Par3, Par6, and PKCζ) controls cell polarity in part by recruiting the Rac-specific guanine nucleotide exchange factor T-lymphoma invasion and metastasis 1 (Tiam1) to specialized cellular sites, where Tiam1 promotes local Rac1 activation and cytoskeletal remodeling. However, the mechanisms that restrict Par-Tiam1 complex activity to the leading edge to maintain cell polarity during migration remain unclear. We identify the Rac-specific GTPase-activating protein (GAP) breakpoint cluster region protein (Bcr) as a novel regulator of the Par-Tiam1 complex. We show that Bcr interacts with members of the Par complex and inhibits both Rac1 and PKCζ signaling. Loss of Bcr results in faster, more random migration and striking polarity defects in astrocytes. These polarity defects are rescued by reducing PKCζ activity or by expressing full-length Bcr, but not an N-terminal deletion mutant or the homologous Rac-GAP, Abr, both of which fail to associate with the Par complex. These results demonstrate that Bcr is an integral member of the Par-Tiam1 complex that controls polarized cell migration by locally restricting both Rac1 and PKCζ function. PMID:24152735

  17. Soluble urokinase receptor (suPAR) predicts microalbuminuria in patients at risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Guthoff, Martina; Wagner, Robert; Randrianarisoa, Elko; Hatziagelaki, Erifili; Peter, Andreas; Häring, Hans-Ulrich; Fritsche, Andreas; Heyne, Nils

    2017-01-01

    Early identification of patients at risk of developing diabetic nephropathy is essential. Elevated serum concentrations of soluble urokinase receptor (suPAR) associate with diabetes mellitus and predict onset and loss of renal function in chronic kidney disease. We hypothesize, that suPAR may be an early risk indicator for diabetic nephropathy, preceding microalbuminuria. The relationship of baseline suPAR and incident microalbuminuria was assessed in a prospective long-term cohort of subjects at increased risk for type 2 diabetes (TULIP, n = 258). Association with albuminuria at later stages of disease was studied in a cross-sectional cohort with manifest type 2 diabetes (ICEPHA, n = 266). A higher baseline suPAR was associated with an increased risk of new-onset microalbuminuria in subjects at risk for type 2 diabetes (hazard ratio 5.3 (95% CI 1.1–25.2, p = 0.03) for the highest vs. lowest suPAR quartile). The proportion of subjects with prediabetes at the end of observation was higher in subjects with new-onset microalbuminuria. suPAR consistently correlated with albuminuria in a separate cohort with manifest type 2 diabetes. Elevated baseline suPAR concentrations independently associate with new-onset microalbuminuria in subjects at increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes. suPAR may hence allow for earlier risk stratification than microalbuminuria. PMID:28091558

  18. A Type Ib ParB Protein Involved in Plasmid Partitioning in a Gram-Positive Bacterium▿

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Ping; Li, Tai-Yuan; Xie, Mao-Hua; Jiang, Lina; Zhang, Yi

    2006-01-01

    Our current understanding of segregation of prokaryotic plasmids has been derived mainly from the study of the gram-negative bacterial plasmids. We previously reported a replicon of the cryptic plasmid from a gram-positive bacterium, Leifsonia xyli subsp. cynodontis. The replicon contains a putative plasmid partition cassette including a Walker-type ATPase followed by open reading frame 4 without sequence homologue. Here we reported that the orf4 gene was essential for maintaining the plasmid stability in L. xyli subsp. cynodontis. Furthermore, the purified orf4 protein specifically and cooperatively bound to direct repeat sequences located upstream of the parA gene in vitro, indicating that orf4 is a parB gene and that the direct repeat DNA sequences constitute a partition site, parS. The location of parS and the features of ParA and ParB proteins suggest that this plasmid partition cassette belongs to type Ib, representing the first type Ib cassette identified from a gram-positive bacterial plasmid. PMID:16997970

  19. Soluble urokinase receptor (suPAR) predicts microalbuminuria in patients at risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Guthoff, Martina; Wagner, Robert; Randrianarisoa, Elko; Hatziagelaki, Erifili; Peter, Andreas; Häring, Hans-Ulrich; Fritsche, Andreas; Heyne, Nils

    2017-01-16

    Early identification of patients at risk of developing diabetic nephropathy is essential. Elevated serum concentrations of soluble urokinase receptor (suPAR) associate with diabetes mellitus and predict onset and loss of renal function in chronic kidney disease. We hypothesize, that suPAR may be an early risk indicator for diabetic nephropathy, preceding microalbuminuria. The relationship of baseline suPAR and incident microalbuminuria was assessed in a prospective long-term cohort of subjects at increased risk for type 2 diabetes (TULIP, n = 258). Association with albuminuria at later stages of disease was studied in a cross-sectional cohort with manifest type 2 diabetes (ICEPHA, n = 266). A higher baseline suPAR was associated with an increased risk of new-onset microalbuminuria in subjects at risk for type 2 diabetes (hazard ratio 5.3 (95% CI 1.1-25.2, p = 0.03) for the highest vs. lowest suPAR quartile). The proportion of subjects with prediabetes at the end of observation was higher in subjects with new-onset microalbuminuria. suPAR consistently correlated with albuminuria in a separate cohort with manifest type 2 diabetes. Elevated baseline suPAR concentrations independently associate with new-onset microalbuminuria in subjects at increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes. suPAR may hence allow for earlier risk stratification than microalbuminuria.

  20. ROANOKE WOODSTOVE EMISSION TESTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses a project, part of the Integrated Air Cancer Project Roanoke study, that characterizes and quantifies emissions generated by burning authentic Roanoke cordwood. The burning occurred in a controlled laboratory setting using two woodstoves, each operated at two...

  1. Fugitive emissions monitoring trends

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, K.H.

    1997-02-01

    New Clean Air Act requirements are pushing facilities to reevaluate their monitoring programs. A description of the fugitive emission guidelines is included in this article, along with ideas about monitoring.

  2. Photon enhanced thermionic emission

    SciTech Connect

    Schwede, Jared; Melosh, Nicholas; Shen, Zhixun

    2014-10-07

    Photon Enhanced Thermionic Emission (PETE) is exploited to provide improved efficiency for radiant energy conversion. A hot (greater than 200.degree. C.) semiconductor cathode is illuminated such that it emits electrons. Because the cathode is hot, significantly more electrons are emitted than would be emitted from a room temperature (or colder) cathode under the same illumination conditions. As a result of this increased electron emission, the energy conversion efficiency can be significantly increased relative to a conventional photovoltaic device. In PETE, the cathode electrons can be (and typically are) thermalized with respect to the cathode. As a result, PETE does not rely on emission of non-thermalized electrons, and is significantly easier to implement than hot-carrier emission approaches.

  3. Aircraft Engine Emissions. [conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    A conference on a aircraft engine emissions was held to present the results of recent and current work. Such diverse areas as components, controls, energy efficient engine designs, and noise and pollution reduction are discussed.

  4. TGFβ upregulates PAR-1 expression and signalling responses in A549 lung adenocarcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Smoktunowicz, Natalia; Platé, Manuela; Stern, Alejandro Ortiz; D'Antongiovanni, Vanessa; Robinson, Eifion; Chudasama, Vijay; Caddick, Stephen; Scotton, Chris J.; Jarai, Gabor; Chambers, Rachel C.

    2016-01-01

    The major high-affinity thrombin receptor, proteinase activated receptor-1 (PAR-1) is expressed at low levels by the normal epithelium but is upregulated in many types of cancer, including lung cancer. The thrombin-PAR-1 signalling axis contributes to the activation of latent TGFβ in response to tissue injury via an αvβ6 integrin-mediated mechanism. TGFβ is a pleiotropic cytokine that acts as a tumour suppressor in normal and dysplastic cells but switches into a tumour promoter in advanced tumours. In this study we demonstrate that TGFβ is a positive regulator of PAR-1 expression in A549 lung adenocarcinoma cells, which in turn increases the sensitivity of these cells to thrombin signalling. We further demonstrate that this effect is Smad3-, ERK1/2- and Sp1-dependent. We also show that TGFβ-mediated PAR-1 upregulation is accompanied by increased expression of integrin αv and β6 subunits. Finally, TGFβ pre-stimulation promotes increased migratory potential of A549 to thrombin. These data have important implications for our understanding of the interplay between coagulation and TGFβ signalling responses in lung cancer. PMID:27566553

  5. UTILITY OF A WIDE SPECTRUM LIGHT METER AS AN UNDERWATER SENSOR OF PHOTOSYNTHETICALLY ACTIVE RADIATION (PAR)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The strong attenuation of infra red wavelengths (>700 nm) in coastal waters is suggestive that some instruments with broad spectral responses might be useful, inexpensive substitutes for PAR sensors in studies of estuarine plant dynamics. Wide spectrum (350-1100 nm) light intensi...

  6. Appropriately Targeting Group Interventions for Academic Success Adopting the Clinical Model and PAR Profiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Craig W.; Johnson, Ronald; Steigman, Michael; Odo, Chioma; Vijayan, Suvendra; Tata, Devadatta V.

    2016-01-01

    Prevalence of academic risk (PAR) group profiles provide data enabling empirically based group-specialized prescriptions for targeted academic success interventions to increase student retention, completion, and graduation rates, while improving allocation of institutional resources. Postsecondary student attrition engenders student debt,…

  7. Dengue epidemic in Belém, Pará, Brazil, 1996-97.

    PubMed Central

    Trravassos da Rosa, A. P.; Vasconcelos, P. F.; Travassos Da Rosa, E. S.; Rodrigues, S. G.; Mondet, B.; Cruz, A. C.; Sousa, M. R.; Travassos Da Rosa, J. F.

    2000-01-01

    We describe clinical and epidemiologic findings during the first epidemic of dengue fever in Belém, Pará State, Brazil, in 1996-97. Of 40,237 serum samples, 17,440 (43%) were positive for dengue by virus isolation or serologic testing. No hemorrhagic cases or deaths were reported. Mycobacterium tuberculosis PMID:10827121

  8. An Overview of the Peer Assessment Rating (par) Index for Primary Dental Care Practitioners.

    PubMed

    Green, James Ij

    2016-11-01

    The Peer Assessment Rating (PAR) index is a valid and reliable measure of orthodontic treatment outcome and is the most widely accepted such index. Assessing outcomes with the PAR index requires the examination of pre-treatment and post-treatment orthodontic study models. Beginning with the pre-treatment models, a score is given to each feature that deviates from an ideal occlusion (all anatomical contact points adjacent, good interdigitation between posterior teeth and non-excessive overjet/overbite), the scores are then added together to give a total that represents the severity of the malocclusion. The process is then repeated with the post-treatment models. The difference between the pre-treatment and the post-treatment scores reflects the improvement that has taken place during treatment. A score of zero represents an ideal occlusion and in general the higher the score, the more extensive the malocclusion. It is currently a condition of the NHS orthodontic contract for providers to monitor a proportion of their cases using the PAR index. This paper aims to provide primary dental care practitioners with an overview of the PAR index and should provide a useful guide for those wishing to seek calibration in the use of the index.

  9. Leuconychie transversale induite par la manucurie: y a-t-il un apport de la dermoscopie?

    PubMed Central

    Gallouj, Salim; Mernissi, Fatima Zahra

    2014-01-01

    La leuconychie transversale induite par la manucurie est une leuconychie secondaire au microtraumatisme transmis à la matrice unguéale. Nous rapportant une observation où la dermoscopie avait un intérêt considérable pour l'orientation diagnostic. PMID:25368728

  10. Measurement of the topography of human cadaver lenses using the PAR corneal topography system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez, Viviana; Manns, Fabrice; Zipper, Stanley; Sandadi, Samith; Hamaoui, Marie; Tahi, Hassan; Ho, Arthur; Parel, Jean-Marie A.

    2001-06-01

    To measure the radius of curvature and asphericity of the anterior and posterior surfaces of crystalline lenses of human Eye-Bank eyes using the PAR Corneal Topography System. The measured values will be used in an optical model of the eye for lens refilling procedures.

  11. CALiPER Report 20.3: Robustness of LED PAR38 Lamps

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2014-12-30

    A small sample of each of the CALiPER Application Summary Report 20 PAR38 lamp types underwent stress testing that included substantial temperature and humidity changes, electrical variation, and vibration. The results do not directly address expected lifetime, but can be compared with one another, as well as with benchmark conventional products, to assess the relative robustness of the product designs.

  12. Cortical PAR polarity proteins promote robust cytokinesis during asymmetric cell division

    PubMed Central

    Jordan, Shawn N.; Davies, Tim; Zhuravlev, Yelena; Dumont, Julien; Shirasu-Hiza, Mimi

    2016-01-01

    Cytokinesis, the physical division of one cell into two, is thought to be fundamentally similar in most animal cell divisions and driven by the constriction of a contractile ring positioned and controlled solely by the mitotic spindle. During asymmetric cell divisions, the core polarity machinery (partitioning defective [PAR] proteins) controls the unequal inheritance of key cell fate determinants. Here, we show that in asymmetrically dividing Caenorhabditis elegans embryos, the cortical PAR proteins (including the small guanosine triphosphatase CDC-42) have an active role in regulating recruitment of a critical component of the contractile ring, filamentous actin (F-actin). We found that the cortical PAR proteins are required for the retention of anillin and septin in the anterior pole, which are cytokinesis proteins that our genetic data suggest act as inhibitors of F-actin at the contractile ring. Collectively, our results suggest that the cortical PAR proteins coordinate the establishment of cell polarity with the physical process of cytokinesis during asymmetric cell division to ensure the fidelity of daughter cell formation. PMID:26728855

  13. Tuberculosis prevalence and risk factors for water buffalo in Pará, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, José D; da Silva, Jenevaldo B; Rangel, Charles P; da Fonseca, Adivaldo H; Silva, Natália S; Bomjardim, Henrique A; Freitas, Nayra F Q R

    2014-03-01

    The prevalence of and possible risk factors for tuberculosis were studied in water buffalo from Pará, Brazil. In this study, 3,917 pregnant and nonpregnant female Murrah and Mediterranean buffaloes were studied; 2,089 originated from Marajó Island, and 1,108 were from the mainland. The comparative cervical tuberculin test was used as a diagnostic test for tuberculosis in these animals. The prevalence of positive buffaloes was 3.5 % (100/2,809) on Marajó Island and 7.2 % (80/1,108) on the mainland. The municipalities with the highest tuberculosis prevalence rates in animals were Ipixuna do Pará (10.1 %), Marapanim (9.8 %), Chaves (9.4 %), Paragominas (8.6 %), and Cachoeira do Arari (6.7 %). The tuberculosis prevalence was not significantly different between the Murrah (4.3 %) and Mediterranean (4.8 %) breeds or between pregnant (5 %) and nonpregnant (4.3 %) buffaloes. Tuberculosis was detected in water buffaloes from Pará, Brazil; the mainland buffalo exhibited the highest tuberculosis prevalence. These results indicate that this disease is dangerous to public health and buffalo farming in Pará.

  14. The Utility of Clinicians Ratings of Anxiety Using the Pediatric Anxiety Rating Scale (PARS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ginsburg, Golda S.; Keeton, Courtney P.; Drazdowski, Tess K.; Riddle, Mark A.

    2011-01-01

    Clinician ratings of anxiety hold the promise of clarifying discrepancies often found between child and parent reports of anxiety. The Pediatric Anxiety Rating Scale (PARS) is a clinician-administered instrument that assesses the frequency, severity, and impairment of common pediatric anxiety disorders and has been used as a primary outcome…

  15. Participation and Participatory Action Research (PAR) in Environmental Education Processes: For What Are People Empowered?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le Grange, Lesley

    2009-01-01

    Participatory action research (PAR) derived from anti-colonial struggles in the third world in the 1960s. Traditionally it has been a method of the margins because of its commitment to linking social justice to research. Because of its counter-hegemonic tendency it has had great appeal among environmental educators advocating a socially critical…

  16. [Capsulotomy through the pars plana in the eye with pseudophakia of the posterior chamber].

    PubMed

    Radian, A B; Mocanu, C

    1996-01-01

    It described one surgical technique for capsulotomy in the case of secondary cataract at an eye with pseudophakic by posterior chamber. The approaching makes with an simple instrument, through pars plana, the tearing of posterior capsule making under control with operator microscope, in area of visual axie, excluding any possibility to harm the lens, its luxation in vitreous or anothers complications.

  17. The interaction between uPAR and vitronectin triggers ligand-independent adhesion signalling by integrins

    PubMed Central

    Ferraris, Gian Maria Sarra; Schulte, Carsten; Buttiglione, Valentina; De Lorenzi, Valentina; Piontini, Andrea; Galluzzi, Massimiliano; Podestà, Alessandro; Madsen, Chris D; Sidenius, Nicolai

    2014-01-01

    The urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) is a non-integrin vitronectin (VN) cell adhesion receptor linked to the plasma membrane by a glycolipid anchor. Through structure–function analyses of uPAR, VN and integrins, we document that uPAR-mediated cell adhesion to VN triggers a novel type of integrin signalling that is independent of integrin–matrix engagement. The signalling is fully active on VN mutants deficient in integrin binding site and is also efficiently transduced by integrins deficient in ligand binding. Although integrin ligation is dispensable, signalling is crucially dependent upon an active conformation of the integrin and its association with intracellular adaptors such as talin. This non-canonical integrin signalling is not restricted to uPAR as it poses no structural constraints to the receptor mediating cell attachment. In contrast to canonical integrin signalling, where integrins form direct mechanical links between the ECM and the cytoskeleton, the molecular mechanism enabling the crosstalk between non-integrin adhesion receptors and integrins is dependent upon membrane tension. This suggests that for this type of signalling, the membrane represents a critical component of the molecular clutch. PMID:25168639

  18. Crystal Structure of Thrombin Bound to the Uncleaved Extracellular Fragment of PAR1

    SciTech Connect

    Gandhi, Prafull S.; Chen, Zhiwei; Di Cera, Enrico

    2010-05-11

    Abundant structural information exists on how thrombin recognizes ligands at the active site or at exosites separate from the active site region, but remarkably little is known about how thrombin recognizes substrates that bridge both the active site and exosite I. The case of the protease-activated receptor PAR1 is particularly relevant in view of the plethora of biological effects associated with its activation by thrombin. Here, we present the 1.8 {angstrom} resolution structure of thrombin S195A in complex with a 30-residue long uncleaved extracellular fragment of PAR1 that documents for the first time a productive binding mode bridging the active site and exosite I. The structure reveals two unexpected features of the thrombin-PAR1 interaction. The acidic P3 residue of PAR1, Asp{sup 39}, does not hinder binding to the active site and actually makes favorable interactions with Gly{sup 219} of thrombin. The tethered ligand domain shows a considerable degree of disorder even when bound to thrombin. The results fill a significant gap in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of recognition by thrombin in ways that are relevant to other physiological substrates.

  19. The loss of circadian PAR bZip transcription factors results in epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Gachon, Frédéric; Fonjallaz, Philippe; Damiola, Francesca; Gos, Pascal; Kodama, Tohru; Zakany, Jozsef; Duboule, Denis; Petit, Brice; Tafti, Mehdi; Schibler, Ueli

    2004-01-01

    DBP (albumin D-site-binding protein), HLF (hepatic leukemia factor), and TEF (thyrotroph embryonic factor) are the three members of the PAR bZip (proline and acidic amino acid-rich basic leucine zipper) transcription factor family. All three of these transcriptional regulatory proteins accumulate with robust circadian rhythms in tissues with high amplitudes of clock gene expression, such as the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) and the liver. However, they are expressed at nearly invariable levels in most brain regions, in which clock gene expression only cycles with low amplitude. Here we show that mice deficient for all three PAR bZip proteins are highly susceptible to generalized spontaneous and audiogenic epilepsies that frequently are lethal. Transcriptome profiling revealed pyridoxal kinase (Pdxk) as a target gene of PAR bZip proteins in both liver and brain. Pyridoxal kinase converts vitamin B6 derivatives into pyridoxal phosphate (PLP), the coenzyme of many enzymes involved in amino acid and neurotransmitter metabolism. PAR bZip-deficient mice show decreased brain levels of PLP, serotonin, and dopamine, and such changes have previously been reported to cause epilepsies in other systems. Hence, the expression of some clock-controlled genes, such as Pdxk, may have to remain within narrow limits in the brain. This could explain why the circadian oscillator has evolved to generate only low-amplitude cycles in most brain regions. PMID:15175240

  20. Kis antitoxin couples plasmid R1 replication and parD (kis,kid) maintenance modules.

    PubMed

    López-Villarejo, Juan; Diago-Navarro, Elizabeth; Hernández-Arriaga, Ana María; Díaz-Orejas, Ramón

    2012-03-01

    The coupling between the replication and parD (kis, kid) maintenance modules of R1 has been revisited here by the isolation of a significant collection of conditional replication mutants in the pKN1562 mini-R1 plasmid, and in its derivative, pJLV01, specifically affected in the RNase activity of the Kid toxin. This new analysis aims to identify key factors in this coupling. For this purpose we have quantified and characterized the restriction introduced by parD to isolate conditional replication mutants of this plasmid, a signature of the modular coupling. This restriction depends on the RNase activity of the Kid toxin and it is relieved by either over-expression of the Kis antitoxin or by preventing its degradation by Lon and ClpAP proteases. Based on these data and on the correlation between copy numbers and parD transcriptional levels obtained in the different mutants, it is proposed that a reduction of Kis antitoxin levels in response to inefficient plasmid replication is the key factor for coupling plasmid replication and parD modules.

  1. Participatory Action Research: Reflections on Critical Incidents in a PAR Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santelli, Betsy; Singer, George H. S.; DiVenere, Nancy; Ginsberg, Connie; Powers, Laurie E.

    1998-01-01

    This article describes a participatory action research (PAR) project designed to evaluate Parent to Parent programs in five states. The process of developing a shared understanding of the program and of the purpose for evaluating them, along with an on-going willingness of parents and researchers to compromise, led to creative solutions to…

  2. IR Plasma Emissions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-04-01

    a current mailing list. Do not return copies of this report unless contractural obligations or notices on a specific document requires that it be...of the relatively cold 0? gas surrounding the fireball (i.e. 02(cold) + hv --> 20*) and the broad emission arises from shock heating of the emission...experimental data and calculations 14 and 0 data from other work35 ,36. Experimental spectra were acquired by Assous 33 in an inductively- heated

  3. Field emission electron source

    DOEpatents

    Zettl, Alexander Karlwalter; Cohen, Marvin Lou

    2000-01-01

    A novel field emitter material, field emission electron source, and commercially feasible fabrication method is described. The inventive field emission electron source produces reliable electron currents of up to 400 mA/cm.sup.2 at 200 volts. The emitter is robust and the current it produces is not sensitive to variability of vacuum or the distance between the emitter tip and the cathode. The novel emitter has a sharp turn-on near 100 volts.

  4. Plant-derived SAC domain of PAR-4 (Prostate Apoptosis Response 4) exhibits growth inhibitory effects in prostate cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, Shayan; Jain, Sumeet; Rai, Vineeta; Sahoo, Dipak K.; Raha, Sumita; Suklabaidya, Sujit; Senapati, Shantibhusan; Rangnekar, Vivek M.; Maiti, Indu B.; Dey, Nrisingha

    2015-01-01

    The gene Par-4 (Prostate Apoptosis Response 4) was originally identified in prostate cancer cells undergoing apoptosis and its product Par-4 showed cancer specific pro-apoptotic activity. Particularly, the SAC domain of Par-4 (SAC-Par-4) selectively kills cancer cells leaving normal cells unaffected. The therapeutic significance of bioactive SAC-Par-4 is enormous in cancer biology; however, its large scale production is still a matter of concern. Here we report the production of SAC-Par-4-GFP fusion protein coupled to translational enhancer sequence (5′ AMV) and apoplast signal peptide (aTP) in transgenic Nicotiana tabacum cv. Samsun NN plants under the control of a unique recombinant promoter M24. Transgene integration was confirmed by genomic DNA PCR, Southern and Northern blotting, Real-time PCR, and Nuclear run-on assays. Results of Western blot analysis and ELISA confirmed expression of recombinant SAC-Par-4-GFP protein and it was as high as 0.15% of total soluble protein. In addition, we found that targeting of plant recombinant SAC-Par-4-GFP to the apoplast and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) was essential for the stability of plant recombinant protein in comparison to the bacterial derived SAC-Par-4. Deglycosylation analysis demonstrated that ER-targeted SAC-Par-4-GFP-SEKDEL undergoes O-linked glycosylation unlike apoplast-targeted SAC-Par-4-GFP. Furthermore, various in vitro studies like mammalian cells proliferation assay (MTT), apoptosis induction assays, and NF-κB suppression suggested the cytotoxic and apoptotic properties of plant-derived SAC-Par-4-GFP against multiple prostate cancer cell lines. Additionally, pre-treatment of MAT-LyLu prostate cancer cells with purified SAC-Par-4-GFP significantly delayed the onset of tumor in a syngeneic rat prostate cancer model. Taken altogether, we proclaim that plant made SAC-Par-4 may become a useful alternate therapy for effectively alleviating cancer in the new era. PMID:26500666

  5. Project Plan 7930 Cell G PaR Remote Handling System Replacement

    SciTech Connect

    Kinney, Kathryn A

    2009-10-01

    For over 40 years the US Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessors have made Californium-252 ({sup 252}Cf) available for a wide range of industries including medical, nuclear fuels, mining, military and national security. The Radiochemical Engineering Development Center (REDC) located within the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) processes irradiated production targets from the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR). Operations in Building 7930, Cell G provide over 70% of the world's demand for {sup 252}Cf. Building 7930 was constructed and equipped in the mid-1960s. Current operations for {sup 252}Cf processing in Building 7930, Cell G require use of through-the-wall manipulators and the PaR Remote Handling System. Maintenance and repairs for the manipulators is readily accomplished by removal of the manipulator and relocation to a repair shop where hands-on work can be performed in glove boxes. Contamination inside cell G does not currently allow manned entry and no provisions were created for a maintenance area inside the cell. There has been no maintenance of the PaR system or upgrades, leaving operations vulnerable should the system have a catastrophic failure. The Cell G PaR system is currently being operated in a run to failure mode. As the manipulator is now 40+ years old there is significant risk in this method of operation. In 2006 an assessment was completed that resulted in recommendations for replacing the manipulator operator control and power centers which are used to control and power the PaR manipulator in Cell G. In mid-2008 the chain for the bridge drive failed and subsequent examinations indicated several damaged links (see Figure 1). To continue operations the PaR manipulator arm is being used to push and pull the bridge as a workaround. A retrieval tool was fabricated, tested and staged inside Cell G that will allow positioning of the bridge and manipulator arm for removal from the cell should the PaR system completely fail. A fully

  6. La structure de l'eau liquide: Une etude thermique par spectroscopie infrarouge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larouche, Pascal

    Le probleme de la structure de l'eau liquide est important car l'eau est le liquide le plus present sur Terre, et complexe, la quete d'un modele precis pour decrire comment fonctionne ce liquide ayant debute des la fin du dix-neuvieme siecle. Cette etude aborde ce probleme en etudiant l'effet de l'augmentation de la temperature sur H2O et D 2O purs a l'aide de la spectroscopie infrarouge. L'intervalle de temperatures scrute est 29--93.1°C. Les spectres enregistres sont des spectres MIR-ATR entre 650 et 6000 cm-1 . L'analyse par facteurs de ces donnees permet de montrer que deux et seulement deux facteurs principaux sont necessaires pour decomposer tous les spectres experimentaux. Ces resultats sont confirmes grace a l'analyse par facteurs de spectres de la region FIR. Par la suite, la transformation en spectres de la partie reelle n et imaginaire k de l'indice de refraction permet de combiner les donnees des regions MIR et FIR. Une fois ce calcul termine, les spectres de transmission complets de H 2O et D2O entre 25 et 90°C sont connus. Ils sont ensuite utilises pour calculer par extrapolation le spectre des especes constituant l'eau liquide, puis leur abondance en fonction de la temperature. L'extrapolation de ces abondances montre que les especes correspondent a des temperatures limites de --18 et 122°C. Par la suite, la decomposition gaussienne des spectres d'especes met en evidence la riche structure de ces objets et permet de demontrer que l'apparent deplacement du massif d'absorption OH (OD) est produit par une variation de l'intensite des bandes et non pas de leur deplacement. L'examen attentif des spectres des especes prouve qu'il n'y a pas de OH libres crees par l'augmentation de la temperature: meme a 93.1°C, chaque molecule possede quatre liens-H. Ces conclusions sont de plus confirmees par une analyse thermodynamique du passage des molecules de la phase solide a la phase gazeuse. Pour diversifier la nature des resultats experimentaux utilises, des

  7. Water quality, phytoplankton and zooplankton of Par Pond and Pond B. Volume 2. Phytoplankton. Final report, January 1984-June 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Chimney, M.J.; Cody, W.R.; Starkel, W.M.

    1985-08-01

    This document reports on the Par Pond and Pond B phytoplankton community. The objectives of this study were to (1) characterize the biological communities and environmental conditions in Par Pond and Pond B; (2) assess the impact and significance of entrainment losses of plankton at the Par Pond pumphouse; (3) assess the impact of heated discharge on the biotic communities throughout the reservoir; and (4) help determine if Par Pond maintains an indigenous balanced biological community as defined in state and federal regulations. A total of 368 phytoplankton taxa, representing all the major taxonomic groups characteristic of North American freshwaters, were identified from Par Pond and Pond B during this study (73 Bacillariophyta, 166 Chlorophyta, 30 Chrysophyta, 5 Cryptophyta, 47 Cyanophyta, 18 Euglenophyta, 11 phytoflaggelates and 18 Pyrrophyta).

  8. ParFit: A Python-Based Object-Oriented Program for Fitting Molecular Mechanics Parameters to ab Initio Data

    DOE PAGES

    Zahariev, Federico; De Silva, Nuwan; Gordon, Mark S.; ...

    2017-02-23

    Here, a newly created object-oriented program for automating the process of fitting molecular-mechanics parameters to ab initio data, termed ParFit, is presented. ParFit uses a hybrid of deterministic and stochastic genetic algorithms. ParFit can simultaneously handle several molecular-mechanics parameters in multiple molecules and can also apply symmetric and antisymmetric constraints on the optimized parameters. The simultaneous handling of several molecules enhances the transferability of the fitted parameters. ParFit is written in Python, uses a rich set of standard and nonstandard Python libraries, and can be run in parallel on multicore computer systems. As an example, a series of phosphine oxides,more » important for metal extraction chemistry, are parametrized using ParFit.« less

  9. Uncertainties of isoprene emissions in the MEGAN model estimated for a coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest in Southern China

    SciTech Connect

    Situ, S.; Wang, Xuemei; Guenther, Alex B.; Zhang, Yanli; Wang, Xinming; Huang, Minjuan; Fan, Qi; Xiong, Zhe

    2014-12-01

    Using local observed emission factor, meteorological data, vegetation 5 information and dynamic MODIS LAI, MEGANv2.1 was constrained to predict the isoprene emission from Dinghushan forest in the Pearl River Delta region during a field campaign in November 2008, and the uncertainties in isoprene emission estimates were quantified by the Monte Carlo approach. The results indicate that MEGAN can predict the isoprene emission reasonably during the campaign, and the mean value of isoprene emission is 2.35 mg m-2 h-1 in daytime. There are high uncertainties associated with the MEGAN inputs and calculated parameters, and the relative error can be as high as -89 to 111% for a 95% confidence interval. The emission factor of broadleaf trees and the activity factor accounting for light and temperature dependence are the most important contributors to the uncertainties in isoprene emission estimated for the Dinghushan forest during the campaign. The results also emphasize the importance of accurate observed PAR and temperature to reduce the uncertainties in isoprene emission estimated by model, because the MEGAN model activity factor accounting for light and temperature dependence is highly sensitive to PAR and temperature.

