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Sample records for par pond sewage

  1. K-Area and Par Pond Sewage Sludge Application Sites groundwater monitoring reports, second quarter 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    During second quarter 1992, the three wells at the K-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site (KSS wells) and the three wells at the Par Pond Sewage Sludge Application Site (PSS wells) were sampled for analyses required each quarter or annually by South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Construction Permit 13, 173. This report includes the results of those analyses. None of the analyzed constituents exceeded the Primary Drinking Water Standard or the Savannah River Site Flag 2 criteria at either the K-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site or the Par Pond Sewage Sludge Application Site.

  2. K-Area and Par Pond Sewage Sludge Application Sites groundwater monitoring report, Third quarter 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, C.Y.

    1993-01-01

    During third quarter 1992, the three wells at the K-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site (KSS wells) and the three wells at the Par Pond Sewage Sludge Application Site (PSS wells) were sampled for analyses required each quarter or annually by South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Construction Permit 13,173 and for base-neutral/acid semivolatile constituents. None of the analytical results exceeded standards.

  3. K-Area and Par Pond Sewage Sludge Application Sites Groundwater Monitoring Report

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, C.Y.

    1993-04-01

    During fourth quarter 1992, samples from the three monitoring wells at the K-Area site (KSS series) and the three monitoring wells at the Par Pond site (PSS series) were analyzed for constituents required by South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Construction Permit 13, 173 and for other constituents as part of the Savannah River Site (SRS) Groundwater Monitoring Program. This report describes monitoring results that exceeded the final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or the SRS flagging criteria. During fourth quarter 1992, no constituents analyzed exceeded the PDWS or the SRS Flag 2 criteria at the K-Area and Par Pond Sewage Sludge Application Sites. In the KSS well series, the field measurement for alkalinity ranged as high as 26 mg/L in well KSS 1D. Alkalinity measurements were zero in the PSS wells. Historical and current water-level elevations at the K-Area and Par Pond Sewage Sludge Application Site indicate that the groundwater flow directions are south to southwest (SRS grid coordinates).

  4. K-Area and Par Pond Sewage Sludge Application Sites Groundwater Monitoring Report. First quarter 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    Samples from the three wells at the K-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site (KSS wells) and the three wells at the Par Pond Sewage Sludge Application Site (PSS wells) are analyzed quarterly for constituents required by South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Construction Permit 13,173 and, as requested, for other constituents as part of the Savannah River Site Groundwater Monitoring Program. Annual analyses for other constituents, primarily metals, also are required by the permit. During first quarter 1993, no permit-required constituents exceeded standards at the two sites except iron, which was elevated in one KSS well and two PSS wells. Aluminum, not required by the permit, was the only other constituent that exceeded standards. Elevated levels of aluminum and iron at these two sites may be concurrent with a change in analytical methodology. As in previous quarters, chlordane concentrations did not exceed the detection limit in any of the wells.

  5. K-Area and Par Pond Sewage Sludge Application Sites Groundwater Monitoring Report: Third quarter 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    Samples from the three wells at the K-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site (KSS wells) and the three wells at the Par Pond Sewage Sludge Application Site (PSS wells) are analyzed quarterly for constituents required by South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Construction Permit 13,173 and, as requested, for other constituents as part of the Savannah River Site (SRS) Groundwater Monitoring Program. Annual analyses for other constituents, primarily metals, also are required by the permit. Iron and lead, permit-required constituents, and aluminum presently exceed SRS flagging standards in samples from the two sites. Elevated concentrations of metals at these sites, not reported during 1992, may be the reflection of a recent change in analytical methodology.

  6. K-Area and Par Pond Sewage Sludge Application Sites Groundwater Monitoring Report. Fourth quarter 1993 and summary 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-01

    Samples from the three wells at the K-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site (KSS wells) and the three wells at the Par Pond Sewage Sludge Application Site (PSS wells) are analyzed quarterly for constituents required by South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Construction Permit 13,173 and, as requested, for other constituents as part of the Savannah River Site (SRS) Groundwater Monitoring Program. Annual analyses for other constituents, primarily metals, also are required by the permit. Dichloromethane (methylene chloride) exceeded the final Primary Drinking Water Standard in a single well of the K-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site during fourth quarter 1993. Aluminum, iron, and lead, reported in excess of the SRS Flag 2 criteria at both the K-Area and Par Pond Sewage Sludge Application Sites during third quarter 1993, were not analyzed fourth quarter.

  7. H-Area, K-Area, and Par Pond Sewage Sludge Application Sites Groundwater Monitoring Report. Second quarter 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Chase, J.A.

