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  1. Inhalants

    MedlinePlus

    ... Emerging Trends and Alerts Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Hallucinogens Heroin Inhalants Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids ... Cold Medicine Abuse Electronic Cigarettes (E-cigarettes) Fentanyl Hallucinogens Heroin Inhalants Marijuana Marijuana as Medicine MDMA (Ecstasy/ ...

  2. Inhalants

    MedlinePlus

    ... place a chemical- soaked rag in their mouth. Abusers may also inhale fumes from a balloon or ... by inhalants usually lasts just a few minutes, abusers often try to prolong it by continuing to ...

  3. Inhalants

    MedlinePlus

    ... Drug Facts Chat Day: Inhalants Drug Facts Chat Day: Inhalants Print Can you get high off of ... Cool Order Free Materials National Drugs & Alcohol Chat Day Newsletter Sign up to receive National Drug & Alcohol ...

  4. Une alternative au cobalt pour la synthese de nanotubes de carbone monoparoi par plasma inductif thermique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrier, Jean-Francois

    Les nanotubes de carbone de type monoparoi (C-SWNT) sont une classe recente de nanomateriaux qui ont fait leur apparition en 1991. L'interet qu'on leur accorde provient des nombreuses proprietes d'avant-plan qu'ils possedent. Leur resistance mecanique serait des plus rigide, tout comme ils peuvent conduire l'electricite et la chaleur d'une maniere inegalee. Non moins, les C-SWNT promettent de devenir une nouvelle classe de plateforme moleculaire, en servant de site d'attache pour des groupements reactifs. Les promesses de ce type particulier de nanomateriau sont nombreuses, la question aujourd'hui est de comment les realiser. La technologie de synthese par plasma inductif thermique se situe avantageusement pour la qualite de ses produits, sa productivite et les faibles couts d'operation. Par contre, des recherches recentes ont permis de mettre en lumiere des risques d'expositions reliees a l'utilisation du cobalt, comme catalyseur de synthese; son elimination ou bien son remplacement est devenu une preoccupation importante. Quatre recettes alternatives ont ete mises a l'essai afin de trouver une alternative plus securitaire a la recette de base; un melange catalytique ternaire, compose de nickel, de cobalt et d'oxyde d'yttrium. La premiere consiste essentiellement a remplacer la proportion massique de cobalt par du nickel, qui etait deja present dans la recette de base. Les trois options suivantes contiennent de nouveaux catalyseurs, en remplacement au Co, qui sont apparus dans plusieurs recherches scientifiques au courant des dernieres annees: le dioxyde de zircone (ZrO2), dioxyde de manganese (MnO2) et le molybdene (Mo). La methode utilisee consiste a vaporiser la matiere premiere, sous forme solide, dans un reacteur plasma a haute frequence (3 MHz) a paroi refroidi. Apres le passage dans le plasma, le systeme traverse une section dite de "croissance", isolee thermiquement a l'aide de graphite, afin de maintenir une certaine plage de temperature favorable a la

  5. Inhalants

    MedlinePlus

    ... lack of coordination, euphoria (a feeling of intense happiness), and dizziness. Some users also experience lightheadedness, hallucinations ( ... on the type of inhalant used, the harmful health effects will differ. The table below lists some ...

  6. Inhalants

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alerts Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Hallucinogens Heroin Inhalants Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Prescription Drugs & Cold ... Notes Articles Adolescent Cigarette, Alcohol Use Declines as Marijuana Use Rises ( February 2013 ) Program Helps Troubled Boys ...

  7. Arthrose due au genu varum: traitement par osteotomie tibiale de valgisation

    PubMed Central

    Moussa, Abdou Kadri; Lukulunga, Loubet Unyendje; Mahfoud, Mustapha; El Bardouni, Ahmed; Ismail, Farid; Kharmaz, Mohamed; Berrada, Mohammed Saleh; El Yaacoubi, Moradh

    2014-01-01

    Le traitement du genu varum est le plus souvent conservateur (ostéotomie tibiale de valgisation) permettant de corriger le trouble architectural afin de rétablir l'axe physiologique du membre inférieur. Le but de l’étude était d’évaluer les résultats du traitement et comparer à ceux de la littérature. Il s'est agi d'une étude rétrospective portant sur des patients présentant un genu varum qui s'est déroulée dans le Service de Chirurgie Orthopédique et Traumatologie de CHU Ibn SINA de RABAT, sur une période de 9 ans (2000 au 31 Décembre 2008). Nous avons inclus dans notre étude: les patients qui avaient un genu-varum clinique avec examen radiographique standard ainsi qu'un pangonogramme; traités par différents procédés d'ostéotomie tibiale de valgisation; avec un suivis d’ au moins deux ans. Nos critères d’évaluation ont été appréciés selon le score HSS. Nous avons colligé 115 cas de genu-varum par ostéotomie de valgisation. L’âge de nos patients variait entre 40 et 69 ans, avec une moyenne de 53 ans. Le pic de fréquence se situait entre 52et 63 ans. Le sexe féminin prédominait avec 87 cas (75,6%) avec un sex ratio 3,1. Un Indice de masse corporelle supérieur à 30 a été noté dans 44 cas (38%). Quant aux antécédents chirurgicaux,18 patients de la série (soit 14%) ont été opérés pour le genu varum d'un autre genou. Le délai de consultation a varié entre 4 mois à 6 ans, avec une moyenne de 2 ans. La douleur était le principal motif de consultation et était de siège médial dans 70% des cas et bicompartimental dans 30% cas. Il s'agissait d'une douleur mécanique dans 76% des cas, mixte 21% des cas et inflammatoire 4% des cas. La déformation du genou appréciée par l’écart intercondylien a été en moyenne de 8,7 cm avec des extrêmes de 3 cm et 33cm. Le bilan de l'imagerie médicale reposait essentiellement sur les radiographies standards du genou de face et de profil, ainsi que la goniométrie. Ces

  8. L'engelure causée par le butane commercial au cours d’un accident industriel

    PubMed Central

    Assi-Dje Bi Dje, V.; Abhe, C.M.; Sie-Essoh, J.B.; Kouamé, K.; Vilasco, B.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Les engelures sont encore exceptionnelles en Afrique sub-saharienne, mais l’essor des industries pétrochimiques en rapport avec la promotion d’une large utilisation du gaz domestique (butane commercial) expose au risque de survenue de ce type de brûlures abusivement dites gelures. Nous rapportons un cas de brûlures au froid par gaz de pétrole liquéfié (GPL) en milieu professionnel dont le diagnostic de gravité et la prise en charge tardifs ont défavorisé l’évolution locale. Le respect des mesures de sécurité au sein des usines reste néanmoins le principal moyen de prévention de ce type de brûlures méconnues. PMID:26170791

  9. Douleurs induites par les soins: la réalité au Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Befelatanana Antananarivo, Madagascar

    PubMed Central

    Mahavivola, Ernestho-Ghoud Indretsy; Olivah, Razanaparany Miarisoa Mireille; Mihary, Dodo; Hendriniaina, Rakotoharivelo; Lalao, Randriamboavonjy Rado; Henintsoa, Rakotonirainy Oliva; Fahafahantsoa, Rapelanoro Rabenja

    2014-01-01

    La douleur induite par les soins correspond à la douleur survenant lors des actes à visé diagnostique et/ou thérapeutique. A notre connaissance, nous n'avons pas encore des données disponibles pour les douleurs induites par les soins à l'Hôpital de Befelatanana. Nos objectifs étaient de décrire le profil épidémiologique de la douleur induite par les soins, d'identifier les principaux facteurs influençant sur l'intensité de la douleur et leurs retentissements chez les patients. Il s'agissait d'une étude rétrospective, transversale type un jour donné menée dans les douze services de Médecines au Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Befelatanana en Novembre 2013. Cent deux patients ont été retenus dans l’étude et trois cent vingt trois actes douloureux étaient enregistrés. La fréquence de la douleur induite par les soins était de 69,86%. Le genre féminin prédominait dans 52% des cas (n = 53) avec un sex-ratio à 0,92. L’âge moyen était de 46 ans. Les ponctions vasculaires étaient l'acte prédominant dans 49,54% (n = 109) des cas. Les infirmiers réalisaient les soins dans 47,05% (n = 48) des cas. L'information verbale était la mesure préventive utilisée dans 57,84% des cas (n = 59). Le transport par marche à pied et au dos représentait 16,67% des cas (n = 17). Les patients naïfs des gestes étaient plus anxieux. Ces patients gardaient de mauvais souvenir dans 64,71% des cas (n = 66). La fréquence de douleur induite par les soins était trop élevée. Un effort important est nécessaire pour réduire la douleur induite par les soins PMID:25932071

  10. Coinfection pulmonaire par pneumocystis jirovecii et pseudomonas aeruginosa au cours du SIDA: à propos de deux cas

    PubMed Central

    Mamoudou, Savadogo; Bellaud, Guillaume; Ana, Canestri; Gilles, Pialoux

    2015-01-01

    Rapporter deux cas cliniques de coinfections pulmonaires par Pneumocystis jirovecii et par Pseudomonas aeruginosa chez des patients vivant avec le VIH. Les deux patients étaient âgés respectivement de 32 ans et 46 ans. Un patient a été pris en charge à l'hôpital Yalgado Ouédraogo de Ouagadougou au Burkina Faso et l'autre a été pris en charge à l'hôpital Ténon de Paris, en France. Les deux souffraient de pneumopathie confirmée à la radiographie et à la tomodensitométrie. L'un des patients était sévèrement immuno déprimé, contrairement à l'autre. L'examen bactériologique dans les crachats avait permis d'isoler Pseudomonas aeruginosa et Pneumocystis jirovecii chez les deux patients. Sous traitement, l’évolution a été favorable. Les coinfections morbides sont relativement fréquentes chez les patients vivant avec le VIH. Devant une symptomatologie respiratoire du sujet vivant avec le VIH, il faut savoir rechercher en plus du Bacille de Koch, Pneumocystis jirovecii et Pseudomonas aeruginosa par un lavage broncho alvéolaire. PMID:26516396

  11. Mecanismes de deformation de nanoparticules d'Au par irradiation ionique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harkati Kerbouah, Chahineze

    2011-12-01

    In the present thesis, we study the anisotropic deformation of gold nanoparticles embedded in amorphous silica or crystalline aluminum arsenide, under ion bombardment. We try to comprehend the mechanism responsible for this deformation and to remove any ambiguity related to the explanation of this phenomenon. A hybrid process combining sputtering and plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition was used to fabricate Au/SiO2 layers on fused silica substrates. Structures with single and multilayer were obtained. Heating during or after deposition activates the Au atom agglomeration and favours the growth of the nanoparticles. Also, a Au/AlAs nanocomposite was obtained by ion implantation of AlAs films, followed by rapid thermal annealing. The samples of the two nanocomposites, cooled with liquid nitrogen, were irradiated with 2 to 40 MeV Cu, Si, Au or In ion beams, at fluences ranging from 1x10 13 to 4x1015 ions/cm2, using a Tandem or Tandetron accelerator. The structural and morphological properties of the Au/SiO2 nanocomposite were extracted by optical means; the frequency and the width of surface plasmon resonance band depend on the nanoparticle shape and size, their concentration, the inter-particle distance and the dielectric properties of material in which the particles are embedded. The aluminum arsenide crystallinity was studied by two techniques: Raman spectroscopy and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry in channelling configuration (RBS/ channelling). The Au concentration in the nanocomposite layers was deducted from RBS results. The size distribution and metallic nanoparticles shape transformation in both nanocomposites were observed by electronic transmission microscopy. The results obtained within the framework of this work are the subject of three journal papers. The first publication shows the possibility of manipulating the width and spectral position of the gold nanoparticle absorption band in Au/SiO2 nanocomposites by modifying their structure

  12. L'appropriation par les primo-adoptants de l' Approche École en santé au Quebec.

    PubMed

    Couturier, Yves; Deschesnes, Marthe; Drouin, Nathalie

    2014-06-01

    L' Approche École en santé (AÉS) est une approche globale de promotion de la santé inspirée des principes des « Health Promoting Schools » (écoles promotrices de santé). L'AÉS est associée à un dispositif d'accompagnement des écoles volontaires pour l'implanter qui comporte des ressources professionnelles d'accompagnement et divers outils. Le présent article rend compte des résultats d'une recherche qualitative portant sur l'appropriation locale de cette approche par des écoles ayant participé à la première vague d'implantation au Québec. Après avoir exposé le contexte, la méthodologie et le cadre théorique de l'étude, nous présenterons les appropriations locales observées, et ce qui semble les avoir conditionnées, du point de vue des acteurs.

  13. Prévalence de l'hépatite B chez les personnes infectées par le VIH à Parakou au Bénin

    PubMed Central

    Dovonou, Comlan Albert; Amidou, Salimanou Ariyoh; Kpangon, Amadohoué Arsène; Traoré, Yacoubou Adam; Godjedo, Togbemabou Primous Martial; Satondji, Assongba Joseph; Wachinou, Ablo Prudence; Issa-Djibril, Fatioulaye Mahamadi; Fourn, Léonard; Zannou, Djimon Marcel; Gandaho, Prosper

    2015-01-01

    Introduction La co-infection avec l'hépatite B est l'un des défis majeurs de la prise en charge du VIH depuis l'amélioration de l'accès aux antirétroviraux en Afrique. La présente étude visait à estimer la prévalence de l'hépatite B chez les personnes séropositives au VIH à Parakou et décrire les facteurs associés. Méthodes Il s'agit d'une étude transversale menée de Mai 2011 à Juin 2012 dans le service de Médecine du CHU de Parakou. Ont été inclus tous les adultes séropositifs au VIH vus en consultation ou hospitalisés. Les données ont été collectées par interviews et dépouillement de dossiers médicaux. L'antigène HBs a été recherché par un test rapide et l'ALAT a été dosé. L'analyse des données a été faite avec le logiciel EpiInfo 3.5.1. Les proportions ont été comparées grâce au test de Chi-deux ou au test de Fisher au seuil de significativité de 5%. Un modèle de régression logistique multivariable a permis d'expliquer la prévalence de l'hépatite B. Résultats Sur les 744 sujets inclus on a dénombré 555 femmes. L’âge moyen était de 35,5 + 10,1 ans. La prévalence de l'hépatite B a été estimée à 16,9% (IC95: 14,3%-19,9%). Cette prévalence était plus élevée chez les sujets originaires du Borgou/Alibori et ceux au stade 4 de l'OMS. Conclusion La prévalence de la co-infection VIH/VHB au CHU Parakou est élevée. Le dispositif national de prise en charge et de prévention de l'hépatite B chez les personnes séropositives au VIH doit être renforcé. PMID:26097629

  14. Facteurs de risque de l'infection par le VIH dans le district de santé de Meyomessala au Cameroun

    PubMed Central

    Mbopi-Keou, Francois-Xavier; Nguefack-Tsague, Georges; Kalla, Ginette Claude Mireille; Abessolo, Stéphanie Abo'o; Angwafo, Fru; Muna, Walinjom

    2014-01-01

    Introduction L'objectif de ce travail était de déterminer les facteurs de risque de l'infection par le VIH dans le district de santé de Meyomessala (Région du Sud) au Cameroun. Méthodes Il s'agissait d'une étude transversale, descriptive et analytique qui s'est déroulée de Février à Mai 2011. Pour cette étude, nous avons obtenu une clairance éthique. Résultats L’échantillon était constitué de 315 participants dont 181 (57,46%) hommes et 134 (42,54%) femmes. L’âge moyen était de 24,5±8ans (extrême: 15-45ans). Quarante personnes (40) étaient séropositifs, soit une prévalence de l'infection par le VIH de 12,7%. Cette prévalence augmentait significativement (p = 0) avec le nombre de partenaires occasionnels au cours des douze derniers mois, allant de 2,7% chez ceux n'ayant eu aucun partenaire occasionnel à 21,25% chez ceux ayant plus de trois partenaires occasionnels (RC = 9,72; IC = 1,27-74,14; P = 0,03). le fait d’être âgé entre 20 et 24 ans (RC = 4,88; IC = 1,74-13,67; p = 0), avoir plus de trois partenaires sexuels au cours des douze derniers mois (RC = 9,72; IC = 1,27-74,14; p = 0,03), avoir les rapports sexuels avec les prostitués (RC = 2,86; IC = 1,42-5,76; p = 0), avoir eu le chlamydia (RC = 3,00; IC = 1,07-8,39; p = 0,04), avoir eu la syphilis (RC = 3,35; IC = 1,57-7,14; p = 0), avoir des avantages sociaux lors du premier rapport sexuel (RC = 2,57; IC = 1,03-6,43; p = 0,04) constituaient des potentiels facteurs de risque du VIH. Conclusion Il apparait urgent d'intensifier les campagnes de sensibilisation au risque d'infection par le VIH et les maladies sexuellement transmissibles dans le district de santé de Meyomessala PMID:25419299

  15. Effet de l'etat de la surface de l'acier au carbone 300W sur l'entartrage par la gibbsite dans le procede Bayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavril, Liliana

    Une etude a ete effectuee sur l'entartrage des surfaces en acier au carbone par la gibbsite dans le procede Bayer. Trois methodes ont ete utilisees afin de determiner le mecanisme de formation du tartre: mesure de la vitesse d'entartrage, etude electrochimique et protection cathodique. Cette etude demontre que le tartre de gibbsite est un tartre de cristallisation et que l'etat physico-chimique de la surface metallique a une influence marquee sur l'entartrage. Ainsi, l'oxyde en surface a ete identifie comme un facteur determinant pour l'entartrage. Les essais electrochimiques ont montre que la couche d'oxyde formee dans les solutions Bayer est un oxyde mixte de fer et d'aluminium. Les essais de protection cathodique a courant constant valident le role determinant joue par l'oxyde sur l'entartrage, puisqu'en empechant l'oxyde de se former, l'entartrage est pratiquement elimine. Le mecanisme d'adherence du tartre a l'acier implique trois etapes, soit l'oxydation du metal, la formation de la goethite/goethite alumineuse sur l'oxyde et finalement, la germination de la gibbsite sur la goethite/goethite alumineuse.

  16. Contribution au contrôle de la fluidisation des sédiments marins par ultrasons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bresson, J.; Daïf, A.; Longuemard, J. P.; Mevel, Y.

    1994-08-01

    The authors present an original method based on acoustic propagation of longitudinal waves to determine the state of fluidisation in marine sediments as a function of wave characteristics. Indeed, the pressure variations due to the wave in permeable marine sediments contributes to the desegregation of the inter granular structure. This approach have been tested in wave's channel before being experiment in sea environment. Après avoir présenté le phénomène de fluidisation des sédiments marins et sa modélisation simple, les auteurs étudient dans un canal à houle et expérimentent en mer une méthode, basée sur la propagation d'ondes ultrasonores longitudinales, permettant de détecter l'état de fluidisation du sédiment marin en fonction des caractéristiques de la houle. En effet, les variations de pression engendrées par la houle, dans les sédiments marins perméables, détruisent la liaison du "squelette" inter granulaire existant dans celui-ci quand il est consolidé. Il n'y a plus de contact grain à grain, mais un mince film d'eau sépare complètement ces derniers. On assiste alors à la fluidisation des sédiments près du fond. Cet état est détecté par moyens acoustiques.

  17. Les neuropathies liées au VIH/SIDA: une étude clinique chez les patients infectés par le VIH au Centre d'Excellence VIH/SIDA de l'Université de Lubumbashi

    PubMed Central

    Kabongo, Joe Katabwa; Kaputu-Kalala-Malu, Célestin; Luboya, Oscar; Mutombo, Valerien; Ntambwe, Abel; Mapatano, Mala Ali; Mukendi, Kavulu Mayamba

    2015-01-01

    Introduction En vue d'améliorer la prise en charge des patients souffrant de neuropathie (NP) associées à l'infection HIV, nous avons essayé de déterminer le profil clinique des personnes souffrant de NP au cours du suivi thérapeutique de leur infection HIV. Méthodes Il s'agit d'une étude transversale (n= 101) menée au centre d'excellence depuis 1 an. Notre analyse est essentiellement clinique. Par un examen clinique minutieux, nous avons recherché tous les symptômes et signes cliniques des NP. Subjectivement, les douleurs dominent le tableau. Pour affiner leur diagnostic, nous avons utilisé l’échelle DN4 (Diagnostic des douleurs neuropathiques) et l’échelle EVA (Evaluation de la gravité des douleurs). Nous avons ensuite analysé nos données en fonction de certains autres facteurs épidémiologiques tels que le taux des CD4, le traitement anti-HIV etc. Résultats Les 101 patients représentent 3,12% de la cohorte générale; 53,3% des patients présentent une abolition des réflexes ostéotendineux des membres inférieurs; 77,89% présentent une hypoesthésie thermo algique en chaussette et en gants; 25% ont présenté une amyotrophie des membres inférieurs; 76,5% ont été soumis à un traitement antirétroviral contenant la stavudine; 11,7% ont pris la didanosine (DDI) et Abacavir (ABC). 84% ont une moyenne de CD4 de 292 cel/mm3. Conclusion La NP altère la qualité de vie de nos patients et diminue l'adhérence au traitement antirétroviral. Plusieurs facteurs sont incriminés dans la survenue de la NP, l'effet direct des antirétroviraux, l'effet inflammatoire dysimmunitaire, l'effet infectieux lié aux infections opportunistes. D'autres facteurs seront recherchés et analysés ultérieurement. PMID:26185582

  18. Diagnostic moléculaire d'helicobacter pylori par PCR chez les patients en consultation gastroentérologique au Centre Médical Saint Camille de Ouagadougou

    PubMed Central

    Werme, Karidia; Bisseye, Cyrille; Ouedraogo, Issiaka; Yonli, Albert Théophane; Ouermi, Djénèba; Djigma, Florencia; Moret, Rémy; Gnoula, Charlemagne; Nikiema, Jean-Baptiste; Simpore, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    Introduction L'infection par Helicobacter pylori constitue un problème de santé publique notamment dans les pays en développement. Elle entraine une gastrite pouvant évoluer vers des formes sévères d'ulcération et de transformation maligne. La présenté étude avait pour objectif de diagnostiquer H. pylori par des techniques sérologique et moléculaire au Burkina Faso. Méthodes L’étude prospective a été conduite de mars à juin 2012 sur 70 patients venus en consultation dans le service de gastroentérologie au Centre Médical Saint Camille. Le diagnostic de H. pylori a été réalisé par le test ELISA Immunocomb (ORGENICS Ltd, Yavne, Israël) et la PCR sur des biopsies gastriques prélevées sur les patients. Résultats Les pathologies gastroduodénales étaient plus fréquentes chez les patients de plus de 45 ans. Les prévalences de H. pylori étaient respectivement de 88,57% et de 91,43% par sérologie Immunocomb et par PCR. La différence entre les deux techniques n’était pas significative (P = 0,573). La performance de la PCR a été comparée à celle de la technique Immunocomb. Les résultats montrent une sensibilité et une spécificité de 92,2% et 50,0% pour la technique Immunocomb. Conclusion Le diagnostic de H. pylori par PCR est plus spécifique que le test sérologique Immunocomb et devrait être introduit dans le diagnostic de routine de cette bactérie pathogène au Burkina Faso. PMID:26327960

  19. Augmentation de la densité de courant critique par dopage de YBCO texturé au BaSnO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lepropre, M.; Monot, I.; Delamare, M. P.; Hervieu, M.; Simon, Ch.; Provost, J.; Desgardin, G.; Raveau, B.

    1994-11-01

    We have performed critical current density measurements (DC current) on melt textured YBaCuO doped with BaSnO3 which exhibits transport values at 77 K as high as 7.1 × 10^4 A cm^{-2} in zero field and 1.1 × 10^4 A cm^{-2} at 20 T. A systematic study of this ceramic has been carried out using SEM and HREM observations in correlation with J_c measurements. A textured microstructure is observed containing numerous green phase inclusions (size leq 10 μm) as well as a few numbers of BaSnO3 inclusions (size < 1 μm). It has been found that transport J_c data are distributed over a wide range (2.5 × 10^3-7.1 × 10^4 A cm^{-2}). Nevertheless, magnetic J_c measurements suggest that cracks of the order of several microns may appear in some regions of the material leading to a dramatic decrease of transport J_c for the corresponding sample. On the other hand, HREM observations demonstrate that extended defects cannot be considered as the major factor for vortex pinning in textured 123 material. The presence or the absence of inhomogeneity at the nanoscale does not seem to influence the critical current density. Finally, it has been determined that pinning can be ascribed to lamellar microstructure rather than to BaSnO3 inclusions. Nous avons mesuré la densité de courant critique de transport (courant continu) J_c, dans une céramique texturée YBaCuO dopée au BaSnO3. Elle présente des valeurs de J_c (77 K) de 7,1 × 10^4 A cm^{-2} en champ magnétique nul et de 1.1 × 10^4 A cm^{-2} sous 20 T. Une étude systématique de cette céramique a été entreprise. La microstructure et la nanostructure observées respectivement en microscopie électronique à balayage SEM et en microscopie à haute résolution HREM ont été corrélées avec les mesures de J_c. On observe dans cette céramique une microstructure texturée contenant de nombreuses inclusions de phase verte (taille leq 10 μm) et un très faible nombre d'inclusions de BaSnO3 (taille < 1 μm). Les valeurs de J

  20. Inhalation Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... you can inhale that can cause acute internal injuries. Particles in the air from fires and toxic ... and lung diseases worse. Symptoms of acute inhalation injuries may include Coughing and phlegm A scratchy throat ...

  1. Inhalant abuse.

    PubMed

    Williams, Janet F; Storck, Michael

    2007-05-01

    Inhalant abuse is the intentional inhalation of a volatile substance for the purpose of achieving an altered mental state. As an important, yet-underrecognized form of substance abuse, inhalant abuse crosses all demographic, ethnic, and socioeconomic boundaries, causing significant morbidity and mortality in school-aged and older children. This clinical report reviews key aspects of inhalant abuse, emphasizes the need for greater awareness, and offers advice regarding the pediatrician's role in the prevention and management of this substance abuse problem.

  2. Résultats de la chirurgie avancée de la cataracte par tunnélisation: à propos de 262 cas réalisés au CHR de Banfora (Burkina Faso)

    PubMed Central

    Djiguimdé, Pierre Windinmanégdé; Diomandé, Ibrahim Abib; Ahnoux-Zabsonré, Ahgbatouhabéba; Koffi, Konan Virgile; Meda, Tierinyê Armand; Diomandé, Gossé François; Sanou, Jerôme; Meda-Hien, Gertude; Sankara, Paté; Meda, Nonfounikoun

    2015-01-01

    La cataracte demeure la première cause de cécité dans les pays en voie de développement posant un problème de santé publique. Le but de cette étude est de faire le bilan d'une activité de chirurgie avancée de la cataracte par la technique dite de « phacoalternative » ou par tunnélisation. Il s'agissait d'une étude prospective de base réalisée au Burkina Faso portant sur la chirurgie de la cataracte par la technique de tunnélisation. L’âge moyen de nos patients atteints de cataracte était de 62,47 ± 12,77 ans avec un sex-ratio de 0,98. La majorité des patients opérés (82,82%) étaient des cultivateurs et des ménagères. L'acuité visuelle de loin était réduite à la perception lumineuse dans 68,70% des cas. La profondeur moyenne de la chambre antérieure était de 2,98 ± 0,53 mm. L’épaisseur moyenne du cristallin était de 3,55 ± 0,75 mm. La longueur axiale moyenne de l’œil de nos patients opérés de la cataracte était de 22,88 ± 0,90 mm. La puissance réfractive moyenne estimée de la cornée était de 43,21 ± 2,03 dioptries chez nos patients. La puissance moyenne estimée de l'implant intra oculaire (IOL) utilisé était de23,11 ± 2,35D. La majorité (79,6%) de nos patients avait une bonne acuité visuelle après la chirurgie de la cataracte par tunnélisation. La chirurgie de la cataracte par tunnélisation est une technique révolutionnaire adaptée aux pays pauvres d'Afrique. Elle permet une lutte efficace à moindre coût contre la cécité par cataracte dans nos régions. La tunnélisation est une technique chirurgicale adaptée pour lutter efficacement contre la cécité due à la cataracte en Afrique. PMID:27022426

  3. Inhalant Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... to every organ over time.Also, if your child abuses inhalants, he or she is likely to try ... How can I start a discussion about inhalant abuse with my child? Other organizationsNational Inhalant Prevention Coalition (NIPC)National Institute ...

  4. Étude par détection de photons des processus électroniques au sein d'une jonction tunnel dans un milieu moléculaire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perronet, K.

    2005-03-01

    Analysis of the luminescence induced by a STM (scanning tunneling microscope) permits to get insights into the electronic processes taking place in a single nanoscopic tunnel junction. We studied a Au(111)/Au junction under vacuum (UHV) and immersed in a molecular medium. The study under UHV reveals the influence of spatial variations of surface local density of states (LDOS) on the luminescence. The emission at the solid-liquid interface is characterized and the role played by the dielectric function is shown. Time correlations between the emitted single photons are then studied. Depending on the liquid immersing the junction, a photon bunching can occur. We link this bunching with structural changes of the junction induced by the presence of a diffusing molecule. If the HOMO LUMO gap of the molecule is small enough, resonant tunnelling paths exist and tunnelling-electron bunching occurs. Finally, the influence of a self-assembled monolayer on the substrate is investigated. Boundings between triphenylene derivatives and Au(111) are too weak, but with chemisorbed alcanethiols, molecular resolution is reached both on the STM image and on the photon map. We show that the contrast on photon map comes from the modulation of the LDOS spatial extension into the barrier due to the S Au bond. The elaboration of organic multilayers is considered as a route for observing the electroluminescence of a single molecule, isolated from the substrate by thiols and to study correlations of electronic origin. We have already optically characterised such a layer using C{60}. La luminescence induite par STM (microscopie à effet tunnel) est une source d'informations d'une grande richesse sur les processus électroniques au sein d'un objet nanoscopique individuel. Nous nous sommes intéressés à une jonction Au/Au(111) sous vide puis dans un milieu moléculaire. L'étude sous vide a permis de montrer l'influence des variations spatiales des densités d'états de la surface. L

  5. Substance use - inhalants

    MedlinePlus

    Substance abuse - inhalants; Drug abuse - inhalants; Drug use - inhalants; Glue - inhalants ... symptoms and may include: Strong cravings for the drug Having mood swings from feeling depressed to agitated ...

  6. The Serra Pelada Au-PGE deposit, Serra dos Carajás (Pará State, Brazil): geological and geochemical indications for a composite mineralising process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moroni, Marilena; Girardi, Vicente A.; Ferrario, Alfredo

    2001-12-01

    The Serra Pelada Au-PGE-rich deposit is located in the Serra dos Carajás, a leading mining area in Brazil. This region is characterised by a complex geological and structural framework and is affected by deep lateritisation which has lasted for more than 70 Ma. The Serra Pelada deposit is emplaced in a late-Archean low-grade metasedimentary sequence (Rio Fresco/Águas Claras Formation) which is host to other gold deposits in the region (Igarapé Bahia, Águas Claras). The Rio Fresco/Águas Claras sequence was deposited in tectonic basins developed on Archean basement and Au-bearing greenstone terranes which were intruded by PGE-rich layered mafic complexes (e.g. Luanga). The Serra Pelada mineralisation is located along a regional, complex system of strike-slip faults (Cinzento-Carajás systems) which were active during the late Archean to early Proterozoic. The mineralisation appears to be concentrated along a faulted hinge zone of a fold. Ore zone rock facies are dominated by low-grade ferruginous to carbonaceous metasiltstones and minor sandstones, locally brecciated and cemented by quartz (±sulphide) stockwork. Supergene alteration led to partial to total transformation into friable aggregates of kaolinite, Fe oxide-hydroxides, silica and secondary phosphate-sulphates even at depths exceeding 200 m. Precious metals are exceptionally enriched, with up to more than 1,000 ppm Au+PGE in some peculiar ferruginous-graphitic zones locally called "hidrotermalito". Geochemistry shows complex patterns of major and trace elements, particularly rare-earth elements (REE), in mineralised vs. nonmineralised samples. These patterns are interpreted in terms of variable degree of superposition of hydrothermal and supergene alteration. Precious metals show progressive increase from samples with hydrothermal imprint to samples with supergene imprint. The geological evolution of the Carajás region and the characteristics of mineralisation at Serra Pelada may suggest a composite

  7. Niveau socioéconomique et processus du recours aux soins par les familles de patients souffrant de troubles psychiques au Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Yaogo, Ahmed; Sommer, Alain; Moulaï, Pierre; Chebili, Saïd; Abaoub-Germain, Agnès

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Le Burkina Faso a connu une amélioration constante depuis deux décennies de l'offre de soins en psychiatrie. De même, le taux d'alphabétisation sans cesse croissant s'accompagne d'une profonde modification des conceptions et des comportements. La présente étude visait à déterminer l′impact des déterminants socioéconomiques sur le processus du recours aux soins par les familles. Méthodes Il s'est agi d'une enquête transversale portant sur 200 familles, menée dans le service de psychiatrie du Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Yalgado Ouédraogo de Ouagadougou. Variable à expliquer: premier recours aux soins par les familles (guérisseur traditionnel ou prières religieuses vs. consultations psychiatrique ou médicale). Variable explicative: catégorie socioprofessionnelle classée en suivant la nomenclature des professions et catégories socioprofessionnelles; niveau d’études. L'analyse statistique a été effectuée à l'aide du logiciel SAS version 9.2. Le test du Khi deux a été utilisé. Résultats Il existait une association entre le choix du premier recours et la Profession et la catégorie socioprofessionnelledu « décideur » (p = 0.0006) ainsi que leniveau d’études du « décideur » (p = 0.0001). Conclusion La Profession et Catégorie Sociale et le niveau d'instruction scolaire pourraient être un marqueur important dans les politiques visant à optimiser les processus de recours aux soins des patients dans le circuit de soins. PMID:25161751

  8. Inhalant abuse

    PubMed Central

    Baydala, L

    2010-01-01

    Inhalant abuse – also known as volatile substance abuse, solvent abuse, sniffing, huffing and bagging – is the deliberate inhalation of a volatile substance to achieve an altered mental state. Inhalant abuse is a worldwide problem that is especially common in individuals from minority and marginalized populations, and is strongly correlated with the social determinants of health. It often affects younger children, compared with other forms of substance abuse, and crosses social and ethnic boundaries. Inhalants are pharmacologically diverse products that are selected for their low price, legal and widespread availability, and ability to rapidly induce euphoria. Chronic abuse is associated with serious and often irreversible effects. Widespread screening and early referrals to treatment programs have resulted in significant improvements in the mental, physical and social conditions of those affected. The present statement reviews critical aspects of inhalant abuse, highlighting new information and data that pertain to Aboriginal children and youth, and provides recommendations for treatment and prevention. PMID:21886449

  9. Le diagnostic anténatal de la trisomie 21 par l'hybridation in situ en fluorescence (FISH): à propos des premiers tests réalisés au Maroc

    PubMed Central

    Lamzouri, Afaf; Natiq, Abdelhafid; Tajir, Mariam; Sendid, Mohamed; Sefiani, Abdelaziz

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Le but de cette étude était de présenter les premiers résultats de diagnostic anténatal de la trisomie 21 par la technique d'hybridation in situ en fluorescence (FISH) au Maroc et discuter son intérêt dans le diagnostic rapide de cette aneuploïdie. Méthodes Ce travail a été réalisé chez 23 femmes avec des grossesses à haut risque de trisomie 21. La moyenne d’âge des gestantes étaient de 37,43 ans avec des extrêmes de 21 et 43 ans. Toutes étaient musulmanes mariées, mariage légitimé par la Charia, dont trois mariages consanguins, sauf une originaire de la République Démocratique du Congo qui était chrétienne et concubine. La majorité des femmes étaient fonctionnaires et avaient un niveau de scolarisation moyen à élevé. Toutes les patientes ont bénéficié d'une consultation de génétique médicale au cours de laquelle il leur a été donné des informations sur la technique, son intérêt et ses limites. Il s'agit de femmes enceintes qui avaient soit un âge maternel élevé ou des signes d'appel échographiques et/ ou biochimiques. Une des patientes était porteuse d'une translocation robertsonienne t(14;21) équilibrée. Une amniocentèse a été réalisée chez toutes les gestantes et aucun avortement n'a était induit par ce geste invasif. L’âge gestationnel moyen à la première consultation était de 14 semaines d'aménorrhée (SA) et à l'amniocentèse était de 16 SA et 5 jours. L'analyse FISH a été réalisée, après consentement des couples, sur des cellules non cultivées à partir des échantillons de liquides amniotiques, en utilisant des sondes spécifiques du chromosome 21. Résultats Parmi les 23 patientes qui ont bénéficiées d'un diagnostic anténatal de la trisomie 21 par la technique FISH, nous avons pu rassurer 21 d'entre elles, et nous avons détecté deux cas de trisomie 21 fœtal. Conclusion La technique FISH permet un diagnostic anténatal rapide, en moins de 48h, de la trisomie 21 sur

  10. Échecs thérapeutiques chez les enfants infectés par le VIH en suivi de routine dans un contexte à ressources limitées au Cameroun

    PubMed Central

    Penda, Calixte Ida; Bebey, Francine Same; Mangamba, Danielle Kedy; Moukoko, Else Carole Eboumbou; Ngwa, Victoria; Makouet, Nicaise; Bissek, Anne-Cécile; Minkemdefo, Blaise Dupont; Tetanye, Ekoe; Ndombo, Paul Koki

    2013-01-01

    Introduction L'objectif de cette étude était de déterminer les facteurs associés aux échecs thérapeutiques chez les enfants infectés par le VIH à l'Hôpital Laquintinie de Douala. Méthodes Une étude transversale rétrospective a été menée sur une période de 5 mois en 2010, recrutant 222 enfants âgés de 1 à 18 ans et sous TARV depuis au moins 24 semaines. Les données sociodémographiques, cliniques, biologiques et de l'observance thérapeutique des patients ont été collectés à partir des dossiers des patients, et analysées avec le logiciel SPSS (version 16). Résultats 39 (17,6%) des enfants étaient en échec thérapeutique (délai moyen de survenue 26,8 mois) et 73,4% d'entre eux sont passés en seconde ligne. Les garçons avaient en moyenne un risque 5 fois plus élevé de faire un échec thérapeutique que les filles (OR=3,9; p=0,035). 94,4% des enfants suivis avaient un faible taux de CD4 à l'initiation (‘ 25%) associé au risque élevé d’échec thérapeutique (OR=5,2; p=0,007). Les enfants issus de famille monoparentale représentaient près de la moitié des cas d’échecs thérapeutiques. Sur 39 cas en échec thérapeutique, 41% des enfants étaient des orphelins. Parmi les enfants sous TARV, 46% prenaient leur trithérapie sous forme de médicaments séparés parmi lesquels 52,1% étaient en échec thérapeutique. Conclusion Les échecs thérapeutiques et le passage en seconde ligne dépendaient du contexte familial des enfants, de leur statut immunologique à l'initiation du traitement, de leur sexe et de la forme galénique du TARV. PMID:24171063

  11. Prise en charge d’un afflux massif de brûles lors d’une situation de catastrophe par incendie au Maroc

    PubMed Central

    Siah, S.; Hatimi, E.M.; Ihrai, H.; Drissi Kamili, N.

    2012-01-01

    Summary La brûlure est l’une des lésions les plus fréquemment rencontrées lors de catastrophes naturelles ou lors de catastrophes d’origine humaine (incendies de lieux publics d’origine accidentelle, ou en temps de guerre ou encore lors d’attentats terroristes). La prise en charge et le triage de brûlés en nombre reste un problème difficile; ceci souligne la nécessité d’une réflexion et de prévisions de ces crises en insistant sur la formation des médecins et des soignants. Les défis à relever sont multiples: les soins aux brûlés requièrent un nombre important de personnel qualifié; les évacuations doivent être planifiées en fonction de la gravité de la brûlure et des lésions associées; les stocks et lots de dotation (en particulier en topiques anti-infectieux et en cristalloïdes) doivent être suffisants et adéquats. Les services hospitaliers de l’Hôpital Militaire d’Instruction Mohammed V de Rabat doivent pouvoir être rapidement adaptés pour accueillir et surtout isoler ces patients. L’hypothèse d’une catastrophe par incendie avec afflux massif de brûlés à l’hôpital militaire d’instruction Mohammed V de Rabat ne doit laisser place à aucune improvisation. PMID:23467075

  12. Asthma Inhalers

    MedlinePlus

    ... reduce the release of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) into the atmosphere when taking certain asthma medications. Until recently, most ... hydrofluoroalkane (HFA) inhalers, that do not rob the atmosphere of ozone. “The FDA [Food and Drug Administration] ...

  13. Inhaled Steroids

    MedlinePlus

    ... side effects with inhaled steroids are thrush (a yeast infection of the mouth or throat that causes ... There have been concerns regarding the possibility of growth suppression in children. Recent studies have not shown ...

  14. Inhibition de la corrosion d'acier au carbone en milieu H3PO4 2M par des composés organiques de type ``triazine''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bekkouch, K.; Aouniti, A.; Hammouti, B.; Kertit, S.

    1999-05-01

    The effect of addition of some triazine compounds on the corrosion behaviour of steel in 2M H3PO4 has been studied by weight loss and electrochemical polarisation methods. Both methods showed that the dissolution rate was dependent on the chemical properties and concentration of the product. From comparison of results, it was found that 6-azathymine (T6) is the best inhibitor and its inhibition efficiency reaches a maximum value of 86% at 10-3 M. Polarisation measurements indicated that T6 acts as cathodic inhibitor by merely blocking the reaction sites without changing the mechanism of the hydrogen evolution reaction. It was found that T6 was adsorbed on steel surface according to a Langmuir isotherm model. The effect of temperature indicated that inhibition efficiency of T6 is dependent on the temperature in the range 25-50 circC. L'effet de l'addition de certains composés organiques de type triazine sur la corrosion d'un acier en milieu H3PO4 2M a été étudié à l'aide des méthodes électrochimiques et gravimétriques. Les résultats obtenus ont montré que la vitesse de dissolution de l'acier dépend de la structure moléculaire et de la concentration du produit. La comparaison des efficacités inhibitrices montre que le 6-azathymine (T6) est le meilleur inhibiteur de la série des triazines testés. L'efficacité inhibitrice du T6 atteint une valeur maximale de 86 % à 10-3 M. L'allure des courbes de polarisation indique que le T6 agit essentiellement comme inhibiteur de type cathodique par adsorption à la surface de l'acier selon le modèle de l'isotherme de Langmuir. L'efficacité inhibitrice du T6 dépend de la température dans le domaine allant de 25 à 50 circC.

  15. L'intérêt de la sélection du faisceau (12)C par rapport au (13)C pour la radiothérapie du cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farés, G.; Hachem, A.; Bimbot, R.; Roussel-Chomaz, P.; Anne, R.; Mirea, M.; Belahbib, S.; Benfoughal, T.; Cabot, C.; Clapier, F.; Freeman, R.; Lewitowicz, M.; Saint-Laurent, M. G.; Sauvestre, J. E.; Sida, J. L.

    1998-04-01

    Heavy ions having interesting properties as Bragg's peak require an important energy in order to attain a deep tumor. At intermediate and relativist energies, fragmentation reactions occur throughout their path and produce fragments lighter than the projectile. Consequently, the product fragments give a residual dose beyond the Bragg peak. For these reasons, the interesting ions in radiotherapy of cancer converge toward heavy light ions (C - Ne). Moreover, for a better treatment safety, it is envisaged also to use β(+) transmitting radioactive ion beams. This allows to provide the picture of the really irradiated volume by using a positon camera. In this context, our works essentially is concentrated on production rates and cross sections calculations for nucleus products in the fragmentation of (12)C at 95 MeV/u and (13)C at 75 MeV/u. Les ions lourds possédant des propriétés balistiques importantes tel que le pic de Bragg nécessitent une énergie importante pour atteindre une tumeur profonde. Aux énergies intermédiaires et relativistes, des réactions de fragmentation se produisent tout au long de leur trajet et donnent naissance à des fragments plus légers que le projectile. Ces derniers entraînent une dose résiduelle au-delà du pic de Bragg. Pour cette raison, les ions les plus intéressants en radiothérapie convergent vers les ions lourds - légers (C à Ne). Par ailleurs, pour une sécurité accrue du traitement, on envisage d'utiliser aussi des faisceaux d'ions radioactifs émetteurs β(+). Ceci permet de fournir l'image du volume réellement irradié en utilisant une caméra à positon. Dans ce contexte, nos travaux ont porté essentiellement sur le calcul de taux de production et de la section efficace des noyaux issus de la fragmentation du (12)C à 95 MeV/u et du (13)C à 75 MeV/u.

  16. Inhalation Injury.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-01

    alpha,-antitrypsin resulting cur most often as the result of tracheal in prolonged action of proteases such as or laryngeal damage from the endotra... curs is determined by physicochemical Turbulent airflow, such as at bifurca- properties of the inhaled substance, its tions of the airway, separates

  17. Brulures par Diluant

    PubMed Central

    Benbrahim, A.; Jerrah, H.; Diouri, M.; Bahechar, N.; Boukind, E.H.

    2009-01-01

    Summary La flamme de diluant est une cause non rare de brûlure dans le contexte marocain. Nous avons jugé intéressant de faire une étude épidémiologique sur la brûlure par flamme de diluant (BFD) au centre national des brûlés (CNB) du CHU Ibn-Rochd de Casablanca. Ce travail a été réalisé sur une période de 10 mois (septembre 2007/juin 2008). Le but du travail est de montrer les caractéristiques de ce type de brûlures pour les prévenir et ce par l'information sur le diluant, produit causant ces brûlures, et ses différents dangers, la brûlure notamment. Durant cette période, nous avons colligé 17 cas de BFD sur un total de 356 patients admis au CNB pour brûlures aiguës toute étiologie confondue. La moyenne d'age des patients concernés est de 32 ans. Ils sont presque tous de sexe masculin (16 hommes/1 femme) et ont des antécédents de toxicomanie et/ou de délinquance. Tous nos patients sont de bas niveau socio-économique et habitent dans des bidonvilles pour la plupart. La brûlure est souvent secondaire à une agression dans la rue (92% des cas). Concernant les caractéristiques de la brûlure, la surface cutanée brûlée moyenne est de 23%; elle est souvent profonde et siège surtout au niveau des membres supérieurs et du tronc. PMID:21991179

  18. La pelade par plaques

    PubMed Central

    Spano, Frank; Donovan, Jeff C.

    2015-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Présenter aux médecins de famille des renseignements de base pour faire comprendre l’épidémiologie, la pathogenèse, l’histologie et l’approche clinique au diagnostic de la pelade par plaques. Sources des données Une recension a été effectuée dans PubMed pour trouver des articles pertinents concernant la pathogenèse, le diagnostic et le pronostic de la pelade par plaques. Message principal La pelade par plaques est une forme de perte pileuse auto-immune dont la prévalence durant une vie est d’environ 2 %. Des antécédents personnels ou familiaux de troubles auto-immuns concomitants, comme le vitiligo ou une maladie de la thyroïde, peuvent être observés dans un petit sous-groupe de patients. Le diagnostic peut souvent être posé de manière clinique en se fondant sur la perte de cheveux non cicatricielle et circulaire caractéristique, accompagnée de cheveux en « point d’exclamation » en périphérie chez ceux dont le problème en est aux premiers stades. Le diagnostic des cas plus complexes ou des présentations inhabituelles peut être facilité par une biopsie et un examen histologique. Le pronostic varie largement et de mauvais résultats sont associés à une apparition à un âge précoce, une perte importante, la variante ophiasis, des changements aux ongles, des antécédents familiaux ou des troubles auto-immuns concomitants. Conclusion La pelade par plaques est une forme auto-immune de perte de cheveux périodiquement observée en soins primaires. Les médecins de famille sont bien placés pour identifier la pelade par plaques, déterminer la gravité de la maladie et poser le diagnostic différentiel approprié. De plus, ils sont en mesure de renseigner leurs patients à propos de l’évolution clinique de la maladie ainsi que du pronostic général selon le sous-type de patients.

  19. Facteurs associés à la dissociation immunovirologique chez les patients infectés par le VIH-1 sous traitement antirétroviral hautement actif au Centre de Traitement Ambulatoire (CTA) de Dakar

    PubMed Central

    Kà, Daye; Manga, Noël Magloire; Ngom-Guéye, Ndéye Fatou; Ndiaga, Diop; Diop, Moustapha; Cisse-Diallo, Viviane Marie Pierre; Diallo-Mbaye, Khardiata; Lakhe, Ndèye Aissatou; fortès-Déguenonvo, Louise; Ndour, Cheikh Tidiane; Diop-Nyafouna, Sylvie Audrey; Seydi, Moussa

    2017-01-01

    Introduction L'objectif de ce travail était d'évaluer les différents facteurs associés à la dissociation immunovirologique malgré un traitement antirétroviral hautement actif et efficace. Méthodes Il s'agissait d'une étude de cohorte historique, descriptive et analytique faite à partir de dossiers de patients infectés par le VIH-1; sous traitement antirétroviral depuis au moins 12 mois, suivis dans la cohorte du CTA de 2001 à 2011 et ayant une charge virale indétectable depuis 6 mois. Résultats Durant cette période d'étude de 10 ans, la prévalence de la DIV était de 19,3%. Le sexe féminin était prédominant avec un sexe ratio de 1,9. La dissociation immunovirologique a été plus fréquemment rencontrée chez les patients de sexe masculin (29,7% vs 14,1%) avec une différence statistiquement significative (p = 0,00006). L'âge médian était de 44 ans ± 10 ans. Un antécédent de tuberculose a été retrouvé dans environ un tiers des cas (31,4%). La dissociation immunovirologique était significativement plus fréquente chez les patients ayant un antécédent de tuberculose (p = 0,00005). La plupart des patients (68%) était au stade SIDA 3 ou 4 de l'OMS. Les patients ayant une dissociation immunovirologique étaient plus souvent aux stades 3 et 4 de l'OMS (p = 0,0001). La dénutrition a été notée dans plus de la moitié des cas (56,2%) et la dissociation immunovirologique prédominait chez les patients dénutris (p=0,005). Le taux moyen de lymphocytes TCD4+ était de 86,7± 83 cellules / mm3. La dissociation immunovirologique était plus fréquente chez les patients ayant un taux de lymphocytes TCD4 bas à l'initiation avec une différence statistiquement significative (p = 0,00000). En analyse multivariée; Seuls l'âge supérieur ou égal à 43 ans, le taux de CD4 initial < 100 c/mm3 et le sexe masculin étaient significativement associés à cette dissociation immunovirologique. Conclusion Les principaux facteurs associés à la

  20. Ipratropium Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... not use your ipratropium inhaler when you are near a flame or source of heat. The inhaler may explode if it is exposed to very high temperatures.Before you use ipratropium inhalation for the first ...

  1. Beclomethasone Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... not use your beclomethasone inhaler when you are near a flame or source of heat. The inhaler may explode if it is exposed to very high temperatures.Each beclomethasone inhaler is designed to provide 50, ...

  2. Nicotine Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    Nicotine oral inhalation is used to help people stop smoking. Nicotine oral inhalation should be used together with a ... support groups, counseling, or specific behavioral change techniques. Nicotine inhalation is in a class of medications called ...

  3. Albuterol Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... and airways). Albuterol inhalation aerosol and powder for oral inhalation is also used to prevent breathing difficulties ... years of age and older. Albuterol powder for oral inhalation (Proair Respiclick) is used in children 12 ...

  4. Inhalation toxicology.

    PubMed

    MacFarland, H N

    1975-07-01

    Two kinds of problems associated with developing standardized procedures for the safety evaluation of new compounds are identified. The first of these is the question of the desirability of using such standard methods. It is concluded that a basic set of procedures is to be recommended, but this should be supplemented with special tests as may be indicated. The second problem is connected with the technical difficulties of any given type of assay and is normally dealt with in terms of the state of the art at the time. Assays by the inhalation route tend to be custom designed and do not follow standard protocols. One of the causes of this situation is the propensity of individual investigators to design de novo the equipment used to effect exposure of animals to airborne substances. Second, some confusion exists because investigators do not always appreciate that the concentration-time product is not the same as the true dose received by the exposed subjects and this may lead to anomalies when dose-response relationships are being characterized. It is suggested that interlaboratory studies be undertaken to ascertain the variability that might be expected in independent assays of inhalation toxicity.

  5. La pelade par plaques

    PubMed Central

    Spano, Frank; Donovan, Jeff C.

    2015-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Présenter aux médecins de famille des renseignements de base pour faire comprendre les schémas thérapeutiques et les résultats des traitements pour la pelade par plaques, de même que les aider à identifier les patients pour qui une demande de consultation en dermatologie pourrait s’imposer. Sources des données Une recension a été effectuée dans PubMed pour trouver des articles pertinents concernant le traitement de la pelade par plaques. Message principal La pelade par plaques est une forme auto-immune de perte pileuse qui touche à la fois les enfants et les adultes. Même s’il n’y a pas de mortalité associée à la maladie, la morbidité découlant des effets psychologiques de la perte des cheveux peut être dévastatrice. Lorsque la pelade par plaques et le sous-type de la maladie sont identifiés, un schéma thérapeutique approprié peut être amorcé pour aider à arrêter la chute des cheveux et possiblement faire commencer la repousse. Les traitements de première intention sont la triamcinolone intralésionnelle avec des corticostéroïdes topiques ou du minoxidil ou les 2. Les médecins de famille peuvent prescrire ces traitements en toute sécurité et amorcer ces thérapies. Les cas plus avancés ou réfractaires pourraient avoir besoin de diphénylcyclopropénone topique ou d’anthraline topique. On peut traiter la perte de cils avec des analogues de la prostaglandine. Les personnes ayant subi une perte de cheveux abondante peuvent recourir à des options de camouflage ou à des prothèses capillaires. Il est important de surveiller les troubles psychiatriques en raison des effets psychologiques profonds de la perte de cheveux. Conclusion Les médecins de famille verront de nombreux patients qui perdent leurs cheveux. La reconnaissance de la pelade par plaques et la compréhension du processus pathologique sous-jacent permettent d’amorcer un schéma thérapeutique approprié. Les cas plus graves ou r

  6. Flunisolide Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... your flunisolide inhaler while you are near an open flame or a heat source. The inhaler may explode if it is exposed ... Do not store the inhaler near a heat source or an open flame. Protect the inhaler from freezing and direct ...

  7. Ciclesonide Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... your ciclesonide inhaler while you are near an open flame or a heat source. The inhaler may explode if it is exposed ... Do not store the inhaler near a heat source or an open flame. Protect the inhaler from freezing and direct ...

  8. Fluticasone Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... fluticasone aerosol inhaler while you are near an open flame or a heat source. The inhaler may explode if it is exposed ... Do not store the inhaler near a heat source or an open flame. Protect the inhaler from freezing and direct ...

  9. [Inhalant-related disorder].

    PubMed

    Mizuhara, Yuki; Tsuchida, Hideto; Fukui, Kenji

    2010-08-01

    Inhalant abuse and dependence are prevalent in adolescent population because inhalants are inexpensive, legal and accessible substance for youth. In Japan, the prevalence of inhalant abuse and dependence is gradually declining in these days, although inhalants can still become a "gateway drug" to other dependent substances such as cocaine and cannabinoids. Inhalant abuse causes show serious mental and somatic symptoms, and mortality in acute and chronic phases, while the abusers are ignorant about it. This paper reviews recent studies that investigate the symptoms and the treatments of inhalant abuse and dependence.

  10. Inhalation Therapy in Horses.

    PubMed

    Cha, Mandy L; Costa, Lais R R

    2017-04-01

    This article discusses the benefits and limitations of inhalation therapy in horses. Inhalation drug therapy delivers the drug directly to the airways, thereby achieving maximal drug concentrations at the target site. Inhalation therapy has the additional advantage of decreasing systemic side effects. Inhalation therapy in horses is delivered by the use of nebulizers or pressured metered dose inhalers. It also requires the use of a muzzle or nasal mask in horses. Drugs most commonly delivered through inhalation drug therapy in horses include bronchodilators, antiinflammatories, and antimicrobials.

  11. Evaluation d’un enseignement par les étudiants appliquée au module « aide à la rédaction de thèse»: destiné aux internes des hôpitaux des Armées au Centre d’épidémiologie et de Santé Publique des Armées, Marseille

    PubMed Central

    Kasouati, Jalal; Velut, Guillaume; Deparis, Xavier; Touloune, Farida

    2016-01-01

    Introduction En éducation, l'évaluation concerne les institutions de formation, les programmes, les enseignants ou les étudiants. Elle peut être prédictive, sommative ou formative. L'Evaluation d'un Enseignement par les Etudiants (EEE) est l'un des outils de ce dernier type. Objectif Évaluer l'enseignement de la première partie de la formation « aide à la rédaction de thèse ». Méthodes C'est une étude transversale classée dans le cadre « EEE » qui a porté sur le module « aide à la rédaction de thèse » dispensée au CESPA au profit de 27 participants préparant leur projet de fin d'étude. Résultats Le taux de réponse des participants présents était de 100%. D'un sexe ratio F/M de 2 et de une moyenne d'âge de 25,5 ans +/- 2,7 ans, les questionnés étaient majoritairement des internes de médecine générale. Plus de 85% affirmait n'avoir bénéficié d'aucune formation au préalable dans les domaines traités. Les participants avaient des attentes qui rejoignaient sommairement les objectifs de la formation. A part le rythme jugé non adapté par plus de la moitié, 80% des participants ont été satisfaits des autres aspects évalués et 95,8% parmi eux prévoyaient d'assister à la deuxième partie de la formation Pour tout les participants, la formation a permis d'amélioré de façon significative leur connaissance et aurais certainement un impact positif sur leurs travaux de recherche. Conclusion Notre travail était un moyen d'installer une certaine complicité entre les étudiants et les enseignants pour atteindre un objectif commun: « AMELIORER LA FORMATION ». PMID:27800091

  12. Evaluation des résultats après traitement des lésions intra épithéliales du col utérin par la cryothérapie: étude préliminaire au Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Yaoundé: A propos de 21 cas

    PubMed Central

    Ndoua, Claude Cyrille Noa; Tebeu, Pierre Marie; Kemfang, Jean Dupont; Kasia, Jean Marie

    2015-01-01

    Nous rapportons les résultats d'une série de 21 cas de prise en charge par cryothérapie de lésions intra-épithéliales cervicales au Centre Hospitalier et Universitaire (CHU) de Yaoundé. Notre objectif principal était d’évaluer les résultats préliminaires de la prise en charge des lésions précancéreuses éligibles pour la cryothérapie. Il s'agissait d'une étude transversale descriptive qui s'est étalée sur 24 mois. Etaient inclus dans l’étude toutes les femmes traitées par cryothérapie. Nous avons exclu les patientes traitées par une autre méthode, les patientes perdues de vue et les dossiers incomplets. Le statut cervical a été déterminé à 6 semaines, 6 mois et 12 mois. Les complications précoces et tardives ont également été répertoriées. Au total 95.2% des lésions étaient cicatrisées à 6 semaines. A 6 mois, toutes les lésions avaient disparu et au 12ème mois, la guérison était effective chez 95.2% des patientes. Les saignements et l'hydrorrhée étaient les principales complications tardives avec des fréquences respectives de 66.7% et 95.2%. Aucun cas de sténose cervicale n'a été répertorié. La cryothérapie peut être utilisée comme méthode de traitement pour des lésions précancéreuses du col. PMID:26140068

  13. Smoke inhalation injury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birky, M.

    The cause of death by fires was studied. The present results and information are, however, not enough to reduce loss of life or inhalation injury. The magnitude and type of inhalation injury for civilians and firefighters represents the most inadequately defined human element of accidental fires. Little information is available on compounds other than carbon monoxide, which are responsible for respiration injury or toxicological syndrome. Effective treatment methods for inhalation victims and studies on fatalities, inhalation injury and animals are suggested.

  14. Focus on Inhalants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Challenge: Safe, Disciplines, and Drug-Free Schools, 1994

    1994-01-01

    The use of inhalants is a major health concern among the school-age population. Information presented in this publication dispels the myths about inhalant use and presents common warning signs that alert teachers to a student's use. The short- and long-term effects of inhalant use are described to shed light on the health risks involved. Lesson…

  15. CBOs Helping Inhalant Abusers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubio, Gloria

    1980-01-01

    Noting the high barrio use of inhalants, the environment often surrounding inhaling, and various treatment approaches, the article describes the programs of several Hispanic community-based organizations in Mexico, Arizona, and California which have been developed to assist inhalant abusers and their families in overcoming the habit. (SB)

  16. Hydrazine inhalation hepatotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Kao, Yung Hsiang; Chong, C H; Ng, W T; Lim, D

    2007-10-01

    Abstract Hydrazine is a hazardous chemical commonly used as a reactant in rocket and jet fuel cells. Animal studies have demonstrated hepatic changes after hydrazine inhalation. Human case reports of hydrazine inhalation hepatotoxicity are rare. We report a case of mild hepatotoxicity following brief hydrazine vapour inhalation in a healthy young man, which resolved completely on expectant management.

  17. Gold nanoparticle aerosols for rodent inhalation and translocation studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Möller, Winfried; Gibson, Neil; Geiser, Marianne; Pokhrel, Suman; Wenk, Alexander; Takenaka, Shinji; Schmid, Otmar; Bulgheroni, Antonio; Simonelli, Federica; Kozempel, Jan; Holzwarth, Uwe; Wigge, Christoph; Eigeldinger-Berthou, Sylvie; Mädler, Lutz; Kreyling, Wolfgang G.

    2013-04-01

    The intensive use of nano-sized particles in many different applications necessitates studies on their risk assessment as there are still open questions on their safe handling and utilization. For reliable risk assessment, the interaction of nanoparticles (NP) with biological systems after various routes of exposure needs to be investigated using well-characterized NP. We report here on the generation of gold-NP (Au-NP) aerosols for inhalation studies with the spark ignition technique, and their characterization in terms of chemical composition, physical structure, morphology, and specific surface area, and on interaction with lung tissues and lung cells after 1 h inhalation by mice. The originally generated agglomerated Au-NP were converted into compact spherical Au-NP by thermal annealing at 600 °C, providing particles of similar mass, but different size and specific surface area. Since there are currently no translocation data available on inhaled Au-NP in the 10-50 nm diameter range, the emphasis was to generate NP as small as 20 nm for inhalation in rodents. For anticipated in vivo systemic translocation and dosimetry analyses, radiolabeled Au-NP were created by proton irradiating the gold electrodes of the spark generator, thus forming gamma ray emitting 195Au with 186 days half-life, allowing long-term biokinetic studies. The dissolution rate of 195Au from the NP was below detection limits. The highly concentrated, polydisperse Au-NP aerosol (1-2 × 107 NP/cm3) proved to be constant over several hours in terms of its count median mobility diameter, its geometric standard deviation and number concentration. After collection on filters particles can be re-suspended and used for instillation or ingestion studies.

  18. L'inhalation d’épingle à foulard: urgence pneumologique émergente

    PubMed Central

    Hebbazi, Afafe; Khattabi, Wiam El; Bopaka, Régis; Jabri, Hasna; Afif, Hicham

    2015-01-01

    L'inhalation d’épingle à foulard (EF) est un phénomène de plus en plus fréquent dans les pays où les femmes portent le voile et dont les conséquences peuvent être graves. Le but de ce travail est de présenter notre expérience dans le diagnostic et la prise en charge de cette nouvelle entité clinique, de définir ses particularités et d'illustrer les dangers de la tenue d'une épingle à foulard dans la bouche. Soixante-dix cas d'inhalation d'EF ont été colligés en 8 ans (2007-2015). Il s'agit de 69 patientes, toutes voilées avec un âge moyen de 16,5 ans et d'un patient de 14 ans. Les patientes mettaient l’épingle entre leurs lèvres tout en fixant leurs foulards. L'inhalation a été accidentelle dans tous les cas. Le signe le plus fréquemment rapporté après inhalation était la toux. Le siège de l’épingle était plus fréquent au niveau de l'arbre bronchique gauche (52,9%). Une expulsion spontanée de l'EF a été notée dans 9 cas. La bronchoscopie souple, réalisée en première intention, dans 61 cas a permis l'extraction de l'EF, dans 83,6% des cas. Le recours à la bronchoscopie rigide a été nécessaire dans 4,9% des cas et à une thoracotomie également dans 4,9% des cas du fait d'une migration distale de l'EF. L'inhalation d’épingle à foulard représente une urgence pneumologique. Les cliniciens doivent être informés de cette forme distincte de corps étrangers intra-bronchiques, son diagnostic et les techniques de son extraction. L'extraction par bronchoscopie souple est une méthode efficace avec un taux de succès élevé. La prévention reste le meilleur traitement. PMID:26958140

  19. Inhalant abuse by adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kurtzman, T L; Otsuka, K N; Wahl, R A

    2001-03-01

    The deliberate misuse of volatile substances poses a poorly recognized risk for considerable morbidity and mortality in adolescent populations worldwide. The abuse of inhalants continues to be a significant problem among our country's youth. While many household and industrial chemicals can be inhaled, glues, paints, and aerosol propellants are among the most commonly abused. Adolescents are often unaware of the health threats posed by inhalation of solvents. Inhalation can result in serious organ system dysfunction or even sudden death. This review discusses the prevalence of inhalant abuse in the United States, summarizes the various types of substances used, highlights the major physiologic effects of inhalants, and briefly discusses associated risk behaviors, prevention and medical management.