  10. Emission Characterization and Emission Inventories for the 21st Century

    EPA Science Inventory

    Emission inventories are the foundation of cost-effective air quality management strategies. A goal of the emissions community is to develop the ultimate emission inventory which would include all significant emissions from all sources, time periods and areas, with quantified un...

  11. 47 CFR 78.103 - Emissions and emission limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... CABLE TELEVISION RELAY SERVICE Technical Regulations § 78.103 Emissions and emission limitations. (a) A... television signals. (b) Any emission appearing on a frequency outside of the channel authorized for a...: At least 25 decibels below the mean power of the emission; (ii) On any frequency above the...

  12. 47 CFR 78.103 - Emissions and emission limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Emissions and emission limitations. 78.103 Section 78.103 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES CABLE TELEVISION RELAY SERVICE Technical Regulations § 78.103 Emissions and emission limitations. (a)...

  13. 47 CFR 78.103 - Emissions and emission limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Emissions and emission limitations. 78.103 Section 78.103 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES CABLE TELEVISION RELAY SERVICE Technical Regulations § 78.103 Emissions and emission limitations. (a)...

  14. 47 CFR 78.103 - Emissions and emission limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Emissions and emission limitations. 78.103 Section 78.103 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES CABLE TELEVISION RELAY SERVICE Technical Regulations § 78.103 Emissions and emission limitations. (a)...

  15. 47 CFR 78.103 - Emissions and emission limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Emissions and emission limitations. 78.103 Section 78.103 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES CABLE TELEVISION RELAY SERVICE Technical Regulations § 78.103 Emissions and emission limitations. (a)...

  16. PAR2 exerts local protection against acute pancreatitis via modulation of MAP kinase and MAP kinase phosphatase signaling.

    PubMed

    Namkung, Wan; Yoon, Jae Seok; Kim, Kyung Hwan; Lee, Min Goo

    2008-11-01

    During acute pancreatitis, protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2) can be activated by interstitially released trypsin. In the mild form of pancreatitis, PAR2 activation exerts local protection against intrapancreatic damage, whereas, in the severe form of pancreatitis, PAR2 activation mediates some systemic complications. This study aimed to identify the molecular mechanisms of PAR2-mediated protective effects against intrapancreatic damage. A mild form of acute pancreatitis was induced by an intraperitoneal injection of caerulein (40 microg/kg) in rats. Effects of PAR2 activation on intrapancreatic damage and on mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase signaling were assessed. Caerulein treatment activated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK) within 15 min and maintained phosphorylation of ERK and JNK for 2 h in the rat pancreas. Although PAR2 activation by the pretreatment with PAR2-activating peptide (AP) itself increased ERK phosphorylation in rat pancreas, the same treatment remarkably decreased caerulein-induced activation of ERK and JNK principally by accelerating their dephosphorylation. Inhibition of ERK and JNK phosphorylation by the pretreatment with MAP/ERK kinase (MEK) or JNK inhibitors decreased caerulein-induced pancreatic damage that was similar to the effect induced by PAR2-AP. Notably, in caerulein-treated rats, PAR2-AP cotreatment highly increased the expression of a group of MAP kinase phosphatases (MKPs) that deactivate ERK and JNK. The above results imply that downregulation of MAP kinase signaling by MKP induction is a key mechanism involved in the protective effects of PAR2 activation on caerulein-induced intrapancreatic damage.

  17. Activation of PAR2 receptors sensitizes primary afferents and causes leukocyte rolling and adherence in the rat knee joint

    PubMed Central

    Russell, FA; Schuelert, N; Veldhoen, VE; Hollenberg, MD; McDougall, JJ

    2012-01-01

    Background and Purpose The PAR2 receptors are involved in chronic arthritis by mechanisms that are as yet unclear. Here, we examined PAR2 activation in the rat knee joint. Experimental Approach PAR2 in rat knee joint dorsal root ganglia (DRG) cells at L3-L5, retrogradely labelled with Fluoro-gold (FG) were demonstrated immunohistochemically. Electrophysiological recordings from knee joint nerve fibres in urethane anaesthetized Wistar rats assessed the effects of stimulating joint PAR2 with its activating peptide, 2-furoyl-LIGRLO-NH2 (1–100 nmol·100 μL−1, via close intra-arterial injection). Fibre firing rate was recorded during joint rotations before and 15 min after administration of PAR2 activating peptide or control peptide. Leukocyte kinetics in the synovial vasculature upon PAR2 activation were followed by intravital microscopy for 60 min after perfusion of 2-furoyl-LIGRLO-NH2 or control peptide. Roles for transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1) or neurokinin-1 (NK1) receptors in the PAR2 responses were assessed using the selective antagonists, SB366791 and RP67580 respectively. Key Results PAR2 were expressed in 59 ± 5% of FG-positive DRG cells; 100 nmol 2-furoyl-LIGRLO-NH2 increased joint fibre firing rate during normal and noxious rotation, maximal at 3 min (normal; 110 ± 43%, noxious; 90 ± 31%). 2-Furoyl-LIGRLO-NH2 also significantly increased leukocyte rolling and adhesion over 60 min. All these effects were blocked by pre-treatment with SB366791 and RP67580 (P < 0.05 compared with 2-furoyl-LIGRLO-NH2 alone). Conclusions and Implications PAR2 receptors play an acute inflammatory role in the knee joint via TRPV1- and NK1-dependent mechanisms involving both PAR2-mediated neuronal sensitization and leukocyte trafficking. PMID:22849826

  18. Simulation de l'accretion de glace sur un obstacle bidimensionnel par la methode des bissectrices et par la modelisation des ruisselets et des gouttes de surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortin, Guy

    Le LIMA (Laboratoire International des Materiaux Antigivre) en collaboration avec le CIRA (Italian Aerospace Research Centre) a developpe un logiciel simulant l'accretion de la glace en regimes sec et humide sur un objet bidimensionnel fixe. L'approche utilisee s'appuie sur les travaux de Lozowski pour les bilans energetiques, sur une etude du comportement du film d'eau, des ruisselets et des gouttes de surface pour le calcul des rugosites et des masses d'eau residuelle, ainsi que sur une methode de bissectrice pour l'evolution de la surface de glace. La contribution du CIRA a ete de fournir le logiciel pour le calcul des ecoulements et de la captation. Le bilan energetique base sur la conservation de l'energie est la sommation de la chaleur latente de fusion, d'evaporation et de sublimation, du rechauffement adiabatique et cinetique, et des pertes de chaleur par convection et conduction, ainsi que de l'evolution thermodynamique de l'eau de son etat initial a son etat final. La densite de la glace, qui a un impact important sur la simulation, est calculee a partir d'une correlation empirique developpee avec les cylindres tournants. En se basant sur les travaux de Al-Khalil et Hansman, le comportement des gouttes en regimes sec et humide a ete decrit analytiquement, ce qui a mene a determiner la hauteur maximale que peuvent atteindre les gouttes avant mouvement. Cette hauteur, appelee hauteur de mouvement, permet de determiner l'etat de l'eau sur la surface (film, ruisselets ou gouttes), ainsi que la hauteur des rugosites lorsque l'eau existe sous forme de gouttes ou de ruisselets. La hauteur de mouvement est determinee par l'equilibre entre les forces de cisaillement, induites par les effets aerodynamiques et gravitationnels evalues pour une goutte non deformee, et la force de cisaillement, induite par la tension de surface et la deformation de la goutte. Elle a ete validee en laboratoire et la precision obtenue pour la partie aerodynamique et gravitationnelle est

  19. Etude par spectroscopie de Coulomb de points quantiques lateraux individuels et couples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pioro-Ladriere, Michel

    Des points quantiques contenant un nombre discret et variable d'electrons sont formes dans un gaz bi-dimensionnel d'electrons a l'aide de grilles metalliques. Le transport electrique, le blocage de spin et la detection de charge sont employes comme outils spectroscopiques permettant de sonder les proprietes de ces nanostructures. Ces techniques permettent aussi de controler exactement le nombres d'electrons confines dans des points quantiques individuels et couples en utilisant un patron de grille judicieux. Une technique de refroidissement en tension est developpee afin de minimiser les effets parasites du bruit telegraphique. Ce type de bruit de charge deteriore la stabilite des nanostructures laterales par l'activation d'un minuscule courant de fuite entre les grilles et le gaz bi-dimensionnel. Un modele expliquant le role du refroidissement en tension sur le courant de fuite est presente. L'activation du courant de fuite est confirmee par detection de charge. Les effets des interactions entre les electrons pieges dans un point quantique sont ensuite etudies dans un regime ou il est possible de comparer les resulats experimentaux avec ceux obtenus par diagonalisation exacte. L'etude demontre que la phase associee au facteur de remplissage nu = 2 est instable au-dessus d'un nombre critique d'electrons. Cette instabilite est confirmee experimentalement par blocage de spin. On demontre aussi l'existence d'etats correles dans le regime des renversements de spin, associe au passage de la phase nu = 2 a nu = 1. Les etats correles sont identifies par spectroscopie en transport non lineaire. Cette caracterisation du diagramme de phase de points individuels permet de coupler deux points quantiques configures a nu = 2. Pour ce regime, la nanostructure se comporte comme un systeme a deux niveaux pouvant contenir entre un et quatre electrons de valence et ce, meme si le nombre total d'electrons est plus eleve. Les degres de liberte de charge et de spin des deux points

  20. Impacts of Light Use Efficiency and fPAR Parameterization on Gross Primary Production Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, Yen-Ben; Zhang, Qingyuan; Lyapustin, Alexei I.; Wang, Yujie; Middleton, Elizabeth M.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the impact of parameterization of two variables, light use efficiency (LUE) and the fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (fPAR or fAPAR), on gross primary production(GPP) modeling. Carbon sequestration by terrestrial plants is a key factor to a comprehensive under-standing of the carbon budget at global scale. In this context, accurate measurements and estimates of GPP will allow us to achieve improved carbon monitoring and to quantitatively assess impacts from cli-mate changes and human activities. Spaceborne remote sensing observations can provide a variety of land surface parameterizations for modeling photosynthetic activities at various spatial and temporal scales. This study utilizes a simple GPP model based on LUE concept and different land surface parameterizations to evaluate the model and monitor GPP. Two maize-soybean rotation fields in Nebraska, USA and the Bartlett Experimental Forest in New Hampshire, USA were selected for study. Tower-based eddy-covariance carbon exchange and PAR measurements were collected from the FLUXNET Synthesis Dataset. For the model parameterization, we utilized different values of LUE and the fPAR derived from various algorithms. We adapted the approach and parameters from the MODIS MOD17 Biome Properties Look-Up Table (BPLUT) to derive LUE. We also used a site-specific analytic approach with tower-based Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE) and PAR to estimate maximum potential LUE (LUEmax) to derive LUE. For the fPAR parameter, the MODIS MOD15A2 fPAR product was used. We also utilized fAPAR chl, a parameter accounting for the fAPAR linked to the chlorophyll-containing canopy fraction. fAPAR chl was obtained by inversion of a radiative transfer model, which used the MODIS-based reflectances in bands 1-7 produced by Multi-Angle Implementation of Atmospheric Correction (MAIAC) algorithm. fAPAR chl exhibited seasonal dynamics more similar with the flux tower based GPP than MOD15A2 fPAR, especially

  1. Imagerie Resolue dans le Temps des Photons et Neutres Metastables Emis D'une Surface Par Stimulation Electronique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leclerc, Gregoire

    L'appareil que nous presentons ici a ete mis au point pour permettre d'accumuler des images numeriques, resolues dans le temps, de la desorption par stimulation electronique (DSE) d'ions positifs et negatifs, de photons et de neutres metastables, tout en conservant des capacites de base de diffraction d'electrons lents (DEL) et de transmission d'electrons lents (TEL). Le spectrometre comporte un monochromateur d'electrons a secteur cylindrique de 127^ circ dont l'optique de sortie permet la focalisation du faisceau d'electrons sur une large gamme d'energies. Le detecteur consiste en un empilement de galettes de microcanaux et d'une anode resistive a encodage de division de charges. La reponse spatiale du detecteur a ete calibree et plusieurs causes de non-linearite ont ete localisees et corrigees. Des methodes de correction materielle et logicielle des distorsions spatiales sont presentees. La resolution temporelle des evenements est obtenue en pulsant le faisceau d'electrons, et de facon synchrone la detection, laquelle est couplee a un micro-ordinateur. La premiere partie de ce travail est consacree a la caracterisation du spectrometre et la presentation de nombreux parametres operationnels, obtenus soit au moment de la conception, soit experimentalement. Suit la presentation de donnees de DEL et de DSE pour le systeme Ar/Pt(111) en films minces a 15K. Les sequences temporelles d'images de metastables d'Ar desorbes ont revele la presence de plusieurs populations distinctes, ayant des distributions angulaires et distributions d'energie cinetique que nous avons pu separer. Les fonctions d'excitation de l'emission de photons et de la desorption de differentes composantes de metastables, ainsi que la dependance de ces signaux sur l'epaisseur des films d'Ar, sont aussi presentees et analysees. Les techniques que nous avons developpees ont permis de cerner les mecanismes en jeu pour la desorption et la luminescence.

  2. 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D(3) Inhibits Podocyte uPAR Expression and Reduces Proteinuria

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shuangxin; Xie, Shaoting; Yang, Yun; Ma, Juan; Deng, Yujun; Wang, Wenjian; Xu, Lixia; Li, Ruizhao; Zhang, Li; Yu, Chunping; Shi, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Background Accumulating studies have demonstrated that 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D(3) (1,25(OH)2D3) reduces proteinuria and protects podocytes from injury. Recently, urokinase receptor (uPAR) and its soluble form have been shown to cause podocyte injury and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS). Here, our findings showed that 1,25(OH)2D3 did inhibit podocyte uPAR expression and attenuate proteinuria and podocyte injury. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, the antiproteinuric effect of 1,25(OH)2D3 was examined in the lipopolysaccharide mice model of transient proteinuria (LPS mice) and in the 5/6 nephrectomy rat FSGS model(NTX rats). uPAR protein expression were tested by flow cytometry, immune cytochemistry and western blot analysis, and uPAR mRNA expression by real-time quantitative PCR in cultured podocytes and kidney glomeruli isolated from mice and rats. Podocyte motility was observed by transwell migration assay and wound healing assay. Podocyte foot processes effacement was identified by transmission electron microscopy. We found that 1,25(OH)2D3 inhibited podocyte uPAR mRNA and protein synthesis in LPS-treated podocytes, LPS mice and NTX rats, along with 1,25(OH)2D3 reducing proteinuria in NTX rats and LPS mice.1,25(OH)2D3 reduced glomerulosclerosis in NTX rats and alleviated podocyte foot processes effacement in LPS mice. Transwell migration assay and wound healing assay showed that LPS-induced podocyte motility, irrespective of random or directed motility, were substantially reduced by 1,25(OH)2D3. Conclusions/Significance Our results demonstrated that 1,25(OH)2D3 inhibited podocyte uPAR expression in vitro and in vivo, which may be an unanticipated off target effect of 1,25(OH)2D3 and explain its antiproteinuric effect in the 5/6 nephrectomy rat FSGS model and the LPS mouse model of transient proteinuria. PMID:23741418

  3. Spatially resolved optical-emission spectroscopy of a radio-frequency driven iodine plasma source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dedrick, James; Doyle, Scott; Grondein, Pascaline; Aanesland, Ane

    2016-09-01

    Iodine is of interest for potential use as a propellant for spacecraft propulsion, and has become attractive as a replacement to xenon due to its similar mass and ionisation potential. Optical emission spectroscopy has been undertaken to characterise the emission from a low-pressure, radio-frequency driven inductively coupled plasma source operating in iodine with respect to axial distance across its transverse magnetic filter. The results are compared with axial profiles of the electron temperature and density for identical source conditions, and the spatial distribution of the emission intensity is observed to be closely correlated with the electron temperature. This work has been done within the LABEX Plas@Par project, and received financial state aid managed by the ``Agence Nationale de la Recherche'', as part of the ``Programme d'Investissements d'Avenir'' under the reference ANR-11-IDEX-0004-02.

  4. Sins of emission

    SciTech Connect

    Keough, J.

    1986-01-01

    Air pollution from the burning of wood fuels has become a concern to the wood stove industry and to the EPA. Wood smoke contains a mixture of carbon monoxide, volatile organic gases, and polycyclic organic matter which reduces the air quality and exposes increasing numbers of residential neighborhoods to heavy levels of these hazardous pollutants. Two states and numerous municipalities have developed emission standards for new stoves or have banned wood-burning during certain weather conditions. The EPA plans to propose national emission standards during January 1987 and promulgate final rules by January 1988. Catalytic converters for wood stoves have been tested with good results: reduction of particulate emissions by as much as 86%; increase in thermal efficiency of 20 to 30%; and elimination of 85 to 90% of the creosote accumulation in the flue.

  5. Emission control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrish, Clyde F. (Inventor); Chung, J. Landy (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Methods and apparatus utilizing hydrogen peroxide are useful to reduce SOx and mercury (or other heavy metal) emissions from combustion flue gas streams. The methods and apparatus may further be modified to reduce NOx emissions. Continuous concentration of hydrogen peroxide to levels approaching or exceeding propellant-grade hydrogen peroxide facilitates increased system efficiency. In this manner, combustion flue gas streams can be treated for the removal of SOx and heavy metals, while isolating useful by-products streams of sulfuric acid as well as solids for the recovery of the heavy metals. Where removal of NOx emissions is included, nitric acid may also be isolated for use in fertilizer or other industrial applications.

  6. Sensors reduce car emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Paula, G.

    1996-11-01

    Advanced control and diagnostic sensors play a key role in antipollution devices such as catalytic converters, electronic fuel injection, and exhaust-gas recirculation systems. Technologies such as catalytic converters, electronic fuel injection, and exhaust-gas recirculation (EGR) systems have decreased automobile emissions approximately 90 percent from their 1960 levels. The cornerstone of many of these emissions-control technologies are sensors that provide feedback and control. Any sensor--particularly those installed under an automobile hood--must withstand harsh conditions, such as intense heat, shock, continual vibration, corrosive gases, and electromagnetic fields. As a result microelectromechanical-system sensors, though widely used in automobiles, have not been applied to emissions monitoring and pollution control because they are not rugged enough to survive inside an engine. Most automobile sensors use mature technologies, but newer technologies such as fiber-optic sensors will be installed in vehicles within the next few years.

  7. Monomer–dimer dynamics and distribution of GPI-anchored uPAR are determined by cell surface protein assemblies

    PubMed Central

    Caiolfa, Valeria R.; Zamai, Moreno; Malengo, Gabriele; Andolfo, Annapaola; Madsen, Chris D.; Sutin, Jason; Digman, Michelle A.; Gratton, Enrico; Blasi, Francesco; Sidenius, Nicolai

    2007-01-01

    To search for functional links between glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) protein monomer–oligomer exchange and membrane dynamics and confinement, we studied urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) receptor (uPAR), a GPI receptor involved in the regulation of cell adhesion, migration, and proliferation. Using a functionally active fluorescent protein–uPAR in live cells, we analyzed the effect that extracellular matrix proteins and uPAR ligands have on uPAR dynamics and dimerization at the cell membrane. Vitronectin directs the recruitment of dimers and slows down the diffusion of the receptors at the basal membrane. The commitment to uPA–plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1–mediated endocytosis and recycling modifies uPAR diffusion and induces an exchange between uPAR monomers and dimers. This exchange is fully reversible. The data demonstrate that cell surface protein assemblies are important in regulating the dynamics and localization of uPAR at the cell membrane and the exchange of monomers and dimers. These results also provide a strong rationale for dynamic studies of GPI-anchored molecules in live cells at steady state and in the absence of cross-linker/clustering agents. PMID:18056417

  8. Characterization of a point mutation in the parC gene of Mycoplasma bovirhinis associated with fluoroquinolone resistance.

    PubMed

    Hirose, K; Kawasaki, Y; Kotani, K; Abiko, K; Sato, H

    2004-05-01

    Quinolone-resistant (QR) mutants of Mycoplasma bovirhinis strain PG43 (type strain) were generated by stepwise selection in increasing concentrations of enrofloxacin (ENR). An alteration was found in the quinolone resistance-determining region (QRDR) of the parC gene coding for the ParC subunit of topoisomerase IV from these mutants, but not in the gyrA, gyrB, and parE gene coding for the GyrA and GyrB subunits of DNA gyrase and the ParE subunit of topoisomerase IV. Similarly, such an alteration in QRDR of parC was found in the field isolates of M. bovirhinis, which possessed various levels of QR. The substitution of leucine (Leu) by serine (Ser) at position 80 of QRDR of ParC was observed in both QR-mutants and QR-isolates. This is the first report of QR based on a point mutation of the parC gene in M. bovirhinis.

  9. The Clinical Value of Soluble Urokinase Plasminogen Activator Receptor (suPAR) Levels in Autoimmune Connective Tissue Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Toldi, Gergely; Balog, Attila

    2016-01-01

    The assessment of the general inflammatory condition of patients with autoimmune connective tissue disorders (ACTD) is a major challenge. The use of traditional inflammatory markers including CRP-levels and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) is limited by several preanalytical factors and their low specificities. Soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) is one of the novel candidate markers that is increasingly used in immune mediated disorders. In our studies we compared suPAR levels of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), systemic sclerosis (SSc) and ankylosing spondylitis with those of healthy controls. suPAR provided valuable clinical information on disease activity in RA, SLE and SSc. We identified a subgroup of remitted RA patients, who presented still clinical symptoms of inflammatory activity which correlated to high plasma suPAR (while ESR and CRP were normal). In SLE we established specific suPAR cut-off values that support the discrimination between patients with high and those with moderate SLE activity. In patients with SSc suPAR correlated with objective measures of lung and other complications. In the majority of ACTDs including SLE, SSc or RA, suPAR is seemingly a good biomarker that would provide valuable clinical information. However, before the introduction of this novel parameter in laboratory repertoire important issues should be elucidated. These include the establishment of appropriate and disease specific cutoff values, clarification of interfering preanalytical values and underlying conditions and declaration of age- and gender-specific reference ranges. PMID:27683525

  10. The Par3/aPKC interaction is essential for end bud remodeling and progenitor differentiation during mammary gland morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    McCaffrey, Luke Martin; Macara, Ian G.

    2009-01-01

    Mammalian polarity proteins have been studied predominantly in cell culture systems, and little is known about their functions in vivo. To address this issue, we used a shRNA lentiviral system to manipulate gene expression in mouse mammary stem/progenitor cells. Transplantation of Par3-depleted stem/progenitor cells into the mammary fat pad severely disrupted mammary development, and glands were characterized by ductal hyperplasia, luminal filling, and highly disorganized end bud structures that were unable to remodel into normal ductal structures. Unexpectedly, Par3-depleted mammary glands also had an expanded progenitor population. We identified a novel function for the atypical protein kinase C (aPKC)-binding domain of Par3 in restricting Par3 and aPKC to the apical region in mammary epithelia in vivo, and found that mammary morphogenesis is dependent on the ability of Par3 to directly bind aPKC. These results reveal a new function for Par3 in the regulation of progenitor differentiation and epithelial morphogenesis in vivo and demonstrate for the first time an essential requirement for the Par3–aPKC interaction. PMID:19528321

  11. Modelisation de la Propagation des Ondes Sonores dans un Environnement Naturel Complexe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    L'Esperance, Andre

    Ce travail est consacre a la propagation sonore a l'exterieur dans un environnement naturel complexe, i.e. en presence de conditions reelles de vent, de gradient de temperature et de turbulence atmospherique. Plus specifiquement ce travail comporte deux objectifs. D'une part, il vise a developper un modele heuristique de propagation sonore (MHP) permettant de prendre en consideration l'ensemble des phenomenes meteorologiques et acoustiques influencant la propagation du son a l'exterieur. D'autre part, il vise a identifier dans quelles circonstances et avec quelle importance les conditions meteorologiques interviennent sur la propagation sonore. Ce travail est divise en cinq parties. Apres une breve introduction identifiant les motivations de cette etude (chapitre 1), le chapitre 2 fait un rappel des travaux deja realises dans le domaine de la propagation du son a l'exterieur. Ce chapitre presente egalement les bases de l'acoustique geometrique a partir desquelles ont ete developpees la partie acoustique du modele heuristique de propagation. En outre, on y decrit comment les phenomenes de refraction et de turbulence atmospherique peuvent etre consideres dans la theorie des rayons. Le chapitre 3 presente le modele heuristique de propagation (MHP) developpe au cours de cet ouvrage. La premiere section de ce chapitre decrit le modele acoustique de propagation, modele qui fait l'hypothese d'un gradient de celerite lineaire et qui est base sur une solution hybride d'acoustique geometrique et de theorie des residus. La deuxieme section du chapitre 3 traite plus specifiquement de la modelisation des aspects meteorologiques et de la determination des profils de celerite et des index de fluctuation associes aux conditions meteorologiques. La section 3 de ce chapitre decrit comment les profils de celerite resultants sont linearises pour les calculs dans le modele acoustique, et finalement la section 4 donne les tendances generales obtenues par le modele. Le chapitre 4 decrit

  12. Graded hedgehog and fibroblast growth factor signaling independently regulate pituitary cell fates and help establish the pars distalis and pars intermedia of the zebrafish adenohypophysis.

    PubMed

    Guner, Burcu; Ozacar, A Tuba; Thomas, Jeanne E; Karlstrom, Rolf O

    2008-09-01

    The vertebrate adenohypophysis forms as a placode at the anterior margin of the neural plate, requiring both hedgehog (Hh) and fibroblast growth factor (Fgf) mediated cell-cell signaling for induction and survival of endocrine cell types. Using small molecule inhibitors to modulate signaling levels during zebrafish development we show that graded Hh and Fgf signaling independently help establish the two subdomains of the adenohypophysis, the anteriorly located pars distalis (PD) and the posterior pars intermedia (PI). High levels of Hh signaling are required for formation of the PD and differentiation of anterior endocrine cell types, whereas lower levels of Hh signaling are required for formation of the PI and differentiation of posterior endocrine cell types. In contrast, high Fgf signaling levels are required for formation of the PI and posterior endocrine cell differentiation, whereas anterior regions require lower levels of Fgf signaling. Based on live observations and marker analyses, we show that the PD forms first at the midline closest to the central nervous system source of Sonic hedgehog. In contrast the PI appears to form from more lateral/posterior cells close to a central nervous system source of Fgf3. Together our data show that graded Hh and Fgf signaling independently direct induction of the PD and PI and help establish endocrine cell fates along the anterior/posterior axis of the zebrafish adenohypophysis. These data suggest that there are distinct origins and signaling requirements for the PD and PI.

  13. Ultraviolet atomic emission detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braun, W.; Peterson, N. C.; Bass, A. M.; Kurylo, M. J., III (Inventor)

    1972-01-01

    A device and method are provided for performing qualitative and quantitative elemental analysis through the utilization of a vacuum UV chromatographic detector. The method involves the use of a carrier gas at low pressure. The gas carries a sample to a gas chromatograph column; the column output is directed to a microwave cavity. In this cavity, a low pressure microwave discharge produces fragmentation of the compounds present and generates intense atomic emissions in the vacuum ultraviolet. These emissions are isolated by a monochromator and measured by photometer to establish absolute concentration for the elements.

  14. Ground validation of Dual Precipitation Radar (DPR) on GPM by rapid scan Phased Array weahter Radar (PAR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirano, Y.; Mega, T.; Shimamura, S.; Wu, T.; Kikuchi, H.; Ushio, T.; Yoshikawa, E.; Chandra, C. V.

    2014-12-01

    The core observatory satellite of the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission was launched on February 27th 2014. The Dual-frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR) on the GPM core observatory is the succession of the TRMM Precipitation Radar (PR). The DPR consists of a Ku-band precipitation radar and a Ka-band precipitation radar. The DPR is expected to be more sensitive than the PR especially in the measurement of light rainfall and snowfall in high latitude regions. Because of the difference of spatial and temporal resolutions, Space Radar (SR) and conventional type of Ground Radar (GR) are hard to compare.The SR observes each point of earth in short time, for example one footprint is an observation in some microseconds. Rain-gauge measurements have accurate rainfall rate, but rain-gage observes small area and accumulated rainfall in some minutes. The conventional GR can cover a wide area, however, a volume scan requires several minutes. The Phased Array weather Radar (PAR) is developed by Osaka University, Toshiba, and NICT. The PAR is a weather-radar on X-band within 100m range sampling. High spatial and temporal resolution is achieved by the PAR with pulse compression and the digital beam-forming technique. The PAR transmits a wide beam and receives narrow beams by using digital beam forming. Then, the PAR observes many elevation angles from a single pulse. The time of each volume scan is 10-30 seconds in operation, typically 30 seconds. The study shows comparisons between the DPR and the PAR by more similar spatial and temporal resolution. The rainfall region of DPR is similar to the one of PAR. Correlation coefficient of both radar reflectivity suggests more than 0.8 in the 20km range of PAR. As a result, it is considered that DPR can observe with high accuracy. We present the case study which DPR overpassed the PAR observation region in detail.

  15. Physical activity on prescription schemes (PARS): do programme characteristics influence effectiveness? Results of a systematic review and meta-analyses

    PubMed Central

    Arsenijevic, Jelena; Groot, Wim

    2017-01-01

    Background Physical activity on prescription schemes (PARS) are health promotion programmes that have been implemented in various countries. The aim of this study was to outline the differences in the design of PARS in different countries. This study also explored the differences in the adherence rate to PARS and the self-reported level of physical activity between PARS users in different countries. Method A systematic literature review and meta-analyses were conducted. We searched PubMed and EBASCO in July 2015 and updated our search in September 2015. Studies that reported adherence to the programme and self-reported level of physical activity, published in the English language in a peer-reviewed journal since 2000, were included. The difference in the pooled adherence rate after finishing the PARS programme and the adherence rate before or during the PARS programme was 17% (95% CI 9% to 24%). The difference in the pooled physical activity was 0.93 unit score (95 CI −3.57 to 1.71). For the adherence rate, a meta-regression was conducted. Results In total, 37 studies conducted in 11 different countries met the inclusion criteria. Among them, 31 reported the adherence rate, while the level of physical activity was reported in 17 studies. Results from meta-analyses show that PARS had an effect on the adherence rate of physical activity, while the results from the meta-regressions show that programme characteristics such as type of chronic disease and the follow-up period influenced the adherence rate. Conclusions The effects of PARS on adherence and self-reported physical activity were influenced by programme characteristics and also by the design of the study. Future studies on the effectiveness of PARS should use a prospective longitudinal design and combine quantitative and qualitative data. Furthermore, future evaluation studies should distinguish between evaluating the adherence rate and the self-reported physical activity among participants with different

  16. Agrobacterium tumefaciens pTAR parA promoter region involved in autoregulation, incompatibility and plasmid partitioning.