    1995-09-01

    During second quarter 1995, samples from monitoring wells at the K-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site (KSS wells) and Par Pond Sewage Sludge Application Site (PSS wells) were analyzed for constituents required by SCDHEC Construction Permit 13,173. H-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site (HSS wells) samples were analyzed for constituents required by SCDHEC Construction Permit 12,076. All samples are also analyzed as requested for other constituents as part of the Savannah River Site (SRS) Groundwater Monitoring Program. Annual analyses for other constituents, primarily metals, also are required by the permits. There were no constituents which exceeded the SCDHEC final Primary Drinking Water Standard in any well from the H-Area, K-Area, and Par Pond Sewage Sludge Application Sites. There were also no constituents which were above the SRS Flag 2 criteria in any well at the three sites during second quarter 1995.

  8. H-Area, K-Area, and Par Pond Sewage Sludge Application Sites groundwater monitoring report. Second quarter 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-10-01

    Groundwater samples from the three wells at the H-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site (HSS wells) are analyzed quarterly for constituents as required by South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) Construction Permit 12,076. Samples from the three wells at the K-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site (KSS wells) and the three wells at the Par Pond Sewage Sludge Application Site (PSS wells) are analyzed quarterly for constituents required by SCDHEC Construction Permit 13,173. All samples are also analyzed as requested for other constituents as part of the Savannah River Site (SRS) Groundwater Monitoring Program. Annual analyses for other constituents, primarily metals, also are required by the permits. No constituents exceeded the SCDHEC final Primary Drinking Water Standard in any well from the H-Area, K-Area, and Par Pond Sewage Sludge Application Sites. Aluminum, iron, lead, and manganese, which were above standards and Flag 2 criteria in one or more wells in the three sites during first quarter 1994, were not analyzed this quarter. Second quarter results are similar to results for fourth quarter 1993.

  9. K-Area and Par Pond Sewage Sludge Application Sites Groundwater Monitoring Report. Fourth quarter 1992 and 1992 summary

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, C.Y.

    1993-04-01

    During fourth quarter 1992, samples from the three monitoring wells at the K-Area site (KSS series) and the three monitoring wells at the Par Pond site (PSS series) were analyzed for constituents required by South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Construction Permit 13, 173 and for other constituents as part of the Savannah River Site (SRS) Groundwater Monitoring Program. This report describes monitoring results that exceeded the final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or the SRS flagging criteria. During fourth quarter 1992, no constituents analyzed exceeded the PDWS or the SRS Flag 2 criteria at the K-Area and Par Pond Sewage Sludge Application Sites. In the KSS well series, the field measurement for alkalinity ranged as high as 26 mg/L in well KSS 1D. Alkalinity measurements were zero in the PSS wells. Historical and current water-level elevations at the K-Area and Par Pond Sewage Sludge Application Site indicate that the groundwater flow directions are south to southwest (SRS grid coordinates).

  10. H-Area, K-Area, and Par Pond Sewage Sludge Application sites groundwater monitoring report. First quarter 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Chase, J.A.

    1995-06-01

    During first quarter 1995, samples from monitoring wells at the K-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site (KSS wells) and Par Pond Sewage Sludge Application Site (PSS wells) were analyzed for constituents required by SCDHEC Construction Permit 13,173. H-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site (HSS wells) samples were analyzed for constituents required by SCDHEC Construction Permit 12,076. All samples are also analyzed as requested for other constituents as part of the Savannah River Site (SRS) Groundwater Monitoring Program. Annual analyses for other constituents, primarily metals, also are required by the permits. The only constituent that exceeded the SCDHEC final Primary Drinking Water Standard in any well was lead which was found in wells HSS 3D and PSS 3D. Aluminum and iron were above Flag 2 criteria in one or more wells in the three sites during first quarter 1995.

  11. H-Area, K-Area, and Par Pond Sewage Sludge Application Sites groundwater monitoring report. First quarter 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    Samples from the three wells at the H-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site (HSS wells) are analyzed quarterly for constituents as required by South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) Construction Permit 12,076. Samples from the three Wells at the K-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site (KSS wells) and the three wells at the Par Pond Sewage Sludge Application Site (PSS wells) are analyzed quarterly for constituents required by SCDHEC Construction Permit 13,173. All samples are also analyzed as requested for other constituents as part of the Savannah River Site (SRS) Groundwater Monitoring Program. Annual analyses for other constituents, primarily metals, also are required by the permits. Lead presently exceeds the SCDHEC final Primary Drinking Water Standard in two wells from the three sites. As in third quarter 1993, aluminum, iron, and lead were reported in excess of the SRS Flag 2 criteria during first quarter 1994. An elevated concentration of manganese was found in one well at the K-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site during first quarter.