  20. [Inhaled therapy in asthma].

    PubMed

    Plaza Moral, Vicente; Giner Donaire, Jordi

    2016-04-01

    Because of its advantages, inhaled administration of aerosolized drugs is the administration route of choice for the treatment of asthma and COPD. Numerous technological advances in the devices used in inhaled therapy in recent decades have boosted the appearance of multiple inhalers and aerosolized drugs. However, this variety also requires that the prescribing physician is aware of their characteristics. The main objective of the present review is to summarize the current state of knowledge on inhalers and inhaled drugs commonly used in the treatment of asthma. The review ranges from theoretical aspects (fundamentals and available devices and drugs) to practical and relevant aspects for asthma care in the clinical setting (therapeutic strategies, education, and adherence to inhalers).

  1. Inhalant Abuse and Dextromethorphan.

    PubMed

    Storck, Michael; Black, Laura; Liddell, Morgan

    2016-07-01

    Inhalant abuse is the intentional inhalation of a volatile substance for the purpose of achieving an altered mental state. As an important, yet underrecognized form of substance abuse, inhalant abuse crosses all demographic, ethnic, and socioeconomic boundaries, causing significant morbidity and mortality in school-aged and older children. This review presents current perspectives on epidemiology, detection, and clinical challenges of inhalant abuse and offers advice regarding the medical and mental health providers' roles in the prevention and management of this substance abuse problem. Also discussed is the misuse of a specific "over-the-counter" dissociative, dextromethorphan.

  2. Inhalant allergies in children.

    PubMed

    Mims, James W; Veling, Maria C

    2011-06-01

    Children with chronic or recurrent upper respiratory inflammatory disease (rhinitis) should be considered for inhalant allergies. Risk factors for inhalant allergies in children include a first-degree relative with allergies, food allergy in infancy, and atopic dermatitis. Although inhalant allergies are rare in infancy, inhalant allergies are common in older children and impair quality of life and productivity. Differentiating between viral and allergic rhinitis can be challenging in children, but the child's age, history, and risk factors can provide helpful information. Allergic rhinitis is a risk factor for asthma, and if one is present, medical consideration of the other is warranted. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Modeling Deposition of Inhaled Particles

    EPA Science Inventory

    The mathematical modeling of the deposition and distribution of inhaled aerosols within human lungs is an invaluable tool in predicting both the health risks associated with inhaled environmental aerosols and the therapeutic dose delivered by inhaled pharmacological drugs. Howeve...

  4. Modeling Deposition of Inhaled Particles

    EPA Science Inventory

    The mathematical modeling of the deposition and distribution of inhaled aerosols within human lungs is an invaluable tool in predicting both the health risks associated with inhaled environmental aerosols and the therapeutic dose delivered by inhaled pharmacological drugs. Howeve...

  5. Etude de l'effet de la température de dépôt ou de recuit sur la formation de l'interface Au/GaSb(100) par diffraction d'électrons lents et spectroscopies d'électrons Auger ou de pertes d'énergies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rouanet, M.; Oueini, W.; Nouaoura, M.; Bertru, N.; Bonnet, J.; Lassabatere, L.

    1995-05-01

    Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), energy electron loss spectroscopy (EELS) and low energy electron diffraction (LEED) are used to precise the interaction of gold with GaSb(100) surfaces grown on GaSb substrates by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). After the growth, the GaSb layers, produced in the laboratory, were transferred by the mean of an ultra vacuum lock chamber, into an other ultra vacuum devoted to the deposit of gold and to the physical studies. Measurements were first performed on the clean surfaces and then on surfaces covered by increasing amounts of gold (6 × 10^{13} 1.8 × 10^{16} atoms cm^{-2}) deposited on substrates brought at room temperature or at low temperature (220 K). The samples were then studied during the annealing up to 520 K. The results show, at the beginning of the deposition, gold was adsorbed on the MBE GaSb(100) surface. When the gold coverage increases and becomes higher than 10^{15} atomes cm^{-2}, Au diffuses into the bulk and forms alloys. Nous étudions par spectroscopie d'électrons Auger (SEA), spectroscopie de pertes d'énergies d'électrons lents (SPEEL) et diffraction d'électrons lents (DEL), l'adsorption de l'or sur des surfaces (100) de couches de GaSb obtenues au laboratoire par épitaxie par jets moléculaires (EJM) sur des substrats de GaSb, puis transférées pour dépôt et étude dans l'enceinte à ultravvide de dépôt métallique par l'intermédiaire d'un sas sous ultravide. Les mesures sont effectuées avant et après dépôts d'or (6 × 10^{13} 1,8 × 10^{16} atomes cm^{-2}) réalisés sur un substrat à la température ambiante ou refroidi à 220 K. Les échantillons sont ensuite étudiés pendant lerecuit jusqu'à 520 K. Les résultats obtenues montrent que l'or, dans un premier temps s'adsorbe sur la surface, puis, lorsque le dépôt augmente, diffuse dans le volume du matériau. cette diffusion, qui peut s'acompagner de la formation d'alliages, n'est cependant notable dans la gamme de température utilis

  6. Inhalation of chlorine gas.

    PubMed Central

    Williams, J. G.

    1997-01-01

    The clinical features of acute chlorine gas inhalation, and its management are reviewed. Current medical views on the chronic effects of an acute overwhelming exposure on lung function (reactive airways dysfunction syndrome), and the more controversial field of lung disease secondary to repeated inhalations of lower concentrations of chlorine gas are discussed. Images Figure PMID:9519180

  7. Reasons for Inhalant Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joe, George W.; Simpson, D. Dwayne

    1991-01-01

    Among 110 Mexican-American adolescents in a Texas drug abuse program, initial use of toxicant inhalants was related to availability and sensation-seeking, followed by psychological problems, parental and home problems, and peer influence. Quitting inhalant use was related to social pressures, attitude change, and perceived health risks. (Author/SV)

  8. Nonthermal Inhalation Injury.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-01

    understand the effects of the various byproducts of combustion on the human body. A thorough knowledge of the physiological mechanisms , relevant...as soon as possible. Overview of Smoke Inhalation Physiology The physiologic mechanisms of injury from smoke inhalation are multiple and complex...to breathe Lower airway obstruction Dyspnea, tachypnea, wheezing, rhonchi, carbonaceous sputum Parenchymal injury Dyspnea, tachypnea, rales Table 1

  9. Caractérisation électrique des interfaces P^+-Si-poly/N-c-Si réalisées par dépôt LPCVD de films fortement dopés in~situ au bore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akani, M.; Benouis, C. E.; Benzohra, M.

    1993-08-01

    Diodes with polycrystalline in situ boron doped emitter deposited by LPCVD on N doped monocrystalline silicon wafers have been analysed electrically with the aim to identify the conduction mechanism through the jonction. In this paper we present the I(V,T) and C (V, T) measurements of the diodes annealed at 1 050 °C during 11 min 45 s in oxygen, argon and nitrogen atmosphere. We also compare the non annealed diode data previously found with our present results, and try to correlate the electrical measurements to the structural analysis [1]. We conclude that the dominant mechanism shows the electrical quality of the studied structures. Des diodes à émetteur polycristallin dopé in situ au bore et déposé par LPCVD sur des plaquettes de silicium monocristallin dopé N sont analysées électriquement dans le but d'identifier les mécanismes de conduction à travers la jonction. Nous présentons les résultats des mesures I (V, T) et C (V, T) des diodes recuites (processées) à 1 050 °C pendant 11 min 45 s dans des atmosphères d'oxygène, d'argon et d'azote et les comparons aux résultats des diodes non recuites. Nous essayons de corréler les résultats des mesures électriques aux analyses de structure réalisées par ailleurs [1]. L'identification du mécanisme de transport prépondérant témoignera de la qualité électrique des structures étudiées.

  10. Inhalants in Peru.

    PubMed

    Lerner, R; Ferrando, D

    1995-01-01

    In Peru, the prevalence and consequences of inhalant abuse appear to be low in the general population and high among marginalized children. Inhalant use ranks third in lifetime prevalence after alcohol and tobacco. Most of the use appears to be infrequent. Among marginalized children, that is, children working in the streets but living at home or children living in the street, the problem of inhalant abuse is a serious problem. Among children working in the streets but living at home, the lifetime prevalence rate for inhalant abuse is high, ranging from 15 to 45 percent depending on the study being cited. For children living in the streets, the use of inhalant is even more severe. As mentioned earlier in this chapter, most of these street children use inhalants on a daily basis. The lack of research on the problem of inhalant abuse is a serious impediment to development of intervention programs and strategies to address this problem in Peru. Epidemiologic and ethnographic research on the nature and extent of inhalant abuse are obvious prerequisites to targeted treatment and preventive intervention programs. The urgent need for current and valid data is underscored by the unique vulnerability of the youthful population at risk and the undisputed harm that results from chronic abuse of inhalants. Nonetheless, it is important to mention several programs that work with street children. Some, such as the Information and Education Center for the Prevention of Drug Abuse, Generation, and Centro Integracion de Menores en Abandono have shelters where street children are offered transition to a less marginal lifestyle. Teams of street educators provide the children with practical solutions and gain their confidence, as well as offer them alternative socialization experiences to help them survive the streets and avoid the often repressive and counterproductive environments typical of many institutions. Most of the children who go through these programs tend to abandon

  11. Albuterol and Ipratropium Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... out of the box and insert the narrow end into the inhaler. You can press the inhaler against a hard surface to be sure it is inserted correctly. Replace the clear plastic base on the inhaler. Hold the inhaler upright with ...

  12. Efficacité de la prévention de la transmission mère-enfant du Virus de l'Immunodéficience Humaine par le protocole 2010 de l'Organisation Mondiale de la Santé au Centre Médical Saint Camille de Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso)

    PubMed Central

    OuédraogoYugbaré, Solange Odile; Zagré, Nikaise; Koueta, Fla; Dao, Lassina; Kam, Ludovic; Ouattara, Diarra Yé; Simporé, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    L’épidémie du Virus de l'Immunodéficience Humaine en milieu pédiatrique est surtout le résultat de la transmission mère-enfant. Notre étude a pour objectif de décrire l'efficacité de la prévention de la transmission mère-enfant du Virus de l'Immunodéficience Humaine par le protocole OMS 2010 (Option A et trithérapie) au centre médical saint Camille de Ouagadougou. Nous avons mené une étude d'une cohorte d'enfants suivis dans le cadre de la prévention de la transmission mère-enfant du Virus de l'Immunodéficience Humaine au centre médical saint Camille de Ouagadougou sur une période de 2 ans allant du 1er Janvier 2012 au 31 Décembre 2013. Nous avons obtenu l'accord de 4900 femmes enceintes pour le dépistage de l'infection du Virus de l'Immunodéficience Humaine et 238 gestantes ont été diagnostiquées séropositives soit 4,86% de séroprévalence. Les femmes étaient surtout infectées par le Virus de l'Immunodéficience Humaine avec de type I (95,38%)). La majorité était sous trithérapie (74,3%) et (25,7%) sous prophylaxie (option A). Les nouveau-nés (92,5%) ont reçu un traitement antirétroviral à base de névirapine dans les 72 heures après la naissance. L'allaitement sécurisé a été appliquée dans 78% des cas. Le taux global de transmission mère-enfant du VIH était de 3,6% avec 3% de transmission chez les enfants nés de mères sous trithérapie antirétrovirale et 6,3% dans les cas de prophylaxie antirétrovirale. Le facteur de risque de transmission a été le long délai du début d'administration des antirétroviraux chez le nouveau-né. La mortalité infantile à un an était de 3,5%. Cette étude a révélé l'efficacité de l'Option A et conforté celle de la trithérapie, le passage à l'Option B+ serait donc plus bénéfique. PMID:26966499

  13. Cromolyn Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... dry air, or by inhaling substances such as pet dander, pollen, dust mites, or chemicals, such as ... disposed of in special ways to ensure that pets, children, and other people cannot consume them. However, ...

  14. Insulin Human Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    Insulin inhalation is used in combination with a long-acting insulin to treat type 1 diabetes (condition in which the body does not produce insulin and therefore cannot control the amount of sugar ...

  15. Pirbuterol Acetate Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... bronchodilators. It works by relaxing and opening air passages in the lungs, making it easier to breathe. ... and stays up. Hold the inhaler around the middle and shake gently several times. Continue to hold ...

  16. Zanamivir Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... you use an inhaled medication to treat asthma, emphysema, or other breathing problems and you are scheduled ... the air passages that lead to the lungs); emphysema (damage to air sacs in the lungs); or ...

  17. Indacaterol Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... LABAs). It works by relaxing and opening air passages in the lungs, making it easier to breathe. ... use extra doses of indacaterol. Call your doctor right away.Indacaterol inhalation controls the symptoms of COPD ...

  18. Budesonide Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    Budesonide is used to prevent difficulty breathing, chest tightness, wheezing, and coughing caused by asthma. Budesonide powder for oral inhalation (Pulmicort Flexhaler) is used in adults and children 6 ...

  19. Acetylcysteine Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    Acetylcysteine inhalation is used along with other treatments to relieve chest congestion due to thick or abnormal ... that causes problems with breathing, digestion, and reproduction). Acetylcysteine is in a class of medications called mucolytic ...

  20. Overview of inhalation toxicology.

    PubMed Central

    Dorato, M A

    1990-01-01

    The development of inhalation toxicology as a distinct discipline can be traced back well over one hundred years. The technology has advanced in terms of materials and designs used to construct inhalation chambers and the equipment used to generate controlled test atmospheres of a wide variety of gases, vapors, dusts, and droplets. Consideration of metered dose inhalers, a relatively recent concern, has led to the design of new equipment for administering this unique dosage form. The parameters used to evaluate inhalation toxicity are similar to those used for any other route of administration. In addition, there are some unique procedures for early screening of pulmonary toxicity, especially within a series of related chemicals. Images FIGURE 1. FIGURE 3. FIGURE 7. FIGURE 8. PMID:2200660

  1. Umeclidinium Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... chest tightness caused by chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD; a group of diseases that affect the lungs ... Do not use umeclidinium inhalation during a sudden COPD attack. Your doctor will prescribe a short-acting ( ...

  2. Olodaterol Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... chest tightness caused by chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD; a group of diseases that affect the lungs ... Do not use olodaterol inhalation during a sudden COPD attack. Your doctor will prescribe a short-acting ( ...

  3. Epidemiology of inhalant use.

    PubMed

    Medina-Mora, María Elena; Real, Tania

    2008-05-01

    The aim of the present article is to review recent research on the prevalence and correlates of inhalant use. During the review period more prevalence studies have been conducted in the developing world, adding information to the ongoing studies that are periodically undertaken in the more developed countries. These studies suggest that inhalant use is widespread among children and adolescents and is increasing among females in the developing and developed world. Not all surveys report inhalants as a separate group from other illegal substances; data by type of inhalants are even rarer, and few studies address abuse or dependence. New evidence suggests lower reliability rates for the diagnostic criteria of dependence as compared with other substances, suggesting the need for a review including the evidence of withdrawal. Studies conducted in the period identify vulnerable groups and suggest an increased risk of injecting drug use, HIV, suicidality and psychiatric disorders among inhalant users. The extension of inhalant abuse and its adverse consequences argues for greater efforts to advance classification and to increase knowledge through research, including the evaluation of prevention and treatment models.

  4. Inhalant Use and Inhalant Use Disorders in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Howard, Matthew O.; Bowen, Scott E.; Garland, Eric L.; Perron, Brian E.; Vaughn, Michael G.

    2011-01-01

    More than 22 million Americans age 12 and older have used inhalants, and every year more than 750,000 use inhalants for the first time. Despite the substantial prevalence and serious toxicities of inhalant use, it has been termed “the forgotten epidemic.” Inhalant abuse remains the least-studied form of substance abuse, although research on its epidemiology, neurobiology, treatment, and prevention has accelerated in recent years. This review examines current findings in these areas, identifies gaps in the research and clinical literatures pertaining to inhalant use, and discusses future directions for inhalant-related research and practice efforts. PMID:22003419

  5. Inhaled human insulin.

    PubMed

    Strack, Thomas R

    2006-04-01

    The benefit of subcutaneous insulin therapy in patients with diabetes is frequently limited due to difficulty in convincing patients of the importance of multiple daily insulin injections to cope effectively with meal-associated glycemic changes. Thus, the aim of achieving tight glycemic control, which is critical for reducing the risk of long-term diabetes-related complications, frequently remains elusive. The successful development of an inhalable insulin as a noninvasive alternative promises to change the management of diabetes. The first product to become available to patients is inhaled human insulin, a dry-powder formulation packaged into discrete blisters containing 1 or 3 mg of dry-powder human insulin and administered via a unique pulmonary inhaler device. It has recently been approved in both the United States and the European Union for the control of hyperglycemia in adult patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes. The pharmacokinetic profile of inhaled human insulin closely mimics the natural pattern of insulin secretion, and resembles that of rapid-acting subcutaneous analogs. Similarly to rapid-acting subcutaneous analogs, inhaled human insulin has a more rapid onset of glucose-lowering activity compared to subcutaneous regular insulin, allowing it to be administered shortly before meals. It has a duration of glucose-lowering activity comparable to subcutaneous regular insulin and longer than rapid-acting insulin analogs. Inhaled human insulin effectively controls postprandial glucose concentrations in patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes without increasing the risk of hypoglycemia, and even improves fasting glucose levels compared to subcutaneous insulin. Inhaled human insulin has an overall favorable safety profile. There are small reductions in lung function (1-1.5% of total lung forced expiratory volume in the first second [FEV1] capacity) after onset of treatment that are reversible in most patients if treatment is discontinued. Inhaled human

  6. Effectiveness of Inhalant Abuse Legislation.

    PubMed

    Batis, Jeffery C

    2017-01-28

    Since peaking in the 1990s, inhalant abuse has steadily decreased over the past two decades. Concurrently, nearly every state has passed legislation aimed at minimizing inhalant abuse. While males have historically been more likely to abuse inhalants than females, there is no longer a sex effect in self-reported rates of inhalant abuse. The objective of the present study is to evaluate the effect of anti-inhalant abuse legislation on self-reported rates of inhalant abuse, in high school age males and females. Beginning in 1993, the CDC's biannual Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance Survey asked respondents if they have ever used inhalants to get high. Data from these surveys were collected, along with the date of passage of anti-inhalant abuse legislation in 46 of 50 states. ANOVAs were conducted to assess the effect of legislation on self-reported inhalant abuse rates. There were no significant main effects or interactions that demonstrated that inhalant abuse rates decreased in males or females following passage of legislation aimed at decreasing inhalant abuse. Conclusion/Importance: To date, 46 of 50 states have passed laws aimed at minimizing inhalant abuse, and while inhalant abuse rates have been decreasing for the past two decades, there is no evidence that this decline is related to enactment of these laws. Further research is needed to determine the cause of the decrease in inhalant abuse. The laws may benefit from amendments to include options for treatment.

  7. Les Brulures Chimiques Par Le Laurier Rose

    PubMed Central

    Bakkali, H.; Ababou, M.; Nassim Sabah, T.; Moussaoui, A.; Ennouhi, A.; Fouadi, F.Z.; Siah, S.; Ihrai, H.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Le laurier rose ou Nerium oleander est un arbuste qui pousse naturellement dans les régions méditerranéennes. Au Maroc on le trouve dans les lieux humides. Il est réputé par ses risques de toxicité systémique en cas d'empoisonnement à cause de la présence de deux alcaloïdes, surtout l'oléandrine. La littérature illustre des cas d'utilisation locale des feuilles de cette plante contre la gale, les hémorroïdes et les furoncles. Nous rapportons deux cas de brûlures chimiques par le laurier rose de gravité différente. Cela doit aboutir à une information élargie de la population, ainsi qu'une réglementation stricte de sa commercialisation. PMID:21991211

  8. Effect of Inhalation of Aromatherapy Oil on Patients with Perennial Allergic Rhinitis: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Seo Yeon

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of aromatherapy oil inhalation on symptoms, quality of life, sleep quality, and fatigue level among adults with perennial allergic rhinitis (PAR). Fifty-four men and women aged between 20 and 60 were randomized to inhale aromatherapy oil containing essential oil from sandalwood, geranium, and Ravensara or almond oil (the placebo) for 5 minutes twice daily for 7 days. PAR symptoms determined by Total Nasal Symptom Score (TNSS), the Rhinoconjunctivitis Quality of Life Questionnaire (RQLQ), sleep quality by Verran Synder-Halpern (VSH) scale, and fatigue level by Chalder Fatigue Scale (CFS) were assessed before and after intervention period. Compared with the placebo, the experimental group showed significant improvement in TNSS, especially in nasal obstruction. The aromatherapy group also showed significantly higher improvements in total score of RQLQ and CFS. These findings indicate that inhalation of certain aromatherapy oil helps relieve PAR symptoms, improve rhinitis-specific quality of life, and reduce fatigue in patients with PAR. In conclusion, inhalation of aromatherapy essential oil may have potential as an effective intervention to alleviate PAR. PMID:27034695

  9. Acute Inhalation Injury

    PubMed Central

    Gorguner, Metin; Akgun, Metin

    2010-01-01

    Inhaled substances may cause injury in pulmonary epithelium at various levels of respiratory tract, leading from simple symptoms to severe disease. Acute inhalation injury (AII) is not uncommon condition. There are certain high risk groups but AII may occur at various places including home or workplace. Environmental exposure is also possible. In addition to individual susceptibility, the characteristics of inhaled substances such as water solubility, size of substances and chemical properties may affect disease severity as well as its location. Although AII cases may recover in a few days but AII may cause long-term complications, even death. We aimed to discuss the effects of short-term exposures (minutes to hours) to toxic substances on the lungs. PMID:25610115

  10. Inhalation exposure methodology.

    PubMed Central

    Phalen, R F; Mannix, R C; Drew, R T

    1984-01-01

    Modern man is being confronted with an ever-increasing inventory of potentially toxic airborne substances. Exposures to these atmospheric contaminants occur in residential and commercial settings, as well as in the workplace. In order to study the toxicity of such materials, a special technology relating to inhalation exposure systems has evolved. The purpose of this paper is to provide a description of the techniques which are used in exposing laboratory subjects to airborne particles and gases. The various modes of inhalation exposure (whole body, head only, nose or mouth only, etc.) are described at length, including the advantages and disadvantages inherent to each mode. Numerous literature citations are included for further reading. Among the topics briefly discussed are the selection of appropriate animal species for toxicological testing, and the types of inhalation studies performed (acute, chronic, etc.). PMID:6383799

  11. MODELING DEPOSITION OF INHALED PARTICLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Modeling Deposition of Inhaled Particles: ABSTRACT

    The mathematical modeling of the deposition and distribution of inhaled aerosols within human lungs is an invaluable tool in predicting both the health risks associated with inhaled environmental aerosols and the therapeut...

  12. MODELING DEPOSITION OF INHALED PARTICLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Modeling Deposition of Inhaled Particles: ABSTRACT

    The mathematical modeling of the deposition and distribution of inhaled aerosols within human lungs is an invaluable tool in predicting both the health risks associated with inhaled environmental aerosols and the therapeut...

  13. Who Can Use an Inhaler?

    MedlinePlus

    ... it can help stop breathing problems related to asthma. Inhalers are small and easily fit into your pocket or backpack. Research shows that even young kids can use inhalers, especially when they're used with a spacer . There are two types of inhalers: Metered (say: ...

  14. Inhalants. Specialized Information Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Do It Now Foundation, Phoenix, AZ.

    The document presents a collection of articles about inhalant abuse. Article 1 presents findings on the psychophysiological effects related to the use of amyl or butyl nitrate as a "recreational drug." Article 2 suggests a strong association between chronic sniffing of the solvent toulene and irreversible brain damage. Article 3 warns…

  15. Inhalants. Specialized Information Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Do It Now Foundation, Phoenix, AZ.

    The document presents a collection of articles about inhalant abuse. Article 1 presents findings on the psychophysiological effects related to the use of amyl or butyl nitrate as a "recreational drug." Article 2 suggests a strong association between chronic sniffing of the solvent toulene and irreversible brain damage. Article 3 warns…

  16. Liposomal formulations for inhalation.

    PubMed

    Cipolla, David; Gonda, Igor; Chan, Hak-Kim

    2013-08-01

    No marketed inhaled products currently use sustained release formulations such as liposomes to enhance drug disposition in the lung, but that may soon change. This review focuses on the interaction between liposomal formulations and the inhalation technology used to deliver them as aerosols. There have been a number of dated reviews evaluating nebulization of liposomes. While the information they shared is still accurate, this paper incorporates data from more recent publications to review the factors that affect aerosol performance. Recent reviews have comprehensively covered the development of dry powder liposomes for aerosolization and only the key aspects of those technologies will be summarized. There are now at least two inhaled liposomal products in late-stage clinical development: ARIKACE(®) (Insmed, NJ, USA), a liposomal amikacin, and Pulmaquin™ (Aradigm Corp., CA, USA), a liposomal ciprofloxacin, both of which treat a variety of patient populations with lung infections. This review also highlights the safety of inhaled liposomes and summarizes the clinical experience with liposomal formulations for pulmonary application.

  17. THE MEASURES PAR PROJECT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frouin, R. J.; Franz, B.

    2009-12-01

    The solar energy available for photosynthesis, known as PAR, controls the growth of phytoplankton and, therefore, regulates the composition and evolution of marine ecosystems. Knowing the spatial and temporal distribution of PAR over the oceans is critical to understanding biogeochemical cycles of carbon, nutrients, and oxygen, and to address important climate and global change issues such as the fate of anthropogenic atmospheric carbon dioxide. In view of this, a 12-year time series of PAR at the ocean surface, starting in September 1997, is being produced by the NASA Ocean Biology Processing Group from SeaWiFS, MODIS-Terra, and MODIS-Aqua data. The product covers the global oceans, with a spatial resolution of about 9.3x9.3 km (equal area grid) and a temporal resolution of one day. PAR is computed as the difference between the 400-700 nm solar flux incident on the top of the atmosphere (known) and reflected back to space by the atmosphere and surface (derived from satellite radiance), taking into account atmospheric absorption (modeled). Knowledge of pixel composition is not required, eliminating the need for cloud screening and arbitrary assumptions about sub-pixel cloudiness. Combining data from satellite sensors with different equatorial crossing times accounts for the diurnal variability of clouds and, therefore, increases accuracy on a daily time scale. The processing system, including routine check of accuracy and control of quality, is designed to operate during the entire lifetime of SeaWiFS and MODIS, and to accommodate future sensors with ocean-color capabilities. Maps of daily, weekly, and monthly PAR obtained from individual sensors are presented, as well as merged products. Accuracy is quantified in comparisons with other satellite estimates, the National Centers for Environmental Prediction reanalysis product, and in-situ measurements from fixed buoys and platforms. The good statistical performance makes the satellite PAR product suitable for large

  18. Chlorine Gas Inhalation

    PubMed Central

    White, Carl W.; Martin, James G.

    2010-01-01

    Humans can come into contact with chlorine gas during short-term, high-level exposures due to traffic or rail accidents, spills, or other disasters. By contrast, workplace and public (swimming pools, etc.) exposures are more frequently long-term, low-level exposures, occasionally punctuated by unintentional transient increases. Acute exposures can result in symptoms of acute airway obstruction including wheezing, cough, chest tightness, and/or dyspnea. These findings are fairly nonspecific, and might be present after exposures to a number of inhaled chemical irritants. Clinical signs, including hypoxemia, wheezes, rales, and/or abnormal chest radiographs may be present. More severely affected individuals may suffer acute lung injury (ALI) and/or acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Up to 1% of exposed individuals die. Humidified oxygen and inhaled β-adrenergic agents are appropriate therapies for victims with respiratory symptoms while assessments are underway. Inhaled bicarbonate and systemic or inhaled glucocorticoids also have been reported anecdotally to be beneficial. Chronic sequelae may include increased airways reactivity, which tends to diminish over time. Airways hyperreactivity may be more of a problem among those survivors that are older, have smoked, and/or have pre-existing chronic lung disease. Individuals suffering from irritant-induced asthma (IIA) due to workplace exposures to chlorine also tend to have similar characteristics, such as airways hyperresponsiveness to methacholine, and to be older and to have smoked. Other workplace studies, however, have indicated that workers exposed to chlorine dioxide/sulfur dioxide have tended to have increased risk for chronic bronchitis and/or recurrent wheezing attacks (one or more episodes) but not asthma, while those exposed to ozone have a greater incidence of asthma. Specific biomarkers for acute and chronic exposures to chlorine gas are currently lacking. Animal models for chlorine gas

  19. Food hypersensitivity by inhalation

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez, Daniel A; Bahna, Sami L

    2009-01-01

    Though not widely recognized, food hypersensitivity by inhalation can cause major morbidity in affected individuals. The exposure is usually more obvious and often substantial in occupational environments but frequently occurs in non-occupational settings, such as homes, schools, restaurants, grocery stores, and commercial flights. The exposure can be trivial, as in mere smelling or being in the vicinity of the food. The clinical manifestations can vary from a benign respiratory or cutaneous reaction to a systemic one that can be life-threatening. In addition to strict avoidance, such highly-sensitive subjects should carry self-injectable epinephrine and wear MedicAlert® identification. Asthma is a strong predisposing factor and should be well-controlled. It is of great significance that food inhalation can cause de novo sensitization. PMID:19232116

  20. Treatment of Inhalation Injury

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-21

    injuries not visible with endoscopy. . Thermal and especially chemical inhalation injuries. Direct damage to the surfactant is probably implicated. o...exists a set of indirect alveolar lesions, subordinated to the skin burn itself, which is common in patients with extensive burns. This we call the...normo or hypocapnia. Very likely, a 5th lesional level exists which is the capillary itself(Venus et al). By primary or secondary damage , it affects the

  1. How to Use Metered-Dose Inhalers

    MedlinePlus

    ... inhaler the right way so that the full dose of medication reaches your lungs. You can use ... inhaler.These directions explain how to use metered-dose inhalers. If you are using a different type ...

  2. Inhalation exposure of animals.

    PubMed Central

    Phalen, R F

    1976-01-01

    Relative advantages and disadvantages and important design criteria for various exposure methods are presented. Five types of exposures are discussed: whole-body chambers, head-only exposures, nose or mouth-only methods, lung-only exposures, and partial-lung exposures. Design considerations covered include: air cleaning and conditioning; construction materials; losses of exposure materials; evenness of exposure; sampling biases; animal observation and care; noise and vibration control, safe exhausts, chamber loading, reliability, pressure fluctuations; neck seals, masks, animal restraint methods; and animal comfort. Ethical considerations in use of animals in inhalation experiments are also discussed. PMID:1017420

  3. Inhaled technosphere regular insulin powder.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Zachary L; Clements, Jennifer N

    2015-11-01

    The lungs are an effective way to deliver insulin for patients with diabetes, but an initial inhaled insulin product was withdrawn from the market because of high cost and inconsistent dosing. This article describes a recently approved inhaled insulin that appears to control blood glucose as well as rapid-acting injectable insulin.

  4. American Indian Adolescent Inhalant Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thurman, Pamela Jumper; Green, Vicki A.

    1997-01-01

    A study of inhalant use among 87 American Indian boarding school students aged 10-18 found that inhalant use was negatively related to participation in traditional tribal activities for both males and females and was also related to measures of cognitive ability and cognitive egocentrism for males. (Contains 43 references.) (SV)

  5. Hydrodynamics of viscous inhalant flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    True, Aaron C.; Crimaldi, John P.

    2017-05-01

    Inhalant flows draw fluid into an orifice from a reservoir and are ubiquitous in engineering and biology. Surprisingly, there is a lack of quantitative information on viscous inhalant flows. We consider here laminar flows (Reynolds number Re≤100 ) developing after impulsive inhalation begins. We implement finite element simulations of flows with varying Re and extraction height h (orifice height above a bottom bed). Numerical results are experimentally validated using particle image velocimetry measurements in a physical model for a representative flow case in the middle of the Re-h parameter space. We use two metrics to characterize the flow in space and time: regions of influence (ROIs), which describe the spatial extent of the flow field, and inhalation volumes, which describe the initial distribution of inhaled fluid. The transient response for all Re features an inviscid sinklike component at early times followed by a viscous diffusive component. At lower Re, diffusion entrains an increasing volume of fluid over time, enlarging the ROI indefinitely. In some geometries, these flows spatially bifurcate, with some fluid being inhaled through the orifice and some bypassing into recirculation. At higher Re, inward advection dominates outward viscous diffusion and the flow remains trapped in a sinklike state. Both ROIs and inhalation volumes are strongly dependent on Re and extraction height, suggesting that organisms or engineers could tune these parameters to achieve specific inhalation criteria.

  6. Iloprost inhalation in mild asthma.

    PubMed

    Majeski, Elizabeth; Hoskins, Aimee; Dworski, Ryszard; Sheller, James R

    2012-11-01

    To determine the feasibility of administering iloprost by inhalation in patients with mild atopic asthma. Volunteers underwent supervised inhalation of iloprost in the clinic with measurement of spirometry and blood pressure for 2 hours. The volunteers then inhaled iloprost four times daily at a dose of 2.5 or 5 μg for 14 days. Spirometry, asthma questionnaires, peak flow diaries, measurement of methacholine responsiveness, and exhaled nitric oxide concentrations were obtained prior to and after the treatment period. Chronic inhalation of iloprost (2.5-5 μg) did not alter spirometry or methacholine responsiveness. Inhaled iloprost in carefully selected volunteers with mild asthma appears to be a suitable intervention to explore the effects of prostacyclin in human asthma.

  7. Inhalation delivery of protein therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Kane, Colleen; O'Neil, Karyn; Conk, Michelle; Picha, Kristen

    2013-04-01

    Inhaled therapeutics are used routinely to treat a variety of pulmonary diseases including asthma, COPD and cystic fibrosis. In addition, biological therapies represent the fastest growing segment of approved pharmaceuticals. However, despite the increased availability of biological therapies, nearly all inhaled therapeutics are small molecule drugs with only a single inhaled protein therapeutic approved. There remains a significant unmet need for therapeutics in pulmonary diseases, and biological therapies with potential to alter disease progression represent a significant opportunity to treat these challenging diseases. This review provides a background into efforts to develop inhaled biological therapies and highlights some of the associated challenges. In addition, we speculate on the ideal properties of a biologic therapy for inhaled delivery.

  8. Exubera. Inhale therapeutic systems.

    PubMed

    Bindra, Sanjit; Cefalu, William T

    2002-05-01

    Inhale, in colaboration with Pfizer and Aventis Pharma (formerly Hoechst Marion Roussel; HMR), is developing an insulin formulation utilizing its pulmonary delivery technology for macromolecules for the potential treatment of type I and II diabetes. By July 2001, the phase III program had been completed and the companies had begun to assemble data for MAA and NDA filings; however, it was already clear at this time that additional data might be required for filing. By December 2001, it had been decided that the NDA should include an increased level of controlled, long-term pulmonary safety data in diabetic patients and a major study was planned to be completed in 2002, with the NDA filed thereafter (during 2002). US-05997848 was issued to Inhale Therapeutic Systems in December 1999, and corresponds to WO-09524183, filed in February 1995. Equivalent applications have appeared to date in Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, Czech Republic, Europe, Finland, Hungary, Japan, Norway, New Zealand, Poland and South Africa. This family of applications is specific to pulmonary delivery of insulin. In February 1999, Lehman Brothers gave this inhaled insulin a 60% probability of reaching market, with a possible launch date of 2001. The analysts estimated peak sales at $3 billion in 2011. In May 2000, Aventis predicted that estimated peak sales would be in excess of $1 billion. In February 2000, Merrill Lynch expected product launch in 2002 and predicted that it would be a multibillion-dollar product. Analysts Merril Lynch predicted, in September and November 2000, that the product would be launched by 2002, with sales in that year of e75 million, rising to euro 500 million in 2004. In April 2001, Merrill Lynch predicted that filing for this drug would occur in 2001. Following the report of the potential delay in regulatory filing, issued in July 2001, Deutsche Banc Alex Brown predicted a filing would take place in the fourth quarter of 2002 and launch would take place in the first

  9. Modelisation par elements finis du muscle strie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonard, Mathieu

    Ce present projet de recherche a permis. de creer un modele par elements finis du muscle strie humain dans le but d'etudier les mecanismes engendrant les lesions musculaires traumatiques. Ce modele constitue une plate-forme numerique capable de discerner l'influence des proprietes mecaniques des fascias et de la cellule musculaire sur le comportement dynamique du muscle lors d'une contraction excentrique, notamment le module de Young et le module de cisaillement de la couche de tissu conjonctif, l'orientation des fibres de collagene de cette membrane et le coefficient de poisson du muscle. La caracterisation experimentale in vitro de ces parametres pour des vitesses de deformation elevees a partir de muscles stries humains actifs est essentielle pour l'etude de lesions musculaires traumatiques. Le modele numerique developpe est capable de modeliser la contraction musculaire comme une transition de phase de la cellule musculaire par un changement de raideur et de volume a l'aide des lois de comportement de materiau predefinies dans le logiciel LS-DYNA (v971, Livermore Software Technology Corporation, Livermore, CA, USA). Le present projet de recherche introduit donc un phenomene physiologique qui pourrait expliquer des blessures musculaires courantes (crampes, courbatures, claquages, etc.), mais aussi des maladies ou desordres touchant le tissu conjonctif comme les collagenoses et la dystrophie musculaire. La predominance de blessures musculaires lors de contractions excentriques est egalement exposee. Le modele developpe dans ce projet de recherche met ainsi a l'avant-scene le concept de transition de phase ouvrant la porte au developpement de nouvelles technologies pour l'activation musculaire chez les personnes atteintes de paraplegie ou de muscles artificiels compacts pour l'elaboration de protheses ou d'exosquelettes. Mots-cles Muscle strie, lesion musculaire, fascia, contraction excentrique, modele par elements finis, transition de phase

  10. Inhalant abuse in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Beasley, Michael; Frampton, Laura; Fountain, John

    2006-05-05

    To describe patterns of inhalant abuse in New Zealand and discuss management. Calls to the National Poisons Centre (NPC) from January 1 2003 to December 31 2004 were analysed. In addition, deaths following inhalational abuse were identified from the Institute of Environmental Science and Research Limited (ESR) database for 2001 and 2002 and available data for 2003. Seventy calls were classified as relating to inhalational abuse incidents. In abusers whose age was known, 83% were between 11 and 20 years, and 61% were male. Over half (44/70) of the calls involved abuse of propane or butane, either alone or in combination with a synthetic pyrethroid. ESR coronial data identified 11 inhalant abuse related deaths, most commonly attributed to cardiac effects. 73% of deaths were in teenagers and all but one fatality involved propane and/or butane. Inhalant abuse is a persisting problem in New Zealand. NPC and ESR data demonstrate that teenagers are more likely to abuse inhalants than other age groups and butane and propane are the inhalants of choice. Acute management can be difficult, with significant mortality and morbidity. Continued education and other preventive measures are essential to help curb an extremely dangerous practice.

  11. Inhaled matters of the heart

    PubMed Central

    Zaky, Ahmed; Ahmad, Aftab; Dell’Italia, Louis J; Jahromi, Leila; Reisenberg, Lee Ann; Matalon, Sadis; Ahmad, Shama

    2015-01-01

    Inhalations of atmospheric pollutants, especially particulate matters, are known to cause severe cardiac effects and to exacerbate preexisting heart disease. Heart failure is an important sequellae of gaseous inhalation such as that of carbon monoxide. Similarly, other gases such as sulphur dioxide are known to cause detrimental cardiovascular events. However, mechanisms of these cardiac toxicities are so far unknown. Increased susceptibility of the heart to oxidative stress may play a role. Low levels of antioxidants in the heart as compared to other organs and high levels of reactive oxygen species produced due to the high energetic demand and metabolic rate in cardiac muscle are important in rendering this susceptibility. Acute inhalation of high concentrations of halogen gases is often fatal. Severe respiratory injury and distress occurs upon inhalation of halogens gases, such as chlorine and bromine; however, studies on their cardiac effects are scant. We have demonstrated that inhalation of high concentrations of halogen gases cause significant cardiac injury, dysfunction, and failure that can be critical in causing mortalities following exposures. Our studies also demonstrated that cardiac dysfunction occurs as a result of a direct insult independent of coexisting hypoxia, since it is not fully reversed by oxygen supplementation. Therefore, studies on offsite organ effects of inhaled toxic gases can impact development of treatment strategies upon accidental or deliberate exposures to these agents. Here we summarize the knowledge of cardiovascular effects of common inhaled toxic gases with the intent to highlight the importance of consideration of cardiac symptoms while treating the victims. PMID:26665179

  12. Concurrent use of metered dose inhalers without spacer and dry powder inhalers by asthmatic children adversely affect proper inhalation technique

    PubMed Central

    Alotaibi, Saad; Hassan, Walid M; Alhashimi, Hashim

    2011-01-01

    Asthma is a common chronic disease of children. A good control of symptoms will improve quality of patient life. Inhalation technique is an important aspect in the management of asthma. The better the inhalation technique the better the lung deposition of asthma therapy especially inhaled corticosteroids. This will lead to better control of symptoms and improve adherence to treatment. In the following study the inhalation technique of asthma devices were compared using inhalation technique score system. The asthma devices studied were metered dose inhalers (pressurized MDI) without spacers and dry powder inhalers (DPI). The hypothesis studied was that the inhalation technique score of dry powder inhalers will be adversely affected with concurrent use of metered dose inhalers without spacers. PMID:21760757

  13. Concurrent use of metered dose inhalers without spacer and dry powder inhalers by asthmatic children adversely affect proper inhalation technique.

    PubMed

    Alotaibi, Saad; Hassan, Walid M; Alhashimi, Hashim

    2011-06-14

    Asthma is a common chronic disease of children. A good control of symptoms will improve quality of patient life. Inhalation technique is an important aspect in the management of asthma. The better the inhalation technique the better the lung deposition of asthma therapy especially inhaled corticosteroids. This will lead to better control of symptoms and improve adherence to treatment. In the following study the inhalation technique of asthma devices were compared using inhalation technique score system. The asthma devices studied were metered dose inhalers (pressurized MDI) without spacers and dry powder inhalers (DPI). The hypothesis studied was that the inhalation technique score of dry powder inhalers will be adversely affected with concurrent use of metered dose inhalers without spacers.

  14. Umeclidinium and Vilanterol Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... chest tightness caused by chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD; a group of diseases that affect the lungs ... use umeclidinium and vilanterol inhalation during a sudden COPD attack. Your doctor will prescribe a short-acting ( ...

  15. Fluticasone and Vilanterol Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... and chest tightness caused by chronic obstructive pulmonary (COPD; a group of diseases that affect the lungs ... use fluticasone and vilanterol inhalation during a sudden COPD attack. Your doctor will prescribe a short acting ( ...

  16. Fluticasone and Salmeterol Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... caused by asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD; a group of lung diseases that includes chronic ... and salmeterol during an attack of asthma or COPD. Your doctor will prescribe a short-acting inhaler ...

  17. Assessing Inhalation Exposures Associated with ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Journal Article This paper presents a simulation-based approach for assessing short-term, water-distribution-system-wide inhalation exposures that could result from showering and the use of humidifiers during contamination events.

  18. Potent Inhalational Anesthetics for Dentistry

    PubMed Central

    Satuito, Mary; Tom, James

    2016-01-01

    Nitrous oxide and the volatile inhalational anesthetics have defined anxiety and pain control in both dentistry and medicine for over a century. From curious experimentation to spectacular public demonstrations, the initial work of 2 dentists, Horace Wells and William T. G. Morton, persists to this day in modern surgery and anesthesia. This article reviews the history, similarities, differences, and clinical applications of the most popular inhalational agents used in contemporary dental surgical settings. PMID:26866411

  19. Potent Inhalational Anesthetics for Dentistry.

    PubMed

    Satuito, Mary; Tom, James

    2016-01-01

    Nitrous oxide and the volatile inhalational anesthetics have defined anxiety and pain control in both dentistry and medicine for over a century. From curious experimentation to spectacular public demonstrations, the initial work of 2 dentists, Horace Wells and William T. G. Morton, persists to this day in modern surgery and anesthesia. This article reviews the history, similarities, differences, and clinical applications of the most popular inhalational agents used in contemporary dental surgical settings.

  20. Leuconychie transversale induite par la manucurie: y a-t-il un apport de la dermoscopie?

    PubMed Central

    Gallouj, Salim; Mernissi, Fatima Zahra

    2014-01-01

    La leuconychie transversale induite par la manucurie est une leuconychie secondaire au microtraumatisme transmis à la matrice unguéale. Nous rapportant une observation où la dermoscopie avait un intérêt considérable pour l'orientation diagnostic. PMID:25368728

  1. Inhaler Technique in Asthma: How Does It Relate to Patients' Preferences and Attitudes Toward Their Inhalers?

    PubMed Central

    Jahedi, Lia; Downie, Sue R.; Saini, Bandana; Chan, Hak-Kim

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Correct inhaler technique can increase medication efficacy, reducing both dose and side effects. Patient preference for inhaler device has not been fully explored, and we hypothesized that if patients have a preference and can choose their inhaler, they might be more likely to use it correctly. Our aim was to determine the preferences, attitudes, and perceptions of patients with asthma toward their inhalers, and to evaluate whether any of these factors were related to inhalation technique. Methods: Twenty-five patients with asthma (mean age 43.1 years) participated. Qualitative semi-structured interviews and quantitative patient satisfaction and preference questionnaires (PASAPQ) were used to explore patients' preferences, attitudes, and perceptions about their inhalers. Objective inhalation technique assessment was performed. Data were triangulated to identify characteristics that could indicate a relationship between inhaler technique, satisfaction, preference, and decision making. Results: Themes from qualitative interviews were as follows: asthma inhalers and expectations; inhaler preference; characteristics of an ideal inhaler; perceived effectiveness of inhalers; and inhalers and patient decision making. PASAPQ scores indicated that all patients were at least “somewhat satisfied” with their inhalers, regardless of technique. Only 12% of inhalers were used correctly, despite pilot PASAPQ data suggesting that most patients were confident with their technique. The inhaler technique was unlikely to be related to satisfaction, perception of inhaler devices, or choice in device selection. Patients with correct inhaler technique were more aware of their asthma and expressed motivation to achieve optimal asthma control. Conclusions: The majority of the asthmatic patients did not use their inhaler(s) correctly, despite most having confidence in their technique. Patients attributed confidence in their inhaler technique to their belief that

  2. Inhaler Technique in Asthma: How Does It Relate to Patients' Preferences and Attitudes Toward Their Inhalers?

    PubMed

    Jahedi, Lia; Downie, Sue R; Saini, Bandana; Chan, Hak-Kim; Bosnic-Anticevich, Sinthia

    2017-02-01

    Correct inhaler technique can increase medication efficacy, reducing both dose and side effects. Patient preference for inhaler device has not been fully explored, and we hypothesized that if patients have a preference and can choose their inhaler, they might be more likely to use it correctly. Our aim was to determine the preferences, attitudes, and perceptions of patients with asthma toward their inhalers, and to evaluate whether any of these factors were related to inhalation technique. Twenty-five patients with asthma (mean age 43.1 years) participated. Qualitative semi-structured interviews and quantitative patient satisfaction and preference questionnaires (PASAPQ) were used to explore patients' preferences, attitudes, and perceptions about their inhalers. Objective inhalation technique assessment was performed. Data were triangulated to identify characteristics that could indicate a relationship between inhaler technique, satisfaction, preference, and decision making. Themes from qualitative interviews were as follows: asthma inhalers and expectations; inhaler preference; characteristics of an ideal inhaler; perceived effectiveness of inhalers; and inhalers and patient decision making. PASAPQ scores indicated that all patients were at least "somewhat satisfied" with their inhalers, regardless of technique. Only 12% of inhalers were used correctly, despite pilot PASAPQ data suggesting that most patients were confident with their technique. The inhaler technique was unlikely to be related to satisfaction, perception of inhaler devices, or choice in device selection. Patients with correct inhaler technique were more aware of their asthma and expressed motivation to achieve optimal asthma control. The majority of the asthmatic patients did not use their inhaler(s) correctly, despite most having confidence in their technique. Patients attributed confidence in their inhaler technique to their belief that their inhaler was effective. Most patients had not been

  3. [New inhalation anesthetics].

    PubMed

    Conzen, P; Nuscheler, M

    1996-08-01

    Recently, two new halogenated volatile anaesthetics, sevoflurane and desflurane, have been approved for clinical use in Germany. Their low solubility in blood is the most important common property, and this represents the most obvious difference from the inhalational anaesthetics currently used. Extensive clinical and experimental evaluations have confirmed the superior pharmacokinetic properties predicted. Both sevoflurane and desflurane provide more rapid emergence from anaesthesia, permit easier titration of the anaesthetic dose during maintenance and offer more rapid recovery from anaesthesia. For sevoflurane, there are additional advantages: a pleasant odor, negligible airway irritation, and excellent pharmacodynamic characteristics that even provide cardiovascular stability comparable to isoflurane. A certain disadvantage and source of potential nephrotoxicity result from the metabolism of sevoflurane (2-5%) to anorganic fluoride and degradation to compound A in carbon dioxide absorbents. The extensive clinical data reported to date have revealed no evidence that sevoflurane has adverse renal effects. New insight into the pathomechanism of nephrotoxicity associated with either production of fluoride or compound A may well support clinical experience. Desflurane strongly resists in vivo metabolism and because of this it appears to be devoid of toxicity. Nevertheless, potential side-effects may result from degradation in dry absorbents and subsequent release of CO, from its extreme pungency and irritating airway effects. Thus, desflurane is not recommended for induction of anaesthesia, especially in children. The tendency for desflurane transiently to stimulate sympathetic activity, especially at concentrations above 1.0 MAC, limits its application in patients with cardiac disease.

  4. Inhalant Withdrawal as a Clinically Significant Feature of Inhalant Dependence Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Perron, Brian E.; Howard, Matthew O.; Vaughn, Michael G.; Jarman, Christopher N.

    2009-01-01

    Inhalant use is the intentional inhalation of vapors from commercial products or specific chemical agents for the purpose of achieving intoxication. Inhalants are among the most common and pernicious forms of substance use and the least studied of the major drugs. Diagnosis of inhalant dependence, according to the DSM-IV [1] excludes inhalant withdrawal symptoms, as expert opinion has suggested that an inhalant withdrawal syndrome is neither common nor clinically significant. This article draws from multiple sources of data to suggest that withdrawal symptoms can be part of inhalant dependence and are clinically significant. This hypothesis needs rigorous evaluation to ensure the diagnostic validity of inhalant use disorders. PMID:19632058

  5. Adverse consequences of acute inhalant intoxication.

    PubMed

    Garland, Eric L; Howard, Matthew O

    2011-04-01

    Inhalants are widely misused by adolescents and are among the most toxic of psychoactive substances. This investigation examined the prevalence and correlates of adverse consequences of acute inhalant intoxication. Adolescent inhalant users (n = 279) in residential care completed structured interviews including assessments of the characteristics of their inhalant use. Multivariate logistic and linear regression and path analyses identified correlates of adverse inhalant intoxication-related experiences. Results of this study indicated that high-risk behaviors and adverse outcomes experienced during episodes of inhalant intoxication were common in this sample. High-frequency inhalant users were significantly more likely than moderate- and low-frequency users to experience adverse consequences of inhalant intoxication. Certain risky behaviors and consequences, such as engaging in unprotected sex or acts of physical violence while high on inhalants, were dramatically more common among high-frequency users than low-frequency users. Prior traumatic experiences, trait impulsivity, self-medication use of inhalants, and polydrug use were significant correlates of adverse inhalant-intoxication-related consequences. Adverse events and high-risk behaviors commonly occurred during episodes of inhalant intoxication in this sample of adolescents. High-frequency inhalant users and youth who used inhalants to medicate negative affective states were at elevated risk for such events.

  6. [Inhaled medication and inhalation devices for lung disease].

    PubMed

    Solé, Amparo; Girón, Rosa Ma

    2015-09-01

    Nebulized antibiotic therapy is an attractive therapeutic option given the high concentration obtained from the drug at the site of infection, minimizing the adverse effects and possible drug interactions. Inhalation of drugs as treatment of cystic fibrosis (CF) related lung disease has been proven to be highly effective. Consequently, an increasing number of drugs and devices have been developed for CF lung disease or are currently under development. Other limited areas of experience in this field are lung transplant recipients, immunosuppressed patients, bronchiectasis and ventilated patients. In this review document we analyse the current status of the inhaled medications, their modes of administration and indications and their results as well as side effects. Specifically we address antibiotics, and additionally, we review the current knowledge on devices for inhalation therapy with regard to optimal particle sizes and characteristics of wet nebulisers, dry powder and metered dose inhalers. Several factors contribute to a highly variable pulmonary drug deposition as the devices, the physical properties of the administered antimicrobial agent, the type of respiratory disease and the inhalation technique. Despite many clinicians have obtained a valuable experience from the aerosolized administration of antimicrobials and persuaded of their efficacy and safety. However, RCTs out of CF are needed to answer important clinical questions, such as what is the appropriate dose, the optimal delivery device, the optimal way of drug administration, as well as the exact therapeutic role and pharmacokinetic profile of aerosolized drug.

  7. Pneumoconiosis after sericite inhalation

    PubMed Central

    Algranti, E; Handar, A; Dumortier, P; Mendonca, E; Rodrigues, G; Santos, A; Mauad, T; Dolhnikoff, M; De Vuyst, P; Saldiva, P; Bussacos, M

    2005-01-01

    Aims: To investigate and describe the radiological, clinical, and pathological changes in miners and millers exposed to sericite dust with mineralogical characteristics of inhaled dust. Methods: The working premises were visited to examine the sericite processing and to classify the jobs according to make qualitative evaluation. Respirable dust was collected and the amount of crystalline silica and particle size distribution were measured. Forty four workers were examined by a standard questionnaire for respiratory symptoms, spirometry, and chest x ray. Material from an open lung biopsy was reviewed for histopathological and mineralogical analysis, together with sericite samples from the work site to compare the mineral characteristics in lung lesions and work area. Results: Respirable dust contained 4.5–10.0% crystalline silica. Particle size distribution showed a heavy burden of very fine particles (23–55%) with a mean diameter of <0.5 µm. Mean age of sericite miners was 41.0 (11.9) and mean number of years of exposure was 13.5 (10.1). In 52.3% of workers (23/44), chest radiographs presented a median category of 1/0 or above, and 18.2% (8/44) had a reduced FEV1. There was a significant association between exposure indices and x ray category. Histological studies of the lung biopsy showed lesions compatible with mixed dust fibrosis with no silicotic nodules. x Ray diffraction analysis of the lung dust residue and the bulk samples collected from work area showed similar mineralogical characteristics. Muscovite and kaolinite were the major mineral particle inclusions in the lung. Conclusion: Exposure to fine sericite particles is associated with the development of functional and radiological changes in workers inducing mixed dust lesions, which are distinct histologically from silicosis. PMID:15723874

  8. Par Pond vegetation status 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Mackey, H.E. Jr.; Riley, R.S.

    1996-12-01

    The water level of Par Pond was lowered approximately 20 feet in mid-1991 in order to protect downstream residents from possible dam failure suggested by subsidence on the downstream slope of the dam and to repair the dam. This lowering exposed both emergent and nonemergent macrophyte beds to drying conditions resulting in extensive losses. A survey of the newly emergent, shoreline aquatic plant communities of Par Pond began in June 1995, three months after the refilling of Par Pond to approximately 200 feet above mean sea level. These surveys continued in July, September, and late October, 1995, and into the early spring and late summer of 1996. Communities similar to the pre-drawdown, Par Pond aquatic plant communities continue to become re-established. Emergent beds of maidencane, lotus, waterlily, watershield, and Pontederia are extensive and well developed. Measures of percent cover, width of beds, and estimates of area of coverage with satellite data indicate regrowth within two years of from 40 to 60% of levels prior to the draw down. Cattail occurrence continued to increase during the summer of 1996, especially in the former warm arm of Par Pond, but large beds common to Par Pond prior to the draw down still have not formed. Lotus has invaded and occupies many of the areas formerly dominated by cattail beds. To track the continued development of macrophytes in Par Pond, future surveys through the summer and early fall of 1997, along with the evaluation of satellite data to map the extent of the macrophyte beds of Par Pond, are planned.

  9. [Ciclesonide -- a new inhaled corticosteroid].

    PubMed

    Ukena, D

    2005-10-01

    Ciclesonide is a novel inhaled corticosteroid delivered as inactive prodrug via a hydrofluoroalkane metered-dose inhaler with a deposition rate of 50 - 60 %. At its target sites, the lungs, ciclesonide is converted to an active metabolite, desisobutyryl-ciclesonide (des-CIC) [so-called on-site activation]. High lipophilicity and formation of local depot prolong pulmonary duration of action, explaining once-daily administration of ciclesonide. High protein binding and rapid clearance reduce systemic interactions. In long-term studies, ciclesonide at doses as high as 1280-1600 microg/d did not suppress biochemical markers of adrenal function. Since ciclesonide is not being activated in the oropharynx, the incidence of local adverse effects is comparable to that of placebo. Compared to other ICS, ciclesonide shows a improved therapeutic index and can, therefore, be regarded as prototype of a new, third generation of inhaled corticosteroids.

  10. Inhalant Abuse: Is Your Child at Risk?

    MedlinePlus

    ... can be valuable as well. With help, your child can end inhalant abuse and learn how to make healthy choices for a lifetime. References Baydala L. Inhalant abuse. Paediatrics and Child Health. 2010;15:443. Results from the 2013 ...

  11. Asthma Inhalers: Which One's Right for You?

    MedlinePlus

    ... medication in these inhalers by breathing in a deep, fast breath. There are multiple-dose devices, which ... and convenient to carry. Doesn't require a deep, fast, inhaled breath. Doesn't require a deep, ...

  12. Huffing: prehospital identification & treatment of inhalant abuse.

    PubMed

    Criss, Liz

    2009-05-01

    Sniffing. Huffing. Bagging. These street terms describe methods of inhaling toxic chemicals to achieve mind-altering states of intoxication or euphoria. Just about anything in the house that comes in spray form can be used as an inhalant.

  13. Perceived Risk of Harm and Intentions of Future Inhalant Use among Adolescent Inhalant Users

    PubMed Central

    Perron, Brian E.; Howard, Matthew O.

    2008-01-01

    Objective To identify predictors of perceived a) risk of harm associated with inhalant use and b) intention to use inhalants among adolescent inhalant users. Method Participants were 279 lifetime inhalant users (Mage = 15.5, 84 % male) identified in a statewide survey of 723 adolescents in Missouri Division of Youth Services’ residential care for antisocial conduct. Youth completed interviews assessing inhalant and other drug use, psychiatric symptoms, and antisocial traits/behavior. Results More than one-third (37%) of youth perceived experimental inhalant use as of slight or no risk; one-in-eight (11.9 %) youth perceived regular inhalant use as of slight or no risk. Risk perceptions of experimental and regular inhalant use were not associated with intentions to use. Youth with friends/sibling inhalant who use inhalants were less likely to perceive risks associated with experimental and regular inhalant use compared to youth without friends/sibling users. Adolescents who were younger and those with more extensive substance abuse problems, prior problems with inhalants, greater current psychiatric distress, friends/sibling who use inhalants were significantly more likely to report intentions of future inhalant use than their counterparts. Conclusions Assessment of substance use among youth, particularly those in the criminal justice system, should include an assessment of inhalants. Intervention efforts should include addressing misperceptions of risk associated with inhalants and developing strategies for managing social network influences. PMID:18524500

  14. Inhalant Use by Canadian Aboriginal Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Heather; Charles, Grant; Collins, Jennifer

    2001-01-01

    Study followed youth who received treatment for inhalant abuse. Many came from backgrounds marked by isolation, poverty, family violence, and substance abuse. Average age the youths first used inhalants was 9.72 years. Model predicted those who abused inhalants immediately before admission, were described as unmotivated in treatment, and were…

  15. Parental Influence on Inhalant Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baltazar, Alina; Hopkins, Gary; McBride, Duane; Vanderwaal, Curt; Pepper, Sara; Mackey, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine the dynamics of the relationship between parents and their adolescent children and their association with lifetime and past-month inhalant usage. The population studied was seventh- through ninth-grade students in rural Idaho (N = 570). The authors found a small, but consistent, significant inverse…

  16. TARGETED DELIVERY OF INHALED PROTEINS

    EPA Science Inventory

    ETD-02-047 (Martonen) GPRA # 10108

    TARGETED DELIVERY OF INHALED PROTEINS
    T. B. Martonen1, J. Schroeter2, Z. Zhang3, D. Hwang4, and J. S. Fleming5
    1Experimental Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Research Triangle Park...

  17. Acculturation Influences on Inhalant Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Mark E.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Analyses of data on 110 Mexican-American adolescent inhalant users and 78 of their mothers indicate that level of acculturation, cultural factors, and socioeconomic factors did not directly affect youth's drug use and criminality but may have had indirect effects through socialization and psychological factors. Contains 22 references. (Author/SV)

  18. Inhalant Use in Florida Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siqueira, Lorena; Crandall, Lee A.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To determine (1) the prevalence of use, (2) risk and protective factors for use of inhalants in Florida youth. Methods: The Florida Youth Substance Abuse Survey 2004 is a comprehensive assessment of youth substance abuse attitudes and practices obtained by sampling youth from sixty-five counties. Results: The sample consisted of 60,345…

  19. TARGETED DELIVERY OF INHALED PROTEINS

    EPA Science Inventory

    ETD-02-047 (Martonen) GPRA # 10108

    TARGETED DELIVERY OF INHALED PROTEINS
    T. B. Martonen1, J. Schroeter2, Z. Zhang3, D. Hwang4, and J. S. Fleming5
    1Experimental Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Research Triangle Park...

  20. Parental Influence on Inhalant Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baltazar, Alina; Hopkins, Gary; McBride, Duane; Vanderwaal, Curt; Pepper, Sara; Mackey, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine the dynamics of the relationship between parents and their adolescent children and their association with lifetime and past-month inhalant usage. The population studied was seventh- through ninth-grade students in rural Idaho (N = 570). The authors found a small, but consistent, significant inverse…

  1. Inhalant Use in Florida Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siqueira, Lorena; Crandall, Lee A.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To determine (1) the prevalence of use, (2) risk and protective factors for use of inhalants in Florida youth. Methods: The Florida Youth Substance Abuse Survey 2004 is a comprehensive assessment of youth substance abuse attitudes and practices obtained by sampling youth from sixty-five counties. Results: The sample consisted of 60,345…

  2. INHALATION EXPOSURE-RESPONSE METHODOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Inhalation Exposure-Response Analysis Methodology Document is expected to provide guidance on the development of the basic toxicological foundations for deriving reference values for human health effects, focusing on the hazard identification and dose-response aspects of the ...

  3. INHALATION EXPOSURE-RESPONSE METHODOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Inhalation Exposure-Response Analysis Methodology Document is expected to provide guidance on the development of the basic toxicological foundations for deriving reference values for human health effects, focusing on the hazard identification and dose-response aspects of the ...

  4. Exploration of locomotion in the ParA/ParB system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jindal, Lavisha; Emberly, Eldon

    2015-03-01

    In many bacteria the ParA/ParB system is responsible for actively segregating DNA during replication. ParB precessively moves by hydrolyzing DNA bound ParA-ATP forming a depleted ParA region in its wake. Recent in-vitro experiments have shown that a ParB covered bead can traverse a ParA bound DNA substrate. It has been suggested that the formation of a gradient in ParA leads to diffusion-ratchet like motion of the ParB bead but its origin and potential consequences requires investigation. We have developed a deterministic model for the in-vitro ParA/ParB system and show that any amount of spatial noise in ParA can lead to the spontaneous formation of its gradient. The velocity of the bead is independent of this noise but depends on the scale over which ParA exerts a force on the bead and the scale over which ParB hydrolyzes ParA from the substrate. There is a particular ratio of these scales at which the velocity is a maximum. We also explore the effects of cooperative vs independent rebinding of ParA to the substrate. Our model shows how the driving force for ParB originates and highlights necessary conditions for directed motion in the in-vitro system that may provide insight into the in-vivo behaviour of the ParA/ParB system.