    PubMed

    Gallie, D R; Kado, C I

    1987-02-05

    The locus responsible for directing proper plasmid partitioning of Agrobacterium tumefaciens pTAR is contained within a 1259 base-pair region. Insertions or deletions within this locus can result in the loss of the plasmid's ability to partition properly. One protein product (parA), approximately 25,000 Mr, is expressed from the par locus in Escherichia coli and A. tumefaciens protein analysis systems in vitro. DNA sequence analysis of the locus revealed a single 23,500 Mr open reading frame, confirming the protein data. A 248 base-pair region immediately upstream from the 23,500 Mr open reading frame, containing an array of 12 seven-base-pair palindromic repeats each of which are separated by exactly ten base-pairs of A + T-rich (75%) sequence, not only serves to provide the promoter but is also involved in parA autoregulation. In addition, this region containing a set of 12 seven-base-pair palindromic repeats, is responsible for plasmid-associated incompatibility within Inc Ag-1 and also functions as the cis-acting recognition site at which parA interacts to bring about partitioning. Transcriptional analysis indicated that only the DNA strand responsible for parA is actively transcribed, and that active transcription of the opposite strand of par can inhibit the production of parA, resulting in plasmid destabilization. The presence of the par locus in a plasmid results in stable inheritance within a wide range of members of Rhizobiaceae. Segregation rates of par-defective derivatives can be influenced by the host.

  17. Comparative analysis of a plant pseudoautosomal region (PAR) in Silene latifolia with the corresponding S. vulgaris autosome

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The sex chromosomes of Silene latifolia are heteromorphic as in mammals, with females being homogametic (XX) and males heterogametic (XY). While recombination occurs along the entire X chromosome in females, recombination between the X and Y chromosomes in males is restricted to the pseudoautosomal region (PAR). In the few mammals so far studied, PARs are often characterized by elevated recombination and mutation rates and high GC content compared with the rest of the genome. However, PARs have not been studied in plants until now. In this paper we report the construction of a BAC library for S. latifolia and the first analysis of a > 100 kb fragment of a S. latifolia PAR that we compare to the homologous autosomal region in the closely related gynodioecious species S. vulgaris. Results Six new sex-linked genes were identified in the S. latifolia PAR, together with numerous transposable elements. The same genes were found on the S. vulgaris autosomal segment, with no enlargement of the predicted coding sequences in S. latifolia. Intergenic regions were on average 1.6 times longer in S. latifolia than in S. vulgaris, mainly as a consequence of the insertion of transposable elements. The GC content did not differ significantly between the PAR region in S. latifolia and the corresponding autosomal region in S. vulgaris. Conclusions Our results demonstrate the usefulness of the BAC library developed here for the analysis of plant sex chromosomes and indicate that the PAR in the evolutionarily young S. latifolia sex chromosomes has diverged from the corresponding autosomal region in the gynodioecious S. vulgaris mainly with respect to the insertion of transposable elements. Gene order between the PAR and autosomal region investigated is conserved, and the PAR does not have the high GC content observed in evolutionarily much older mammalian sex chromosomes. PMID:22681719

  18. Effects of Drought Stress and Ozone Exposure on Isoprene Emissions from Oak Seedlings in Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madronich, M. B.; Harte, A.; Schade, G. W.

    2014-12-01

    Isoprene is the dominant hydrocarbon emitted by plants to the atmosphere with an approximate global emission of 550 Tg C yr-1. Isoprene emission studies have elucidated plants' isoprene production capacity, and the controlling factors of instantaneous emissions. However, it is not yet well understood how long-term climatic factors such as drought and increasing ozone concentrations affect isoprene emission rates. Drought reduces photosynthetic activity and is thus expected to reduce isoprene emission rate, since isoprene production relies on photosynthates. On the other hand, ozone is also known to negatively affect photosynthesis rates, but can instead increase isoprene emissions. These apparent inconsistencies and a lack of experimental data make it difficult to accurately parameterize isoprene emission responses to changing environmental conditions. The objective of this work is to reduce some of these uncertainties, using oak seedlings as a study system. Our project focuses on isoprene emission responses of oak trees to typical summer drought and high ozone conditions in Texas. We report on experiments conducted using a laboratory whole-plant chamber and leaf-level data obtained from greenhouse-grown seedlings. The chamber experiment studied the effects of ozone and drought on isoprene emissions from >3 year old oak seedlings under controlled conditions of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), temperature, soil-moisture and the chamber's air composition. Stress in plants was induced by manipulating potted soil-moisture and ozone concentration in the chamber. The greenhouse study focused on understanding the effects of drought under Texas climatic conditions. For this study we used two year old seedlings of water oak (Quercus nigra) and post oak (Quercus stellata). Temperature, humidity and light in the greenhouse followed local conditions. Leaf-level conductance, photosynthesis measurements and isoprene sampling were carried out under controlled leaf

  19. Isoprene leaf emission under CO2 free atmosphere: why and how?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, S.

    2015-12-01

    Isoprene (C5H8) is a reactive hydrocarbon gas emitted at high rates by tropical vegetation, which affects atmospheric chemistry and climate and, in the leaf level, is a very important agent against environmental stress. Under optimal conditions for photosynthesis, the majority of carbon used for isoprene biosynthesis is a direct product from recently assimilated atmospheric CO2. However, the contribution of 'alternate' carbon sources, that increase with leaf temperature, have been demonstrated and emissions of isoprene from 'alternate' carbon sources under ambient CO2 below the compensation point for photosynthesis have been observed. In this study, we investigated the response of leaf isoprene emissions under 450 ppm CO2 and CO2 free atmosphere as a function of light and leaf temperature. At constant leaf temperature (30 °C) and CO2 free atmospheres, leaves of the tropical species Inga edulis showed net emissions of CO2 and light-dependent isoprene emissions which stagnated at low light levels (75 µmol m-2 s-1 PAR) and account for 25% of that observed with 450 ppm CO2. Under constant light (1000 µmol m-2 s-1 PAR) and CO2 free atmospheres, a increase of leaf temperatures from 25 to 40 °C resulted in net emissions of CO2 and temperature-dependent isoprene emissions which reached values up to 17% of those under 450 ppm CO2. Our observations suggest that, under environmental stress, as high light/temperature and drought (when the stomata close and the amount of internal CO2 decreases), the 'alternate' carbon can maintain photosynthesis rates resulting in the production of isoprene, independent of atmospheric CO2, through the re-assimilation of internal released CO2 as an 'alternate' carbon sources for isoprene.

  20. Estimation of Downstream Cesium Concentrations Following a Postulated PAR Pond Dam Break

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, K.F.

    2002-07-08

    Following a postulated PAR Pond dam break, some of the PAR Pond sediment including the cesium could be eroded and be transported downstream to the Savannah River through the Lower Three Runs Creek. Studies showed that most of the eroded sediment including the cesium would deposit in the Lower Three Runs Creek and the remainder would discharge to the Savannah River from the mouth of Lower Three Runs Creek. A WASP5 model was developed to simulate the eroded sediment and cesium transport from the Lower Three Runs Creek mouth to the Atlantic coast. The dissolved cesium concentrations at the Highway 301 bridge and near the City of Savannah Industrial and Domestic Water Supply Plant are 30 and 27 pCi/l, respectively. The concentrations at both locations are less than the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency drinking water standard of 200 pCi/l.

  1. Corneal modeling using conic section fits of PAR corneal topography system measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zipper, Stanley; Manns, Fabrice; Fernandez, Viviana; Sandadi, Samith; Ho, Arthur; Parel, Jean-Marie A.

    2001-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure the average shape and variability of human corneas and to develop a tool for analyzing, height, curvature, and aberrations based on a conic section model. Fresh Eye Bank Eyes were placed in Dextran until the corneal thickness reached a physiological value. The eyes were placed in a custom made holder and measured using an intraoperative PAR Corneal Topography System (CTS) mounted on an operation microscope. Topography was measured before and after removal of the epithelium. A series of MATLAB functions were written to analyze the raw-z (height) data in polar coordinates. The functions fit conic sections to the PAR CTS data along hemi-meridians at 5 degree(s) intervals. The conic shape factor and apical radius were used to calculate and display the curvature. The dependence of these parameters with meridional position was examined.

  2. Manipulation quantique de la lumière par un amplificateur non linéaire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Symul, T.; Bencheikh, K.; Levenson, J. A.

    2002-06-01

    Nous proposons un dispositif original, appelé Amplificateur Non Linéaire (ANL), permettant la génération et la manipulation d'états quantiques de la lumière. Ce dispositif permet une compression du bruit quantique de la lumière en dessous de la limite quantique standard plus efficace que celle obtenue par interactions non linéaires du second ordre ou du troisième ordre. Il permet également d'inverser les fluctuations quantiques en intensité de la lumière, et de produire des photons jumeaux ayant des corrélations quantiques plus élevées et plus robustes que ceux produits par un amplificateur paramétrique seul.

  3. Laser Nd:YVO{4} impulsionnel à 914 nm pompé par diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blandin, P.; Druon, F.; Balembois, F.; Georges, P.; Lévêque-Fort, S.; Fontaine-Aupart, M. P.

    2006-10-01

    Nous présentons ici le premier laser impulsionnel à verrouillage de modes en phase passif directement pompé par diode, utilisant la transition 4F{3 / 2}-4I{9/2} de l'ion néodyme à 914 nm. Le système de pompage utilisé permet d'obtenir un dispositif simple. Le train d'impulsions est obtenu grâce à un miroir à absorbant saturable, l'émission laser à 914 nm étant privilégiée par l'introduction dans la cavité de fortes pertes à 1064 nm. Nous obtenons avec notre dispositif des impulsions à 913.8 nm, de durée 8.8 ps à une cadence de 94 MHz et à une puissance de 86 mW.

  4. Youth empowerment in context: exploring tensions in school-based yPAR.

    PubMed

    Kohfeldt, Danielle; Chhun, Lina; Grace, Sarah; Langhout, Regina Day

    2011-03-01

    In much of the youth empowerment literature, researchers focus on the relationship between youth and adults involved in empowerment programs while neglecting the broader social framework in which these relationships and the program itself functions. Utilizing an ecological model, the current research examines the tensions that surfaced in attempts to create an empowering setting in an after-school PAR program with fifth-graders. Challenging assumptions about youth, structural challenges, and conflicting theories of change are highlighted. Results examine the role of sociocultural context as PAR researchers attempt to create a setting in which students gain skills to become change agents within their school. The study suggests that youth empowerment is a context dependent process that requires attention to a multiplicity of factors that influence possibilities for empowerment via second order change.

  5. BOREAS TE-9 PAR and Leaf Nitrogen Data for NSA Species

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Curd, Shelaine (Editor); Dang, Qinglai; Margolis, Hank; Coyea, Marie

    2000-01-01

    The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmospheric Study (BOREAS) TE-9 (Terrestrial Ecology) team collected several data sets related to chemical and photosynthetic properties of leaves in boreal forest tree species. This data set describes the relationship between photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) levels and foliage nitrogen in samples from six sites in the BOREAS Northern Study Area (NSA) collected during the three 1994 intensive field campaigns (IFCs). This information is useful for modeling the vertical distribution of carbon fixation for these different forest types in the boreal forest. The data were collected to quantify the relationship between PAR and leaf nitrogen of black spruce, jack pine, and aspen. The data are available in tabular ASCII files. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884), or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).

  6. Perianesthetic development of diaphragmatic hernia in a horse with equine pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction (PPID)

    PubMed Central

    Shepard, Molly K.; Lee, Wesley L.; Eggleston, Randy B.

    2015-01-01

    A 21-year-old Thoroughbred gelding with a history of equine pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction (PPID) presented with priapism of 2 days’ duration. The horse received a caudal morphine epidural and then underwent corpus cavernosum lavage and phallectomy under general anesthesia. The patient’s recovery featured multiple unsuccessful attempts to stand and his respiratory distress persisted for several hours until he acutely developed severe colic and was euthanized. Necropsy findings revealed a pituitary adenoma of the pars intermedia, bilateral adrenal cortical hyperplasia, and diaphragmatic herniation. This report suggests that horses with PPID may present a greater risk for diaphragmatic hernia under general anesthesia or during procedures placing stress on the diaphragm, including anesthetic recovery. PMID:25565714

  7. Disrupting the right pars opercularis with electrical stimulation frees the song: case report.

    PubMed

    Herbet, Guillaume; Lafargue, Gilles; Almairac, Fabien; Moritz-Gasser, Sylvie; Bonnetblanc, François; Duffau, Hugues

    2015-12-01

    The authors report the first case of a strikingly unusual speech impairment evoked by intraoperative electrostimulation in a 36-year-old right-handed patient, a well-trained singer, who underwent awake surgery for a right fronto-temporo-insular low-grade glioma. Functionally disrupting the pars opercularis of the right inferior frontal gyrus led the patient to automatically switch from a speaking to a singing mode of language production. Given the central role of the right pars opercularis in the inhibitory control network, the authors propose that this finding may be interpreted as possible evidence for a competitive and independent neurocognitive subnetwork devoted to the melodically intoned articulation of words (normal language-based vs singing-based) in subjects with high expertise. From a more clinical perspective, such data may have implications for awake neurosurgery, especially to preserve the quality of life for singers.

  8. Hydraulic and hydrologic evaluation of PAR Pond Dam. Technical evaluation report

    SciTech Connect

    Reich, M.; Wang, P.C.; Khanbilvardi, R.; Bezler, P.

    1993-10-01

    The PAR Pond Dam at Savannah River Plant was constructed in 1958--1959. Seepage, depressions, boils and spring flow were observed in varying locations on the dam in the last few years. Comprehensive geotechnical and hydraulic investigations pertaining to the effects of the above observations on the abilities of the dam to withstand future floods were made in 1991 and early 1993 where dam capacity to survive flooding and seismic events were evaluated. Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) was asked by the Department of Energy (EH) to carry out an independent review of the PAR Pond Dam response to future flooding and seismic events. This report addresses the studies made to evaluate the capacity of the dam to survive floods. A companion report will summarize the evaluations performed to assess the seismic capacity of the dam.

  9. BVOC emission pattern from Quercus robur under field conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pokorska, O.; Dewulf, J.; Joó; Šimpraga, M.; Steppe, K.; Amelynck, C.; Schoon, N.; Muller, J. J.; van Langenhove, H.

    2010-12-01

    Over the past decades biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) have been widely studied not only for better understanding their functions, biosynthesis and regulation, but also because they have great impact on regional and global air quality [1]. Since all BVOCs react with hydroxyl radicals (OH●) and may also react with nitrate radicals (NO3●) and ozone (O3), they contribute to the formation of ozone and secondary organic aerosols. In this study we focus on Quercus robur which is a widely spread tree species in Europe and known as a strong isoprene emitter. We aimed to investigate seasonal patterns of BVOC emissions from Quercus robur under field conditions and to explore the intra-species variations within Quercus robur trees as both are of great importance for accurate modeling and regional inventories. Measurements were performed during a period from May till October 2009 at the campus of Ghent University (Belgium) using a dynamic branch enclosure system. Experiments were conducted on four potted Quercus robur trees with a varying 1-1.5 m height. Samples were collected on Tenax TA-Carbotrap adsorbent tubes and analyzed by TD-GC-MS. Isoprene was the predominant compound released by Quercus robur (QR1) with a pronounced seasonal emission. The normalized emission rates for isoprene calculated according to Guenther’s algorithm (standard conditions of temperature 30°C and PAR 1000 µmol m-2 s-1) varied from 29.89 µg h-1 g(DW)-1 in Spring (May) to 28.62 µg h-1 g(DW)-1 in Fall (October) reaching peak of 105.51 µg h-1 g(DW)-1 in August. Apart from isoprene, through the whole measurement period trans-β-ocimene and β-caryophyllene were the only BVOC emitted in detectable range (sum of the emissions varied between 0.15 µg h-1 g(DW)-1 in July and 0.24 µg h-1 g(DW)-1 in October). No clear seasonal pattern was observed for those compounds. In May when acorns where developing on enclosed branch, emissions of limonene and β-farnesene were also observed. The

  10. UV/PAR radiations and DOM properties in surface coastal waters of the Canadian shelf of the Beaufort Sea during summer 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Para, J.; Charrière, B.; Matsuoka, A.; Miller, W. L.; Rontani, J. F.; Sempéré, R.

    2012-11-01

    Water masses from the Beaufort Sea in the Arctic Ocean were evaluated for dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and optical characteristics including UV and PAR diffuse attenuation (Kd), and chromophoric and fluorescent dissolved organic matter (CDOM and FDOM) as part of the MALINA field campaign (30 July to 27 August). Even with relatively low mean daily solar radiation incident on the sea surface (0.12 ± 0.03, 8.46 ± 1.64 and 18.09 ± 4.20 kJ m-2 for UV-B (305 nm), UV-A (380 nm) and PAR, respectively), we report significant light penetration with 10% irradiance depths (Z10% (λ)) reaching 9.5 m for 340 nm (UV-A) radiation in the Eastern sector and 4.5 m in the Mackenzie River influenced area (Western sector). Spectral absorption coefficients (aCDOM (350 nm) (m-1)) were significantly correlated to both diffuse attenuation coefficients (Kd) in the UV-A and UV-B and to DOC concentrations. This indicates CDOM as the dominant attenuator of UV solar radiation and suggests its use as an optical proxy for DOC concentrations in this region. Extrapolating CDOM to DOC relationships, we estimate that ~ 16% of the DOC in the Mackenzie River does not absorb radiation at 350 nm. DOC and CDOM discharges by the Mackenzie River during the MALINA Cruise are estimated as ~ 0.22 TgC and 0.18 TgC, respectively. Three dissolved fluorescent components (C1-C3) were identified by fluorescence Excitation/Emission Matrix Spectroscopy (EEMS) and PARAFAC analysis. Our results showed an in-situ biological component (C1) that co-dominated with a terrestrial humic-like component (C2) in the Mackenzie Delta sector, whereas the protein-like (C3) component dominated in the saltiest waters of the North East sector.

  11. Case series of equine pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction in a tropical climate.

    PubMed

    Spelta, C W; Axon, J E

    2012-11-01

    The clinical manifestations of equine pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction (PPID) in temperate climates are well described. The classic presentation is that of an older animal with hirsutism, laminitis, poor muscle tone, pendulous abdomen and weight loss. This case series highlights the additional clinical signs of anhidrosis and heat stress with secondary exercise intolerance that were seen as primary presenting problems in equids with PPID in the hot, humid conditions of a tropical climate. The clinical signs resolved with medical treatment for PPID.

  12. Magnétométrie à hélium par pompage laser: le bilan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilles, H.; Hamel, J.; Monfort, Y.

    2002-06-01

    Depuis 1986, l'équipe Physique Atomique et Capteurs du CIRIL-ISMRA de Caen étudie les magnétomètres à hélium par pompage laser. On présente ici le bilan de ces travaux de recherche et les performances des deux prototypes (hélium4 et hélium3) réalisés au Laboratoire.

  13. Endophthalmitis following pars plana vitrectomy: a literature review of incidence, causative organisms, and treatment outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Dave, Vivek Pravin; Pathengay, Avinash; Schwartz, Stephen G; Flynn, Harry W

    2014-01-01

    Endophthalmitis following pars plana vitrectomy is a very uncommon cause of endophthalmitis. Cases reported over the last decade show a decrease in incidence over time. To optimize visual outcome, early diagnosis and treatment are essential. In this review we report a summary of the incidence of endophthalmitis following vitrectomy, various risk factors for their occurrence, the microbiological profile and the visual outcomes post treatment. PMID:25382968

  14. K-Area and Par Pond Sewage Sludge Application Sites groundwater monitoring report, Third quarter 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, C.Y.

    1993-01-01

    During third quarter 1992, the three wells at the K-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site (KSS wells) and the three wells at the Par Pond Sewage Sludge Application Site (PSS wells) were sampled for analyses required each quarter or annually by South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Construction Permit 13,173 and for base-neutral/acid semivolatile constituents. None of the analytical results exceeded standards.

  15. L'analyse par activation de neutrons de réacteur

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, G.

    2003-02-01

    Quand les neutrons traversent la matière, certains sont transmis sans interaction, les autres interagissent avec le milieu traversé par diffusion et par absorption. Ce phénomène d'absorption est utilisé pour se protéger des neutrons, mais aussi pour les détecter; il peut également être utilisé pour identifier les noyaux “absorbants" et ainsi analyser le milieu traversé. En effet par différentes réactions nucléaires (n,γ), (n,p), (n,α), (n,fission), on obtient des noyaux résiduels qui sont souvent radioactifs; on dit que l'échantillon est “activé". Si l'on connaît le rendement d'activation et donc le pourcentage de noyaux ainsi “transmutés", les mesures de radioactivité induite vont permettre de déterminer la composition de l'échantillon irradié. Cette méthode dite d'analyse par activation neutronique est pratiquée depuis la découverte du neutron. Elle a permis grâce à sa sélectivité et à sa sensibilité d'avoir accès au domaine des traces et des ultra-traces dans des champs d'application très divers comme la métallurgie, l'archéologie, la biologie, la géochimie etc...

  16. CALiPER Application Summary Report 20. LED PAR38 Lamps

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2012-11-01

    This report analyzes the independently tested photometric performance of 38 LED PAR38 lamps. The test results indicate substantial improvement versus earlier CALiPER testing of similar products, and performance comparable to recent data from LED Lighting Facts and ENERGY STAR. Additional testing that focuses on performance attributes beyond those covered by LM-79-08 is planned for this group of lamps, and will be presented in subsequent reports.

  17. La fracture de Hahn Steinthal traitée par vissage d'Herbert: 3 cas

    PubMed Central

    Bienvenu, Bouhelo-Pam Kevin Parfait; Amine, El Rhazi; Khalid, Chmali; Mohamed, Azarkane; Mohamed, El Idrissi; Mohamed, Shimi; Abdelhalim, El Ibrahimi; Abdelmajid, El Mrini

    2015-01-01

    Les fractures du capitulum sont rares. Leur prise en charge initiale doit être précoce et efficace en raison des risques engendrés sur le coude: rigidité, instabilité, arthrose. De nombreux traitements ont été proposés. Notre étude décrit le vissage par vis d'Herbert pratiqué chez trois patientes recensées entre 2012 et 2013. Elles ont été inclues selon les critères de traumatisme du coude avec douleur exquise externe avec un trait de fracture radiologique frontal du condyle huméral externe emportant la joue externe de la trochlée. Le diagnostic a été orienté par l'examen clinique et confirmé à la radiographie de face, de profil et des ¾ internes. Les lésions ont été classées selon Bryan et Morrey. Les patients ont été opérés en urgence par abord postéro-latéral de Kocher, réduction à ciel ouvert puis stabilisation par vis de Herbert enfouies. Le recul moyen a été de un an. La récupération fonctionnelle totale moyenne a été de 3,6 mois. L’évaluation fonctionnelle a été jugée excellente selon le score MEPI (Mayo Elbow Performance Index) pour les trois patients. Il n'y a pas eu de démontage de matériel. La consolidation osseuse moyenne a été de 2,6 mois. PMID:26015850

  18. Inflammation in Prostate Carcinogenesis: Role of the Tumor Suppressor Par-4

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    which they coordinate with each other to form an intricate regula- tory network to protect against tumorigenesis. The Tumor Suppressor Par-4 at the...that integrates signals to coordinate molecular events that protect cells against tumorigenesis. Understanding the cross talks among each compo- nent...with the atypical isoforms of protein kinase C. Cell. 1996;86(5):777-86. 8. Sells SF, Wood DP, Jr., Joshi-Barve SS, Muthukumar S, Jacob RJ, Crist SA

  19. Seismic analysis of the Par Pond Dam: Study of slope failure and liquefaction. Technical evaluation report

    SciTech Connect

    Simos, N.; Reich, M.

    1994-07-01

    Stability concerns of the Par Pond Dam, an embankment structure in the Savannah River Site complex, resulted in a comprehensive evaluation of the state of its integrity. Specifically, excessive seepage through the embankment, slope failure due to an earthquake event as well as liquefaction potential of the embankment and the foundation are addressed and the potential of failure is evaluated. Lastly, remedial benefits of the addition of a berm structure are also assessed.

  20. Pars planitis is associated with an increased frequency of effector‐memory CD57+ T cells

    PubMed Central

    Pedroza‐Seres, Miguel; Linares, Marisela; Voorduin, Stephanie; Enrique, Rojas‐Ramos; Lascurain, Ricardo; Garfias, Yonathan; Jimenez‐Martinez, Maria Carmen

    2007-01-01

    Aim To evaluate the frequency, phenotype and the potential function of CD57+ T cell subsets in patients with pars planitis. Methods CD4+CD57+ and CD8+CD57+ T cells were quantitated in peripheral blood from 15 patients with pars planitis and 15 healthy controls. To evaluate the phenotype and potential function of CD57+ T cell subsets CCR7, CD27, CD28, CD45RA, CD45RO, intracellular IFN‐γ, IL‐4, perforin and granzyme‐A expression were assessed by flow cytometry. Results CD57+ T cells subsets were increased in patients with pars planitis (p = 0.002). The majority of CD4+CD57+ T cells were CCR7−CD27−CD28−CD45RO+, while the most CD8+CD57+ T cells were CCR7−CD27−CD28−CD45RA+. The number of cells positive for intracellular IFN‐γ and IL‐4 was higher in the CD57+ T cell populations. A greater number of CD8+CD57+ T cells than CD8+CD57− T cells were positive to perforin (p = 0.006) and granzyme‐A (p = 0.01). Conclusions CD57+ T cells had a phenotype associated with peripheral memory (CCR7−CD27−CD28−). Cytokine production by CD57+ T cells suggests that these cells may play a role in helper cell regulation. High expression of intracellular proteins involved in cytotoxicity suggests that CD8+CD57+ T cells may play an effector role. Taken together, this study proposes that CD57+ T cells function as memory‐effector T cell subsets during pars planitis pathogenesis. PMID:17475702

  1. Coke oven emissions

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Coke oven emissions ; CASRN NA Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effects

  2. Automotive Emission Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Billy D.; Ragazzi, Ronald

    This guide designed to assist teachers in improving instruction in the area of automotive emission control curriculum includes four areas. Each area consists of one or more units of instruction, with each instructional unit including some or all of the following basic components: Performance objectives, suggested activities for teacher and…

  3. Automotive Emission Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Billy D.; And Others

    This publication contains instructional materials for both teachers and students for a course in automotive emission control. Instructional materials in this publication are written in terms of student performance using measurable objectives. The course includes 16 units. Each instructional unit includes some or all of the basic components of a…

  4. Emissions versus climate change

    EPA Science Inventory

    Climate change is likely to offset some of the improvements in air quality expected from reductions in pollutant emissions. A comprehensive analysis of future air quality over North America suggests that, on balance, the air will still be cleaner in coming decades.

  5. Diesel emissions in Vienna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horvath, H.; Kreiner, I.; Norek, C.; Preining, O.; Georgi, B.

    The aerosol in a non-industrial town normally is dominated by emissions from vehicles. Whereas gasoline-powered cars normally only emit a small amount of particulates, the emission by diesel-powered cars is considerable. The aerosol particles produced by diesel engines consist of graphitic carbon (GC) with attached hydrocarbons (HCs) including also polyaromatic HCs. Therefore the diesel particles can be carcinogenic. Besides diesel vehicles, all other combustion processes are also a source for GC; thus source apportionment of diesel emissions to the GC in the town is difficult. A direct apportionment of diesel emissions has been made possible by marking all the diesel fuel used by the vehicles in Vienna by a normally not occurring and easily detectable substance. All emitted diesel particles thus were marked with the tracer and by analyzing the atmospheric samples for the marking substance we found that the mass concentrations of diesel particles in the atmosphere varied between 5 and 23 μg m -3. Busy streets and calm residential areas show less difference in mass concentration than expected. The deposition of diesel particles on the ground has been determined by collecting samples from the road surface. The concentration of the marking substance was below the detection limit before the marking period and a year after the period. During the period when marked diesel fuel was used, the concentrations of the diesel particles settling to the ground was 0.012-0.07 g g -1 of collected dust. A positive correlation between the diesel vehicle density and the sampled mass of diesel vehicles exists. In Vienna we have a background diesel particle concentration of 11 μg m -3. This value increases by 5.5 μg m -3 per 500 diesel vehicles h -1 passing near the sampling location. The mass fraction of diesel particles of the total aerosol mass varied between 12.2 and 33%; the higher values were found in more remote areas, since diesel particles apparently diffuse easily

  6. The Berlin Emissivity Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helbert, Jorn

    Remote sensing infrared spectroscopy is the principal field of investigation for planetary surfaces composition. Past, present and future missions to the solar system bodies include in their payload instruments measuring the emerging radiation in the infrared range. TES on Mars Global Surveyor and THEMIS on Mars Odyssey have in many ways changed our views of Mars. The PFS instrument on the ESA Mars Express mission has collected spectra since the beginning of 2004. In spring 2006 the VIRTIS experiment started its operation on the ESA Venus Express mission, allowing for the first time to map the surface of Venus using the 1 µm emission from the surface. The MERTIS spectrometer is included in the payload of the ESA BepiColombo mission to Mercury, scheduled for 2013. For the interpretation of the measured data an emissivity spectral library of planetary analogue materials is needed. The Berlin Emissivity Database (BED) presented here is focused on relatively fine-grained size separates, providing a realistic basis for interpretation of thermal emission spectra of planetary regoliths. The BED is therefore complimentary to existing thermal emission libraries, like the ASU library for example. The BED contains currently entries for plagioclase and potassium feldspars, low Ca and high Ca pyroxenes, olivine, elemental sulphur, common martian analogues (JSC Mars-1, Salten Skov, palagonites, montmorillonite) and a lunar highland soil sample measured in the wavelength range from 3 to 50 µm as a function of particle size. For each sample, the spectra of four well defined particle size separates (¡25 µm , 25-63 µm, 63-125 µm, 125-250 µm) are measured with a 4 cm-1 spectral resolution. These size separates have been selected as typical representations for most of the planetary surfaces. Following an ongoing upgrade of the Planetary Emmissivity Laboratory (PEL) at DLR in Berlin measurements can be obtained at temperatures up to 500° C - realistic for the dayside conditions

  7. Visual Outcomes and Prognostic Factors after Pars Plana Vitrectomy for Traumatic Endophthalmitis.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Tao; Jiang, Jing; Wang, Renping; Lei, Jianlin; Zhou, Yang

    2017-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate visual outcomes and identify prognostic factors after pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) surgery for traumatic endophthalmitis. Methods. Medical records of 121 consecutive patients (121 eyes) diagnosed with traumatic endophthalmitis that had undergone pars plana vitrectomy were retrospectively reviewed. Results. 121 patients, aged from 6 to 71 years, all underwent PPV surgery. 113 cases had improved best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) after surgery and 60% of them obtained BCVA better than fingers counting (FC). Good final visual prognosis was significantly associated with time between trauma and initial treatment less than 12 hrs (40% versus 98%; P < 0.001), time between trauma and PPV treatment less than 24 hrs (62% versus 98%; P < 0.001), laceration length less than 10 mm (63% versus 96%; P < 0.001), and presenting VA better than LP (42% versus 96%; P < 0.001), while gender, type of laceration, presence of IOFB or retinal detachment, and the use of silicone oil tamponade were not significant factors resulting in better BCVA. Bacteria were identified in 43.8% of specimens and most of the microorganisms were identified as nonvirulent ones. Conclusions. Pars plana vitrectomy surgery was preferred as a primary treatment option for traumatic endophthalmitis. A good final visual prognosis was significantly associated with timely treatment, prompt vitrectomy surgery, shorter length of laceration, and better presenting visual acuity.