  12. H-Area, K-Area, and Par Pond Sewage Sludge Application Sites groundwater monitoring report. Third quarter 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1995-01-01

    Groundwater samples from the three wells at the H-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site (HSS wells) are analyzed quarterly for constituents as required by South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) Construction Permit 12,076. Samples from the three wells at the K-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site (KSS wells) and the three wells at the quired by SCDHEC Construction Permit 13,173. All samples are also analyzed as requested for other constituents as part of the Savannah River Site (SRS) Groundwater Monitoring Program. Annual analyses for other constituents, primarily metals, also are required by the permits. No constituents exceeded the SCDHEC final Primary Drinking Water Standard in any well from the H-Area, K-Area, and Par Pond Sewage Sludge Application Sites. Aluminum and iron were above Flag 2 criteria in one or more wells in the three sites during third quarter 1994. These constituents were not analyzed during the previous quarter. Third quarter results are similar to results for first quarter 1994.

  13. H-Area, K-Area, and Par Pond Sewage Sludge Application Sites Groundwater Monitoring Report. Fourth quarter 1994 and 1994 summary

    SciTech Connect

    Chase, J.A.

    1995-04-01

    Groundwater samples from the three wells at the H-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site (HSS wells) are analyzed quarterly for constituents as required by South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Construction Permit 12,076. Samples from the three wells at the K-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site (KSS wells) and the three wells at the Par Pond Sewage Sludge Application Site (PSS wells) are analyzed quarterly for constituents required by SCDHEC Construction Permit 13,173. All samples are also analyzed as requested for other constituents as part of the Savannah River Site Groundwater Monitoring Program. Annual analyses for other constituents, primarily metals. also are required by the permits.

  14. Par Pond vegetation status 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Mackey, H.E. Jr.; Riley, R.S.

    1996-12-01

    The water level of Par Pond was lowered approximately 20 feet in mid-1991 in order to protect downstream residents from possible dam failure suggested by subsidence on the downstream slope of the dam and to repair the dam. This lowering exposed both emergent and nonemergent macrophyte beds to drying conditions resulting in extensive losses. A survey of the newly emergent, shoreline aquatic plant communities of Par Pond began in June 1995, three months after the refilling of Par Pond to approximately 200 feet above mean sea level. These surveys continued in July, September, and late October, 1995, and into the early spring and late summer of 1996. Communities similar to the pre-drawdown, Par Pond aquatic plant communities continue to become re-established. Emergent beds of maidencane, lotus, waterlily, watershield, and Pontederia are extensive and well developed. Measures of percent cover, width of beds, and estimates of area of coverage with satellite data indicate regrowth within two years of from 40 to 60% of levels prior to the draw down. Cattail occurrence continued to increase during the summer of 1996, especially in the former warm arm of Par Pond, but large beds common to Par Pond prior to the draw down still have not formed. Lotus has invaded and occupies many of the areas formerly dominated by cattail beds. To track the continued development of macrophytes in Par Pond, future surveys through the summer and early fall of 1997, along with the evaluation of satellite data to map the extent of the macrophyte beds of Par Pond, are planned.

  15. Par Pond Fish, Water, and Sediment Chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Paller, M.H.; Wike, L.D.

    1996-06-01

    The objectives of this report are to describe the Par Pond fish community and the impact of the drawdown and refill on the community, describe contaminant levels in Par Pond fish, sediments, and water and indicate how contaminant concentrations and distributions were affected by the drawdown and refill, and predict possible effects of future water level fluctuations in Par Pond.

  16. Par Pond vegetation status Summer 1995 -- Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Mackey, H.E. Jr.; Riley, R.S.

    1996-01-01

    The water level of Par Pond was lowered approximately 20 feet in mid-1991 in order to protect downstream residents from possible dam failure suggested by subsidence on the downstream slope of the dam and to repair the dam. This lowering exposed both emergent and nonemergent macrophyte beds to drying conditions resulting in extensive losses. A survey of the newly emergent, shoreline aquatic plant communities of Par Pond began in June 1995, three months after the refilling of Par Pond to approximately 200 feet above mean sea level. These surveys continued in July, September, and late October, 1995. Communities similar to the pre-drawdown, Par Pond aquatic plant communities are becoming re-established. Emergent beds of maidencane, lotus, waterlily, and watershield are extensive and well developed. Cattail occurrence continued to increase during the summer, but large beds common to Par Pond prior to the drawdown have not formed. Estimates from SPOT HRV, remote sensing satellite data indicated that as much as 120 hectares of emergent wetlands vegetation may have been present along the Par Pond shoreline by early October, 1995. To track the continued development of macrophytes in Par Pond, future surveys throughout 1996 and 1997, along with the continued evaluation of satellite data to map the areal extent of the macrophyte beds of Par Pond, are planned.