  5. Dry-powder inhalers in acute asthma.

    PubMed

    Selroos, Olof

    2014-01-01

    An updated literature search was performed to evaluate the efficacy of rapid-acting β2-agonists delivered via dry powder inhalers in the treatment of moderate-to-severe acute asthma. Databases were searched from 1985 up to December 2012. A total of 23 randomized, double-blind or open clinical studies in acute asthma comparing the efficacy of a dry powder inhaler with a pressurized metered-dose inhaler or a nebulizer, and performed under controlled hospital conditions, were identified. This review found that administration of β2-agonist bronchodilators via dry powder inhalers (formoterol, salbutamol, terbutaline and budesonide/formoterol) was effective during severe asthma worsening and acute asthma attacks, and was as effective as established therapies with a pressurized metered-dose inhaler with or without a spacer, or nebulization. These results ensure that patients can rely upon dry powder inhalers equally well as other inhaler devices during episodes of asthma worsening.

  6. [Effects of Instruction on Inhalation Techniques Using iPads - Web Application "Inhalation Lessons"].

    PubMed

    Kogawa, Noriko; Ito, Reiko; Gon, Yasuhiro; Maruoka, Shuichiro; Hashimoto, Shu

    2015-12-01

    Instruction on inhalation techniques for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease(COPD)and asthma patients being treated with inhalants have sufficient therapeutic effects and are important to maintain adherence. However, problems continue to exist, including time constraints of medical staff that have a large number of patients and a lack of knowledge on inhalation instruction methods. A web application,"Inhalation Lessons,'for the iPad has been developed. It explains inhalation methods, and consists of videos and review tests. Instruction on inhalation techniques was performed using this application for patients that use Diskus, and the effects were examined. As a result, there are significant improvements in the inhalation techniques of patients after viewing the"Inhalation Lessons'application. Uniform instruction on inhalation techniques can be performed even in the field of homecare.

  7. Perceived risk of harm and intentions of future inhalant use among adolescent inhalant users.

    PubMed

    Perron, Brian E; Howard, Matthew O

    2008-09-01

    To identify predictors of perceived (a) risk of harm associated with inhalant use and (b) intention to use inhalants among adolescent inhalant users. Participants were 279 lifetime inhalant users (M(age)=15.5, 84% male) identified in a statewide survey of 723 adolescents in Missouri Division of Youth Services' residential care for antisocial conduct. Youth completed interviews assessing inhalant and other drug use, psychiatric symptoms, and antisocial traits/behavior. More than one-third (37%) of youth perceived experimental inhalant use as of slight or no risk; one-in-eight (11.9%) youth perceived regular inhalant use as of slight or no risk. Risk perceptions of experimental and regular inhalant use were not associated with intentions to use. Youth with friends/siblings who use inhalants were less likely to perceive risks associated with experimental and regular inhalant use compared to youth without friends/sibling users. Adolescents who were younger and those with more extensive substance abuse problems, prior problems with inhalants, greater current psychiatric distress, and friends/siblings who use inhalants were significantly more likely to report intentions of future inhalant use than their counterparts. Assessments of substance use among youth, particularly those in the criminal justice system, should include an assessment of inhalant use. Intervention efforts should focus on developing strategies for managing social network influences.

  8. @AuAg nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Rina; Soni, R. K.

    2014-09-01

    Bimetallic and trimetallic nanoparticles have attracted significant attention in recent times due to their enhanced electrochemical and catalytic properties compared to monometallic nanoparticles. The numerical calculations using Mie theory has been carried out for three-layered metal nanoshell dielectric-metal-metal (DMM) system consisting of a particle with a dielectric core (Al@Al2O3), a middle metal Ag (Au) layer and an outer metal Au (Ag) shell. The results have been interpreted using plasmon hybridization theory. We have also prepared Al@Al2O3@Ag@Au and Al@Al2O3@AgAu triple-layered core-shell or alloy nanostructure by two-step laser ablation method and compared with calculated results. The synthesis involves temporal separations of Al, Ag, and Au deposition for step-by-step formation of triple-layered core-shell structure. To form Al@Ag nanoparticles, we ablated silver for 40 min in aluminium nanoparticle colloidal solution. As aluminium oxidizes easily in water to form alumina, the resulting structure is core-shell Al@Al2O3. The Al@Al2O3 particle acts as a seed for the incoming energetic silver particles for multilayered Al@Al2O3@Ag nanoparticles is formed. The silver target was then replaced by gold target and ablation was carried out for different ablation time using different laser energy for generation of Al@Al2O3@Ag@Au core-shell or Al@Al2O3@AgAu alloy. The formation of core-shell and alloy nanostructure was confirmed by UV-visible spectroscopy. The absorption spectra show shift in plasmon resonance peak of silver to gold in the range 400-520 nm with increasing ablation time suggesting formation of Ag-Au alloy in the presence of alumina particles in the solution.

  9. [Inhalant abusers and psychiatric symptoms].

    PubMed

    Okudaira, K; Yabana, T; Takahashi, H; Iizuka, H; Nakajima, K; Saito, A

    1996-01-01

    There are different opinions about the cause of chronic psychiatric symptoms observed in drug abusers between Japanese and foreign psychiatrists. The Japanese seem to recognize the chronic psychosis as the result of drug abuse. In the other hand, foreigners diagnose these cases as dual diagnosis of drug abuse and psychosis. Authors studied the problem in this research. One of the authors has examined 120 inhalant abusers of all, in- and out-patients in Kanagawa Prefectural Center of Psychiatry, Serigaya Hospital from 1991 to 1995. These patients were classified into three groups: psychosis group (23 patients), dependence group (51 patients) and abuse group (46 patients) according to their clinical courses and psychiatric symptoms. The psychosis group consists of patients who showed psychiatric symptoms such as hallucination, delusion and thought disturbance for long time after detoxification. The dependence group contains patients whose inhalant dependence was severe and met DSM-4 Diagnostic Criteria for Substance Dependence, but manifested no chronic psychiatric symptoms after detoxification. The patients belonging to abuse group were at the earlier stages of inhalant abuse and had no chronic psychiatric symptoms. The average age of the first inhalant abuse was 14.7 years old in the psychosis group, 14.8 years in the dependence group and 14.7 years in the abuse group. The average years of abuse was 9.0 years in the psychosis group, and 8.5 years in the dependence group. There was little difference between these two groups. The psychosis patients manifested chronic symptoms 5.7 years on average after the first abuse of inhalants. About one forth (26.1%) of the psychosis patients and only 5.9% of the dependence patients had family history of schizophrenia. The difference was statistically significant. These results suggest that chronic psychiatric symptoms are caused not only by inhalant abuse, but also by the genetic factors of psychosis of each patient. There have

  10. Inhaled anesthetics: an historical overview.

    PubMed

    Whalen, Francis X; Bacon, Douglas R; Smith, Hugh M

    2005-09-01

    Inhalational agents have played a pivotal role in anesthesia history. The first publicly demonstrated anesthetic of the modern era, diethyl ether, was an inhalational anesthetic. The attributes of a good agent, ability to rapidly induce anesthesia, with limited side effects has led research efforts for over a hundred and fifty years. The explosion hazard was largely conquered with the development of the halogenated agents in the 1950s. Rapid emergence, with limited nausea and vomiting continue to drive discovery efforts, yet the 'modern' agents continue to improve upon those in the past. The future holds promise, but perhaps the most interesting contrast over time is the ability to rapidly introduce new agents into practice. From James Young Simpson's dinner table one evening to the operating suite the next day, modern agents take decades from first synthesis to clinical introduction.

  11. Inhalation therapy in mechanical ventilation

    PubMed Central

    Maccari, Juçara Gasparetto; Teixeira, Cassiano; Gazzana, Marcelo Basso; Savi, Augusto; Dexheimer-Neto, Felippe Leopoldo; Knorst, Marli Maria

    2015-01-01

    Patients with obstructive lung disease often require ventilatory support via invasive or noninvasive mechanical ventilation, depending on the severity of the exacerbation. The use of inhaled bronchodilators can significantly reduce airway resistance, contributing to the improvement of respiratory mechanics and patient-ventilator synchrony. Although various studies have been published on this topic, little is known about the effectiveness of the bronchodilators routinely prescribed for patients on mechanical ventilation or about the deposition of those drugs throughout the lungs. The inhaled bronchodilators most commonly used in ICUs are beta adrenergic agonists and anticholinergics. Various factors might influence the effect of bronchodilators, including ventilation mode, position of the spacer in the circuit, tube size, formulation, drug dose, severity of the disease, and patient-ventilator synchrony. Knowledge of the pharmacological properties of bronchodilators and the appropriate techniques for their administration is fundamental to optimizing the treatment of these patients. PMID:26578139

  12. Neptunium-237 inhalation in rats.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, M F; Ruemmler, P S; Buschbom, R L

    1986-12-01

    Groups of rats were exposed to aerosols of 237Np nitrate to determine clearance rates, retention and distribution at various intervals after inhalation. Initial lung burdens (ILB) after 237Np inhalation by three treatment groups were 0.12, 0.19 and 0.37 mu Ci/kg, respectively. Radiochemical analyses of animals killed at 4, 8, 14, 28 and 90 d, as well as data for others maintained until they became moribund, showed that their lung clearance followed a three-compartment model, clearance half-times for which were 1, 35, and 10,000 d, respectively. Only 3% of the ILB was retained after 90 d; 12% of that burden had translocated to the skeleton at 750 d; the half-time for skeletal retention was 2500 d. A single tumor was the only malignancy detected in the lungs of the 35 animals allowed to survive the early phase of the study.

  13. Recognition and prevention of inhalant abuse.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Carrie E; Loomis, Glenn A

    2003-09-01

    Inhalant abuse is a prevalent and often overlooked form of substance abuse in adolescents. Survey results consistently show that nearly 20 percent of children in middle school and high school have experimented with inhaled substances. The method of delivery is inhalation of a solvent from its container, a soaked rag, or a bag. Solvents include almost any household cleaning agent or propellant, paint thinner, glue, and lighter fluid. Inhalant abuse typically can cause a euphoric feeling and can become addictive. Acute effects include sudden sniffing death syndrome, asphyxia, and serious injuries (e.g., falls, burns, frostbite). Chronic inhalant abuse can damage cardiac, renal, hepatic, and neurologic systems. Inhalant abuse during pregnancy can cause fetal abnormalities. Diagnosis of inhalant abuse is difficult and relies almost entirely on a thorough history and a high index of suspicion. No specific laboratory tests confirm solvent inhalation. Treatment is generally supportive, because there are no reversal agents for inhalant intoxication. Education of young persons and their parents is essential to decrease experimentation with inhalants.

  14. Caracterisation et transformation par hydroviscoreduction du brut lourd de Doba/Tchad: Strategie de pompage par pipeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dehkissia, Soumaine

    Le projet de la these est defini par rapport a la recente exploitation commerciale du brut lourd de Doba, une region du Tchad, pays enclave d'ou le brut ainsi produit doit etre achemine par pipeline. Le but dans ce travail est de caracteriser ce brut et de determiner une strategie thermique de transformation en vue de reduire de la facon la plus economique, la viscosite du brut pour permettre son transport par pipeline. Concernant la partie caracterisation, nous avons utilise entre autres, un rheometre rotatif et des analyseurs (LECO CHN-2000 & LECO S-144DR Elemental Analyzers) pour evaluer respectivement la viscosite et les elements tels que C, H, N, O, S. Sur la base des methodes de transformation disponibles, nous avons determine une strategie simple de transformation thermique par hydroviscoreduction , strategie dans laquelle, la fraction legere du brut comme le naphta (80--180°C), pourrait constituer la source d'hydrogene a utiliser. Le brut de Doba, a une faible teneur en soufre (0.14%) et sa densite specifique de 0.940 a 15.6°C, soit 18.8° API, le classe parmi les bruts lourds. Outre le point initial se situant a 85°C, la distillation du brut a revele que la fraction distillant avant 250°C ne represente que 10% (v/v) et que le craquage thermique du substrat debute a 300°C. Par ailleurs, outre son caractere Newtonien, les densites specifiques de la fraction lourde de l'essence (100--200°C) et de la fraction distillant au-dessus 350°C, etant respectivement de 0.813 (0.813 > 0.800) et de 0.951 (0.930 < 0.951 < 0.975), le brut de Doba est donc de type aromatique. Les viscosites du brut et du brut desasphalte, sont respectivement de 184.4 cSt et 152.4 cSt a 50°C, suggerant que le desasphaltage ne constitue pas une methode efficace pouvant aider au pompage du brut par pipeline, d'ou la necessite de transformation. Les resultats des travaux en autoclave montrent que, si le brut doit etre traite entierement, la viscosite de 25cSt 50°C, recommandee pour le

  15. Inhaled Therapies for Pulmonary Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Hill, Nicholas S; Preston, Ioana R; Roberts, Kari E

    2015-06-01

    The inhaled route has a number of attractive features for treatment of pulmonary hypertension, including delivery of drug directly to the target organ, thus enhancing pulmonary specificity and reducing systemic adverse effects. It can also improve ventilation/perfusion matching by dilating vessels supplying ventilated regions, thus improving gas exchange. Furthermore, it can achieve higher local drug concentrations at a lower overall dose, potentially reducing drug cost. Accordingly, a number of inhaled agents have been developed to treat pulmonary hypertension. Most in current use are prostacyclins, including epoprostenol, which has been cleared for intravenous applications but is used off-label in acute care settings as a continuously nebulized medication. Aerosolized iloprost and treprostinil are both prostacyclins that have been cleared by the FDA to treat pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Both require frequent administration (6 and 4 times daily, respectively), and both have a tendency to cause airway symptoms, including cough and wheeze, which can lead to intolerance. These agents cannot be used to substitute for the infused routes of prostacyclin because they do not permit delivery of medication at high doses. Inhaled nitric oxide (INO) is cleared for the treatment of primary pulmonary hypertension in newborns. It is also used off-label to test acute vasoreactivity in PAH during right-heart catheterization and to treat acute right-heart failure in hospitalized patients. In addition, some studies on long-term application of INO either have been recently completed with results pending or are under consideration. In the future, because of its inherent advantages in targeting the lung, the inhaled route is likely to be tested using a variety of small molecules that show promise as PAH therapies.

  16. QUELS FUTURS TRAITEMENTS POUR LA DEPENDANCE AU TABAC ET AU CANNABIS?

    PubMed Central

    LE FOLL, Bernard; JUSTINOVA, Zuzana; TANDA, Gianlugi; GOLDBERG, Steven R.

    2009-01-01

    RESUME Plus de trois millions de morts sont attribués au tabagisme dans le monde par an, et l’usage de tabac est en progression dans les pays en voie de développement. L’usage de tabac est donc une des rares causes de mortalité qui augmente, avec une prévision de plus de 10 millions de morts par an dans 30–40 ans. Le cannabis ou marijuana est la drogue illicite la plus consommée dans le monde et il n’y a actuellement pas de traitement disponible. Bien que les systèmes dopaminergiques jouent un rôle central dans les effets renforçants des drogues, d’autres systèmes sont impliqués. Nous présentons ici des résultats récents obtenus avec des antagonistes des récepteurs cannabinoides CB1, des récepteurs D3 de la dopamine et des récepteurs opioïdes. Ces antagonistes qui modulent de façon directe ou indirecte la transmission dopaminergique cérébrale représentent des approches prometteuses pour le traitement du tabagisme ou de la dépendance au cannabis. Ces approches sont à valider dans des essais cliniques. PMID:18663981

  17. Brain permeability of inhaled corticosteroids.

    PubMed

    Arya, Vikram; Issar, Manish; Wang, Yaning; Talton, James D; Hochhaus, Guenther

    2005-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate if the permeability of inhaled corticosteroids entering the brain is reduced and if P-glycoprotein (P-gp) transporters are involved. Currently employed inhaled corticosteroids were given intravenously and intratracheally to rats at a dose of 100 microg kg-1. An ex-vivo receptor binding assay was used to monitor over 12 h the glucocorticoid receptor occupancy in the brain and a systemic reference organ (kidney). The involvement of P-gp in the brain permeability of triamcinolone acetonide was assessed in wild-type mice and mdr1a(-/-) knockout mice (mice lacking the gene for expressing P-gp). After both forms of administration, the average brain receptor occupancies were 20-56% of those of the reference organ, with the more lipophilic drugs showing a more pronounced receptor occupation. While the receptor occupancies in the liver of wild-type and mdr1a(-/-) mice were similar after administration of triamcinolone acetonide, brain receptor occupancies in mdr1a(-/-) mice were significantly greater (mdr1a(-/-): 47.6%, 40.2-55.0%, n=14; 2; wild-type: 11.5+/-33.0%, n=14; 3). Penetration into the brain for inhaled corticosteroids (especially those of lower lipophilicity) is reduced. Experiments in mdr1a(-/-) mice confirmed the involvement of P-gp transporters. Further studies are needed to assess whether potential drug interactions at the transporter level are of pharmacological significance.

  18. Par Pond Fish, Water, and Sediment Chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Paller, M.H.; Wike, L.D.

    1996-06-01

    The objectives of this report are to describe the Par Pond fish community and the impact of the drawdown and refill on the community, describe contaminant levels in Par Pond fish, sediments, and water and indicate how contaminant concentrations and distributions were affected by the drawdown and refill, and predict possible effects of future water level fluctuations in Par Pond.

  19. [Inhalation therapy: inhaled generics, inhaled antidotes, the future of anti-infectives and the indications of inhaled pentamidine. GAT aerosolstorming, Paris 2012].

    PubMed

    Peron, N; Le Guen, P; Andrieu, V; Bardot, S; Ravilly, S; Oudyi, M; Dubus, J-C

    2013-12-01

    The working group on aerosol therapy (GAT) of the Société de pneumologie de langue française (SPLF) organized its third "Aerosolstorming" in 2012. During the course of one day, different aspects of inhaled therapy were discussed, and these will be treated separately in two articles, this one being the first. Inhaled products represent a large volume of prescriptions both in the community and in hospital settings and they involve various specialties particularly ENT and respiratory care. Technical aspects of the development of these products, their mode of administration and compliance with their indications are key elements for the effective therapeutic use of inhaled treatments. In this first article, we will review issues concerning generic inhaled products, the existence of inhaled antidotes, new anti-infective agents and indications for inhaled pentamidine.

  20. Methods for Derivation of Inhalation Reference Concentrations and Application of Inhalation Dosimetry

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA's methodology for estimation of inhalation reference concentrations (RfCs) as benchmark estimates of the quantitative dose-response assessment of chronic noncancer toxicity for individual inhaled chemicals.

  1. Inhalant withdrawal as a clinically significant feature of inhalant dependence disorder.

    PubMed

    Perron, Brian E; Howard, Matthew O; Vaughn, Michael G; Jarman, Christopher N

    2009-12-01

    Inhalant use is the intentional inhalation of vapors from commercial products or specific chemical agents for the purpose of achieving intoxication. Inhalants are among the most common and pernicious forms of substance use and the least studied of the major drugs. Diagnosis of inhalant dependence, according to the DSM-IV [Weintraub E, Gandhi D, Robinson C. Medical complications due to mothball abuse. South Med J 2000;93:427-9] excludes inhalant withdrawal symptoms, as expert opinion has suggested that an inhalant withdrawal syndrome is neither common nor clinically significant. This article draws from multiple sources of data to suggest that withdrawal symptoms can be part of inhalant dependence and are clinically significant. This hypothesis needs rigorous evaluation to ensure the diagnostic validity of inhalant use disorders.

  2. Directed and persistent movement arises from mechanochemistry of the ParA/ParB system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Longhua; Vecchiarelli, Anthony G.; Mizuuchi, Kiyoshi; Neuman, Keir C.; Liu, Jian

    The segregation of DNA prior to cell division is essential for faithful genetic inheritance. In many bacteria, segregation of the low-copy-number plasmids involves an active partition system composed of ParA ATPase and its stimulator protein ParB. Recent experiments suggest that ParA/ParB system motility is driven by a diffusion-ratchet mechanism in which ParB-coated plasmid both creates and follows a ParA gradient on the nucleoid surface. However, the detailed mechanism of ParA/ParB-mediated directed and persistent movement remains unknown. We develop a theoretical model describing ParA/ParB-mediated motility. We show that the ParA/ParB system can work as a Brownian ratchet, which effectively couples the ATPase-dependent cycling of ParA-nucleoid affinity to the motion of the ParB bound cargo. Paradoxically, the resulting processive motion relies on quenching diffusive plasmid motion through a large number of transient ParA/ParB-mediated tethers to the nucleoid surface. Our work sheds light on a new emergent phenomenon in which non-motor proteins work collectively via mechanochemical coupling to propel cargos -- an ingenious solution shaped by evolution to cope with the lack of processive motor proteins in bacteria.

  3. Magnétométrie à hélium par pompage laser: le bilan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilles, H.; Hamel, J.; Monfort, Y.

    2002-06-01

    Depuis 1986, l'équipe Physique Atomique et Capteurs du CIRIL-ISMRA de Caen étudie les magnétomètres à hélium par pompage laser. On présente ici le bilan de ces travaux de recherche et les performances des deux prototypes (hélium4 et hélium3) réalisés au Laboratoire.

  4. Telephonic Monitoring and Optimization of Inhaler Technique

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Philip; Young, Henry N.; Knobloch, Mary Jo

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Improper inhaler technique is a common problem affecting asthma control and healthcare costs. Telephonic asthma management can increase access to care while reducing costs and hospitalizations. However, no reliable method has been established for telephonically evaluating and correcting inhaler technique. Objective The purpose of this study was to pilot test a method for assessing and correcting patient inhaler technique via telephone. Methods Participants (n=30) were adults with asthma using metered-dose inhalers (MDIs) and diskus inhalers. A pharmacist was located in one room and communicated via telephone with a participant in another room. The pharmacist telephonically assessed and taught inhaler technique. Participants were video-recorded, and videos were later examined by a second pharmacist to visually evaluate inhaler technique. Participants were assigned pre- and posteducation inhaler technique scores for the telephonic and video assessments. Scores were based on summated scales for MDI (0–9) and diskus (0–11) inhalers. Paired samples t-tests were used to compare telephone and video assessments. Results Findings indicated a significant difference between the telephone and video assessments of MDI technique (p<0.05); however, no difference was found for the diskus inhaler. Comparing pre- and posteducation inhaler technique for MDI and diskus, mean scores significantly improved from 5.7 to 7.8 (p<0.05) and from 8.5 to 10.4 (p<0.05), respectively. Conclusions The telephonic method was able to improve and detect some deficiencies in patients' inhaler technique. However, modifications and further investigation will more clearly determine the role and value of such a telephonic intervention. PMID:21943162

  5. The Toxicity of Inhaled Sulphur Mustard

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    acetyl -L- cysteine (Mucomyst™; NAC ), in ameliorating inhaled HD-induced lung injury was then assessed in the established model. This work was conducted...J and Sciuto AM. N- acetyl -L- cysteine ( NAC ) Protects Against Inhaled Sulfur Mustard (HD) Poisoning in the Large Swine. Clinical Toxicology, 2012...2012. N- acetyl -L- cysteine ( NAC ) Protects against inhaled sulfur mustard (HD) poisoning in the large swine. Clinical Toxicology; in preparation

  6. The Toxicity of Inhaled Sulphur Mustard

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-01

    model. The thiol compound, N- acetyl -L- cysteine ( NAC - Mucomyst™) was chosen due to its anti-oxidant and mucolytic effects, administered via the inhaled...other beneficial therapies. Sulfur mustard, pig, inhalation, toxicology, pathology, physiology, N- acetyl -L- cysteine ( NAC ) 347 bjjugg@dstl.gov.uk 4...Finally, the efficacy of the commercial off the shelf (COTS) drug, N- acetyl -L- cysteine (Mucomyst™; NAC ), in ameliorating inhaled HD-induced lung

  7. Inhalant use and suicidality among incarcerated youth.

    PubMed

    Freedenthal, Stacey; Vaughn, Michael G; Jenson, Jeffrey M; Howard, Matthew O

    2007-09-06

    Studies consistently indicate that inhalant use is associated with increased mental health problems in adolescents, but few investigations have focused on the potential relationship of inhalant use to suicidality (ideation or attempt). This study examined how different levels of volatile solvent use relate to suicidal ideation and attempted suicide among 723 incarcerated youth (mean age=15.5, S.D.=1.2; 87% male) in Missouri, and whether any associations between solvent use and suicidality differ by gender. In bivariate analyses, severity of inhalant use was positively associated with histories of suicidal ideation and suicide attempt for both boys and girls. In multivariate analyses, inhalant use disorders remained significantly associated with suicidal ideation and suicide attempt histories even after adjusting for general level of psychiatric symptoms, prior trauma, other substance use, gender, and additional potential confounders. Inhalant use without abuse or dependence also significantly related to suicidal ideation in multivariate analyses, but an interaction between gender and inhalant use signified this relationship was stronger for girls. Inhalant use disorders in incarcerated youth, as well as inhalant use without abuse or dependence (particularly in girls), may signal elevated suicide risk. Suicide risk assessments should, therefore, include questions about inhalation of volatile solvents such as paint, gasoline, and household cleaners.

  8. Inhalant use and suicidality among incarcerated youth

    PubMed Central

    Freedenthal, Stacey; Vaughn, Michael G.; Jenson, Jeffrey M.; Howard, Matthew O.

    2007-01-01

    Studies consistently indicate that inhalant use is associated with increased mental health problems in adolescents, but few investigations have focused on the potential relationship of inhalant use to suicidality (ideation or attempt). This study examined how different levels of volatile solvent use relate to suicidal ideation and attempted suicide among 723 incarcerated youth (mean age = 15.5, S.D. = 1.2; 87% male) in Missouri, and whether any associations between solvent use and suicidality differ by gender. In bivariate analyses, severity of inhalant use was positively associated with histories of suicidal ideation and suicide attempt for both boys and girls. In multivariate analyses, inhalant use disorders remained significantly associated with suicidal ideation and suicide attempt histories even after adjusting for general level of psychiatric symptoms, prior trauma, other substance use, gender, and additional potential confounders. Inhalant use without abuse or dependence also significantly related to suicidal ideation in multivariate analyses, but an interaction between gender and inhalant use signified this relationship was stronger for girls. Inhalant use disorders in incarcerated youth, as well as inhalant use without abuse or dependence (particularly in girls), may signal elevated suicide risk. Suicide risk assessments should, therefore, include questions about inhalation of volatile solvents such as paint, gasoline, and household cleaners. PMID:17433572

  9. Spin resonance transport properties of a single Au atom in S-Au-S junction and Au-Au-Au junction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fangyuan, Wang; Guiqin, Li

    2016-07-01

    The spin transport properties of S-Au-S junction and Au-Au-Au junction between Au nanowires are investigated with density functional theory and the non-equilibrium Green's function. We mainly focus on the spin resonance transport properties of the center Au atom. The breaking of chemical bonds between anchor atoms and center Au atom significantly influences their spin transmission characteristics. We find the 0.8 eV orbital energy shift between anchor S atoms and the center Au atom can well protect the spin state stored in the S-Au-S junction and efficiently extract its spin state to the current by spin resonance mechanism, while the spin interaction of itinerant electrons and the valence electron of the center Au atom in the Au-Au-Au junction can extract the current spin information into the center Au atom. Fermi energy drift and bias-dependent spin filtering properties of the Au-Au-Au junction may transform information between distance, bias, and electron spin. Those unique properties make them potential candidates for a logical nanocircuit. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grants No. 2011CB921602) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grants No. 20121318158).

  10. Sidération myocardique au cours d'une intoxication au monoxyde de carbone (CO) chez une femme enceinte

    PubMed Central

    Coulibaly, Mahamadoun; Berdai, Mohamed Adnane; Labib, Smael; Harandou, Mustapha

    2015-01-01

    L'intoxication au monoxyde de carbone (CO) est la première cause de décès par intoxication en France. La littérature est ancienne et peu connue. Les signes les plus fréquents de l'intoxication sont la triade: Céphalées; asthénie, faiblesse musculaire surtout des membres inférieurs. Ses conséquences sont potentiellement graves pour le fœtus quand elle survient chez la femme enceinte, il est particulièrement exposé au risque d'hypoxie en raison de la forte affinité de son hémoglobine pour le CO qui traverse aisément le placenta. Les événements cardiovasculaires ne sont pas rares et peuvent être responsable d'une morbi-mortalité assez importante qui peuvent être d'apparition rapide ou secondaire mais régressent habituellement en quelques jours. Des SCA peuvent survenir lors d'une une intoxication au CO avec à l'extrême infarctus myocardique avec surélévation du segment ST. Il paraît légitime de proposer pour toutes les patientes: l’éloignement maternel de la source de CO; l'oxygénothérapie à 100% au masque facial par les services de secours et pendant le transfert; le traitement par oxygénothérapie hyperbare pour toutes les femmes enceintes, le plus rapidement possible et quelque soit l’âge gestationnel. PMID:26405502

  11. Parallel Climate Analysis Toolkit (ParCAT)

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Brian Edward

    2013-06-30

    The parallel analysis toolkit (ParCAT) provides parallel statistical processing of large climate model simulation datasets. ParCAT provides parallel point-wise average calculations, frequency distributions, sum/differences of two datasets, and difference-of-average and average-of-difference for two datasets for arbitrary subsets of simulation time. ParCAT is a command-line utility that can be easily integrated in scripts or embedded in other application. ParCAT supports CMIP5 post-processed datasets as well as non-CMIP5 post-processed datasets. ParCAT reads and writes standard netCDF files.

  12. Overproduction and localization of Mycobacterium tuberculosis ParA and ParB proteins

    PubMed Central

    Maloney, Erin; Madiraju, Murty; Rajagopalan, Malini

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY The ParA and ParB family proteins are required for accurate partitioning of replicated chromosomes. The Mycobacterium tuberculosis genome contains parB, parA and two parA homologs, Rv1708 and Rv3213c. It is unknown if parA and its homologs are functionally related. To understand the roles of ParA and ParB proteins in M. tuberculosis cell cycle, we have evaluated the consequences of their overproduction and visualized their localization patterns in M. smegmatis. We show that cells overproducing of ParA, Rv1708 and Rv3213c and ParB are filamentous and multinucleoidal indicating defects in cell cycle progression. Visualization of green-fluorescent protein fusions of ParA and its homologues showed similar localization patterns with foci at poles, quarter-cell, midcell positions and spiral-like structures indicating that they are functionally related. On the other hand, the ParBGFP fusion protein localized only to the cell poles. The cyan and yellow fluorescent fusion proteins of ParA and ParB, respectively, colocalized at the cell poles indicating that these proteins interact and possibly associate with the chromosomal origin of replication. Collectively our results suggest that the M. tuberculosis Par proteins play important roles in cell cycle progression. PMID:20006309

  13. suPAR: The Molecular Crystal Ball

    PubMed Central

    Thunø, Maria; Macho, Betina; Eugen-Olsen, Jesper

    2009-01-01

    soluble urokinase Plasminogen Activator Receptor (suPAR) levels reflect inflammation and elevated suPAR levels are found in several infectious diseases and cancer. suPAR exists in three forms; suPARI-III, suPARII-III and suPARI which show different properties due to structural differences. Studies suggest that full-length suPAR is a regulator of uPAR/uPA by acting as uPA-scavenger, whereas the cleaved suPARII-III act as a chemotactic agent promoting the immune response via the SRSRY sequence in the linker-region. This review focus on the various suPAR fragments and their involvement in inflammation and pathogenic processes. We focus on the molecular mechanisms of the suPAR fragments and the link to the inflammatory process, as this could lead to medical applications in infectious and pathological conditions. PMID:19893210

  14. Inhaled hyperosmolar agents for bronchiectasis.

    PubMed

    Hart, Anna; Sugumar, Karnam; Milan, Stephen J; Fowler, Stephen J; Crossingham, Iain

    2014-05-12

    Mucus retention in the lungs is a prominent feature of bronchiectasis. The stagnant mucus becomes chronically colonised with bacteria, which elicit a host neutrophilic response. This fails to eliminate the bacteria, and the large concentration of host-derived protease may contribute to the airway damage. The sensation of retained mucus is itself a cause of suffering, and the failure to maintain airway sterility probably contributes to the frequent respiratory infections experienced by many patients.Hypertonic saline inhalation is known to accelerate tracheobronchial clearance in many conditions, probably by inducing a liquid flux into the airway surface, which alters mucus rheology in a way favourable to mucociliary clearance. Inhaled dry powder mannitol has a similar effect. Such agents are an attractive approach to the problem of mucostasis, and deserve further clinical evaluation. To determine whether inhaled hyperosmolar substances are effective in the treatment of bronchiectasis. We searched the Cochrane Airways Group Specialised Register, trials registries, and the reference lists of included studies and review articles. Searches are current up to April 2014. Any randomised controlled trial (RCT) using hyperosmolar inhalation in patients with bronchiectasis not caused by cystic fibrosis. Two review authors assessed studies for suitability. We used standard methods recommended by The Cochrane Collaboration. Eleven studies met the inclusion criteria of the review (1021 participants).Five studies on 833 participants compared inhaled mannitol with placebo but poor outcome reporting meant we could pool very little data and most outcomes were reported by only one study. One 12-month trial on 461 participants provided results for exacerbations and demonstrated an advantage for mannitol in terms of time to first exacerbation (median time to exacerbation 165 versus 124 days for mannitol and placebo respectively (hazard ratio (HR) 0.78, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0

  15. Prevalence, timing, and predictors of transitions from inhalant use to inhalant use disorders.

    PubMed

    Perron, Brian E; Howard, Matthew O; Maitra, Samopriyo; Vaughn, Michael G

    2009-03-01

    Few studies of the natural history of DSM-IV inhalant substance use disorders (I-SUDs) have been conducted. This investigation examined the prevalence, timing, and predictors of transitions from inhalant use to formal I-SUDs among inhalant users within a nationally representative sample. Participants were 664 U.S. residents participating in the 2000-2001 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions who reported lifetime inhalant use. Respondents completed structured interviews assessing DSM-IV psychiatric/substance use disorders. Bivariate and Cox regression analyses were conducted to identify risk factors for transitions from inhalant use to I-SUDs. Nearly one in five (19.4%) persons initiating inhalant use developed an I-SUD. Most I-SUD transitions were to inhalant abuse rather than inhalant dependence. Risk for development of I-SUDs was greatest in the first year following initiation of inhalant use and low thereafter. Multivariate proportional hazards models indicated that presence of a mood/anxiety disorder (HR=7.7, CI=3.1-18.9) or alcohol use disorder (HR=11.9, CI=5.46-26.00) antedating initiation of inhalant use predicted significantly elevated risk for I-SUDs, whereas being married conferred a lower risk for onset of I-SUDs. I-SUDs were relatively common among inhalant users, generally occurred in the year following initiation of inhalant use, and were associated with early-onset mood/anxiety and alcohol use disorders. Given the young average age at onset of inhalant use and the rapidity with which most I-SUDs developed, interventions directed to adolescents who have initiated inhalant use might be effective in reducing the proportion of inhalant users who develop I-SUDs.

  16. Adolescent inhalant use, abuse and dependence.

    PubMed

    Perron, Brian E; Howard, Matthew O

    2009-07-01

    To compare adolescent inhalant users without DSM-IV inhalant use disorders (IUDs) to youth with IUDs (i.e. abuse or dependence) across demographic, psychosocial and clinical measures. Cross-sectional survey with structured psychiatric interviews. Facilities (n = 32) comprising the Missouri Division of Youth Services (MDYS) residential treatment system for juvenile offenders. Participants Current MDYS residents (n = 723); 97.7% of residents participated. Most youth were male (87%) and in mid-adolescence (mean = 15.5 years, standard deviation = 1.2, range = 11-20); more than one-third (38.6%, n = 279) reported life-time inhalant use. Antisocial behavior, temperament, trauma-exposure, suicidality, psychiatric symptoms and substance-related problems. Among life-time inhalant users, 46.9% met criteria for a life-time DSM-IV IUD (inhalant abuse = 18.6%, inhalant dependence = 28.3%). Bivariate analyses showed that, in comparison to non-users, inhalant users with and without an IUD were more likely to be Caucasian, live in rural or small towns, have higher levels of anxiety and depressive symptoms, evidence more impulsive and fearless temperaments and report more past-year antisocial behavior and life-time suicidality, traumatic experiences and global substance use problems. A monotonic relationship between inhalant use, abuse and dependence and adverse outcomes was observed, with comparatively high rates of dysfunction observed among inhalant-dependent youth. Multivariate regression analyses showed that inhalant users with and without an IUD had greater levels of suicidal ideation and substance use problems than non-users. Youth with IUDs have personal histories characterized by high levels of trauma, suicidality, psychiatric distress, antisocial behavior and substance-related problems. A monotonic relationship between inhalant use, abuse and dependence and serious adverse outcomes was observed.

  17. Inhalant abuse: youth at risk.

    PubMed

    Ahern, Nancy R; Falsafi, Nasrin

    2013-08-01

    Inhalant abuse is a significant problem affecting many people, particularly youth. The easy availability of products containing volatile substances (e.g., aerosol sprays, cleaning products, paint) provides opportunity for mind-altering experiences. Unfortunately, serious complications such as brain, cardiovascular, liver, and renal damage or even death may ensue. Adolescents perceive the risk as low, and parents may be unaware of the risks. Health care providers, particularly psychiatric nurses, should undertake strategies of prevention, assessment, and treatment of this challenging problem. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  18. Directed and persistent movement arises from mechanochemistry of the ParA/ParB system

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Longhua; Vecchiarelli, Anthony G.; Mizuuchi, Kiyoshi; Neuman, Keir C.; Liu, Jian

    2015-01-01

    The segregation of DNA before cell division is essential for faithful genetic inheritance. In many bacteria, segregation of low-copy number plasmids involves an active partition system composed of a nonspecific DNA-binding ATPase, ParA, and its stimulator protein ParB. The ParA/ParB system drives directed and persistent movement of DNA cargo both in vivo and in vitro. Filament-based models akin to actin/microtubule-driven motility were proposed for plasmid segregation mediated by ParA. Recent experiments challenge this view and suggest that ParA/ParB system motility is driven by a diffusion ratchet mechanism in which ParB-coated plasmid both creates and follows a ParA gradient on the nucleoid surface. However, the detailed mechanism of ParA/ParB-mediated directed and persistent movement remains unknown. Here, we develop a theoretical model describing ParA/ParB-mediated motility. We show that the ParA/ParB system can work as a Brownian ratchet, which effectively couples the ATPase-dependent cycling of ParA–nucleoid affinity to the motion of the ParB-bound cargo. Paradoxically, this resulting processive motion relies on quenching diffusive plasmid motion through a large number of transient ParA/ParB-mediated tethers to the nucleoid surface. Our work thus sheds light on an emergent phenomenon in which nonmotor proteins work collectively via mechanochemical coupling to propel cargos—an ingenious solution shaped by evolution to cope with the lack of processive motor proteins in bacteria. PMID:26647183

  19. Magnetic susceptibilities of liquid Cr-Au, Mn-Au and Fe-Au alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Ohno, S.; Shimakura, H.; Tahara, S.; Okada, T.

    2015-08-17

    The magnetic susceptibility of liquid Cr-Au, Mn-Au, Fe-Au and Cu-Au alloys was investigated as a function of temperature and composition. Liquid Cr{sub 1-c}Au{sub c} with 0.5 ≤ c and Mn{sub 1-c}Au{sub c} with 0.3≤c obeyed the Curie-Weiss law with regard to their dependence of χ on temperature. The magnetic susceptibilities of liquid Fe-Au alloys also exhibited Curie-Weiss behavior with a reasonable value for the effective number of Bohr magneton. On the Au-rich side, the composition dependence of χ for liquid TM-Au (TM=Cr, Mn, Fe) alloys increased rapidly with increasing TM content, respectively. Additionally, the composition dependences of χ for liquid Cr-Au, Mn-Au, and Fe-Au alloys had maxima at compositions of 50 at% Cr, 70 at% Mn, and 85 at% Fe, respectively. We compared the composition dependences of χ{sub 3d} due to 3d electrons for liquid binary TM-M (M=Au, Al, Si, Sb), and investigated the relationship between χ{sub 3d} and E{sub F} in liquid binary TM-M alloys at a composition of 50 at% TM.

  20. Imagerie par contraste en reflexion ou transmission lors d'une procedure par laser au dioxyde de carbone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourdon, Alexandre

    The use of laser micromachining is now reaching maturity. Laser micromachining is now competing with traditional methods in procedures such as welding, cutting or melting. This thesis will focus on various aspects of the uses of laser in the industry. In each aspect we are drawing our attention on the method to image a given procedure in real-time. In this manuscript we are applying Maxwell's equations to describe the propagation of an electromagnetic wave across various interfaces between media. The approach is tantamount to using Fresnel equation by taking into account the thickness between two successive interfaces bounding a given medium. This theory becomes useful when investigating the evaporation of matter, welding of two dissimilar materials and etching at the surface of a substrate. The progression of welding and etching will be imaged in real-time using an effect of contrast. Various planes of observation that are available in our set-up will allow us to draw firm conclusions in real-time as the procedure develops. Using the principle of contrasting regions it was found that the progression of a laser procedure can be imaged and give interesting details as it evolves in time. It will be also possible to determine when it is time to stop the operation during a laser procedure when a substance evaporates on a substrate. In the case of a laser welding procedure, it will be shown that the imaging method can give some information about the quality of a weld between two different materials. Lastly, it will also be shown that we can image a laser etching procedure by using the contrast of reflectance in neighbouring regions.

  1. L'astronomie au féminin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazé, Yaël

    2006-03-01

    Qui détient le record des découvertes de comètes ? Une femme. Qui a permis de comprendre comment est organisée la population des étoiles ? Une femme. Qui a découvert la loi permettant d'arpenter l'Univers, a trouvé des phares dans l'espace, a compris le fonctionnement des forges stellaires et a bouleversé notre vision de l'Univers ? Encore et toujours une femme... Pourtant, quand on doit citer un astronome -- historique -- au hasard, on pense le plus souvent -- des hommes : Ptolémée, Galilée, Copernic ou, plus près de nous par exemple, Hubble. Certes, au cours des siècles, les femmes n'ont guère eu accès aux sciences en général et -- l'astronomie en particulier mais ce n'est pas une raison pour croire en l'absence totale de contributions dues au beau sexe ! C'est ce que dévoile ici l'auteur. Loin de toute forme de féminisme enragé, on suivra le parcours de quelques scientifiques importantes qui ont par hasard en commun une même particularité : leur sexe.

  2. Inhalant Abuse: A Call for Attention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballard, Mary B.

    1998-01-01

    The percentage of youth inhaling volatile substances is on the rise in the United States. Professional literature has been critical of the helping professions for not doing enough to address this problem adequately. This article attempts to heighten the awareness of the mental health profession by defining inhalant abuse, its consequences, and…

  3. Investigation of inhalation anthrax case, United States.

    PubMed

    Griffith, Jayne; Blaney, David; Shadomy, Sean; Lehman, Mark; Pesik, Nicki; Tostenson, Samantha; Delaney, Lisa; Tiller, Rebekah; DeVries, Aaron; Gomez, Thomas; Sullivan, Maureen; Blackmore, Carina; Stanek, Danielle; Lynfield, Ruth

    2014-02-01

    Inhalation anthrax occurred in a man who vacationed in 4 US states where anthrax is enzootic. Despite an extensive multi-agency investigation, the specific source was not detected, and no additional related human or animal cases were found. Although rare, inhalation anthrax can occur naturally in the United States.

  4. Investigation of Inhalation Anthrax Case, United States

    PubMed Central

    Blaney, David; Shadomy, Sean; Lehman, Mark; Pesik, Nicki; Tostenson, Samantha; Delaney, Lisa; Tiller, Rebekah; DeVries, Aaron; Gomez, Thomas; Sullivan, Maureen; Blackmore, Carina; Stanek, Danielle; Lynfield, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    Inhalation anthrax occurred in a man who vacationed in 4 US states where anthrax is enzootic. Despite an extensive multi-agency investigation, the specific source was not detected, and no additional related human or animal cases were found. Although rare, inhalation anthrax can occur naturally in the United States. PMID:24447835

  5. Inhalant initiation and the relationship of inhalant use to the use of other substances.

    PubMed

    Shamblen, Stephen R; Miller, Ted

    2012-01-01

    Conventional wisdom suggests that inhalant use is primarily isolated to youthful experimentation; however, a growing body of evidence suggests that inhalant use (a) occurs after use of common substances of experimentation (e.g., alcohol, marijuana), (b) can persist into later life, and (c) is associated with severe consequences. The current study examined the sequencing of substances relative to inhalants and the post-initiation correlates of inhalant use between youth and young adulthood in nationally representative Add Health data. Analyses examined the relationship of substance of initiation to use of other substances, as well as an examination of the relationship between substance use and consequences. The analyses suggest that (a) those initiating their substance use careers with inhalants often go on to use hard drugs, (b) inhalant use likely occurs after alcohol and marijuana use, and (c) inhalant use during adolescence was associated with health and criminal consequences in both adolescence and young adulthood.

  6. Solid-Phase Equilibria in the Au-As, Au-Ga-Sb, Au-In-As, and Au-In-Sb Ternaries.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-02-28

    AD6i5 469 SOLID- PHASE EQUILIBRIA IN THE Ru-As AU-GA-SB AU-IN-AS- 1/17 AND AU-IN-SB TERNAR (U) CALIFORNIA UNIV LOS ANGELES DEPT OF CHEMISTRY AND...REPORT & PERIOD COVERED SOLID- PHASE EQUILIBRIA IN THE Au-Ga-As, Au-Ga-Sb Thchnical Report Au-In-As, and Au-In-Sb TEARIEIS S. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER...CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGEMI*n Does Entepd) 4./ lie- . .- - - - - -- -- Solid Phase Equilibria in the Au-Ga-As, Au-Ga-Sb, Au-In-As, and Au-In-Sb Ternaries C

  7. Toxicological Assessment of Noxious Inhalants

    PubMed Central

    Kleinsasser, N. H.; Sassen, A. W.; Wallner, B. W.; Staudenmaier, R.; Harréus, U. A.; Richter, E.

    2004-01-01

    In the past centuries mankind has been exposed to various forms of air pollution not only at his occupational but also in his social environment. He mainly gets exposed with these pollutants through the respiratory organs and partially absorbs them into the body. Many of these airborne substances can be harmful for humans and some of them may account for tumorigenic effects. The following essay describes the main features of toxicological assessment of inhalative environmental and workplace xenobiotics. The essay also explains relevant characteristics and limit values of noxious compounds and gases and depicts modern testing methods. To this end, emphasis is given on methods characterizing the different stages of tumorigenic processes. Various test systems have been developed which can be used in vivo, ex vivo or in vitro. They are to a great part based on the evidence of changes in DNA or particular genes of cells. Among others they have highlighted the impact of interindividual variability on enzymatic activation of xenobiotics and on susceptibility of the host to tumor diseases. Unfortunately, for many inhalative environmental noxious agents no sufficient risk profiles have been developed. The completion of these profiles should be the goal of toxicological assessment in order to allow reasonable socioeconomic or individual-based risk reduction. PMID:22073045

  8. Experimental inhalation injury in the goat.

    PubMed

    Walker, H L; McLeod, C G; McManus, W F

    1981-11-01

    Inhalation injuries are usually produced by inhalation of gaseous or particulate products of incomplete combustion and are rarely due to heat per se unless steam is inhaled. The clinical and anatomic characteristics of an appropriate animal model should mimic the disease encountered clinically. A model of inhalation injury has been produced in anesthetized goats through the use of a modified bee smoker. The smoke is delivered at a low temperature and contains byproducts of incomplete combustion. This reproducible injury produces necrotic tracheobronchitis and bronchiolitis with pseudomembrane and cast formation in association with mild multifocal atelectasis and bronchopneumonia. These lesions spontaneously resolve within 3 weeks without supportive therapy. The upper trachea, protected from smoke injury by the inflated cuff of the endotracheal tube, showed no evidence of injury. This nonlethal injury is proposed as an appropriate model for evaluation of the pathophysiology and treatment of inhalation injury.

  9. [Ambroise Paré, landlord].

    PubMed

    Pion-Graff, Joëlle; Bonnichon, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    Paré is well-known through many papers. His incomes allowed him to have a middle-class Parisian living. It is impossible to have an accurate knowledge of his fortune before his death but we have a good idea of his landed property. In fact as a Parishioner of Saint-Andre-des-Arts Church he probably was a landlord only in Paris and its vicinity with a building (rue de l'Hirondelle), two houses (rue Garancière), Meudon, Cormeille-en-Parisis and La-Ville-Du-Bois which the authors describe the present state of.

  10. Pharmacokinetics of fluticasone propionate multidose, inhalation-driven, novel, dry powder inhaler versus a prevailing dry powder inhaler and a metered-dose inhaler.

    PubMed

    Gillespie, Michael; Song, Sharon; Steinfeld, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    A novel inhalation-driven multidose dry powder inhaler (MDPI) that eliminates the need for the patient to coordinate device actuation with inhalation has been developed for delivery of inhaled asthma medications. To characterize the pharmacokinetics of single-dose fluticasone propionate (Fp) MDPI compared with single doses of Fp dry powder inhaler (DPI) and a metered-dose inhaler (MDI) in healthy subjects. This was a single-center, open-label, randomized, three-period crossover, single-dose pilot study in healthy adults ages 18 to 45 years. Eligible subjects (N = 18) were randomized to one of six treatment sequences that contained three treatment arms: Fp MDPI 400 μg/inhalation × two inhalations (800 μg total dose); Fp DPI 250 μg/inhalation × four (1000 μg total dose); and Fp MDI 220 μg/inhalation × four (880 μg total dose). Pharmacokinetics (area under concentration-versus-time curve [AUC], maximum plasma concentration [Cmax], time to Cmax [tmax], and elimination half-life [t½]), safety, and tolerability were assessed for each treatment. Plasma Fp concentration-versus-time curves were comparable across treatments. Geometric mean AUC0-t and Cmax for Fp MDPI 800 μg were 19% and 18% higher, respectively, compared with Fp DPI 1000 μg, and 47% and 82% higher, respectively, compared with Fp MDI 880 μg. Median tmax (60.0-60.6 minutes) and median t1/2 (9.1-9.8 hours) were comparable across the three treatments. Single-dose Fp was well tolerated, with no new safety issues noted. Single-dose administration of Fp MDPI 800 μg produced systemic exposure comparable with those for Fp DPI 1000 μg and Fp MDI 880 μg.

  11. Inhalation injury: epidemiology, pathology, treatment strategies

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Lung injury resulting from inhalation of smoke or chemical products of combustion continues to be associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Combined with cutaneous burns, inhalation injury increases fluid resuscitation requirements, incidence of pulmonary complications and overall mortality of thermal injury. While many products and techniques have been developed to manage cutaneous thermal trauma, relatively few diagnosis-specific therapeutic options have been identified for patients with inhalation injury. Several factors explain slower progress for improvement in management of patients with inhalation injury. Inhalation injury is a more complex clinical problem. Burned cutaneous tissue may be excised and replaced with skin grafts. Injured pulmonary tissue must be protected from secondary injury due to resuscitation, mechanical ventilation and infection while host repair mechanisms receive appropriate support. Many of the consequences of smoke inhalation result from an inflammatory response involving mediators whose number and role remain incompletely understood despite improved tools for processing of clinical material. Improvements in mortality from inhalation injury are mostly due to widespread improvements in critical care rather than focused interventions for smoke inhalation. Morbidity associated with inhalation injury is produced by heat exposure and inhaled toxins. Management of toxin exposure in smoke inhalation remains controversial, particularly as related to carbon monoxide and cyanide. Hyperbaric oxygen treatment has been evaluated in multiple trials to manage neurologic sequelae of carbon monoxide exposure. Unfortunately, data to date do not support application of hyperbaric oxygen in this population outside the context of clinical trials. Cyanide is another toxin produced by combustion of natural or synthetic materials. A number of antidote strategies have been evaluated to address tissue hypoxia associated with cyanide exposure. Data

  12. Etude par spectroscopie de Coulomb de points quantiques lateraux individuels et couples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pioro-Ladriere, Michel

    Des points quantiques contenant un nombre discret et variable d'electrons sont formes dans un gaz bi-dimensionnel d'electrons a l'aide de grilles metalliques. Le transport electrique, le blocage de spin et la detection de charge sont employes comme outils spectroscopiques permettant de sonder les proprietes de ces nanostructures. Ces techniques permettent aussi de controler exactement le nombres d'electrons confines dans des points quantiques individuels et couples en utilisant un patron de grille judicieux. Une technique de refroidissement en tension est developpee afin de minimiser les effets parasites du bruit telegraphique. Ce type de bruit de charge deteriore la stabilite des nanostructures laterales par l'activation d'un minuscule courant de fuite entre les grilles et le gaz bi-dimensionnel. Un modele expliquant le role du refroidissement en tension sur le courant de fuite est presente. L'activation du courant de fuite est confirmee par detection de charge. Les effets des interactions entre les electrons pieges dans un point quantique sont ensuite etudies dans un regime ou il est possible de comparer les resulats experimentaux avec ceux obtenus par diagonalisation exacte. L'etude demontre que la phase associee au facteur de remplissage nu = 2 est instable au-dessus d'un nombre critique d'electrons. Cette instabilite est confirmee experimentalement par blocage de spin. On demontre aussi l'existence d'etats correles dans le regime des renversements de spin, associe au passage de la phase nu = 2 a nu = 1. Les etats correles sont identifies par spectroscopie en transport non lineaire. Cette caracterisation du diagramme de phase de points individuels permet de coupler deux points quantiques configures a nu = 2. Pour ce regime, la nanostructure se comporte comme un systeme a deux niveaux pouvant contenir entre un et quatre electrons de valence et ce, meme si le nombre total d'electrons est plus eleve. Les degres de liberte de charge et de spin des deux points

  13. Magnetoresistance of Au films

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, D. L.; Song, X. H.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, Xiaoguang

    2014-12-10

    Measurement of the magnetoresistance (MR) of Au films as a function of temperature and film thickness reveals a strong dependence on grain size distribution and clear violation of the Kohler s rule. Using a model of random resistor network, we show that this result can be explained if the MR arises entirely from inhomogeneity due to grain boundary scattering and thermal activation of grain boundary atoms.

  14. Magnetoresistance of Au films

    DOE PAGES

    Zhang, D. L.; Song, X. H.; Zhang, X.; ...

    2014-12-10

    Measurement of the magnetoresistance (MR) of Au films as a function of temperature and film thickness reveals a strong dependence on grain size distribution and clear violation of the Kohler s rule. Using a model of random resistor network, we show that this result can be explained if the MR arises entirely from inhomogeneity due to grain boundary scattering and thermal activation of grain boundary atoms.

  15. Brulure par Foudre. A Propos d’une Observation

    PubMed Central

    Mradmi, W.; Fassi-Fihri, J.; Mehaji, G.; Ezzoubi, M.; Diouri, M.; Bahechar, N.; Boukind, E.H.

    2005-01-01

    Summary Aussi loin que l’on remonte dans la littérature, on retrouve des récits relatant des accidents consécutifs à la fulguration chez l’homme. La foudre était alors associée à la colère des dieux ou à la notion de châtiment. La fulguration correspond à un transfert d’énergie entre un cumulonimbus de charge négative et un objet de charge positive se trouvant au niveau du sol. Les lésions déterminées sont à la fois thermiques et électrothermiques. Bien que l’arrêt cardiorespiratoire soit une cause bien documentée de décès, la plupart des cas rapportés dans la littérature décrivent un éventail très disparate des séquelles qui surviennent suite à cet accident. Les Auteurs rapportent le cas d’un patient atteint par la foudre en insistant particulièrement sur les complications neurologiques qui sont survenues en cours d’évolution. Se basant sur cette observation et sur une revue de la littérature, les Auteurs soulignent que le pronostic des patients atteints par la foudre est plus favorable que généralement rapporté. PMID:21990993

  16. Particle inhalability at low wind speeds.

    PubMed

    Brown, James S

    2005-12-15

    Accurate quantification of the dose delivered by aerosol exposures is essential for estimating the risk of potential adverse health effects. The fraction of airborne particles that can enter the nose or mouth during inhalation is referred to as the inspirable particulate mass fraction. This inhalable fraction is equivalent to delivered dose for particles greater than approximately 25 microm (aerodynamic particle diameter, d(ae)), which deposit completely and almost exclusively in the extrathoracic airways. Particle inhalability at high wind speeds (1-9 m/s) has been well characterized. However, there is a paucity of data describing the inhalability of particles at low wind speeds (< or =0.3 m/s), which are typical of indoor environments. High-wind-speed criteria poorly describe inhalability at low wind speeds. Based on the aspiration efficiencies of blunt and sharp-edged inlets, a function was developed for oral inhalability, P(I(O)), of particles at low wind speeds. This function predicts a slow decline in P(I(O)) from 0.95 at d(ae)= 8 microm, to 0.5 at d(ae) = 74 microm, and 0.1 at d(ae)= 175 microm. Data available from the literature for inhalability at relatively low wind speeds during oral breathing are well described by this logistic function (r(2)= 0.69).

  17. Dynamics of airflow in a short inhalation

    PubMed Central

    Bates, A. J.; Doorly, D. J.; Cetto, R.; Calmet, H.; Gambaruto, A. M.; Tolley, N. S.; Houzeaux, G.; Schroter, R. C.

    2015-01-01

    During a rapid inhalation, such as a sniff, the flow in the airways accelerates and decays quickly. The consequences for flow development and convective transport of an inhaled gas were investigated in a subject geometry extending from the nose to the bronchi. The progress of flow transition and the advance of an inhaled non-absorbed gas were determined using highly resolved simulations of a sniff 0.5 s long, 1 l s−1 peak flow, 364 ml inhaled volume. In the nose, the distribution of airflow evolved through three phases: (i) an initial transient of about 50 ms, roughly the filling time for a nasal volume, (ii) quasi-equilibrium over the majority of the inhalation, and (iii) a terminating phase. Flow transition commenced in the supraglottic region within 20 ms, resulting in large-amplitude fluctuations persisting throughout the inhalation; in the nose, fluctuations that arose nearer peak flow were of much reduced intensity and diminished in the flow decay phase. Measures of gas concentration showed non-uniform build-up and wash-out of the inhaled gas in the nose. At the carina, the form of the temporal concentration profile reflected both shear dispersion and airway filling defects owing to recirculation regions. PMID:25551147

  18. Inhaled Corticosteroids and Bone Health

    PubMed Central

    Chee, Carolyn; Sellahewa, Luckni; Pappachan, Joseph M

    2014-01-01

    Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) are the cornerstones in the management of bronchial asthma and some cases of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Although ICS are claimed to have low side effect profiles, at high doses they can cause systemic adverse effects including bone diseases such as osteopenia, osteoporosis and osteonecrosis. Corticosteroids have detrimental effects on function and survival of osteoblasts and osteocytes, and with the prolongation of osteoclast survival, induce metabolic bone disease. Glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis (GIO) can be associated with major complications such as vertebral and neck of femur fractures. The American College of Rheumatology (ACR) published criteria in 2010 for the management of GIO. ACR recommends bisphosphonates along with calcium and vitamin D supplements as the first-line agents for GIO management. ACR recommendations can be applied to manage patients on ICS with a high risk of developing metabolic bone disease. This review outlines the mechanisms and management of ICS-induced bone disease. PMID:25674178

  19. Inhalation challenge in humidifier fever.

    PubMed

    Edwards, J H; Cockcroft, A

    1981-05-01

    When exposed to an amount of contaminated humidifier water roughly equivalent to that inhaled over an 8-hour period at their work place, four out of six subjects developed symptoms of humidifier fever. Two non-exposed subjects failed to react to the same challenge. Characteristic lung function, temperature and leucocyte changes were recorded; however, a fall in gas transfer previously reported was not seen. That the reaction was immunologically mediated and not due to endotoxin activity was shown by a negative pyrogen response in rabbits inoculated intravenously with concentrated humidifier water. The nature of the immune response has not as yet been evaluated but it does not reside with the ability of humidifier fever antigens to activate complement. Skin testing produced an immediate weal and flare in the four subjects with precipitins and may reflect the presence of short-term anaphylactic IgG antibody.

  20. Plaies des membres par agression: analyse de 245 dossiers

    PubMed Central

    Boufettal, Monsef; Mahfoud, Mustapha; Ismael, Farid; Kharmaz, Mohamed; Bardouni, Ahmed El; Berrada, Mohamed Saleh; Yaacoubi, Moradh El

    2015-01-01

    Il s'agit d'une étuderétrospective, analytique, monocentrique rentrant dans le cadre d'une étude épidémiologique s’étalant sur une période de trois années (de 2010 à 2012) durant laquelle nous avons revu les dossiers de 245 patients victimes de violence et d'agression. Nous avons exclu les lésions simples traitées en ambulatoire. Par conséquent, nous nous sommes limités aux cas de blessures ayant nécessité une prise en charge spécialisée au bloc opératoire. Les objectifs de notre travail étaient de connaitre la fréquence des agressions au service de traumatologie du CHU de Rabat, classer les différents types de lésions, évaluer leur gravité, mettre la lumière sur les populations les plus touchées et enfin montrer les différentes modalités de prise en charge thérapeutiques. PMID:26918078

  1. Inhalant use and disorders among adults in the United States.

    PubMed

    Wu, Li-Tzy; Ringwalt, Christopher L

    2006-10-15

    To examine the patterns of adult inhalant use and correlates of inhalant use disorder. We drew study data from the 2002 and 2003 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH). We used logistic regression to identify the characteristics associated both with inhalant use and inhalant use disorder. One in 10 of all adults had used an inhalant at least once in their lives, and 0.5% used one in the past year. Among all past year inhalant users, 8% met the criteria for an inhalant use disorder (i.e., 6.6% for abuse and 1.1% for dependence) within that period. We found an increased prevalence of past year inhalant use among young adults aged 18-25 years, Asians, past year alcohol abusers and dependents, lifetime drug users, white women, and men reporting symptoms of serious mental illness. Inhalant-using adults who met the criteria for an inhalant use disorder were predominantly adults aged 35-49 years and were less educated, had received recent professional treatment for emotional or psychological problems, used inhalants weekly, and had a coexisting alcohol use disorder. The patterns and consequences of adult inhalant use differ from those of adolescents. Compared with adolescent inhalant users, adult users tend not to initiate inhalant use until adulthood, use inhalants less frequently, use fewer inhalants, and are less likely to engage in criminal activities.

  2. Inhalant Use and Disorders among Adults in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Li-Tzy; Ringwalt, Christopher L.

    2006-01-01

    Objective To examine the patterns of adult inhalant use and correlates of inhalant use disorder. Method We drew study data from the 2002 and 2003 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH). We used logistic regression to identify the characteristics associated both with inhalant use and inhalant use disorder. Results One in ten of all adults had used an inhalant at least once in their lives, and 0.5% used one in the past year. Among all past year inhalant users, 8% met the criteria for an inhalant use disorder (i.e., 6.6% for abuse and 1.1% for dependence) within that period. We found an increased prevalence of past year inhalant use among young adults aged 18–25, Asians, past year alcohol abusers and dependents, lifetime drug users, white women, and men reporting symptoms of serious mental illness. Inhalant-using adults who met the criteria for an inhalant use disorder were predominantly adults aged 35–49 and were less educated, had received recent professional treatment for emotional or psychological problems, used inhalants weekly, and had a coexisting alcohol use disorder. Conclusion The patterns and consequences of adult inhalant use differ from those of adolescents. Compared with adolescent inhalant users, adult users tend not to initiate inhalant use until adulthood, use inhalants less frequently, use fewer inhalants, and are less likely to engage in criminal activities. PMID:16581202

  3. 42 CFR 84.90 - Breathing resistance test; inhalation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Breathing resistance test; inhalation. 84.90...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.90 Breathing resistance test; inhalation. (a) Resistance to inhalation... machine as described in § 84.88. (b) The inhalation resistance of open-circuit apparatus shall not...

  4. 42 CFR 84.90 - Breathing resistance test; inhalation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing resistance test; inhalation. 84.90...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.90 Breathing resistance test; inhalation. (a) Resistance to inhalation... machine as described in § 84.88. (b) The inhalation resistance of open-circuit apparatus shall not...

  5. meson production in Au+Au collisions at in STAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Long; STAR collaboration

    2017-01-01

    In this article, we report the measurements of the nuclear modification factor (R AA) and elliptic flow (v 2) for in Au+Au collisions at from the STAR experiment. These results are compared with the results of other open charm mesons to study the hadronization mechanism of the charm quarks and disentangle the transport properties of quark-gluon plasma and hadronic phase [1]. We found that the nuclear modification factor for D s are systematically higher than unity and D 0 R AA. The ratio of D s /D 0 for 10-40% central Au+Au collisions is also higher than that in p+p collisions as predicted by PYTHIA. The D s /D 0 ratio is also compared to that in Pb+Pb collisions at measured by the ALICE experiment. Our results indicate an enhancement of D s meson production in Au+Au collisions.