  8. Pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction (Equine Cushing's disease) in an onager (Equus hemionus onager).

    PubMed

    Peel, Alison J; Bouts, Tim; Flach, Edmund; Rivers, Sonja; Routh, Andrew

    2009-12-01

    Pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction (PPID), also known as Equine Cushing's disease, is most often diagnosed in older horses and ponies. To the authors' knowledge, there have been no reports of its diagnosis in captive nondomestic equids. A 13-yr old onager (Equus hemionus onager) at the Zoological Society of London (ZSL) Whipsnade Zoo showed clinical signs suggestive of PPID, including hirsutism, fat redistribution, weight loss, laminitis, and chronic infections. A dexamethasone suppression test was performed to confirm PPID. Subsequently, adenomatous hyperplasia and microadenoma of the pars intermedia were identified postmortem. Four months later, this onager's dam died suddenly, and adenomatous hyperplasia of the pars intermedia was diagnosed following necropsy. The dam had shown no clinical signs of PPID. Examination of archives identified eight other adult onagers that died or were euthanized between 1993 and 2007. The brain was not examined in four of these, but pituitary glands were described as enlarged during necropsy in three animals based on the subjective assessment of an experienced zoo and wildlife pathologist, making an overall prevalence of enlargement of 83.3%. Hyperplastic pituitary changes are positively correlated with age in domestic equids, and this may also be the case in onagers. Alternative etiologies are also discussed.

  9. K-Area and Par Pond Sewage Sludge Application Sites Groundwater Monitoring Report

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, C.Y.

    1993-04-01

    During fourth quarter 1992, samples from the three monitoring wells at the K-Area site (KSS series) and the three monitoring wells at the Par Pond site (PSS series) were analyzed for constituents required by South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Construction Permit 13, 173 and for other constituents as part of the Savannah River Site (SRS) Groundwater Monitoring Program. This report describes monitoring results that exceeded the final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or the SRS flagging criteria. During fourth quarter 1992, no constituents analyzed exceeded the PDWS or the SRS Flag 2 criteria at the K-Area and Par Pond Sewage Sludge Application Sites. In the KSS well series, the field measurement for alkalinity ranged as high as 26 mg/L in well KSS 1D. Alkalinity measurements were zero in the PSS wells. Historical and current water-level elevations at the K-Area and Par Pond Sewage Sludge Application Site indicate that the groundwater flow directions are south to southwest (SRS grid coordinates).

  10. Impacts of active urea secretion into pars recta on urine concentration and urea excretion rate

    PubMed Central

    Layton, Anita T; Bankir, Lise

    2013-01-01

    It has been observed experimentally that early distal tubular urea flow exceeds urea delivery by the proximal convoluted tubule to the pars recta and loop of Henle. Moreover, the fractional excretion of urea in the urine may exceed values compatible with the reabsorption known to occur in the proximal convoluted tubule in the cortex. A likely explanation for these observations is that urea may be actively secreted into the pars recta, as proposed in a few studies. However, this hypothesis has yet to be demonstrated experimentally. In this study, we used a mathematical model of the renal medulla of the rat kidney to investigate the impacts of active urea secretion in the intrarenal handling of urea and in the urine concentrating ability. The model represents only the outer and inner medullary zones, with the actions taking place in the cortex incorporated via boundary conditions. Blood flow in the model vasculature is divided into plasma and red blood cell compartments. We compared urea flow rates and other related model variables without and with the hypothetical active urea secretion in the pars recta. The simulation suggests that active urea secretion induces a “urea-selective” improvement in urine concentrating ability by enhancing the efficiency of urea excretion without requiring a higher urine flow rate, and with only modest changes in the excretion of other solutes. These results should encourage experimental studies in order to assess the existence of an active urea secretion in the rodent kidney. PMID:24058732

  11. Visual Outcomes and Prognostic Factors after Pars Plana Vitrectomy for Traumatic Endophthalmitis

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate visual outcomes and identify prognostic factors after pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) surgery for traumatic endophthalmitis. Methods. Medical records of 121 consecutive patients (121 eyes) diagnosed with traumatic endophthalmitis that had undergone pars plana vitrectomy were retrospectively reviewed. Results. 121 patients, aged from 6 to 71 years, all underwent PPV surgery. 113 cases had improved best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) after surgery and 60% of them obtained BCVA better than fingers counting (FC). Good final visual prognosis was significantly associated with time between trauma and initial treatment less than 12 hrs (40% versus 98%; P < 0.001), time between trauma and PPV treatment less than 24 hrs (62% versus 98%; P < 0.001), laceration length less than 10 mm (63% versus 96%; P < 0.001), and presenting VA better than LP (42% versus 96%; P < 0.001), while gender, type of laceration, presence of IOFB or retinal detachment, and the use of silicone oil tamponade were not significant factors resulting in better BCVA. Bacteria were identified in 43.8% of specimens and most of the microorganisms were identified as nonvirulent ones. Conclusions. Pars plana vitrectomy surgery was preferred as a primary treatment option for traumatic endophthalmitis. A good final visual prognosis was significantly associated with timely treatment, prompt vitrectomy surgery, shorter length of laceration, and better presenting visual acuity. PMID:28246599

  12. Modifications vibrationnelles induites par différentes vapeurs acides sur les polyanilines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cochet, M.; Quillard, S.; Buisson, J. P.; Lefrant, S.; Louarn, G.

    1998-06-01

    We present a comparative study of conductive form of polyaniline, i.e, polyemeraldine doped with HCl vapor or with HCSA upon m-cresol vapor. UV-Vis.-nir absorption measurements on polyaniline thin films, vs acid vapors time exposure, have been made. In the same way, Raman spectra have been recorded with different excitation lines from the blue and red ranges to the infrared region. Finally, an assignment of Raman bands observed, is proposed and confirmed by vibrational calculations based on valence-force-field. Nous présentons une étude comparative de la forme conductrice de la polyaniline, c'est-à-dire de la polyéméraldine dopée par des vapeurs d'HCl ou dopée par l'acide camphre sulfonique (HCSA) sous vapeurs de m-crésol. Des mesures d'absorption UV-Vis-proche infrarouge sur des films minces de polyaniline, en fonction du temps d'exposition aux vapeurs acides, ont été réalisées. Parallèlement, les spectres Raman ont été obtenus pour différentes longueurs d'onde d'excitation allant du visible jusqu'au proche infrarouge. Finalement, une attribution des bandes Raman observées est proposée et confirmée par des calculs vibrationnels basés sur des champs de force de valence.

  13. Phosphorylation of LKB1/Par-4 Establishes Schwann Cell Polarity to Initiate and Control Myelin Extent

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Yun-An A.; Chen, Yan; Dao, Dang Q.; Mayoral, Sonia R.; Wu, Laiman; Meijer, Dies; Ullian, Erik M.; Chan, Jonah R.; Lu, Q. Richard

    2014-01-01

    The Schwann cell (SC)-axon interface represents a membrane specialization that integrates axonal signals to coordinate cytoskeletal dynamics resulting in myelination. Here we show that LKB1/Par-4 is asymmetrically localized to the SC-axon interface and colocalizes with the polarity protein Par-3. Using purified SCs and myelinating cocultures, we demonstrate that localization is dependent on the phosphorylation of LKB1 at serine-431. SC-specific deletion of LKB1 significantly attenuates developmental myelination, delaying the initiation and altering the myelin extent into adulthood, resulting in a 30% reduction in the conduction velocity along adult sciatic nerves. Phosphorylation of LKB1 by protein kinase A is essential to establish the asymmetric localization of LKB1 and Par-3 and rescues the delay in myelination observed in the SC-specific knockout of LKB1. Our findings suggest that SC polarity may coordinate multiple signaling complexes that couple SC-axon contact to the redistribution of specific membrane components necessary to initiate and control myelin extent. PMID:25255972

  14. Pars plana vitrectomy for malignant glaucoma in nonglaucomatous and in filtered glaucomatous eyes

    PubMed Central

    Matlach, Juliane; Slobodda, Joerg; Grehn, Franz; Klink, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To assess the outcomes of pars plana vitrectomy for the treatment of malignant glaucoma in patients with and without previous filtration surgery. Patients and methods Data of 15 patients developing malignant glaucoma after trabeculectomy (60%) or following ophthalmic interventions other than filtration surgery (40%) were recorded retrospectively. Pars plana vitrectomy was performed in case of failed medical or laser treatment recreating the normal pathway of aqueous humor. The main outcome measures were the postoperative intraocular pressure (IOP), the frequency of complications, and success rate based on the following criteria: IOP reduction by ≥20% and to ≤21 mmHg (definition one) or an IOP < 18 mmHg (definition two) with (qualified success) and without (complete success) glaucoma medication. Results Vitrectomy reduced IOP from baseline in eyes with and without previous trabeculectomy during a median follow-up of 16.4 months (range 7 days to 58 months); although the majority of patients required glaucoma medication to reach desired IOP. The complete success rates were 11% (both definitions) for patients with filtering blebs and none of the patients without previous trabeculectomy had complete success at the 12-month visit. Complications were few and included transient shallowing of the anterior chamber, choroidal detachment, corneal decompensation, filtering bleb failure, and need for further IOP-lowering procedures. Conclusion Pars plana vitrectomy is equally effective for malignant glaucoma caused by trabeculectomy or interventions other than filtration surgery, although IOP-lowering medication is necessary in nearly all cases to maintain target IOP. PMID:23226000

  15. On PAR with PARP: cellular stress signaling through poly(ADP-ribose) and PARP-1

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Xin; Kraus, W. Lee

    2012-01-01

    Cellular stress responses are mediated through a series of regulatory processes that occur at the genomic, transcriptional, post-transcriptional, translational, and post-translational levels. These responses require a complex network of sensors and effectors from multiple signaling pathways, including the abundant and ubiquitous nuclear enzyme poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) polymerase-1 (PARP-1). PARP-1 functions at the center of cellular stress responses, where it processes diverse signals and, in response, directs cells to specific fates (e.g., DNA repair vs. cell death) based on the type and strength of the stress stimulus. Many of PARP-1's functions in stress response pathways are mediated by its regulated synthesis of PAR, a negatively charged polymer, using NAD+ as a donor of ADP-ribose units. Thus, PARP-1's functions are intimately tied to nuclear NAD+ metabolism and the broader metabolic profile of the cell. Recent studies in cell and animal models have highlighted the roles of PARP-1 and PAR in the response to a wide variety of extrinsic and intrinsic stress signals, including those initiated by oxidative, nitrosative, genotoxic, oncogenic, thermal, inflammatory, and metabolic stresses. These responses underlie pathological conditions, including cancer, inflammation-related diseases, and metabolic dysregulation. The development of PARP inhibitors is being pursued as a therapeutic approach to these conditions. In this review, we highlight the newest findings about PARP-1's role in stress responses in the context of the historical data. PMID:22391446

  16. Higher incidence of Gastrospirillum sp. in swine with gastric ulcer of the pars oesophagea.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, A J; Silva, J C; Nogueira, A M; Paulino Júnior, E; Miranda, C R

    1995-03-01

    Gastric ulcer in swine is characterized by an area of acid-peptic digestion, occurs usually in the pars oesophagea of the stomach, and has unknown etiopathogenesis. The present work was carried out to investigate the prevalence of the newly described spiral-shaped microorganism Gastrospirillum sp. ("Gastrospirillum suis") in stomachs of abattoir pigs with and without gastric ulcer. Stomachs were removed from 32 consecutive pigs presenting apparently normal mucosa and from 32 additional consecutive pigs presenting frank, chronic gastric ulcer of the pars oesophagea. Fragments of antral, oxyntic, cardiac and pars oesophagea regions were taken from each stomach and processed for histology and for identification of Gastrospirillum sp. in tissue sections. The microorganisms were identified mainly in the mucous layer and in gastric foveolas of the antral and oxyntic mucosa. Forty pigs (62.5%) were positive for Gastrospirillum sp.; among them, 27 (67.5%) had gastric ulcer, and 13 (32.5%) had no ulcer. Twenty-four pigs (37.5%) were negative for Gastrospirillum sp.; among them, five (20.8%) presented with gastric ulcer, and 19 (79.2%) had no ulcer. There was a significant difference between pigs with and without gastric ulcer in regard to the presence of Gastrospirillum sp. (P < 0.01). The spiral-shaped microorganism Gastrospirillum sp. that inhabits the stomach of pigs should be considered a possible factor connected with the etiopathogenesis of swine gastric ulcer.

  17. Polycystin-1 binds Par3/aPKC and controls convergent extension during renal tubular morphogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castelli, Maddalena; Boca, Manila; Chiaravalli, Marco; Ramalingam, Harini; Rowe, Isaline; Distefano, Gianfranco; Carroll, Thomas; Boletta, Alessandra

    2013-10-01

    Several organs, including the lungs and kidneys, are formed by epithelial tubes whose proper morphogenesis ensures correct function. This is best exemplified by the kidney, where defective establishment or maintenance of tubular diameter results in polycystic kidney disease, a common genetic disorder. Most polycystic kidney disease cases result from loss-of-function mutations in the PKD1 gene, encoding Polycystin-1, a large receptor of unknown function. Here we demonstrate that PC-1 has an essential role in the establishment of correct tubular diameter during nephron development. Polycystin-1 associates with Par3 favouring the assembly of a pro-polarizing Par3/aPKC complex and it regulates a programme of cell polarity important for oriented cell migration and for a convergent extension-like process during tubular morphogenesis. Par3 inactivation in the developing kidney results in defective convergent extension and tubular morphogenesis, and in renal cyst formation. Our data define Polycystin-1 as central to cell polarization and to epithelial tube morphogenesis and homeostasis.

  18. Recuit thermique rapide de semi-conducteur par énergie micro-onde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Covas, M.; Gay, H. C.

    1993-05-01

    This paper proposes a new technique for rapid thermal annealing of semi-conductors. This technique is based on microwave energy, and offers the same advantages as the rapid thermal annealing by incoherent light, in terms of rapidity, and contamination. However, our technique reduces considerably the required energy for the annealing process. This technique has been compared to the rapid thermal by incoherent light: lab experiments, carried out on boron implanted silicon samples, showed that a power gain ratio of about 10 can be achieved. Nous proposons une méthode de recuit thermique rapide du silicium par énergie micro-onde. Cette technique offre les mêmes avantages que les traitements thermiques rapides par lumière incohérente, c'est-à-dire des durées de chauffage très brèves, limitant ainsi la diffusion des dopants, et un traitement plaquette par plaquette : les risques de contamination de tout un lot sont ainsi éliminés. De plus notre méthode requiert une faible énergie : pour parvenir à des recuits de qualité similaire à celle obtenue dans des fours de recuit rapide à lampes il faut un flux de puissance 10 fois plus faible.

  19. MPDZ EXPRESSION IN THE CAUDOLATERAL SUBSTANTIA NIGRA PARS RETICULATA IS CRUCIALLY INVOLVED IN ALCOHOL WITHDRAWAL

    PubMed Central

    Kruse, L.C.; Walter, N.A.R.; Buck, K.J.

    2014-01-01

    Association studies implicate the multiple PDZ domain protein (MUPP1/MPDZ) gene in risk for alcoholism in humans and alcohol withdrawal in mice. Although manipulation of the Mpdz gene by homologous recombination and bacterial artificial chromosome transgenesis has suggested that its expression affects alcohol withdrawal risk, the potential confounding effects of linked genes and developmental compensation currently limit interpretation. Here, using RNA interference, we directly test the impact of Mpdz expression on alcohol withdrawal severity and provide brain regional mechanistic information. Lentiviral-mediated delivery of Mpdz short hairpin RNA (shRNA) to the caudolateral substantia nigra pars reticulata significantly reduces Mpdz expression and exacerbates alcohol withdrawal convulsions compared to control mice delivered a scrambled shRNA. Neither baseline nor pentylenetetrazol enhanced convulsions differed between Mpdz shRNA and control animals, indicating that Mpdz expression in the caudolateral substantia nigra pars reticulata does not generally affect seizure susceptibility. To our knowledge, these represent the first in vivo Mpdz RNA interference analyses, and provide the first direct evidence that Mpdz expression impacts behavior. Our results confirm that Mpdz is a quantitative trait gene for alcohol withdrawal and demonstrate that its expression in the caudolateral substantia nigra pars reticulata is crucially involved in risk for alcohol withdrawal. PMID:25109596

  20. Methane Emission by Camelids

    PubMed Central

    Dittmann, Marie T.; Runge, Ullrich; Lang, Richard A.; Moser, Dario; Galeffi, Cordula; Kreuzer, Michael; Clauss, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    Methane emissions from ruminant livestock have been intensively studied in order to reduce contribution to the greenhouse effect. Ruminants were found to produce more enteric methane than other mammalian herbivores. As camelids share some features of their digestive anatomy and physiology with ruminants, it has been proposed that they produce similar amounts of methane per unit of body mass. This is of special relevance for countrywide greenhouse gas budgets of countries that harbor large populations of camelids like Australia. However, hardly any quantitative methane emission measurements have been performed in camelids. In order to fill this gap, we carried out respiration chamber measurements with three camelid species (Vicugna pacos, Lama glama, Camelus bactrianus; n = 16 in total), all kept on a diet consisting of food produced from alfalfa only. The camelids produced less methane expressed on the basis of body mass (0.32±0.11 L kg−1 d−1) when compared to literature data on domestic ruminants fed on roughage diets (0.58±0.16 L kg−1 d−1). However, there was no significant difference between the two suborders when methane emission was expressed on the basis of digestible neutral detergent fiber intake (92.7±33.9 L kg−1 in camelids vs. 86.2±12.1 L kg−1 in ruminants). This implies that the pathways of methanogenesis forming part of the microbial digestion of fiber in the foregut are similar between the groups, and that the lower methane emission of camelids can be explained by their generally lower relative food intake. Our results suggest that the methane emission of Australia's feral camels corresponds only to 1 to 2% of the methane amount produced by the countries' domestic ruminants and that calculations of greenhouse gas budgets of countries with large camelid populations based on equations developed for ruminants are generally overestimating the actual levels. PMID:24718604

  1. Negative Emissions Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day, Danny

    2006-04-01

    Although `negative emissions' of carbon dioxide need not, in principle, involve use of biological processes to draw carbon out of the atmosphere, such `agricultural' sequestration' is the only known way to remove carbon from the atmosphere on time scales comparable to the time scale for anthropogenic increases in carbon emissions. In order to maintain the `negative emissions' the biomass must be used in such a way that the resulting carbon dioxide is separated and permanently sequestered. Two options for sequestration are in the topsoil and via geologic carbon sequestration. The former has multiple benefits, but the latter also is needed. Thus, although geologic carbon sequestration is viewed skeptically by some environmentalists as simply a way to keep using fossil fuels---it may be a key part of reversing accelerating climate forcing if rapid climate change is beginning to occur. I will first review the general approach of agricultural sequestration combined with use of resulting biofuels in a way that permits carbon separation and then geologic sequestration as a negative emissions technology. Then I discuss the process that is the focus of my company---the EPRIDA cycle. If deployed at a sufficiently large scale, it could reverse the increase in CO2 concentrations. I also estimate of benefits --carbon and other---of large scale deployment of negative emissions technologies. For example, using the EPRIDA cycle by planting and soil sequestering carbon in an area abut In 3X the size of Texas would remove the amount of carbon that is being accumulated worldwide each year. In addition to the atmospheric carbon removal, the EPRIDA approach also counters the depletion of carbon in the soil---increasing topsoil and its fertility; reduces the excess nitrogen in the water by eliminating the need for ammonium nitrate fertilizer and reduces fossil fuel reliance by providing biofuel and avoiding natural gas based fertilizer production.

  2. Methane emission by camelids.

    PubMed

    Dittmann, Marie T; Runge, Ullrich; Lang, Richard A; Moser, Dario; Galeffi, Cordula; Kreuzer, Michael; Clauss, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    Methane emissions from ruminant livestock have been intensively studied in order to reduce contribution to the greenhouse effect. Ruminants were found to produce more enteric methane than other mammalian herbivores. As camelids share some features of their digestive anatomy and physiology with ruminants, it has been proposed that they produce similar amounts of methane per unit of body mass. This is of special relevance for countrywide greenhouse gas budgets of countries that harbor large populations of camelids like Australia. However, hardly any quantitative methane emission measurements have been performed in camelids. In order to fill this gap, we carried out respiration chamber measurements with three camelid species (Vicugna pacos, Lama glama, Camelus bactrianus; n = 16 in total), all kept on a diet consisting of food produced from alfalfa only. The camelids produced less methane expressed on the basis of body mass (0.32±0.11 L kg⁻¹ d⁻¹) when compared to literature data on domestic ruminants fed on roughage diets (0.58±0.16 L kg⁻¹ d⁻¹). However, there was no significant difference between the two suborders when methane emission was expressed on the basis of digestible neutral detergent fiber intake (92.7±33.9 L kg⁻¹ in camelids vs. 86.2±12.1 L kg⁻¹ in ruminants). This implies that the pathways of methanogenesis forming part of the microbial digestion of fiber in the foregut are similar between the groups, and that the lower methane emission of camelids can be explained by their generally lower relative food intake. Our results suggest that the methane emission of Australia's feral camels corresponds only to 1 to 2% of the methane amount produced by the countries' domestic ruminants and that calculations of greenhouse gas budgets of countries with large camelid populations based on equations developed for ruminants are generally overestimating the actual levels.

  3. Approaching Long Genomic Regions and Large Recombination Rates with msParSm as an Alternative to MaCS

    PubMed Central

    Montemuiño, Carlos; Espinosa, Antonio; Moure, Juan C.; Vera, Gonzalo; Hernández, Porfidio; Ramos-Onsins, Sebastián

    2016-01-01

    The msParSm application is an evolution of msPar, the parallel version of the coalescent simulation program ms, which removes the limitation for simulating long stretches of DNA sequences with large recombination rates, without compromising the accuracy of the standard coalescence. This work introduces msParSm, describes its significant performance improvements over msPar and its shared memory parallelization details, and shows how it can get better, if not similar, execution times than MaCS. Two case studies with different mutation rates were analyzed, one approximating the human average and the other approximating the Drosophila melanogaster average. Source code is available at https://github.com/cmontemuino/msparsm. PMID:27721650

  4. Genome-wide protein QTL mapping identifies human plasma kallikrein as a post-translational regulator of serum uPAR levels.

    PubMed

    Portelli, Michael A; Siedlinski, Mateusz; Stewart, Ceri E; Postma, Dirkje S; Nieuwenhuis, Maartje A; Vonk, Judith M; Nurnberg, Peter; Altmuller, Janine; Moffatt, Miriam F; Wardlaw, Andrew J; Parker, Stuart G; Connolly, Martin J; Koppelman, Gerard H; Sayers, Ian

    2014-02-01

    The soluble cleaved urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (scuPAR) is a circulating protein detected in multiple diseases, including various cancers, cardiovascular disease, and kidney disease, where elevated levels of scuPAR have been associated with worsening prognosis and increased disease aggressiveness. We aimed to identify novel genetic and biomolecular mechanisms regulating scuPAR levels. Elevated serum scuPAR levels were identified in asthma (n=514) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD; n=219) cohorts when compared to controls (n=96). In these cohorts, a genome-wide association study of serum scuPAR levels identified a human plasma kallikrein gene (KLKB1) promoter polymorphism (rs4253238) associated with serum scuPAR levels in a control/asthma population (P=1.17 × 10(-7)), which was also observed in a COPD population (combined P=5.04 × 10(-12)). Using a fluorescent assay, we demonstrated that serum KLKB1 enzymatic activity was driven by rs4253238 and is inverse to scuPAR levels. Biochemical analysis identified that KLKB1 cleaves scuPAR and negates scuPAR's effects on primary human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs) in vitro. Chymotrypsin was used as a proproteolytic control, while basal HBECs were used as a control to define scuPAR-driven effects. In summary, we reveal a novel post-translational regulatory mechanism for scuPAR using a hypothesis-free approach with implications for multiple human diseases.

  5. PAR-2, LGL-1 and the CDC-42 GAP CHIN-1 act in distinct pathways to maintain polarity in the C. elegans embryo.

    PubMed

    Beatty, Alexander; Morton, Diane G; Kemphues, Kenneth

    2013-05-01

    In the one-cell C. elegans embryo, polarity is maintained by mutual antagonism between the anterior cortical proteins PAR-3, PKC-3, PAR-6 and CDC-42, and the posterior cortical proteins PAR-2 and LGL-1 on the posterior cortex. The mechanisms by which these proteins interact to maintain polarity are incompletely understood. In this study, we investigate the interplay among PAR-2, LGL-1, myosin, the anterior PAR proteins and CDC-42. We find that PAR-2 and LGL-1 affect cortical myosin accumulation by different mechanisms. LGL-1 does not directly antagonize the accumulation of cortical myosin and instead plays a role in regulating PAR-6 levels. By contrast, PAR-2 likely has separate roles in regulating cortical myosin accumulation and preventing the expansion of the anterior cortical domain. We also provide evidence that asymmetry of active CDC-42 can be maintained independently of LGL-1 and PAR-2 by a redundant pathway that includes the CDC-42 GAP CHIN-1. Finally, we show that, in addition to its primary role in regulating the size of the anterior cortical domain via its binding to PAR-6, CDC-42 has a secondary role in regulating cortical myosin that is not dependent on PAR-6.

  6. Remote estimation of Kd (PAR) using MODIS and Landsat imagery for turbid inland waters in Northeast China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Kaishan; Ma, Jianhang; Wen, Zhidan; Fang, Chong; Shang, Yingxin; Zhao, Ying; Wang, Ming; Du, Jia

    2017-01-01

    Light availability for photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) is one of the major factors governing photosynthesis in aquatic ecosystems. Conventional measurements of light attenuation in the PAR domain (Kd(PAR)) is representative for only small areas of water body. Remotely sensed optical imagery can be utilized to monitor Kd(PAR) in large areas of water bodies, based on the relationship between water leaving radiance and Kd(PAR). In this study, six field surveys were conducted over 20 lakes (or reservoirs) across Northeast China from April to September 2015. In order to derive the Kd(PAR) at regional scale, the Landsat/TM/ETM+/OLI and the MODIS daily surface reflectance data (MOD09GA ∼500 m, Bands 1-7) were used to establish empirical inversion models. Through multiple stepwise regression analysis, the band difference (Red-Blue) and band ratio (NIR/Red) were used in Landsat imagery modeling, and the band difference (Red-Blue) and ratio (Red/Blue) were used in MODIS imagery modeling. The accuracy of the two models was evaluated by 10-fold cross-validation in ten times. The results indicate that the models performed well for both Landsat (R2 = 0.83, RMSE = 0.95, and MRE = 0.33), and MODIS (R2 = 0.86, RMSE = 0.91, and MRE = 0.19) imagery. However, the Kd(PAR) derived by MODIS is slightly higher than that estimated by Landsat (slope = 1.203 and R2 = 0.972). Consistency of model performance between the MODIS daily (MYD09G A) and the 8-Day composite reflectance (MYD09A1) data was verified by Kd(PAR) estimations and regression analysis (slope = 1.044 and R2 = 0.966). Finally, the spatial and temporal distribution of Kd(PAR) in Northeast China indicated that specific geographical characteristics as well as meteorological alterations can influence Kd(PAR) calibrations. Specifically, we have revealed that the wind speed and algal bloom are the major determinants of Kd(PAR) in Lake Hulun (2050 km2) and Xingkai (4412 km2).

  7. Disentangling the confounding effects of PAR and air temperature on net ecosystem exchange in time and scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    yang, Z.; Chen, J.; Becker, R.; Chu, H.; Xie, J.; Shao, C.