  17. Prevention of sewage pollution by stabilization ponds.

    PubMed

    Lakshminarayana, J S

    1975-01-01

    Water is polluted when it constitutes a health hazard or when its usefulness is impaired. The major sources of water pollution are municipal, manufacturing, mining, steam, electric power, cooling and agricultural. Municipal or sewage pollution forms a greater part of the man's activity and it is the immediate need of even smaller communities of today to combat sewage pollution. It is needless to stress that if an economic balance of the many varied services which a stream or a body of water is called upon to render is balanced and taken into consideration one could think of ending up in a wise management programme. In order to eliminate the existing water pollutional levels of the natural water one has to think of preventive and treatment methods. Of the various conventional and non-conventional methods of sewage treatment known today, in India, where the economic problems are complex, the waste stabilization ponds have become popular over the last two decades to let Public Health Engineers use them with confidence as a simple and reliable means of treatment of sewage and certain industrial wastes, at a fraction of the cost of conventional waste treatment plants used hitherto. A waste stabilization pond makes use of natural purification processes involved in an ecosystem through the regulating of such processes. The term "waste stabilization pond" in its simplest form is applied to a body of water, artificial or natural, employed with the intention of retaining sewage or organic waste waters until the wastes are rendered stable and inoffensive for discharge into receiving waters or on land, through physical, chemical and biological processes commonly referred to as "self-purification" and involving the symbiotic action of algae and bacteria under the influence of sunlight and air. Organic matter contained in the waste is stabilized and converted in the pond into more stable matter in the form of algal cells which find their way into the effluent and hence the term

  18. Par Pond vegetation status Summer 1995 -- June survey descriptive summary

    SciTech Connect

    Mackey, H.E. Jr.; Riley, R.S.

    1995-06-01

    The water level of Par Pond was lowered approximately 20 feet in mid-1991 in order to protect downstream residents from possible dam failure suggested by subsidence on the downstream slope of the dam and to repair the dam. This lowering exposed both emergent and nonemergent macrophyte beds to drying conditions resulting in extensive losses. A survey of the shoreline aquatic plant communities in June 1995, three months after the refilling of Par Pond to approximately 200 feet above mean sea level, indicated that much of the original plant communities and the intermediate shoreline communities present on the exposed sediments have been lost. The extensive old-field and emergent marsh communities that were present on the exposed shoreline during the drawdown have been flooded and much of the pre-drawdown Par Pond aquatic plant communities have not had sufficient time for re-establishment. The shoreline does, however, have extensive beds of maidencane which extend from the shoreline margin to areas as deep as 2 and perhaps 3 meters. Scattered individual plants of lotus and watershield are common and may indicate likely directions of future wetland development in Par Pond. In addition, within isolated coves, which apparently received ground water seepage and/or stream surface flows during the period of the Par Pond draw down, extensive beds of waterlilies and spike rush are common. Invasion of willow and red maple occurred along the lake shoreline as well. Although not absent from this survey, evidence of the extensive redevelopment of the large cattail and eel grass beds was not observed in this first survey of Par Pond. Future surveys during the growing seasons of 1995, 1996, and 1997 along with the evaluation of satellite date to map the areal extent of the macrophyte beds of Par Pond are planned.

  19. Par Pond vegetation status Summer 1995 -- September survey descriptive summary

    SciTech Connect

    Mackey, H.E. Jr.; Riley, R.S.

    1995-09-01

    The water level of Par Pond was lowered approximately 20 feet in mid-1991 in order to protect downstream residents from possible dam failure suggested by subsidence on the downstream slope of the dam and to repair the dam. This lowering exposed both emergent and nonemergent macrophyte beds to drying conditions resulting in extensive losses. A survey of the emergent shoreline aquatic plant communities began in June 1995, three months after the refilling of Par Pond to approximately 200 feet above mean sea level and continued with this mid-September survey. Communities similar to the pre-drawdown Par Pond aquatic plant communities are becoming re-established; especially, beds of maidencane, lotus, waterlily, and watershield are now extensive and well established. Cattail occurrence continues to increase, but large beds common to Par Pond prior to the drawdown have not formed. Future surveys during the late growing seasons of 1995, and throughout 1996 and 1997, along with the evaluation of satellite data to map the areal extent of the macrophyte beds of Par Pond, are planned.

  20. Par Pond vegetation status Summer 1995 -- October survey descriptive summary

    SciTech Connect

    Mackey, H.E. Jr.; Riley, R.S.

    1995-11-01

    The water level of Par Pond was lowered approximately 20 feet in mid-1991 in order to protect downstream residents from possible dam failure suggested by subsidence on the downstream slope of the dam and to repair the dam. This lowering exposed both emergent and nonemergent macrophyte beds to drying conditions resulting in extensive losses. A survey of the emergent shoreline aquatic plant communities began in June 1995, three months after the refilling of Par Pond to approximately 200 feet above mean sea level and continued with this late October survey. Communities similar to the pre-drawdown Par Pond aquatic plant communities are becoming re-established; especially, beds of maiden cane, lotus, waterlily, and watershield are now extensive and well established. Cattail occurrence continues to increase, but large beds common to Par Pond prior to the drawdown have not formed. Future surveys throughout 1996 and 1997, along with the continued evaluation of satellite data to map the areal extent of the macrophyte beds of Par Pond, are planned.