  6. Animal model of sensitization by inhalation.

    PubMed Central

    Barboriak, J J; Knoblock, H W; Hensley, G T; Gombas, O F; Fink, J N

    1976-01-01

    Groups of rats exposed to daily inhalation challenge with aerosolized pigeon serum developed precipitating antibody within 2 weeks and definitive granulomatous inflammatory changes in the lung after 7 weeks of exposure. The dissociation of the two responses to an inhalation challenge indicate that the rat model may serve for screening of the various inhalant antigens for their sensitizing potential, and for investigation of the contributory role of some of the factors involved in the pathogenesis of hypersensitivity pneumonitis. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 PMID:939055

  7. PAR for the Course: A Congruent Pedagogical Approach for a PAR Methods Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammond, Joyce D.; Hicks, Maria; Kalman, Rowenn; Miller, Jason

    2005-01-01

    In the past two years, three graduate students and a senior faculty member have co-taught a participatory action research (PAR) course to undergraduate and graduate students. In this article the co-teachers advocate a set of pedagogical principles and practices in a PAR-oriented classroom that establishes congruency with community PAR projects in…

  8. Analyse experimentale des performances d'une batterie au lithium pour l'aeronautique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonnin, Romain

    Ce memoire a pour objectif d'identifier et d'etudier les performances necessaires pour qu'une batterie au lithium puisse etre utilisee dans le secteur de l'aeronautique. C'est pourquoi dans le cadre de notre recherche, nous allons proposer une procedure de tests permettant d'analyser et de determiner si la batterie au lithium peut etre implantee dans un avion. En vue de repondre a l'analyse des performances, une etude des fonctionnalites demandees par l'avion ainsi que des normes preexistantes vont etre effectuees. Suite a cette etape, nous allons elaborer un banc d'essais. Une fois le banc d'essais acheve, nous allons tester une batterie au lithium qui est supposee disposer de toutes les caracteristiques techniques requises pour etre implantee dans un avion. Ces tests nous permettront donc d'emettre un avis sur l'utilisation des batteries au lithium dans le domaine de l'aeronautique.

  9. Facteurs associes au port de charge céphalique chez des enfants au Bénin: étude transversale

    PubMed Central

    Akplogan, Barnabé; Hounmenou, Alain Mahoutin; Aze, Oscar; Alegbeh, Sakibou Essofa; Azondekon, Alain

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Le port de charge céphalique par les enfants est une méthode de manutention courante au Bénin. Peu d’étude sont investigué sur le port de charge céphalique chez les enfants. Méthodes Cette étude transversale vise à faire l’état des lieux et à identifier les facteurs associés au port de charge céphalique chez des enfants au Bénin. Au total,300 enfants âgés de 13,7 ± 2,6 ans ont participé à l’étude dans les 12 départements du Bénin. La méthode non probabiliste et la technique accidentelle ont été utilisées pour déterminer la taille de l’échantillon. La masse portée par les enfants constitue la variable dépendante. L’âge, la taille, les sites corporels des douleurs, l'ancienneté dans le port de charge etla fréquence hebdomadaire du port céphalique de charge constituent les variables indépendantes. Résultats Le rapport de la masse portée sur le poids corporel est évalué en moyenne à 66%. Pendant et après le port de charge, les douleurs ressenties sont localisées essentiellement au cou, au dos et au bas du dos. Le test de corrélation entre charge portée et la taille indique r = 0,58 (p < 0,001). Conclusion Cette étude indique que les enfants surchargent leur rachis lors du port de charge céphalique. PMID:27279962

  10. Par Pond vegetation status Summer 1995 -- Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Mackey, H.E. Jr.; Riley, R.S.

    1996-01-01

    The water level of Par Pond was lowered approximately 20 feet in mid-1991 in order to protect downstream residents from possible dam failure suggested by subsidence on the downstream slope of the dam and to repair the dam. This lowering exposed both emergent and nonemergent macrophyte beds to drying conditions resulting in extensive losses. A survey of the newly emergent, shoreline aquatic plant communities of Par Pond began in June 1995, three months after the refilling of Par Pond to approximately 200 feet above mean sea level. These surveys continued in July, September, and late October, 1995. Communities similar to the pre-drawdown, Par Pond aquatic plant communities are becoming re-established. Emergent beds of maidencane, lotus, waterlily, and watershield are extensive and well developed. Cattail occurrence continued to increase during the summer, but large beds common to Par Pond prior to the drawdown have not formed. Estimates from SPOT HRV, remote sensing satellite data indicated that as much as 120 hectares of emergent wetlands vegetation may have been present along the Par Pond shoreline by early October, 1995. To track the continued development of macrophytes in Par Pond, future surveys throughout 1996 and 1997, along with the continued evaluation of satellite data to map the areal extent of the macrophyte beds of Par Pond, are planned.

  11. Myocardial damage after inhalation of chloramines.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Castro, Alejandro; Holanda, Maria Soledad; Canas, Borja S; Morlote, Jesús G; Minambres, Eduardo; Prieto Solis, José A

    2006-04-01

    The objective of this case report was to document a rare case of myocardial damage, in the context of an accidental inhalation of chloramines, demonstrated by electrocardiogram and myocardium-specific enzymes.

  12. Antibacterial Au nanostructured surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Songmei; Zuber, Flavia; Brugger, Juergen; Maniura-Weber, Katharina; Ren, Qun

    2016-01-01

    We present here a technological platform for engineering Au nanotopographies by templated electrodeposition on antibacterial surfaces. Three different types of nanostructures were fabricated: nanopillars, nanorings and nanonuggets. The nanopillars are the basic structures and are 50 nm in diameter and 100 nm in height. Particular arrangement of the nanopillars in various geometries formed nanorings and nanonuggets. Flat surfaces, rough substrate surfaces, and various nanostructured surfaces were compared for their abilities to attach and kill bacterial cells. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, a Gram-positive bacterial strain responsible for many infections in health care system, was used as the model bacterial strain. It was found that all the Au nanostructures, regardless their shapes, exhibited similar excellent antibacterial properties. A comparison of live cells attached to nanotopographic surfaces showed that the number of live S. aureus cells was <1% of that from flat and rough reference surfaces. Our micro/nanofabrication process is a scalable approach based on cost-efficient self-organization and provides potential for further developing functional surfaces to study the behavior of microbes on nanoscale topographies.We present here a technological platform for engineering Au nanotopographies by templated electrodeposition on antibacterial surfaces. Three different types of nanostructures were fabricated: nanopillars, nanorings and nanonuggets. The nanopillars are the basic structures and are 50 nm in diameter and 100 nm in height. Particular arrangement of the nanopillars in various geometries formed nanorings and nanonuggets. Flat surfaces, rough substrate surfaces, and various nanostructured surfaces were compared for their abilities to attach and kill bacterial cells. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, a Gram-positive bacterial strain responsible for many infections in health care system, was used as the model bacterial strain. It

  13. ARDS following inhalation of hydrochloric acid.

    PubMed

    Bansal, D P; Ambegaonkar, Rahul; Radhika, P; Sharma, Manish

    2011-02-01

    The clinical spectrum of Inhalation injury can range from mild cough to a devastating ARDS. We herewith present a patient who is a goldsmith by occupation and his work consists of dissolving gold in Hydrochloric acid. He had accidentally inhaled fumes of Hydrochloric acid and presented with cough and breathlessness, later on required mechanical ventilation for ARDS and improved. This highlights the importance of not to neglect mild symptoms like cough and dyspnea in such a scenario which may have some hidden catastrophe.

  14. Olfactory deposition of inhaled nanoparticles in humans.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Guilherme J M; Schroeter, Jeffry D; Kimbell, Julia S

    2015-01-01

    Inhaled nanoparticles can migrate to the brain via the olfactory bulb, as demonstrated in experiments in several animal species. This route of exposure may be the mechanism behind the correlation between air pollution and human neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. This article aims to (i) estimate the dose of inhaled nanoparticles that deposit in the human olfactory epithelium during nasal breathing at rest and (ii) compare the olfactory dose in humans with our earlier dose estimates for rats. An anatomically-accurate model of the human nasal cavity was developed based on computed tomography scans. The deposition of 1-100 nm particles in the whole nasal cavity and its olfactory region were estimated via computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations. Our CFD methods were validated by comparing our numerical predictions for whole-nose deposition with experimental data and previous CFD studies in the literature. In humans, olfactory dose of inhaled nanoparticles is highest for 1-2 nm particles with ∼1% of inhaled particles depositing in the olfactory region. As particle size grows to 100 nm, olfactory deposition decreases to 0.01% of inhaled particles. Our results suggest that the percentage of inhaled particles that deposit in the olfactory region is lower in humans than in rats. However, olfactory dose per unit surface area is estimated to be higher in humans in the 1--7 nm size range due to the larger inhalation rate in humans. These dose estimates are important for risk assessment and dose-response studies investigating the neurotoxicity of inhaled nanoparticles.

  15. Le syndrome des loges du bras: une complication inhabituelle de l'intoxication au monoxyde de carbone

    PubMed Central

    Chkoura, Khalid; Kechna, Hicham; Loutid, Jaouad; Ouzad, Omar; Cherradi, Toufiq; Hachimi, Moulay Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Le monoxyde de carbone (CO) surnommé “Silent killer” par les Anglo-Saxons représente la première cause de mortalité par intoxication accidentelle ou volontaire en Europe comme aux États-Unis. Au Maroc, le centre anti poison a collecté entre 1991 et 2008, 12976 cas d'intoxication au monoxyde de carbone dont 98,7% étaient accidentelles. Cette intoxication est très exceptionnellement compliquée d'un syndrome de loge qui peut contribuer à une aggravation certaine du pronostic fonctionnel et vital quand il est ignoré ou dominé par d'autres symptômes en particulier neurologiques. Nous rapportons le cas d'un gardien de nuit qui a présenté un syndrome de loge particulier par sa localisation (bras) au cours d'une intoxication au CO qui a évolué favorablement. PMID:26301009

  16. Assessing inhalation injury in the emergency room

    PubMed Central

    Tanizaki, Shinsuke

    2015-01-01

    Respiratory tract injuries caused by inhalation of smoke or chemical products are related to significant morbidity and mortality. While many strategies have been built up to manage cutaneous burn injuries, few logical diagnostic strategies for patients with inhalation injuries exist and almost all treatment is supportive. The goals of initial management are to ensure that the airway allows adequate oxygenation and ventilation and to avoid ventilator-induced lung injury and substances that may complicate subsequent care. Intubation should be considered if any of the following signs exist: respiratory distress, stridor, hypoventilation, use of accessory respiratory muscles, blistering or edema of the oropharynx, or deep burns to the face or neck. Any patients suspected to have inhalation injuries should receive a high concentration of supplemental oxygen to quickly reverse hypoxia and to displace carbon monoxide from protein binding sites. Management of carbon monoxide and cyanide exposure in smoke inhalation patients remains controversial. Absolute indications for hyperbaric oxygen therapy do not exist because there is a low correlation between carboxyhemoglobin levels and the severity of the clinical state. A cyanide antidote should be administered when cyanide poisoning is clinically suspected. Although an ideal approach for respiratory support of patients with inhalation injuries do not exist, it is important that they are supported using techniques that do not further exacerbate respiratory failure. A well-organized strategy for patients with inhalation injury is critical to reduce morbidity and mortality. PMID:27147888

  17. Surface morphology and optical properties of porphyrin/Au and Au/porphyrin/Au systems

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Porphyrin/Au and Au/porphyrin/Au systems were prepared by vacuum evaporation and vacuum sputtering onto glass substrate. The surface morphology of as-prepared systems and those subjected to annealing at 160°C was studied by optical microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy techniques. Absorption and luminescence spectra of as-prepared and annealed samples were measured. Annealing leads to disintegration of the initially continuous gold layer and formation of gold nanoclusters. An amplification of Soret band magnitude was observed on the Au/meso-tetraphenyl porphyrin (TPP) system in comparison with mere TPP. Additional enhancement of luminescence was observed after the sample annealing. In the case of sandwich Au/porphyrin/Au structure, suppression of one of the two porphyrins’ luminescence maxima and sufficient enhancement of the second one were observed. PMID:24373347

  18. Inhaling to mitigate exhaled bioaerosols

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, David A.; Man, Jonathan C.; Brand, Peter; Katstra, Jeffrey P.; Sommerer, K.; Stone, Howard A.; Nardell, Edward; Scheuch, Gerhard

    2004-01-01

    Humans commonly exhale aerosols comprised of small droplets of airway-lining fluid during normal breathing. These “exhaled bioaerosols” may carry airborne pathogens and thereby magnify the spread of certain infectious diseases, such as influenza, tuberculosis, and severe acute respiratory syndrome. We hypothesize that, by altering lung airway surface properties through an inhaled nontoxic aerosol, we might substantially diminish the number of exhaled bioaerosol droplets and thereby provide a simple means to potentially mitigate the spread of airborne infectious disease independently of the identity of the airborne pathogen or the nature of any specific therapy. We find that some normal human subjects expire many more bioaerosol particles than other individuals during quiet breathing and therefore bear the burden of production of exhaled bioaerosols. Administering nebulized isotonic saline to these “high-producer” individuals diminishes the number of exhaled bioaerosol particles expired by 72.10 ± 8.19% for up to 6 h. In vitro and in vivo experiments with saline and surfactants suggest that the mechanism of action of the nebulized saline relates to modification of the physical properties of the airway-lining fluid, notably surface tension. PMID:15583121

  19. Inhaling to mitigate exhaled bioaerosols.

    PubMed

    Edwards, David A; Man, Jonathan C; Brand, Peter; Katstra, Jeffrey P; Sommerer, K; Stone, Howard A; Nardell, Edward; Scheuch, Gerhard

    2004-12-14

    Humans commonly exhale aerosols comprised of small droplets of airway-lining fluid during normal breathing. These "exhaled bioaerosols" may carry airborne pathogens and thereby magnify the spread of certain infectious diseases, such as influenza, tuberculosis, and severe acute respiratory syndrome. We hypothesize that, by altering lung airway surface properties through an inhaled nontoxic aerosol, we might substantially diminish the number of exhaled bioaerosol droplets and thereby provide a simple means to potentially mitigate the spread of airborne infectious disease independently of the identity of the airborne pathogen or the nature of any specific therapy. We find that some normal human subjects expire many more bioaerosol particles than other individuals during quiet breathing and therefore bear the burden of production of exhaled bioaerosols. Administering nebulized isotonic saline to these "high-producer" individuals diminishes the number of exhaled bioaerosol particles expired by 72.10 +/- 8.19% for up to 6 h. In vitro and in vivo experiments with saline and surfactants suggest that the mechanism of action of the nebulized saline relates to modification of the physical properties of the airway-lining fluid, notably surface tension.

  20. Intestinal circulation during inhalation anesthesia

    SciTech Connect

    Tverskoy, M.; Gelman, S.; Fowler, K.C.; Bradley, E.L.

    1985-04-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the influence of inhalational agents on the intestinal circulation in an isolated loop preparation. Sixty dogs were studied, using three intestinal segments from each dog. Selected intestinal segments were pumped with aortic blood at a constant pressure of 100 mmHg. A mixture of /sub 86/Rb and 9-microns spheres labeled with /sup 141/Ce was injected into the arterial cannula supplying the intestinal loop, while mesenteric venous blood was collected for activity counting. A very strong and significant correlation was found between rubidium clearance and microsphere entrapment (r = 0.97, P less than 0.0001). Nitrous oxide anesthesia was accompanied by a higher vascular resistance (VR), lower flow (F), rubidium clearance (Cl-Rb), and microspheres entrapment (Cl-Sph) than pentobarbital anesthesia, indicating that the vascular bed in the intestinal segment was constricted and flow (total and nutritive) decreased. Halothane, enflurane, and isoflurane anesthesia were accompanied by a much lower arteriovenous oxygen content difference (AVDO/sub 2/) and oxygen uptake than pentobarbital or nitrous oxide. Compared with pentobarbital, enflurane anesthesia was not accompanied by marked differences in VR, F, Cl-Rb, and Cl-Sph; halothane at 2 MAC decreased VR and increased F and Cl-Rb while isoflurane increased VR and decreased F. alpha-Adrenoceptor blockade with phentolamine (1 mg . kg-1) abolished isoflurane-induced vasoconstriction, suggesting that the increase in VR was mediated via circulating catecholamines.

  1. Rupture de la rate au cours de l'accouchement: à propos d'un cas

    PubMed Central

    Elbahraoui, Houda; Bouziane, Hanane; Akrouch, Jamila; Lakhdar, Amina; Ferhati, Driss

    2011-01-01

    La rupture de rate est une extrême urgence chirurgicale abdominale qui met très rapidement en jeu le pronostic vital. Les étiologies fréquemment retrouvées sont les traumatismes abdominaux par contusions ou plaies pénétrantes. La survenue d'une rupture de rate au cours de l'accouchement est un événement rare. Nous rapportons dans cette observation le cas d'une rupture splénique suite à des expressions abdominales survenue au cours d'un accouchement dystocique. PMID:22355431

  2. Photoelectrochemical studies of DNA-tagged biomolecules on Au and Au/Ni/Au multilayer nanowires

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The use of nanowires (NWs) for labeling, sensing, and sorting is the basis of detecting biomolecules attached on NWs by optical and magnetic properties. In spite of many advantages, the use of biomolecules-attached NWs sensing by photoelectrochemical (PEC) study is almost non-existent. In this article, the PEC study of dye-attached single-stranded DNA on Au NWs and Au-Ni-Au multilayer NWs prepared by pulse electrodeposition are investigated. Owing to quantum-quenching effect, the multilayer Au NWs exhibit low optical absorbance when compared with Au NWs. The tagged Au NWs show good fluorescence (emission) at 570 nm, indicating significant improvement in the reflectivity. Optimum results obtained for tagged Au NWs attached on functionalized carbon electrodes and its PEC behavior is also presented. A twofold enhancement in photocurrent is observed with an average dark current of 10 μA for Au NWs coated on functionalized sensing electrode. The importance of these PEC and optical studies provides an inexpensive and facile processing platform for Au NWs that may be suitable for biolabeling applications. PMID:21961940

  3. [Inhalation therapy by dose-inhalers: analysis of patients performance and possibilities for improvement].

    PubMed

    Petro, W; Schuppenies, A

    2005-05-01

    Inhalation therapy in chronic obstructive airways disease requires an efficient inhalation technique. This study analyses step by step the mistakes made in the usage of different MDIs, relates these to patient information prior to the testing and examines several teaching procedures for improvement of knowledge and performance of the inhalation technique. 125 patients suffering from COPD were assigned to six different groups according to their background knowledge in the inhalation technique. The performance was assessed in standardized single steps and as overall performance. Furthermore the efficacy of an interactive pc-based-training program was evaluated. The worst performance was seen in patients who only used the suppliers medication leaflet as a guide. Patients trained in outpatient clinics as well as patients trained in small groups during an inpatient stay showed a better performance. A high improvement rate was seen in prior MDI naive patients after they had undergone the interactive pc-based training program. Most problems were detected in the application step "exhalation before inhalation" and in the actuation-inhalation step. Besides the classical and the pc-based training the use of MDI phantoms showed very good results. The practical conclusion of this study is that the ability of patients to use inhalation pharmacotherapy efficiently needs improvement. Training programs of different intensity lead to a different outcome in performance and knowledge depending on prior knowledge. Inhalation pharmacotherapy without adequate training is insufficient.

  4. Automatic identification and accurate temporal detection of inhalations in asthma inhaler recordings.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Martin S; Le Menn, Marine; D'Arcy, Shona; Rapcan, Viliam; MacHale, Elaine; Costello, Richard W; Reilly, Richard B

    2012-01-01

    Asthma is chronic airways disease characterized by recurrent attacks of breathlessness and wheezing. Adherence to medication regimes is a common failing for asthmatic patients and there exists a requirement to monitor such patients' adherence. The detection of inhalations from recordings of inhaler use can provide empirical evidence about patients' adherence to their asthma medication regime. Manually listening to recordings of inhaler use is a tedious and time consuming process and thus an algorithm which can automatically and accurately carry out this task would be of great value. This study employs a recording device attached to a commonly used dry powder inhaler to record the acoustic signals of patients taking their prescribed medication. An algorithm was developed to automatically detect and accurately demarcate inhalations from the acoustic signals. This algorithm was tested on a dataset of 255 separate recordings of inhaler use in real world environments. The dataset was obtained from 12 asthma outpatients who attended a respiratory clinic over a three month period. Evaluation of the algorithm on this dataset achieved sensitivity of 95%, specificity of 94% and an accuracy of 89% in detecting inhalations compared to manual inhalation detection.

  5. Inhalant Initiation and the Relationship of Inhalant Use to the Use of Other Substances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shamblen, Stephen R.; Miller, Ted

    2012-01-01

    Conventional wisdom suggests that inhalant use is primarily isolated to youthful experimentation; however, a growing body of evidence suggests that inhalant use (a) occurs after use of common substances of experimentation (e.g., alcohol, marijuana), (b) can persist into later life, and (c) is associated with severe consequences. The current study…

  6. Inhalant Initiation and the Relationship of Inhalant Use to the Use of Other Substances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shamblen, Stephen R.; Miller, Ted

    2012-01-01

    Conventional wisdom suggests that inhalant use is primarily isolated to youthful experimentation; however, a growing body of evidence suggests that inhalant use (a) occurs after use of common substances of experimentation (e.g., alcohol, marijuana), (b) can persist into later life, and (c) is associated with severe consequences. The current study…

  7. Checklists for the Assessment of Correct Inhalation Therapy.

    PubMed

    Knipel, V; Schwarz, S; Magnet, F S; Storre, J H; Criée, C P; Windisch, W

    2017-02-01

    Introduction For the long-term treatment of obstructive lung diseases inhalation therapy with drugs being delivered directly to the lungs as an aerosol has become the method of choice. However, patient-related mistakes in inhalation techniques are frequent and recognized to be associated with reduced disease control. Since the assessment of patient-mistakes in inhalation has yet not been standardized, the present study was aimed at developing checklists for the assessment of correct inhalation. Methods Checklists were developed in German by an expert panel of pneumologists and professionally translated into English following back-translation procedures. The checklists comparably assessed three major steps of inhalation: 1) inhalation preparation, 2) inhalation routine, and 3) closure of inhalation. Results Checklists for eight frequently used inhalers were developed: Aerolizer, Breezhaler, Diskus (Accuhaler), metered-dose inhaler, Handihaler, Novolizer, Respimat, Turbohaler. Each checklist consists of ten items: three for inhalation preparation, six for inhalation routine, and one for closure of inhalation. Discussion Standardized checklists for frequently used inhalers are available in German and English. These checklists can be used for clinical routines or for clinical trials. All checklists can be downloaded free of charge for non-profit application from the homepage of the German Airway League (Deutsche Atemwegsliga e. V.): www.atemwegsliga.de.

  8. Effect of Disease Severity in Asthma and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease on Inhaler-Specific Inhalation Profiles Through the ELLIPTA® Dry Powder Inhaler.

    PubMed

    Prime, David; de Backer, Wilfried; Hamilton, Melanie; Cahn, Anthony; Preece, Andrew; Kelleher, Dennis; Baines, Amanda; Moore, Alison; Brealey, Noushin; Moynihan, Jackie

    2015-12-01

    Two studies were undertaken to characterize the maximal effort inhalation profiles of healthy subjects and patients with asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) through a moderate-resistance dry powder inhaler (DPI). Correlations between inhaler-specific inhalation characteristics and inhaler-independent lung function parameters were investigated. Healthy subjects (n = 15), patients with mild, moderate, or severe asthma (n = 45), and patients with mild, moderate, severe, or very-severe COPD (n = 60) were included in the studies. Inhalation pressure drop versus time profiles were recorded using an instrumented ELLIPTA® DPI or bespoke resistor component with equivalent resistivity. Inhaler-independent lung function assessments included pharyngometry, spirometry, plethysmography, and diffusion. For the inhaler-specific inhalation profiles, the mean maximal effort peak inspiratory flow rates (PIFRs) varied across the subgroups from 65.8-110.6 L/min (range: 41.6-142.9). Peak pressure drop, PIFR, inhaled volume, and average inhalation flow rate (primary endpoints) did not differ markedly between healthy subjects and patients with asthma or mild COPD. Moderate, severe, and very-severe COPD patients demonstrated lower mean peak pressure drops, PIFRs and inhaled volumes, which tended to decrease with increasing COPD severity. Severe and very-severe COPD patients demonstrated shorter mean inhalation times compared with all other participants. Inhaler-independent lung function parameters were consistent with disease severity, and statistically significant (p < 0.05) strong correlations (R > 0.7) with components of the inhaler-specific inhalation profiles were observed in the COPD cohort; correlations in the asthma cohort tended to be weaker. All participants achieved a maximal effort PIFR ≥ 41.6 L/min through the moderate resistance of the ELLIPTA inhaler. Patients with asthma achieved similar inhalation profiles to healthy subjects

  9. Effect of Disease Severity in Asthma and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease on Inhaler-Specific Inhalation Profiles Through the ELLIPTA® Dry Powder Inhaler

    PubMed Central

    de Backer, Wilfried; Hamilton, Melanie; Cahn, Anthony; Preece, Andrew; Kelleher, Dennis; Baines, Amanda; Moore, Alison; Brealey, Noushin; Moynihan, Jackie

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Two studies were undertaken to characterize the maximal effort inhalation profiles of healthy subjects and patients with asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) through a moderate-resistance dry powder inhaler (DPI). Correlations between inhaler-specific inhalation characteristics and inhaler-independent lung function parameters were investigated. Methods: Healthy subjects (n = 15), patients with mild, moderate, or severe asthma (n = 45), and patients with mild, moderate, severe, or very-severe COPD (n = 60) were included in the studies. Inhalation pressure drop versus time profiles were recorded using an instrumented ELLIPTA® DPI or bespoke resistor component with equivalent resistivity. Inhaler-independent lung function assessments included pharyngometry, spirometry, plethysmography, and diffusion. Results: For the inhaler-specific inhalation profiles, the mean maximal effort peak inspiratory flow rates (PIFRs) varied across the subgroups from 65.8–110.6 L/min (range: 41.6–142.9). Peak pressure drop, PIFR, inhaled volume, and average inhalation flow rate (primary endpoints) did not differ markedly between healthy subjects and patients with asthma or mild COPD. Moderate, severe, and very-severe COPD patients demonstrated lower mean peak pressure drops, PIFRs and inhaled volumes, which tended to decrease with increasing COPD severity. Severe and very-severe COPD patients demonstrated shorter mean inhalation times compared with all other participants. Inhaler-independent lung function parameters were consistent with disease severity, and statistically significant (p < 0.05) strong correlations (R > 0.7) with components of the inhaler-specific inhalation profiles were observed in the COPD cohort; correlations in the asthma cohort tended to be weaker. Conclusions: All participants achieved a maximal effort PIFR ≥ 41.6 L/min through the moderate resistance of the ELLIPTA inhaler. Patients with asthma

  10. Inhalation devices, delivery systems, and patient technique.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Harold S

    2016-12-01

    In real-life clinical settings, physicians often consider the properties of various inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs), but typically little consideration is given to the properties of different inhalers and formulations. To discuss the effects of inhalation devices and user technique on efficacy, safety, and adherence with the aim of improving asthma management. Relevant publications were selected to augment discussion. There are many types of devices available, each with advantages, disadvantages, ease of use, and rate of misuse. Aerosol particle size influences the deposition pattern of a drug in the lungs, and the optimal particle size range is 1 to 5 μm. Retrospective reviews suggest that smaller particles (1-2 μm) could provide improved asthma control, but randomized, prospective studies are needed. Multiple studies have demonstrated high misuse rates in patients for pressurized metered-dose inhalers and dry powder inhalers. Because of this, repeated education should include physical demonstrations of using the device, checking the patient's technique, correcting the technique, and rechecking the technique. This also means that dedicated, trained staff and placebo devices should be available for instructing patients. Furthermore, the device should be selected to be cost effective and to fit the patient's preference and ability to use it correctly to enhance compliance. Asthma management guidelines and algorithms are available to guide the clinician. The choice of inhaler device should depend on cost effectiveness and the patient's preference and ability to use it correctly. Patient inhaler technique should be checked and, if necessary, corrected and rechecked, with retraining if needed, at every opportunity. Copyright © 2016 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Olfactory deposition of inhaled nanoparticles in humans

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Guilherme J. M.; Schroeter, Jeffry D.; Kimbell, Julia S.

    2016-01-01

    Context Inhaled nanoparticles can migrate to the brain via the olfactory bulb, as demonstrated in experiments in several animal species. This route of exposure may be the mechanism behind the correlation between air pollution and human neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease. Objectives This manuscript aims to (1) estimate the dose of inhaled nanoparticles that deposit in the human olfactory epithelium during nasal breathing at rest and (2) compare the olfactory dose in humans with our earlier dose estimates for rats. Materials and methods An anatomically-accurate model of the human nasal cavity was developed based on computed tomography scans. The deposition of 1–100 nm particles in the whole nasal cavity and its olfactory region were estimated via computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations. Our CFD methods were validated by comparing our numerical predictions for whole-nose deposition with experimental data and previous CFD studies in the literature. Results In humans, olfactory dose of inhaled nanoparticles is highest for 1–2 nm particles with approximately 1% of inhaled particles depositing in the olfactory region. As particle size grows to 100 nm, olfactory deposition decreases to 0.01% of inhaled particles. Discussion and conclusion Our results suggest that the percentage of inhaled particles that deposit in the olfactory region is lower in humans than in rats. However, olfactory dose per unit surface area is estimated to be higher in humans due to their larger minute volume. These dose estimates are important for risk assessment and dose-response studies investigating the neurotoxicity of inhaled nanoparticles. PMID:26194036

  12. Extracellular killing of inhaled pneumococci in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Coonrod, J.D.; Marple, S.; Holmes, G.P.; Rehm, S.R.

    1987-12-01

    Early clearance of inhaled Staphylococcus aureus is believed to be caused by phagocytosis by alveolar macrophages. In murine models inhaled pneumococci are cleared even more rapidly than S. aureus. Conventional opsonins appear to play no role in this clearance, and recently it has been shown that murine alveolar lining material contains free fatty acids and other soluble factors that are directly bactericidal for pneumococci. To determine whether non-phagocytic factors are involved in pneumococcal clearance, we compared the site of killing of inhaled pneumococci and S. aureus in rats using histologic methods and bronchoalveolar lavage. Spontaneous lysis of pneumococci was prevented by use of autolysin-defective pneumococci or by substitution of ethanolamine for choline in the cell wall. Histologic studies showed that the percent of inhaled staphylococci associated with alveolar macrophages always exceeded the percent of staphylococci cleared, whereas there was little association of pneumococci with macrophages during clearance. Analysis of the intracellular or extracellular location of iron 59 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of rats that had inhaled aerosols of /sup 59/Fe-labeled bacteria suggested that staphylococci were killed predominantly in macrophages and pneumococci in the extracellular space. When /sup 59/Fe-labeled pneumococci or staphylococci were ingested and killed by macrophages in vitro, the /sup 59/Fe remained with the macrophages, suggesting that the extracellular location of /sup 59/Fe during pneumococcal killing in vivo was not caused by rapid turnover of /sup 59/Fe in macrophages. Studies of the site of killing of inhaled type 25 pneumococci labeled exclusively in the cell wall with carbon 14-ethanolamine confirmed the results obtained with /sup 59/Fe-labeled pneumococci. Thus, early killing of inhaled pneumococci, unlike staphylococci, appears to take place outside of macrophages.

  13. Intense fluorescence of Au20

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Chongqi; Harbich, Wolfgang; Sementa, Luca; Ghiringhelli, Luca; Aprá, Edoardo; Stener, Mauro; Fortunelli, Alessandro; Brune, Harald

    2017-08-01

    Ligand-protected Au clusters are non-bleaching fluorescence markers in bio- and medical applications. Here we show that their fluorescence can be an intrinsic property of the Au cluster itself. We find a very intense and sharp fluorescence peak located at λ =739.2 nm (1.68 eV) for Au20 clusters in a Ne matrix held at 6 K. The fluorescence reflects the Highest Occupied Molecular Orbital-Lowest Unoccupied Molecular Orbital (HOMO-LUMO) diabatic bandgap of the cluster. Au20 shows a very rich absorption fine structure reminiscent of well defined molecule-like quantum levels. These levels are resolved since Au20 has only one stable isomer (tetrahedral); therefore our sample is mono-disperse in cluster size and conformation. Density-functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT calculations clarify the nature of optical absorption and predict both main absorption peaks and intrinsic fluorescence in fair agreement with experiment.

  14. Magnetoresistance of Au films

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, D. L. Song, X. H.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, X.-G.

    2014-12-14

    Classical magnetoresistance (MR) in nonmagnetic metals are conventionally understood in terms of the Kohler rule, with violation usually viewed as anomalous electron transport, in particular, as evidence of non-Fermi liquid behavior. Measurement of the MR of Au films as a function of temperature and film thickness reveals a strong dependence on grain size distribution and clear violation of the Kohler rule. Using a model of random resistor network, we show that this result can be explained if the MR arises entirely from inhomogeneity due to grain boundary scattering and thermal activation of grain boundary atoms. Consequently, the Kohler rule should not be used to distinguish normal and anomalous electron transport in solids.

  15. Gliome du nerf optique révélé par un strabisme divergent

    PubMed Central

    Handor, Hanan; Laghmari, Mina; Hafidi, Zouheir; Daoudi, Rajae

    2014-01-01

    Les gliomes des nerfs optiques sont des tumeurs rares qui s'observent essentiellement chez l'enfant. L'exophtalmie et le strabisme sont les principaux signes révélateurs de la maladie. La neuroimagerie et notamment l'imagerie par résonnance magnétique est d'un grand apport dans le diagnostic et le suivi de ces tumeurs. La prise en charge thérapeutique de ces gliomes fait appel à différents moyens: l'exérèse chirurgicale, la chimiothérapie, la radiothérapie ou l'abstention sous surveillance. Les indications doivent être discutées au cas par cas. PMID:25309656

  16. [Health significance of inhaled particles].

    PubMed

    Gillissen, A; Gessner, C; Hammerschmidt, S; Hoheisel, G; Wirtz, H

    2006-03-24

    Particulates refer to particles, dust, dirt, soot and aerosol mists that has suspended in the surrounding air. They may consist of solids of various forms including fibres or liquids. Long term exposure to silicon dioxide containing dusts (crystalline silica: quartz, tridymite, cristobalite, coesite, stishovite) may cause pneumoconiosis in the form of acute or/either chronic silicosis. Asbestos refers to a divers family of crystalline hydrated fibrous siliates typically exhibiting a greater tha 3:1 length ot diameter ratio. It is subdivided into serpentine (Chrysotile) and amphibole (crocidolite, amosite, anthophyllite, tremolite, actinolite). Exposure to asbestos fibres may cause lung fibrosis and promote cancer of the lung or the pleura. Besides the induction of malignant diseases dust exposure may result in obstructive as well as restrictive lung diseases which may be compensate in case of the recognition as a occupational diseases. Other occupational exposures leading to pneumoconiosis are caused be talc, or metals including aluminium containing dusts. Also the group of man-made mineral (MMMFs) or vitreous fibres (MMVFs), including glass wool, rock wool, slag wool, glass filaments, microfibres, refractory ceramic fibres are bioactive under certain experimental conditions. Although it has been shown that MMMFs may cause malignancies when injected intraperitoneally in high quantities in rodents, inhalation trials and human studies could not reproduce these results in the same precision. Fine particles (particulate matter = PM) comprise one of the most widespread and harmful air pollutants in the industrialized world. PM may cause worsening of asthma and other respiratory diseases, reduce lung function development in children, potentially increased the risk of premature death in the elderly and enhance mortality from cardiac diseases. Because of the small size PM2.5 is seen to be even more hazardous than PM10.

  17. Recent advances in inhalation anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Steffey, Eugene P

    2002-04-01

    Both desflurane and sevoflurane offer theoretical and practical advantages over other inhalation anesthetics for horses. The lower solubility of both agents provides improved control of delivery and helps to counteract the confounding influence of the voluminous patient breathing circuit commonly used for anesthetizing horses. The lower solubility should account for faster rates of recovery compared with the older agents; whether or not the quality of recovery differs remains to be objectively evaluated in a broad range of circumstances. The pharmacodynamic effects are, in large part, similar to those of isoflurane (e.g., low arrhythmogenicity) but with some differences. For example, desflurane may be overall more sparing to cardiovascular function (especially during controlled ventilation) compared with isoflurane and sevoflurane, which are roughly similar. Respiratory depression with both new agents is equal to or more depressing than isoflurane, suggesting the use of mechanical ventilation, especially in circumstances of prolonged management (i.e., hours of anesthesia). Both new anesthetics, not surprisingly, are expensive. From this point there are some agent-unique considerations. The anesthetic potency of both agents is less than that of isoflurane, which influences the cost of anesthesia, but also places an upper limit on inspired oxygen concentration (of particular concern with desflurane). Both agents require new vaporizers, but because of the high boiling point and steep vapor-pressure curve of desflurane, new technology was required. This translates into more costly equipment, adding to the cost of desflurane use. In addition, electricity is necessary for the new desflurane vaporizer to function, which limits its portability and adds additional practical considerations in its clinical use. On the other hand, desflurane strongly resists degradation both in vitro and in vivo, but in vitro degradation of sevoflurane by CO2 absorbents may produce renal

  18. On the electron affinity of Au3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    The EA of Au3 is estimated to be 3.93 eV. The calculations also show that the feature in the photodetachment spectrum at about 2 eV electron binding energy is due to a two-photon process involving fragmentation of Au3(-) to Au and Au2(-) and subsequent photodetachment of Au2(-). Au3 is found to have a 2B2 ground state that is only slightly distorted from an equilateral triangle.

  19. Effect of terbutaline on mucociliary clearance in asthmatic and healthy subjects after inhalation from a pressurised inhaler and a dry powder inhaler.

    PubMed Central

    Mortensen, J; Groth, S; Lange, P; Hermansen, F

    1991-01-01

    BACKGROUND: beta Agonists have been shown to increase mucociliary clearance in some studies but not all. Whether the formulation of beta agonists affects mucociliary clearance is not known but may be important as the use of dry powder inhalers increases. METHODS: The effect of different methods of administration of inhaled terbutaline on mucociliary clearance and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) was assessed in 10 patients with asthma and 10 healthy subjects. Terbutaline (1 mg) was administered through a metered dose inhaler with a spacer (Nebuhaler) or a dry powder inhaler (Turbuhaler), or both treatments were given, in a four way double blind, double dummy trial. Mucociliary clearance was measured by bronchoscintigraphy. RESULTS: Clearance of radioactivity from the lobar bronchi increased in the asthmatic patients by a median of 32% after terbutaline was given by metered dose inhaler and 55% after a combined dose of 2 mg from both inhalers (1 mg from each) compared with placebo but by only 9% after 1 mg of terbutaline was given by a dry powder inhaler. In the healthy subjects mucociliary clearance increased by 51% when terbutaline was given by a dry powder inhaler, by 66% when given by a metered dose inhaler, and by 66% when given by both inhalers combined. The effect of terbutaline on FEV1 was the same with each of the inhalers. CONCLUSION: Despite similar changes in FEV1 with the two formulations terbutaline increased mucociliary clearance significantly in asthmatic and healthy subjects when inhaled from a metered dose inhaler whereas when it was inhaled from a dry powder inhaler its effect was significant only in healthy subjects. The reason for the difference in asthmatic subjects is unclear, but may be associated with differences in the deposition of terbutaline. Images PMID:1771605

  20. Facteurs de risque de mortalité par tuberculose pulmonaire

    PubMed Central

    Janah, Hicham; Souhi, Hicham; Kouismi, Hatim; Mark, Karima; Zahraoui, Rachida; Benamor, Jouda; Soualhi, Mona; Bourkadi, Jamal Eddine

    2014-01-01

    La tuberculose est une maladie infectieuse transmissible provoquée par myco-bacterium tuberculosis (bacille de Koch ou BK). Elle représente, selon les estimations del'Organisation Mondiale de la Santé (OMS), l'une des pathologies infectieuses causant le plus de décès au niveau mondial avec plus de 1 million de décès par an. Pour déterminer les facteurs de risque de mortalité au cours de la tuberculose pulmonaire à microscopie positive nous avons mené une étude rétrospective portant sur tous les cas de tuberculose pulmonaire à microscopie positive et qui étaient décédés au cours de leur hospitalisation. Cette étude a colligé 1803 cas de tuberculose sur une période de 2 ans et demi dont 46 sont décédés. La prévalence de décès est de 2,55%. La population se répartit en 32 hommes et 14 femmes. L’âge moyen était de 53ans ± 17 ans. Le tabagisme était retrouvé chez la moitié des cas. Une comorbidité était retrouvée dans 43%, avec 17% de diabète. Le délai de diagnostic avait une médiane de 60 jours avec percentile (30j; 105j). La symptomatologie clinique était dominée par la toux, la dyspnée et les expectorations soit respectivement: 97,8%, 69,6% et 67,4% des cas. Sur le plan radiologique les lésions étaient diffuses et bilatérales dans 76,1% des cas. Tous les patients étaient mis sous SRHZ. 11% avaient présenté une toxicité aux antibacillaires (de type hépatiques dans 3 cas et neurologiques dans 2 cas). Le délai médian de décès était de 8,5 jours (5j; 17j). Les causes de décès retrouvées étaient: Une hépatite fulminante (3 cas), une décompensation acido-cétosique (3 cas), un SDRA (2 cas), des hémoptysies foudroyantes (2 cas), et respectivement un cas secondaire à une décompensation de BPCO, une décompensation cardiaque, une hypoglycémie et un tableau d'anasarque. Cette étude suggère que le terrain, le retard diagnostique et les effets secondaires du traitement sont les principaux facteurs de risque de

  1. Comparative cactus architecture and par interception

    SciTech Connect

    Geller, G.N.; Nobel, P.S. )

    1987-07-01

    Because CO{sup 2} uptake by cacti can be limited by low levels of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and because plant form affects PAR interception, various cactus forms were studied using a computer model, field measurements, and laboratory phototropic studies. Model predictions indicated that CO{sub 2} uptake by individual stems at an equinox was greatest when the stem were vertical, but at the summer and the winter solstice CO{sub 2} uptake was greatest for stems titled 30{degree} away from the equator. Stem tilting depended on form and taxonomic group. Not only can the shape of cacti be affected by PAR, but also shape influences PAR interception and hence CO{sub 2} uptake.

  2. IRIS Toxicological Review of Formaldehyde (Inhalation) ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    UPDATE EPA is currently revising its Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) assessment of formaldehyde to address the 2011 NAS peer review recommendations. This assessment addresses both noncancer and cancer human health effects that are relevant to assessing the risks from chronic inhalation exposure to formaldehyde. To facilitate discussion of several scientific issues pertinent to the assessment, EPA convened a state-of-the-science workshop on April 30 and May 1, 2014. This workshop focused on the following three themes: Evidence pertaining to the influence of formaldehyde that is produced endogenously (by the body during normal biological processes) on the toxicity of inhaled formaldehyde, and implications for the health assessment; Mechanistic evidence relevant to formaldehyde inhalation exposure and lymphohematopoietic cancers (leukemia and lymphomas); and Epidemiological research examining the potential association between formaldehyde exposure and lymphohematopoietic cancers (leukemia and lymphomas). June 2010: EPA is conducting an independent expert peer review by the National Academy of Sciences and public comment of the scientific basis supporting the human health hazard and dose-response assessment of Formaldehyde-Inhalation that when finalized will appear on the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) database. This draft IRIS health assessment addresses both noncancer and cancer human health effects that may result from chronic inhal

  3. Treatment for inhalant dependence and abuse.

    PubMed

    Konghom, Suwapat; Verachai, Viroj; Srisurapanont, Manit; Suwanmajo, Somporn; Ranuwattananon, Apichart; Kimsongneun, Nipa; Uttawichai, Kanok

    2010-12-08

    Inhalants are being abused by large numbers of people throughout the world, particularly socio-economically disadvantaged children and adolescents. The neuropsychological effects of acute and chronic inhalant abuse include motor impairment, alterations in spontaneous motor activity, anticonvulsant effects, anxiolytic effects, sensory effects, and effects and learning, memory and operant behaviour (e.g., response rates and discriminative stimulus effects). To search and determine risks, benefits and costs of a variety treatments for inhalant dependence or abuse. We searched MEDLINE (1966 - February 2010), EMBASE (Januray 2010) and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (February 2010). We also searched for ongoing clinical trials and unpublished studies via Internet searches. Randomised-controlled trials and controlled clinical trails (CCTs) comparing any intervention in people with inhalant dependence or abuse. Two reviewers independently selected studies for inclusion, assessed trial quality and extracted data. No studies fulfilling the inclusion criteria have been retrieved. due to the lack of studies meeting the inclusion criteria, no conclusion can be drawn for clinical practice. as a common substance abuse with serious health consequences, treatment of inhalant dependence and abuse should be a priority area of substance abuse research.

  4. Adolescent inhalant use and executive cognitive functioning.

    PubMed

    Scott, K D; Scott, A A

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the association between inhalant use and executive cognitive functioning (ECF) and processing speed (PS) in 754 adjudicated poly-substance users on a series of neuropsychological tests. Poly-substance users who used inhalants (PSI = 262) and poly-substance users who did not use inhalants (PSO = 492) neuropsychological tests scores were compared. Hispanic Americans comprised 72% of the participants; European Americans, African Americans and Asian Americans comprised 28% of the participants. Standardized neuropsychological tests were used to assess ECF and PS. Psychosocial and substance abuse standardized surveys were used to assess drug use severity and psychosocial problems associated with substance use. Multiple Analysis of Covariance shows that PSI users who used inhalants performed worse on ECF and PS measures in comparison to non-inhalant poly-substance users (PSO). PSI users were younger, used more drugs and had more psychiatric admissions than PSO users. PSI users initiate substances at a younger age and experienced more ECF and PS deficits, and behavioural problems in comparison to PSO users. The results of this study suggest that PS has direct effect on ECF and psychosocial outcomes in PSI users. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Deposition and biokinetics of inhaled nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Particle biokinetics is important in hazard identification and characterization of inhaled particles. Such studies intend to convert external to internal exposure or biologically effective dose, and may help to set limits in that way. Here we focus on the biokinetics of inhaled nanometer sized particles in comparison to micrometer sized ones. The presented approach ranges from inhaled particle deposition probability and retention in the respiratory tract to biokinetics and clearance of particles out of the respiratory tract. Particle transport into the blood circulation (translocation), towards secondary target organs and tissues (accumulation), and out of the body (clearance) is considered. The macroscopically assessed amount of particles in the respiratory tract and secondary target organs provides dose estimates for toxicological studies on the level of the whole organism. Complementary, microscopic analyses at the individual particle level provide detailed information about which cells and subcellular components are the target of inhaled particles. These studies contribute to shed light on mechanisms and modes of action eventually leading to adverse health effects by inhaled nanoparticles. We review current methods for macroscopic and microscopic analyses of particle deposition, retention and clearance. Existing macroscopic knowledge on particle biokinetics and microscopic views on particle organ interactions are discussed comparing nanometer and micrometer sized particles. We emphasize the importance for quantitative analyses and the use of particle doses derived from real world exposures. PMID:20205860

  6. Inhaled linalool-induced sedation in mice.

    PubMed

    Linck, Viviane Moura; da Silva, Adriana Lourenço; Figueiró, Micheli; Piato, Angelo Luis; Herrmann, Ana Paula; Dupont Birck, Franciele; Caramão, Elina Bastos; Nunes, Domingos Sávio; Moreno, Paulo Roberto H; Elisabetsky, Elaine

    2009-04-01

    Linalool is a monoterpene often found as a major component of essential oils obtained from aromatic plant species, many of which are used in traditional medical systems as hypno-sedatives. Psychopharmacological evaluations of linalool (i.p. and i.c.v.) revealed marked sedative and anticonvulsant central effects in various mouse models. Considering this profile and alleged effects of inhaled lavender essential oil, the purpose of this study was to examine the sedative effects of inhaled linalool in mice. Mice were placed in an inhalation chamber during 60 min, in an atmosphere saturated with 1% or 3% linalool. Immediately after inhalation, animals were evaluated regarding locomotion, barbiturate-induced sleeping time, body temperature and motor coordination (rota-rod test). The 1% and 3% linalool increased (p<0.01) pentobarbital sleeping time and reduced (p<0.01) body temperature. The 3% linalool decreased (p<0.01) locomotion. Motor coordination was not affected. Hence, linalool inhaled for 1h seems to induce sedation without significant impairment in motor abilities, a side effect shared by most psycholeptic drugs.

  7. Antitubercular inhaled therapy: opportunities, progress and challenges.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Rajesh; Khuller, G K

    2005-04-01

    Pulmonary tuberculosis remains the commonest form of this disease and the development of methods for delivering antitubercular drugs directly to the lungs via the respiratory route is a rational therapeutic goal. The obvious advantages of inhaled therapy include direct drug delivery to the diseased organ, targeting to alveolar macrophages harbouring the mycobacteria, reduced risk of systemic toxicity and improved patient compliance. Research efforts have demonstrated the feasibility of various drug delivery systems employing liposomes, polymeric microparticles and nanoparticles to serve as inhalable antitubercular drug carriers. In particular, nanoparticles have emerged as a remarkably useful tool for this purpose. While some researchers have preferred dry powder inhalers, others have emphasized nebulization. Beginning with the respiratory delivery of a single antitubercular drug, it is now possible to deliver multiple drugs simultaneously with a greater therapeutic efficacy. More experience and expertise have been observed with synthetic polymers, nevertheless, the possibility of using natural polymers for inhaled therapy has yet to be explored. Several key issues such as patient education, cost of treatment, stability and large scale production of drug formulations, etc. need to be addressed before antitubercular inhaled therapy finds its way from theory to clinical reality.

  8. Determination of relative sensitivity factors during secondary ion sputtering of silicate glasses by Au+, Au2+ and Au3+ ions.

    PubMed

    King, Ashley; Henkel, Torsten; Rost, Detlef; Lyon, Ian C

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, Au-cluster ions have been successfully used for organic analysis in secondary ion mass spectrometry. Cluster ions, such as Au(2)(+) and Au(3)(+), can produce secondary ion yield enhancements of up to a factor of 300 for high mass organic molecules with minimal sample damage. In this study, the potential for using Au(+), Au(2)(+) and Au(3)(+) primary ions for the analysis of inorganic samples is investigated by analyzing a range of silicate glass standards. Practical secondary ion yields for both Au(2)(+) and Au(3)(+) ions are enhanced relative to those for Au(+), consistent with their increased sputter rates. No elevation in ionization efficiency was found for the cluster primary ions. Relative sensitivity factors for major and trace elements in the standards showed no improvement in quantification with Au(2)(+) and Au(3)(+) ions over the use of Au(+) ions. Higher achievable primary ion currents for Au(+) ions than for Au(2)(+) and Au(3)(+) allow for more precise analyses of elemental abundances within inorganic samples, making them the preferred choice, in contrast to the choice of Au(2)(+) and Au(3)(+) for the analysis of organic samples. The use of delayed secondary ion extraction can also boost secondary ion signals, although there is a loss of overall sensitivity.

  9. A novel sulfur mustard (HD) vapor inhalation exposure system for accurate inhaled dose delivery

    PubMed Central

    Perry, Mark R.; Benson, Eric M.; Kohne, Jonathon W.; Plahovinsak, Jennifer L.; Babin, Michael C.; Platoff, Gennady E.; Yeung, David T.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction A custom designed HD exposure system was used to deliver controlled inhaled doses to an animal model through an endotracheal tube. Methods Target HD vapor challenges were generated by a temperature controlled bubbler/aerosol trap, while concentration was monitored near real-time by gas chromatography. Animal breathing parameters were monitored real-time by an in-line pneumotach, pressure transducer, and Buxco pulmonary analysis computer/software. For each exposure, the challenge atmosphere was allowed to stabilize at the desired concentration while the anesthetized animal was provided humidity controlled clean air. Once the target concentration was achieved and stable, a portion of the challenge atmosphere was drawn past the endotracheal tube, where the animal inhaled the exposure ad libitum. During the exposure, HD vapor concentration and animal weight were used to calculate the needed inhaled volume to achieve the target inhaled dose (μg/kg). The exposures were halted when the inhaled volume was achieved. Results The exposure system successfully controlled HD concentrations from 22.2 to 278 mg/m3 and accurately delivered inhaled doses between 49.3 and 1120 μg/kg with actual administered doses being within 4% of the target level. Discussion This exposure system administers specific HD inhaled doses to evaluate physiological effects and for evaluation of potential medical countermeasure treatments. PMID:25291290

  10. Vapor inhalation of alcohol in rats.

    PubMed

    Gilpin, Nicholas W; Richardson, Heather N; Cole, Maury; Koob, George F

    2008-07-01

    Alcohol dependence constitutes a neuroadaptive state critical for understanding alcoholism, and various methods have been utilized to induce alcohol dependence in animals, one of which is alcohol vapor exposure. Alcohol vapor inhalation provides certain advantages over other chronic alcohol exposure procedures that share the ultimate goal of producing alcohol dependence in rats. Chronic alcohol vapor inhalation allows the experimenter to control the dose, duration, and pattern of alcohol exposure. Also, this procedure facilitates testing of somatic and motivational aspects of alcohol dependence. Chronic exposure to alcohol vapor produces increases in alcohol-drinking behavior, increases in anxiety-like behavior, and reward deficits in rats. Alcohol vapor inhalation as a laboratory protocol is flexible, and the parameters of this procedure can be adjusted to accommodate the specific aims of different experiments. This unit describes the options available to investigators using this procedure for dependence induction, when different options are more or less appropriate, and the implications of each.

  11. Inhaled Antibiotics for Lower Airway Infections

    PubMed Central

    Quon, Bradley S.; Goss, Christopher H.

    2014-01-01

    Inhaled antibiotics have been used to treat chronic airway infections since the 1940s. The earliest experience with inhaled antibiotics involved aerosolizing antibiotics designed for parenteral administration. These formulations caused significant bronchial irritation due to added preservatives and nonphysiologic chemical composition. A major therapeutic advance took place in 1997, when tobramycin designed for inhalation was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) with chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection. Attracted by the clinical benefits observed in CF and the availability of dry powder antibiotic formulations, there has been a growing interest in the use of inhaled antibiotics in other lower respiratory tract infections, such as non-CF bronchiectasis, ventilator-associated pneumonia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, mycobacterial disease, and in the post–lung transplant setting over the past decade. Antibiotics currently marketed for inhalation include nebulized and dry powder forms of tobramycin and colistin and nebulized aztreonam. Although both the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and European Medicines Agency have approved their use in CF, they have not been approved in other disease areas due to lack of supportive clinical trial evidence. Injectable formulations of gentamicin, tobramycin, amikacin, ceftazidime, and amphotericin are currently nebulized “off-label” to manage non-CF bronchiectasis, drug-resistant nontuberculous mycobacterial infections, ventilator-associated pneumonia, and post-transplant airway infections. Future inhaled antibiotic trials must focus on disease areas outside of CF with sample sizes large enough to evaluate clinically important endpoints such as exacerbations. Extrapolating from CF, the impact of eradicating organisms such as P. aeruginosa in non-CF bronchiectasis should also be evaluated. PMID:24673698

  12. Use of inhaler devices in pediatric asthma.

    PubMed

    De Benedictis, Fernando Maria; Selvaggio, David

    2003-01-01

    Inhalation is the preferred route for asthma therapy, since it offers a rapid onset of drug action, requires smaller doses, and reduces systemic effects compared with other routes of administration. Unfortunately, inhalation devices are frequently used in an empirical manner rather than on evidence-based awareness.A wide variety of nebulizers are available. Conventional jet nebulizers are highly inefficient, as much of the aerosol is wasted during exhalation. However, incorporating an extra open vent into the system has considerably increased the amount of drug that patients receive. Breath-assisted open vent nebulizers limit the loss of aerosol during exhalation, but are dependent on the patient's inspiratory flow. Ultrasonic nebulizers produce a high mass output and have a short nebulization time, but are inefficient for delivering suspensions or viscous solutions. Adaptive aerosol delivery devices release a precise dose that is tailored to the individual patient's breathing pattern. Nebulizers have several drawbacks, and their use should be limited to patients who cannot correctly manage other devices.Pressurized metered-dose inhalers (pMDI) are practical, cheap and multidose. However, there are several problems with their use. Breath-actuated MDI are easy to use and can be activated by very low flow. However, young children may not be able to use them efficiently. Dry powder inhalers (DPI) are portable and easy to use. They are indicated either for rescue bronchodilator therapy or for regular treatment with inhaled corticosteroids and long-acting bronchodilators. The use of spacers reduces oropharyngeal deposition and improves drug delivery to the lung. Spacers do not require patient coordination, but some general rules must be followed for their optimal use.Thus, the choice of a delivery device mainly depends on the age of the patient, the drug to be administered and the condition to be treated. Proper education is also essential when prescribing an inhalation

  13. INHALATION EXPOSURE-RESPONSE ASSESSMENTS FOR FIVE CHEMICALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Inhalation exposure-response assessments for five chemicals (acrolein, ethylene oxide, hexachlorocyclopentadiene, hydrogen sulfide, and phosgene) for less-than-lifetime durations are being developed to inform the development of the Inhalation Exposure-Response Analysis Methodolog...

  14. Cow Dung Ingestion and Inhalation Dependence: A Case Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khairkar, Praveen; Tiple, Prashant; Bang, Govind

    2009-01-01

    Although abuse of several unusual inhalants had been documented, addiction to cow dung fumes or their ashes has not been reported in medical literature as yet. We are reporting a case of cow dung dependence in ingestion and inhalational form.

  15. [Elimination of secretions in CF patients under amiloride inhalation].

    PubMed

    Lindemann, H; Becker, T; Bittner, P; Boldt, A; Hofmann, T; Schwandt, H J

    1990-10-01

    Inhaled amiloride reduces active absorption of sodium of respiratory epithelium in CF patients and so, transiently, diminishes loss of water. 10 CF patients, 8 to 28 years of age, were examined on two days. First day, they inhaled in a randomised order isotonic saline and a solution of amiloride hydrochloride (0.3 mg/ml) one after another, each inhalation taking twenty minutes. Second day, inhalations were performed in an inverse order. To intensify the effect of inhalation, the inhalation procedure was combined with "autogenic drainage", a special kind of physiotherapy. Main criterion for evaluation was the amount of expectorated sputum. Mean increase of sputum during amiloride inhalation in comparison to saline was +50.4%. Patients and physiotherapist observed a liquefaction of secretion and a decrease of coughing by amiloride and a support of physiotherapy. These results suggest a beneficial clinical effect of regular amiloride inhalation in CF patients.

  16. INHALATION EXPOSURE-RESPONSE ASSESSMENTS FOR FIVE CHEMICALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Inhalation exposure-response assessments for five chemicals (acrolein, ethylene oxide, hexachlorocyclopentadiene, hydrogen sulfide, and phosgene) for less-than-lifetime durations are being developed to inform the development of the Inhalation Exposure-Response Analysis Methodolog...

  17. Cow Dung Ingestion and Inhalation Dependence: A Case Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khairkar, Praveen; Tiple, Prashant; Bang, Govind

    2009-01-01

    Although abuse of several unusual inhalants had been documented, addiction to cow dung fumes or their ashes has not been reported in medical literature as yet. We are reporting a case of cow dung dependence in ingestion and inhalational form.

  18. Optical nonlinearities of Au nanoparticles and Au/Ag coreshells.

    PubMed

    Seo, Jae Tae; Yang, Qiguang; Kim, Wan-Joong; Heo, Jinhwa; Ma, Seong-Min; Austin, Jasmine; Yun, Wan Soo; Jung, Sung Soo; Han, Sang Woo; Tabibi, Bagher; Temple, Doyle

    2009-02-01

    Au nanoparticles exhibited both negative and positive nonlinear absorptions with ground-state plasmon bleaching and free-carrier absorption that could be origins of the saturable and reverse-saturable optical properties. Au/Ag coreshells displayed only positive nonlinear absorption and reverse-saturable optical properties as a function of excitation intensity at the edge of surface-plasmon resonance, which implies no ground-state plasmon bleaching and the existence of two-photon absorption.

  19. Inhaled insulin: a breath of fresh air? A review of inhaled insulin.

    PubMed

    Santos Cavaiola, Tricia; Edelman, Steven

    2014-08-01

    Despite many advances in diabetes care over the last century, some elements of insulin therapy remain inadequate for optimal care of the patient with diabetes. There is a need for improved pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of rapid-acting insulin analogues to mimic physiologic insulin secretion. In addition, a major barrier to successful insulin therapy has been patient resistance. Alternative routes of insulin administration, including inhaled insulin, have been under investigation for several years. This review discusses the rationale for pulmonary delivery of insulin, compares previous inhaled insulin products, reviews the literature on the safety and efficacy of a current inhaled insulin formulation under investigation, and compares this product with other prandial insulin products. English-language studies and reviews of inhaled insulin were searched in MEDLINE, the ClinicalTrials.gov registry (through May 2014), and the US Food and Drug Administration Website. Inhaled insulin has several favorable characteristics due to pulmonary anatomy/physiology and the lack of injections. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies have shown a time-action profile suitable for prandial insulin use. Inhaled insulin seems to be safe and effective compared with other prandial insulin products and may be preferable to subcutaneous rapid-acting insulin analogues in terms of time-action profiles and rates of hypoglycemia. Small decreases in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) have been shown with inhaled insulin, although this finding is not progressive over time and reverses with cessation of the medication. Although several inhaled insulin products have been under investigation, only one (Exubera(®) [Nektar Therapeutics, San Carlos, California/Pfizer Inc, New York, New York]) was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration, and it was pulled from the market after only a short period of time. Technosphere(®) insulin (MannKind Corporation, Valencia, California

  20. Imagerie par modulation acoustique de conductivite electrique destinee au diagnostic du cancer du sein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gendron, Mathieu

    This thesis describes a new medical imaging technique for determining the electrical conductivity distribution of tissues in a body region with a resolution comparable to that of current ultrasound techniques. The new technique, henceforth referred to as "Acousto-Electric Conductivity Modulation" (AECM) imaging, is based on the interaction of a sound wave with an electrical field. In its simplest form, four electrodes located near the region to be imaged apply a low-amplitude electrical current and measure the potential difference arising from current flow in the tissues. A focused ultrasound transducer directs a pressure wave to a voxel of the region of interest, modifying its conductivity distribution and, as a result, the amplitude of the potential measured by the electrodes. An image of the conductivity distribution can thus be constructed point-by-point by moving the electrodes and transducer to scan the object. In this context, the acoustic wave acts as the localization agent while the electrical potential provides a measure of the local conductivity change that occurs in the voxel. The first model presented in the thesis is based on the use of bipolar acoustic waves for excitation. This waveform is generally used with narrow band transducers. Acoustic waves generated by an ultrasound transducer driven with a burst of sine waves consists of alternating compression and rarefaction phases which tend to cancel each other in terms of the conductivity changes they produce. However when the thickness of the target object is small compared to the wavelength of the acoustic wave, this cancelling effect will not occur and the AECM signals will have sufficiently high amplitude to achieve image reconstruction using successive transducer positions to scan the region of interest. By extracting from the spectra of the AECM signals the amplitude of the peak at the excitation frequency, a map of the acousto-electric sensitivity of the system can be obtained. This map is then used to reconstruct the electrical conductivity distribution. The second model presented in the thesis uses a unipolar acoustic wave to generate AECM signals of relatively large amplitude. There are two aspects related to this type of wave. The first aspect is that the acoustic modulation is unidirectional if the applied pressure is unidirectional. As a result, a positive pressure only produces an increase in electrical conductivity and this will result in a large AECM signal even when the thickness of the object is large. The second aspect concerns the shape of the acoustic field. Since the unipolar acoustic wave is not focused, it modulates the conductivity over a large area, and thus the associated AECM signals needs to be processed through a reconstruction algorithm so as to recover local conductivity. In this model, the data required for image reconstruction are acquired by rotating the transducer around the target object. An experimental setup has been developed during our project to get values of certain parameter that are required to define the numerical models. The setup comprises a large tank which is filled with water and in which are immersed the ultrasound transducer, a hydrophone and a measurement cell. The acousto-electric interaction takes place within this cell. A computer controlled positioning system allows precise displacements of the transducer relative to the hydrophone and the measurement cell. This cell comprises a cavity in which the object to be analyzed is placed and that is then filled with an electrolytic solution. The cavity is closed on two sides by an acoustic window to allow propagation of the ultrasound wave and on another side by six Ag/AgCl electrodes that are used to apply current and to measure the resulting electrical potential. Mammography is presently the most widely used medical imaging procedure for breast cancer screening. The average sensitivity of this technique is 80 % but it is less for younger women. According to recent studies, MRI offers a higher sensitivity and the possibility of detecting very small tumors, thus allowing earlier treatment. The operating costs of MRI systems are at the moment too high to consider using the modality for breast cancer screening on a large scale. AECM imaging could eventually provide an interesting compromise between operating costs and the sensitivity required for screening patients of all ages. (Abstract shortened by UMI.).