    2013-12-01

    Net ecosystem exchange of CO2 (NEE) in temperate forests is modulated by microclimatic factors. The effects of those factors differ at different time scales and during different time periods. Some of them are correlated across a number of time scales, so their effects on NEE are confounded by each other. PAR and air temperature (Ta) are among the two most important drivers of NEE in temperate forests, and among the two most correlated microclimatic factors. PAR and Ta have similar daily, seasonal, and annual cycles. Their influence on NEE is confounded by each other and entangled together especially at those scales. In this study, we tried to disentangle the confounding effects of them on NEE at different time scales and during different time periods. To accomplish this objective, we applied the innovative spectral analysis techniques including Continuous Wavelet Transformation (CWT), Cross Wavelet Transformation (XWT), Wavelet Coherent (WTC), and Partial Wavelet Coherence (PWC) on seven years time series (2004-2010) of PAR, Ta and NEE from the Ohio Oak Openings site (N 41.5545°, W 83.8438°), USA for spectral analysis. We found that PAR is the major driver at short time scales (e.g. semidiurnal and daily) and Ta is the major driver at long time scales (e.g. seasonal and annual). At daily scale during growing seasons, PAR is anti-phase with NEE with no time delay while Ta lagged PAR about 2-3 hours, which could be explained by the strong dependence of photosynthesis on PAR and a 2-3 hours lags of the daily course of Ta to PAR. At daily scale during non-growing season, NEE has little variation and thus neither Ta nor PAR has high common wavelet power and significant coherence with NEE. At annual scale, Ta is anti-phase with NEE and PAR leads NEE about 34 days, which could be explained by the strong dependence of LAI dynamics on Ta and the lag between the LAI/biomass development and the progress of sunlight. We also found that NEE distributes most of its variation

  8. Molecular networks implicated in speech-related disorders: FOXP2 regulates the SRPX2/uPAR complex

    PubMed Central

    Roll, Patrice; Vernes, Sonja C.; Bruneau, Nadine; Cillario, Jennifer; Ponsole-Lenfant, Magali; Massacrier, Annick; Rudolf, Gabrielle; Khalife, Manal; Hirsch, Edouard; Fisher, Simon E.; Szepetowski, Pierre

    2010-01-01

    It is a challenge to identify the molecular networks contributing to the neural basis of human speech. Mutations in transcription factor FOXP2 cause difficulties mastering fluent speech (developmental verbal dyspraxia, DVD), whereas mutations of sushi-repeat protein SRPX2 lead to epilepsy of the rolandic (sylvian) speech areas, with DVD or with bilateral perisylvian polymicrogyria. Pathophysiological mechanisms driven by SRPX2 involve modified interaction with the plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR). Independent chromatin-immunoprecipitation microarray screening has identified the uPAR gene promoter as a potential target site bound by FOXP2. Here, we directly tested for the existence of a transcriptional regulatory network between human FOXP2 and the SRPX2/uPAR complex. In silico searches followed by gel retardation assays identified specific efficient FOXP2-binding sites in each of the promoter regions of SRPX2 and uPAR. In FOXP2-transfected cells, significant decreases were observed in the amounts of both SRPX2 (43.6%) and uPAR (38.6%) native transcripts. Luciferase reporter assays demonstrated that FOXP2 expression yielded a marked inhibition of SRPX2 (80.2%) and uPAR (77.5%) promoter activity. A mutant FOXP2 that causes DVD (p.R553H) failed to bind to SRPX2 and uPAR target sites and showed impaired down-regulation of SRPX2 and uPAR promoter activity. In a patient with polymicrogyria of the left rolandic operculum, a novel FOXP2 mutation (p.M406T) was found in the leucine-zipper (dimerization) domain. p.M406T partially impaired the FOXP2 regulation of SRPX2 promoter activity, whereas that of the uPAR promoter remained unchanged. Together with recently described FOXP2-CNTNAP2 and SRPX2/uPAR links, the FOXP2-SRPX2/uPAR network provides exciting insights into molecular pathways underlying speech-related disorders. PMID:20858596

  9. Emissions Models and Other Methods to Produce Emission Inventories

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    An emissions inventory is a summary or forecast of the emissions produced by a group of sources in a given time period. Inventories of air pollution from mobile sources are often produced by models such as the MOtor Vehicle Emission Simulator (MOVES).

  10. Protease-Activated Receptor 2 (PAR2) Is Upregulated by Acanthamoeba Plasminogen Activator (aPA) and Induces Proinflammatory Cytokine in Human Corneal Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Tripathi, Trivendra; Abdi, Mahshid; Alizadeh, Hassan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. Acanthamoeba plasminogen activator (aPA) is a serine protease elaborated by Acanthamoeba trophozoites that facilitates the invasion of trophozoites to the host and contributes to the pathogenesis of Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK). The aim of this study was to explore if aPA stimulates proinflammatory cytokine in human corneal epithelial (HCE) cells via the protease-activated receptors (PARs) pathway. Methods. Acanthamoeba castellanii trophozoites were grown in peptone-yeast extract glucose for 7 days, and the supernatants were collected and centrifuged. The aPA was purified using the fast protein liquid chromatography system, and aPA activity was determined by zymography assays. Human corneal epithelial cells were incubated with or without aPA (100 μg/mL), PAR1 agonists (thrombin, 10 μM; TRAP-6, 10 μM), and PAR2 agonists (SLIGRL-NH2, 100 μM; AC 55541, 10 μM) for 24 and 48 hours. Inhibition of PAR1 and PAR2 involved preincubating the HCE cells for 1 hour with the antagonist of PAR1 (SCH 79797, 60 μM) and PAR2 (FSLLRY-NH2, 100 μM) with or without aPA. Human corneal epithelial cells also were preincubated with PAR1 and PAR2 antagonists and then incubated with or without PAR1 agonists (thrombin and TRAP-6) and PAR2 agonists (SLIGRL-NH2 and AC 55541). Expression of PAR1 and PAR2 was examined by quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR), flow cytometry, and immunocytochemistry. Interleukin-8 expression was quantified by qRT-PCR and ELISA. Results. Human corneal epithelial cells constitutively expressed PAR1 and PAR2 mRNA. Acanthamoeba plasminogen activator and PAR2 agonists significantly upregulated PAR2 mRNA expression (1- and 2-fold, respectively) (P < 0.05). Protease-activated receptor 2 antagonist significantly inhibited aPA, and PAR2 agonists induced PAR2 mRNA expression in HCE cells (P < 0.05). Protease-activated receptor 1 agonists, but not aPA, significantly upregulated PAR1 mRNA expression, which was significantly inhibited by PAR1 antagonist in HCE cells

  11. Zero Emission Coal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziock, H.; Guthrie, G. D.; Lackner, K. S.; Harrison, D. P.; Johnson, A. A.

    2002-05-01

    Unless the economic development of the majority of the world's population is prohibited, thereby forcing thereby forcing them to remain in poverty, world energy consumption and therefore carbon dioxide greenhouse gas emission rates could easily increase by an order of magnitude during this century. Given that we have already increased global atmospheric concentrations by 30% compared to their pre-industrial age level, without massive intervention, we will completely overwhelm Nature's ability to cope. In order to stabilize atmospheric CO2 levels, while allowing desired world economic development, the future allowable US per capita CO2 emissions are only 3 % of today's value. This is effectively zero, and thus what is required is the development of technologies that aim for emission of zero CO2 as well as other pollutants. If we continue to rely on our lowest cost, readily available, and dominant energy source, this will involve both a separation of the energy from the fossil fuel carbon followed by a permanent disposal of the CO2. To set the scale, today's yearly global emissions are approaching 25 cubic kilometers of CO2 at liquid densities, and these could grow by an order of magnitude by the end of the century. We describe a zero emission coal technology that would be able to deal with both the scope of the problem and the emission goal. The energy production process is a chemical conversion of coal to electricity or hydrogen, which involves no combustion and thus no smoke stack. The process provides a pure stream of CO2 for disposal while simultaneously achieving fuel to electricity conversion efficiencies that are two times better than today's value. This high efficiency by itself extends cuts pollutant production by a factor of two while also extending the lifetime of our fossil fuel reserves by a factor of two to many hundreds of years. By concentrating on coal, we also lay the groundwork for energy security and complete independence for the US, given the

  12. Effet Hall et Magnetisme des Alliages Amorphes Nickel-Zirconium Fabriques Par Pulverisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morel, Robert

    Cette these se situe dans le cadre d'une etude des proprietes electroniques et structurales des alliages metalliques amorphes, en cours depuis quelques annees a l'Universite de Montreal. Ce programme nous a entre autres amene a caracteriser la magnetoresistivite et l'effet Hall d'alliages FeZr, CoZr et NiZr, ce qui a permis de mettre en evidence deux caracteristiques de l'effet Hall: Dans les alliages amorphes ferromagnetiques, la resistivite elevee engendre un effet Hall extraordinaire beaucoup plus important que celui enregistre dans les metaux cristallins. La polarisation des spins entrai ne une asymetrie de la diffusion qui, tant dans les phases cristalline et amorphe, est tenue responsable de cette contribution. L'autre particularite du comportement de Hall de ces systemes est le renversement de signe du coefficient de Hall ordinaire, qui passe du negatif au positif dans les echantillons plus riches en zirconium. Dans les metaux cristallins, un modele d'electrons libres predit un signe negatif a moins que la conduction ne soit dominee par les trous. Or, dans un milieu desordonne les memes concepts sont difficilement applicables et de nouvelles theories ont du etre elaborees pour expliquer ce phenomene. Jusqu'a maintenant, l'etude des alliages amorphes nickel-zirconium s'est faite surtout a partir d'echantillons fabriques par trempe sur roue. Malheureusement cette technique ne permet pas la fabrication d'alliages contenant plus de 70% de nickel, a l'exception du seul compose Ni _{90}Zr_{10 }. Pour pallier a cette lacune et etendre nos connaissance a l'ensemble de la gamme de compositions, nous avons fabrique par pulverisation cathodique des echantillons NiZr amorphes--et quelques alliages cristallins tres riches en nickel--couvrant une bonne partie de la gamme interdite par la technique de trempe sur roue. Dans un premier temps, par comparaison avec les resultats connus nous avons mis en evidence les similitudes et les differences entre les alliages obtenus par

  13. Apparent PS II absorption cross-section and estimation of mean PAR in optically thin and dense suspensions of Chlorella.

    PubMed

    Klughammer, Christof; Schreiber, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    Theoretical prediction of effective mean PAR in optically dense samples is complicated by various optical effects, including light scattering and reflections. Direct information on the mean rate of photon absorption by PS II is provided by the kinetics of the fluorescence rise induced upon onset of strong actinic illumination (O-I1 rise). A recently introduced kinetic multi-color PAM fluorometer was applied to study the relationship between initial slope and cell density in the relatively simple model system of suspensions of Chlorella. Use of a curve fitting routine was made which was originally developed for assessment of the wavelength-dependent absorption cross-section of PS II, σ II(λ), in dilute suspensions. The model underlying analysis of the O-I1 rise kinetics is outlined and data on the relationship between fitted values of σ II(λ) and PAR in dilute samples are presented. With increasing cell density, lowering of apparent cross-section, <σ>(λ), with respect to σ II(λ), relates to a decrease of effective mean PAR, <PAR>(λ), relative to incident PAR(λ). When ML and AL are applied in the same direction, the decline of <σ>(λ)/σ II(λ) with increasing optical density is less steep than that of the theoretically predicted <PAR>(λ)/PAR(λ). It approaches a value of 0.5 when the same colors of ML and AL are used, in agreement with theory. These observations open the way for estimating mean PAR in optically dense samples via measurements of <σ>(λ)/σ II(λ)).

  14. Peroxynitrite-induced thymocyte apoptosis: the role of caspases and poly (ADP-ribose) synthetase (PARS) activation.

    PubMed Central

    Virág, L; Scott, G S; Cuzzocrea, S; Marmer, D; Salzman, A L; Szabó, C

    1998-01-01

    The mechanisms by which immature thymocyte apoptosis is induced during negative selection are poorly defined. Reports demonstrated that cross-linking of T-cell receptor leads to stromal cell activation, expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and, subsequently, to thymocyte apoptosis. Therefore we examined, whether NO directly or indirectly, through peroxynitrite formation, causes thymocyte apoptosis. Immuno-histochemical detection of nitrotyrosine revealed in vivo peroxynitrite formation in the thymi of naive mice. Nitrotyrosine, the footprint of peroxynitrite, was predominantly found in the corticomedullary junction and the medulla of naive mice. In the thymi of mice deficient in the inducible isoform of nitric oxide synthase, considerably less nitrotyrosine was found. Exposure of thymocytes in vitro to low concentrations (10 microM) of peroxynitrite led to apoptosis, whereas higher concentrations (50 microM) resulted in intense cell death with the characteristics of necrosis. We also investigated the effect of poly (ADP-ribose) synthetase (PARS) inhibition on thymocyte apoptosis. Using the PARS inhibitor 3-aminobenzamide (3-AB), or thymocytes from PARS-deficient animals, we established that PARS determines the fate of thymocyte death. Suppression of cellular ATP levels, and the cellular necrosis in response to peroxynitrite were prevented by PARS inhibition. Therefore, in the absence of PARS, cells are diverted towards the pathway of apoptotic cell death. Similar results were obtained with H2O2 treatment, while apoptosis induced by non-oxidative stimuli such as dexamethasone or anti-FAS antibody was unaffected by PARS inhibition. In conclusion, we propose that peroxynitrite-induced apoptosis may play a role in the process of thymocyte negative selection. Furthermore, we propose that the physiological role of PARS cleavage by apopain during apoptosis may serve as an energy-conserving step, enabling the cell to complete the process of apoptosis

  15. Hypersensitivity Induced by Activation of Spinal Cord PAR2 Receptors Is Partially Mediated by TRPV1 Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Mrozkova, Petra; Spicarova, Diana; Palecek, Jiri

    2016-01-01

    Protease-activated receptors 2 (PAR2) and transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) receptors in the peripheral nerve endings are implicated in the development of increased sensitivity to mechanical and thermal stimuli, especially during inflammatory states. Both PAR2 and TRPV1 receptors are co-expressed in nociceptive dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons on their peripheral endings and also on presynaptic endings in the spinal cord dorsal horn. However, the modulation of nociceptive synaptic transmission in the superficial dorsal horn after activation of PAR2 and their functional coupling with TRPV1 is not clear. To investigate the role of spinal PAR2 activation on nociceptive modulation, intrathecal drug application was used in behavioural experiments and patch-clamp recordings of spontaneous, miniature and dorsal root stimulation-evoked excitatory postsynaptic currents (sEPSCs, mEPSCs, eEPSCs) were performed on superficial dorsal horn neurons in acute rat spinal cord slices. Intrathecal application of PAR2 activating peptide SLIGKV-NH2 induced thermal hyperalgesia, which was prevented by pretreatment with TRPV1 antagonist SB 366791 and was reduced by protein kinases inhibitor staurosporine. Patch-clamp experiments revealed robust decrease of mEPSC frequency (62.8 ± 4.9%), increase of sEPSC frequency (127.0 ± 5.9%) and eEPSC amplitude (126.9 ± 12.0%) in dorsal horn neurons after acute SLIGKV-NH2 application. All these EPSC changes, induced by PAR2 activation, were prevented by SB 366791 and staurosporine pretreatment. Our results demonstrate an important role of spinal PAR2 receptors in modulation of nociceptive transmission in the spinal cord dorsal horn at least partially mediated by activation of presynaptic TRPV1 receptors. The functional coupling between the PAR2 and TRPV1 receptors on the central branches of DRG neurons may be important especially during different pathological states when it may enhance pain perception. PMID:27755539

  16. Row orientation effect on UV-B, UV-A and PAR solar irradiation components in vineyards at Tuscany, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grifoni, D.; Carreras, G.; Zipoli, G.; Sabatini, F.; Dalla Marta, A.; Orlandini, S.

    2008-11-01

    Besides playing an essential role in plant photosynthesis, solar radiation is also involved in many other important biological processes. In particular, it has been demonstrated that ultraviolet (UV) solar radiation plays a relevant role in grapevines ( Vitis vinifera) in the production of certain important chemical compounds directly responsible for yield and wine quality. Moreover, the exposure to UV-B radiation (280-320 nm) can affect plant-disease interaction by influencing the behaviour of both pathogen and host. The main objective of this research was to characterise the solar radiative regime of a vineyard, in terms of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and UV components. In this analysis, solar spectral UV irradiance components, broadband UV (280-400 nm), spectral UV-B and UV-A (320-400 nm), the biological effective UVBE, as well as the PAR (400-700 nm) component, were all considered. The diurnal patterns of these quantities and the UV-B/PAR and UV-B/UV-A ratios were analysed to investigate the effect of row orientation of the vineyard in combination with solar azimuth and elevation angles. The distribution of PAR and UV irradiance at various heights of the vertical sides of the rows was also studied. The results showed that the highest portion of plants received higher levels of daily radiation, especially the UV-B component. Row orientation of the vines had a pronounced effect on the global PAR received by the two sides of the rows and, to a lesser extent, UV-A and UV-B. When only the diffused component was considered, this geometrical effect was greatly attenuated. UV-B/PAR and UV-A/PAR ratios were also affected, with potential consequences on physiological processes. Because of the high diffusive capacity of the UV-B radiation, the UV-B/PAR ratio was significantly lower on the plant portions exposed to full sunlight than on those in the shade.

  17. Air Emissions Monitoring for Permits

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Operating permits document how air pollution sources will demonstrate compliance with emission limits and also how air pollution sources will monitor, either periodically or continuously, their compliance with emission limits and all other requirements.

  18. CHARACTERIZATION OF TRANSIENT PUFF EMISSIONS ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Symposium Paper Transient puff emissions were characterized from burning carpet charges that were fed to a pilotscale rotary kiln combustor to assess the potential impact on emissions of using post-consumer carpet as an alternative fuel in cement kilns.

  19. Tanks Emissions for TRI Reporting

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    A presentation on overcoming the challenges of TRI reporting for and monitoring the hazardous air emissions from storage tanks, including a discussion on the most accurate and feasible methods of correctly reporting tank emissions to the TRI Program.

  20. Structure par RMN d'un complexe AlcR(1-60)-ADN: Reconnaissance du petit sillon par la partie N-terminale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cahuzac, B.; Félenbok, B.; Guittet, E.

    1999-10-01

    Aspergillus nidulans is a filamentous fungus able to use ethanol as sole energy source. The activation of the ethanol regulon genes expression is mediated by the AlcR protein. Its DNA-binding domain is located in the N-terminus (residues 1 to 60), and its NMR solution structure shows a global zinc binuclear cluster fold, with two helices in addition to the basic binuclear motif. A small number of crystallographic structures of DNA complexes of binuclear cluster proteins is yet known, and points out the major groove and the first helix as the principal sites of interaction on the DNA and the protein respectively. In this article we show evidences that the N-terminus of the protein is involved in binding to the minor groove. Aspergillus nidulans est un champignon filamenteux capable d'utiliser l'éthanol comme source unique d'énergie. La protéine AlcR est responsable de l'activation de l'expression des gènes du régulon éthanol. Le domaine de liaison à l'ADN est situé dans la partie N-terminale de la protéine (a.a. 1 à 60), et sa structure déterminée par RMN en solution montre un repliement global en bouquet binucléaire à zinc, avec deux hélices supplémentaires par rapport au motif de base. Alors que les structures déjà connues de complexes ADN - bouquets binucléaires permettent de situer dans le grand sillon la quasi-totalité des interactions, nous montrons dans la présente étude l'implication du début de la séquence dans la reconnaissance du petit sillon de l'ADN (a.a. 5 et 6).

  1. Proteinase-activated receptor 2 (PAR(2)) in cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) cells: effects on signaling and cellular level.

    PubMed

    Kaufmann, Roland; Hascher, Alexander; Mussbach, Franziska; Henklein, Petra; Katenkamp, Kathrin; Westermann, Martin; Settmacher, Utz

    2012-12-01

    In this study, we demonstrate functional expression of the proteinase-activated receptor 2 (PAR(2)), a member of a G-protein receptor subfamily in primary cholangiocarcinoma (PCCA) cell cultures. Treatment of PCCA cells with the serine proteinase trypsin and the PAR(2)-selective activating peptide, furoyl-LIGRLO-NH(2), increased migration across a collagen membrane barrier. This effect was inhibited by a PAR(2)-selective pepducin antagonist peptide (P2pal-18S) and it was also blocked with the Met receptor tyrosine kinase (Met) inhibitors SU 11274 and PHA 665752, the MAPKinase inhibitors PD 98059 and SL 327, and the Stat3 inhibitor Stattic. The involvement of Met, p42/p44 MAPKinases and Stat3 in PAR(2)-mediated PCCA cell signaling was further supported by the findings that trypsin and the PAR(2)-selective agonist peptide, 2-furoyl-LIGRLO-NH(2), stimulated activating phosphorylation of these signaling molecules in cholangiocarcinoma cells. With our results, we provide a novel signal transduction module in cholangiocarcinoma cell migration involving PAR(2)-driven activation of Met, p42/p44 MAPKinases and Stat3.

  2. Store-operated CRAC channels regulate PAR2-activated Ca2+ signaling and cytokine production in airway epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Jairaman, Amit; Yamashita, Megumi; Schleimer, Robert P.; Prakriya, Murali

    2015-01-01

    The G-protein coupled protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of various inflammatory and auto-immune disorders. In airway epithelial cells (AECs), stimulation of PAR2 by allergens and proteases triggers the release of a host of inflammatory mediators to regulate bronchomotor tone and immune cell recruitment. Activation of PAR2 turns on several cell signaling pathways of which the mobilization of cytosolic Ca2+ is likely a critical but poorly understood event. Here, we show that Ca2+ release-activated Ca2+ (CRAC) channels encoded by STIM1 and Orai1 are a major route of Ca2+ entry in primary human AECs and drive the Ca2+ elevations seen in response to PAR2 activation. Activation of CRAC channels induces the production of several key inflammatory mediators from AECs including TSLP, IL-6 and PGE2, in part through stimulation of gene expression via NFAT (nuclear factor of activated T-cells). Furthermore, PAR2 stimulation induces the production of many key inflammatory mediators including PGE2, IL-6, IL-8 and GM-CSF in a CRAC-channel dependent manner. These findings indicate that CRAC channels are the primary mechanism for Ca2+ influx in AECs and a vital checkpoint for the induction of PAR2-induced proinflammatory cytokines. PMID:26238490

  3. Forecasting carbon dioxide emissions.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiaobing; Du, Ding

    2015-09-01

    This study extends the literature on forecasting carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions by applying the reduced-form econometrics approach of Schmalensee et al. (1998) to a more recent sample period, the post-1997 period. Using the post-1997 period is motivated by the observation that the strengthening pace of global climate policy may have been accelerated since 1997. Based on our parameter estimates, we project 25% reduction in CO2 emissions by 2050 according to an economic and population growth scenario that is more consistent with recent global trends. Our forecasts are conservative due to that we do not have sufficient data to fully take into account recent developments in the global economy.

  4. Global emissions inventories

    SciTech Connect

    Dignon, J.

    1995-07-01

    Atmospheric chemistry determines the concentrations of most of the important greenhouse gases except for carbon dioxide. The rate of removal of the greenhouse gases from the atmosphere is also controlled by atmospheric chemistry. The indirect effects of chemical forcing resulting from the chemical interactions of other species can also affect the concentrations of radiatively important gases such as ozone. In order to establish the contribution of any possible climatic change attributable to individual greenhouse gases, spatially and temporally resolved estimates of their emissions need to be established. Unfortunately, for most of the radiatively important species the global magnitudes of their individual fluxes are not known to better than a factor of two and their spatial distributions are even more poorly characterized. Efforts to estimate future projections of potential impacts and to monitor international agreements will require continued research to narrow the uncertainties of magnitude and geographical distribution of emissions.

  5. ELECTRON EMISSION REGULATING MEANS

    DOEpatents

    Brenholdt, I.R.

    1957-11-19

    >An electronic regulating system is described for controlling the electron emission of a cathode, for example, the cathode in a mass spectrometer. The system incorporates a transformer having a first secondary winding for the above-mentioned cathode and a second secondary winding for the above-mentioned cathode and a second secondary winding load by grid controlled vacuum tubes. A portion of the electron current emitted by the cathode is passed through a network which develops a feedback signal. The system arrangement is completed by using the feedback signal to control the vacuum tubes in the second secondary winding through a regulator tube. When a change in cathode emission occurs, the feedback signal acts to correct this change by adjusting the load on the transformer.

  6. Low emissions diesel fuel

    DOEpatents

    Compere, Alicia L.; Griffith, William L.; Dorsey, George F.; West, Brian H.

    1998-01-01

    A method and matter of composition for controlling NO.sub.x emissions from existing diesel engines. The method is achieved by adding a small amount of material to the diesel fuel to decrease the amount of NO.sub.x produced during combustion. Specifically, small amounts, less than about 1%, of urea or a triazine compound (methylol melamines) are added to diesel fuel. Because urea and triazine compounds are generally insoluble in diesel fuel, microemulsion technology is used to suspend or dissolve the urea or triazine compound in the diesel fuel. A typical fuel formulation includes 5% t-butyl alcohol, 4.5% water, 0.5% urea or triazine compound, 9% oleic acid, and 1% ethanolamine. The subject invention provides improved emissions in heavy diesel engines without the need for major modifications.

  7. Low emissions diesel fuel

    DOEpatents

    Compere, A.L.; Griffith, W.L.; Dorsey, G.F.; West, B.H.

    1998-05-05

    A method and matter of composition for controlling NO{sub x} emissions from existing diesel engines. The method is achieved by adding a small amount of material to the diesel fuel to decrease the amount of NO{sub x} produced during combustion. Specifically, small amounts, less than about 1%, of urea or a triazine compound (methylol melamines) are added to diesel fuel. Because urea and triazine compounds are generally insoluble in diesel fuel, microemulsion technology is used to suspend or dissolve the urea or triazine compound in the diesel fuel. A typical fuel formulation includes 5% t-butyl alcohol, 4.5% water, 0.5% urea or triazine compound, 9% oleic acid, and 1% ethanolamine. The subject invention provides improved emissions in heavy diesel engines without the need for major modifications.

  8. Noise Emission Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hübner, G.; Schorer, E.

    The acoustical efficiency of machines varies in the range of 10-9 to 10-5. This means even high power machines generate sound powers of a few Watts only. Due to the high sensitivity of the human ear however, such low sound powers create close to the machine loudnesses higher than 100 phon (64 sone). Consequently, the assessment of machinery noise emission requires relations to these subjective properties.

  9. Ionizing Emissions and Electronics,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-05-22

    TRANSLATION DIVISION OR OPINION OF THE FOREIGN TECHNOLOGY DI- FOREIGN TECHNOLOGY DIVISION VISION. WP.AFS, OHIO. FTI,- ID(RS)T-1675-83 Date 22 May 1984 M...8217’. .- ,- ,. -.. - -, - - -. -. , . . . ., . ). . .- . I- - - .-Z.’ DOC - 83167501 PAGE -3 Page 003. Introduction. In recent years, considerable attention is paid...emissions, which call considerable changes in the properties of radio engineering materials, it is accepted to at present carry the following forms of ’ 9

  10. Power plant emissions reduction

    DOEpatents

    Anand, Ashok Kumar; Nagarjuna Reddy, Thirumala Reddy

    2015-10-20

    A system for improved emissions performance of a power plant generally includes an exhaust gas recirculation system having an exhaust gas compressor disposed downstream from the combustor, a condensation collection system at least partially disposed upstream from the exhaust gas compressor, and a mixing chamber in fluid communication with the exhaust gas compressor and the condensation collection system, where the mixing chamber is in fluid communication with the combustor.

  11. Quantification of Emission Factor Uncertainty

    EPA Science Inventory

    Emissions factors are important for estimating and characterizing emissions from sources of air pollution. There is no quantitative indication of uncertainty for these emission factors, most factors do not have an adequate data set to compute uncertainty, and it is very difficult...

  12. Acoustic emission monitoring system

    DOEpatents

    Romrell, Delwin M.

    1977-07-05

    Methods and apparatus for identifying the source location of acoustic emissions generated within an acoustically conductive medium. A plurality of acoustic receivers are communicably coupled to the surface of the medium at a corresponding number of spaced locations. The differences in the reception time of the respective sensors in response to a given acoustic event are measured among various sensor combinations prescribed by the monitoring mode employed. Acoustic reception response encountered subsequent to the reception by a predetermined number of the prescribed sensor combinations are inhibited from being communicated to the processing circuitry, while the time measurements obtained from the prescribed sensor combinations are translated into a position measurement representative of the location on the surface most proximate the source of the emission. The apparatus is programmable to function in six separate and five distinct operating modes employing either two, three or four sensory locations. In its preferred arrangement the apparatus of this invention will re-initiate a monitoring interval if the predetermined number of sensors do not respond to a particular emission within a given time period.

  13. Methanol and isoprene emissions from the fast growing tropical pioneer species Vismia guianensis (Aubl.) Pers. (Hypericaceae) in the central Amazon forest

    DOE PAGES

    Jardine, Kolby J.; Jardine, Angela B.; Souza, Vinicius F.; ...

    2016-05-26

    Isoprene (Is) emissions by plants represent a loss of carbon and energy resources leading to the initial hypothesis that fast growing pioneer species in secondary tropical forests allocate carbon primarily to growth at the expense of isoprenoid defenses. In this study, we quantified leaf isoprene and methanol emissions from the abundant pantropical pioneer tree species Vismia guianensis and ambient isoprene concentrations above a diverse secondary forest in the central Amazon. As photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) was varied (0 to 3000 µmol m−2 s−1) under standard leaf temperature (30 °C), isoprene emissions from V. guianensis increased without saturation up to 80 nmol m−2 s−1. A nonlinear increase inmore » isoprene emissions with respect to net photosynthesis (Pn) resulted in the fraction of Pn dedicated to isoprene emissions increasing with light intensity (up to 2 % of Pn). Emission responses to temperature under standard light conditions (PAR of 1000 µmol m−2 s−1) resulted in the classic uncoupling of isoprene emissions (Topt, iso > 40 °C) from net photosynthesis (Topt, Pn = 30.0–32.5 °C) with up to 7 % of Pn emitted as isoprene at 40 °C. Under standard environmental conditions of PAR and leaf temperature, young V. guianensis leaves showed high methanol emissions, low Pn, and low isoprene emissions. In contrast, mature leaves showed high Pn, high isoprene emissions, and low methanol emissions, highlighting the differential control of leaf phenology over methanol and isoprene emissions. High daytime ambient isoprene concentrations (11 ppbv) were observed above a secondary Amazon rainforest, suggesting that isoprene emissions are common among neotropical pioneer species. The results are not consistent with the initial hypothesis and support a functional role of methanol during leaf expansion and the establishment of photosynthetic machinery and a protective role of isoprene for

  14. Biogenic emissions and CO 2 gas exchange investigated on four Mediterranean shrubs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, U.; van Eijk, J.; Bertin, N.; Staudt, M.; Kotzias, D.; Seufert, G.; Fugit, J.-L.; Torres, L.; Cecinato, A.; Brancaleoni, E.; Ciccioli, P.; Bomboi, T.

    In order to investigate the impact of plant physiology on emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds monoterpene emission rates from Rosmarinus officinalis (L.) and Pistacia lentiscus (L.) and isoprene emission rates from Erica arborea (L.) and Myrtus communis (L.) were determined. The study, an activity in the framework of BEMA (Biogenic Emissions in the Mediterranean Area), was carried out in May 1994 at Castelporziano near Rome in Italy, using a dynamic enclosure technique combined with recording CO 2 gas exchange, temperature and irradiance data. The monoterpenes dominating the emission pattern were 1,8-cineol, α-pinene and β-pinene for rosemary and α-pinene, linalool and β-pinene + sabinene for pistachio. Total monoterpene emission rates standardized to 30°C of 1.84 ± 0.24 and 0.35 ± 0.04 μg Cg -1 dw h -1 were found for rosemary and pistachio, respectively (on a leaf dry weight basis). Myrtle emitted 22.2 ± 4.9 μg C g -1 dw h -1 at standard conditions (30°C, PAR 1000 μmol photons m -2 s -1 as isoprene and erica 5.61 μg C g -1 dw h -1 The carbon loss due to terpenoid emissions per photosynthetically carbon uptake was about 0.01-0.1% for the monoterpene emitters. The isoprene emitting shrubs lost 0-0.9% of the assimilated carbon. The rapid induction of emissions in the sun after temporary shading indicates that isoprene emissions were closely linked to photosynthesis. A higher proportion of the assimilated carbon was lost as isoprene under conditions of high light and temperature compared to the morning and evening hours.