  1. Water quality, phytoplankton and zooplankton of Par Pond and Pond B. Volume 2. Phytoplankton. Final report, January 1984-June 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Chimney, M.J.; Cody, W.R.; Starkel, W.M.

    1985-08-01

    This document reports on the Par Pond and Pond B phytoplankton community. The objectives of this study were to (1) characterize the biological communities and environmental conditions in Par Pond and Pond B; (2) assess the impact and significance of entrainment losses of plankton at the Par Pond pumphouse; (3) assess the impact of heated discharge on the biotic communities throughout the reservoir; and (4) help determine if Par Pond maintains an indigenous balanced biological community as defined in state and federal regulations. A total of 368 phytoplankton taxa, representing all the major taxonomic groups characteristic of North American freshwaters, were identified from Par Pond and Pond B during this study (73 Bacillariophyta, 166 Chlorophyta, 30 Chrysophyta, 5 Cryptophyta, 47 Cyanophyta, 18 Euglenophyta, 11 phytoflaggelates and 18 Pyrrophyta).

  2. Par Pond vegetation status summer 1995 - July survey descriptive summary

    SciTech Connect

    Mackey, H.E. Jr.; Riley, R.S.

    1995-07-01

    A survey of the emergent shoreline aquatic plant, communities began in June 1995, three months after the refilling of Par Pond to approximately 200 feet (61 meters) above mean sea level, and continued with this July survey. Aquatic plant communities, similar to the pre-drawdown Par Pond communities, are becoming reestablished. Beds of maidencane (Panicum hemitomon), lotus (Nelumbo lutea), water lily (Nymphaea odorata), and watershield (Brasenia schreberi) are now extensive and well established. In addition, within isolated coves, extensive beds of water lilies and spike-rush (Eleocharis sp.) are common. Cattail occurrence has increased since refill, but large beds common to Par Pond prior to the drawdown have not formed. Invasion of willow (Salix sp.) and red maple (Acer rubrum) occurred along the lake shoreline during drawdown. The red maples along the present shoreline are beginning to show evidence of stress and mortality from flooding over the past four months. Some of the willows appear to be stressed as well. The loblolly pines (Pinus taeda), which were flooded in all but the shallow shoreline areas, are now dead. Future surveys are planned for the growing seasons of 1995, 1996, and 1997, along with the evaluation of satellite data for mapping the areal extent of the macrophyte beds of Par Pond.

  3. Radiological impact of Par Pond drawdown from liquid effluent pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Carlton, W.H.; Hamby, D.M.

    1991-10-25

    The water level of Par Pond has been lowered over the past several months to reduce the effects in the event of catastrophic dam failure while assessing the condition of the dam and determining if repairs are necessary. In lowering the level of Par Pond, 60 billion liters of water containing low levels of tritium and cesium-137 were discharged to several onsite streams. SRS surface streams flow to the Savannah River. An assessment made to determine the total amount of tritium and Cs-137 discharged and to estimate the consequences to downstream Savannah River users. It is estimated that a total of 160 curies of tritium were displaced from Par Pond to the Savannah River between June 28, 1991 and September 19, 1991. This release could hypothetically result in a maximum individual dose of 3. 2{times}10{sup {minus}4} mrem and a total (80-km and drinking water populations) population dose of 1.4{times}10{sup {minus}2} person-rem. Likewise, a maximum individual dose of 5.0{times}10{sup {minus}2} mrem and a total population dose of 1.7{times}10{sup {minus}1} person- rem are predicted as a result of an estimated 0.21 curies of Cs-137 being discharged from Par Pond to the Savannah River.

  4. Avian botulism epizootiology from sewage oxidation ponds in Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moulton, D.W.; Jensen, W.I.; Low, J.B.

    1976-01-01

    n the microenvironment concept of avian botulism epizootiology, it is hypothesized that invertebrate carcasses may serve both as a substrate for toxin production by Clostridium botulinum type C and as a vehicle for toxin transmission to water birds. We field-tested that hypothesis by attempting to induce botulism in wing-clipped mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) on sewage oxidation ponds in Utah. The experimental ponds were inoculated with C. botulinum spores in June 1974. Aquatic insect populations were monitored throughout the summer. Rotenone was used in August to kill insects in two ponds (one served as control), thereby providing potential substrate for clostridial growth and toxin production. Botulism was not detected among the birds even though they routinely ingested invertebrate carcasses. Samples of dead invertebrates contained no botulinum toxin. We concluded that the microenvironment concept, as it now stands, cannot always be a sufficient explanation of how type C botulism epizootics are initiated in nature. Other microbes may inhibit the growth of clostridial cells or destroy botulinum toxin.