  1. Nano-ingenierie de bande interdite des semiconducteurs quantiques par recuit thermique rapide au laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanowski, Radoslaw Wojciech

    The ability to fabricate semiconductor wafers with spatially selected regions of different bandgap material is required for the fabrication of monolithic photonic integrated circuits (PIC's). Although this subject has been studied for three decades and many semiconductor engineering approaches have been proposed, the problem of achieving reproducible results has constantly challenged scientists and engineers. This concerns not only the techniques relaying on multiple sequential epitaxial growth and selective area epitaxy, but also the conventional quantum well intermixing (QWI) technique that has been investigated as a post-growth approach for bandgap engineering. Among different QWI techniques, those based on the use of different lasers appear to be attractive in the context of high-precision and the potential for cost-effective bandgap engineering. For instance, a tightly focused beam of the infrared (IR) laser could be used for the annealing of small regions of a semiconductor wafer comprising different quantum well (QW) or quantum dot (QD) microstructures. The precision of such an approach in delivering wafers with well defined regions of different bandgap material will depend on the ability to control the laser-induced temperature, dynamics of the heating-cooling process and the ability to take advantage of the bandgap engineering diagnostics. In the frame of this thesis, I have investigated IR laser-induced QWI processes in QW wafers comprising GaAs/A1GaAs and InP/InGaAsP microstructures and in InAs QD microstructures grown on InP substrates. For that purpose, I have designed and set up a 2-laser system for selective area rapid thermal annealing (Laser-RTA) of semiconductor wafers. The advantage of such an approach is that it allows carrying out annealing with heating-cooling rates unattainable with conventional RTA techniques, while a tightly focused beam of one of the IR lasers is used for 'spot annealing'. These features have enabled me to introduce a new method for iterative bandgap engineering at selected areas (IBESA) of semiconductor wafers. The method proves the ability to deliver both GaAs and InP based QW/QD wafers with regions of different bandgap energy controlled to better than +/- 1nm of the spectral emission wavelength. The IBESA technique could be used for tuning the optical characteristics of particular regions of a QW wafer prepared for the fabrication of a PIC. Also, this approach has the potential for tuning the emission wavelength of individual QDs in wafers designed, e.g., for the fabrication of single photon emitters. In the 1st Chapter of the thesis, I provide a short review of the literature on QWI techniques and I introduce the Laser -- RTA method. The 2nd Chapter is devoted to the description of the fundamental processes related to the absorption of laser light in semiconductors. I also discuss the results of the finite element method applied for modeling and semi-quantitative description of the Laser -- RTA process. Details of the experimental setup and developed procedures are provided in the 3 rd Chapter. The results concerning direct bandgap engineering and iterative bandgap engineering are discussed in the 4th and 5th Chapters, respectively. Keywords: quantum well intermixing, laser bandgap engineering, laser rapid thermal annealing, monolithically integrated photonic circuits, quantum dot tuning.

  2. Réseaux de dislocations induits par le dopage au phosphore dans le silicium polycristallin (RAD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moudda-Azzem, T.; Gervais, A.

    1987-05-01

    Transmission electron microscopy observations are reported on defects induced during the POCl 3 diffusion process. SiP precipitates are shown to produce dislocation lattices parallel to both the (011) surface and the diffusion plane. Glide alone on primary (111)<1 overline10> systems are unable to explain the observed configurations.

  3. Techniques for measuring intercepted and absorbed PAR in corn canopies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallo, K. P.; Daughtry, C. S. T.

    1984-01-01

    The quantity of radiation potentially available for photosynthesis that is captured by the crop is best described as absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (PAR). Absorbed PAR (APAR) is the difference between descending and ascending fluxes. The four components of APAR were measured above and within two planting densities of corn (Zea mays L.) and several methods of measuring and estimating APAR were examined. A line quantum sensor that spatially averages the photosynthetic photon flux density provided a rapid and portable method of measuring APAR. PAR reflectance from the soil (Typic Argiaquoll) surface decreased from 10% to less than 1% of the incoming PAR as the canopy cover increased. PAR reflectance from the canopy decreased to less than 3% at maximum vegetative cover. Intercepted PAR (1 - transmitted PAR) generally overestimated absorbed PAR by less than 4% throughout most of the growing season. Thus intercepted PAR appears to be a reasonable estimate of absorbed PAR.

  4. Port-au-Prince, Haiti

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-01-14

    This image, produced from instrument data aboard NASA Space Shuttle Endeavour, is a perspective view of the topography of Port-au-Prince, Haiti where a magnitude 7.0 earthquake occurred on January 12, 2010.

  5. Physical Symptoms and Psychological Distress among Inhalant Users.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joe, George W.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Among 110 Mexican-American adolescents with varying drug use histories, self-reported physical health problems were not related to inhalant use history, but blood analyses indicated a relationship between extensive inhalant use and liver problems. Psychological distress symptoms were related to inhalant use and physical symptoms. Contains 23…

  6. 40 CFR 799.9130 - TSCA acute inhalation toxicity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Concentration Issues in Inhalation Toxicity Studies. 2/1/94. Health Effects Division, Office of Pesticide... REQUIREMENTS Health Effects Test Guidelines § 799.9130 TSCA acute inhalation toxicity. (a) Scope. This section... provides information on health hazards likely to arise from short-term exposure by the inhalation route...

  7. 40 CFR 799.9130 - TSCA acute inhalation toxicity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Concentration Issues in Inhalation Toxicity Studies. 2/1/94. Health Effects Division, Office of Pesticide... REQUIREMENTS Health Effects Test Guidelines § 799.9130 TSCA acute inhalation toxicity. (a) Scope. This section... provides information on health hazards likely to arise from short-term exposure by the inhalation route...

  8. 42 CFR 84.90 - Breathing resistance test; inhalation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Breathing resistance test; inhalation. 84.90...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.90 Breathing resistance test; inhalation. (a) Resistance to inhalation airflow will be measured in the facepiece or mouthpiece while the apparatus is operated by a...

  9. 42 CFR 84.90 - Breathing resistance test; inhalation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Breathing resistance test; inhalation. 84.90...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.90 Breathing resistance test; inhalation. (a) Resistance to inhalation airflow will be measured in the facepiece or mouthpiece while the apparatus is operated by a...

  10. 42 CFR 84.90 - Breathing resistance test; inhalation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Breathing resistance test; inhalation. 84.90...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.90 Breathing resistance test; inhalation. (a) Resistance to inhalation airflow will be measured in the facepiece or mouthpiece while the apparatus is operated by a...

  11. 40 CFR 79.61 - Vehicle emissions inhalation exposure guideline.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., densities and shapes, and to predict where in the respiratory tract such particles may be deposited. It... to particles which are capable of being inhaled and may be deposited anywhere within the respiratory...) Principles and design criteria of inhalation exposure systems. Proper conduct of inhalation toxicity...

  12. 49 CFR 172.429 - POISON INHALATION HAZARD label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false POISON INHALATION HAZARD label. 172.429 Section... REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.429 POISON INHALATION HAZARD label. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON INHALATION HAZARD label must be as follows: ER22JY97.023 (b) In addition to...

  13. 49 CFR 172.555 - POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard. 172.555 Section... REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.555 POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard must be as follows: ER22JY97.025 (b) In addition...

  14. 49 CFR 172.429 - POISON INHALATION HAZARD label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false POISON INHALATION HAZARD label. 172.429 Section... REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.429 POISON INHALATION HAZARD label. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON INHALATION HAZARD label must be as follows: ER22JY97.023 (b) In addition to...

  15. 49 CFR 172.555 - POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard. 172.555 Section... REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.555 POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard must be as follows: ER22JY97.025 (b) In addition...

  16. 49 CFR 172.429 - POISON INHALATION HAZARD label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false POISON INHALATION HAZARD label. 172.429 Section... REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.429 POISON INHALATION HAZARD label. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON INHALATION HAZARD label must be as follows: ER22JY97.023 (b) In addition to...

  17. 49 CFR 172.555 - POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard. 172.555 Section... REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.555 POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard must be as follows: ER22JY97.025 (b) In addition...

  18. 49 CFR 172.429 - POISON INHALATION HAZARD label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false POISON INHALATION HAZARD label. 172.429 Section... REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.429 POISON INHALATION HAZARD label. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON INHALATION HAZARD label must be as follows: ER22JY97.023 (b) In addition to...

  19. 49 CFR 172.429 - POISON INHALATION HAZARD label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false POISON INHALATION HAZARD label. 172.429 Section... REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.429 POISON INHALATION HAZARD label. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON INHALATION HAZARD label must be as follows: ER22JY97.023 (b) In addition to...

  20. 49 CFR 172.555 - POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard. 172.555 Section... REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.555 POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard must be as follows: ER22JY97.025 (b) In addition...

  1. 49 CFR 172.555 - POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard. 172.555 Section... REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.555 POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard must be as follows: ER22JY97.025 (b) In addition...

  2. Physical Symptoms and Psychological Distress among Inhalant Users.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joe, George W.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Among 110 Mexican-American adolescents with varying drug use histories, self-reported physical health problems were not related to inhalant use history, but blood analyses indicated a relationship between extensive inhalant use and liver problems. Psychological distress symptoms were related to inhalant use and physical symptoms. Contains 23…

  3. Protease-activated receptor (PAR) 1 and PAR4 differentially regulate factor V expression from human platelets.

    PubMed

    Duvernay, Matthew; Young, Summer; Gailani, David; Schoenecker, Jonathan; Hamm, Heidi E; Hamm, Heidi

    2013-04-01

    With the recent interest of protease-activated receptors (PAR) 1 and PAR4 as possible targets for the treatment of thrombotic disorders, we compared the efficacy of protease-activated receptor (PAR)1 and PAR4 in the generation of procoagulant phenotypes on platelet membranes. PAR4-activating peptide (AP)-stimulated platelets promoted thrombin generation in plasma up to 5 minutes earlier than PAR1-AP-stimulated platelets. PAR4-AP-mediated factor V (FV) association with the platelet surface was 1.6-fold greater than for PAR1-AP. Moreover, PAR4 stimulation resulted in a 3-fold greater release of microparticles, compared with PAR1 stimulation. More robust FV secretion and microparticle generation with PAR4-AP was attributable to stronger and more sustained phosphorylation of myosin light chain at serine 19 and threonine 18. Inhibition of Rho-kinase reduced PAR4-AP-mediated FV secretion and microparticle generation to PAR1-AP-mediated levels. Thrombin generation assays measuring prothrombinase complex activity demonstrated 1.5-fold higher peak thrombin levels on PAR4-AP-stimulated platelets, compared with PAR1-AP-stimulated platelets. Rho-kinase inhibition reduced PAR4-AP-mediated peak thrombin generation by 25% but had no significant effect on PAR1-AP-mediated thrombin generation. In conclusion, stimulation of PAR4 on platelets leads to faster and more robust thrombin generation, compared with PAR1 stimulation. The greater procoagulant potential is related to more efficient FV release from intracellular stores and microparticle production driven by stronger and more sustained myosin light chain phosphorylation. These data have implications about the role of PAR4 during hemostasis and are clinically relevant in light of recent efforts to develop PAR antagonists to treat thrombotic disorders.

  4. Al-Au-La (010)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carow-Watamura, U.; Louzguine, D. V.; Takeuchi, A.

    This document is part of Part 1 http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/9getType="URL"/> 'Systems from Ag-Al-Ca to Au-Pd-Si' of Subvolume B 'Physical Properties of Ternary Amorphous Alloys' of Volume 37 'Phase Diagrams and Physical Properties of Nonequilibrium Alloys' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group III 'Condensed Matter'. It contains the Chapter 'Al-Au-La (010)' with the content:

  5. Development of dry salbutamol sulfate powder with high inhalation performance independent of inhalation patterns.

    PubMed

    Hira, Daiki; Okuda, Tomoyuki; Ichihashi, Mika; Kojima, Haruyoshi; Okamoto, Hirokazu

    2012-01-01

    While dry powder inhalations are commonly used to treat pulmonary diseases, their clinical performance depends on patient inspiratory flow patterns. The purpose of this study was to develop a new powder with high and stable therapeutic performance for various patients. We applied the supercritical antisolvent (SCF) method to salbutamol sulfate (SS) to prepare a bulky SS particle (SS-SCF). Tests of in vitro inhalation performance with a human inspiratory flow simulator revealed SS-SCF to be less susceptible to inspiratory flow patterns than milled SS. When inspired, the unique structure seemed to be broken resulting in small fragments that could be delivered to the lungs. However, stability tests under physical stress showed tolerance for transportation and handling. In addition, optimization of the concentration of the SS solution applied to SCF method improved the in vitro inhalation performance of SS-SCF. These results indicated that a unique bulky SS powder prepared by the SCF method was useful for dry powder inhalation.

  6. ParCAT: Parallel Climate Analysis Toolkit

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Brian E.; Steed, Chad A.; Shipman, Galen M.; Ricciuto, Daniel M.; Thornton, Peter E.; Wehner, Michael; Williams, Dean N.

    2013-01-01

    Climate science is employing increasingly complex models and simulations to analyze the past and predict the future of Earth s climate. This growth in complexity is creating a widening gap between the data being produced and the ability to analyze the datasets. Parallel computing tools are necessary to analyze, compare, and interpret the simulation data. The Parallel Climate Analysis Toolkit (ParCAT) provides basic tools to efficiently use parallel computing techniques to make analysis of these datasets manageable. The toolkit provides the ability to compute spatio-temporal means, differences between runs or differences between averages of runs, and histograms of the values in a data set. ParCAT is implemented as a command-line utility written in C. This allows for easy integration in other tools and allows for use in scripts. This also makes it possible to run ParCAT on many platforms from laptops to supercomputers. ParCAT outputs NetCDF files so it is compatible with existing utilities such as Panoply and UV-CDAT. This paper describes ParCAT and presents results from some example runs on the Titan system at ORNL.

  7. PAR2 regulates regeneration, transdifferentiation, and death

    PubMed Central

    Piran, Ron; Lee, Seung-Hee; Kuss, Pia; Hao, Ergeng; Newlin, Robbin; Millán, José Luis; Levine, Fred

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms by which cells sense and respond to injury is central to developing therapies to enhance tissue regeneration. Previously, we showed that pancreatic injury consisting of acinar cell damage+β-cell ablation led to islet cell transdifferentiation. Here, we report that the molecular mechanism for this requires activating protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR2), a G-protein-coupled receptor. PAR2 modulation was sufficient to induce islet cell transdifferentiation in the absence of β-cells. Its expression was modulated in an islet cell type-specific manner in murine and human type 1 diabetes (T1D). In addition to transdifferentiation, PAR2 regulated β-cell apoptosis in pancreatitis. PAR2's role in regeneration is broad, as mice lacking PAR2 had marked phenotypes in response to injury in the liver and in digit regeneration following amputation. These studies provide a pharmacologically relevant target to induce tissue regeneration in a number of diseases, including T1D. PMID:27809303

  8. ATP-regulated interactions between P1 ParA, ParB and non-specific DNA that are stabilized by the plasmid partition site, parS

    PubMed Central

    Havey, James C.; Vecchiarelli, Anthony G.; Funnell, Barbara E.

    2012-01-01

    Localization of the P1 plasmid requires two proteins, ParA and ParB, which act on the plasmid partition site, parS. ParB is a site-specific DNA-binding protein and ParA is a Walker-type ATPase with non-specific DNA-binding activity. In vivo ParA binds the bacterial nucleoid and forms dynamic patterns that are governed by the ParB–parS partition complex on the plasmid. How these interactions drive plasmid movement and localization is not well understood. Here we have identified a large protein–DNA complex in vitro that requires ParA, ParB and ATP, and have characterized its assembly by sucrose gradient sedimentation and light scattering assays. ATP binding and hydrolysis mediated the assembly and disassembly of this complex, while ADP antagonized complex formation. The complex was not dependent on, but was stabilized by, parS. The properties indicate that ParA and ParB are binding and bridging multiple DNA molecules to create a large meshwork of protein–DNA molecules that involves both specific and non-specific DNA. We propose that this complex represents a dynamic adaptor complex between the plasmid and nucleoid, and further, that this interaction drives the redistribution of partition proteins and the plasmid over the nucleoid during partition. PMID:21965538

  9. A Grand Avenue to Au Nanocluster Electrochemiluminescence.

    PubMed

    Hesari, Mahdi; Ding, Zhifeng

    2017-02-21

    In most cases of semiconductor quantum dot nanocrystals, the inherent optical and electrochemical properties of these interesting nanomaterials do not translate into expected efficient electrochemiluminescence or electrogenerated chemiluminescence (ECL) because of the surface-state induction effect. Thus, their low ECL efficiencies, while very interesting to explore, limit their applications. As their electrochemistry is not well-defined, insight into their ECL mechanistic details is also limited. Alternatively, gold nanoclusters possess monodispersed sizes with atomic precision, low and well defined HOMO-LUMO energy gaps, and stable optical and electrochemical properties that make them suitable for potential ECL applications. In this Account, we demonstrate strong and sustainable ECL of gold nanoclusters Au25(z) (i.e., Au25(SR)18(z), z = 1-, 0, 1+), Au38(SR)24, and Au144(SR)60, where the ligand SR is 2-phenylethanethiol. By correlation of the optical and electrochemical features of Au25 nanoclusters, a Latimer-type diagram can be constructed to reveal thermodynamic relationships of five oxidation states (Au25(2+), Au25(+), Au25(0), Au25(-), and Au25(2-)) and three excited states (Au25(-)*, Au25(0)*, and Au25(+)*). We describe ECL mechanisms and reaction kinetics by means of conventional ECL-voltage curves and novel spooling ECL spectroscopy. Notably, their ECL in the presence of tri-n-propylamine (TPrA), as a coreactant, is attributed to emissions from Au25(-)* (950 nm, strong), Au25(0)* (890 nm, very strong), and Au25(+)* (890 nm, very strong), as confirmed by the photoluminescence (PL) spectra of the three Au25 clusters electrogenerated in situ. The ECL emissions are controllable by adjustment of the concentrations of TPrA· and Au25(-), Au25(0), and Au25(+) species in the vicinity of the working electrode and ultimately the applied potential. It was determined that the Au25(-)/TPrA coreactant system should have an ECL efficiency of >50% relative to the Ru(bpy)3

  10. Subacute Inhalation Toxicity of 3-Methylpentane

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Yong Hyun; Shin, Seo-Ho; Han, Jeong Hee; Lee, Yong-Hoon

    2016-01-01

    3-Methylpentane (C6H14, CAS No. 96-14-0), isomer of hexane, is a colorless liquid originating naturally from petroleum or natural gas liquids. 3-Methylpentane has been used as a solvent in organic synthesis, as a lubricant, and as a raw material for producing carbon black. There is limited information available on the inhalation toxicity of 3-methylpentane, and the aim of this study was to determine its subacute inhalation toxicity. According to OECD Test Guideline 412 (subacute inhalation toxicity: 28-day study), Sprague Dawley rats were exposed to 0, 284, 1,135, and 4,540 ppm of 3-methylpentane for 6 hr/day, 5 days/week for 4 weeks via whole-body inhalation. Mortality, clinical signs, body weights, food consumption, hematology, serum chemistry, organ weights, and gross and histopathological findings were compared between control and all exposure groups. No mortality or remarkable clinical signs were observed during the study. No gross or histopathological lesions, or adverse effects on body weight, food consumption, hematology, serum chemistry, and organ weights were observed in any male or female rats in all exposure groups, although some statistically significant changes were observed in food consumption, serum chemistry, and organ weights. In conclusion, the results of this study indicate that no observable adverse effect level (NOAEL) for 3-methylpentane above 4,540 ppm/6 hr/day, 5 days/week for rats. PMID:27437092

  11. Manganese Inhalation as a Parkinson Disease Model

    PubMed Central

    Ordoñez-Librado, José Luis; Anaya-Martínez, Verónica; Gutierrez-Valdez, Ana Luisa; Colín-Barenque, Laura; Montiel-Flores, Enrique; Avila-Costa, Maria Rosa

    2011-01-01

    The present study examines the effects of divalent and trivalent Manganese (Mn2+/Mn3+) mixture inhalation on mice to obtain a novel animal model of Parkinson disease (PD) inducing bilateral and progressive dopaminergic cell death, correlate those alterations with motor disturbances, and determine whether L-DOPA treatment improves the behavior, to ensure that the alterations are of dopaminergic origin. CD-1 male mice inhaled a mixture of Manganese chloride and Manganese acetate, one hour twice a week for five months. Before Mn exposure, animals were trained to perform motor function tests and were evaluated each week after the exposure. By the end of Mn exposure, 10 mice were orally treated with 7.5 mg/kg L-DOPA. After 5 months of Mn mixture inhalation, striatal dopamine content decreased 71%, the SNc showed important reduction in the number of TH-immunopositive neurons, mice developed akinesia, postural instability, and action tremor; these motor alterations were reverted with L-DOPA treatment. Our data provide evidence that Mn2+/Mn3+ mixture inhalation produces similar morphological, neurochemical, and behavioral alterations to those observed in PD providing a useful experimental model for the study of this neurodegenerative disease. PMID:21209715

  12. Parental Influences on Inhalant Use by Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Stephanie S.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Among 78 mothers of Mexican-American adolescent inhalant users, many did not adhere to traditional marital and maternal roles, but this was not related to child's drug use. Child's drug use was related to indicators of household stability, including parents' marital status, father's employment status, and maternal emotional adjustment. (Author/SV)

  13. Patterns of Inhalant Use among Incarcerated Youth.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Susan M; Howard, Matthew O

    2015-01-01

    Inhalant use is especially prevalent among antisocial youth and can have serious health consequences. However, the extant literature has not investigated how use of various inhalants may co-occur among incarcerated youth. This study begins to address this gap in the literature by using latent class analyses to form distinct typologies of inhalant use. Study participants were residents (N = 723) of 27 Missouri Division of Youth Services facilities. Interviews assessed psychiatric symptoms, antisocial traits, delinquency, trauma, suicidality, and substance use behaviors. The mean age of the mostly male, ethnically diverse sample was 15.5 (S.D. = 1.2) years old. The study revealed the following classes of inhalant use: (1) severe polyinhalant use; (2) moderate polyinhalant use; (3) gas and permanent marker use; and (4) low-use. Compared to the low-use class, members of the severe polyinhalant use class had experienced more than double the rate of head injuries, the highest rates of traumatic experiences, and the highest rates of mental illness diagnoses. The gas and markers class had the highest rate of reporting hearing voices, followed by the severe polyinhalant use class, and the moderate polyinhalant use class. Results of this study underscore the need to address the high rate of head injuries and mental health diagnoses that contribute to severe polyinhalant use.

  14. Patterns of Inhalant Use among Incarcerated Youth

    PubMed Central

    Snyder, Susan M.; Howard, Matthew O.

    2015-01-01

    Inhalant use is especially prevalent among antisocial youth and can have serious health consequences. However, the extant literature has not investigated how use of various inhalants may co-occur among incarcerated youth. This study begins to address this gap in the literature by using latent class analyses to form distinct typologies of inhalant use. Study participants were residents (N = 723) of 27 Missouri Division of Youth Services facilities. Interviews assessed psychiatric symptoms, antisocial traits, delinquency, trauma, suicidality, and substance use behaviors. The mean age of the mostly male, ethnically diverse sample was 15.5 (S.D. = 1.2) years old. The study revealed the following classes of inhalant use: (1) severe polyinhalant use; (2) moderate polyinhalant use; (3) gas and permanent marker use; and (4) low-use. Compared to the low-use class, members of the severe polyinhalant use class had experienced more than double the rate of head injuries, the highest rates of traumatic experiences, and the highest rates of mental illness diagnoses. The gas and markers class had the highest rate of reporting hearing voices, followed by the severe polyinhalant use class, and the moderate polyinhalant use class. Results of this study underscore the need to address the high rate of head injuries and mental health diagnoses that contribute to severe polyinhalant use. PMID:26333159

  15. Neuropsychological Effects of Abuse of Inhalants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korman, Maurice; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Analyses of 109 drug-abusing adolescents indicated that inhalant abusers performed significantly more poorly than polydrug abusers on 20 of 67 neuropsychological measures. Deficits were observed on both global (WAIS and WRAT) and specific measures (perception of speech sounds, visual suppression, sensory perception, and trails). (Author/SJL)

  16. Adolescent Inhalant Use and School Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGarvey, Elizabeth Lloyd; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Students ages 11-18 years (n=904) were administered the Michigan Alcohol and Other Drugs School Survey to determine level of inhalant use. Lifetime prevalence was 21.3%, with 12.6% reporting past year and 7.1% reporting past month use. Highest lifetime use (28%) was reported by "other" students (Native, Latin, Mexican, and Asian…

  17. Inhalant Use in Latina Early Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guzmán, Bianca L.; Kouyoumdjian, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine how lifetime use and extent of use of inhalants by Latina girls is impacted by age, acculturation, grades, ditching, sexual behaviors (light petting, heavy petting, and going all the way) and sexual agency. A total of 273 females who self-identified as being Latina whose mean age was 13.94 completed…

  18. Fluid Mechanics of Inhalant Siphon Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    True, A. C.; Crimaldi, J. P.

    2016-02-01

    Inhalant siphon and suction flows are ubiquitous in marine ecosystems. From biological flows in filter-feeding benthic bivalves and predation by planktivorous fishes, to engineered flows in water samplers and production of hydrodynamic stimuli for laboratory assays, inhalant siphon flows span much of the laminar range (Reynolds number 0.01 - 2,000) and fundamentally influence many transport and exchange processes. Direct numerical simulations (DNS) of inhalant siphon flows with varying Reynolds numbers and geometries have informed design and construction of an index of refraction-matched flow facility (mineral oil, borosilicate glass tubing) in which we are employing particle image velocimetry (PIV) to quantify transient and steady-state flow fields outside and inside the siphon tube. Varying siphon diameter, flow rate, and extraction height allows us to evaluate effects of Reynolds number and siphon geometry on local hydrodynamics. This complementary experimental and numerical modeling investigation of siphon flow hydrodynamics was motivated recently by a colleague whose biologically inspired numerical modeling of inhalant siphons using a boundary condition of constant volumetric outflow (as opposed to the classically assumed uniform inlet velocity profile) revealed nontrivial departures from idealized flows: inviscid potential flows (i.e. point sink) and pipe flows (the classical pipe entry problem), particularly in the low Reynolds number regime. Reduced entrance lengths, larger radial inflows, and modifications to fluid capture zones seen numerically at low Reynolds number are being tested experimentally and may have important implications for both biological and engineered siphons.

  19. Systemic Effects of Inhaled Corticosteroids: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Pandya, Dhruti; Puttanna, Amar; Balagopal, Viswanatha

    2014-01-01

    Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) are common medications, used in respiratory medicine for controlling conditions such as asthma and other obstructive airway diseases. The systemic effects of oral corticosteroids are well known and established; inhaled steroids have been known to cause relatively minor and localized adverse effects such as oral candidiasis. However, less attention has been paid to their systemic effects. Although currently there is a paucity of prospective studies demonstrating the systemic effects of inhaled corticosteroids, there are numerous retrospective studies adding evidence to this link. Inhaled corticosteroids can affect the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis, bone density and growth, eyes, skin and immunity including an increased risk of pneumonia. Clinicians are recommended to aim for the lowest possible dose to avoid these systemic side effects. Fluticasone is more likely to cause systemic effects compared to budesonide. Newer ICS molecules such as ciclesonide may be more beneficial in reducing such systemic complications on prolonged use. This paper provides an updated overview of the common systemic effects encountered with ICS treatment. PMID:25674175

  20. Transrepression and transactivation potencies of inhaled glucocorticoids.

    PubMed

    Dirks, N L; Li, S; Huth, B; Hochhaus, G; Yates, C R; Meibohm, B

    2008-12-01

    The anti-inflammatory activity of inhaled glucocorticoids is primarily mediated through transrepression of pro-inflammatory transcription factors such as AP-1 and NF-kappaB, while systemic side effects are largely attributed to transactivation via glucocorticoid response elements (GRE) in the promoter region of responsive genes. The objective of this study is to investigate whether inhaled corticosteroids exhibit differences in their transactivation and transrepression potencies. A549 human alveolar epithelial type II like cells, stably transfected with a reporter plasmid containing an AP-1, NF-kappaB or GRE induced secreted alkaline phosphatase reporter gene (SEAP), were exposed to a panel of concentrations of the six inhaled and three systemic glucocorticoids. Glucocorticoid-induced changes in SEAP expression were quantified by chemiluminescence. For eight glucocorticoids (budesonide, desisobutyryl-cicle-sonide, dexamethasone, flunisolide, fluocortolone, fluticasone propionate, mometasone furoate, prednisolone) the EC50 for NF-kappaB mediated transrepression was significantly larger than that for both transactivation and transrepression via AP-1. For the remaining glucocorticoid (triamcinolone acetonide), it was greater than that for transactivation. It is concluded that, within the studied cell system, inhaled corticosteroids did not exhibit preferential transrepression, but had higher potencies for transactivation than for transrepression via NF-kappaB and had differential potencies for the two transrepression pathways.

  1. Inhalant Use in Latina Early Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guzmán, Bianca L.; Kouyoumdjian, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine how lifetime use and extent of use of inhalants by Latina girls is impacted by age, acculturation, grades, ditching, sexual behaviors (light petting, heavy petting, and going all the way) and sexual agency. A total of 273 females who self-identified as being Latina whose mean age was 13.94 completed…

  2. Patient preferences for inhaler devices in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: experience with Respimat Soft Mist inhaler.

    PubMed

    Hodder, Richard; Price, David

    2009-01-01

    Current guidelines for the management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) recommend the regular use of inhaled bronchodilator therapy in order to relieve symptoms and prevent exacerbations. A variety of inhaler devices are currently available to COPD patients, and the choice of device is an important consideration because it can influence patients' adherence to treatment, and thus potentially affect the long-term outcome. The Respimat((R)) Soft Mist Inhaler (SMI) generates a slow-moving aerosol with a high fine particle fraction, resulting in deposition of a higher proportion of the dose in the lungs than pressurized metered-dose inhalers (pMDIs) or some dry powder inhalers (DPIs). We review clinical studies of inhaler satisfaction and preference comparing Respimat((R)) SMI against other inhalers in COPD patients. Using objective and validated patient satisfaction instruments, Respimat((R)) SMI was consistently shown to be well accepted by COPD patients, largely due to its inhalation and handling characteristics. In comparative studies with pMDIs, the patient total satisfaction score with Respimat((R)) SMI was statistically and clinically significantly higher than with the pMDI. In comparative studies with DPIs, the total satisfaction score was statistically significantly higher than for the Turbuhaler((R)) DPI, but only the performance domain of satisfaction was clinically significantly higher for Respimat((R)) SMI. Whether the observed higher levels of patient satisfaction reported with Respimat((R)) SMI might be expected to result in improved adherence to therapy and thus provide benefits consistent with those recently shown to be associated with sustained bronchodilator treatment in patients with COPD remains to be proven.

  3. [Inhalation therapy with Respimat soft inhaler in patients with COPD and asthma].

    PubMed

    Voshaar, T; Hausen, T; Kardos, P; Köhler, D; Schultze-Werninghaus, G; Schürmann, W; Vogelmeier, C

    2005-01-01

    Developing more effective and convenient inhalation devices for the treatment of obstructive pulmonary diseases is at least as important as designing new drugs. In recent years, existing inhalation systems have undergone many technical modifications and there have also been many new developments. All of these systems have their own particular attributes and characteristics. Two fundamentally different modes of operation are represented by propellant-driven metered-dose inhalers (pMDI) on the one hand and dry powder inhalers (DPI) on the other. However, none of the systems developed so far can be considered ideal. The Respimat Soft Inhaler (Respimat SI) was developed in the light of experience with previous systems and was launched in Germany at the beginning of 2004. The aim in developing this new type of inhaler was to avoid the well-known drawbacks typically associated with pMDI and DPI. The Respimat SI requires neither a chemical propellant nor batteries. The active ingredients are dissolved in water and the solution is atomised using mechanical energy only imparted by a spring which, when released, provides the power to force the solution through an extremely fine nozzle system. Two fine jets of liquid are produced. They converge at an optimised angle and the resulting impact generates a fine mist which is slow-moving and lasts for about 1.5 seconds; moreover, a high proportion of the droplets fall into the fine particle fraction. All of these features allow excellent lung deposition and reduced oropharyngeal deposition. Coordination between actuation and inhalation is less critical as compared with pMDI due to the fact that the mist is both slow-moving and long-lasting. A further advantage is that the mist is generated independently of the patient's inspiratory flow. The Respimat SI meets the requirements for an ideal inhaler better than any other previous device and must therefore be regarded as a significant new development.

  4. Choriorétinite extensive bilatérale révélant une infection par le virus de l'immunodéficience humaine (VIH)

    PubMed Central

    El Yamouni, Oubaida; Tzili, Nazih; El Hassan, Abdallah; Slassi, Nadia; El Khaoua, Mahfoud; Jebbar, Zakaria; Berraho, Amina

    2014-01-01

    Au cours de l'infection par le virus de l'immunodéficience humaine(VIH), Les atteintes oculaires sont polymorphes, pouvant compromettre le pronostic fonctionnel. Nous rapportons l'observation d'un patient présentant une choriorétinite infectieuse sévère révélant une infection par le VIH. Patient âgé de 35 ans avec antécédent de tuberculose pulmonaire en 2007, consulte pour BAV bilatérale progressive depuis 6 mois. Une acuité visuelle à compte les doigts au niveau de l'oeil droit et à mouvement des doigts au niveau de l'oeil gauche, avec présence de foyers choriorétiniens diffus visualisés au fond d'oeil et à l'angiographie. Les sérologies VIH, toxoplasmose et CMV sont positives. Le patient a été mis sous traitement anti-toxoplasmose (Sulfadiazine et pyriméthamine) et anti-CMV (Ganciclovir per os). L’évolution sous traitement a été marquée par une régression de la hyalite avec la persistance des foyers choriorétiniens évolutifs et une acuité visuelle réduite à perception lumineuse. PMID:25709723

  5. Antithrombotic effects of PAR1 and PAR4 antagonists evaluated under flow and static conditions.

    PubMed

    Hosokawa, Kazuya; Ohnishi, Tomoko; Miura, Naoki; Sameshima, Hisayo; Koide, Takehiko; Tanaka, Kenichi A; Maruyama, Ikuro

    2014-01-01

    Thrombin-mediated activation of human platelets involves the G-protein-coupled protease-activated receptors PAR1 and PAR4. Inhibition of PAR1 and/or PAR4 is thought to modulate platelet activation and subsequent procoagulant reactions. However, the antithrombotic effects of PAR1 and PAR4 antagonism have not been fully elucidated, particularly under flow conditions. A microchip-based flow chamber system was used to evaluate the influence of SCH79797 (PAR1 antagonist) and YD-3 (PAR4 antagonist) on thrombus formation mediated by collagen and tissue thromboplastin at shear rates simulating those experienced in small- to medium-sized arteries (600s(-1)) and large arteries and small veins (240s(-1)). At a shear rate of 600s(-1), SCH79797 (10μM) efficiently reduced fibrin-rich platelet thrombi and significantly delayed occlusion of the flow chamber capillary (1.44 fold of control; P<0.001). The inhibitory activity of SCH79797 was diminished at 240s(-1). YD-3 (20μM) had no significant effect at either shear rate. The antithrombotic effects of SCH79797 were significantly augmented when combined with aspirin and AR-C66096 (P2Y12 antagonist), but not with YD-3. In contrast, no significant inhibition of tissue factor-induced clot formation under static conditions was observed in blood treated with SCH79797 and YD-3, although thrombin generation in platelet-rich plasma was weakly delayed by these antagonists. Our results suggest that the antithrombotic activities of PAR1 and/or PAR4 antagonism is influenced by shear conditions as well as by combined platelet inhibition with aspirin and a P2Y12-antagonist. © 2013.

  6. The ADMIT series--issues in inhalation therapy. 5) Inhaler selection in children with asthma.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Søren; Dubus, Jean Christophe; Crompton, Graham K

    2010-09-01

    Many children with asthma do not use their inhalers correctly and consequently gain little or no therapeutic benefit from the treatment. The focus of inhalation therapy should be on those inhalers which are easiest to use correctly by various groups of children and the amount of tuition and training required to obtain a correct technique. It is recommended that clinicians focus on a limited number of inhalers. Most children can be taught effective inhalation therapy by using a pMDI, a pMDI with a spacer ,or a DPI. Most preschool children can be taught effective use of a pMDI and spacer with a valve system and a face mask. Therefore, this is the preferred mode of delivery in these age groups. When the child is capable of using the spacer without a face mask this administration technique should be adopted. In older children pMDIs are more difficult to use correctly than a pMDI with a spacer, a DPI ,or a breath-actuated pMDI. Because DPIs and breath-actuated pMDIs are more convenient to use these devices are normally considered the preferred inhalation devices in these age groups except for administration of beclometasone dipropionate, which for safety reasons should be delivered by a spacer.

  7. Caregiver predictors of adolescent inhalant abuse in rural Appalachia.

    PubMed

    Pack, Robert; Krishnamurthy, Gururaj; Cottrell, Lesley; Stanton, Bonita; D'Alessandri, Dawn; Burns, James

    2005-01-01

    To explore caregiver correlates of adolescent inhalant abuse. Youth were surveyed about inhalant use. Caregivers were surveyed about demographics, behaviors, family environment, perceptions of parent/ adolescent interaction, coping strategies, caregiver monitoring of youth and self-reported substance use. Multiple logistic regression with backward elimination was used. Of the 218 dyads recruited, 94% of the youth inhalant and inhalant non-users were correctly classified using a model constructed from independent variables. We believe that parent-based educational training services should be studied that provide information about inhalant abuse and encourage open communication, adaptive coping, and adequate monitoring skills.

  8. A study of the electronic properties of Au nanowires and Au nanoislands on Au(111) surfaces.

    PubMed

    Schouteden, K; Lijnen, E; Muzychenko, D A; Ceulemans, A; Chibotaru, Liviu F; Lievens, P; Van Haesendonck, C

    2009-09-30

    By means of ion bombardment of clean Au(111) films, atomically flat nanoparticles of various shapes and sizes were created, ranging from several tens of nm(2) down to only a few nm(2). Both two-dimensional Au islands as well as one-dimensional Au nanowire-like structures have been investigated by means of low-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy. We were able to probe their local electronic structure in a broad energy range, which was found to be dominated by pronounced size-dependent confinement effects. Mapping of the local density of states revealed complex standing wave patterns that arise due to interference of scattered Au surface state electrons at the edges of the Au nanoparticles. The observed phenomena could be modeled with high accuracy by theoretical particle-in-a-box calculations based on a variational method that can be applied to '2D boxes' of arbitrary polygonal shape and that we have previously successfully applied to explain the electronic wave patterns on Co islands on Au(111). Our findings support the general validity of this particle-in-a-box model.

  9. Inhalant abuse and dependence among adolescents in the United States.

    PubMed

    Wu, Li-Tzy; Pilowsky, Daniel J; Schlenger, William E

    2004-10-01

    To examine the patterns of inhalant use and correlates of the progression from inhalant use to abuse and dependence among adolescents aged 12 to 17. Study data were drawn from the 2000 and 2001 National Household Surveys on Drug Abuse. Multinominal logistic regression was used to identify the characteristics associated with progression to inhalant abuse and dependence. Inhalant use was common among the studied adolescents. Among adolescents aged 12 to 17, 0.4% met DSM-IV inhalant abuse or dependence criteria in the past year. Inhalant abuse and dependence affected adolescents regardless of gender, age, race/ethnicity, and family income. The progression from inhalant use to abuse or dependence was related to early first use, use of multiple inhalants, and weekly inhalant use. Adolescents with inhalant use disorders reported coexisting multiple drug abuse and dependence, mental health treatment, and delinquent behaviors. Adolescents with an inhalant use disorder may represent a subgroup of highly troubled youths with multiple vulnerabilities. Because early use is associated with progression to abuse and dependence, prevention programs should target elementary school-age children.

  10. Inhalant Abuse and Dependence Among Adolescents in the United States

    PubMed Central

    WU, LI-TZY; PILOWSKY, DANIEL J.; SCHLENGER, WILLIAM E.

    2005-01-01

    Objective To examine the patterns of inhalant use and correlates of the progression from inhalant use to abuse and dependence among adolescents aged 12 to 17. Method Study data were drawn from the 2000 and 2001 National Household Surveys on Drug Abuse. Multinominal logistic regression was used to identify the characteristics associated with progression to inhalant abuse and dependence. Results Inhalant use was common among the studied adolescents. Among adolescents aged 12 to 17, 0.4% met DSM-IV inhalant abuse or dependence criteria in the past year. Inhalant abuse and dependence affected adolescents regardless of gender, age, race/ethnicity, and family income. The progression from inhalant use to abuse or dependence was related to early first use, use of multiple inhalants, and weekly inhalant use. Adolescents with inhalant use disorders reported coexisting multiple drug abuse and dependence, mental health treatment, and delinquent behaviors. Conclusions Adolescents with an inhalant use disorder may represent a subgroup of highly troubled youths with multiple vulnerabilities. Because early use is associated with progression to abuse and dependence, prevention programs should target elementary school–age children. PMID:15381887

  11. A Review of Electronic Devices to Assess Inhaler Technique.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, Delesha M; Roberts, Courtney A; Sage, Adam J; George, Johnson; Horne, Robert

    2017-03-01

    Multiple electronic devices exist that provide feedback on the accuracy of patient inhaler technique. Our purpose is to describe the inhaler technique feedback provided by these devices, including specific technique steps measured, how feedback is displayed, target of feedback (patient, provider, researcher), and compatibility with inhaler type (metered-dose inhaler [MDI], diskus, etc.). We identified eight devices that provide feedback on inhaler technique. Only one device assessed all evidence-based MDI technique steps. Most devices provide limited real-time feedback to patients, if any feedback at all. Technologies to assess inhaler technique are advancing and hold great potential for improving patient inhaler technique. Many devices are limited in their ability to detect all evidence-based technique steps and provide real-time user-friendly feedback to patients and providers. Usability tests with patients and providers could identify ways to improve these devices to improve their utility in clinical settings.

  12. Humanizing the Protease-Activated Receptor (PAR) Expression Profile in Mouse Platelets by Knocking PAR1 into the Par3 Locus Reveals PAR1 Expression Is Not Tolerated in Mouse Platelets

    PubMed Central

    French, Shauna L.; Paramitha, Antonia C.; Moon, Mitchell J.; Dickins, Ross A.; Hamilton, Justin R.

    2016-01-01

    Anti-platelet drugs are the mainstay of pharmacotherapy for heart attack and stroke prevention, yet improvements are continually sought. Thrombin is the most potent activator of platelets and targeting platelet thrombin receptors (protease-activated receptors; PARs) is an emerging anti-thrombotic approach. Humans express two PARs on their platelets–PAR1 and PAR4. The first PAR1 antagonist was recently approved for clinical use and PAR4 antagonists are in early clinical development. However, pre-clinical studies examining platelet PAR function are challenging because the platelets of non-primates do not accurately reflect the PAR expression profile of human platelets. Mice, for example, express Par3 and Par4. To address this limitation, we aimed to develop a genetically modified mouse that would express the same repertoire of platelet PARs as humans. Here, human PAR1 preceded by a lox-stop-lox was knocked into the mouse Par3 locus, and then expressed in a platelet-specific manner (hPAR1-KI mice). Despite correct targeting and the predicted loss of Par3 expression and function in platelets from hPAR1-KI mice, no PAR1 expression or function was detected. Specifically, PAR1 was not detected on the platelet surface nor internally by flow cytometry nor in whole cell lysates by Western blot, while a PAR1-activating peptide failed to induce platelet activation assessed by either aggregation or surface P-selectin expression. Platelets from hPAR1-KI mice did display significantly diminished responsiveness to thrombin stimulation in both assays, consistent with a Par3-/- phenotype. In contrast to the observations in hPAR1-KI mouse platelets, the PAR1 construct used here was successfully expressed in HEK293T cells. Together, these data suggest ectopic PAR1 expression is not tolerated in mouse platelets and indicate a different approach is required to develop a small animal model for the purpose of any future preclinical testing of PAR antagonists as anti-platelet drugs. PMID

  13. [Inhalation therapy: inhaled corticosteroids in ENT, development and technical challenges of powder inhalers, nebulisers synchronized with breathing and aerosol size distribution. GAT aerosolstorming, Paris 2012].

    PubMed

    Le Guen, P; Peron, N; Durand, M; Pourchez, J; Cavaillon, P; Reychler, G; Vecellio, L; Dubus, J-C

    2013-10-01

    The working group on aerosol therapy (GAT) of the Société de Pneumologie de Langue Française (SPLF) has organized its third Aerosolstorming in 2012. During one single day, different aspects of inhaled therapies have been treated and are detailed in two articles, this one being the second. This text deals with the indications of inhaled corticosteroids in ENT, the development and technical challenges of powder inhalers, the advantages and disadvantages of each type of technologies to measure the particle sizes of inhaled treatments.

  14. Deposition of corticosteroid aerosol in the human lung by Respimat Soft Mist inhaler compared to deposition by metered dose inhaler or by Turbuhaler dry powder inhaler.

    PubMed

    Pitcairn, Gary; Reader, Sandie; Pavia, Demetri; Newman, Steve

    2005-01-01

    Fourteen mild-to-moderate asthmatic patients completed a randomized four-way crossover scintigraphic study to determine the lung deposition of 200 microg budesonide inhaled from a Respimat Soft Mist Inhaler (Respimat SMI), 200 microg budesonide inhaled from a Turbuhaler dry powder inhaler (Turbuhaler DPI, used with fast and slow peak inhaled flow rates), and 250 microg beclomethasone dipropionate inhaled from a pressurized metered dose inhaler (Becloforte pMDI). Mean (range) whole lung deposition of drug from the Respimat SMI (51.6 [46-57]% of the metered dose) was significantly (p < 0.001) greater than that from the Turbuhaler DPI used with both fast and slow inhaled flow rates (28.5 [24-33]% and 17.8 [14-22]%, respectively) or from the Becloforte pMDI (8.9 [6-12]%). The deposition pattern within the lungs was more peripheral for Respimat SMI than for Turbuhaler DPI. The results of this study showed that Respimat SMI deposited corticosteroid more efficiently in the lungs than either of two widely used inhaler devices, Turbuhaler DPI or Becloforte pMDI.

  15. Inhaled insulin--does it become reality?

    PubMed

    Siekmeier, R; Scheuch, G

    2008-12-01

    After more than 80 years of history the American and European Drug Agencies (FDA and EMEA) approved the first pulmonary delivered version of insulin (Exubera) from Pfizer/Nektar early 2006. However, in October 2007, Pfizer announced it would be taking Exubera off the market, citing that the drug had failed to gain market acceptance. Since 1924 various attempts have been made to get away from injectable insulin. Three alternative delivery methods where always discussed: Delivery to the upper nasal airways or the deep lungs, and through the stomach. From these, the delivery through the deep lungs is the most promising, because the physiological barriers for the uptake are the smallest, the inspired aerosol is deposited on a large area and the absorption into the blood happens through the extremely thin alveolar membrane. However, there is concern about the long-term effects of inhaling a growth protein into the lungs. It was assumed that the large surface area over which the insulin is spread out would minimize negative effects. But recent news indicates that, at least in smokers, the bronchial tumour rate under inhaled insulin seems to be increased. These findings, despite the fact that they are not yet statistical significant and in no case found in a non-smoker, give additional arguments to stop marketing this approach. Several companies worked on providing inhalable insulin and the insulin powder inhalation system Exubera was the most advanced technology. Treatment has been approved for adults only and patients with pulmonary diseases (e.g., asthma, emphysema, COPD) and smokers (current smokers and individuals who recently quitted smoking) were excluded from this therapy. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of Exubera are similar to those found with short-acting subcutaneous human insulin or insulin analogs. It is thus possible to use Exubera as a substitute for short-acting human insulin or insulin analogs. Typical side effects of inhaled insulin were coughing

  16. Étude comparative des techniques d'analyse par fluorescence X à dispersion d'énergie (ED-XRF) et à dispersion de longueur d'onde (WD-XRF), et par spectrométrie d'émission atomique à source plasma couplée par induction (ICP-AES)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahmani, A.; Benyaïch, F.; Bounakhla, M.; Bilal, E.; Moutte, J.; Gruffat, J. J.; Zahry, F.

    2004-11-01

    Dans ce travail, nous présentons une étude comparative des techniques d'analyse par fluorescence X à dispersion d'énergie (ED-XRF) et à dispersion de longueur d'onde (WD-XRF), et par spectrométrie d'émission atomique à source plasma couplée par induction (ICP-AES). Les résultats de la calibration des spectromètres à dispersion d'énergie, à excitation par sources radioactives (55Fe, 109Cd et 241Am) et à excitation secondaire (cible secondaire Mo et Cu) du Centre National pour l'Energie, les Sciences et les Techniques Nucléaires (CNESTEN, Rabat, Maroc) sur des échantillons étalons de références de l'Agence International de l'Energie Atomique (AIEA) et du Community Bureau of Référence (BCR) ont été comparés aux résultats d'analyse des mêmes échantillons étalons par la spectrométrie X à dispersion de longueur d'onde (WD-XRF) et par spectrométrie d'émission atomique à source plasma couplé par induction (ICP-AES) au département GENERIC du centre SPIN à l'Ecole des Mines de Saint-Etienne (France). Les trois techniques d'analyse utilisées donnent des résultats comparables pour le dosage des éléments majeurs, alors que pour les traces on note des déviations importantes à cause des effets de matrice qui sont difficiles à corriger dans le cas de la fluorescence X.

  17. Mise au point d'un reacteur epitaxial CBE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelletier, Hubert

    Ce projet de maîtrise consiste à l'asservissement et la mise en marche d'un réacteur d'épi-taxie par jets chimiques au Laboratoire d'Épitaxie Avancée de l'Université de Sherbrooke. Le réacteur sert à la croissance dans l'ultravide de matériaux semi-conducteurs tels que l'arséniure de gallium (GaAs) et le phosphure d'indium-gallium (GaInP). La programmation LabVIEW et du matériel informatique de National Instruments sont utilisés pour asservir le réacteur. Le contrôle de la température de l'échantillon et de la pression de contrôle des réactifs de croissance dans le réacteur est assuré par des boucles de rétroaction. Ainsi, la température de l'échantillon est stabilisée à ±0, 4 °C, alors que les pressions de contrôle de gaz peuvent être modulées sur un ordre de grandeur en 2 à 4 secondes, et stabilisées à ±0, 002 Torr. Le système de pompage du réacteur a été amélioré suite à des mesures de vitesse de pompage d'une pompe cryogénique. Ces mesures révèlent une dégradation sur plus d'un ordre de grandeur de son pompage d'hydrogène avec l'opération à long terme. Le remplacement de la pompe cryogénique par une pompe turbo-moléculaire comme pompe principale a permis d'améliorer la fiabilité du système de pompage du système sous vide. D'autre part, la conductance du système d'acheminement de gaz et d'injection a été augmentée afin de réduire un effet mémoire des sources le système et faciliter la croissance de matériaux ternaires. Ainsi, des croissances de GaAs (100) sur substrat de même nature ont été effectuées et ont révélé un matériau de bonne qualité. Sa rugosité moyenne de 0,17 nm, mesurée par microscopie à force atomique, est très faible selon la littérature. De plus, une mobilité élevée des porteurs est obtenue à fort dopage au silicium, au tellure et au carbone, notamment une mobilité de 42 ± 9 cm2V -1s-1 des porteurs majoritaires '(trous) lors du dopage au

  18. The ADMIT series - Issues in inhalation therapy. 4) How to choose inhaler devices for the treatment of COPD.

    PubMed

    Vincken, Walter; Dekhuijzen, Pn Richard; Barnes, Peter

    2010-03-01

    For patients with COPD, inhalation is the preferred route of administration of respiratory drugs for both maintenance and acute treatment. Numerous inhaler types and devices have been developed, each with their own particularities, advantages and disadvantages. Nevertheless, published COPD management guidelines pay little attention to the optimal choice of inhaler devices for COPD patients. Although efficacy and safety are the primary factors determining the choice of an inhaler device, randomised controlled trials (RCTs) directly comparing the efficacy and safety of different inhalers in COPD patients are scarce. Systematic reviews on this subject failed to find significant differences between devices for any of the clinical outcomes studied. When selecting a device for the delivery of inhaled drugs in 'real life' patients with COPD, other factors should be considered. These include availability and affordability of the inhaled drugs and inhaler devices, the uniformity of inhaler devices when several drugs are to be inhaled, the ability of patients to handle correctly the selected device - in particular taking into account the advanced age of the average COPD patient, and finally the patient's preference. The prescribing clinician's task is to provide comprehensive instructions for correct handling of the device and to review regularly the patient's inhalation technique.

  19. Rapid Transition from Inhaled Iloprost to Inhaled Treprostinil in Patients with Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Bourge, Robert C; Tapson, Victor F; Safdar, Zeenat; Benza, Raymond L; Channick, Richard N; Rosenzweig, Erika B; Shapiro, Shelley; White, Richard James; McSwain, Christopher Shane; Gotzkowsky, Stephen Karl; Nelsen, Andrew C; Rubin, Lewis J

    2013-01-01

    Background Inhaled treprostinil is a prostacyclin analog approved for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) that may provide a more convenient treatment option for patients receiving inhaled iloprost while maintaining the clinical benefit of inhaled prostacyclin therapy. Aims In this open-label safety study, 73 PAH patients were enrolled with primarily World Health Organization Class II (56%) or III (42%) symptoms. At baseline, most patients (93%) were receiving 5 μg of iloprost per dose but 38% of patients reported a dosing frequency below the labeled rate of 6–9 times daily. Patients initiated inhaled treprostinil at 3 breaths four times daily (qid) at the immediate next scheduled iloprost dose. The primary objective was to assess the safety of rapid transition from iloprost to inhaled treprostinil; clinical status and quality of life were also assessed. Results Most patients (84%) achieved the target treprostinil dose of 9 breaths qid and remained on study until transition to commercial therapy (89%). The most frequent adverse events (AEs) were cough (74%), headache (44%), and nausea (30%), and five patients prematurely discontinued study drug due to AE (n = 3), disease progression (n = 1), or death (n = 1). At week 12, the time spent on daily treatment activities was reduced compared to baseline, with a mean total savings of 1.4 h per day. Improvements were also observed at week 12 for 6-min walk distance (+16.0; P < 0.001), N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (−74 pg/mL; P = 0.001), and the Cambridge Pulmonary Hypertension Outcome Review (all domains P < 0.001). Conclusions Pulmonary arterial hypertension patients can be safely transitioned from inhaled iloprost to inhaled treprostinil while maintaining clinical status. PMID:22970909

  20. Rapid transition from inhaled iloprost to inhaled treprostinil in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Bourge, Robert C; Tapson, Victor F; Safdar, Zeenat; Benza, Raymond L; Channick, Richard N; Rosenzweig, Erika B; Shapiro, Shelley; White, R James; McSwain, Christopher Shane; Gotzkowsky, Stephen Karl; Nelsen, Andrew C; Rubin, Lewis J

    2013-02-01

    Inhaled treprostinil is a prostacyclin analog approved for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) that may provide a more convenient treatment option for patients receiving inhaled iloprost while maintaining the clinical benefit of inhaled prostacyclin therapy. In this open-label safety study, 73 PAH patients were enrolled with primarily World Health Organization Class II (56%) or III (42%) symptoms. At baseline, most patients (93%) were receiving 5 μg of iloprost per dose but 38% of patients reported a dosing frequency below the labeled rate of 6-9 times daily. Patients initiated inhaled treprostinil at 3 breaths four times daily (qid) at the immediate next scheduled iloprost dose. The primary objective was to assess the safety of rapid transition from iloprost to inhaled treprostinil; clinical status and quality of life were also assessed. Most patients (84%) achieved the target treprostinil dose of 9 breaths qid and remained on study until transition to commercial therapy (89%). The most frequent adverse events (AEs) were cough (74%), headache (44%), and nausea (30%), and five patients prematurely discontinued study drug due to AE (n = 3), disease progression (n = 1), or death (n = 1). At week 12, the time spent on daily treatment activities was reduced compared to baseline, with a mean total savings of 1.4 h per day. Improvements were also observed at week 12 for 6-min walk distance (+16.0; P < 0.001), N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (-74 pg/mL; P = 0.001), and the Cambridge Pulmonary Hypertension Outcome Review (all domains P < 0.001). Pulmonary arterial hypertension patients can be safely transitioned from inhaled iloprost to inhaled treprostinil while maintaining clinical status. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. Effect of inhaler design variables on paediatric use of dry powder inhalers.

    PubMed

    Lexmond, Anne J; Kruizinga, Tonnis J; Hagedoorn, Paul; Rottier, Bart L; Frijlink, Henderik W; de Boer, Anne H

    2014-01-01

    Age appropriateness is a major concern of pulmonary delivery devices, in particular of dry powder inhalers (DPIs), since their performance strongly depends on the inspiratory flow manoeuvre of the patient. Previous research on the use of DPIs by children focused mostly on specific DPIs or single inspiratory parameters. In this study, we investigated the requirements for a paediatric DPI more broadly using an instrumented test inhaler. Our primary aim was to assess the impact of airflow resistance on children's inspiratory flow profiles. Additionally, we investigated children's preferences for airflow resistance and mouthpiece design and how these relate to what may be most suitable for them. We tested 98 children (aged 4.7-12.6 years), of whom 91 were able to perform one or more correct inhalations through the test inhaler. We recorded flow profiles at five airflow resistances ranging from 0.025 to 0.055 kPa0.5.min.L-1 and computed various inspiratory flow parameters from these recordings. A sinuscope was used to observe any obstructions in the oral cavity during inhalation. 256 flow profiles were included for analysis. We found that both airflow resistance and the children's characteristics affect the inspiratory parameters. Our data suggest that a medium-high resistance is both suitable for and well appreciated by children aged 5-12 years. High incidences (up to 90%) of obstructions were found, which may restrict the use of DPIs by children. However, an oblong mouthpiece that was preferred the most appeared to positively affect the passageway through the oral cavity. To accommodate children from the age of 5 years onwards, a DPI should deliver a sufficiently high fine particle dose within an inhaled volume of 0.5 L and at a peak inspiratory flow rate of 25-40 L.min-1. We recommend taking these requirements into account for future paediatric inhaler development.

  2. ParA and ParB coordinate chromosome segregation with cell elongation and division during Streptomyces sporulation.

    PubMed

    Donczew, Magdalena; Mackiewicz, Paweł; Wróbel, Agnieszka; Flärdh, Klas; Zakrzewska-Czerwińska, Jolanta; Jakimowicz, Dagmara

    2016-04-01

    In unicellular bacteria, the ParA and ParB proteins segregate chromosomes and coordinate this process with cell division and chromosome replication. During sporulation of mycelial Streptomyces, ParA and ParB uniformly distribute multiple chromosomes along the filamentous sporogenic hyphal compartment, which then differentiates into a chain of unigenomic spores. However, chromosome segregation must be coordinated with cell elongation and multiple divisions. Here, we addressed the question of whether ParA and ParB are involved in the synchronization of cell-cycle processes during sporulation in Streptomyces To answer this question, we used time-lapse microscopy, which allows the monitoring of growth and division of single sporogenic hyphae. We showed that sporogenic hyphae stop extending at the time of ParA accumulation and Z-ring formation. We demonstrated that both ParA and ParB affect the rate of hyphal extension. Additionally, we showed that ParA promotes the formation of massive nucleoprotein complexes by ParB. We also showed that FtsZ ring assembly is affected by the ParB protein and/or unsegregated DNA. Our results indicate the existence of a checkpoint between the extension and septation of sporogenic hyphae that involves the ParA and ParB proteins.

  3. ParA and ParB coordinate chromosome segregation with cell elongation and division during Streptomyces sporulation

    PubMed Central

    Donczew, Magdalena; Mackiewicz, Paweł; Wróbel, Agnieszka; Flärdh, Klas; Zakrzewska-Czerwińska, Jolanta

    2016-01-01

    In unicellular bacteria, the ParA and ParB proteins segregate chromosomes and coordinate this process with cell division and chromosome replication. During sporulation of mycelial Streptomyces, ParA and ParB uniformly distribute multiple chromosomes along the filamentous sporogenic hyphal compartment, which then differentiates into a chain of unigenomic spores. However, chromosome segregation must be coordinated with cell elongation and multiple divisions. Here, we addressed the question of whether ParA and ParB are involved in the synchronization of cell-cycle processes during sporulation in Streptomyces. To answer this question, we used time-lapse microscopy, which allows the monitoring of growth and division of single sporogenic hyphae. We showed that sporogenic hyphae stop extending at the time of ParA accumulation and Z-ring formation. We demonstrated that both ParA and ParB affect the rate of hyphal extension. Additionally, we showed that ParA promotes the formation of massive nucleoprotein complexes by ParB. We also showed that FtsZ ring assembly is affected by the ParB protein and/or unsegregated DNA. Our results indicate the existence of a checkpoint between the extension and septation of sporogenic hyphae that involves the ParA and ParB proteins. PMID:27248800

  4. Modifications vibrationnelles induites par différentes vapeurs acides sur les polyanilines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cochet, M.; Quillard, S.; Buisson, J. P.; Lefrant, S.; Louarn, G.

    1998-06-01

    We present a comparative study of conductive form of polyaniline, i.e, polyemeraldine doped with HCl vapor or with HCSA upon m-cresol vapor. UV-Vis.-nir absorption measurements on polyaniline thin films, vs acid vapors time exposure, have been made. In the same way, Raman spectra have been recorded with different excitation lines from the blue and red ranges to the infrared region. Finally, an assignment of Raman bands observed, is proposed and confirmed by vibrational calculations based on valence-force-field. Nous présentons une étude comparative de la forme conductrice de la polyaniline, c'est-à-dire de la polyéméraldine dopée par des vapeurs d'HCl ou dopée par l'acide camphre sulfonique (HCSA) sous vapeurs de m-crésol. Des mesures d'absorption UV-Vis-proche infrarouge sur des films minces de polyaniline, en fonction du temps d'exposition aux vapeurs acides, ont été réalisées. Parallèlement, les spectres Raman ont été obtenus pour différentes longueurs d'onde d'excitation allant du visible jusqu'au proche infrarouge. Finalement, une attribution des bandes Raman observées est proposée et confirmée par des calculs vibrationnels basés sur des champs de force de valence.

  5. suPAR and Team Nephrology

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Primary focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) accounts for nearly 10 % of patients who require renal replacement therapy. Elevated circulating levels of soluble urokinase receptor (suPAR) have been identified as a biomarker to discriminate primary FSGS from other glomerulopathies. Subsequent reports have questioned the diagnostic utility of this test. In a study in BMC Medicine, Huang et al. demonstrate that urinary soluble urokinase receptor (suPAR) excretion assists in distinguishing primary FSGS from other glomerular diseases, and that high plasma suPAR concentrations are not directly linked to a decline in glomerular filtration rate (GFR). This observation suggests that further investigation of suPAR is warranted in patients with FSGS. It should be interpreted in light of a recent report that B7-1 is expressed in the podocytes of a subset of patients with FSGS, and that blocking this molecule may represent the first successful targeted intervention for this disease. These advances highlight the rapid pace of scientific progress in the field of nephrology. Nephrologists should work together, share resources, and expedite the design of protocols to evaluate these novel biomarkers in a comprehensive and scientifically valid manner. Please see related article http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7015/12/81. PMID:24885021

  6. Suppression of Υ production in d + Au + and Au + Au collisions at √sNN =200 GeV

    DOE PAGES

    None

    2014-07-01

    We report measurements of Upsilon meson production in p + p, d +Au, and Au+Au collisions using the STAR detector at RHIC. We compare the Upsilon yield to the measured cross section in p + p collisions in order to quantify any modifications of the yield in cold nuclear matter using d +Au data and in hot nuclear matter using Au+Au data separated into three centrality classes. Our p +p measurement is based on three times the statistics of our previous result. We obtain a nuclear modification factor for Upsilon (1S + 2S + 3S) in the rapidity range |y|more » < 1 in d + Au collisions of RdAu = 0.79 ± 0.24(stat.) ± 0.03(syst.) ± 0.10(p + p syst.). A comparison with models including shadowing and initial state part on energy loss indicates the presence of additional cold-nuclear matter suppression. Similarly, in the top 10% most-central Au + Au collisions, we measure a nuclear modification factor of R AA = 0.49 ±0.1(stat.) ±0.02(syst.) ±0.06(p + p syst.), which is a larger suppression factor than that seen in cold nuclear matter. Our results are consistent with complete suppression of excited-state Upsilon mesons in Au + Au collisions. The additional suppression in Au + Au is consistent with the level expected in model calculations that include the presence of a hot, deconfined Quark–Gluon Plasma. However, understanding the suppression seen in d + Au is still needed before any definitive statements about the nature of the suppression in Au + Au can be made.« less

  7. Optical Spectroscopy of AU Mon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barría, D.; Mennickent, R. E.

    2011-09-01

    We have carried out a series of spectroscopic observations of the Double Periodic Variable system AU Monocerotis since 2008. Most data were taken at the DuPont telescope in Las Campanas Observatory using the Echelle spectrograph. We present preliminary results of our spectroscopic analysis of AU Mon. With an orbital period of 11.1 days and long period of 417 days, AU Mon is a bright galactic system (V = 8.4) formed by a Be-type primary (gainer) and a G-type secondary (donor). We show Balmer and Helium line profiles in different phases of the orbital and long period as diagnostic of mass loss processes and dynamics of the rotating gas envelope.