  15. Protease Activated Receptor 2 (PAR2) Induces Long-Term Depression in the Hippocampus through Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 4 (TRPV4)

    PubMed Central

    Shavit-Stein, Efrat; Artan-Furman, Avital; Feingold, Ekaterina; Ben Shimon, Marina; Itzekson-Hayosh, Zeev; Chapman, Joab; Vlachos, Andreas; Maggio, Nicola

    2017-01-01

    Protease activated receptors (PARs) are involved in regulating synaptic transmission and plasticity in the brain. While it is well-accepted that PAR1 mediates long-term potentiation (LTP) of excitatory synaptic strength, the role of PAR2 in synaptic plasticity remains not well-understood. In this study, we assessed the role of PAR2-signaling in plasticity at hippocampal Schaffer collateral-CA1 synapses. Using field potential recordings, we report that PAR2-activation leads to long-term depression (LTD) of synaptic transmission through a protein kinase A -dependent, Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 4 -mediated mechanism, which requires the activation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors. These results demonstrate that the effects of PAR2 on synaptic plasticity are distinct from what is observed upon PAR1-activation. Thus, we propose that the activation of different classes of PARs, i.e., PAR1 and PAR2, may set the threshold of synaptic plasticity in the hippocampal network by balancing LTP and LTD. PMID:28303089

  16. Bazooka/PAR3 is dispensable for polarity in Drosophila follicular epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Shahab, Jaffer; Tiwari, Manu D; Honemann-Capito, Mona; Krahn, Michael P; Wodarz, Andreas

    2015-03-13

    Apico-basal polarity is the defining characteristic of epithelial cells. In Drosophila, apical membrane identity is established and regulated through interactions between the highly conserved Par complex (Bazooka/Par3, atypical protein kinase C and Par6), and the Crumbs complex (Crumbs, Stardust and PATJ). It has been proposed that Bazooka operates at the top of a genetic hierarchy in the establishment and maintenance of apico-basal polarity. However, there is still ambiguity over the correct sequence of events and cross-talk with other pathways during this process. In this study, we reassess this issue by comparing the phenotypes of the commonly used baz(4) and baz(815-8) alleles with those of the so far uncharacterized baz(XR11) and baz(EH747) null alleles in different Drosophila epithelia. While all these baz alleles display identical phenotypes during embryonic epithelial development, we observe strong discrepancies in the severity and penetrance of polarity defects in the follicular epithelium: polarity is mostly normal in baz(EH747) and baz(XR11) while baz(4) and baz(815) (-8) show loss of polarity, severe multilayering and loss of epithelial integrity throughout the clones. Further analysis reveals that the chromosomes carrying the baz(4) and baz(815-8) alleles may contain additional mutations that enhance the true baz loss-of-function phenotype in the follicular epithelium. This study clearly shows that Baz is dispensable for the regulation of polarity in the follicular epithelium, and that the requirement for key regulators of cell polarity is highly dependent on developmental context and cell type.

  17. A prospective study on postoperative discomfort after 20-gauge pars plana vitrectomy

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Ji-guo; Ni, Fang; Xiang, Yi; Feng, Yi-fan; Wang, Jue; Fu, Xun-an

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate postoperative pain and other irritation symptoms after 20-gauge (20G) pars plana vitrectomy. Materials and methods A total of 110 consecutive patients were enrolled in our studies, and 87 patients who underwent the conventional 20G pars plana vitrectomy were included in the final analysis. All vitrectomies were performed using the same surgical technique by the same surgeon. Patients were examined before surgery and 1 day, 3 days, 7 days, 1 month, and 2 months postoperatively. The main outcome measures include patient age and sex, intraocular pressure (IOP), ocular pain, pain score, pain medication use, and other irritation symptoms comprising itching, foreign body sensation, burning, photophobia, and dryness. The pain was evaluated using the Numerical Rating Scale scored from 0 to 10. Results Postoperative pain was relatively common during the first day after surgery, as it was reported by 43 (49.4%) patients. Then, the prevalence gradually decreased to eleven (12.6%) patients at 2 months. Most patients reported mild or moderate pain, with a pain score of 1–5, but only four patients were given analgesics for ocular pain. A postoperative rise of IOP was noted in 25 patients at day 1. Most of these patients with high IOP reported moderate pain. Other ocular irritation symptoms were varied after surgery. There was still one-quarter of patients that had foreign body sensation and dryness symptoms at month 2 after surgery. Conclusion Mild and moderate ocular pain were relatively common after 20G vitrectomy, which is more often associated with elevated IOP. Other irritation symptoms were also presented after surgery and could affect the life quality of patients. Therefore, the discomforts after 20G pars plana vitrectomy should be of concern, and timely management should be provided as part of routine postoperative care. PMID:26244010

  18. Topography of dyskinesias and torticollis evoked by inhibition of substantia nigra pars reticulata.

    PubMed

    Dybdal, David; Forcelli, Patrick A; Dubach, Mark; Oppedisano, Michael; Holmes, Angela; Malkova, Ludise; Gale, Karen

    2013-04-01

    GABAergic neurons of the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNpr) and globus pallidus pars interna (GPi) constitute the output pathways of the basal ganglia. In monkeys, choreiform limb dyskinesias have been described after inhibition of the GPi, but not the SNpr. Given the anatomical and functional similarities between these structures, we hypothesized that choreiform dyskinesias could be evoked by inhibition of an appropriate region within the SNpr. The GABAA receptor agonist, muscimol, was infused into various sites within the SNpr and the adjacent STN of freely moving macaques. The effect of the GABAA antagonist, bicuculline (BIC), was also examined. Muscimol (MUS) in SNpr evoked the following: (1) choreiform dyskinesias of the contralateral arm and/or leg from central and lateral sites; (2) contralaterally directed torticollis from central and posterior sites; and (3) contraversive quadrupedal rotation from anterior and lateral sites. MUS infusions into the adjacent SN pars compacta or STN were without effect, ruling out a contribution of drug spread to adjacent structures. BIC in SNpr induced ipsiversive postures without choreiform dyskinesia or torticollis, whereas in the STN, it evoked ballistic movements. This is the first report of choreiform dyskinesia evoked by inhibition of the SNpr. This highly site-specific effect was obtained from a restricted region within the SNpr distinct from that responsible for inducing torticollis. These results suggest that overactivity of different SNpr outputs mediates choreiform dyskinesia and torticollis. These abnormalities are symptoms of dystonia, Huntington's disease, and iatrogenic dyskinesias, suggesting that these conditions may result, in part, from a loss of function in SNpr efferent projections.

  19. Vasodilator-Stimulated Phosphoprotein Deficiency Potentiates PAR-1-induced Increase in Endothelial Permeability in Mouse Lungs

    PubMed Central

    Profirovic, Jasmina; Han, Jingyan; Andreeva, Alexandra V.; Neamu, Radu F.; Pavlovic, Sasha; Vogel, Stephen M.; Walter, Ulrich; Voyno-Yasenetskaya, Tatyana A.

    2010-01-01

    Vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) is implicated in the protection of the endothelial barrier in vitro and in vivo. VASP function in thrombin signaling in the endothelial cells (ECs) is not known. For the first time we studied the effects of VASP deficiency on EC permeability and pulmonary vascular permeability in response to thrombin receptor stimulation. We provided the evidence that VASP deficiency potentiates the increase in endothelial permeability induced by activation of thrombin receptor in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and isolated mouse lungs. Using transendothelial resistance measurement, we showed that siRNA-mediated VASP downregulation in HUVECs leads to a potentiation of thrombin- and protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR-1) agonist-induced increase in endothelial permeability. Compared to control cells, VASP-deficient HUVECs had delayed endothelial junctional reassembly and abrogated VE-cadherin cytoskeletal anchoring in the recovery phase after thrombin stimulation, as demonstrated by immunofluorescence studies and cell fractionation analysis, respectively. Measurement of the capillary filtration coefficient in isolated mouse lungs demonstrated that VASP−/− mice have increased microvascular permeability in response to infusion with PAR-1 agonist compared to wild type mice. Lack of VASP led to decreased Rac1 activation both in VASP-deficient HUVECs after thrombin stimulation and VASP−/− mouse lungs after PAR-1 agonist infusion, indicating that VASP effects on thrombin signaling may correlated with changes in Rac1 activity. This study demonstrates that VASP may play critical and complex role in the regulation of thrombin-dependent disruption of the endothelial barrier function. PMID:20945373

  20. Peptide binding properties of the three PDZ domains of Bazooka (Drosophila Par-3).

    PubMed

    Yu, Cao Guo; Tonikian, Raffi; Felsensteiner, Corinna; Jhingree, Jacquelyn R; Desveaux, Darrell; Sidhu, Sachdev S; Harris, Tony J C

    2014-01-01

    The Par complex is a conserved cell polarity regulator. Bazooka/Par-3 is scaffold for the complex and contains three PDZ domains in tandem. PDZ domains can act singly or synergistically to bind the C-termini of interacting proteins. Sequence comparisons among Drosophila Baz and its human and C. elegans Par-3 counterparts indicate a divergence of the peptide binding pocket of PDZ1 and greater conservation for the pockets of PDZ2 and PDZ3. However, it is unclear whether the domains from different species share peptide binding preferences, or if their tandem organization affects their peptide binding properties. To investigate these questions, we first used phage display screens to identify unique peptide binding profiles for each single PDZ domain of Baz. Comparisons with published phage display screens indicate that Baz and C. elegans PDZ2 bind to similar peptides, and that the peptide binding preferences of Baz PDZ3 are more similar to C. elegans versus human PDZ3. Next we quantified the peptide binding preferences of each Baz PDZ domain using single identified peptides in surface plasmon resonance assays. In these direct binding studies, each peptide had a binding preference for a single PDZ domain (although the peptide binding of PDZ2 was weakest and the least specific). PDZ1 and PDZ3 bound their peptides with dissociation constants in the nM range, whereas PDZ2-peptide binding was in the µM range. To test whether tandem PDZ domain organization affects peptide binding, we examined a fusion protein containing all three PDZ domains and their normal linker regions. The binding strengths of the PDZ-specific peptides to single PDZ domains and to the PDZ domain tandem were indistinguishable. Thus, the peptide binding pockets of each PDZ domain in Baz are not obviously affected by the presence of neighbouring PDZ domains, but act as isolated modules with specific in vitro peptide binding preferences.

  1. Ensemble Kalman Filter Data Assimilation with the ParFlow Hydrologic Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, J. L., III

    2015-12-01

    Hydrometeorological research has shown that simulations of atmospheric processes benefit from sophisticated land surface formulations. Moisture and energy fluxes between the land surface and lower atmosphere are influenced strongly not only by atmospheric conditions, but by terrestrial hydrologic processes, soil moisture distribution in particular. By improving the representation of hydrologic processes, better predictive skill can be achieved in a fully-coupled weather forcasting model. Further improvements in the model can be realized by incorporating observed data values into the hydrologic model. This work applies the Ensemble Kalman Filter functionality included in the Data Assimilation Assimilation Research Testbed (DART), a collection of data assimilation tools maintained at the National Center for Atmospheric Research, to the ParFlow hydrologic model—the hydrologic component of the TerrSysMP fully coupled hydrologic - land surface - atmospheric model system. This generalized data assimilation tool allows observations of variables in the hydrologic component of the system to be incorporated into the overall error covariance matrix thus guiding the development of quantities that define the model state. Single dimension column tests, and a three-dimensional idealized catchment drainage and dry-out test were performed with the ParFlow-DART system to evaluate the effects of assimilating pressure head, soil moisture, and outflow observations on the development of the model through time. The data assimilation system was then applied to the hydrologic portion a fully-coupled (subsurface, land surface, and atmosphere) simulation over the North Rhine-Westphalia region in western Germany to demonstrate the utility of this system in a non-idealized and realistic forecasting situation. The success of these tests will allow the ParFlow-DART system to be developed into a complete data assimilation package for the TerrSysMP fully-coupled modeling system.

  2. Ensemble Kalman Filter Data Assimilation for the ParFlow Hydrologic Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, John

    2014-05-01

    Research in hydrometeorology has demonstrated repeatedly that atmospheric models benefit from detailed formulations of the land surface, and that energy and moisture fluxes between the land surface and atmosphere are coupled strongly not only with atmospheric conditions, but also with subsurface hydrology—particularly soil moisture distribution. Improving the representation of hydrologic processes should lead to better predictive skill in a fully-coupled weather forecasting model, and the hydrologic model itself can be improved by incorporating observed data values. For this work, we apply the Ensemble Kalman Filter functionality included in the Data Assimilation Assimilation Research Testbed (DART), a collection of data assimilation tools maintained at the National Center for Atmospheric Research, to the ParFlow hydrologic model—the hydrologic component of the TerrSysMP fully coupled hydrologic - land surface - atmospheric model system. This generalized data assimilation tool allows observations of variables in the hydrologic component of the system to be incorporated into the overall error covariance matrix thus guiding the development of quantities that define the model state. Single dimension column tests, two-dimensional hillslope tests, and a three-dimensional drainage and dry-out test were performed with the ParFlow-DART system to evaluate the effects of assimilating pressure head, soil moisture, and outflow observations on the development of the model through time. The success of these tests will allow the ParFlow-DART system to be developed into a complete data assimilation package for the TerrSysMP fully-coupled modeling system.

  3. Development of an anthropogenic emissions processing system for Asia using SMOKE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woo, Jung-Hun; Choi, Ki-Chul; Kim, Hyeon Kook; Baek, Bok H.; Jang, Meongdo; Eum, Jeong-Hee; Song, Chul Han; Ma, Young-Il; Sunwoo, Young; Chang, Lim-Seok; Yoo, Seung Heon

    2012-10-01

    Air quality modeling is a useful methodology to investigate air quality degradation in various locations and to analyze effectiveness of emission reduction plans. A comprehensive air quality model usually requires a coordinated set of emissions input of all necessary chemical species. We have developed an anthropogenic emissions processing system for Asia in support of air quality modeling and analysis over Asia (named SMOKE-Asia). The SMOKE (Sparse Matrix Operator kernel Emissions) system, which was developed by U.S. EPA and has been maintained by the Carolina Environmental Program (CEP) of the University of North Carolina, was used to develop our emissions processing system. A merged version of INTEX 2006 and TRACE-P 2000 inventories was used as an initial Asian emissions inventory. The IDA (Inventory Data Analyzer) format was used to create SMOKE-ready emissions. Source Classification Codes (SCCs) and country/state/county (FIPS) code, which are the two key data fields of SMOKE IDA data structure, were created for Asia. The 38 SCCs and 2752 FIPS codes were allocated to our SMOKE-ready emissions for more comprehensive processing. US EPA's MIMS (Multimedia Integrated Modeling System) Spatial Allocator software, along with many global and regional GIS shapes, were used to create spatial allocation profiles for Asia. Temporal allocation and chemical speciation profiles were partly regionalized using Asia-based studies. Initial data production using the developed SMOKE-Asia system was successfully performed. NOx and VOC emissions for the year 2009 were projected to be increased by 50% from those of 1997. The emission hotspots, such as large cities and large point sources, are distinguished in the domain due to spatial allocation. Regional emission peaks were distinguished due to temporally resolved emission information. The PAR (Paraffin carbon bond) and XYL (Xylene and other polyalkyl aromatics) showed the first and second largest emission rate among VOC species

  4. Helicobacter pylori CagA Inhibits PAR1-MARK Family Kinases by Mimicking Host Substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Nesic, D.; Miller, M; Quinkert, Z; Stein, M; Chait, B; Stebbins, C

    2010-01-01

    The CagA protein of Helicobacter pylori interacts with numerous cellular factors and is associated with increased virulence and risk of gastric carcinoma. We present here the cocrystal structure of a subdomain of CagA with the human kinase PAR1b/MARK2, revealing that a CagA peptide mimics substrates of this kinase family, resembling eukaryotic protein kinase inhibitors. Mutagenesis of conserved residues central to this interaction renders CagA inactive as an inhibitor of MARK2.

  5. Enquete sur les aspects toxicologiques de la phytotherapie utilisee par un herboriste à Fes, Maroc

    PubMed Central

    Zeggwagh, Ali Amine; Lahlou, Younes; Bousliman, Yassir

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Dans le but d'étudier l'aspect toxicologique des plantes médicinales utilisées en médecine traditionnelle, une étude ethnobotanique a été réalisée à la ville de Fès au centre du Maroc. Méthodes Ont été inclus dans l'étude tous les patients ayant bénéficié d'une prescription par l'herboriste de plantes à visée thérapeutique. La discussion de nos résultats s'est faite sur la base d'une revue de la littérature avec identification des principales plantes toxiques utilisées en phytothérapie au Maroc. L'approche bibliographique a permis de compléter les informations. Résultats L'âge moyen des patients traités par des plantes (38 femmes, 32 hommes) était de 35 ± 18 ans. L'enquête ethnobotanique à révélé que la majorité des plantes médicinales étaient utilisées contre les affections urinaires (21%), suivi des maladies de l'appareil digestif (19.6%) et des maladies rhumatologiques (18.2%). Le nombre de plantes prescrits par l'herboriste a été de 53 dont 5 sont potentiellement toxiques. L'identification taxonomique des plantes prescrites a recensé 30 familles dont les plus représentées sont les Lamiaceae (23.33%), les Apiaceae (13,33%) et les Asteraceae (10%). La prescription des plantes considérées comme toxiques a concerné 7,1% des consultants traités par les plantes médicinales. Aucune complication inhérente aux plantes prescrites n'a été déplorée. Conclusion Malgré les résultats encourageants de notre enquête sur le compte de la phytothérapie, la pratique de la phytothérapie est laissée à la vulgarisation et à l'oubli scientifique, législatif et universitaire. PMID:23734270

  6. Dispositifs opto-électropiques à commande par coordonnées

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smovge, A. K.

    1994-06-01

    The approach has been explained theoretically and experimentally considering analog coordinate-controlled optoelectronic devices as an alternative to custom potentiometers and variable resistors, whose potentially unreliable element, a wiping electromechanical contact, is eliminated through the use of an optoelectronic conversion principle. The new designs have been proposed and requirements for discrete-continuous photoresistor structure have been determined by using both simple numeric and analytical models for a realization of the coordinate dependence of the output voltage and internal resistance with predetermined accuracy. The new type of optoelectronic coordinate-controlled delay line of millisecond-range pulsed signals have been proposed as well as the design of two-dimensional sensor of displacements. The new method for upgradding the noise immunity, based on the use of the photoconductivity response time dependence from the illuminance have been proposed. Une direction de recherches a été justifiée théoriquement et expérimentalement. Cette étude considère les dipositifs opto-électroniques à commande par coordonnées comme une alternative aux potentiomètres classiques dont l'élément défaillant éventuel, à savoir le contact électrique mobile de frottement, est supprimé par l'emploi d'une méthode de conversion optoélectronique. La nouvelle construction a été proposée et les exigences concernant la structure photorésistance discret-continu ont été déterminées par l'emploi des deux méthodes de calcul numérique et analytique. De nouvelles structures du dispositif de retard des signaux impulsionnels dans la gamme des millisecondes avec une durée de retard réglable à commande par coordonnées aussi bien que du vidéocapteur positionnel bidimensionnel sont proposées. Une nouvelle méthode de l'augmentation de sensibilité de ce vidéocapteur aux obstacles optiques, basée sur la dépendance du temps de la photoréponse du niveau d

  7. Comprehensive Cooling Water Study: Volume 7, Ecology of Par Pond, Savannah River Plant: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Wilde, E.W.

    1987-10-01

    The Comprehensive Cooling Water Study (CCWS) was initiated in 1983 to evaluate the environmental effects of the intake and release of cooling water on the structure and function of aquatic ecosystems at the Savannah River Plant. The initial report (Gladden et al., 1985) described the results from the first year of the study. This document is the final report and concludes the program. The report comprises eight volumes. The first is a summary of environmental effects. The other seven volumes address water quality, radionuclide and heavy metal transport, wetlands, aquatic ecology, Federally endangered species, ecology of Par Pond, and waterfowl. 222 refs., 31 figs., 67 tabs.

  8. Laser UV à semiconducteur nitrure pompé par des micropointes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barjon, J.; Adelmann, C.; Baptist, R.; Brault, J.; Daudin, B.; Dang, Le Si; Molva, E.

    2002-06-01

    Dans un Laser à Semiconducteur Micropointes (LSM), le milieu amplificateur est pompé par un faisceau d'électrons issus de micropointes effet de champ. Ce type de laser est particulièrement adapté aux semi-conducteurs à grands gaps tels que les nitrures GaN et AIN émettant dans l'UltraViolet, pour lesquels le dopage et la prise de contact ohmique deviennent problématiques. Ce papier présente ce dispositif et l'état d'avancement des travaux.

  9. Photoémission de Csl induite par une impulsion laser intense femtoseconde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belsky, A.; Vasil'Ev, A.; Yatsenko, B.; Bachau, H.; Martin, P.; Geoffroy, G.; Guizard, S.

    2003-06-01

    Nous avons mesuré pour la première fois les spectres de photoélectrons émis par un cristal isolant à large bande interdite, Csl, avec une dynamique de 10^6 coups/s, excité par la source laser haute cadence du C.E.L.I.A (800 nm, 40 fs, 1 kHz, 1 TW). L'émission d'électrons jusqu'à des énergies de quelques dizaines d'électrons-volts a été observée pour des impulsions d'éclairement compris entre 0.5 et 3 TW/cm^2, relativement faible donc par comparaison aux éclairements utilisés pour accélérer les électrons d'un atome aux mêmes énergies. Ces spectres contiennent tous, en particulier, deux bandes dans le domaine des basses énergies d'électrons (<5 eV), également observées lors d'études précédentes. Les électrons les plus énergétiques forment un plateau intense légèrement structuré et limité par une coupure exponentielle. Pour des impulsions de 3 TW/cm^2 cette coupure est située à 27 eV. L'insuffisance du mécanisme électron-photon-phonon, considéré jusqu'à présent comme le principal processus d'échauffement des électrons dans les solides en interaction non destructrice avec un champ laser, nous a poussé à proposer un mécanisme alternatif. Ce modèle met en évidence les transitions directes multiphotoniques dans la bande de conduction du solide qui sont incontournables du fait de sa structure électronique multi-branches

  10. Peptide-Based Optical uPAR Imaging for Surgery: In Vivo Testing of ICG-Glu-Glu-AE105

    PubMed Central

    Juhl, Karina; Christensen, Anders; Persson, Morten; Ploug, Michael; Kjaer, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Near infrared intra-operative optical imaging is an emerging technique with clear implications for improved cancer surgery by enabling a more distinct delineation of the tumor margins during resection. This modality has the potential to increase the number of patients having a curative radical tumor resection. In the present study, a new uPAR-targeted fluorescent probe was developed and the in vivo applicability was evaluated in a human xenograft mouse model. Most human carcinomas express high level of uPAR in the tumor-stromal interface of invasive lesions and uPAR is therefore considered an ideal target for intra-operative imaging. Conjugation of the flourophor indocyanine green (ICG) to the uPAR agonist (AE105) provides an optical imaging ligand with sufficiently high receptor affinity to allow for a specific receptor targeting in vivo. For in vivo testing, human glioblastoma xenograft mice were subjected to optical imaging after i.v. injection of ICG-AE105, which provided an optimal contrast in the time window 6–24 h post injection. Specificity of the uPAR-targeting probe ICG-AE105 was demonstrated in vivo by 1) no uptake of unconjugated ICG after 15 hours, 2) inhibition of ICG-AE105 tumor uptake by a bolus injection of the natural uPAR ligand pro-uPA, and finally 3) the histological colocalization of ICG-AE105 fluorescence and immunohistochemical detected human uPAR on resected tumor slides. Taken together, our data supports the potential use of this probe for intra-operative optical guidance in cancer surgery to ensure complete removal of tumors while preserving adjacent, healthy tissue. PMID:26828431

  11. Infrared Atmospheric Emission. I.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-03-01

    contract. They are (i) "The 5g Levels of Atomic Nitrogen" AO)YA ii Edward S. Chang and Hajime Sakai J. Phys. B 14, L391 (1981) (ii) "Infrared Emission...At. Idol. Phys. 14 (1981) L391 -L395. printed in Great Bjritain LETTER TO THE EDITOR INC 5g levels of atomic nitrogent Edward S Chang and Hajime Sakai...81/120391 +05$01.30 C) 1981 The Institute of Physics L391 The U.S. Qovermnt is authoried to repoduce and sem tns report. Parmb@a- or ur Uther

  12. Positron Emission Tomography (PET)

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Welch, M. J.

    1990-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) assesses biochemical processes in the living subject, producing images of function rather than form. Using PET, physicians are able to obtain not the anatomical information provided by other medical imaging techniques, but pictures of physiological activity. In metaphoric terms, traditional imaging methods supply a map of the body's roadways, its, anatomy; PET shows the traffic along those paths, its biochemistry. This document discusses the principles of PET, the radiopharmaceuticals in PET, PET research, clinical applications of PET, the cost of PET, training of individuals for PET, the role of the United States Department of Energy in PET, and the futures of PET.

  13. Emission control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrish, Clyde F. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    Methods and apparatus utilizing hydrogen peroxide are useful to reduce NOx, SOx and mercury (or other heavy metal) emissions from combustion flue gas streams. Continuous concentration of hydrogen peroxide to levels approaching or exceeding propellant-grade hydrogen peroxide facilitates increased system efficiency. In this manner, combustion flue gas streams can be treated for the removal of NOx, SOx and heavy metals, while isolating useful by-products streams of sulfuric acid and nitric acid as well as solids for the recovery of the heavy metals.

  14. Acoustic emission intrusion detector

    DOEpatents

    Carver, Donald W.; Whittaker, Jerry W.

    1980-01-01

    An intrusion detector is provided for detecting a forcible entry into a secured structure while minimizing false alarms. The detector uses a piezoelectric crystal transducer to sense acoustic emissions. The transducer output is amplified by a selectable gain amplifier to control the sensitivity. The rectified output of the amplifier is applied to a Schmitt trigger circuit having a preselected threshold level to provide amplitude discrimination. Timing circuitry is provided which is activated by successive pulses from the Schmitt trigger which lie within a selected time frame for frequency discrimination. Detected signals having proper amplitude and frequency trigger an alarm within the first complete cycle time of a detected acoustical disturbance signal.

  15. Improve emissions monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Vining, S.K.

    1998-01-01

    Marathon`s Texas City refinery was subject to five separate EPA regulations in addition to a state program for monitoring and repairing fugitive leaks. In this case history, the refinery sought an organizational solution that reduced monitoring costs and kept the facility fully compliant with current state and federal regulations. Equally important, the new monitoring program incorporated flexibility for future emission-reduction requirements. The paper describes the solution, regulatory background, the previous system, leak-threshold consolidation, operator ownership, and projects benefits.

  16. Solar radio emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldman, M. V.; Smith, D. F.

    1981-01-01

    Active areas of both observational and theoretical research in which rapid progress is being made are discussed. These include: (1) the dynamic spectrum or frequency versus time plot; (2) physical mechanisms in the development of various types of bursts; (3) microwave type 1, 2, 3, and moving type 4 bursts; (4) bursts caused by trapped electrons; (5) physics of type 3bursts; (6) the physics of type 2 bursts and their related shocks; (7) the physics of both stationary and moving traps and associated type 1 and moving type 4 bursts; and (8) the status of the field of solar radio emission.

  17. Positron Emission Tomography (PET)

    SciTech Connect

    Welch, M.J.

    1990-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) assesses biochemical processes in the living subject, producing images of function rather than form. Using PET, physicians are able to obtain not the anatomical information provided by other medical imaging techniques, but pictures of physiological activity. In metaphoric terms, traditional imaging methods supply a map of the body's roadways, its, anatomy; PET shows the traffic along those paths, its biochemistry. This document discusses the principles of PET, the radiopharmaceuticals in PET, PET research, clinical applications of PET, the cost of PET, training of individuals for PET, the role of the United States Department of Energy in PET, and the futures of PET. 22 figs.

  18. Synthese de champs sonores adaptative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gauthier, Philippe-Aubert

    La reproduction de champs acoustiques est une approche physique au probleme technologique de la spatialisation sonore. Cette these concerne l'aspect physique de la reproduction de champs acoustiques. L'objectif principal est l'amelioration de la reproduction de champs acoustiques par "synthese de champs acoustiques" ("Wave Field Synthesis", WFS), une approche connue, basee sur des hypotheses de champ libre, a l'aide du controle actif par l'ajout de capteurs de l'erreur de reproduction et d'une boucle fermee. Un premier chapitre technique (chapitre 4) expose les resultats d'appreciation objective de la WFS par simulations et mesures experimentales. L'effet indesirable de la salle de reproduction sur les qualites objectives de la WFS fut illustre. Une premiere question de recherche fut ensuite abordee (chapitre 5), a savoir s'il est possible de reproduire des champs progressifs en salle dans un paradigme physique de controle actif: cette possibilite fut prouvee. L'approche technique privilegiee, "synthese de champs adaptative" ("Adaptive Wave Field Synthesis" [AWFS]), fut definie, puis simulee (chapitre 6). Cette approche d'AWFS comporte une originalite en controle actif et en reproduction de champs acoustiques: la fonction cout quadratique representant la minimisation des erreurs de reproduction inclut une regularisation de Tikhonov avec solution a priori qui vient de la WFS. L'etude de l'AWFS a l'aide de la decomposition en valeurs singulieres (chapitre 7) a permis de comprendre les mecanismes propres a l'AWFS. C'est la deuxieme principale originalite de la these. L'algorithme FXLMS (LMS et reference filtree) est modifie pour l'AWFS (chapitre 8). Le decouplage du systeme par decomposition en valeurs singulieres est illustre dans le domaine du traitement de signal et l'AWFS basee sur le controle independant des modes de rayonnement est simulee (chapitre 8). Ce qui constitue la troisieme originalite principale de cette these. Ces simulations du traitement de signal

  19. Photosynthesis of Littorella uniflora grown under two PAR regimes: C3 and CAM gas exchange and the regulation of internal CO2 and O2 concentrations.

    PubMed

    Robe, W E; Griffiths, H

    1990-11-01

    The submersed aquatic macrophyte Littorella uniflora was grown under 50 and 300 μmol m(-2) s(-1) photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) (low and high PAR regimes) but identical sediment CO2 supply (1.0 mol m(-3)). The interactions between plant morphology, whole plant CO2 and O2 exchange, CAM activity, [CO2] i and [O2] i have been investigated in comparison with in vitro CO2 and PAR response characteristics (using 1 mm leaf sections). In terms of morphology, high-PAR-grown plants were smaller and leaves contained less chlorophyll, although root growth was proportionally larger. Gas exchange fluxes over roots and shoots of intact plants were similar in direction under the two PAR regimes, with the majority of CO2 uptake via the roots. Photosynthetic O2 evolution from intact plants was greater in high-PAR-grown L. uniflora (2.18 compared with 1.49 μmol O2g(-1) fresh weight h(-1) for the low PAR regime). Although net daytime CO2 uptake was similar for both PAR regimes (0.79 and 0.75 μmol g(-1) fwt h(-1)), net dark CO2 uptake was at a higher rate (0.92 compared with 0.52 μmol CO2 g(-1) fwt h(-1)), and dark fixation (as malic acid) was threefold greater in high PAR plants (ΔH(+) 117 compared with 42 μmol H(+) g(-1) fwt). Comparison of dark CO2 uptake with dark fixation suggested that much of the CO2 fixed at night and regenerated during the day may be respiratory in origin (60% low PAR plants, 71% high PAR plants). Regeneration of CO2 from CAM could account for 62% of daytime CO2 supply in low PAR plants and 81% in high PAR plants. [CO2] i values (ranging from 0.42 to 1.03 mol m(-3)) were close to or above the concentration required to saturate photosynthesis in vitro (0.5 mol m(-3)) under both PAR regimes, and combined with the low [O2] i (2.6-4.3 mol m(-3)) should have suppressed photorespiration. However, PAR inside leaves would have been well below the in vitro light saturation requirement (850-1000 μmol m(-2) s(-1) for both treatments). Thus PAR rather

  20. Emissions From the Terrestrial Biosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiedinmyer, C.; Guenther, A.; Belote, A.; Klos, K.