  5. Sewage reuse for aquaculture after treatment in oxidation and duckweed pond.

    PubMed

    Ghangrekar, M M; Kishor, N; Mitra, A

    2007-01-01

    The benefits of treating sewage by pond systems offer, through a simple and low-cost technology, social and commercial benefits, from the waste raw materials. The objective of this work was to demonstrate an effective treatment of the sewage by using natural treatment systems, and use of treated wastewater for aquaculture. The study was conducted for the sewage generated from the IIT Kharagpur campus. After characterization of the sewage, laboratory scale experiments were conducted for treatment using oxidation pond and duckweed pond. Survival and growth of fishes were observed in the experimental ponds using treated sewage. Based on the experimental results, full-scale treatment plant was designed to meet the aquaculture water quality. From the economics of the proposed full-scale plant, and utilization of the treated sewage for aquaculture, it is estimated that, the amount of Rs. 20,0000 can be generated every year. This amount recovered from the aquaculture will be more than the operating cost of the treatment plant, hence, making the operation of sewage treatment plant self sufficient. Use of a UASB reactor as the first stage treatment before sewage passes to the oxidation pond, can be a more attractive alternative because of less land requirement as compared to the oxidation pond alone, and additional land can be made available for aquaculture to increase revenue.

  6. Phytoplankton, zooplankton, primary productivity and physico-chemical parameters of Par Pond and Pond B. Interim report, December 1983-May 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Chimney, M.J.; Cody, W.R.

    1985-04-01

    This report summarizes phytoplankton, zooplankton, primary productivity and physico-chemical parameter data from Par Pond and Pond B during the first six months of a study initiated in December 1983 and scheduled to continue through June 1985. A total of 195 phytoplankton taxa from Par Pond and 105 taxa from pond B were recorded during this study. A total of 89 zooplankton taxa from Par Pond and 58 taxa from Pond B were identified during this study.

  7. Par Pond phytoplankton in association with refilling of the pond: Final Report for sampling from February 1995 -- September 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Wilde, E.W.; Johnson, M.A.; Cody, W.C.

    1996-12-31

    This report describes the results of phytoplankton analyses from Par Pond samples collected between February 1995 and September 1996. The principal objective of the study was to determine the effect of refilling of Par Pond following repair of the dam on the phytoplankton community. Algal blooms are often responsible for fish kills and other detrimental effects in ponds and lakes, and it was postulated that decaying vegetation from formerly exposed sediments might trigger algal blooms that could result in fish kills in Par Pond following the refill. Sporadic algal blooms involving blue-green algae were detected, especially during the summer of 1996. However, the data derived from the study demonstrates that overall, the refilling effort caused no significant negative impact to the pond attributable to phytoplankton dynamics.

  8. Results of submerged sediment core sampling and analysis on Par Pond, Pond C, and L Lake: July 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, J.W. II; Martin, F.D.; Friday, G.P.

    1996-06-01

    Sediment cores from shallow and deep water locations in Par Pond, Pond C, and L Lake were collected and analyzed in 1995 for radioactive and nonradioactive constituents. This core analysis was conducted to develop a defensible characterization of contaminants found in the sediments of Par Pond, Pond C, and L Lake. Mercury was the only nonradiological constituent with a nonestimated quantity that was detected above the U.S Environmental Protection Agency Region IV potential contaminants of concern screening criteria. It was detected at a depth of 0.3--0.6 meters (1.0--2.0 feet) at one location in L Lake. Cesium-137, promethium-146, plutonium-238, and zirconium-95 had significantly higher concentrations in Par Pond sediments than in sediments from the reference sites. Cobalt-60, cesium-137, plutonium-238, plutonium-239/240, and strontium-90 had significantly higher concentrations in L-Lake sediments than sediments from the reference sites.

  9. CERCLA interim action at the Par Pond unit: A case study

    SciTech Connect

    Hickey, H.M.; Matthews, S.S.; Neal, L.W.; Weiss, W.R.

    1993-11-01

    The Par Pond unit designated under CERCLA consists of sediments within a Savannah River Site (SRS) cooling water reservoir. The sediments are contaminated with radionuclides and nonradioactive constituents from nuclear production reactor operations. The mercury in Par Pond is believed to have originated from the Savannah River. Because of Par Pond Dam safety Issues, the water level of the reservoir was drawn down, exposing more than 1300 acres of contaminated sediments and triggering the need for CERCLA interim remedial action. This paper presents the interim action approach taken with Par Pond as a case study. The approach considered the complexity of the Par Pond ecosystem, the large size of Par Pond, the volume of contaminated sediments, and the institutional controls existing at SRS. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) considers units with large volumes of low-concentration wastes, as is the case with Par Pond, to be {open_quotes}special sites.{close_quotes} Accordingly, EPA guidance establishes that the range of alternatives developed focus primarily on containment options and other remedial approaches that mitigate potential risks associated with the {open_quotes}special site.{close_quotes} The remedial alternatives, according to EPA, are not to be prohibitively expensive or difficult to implement. This case study also is representative of the types of issues that will need to be addressed within the Department of Energy (DOE) complex as nuclear facilities are transitioned to inactive status and corrective/remedial actions are warranted.