  8. Overland and Amphibious ACV Design Data Relating to Performance (Donnees Techniques Relatives au Rendement de VCA Terrestres et Amphibies).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-04-01

    PERFORMANCE D NNEES TECHNIQUES RELATIVES AU RENDEMENT DE / VCA TERRESTRES ET AMPHIBIES) ] , , A,..o? by/par ~ ~ ~ V H.S Fowler 14’ lee I II I E.H...Dudgeon, Head/Chef Engine Laboratory/ D.C. MacPhail Laboratoire des moteurs Director/Directeur I( I SUMMARY This handbook of data endeavours to collect...Ce manuel de donn~es tente de faire la compilation et de presenter sous une forme pratique des donn~es techniques relatives au rendement de vihicules i

  9. Floating patterns of metered dose inhalers.

    PubMed

    Wolf, B L; Cochran, K R

    1997-01-01

    As long as metered dose inhalers have existed, patients have sought a reliable method to determine if a given canister was still potent. Concerning beta agonists, the answer to this question may be lifesaving. Issues of compliance have made dating canisters or counting doses impractical. Likewise, previous claims of floating characteristics are unreliable. In tap water, we float-tested 13 commonly used inhalers three times each, observing variations as they were incrementally actuated, emptying their contents. One essential pattern was observed. Almost all prescription-size canisters sink when full; all float by the time one-third of their contents is gone. Orientation of prescription-size canisters changes in a distinct pattern especially near 90% depletion. Sample-size canisters showed some variance. Results suggest that the pharmaceutical industry should include individual floating characteristics as part of the package insert as they provide a reproducible means of gauging contents.

  10. IRIS Toxicological Review of Ammonia Noncancer Inhalation ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA has finalized the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) Assessment of Ammonia (Noncancer Inhalation). This assessment addresses the potential noncancer human health effects from long-term inhalation exposure to ammonia. Now final, this assessment will update the current toxicological information on ammonia posted in 1991. EPA’s program and regional offices may use this assessment to inform decisions to protect human health. EPA completed the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) health assessment for ammonia. IRIS is an EPA database containing Agency scientific positions on potential adverse human health effects that may result from chronic (or lifetime) exposure to chemicals in the environment. IRIS contains chemical-specific summaries of qualitative and quantitative health information in support of two steps of the risk assessment paradigm, i.e., hazard identification and dose-response evaluation. IRIS assessments are used in combination with specific situational exposure assessment information to evaluate potential public health risk associated with environmental contaminants.

  11. ASSESSMENT OF DIOXIN INHALATION EXPOSURES AND ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    In the days following the September 11, 2001, terrorist attack on New York City's World Trade Center (WTC) towers, EPA, other federal agencies, and New York City and New York State public health and environmental authorities initiated numerous air monitoring activities to better understand the ongoing impact of emissions from that disaster. Using these data, EPA conducted an inhalation exposure and human health risk assessment. The overall evaluation focused on particulate matter, metals, polychlorinated biphenyls, dioxin-like compounds, asbestos, and volatile organic compounds. This paper reports on the analysis of dioxin-like compounds only.Lorber, M. 2003. Assessment of Dioxin Inhalation Exposures and Potential Health Impacts Following the Collapse of the World Trade Center Towers. Organohalogen Compounds 63 (no page numbers). journal article

  12. Toxicity of inhaled methyl isocyanate vapor

    SciTech Connect

    Ferguson, J.S.

    1988-01-01

    The toxicity of inhaled isocyanate (MIC) vapor was evaluated using several bioassays designed to investigate the toxicity of airborne chemicals. Two methods which measure changes in respiratory rate and identify characteristic breathing patterns in mice were used to evaluate the potency of MIC as a sensory and pulmonary irritant. Using the CO{sub 2} challenge method in conjunction with the measurement of airflow (V) and tidal volume (VT), the pulmonary effects and subsequent recovery process following a single exposure to MIC were studied in guinea pigs for a period of one year. Flow-volume loops were also obtained by plotting V vs. VT. Measurement of O{sub 2} uptake and CO{sub 2} output were also performed to determine the acute and chronic effects of MIC exposure on gas exchange. Lastly, guinea pigs and mice were exposed to {sup 14}C-MIC in an effort to determine uptake and fate of inhaled MIC.

  13. Inhalation risk in low-gravity spacecraft.

    PubMed

    Todd, P; Sklar, V; Ramirez, W F; Smith, G J; Morgenthaler, G W; McKinnon, J T; Oberdorster, G; Schulz, J

    1994-07-01

    Inhalation risks on long-duration manned spaced flight include gasses chronically released by outgassing of materials, gasses released during spills, thermodegradation events (including fires) with their attendant particulates, and fire extinguishment. As an example, an event in which electronic insulation consisting of polytetrafluoroethylene undergoes thermodegradation on the Space Station Freedom was modeled experimentally and theoretically from the initial chemistry and convective transport through pulmonary deposition in humans. The low-gravity environment was found to impact various stages of event simulation. Critical unknowns were identified, and these include the extent of production of ultrafine particles and polymeric products at the source in low gravity, the transport of ultrafine particles in the spacecraft air quality control system, and the biological response of the lung, including alveolar macrophages, to this inhalation risk in low gravity.

  14. Inhaled medicinal cannabis and the immunocompromised patient.

    PubMed

    Ruchlemer, Rosa; Amit-Kohn, Michal; Raveh, David; Hanuš, Lumír

    2015-03-01

    Medicinal cannabis is an invaluable adjunct therapy for pain relief, nausea, anorexia, and mood modification in cancer patients and is available as cookies or cakes, as sublingual drops, as a vaporized mist, or for smoking. However, as with every herb, various microorganisms are carried on its leaves and flowers which when inhaled could expose the user, in particular immunocompromised patients, to the risk of opportunistic lung infections, primarily from inhaled molds. The objective of this study was to identify the safest way of using medicinal cannabis in immunosuppressed patients by finding the optimal method of sterilization with minimal loss of activity of cannabis. We describe the results of culturing the cannabis herb, three methods of sterilization, and the measured loss of a main cannabinoid compound activity. Systematic sterilization of medicinal cannabis can eliminate the risk of fatal opportunistic infections associated with cannabis among patients at risk.

  15. Pulmonary injury after ski wax inhalation exposure.

    PubMed

    Bracco, D; Favre, J B

    1998-11-01

    A wide variety of irritants can lead to respiratory failure after inhalation injuries. We present a case of adult respiratory distress syndrome after exposure to a fluorocarbon resin (PFF 1020) used as ski wax. The patient sustained a mild but prolonged exposure to this substance, which subsequently led to symptoms of severe respiratory failure over the next 24 hours. Except for hypocalcemia, there were no systemic manifestations and recovery was uneventful. Ski wax is considered to be nontoxic and there are no reported side effects of these products. Injury was related to the heated fluorocarbon particles. This case report of a severe lung inhalation injury points out the increasing risk of environmental hazards associated with the use of synthetic substances.

  16. Inhalation drug delivery devices: technology update

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Mariam; Verma, Rahul; Garcia-Contreras, Lucila

    2015-01-01

    The pulmonary route of administration has proven to be effective in local and systemic delivery of miscellaneous drugs and biopharmaceuticals to treat pulmonary and non-pulmonary diseases. A successful pulmonary administration requires a harmonic interaction between the drug formulation, the inhaler device, and the patient. However, the biggest single problem that accounts for the lack of desired effect or adverse outcomes is the incorrect use of the device due to lack of training in how to use the device or how to coordinate actuation and aerosol inhalation. This review summarizes the structural and mechanical features of aerosol delivery devices with respect to mechanisms of aerosol generation, their use with different formulations, and their advantages and limitations. A technological update of the current state-of-the-art designs proposed to overcome current challenges of existing devices is also provided. PMID:25709510

  17. Fiber inhalability and head deposition in rats and humans. ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Due to their dimensions and long durability, inhaled asbestos fibers clear slowly from lung airways. Retained fibers may injure the epithelium, interact with macrophages, or translocate to the interstitium to result in various respiratory diseases. Therefore, calculations of fiber inhalability, deposition, and retention in respiratory tract regions of both rats and humans are crucial, both to assess the health risk of fiber exposures and to facilitate inferences from rat inhalation studies. Rat inhalation experiments are underway at the EPA and NIEHS. A model of fiber inhalability and initial deposition in the human and rat nasal cavity was developed. Existing models for particles were extended to fibers by replacing particle diameter with an equivalent fiber diameter. Since fiber inhalability into the respiratory tract and deposition in the extra thoracic airways depended mainly on its inertia, equivalent impaction diameters were derived and substituted in expressions for spherical particle diameter to determine fiber inhalability and nasal losses. Fiber impaction diameter depended strongly on its orientation in the air. Highest inhalability was obtained when fibers were aligned perpendicular to the flow streamlines in the inhaled air. However, detailed calculations of fiber transport in slow moving air such as that in the atmosphere and in lung airways showed that fibers stayed primarily aligned (parallel) to the flow. Therefore, for inhalability calculations,

  18. PAR Corneal Topography System (PAR CTS): the clinical application of close-range photogrammetry.

    PubMed

    Belin, M W; Cambier, J L; Nabors, J R; Ratliff, C D

    1995-11-01

    The PAR Corneal Topography System (CTS) is a computer-driven corneal imaging system which uses close-range photogrammetry (rasterphotogrammetry) to measure and produce a topographic map of the corneal surface. The PAR CTS makes direct point-by-point measurements of surface elevation using a stereo-triangulation technique. The CTS uses a grid pattern composed of horizontal and vertical lines spaced about 0.2 mm (200 microns) apart. Each grid intersection comprises a surface feature which can be located in multiple images and used to generate an (x,y,z) coordinate. Unlike placido disc-based videokeratoscopes, the PAR CTS requires neither a smooth reflective surface nor precise spatial alignment for accurate imaging. In addition to surface elevation, the PAR CTS computes axial and tangential curvatures and refractive power. Difference maps are available in all curvatures, refractive power, and in absolute elevation.

  19. Effects of inhaled acids on lung biochemistry.

    PubMed

    Last, J A

    1989-02-01

    Effects of respirable aerosols of sulfuric acid, ammonium sulfate, sodium sulfite, and ammonium persulfate on lungs of rats are reviewed. The literature regarding interactions between ozone or nitrogen dioxide and acidic aerosols (ammonium sulfate, sulfuric acid) is discussed. An unexpected interaction between nitrogen dioxide and sodium chloride aerosol is also discussed. An attempt is made to identify bases for prediction of how and when acid aerosols might potentiate effects of inhaled gases.

  20. Scavenger Receptors and Resistance to Inhaled Allergens

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-02-01

    resistance to asthma and pneumonia. The scope of the research includes studies using in vivo mouse models (Aim 1), studies of the specific role of...in modulating allergic responses using the mouse model. We have made good progress, matching the projected completion of task 1 in year 1. This...defense of the lung against inhaled allergens using receptor-deficient mice and a model of allergic asthma. We found that sensitized mice lacking SRAs

  1. Inhaled Nitric Oxide in Acute Lung Disease.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-01-01

    seems likely ECMO extracorporeal membrane oxygenation EDRF endothelial-derived relaxing factor that the potent dose-related selective pulmonary GBS... ECMO ). To evaluate the dose response and time inhaled NO. (Fig. 7). The significant decrease in oxy- course of the pulmonary effects of NO., inspiratory...effects (39, 40). In many of these chil- dren, ECMO has been avoided. Similar improvement _0 has been noted in adult patients undergoing cardio- LPS NO

  2. Inhaled histamine increases human lung mucociliary transport

    SciTech Connect

    Mussatto, D.J.; Garrard, C.S.; Trumbull, J.J.; Bowers, M.W.; Sanders, C.J.; Yeates, D.B.; Lourenco, R.V.

    1986-03-01

    Histamine, a mediator of airways constriction, alters ciliary beat frequency, bronchial mucus production, and epithelial ion transport; and in dogs, increases mucociliary transport. To evaluate the effect of inhaled histamine on human tracheobronchial mucociliary clearance, the authors measured lung mucociliary clearance (LMC) and tracheal mucociliary transport rate (TMTR) in 5 healthy, nonsmoking subjects in a randomized, double-blind, cross-over study. The concentration of inhaled histamine which produced a 20% fall in FEV/sub 1/ was established for each subject. On a separate day the subjects inhaled a 9 ..mu..m MMAD /sup 99m/Tc-Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/ aerosol. LMC and TMTR were then measured for 2.5h using a gamma camera and a tracheal multidetector probe. Simultaneously, the subjects were challenged every 26 +/- 4 min with either PBS or histamine in PBS. The Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/ retained after 24h for histamine (14.4 +/- 7.6%) and PBS studies (13.1 +/- 8.6%) indicated no difference in deposition of Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/ (ANOVA). Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/ clearance at 30 min was increased in the histamine studies (61 +/- 21% compared to the PBS studies (44 +/- 29%; p < 0.02, ANOVA)). TMTR was also increased with histamine (7.6 +/- 3.4 mm/min) compared to PBS (4.6 +/- 1.7 mm/min; p < 0.001, ANOVA). Results indicate an acute stimulatory effect of inhaled histamine on mucous transport in humans.

  3. Iodine Inhalation Study for Project Sedan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1964-05-20

    was essential to prevent inhalation of resuspended material and in- gestion of material deposited on the nose and fur. Therefore, four animals at each...one dog from the 31 -mile station. -Z8- I 1 P J 7 ř-- COUNTED 1235 PDT JULY 8 w 1 w87 4_ COUTE 13235PTJL COUE.. 00187+ 1PJ2 I I z 132 II\\"\\/ I, w1. 7

  4. [Ventricular fibrillation following deodorant spray inhalation].

    PubMed

    Girard, F; Le Tacon, S; Maria, M; Pierrard, O; Monin, P

    2008-01-01

    We report one case of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest with ventricular fibrillation following butane poisoning after inhalation of antiperspiration aerosol. An early management using semi-automatic defibrillator explained the success of the resuscitation. The mechanism of butane toxicity could be an increased sensitivity of cardiac receptors to circulating catecholamines, responsible for cardiac arrest during exercise and for resuscitation difficulties. The indication of epinephrine is discussed.

  5. Deposition and clearance of inhaled particles.

    PubMed Central

    Stuart, B O

    1976-01-01

    Theoretical models of respiratory tract deposition of inhaled particles are compared to experimental studies of deposition patterns in humans and animals, as determined principally by particle size, density, respiratory rate and flow parameters. Various models of inhaled particle deposition make use of convenient approximations of the respiratory tract to predict tractional deposition according to fundamental physical processes of impaction, sedimentation, and diffusion. These theoretical models for both total deposition and regional (nasopharyngeal, tracheobronchial, and pulmonary) deposition are compared with experimental studies of inhaled dusts in humans or experimental animals that have been performed in many laboratories over several decades. Reasonable correlation has been obtained between theoretical and experimental studies, but the behavior of very fine (less than 0.01 mum) particles requires further refinement.Properties of particle shape, charge, and hygroscopicity as well as the degree of respiratory tract pathology also influence deposition patterns and further experimental work is urgently needed in these areas. The influence upon deposition patterns of dynamic alterations in inspiratory flow profiles caused by a variety of breathing patterns also requires further study, and the use of such techniques with selected inhaled particle size holds promise in possible diagnostic aid in diagnosis of normal versus disease conditions. Mechanisms of conducting airway and alveolar clearance processes involving mucociliary clearance, dissolution, transport to systemic circulation, and translocation via regional lymphatic clearance are discussed. The roles of the pulmonary macrophage in airway and alveolar clearance are described, and the applicability of recent solubility models for translocation or deposited materials to liver, skeleton, or other systemic organs is discussed. PMID:797567

  6. Electrostatics in pharmaceutical aerosols for inhalation.

    PubMed

    Wong, Jennifer; Chan, Hak-Kim; Kwok, Philip Chi Lip

    2013-08-01

    Electrostatics continues to play an important role in pharmaceutical aerosols for inhalation. Despite its ubiquitous nature, the charging process is complex and not well understood. Nonetheless, significant advances in the past few years continue to improve understanding and lead to better control of electrostatics. The purpose of this critical review is to present an overview of the literature, with an emphasis on how electrostatic charge can be useful in improving pulmonary drug delivery.

  7. Inhalant abuse among adolescents: neurobiological considerations

    PubMed Central

    Lubman, D I; Yücel, M; Lawrence, A J

    2008-01-01

    Experimentation with volatile substances (inhalants) is common during early adolescence, yet limited work has been conducted examining the neurobiological impact of regular binge use during this key stage of development. Human studies consistently demonstrate that chronic use is associated with significant toxic effects, including neurological and neuropsychological impairment, as well as diffuse and subtle changes in white matter. However, most preclinical research has tended to focus on acute exposure, with limited work examining the neuropharmacological or toxicological mechanisms underpinning these changes or their potential reversibility with abstinence. Nevertheless, there is growing evidence that commonly abused inhalants share common cellular mechanisms, and have similar actions to other drugs of abuse. Indeed, the majority of acute behavioural effects appear to be underpinned by changes in receptor and/or ion channel activity (for example, GABAA, glycine and 5HT3 receptor activation, NMDA receptor inhibition), although nonspecific interactions can also arise at high concentrations. Recent studies examining the effects of toluene exposure during the early postnatal period are suggestive of long-term alterations in the function of NMDA and GABAA receptors, although limited work has been conducted investigating exposure during adolescence. Given the critical role of neurotransmitter systems in cognitive, emotional and brain development, future studies will need to take account of the substantial neuromaturational changes that are known to occur in the brain during childhood and adolescence, and to specifically investigate the neuropharmacological and toxicological profile of inhalant exposure during this period of development. PMID:18332858

  8. Inhalant abuse among adolescents: neurobiological considerations.

    PubMed

    Lubman, D I; Yücel, M; Lawrence, A J

    2008-05-01

    Experimentation with volatile substances (inhalants) is common during early adolescence, yet limited work has been conducted examining the neurobiological impact of regular binge use during this key stage of development. Human studies consistently demonstrate that chronic use is associated with significant toxic effects, including neurological and neuropsychological impairment, as well as diffuse and subtle changes in white matter. However, most preclinical research has tended to focus on acute exposure, with limited work examining the neuropharmacological or toxicological mechanisms underpinning these changes or their potential reversibility with abstinence. Nevertheless, there is growing evidence that commonly abused inhalants share common cellular mechanisms, and have similar actions to other drugs of abuse. Indeed, the majority of acute behavioural effects appear to be underpinned by changes in receptor and/or ion channel activity (for example, GABA(A), glycine and 5HT(3) receptor activation, NMDA receptor inhibition), although nonspecific interactions can also arise at high concentrations. Recent studies examining the effects of toluene exposure during the early postnatal period are suggestive of long-term alterations in the function of NMDA and GABA(A) receptors, although limited work has been conducted investigating exposure during adolescence. Given the critical role of neurotransmitter systems in cognitive, emotional and brain development, future studies will need to take account of the substantial neuromaturational changes that are known to occur in the brain during childhood and adolescence, and to specifically investigate the neuropharmacological and toxicological profile of inhalant exposure during this period of development.

  9. Steroid therapy following isolated smoke inhalation injury.

    PubMed

    Robinson, N B; Hudson, L D; Riem, M; Miller, E; Willoughby, J; Ravenholt, O; Carrico, C J; Heimbach, D M

    1982-10-01

    Steroids have no positive influence upon pulmonary related morbidity and mortality following combined smoke inhalation and thermal cutaneous injury (3, 4). Steroid administration following isolated smoke inhalation without concomitant thermal cutaneous injury has, however, been shown to have beneficial effects in previous animal studies (1). This potential therapeutic approach to treatment has not been examined in the clinical setting. Recent hotel fires in Las Vegas, Nevada, resulted in a large cohort of individuals with similar smoke exposures without associated injuries. Two of four hospitals in the triage system administered steroids following injury. Patients were divided into two groups, a steroid-treated, and a non-treated group. These groups were compared using multivariate and frequency analyses. There were no detectable differences in sex, signs, symptoms, and previous medical history. There were likewise no differences between groups with respect to oxyhemoglobin saturation, arterial oxygen tension, arterial pH, and pulmonary-related morbidity and mortality. These data suggest that steroid coverage has little beneficial effect upon pulmonary-related morbidity and mortality following isolated smoke inhalation injury.

  10. Inhalation cancer risk assessment of cobalt metal.

    PubMed

    Suh, Mina; Thompson, Chad M; Brorby, Gregory P; Mittal, Liz; Proctor, Deborah M

    2016-08-01

    Cobalt compounds (metal, salts, hard metals, oxides, and alloys) are used widely in various industrial, medical and military applications. Chronic inhalation exposure to cobalt metal and cobalt sulfate has caused lung cancer in rats and mice, as well as systemic tumors in rats. Cobalt compounds are listed as probable or possible human carcinogens by some agencies, and there is a need for quantitative cancer toxicity criteria. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has derived a provisional inhalation unit risk (IUR) of 0.009 per μg/m(3) based on a chronic inhalation study of soluble cobalt sulfate heptahydrate; however, a recent 2-year cancer bioassay affords the opportunity to derive IURs specifically for cobalt metal. The mechanistic data support that the carcinogenic mode of action (MOA) is likely to involve oxidative stress, and thus, non-linear/threshold mechanisms. However, the lack of a detailed MOA and use of high, toxic exposure concentrations in the bioassay (≥1.25 mg/m(3)) preclude derivation of a reference concentration (RfC) protective of cancer. Several analyses resulted in an IUR of 0.003 per μg/m(3) for cobalt metal, which is ∼3-fold less potent than the provisional IUR. Future research should focus on establishing the exposure-response for key precursor events to improve cobalt metal risk assessment. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. The Mucus Barrier to Inhaled Gene Therapy.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Gregg A; Jung, James; Hanes, Justin; Suk, Jung Soo

    2016-12-01

    Recent evidence suggests that the airway mucus gel layer may be impermeable to the viral and synthetic gene vectors used in past inhaled gene therapy clinical trials for diseases like cystic fibrosis. These findings support the logic that inhaled gene vectors that are incapable of penetrating the mucus barrier are unlikely to provide meaningful benefit to patients. In this review, we discuss the biochemical and biophysical features of mucus that contribute its barrier function, and how these barrier properties may be reinforced in patients with lung disease. We next review biophysical techniques used to assess the potential ability of gene vectors to penetrate airway mucus. Finally, we provide new data suggesting that fresh human airway mucus should be used to test the penetration rates of gene vectors. The physiological barrier properties of spontaneously expectorated CF sputum remained intact up to 24 hours after collection when refrigerated at 4 °C. Conversely, the barrier properties were significantly altered after freezing and thawing of sputum samples. Gene vectors capable of overcoming the airway mucus barrier hold promise as a means to provide the widespread gene transfer throughout the airway epithelium required to achieve meaningful patient outcomes in inhaled gene therapy clinical trials.

  12. Smoke Inhalation Lung Injury: An Update

    PubMed Central

    Demling, Robert H.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study is to present a multifaceted, definitive review of the past and current status of smoke inhalation injury. History along with current understanding of anatomical, physiology, and biologic components will be discussed. Methods: The literature has been reviewed from the early onset of the concept of smoke inhalation in the 1920s to our current understanding as of 2007. Results: The results indicate that the current pathophysiologic concept is of a disease process that leads to immediate and delayed pulmonary injury best managed by aggressive physiologic support. Management approaches for the biochemical changes have not kept up with current knowledge. The lung injury process is activated by toxins in the smoke's gas and particle components and perpetuated by a resulting lung inflammation. This inflammatory process becomes self-perpetuating through the activation of a large number of inflammatory cascades. In addition, smoke injury leads to significant systemic abnormalities injuring other organs and accentuating the burn injury process and subsequently leading to mediator-induced cellular injury leading potentially to multisystem organ failure. Conclusions: Smoke inhalation injury results in the anatomic finding of denuded and sometimes sloughed airways mucosa. Physiologic findings include small airways containing fibrin casts of mucosa and neutrophils. Airway hyper-reactivity results as well, leading to further decreased collapse, causing obstruction. PMID:18552974

  13. Fragrance sensitisers: Is inhalation an allergy risk?

    PubMed

    Basketter, David; Kimber, Ian

    2015-12-01

    It is well established that some fragrance substances have the potential to cause skin sensitisation associated with the development of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). Fragrances are invariably relatively volatile leading to the consideration that inhalation of fragrances might be a relevant route for either the induction of allergic sensitisation or the elicitation of allergic reactions. Moreover, there has been increasing recognition that allergic sensitisation of the respiratory tract can be induced by topical exposure to certain chemical allergens. Here the central question addressed is whether inhalation exposure to fragrance allergens has the potential to cause skin and/or respiratory sensitisation via the respiratory tract, or elicit allergic symptoms in those already sensitised. In addressing those questions, the underlying immunobiology of skin and respiratory sensitisation to chemicals has been reviewed briefly, and the relevant experimental and clinical evidence considered. The essential mechanistic differences between skin and respiratory allergy appear consistent with other sources of information, including the phenomenon of ACD that can arise from topical exposure to airborne allergens, but in the absence of accompanying respiratory effects. The conclusion is that, in contrast to topical exposure (including topical exposure to airborne material), inhalation of fragrance sensitisers does not represent a health risk with respect to allergy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. A novel inhalable form of rifapentine.

    PubMed

    Chan, John G Y; Duke, Colin C; Ong, Hui Xin; Chan, Joseph C Y; Tyne, Anneliese S; Chan, Hak-Kim; Britton, Warwick J; Young, Paul M; Traini, Daniela

    2014-05-01

    Recent murine studies found that rifapentine, dosed daily, at least halved tuberculosis treatment times compared with standard rifampicin and isoniazid-containing regimens. However, in humans, an inhalable form of rifapentine may be necessary to considerably shorten treatment duration because of the physiological barriers associated with oral therapy. The current study compares two inhalable rifapentine dry powders-a novel pure crystalline form and an amorphous form-by a series of in vitro tests. The crystalline and amorphous powders had a mass median aerodynamic size of 1.68 ± 0.03 and 1.92 ± 0.01 μm, respectively, associated with a fine particle fraction of 83.2 ± 1.2% and 68.8 ± 2.1%, respectively. A quinone degradation product was identified in the amorphous powder stored for 1 month, whereas the crystalline form remained chemically stable after storage at both 0% and 60% relative humidity, 25°C, for at least 3 months. Solubilized rifapentine was well tolerated by pulmonary tissue and macrophage cells up to approximately 50 μM. The accumulation of rifapentine within alveolar macrophage cells was significantly higher than for rifampicin, indicating enhanced delivery to infected macrophages. The novel inhalable crystalline form of rifapentine is suitable for targeted treatment of tuberculosis infection and may radically shorten treatment duration.

  15. The pharmacology of chymotrypsin administered by inhalation

    PubMed Central

    Golberg, L.; Martin, L. E.; Sheard, P.; Harrison, C.

    1960-01-01

    The ability of chymotrypsin to reach the limits of the bronchial tree has been studied in cats receiving the enzyme by inhalation as a very fine powder. For this purpose derivatives of chymotrypsin were used which had been labelled with a fluorescent molecule or with [131I]. Quantitative measurements of the absorption and distribution of inhaled chymotrypsin- [131I] revealed a rapid removal of radioactivity from the lungs over the first 24 hr. and corresponding excretion of labelled inorganic iodide in the urine. High levels of activity were not attained in the blood or thyroid. Subcutaneous administration of labelled enzyme led to more rapid accumulation of radioactivity in the blood and thyroid. Consideration of these and other results leads to the conclusion that, while some enzyme ascends the respiratory tract by ciliary movement of mucus, a substantial part is absorbed into the lungs and the [131I] subsequently detached from it. The changes in tidal air accompanying inhalation of labelled trypsin and chymotrypsin were followed in anaesthetized cats. Trypsin brings about a decrease in tidal air in distinctly lower doses than does chymotrypsin. Prior administration of mepyramine had an antagonistic effect, and it is suggested that the change in tidal air is essentially the result of bronchial spasm. ImagesFIG. 2FIG. 3 PMID:13850540

  16. Inhaled Antibiotic Therapy in Chronic Respiratory Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Maselli, Diego J.; Keyt, Holly; Restrepo, Marcos I.

    2017-01-01

    The management of patients with chronic respiratory diseases affected by difficult to treat infections has become a challenge in clinical practice. Conditions such as cystic fibrosis (CF) and non-CF bronchiectasis require extensive treatment strategies to deal with multidrug resistant pathogens that include Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Burkholderia species and non-tuberculous Mycobacteria (NTM). These challenges prompted scientists to deliver antimicrobial agents through the pulmonary system by using inhaled, aerosolized or nebulized antibiotics. Subsequent research advances focused on the development of antibiotic agents able to achieve high tissue concentrations capable of reducing the bacterial load of difficult-to-treat organisms in hosts with chronic respiratory conditions. In this review, we focus on the evidence regarding the use of antibiotic therapies administered through the respiratory system via inhalation, nebulization or aerosolization, specifically in patients with chronic respiratory diseases that include CF, non-CF bronchiectasis and NTM. However, further research is required to address the potential benefits, mechanisms of action and applications of inhaled antibiotics for the management of difficult-to-treat infections in patients with chronic respiratory diseases. PMID:28509852

  17. Deposition and clearance of inhaled particles.

    PubMed Central

    Stuart, B O

    1984-01-01

    Theoretical models of respiratory tract deposition of inhaled particles are compared to experimental studies of deposition patterns in humans and animals, as governed principally by particle size, density, respiratory rate and flow parameters. Various models of inhaled particle deposition make use of approximations of the respiratory tract to predict fractional deposition caused by fundamental physical processes of particle impaction, sedimentation, and diffusion. These models for both total deposition and regional (nasopharyngeal, tracheobronchial, and pulmonary) deposition are compared with early and recent experimental studies. Reasonable correlation has been obtained between theoretical and experimental studies, but the behavior in the respiratory tract of very fine (less than 0.1 micron) particles requires further investigation. Properties of particle shape, charge and hygroscopicity as well as the degree of respiratory tract pathology also influence deposition patterns; definitive experimental work is needed in these areas. The influence upon deposition patterns of dynamic alterations in inspiratory flow profiles caused by a variety of breathing patterns also requires further study, and the use of differing ventilation techniques with selected inhaled particle sizes holds promise in diagnosis of respiratory tract diseases. Mechanisms of conducting airway and alveolar clearance processes involving the pulmonary macrophage, mucociliary clearance, dissolution, transport to systemic circulation, and translocation via regional lymphatic vessels are discussed. PMID:6376108

  18. The effect of altitude on inhaler performance.

    PubMed

    Titosky, Jordan T F; Morin, Chelsea M D; Suderman, Jonathan D; Olfert, Jason S; Finlay, Warren H; Vehring, Reinhard

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of the study is to understand the effect of altitude on the performance of selected pressurized metered dose inhalers (pMDIs) and dry powder inhalers (DPIs). A testing apparatus that created consistent breath profiles through the Alberta Idealized Throat was designed to test five pMDIs and two DPIs at altitudes of 670, 2450, 3260, and 4300 m. Both gravimetric and chemical assays were conducted to determine the in vitro lung dose. Additionally, spray duration and shot weight for pMDIs and device resistance for DPI were measured. There was no significant change in in vitro lung dose for any of the pMDIs tested. Shot weight and spray duration were unaffected. The device resistance of the DPIs decreased with increasing altitude and was successfully modeled as a function of ambient pressure. The in vitro lung dose of both DPIs showed no significant change when operated with an inhaler pressure drop of 4 kPa, but for the Bricanyl(®) Turbuhaler(®), a significant decrease occurred when matching the volumetric inspiratory flow rate to that of the baseline altitude. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  19. Inhalation toxicity of high flash aromatic naphtha.

    PubMed

    Clark, D G; Butterworth, S T; Martin, J G; Roderick, H R; Bird, M G

    1989-05-01

    A petroleum distillate--a high aromatic naphtha--consisting of a 50/50 blended mixture of equivalent products. SHELLSOL A* and SOLVESSO 100**, containing C9 isomers (75 percent) particularly trimethyl benzenes, was examined for systemic toxicity in rats by inhalation exposure. A preliminary 13-week inhalation study with SHELLSOL A had resulted in liver and kidney weight increases in female rats at the high (7400 mg/m3) and medium (3700 mg/m3) exposure levels, and a low grade anaemia in females at all exposure levels (7400, 3700 and 1800 mg/m3). The follow-up 12-month inhalation study in rats described here used atmosphere generated from the SHELLSOL A/SOLVESSO 100 blend of 1800, 900 and 450 mg/m3. Initial reduction in body weight gain occurred in both male and female rats at the higher exposures. Various statistically significant haematological changes were transiently seen in males up to six months, but were not considered biologically significant. High exposure male liver and kidney weights were increased at 6 and 12 months but, in the absence of histopathological changes, were considered to be physiological adaptive responses. No treatment-related histopathological abnormalities were found. It is concluded that chronic exposure to this high aromatic naphtha is without systemic toxicity in rats under the conditions of these studies.

  20. Therapy and prophylaxis of inhaled biological toxins.

    PubMed

    Paddle, Brian M

    2003-01-01

    This review highlights the current lack of therapeutic and prophylactic treatments for use against inhaled biological toxins, especially those considered as potential biological warfare (BW) or terrorist threats. Although vaccine development remains a priority, the use of rapidly deployable adjunctive therapeutic or prophylactic drugs could be life-saving in severe cases of intoxication or where vaccination has not been possible or immunity not established. The current lack of such drugs is due to many factors. Thus, methods involving molecular modelling are limited by the extent to which the cellular receptor sites and mode of action and structure of a toxin need to be known. There is also our general lack of knowledge of what effect individual toxins will have when inhaled into the lungs - whether and to what extent the action will be cell specific and cytotoxic or rather an acute inflammatory response requiring the use of immunomodulators. Possible sources of specific high-affinity toxin antagonists being investigated include monoclonal antibodies, selected oligonucleotides (aptamers) and derivatized dendritic polymers (dendrimers). The initial selection of suitable agents of these kinds can be made using cytotoxicity assays involving cultured normal human lung cells and a range of suitable indicators. The possibility that a mixture of selected antibody, aptamer or dendrimer-based materials for one or more toxins could be delivered simultaneously as injections or as inhaled aerosol sprays should be investigated. Copyright Crown Copyright 2003. Reproduced with the permission of Her Majesty's Stationery Office. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. View from west to east of PAR site resident engineer's ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View from west to east of PAR site resident engineer's office building (REOB) - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Resident Engineers Office Building, Southeast of intersection of PAR Access Road & Fourth Avenue, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  2. Élaboration de films de molécules organiques par ablation par laser UV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez-Perez, M. A.; Garapon, C.; Champeaux, C.; Coleman, A. W.

    2006-12-01

    Les potentialités des méthodes de dépôt par ablation laser (PLD) pour la préparation de films minces de matériaux organiques sont illustrées par un bref rappel bibliographique et par des résultats expérimentaux concernant des molécules d'intérêt biologique (acides aminés, calix-arènes, protéines). Les films sont préparés par PLD avec un laser KrF sans dégradation de la structure chimique des molécules dans une gamme de fluences de quelques dizaines à quelques centaines de mJ/cm2. Les propriétés structurales et optiques des films sont étudiées en fonction de la fluence du laser et mettent en évidence des arrangements moléculaires particuliers induits par cette méthode de dépôt. Le guidage optique a été obtenu pour des films de toutes ces molécules.

  3. A Combined Global and Local Approach to Elucidate Spatial Organization of the Mycobacterial ParB-parS Partition Assembly

    SciTech Connect

    B Chaudhuri; S Gupta; V Urban; M Chance; R DMello; L Smith; K Lyons; J Gee

    2011-12-31

    Combining diverse sets of data at global (size, shape) and local (residue) scales is an emerging trend for elucidating the organization and function of the cellular assemblies. We used such a strategy, combining data from X-ray and neutron scattering with H/D-contrast variation and X-ray footprinting with mass spectrometry, to elucidate the spatial organization of the ParB-parS assembly from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The ParB-parS participates in plasmid and chromosome segregation and condensation in predivisional bacterial cells. ParB polymerizes around the parS centromere(s) to form a higher-order assembly that serves to recruit cyto-skeletal ParA ATPases and SMC proteins for chromosome segregation. A hybrid model of the ParB-parS was built by combining and correlating computational models with experiment-derived information about size, shape, position of the symmetry axis within the shape, internal topology, DNA-protein interface, exposed surface patches, and prior knowledge. This first view of the ParB-parS leads us to propose how ParB spread on the chromosome to form a larger assembly.

  4. Kallikrein 6 Signals through PAR1 and PAR2 to Promote Neuron Injury and Exacerbate Glutamate Neurotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Hyesook; Radulovic, Maja; Wu, Jianmin; Blaber, Sachiko I.; Blaber, Michael; Fehlings, Michael G.; Scarisbrick, Isobel A.

    2014-01-01

    CNS trauma generates a proteolytic imbalance contributing to secondary injury, including axonopathy and neuron degeneration. Kallikrein 6 (Klk6) is a serine protease implicated in neurodegeneration and here we investigate the role of protease activated receptors 1 (PAR1) and PAR2 in mediating these effects. First we demonstrate Klk6 and the prototypical activator of PAR1, thrombin, as well as PAR1 and PAR2, are each elevated in murine experimental traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) at acute or subacute time points. Recombinant Klk6 triggered ERK1/2 signaling in cerebellar granule neurons and in the NSC34 spinal cord motoneuron cell line, in a PI3K and MEK-dependent fashion. Importantly, lipopeptide inhibitors of PAR1 or PAR2, and PAR1 genetic deletion, each reduced Klk6-ERK1/2 activation. In addition, Klk6 and thrombin promoted degeneration of cerebellar neurons and exacerbated glutamate neurotoxicity. Moreover, genetic deletion of PAR1 blocked thrombin-mediated cerebellar neurotoxicity and reduced the neurotoxic effects of Klk6. Klk6 also increased glutamate-mediated Bim signaling, PARP cleavage and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release in NSC34 motoneurons and these effects were blocked by PAR1 and PAR2 lipopeptide inhibitors. Taken together these data point to a novel Klk6-signaling axis in CNS neurons that is mediated by PAR1 and PAR2 and is positioned to contribute to neurodegeneration. PMID:23647384

  5. A Combined Global and Local Approach to Elucidate Spatial Organization of the Mycobacterial ParB-parS Partition

    SciTech Connect

    Chaudhuri, Barnali; Gupta, Sayan; Urban, Volker S; Chance, Mark; D'Mello, Rhijuta; Smith, Lauren; Lyons, Kelly; Gee, Jessica

    2010-01-01

    Combining diverse sets of data at global (size, shape) and local (residue) scales is an emerging trend for elucidating the organization and function of the cellular assemblies. We used such a strategy, combining data from X-ray and neutron scattering with H/D-contrast variation and X-ray footprinting with mass spectrometry, to elucidate the spatial organization of the ParB-parS assembly from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The ParB-parS participates in plasmid and chromosome segregation and condensation in predivisional bacterial cells. ParB polymerizes around the parS centromere(s) to form a higher-order assembly that serves to recruit cyto-skeletal ParA ATPases and SMC proteins for chromosome segregation. A hybrid model of the ParB-parS was built by combining and correlating computational models with experiment-derived information about size, shape, position of the symmetry axis within the shape, internal topology, DNA-protein interface, exposed surface patches, and prior knowledge. This first view of the ParB-parS leads us to propose how ParB spread on the chromosome to form a larger assembly.

  6. Host response biomarker in sepsis: suPAR detection.

    PubMed

    Giamarellos-Bourboulis, Evangelos J; Georgitsi, Marianna

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies of our group have shown that suPAR may complement APACHE II score for risk assessment in sepsis. suPAR may be measured in serum of patients by an enzyme immunosorbent assay developed by Virogates (suPARnostic™). Production of suPAR from circulating neutrophils and monocytes may be assessed after isolation of neutrophils and monocytes and ex vivo culture. This is followed by measurement of suPAR in culture supernatants.

  7. L'asthme allergique au centre tunisien

    PubMed Central

    Joobeur, Samah; Mhamed, Saousen Cheikh; Saad, Ahmed Ben; Mribah, Hathami; Dekhil, Asma; Rouatbi, Naceur; El Kamel, Ali

    2015-01-01

    L'asthme allergique pose un réel problème de santé publique vu sa prévalence et son coût de prise en charge élevés. Etudier le profil clinique, fonctionnel respiratoire, allergologique, thérapeutique et évolutif de l'asthme allergique dans une région du centre tunisien. Etude rétrospective portant sur 1132 dossiers de patients porteurs d'asthme allergique suivis dans le service de pneumologie et d'allergologie à l'hôpital de Monastir (Tunisie). L’âge moyen est de 27 ± 12,5 ans. 61,1% des patients sont âgés entre 16 et 39 ans. Une prédominance féminine est notée (56,7%). L'identification de l'allergène en cause s'est basée essentiellement sur les tests cutanés allergologiques (99,4%). Les principaux pneumallergènes identifiés sont les acariens (91,2%), suivis par les pollens (22,8%) et les phanères des animaux (12%). La classification selon la sévérité a conclu à un asthme intermittent à persistant léger chez 87.1% de nos patients. Le traitement s'est basé essentiellement sur la corticothérapie inhalée (67,6%). L'asthme dans notre étude a été jugé contrôlé dans 68,3% des cas, partiellement contrôlé dans 24,8% et non contrôlé dans 6,9% des cas. L'asthme allergique est une affection répandue qui touche essentiellement le sujet jeune en pleine activité. Une prise en charge adéquate permet de contrôler la maladie et de réduire ses répercussions sur le patient et la collectivité. PMID:26097637

  8. Age-specific inhalation radiation dose commitment factors for selected radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Strenge, D.L.; Peloquin, R.A.; Baker, D.A.

    1982-08-01

    Inhalation dose commitment factors are presented for selected radionuclides for exposure of individuals in four age groups: infant, child, teen and adult. Radionuclides considered are /sup 35/S, /sup 36/Cl, /sup 45/Ca, /sup 67/Ga, /sup 75/Se, /sup 85/Sr, /sup 109/Cd, /sup 113/Sn, /sup 125/I, /sup 133/Ba, /sup 170/Tm, /sup 169/Yb, /sup 182/Ta, /sup 192/Ir, /sup 198/Au, /sup 201/Tl, /sup 204/Tl, and /sup 236/Pu. The calculational method is based on the human metabolic model of ICRP as defined in Publication 2 (ICRP 1959) and as used in previous age-specific dose factor calculations by Hoenes and Soldat (1977). Dose commitment factors are presented for the following organs of reference: total body, bone, liver, kidney, thyroid, lung and lower large intestine.

  9. Photoneutron cross sections for Au

    SciTech Connect

    Itoh, O.; Utsunomiya, H.; Akimune, H.; Yamagata, T.; Kondo, T.; Kamata, M.; Toyokawa, H.; Harada, H.; Kitatani, F.; Goko, S.; Nair, C.; Lui, Y.-W.

    2011-10-28

    Photoneutron cross sections were measured for Au in the entire energy range of the ({gamma},n) channel based on a direct neutron-counting technique with quasimonochromatic {gamma} rays produced in inverse Compton-scattering of laser photons with relativistic electrons. We present results of the measurement in comparison with the past data.

  10. Inhaled corticosteroid therapy with nebulized beclometasone dipropionate.

    PubMed

    Nicolini, Gabriele; Cremonesi, Giovanni; Melani, Andrea S

    2010-06-01

    Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) are the most effective anti-inflammatory agents for the management of chronic persistent asthma and are therefore recommended as first-line antiasthmatic therapy in children and adults. In various settings, the administration of ICS via nebulizer rather than hand-held inhaler (HHI) may have certain advantages, as many patients with HHI fail to use these devices properly or efficiently. In particular, young children, the elderly, the acutely ill, and those with restricted dexterity may be unable to coordinate inhalation with actuation of the device or to generate sufficient inspiratory flow to operate breath-actuated devices effectively. Compliance with nebulized therapy may also be better than that with a pressurized metered-dose inhaler (pMDI) plus spacer. Systematic reviews conclude that there is no significant difference in clinical effects between nebulizers and HHI. Performance and clinical effect of nebulization are influenced by several technical aspects such as the nebulizer-drug combination, nebulizer type, output and lung deposition. Among the currently available ICS, nebulized beclometasone dipropionate (BDP) has been in clinical use for more than 35 years, and has demonstrated marked clinical efficacy and a favorable tolerability profile in children and adults with chronic persistent asthma. The clinical efficacy of nebulized beclometasone is discussed in the present review using data from 13 published studies, which included a total of 1250 patients. Three multicenter, randomized, double-blind studies showed that nebulized BDP is as effective as BDP via pMDI plus spacer in a 2:1 dose ratio. Controlled trials involving 497 adults and children demonstrated similar clinical efficacy between nebulized BDP and either nebulized fluticasone propionate or nebulized budesonide. In all these trials, treatment-related adverse effects were generally uncommon, most were mild-to-moderate in severity, and most were associated with the

  11. Inhalant abuse by adolescents: a new challenge for Indian physicians.

    PubMed

    Basu, Debasish; Jhirwal, Om Prakash; Singh, Jaspreet; Kumar, Suresh; Mattoo, Surendra K

    2004-06-01

    Inhalant abuse has been commonly reported especially in the young during the last decades globally. The reason for the relative paucity of literature from India may be attributed to a lack of knowledge about this growing problem among health professionals. A series of five cases of inhalant abuse is described in order to understand this growing public health concern. Most of the cases started inhalant abuse during adolescence. All patients except one abused typewriter erasing fluid and thinner which contains toluene. All the patients reported using inhalants as addictive substance because of their easy accessibility, cheap price, their faster onset of action and the regular 'high' that it provided. Whereas several features of inhalant dependence were fulfilled, no physical withdrawal signs were observed. The diagnosis of inhalant abuse can be difficult and relies almost entirely on clinical judgment. Treatment is generally supportive.

  12. Inhaled or nebulised ciprofloxacin for the maintenance treatment of bronchiectasis.

    PubMed

    Cartlidge, Manjit K; Hill, Adam T

    2017-09-01

    Inhaled or nebulised antibiotics are a major topic of ongoing research interest in reducing exacerbations in bronchiectasis. There are no licenced inhaled or nebulised antibiotics currently in bronchiectasis. Areas covered: Inhaled or nebulised ciprofloxacin as a long-term treatment in bronchiectasis. Expert opinion: Results from the Phase III ongoing trials on inhaled or nebulised ciprofloxacin will be key for the outcome of the drugs but additionally, cost-effectiveness and longer-term studies will be necessary to determine the viability of the drug. Head to head studies are needed to decide on the optimum inhaled or nebulised antibiotic and their place with or without long term macrolide therapy. It is also important to determine what treatment is viable for acute exacerbations due to P. aeruginosa. Ciprofloxacin is the only currently available oral agent for exacerbations due to P. aeruginosa. The concern is that using inhaled or nebulised ciprofloxacin will prevent the use and efficacy of its oral equivalent, by developing resistance.

  13. Investigation of Appropriate Inhalation Technique for Mometasone Furoate Dry Powder Inhaler.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Haruko; Ito, Kanako; Mihashi, Hirokazu; Shiraishi, Yasuyuki; Takayanagi, Risa; Yamada, Yasuhiko

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish an appropriate inhalation method with a mometasone furoate dry powder inhaler (MF-DPI). Utilizing a tone-based inhalation training device, we investigated the maximum peak inspiratory flow rate time (Tmax PIFR) and peak inspiratory flow rate (PIFR) to determine whether either had an influence on lung deposition with use of an MF-DPI. A low tone indicated a PIFR of 28 L/min and a high tone that of 40 L/min, while 60 L/min was considered to be the standard. We established an inhalation profile in consideration of a human inhalation pattern, in which Tmax PIFR was set at 0.5 s (Tmax PIFR 0.5 s) and 2.5 s (Tmax PIFR 2.5 s). The reference cut-off value derived with a cascade impactor test was used for evaluation of the rate of delivered dose in the lung, which was the amount of drug from stage 3 to 7 at all PIFRs. We then investigated the relationship of the fine particle fraction (FPF) with the claimed dose at Tmax PIFR of 0.5 s and PIFR. There were no differences among the Tmax PIFR values for the doses emitted from the device or for the rate of delivered doses in stages 3-7. However, FPF for the claimed dose at 40 L/min was significantly lower than that at 60 L/min, which was dependent on PIFR. Our results showed that PIFR but not Tmax PIFR has an effect on lung deposition after inhalation with an MF-DPI.

  14. Relative lung and systemic bioavailability of sodium cromoglycate inhaled products using urinary drug excretion post inhalation.

    PubMed

    Aswania, Osama; Chrystyn, Henry

    2002-05-01

    The relative lung and systemic bioavailability of sodium cromoglycate following inhalation by different methods have been determined using a urinary excretion pharmacokinetic method. On three separate randomised study days, 7 days apart, subjects inhaled (i) 4x5 mg from an Intal metered dose inhaler (MDI), (ii) 4x5 mg from an MDI attached to a large volume spacer (MDI+SP) and (iii) 20 mg from an Intal Spinhaler (DPI). Urine samples were provided at 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 5 and 24 h post dose. The mean (S.D.) amount of sodium cromoglycate excreted in the urine during the first 30 min post inhalation was 38.1 (27.5), 222.3 (120.3) and 133.1 (92.2) microg following MDI, MDI+SP and DPI, respectively. The mean ratio (90% confidence interval) of these amounts excreted in the urine over the first 30 min for MDI+SP vs. MDI, DPI vs. MDI and MDI+SP vs. DPI was 801.0 (358.0, 1244; p<0.002)%, 457.0 (244.0, 670.0; p<0.02)% and 262.4 (110.2, 414.5)%, respectively. Similarly for the 24 h cumulative amount of sodium cromoglycate excreted over the 24 h post inhalation the ratios were 375.4 (232.9, 517.9; p<0.005)%, 287.5 (183.4, 391.6; p<0.02)% and 211.4 (88.3, 334.5)%, respectively. The results highlight better lung deposition of sodium cromoglycate from a metered dose inhaler attached to a large volume spacer.

  15. ViPAR: a software platform for the Virtual Pooling and Analysis of Research Data

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Kim W; Carter, KW; Francis, RW; Bresnahan, M; Gissler, M; Grønborg, TK; Gross, R; Gunnes, N; Hammond, G; Hornig, M; Hultman, CM; Huttunen, J; Langridge, A; Leonard, H; Newman, S; Parner, ET; Petersson, G; Reichenberg, A; Sandin, S; Schendel, DE; Schalkwyk, L; Sourander, A; Steadman, C; Stoltenberg, C; Suominen, A; Surén, P; Susser, E; Sylvester Vethanayagam, A; Yusof, Z

    2016-01-01

    Background: Research studies exploring the determinants of disease require sufficient statistical power to detect meaningful effects. Sample size is often increased through centralized pooling of disparately located datasets, though ethical, privacy and data ownership issues can often hamper this process. Methods that facilitate the sharing of research data that are sympathetic with these issues and which allow flexible and detailed statistical analyses are therefore in critical need. We have created a software platform for the Virtual Pooling and Analysis of Research data (ViPAR), which employs free and open source methods to provide researchers with a web-based platform to analyse datasets housed in disparate locations. Methods: Database federation permits controlled access to remotely located datasets from a central location. The Secure Shell protocol allows data to be securely exchanged between devices over an insecure network. ViPAR combines these free technologies into a solution that facilitates ‘virtual pooling’ where data can be temporarily pooled into computer memory and made available for analysis without the need for permanent central storage. Results: Within the ViPAR infrastructure, remote sites manage their own harmonized research dataset in a database hosted at their site, while a central server hosts the data federation component and a secure analysis portal. When an analysis is initiated, requested data are retrieved from each remote site and virtually pooled at the central site. The data are then analysed by statistical software and, on completion, results of the analysis are returned to the user and the virtually pooled data are removed from memory. Conclusions: ViPAR is a secure, flexible and powerful analysis platform built on open source technology that is currently in use by large international consortia, and is made publicly available at [http://bioinformatics.childhealthresearch.org.au/software/vipar/]. PMID:26452388

  16. ViPAR: a software platform for the Virtual Pooling and Analysis of Research Data.

    PubMed

    Carter, Kim W; Francis, Richard W; Carter, K W; Francis, R W; Bresnahan, M; Gissler, M; Grønborg, T K; Gross, R; Gunnes, N; Hammond, G; Hornig, M; Hultman, C M; Huttunen, J; Langridge, A; Leonard, H; Newman, S; Parner, E T; Petersson, G; Reichenberg, A; Sandin, S; Schendel, D E; Schalkwyk, L; Sourander, A; Steadman, C; Stoltenberg, C; Suominen, A; Surén, P; Susser, E; Sylvester Vethanayagam, A; Yusof, Z

    2015-10-08

    Research studies exploring the determinants of disease require sufficient statistical power to detect meaningful effects. Sample size is often increased through centralized pooling of disparately located datasets, though ethical, privacy and data ownership issues can often hamper this process. Methods that facilitate the sharing of research data that are sympathetic with these issues and which allow flexible and detailed statistical analyses are therefore in critical need. We have created a software platform for the Virtual Pooling and Analysis of Research data (ViPAR), which employs free and open source methods to provide researchers with a web-based platform to analyse datasets housed in disparate locations. Database federation permits controlled access to remotely located datasets from a central location. The Secure Shell protocol allows data to be securely exchanged between devices over an insecure network. ViPAR combines these free technologies into a solution that facilitates 'virtual pooling' where data can be temporarily pooled into computer memory and made available for analysis without the need for permanent central storage. Within the ViPAR infrastructure, remote sites manage their own harmonized research dataset in a database hosted at their site, while a central server hosts the data federation component and a secure analysis portal. When an analysis is initiated, requested data are retrieved from each remote site and virtually pooled at the central site. The data are then analysed by statistical software and, on completion, results of the analysis are returned to the user and the virtually pooled data are removed from memory. ViPAR is a secure, flexible and powerful analysis platform built on open source technology that is currently in use by large international consortia, and is made publicly available at [http://bioinformatics.childhealthresearch.org.au/software/vipar/]. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the

  17. L'analyse par activation de neutrons de réacteur

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, G.

    2003-02-01

    Quand les neutrons traversent la matière, certains sont transmis sans interaction, les autres interagissent avec le milieu traversé par diffusion et par absorption. Ce phénomène d'absorption est utilisé pour se protéger des neutrons, mais aussi pour les détecter; il peut également être utilisé pour identifier les noyaux “absorbants" et ainsi analyser le milieu traversé. En effet par différentes réactions nucléaires (n,γ), (n,p), (n,α), (n,fission), on obtient des noyaux résiduels qui sont souvent radioactifs; on dit que l'échantillon est “activé". Si l'on connaît le rendement d'activation et donc le pourcentage de noyaux ainsi “transmutés", les mesures de radioactivité induite vont permettre de déterminer la composition de l'échantillon irradié. Cette méthode dite d'analyse par activation neutronique est pratiquée depuis la découverte du neutron. Elle a permis grâce à sa sélectivité et à sa sensibilité d'avoir accès au domaine des traces et des ultra-traces dans des champs d'application très divers comme la métallurgie, l'archéologie, la biologie, la géochimie etc...

  18. Drosophila 14-3-3/PAR-5 is an essential mediator of PAR-1 function in axis formation.

    PubMed

    Benton, Richard; Palacios, Isabel M; St Johnston, Daniel

    2002-11-01

    PAR-1 kinases are required to determine the anterior-posterior (A-P) axis in C. elegans and Drosophila, but little is known about their molecular function. We identified 14-3-3 proteins as Drosophila PAR-1 interactors and show that PAR-1 binds a domain of 14-3-3 distinct from the phosphoserine binding pocket. PAR-1 kinases phosphorylate proteins to generate 14-3-3 binding sites and may therefore directly deliver 14-3-3 to these targets. 14-3-3 mutants display identical phenotypes to par-1 mutants in oocyte determination and the polarization of the A-P axis. Together, these results indicate that PAR-1's function is mediated by the binding of 14-3-3 to its substrates. The C. elegans 14-3-3 protein, PAR-5, is also required for A-P polarization, suggesting that this is a conserved mechanism by which PAR-1 establishes cellular asymmetries.

  19. Conception et caracterisation d'un magnetoplasma produit par une onde de surface pour la pulverisation d'echantillons solides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masse, Louis Philippe

    puissance. Une etude des caracteristiques du plasma seul a revele que le champ magnetique confine si bien le plasma que le maximum de densite electronique se trouve hors axe, plus exactement a la position radiale correspondant au rayon du cylindre dielectrique servant a former l'interface dielectrique-plasma dans la zone source du reacteur. Ce phenomene indique une tres nette superiorite du coefficient de diffusion axial par rapport au coefficient de diffusion radial. Notre reacteur a un potentiel interessant pour l'analyse elementaire de materiaux solides puisque le taux de pulverisation y est eleve et que les especes pulverisees sont aisement excitees et ionisees par le plasma.

  20. Inhaled surfactant in the treatment of accidental talc powder inhalation: a new case report.

    PubMed

    Matina, Federico; Collura, Mirella; Maggio, Maria Cristina; Vitulo, Patrizio; Lo Piparo, Caterina; Corsello, Giovanni

    2011-09-27

    The use of talcum powder is incorrectly part of the traditional care of infants. Its acute aspiration is a very dangerous condition in childhood. Although the use of baby powder has been discouraged from many authors and the reports of its accidental inhalation have been ever more rare, sometimes new cases with several fatalities have been reported. We report on a patient in which accidental inhalation of baby powder induced severe respiratory difficulties. We also point out the benefits of surfactant administration. Surfactant contributed to the rapid improvement of the medical and radiological condition, preventing severe early and late complications and avoiding invasive approaches.

  1. Mesure du taux de la capture radiative du muon par l'hydrogene liquide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jonkmans, Guy

    À basse énergie, l'interaction faible entre leptons et quarks est décrite par une interaction de la forme courant × courant de type V - A. La présence de l'interaction forte induit des couplages additionnels qui doivent être déterminés expérimentalement. De ceux-ci, le couplage pseudoscalaire induit, gp , est mesuré avec la plus grande incertitude et fait l'objet de la présente recherche. L'hypothèse du Courant Axial Partiellement Conservé (CAPC) et l'usage de la relation de Goldberger-Treiman relie gp au couplage axial ga . Cette relation a été vérifiée traditionnellement par la Capture Ordinaire du Muon (COM) à une valeur fixe du moment de transfert q. La Capture Radiative du Muon (CRM), m- p-->nnmg , est un meilleur outil pour l'étude de gp à cause de sa dépendance variable en q2 qui offre une plus grande sensibilité dans la partie à haute énergie du spectre des photons. Toutefois, le petit rapport d'embranchement (~10-8) de la CRM par rapport à la désintégration du muon a retardé cette mesure jusqu'à ce jour. La théorie et les difficultés expérimentales associées à la détection des photons de CRM sont présentées au deuxième chapitre. On décrit ensuite, au troisième chapitre, les composantes du système de détection. Ce détecteur est un spectromètre à paires de grand angle solide (~3p) et qui permet l'observation des photons par l'analyse des électrons et des positrons de photo-conversion. Ainsi, le bruit de fond important des neutrons de la COM ne constitue pas un problème pour cette mesure. Nous décrivons, au quatrième chapitre, toutes les étapes de l'analyse, nécessaires pour la réduction des multiples bruits de fond. Le cinquième chapitre présente le calcul des efficacités ainsi que l'estimation des erreurs systématiques. Le sixième chapitre démontre comment l'on extrait le rapport d'embranchement pour la CRM ainsi que la valeur ae gp . On insiste sur la dépendance de gp en fonction de la valeur de

  2. Induction of Food Allergy in Mice by Allergen Inhalation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    14. ABSTRACT The purpose of this project is to test the hypothesis that food allergy may develop in response to antigen inhalation. Studies in a...relative timing of antigen ingestion vs. antigen inhalation to lead to food allergy development. We are also testing whether exposure to aerosolized...antigen will reverse or exacerbate established food allergy to that antigen. Studies in year 1 of this project demonstrate that: 1) initial inhalation

  3. Budesonide inhalation suspension: a nebulized corticosteroid for persistent asthma.

    PubMed

    Szefler, Stanley J; Eigen, Howard

    2002-04-01

    Guidelines for managing asthma in pediatric patients published by the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology and the American Academy of Pediatrics recommend the use of inhaled corticosteroids for the management of persistent asthma in infants and young children. When these guidelines were published, pressurized metered-dose inhalers and dry-powder inhalers were the only delivery devices available for inhaled corticosteroids in the United States. These devices can be difficult for young children to use correctly. Furthermore, no inhaled corticosteroid was approved in the United States for the treatment of children younger than 4 years. Budesonide inhalation suspension (Pulmicort Respules; AstraZeneca LP, Wilmington, Del) was developed to meet the medication delivery needs of infants and young children with persistent asthma. Pulmicort Respules is the first inhaled corticosteroid approved for administration by means of a nebulizer and the only inhaled corticosteroid approved in the United States for infants as young as 12 months. Budesonide has been studied extensively worldwide. In the United States the tolerability and efficacy of budesonide inhalation suspension were confirmed in 3 placebo-controlled multicenter trials. These studies demonstrated that both once- and twice-daily dosing of budesonide inhalation suspension (0.25-1 mg) improved pulmonary function and ameliorated asthma symptoms in infants and young children with persistent asthma. Budesonide inhalation suspension was well tolerated, and the incidences of reported adverse events were similar among patients in the budesonide, placebo, and conventional asthma therapy groups. This article reviews the results of these studies, as well as the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and clinical use of budesonide inhalation suspension.

  4. Spiral Patterning of Au Nanoparticles on Au Nanorod Surface to Form Chiral AuNR@AuNP Helical Superstructures Templated by DNA Origami.

    PubMed

    Shen, Chenqi; Lan, Xiang; Zhu, Chenggan; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Leyu; Wang, Qiangbin

    2017-02-20

    Plasmonic motifs with precise surface recognition sites are crucial for assembling defined nanostructures with novel functionalities and properties. In this work, a unique and effective strategy is successfully developed to pattern DNA recognition sites in a helical arrangement around a gold nanorod (AuNR), and a new set of heterogeneous AuNR@AuNP plasmonic helices is fabricated by attaching complementary-DNA-modified gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) to the predesigned sites on the AuNR surface. AuNR is first assembled to one side of a bifacial rectangular DNA origami, where eight groups of capture strands are selectively patterned on the other side. The subsequently added link strands make the rectangular DNA origami roll up around the AuNR into a tubular shape, therefore giving birth to a chiral patterning of DNA recognition sites on the surface of AuNR. Following the hybridization with the AuNPs capped with the complementary strands to the capture strands on the DNA origami, left-handed and right-handed AuNR@AuNP helical superstructures are precisely formed by tuning the pattern of the recognition sites on the AuNR surface. Our strategy of nanoparticle surface patterning innovatively realizes hierarchical self-assembly of plasmonic superstructures with tunable chiroptical responses, and will certainly broaden the horizon of bottom-up construction of other functional nanoarchitectures with growing complexity.

  5. [Ambroise Paré in French literature].

    PubMed

    Dumaitre, P

    1995-01-01

    The 16th century by its passionate side has been the favourite one of authors of historical novels in which among the heroes of "cloak and dagger stories" appears sometime Ambroise Paré. Alexandre Dumas (the father) has shown him at the court of Charles IX in La Reine Margot (1845) where he does not however play a great role. On the contrary, Balzac in Le Martyr calviniste (1842) has given him a capital part close to the dying François II, whom he intended to trepanize but had to give up this idea as a consequence of the opposition of the queen-mother Catherine de Médicis. In the present century, Robert Merle in Paris ma bonne ville (Fortune de France, 3, 1980) shows Paré at the time of the Saint Barthélemy.

  6. [Ambroise Paré and Latin].

    PubMed

    Drouin, Emmanuel

    2010-06-01

    We report a study of a medical book written by Antoine Mizaud (Memorabilium utilium, in ac iucundorum aphorismos Arcanorum omnis generis locupletes, perpulchre digestae), which was written in Latin, but has been extensively annotated in French.The book is from the personal collection of one of the physicians of Napoleon III. There is an oral tradition within his family that one of the works in the book had been annotated by Ambroise Paré. We know very little, apart from a few receipts and his signature, about the writing of the master of French surgery. Did he understand the language of Galen? There are many annotated passages in the works of Pare which are in the book. We examine whether these annotations were actually made by Ambroise Paré or whether they were done for him.