    2004-12-01

    The terrestrial biosphere plays a critical role in the functioning of the earth system. Vegetation emits significant amounts of volatile organic compounds (VOC) and aerosols to the atmosphere through several pathways that include physiological and biochemical processes and disturbances such as wildfire and herbivory. Biogenic VOC emissions can affect chemical processes that determine air quality and control the lifetimes of longer lived chemical species. Direct aerosol emissions from vegetation and wildfires and secondary aerosols formed by biogenic VOC can impact public health, change cloud properties, and control climate processes. Biogenic emissions play a critical role in many atmospheric and biogeochemical processes. Therefore, to realistically simulate the earth system, including air quality and climate, reasonable estimates of biogenic emissions must be included in those simulations. This paper presents an overview of biogenic emissions from undisturbed vegetation and from wildfire. Models that simulate these emissions have been developed to create inputs for regional and global chemical transport models and for climate models. Despite the success in biogenic emission model development, technical challenges for such modeling still exist. Biogenic emission models use a variety of input information, including satellite data, field observations, and output from other models (e.g. NCEP, MM5, WRF). These inputs have a variety of spatial and temporal resolutions and are available in many different formats. Several of the challenges encountered when modeling biogenic emissions will be addressed, including difficulties in applying different input datasets due to format, size, and spatial resolution and limitations in software that hinder the processing of emission estimates.

  1. Étude comparative des techniques d'analyse par fluorescence X à dispersion d'énergie (ED-XRF) et à dispersion de longueur d'onde (WD-XRF), et par spectrométrie d'émission atomique à source plasma couplée par induction (ICP-AES)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahmani, A.; Benyaïch, F.; Bounakhla, M.; Bilal, E.; Moutte, J.; Gruffat, J. J.; Zahry, F.

    2004-11-01

    Dans ce travail, nous présentons une étude comparative des techniques d'analyse par fluorescence X à dispersion d'énergie (ED-XRF) et à dispersion de longueur d'onde (WD-XRF), et par spectrométrie d'émission atomique à source plasma couplée par induction (ICP-AES). Les résultats de la calibration des spectromètres à dispersion d'énergie, à excitation par sources radioactives (55Fe, 109Cd et 241Am) et à excitation secondaire (cible secondaire Mo et Cu) du Centre National pour l'Energie, les Sciences et les Techniques Nucléaires (CNESTEN, Rabat, Maroc) sur des échantillons étalons de références de l'Agence International de l'Energie Atomique (AIEA) et du Community Bureau of Référence (BCR) ont été comparés aux résultats d'analyse des mêmes échantillons étalons par la spectrométrie X à dispersion de longueur d'onde (WD-XRF) et par spectrométrie d'émission atomique à source plasma couplé par induction (ICP-AES) au département GENERIC du centre SPIN à l'Ecole des Mines de Saint-Etienne (France). Les trois techniques d'analyse utilisées donnent des résultats comparables pour le dosage des éléments majeurs, alors que pour les traces on note des déviations importantes à cause des effets de matrice qui sont difficiles à corriger dans le cas de la fluorescence X.

  2. Acoustical emission from bubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longuet-Higgins, Michael S.

    1991-12-01

    The scientific objectives of this report are to investigate the dynamics of bubbles formed from a free surface (particularly the upper surface of the ocean) by breaking waves, and the resulting emission of underwater sound. The chief natural source of underwater sound in the ocean at frequencies from 0.5 to 50 kHz is known to be the acoustical emission from newly-formed bubbles and bubble clouds, particularly those created by breaking waves and rain. Attention has been drawn to the occurrence of high-speed jets directed into the bubble just after bubble closure. They have been observed both in rain-drop impacts and in the release of bubbles from an underwater nozzle. Qualitatively they are similar to the inward jets seen in the collapse of a cavitation bubble. There is also a similarity to the highly-accelerated upward jets in standing water waves (accelerations greater than 20g) or in bubbles bursting at a free surface. We have adopted a theoretical approach based on the dynamics of incompressible fluids with a free surface.

  3. Elastic emission polishing

    SciTech Connect

    Loewenthal, M.; Loseke, K.; Dow, T.A.; Scattergood, R.O.

    1988-12-01

    Elastic emission polishing, also called elastic emission machining (EEM), is a process where a stream of abrasive slurry is used to remove material from a substrate and produce damage free surfaces with controlled surface form. It is a noncontacting method utilizing a thick elasto-hydrodynamic film formed between a soft rotating ball and the workpiece to control the flow of the abrasive. An apparatus was built in the Center, which consists of a stationary spindle, a two-axis table for the workpiece, and a pump to circulate the working fluid. The process is controlled by a programmable computer numerical controller (CNC), which presently can operate the spindle speed and movement of the workpiece in one axis only. This apparatus has been used to determine material removal rates on different material samples as a function of time, utilizing zirconium oxide (ZrO{sub 2}) particles suspended in distilled water as the working fluid. By continuing a study of removal rates the process should become predictable, and thus create a new, effective, yet simple tool for ultra-precision mechanical machining of surfaces.

  4. Zero emission coal

    SciTech Connect

    Ziock, H.; Lackner, K.

    2000-08-01

    We discuss a novel, emission-free process for producing hydrogen or electricity from coal. Even though we focus on coal, the basic design is compatible with any carbonaceous fuel. The process uses cyclical carbonation of calcium oxide to promote the production of hydrogen from carbon and water. The carbonation of the calcium oxide removes carbon dioxide from the reaction products and provides the additional energy necessary to complete hydrogen production without additional combustion of carbon. The calcination of the resulting calcium carbonate is accomplished using the high temperature waste heat from solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC), which generate electricity from hydrogen fuel. Converting waste heat back to useful chemical energy allows the process to achieve very high conversion efficiency from fuel energy to electrical energy. As the process is essentially closed-loop, the process is able to achieve zero emissions if the concentrated exhaust stream of CO{sub 2} is sequestered. Carbon dioxide disposal is accomplished by the production of magnesium carbonate from ultramafic rock. The end products of the sequestration process are stable naturally occurring minerals. Sufficient rich ultramafic deposits exist to easily handle all the world's coal.

  5. Ion photon emission microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, P.; Doyle, B. L.; Banks, J. C.; Battistella, A.; Gennaro, G.; McDaniel, F. D.; Mellon, M.; Vittone, E.; Vizkelethy, G.; Wing, N. D.

    2003-09-01

    A new ion-induced emission microscopy has been invented and demonstrated, which is called ion photon emission microscopy (IPEM). It employs a low current, broad ion beam impinging on a sample, previously coated or simply covered with a few microns of a fast, highly efficient phosphor layer. The light produced at the single ion impact point is collected with an optical microscope and projected at high magnification onto a single photon position sensitive detector (PSD). This allows maps of the ion strike effects to be produced, effectively removing the need for a microbeam. Irradiation in air and even the use of alpha particle sources with no accelerator are possible. Potential applications include ion beam induced charge collection studies of semiconducting and insulating materials, single event upset studies on microchips and even biological cells in radiobiological effectiveness experiments. We describe the IPEM setup, including a 60× OM-40 microscope with a 1.5 mm hole for the beam transmission and a Quantar PSD with 60 μm pixel. Bicron plastic scintillator blades of 10 μm were chosen as a phosphor for their nanosecond time resolution, homogeneity, utility and commercial availability. The results given in this paper are for a prototype IPEM system. They indicate a resolution of ˜12 μm, the presence of a spatial halo and a He-ion efficiency of ˜20%. This marks the first time that nuclear microscopy has been performed with a radioactive source.

  6. Biomass burning - Combustion emissions, satellite imagery, and biogenic emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, Joel S.; Cofer, Wesley R., III; Winstead, Edward L.; Rhinehart, Robert P.; Cahoon, Donald R., Jr.; Sebacher, Daniel I.; Sebacher, Shirley; Stocks, Brian J.

    1991-01-01

    After detailing a technique for the estimation of the instantaneous emission of trace gases produced by biomass burning, using satellite imagery, attention is given to the recent discovery that burning results in significant enhancement of biogenic emissions of N2O, NO, and CH4. Biomass burning accordingly has an immediate and long-term impact on the production of atmospheric trace gases. It is presently demonstrated that satellite imagery of fires may be used to estimate combustion emissions, and could be used to estimate long-term postburn biogenic emission of trace gases to the atmosphere.

  7. A Community Emissions Data System (CEDS) for Historical Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Steven J.; Zhou, Yuyu; Kyle, G. Page; Wang, Hailong; Yu, Hongbin

    2015-04-21

    Historical emission estimates for anthropogenic aerosol and precursor compounds are key data needed for Earth system models, climate models, and atmospheric chemistry and transport models; both for general analysis and assessment and also for model validation through comparisons with observations. Current global emission data sets have a number of shortcomings, including timeliness and transparency. Satellite and other earth-system data are increasingly available in near real-time, but global emission estimates lag by 5-10 years. The CEDS project will construct a data-driven, open source framework to produce annually updated emission estimates. The basic methodologies to be used for this system have been used for SO2 (Smith et al. 2011, Klimont, Smith and Cofala 2013), and are designed to complement existing inventory efforts. The goal of this system is to consistently extend current emission estimates both forward in time to recent years and also back over the entire industrial era. The project will produce improved datasets for global and (potentially) regional model, allow analysis of trends across time, countries, and sectors of emissions and emission factors, and facilitate improved scientific analysis in general. Consistent estimation of uncertainty will be an integral part of this system. This effort will facilitate community evaluation of emissions and further emission-related research more generally.

  8. Melanoma cell therapy: Endothelial progenitor cells as shuttle of the MMP12 uPAR-degrading enzyme

    PubMed Central

    Laurenzana, Anna; Biagioni, Alessio; D'Alessio, Silvia; Bianchini, Francesca; Chillà, Anastasia; Margheri, Francesca; Luciani, Cristina; Mazzanti, Benedetta; Pimpinelli, Nicola; Torre, Eugenio; Danese, Silvio; Calorini, Lido; Rosso, Mario Del; Fibbi, Gabriella

    2014-01-01

    The receptor for the urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPAR) accounts for many features of cancer progression, and is therefore considered a target for anti-tumoral therapy. Only full length uPAR mediates tumor progression. Matrix-metallo-proteinase-12 (MMP12)-dependent uPAR cleavage results into the loss of invasion properties and angiogenesis. MMP12 can be employed in the field of “targeted therapies” as a biological drug to be delivered directly in patient's tumor mass. Endothelial Progenitor Cells (EPCs) are selectively recruited within the tumor and could be used as cellular vehicles for delivering anti-cancer molecules. The aim of our study is to inhibit cancer progression by engeneering ECFCs, a subset of EPC, with a lentivirus encoding the anti-tumor uPAR-degrading enzyme MMP12. Ex vivo manipulated ECFCs lost the capacity to perform capillary morphogenesis and acquired the anti-tumor and anti-angiogenetic activity. In vivo MMP12-engineered ECFCs cleaved uPAR within the tumor mass and strongly inhibited tumor growth, tumor angiogenesis and development of lung metastasis. The possibility to exploit tumor homing and activity of autologous MMP12-engineered ECFCs represents a novel way to combat melanoma by a “personalized therapy”, without rejection risk. The i.v. injection of radiolabelled MMP12-ECFCs can thus provide a new theranostic approach to control melanoma progression and metastasis. PMID:25003596

  9. Association between mutations in gyrA and parC genes of Acinetobacter baumannii clinical isolates and ciprofloxacin resistance

    PubMed Central

    Ardebili, Abdollah; Lari, Abdolaziz Rastegar; Beheshti, Maryam; Lari, Elnaz Rastegar

    2015-01-01

    Objective(s): We investigated the contribution of gyrA and parC mutational mechanism in decreased ciprofloxacin susceptibility of Acinetobacter baumannii isolated from burn wound infections. Materials and Methods: Ciprofloxacin susceptibility of 50 A. baumannii isolates was evaluated by disk diffusion and agar dilution methods. PCR and sequencing were performed for detection of mutation in gyrA and parC genes. Results: The 44 and 4 isolates of A. baumannii exhibited full and intermediate-resistant to ciprofloxacin, respectively. Overall, the 42 isolates with double mutations of gyrA and parC genes showed a higher level of ciprofloxacin resistance than the 3 isolates with single mutations of gyrA or parC. Conclusion: Simultaneous mutations in gyrA and parC genes are expected to play a major role in high-level fluoroquinolone resistance in A. baumannii; albeit a single mutation in DNA topoisomerase IV could occasionally be associated with intermediate-resistance to these antimicrobials. PMID:26221488

  10. Melanoma cell therapy: Endothelial progenitor cells as shuttle of the MMP12 uPAR-degrading enzyme.

    PubMed

    Laurenzana, Anna; Biagioni, Alessio; D'Alessio, Silvia; Bianchini, Francesca; Chillà, Anastasia; Margheri, Francesca; Luciani, Cristina; Mazzanti, Benedetta; Pimpinelli, Nicola; Torre, Eugenio; Danese, Silvio; Calorini, Lido; Del Rosso, Mario; Fibbi, Gabriella

    2014-06-15

    The receptor for the urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPAR) accounts for many features of cancer progression, and is therefore considered a target for anti-tumoral therapy. Only full length uPAR mediates tumor progression. Matrix-metallo-proteinase-12 (MMP12)-dependent uPAR cleavage results into the loss of invasion properties and angiogenesis. MMP12 can be employed in the field of "targeted therapies" as a biological drug to be delivered directly in patient's tumor mass. Endothelial Progenitor Cells (EPCs) are selectively recruited within the tumor and could be used as cellular vehicles for delivering anti-cancer molecules. The aim of our study is to inhibit cancer progression by engeneering ECFCs, a subset of EPC, with a lentivirus encoding the anti-tumor uPAR-degrading enzyme MMP12. Ex vivo manipulated ECFCs lost the capacity to perform capillary morphogenesis and acquired the anti-tumor and anti-angiogenetic activity. In vivo MMP12-engineered ECFCs cleaved uPAR within the tumor mass and strongly inhibited tumor growth, tumor angiogenesis and development of lung metastasis. The possibility to exploit tumor homing and activity of autologous MMP12-engineered ECFCs represents a novel way to combat melanoma by a "personalized therapy", without rejection risk. The i.v. injection of radiolabelled MMP12-ECFCs can thus provide a new theranostic approach to control melanoma progression and metastasis.

  11. Par@Graph - a parallel toolbox for the construction and analysis of large complex climate networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ihshaish, H.; Tantet, A.; Dijkzeul, J. C. M.; Dijkstra, H. A.

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, we present Par@Graph, a software toolbox to reconstruct and analyze complex climate networks having a large number of nodes (up to at least 106) and edges (up to at least 1012). The key innovation is an efficient set of parallel software tools designed to leverage the inherited hybrid parallelism in distributed-memory clusters of multi-core machines. The performance of the toolbox is illustrated through networks derived from sea surface height (SSH) data of a global high-resolution ocean model. Less than 8 min are needed on 90 Intel Xeon E5-4650 processors to reconstruct a climate network including the preprocessing and the correlation of 3 × 105 SSH time series, resulting in a weighted graph with the same number of vertices and about 3.2 × 108 edges. In less than 14 min on 30 processors, the resulted graph's degree centrality, strength, connected components, eigenvector centrality, entropy and clustering coefficient metrics were obtained. These results indicate that a complete cycle to construct and analyze a large-scale climate network is available under 22 min Par@Graph therefore facilitates the application of climate network analysis on high-resolution observations and model results, by enabling fast network reconstruct from the calculation of statistical similarities between climate time series. It also enables network analysis at unprecedented scales on a variety of different sizes of input data sets.

  12. Par@Graph - a parallel toolbox for the construction and analysis of large complex climate networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ihshaish, H.; Tantet, A.; Dijkzeul, J. C. M.; Dijkstra, H. A.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present Par@Graph, a software toolbox to reconstruct and analyze complex climate networks having a large number of nodes (up to at least O (106)) and of edges (up to at least O (1012)). The key innovation is an efficient set of parallel software tools designed to leverage the inherited hybrid parallelism in distributed-memory clusters of multi-core machines. The performance of the toolbox is illustrated through networks derived from sea surface height (SSH) data of a global high-resolution ocean model. Less than 8 min are needed on 90 Intel Xeon E5-4650 processors to construct a climate network including the preprocessing and the correlation of 3 × 105 SSH time series, resulting in a weighted graph with the same number of vertices and about 3 × 106 edges. In less than 5 min on 30 processors, the resulted graph's degree centrality, strength, connected components, eigenvector centrality, entropy and clustering coefficient metrics were obtained. These results indicate that a complete cycle to construct and analyze a large-scale climate network is available under 13 min. Par@Graph therefore facilitates the application of climate network analysis on high-resolution observations and model results, by enabling fast network construction from the calculation of statistical similarities between climate time series. It also enables network analysis at unprecedented scales on a variety of different sizes of input data sets.

  13. Late-Onset Inadvertent Bleb Formation following Pars Plana M3 Molteno Implant Tube Obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Abdul-Rahman, Anmar M.; Molteno, Anthony

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To report a case of inadvertent bleb formation presenting 18 months after pars plana M3 Molteno implant tube obstruction in a patient with mixed mechanism glaucoma. Materials and Methods An 84-year-old Caucasian male with mixed mechanism glaucoma underwent slit-lamp examination, gonioscopy, colour anterior segment photography and anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT). Results An inadvertent bleb developed 18 months after pars plana implant tube re-positioning with a 6/0 Vicryl tie ligature. The bleb was located in the area anterior to the implant plate; it was characterised by a thin, transparent, avascular and multi-cystic wall, with a visible stoma at the posterior edge of the bleb. The bleb was functioning as demonstrated by an intraocular pressure of 6 mm Hg at presentation and a punctate fluorescein uptake pattern of the bleb wall. The bleb over the plate of the Molteno implant was non-functioning, likely secondary to tube obstruction by vitreous in the early postoperative period. AS-OCT showed a tract from the anterior chamber commencing at an entry wound through a corneal tunnel to the posterior stoma at the base of the inadvertent bleb. Conclusions We hypothesise that the pathophysiologic factors resulting in an inadvertent bleb are a result of a combination of apoptosis, late-onset wound dehiscence and internal gaping of a centrally placed corneal wound. In addition, aqueous hydrodynamic factors may play a role. PMID:28203200

  14. Activated protein C promotes breast cancer cell migration through interactions with EPCR and PAR-1

    SciTech Connect

    Beaulieu, Lea M.; Church, Frank C. . E-mail: fchurch@email.unc.edu

    2007-02-15

    Activated protein C (APC) is a serine protease that regulates thrombin (IIa) production through inactivation of blood coagulation factors Va and VIIIa. APC also has non-hemostatic functions related to inflammation, proliferation, and apoptosis through various mechanisms. Using two breast cancer cell lines, MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-435, we investigated the role of APC in cell chemotaxis and invasion. Treatment of cells with increasing APC concentrations (1-50 {mu}g/ml) increased invasion and chemotaxis in a concentration-dependent manner. Only the active form of APC increased invasion and chemotaxis of the MDA-MB-231 cells when compared to 3 inactive APC derivatives. Using a modified 'checkerboard' analysis, APC was shown to only affect migration when plated with the cells; therefore, APC is not a chemoattractant. Blocking antibodies to endothelial protein C receptor (EPCR) and protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR-1) attenuated the effects of APC on chemotaxis in the MDA-MB-231 cells. Finally, treatment of the MDA-MB-231 cells with the proliferation inhibitor, Na butyrate, showed that APC did not increase migration by increasing cell number. Therefore, APC increases invasion and chemotaxis of cells by binding to the cell surface and activating specific signaling pathways through EPCR and PAR-1.

  15. Vector analysis of chemical variation in the lavas of Parícutin volcano, Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miesch, A.T.

    1979-01-01

    Compositional variations in the lavas of Parícutin volcano, Mexico, have been examined by an extended method of Q-mode factor analysis. Each sample composition is treated as a vector projected from an original eight-dimensional space into a vector system of three dimensions. The compositions represented by the vectors after projection are closely similar to the original compositions except for Na2Oand Fe2O3.The vectors in the three-dimensional system cluster about three different planes that represent three stages of compositional change in the Parícutin lavas. Because chemical data on the compositions of the minerals in the lavas are presently lacking, interpretations of the mineral phases that may have been involved in fractional crystallization are based on CIPW norm calculations. Changes during the first stage are attributed largely to the fractional crystallization of plagioclase and olivine. Changes during the second stage can be explained by the separation of plagioclase and pyroxene. Changes during the final stage may have resulted mostly from the assimilation of a granitic material, as previously proposed by R. E. Wilcox.

  16. Par-baked Bread Technology: Formulation and Process Studies to Improve Quality.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Eveline Lopes; Steel, Caroline Joy; Chang, Yoon Kil

    2016-01-01

    Extending the shelf-life of bakery products has been an important requirement resulting from the mechanization of this industry and the need to increase the distance for the distribution of final products, caused by the increase in production and consumer demand. Technologies based on the interruption of the breadmaking process represent an alternative to overcome product staling and microbiological deterioration. The production of par-baked breads is one of these technologies. It consists of baking the bread in two stages, and due to the possibility of retarding the second stage, it can be said that the bread can always be offered fresh to the consumer. The technology inserts logistics as part of the production process and creates the "hot point" concept, these being the locations where the bread is finalized, such as in the consumers' homes or sales locations. In this work, a review of the papers published on this subject was carried out, and aspects related to both the formulation and the process were considered. This technology still faces a few challenges, such as solving bread quality problems that appear due to process modifications, and these will also be considered. The market for these breads has grown rapidly and the bakery industry searches innovations related to par-baked bread technology.

  17. Mammalian aPKC/Par polarity complex mediated regulation of epithelial division orientation and cell fate

    SciTech Connect

    Vorhagen, Susanne; Niessen, Carien M.

    2014-11-01

    Oriented cell division is a key regulator of tissue architecture and crucial for morphogenesis and homeostasis. Balanced regulation of proliferation and differentiation is an essential property of tissues not only to drive morphogenesis but also to maintain and restore homeostasis. In many tissues orientation of cell division is coupled to the regulation of differentiation producing daughters with similar (symmetric cell division, SCD) or differential fate (asymmetric cell division, ACD). This allows the organism to generate cell lineage diversity from a small pool of stem and progenitor cells. Division orientation and/or the ratio of ACD/SCD need to be tightly controlled. Loss of orientation or an altered ratio can promote overgrowth, alter tissue architecture and induce aberrant differentiation, and have been linked to morphogenetic diseases, cancer and aging. A key requirement for oriented division is the presence of a polarity axis, which can be established through cell intrinsic and/or extrinsic signals. Polarity proteins translate such internal and external cues to drive polarization. In this review we will focus on the role of the polarity complex aPKC/Par3/Par6 in the regulation of division orientation and cell fate in different mammalian epithelia. We will compare the conserved function of this complex in mitotic spindle orientation and distribution of cell fate determinants and highlight common and differential mechanisms in which this complex is used by tissues to adapt division orientation and cell fate to the specific properties of the epithelium.

  18. Traitement chirurgical des fractures articulaires du calcanéum par plaque vissée

    PubMed Central

    Hammou, Nassreddine; Abid, Hatim; Shimi, Mohammed; El Ibrahimi, Abdelhalim; El Mrini, Abdelmajid

    2015-01-01

    Les fractures du calcanéum sont peu fréquentes mais le plus souvent graves. Le traitement chirurgical par plaque vissée est ardemment défendu. L'objectif de notre travail rétrospectif est d’évaluer les résultats du traitement chirurgical des fractures articulaires du calcanéum à travers une série de 12 patients opérée aux service d'orthopédie du CHU Hassan II de Fès sur une durée de 3 ans, et les comparer aux données de la littérature. L’âge moyen dans notre série était de 34 ans, le geste opératoire était réalisé au 7ème jour. Tous nos patient ont bénéficie d'une réduction à foyer ouvert avec une ostéosynthèse par plaques vissées. Le recul moyen était de 12 mois et les résultats fonctionnels ont été évaluer selon le score de Kitaoka. PMID:26161214

  19. ParAlign: a parallel sequence alignment algorithm for rapid and sensitive database searches.

    PubMed

    Rognes, T

    2001-04-01

    There is a need for faster and more sensitive algorithms for sequence similarity searching in view of the rapidly increasing amounts of genomic sequence data available. Parallel processing capabilities in the form of the single instruction, multiple data (SIMD) technology are now available in common microprocessors and enable a single microprocessor to perform many operations in parallel. The ParAlign algorithm has been specifically designed to take advantage of this technology. The new algorithm initially exploits parallelism to perform a very rapid computation of the exact optimal ungapped alignment score for all diagonals in the alignment matrix. Then, a novel heuristic is employed to compute an approximate score of a gapped alignment by combining the scores of several diagonals. This approximate score is used to select the most interesting database sequences for a subsequent Smith-Waterman alignment, which is also parallelised. The resulting method represents a substantial improvement compared to existing heuristics. The sensitivity and specificity of ParAlign was found to be as good as Smith-Waterman implementations when the same method for computing the statistical significance of the matches was used. In terms of speed, only the significantly less sensitive NCBI BLAST 2 program was found to outperform the new approach. Online searches are available at http://dna.uio.no/search/

  20. PAIN with and without PAR: variants for third-spin assisted heteronuclear polarization transfer.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Vipin; Sardo, Mariana; Scholz, Ingo; Böckmann, Anja; Ernst, Matthias; Meier, Beat H

    2013-08-01

    In this article, we describe third-spin assisted heteronuclear recoupling experiments, which play an increasingly important role in measuring long-range heteronuclear couplings, in particular (15)N-(13)C, in proteins. In the proton-assisted insensitive nuclei cross polarization (PAIN-CP) experiment (de Paëpe et al. in J Chem Phys 134:095101, 2011), heteronuclear polarization transfer is always accompanied by homonuclear transfer of the proton-assisted recoupling (PAR) type. We present a phase-alternating experiment that promotes heteronuclear (e.g. (15)N → (13)C) polarization transfer while simultaneously minimizing homonuclear (e.g.(13)C → (13)C) transfer (PAIN without PAR). This minimization of homonuclear polarization transfer is based on the principle of the resonant second-order transfer (RESORT) recoupling scheme where the passive proton spins are irradiated by a phase-alternating sequence and the modulation frequency is matched to an integer multiple of the spinning frequency. The similarities and differences between the PAIN-CP and this het-RESORT experiment are discussed here.

  1. RF cavities for the positron accumulator ring (PAR) of the Advanced Photon Source (APS)

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Y.W.; Nassiri, A.; Bridges, J.F.; Smith, T.L.; Song, J.J.

    1995-07-01

    The cavities for the dual frequency system of the APS PAR are described. The system uses two frequencies: a 9.78MHz fundamental system for the particle accumulation and a 117.3MHz twelfth harmonic system for the bunch compression. The cavities have been built, installed, tested, and used for storing the beam in the PAR for about a year. The fundamental cavity is a reentrant coaxial type with a capacitive loading plunger and has 1.6m length. The harmonic cavity is a symmetrical reentrant coaxial type and is 0.8m long. Ferrite tuners are used for frequency tuning. During the accumulation period, the ferrite tuner of the harmonic cavity works as a damper to disable the cavity. During an injection cycle the 9.78MHz system accumulates 24 positron bunches in a bucket and the 117.3MHz system compresses the bunch into a shorter bunch. Measurements were made on the rf properties of the cavities.

  2. Stress injuries of the pars interarticularis: Radiologic classification and indications for radionuclide imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Pennell, R.; Maurer, A.R.; Bonakdarpour, A.

    1984-01-01

    Lumbar spine radiographs and radionuclide images were compared and correlated with clinical histories of 20 athletes with low back pain. Radiographs were classified as: Normal (Type 0); showing a healing stress fracture (an irregular lucent line) with sclerosis (Type I); as an evolving or healed stress injury with either sclerosis, narrowing, or demineralization (Type II); and as a chronic fracture showing a large lucency with well-defined margins classically referred to as spondylolysis (Type III). Patients were grouped clinically on the basis of their pain: acute onset (Group A, n = 7), acute superimposed on chronic (Group B, n = 9), and chronic pain without an acute event (Group C, n = 4). Radiographic abnormalities were present in 95% (19/20) of the patients and radionuclide studies were positive in 60% (12/20). Scintigraphy was positive most often with Type I pars abnormalities (77%, 10/13) and negative most often with Type III abnormalities (91%, 11/12). Of all positive scintigraphy 12/14 (86%) were in pts in Groups A and B (acute symptoms). The authors' findings support theories that radiographic pars abnormalities exist which correspond to stages in the healing of stress induced fractures. With acute symptoms radionuclide imaging need not be obtained if a Type I radiographic abnormality is seen. Radionuclide imaging is indicated with either Type 0, II or III radiographs to confirm or rule out recent stress injury.

  3. Surgical management of equine recurrent uveitis with single port pars plana vitrectomy.

    PubMed

    Frühauf, B.; Ohnesorge, B.; Deegen, E.; Boevé, M.

    1998-01-01

    Current information suggests that equine recurrent uveitis (ERU) is an immune-mediated reaction to infectious agents or to autologous ophthalmic tissue. Recurrences are associated with progression of irreversible ocular damage. This report describes the intraoperative technique, complications, and long-term results of 38 eyes in 35 horses with ERU that underwent pars plana vitrectomy. The majority of the horses were warm-blooded. Recurrence of ERU was prevented in 35 of the 38 eyes. Some horses, especially in patients with incipient cataracts, developed vision loss in postoperative, quiescent eyes which was usually associated with cataract formation. Vision was stable in 85% of all eyes that underwent vitrectomy. Pars plana vitrectomy in horses appears successful in interrupting the cycle of repeated episodes of ERU, and the subsequent globe destruction in the majority of eyes. Removal of uveitis-induced 'immunologic memory' in the vitreous by vitrectomy may reduce adverse interaction between the vitreous and the uveal tract, and therefore reduce the recurrence of ERU.