  10. Quality control summary report for the RFI/RI assessment of the submerged sediment core samples taken at Par Pond, Pond C, and L-Lake

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, J. II

    1996-12-01

    This report presents a summary of the sediment characterization performed under the direction of the Westinghouse Savannah River Company`s (WSRC) Environmental Protection Department/Environmental Monitoring Section (EPD/EMS) in support of Par Pond, Pond C, and L- Lake. This characterization will be a screening study and will enable the Environmental Sciences Section (ESS) to develop a defensible contaminants of concern list for more extensive characterization of the Par Pond, Pond C, and L-Lake.

  11. Sewage treatment in integrated system of UASB reactor and duckweed pond and reuse for aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Mohapatra, D P; Ghangrekar, M M; Mitra, A; Brar, S K

    2012-06-01

    The performance of a laboratory-scale upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor and a duckweed pond containing Lemna gibba was investigated for suitability for treating effluent for use in aquaculture. While treating low-strength sewage having a chemical oxygen demand (COD) of typically less than 200 mg/L, with an increase in hydraulic retention time (HRT) from 10.04 to 33.49 h, COD removal efficiency of the UASB reactor decreased owing to a decrease in organic loading rate (OLR) causing poor mixing in the reactor. However, even at the lower OLR (0.475 kg COD/(m3 x d)), the UASB reactor gave a removal efficiency of 68% for COD and 74% for biochemical oxygen demand (BOD). The maximum COD, BOD, ammonia-nitrogen and phosphate removal efficiencies of the duckweed pond were 40.77%, 38.01%, 61.87% and 88.57%, respectively. Decreasing the OLR by increasing the HRT resulted in an increase in efficiency of the duckweed pond for removal of ammonia-nitrogen and phosphate. The OLR of 0.005 kg COD/(m2 x d) and HRT of 108 h in the duckweed pond satisfied aquaculture quality requirements. A specific growth rate of 0.23% was observed for tilapia fish fed with duckweed harvested from the duckweed pond. The economic analysis proved that it was beneficial to use the integrated system of a UASB reactor and a duckweed pond for treatment of sewage.

  12. Potential Ecological Effects of Contaminants in the Exposed Par Pond Sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Paller, M.H.; Wike, L.D.

    1996-08-01

    Sediment and small mammal samples were collected from the exposed sediments of Par Pond in early 1995, shortly before the reservoir was refilled after a 4-year drawdown. Sampling was confined to elevations between 58 and 61 meters (190 and 200 feet) above mean sea level, which includes the sediments likely to be exposed if the Par Pond water level is permitted to fluctuate naturally. Both soil and small mammal samples were analyzed for a number of radionuclides and metals. Some of the soil samples were also analyzed for organic contaminants. The objective of the study was to determine if contaminant levels in the Par Pond sediments were high enough to cause deleterious ecological effects.

  13. Dynamics of Aeromonas hydrophila, Aeromonas sobria, and Aeromonas caviae in a sewage treatment pond.

    PubMed Central

    Monfort, P; Baleux, B

    1990-01-01

    The spatiotemporal dynamics of Aeromonas spp. and fecal coliforms in the sewage treatment ponds of an urban wastewater center were studied after 20 months of sampling from five stations in these ponds. Isolation and identification of 247 Aeromonas strains were undertaken over four seasons at the inflow and outflow of this pond system. The hemolytic activity of these strains was determined. The Aeromonas spp. and the fecal coliform distributions showed seasonal cycles, the amplitude of which increased at distances further from the wastewater source, so that in the last pond there was an inversion of the Aeromonas spp. cycle in comparison with that of fecal coliforms. The main patterns in these cycles occurred simultaneously at all stations, indicating control of these bacterial populations by seasonal factors (temperature, solar radiation, phytoplankton), the effects of which were different on each bacterial group. The analysis of the Aeromonas spp. population structure showed that, regardless of the season, Aeromonas caviae was the dominant species at the pond system inflow. However at the outflow the Aeromonas spp. population was dominated by A. caviae in winter, whereas Aeromonas sobria was the dominant species in the treated effluent from spring to fall. Among the Aeromonas hydrophila and A. sobria strains, 100% produced hemolysin; whereas among the A. caviae strains, 96% were nonhemolytic. Images PMID:2389929