  7. Inhalant misuse in youth: time for a coordinated response.

    PubMed

    Lubman, Dan I; Hides, Leanne; Yücel, Murat

    2006-09-18

    Early adolescence is associated with high rates of experimental inhalant misuse, but only a minority continue to inhale on a regular basis. Inhalant misuse is associated with a range of adverse outcomes, including reports of increased morbidity and mortality. Research into inhalant use among adolescents is lacking, with limited data available on long-term outcomes or evidence-based approaches to treatment. Legislative and supply-reduction strategies have been introduced by a number of states and territories over recent years, but direct funding for specific targeted interventions is lacking. Investment and commitment to a national research framework, as well as coordination of local services, is urgently required.

  8. Inhalant abuse in the military: an unrecognized threat.

    PubMed

    Lacy, Benjamin W; Ditzler, Thomas F

    2007-04-01

    Although inhalant abuse represents the third most commonly abused class of drugs in the military, it is a frequently overlooked form of substance abuse in the active duty population. Inhalants' lack of visibility is also evident in the civilian community. In both the civilian and military communities, the factors leading to underrecognition of inhalant abuse include high availability, low cost, lack of drug screening and drug treatment programs, and frequent misdiagnosis by clinicians. This review seeks to inform care providers about the prevalence, health risks, diagnosis, and treatment of inhalant abuse in the active duty population, and encourages clinicians to be more aggressive in the identification of this serious but underrecognized problem.

  9. Effectiveness of Various Methods of Teaching Proper Inhaler Technique.

    PubMed

    Axtell, Samantha; Haines, Seena; Fairclough, Jamie

    2017-04-01

    To compare the effectiveness of 4 different instructional interventions in training proper inhaler technique. Randomized, noncrossover trial. Health fair and indigent clinic. Inhaler-naive adult volunteers who spoke and read English. Subjects were assigned to complete the following: (1) read a metered dose inhaler (MDI) package insert pamphlet, (2) watch a Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) video demonstrating MDI technique, (3) watch a YouTube video demonstrating MDI technique, or (4) receive direct instruction of MDI technique from a pharmacist. Inhaler use competency (completion of all 7 prespecified critical steps). Of the 72 subjects, 21 (29.2%) demonstrated competent inhaler technique. A statistically significant difference between pharmacist direct instruction and the remaining interventions, both combined ( P < .0001) and individually ( P ≤ .03), was evident. No statistically significant difference was detected among the remaining 3 intervention groups. Critical steps most frequently omitted or improperly performed were exhaling before inhalation and holding of breath after inhalation. A 2-minute pharmacist counseling session is more effective than other interventions in successfully educating patients on proper inhaler technique. Pharmacists can play a pivotal role in reducing the implications of improper inhaler use.

  10. Use of Respimat Soft Mist inhaler in COPD patients.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Paula

    2006-01-01

    Events of the past decade have stimulated development of new drug formulations and delivery devices that have improved the efficiency, ease of use, and environmental impact of inhaled drug therapy. Respimat Soft Mist Inhaler is a novel, multidose, propellant-free, hand-held, liquid inhaler that represents a new category of inhaler devices. The aerosol cloud generated by Respimat contains a higher fraction of fine particles than most pressurized metered dose inhalers (pMDIs) and dry powder inhalers (DPIs), and the aerosol spray exits the inhaler more slowly and for a longer duration than with pMDIs. This translates into higher lung drug deposition and lower oropharyngeal deposition, making it possible to give lower nominal doses of delivered drugs without lowering efficacy. In clinical trials in patients with COPD, bronchodilator drugs delivered from Respimat were equally effective at half of the dose delivered from a pMDI. In one study of inhaler preference, Respimat was preferred over the pMDI by patients with COPD and other obstructive lung diseases. Respimat is a valuable addition to the range of inhaler devices available to the patient with COPD.

  11. New Structure Model of Au22(SR)18: Bitetrahederon Golden Kernel Enclosed by [Au6(SR)6] Au(I) Complex.

    PubMed

    Pei, Yong; Tang, Jian; Tang, Xianqiong; Huang, Yunqing; Zeng, Xiao Cheng

    2015-04-16

    The study of atomic structure of thiolate-protected gold with decreased core size is important to explore the structural evolution from Au(I) complex to Au nanoclusters. In this work, we theoretically predicted the structure of recently synthesized four valence electron (4e) Au22(SR)18 cluster. The Au22(SR)18 cluster is proposed to possess a bitetrahedron Au7 kernel that is surrounded by a unique [Au6(SR)6] Au(I) complex and three Au3(SR)4 staple motifs. More interestingly, the Au22(SR)18 exhibits structural connections with Au24(SR)20 and Au20(SR)16. The stability of Au22(SR)18 can be understood from the superatom electronic configuration of the Au kernel as well as the formation of superatomic network. The present study can offer new insight into the structural evolution as well as electronic structure of thiolate-protected Au nanoclusters.

  12. Combined DSEK and Transconjunctival Pars Plana Vitrectomy

    PubMed Central

    Sane, Mona; Shaikh, Naazli

    2016-01-01

    We report here three patients who underwent combined Descemet's stripping with endothelial keratoplasty and transconjunctival pars plana vitrectomy for bullous keratopathy and posterior segment pathology. A surgical technique and case histories are described. Anatomic and visual outcomes of combined Descemet's stripping with endothelial keratoplasty and vitrectomy were excellent. Our experience provides technical guidelines and limitations. The combined minimally invasive techniques allow for rapid anatomical recovery and return of function and visual acuity in a single sitting. PMID:27413563

  13. Par Pond refill water quality sampling

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, J.W. II; Martin, F.D.; Westbury, H.M.

    1996-08-01

    This study was designed to document anoxia and its cause in the event that the anoxia caused a fish kill. However, no fish kill was observed during this study, and dissolved oxygen and nutrient concentrations generally remained within the range expected for southeastern reservoirs. Par Pond water quality monitoring will continue during the second summer after refill as the aquatic macrophytes become reestablished and nutrients in the sediments are released to the water column.

  14. Onset of nuclear matter expansion in Au+Au collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crochet, P.; Rami, F.; Gobbi, A.; Dona, R.; Coffin, J. P.; Fintz, P.; Guillaume, G.; Jundt, F.; Kuhn, C.; Roy, C.; de Schauenburg, B.; Tizniti, L.; Wagner, P.; Alard, J. P.; Amouroux, V.; Andronic, A.; Basrak, Z.; Bastid, N.; Belyaev, I.; Best, D.; Biegansky, J.; Buta, A.; Čaplar, R.; Cindro, N.; Dupieux, P.; Dželalija, M.; Fan, Z. G.; Fodor, Z.; Fraysse, L.; Freifelder, R. P.; Berrmann, N.; Hildenbrand, K. D.; Hong, B.; Jeong, S. C.; Kecskemeti, J.; Kirejczyk, M.; Koncz, P.; Korolija, M.; Kotte, R.; Lebedev, A.; Leifels, Y.; Manko, V.; Moisa, D.; Mösner, J.; Neubert, W.; Pelte, D.; Petrovici, M.; Pinkenburg, C.; Pras, P.; Ramillien, V.; Reisdorf, W.; Ritman, J. L.; Sadchikov, A. G.; Schüll, D.; Seres, Z.; Sikora, B.; Simion, V.; Siwek-Wilczyńska, K.; Sodan, U.; Teh, K. M.; Trzaska, M.; Vasiliev, M.; Wang, G. S.; Wessels, J. P.; Wienold, T.; Wisniewski, K.; Wohlfarth, D.; Zhilin, A.; FOPI Collaboration

    1997-02-01

    Using the FOPI detector at GSI Darmstadt, excitation functions of collective flow components were measured for the Au+Au system, in the reaction plane and out of this plane, at seven incident energies ranging from 100 A MeV to 800 A MeV. The threshold energies, corresponding to the onset of sideward-flow (balance energy) and squeeze-out effect (transition energy), are extracted from extrapolations of these excitation functions toward lower beam energies for charged products with Z ⩾ 2. The transition energy is found to be larger than the balance energy. The impact parameter dependence of both balance and transition energies, when extrapolated to central collisions, suggests comparable although slightly higher values than the threshold energy for the radial flow. The relevant parameter seems to be the energy deposited into the system in order to overcome the attractive nuclear forces.

  15. Global polarization measurement in Au+Au collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Abelev, B.I.; Adams, J.; Aggarwal, M.M.; Ahammed, Z.; Amonett,J.; Anderson, B.D.; Anderson, M.; Arkhipkin, D.; Averichev, G.S.; Bai,Y.; Balewski, J.; Barannikova, O.; Barnby, L.S.; Baudot, J.; Bekele, S.; Belaga, V.V.; Bellingeri-Laurikainen, A.; Bellwied, R.; Benedosso, F.; Bhardwaj, S.; Bhasin, A.; Bhati, A.K.; Bichsel, H.; Bielcik, J.; Bielcikova, J.; Bland, L.C.; Blyth, S.-L.; Bonner, B.E.; Botje, M.; Bouchet, J.; Brandin, A.V.; Bravar, A.; Bystersky, M.; Cadman, R.V.; Cai,X.Z.; Caines, H.; Calderon de la Barca Sanchez, M.; Castillo, J.; Catu,O.; Cebra, D.; Chajecki, Z.; Chaloupka, P.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chen,H.F.; Chen, J.H.; Cheng, J.; Cherney, M.; Chikanian, A.; Christie, W.; Coffin, J.P.; Cormier, T.M.; Cosentino, M.R.; Cramer, J.G.; Crawford,H.J.; Das, D.; Das, S.; Daugherity, M.; de Moura, M.M.; Dedovich, T.G.; DePhillips, M.; Derevschikov, A.A.; Didenko, L.; Dietel, T.; Djawotho,P.; Dogra, S.M.; Dong, W.J.; Dong, X.; Draper, J.E.; Du, F.; Dunin, V.B.; Dunlop, J.C.; Dutta Mazumdar, M.R.; Eckardt, V.; Edwards, W.R.; Efimov,L.G.; Emelianov, V.; Engelage, J.; Eppley, G.; Erazmus, B.; Estienne, M.; Fachini, P.; Fatemi, R.; Fedorisin, J.; Filimonov, K.; Filip, P.; Finch,E.; Fine, V.; Fisyak, Y.; Fu, J.; Gagliardi, C.A.; Gaillard, L.; Ganti,M.S.; Ghazikhanian, V.; Ghosh, P.; Gonzalez, J.S.; Gorbunov, Y.G.; Gos,H.; Grebenyuk, O.; Grosnick, D.; Guertin, S.M.; Guimaraes, K.S.F.F.; Guo,Y.; Gupta, N.; Gutierrez, T.D.; Haag, B.; Hallman, T.J.; Hamed, A.; Harris, J.W.; He, W.; Heinz, M.; Henry, T.W.; Hepplemann, S.; Hippolyte,B.; Hirsch, A.; Hjort, E.; Hoffman, A.M.; Hoffmann, G.W.; Horner, M.J.; Huang, H.Z.; Huang, S.L.; Hughes, E.W.; Humanic, T.J.; Igo, G.; Jacobs,P.; Jacobs, W.W.; Jakl, P.; Jia, F.; Jiang, H.; Jones, P.G.; Judd, E.G.; Kabana, S.; Kang, K.; Kapitan, J.; Kaplan, M.; Keane, D.; Kechechyan, A.; Khodyrev,V.Yu.; Kim, B.C.; Kiryluk, J.; Kisiel, A.; Kislov, E.M.; Klein,S.R.; Kocoloski, A.; Koetke, D.D.; et al.

    2007-08-02

    The system created in non-central relativisticnucleus-nucleus collisions possesses large orbital angular momentum. Dueto spin-orbit coupling, particles produced in such a system could becomeglobally polarized along the direction of the system angular momentum. Wepresent the results of Lambda and anti-Lambda hyperon global polarizationmeasurements in Au+Au collisions at sqrt sNN=62.4 GeV and 200 GeVperformed with the STAR detector at RHIC. The observed globalpolarization of Lambda and anti-Lambda hyperons in the STAR acceptance isconsistent with zero within the precision of the measurements. Theobtained upper limit, lbar P Lambda, anti-Lambda rbar<= 0.02, iscompared to the theoretical values discussed recently in theliterature.

  16. Universality in fragment inclusive yields from Au+Au collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Insolia, A.; Tuvè, C.; Albergo, S.; Bieser, F.; Brady, F. P.; Caccia, Z.; Cebra, D.; Chacon, A. D.; Chance, J. L.; Choi, Y.; Costa, S.; Elliott, J. B.; Gilkes, M.; Hauger, J. A.; Hirsch, A. S.; Hjort, E. L.; Justice, M.; Keane, D.; Kintner, J.; Lisa, M.; Matis, H. S.; McMahan, M.; McParland, C.; Olson, D. L.; Partlan, M. D.; Porile, N. T.; Potenza, R.; Rai, G.; Rasmussen, J.; Ritter, H. G.; Romero, J. L.; Russo, G. V.; Scharenberg, R.; Scott, A.; Shao, Y.; Srivastava, B. K.; Symons, T. J. M.; Tincknell, M. L.; Wang, S.; Warren, P. G.; Wieman, H. H.; Wolf, K. L.

    2001-11-01

    The inclusive light fragment (Z⩽7) yield data in Au+Au reactions, measured by the EOS Collaboration at the LBNL Bevalac, are presented and discussed. For peripheral collisions the measured charge distributions develop progressively according to a power law which can be fitted by a single τ exponent independently of the bombarding energy in the range 250-1200 A MeV. In addition to this universal feature, we observe that the location of the maximum in the individual yields of different charged fragments shift towards lower multiplicity as the fragment charge increases from Z=3 to Z=7. This trend is common to all six measured beam energies. Moments of charge distributions and correlations among different moments are reported. Finally, the THe,DT thermometer has been constructed for central and peripheral collisions using the double yield ratios of He and D, T projectile fragments. The measured nuclear temperatures are in agreement with experimental findings in other fragmentation reactions.

  17. Successful synthesis and thermal stability of immiscible metal Au-Rh, Au-Ir and Au-Ir-Rh nanoalloys.

    PubMed

    Shubin, Yury; Plusnin, Pavel; Sharafutdinov, Marat; Makotchenko, Evgenia; Korenev, Sergey

    2017-04-06

    We successfully prepared face-centred cubic nanoalloys in systems of Au-Ir, Au-Rh and Au-Ir-Rh, with large bulk miscibility gaps, in one-run reactions under thermal decomposition of specially synthesised single-source precursors, namely, [AuEn2][Ir(NO2)6], [AuEn2][Ir(NO2)6]х[Rh(NO2)6]1-х and [AuEn2][Rh(NO2)6]. The precursors employed contain all desired metals "mixed" at the molecular level, thus providing significant advantages for obtaining alloys. The observations using HR TEM show that the nanoalloy structures are composed of well-dispersed aggregates of crystalline domains with a mean size of 5±3 nm. EDX and XRD measurements confirm the formation of AuIr, AuRh, AuIr0.75Rh0.25, AuIr0.50Rh0.50 and AuIr0.25Rh0.75 metastable solid solutions. In-situ real-time synchrotron XRD was used to study the formation mechanism of nanoalloys. The observed transformations are described by the "conversion chemistry" mechanism characterised by the primary development of particles comprising atoms of only one type, followed by a chemical reaction resulting in the final formation of a nanoalloy. The obtained metastable nanoalloys exhibit essential thermal stability. Exposure to 180 ºC for 30 h does not cause any dealloying process.

  18. Etude par resistivite electrique du comportement d'un alliage amorphe Fe 40Ni 38Mo 4B 18 deforme par traction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoang, Long Phan; Sacovy, Paulette; Delaplace, Jean

    1983-02-01

    Des rubans d'alliages amorphes Metglas du type Fe 40Ni 38Mo 4B 18 à l'état brut de trempe ont été déformés par traction à la température ambiante et l'on a suivi les variations de la résistance électrique des échantillons au cours de la déformation. Il ressort de ces essais que la déformation plastique qui est de l'ordre de 0.5% avant rupture ne se produit pas de faĉon homogène dans l'échantillon. Les mesures électriques effectuées au cours de la déformation mettent en évidence dans le domaine élastique un effet d'élastorésistance, relativement important ( K ≠ 1); elles montrent que dans le domaine plastique la déformation permanente des échantillons s'accompagne d'une diminution de la résistivité électrique du matériau. Deux hypothèses sont discutées pour expliquer cet effet inattendu, l'un qui fait appel à l'existence de volumes libres, l'autre qui suppose une cristallisation localisée du matériau sous l'effet de la contrainte.

  19. Péritonites infectieuses en dialyse péritonéale continue ambulatoire au CHU de Rabat: profil bactériologique sur trois ans

    PubMed Central

    Lioussfi, Zineb; Rhou, Hakima; Ezzaitouni, Fatima; Ouzeddoun, Naima; Bayahia, Rabea; Benamar, Loubna

    2012-01-01

    Introduction La péritonite infectieuse (PI) est une des complications les plus sévères et les plus fréquentes de la dialyse péritonéale (DP). But: Déterminer le taux des PI et les germes en causes, et évaluer l’efficacité des protocoles thérapeutiques entrepris chez les patients traités par DP au CHU de Rabat. Méthodes Etude rétrospective effectuée en Septembre 2009 chez tous les patients traités par DP continue ambulatoire (DPCA) au CHU de Rabat depuis l’ouverture de l’unité de DP en Juillet 2006. Ont été inclus dans cette étude, tous les patients ayant fait une péritonite. Pour tous nos patients, nous avons relevé les données cliniques, biologiques et bactériologiques. Nous avons également recherché les causes des péritonites, le délai de survenue par rapport au début de la dialyse, et la durée moyenne de formation des patients. Résultats Au cours de la période de l’étude, 28 épisodes de PI sont survenus chez 19 patients dont la moyenne d’âge est de 46±16 (19-78) ans, avec une prédominance masculine (12 hommes/ 7 femmes). Le taux des PI dans notre unité de DP est de 21.07 mois-patients calculé par le RDPLF. Leur délai de survenue par rapport au début de la dialyse au centre est de 7.9 ±8 (1-29) mois. Lors de ces PI, les bactéries à Gram négatif (BGN) ont été retrouvées dans 55% des cas, contre uniquement 45% pour les Gram positifs. Conclusion La PI est une complication grave et redoutable de la DP. Le taux de PI dans notre centre de DPCA est de 21m-p ce qui correspond au taux acceptable définie par les sociétés internationales. Les germes les plus responsables des PI dans notre centre sont les BGN et la contamination semble être manu-portée se faisant essentiellement à partir de la flore environnementale et cutanée. PMID:22593777

  20. d + Au hadron correlation measurements at PHENIX

    SciTech Connect

    Anne M. Sickles

    2014-05-13

    In these proceedings, we discuss recent results from d + Au collisions in PHENIX ridge related measurements and their possible hydrodynamic origin. We present the v2 at midrapidity and measurements of the pseudorapidity dependence of the ridge, distinguishing between the d-going and Au-going directions. We investigate the possible geometrical origin by comparing v2 in d + Au to that in p + Pb, Au + Au and Pb + Pb collisions. Future plans to clarify the role of geometry in small collision systems at RHIC are discussed.

  1. Enquete sur les aspects toxicologiques de la phytotherapie utilisee par un herboriste à Fes, Maroc

    PubMed Central

    Zeggwagh, Ali Amine; Lahlou, Younes; Bousliman, Yassir

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Dans le but d'étudier l'aspect toxicologique des plantes médicinales utilisées en médecine traditionnelle, une étude ethnobotanique a été réalisée à la ville de Fès au centre du Maroc. Méthodes Ont été inclus dans l'étude tous les patients ayant bénéficié d'une prescription par l'herboriste de plantes à visée thérapeutique. La discussion de nos résultats s'est faite sur la base d'une revue de la littérature avec identification des principales plantes toxiques utilisées en phytothérapie au Maroc. L'approche bibliographique a permis de compléter les informations. Résultats L'âge moyen des patients traités par des plantes (38 femmes, 32 hommes) était de 35 ± 18 ans. L'enquête ethnobotanique à révélé que la majorité des plantes médicinales étaient utilisées contre les affections urinaires (21%), suivi des maladies de l'appareil digestif (19.6%) et des maladies rhumatologiques (18.2%). Le nombre de plantes prescrits par l'herboriste a été de 53 dont 5 sont potentiellement toxiques. L'identification taxonomique des plantes prescrites a recensé 30 familles dont les plus représentées sont les Lamiaceae (23.33%), les Apiaceae (13,33%) et les Asteraceae (10%). La prescription des plantes considérées comme toxiques a concerné 7,1% des consultants traités par les plantes médicinales. Aucune complication inhérente aux plantes prescrites n'a été déplorée. Conclusion Malgré les résultats encourageants de notre enquête sur le compte de la phytothérapie, la pratique de la phytothérapie est laissée à la vulgarisation et à l'oubli scientifique, législatif et universitaire. PMID:23734270

  2. Health effects of inhaled gasoline engine emissions.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Jacob D; Reed, Matthew D; Campen, Matthew J; Barrett, Edward G; Seagrave, JeanClare; Mauderly, Joe L

    2007-01-01

    Despite their prevalence in the environment, and the myriad studies that have shown associations between morbidity or mortality with proximity to roadways (proxy for motor vehicle exposures), relatively little is known about the toxicity of gasoline engine emissions (GEE). We review the studies conducted on GEE to date, and summarize the findings from each of these studies. While there have been several studies, most of the studies were conducted prior to 1980 and thus were not conducted with contemporary engines, fuels, and driving cycles. In addition, many of the biological assays conducted during those studies did not include many of the assays that are conducted on contemporary inhalation exposures to air pollutants, including cardiovascular responses and others. None of the exposures from these earlier studies were characterized at the level of detail that would be considered adequate today. A recent GEE study was conducted as part of the National Environmental Respiratory Center (www.nercenter.org). In this study several in-use mid-mileage General Motors (Chevrolet S-10) vehicles were purchased and utilized for inhalation exposures. An exposure protocol was developed where engines were operated with a repeating California Unified Driving Cycle with one cold start per day. Two separate engines were used to provide two cold starts over a 6-h inhalation period. The exposure atmospheres were characterized in detail, including detailed chemical and physical analysis of the gas, vapor, and particle phase. Multiple rodent biological models were studied, including general toxicity and inflammation (e.g., serum chemistry, lung lavage cell counts/differentials, cytokine/chemokine analysis, histopathology), asthma (adult and in utero exposures with pulmonary function and biochemical analysis), cardiovascular effects (biochemical and electrocardiograph changes in susceptible rodent models), and susceptibility to infection (Pseudomonas bacteria challenge). GEE resulted in

  3. Detection of inhaled Der p 1.

    PubMed

    Poulos, L M; O'Meara, T J; Sporik, R; Tovey, E R

    1999-09-01

    Measurement of personal exposure to Der p 1 aeroallergen has previously been limited by the low quantity of material collected by sampling systems and the assay sensitivity. This has meant that exposure could only be detected if long sampling periods were used or reservoir dust was artificially disturbed. We have developed a sampling method to sample true personal exposure and combined it with a novel method which is sensitive enough to measure allergen exposure over shorter time frames. To describe normal domestic exposure to dust mite allergen during a range of activities in houses in Sydney, Australia. Inhaled particles containing mite allergen Der p 1 were collected using a nasal air sampler which impacts particles (> approximately 5 microm) onto a protein-binding membrane coated with a thin, porous, adhesive film. The allergen is bound to the membrane in the immediate vicinity of the particle and detected by immunostaining with monoclonal antibodies specific for Der p 1. In addition, samples were collected using a standard Institute of Occupational Medicine (IOM) personal air sampler and the amount of eluted Der p 1 was assayed by ELISA. The median number (range) of inhaled particles containing Der p 1 collected in each 10-min sampling period was: dust raising 5 (2-10); lying in bed, 0 (0-2); sitting on the bed, 1 (0-2); walking around the bedroom, 0 (0-2). This represented 0-5.1% of all particles captured. The Der p 1 concentration of floor and bed dust was 19.4 and 55.1 microg/g, respectively. The standard IOM personal sampler and ELISA were unable to detect Der p 1 for any of the activities performed. We were able to count individual allergen-carrying particles inhaled over short time periods, during different domestic exposure situations. This will offer new insight into several aspects of personal allergen exposure.

  4. Inhalation of expiratory droplets in aircraft cabins.

    PubMed

    Gupta, J K; Lin, C-H; Chen, Q

    2011-08-01

    Airliner cabins have high occupant density and long exposure time, so the risk of airborne infection transmission could be high if one or more passengers are infected with an airborne infectious disease. The droplets exhaled by an infected passenger may contain infectious agents. This study developed a method to predict the amount of expiratory droplets inhaled by the passengers in an airliner cabin for any flight duration. The spatial and temporal distribution of expiratory droplets for the first 3 min after the exhalation from the index passenger was obtained using the computational fluid dynamics simulations. The perfectly mixed model was used for beyond 3 min after the exhalation. For multiple exhalations, the droplet concentration in a zone can be obtained by adding the droplet concentrations for all the exhalations until the current time with a time shift via the superposition method. These methods were used to determine the amount of droplets inhaled by the susceptible passengers over a 4-h flight under three common scenarios. The method, if coupled with information on the viability and the amount of infectious agent in the droplet, can aid in evaluating the infection risk. The distribution of the infectious agents contained in the expiratory droplets of an infected occupant in an indoor environment is transient and non-uniform. The risk of infection can thus vary with time and space. The investigations developed methods to predict the spatial and temporal distribution of expiratory droplets, and the inhalation of these droplets in an aircraft cabin. The methods can be used in other indoor environments to assess the relative risk of infection in different zones, and suitable measures to control the spread of infection can be adopted. Appropriate treatment can be implemented for the zone identified as high-risk zones. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  5. Inhaled drugs as risk factors for community-acquired pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Almirall, J; Bolíbar, I; Serra-Prat, M; Palomera, E; Roig, J; Hospital, I; Carandell, E; Agustí, M; Ayuso, P; Estela, A; Torres, A

    2010-11-01

    The effect of inhaled drugs in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is unclear. This case-control study was designed to determine whether inhaled drugs were risk factors for CAP. All incident cases of confirmed CAP that occurred over 1 yr in patients with chronic bronchitis (CB), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or asthma were included, as well as CB, COPD and asthma controls. Risk factors for CAP and inhaled treatment were recorded during a personal interview. An effect of inhaled drugs on the risk of CAP was observed in COPD and asthma patients after adjusting for the effect of other respiratory diseases and their concomitant treatments. In COPD patients, inhaled steroids had a risk OR of 3.26 (95% CI 1.07-9.98) and in asthma patients inhaled anticholinergics had a risk OR of 8.80 (95% CI 1.02-75.7). In CB patients, no association with CAP was observed for any inhaler. These effects were independent of adjusting variables related to severity and other respiratory and non-respiratory risk factors for CAP, including vaccines. Inhaled β(2)-adrenergic agonists did not show a significant effect on the risk of CAP in any of the respiratory diseases. Inhaled steroids may favour CAP in COPD patients, whereas anticholinergics may favour CAP in asthma patients. It is difficult to differentiate the effect of inhaled therapy from the effect of COPD or asthma severity on the risk of CAP, and these relationships may not be causal, but could call attention to inhaled therapy in COPD and asthma patients.

  6. Inhaled therapy in cystic fibrosis: agents, devices and regimens

    PubMed Central

    Parrott, Helen

    2015-01-01

    Key points There have been significant advances in both inhalation medicines and delivery devices with “intelligent nebulisers” and “dry-powder inhalers” becoming commonplace in CF care. Inhaled medicines generate high levels of a drug within the airways with limited systemic effects, offering safe and convenient antibiotic and mucolytic therapy for individuals with CF. Variations in adherence are not unique to CF; however, treatment burden is high and therefore fast inhaled drug delivery devices may assist individuals in completing the prescribed treatment regimes. Prescribers of inhaled medicines have a responsibility to consider, in addition to efficacy, the appropriated drug/device combination for each individual in order to promote adherence and achieve the desired clinical benefit. Summary The recognised mainstay daily treatments for cystic fibrosis (CF) focus on inhaled and oral medications, airway clearance and optimised nutrition. This review discusses recent advances in inhaled therapies for the management of CF, including devices such as intelligent nebulisers, drug formulations and supporting evidence for inhaled antibiotics (for the management of chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and muco-active drugs. We include practical advice for clinicians regarding the optimisation of inhalation technique and education. The influence of adherence on the use of inhaled therapies in CF is also reviewed. Educational aims To inform readers about the history and progression of inhaled therapies for people with CF with reference to the literature supporting current practice. To highlight the factors that may impact the success of inhaled therapies, including those which are device specific such as drug deposition and those which influence adherence. PMID:26306111

  7. Inhaler Technique in Children With Asthma: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Gillette, Chris; Rockich-Winston, Nicole; Kuhn, JoBeth A; Flesher, Susan; Shepherd, Meagan

    2016-01-01

    Pediatric asthma is an important public health problem worldwide. The primary methods of medication delivery are inhalation devices. This systematic review examined: 1) what is the prevalence of correct inhaler technique among children with asthma, 2) are educational interventions associated with improved rates of correct inhalation technique, and 3) is improved inhaler technique associated with improved asthma outcomes? We included experimental and observational studies through searches of PubMed, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, CINAHL Complete, and clinicaltrials.gov. Studies were eligible for this review if at least 1 outcome measure of the study included and reported results of child/adolescent inhaler technique. The following information was extracted from each included study: study design (experimental vs observational), and outcomes data. The Downs and Black checklist was used to appraise study quality. Twenty-eight studies were eligible for inclusion. We found that inhaler technique is generally very poor among children, but is better when children use their metered-dose inhalers (MDIs) with spacers. Technique in using turbuhalers and diskus inhalers is better than in MDI, but still poor. Counseling children on correct inhaler technique was associated with improved technique among children in multiple studies. We examined articles published in English. Inhaler technique in children is generally poor. Physicians and other members of the health care team should instruct children and their caregivers on the proper use of their inhalation devices at every opportunity and correct mistakes when made to ensure effective medication delivery. This systematic review was registered under the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination, PROSPERO CRD42015025070 (http://www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO/display_record.asp?ID=CRD42015025070). Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Efficacy of fluticasone metered-dose inhaler and dry powder inhaler for pediatric asthma.

    PubMed

    Miyahara, Hiroaki; Korematsu, Seigo; Nagakura, Tomokazu; Izumi, Tatsuro

    2008-02-01

    For the treatment of bronchial asthma, two types of fluticasone inhaler devices are available, namely, metered-dose inhaler with spacer (MDI-S) and the dry powder inhaler (DPI). The former is recommended for young children with a low peak inspiratory flow (PIF) and the latter for adolescents and adults. But the difference in the therapeutic efficacy between them has been studied only rarely in adolescent patients. In the present study, 21 post-elementary school-age patients with moderate persistent bronchial asthma (age 8-15 years, 10.3 +/- 2.1 years), who all had a sufficient PIF of 114 +/- 29 L/min, were examined in order to compare the two types of fluticasone inhalers. Eleven of 21 patients inhaled 200 microg/day Flutide using the MDI-S twice daily for 1 month in the first month, and the same dose using the DPI for the next month. The other 10 patients inhaled the opposite regimens. At the end of the each treatment, spirometry was examined. Measurements done before therapy and then at the end of MDI-S and DPI therapy, respectively, were as follows: forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV(1.0)), 72.4 +/- 18.2%, 91.5 +/- 18.2% and 84.1 +/- 16.3% (MDI-S vs DPI, P > 0.040); maximal mid-expiratory flow (MMEF), 62.0 +/- 23.6%, 88.7 +/- 26.5%, 79.3 +/- 33.4% (P > 0.044) and the peak expiratory flow (PEF) was 73.9 +/- 25.0%, 95.6 +/- 32.8%, and 90.5 +/- 29.5%, respectively (n.s.). MDI-S was thus found to be more effective in terms of %FEV(1.0) and in %MMEF. High therapeutic efficacy was obtained with the use of the MDI-S in fluticasone inhalation for post-elementary school-age patients with sufficient inspiration ability.

  9. Inhaler devices in asthma and COPD--an assessment of inhaler technique and patient preferences.

    PubMed

    Chorão, Pedro; Pereira, Ana M; Fonseca, João A

    2014-07-01

    Incorrect use of inhaler devices remains an obstacle for respiratory diseases management. We aimed to evaluate the frequency of inhaler technique errors; to determine the devices perceived as the easiest and favourite to use; to study the association of device type, demographics and patient preferences with inhaler technique (IT). Cross-sectional assessment of 301 adults, with asthma (194) or chronic pulmonary obstructive disease, undergoing treatment with Aerolizer®, Autohaler®, Breezehaler®, Diskus®, Handihaler®, MDI without spacer, Miat-haler®, Novolizer®, Respimat® and/or Turbohaler®. Patients completed self-assessment questionnaires and face-to-face interview, with demonstration of inhaler technique. The rate of wrong steps (number of wrong steps ÷ number of total steps; RWS) was the primary outcome. Adjusted odds ratio (aOR) (95% confidence intervals [CI]) for presenting ≥1 IT errors were computed. From the 464 inhaler technique performances, the median RWS was 18%. Turbohaler® (21%) and Diskus® (19%) were chosen as easiest and Novolizer® (18%), Diskus® (18%), Turbohaler® (17%) as favourite for daily use. Females (aOR 2.68 [95% CI 1.55-4.65]; vs. males], patients with >64 yr (aOR 2.73 [95% CI 1.15-6.48]; vs <45 yr) and patients using Aerolizer® or Handihaler® (aOR 3.24 [95% CI 1.13-9.32] and aOR 3.71 [95% CI 1.38-10.2], respectively) were more likely to perform IT errors; otherwise, no association was found, including with using the favourite device (aOR 1.43 [95% CI 0.84-2.42]). The frequency of inhaler technique errors was high and no device was clearly preferred over the others. Using the preferred inhaler device was not associated with less errors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Assessing inhalation exposure from airborne soil contaminants

    SciTech Connect

    Shinn, J.H.

    1998-04-01

    A method of estimation of inhalation exposure to airborne soil contaminants is presented. this method is derived from studies of airborne soil particles with radioactive tags. The concentration of contaminants in air (g/m{sup 3}) can be derived from the product of M, the suspended respirable dust mass concentration (g/m{sup 3}), S, the concentration of contaminant in the soil (g/g), and E{sub f}, an enhancement factor. Typical measurement methods and values of M, and E{sub f} are given along with highlights of experiences with this method.

  11. Acute multifocal neuropathy following cocaine inhalation.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Aaron; Desai, Paresh K; de Souza, Rainha J

    2017-02-01

    We report a young man, not a habitual cocaine user, who developed an acute multifocal neuropathy following a second exposure to inhaled cocaine. Case report. Clinical and electrophysiological findings suggested an acute multiple mononeuropathy following cocaine exposure. Imaging of the shoulder and pelvic girdles revealed multifocal denervation in selected proximal muscles. The patient was empirically treated with intravenous steroids to good effect. Cocaine use, although usually affecting the central nervous system, does produce peripheral nerve disease in rare instances. This unusual pattern of neurological involvement needs to be differentiated from the more common symptoms resulting from affection of the brain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Cardiomyopathy from 1,1-Difluoroethane Inhalation.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Suwen; Joginpally, Tejaswini; Kim, David; Yadava, Mrinal; Norgais, Konchok; Laird-Fick, Heather S

    2016-10-01

    Consumer aerosol products can be inhaled for their psychoactive effects, but with attendant adverse health effects including "sudden sniffing death." Cardiomyopathy has rarely been described in association with 1,1-difluoroethane (DFE), a common aerosol propellant. We report a 33-year-old male who developed acute myocardial injury and global hypokinesis along with rhabdomyolysis, acute kidney injury, and fulminant hepatitis after 2 days' nearly continuous huffing. Workup for other causes, including underlying coronary artery disease, was negative. His cardiac function improved over time. The exact mechanism of DFE's effects is uncertain but may include catecholamine-induced cardiomyopathy, coronary vasospasm, or direct cellular toxicity.

  13. Toxic reaction to inhaled paint fumes.

    PubMed Central

    Atkinson, L.; Ince, P.; Smith, N. M.; Taylor, R.

    1989-01-01

    An acute confusional state was observed to follow heavy exposure to polyurethane gloss paint fumes in a previously healthy 60 year old man. This state remitted over a 3-day period, but was followed by transient bone marrow suppression and evidence of liver cell damage. The corroborated absence of other toxins and the temporal association of exposure to paint fumes suggest that a volatile paint component was responsible. White spirit is the major volatile solvent in polyurethane gloss paint. Ingestion of related aliphatic hydrocarbons has been reported to cause nausea, drowsiness and hepatotoxicity, but these symptoms have not previously been documented following excessive inadvertent inhalation of paint fumes. Images Figure 1 PMID:2602252

  14. [Inhalation route for administration of systemic drugs].

    PubMed

    Mallet, J P; Diot, P; Lemarié, E

    1997-09-01

    With aerosolized administration of medicines, direct access to the lung is possible. Depending on the intrapulmonary behavior of each molecule, the aerosol mode of administration makes possible either a pulmonary topical action or a systemic action, thanks to the lung's wide vascular network. An inhaled molecule's pulmonary behavior is not predictable and must be studied on its own. Some medicines with a systemic aim have a topical effect after aerosol administration: furosemide, amiloride, morphine, interferons, cyclosporin and prostacyclin. Other medicines have systemic effects after aerosol administration: insulin, growth hormone, LHRH, calcitonin and nicotine. Heparin can be classified in either group depending on the dose and type of use.

  15. Émission X(L) du xénon par interaction laser-agrégats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adoui, L.; Gobert, O.; Indelicato, P.; Lamour, E.; Meynadier, P.; Normand, D.; Perdrix, M.; Prigent, C.; Rozet, J.-P.; Vernhet, D.

    2003-06-01

    Nous avons étudié le rayonnement X provenant d'ions fortement multichargés (ge24+) présentant des lacunes en couche L produits lors de l'irradiation d'agrégats de xénon par des impulsions lumineuses issues d'un laser femtoseconde de puissance. Les résultats obtenus lors de la toute dernière campagne d'expériences réalisée auprès du serveur LUCA du SPAM/DRECAM au CEA/Saclay mettent en cause certains travaux antérieurs [4-6]. Des divergences marquées apparaissent tant au niveau de l'interprétation des spectres X que sur la variation du taux d'émission en fonction de l'éclairement et de la longueur d'onde.

  16. Critical Role for PAR1 in Kallikrein 6-Mediated Oligodendrogliopathy

    PubMed Central

    Burda, Joshua E.; Radulovic, Maja; Yoon, Hyesook; Scarisbrick, Isobel A.

    2014-01-01

    Kallikrein 6 (Klk6) is a secreted serine protease preferentially expressed by oligodendroglia in CNS white matter. Elevated levels of Klk6 occur in actively demyelinating multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions and in cases of spinal cord injury (SCI), stroke and glioblastoma. Taken with recent evidence establishing Klk6 as a CNS-endogenous activator of protease-activated receptors (PARs), we hypothesized that Klk6 activates a subset of PARs to regulate oligodendrocyte physiology and potentially pathophysiology. Here, primary oligodendrocyte cultures derived from wild type or PAR1-deficient mice and the murine oligodendrocyte cell line, Oli-neu, were used to demonstrate that Klk6 mediates loss of oligodendrocyte processes and impedes morphological differentiation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) in a PAR1-dependent fashion. Comparable gliopathy was also elicited by the canonical PAR1 agonist, thrombin, as well as PAR1-activating peptides (PAR1-APs). Klk6 also exacerbated ATP-mediated oligodendrogliopathy in vitro, pointing to a potential role in augmenting excitotoxicity. In addition, Klk6 suppressed the expression of proteolipid protein (PLP) RNA in cultured oligodendrocytes by a mechanism involving PAR1-mediated Erk1/2 signaling. Microinjection of PAR1 agonists, including Klk6 or PAR1-APs, into the dorsal column white matter of PAR+/+ but not PAR−/− mice promoted vacuolating myelopathy and a loss of immunoreactivity for myelin basic protein (MBP) and CC-1+ oligodendrocytes. These results demonstrate a functional role for Klk6-PAR1 signaling in oligodendroglial pathophysiology and suggest that PAR1 or PAR1-agonists may represent new targets to moderate demyelination and to promote myelin regeneration in cases of CNS white matter injury or disease. PMID:23832758

  17. Traitement par plasma thermique d'une liqueur caustique pour la destruction des cyanures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortin, Luc

    L'objectif principal de cette recherche est d'evaluer la possibilite de traiter le lixiviat de brasques usees produit par le procede LCL&L (Lixiviation a bas caustique et chaulage) par contact direct avec un jet de plasma thermique. L'utilisation d'un chalumeau au plasma permet d'eliminer les problemes de reaction avec les produits de combustion relies a l'utilisation de chalumeaux conventionnels (e.g. carbonatation du NaOH en Na2CO3). Le fait de se servir de ce type de chalumeau en mode submerge pour le traitement d'une solution liquide constitue l'originalite du projet. Les essais effectues dans le cadre de ce travail experimental sont realises a l'echelle banc d'essai dans un premier temps. Ils visent a determiner le taux de decomposition des cyanures contenus dans le lixiviat sous des conditions de plasma thermique en fonction de differents parametres et a faire la mise a l'echelle d'un reacteur pilote. La puissance electrique fournie au chalumeau, la temperature et la pression d'operation, le point d'addition d'eau, le volume de lixiviat traite et l'addition de peroxyde d'hydrogene (H2O2) comme co-reactif ont tous un impact sur le taux de destruction des cyanures trouve. Sous toutes les conditions etudiees, le reacteur plasma offre un taux de destruction plus rapide qu'un reacteur agite sous pression pour une meme concentration en cyanures. Ainsi, la comparaison de la constante cinetique obtenue pour le reacteur agite avec une constante similaire pour le reacteur plasma (pente du graphique -ln(C/C0) en fonction du temps) est de 0.04x10-3 s-1 vs 0.59x10-3 s-1 a 100°C et de 1.85x10-3 s-1' vs 3x10 -3 s-1s a 170°C. Ces resultats confirment que le plasma joue un role important sur la decomposition des cyanures et qu'il contribue a en augmenter le taux de destruction. Suite aux connaissances acquises sur le banc d'essai, un reacteur pilote est concu. Un chalumeau au plasma d'une puissance de 60 kW-150 kW et fonctionnant avec l'air comme gaz plasmagene y est

  18. Evaluation of the Inhalation Carcinogenicity of Ethylene Oxide (Final Report)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA has finalized its Evaluation of the Inhalation Carcinogenicity of Ethylene Oxide. This assessment addresses the potential carcinogenicity from long-term inhalation exposure to ethylene oxide. Now final, this assessment updates the carcinogenicity information in EPA’s 1985 Hea...

  19. IRIS Toxicological Review of Ammonia Noncancer Inhalation (Final Report)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA has finalized the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) Assessment of Ammonia (Noncancer Inhalation). This assessment addresses the potential noncancer human health effects from long-term inhalation exposure to ammonia. Now final, this assessment will update the ...

  20. Epidemiology of Inhalant Abuse: An Update. NIDA Research Monograph 85.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crider, Raquel A., Ed.; Rouse, Beatrice A., Ed.

    This publication consists of papers and discussion from a comprehensive RAUS (Research Analysis and Utilization System) review focusing on factors relating to a multi-year increase in inhalant abuse among high school seniors. The document contains the following articles: (1) "Inhalant Overview" (Raquel A. Crider and Beatrice A. Rouse);…

  1. [The choice of inhalation device: A medical act].

    PubMed

    Devillier, P; Salvator, H; Roche, N

    2015-06-01

    Inhaled treatments are essential for respiratory diseases management, including COPD and asthma. Optimal control of the disease largely depends on patient's compliance and proper use of these treatments. Different types of ready-to-use inhaler devices are available: metered dose inhaler, dry powder inhaler or soft mist inhaler. Each of these devices presents specific characteristics and constraints that have to be evaluated and taken into account before prescription. In order to optimize adherence and treatment efficacy, the choice of inhaler device should depend on the specific needs, abilities and preferences of each patient and a specific education to treatment should be provided. Inhaled treatments, even containing the same drug, have different technical constraints and are thus not easily interchangeable. Their substitution without prior medical consent and without proper training can lead to errors in taking treatment, treatment failures and increased health care consumption. In France, substitution by the pharmacist is not authorized. While patient education must be carried out in collaboration with all health professionals, it is preferable that the choice of inhaler device remains the responsibility of the physician.

  2. Inhalant Abuse and Dependence among Adolescents in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Li-Tzy; Pilowsky, Daniel J.; Schlenger, William E.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To examine the patterns of inhalant use and correlates of the progression from inhalant use to abuse and dependence among adolescents aged 12 to 17. Method: Study data were drawn from the 2000 and 2001 National Household Surveys on Drug Abuse. Multinominal logistic regression was used to identify the characteristics associated with…

  3. The Deliberate Inhalation of Volatile Substances. Series 30, No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gamage, James R.; Zerkin, E. Lief

    This report, prepared by the National Clearinghouse for Drug Abuse Information, presents information on the deliberate inhalation of volatile substances--the treatment modalities, the pharmacology and chemistry of this drug abuse, and the opinions and practices of recognized authorities in the field. Substances which are currently being inhaled to…

  4. Inhalant Abuse: Your Child at Risk! Asian Language Initiative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of National Drug Control Policy, Washington, DC.

    This brochure is aimed at helping Asian American and Pacific Islander adults communicate with young people about the consequences of inhalant abuse. The booklet addresses the issue of preventing youth substance abuse as part of balancing traditional values with American culture. Also explained are symptoms of inhalant use, common names and, most…

  5. An Integrative Model for Drug Use Severity among Inhalant Users.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joe, George W.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Tests with linear structural equations (LISREL) suggest that an integrative model best explains interrelationships among peer deviancy, psychological vulnerability, inhalant availability, family environment, acculturative and socioeconomic stress, and educational attainment, and their longitudinal effects on inhalant use and drug use severity…

  6. 40 CFR 799.9130 - TSCA acute inhalation toxicity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Studies. 2/1/94. Health Effects Division, Office of Pesticide Programs. ... REQUIREMENTS Health Effects Test Guidelines § 799.9130 TSCA acute inhalation toxicity. (a) Scope. This section... provides information on health hazards likely to arise from short-term exposure by the inhalation route...

  7. 40 CFR 799.9130 - TSCA acute inhalation toxicity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Studies. 2/1/94. Health Effects Division, Office of Pesticide Programs. ... REQUIREMENTS Health Effects Test Guidelines § 799.9130 TSCA acute inhalation toxicity. (a) Scope. This section... provides information on health hazards likely to arise from short-term exposure by the inhalation route...

  8. Evaluation of the Inhalation Carcinogenicity of Ethylene Oxide (Final Report)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA has finalized its Evaluation of the Inhalation Carcinogenicity of Ethylene Oxide. This assessment addresses the potential carcinogenicity from long-term inhalation exposure to ethylene oxide. Now final, this assessment updates the carcinogenicity information in EPA’s 1985 Hea...

  9. IRIS Toxicological Review of Ammonia Noncancer Inhalation (Final Report)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA has finalized the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) Assessment of Ammonia (Noncancer Inhalation). This assessment addresses the potential noncancer human health effects from long-term inhalation exposure to ammonia. Now final, this assessment will update the ...

  10. Inhalation toxicity of methyl difluoromalonyl fluoride in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, G.L. Jr.; Burgess, B.A.; Chen, H.C.

    1988-06-01

    Methyl 2,2-difluoromalonyl fluoride (MMF) is highly toxic by inhalation producing mortality in rats exposed for 4 hours to 0.55 mg/L. Repeated inhalation exposures of rats to 0.009 mg/L produced irritation but no other signs of a toxic response. Mortality was encountered following repeated exposures to 0.066 mg/L.

  11. Conference report: 1st Medicon Valley Inhalation Symposium.

    PubMed

    Lastow, Orest

    2013-02-01

    The 1st Medicon Valley Inhalation Symposium was arranged by the Medicon Valley Inhalation Consortium. It was held at the Medicon Village site, which is the former AstraZeneca site in Lund, Sweden. It was a 1-day symposium focused on inhaled drug delivery and inhalation product development. A total of 90 delegates listened to 15 speakers. The program was organized to follow the value chain of an inhalation product development. The benefits and future opportunities of inhaled drug delivery were discussed together with some new disease areas that can be targeted with inhalation. The pros and cons of the two main formulation types; dry powder and liquid formulations, were discussed by a panel. The different requirements of the drug molecules from a pharmacology, chemical and physical perspective were explained. The modeling of the physics inside an inhaler was demonstrated and the potential strategic benefits of device design were highlighted together with the many challenges of formulation manufacturing. Lung deposition mechanisms and the difficulties of the generic bioequivalence concept were discussed. Using an anatomically correct impactor inlet is a valuable tool in lung deposition predictions and the planning of clinical trials. The management of the biological material generated in clinical studies is key to successful studies.

  12. 49 CFR 179.102-3 - Materials poisonous by inhalation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Materials poisonous by inhalation. (a) Each tank car built after March 16, 2009 for the transportation of a... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Materials poisonous by inhalation. 179.102-3 Section 179.102-3 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE...

  13. 49 CFR 179.102-3 - Materials poisonous by inhalation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Materials poisonous by inhalation. (a) Each tank car built after March 16, 2009 for the transportation of a... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Materials poisonous by inhalation. 179.102-3 Section 179.102-3 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE...

  14. 49 CFR 179.102-3 - Materials poisonous by inhalation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Materials poisonous by inhalation. (a) Each tank car built after March 16, 2009 for the transportation of a... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Materials poisonous by inhalation. 179.102-3 Section 179.102-3 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE...

  15. Purpura and dermal thinning associated with high dose inhaled corticosteroids.

    PubMed Central

    Capewell, S; Reynolds, S; Shuttleworth, D; Edwards, C; Finlay, A Y

    1990-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To assess the effect of high dose inhaled corticosteroids on skin. DESIGN--Cross sectional study of patients receiving treatment for chest diseases. SETTING--Outpatient chest clinic in a teaching hospital. PATIENTS--68 Patients divided into four groups of similar age--namely, 15 receiving long term oral prednisolone, 21 receiving high dose inhaled corticosteroids, 15 receiving low dose inhaled corticosteroids, and 17 controls. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Skin thickness at three sites measured by A scan ultrasound and clinical assessment of purpura. RESULTS--Compared with controls patients in both the oral prednisolone treated group and the high dose inhaled corticosteroid treated group had significantly thinner skin at all three sites (group median thicknesses: prednisolone treated group 28-33% less than controls; high dose inhaled corticosteroid treated group 15-19% less than controls). Differences in skin thicknesses between the low dose inhaled corticosteroid treated group and the controls were trivial. The prevalence of purpura was significantly greater in patients receiving oral prednisolone (12/15 patients) and high dose inhaled corticosteroids (10/21) than in controls (2/17). CONCLUSION--Skin thinning and purpura represent further evidence of systemic effects of high dose inhaled corticosteroids. PMID:2372620

  16. The Deliberate Inhalation of Volatile Substances. Series 30, No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gamage, James R.; Zerkin, E. Lief

    This report, prepared by the National Clearinghouse for Drug Abuse Information, presents information on the deliberate inhalation of volatile substances--the treatment modalities, the pharmacology and chemistry of this drug abuse, and the opinions and practices of recognized authorities in the field. Substances which are currently being inhaled to…

  17. The role of disposable inhalers in pulmonary drug delivery.

    PubMed

    de Boer, Anne H; Hagedoorn, Paul

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing interest in the pulmonary route for both local and systemically acting drugs, vaccines and diagnostics and new applications may require new inhaler technology to obtain the most therapeutically and/or cost-effective administration. Some of these new applications can benefit from the use of disposable inhalers. Current trends in pulmonary drug delivery are presented in this review as well as the possible contribution of disposable inhalers to the improvement of pulmonary administration therein. Arguments in favour of disposable inhalers and the starting points for development of devices and their formulations are discussed. Also, a brief review of the state of the art regarding current disposable inhaler development is given. Prerequisites for the use of disposable inhalers, particularly dry powder inhalers, in applications such as childhood vaccination and for preventing or stopping pandemic outbreaks of highly infectious diseases (like influenza, bird flu, SARS) are that they are simple, cheap and effective. Not only do the devices have to be simple in design, but the drug formulations should also be cheap. This may require a different approach as the formulation may not need to be adapted to improve the inhaler must be designed to enhance formulation dispersion.

  18. The novel PAR2 ligand C391 blocks multiple PAR2 signalling pathways in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Boitano, Scott; Hoffman, Justin; Flynn, Andrea N; Asiedu, Marina N; Tillu, Dipti V; Zhang, Zhenyu; Sherwood, Cara L; Rivas, Candy M; DeFea, Kathryn A; Vagner, Josef; Price, Theodore J

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Proteinase-activated receptor-2 (PAR2) is a GPCR linked to diverse pathologies, including acute and chronic pain. PAR2 is one of the four PARs that are activated by proteolytic cleavage of the extracellular amino terminus, resulting in an exposed, tethered peptide agonist. Several peptide and peptidomimetic agonists, with high potency and efficacy, have been developed to probe the functions of PAR2, in vitro and in vivo. However, few similarly potent and effective antagonists have been described. Experimental Approach We modified the peptidomimetic PAR2 agonist, 2-furoyl-LIGRLO-NH2, to create a novel PAR2 peptidomimetic ligand, C391. C391 was evaluated for PAR2 agonist/antagonist activity to PAR2 across Gq signalling pathways using the naturally expressing PAR2 cell line 16HBE14o-. For antagonist studies, a highly potent and specific peptidomimetic agonist (2-aminothiazo-4-yl-LIGRL-NH2) and proteinase agonist (trypsin) were used to activate PAR2. C391 was also evaluated in vivo for reduction of thermal hyperalgesia, mediated by mast cell degranulation, in mice. Key Results C391 is a potent and specific peptidomimetic antagonist, blocking multiple signalling pathways (Gq-dependent Ca2+, MAPK) induced following peptidomimetic or proteinase activation of human PAR2. In a PAR2-dependent behavioural assay in mice, C391 dose-dependently (75 μg maximum effect) blocked the thermal hyperalgesia, mediated by mast cell degranulation. Conclusions and Implications C391 is the first low MW antagonist to block both PAR2 Ca2+ and MAPK signalling pathways activated by peptidomimetics and/or proteinase activation. C391 represents a new molecular structure for PAR2 antagonism and can serve as a basis for further development for this important therapeutic target. PMID:26140338

  19. Systematic review of clinical effectiveness of pressurised metered dose inhalers versus other hand held inhaler devices for delivering corticosteroids in asthma.

    PubMed

    Brocklebank, D; Wright, J; Cates, C

    2001-10-20

    To determine the clinical effectiveness of pressurised metered dose inhalers (with or without spacer) compared with other hand held inhaler devices for the delivery of corticosteroids in stable asthma. Systematic review of randomised controlled trials. Cochrane Airways Group trials database (Medline, Embase, Cochrane controlled clinical trials register, and hand searching of 18 relevant journals), pharmaceutical companies, and bibliographies of included trials. All trials in children or adults with stable asthma that compared a pressurised metered dose inhaler with any other hand held inhaler device delivering the same inhaled corticosteroid. 24 randomised controlled trials were included. Significant differences were found for forced expiratory volume in one second, morning peak expiratory flow rate, and use of drugs for additional relief with dry powder inhalers. However, either these were within clinically equivalent limits or the differences were not apparent once baseline characteristics had been taken into account. No significant differences were found between pressurised metered dose inhalers and any other hand held inhaler device for the following outcomes: lung function, symptoms, bronchial hyper-reactivity, systemic bioavailability, and use of additional relief bronchodilators. No evidence was found that alternative inhaler devices (dry powder inhalers, breath actuated pressurised metered dose inhalers, or hydrofluoroalkane pressurised metered dose inhalers) are more effective than the pressurised metered dose inhalers for delivery of inhaled corticosteroids. Pressurised metered dose inhalers remain the most cost effective first line delivery devices.

  20. IRIS Toxicological Review of Ammonia Noncancer Inhalation ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    In September 2016, EPA finalized the IRIS assessment of Ammonia (Noncancer Inhalation). The Toxicological Review was reviewed internally by EPA and by other federal agencies and White House Offices before public release in June 2016. Consistent with the May 2009 IRIS assessment development process, all written comments on IRIS assessments submitted by other federal agencies and White House Offices are made publicly available. Accordingly, interagency comments and the interagency science discussion materials provided to other agencies, including interagency review drafts of the IRIS Toxicological Review of Ammonia (Noncancer Inhalation) are posted on this site. Note: No major science comments were received on the Interagency Science Discussion Draft. EPA is undertaking an Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) health assessment for ammonia. IRIS is an EPA database containing Agency scientific positions on potential adverse human health effects that may result from chronic (or lifetime) exposure to chemicals in the environment. IRIS contains chemical-specific summaries of qualitative and quantitative health information in support of two steps of the risk assessment paradigm, i.e., hazard identification and dose-response evaluation. IRIS assessments are used in combination with specific situational exposure assessment information to evaluate potential public health risk associated with environmental contaminants.

  1. Alveolar proteinosis associated with aluminium dust inhalation.

    PubMed

    Chew, R; Nigam, S; Sivakumaran, P

    2016-08-01

    Secondary alveolar proteinosis is a rare lung disease which may be triggered by a variety of inhaled particles. The diagnosis is made by detection of anti-granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor antibodies in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, which appears milky white and contains lamellar bodies. Aluminium has been suggested as a possible cause, but there is little evidence in the literature to support this assertion. We report the case of a 46-year-old former boilermaker and boat builder who developed secondary alveolar proteinosis following sustained heavy aluminium exposure. The presence of aluminium was confirmed both by histological examination and metallurgical analysis of a mediastinal lymph node. Despite cessation of exposure to aluminium and treatment with whole-lung lavage which normally results in improvements in both symptoms and lung function, the outcome was poor and novel therapies are now being used for this patient. It may be that the natural history in aluminium-related alveolar proteinosis is different, with the metal playing a mediating role in the disease process. Our case further supports the link between aluminium and secondary alveolar proteinosis and highlights the need for measures to prevent excessive aluminium inhalation in relevant industries. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Inhaled corticosteroids in COPD: a controversy.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Peter J

    2010-01-01

    Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) are now very widely used in high doses in the management of COPD patients. In sharp contrast to the situation in asthma, ICS provide little or no benefit in COPD patients and may have long-term detrimental effects. High doses of ICS fail to reduce disease progression or mortality, even when combined with a long-acting beta(2)-agonist (LABA). Several trials have demonstrated that ICS reduce exacerbations by 20-25%, particularly in patients with more severe disease, but these studies are confounded by poor trial design and more appropriate analysis shows no benefit. Indeed, the benefit of combination inhalers seems to be largely due to the effect of the LABA, and long-acting bronchodilators--including tiotropium--provide similar benefits in reducing exacerbations. However, there may be some COPD patients, for example those with concomitant asthma, who benefit from ICS. Yet it has not been possible to identify any clinical factors that predict corticosteroid responsiveness in COPD patients in the large clinical trials. There is increasing evidence that high doses of ICS may have detrimental effects on bones and may increase the risk of pneumonia. ICS fail to suppress inflammation in COPD patients because there is a marked reduction in histone deacetylase-2, the nuclear enzyme that corticosteroids require to switch off activated inflammatory genes. In the future, alternative anti-inflammatory treatments will be needed for COPD or therapeutic strategies which reverse the molecular pathways that causes corticosteroid resistance.

  3. Recent patents in pressurised metered dose inhalers.

    PubMed

    Ehtezazi, Touraj

    2012-04-01

    In this paper recent patents in pressurised metered dose inhalers have been reviewed. The patents are related to novel valves, dose-counters, formulations, add-on devices, reduction of propellant leakage and inkjet technology. Recently patented dose-counters provide mechanisms that are less susceptible to inaccuracy, and are battery-less electronic dose-counters with the help of miniature electromechanical generators. Regarding the formulation aspect, recent patents provide methods for combinational pMDIs and more stable products. Advantages of recently patented valves are being spring-free and less subject to loss of prime. Recent developments in micromachining have allowed patents that incorporate inkjet technology to develop inhalers that are similar to pMDIs, but produce uniform aerosol droplets. Coating canisters with suitable polymers has reduced need for excipients. Recently patented add-on devices reduce aerosol deposition in the spacer by creating turbulence on the walls of the chamber. Blockage of nozzles in actuators is prevented by providing tapered nozzle channels. In conclusion, these patents show better understanding of pMDIs and provide methods to achieve products with much improved reliability, aerosol performance and stability.

  4. Lethal methemoglobinemia and automobile exhaust inhalation.

    PubMed

    Vevelstad, Merete; Morild, Inge

    2009-05-30

    Inhalation of automobile exhaust gas often leads to death by CO intoxication. In some cases the measured carbon monoxide hemoglobin saturation level (COHb) is considerably below what is considered to be lethal. The death in such cases has been attributed to a combination of a high CO2 and a low O2 tension. In a recent case the deceased was found dead in a car equipped with a catalytic converter, with a hose leading exhaust from the engine to the interior of the car. Analysis revealed a moderately elevated COHb and a high methemoglobin saturation level (MetHb) in peripheral blood. No ethanol, narcotics or drugs were detected. Reports mentioning MetHb or methemoglobinemia in post-mortem cases are surprisingly scarce, and very few have related exhaust gas deaths to methemoglobinemia. High-degree methemoglobinemia causes serious tissue hypoxia leading to unconsciousness, arrhythmia and death. The existing literature in this field and the knowledge that exhaust fumes contain nitrogen oxide gases (NOx) that by inhalation and absorption can result in severe methemoglobinemia, led us to postulate that this death could possibly be attributed to a combination of methemoglobinemia and a moderately high COHb concentration.

  5. [Inhaled antibiotic therapy in cystic fibrosis].

    PubMed

    Girón Moreno, Rosa M; Salcedo Posadas, Antonio; Mar Gómez-Punter, Rosa

    2011-06-01

    Cystic fibrosis is the most frequent fatal genetically-transmitted disease among Caucasians. Chronic bronchial infection, especially by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, is the main cause of morbidity and mortality in this disease. Aerosolized antibiotic therapy achieves high drug concentrations in the airway with low toxicity, allowing chronic use. Currently, two antibiotics have been approved for inhalation therapy, tobramycin inhalation solution and colistimethate sodium aerosol. There is less evidence from clinical trials for the latter. The main indication for these drugs is chronic bronchial colonization by P. aeruginosa, although there is increasing evidence of the importance of the primary infection by this bacterium, whether treated by oral or intravenous antibiotics or not. More controversial is the use of aerosolized antibiotic therapy in bacterial prophylaxis or respiratory exacerbations. For many years, intravenous formulations of distinct antibiotics for aerosolized use have been employed, which are in distinct phases of research for use in nebulizer therapy. In addition to being used to treat P. aeruginosa infection, aerosolized antibiotics have been used to treat other pathogens such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococus aureus, Mycobacterium abscessus and Aspergillus fumigatus.