  4. Solution structure and membrane binding of the toxin fst of the par addiction module.

    PubMed

    Göbl, Christoph; Kosol, Simone; Stockner, Thomas; Rückert, Hanna M; Zangger, Klaus

    2010-08-10

    The par toxin-antitoxin system is required for the stable inheritance of the plasmid pAD1 in its native host Enterococcus faecalis. It codes for the toxin Fst and a small antisense RNA which inhibits translation of toxin mRNA, and it is the only known antisense regulated toxin-antitoxin system in Gram-positive bacteria. This study presents the structure of the par toxin Fst, the first atomic resolution structure of a component of an antisense regulated toxin-antitoxin system. The mode of membrane binding was determined by relaxation enhancements in a paramagnetic environment and molecular dynamics simulation. Fst forms a membrane-binding alpha-helix in the N-terminal part and contains an intrinsically disordered region near the C-terminus. It binds in a transmembrane orientation with the C-terminus likely pointing toward the cytosol. Membrane-bound, alpha-helical peptides are frequently found in higher organisms as components of the innate immune system. Despite similarities to these antimicrobial peptides, Fst shows neither hemolytic nor antimicrobial activity when applied externally to a series of bacteria, fungal cells, and erythrocytes. Moreover, its charge distribution, orientation in the membrane, and structure distinguish it from antimicrobial peptides.

  5. Etude des chaines de spins par les methodes de la theorie quantique des champs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Dave

    Notre etude porte sur la chaine de spins en zigzag avec dimerisation dans le cas des spins 1/2 et 1. L'echelle de spin ordinaire et la chaine en zigzag simple en sont des cas particuliers. Dans la limite continue, ces systemes sont decrits par des modeles Wess-Zumino-Witten couples. Afin de pouvoir calculer les fonctions de correlation, nous exposons differentes equivalences quantiques permettant de simplifier les calculs. Dans le cas de chaines de spin 1/2, nous demontrons l'equivalence avec un modele de type Gross-Neveu, en fonction de fermions de Majorana; ces fermions decrivent alors les excitations elementaires du systeme. Nous exposons une vision classique de ces excitations afin de voir les mecanismes de confinement des spinons. Dans le cas de chaines de spin 1, l'etude est plus complexe. Nous pouvons decrire le systeme a l'aide de modeles sine-Gordon perturbes par de nombreuses interactions. En se limitant aux plus importantes, nous pouvons expliquer le comportement du gap en fonction du couplage interchaine observe numeriquement.

  6. Mammalian aPKC/Par polarity complex mediated regulation of epithelial division orientation and cell fate.

    PubMed

    Vorhagen, Susanne; Niessen, Carien M

    2014-11-01

    Oriented cell division is a key regulator of tissue architecture and crucial for morphogenesis and homeostasis. Balanced regulation of proliferation and differentiation is an essential property of tissues not only to drive morphogenesis but also to maintain and restore homeostasis. In many tissues orientation of cell division is coupled to the regulation of differentiation producing daughters with similar (symmetric cell division, SCD) or differential fate (asymmetric cell division, ACD). This allows the organism to generate cell lineage diversity from a small pool of stem and progenitor cells. Division orientation and/or the ratio of ACD/SCD need to be tightly controlled. Loss of orientation or an altered ratio can promote overgrowth, alter tissue architecture and induce aberrant differentiation, and have been linked to morphogenetic diseases, cancer and aging. A key requirement for oriented division is the presence of a polarity axis, which can be established through cell intrinsic and/or extrinsic signals. Polarity proteins translate such internal and external cues to drive polarization. In this review we will focus on the role of the polarity complex aPKC/Par3/Par6 in the regulation of division orientation and cell fate in different mammalian epithelia. We will compare the conserved function of this complex in mitotic spindle orientation and distribution of cell fate determinants and highlight common and differential mechanisms in which this complex is used by tissues to adapt division orientation and cell fate to the specific properties of the epithelium.

  7. ParFlow.RT: Development and Verification of a New Reactive Transport Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beisman, J. J., III

    2015-12-01

    In natural subsurface systems, total elemental fluxes are often heavily influenced by areas of disproportionately high reaction rates. These pockets of high reaction rates tend to occur at interfaces, such as the hyporheic zone, where a hydrologic flowpath converges with either a chemically distinct hydrologic flowpath or a reactive substrate. Understanding the affects that these highly reactive zones have on the behavior of shallow subsurface systems is integral to the accurate quantification of nutrient fluxes and biogeochemical cycling. Numerical simulations of these systems may be able to offer some insight. To that end, we have developed a new reactive transport model, ParFlow.RT, by coupling the parallel flow and transport code ParFlow with the geochemical engines of both PFLOTRAN and CrunchFlow. The coupling was accomplished via the Alquimia biogeochemistry API, which provides a unified interface to several geochemical codes and allows a relatively simple implementation of advanced geochemical functionality in flow and transport codes. This model uses an operator-splitting approach, where the transport and reaction steps are solved separately. Here, we present the details of this new model, and the results of verification simulations and biogeochemical cycling simulations of the DOE's East River field site outside of Gothic, CO.

  8. The aPKC/Par3/Par6 Polarity Complex and Membrane Order Are Functionally Interdependent in Epithelia During Vertebrate Organogenesis.

    PubMed

    Abu-Siniyeh, Ahmed; Owen, Dylan M; Benzing, Carola; Rinkwitz, Silke; Becker, Thomas S; Majumdar, Arindam; Gaus, Katharina

    2016-01-01

    The differential distribution of lipids between apical and basolateral membranes is necessary for many epithelial cell functions, but how this characteristic membrane organization is integrated within the polarity network during ductal organ development is poorly understood. Here we quantified membrane order in the gut, kidney and liver ductal epithelia in zebrafish larvae at 3-11 days post fertilization (dpf) with Laurdan 2-photon microscopy. We then applied a combination of Laurdan imaging, antisense knock-down and analysis of polarity markers to understand the relationship between membrane order and apical-basal polarity. We found a reciprocal relationship between membrane order and the cell polarity network. Reducing membrane condensation by exogenously added oxysterol or depletion of cholesterol reduced apical targeting of the polarity protein, aPKC. Conversely, using morpholino knock down in zebrafish, we found that membrane order was dependent upon the Crb3 and Par3 polarity protein expression in ductal epithelia. Hence our data suggest that the biophysical property of membrane lipid packing is a regulatory element in apical basal polarity.

  9. Etude par resistivite electrique du comportement d'un alliage amorphe Fe 40Ni 38Mo 4B 18 deforme par traction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoang, Long Phan; Sacovy, Paulette; Delaplace, Jean

    1983-02-01

    Des rubans d'alliages amorphes Metglas du type Fe 40Ni 38Mo 4B 18 à l'état brut de trempe ont été déformés par traction à la température ambiante et l'on a suivi les variations de la résistance électrique des échantillons au cours de la déformation. Il ressort de ces essais que la déformation plastique qui est de l'ordre de 0.5% avant rupture ne se produit pas de faĉon homogène dans l'échantillon. Les mesures électriques effectuées au cours de la déformation mettent en évidence dans le domaine élastique un effet d'élastorésistance, relativement important ( K ≠ 1); elles montrent que dans le domaine plastique la déformation permanente des échantillons s'accompagne d'une diminution de la résistivité électrique du matériau. Deux hypothèses sont discutées pour expliquer cet effet inattendu, l'un qui fait appel à l'existence de volumes libres, l'autre qui suppose une cristallisation localisée du matériau sous l'effet de la contrainte.

  10. Mesure du taux de la capture radiative du muon par l'hydrogene liquide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jonkmans, Guy

    À basse énergie, l'interaction faible entre leptons et quarks est décrite par une interaction de la forme courant × courant de type V - A. La présence de l'interaction forte induit des couplages additionnels qui doivent être déterminés expérimentalement. De ceux-ci, le couplage pseudoscalaire induit, gp , est mesuré avec la plus grande incertitude et fait l'objet de la présente recherche. L'hypothèse du Courant Axial Partiellement Conservé (CAPC) et l'usage de la relation de Goldberger-Treiman relie gp au couplage axial ga . Cette relation a été vérifiée traditionnellement par la Capture Ordinaire du Muon (COM) à une valeur fixe du moment de transfert q. La Capture Radiative du Muon (CRM), m- p-->nnmg , est un meilleur outil pour l'étude de gp à cause de sa dépendance variable en q2 qui offre une plus grande sensibilité dans la partie à haute énergie du spectre des photons. Toutefois, le petit rapport d'embranchement (~10-8) de la CRM par rapport à la désintégration du muon a retardé cette mesure jusqu'à ce jour. La théorie et les difficultés expérimentales associées à la détection des photons de CRM sont présentées au deuxième chapitre. On décrit ensuite, au troisième chapitre, les composantes du système de détection. Ce détecteur est un spectromètre à paires de grand angle solide (~3p) et qui permet l'observation des photons par l'analyse des électrons et des positrons de photo-conversion. Ainsi, le bruit de fond important des neutrons de la COM ne constitue pas un problème pour cette mesure. Nous décrivons, au quatrième chapitre, toutes les étapes de l'analyse, nécessaires pour la réduction des multiples bruits de fond. Le cinquième chapitre présente le calcul des efficacités ainsi que l'estimation des erreurs systématiques. Le sixième chapitre démontre comment l'on extrait le rapport d'embranchement pour la CRM ainsi que la valeur ae gp . On insiste sur la dépendance de gp en fonction de la valeur de

  11. Emission impacts of electric vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Quanlu Wang; DeLuchi, M.A.; Sperling, D. )

    1990-09-01

    Alternative vehicular fuels are proposed as a strategy to reduce urban air pollution. In this paper, the authors analyze the emission impacts of electric vehicles in California for two target years, 1995 and 2010. They consider a range of assumptions regarding electricity consumption of electric vehicles, emission control technologies for power plants, and the mix of primary energy sources for electricity generation. They find that, relative to continued use of gasoline-powered vehicles, the use of electric vehicles would dramatically and unequivocally reduce carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons. Under most conditions, nitrogen oxide emissions would decrease moderately. Sulfur oxide and particulate emissions would increase or slightly decrease. Because other areas of the United States tend to use more coal in electricity generation and have less stringent emission controls on power plants, electric vehicles may have less emission reduction benefits outside California.

  12. Emission impacts of electric vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Q.; DeLuchi, M.A.; Sperling, D. )

    1990-08-01

    Alternative vehicular fuels are proposed as a strategy to reduce urban air pollution. In this paper, we analyze the emission impacts of electric vehicles in Califormia for two target years, 1995 and 2010. We consider a range of assumptions regarding electricity consumption of electric vehicles, emission control technologies for power plants, and the mix of primary energy sources for electricity generation. We find that, relative to continued use of gasoline-powered vehicles, the use of electric vehicles would dramatically and unequivocally reduce carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons. Under most conditions, nitrogen oxide emissions would decrease moderately. Sulfur oxide and particulate emissions would increase or slightly decrease. Because other areas of the US tend to use more coal in electricity generation and have less stringent emission controls on power plants, electric vehicles may have less emission reduction benefits outside California.

  13. Carbon Emission Flow in Networks

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Chongqing; Zhou, Tianrui; Chen, Qixin; Xu, Qianyao; Xia, Qing; Ji, Zhen

    2012-01-01

    As the human population increases and production expands, energy demand and anthropogenic carbon emission rates have been growing rapidly, and the need to decrease carbon emission levels has drawn increasing attention. The link between energy production and consumption has required the large-scale transport of energy within energy transmission networks. Within this energy flow, there is a virtual circulation of carbon emissions. To understand this circulation and account for the relationship between energy consumption and carbon emissions, this paper introduces the concept of “carbon emission flow in networks” and establishes a method to calculate carbon emission flow in networks. Using an actual analysis of China's energy pattern, the authors discuss the significance of this new concept, not only as a feasible approach but also as an innovative theoretical perspective. PMID:22761988

  14. Genome-wide protein QTL mapping identifies human plasma kallikrein as a post-translational regulator of serum uPAR levels

    PubMed Central

    Portelli, Michael A.; Siedlinski, Mateusz; Stewart, Ceri E.; Postma, Dirkje S.; Nieuwenhuis, Maartje A.; Vonk, Judith M.; Nurnberg, Peter; Altmuller, Janine; Moffatt, Miriam F.; Wardlaw, Andrew J.; Parker, Stuart G.; Connolly, Martin J.; Koppelman, Gerard H.; Sayers, Ian

    2014-01-01

    The soluble cleaved urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (scuPAR) is a circulating protein detected in multiple diseases, including various cancers, cardiovascular disease, and kidney disease, where elevated levels of scuPAR have been associated with worsening prognosis and increased disease aggressiveness. We aimed to identify novel genetic and biomolecular mechanisms regulating scuPAR levels. Elevated serum scuPAR levels were identified in asthma (n=514) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD; n=219) cohorts when compared to controls (n=96). In these cohorts, a genome-wide association study of serum scuPAR levels identified a human plasma kallikrein gene (KLKB1) promoter polymorphism (rs4253238) associated with serum scuPAR levels in a control/asthma population (P=1.17×10−7), which was also observed in a COPD population (combined P=5.04×10−12). Using a fluorescent assay, we demonstrated that serum KLKB1 enzymatic activity was driven by rs4253238 and is inverse to scuPAR levels. Biochemical analysis identified that KLKB1 cleaves scuPAR and negates scuPAR's effects on primary human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs) in vitro. Chymotrypsin was used as a proproteolytic control, while basal HBECs were used as a control to define scuPAR-driven effects. In summary, we reveal a novel post-translational regulatory mechanism for scuPAR using a hypothesis-free approach with implications for multiple human diseases.—Portelli, M. A., Siedlinski, M., Stewart, C. E., Postma, D. S., Nieuwenhuis, M. A., Vonk, J. M., Nurnberg, P., Altmuller, J., Moffatt, M. F., Wardlaw, A. J., Parker, S. G., Connolly, M. J., Koppelman, G. H., Sayers, I. Genome-wide protein QTL mapping identifies human plasma kallikrein as a post-translational regulator of serum uPAR levels. PMID:24249636

  15. Phytoplankton, zooplankton, primary productivity and physico-chemical parameters of Par Pond and Pond B. Interim report, December 1983-May 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Chimney, M.J.; Cody, W.R.

    1985-04-01

    This report summarizes phytoplankton, zooplankton, primary productivity and physico-chemical parameter data from Par Pond and Pond B during the first six months of a study initiated in December 1983 and scheduled to continue through June 1985. A total of 195 phytoplankton taxa from Par Pond and 105 taxa from pond B were recorded during this study. A total of 89 zooplankton taxa from Par Pond and 58 taxa from Pond B were identified during this study.

  16. Partitioning of the Linear Chromosome during Sporulation of Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) Involves an oriC-Linked parAB Locus

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun-Jin; Calcutt, Michael J.; Schmidt, Francis J.; Chater, Keith F.

    2000-01-01

    Candidate partitioning genes (parA and parB) for the linear chromosome of Streptomyces coelicolor were identified by DNA sequencing in a series of seven genes located between rnpA and trxA near the chromosomal replication origin. The most likely translation start point of parB overlapped the parA stop codon, suggestive of coregulation, and transcription analysis suggested that the two genes formed an operon. Deletion of part of parB had no effect on the growth or appearance of colonies but caused a deficiency in DNA partitioning during the multiple septation events involved in converting aerial hyphae into long chains of spores. At least 13% of spore compartments failed to inherit the normal DNA allocation. The same phenotype was obtained with a deletion removing a segment of DNA from both parA and parB. Reinforcing the idea of a special role for the par locus during sporulation, the stronger of two parAB promoters was greatly upregulated at about the time when sporulation septation was maximal in colonies. Three copies of a 14-bp inverted repeat (GTTTCACGTGAAAC) were found in or near the parAB genes, and at least 12 more identical copies were identified within 100 kb of oriC from the growing genome sequence database. Only one perfect copy of the 14-bp sequence was present in approximately 5 Mb of sequence available from the rest of the genome. The 14-bp sequence was similar to sequences identified as binding sites for Spo0J, a ParB homologue from Bacillus subtilis believed to be important for DNA partitioning (D. C.-H. Lin and A. D. Grossman, Cell 92:675–685, 1998). One of these sites encompassed the transcription start point of the stronger parA promoter. PMID:10671452

  17. Emission of short chained organic acids, aldehydes and monoterpenes from Quercus ilex L. and Pinus pinea L. in relation to physiological activities, carbon budget and emission algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kesselmeier, J.; Bode, K.; Hofmann, U.; Müller, H.; Schäfer, L.; Wolf, A.; Ciccioli, P.; Brancaleoni, E.; Cecinato, A.; Frattoni, M.; Foster, P.; Ferrari, C.; Jacob, V.; Fugit, J. L.; Dutaur, L.; Simon, V.; Torres, L.

    We report on the emission of monoterpenes, short-chained organic acids and aldehydes from Mediterranean oak ( Quercus ilex L.) and pine (Pinus pinea L.). All studies were done with dynamic cuvettes enclosing intact branches at the top of the canopy flushed with ambient air. Daily trends are compared with the photosynthetic active radiation (PAR), leaf temperature and the physiological activities of the enclosed branches, i.e. assimilation and transpiration, with special attention on the carbon budget. Oak emits monoterpenes in high amounts, up to 2% of the assimilated carbon. As compared with monoterpenes, short-chained organic acids and aldehydes are of minor importance for oak. However, on a leaf dry-weight basis equal amounts of acids and aldehydes are released from oak and pine. As pine emitted only low amounts of terpenes (below 0.2% of the assimilated carbon) the release of terpenes and oxygenated compounds is of equal importance for this species. A comparison of a modelled light and temperature driven emission with the observed volatile organic compounds (VOC) emissions showed good agreement for monoterpenes as well as for organic acids emitted in the case of oak. For pine only the release of acids showed an adequate relation to the algorithm data, whereas the terpene emissions seemed to be dominated by temperature effects.

  18. Extragalactic diffuse (C II) emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madden, Suzanne C.; Geis, Norbert; Townes, Charles H.; Genzel, R.; Herrmann, F.; Poglitsch, Albrecht; Stacey, G. J.

    1995-01-01

    The 158 micro m (CII) line has been mapped in the galaxies Centaurus A, M83, NGC 6946, and NGC 891. The emission exists over very large scales, peaking in the nuclei and extending beyond the spiral arms and molecular disks. While most of the (CII) emission from the nuclei and spiral arms originates in photodissociated gas, the diffuse atomic gas can account for much of the (CII) emission in the extended regions.

  19. Advanced Emissions Control Development Program

    SciTech Connect

    G. A. Farthing; G. T. Amrhein; G. A. Kudlac; D. A. Yurchison; D. K. McDonald; M. G. Milobowski

    2001-03-31

    The primary objective of the Advanced Emissions Control Development Program (AECDP) is to develop practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs, or air toxics) from coal-fired boilers. This objective is being met by identifying ways to effectively control air toxic emissions through the use of conventional flue gas cleanup equipment such as electrostatic precipitators (ESPs), fabric filters (fabric filters), and wet flue gas desulfurization (wet FGD) systems. Development work initially concentrated on the capture of trace metals, hydrogen chloride, and hydrogen fluoride. Recent work has focused almost exclusively on the control of mercury emissions.

  20. ADVANCED EMISSIONS CONTROL DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect

    G.A. Farthing

    2001-02-06

    The primary objective of the Advanced Emissions Control Development Program (AECDP) is to develop practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs, or air toxics) from coal-fired boilers. The project goal is to effectively control air toxic emissions through the use of conventional flue gas cleanup equipment such as electrostatic precipitators (ESPs), fabric filters (baghouses), and wet flue gas desulfurization (WFGD) systems. Development work initially concentrated on the capture of trace metals, fine particulate, hydrogen chloride, and hydrogen fluoride. Recent work has focused almost exclusively on the control of mercury emissions.

  1. Tritium Emissions Reduction Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Wieneke, R.E.; Bowser, R.P.; Hedley, W.H.; Kissner, T.J.; Lamberger, P.H.; Morgan, F.G.; Van Patten, J.F.; Williams, M.A.

    1988-01-01

    The Tritium Emissions Reduction Facility (TERF) will be a system for the continuous processing of tritium containing gases collected from various operations at Mound. The basis of the system operation will be the oxidation of elemental hydrogen isotopes and organic molecules at elevated temperatures on precious metal catalyst beds, and the adsorption of the resulting oxide (water) on molecular sieve dryers. The TERF will be expected to handle from 400,000 to 1,000,000 curies of tritium per year in the process gas stream and release no more than 200 curies per year to the atmosphere. Consequently, the TERF will need to convert and capture tritium at low concentrations in gas efficiently and reliably. 5 refs., 2 figs.

  2. Thermoluminescence emission spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Prescott, J R; Fox, P J; Akber, R A; Jensen, H E

    1988-08-15

    A sensitive thermoluminescence (TL) emission spectrometer based on Fourier transform spectroscopy is described. It employs a modified scanning Twyman-Green interferometer with photomultiplier detection in a photon-counting mode. The etendue is 180pi mm(2), and it covers the 350-600-nm wavelength range. The output can be displayed either as a 3-D isometric plot of intensity vs temperature and wavelength, as a contour diagram, or as a conventional TL glow curve of intensity vs temperature. It is sufficiently sensitive to record thermoluminescence spectra of dosimeter phosphors and minerals for thermoluminescence dating at levels corresponding to those found during actual use as radiation monitors or in dating. Examples of actual spectra are given.

  3. Aviation Particle Emissions Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wey, Chowen C. (Editor)

    2004-01-01

    The Aviation Particle Emissions Workshop was held on November 18 19, 2003, in Cleveland, Ohio. It was sponsored by the National Aeronautic and Space Administration (NASA) under the Vehicle Systems Program (VSP) and the Ultra- Efficient Engine Technology (UEET) Project. The objectives were to build a sound foundation for a comprehensive particulate research roadmap and to provide a forum for discussion among U.S. stakeholders and researchers. Presentations included perspectives from the Federal Aviation Administration, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, NASA, and United States airports. There were five interactive technical sessions: sampling methodology, measurement methodology, particle modeling, database, inventory and test venue, and air quality. Each group presented technical issues which generated excellent discussion. The five session leads collaborated with their members to present summaries and conclusions to each content area.

  4. Positron emission mammography imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Moses, William W.

    2003-10-02

    This paper examines current trends in Positron Emission Mammography (PEM) instrumentation and the performance tradeoffs inherent in them. The most common geometry is a pair of parallel planes of detector modules. They subtend a larger solid angle around the breast than conventional PET cameras, and so have both higher efficiency and lower cost. Extensions to this geometry include encircling the breast, measuring the depth of interaction (DOI), and dual-modality imaging (PEM and x-ray mammography, as well as PEM and x-ray guided biopsy). The ultimate utility of PEM may not be decided by instrument performance, but by biological and medical factors, such as the patient to patient variation in radiotracer uptake or the as yet undetermined role of PEM in breast cancer diagnosis and treatment.

  5. Acoustic emission signature analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buck, O.; Pardee, J. W.

    1981-03-01

    Acoustic emission (AE) in plate glass and steel was studied as a function of angle. The low frequency AE in glass was studied in detail, and contributions from P, S, and Rayleigh waves identified. These results were isotropic, as expected theoretically. Limited high frequency (5 to 20 MHz) results were obtained in glass. The measurement of AE on transgranular crack growth in steel during fatigue crack growth was accomplished by use of a low noise manual hydraulic loading system and an electronic gate to reject grip noise. The concept of the wave momentum of an AE was elaborated and a measurement technique suggested. The theoretical study of this problem led to the discovery of an infinite family of elastic surface (Rayleigh-like) waves, and to further cylindrical, radially propagating plate waves.

  6. Démonstration expérimentale d'une distribution quantique de clé par codage temporel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boucher, W.; Debuisschert, T.

    2006-10-01

    Nous avons démontré expérimentalement la transmission quantique de clé par codage temporel. Alice envoie des impulsions cohérentes atténuées. La clé est codée dans l'instant de détection des photons chez Bob. Une mesure de la durée de cohérence par moyen interférométrique permet d'assurer un fonctionnement en régime quantique. Nous avons mesuré un taux d'erreur quantique de 3.3% et une chute relative de contraste de l'interféromètre de 8.4%. Ces valeurs permettent d'évaluer un avantage d'information de 0.49 bit/impulsion pour Alice et Bob par rapport à un espion éventuel.

  7. Par Pond phytoplankton in association with refilling of the pond: Final Report for sampling from February 1995 -- September 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Wilde, E.W.; Johnson, M.A.; Cody, W.C.

    1996-12-31

    This report describes the results of phytoplankton analyses from Par Pond samples collected between February 1995 and September 1996. The principal objective of the study was to determine the effect of refilling of Par Pond following repair of the dam on the phytoplankton community. Algal blooms are often responsible for fish kills and other detrimental effects in ponds and lakes, and it was postulated that decaying vegetation from formerly exposed sediments might trigger algal blooms that could result in fish kills in Par Pond following the refill. Sporadic algal blooms involving blue-green algae were detected, especially during the summer of 1996. However, the data derived from the study demonstrates that overall, the refilling effort caused no significant negative impact to the pond attributable to phytoplankton dynamics.

  8. Results of submerged sediment core sampling and analysis on Par Pond, Pond C, and L Lake: July 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, J.W. II; Martin, F.D.; Friday, G.P.

    1996-06-01

    Sediment cores from shallow and deep water locations in Par Pond, Pond C, and L Lake were collected and analyzed in 1995 for radioactive and nonradioactive constituents. This core analysis was conducted to develop a defensible characterization of contaminants found in the sediments of Par Pond, Pond C, and L Lake. Mercury was the only nonradiological constituent with a nonestimated quantity that was detected above the U.S Environmental Protection Agency Region IV potential contaminants of concern screening criteria. It was detected at a depth of 0.3--0.6 meters (1.0--2.0 feet) at one location in L Lake. Cesium-137, promethium-146, plutonium-238, and zirconium-95 had significantly higher concentrations in Par Pond sediments than in sediments from the reference sites. Cobalt-60, cesium-137, plutonium-238, plutonium-239/240, and strontium-90 had significantly higher concentrations in L-Lake sediments than sediments from the reference sites.

  9. PEARS Emission Line Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pirzkal, Nor; Rothberg, Barry; Ly, Chun; Rhoads, James E.; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Grogin, Norman A.; Dahlen, Tomas; Meurer, Gerhardt R.; Walsh, Jeremy; Hathi, Nimish P.; Cohen, Seth; Belini, Andrea; Holwerda, Benne W.; Straughn, Amber; Mechtley, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    We present a full analysis of the Probing Evolution And Reionization Spectroscopically (PEARS) slitless grism spectroscopic data obtained vl'ith the Advanced Camera for Surveys on HST. PEARS covers fields within both the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey (GOODS) North and South fields, making it ideal as a random surveY of galaxies, as well as the availability of a wide variety of ancillary observations to support the spectroscopic results. Using the PEARS data we are able to identify star forming galaxies within the redshift volume 0 < z < 1.5. Star forming regions in the PEARS survey are pinpointed independently of the host galaxy. This method allOW8 us to detect the presence of multiple emission line regions (ELRs) within a single galaxy. 1162 [OII], [OIII] and/or H-alpha emission lines have been identified in the PEARS sample of approx 906 galaxies down to a limiting flux of approx 10 - 18 erg/s/sq cm . The ELRs have also been compared to the properties of the host galaxy, including morphology, luminosity, and mass. From this analysis we find three key results: 1) The computed line luminosities show evidence of a flattening in the luminosity function with increasing redshift; 2) The star forming systems show evidence of disturbed morphologies, with star formation occurring predominantly within one effective (half-light) radius. However, the morphologies show no correlation with host stellar mass; and 3) The number density of star forming galaxies with M(*) >= 10(exp 9) Solar M decreases by an order of magnitude at z<=0.5 relative to the number at 0.5 < z < 0.9 in support of the argument for galaxy downsizing.

  10. Seismic Resonant Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korneev, V. A.

    2007-12-01

    There are several classes of underground objects which can produce resonant emission after being hit by incident seismic waves. Those objects include tunnels, pipes, buried containers, ground-filled excavations, unexploded ordinances, fluid-filled fractures, mine shafts, and the like. Being high contrast scatterers, these objects are capable of generating strong scattered waves where primary PP, PS, SS waves carry away most of the energy which was brought by incident waves. For both high- and low- velocity objects the primary scattered waves have the same order of magnitude as incident waves. The main difference between these groups of objects is in later arrivals of multiple scattered waves. While high-velocity objects effectively radiate most of the energy soon after impact, the low-velocity objects trap some fraction of incident wave energy in the form of circumferential waves which propagate rotating along the interface between the object and the embedding medium. Circumferential waves include surface Rayleigh-type waves (propagating mostly in the embedding medium), Stoneley waves (propagating mostly in the fluid, if present), and Frantz waves (body waves trapped in the object because of its curvature). Strong impedance contrast ensures small radiation loss for circumferential waves and they slowly decay in amplitude while rotating inside/around the object. Some circumferential waves exist in the high-velocity objects but their amplitudes decay very fast because of strong radiation in outer medium. Most of the secondary (multiply reflected from an object's boundaries or multiply circled around the object) resonant-scattered energy radiates in the embedding medium as shear waves. The possibility of neglecting P- waves in late scattering arrivals simplifies imaging as is demonstrated for the field and modeled data of the example. Resonant emission phenomenon provides an effective tool for active monitoring for a number of applications such as tunnel detection

  11. Monoterpene emissions from Beech ( Fagus sylvatica) in a French forest and impact on secondary pollutants formation at regional scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moukhtar, S.; Bessagnet, B.; Rouil, L.; Simon, V.

    Biogenic emissions from forest, crops, and grasslands are now considered major compounds in photochemical processes. Air quality analyses require more and more accurate input data, particularly emissions. Unfortunately, depending on the type of vegetation, these emissions are not always reliably defined. For example, Fagus sylvatica, which is a very abundant deciduous tree in France and in Europe, is a weak monoterpene emitter in the European inventory developed by Simpson et al. [1999. Journal of Geophysical Research 104, 8113-8152], but is a strong monoterpene emitter in Luchetta [1999. Caractérisation et quantification dans la basse atmosphère de composés organiques volatils biogéniques et anthropiques contribuant à la pollution de l'air. Ph.D. thesis, INPT Toulouse]. Beech ( F. sylvatica) emission potential has never been measured in France. This study investigates the isoprene and monoterpenes emission measurements from F. sylvatica in France during a research program INTERREG III in Fossé Rhénan, during May and June 2003. A dynamic cuvette method was used. Sabinene is the main monoterpene emitted, composing more than 90% of biogenic emissions. The remaining is composed of α-pinene, β-pinene and limonene. No isoprene emissions were detected. The monoterpene emissions from F. sylvatica are affected by temperature and photosynthetic active radiation (PAR). In order to describe monoterpene emissions, the "isoprene algorithm" developed by Guenther et al. [1991. Journal of Geophysical Research 26A, 10799-10808; 1993. Journal of Geophysical Research 98D, 12609-12617] has been used. With this algorithm, simulation results and observations agree fairly well. The standard emission rate ( T=303K and