  6. Formulation Design of Dry Powders for Inhalation.

    PubMed

    Weers, Jeffry G; Miller, Danforth P

    2015-10-01

    Drugs for inhalation are no longer exclusively highly crystalline small molecules. They may also be amorphous small molecules, peptides, antibodies, and myriad types of engineered proteins. The evolution of respiratory therapeutics has created a need for flexible formulation technologies to engineer respirable particles. These technologies have enabled medicinal chemists to focus on molecular design without concern regarding compatibility of physicochemical properties with traditional, blend-based technologies. Therapeutics with diverse physicochemical properties can now be formulated as stable and respirable dry powders. Particle engineering technologies have also driven the deployment of new excipients, giving formulators greater control over particle and powder properties. This plays a key role in enabling efficient delivery of drugs to the lungs. Engineered powder and device combinations enable aerosols that largely bypass the mouth and throat, minimizing the inherent variability among patients that arises from differences in oropharyngeal and airway anatomies and in breathing profiles. This review explores how advances among molecules, particles, and powders have transformed inhaled drug product development. Ultimately, this scientific progress will benefit patients, enabling new classes of therapeutics to be formulated as dry powder aerosols with improved efficacy, reduced variability and side effects, and improved patient adherence. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  7. Survie au cancer du sein à Rabat (Maroc) 2005-2008

    PubMed Central

    Mechita, Nada Bennani; Tazi, Mohammed Adnane; Er-Raki, Abdelouahed; Mrabet, Mustapha; Saadi, Asma; Benjaafar, Noureddine; Razine, Rachid

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Le cancer du sein représente un problème de santé publique au Maroc. L’objectif de ce travail était d’estimer le taux de survie au cancer du sein chez les patientes habitant la ville de Rabat. Méthodes Etude pronostique réalisée chez les patientes diagnostiquées pour cancer du sein de 2005 à 2008, habitant la ville de Rabat et enregistrées au registre des cancers de Rabat. La date d’inclusion dans l’étude correspondait à la date de confirmation histologique du cancer. L’estimation de la survie a été réalisée par la méthode de Kaplan Meier, et la comparaison entre les différentes classes d’une variable a été réalisée par le test de log rank. L’étude des facteurs associés à la survie a été effectuée par le modèle de Cox. Résultats Durant la période d’étude 628 cas de cancer du sein ont été collectés. Le pourcentage de décès était de 19,9%. La survie globale à un an était de 97,1%, elle était de 89,2% à 3 ans et de 80,6 % à 5 ans. En analyse multivariée la survie au cancer du sein était statistiquement moins bonne chez les patientes âgées de plus de 70 ans (p<0,001), ayantune grande taille de tumeur (p<0,001), un stade avancé d’adénopathies (p=0,007), présentant des métastases (p<0,001) et non traitées par hormonothérapie (p=0,002). Conclusion Une grande taille de la tumeur et la présence de métastases sont des facteurs de mauvais pronostic du cancer du sein d’où la nécessité de renforcer les programmes de dépistage. PMID:28292106

  8. Écologie des soins de santé au Canada

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Moira; Ryan, Bridget

    2015-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Présenter un profil populationnel pancanadien des besoins en soins de santé et de leur utilisation, facile d’accès et permettant des comparaisons entre les provinces et avec d’autres instances internationales. Conception Une comparaison des taux d’utilisation des soins de santé entre les provinces en utilisant des données d’enquêtes et des renseignements administratifs sur la santé. Contexte Les provinces du Canada. Principaux paramètres à l’étude Les taux canadiens et provinciaux de personnes en mauvaise santé (présence de problèmes chroniques) et d’utilisation des soins de santé (contacts avec des médecins de famille, avec d’autres médecins spécialistes, avec des infirmières et hospitalisations) sous forme de proportions mensuelles par 1000 habitants normalisées en fonction de l’âge et du genre. Résultats La proportion mensuelle par 1000 habitants de personnes souffrant d’au moins 1 problème chronique variait de 524 au Québec à 638 en Nouvelle-Écosse; les contacts avec un médecin de famille se situaient entre 158 au Québec et 295 en Colombie-Britannique; les contacts avec d’autres médecins spécialistes variaient entre 53 en Saskatchewan et 79 en Ontario; et le nombre de contacts avec des infirmières se situait entre 23 en Colombie-Britannique et 41 au Québec. Le nombre de séjours à l’hôpital variait entre 8 et 11 par 1000 habitants et les proportions étaient semblables d’une province à l’autre. Conclusion Il est essentiel de reconnaître les distinctions entre les provinces pour éclairer les politiques sur la santé dans l’ensemble du pays. Les différences persistaient lorsque les taux étaient normalisés en fonction de la composition démographique variable selon l’âge et le genre dans les provinces. Cet article présente une méthodologie simple à l’aide de données publiquement accessibles qui peut servir dans chaque province à examiner, à l’avenir, l

  9. Review of PAR parameterizations in ocean ecosystem models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byun, Do-Seong; Wang, Xiao Hua; Hart, Deirdre E.; Zavatarelli, Marco

    2014-12-01

    Commonly-used empirical equations for calculating downward 'photosynthetically available radiation' or PAR were reviewed in order to identify a more theoretically-sound parameterization for application to ocean biogeochemical models. Three different forms of broadband PAR parameterization are currently employed in biogeochemical models, each of them originating from the downward irradiance formulations normally applied to ocean circulation models, which produce poor attenuation estimates for PAR. Two of the PAR formulations, a single-exponential function and a double-exponential function, are parameterized by multiplying surface irradiance by a coefficient determining the portion of underwater PAR. The third formulation uses the second term of the double-exponential function. After elucidating the theoretical problems of modeling PAR using these parameterizations, we suggest an improved, R-modified double-exponential PAR formulation, including Paulson and Simpson's (1977) parameter values. We also newly estimate PAR penetration via least-squares fitting of values digitized from Jerlov's (1976) observations in different oceanic water types, and compare this PAR-observation derived parameterization with our new, theoretical, R-modified parameterization. Finally, we discuss a universal limitation inherent in current theoretical approaches to PAR parameterization.

  10. Whole-body nanoparticle aerosol inhalation exposures.

    PubMed

    Yi, Jinghai; Chen, Bean T; Schwegler-Berry, Diane; Frazer, Dave; Castranova, Vince; McBride, Carroll; Knuckles, Travis L; Stapleton, Phoebe A; Minarchick, Valerie C; Nurkiewicz, Timothy R

    2013-05-07

    Inhalation is the most likely exposure route for individuals working with aerosolizable engineered nano-materials (ENM). To properly perform nanoparticle inhalation toxicology studies, the aerosols in a chamber housing the experimental animals must have: 1) a steady concentration maintained at a desired level for the entire exposure period; 2) a homogenous composition free of contaminants; and 3) a stable size distribution with a geometric mean diameter < 200 nm and a geometric standard deviation σg < 2.5 (5). The generation of aerosols containing nanoparticles is quite challenging because nanoparticles easily agglomerate. This is largely due to very strong inter-particle forces and the formation of large fractal structures in tens or hundreds of microns in size (6), which are difficult to be broken up. Several common aerosol generators, including nebulizers, fluidized beds, Venturi aspirators and the Wright dust feed, were tested; however, none were able to produce nanoparticle aerosols which satisfy all criteria (5). A whole-body nanoparticle aerosol inhalation exposure system was fabricated, validated and utilized for nano-TiO2 inhalation toxicology studies. Critical components: 1) novel nano-TiO2 aerosol generator; 2) 0.5 m(3) whole-body inhalation exposure chamber; and 3) monitor and control system. Nano-TiO2 aerosols generated from bulk dry nano-TiO2 powders (primary diameter of 21 nm, bulk density of 3.8 g/cm(3)) were delivered into the exposure chamber at a flow rate of 90 LPM (10.8 air changes/hr). Particle size distribution and mass concentration profiles were measured continuously with a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS), and an electric low pressure impactor (ELPI). The aerosol mass concentration (C) was verified gravimetrically (mg/m(3)). The mass (M) of the collected particles was determined as M = (Mpost-Mpre), where Mpre and Mpost are masses of the filter before and after sampling (mg). The mass concentration was calculated as C = M

  11. Cerebrovascular, cardiovascular and strength responses to acute ammonia inhalation.

    PubMed

    Perry, Blake G; Pritchard, Hayden J; Barnes, Matthew J

    2016-03-01

    Ammonia is used as a stimulant in strength based sports to increase arousal and offset fatigue however little is known about its physiological and performance effects. The purpose of this study was twofold (1) establish the physiological response to acute ammonia inhalation (2) determine whether the timing of the physiological response corresponds with a performance enhancement, if any. Fifteen healthy males completed two trials. Trial one investigated the beat-to-beat middle cerebral artery blood flow velocity (MCAv), heart rate (HR) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) response to ammonia inhalation. During trial two, participants performed a maximal single mid-thigh pull (MTP) at various time points following ammonia inhalation in a randomised order: MTPs were conducted immediately, 15, 30 and 60 s following ammonia inhalation. A MTP with no ammonia inhalation served as the control. During this trial maximal MTP force, rate of force development (RFD) and electromyography (EMG) activity were recorded. MCAvmean increased and peaked on average by 6 cm s(-1) (P < 0.001), 9.4 ± 5.5 s following ammonia inhalation. Similarly, HR was increased by 6 ± 11 beats per minute 15 s following ammonia inhalation (P < 0.001). MAP remained unchanged following inhalation (P = 0.51). The use and timing of ammonia inhalation had no effect on maximal force, RFD or EMG (all P > 0.2) compared to control. MCAv was elevated despite no increase in MAP occurring; this is indicative of a cerebrovascular vasodilation. Despite the marked cerebrovascular and cardiovascular response to ammonia inhalation no ergogenic effect was observed during the MTP, irrespective of the timing of administration.

  12. Profil épidémiologique de l'infection à VIH au cours d'une campagne de sensibilisation à Yaoundé au Cameroun

    PubMed Central

    Mbopi-Keou, Francois-Xavier; Nguefack-Tsague, Georges; Kalla, Ginette Claude Mireille; Viche, Lade; Noubom, Michel

    2013-01-01

    Introduction L'objectif de ce travail était de déterminer le profil épidémiologique de l'infection à VIH/SIDA au cours d'une campagne de sensibilisation à Yaoundé au Cameroun. Méthodes Après avoir obtenu le consentement éclairé des participants, le dépistage de l'infection par le VIH a été effectué selon l'algorithme de dépistage en série de l'Organisation Mondiale de la Santé (OMS). En outre, un questionnaire socio-comportemental a été proposé à chaque participant. Résultats Au total, 911 personnes ont été dépistées. La prévalence de l'infection par le VIH était de 2.6%. Elle était 3 fois plus élevée parmi les femmes (RC = 3.22, IC (1.26 - 8.18). Les prévalences les plus élevées ont été observées chez les personnes de plus de 45 ans (p = 0.01), les personnes sans emploi (p < 0.001) et les veufs/veuves (p = 0.02). Plus de 80% des participants trouvaient le test de dépistage nécessaire et 76,2% l'avaient déjà effectué au moins une fois auparavant. Il s'agissait principalement de femmes (p = 0.02), d'étudiants (p < 0.001) et des personnes âgées de 25 à 34 ans (p < 0.001). Les personnes séropositives avaient moins tendance à retirer leur résultat (p = 0.01). Conclusion Il apparait urgent d'intensifier les campagnes de dépistage de l'infection par le VIH en ciblant davantage des groupes particuliers tels que les élèves, les personnes âgées et les veufs/veuves, tout en recherchant les facteurs pouvant favoriser la propagation de l'infection dans ces groupes. PMID:24255725

  13. Etude de la dynamique des porteurs dans des nanofils de silicium par spectroscopie terahertz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaudoin, Alexandre

    Ce memoire presente une etude des proprietes de conduction electrique et de la dynamique temporelle des porteurs de charges dans des nanofils de silicium sondes par rayonnement terahertz. Les cas de nanofils de silicium non intentionnellement dopes et dopes type n sont compares pour differentes configurations du montage experimental. Les mesures de spectroscopie terahertz en transmission montre qu'il est possible de detecter la presence de dopants dans les nanofils via leur absorption du rayonnement terahertz (˜ 1--12 meV). Les difficultes de modelisation de la transmission d'une impulsion electromagnetique dans un systeme de nanofils sont egalement discutees. La detection differentielle, une modification au systeme de spectroscopie terahertz, est testee et ses performances sont comparees au montage de caracterisation standard. Les instructions et des recommendations pour la mise en place de ce type de mesure sont incluses. Les resultats d'une experience de pompe optique-sonde terahertz sont egalement presentes. Dans cette experience, les porteurs de charge temporairement crees suite a l'absorption de la pompe optique (lambda ˜ 800 nm) dans les nanofils (les photoporteurs) s'ajoutent aux porteurs initialement presents et augmentent done l'absorption du rayonnement terahertz. Premierement, l'anisotropie de l'absorption terahertz et de la pompe optique par les nanofils est demontree. Deuxiemement, le temps de recombinaison des photoporteurs est etudie en fonction du nombre de photoporteurs injectes. Une hypothese expliquant les comportements observes pour les nanofils non-dopes et dopes-n est presentee. Troisiemement, la photoconductivite est extraite pour les nanofils non-dopes et dopes-n sur une plage de 0.5 a 2 THz. Un lissage sur la photoconductivite permet d'estimer le nombre de dopants dans les nanofils dopes-n. Mots-cles: nanofil, silicium, terahertz, conductivite, spectroscopie, photoconductivite.

  14. Carcinome cutané de Merkel: apport de la TEP-TDM au18FDG

    PubMed Central

    Amal, Guensi; Sara, Taleb; Ghofrane, Cherkaoui Salhi; Malika, Ait Idir; Majdouline, Houjami; Souha, Sahraoui; Abdelatif, Benider; Najoua, Touil; Ghita, Benmoussa; Zineb, Baroudi; Nabil, Chikhaoui

    2016-01-01

    Le carcinome à cellules de Merkel (CCM) est une tumeur cutanée neuroendocrinerare d’évolution imprévisible et à grand potentiel métastatique. Ce néoplasme survient habituellement chez le sujet âgé au niveau des zones photo exposées. L'avidité constante du CCM au 18 fluorodésoxyglucose (FDG) justifie l'intérêt de la tomographie par émission de positon (TEP) au cours de cette pathologie. Toutefois, aucun consensus n'est établi à ce jour. Cette étude rapporte le cas d'une patiente de 25 ans suivie pour CCM métastatique, afin d'attirer l'attention sur cette tumeur particulière et d'illustrer l'intérêt de la TEP au 18 FDG dans la prise en charge de cette entité rare. PMID:27303574

  15. Improvement of drug delivery with a breath actuated pressurised aerosol for patients with poor inhaler technique.

    PubMed Central

    Newman, S P; Weisz, A W; Talaee, N; Clarke, S W

    1991-01-01

    BACKGROUND The metered dose inhaler is difficult to use correctly, synchronising actuation with inhalation being the most important problem. A breath actuated pressurised inhaler, designed to help patients with poor inhaler technique, was compared with a conventional metered dose inhaler in terms of aerosol deposition and bronchodilator response. METHODS Radioaerosol deposition and bronchodilator response to 100 micrograms salbutamol were measured in 18 asthmatic patients, who inhaled from a conventional metered dose inhaler by their own chosen metered dose inhaler technique, from a conventional metered dose inhaler by a taught metered dose inhaler technique, and from a breath actuated pressured inhaler (Autohaler). RESULTS In the 10 patients who could coordinate actuation and inhalation of the inhaler on their own deposition of aerosol in the lungs and bronchodilator response were equivalent on the three study days. By contrast, in the eight patients who could not coordinate the mean (SEM) percentage of the dose deposited in the lungs with their own inhaler technique (7.2% (3.4%] was substantial lower than those attained by the taught metered dose inhaler technique (22.8% (2.5%] and by Autohaler (20.8% (1.7%]. CONCLUSION Although of little additional benefit to asthmatic patients with good coordination, the Autohaler is potentially a valuable aid to those with poor coordination, and should be considered in preference to a conventional metered dose inhaler in any patient whose inhaler technique is not known to be satisfactory. Images PMID:1750017

  16. High-p(T) Tomography of d+Au and Au+Au at SPS, RHIC, and LHC.

    PubMed

    Vitev, Ivan; Gyulassy, Miklos

    2002-12-16

    The interplay of nuclear effects on the p(T)>2 GeV inclusive hadron spectra in d+Au and Au+Au reactions at sqrt[s(NN)]=17, 200, and 5500 GeV is compared to leading order perturbative QCD calculations for elementary p+p (p+p) collisions. The competition between nuclear shadowing, Cronin effect, and jet energy loss due to medium-induced gluon radiation is predicted to lead to a striking energy dependence of the nuclear suppression/enhancement pattern in A+A reactions. We show that future d+Au data can be used to disentangle the initial and final state effects.

  17. A Conserved Mode of Protein Recognition and Binding in a ParD−ParE Toxin−Antitoxin Complex

    SciTech Connect

    Dalton, Kevin M.; Crosson, Sean

    2010-05-06

    Toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems form a ubiquitous class of prokaryotic proteins with functional roles in plasmid inheritance, environmental stress response, and cell development. ParDE family TA systems are broadly conserved on plasmids and bacterial chromosomes and have been well characterized as genetic elements that promote stable plasmid inheritance. We present a crystal structure of a chromosomally encoded ParD-ParE complex from Caulobacter crescentus at 2.6 {angstrom} resolution. This TA system forms an {alpha}{sub 2}{beta}{sub 2} heterotetramer in the crystal and in solution. The toxin-antitoxin binding interface reveals extensive polar and hydrophobic contacts of ParD antitoxin helices with a conserved recognition and binding groove on the ParE toxin. A cross-species comparison of this complex structure with related toxin structures identified an antitoxin recognition and binding subdomain that is conserved between distantly related members of the RelE/ParE toxin superfamily despite a low level of overall primary sequence identity. We further demonstrate that ParD antitoxin is dimeric, stably folded, and largely helical when not bound to ParE toxin. Thus, the paradigmatic model in which antitoxin undergoes a disorder-to-order transition upon toxin binding does not apply to this chromosomal ParD-ParE TA system.

  18. Recherche de leptons lourds au LEP 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tafirout, Reda

    En 1989, la mise en opération de la première phase du LEP (le LEP 1), au CERN, a une Energie correspondant a la résonance du boson Z0, a permis d'étudier et de confirmer avec une grande précision le Modèle Standard des interactions électrofaibles. Malgré le succès remarquable de ce modèle à décrire toutes les données expérimentales recueillies jusqu'à ce jour en physique des hautes énergies, ce dernier laisse plusieurs questions sans réponse. Il n'explique pas entre autres pourquoi il n'y a que trois familles de particules dont le neutrino associé est léger et la hiérarchie des masses observées des fermions reste une énigme. Ici, nous nous intéressons à l'existence éventuelle de nouveaux fermions, tels que prédits par des extensions du Modèle Standard. Ces nouveaux fermions ont été recherches au LEP 1, mais en vain, et une limite inférieure sur leur masse d'environ MZ/2 a pu être imposée. La deuxième phase du LEP (le LEP 2) qui a débuté dans l'automne 1995 avec une énergie disponible de √s = 130, et 136 GeV, puis dans l'été 1996 a √s = 161 GeV a permis d'améliorer ces limites. Nous présentons ici la recherche de leptons lourds, neutres (N) et chargés (L+/-), effectuée à partir des données recueillies dans l'automne 1996 avec le détecteur de la collaboration OPAL au LEP 2, à des énergies au centre de masse de √s = 170 et 172 GeV. La luminosité totale intégrée fut de 10.3 pb-1. Un nouveau générateur, EXOTIC, conçu et développé a cette fin, a été utilise pour la simulation des échantillons d'événements Monte Carlo qui ont servi à comparer les données obtenues avec les prédictions théoriques. Plus spécifiquement, nous avons recherché le processus e+e- --> NN où N, pouvant être de type Dirac ou Majorana, se désintègre en un lepton léger standard (e, μ, ou τ) et un boson W+/- virtuel (W+/-*). Pour un N de type Dirac, une limite inférieure sur la masse à 95% de niveau de confiance est obtenue

  19. Capteur de CO{2} à fibres optiques par absorption moléculaire à 4,3 μm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bendamardji, S.; Alayli, Y.; Huard, S.

    1996-04-01

    This paper describes a remote optical fibre sensor for the carbon dioxide detection by molecular absorption in the near infrared (4.3 μm) corresponding to fundamental mode ν3. To overcome the problem of the strong attenuation signal of optical fibre in the near infrared, we have used the opto-suppling technique which changes the working wavelength from 4.3 μm to 860 nm and permits the use of standard optical fibre 50/125. The simulation of absorption has been obtained by original modelisation of the absorption spectrum and the establishment of the calibration curves takes to the sensor to detect a partial pressures greater than 100 μbar with a minimal error margin of 100 μbar, which is acceptable considering the future use of the device. The sensor has been designed to monitor the CO{2} rate in enriched greenhouses. Cet article décrit un capteur à fibres optiques de gaz carbonique par absorption moléculaire dans l'infrarouge moyen (4,3 μm) correspondant au mode fondamental ν3. La liaison entre le site de mesure et le site de contrôle est assurée par un fibre optique standard 50/125 après une transposition de longueur d'onde de 4,3 μm à 860 nm par opto-alimentation. La simulation de l'absorption a été obtenue par modélisation originale du spectre d'absorption et l'établissement des courbes d'étalonnage prévoit une marge d'erreur minimale de 100 μbar, ce qui est suffisant pour l'application du dispositif à la régulation de taux CO{2} dans les serres agricoles enrichies par de gaz.

  20. Deposition, retention, and clearance of inhaled particles.

    PubMed Central

    Lippmann, M; Yeates, D B; Albert, R E

    1980-01-01

    The relation between the concentrations and characteristics of air contaminants in the work place and the resultant toxic doses and potential hazards after their inhalation depends greatly on their patterns of deposition and the rates and pathways for their clearance from the deposition sites. The distribution of the deposition sites of inhaled particles is strongly dependent on their aerodynamic diameters. For normal man, inhaled non-hygroscopic particles greater than or equal to 2 micrometers that deposit in the conducting airways by impaction are concentrated on to a small fraction of the surface. Cigarette smoking and bronchitis produce a proximal shift in the deposition pattern. The major factor affecting the deposition of smaller particles is their transfer from tidal to reserve air. For particles soluble in respiratory tract fluid, systemic uptake may be relatively complete for all deposition patterns, and there may be local toxic or irritant effects or both. On the other hand, slowly soluble particles depositing in the conducting airways are carried on the surface to the glottis and are swallowed within one day. Mucociliary transport rates are highly variable, both along the ciliated airways of a given individual and between individuals. The changes in clearance rates produced by drugs, cigarette smoke, and other environmental pollutants can greatly increase or decrease these rates. Particles deposited in non-ciliated airways have large surface-to-volume ratios, and clearance by dissolution can occur for materials generally considered insoluble. They may also be cleared as free particles either by passive transport along surface liquids or, after phagocytosis, by transport within alveolar macrophages. If the particles penetrate the epithelium, either bare or within macrophages, they may be sequestered within cells or enter the lymphatic circulation and be carried to pleural, hilar, and more distant lymph nodes. Non-toxic insoluble particles are cleared from

  1. A new model for estimating boreal forest fPAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majasalmi, Titta; Rautiainen, Miina; Stenberg, Pauline

    2014-05-01

    Life on Earth is continuously sustained by the extraterrestrial flux of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR, 400-700 nm) from the sun. This flux is converted to biomass by chloroplasts in green vegetation. Thus, the fraction of absorbed PAR (fPAR) is a key parameter used in carbon balance studies, and is listed as one of the Essential Climate Variables (ECV). Temporal courses of fPAR for boreal forests are difficult to measure, because of the complex 3D structures. Thus, they are most often estimated based on models which quantify the dependency of absorbed radiation on canopy structure. In this study, we adapted a physically-based canopy radiation model into a fPAR model, and compared modeled and measured fPAR in structurally different boreal forest stands. The model is based on the spectral invariants theory, and uses leaf area index (LAI), canopy gap fractions and spectra of foliage and understory as input data. The model differs from previously developed more detailed fPAR models in that the complex 3D structure of coniferous forests is described using an aggregated canopy parameter - photon recollision probability p. The strength of the model is that all model inputs are measurable or available through other simple models. First, the model was validated with measurements of instantaneous fPAR obtained with the TRAC instrument in nine Scots pine, Norway spruce and Silver birch stands in a boreal forest in southern Finland. Good agreement was found between modeled and measured fPAR. Next, we applied the model to predict temporal courses of fPAR using data on incoming radiation from a nearby flux tower and sky irradiance models. Application of the model to simulate diurnal and seasonal values of fPAR indicated that the ratio of direct-to-total incident radiation and leaf area index are the key factors behind the magnitude and variation of stand-level fPAR values.

  2. Developpement de techniques de diagnostic non intrusif par tomographie optique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubot, Fabien

    Que ce soit dans les domaines des procedes industriels ou de l'imagerie medicale, on a assiste ces deux dernieres decennies a un developpement croissant des techniques optiques de diagnostic. L'engouement pour ces methodes repose principalement sur le fait qu'elles sont totalement non invasives, qu'elle utilisent des sources de rayonnement non nocives pour l'homme et l'environnement et qu'elles sont relativement peu couteuses et faciles a mettre en oeuvre comparees aux autres techniques d'imagerie. Une de ces techniques est la Tomographie Optique Diffuse (TOD). Cette methode d'imagerie tridimensionnelle consiste a caracteriser les proprietes radiatives d'un Milieu Semi-Transparent (MST) a partir de mesures optiques dans le proche infrarouge obtenues a l'aide d'un ensemble de sources et detecteurs situes sur la frontiere du domaine sonde. Elle repose notamment sur un modele direct de propagation de la lumiere dans le MST, fournissant les predictions, et un algorithme de minimisation d'une fonction de cout integrant les predictions et les mesures, permettant la reconstruction des parametres d'interet. Dans ce travail, le modele direct est l'approximation diffuse de l'equation de transfert radiatif dans le regime frequentiel tandis que les parametres d'interet sont les distributions spatiales des coefficients d'absorption et de diffusion reduit. Cette these est consacree au developpement d'une methode inverse robuste pour la resolution du probleme de TOD dans le domaine frequentiel. Pour repondre a cet objectif, ce travail est structure en trois parties qui constituent les principaux axes de la these. Premierement, une comparaison des algorithmes de Gauss-Newton amorti et de Broyden- Fletcher-Goldfarb-Shanno (BFGS) est proposee dans le cas bidimensionnel. Deux methodes de regularisation sont combinees pour chacun des deux algorithmes, a savoir la reduction de la dimension de l'espace de controle basee sur le maillage et la regularisation par penalisation de Tikhonov

  3. Tunable VO2/Au Hyperbolic Metamaterial

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-02-12

    United States Government.   Tunable VO2/Au hyperbolic metamaterial S. Prayakarao1, B. Mendoza2,3, A. Devine2,3, C. Kyaw2, R. B. Van Dover2, V...can be used as a tunable component of an active metamaterial . The lamellar metamaterial studied in this work is composed of subwavelength VO2 and Au...Au lamellar metamaterial stacks have been fabricated and studied in the electrical conductivity and optical (transmission and reflection

  4. Traitement chirurgical des fractures articulaires du calcanéum par plaque vissée

    PubMed Central

    Hammou, Nassreddine; Abid, Hatim; Shimi, Mohammed; El Ibrahimi, Abdelhalim; El Mrini, Abdelmajid

    2015-01-01

    Les fractures du calcanéum sont peu fréquentes mais le plus souvent graves. Le traitement chirurgical par plaque vissée est ardemment défendu. L'objectif de notre travail rétrospectif est d’évaluer les résultats du traitement chirurgical des fractures articulaires du calcanéum à travers une série de 12 patients opérée aux service d'orthopédie du CHU Hassan II de Fès sur une durée de 3 ans, et les comparer aux données de la littérature. L’âge moyen dans notre série était de 34 ans, le geste opératoire était réalisé au 7ème jour. Tous nos patient ont bénéficie d'une réduction à foyer ouvert avec une ostéosynthèse par plaques vissées. Le recul moyen était de 12 mois et les résultats fonctionnels ont été évaluer selon le score de Kitaoka. PMID:26161214

  5. The Respimat Soft Mist Inhaler, a Novel Inhaled Drug Delivery Device.

    PubMed

    Perriello, Emily A; Sobieraj, Diana M

    2016-01-01

    Summary The Respimat SMI offers a novel delivery mechanism for the management of primarily COPD, but asthma as well. Presently, four different medications, as monotherapy or a combination of two active ingredients, are available using the Respimat SMI technology. Multiple studies have demonstrated safety and efficacy of these drugs when delivered via Respimat SMI. Patients tend to prefer the Respimat SMI over traditional inhaler devices, as it overcomes some of the disadvantages posed by traditional delivery devices.

  6. 2. HI PAR (ACQUISITION RADAR) TOWER AND ENLISTED MEN (EM) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. HI PAR (ACQUISITION RADAR) TOWER AND ENLISTED MEN (EM) BARRACKS WITH RADAR ATTACHED. - Nike Hercules Missile Battery Summit Site, Battery Control Administration & Barracks Building, Anchorage, Anchorage, AK

  7. Infection par le virus de l’hépatite E durant la grossesse

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhry, Shahnaz A.; Verma, Natasha; Koren, Gideon

    2015-01-01

    Résumé Question Plusieurs de mes patientes sont originaires de l’Asie du Sud-Est où le virus de l’hépatite E est assez commun. Quelles précautions puis-je leur suggérer de prendre avant de voyager dans cette région et quels sont les risques d’une infection par le VHE durant la grossesse? Réponse L’hépatite E est un pathogène présent dans l’eau qui se transmet par voie oro-fécale. Afin de réduire le risque de contracter le VHE lors de voyages dans des régions endémiques, il est important de maintenir des pratiques d’hygiène telles que se laver les mains avec de l’eau potable, particulièrement avant de manipuler de la nourriture, éviter de boire de l’eau ou d’utiliser des glaçons de pureté inconnue et ne pas manger de fruits ou de légumes non pelés. Actuellement, il n’existe aucun vaccin disponible au Canada pour le VHE. Une infection à l’hépatite E durant la grossesse, surtout durant le troisième trimestre, se caractérise par une infection plus sévère qui se transforme parfois en hépatite fulminante, augmentant ainsi les risques de mortalité et de morbidité maternelles et fœtales.

  8. Nitrous oxide inhalation among adolescents: prevalence, correlates, and co-occurrence with volatile solvent inhalation.

    PubMed

    Garland, Eric L; Howard, Matthew O; Perron, Brian E

    2009-12-01

    Few studies have examined the prevalence of nitrous oxide (NO) inhalation or co-occurrence of NO and volatile solvent (VS) use in adolescents. Study aims were to (1) describe the independent and conjoint prevalence of NO and VS use in incarcerated youth, (2) compare adolescent users of both NO and VS inhalants (NO+VS) to users of NO-only, VS-only, and nonusers of NO and VS (NO/VNS nonusers) with regard to demographic, psychological, and behavioral characteristics, and (3) conduct logistic regression analyses identifying correlates of NO use. Residents (N = 723) of Missouri Division of Youth Services were assessed with standardized psychosocial measures. Participants averaged 15.5 (SD = 1.2) years of age, were ethnically diverse and predominantly male. Lifetime prevalence of NO use was 15.8%. NO+VS users evidenced greater impairments compared to NO+VS nonusers. VS-only users evidenced impairments that were similar in kind but at lower prevalences compared to those displayed by NO+VS users, whereas NO-only youth had profiles that were similar to those of NO/VS nonusers. Psychiatric disorders, polydrug use, and temperamental fearlessness were correlates of NO use. NO+VS users were at high risk for behavioral and emotional problems. Screening and interventions for NO and VS inhalant use should be implemented in juvenile justice facilities.

  9. Nitrous Oxide Inhalation Among Adolescents: Prevalence, Correlates, and Co-Occurrence with Volatile Solvent Inhalation

    PubMed Central

    Garland, Eric L.; Howard, Matthew O.; Perron, Brian E.

    2010-01-01

    Few studies have examined the prevalence of nitrous oxide (NO) inhalation or co-occurrence of NO and volatile solvent (VS) use in adolescents. Study aims were to (1) describe the independent and conjoint prevalence of NO and VS use in incarcerated youth, (2) compare adolescent users of both NO and VS inhalants (NO+VS) to users of NO-only, VS-only, and nonusers of NO and VS (NO/VS nonusers) with regard to demographic, psychological, and behavioral characteristics, and (3) conduct logistic regression analyses identifying correlates of NO use. Residents (N = 723) of Missouri Division of Youth Services were assessed with standardized psychosocial measures. Participants averaged 15.5 (SD = 1.2) years of age, were ethnically diverse and predominantly male. Lifetime prevalence of NO use was 15.8%. NO+VS users evidenced greater impairments compared to NO+VS nonusers. VS-only users evidenced impairments that were similar in kind but at lower prevalences compared to those displayed by NO+VS users, whereas NO-only youth had profiles that were similar to those of NO/VS nonusers. Psychiatric disorders, polydrug use, and temperamental fearlessness were correlates of NO use. NO+VS users were at high risk for behavioral and emotional problems. Screening and interventions for NO and VS inhalant use should be implemented in juvenile justice facilities. PMID:20235440

  10. Cost Reduction of Inhaled Tobramycin by Use of Preservative-Free Intravenous Tobramycin Given via Inhalation

    PubMed Central

    Gauthier, Timothy P.; Wasko, Justin; Unger, Nathan R.; Abbo, Lilian M.; Fernandez, Margaret; Aragon, Laura

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluates drug cost outcomes related to automatic therapeutic substitution of branded tobramycin solution for inhalation (TOBI®) with inhaled generic preservative-free intravenous tobramycin (PFIT). A retrospective single-center evaluation of inhaled tobramycin use from 2008 through 2012 was performed. Number of doses dispensed and acquisition costs were obtained. Hourly wage data was acquired, pharmacy production costs were estimated and total cost-savings calculated. Days of therapy (DOTs) were determined for each year. Quality assurance and safety data was collected. In 2008, TOBI® drug costs and doses dispensed were $118,665 and 1769, respectively. Following implementation of the interchange in May 2009, TOBI® utilization ceased. PFIT costs in 2010 through 2012 averaged $34,775 annually and TOBI® cost-avoidance exceeded $94,000 annually when accounting for pharmacy production costs, which were determined to be at most $5.28 per dose. The maximum estimated pharmacy production cost ranged from $8812 to $11,299 annually. PFIT doses dispensed exceeded 1650 each year and annual DOTs ranged from 815 to 1069. The 40-month savings were calculated to be $374,706. Quality assurance and safety data identified one patient who refused PFIT due to odor complaints and one patient who was inappropriately administered a dose orally. Therapeutic substitution of TOBI® with PFIT can produce immediate and sustained savings with an acceptable safety profile. PMID:27025517

  11. Propellant-based inhalers for the non-invasive delivery of genes via oral inhalation.

    PubMed

    Conti, Denise S; Bharatwaj, Balaji; Brewer, Daniel; da Rocha, Sandro R P

    2012-02-10

    In this work we describe the development of a propellant-based, portable oral inhalation platform for the pulmonary delivery of genes. A core-shell strategy is utilized to efficiently disperse cationic-polymer-DNA nanoparticles in hydrofluoroalkane propellants, and to generate aerosols from the corresponding pressurized metered-dose inhaler formulations (pMDIs) that have excellent aerosol characteristics, suitable for deep lung deposition. The engineered polyplexes and core-shell structures were fully characterized, and their ability to transfect model lung alveolar epithelium cells in vitro was demonstrated. We also show that the propellant does not affect the biological activity of the plasmid DNA, and that the core-shell formulations have no in vitro cytotoxicity. The relevance of this work stems from the fact that pMDIs are the least expensive and most widely used portable oral inhalation devices, and are thus promising platforms for targeting genes to the lungs for the treatment of medically relevant diseases including asthma, cystic fibrosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and lung cancer. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Successful synthesis and thermal stability of immiscible metal Au-Rh, Au-Ir andAu-Ir-Rh nanoalloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shubin, Yury; Plyusnin, Pavel; Sharafutdinov, Marat; Makotchenko, Evgenia; Korenev, Sergey

    2017-05-01

    We successfully prepared face-centred cubic nanoalloys in systems of Au-Ir, Au-Rh and Au-Ir-Rh, with large bulk miscibility gaps, in one-run reactions under thermal decomposition of specially synthesised single-source precursors, namely, [AuEn2][Ir(NO2)6], [AuEn2][Ir(NO2)6] х [Rh(NO2)6]1-х and [AuEn2][Rh(NO2)6]. The precursors employed contain all desired metals ‘mixed’ at the atomic level, thus providing significant advantages for obtaining alloys. The observations using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy show that the nanoalloy structures are composed of well-dispersed aggregates of crystalline domains with a mean size of 5 ± 3 nm. Еnergy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy and x-ray powder diffraction (XRD) measurements confirm the formation of AuIr, AuRh, AuIr0.75Rh0.25, AuIr0.50Rh0.50 and AuIr0.25Rh0.75 metastable solid solutions. In situ high-temperature synchrotron XRD (HTXRD) was used to study the formation mechanism of nanoalloys. The observed transformations are described by the ‘conversion chemistry’ mechanism characterised by the primary development of particles comprising atoms of only one type, followed by a chemical reaction resulting in the final formation of a nanoalloy. The obtained metastable nanoalloys exhibit essential thermal stability. Exposure to 180 °C for 30 h does not cause any dealloying process.

  13. Axis I psychiatric comorbidity among adult inhalant dependents seeking treatment.

    PubMed

    Evren, Cuneyt; Barut, Tuncay; Saatcioglu, Omer; Cakmak, Duran

    2006-03-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence of Axis I disorders in adult inhalant-dependent patients in comparison to other substance-dependent patients and subjects without substance use disorders. The inhalant-dependent group consisted of 83 male inpatient and outpatient adults diagnosed according to DSM-IV criteria. This group was compared with 74 other substance-dependent patients and with 70 subjects without alcohol and substance use disorder diagnoses. Ninety-three percent of the inhalant dependents had a lifetime history of at least one type of comorbid Axis I disorder, while 77% of the same subjects had at least one type of any affective disorder and 75.9% of them had at least one type of anxiety disorder. Prevalence of Axis I disorders among inhalant dependents was 72.3% for lifetime major depression, 41% for major depression during the past month, 24% for dysthymic disorder, 20.5% for inhalant-induced depressive disorder, 27.7% for panic disorder, 30% for PTSD, 36.1% for social phobia and 20.5% for generalized anxiety disorder. The rate of lifetime axis I disorders was higher in patients with inhalant dependency in comparison to the other two groups. This finding suggests that inhalant-dependent adults have high rates of comorbid psychiatric problems, and that it is important to determine Axis I disorder comorbidity in this population before making an inpatient or outpatient treatment plan.

  14. Inhaled Formulation Design for the Treatment of Lung Infections.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Contreras, Lucila; Yadav, Khushwant S

    2015-01-01

    Lung infections may be bacterial, viral or fungal and they are typically treated with oral or parenteral antibiotics. Inhaled dry powder formulations offer unique opportunities for treating lung infections with enhanced effectiveness and stability. Since drug delivery to the lungs requires chronic and repeated administration of larger amounts of therapeutics, dry powder formulations are attractive alternatives to deliver drugs directly to the lungs as they are not limited by solubility issues and they are regarded as being more stable than liquid dosage forms. This state-of-the-art review presents the use of inhaled formulations for tuberculosis as a main focus, but also for other diseases such as bronchiectasis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), pneumonia and respiratory infections occurring as complications during lung transplants. Opportunities for the use of inhaled therapies and other respiratory diseases or as prevention or antidotes against warfare agents are offered. Typical and novel inhaled formulations that have been used as well as preclinical and clinical studies and evaluation of these inhaled therapies are discussed for each disease state. Lastly, the use of inhaled therapies as an alternative to end the emergence of drug resistant strains is discussed along with the risks of increasing these resistant strains if the inhaled therapy is not designed based on dosing regimens established by wellplanned pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies.

  15. Inhaler devices for asthma: do we follow the guidelines?

    PubMed

    Child, F; Davies, S; Clayton, S; Fryer, A A; Lenney, W

    2002-03-01

    Despite national guidelines for asthma treatment, many children have troublesome symptoms. To assess the extent to which the use of inappropriate inhaler devices contributes to this problem. Of 14 813 questionnaires distributed to schoolchildren, 6996 (47%) were returned identifying 1444 children using asthma inhalers. Inhalers were categorised as age appropriate or inappropriate according to national guidelines and were compared with those used by 75 patients attending a hospital clinic. A total of 35% of "schools" and 4% of "clinic" children reported using an inappropriate inhaler device. Most were using metered dose inhalers alone. Twenty four per cent of "schools" children < or = 5 years old did not use a spacer. Both children and parents overestimated the child's ability to use their inhaler. Large numbers of children are given inhalers they cannot use. To improve asthma care we must ensure that prescriptions reflect the age and ability of the child. Recent recommendations by the Department of Health in England and Wales stress the importance of seamless care between primary and secondary services. As the management of childhood asthma is guided primarily by secondary care providers, it is therefore imperative that general paediatricians know the difficulties and issues which are occurring in the community. This will enable them to lead and support necessary change.

  16. Disinfection of nitrous oxide inhalation equipment.

    PubMed

    Yagiela, J A; Hunt, L M; Hunt, D E

    1979-02-01

    Cross-infection by contaminated equipment is a potential hazard associated with conscious sedation with nitrous oxide and oxygen . Nosocomial infections have occasionally been linked wih the use of unsterile inhalation devices; microbial contamination of sterile nasal hoods routinely occurs during administration of nitrous oxide; and in vitro experiments indicate that subsequent use of contaminated nasal masks may lead to aspiration of microorganisms. Although the incidence of respiratory disease after such contamination is unknown, it is clear that disinfection of the nitrous oxide apparatus between patients is desirable. A simple cleaning method involving alkaline glutaraldehyde is described that provides adequate disinfection of the rubber goods used in the administration of gas. Superiority of this technique over previously recommended cleaning methods is shown.

  17. [Wood dust as inhalative noxious agent].

    PubMed

    Kirsten, D; Liebetrau, G; Meister, W

    1985-01-01

    Wood dust is known as a cause of asthma and chronic bronchitis. From 1979 to 1983 we observed 115 patients with chronic lung diseases, who were exposed to wood dust during many years. We found an irritative pathogenesis in 101 patients with asthma or bronchitis. Twenty nine patients had got a positive skin test, especially with makoré, beech, koto, ash, pine. The inhalation test was positive in 7 of them. The occupational etiology was verified in 5 patients. Besides wood dust itself chemicals for wood protection or wood adhesives can have importance in the pathogenesis of these diseases. Fourteen patients had got alveolitis or lung fibrosis after wood-dust exposition. In each case we found precipitating antibodies against moulds, which could be cultivated from wood dust to which the patients were exposed.

  18. Inhaled corticosteroids in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Suissa, Samy; McGhan, Ryan; Niewoehner, Dennis; Make, Barry

    2007-10-01

    The effectiveness of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) remains controversial. Randomized controlled trials, meta-analyses, medication withdrawal studies, and observational reports have examined this question, with mixed results. Observational studies have been subject to criticism because of study design involving immortal time bias. Some randomized controlled trials suggest small benefits in lung function and health status, and a reduction in the rate of acute exacerbations of COPD and mortality, but their incomplete follow-up and statistical methods have been criticized. The greatest benefits of ICS in COPD have been reported with use of ICS and long-acting beta-agonist combination therapy, although no benefit was found for the primary outcome studied under the most rigorous methodology by the recent TORCH and Optimal randomized trials. Thus, although future randomized trials will need to be conducted with the most rigorous methodology for all outcomes, much uncertainty remains regarding the potential benefits of ICS in COPD.

  19. Acute Lung Injury after Phosgene Inhalation

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Sung-Chul; Yang, Ju-Yeoul; Jang, An-Soo; Park, Yong-Uk; Kim, Young-Chul; Choi, In-Seon; Park, Kyung-Ok

    1996-01-01

    Phosgene (COCl2) is a colorless oxidant gas which is heavier than air and the lethal exposure dose (LC50) in humans is 500 ppm/min. This gas was originally manufactured as an agent for chemical warfare during World War I and there had been a great deal of studies on phosgene poisoning during the early years of industrial use. It is still widely used in the synthesis of chemicals and plastics. In the modern era, however, phosgene poisoning is relatively uncommon except in accidental exposures. In Korea, there has been no report about lung injury from phosgene inhalation. We present a clinical experience with six patients accidentally exposed to phosgene. PMID:8882481

  20. Les apports de l'experimentation assistee par ordinateur (ExAO) en pedagogie par projet en Sciences de la nature au collegial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcotte, Alice

    The goals of this research were to conceptualize and to produce a test synthesis model for the Sciences program, where the student had to demonstrate his or her competency using the approach Considering New Situations from Acquired Knowledge. The test took the form of a student-structured project utilizing the experimental process: the student's scientific investigation was supported and facilitated by computer-assisted experimentation (CAEx). The model of action was elaborated in developmental research within the school setting, tested in biology, and continued in an interdisciplinary context. Our study focused on the advantages and the constraints of this new learning environment, which modify laboratories using traditional instrumentation. The final research was not to evaluate a type of test synthesis, but to propose and to improve this model of test synthesis based on experimental process and supported by CAEx. In order to implement the competency approach within an integration activity, we chose a cooperative learning environment contained within the pedagogical project. This didactic environment was inspired by socio-constructivism which involves students in open scientific problem-solving. Computer-assisted experimentation turned out to be a valuable tool for this environment, facilitating the implementation of the scientific process by increased induction. Resistance to confronted and uncircumvented reality changes students' perception of scientific knowledge. They learn to integrate the building of this knowledge, and then to realize the extent of their learning and their training. Students' opinions, which were gathered from questionnaires, reveal that they favorably perceive this type of environment in interaction with their peers and the experimentation. While this new knowledge contributes to CAEx within the pedagogical project, the products of this research included a teaching guide for the test synthesis, a booklet featuring the projects carried out by the students with CAEx, and the proposals to renew the didactic approach in the laboratory.

  1. Rapid transepithelial transport of prions following inhalation.

    PubMed

    Kincaid, Anthony E; Hudson, Kathryn F; Richey, Matthew W; Bartz, Jason C

    2012-12-01

    Prion infection and pathogenesis are dependent on the agent crossing an epithelial barrier to gain access to the recipient nervous system. Several routes of infection have been identified, but the mechanism(s) and timing of in vivo prion transport across an epithelium have not been determined. The hamster model of nasal cavity infection was used to determine the temporal and spatial parameters of prion-infected brain homogenate uptake following inhalation and to test the hypothesis that prions cross the nasal mucosa via M cells. A small drop of infected or uninfected brain homogenate was placed below each nostril, where it was immediately inhaled into the nasal cavity. Regularly spaced tissue sections through the entire extent of the nasal cavity were processed immunohistochemically to identify brain homogenate and the disease-associated isoform of the prion protein (PrP(d)). Infected or uninfected brain homogenate was identified adhering to M cells, passing between cells of the nasal mucosa, and within lymphatic vessels of the nasal cavity at all time points examined. PrP(d) was identified within a limited number of M cells 15 to 180 min following inoculation, but not in the adjacent nasal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (NALT). While these results support M cell transport of prions, larger amounts of infected brain homogenate were transported paracellularly across the respiratory, olfactory, and follicle-associated epithelia of the nasal cavity. These results indicate that prions can immediately cross the nasal mucosa via multiple routes and quickly enter lymphatics, where they can spread systemically via lymph draining the nasal cavity.

  2. [New technical developments for inhaled sedation].

    PubMed

    Meiser, A; Bomberg, H; Volk, T; Groesdonk, H V

    2017-01-31

    The circle system has been in use for more than 100 years, whereas the first clinical application of an anaesthetic reflector was reported just 15 years ago. In the circle system, all breathing gas is rebreathed after carbon dioxide absorption. A reflector, on the other hand, with the breathing gas flowing to and fro, specifically retains the anaesthetic during expiration and resupplies it during the next inspiration. A high reflection efficiency (number of molecules resupplied/number of molecules exhaled, RE 80-90%) decreases consumption. In analogy to the fresh gas flow of a circle system, pulmonary clearance ((1-RE) × minute ventilation) defines the opposition between consumption and control of the concentration.It was not until reflection systems became available that volatile anaesthetics were used routinely in some intensive care units. Their advantages, such as easy handling, and better ventilatory capabilities of intensive care versus anaesthesia ventilators, were basic preconditions for this. Apart from AnaConDa™ (Sedana Medical, Uppsala, Sweden), the new MIRUS™ system (Pall Medical, Dreieich, Germany) represents a second, more sophisticated commercially available system.Organ protective effects, excellent control of sedation, and dose-dependent deep sedation while preserving spontaneous breathing with hardly any accumulation or induction of tolerance, make volatile anaesthetics an interesting alternative, especially for patients needing deep sedation or when intravenous drugs are no longer efficacious.But obviously, the outcome is most important. We know that deep intravenous sedation increases mortality, whereas inhalational sedation could prove beneficial. We now need prospective clinical trials examining mortality, but also the psychological outcome of those most critically ill patients sedated by inhalation or intravenously.

  3. Acute inhalation toxicity of silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Sung, Jae Hyuck; Ji, Jun Ho; Song, Kyung Seuk; Lee, Ji Hyun; Choi, Kyung Hee; Lee, Sang Hee; Yu, Il Je

    2011-03-01

    The acute inhalation toxicity of silver nanoparticles was studied in Sprague-Dawley rats. Seven-week-old rats, weighing approximately 218 g (males) and 153 g (females), were divided into four groups (five rats in each group): fresh-air control, low-dose (0.94 × 10(6) particle/cm(3), 76 µg/m(3)), middle-dose (1.64 × 10(6) particle/ cm(3), 135 µg/m( 3)), and high-dose (3.08 × 10(6) particle/cm(3), 750 µg/m(3)). The animals were then exposed to silver nanoparticles (average diameter 18-20 nm) for 4 hours in a whole-body inhalation chamber. The experiment was conducted following Organization Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) test guideline 403 with the application of good laboratory practice (GLP). In addition to mortality and clinical observations, the body weights, food consumption, and pulmonary function tests were recorded weekly. At the end of the study, the rats were subjected to a full necropsy, and the organ weights measured. The lung function was also measured twice per week after the initial 4-hour exposure. No significant body weight changes or clinical changes were found during the 2-week observation period. The lung function tests also indicated no significant difference between the fresh air control and the exposed groups. Thus, LC50 silver nanoparticles are suggested for higher than 3.1 × 10(6) particles/cm(3) (750 µg/m(3)).

  4. [Severe burns related to steam inhalation therapy].

    PubMed

    Belmonte, J A; Domínguez-Sampedro, P; Pérez, E; Suelves, J M; Collado, J M

    2015-02-01

    Despite lack of proven effectiveness and its potential to cause severe burns, steam inhalation therapy (SIT) is still used as a treatment for benign respiratory conditions. To characterize cases of burns related to steam inhalation therapy (BRSIT) in order to formulate appropriate preventive criteria. A review was conducted on cases of BRSIT admitted to a Burns Unit between 2006 and 2012, analysing epidemiological data, clinical aspects, severity and course. A total of 530 patients were admitted; 375 (70%) with scalds, and 15 with BRSIT (2.8% of burns; 4% of scalds). SIT was indicated in most cases for mild upper airway infections. The median age of patients was 7 years (2.5m-14 y). The burned area (BA) was ≥10% in 60% of cases (max. BA 22%). Injuries involved trunk, genital area, and extremities; only in one case was the face affected. The mean hospital length-of-stay was 14 days (3-30 d). Five patients (33%) were admitted to the PICU, most of them (60%) younger than 3 years. Eight patients (53%) underwent surgical treatment (skin grafting). In a 12-year-old patient whooping cough was diagnosed in the Burns Unit, and a 2.5-year-old patient developed staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome. No patient died. The final course was satisfactory in all patients. BRSIT can be severe and cause significant use of health resources. Professionals caring for children, particularly paediatricians, should seriously consider their prevention, avoiding treatments with SIT, and educating parents in order not to use it on their own. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Synthetic vitreous fibers--inhalation studies.

    PubMed

    McConnell, E E

    1994-12-01

    Synthetic vitreous fibers (SVFs), often referred to as "man-made vitreous fibers," are a class of materials that have their major uses for insulation against heat and sound. The original fibers are produced by melting various types of rock, clay, etc. and then blowing or extruding them into fibers of particular properties. During production and use small fractions of airborne fibers can be generated. Because of this a series of state-of-the-art inhalation studies was initiated to study the possible health hazards presented by the four major types of vitreous materials [two types of insulation glass wool, rock wool, slag wool, and four types of refractory ceramic fibers (RCF)] found in the workplace or to which the general public may be exposed. Rats and hamsters (30 mg/m3 kaolin-based RCF only) were exposed by nose-only inhalation to 3, 16, or 30 mg/m3 for 6 hr/day, 5 days/week, for 18 (hamsters) or 24 (rats) months and were held for lifetime observation (until approximately 20% survival) to study the chronic toxicity and potential carcinogenic activity of these classes of SVFs. Chrysotile or crocidolite asbestos served as positive controls. All of the fibers stimulated an inflammatory response characterized by an increase in the number of pulmonary macrophages at the level of the terminal bronchioles and proximal alveoli. RCF produced interstitial fibrosis in the walls of the proximal alveoli as early as 3 months and rock wool by 12 months. The only fiber which showed carcinogenic activity was RCF which produced a dose-related increase in both primary lung neoplasms (rats only) and mesotheliomas (rats and hamsters).

  6. Trends in Adolescent Inhalant Use: 2002 to 2007. The NSDUH Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Preventing and treating inhalant use problems, as well as raising awareness about the dangers of inhalant use, are important ongoing goals of the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA). Monitoring trends in inhalant use is vital to assessing policies intended to reduce inhalant use. This issue of "The NSDUH Report"…

  7. Inhalant Use, Abuse, and Dependence among Adolescent Patients: Commonly Comorbid Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sakai, Joseph T.; Hall, Shannon K.; Mikulich-Gilbertson, Susan K.; Crowley, Thomas J.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Little is known about adolescents with DSM-IV-defined inhalant abuse and dependence. The aim of this study was to compare comorbidity among (1) adolescents with inhalant use disorders, (2) adolescents who reported using inhalants without inhalant use disorder, and (3) other adolescent patients drawn from an adolescent drug and alcohol…

  8. Understanding Inhalant Users: An Overview for Parents, Educators, and Clinicians. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas State Commission on Alcohol and Drug Abuse, Austin.

    Various areas of research related to inhalants are summarized and general guidance in dealing with this complex and urgent problem is provided. Topics include (1) "Characteristics of Inhalants," which reviews chemicals found in inhalants and common modes of administration; (2) "Defining Inhalant Use and Abuse," which includes…

  9. The prevalence and clinical significance of inhalant withdrawal symptoms among a national sample

    PubMed Central

    Perron, Brian E; Glass, Joseph E; Ahmedani, Brian K; Vaughn, Michael G; Roberts, Daniel E; Wu, Li-Tzy

    2011-01-01

    Background Inhalants are among the most common and dangerous forms of substance use, but very little research on inhalant use disorders exist. Unlike other substances, the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, 4th edition (DSM-IV) indicates that inhalants do not have an associated withdrawal syndrome among persons who meet criteria for inhalant dependence. Methods Using data from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, this study examines the prevalence of withdrawal symptoms among inhalant users. Prevalence of inhalant withdrawal symptoms for inhalants was also compared with the prevalence of cocaine withdrawal symptoms to help determine the presence of an inhalant withdrawal syndrome. Results Approximately 47.8% of persons who met criteria for inhalant dependence reported experiencing three or more inhalant-related withdrawal symptoms that were clinically significant. Among those with inhalant dependence, almost half of the withdrawal symptoms were as common as the corresponding withdrawal symptoms experienced by persons with cocaine dependence. Furthermore, the percentage of persons with inhalant dependence reporting clinically significant inhalant withdrawal symptoms was almost equal to the percentage of persons with cocaine dependence reporting clinically significant cocaine withdrawal symptoms. Conclusions These data provide evidence for an inhalant-related withdrawal syndrome among persons with inhalant dependence. Revisions to DSM-IV should consider including inhalant withdrawal as a diagnostic criterion for this disorder. PMID:21709745

  10. Inhalant Use, Abuse, and Dependence among Adolescent Patients: Commonly Comorbid Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sakai, Joseph T.; Hall, Shannon K.; Mikulich-Gilbertson, Susan K.; Crowley, Thomas J.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Little is known about adolescents with DSM-IV-defined inhalant abuse and dependence. The aim of this study was to compare comorbidity among (1) adolescents with inhalant use disorders, (2) adolescents who reported using inhalants without inhalant use disorder, and (3) other adolescent patients drawn from an adolescent drug and alcohol…

  11. Age of Inhalant First Time Use and Its Association to the Use of Other Drugs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ding, Kele; Chang, G. Andy; Southerland, Ron

    2009-01-01

    Inhalants are the 4th most commonly abused drugs after alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana. Although inhalants are often referred as Gateway Drugs this hypothesis is less examined. Using the 2003 National Survey on Drug Use and Health data, age of first time inhalant use was compared with the age of onset of other drugs among 6466 inhalant users who…

  12. Age of Inhalant First Time Use and Its Association to the Use of Other Drugs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ding, Kele; Chang, G. Andy; Southerland, Ron

    2009-01-01

    Inhalants are the 4th most commonly abused drugs after alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana. Although inhalants are often referred as Gateway Drugs this hypothesis is less examined. Using the 2003 National Survey on Drug Use and Health data, age of first time inhalant use was compared with the age of onset of other drugs among 6466 inhalant users who…

  13. The Electronic Properties and L3 XANES of Au and Nano-Au

    SciTech Connect

    Yiu, Y.M.; Zhang, P.; Sham, T.K.

    2004-04-20

    The electronic properties of Au crystal and nano Au have been investigated by theory and experiment. Molecularly capped nano-Au was synthesized using the two-phase method. Au nano-particles have been characterized by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). They retain the fcc crystal structure. Their sizes have been determined to be in a range from 5.5 nm to 1.7 nm. The L3 X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES) of nano-Au and Au foil have been recorded using synchrotron radiation, and examined by theoretical calculation based on the first principles. Both theory and experiment show that the nano-Au particles have essentially all the Au L3 XANES features of bulk Au in the near edge region with less pronounced resonance peaks. It is also shown that nano Au exhibits lower 4f binding energy than bulk Au in good agreement with quantum confined Au systems reported previously.

  14. Depressive symptoms in crack and inhalant users in Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Zubaran, Carlos; Foresti, Katia; Thorell, Mariana Rossi; Franceschini, Paulo; Homero, Wagner

    2010-01-01

    In this study the authors investigated depressive symptoms and correlated psychopathology in crack cocaine and inhalant users in Southern Brazil. Participants completed the Beck Depression Inventory, the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale, and the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. General psychopathology, hopelessness and suicidal tendencies were also investigated. Crack and inhalants users presented significant levels of depressive symptoms and psychiatric morbidity. These disorders were significantly associated with hopelessness and suicidal tendencies. These findings underscore the need for more rigorous and extensive screening efforts to detect and treat depressive symptoms in crack and inhalent users.

  15. Orofacial and digital frostbite caused by inhalant abuse.

    PubMed

    Koehler, Matthew M; Henninger, Camille A

    2014-05-01

    Inhalation of volatile substances is a cheap and accessible way for individuals, most commonly teenagers, to ingest mind-altering substances. The adverse effects of using inhalants, including cardiac dysrhythmia, respiratory tract injury, and asphyxiation, can be devastating. Detection often is difficult, but a high degree of suspicion with patterns of perioral, perinasal, and/or digital lesions can help identify use. We report an uncommon case of severe orofacial and digital frostbite initially mistaken for an allergic reaction in a 20-year-old man following intentional inhalation of a commercial air-dusting agent containing 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (HFC-134a).

  16. Metered-dose inhalers: actuators old and new.

    PubMed

    Lewis, David

    2007-05-01

    The actuator has been the patient interface of the metered-dose inhaler for the past 50 years. The original 1956 design remains a significant influence upon today's actuators and, moreover, its distinct geometry is still recognisable on the market. The actuator has contributed to the metered-dose inhaler's success as a clinically effective and cost-effective device. This review focuses upon developments since the actuator's introduction as an integral part of the metered-dose inhaler and discusses key aspects of its design that influence lung deposition potential. The ability of the actuator to reduce unwanted oropharyngeal drug deposition, facilitate correct patient use and provide valuable patient feedback is highlighted.

  17. Nitrite inhalants: history, epidemiology, and possible links to AIDS.

    PubMed Central

    Haverkos, H W; Kopstein, A N; Wilson, H; Drotman, P

    1994-01-01

    Nitrite inhalants have been commonly abused substances in the United States. Nitrite inhalants and AIDS was a popular topic in the early 1980s, when the cause of AIDS was not known. With the discovery of HIV, concern about nitrite use in the USA waned. However, nitrite inhalant use is associated with behavioral relapse and HIV transmission among gay men, with decreased lymphocyte counts and natural killer cell activity in a few laboratory studies, and it remains a candidate cofactor in the pathogenesis of AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma. Discouraging nitrite use continues to be a worthwhile public health goal. PMID:9644194

  18. Gestion de la douleur chronique par les infirmières des Groupes de médecine de famille

    PubMed Central

    Bergeron, Dave A; Bourgault, Patricia; Gallagher, Frances

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION : Des milliers de personnes souffrent actuellement de douleur chronique (DC) pour laquelle la prise en charge s’avère souvent inadéquate. Au Québec, les infirmières qui oeuvrent dans les Groupes de médecine de famille (GMF) jouent un rôle clé dans le suivi des personnes aux prises avec des problèmes de santé chroniques dont la DC. OBJECTIFS : Cette étude a pour objectifs de décrire les activités réalisées par les infirmières œuvrant en GMF en lien avec la gestion de la douleur chez la clientèle souffrant de DC, ainsi que les barrières à ces activités. MÉTHODE : Un dispositif descriptif corrélationnel transversal de type enquête postale a été utilisé. La population accessible à l’étude comprend les infirmières qui figurent sur la liste des membres de l’Ordre des infirmières et infirmiers du Québec travaillant en GMF. L’ensemble des infirmières figurant sur cette liste ayant consenti à être contactées à leur domicile pour des fins de recherche ont été contactées. Un questionnaire postal auto-administré (Pain Management Activities Questionnaire) a été complété par 53 infirmières travaillant en GMF. RÉSULTATS : Les trois activités le plus souvent réalisées par les infirmières sont d’établir une relation thérapeutique avec le client; de discuter avec le médecin de l’efficacité des mesures thérapeutiques et de faire un enseignement personnalisé au client. Les infirmières ont la perception qu’elles rencontrent en moyenne 2,68 personnes par semaine qui souffrent de DC. La méconnaissance des interventions possibles en douleur (71,7%) et la non-disponibilité de l’information sur la gestion de la douleur (52,8%) constituent les principales barrières selon les infirmières sondées. CONCLUSION : Les infirmières au sein des GMF font actuellement peu d’activités en gestion de la DC probablement en raison du manque de reconnaissance de la DC. PMID:25848847

  19. Au nanorod helical superstructures with designed chirality.

    PubMed

    Lan, Xiang; Lu, Xuxing; Shen, Chenqi; Ke, Yonggang; Ni, Weihai; Wang, Qiangbin

    2015-01-14

    A great challenge for nanotechnology is to controllably organize anisotropic nanomaterials into well-defined three-dimensional superstructures with customized properties. Here we successfully constructed anisotropic Au nanorod (AuNR) helical superstructures (helices) with tailored chirality in a programmable manner. By designing the 'X' pattern of the arrangement of DNA capturing strands (15nt) on both sides of a two-dimensional DNA origami template, AuNRs functionalized with the complementary DNA sequences were positioned on the origami and were assembled into AuNR helices with the origami intercalated between neighboring AuNRs. Left-handed (LH) and right-handed (RH) AuNR helices were conveniently accomplished by solely tuning the mirrored-symmetric 'X' patterns of capturing strands on the origami. The inter-rod distance was precisely defined as 14 nm and inter-rod angle as 45°, thus a full helix contains 9 AuNRs with its length up to about 220 nm. By changing the AuNR/origami molar ratio in the assembly system, the average number of AuNR in the helices was tuned from 2 to 4 and 9. Intense chiroptical activities arose from the longest AuNR helices with a maximum anisotropy factor of ∼0.02, which is highly comparable to the reported macroscopic AuNR assemblies. We expect that our strategy of origami templated assembly of anisotropic chiral superstructures would inspire the bottom-up fabrication of optically active nanostructures and shed light on a variety of applications, such as chiral fluids, chiral signal amplification, and fluorescence combined chiral spectroscopy.

  20. Anisotropic flow nu2 in Au + Au collisions at RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Y.; Bleicher, M.; Liu, F.; Kiu, Z.; Sorensen, P.; Stocker,H.; Xu, N.; Zhu, X.

    2005-08-20

    Using the RQMD model, transverse momentum dependence of the anisotropic flow v{sub 2} for {pi}, K, nucleon, {phi}, and {lambda}, are studied for Au + Au collisions at {radical}s{sub NN} = 200 GeV. Both hydrodynamic hadron-mass hiragracy (hhmh) at low p{sub T} region and particle type dependence (baryon versus meson) at the intermediate p{sub T} region are reproduced with the model calculations although the model underpredicted the overall values of v{sub 2} by a factor of 2-3. As expected, when the rescatterings are turned off, all v{sub 2} becomes zero. The failure of the hadronic model in predicting the absolute values of hadron v{sub 2} clearly demonstrate the need of early dense partonic interaction in heavy-ion collisions at RHIC. At the intermediate p{sub T}, the hadron type dependence cold also be explained by the vacume hadronic cross sections within the frame of the model. The measurements of collective motion of hadrons from high-energy nuclear collisions can provide information on the dynamical equation of state information of the system [1, 2, 3]. Specifically, the strange and multi-strange hadron flow results have demonstrated the partonic collectivity [5] and the heavy-flavor flow will test the hypothesis of early thermalization in such collisions [4]. At RHIC, the measurements [6, 7] of elliptic flow v{sub 2} and nuclear modification factor r{sub AA} has lead to the conclusion that hadrons were formed via the coalescence/recombination of massive quarks [8, 9, 10]. This finding is directly related to the key issue in high-energy nuclear collisions such as deconfinement and chiral symmetry restoration. In addition, it also touched the important problem of hadronization process in high-energy collisions. Therefore a systematic study with different approaches becomes necessary. In this report, using a hadronic transport model UrQMD(v2.2)/RQMD(v2.4) [11, 12], we study the v{sub 2} of {pi}, K, p, {phi}, and {Lambda} from Au + Au collisions at 200 Ge