  14. Metal concentrations in water, sediment, and fish from sewage-fed aquaculture ponds of Kolkata, India.

    PubMed

    Adhikari, S; Ghosh, L; Rai, S P; Ayyappan, S

    2009-12-01

    The concentrations of lead, cadmium, chromium, copper, and zinc were investigated in the sewage-fed pond water, sediment, and the various organs of Labeo rohita, Catla catla, Cirrhinus mrigala, Oreochromis mossambicus, and Cyprinus carpio cultured in sewage-fed ponds, Kolkata, India. Among the metals, cadmium, lead, and zinc were detected in water and, except lead, were below the water quality guideline levels for the protection of freshwater aquatic life proposed by CEQG (Canadian Environmental Quality Guidelines) and AENV (Alberta Environment). Therefore, lead could pose danger to aquatic organisms. All the five metals were detected in the sediment and, except cadmium and lead, were below the sediment quality guideline levels for aquatic life proposed by EPA (Environmental Protection Agency). Therefore, these two metals could be toxic to aquatic organisms. Significant (P > 0.05) differences were observed among the five fish species for all these metals accumulation. Also, significant (P > 0.05) differences were noticed among these metals accumulation in fish organs. Cadmium showed the least bioaccumulation, while zinc showed the highest bioaccumulation in all the fish species. Though the metal concentration in the different fish tissues was variable, the highest concentration was found in kidney and the lowest in the muscle. Concentrations of these metals in the muscle tissue of all the fish species were well below the consumption safety tolerance in fish set by WHO/FAO, and thus, so far as these metals are concerned, these sewage-fed cultured fishes are safe and suitable for human consumption.

  15. Estimation of Downstream Cesium Concentrations Following a Postulated PAR Pond Dam Break

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, K.F.

    2002-07-08

    Following a postulated PAR Pond dam break, some of the PAR Pond sediment including the cesium could be eroded and be transported downstream to the Savannah River through the Lower Three Runs Creek. Studies showed that most of the eroded sediment including the cesium would deposit in the Lower Three Runs Creek and the remainder would discharge to the Savannah River from the mouth of Lower Three Runs Creek. A WASP5 model was developed to simulate the eroded sediment and cesium transport from the Lower Three Runs Creek mouth to the Atlantic coast. The dissolved cesium concentrations at the Highway 301 bridge and near the City of Savannah Industrial and Domestic Water Supply Plant are 30 and 27 pCi/l, respectively. The concentrations at both locations are less than the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency drinking water standard of 200 pCi/l.

  16. Hydraulic and hydrologic evaluation of PAR Pond Dam. Technical evaluation report

    SciTech Connect

    Reich, M.; Wang, P.C.; Khanbilvardi, R.; Bezler, P.

    1993-10-01

    The PAR Pond Dam at Savannah River Plant was constructed in 1958--1959. Seepage, depressions, boils and spring flow were observed in varying locations on the dam in the last few years. Comprehensive geotechnical and hydraulic investigations pertaining to the effects of the above observations on the abilities of the dam to withstand future floods were made in 1991 and early 1993 where dam capacity to survive flooding and seismic events were evaluated. Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) was asked by the Department of Energy (EH) to carry out an independent review of the PAR Pond Dam response to future flooding and seismic events. This report addresses the studies made to evaluate the capacity of the dam to survive floods. A companion report will summarize the evaluations performed to assess the seismic capacity of the dam.

  17. Seismic analysis of the Par Pond Dam: Study of slope failure and liquefaction. Technical evaluation report

    SciTech Connect

    Simos, N.; Reich, M.

    1994-07-01

    Stability concerns of the Par Pond Dam, an embankment structure in the Savannah River Site complex, resulted in a comprehensive evaluation of the state of its integrity. Specifically, excessive seepage through the embankment, slope failure due to an earthquake event as well as liquefaction potential of the embankment and the foundation are addressed and the potential of failure is evaluated. Lastly, remedial benefits of the addition of a berm structure are also assessed.

  18. Measurements of radionuclide in Par Pond sediments with an underwater HPGe detector

    SciTech Connect

    Winn, W.G.

    1993-11-01

    Savannah River Site (SRS) effluent gamma emitting radionuclides in Par Pond sediment were examined in situ with an underwater HPGe detector prior to and following a 19 ft drawdown of the pond in 1991 to address dam repairs. These measurements provide a map of the {sup 137}Cs concentrations of the pond sediment, indicating that 9.4 {plus_minus} 1.5 Ci is exposed by the drawdown and that 46.6 {plus_minus} 7.2 Ci is the entire pond inventory. The highest individual {sup 137}Cs concentration was 25 {mu}Ci/m{sup 2} for the exposed sediment and 50 {mu}Ci/m{sup 2} for the entire pond. The results are consistent with parallel studies conducted by SREL, as well as historical data. Aside from {sup 137}Cs, the only other SRS-produced isotope observed was {sup 60}Co, with activity of only about 1% of that for {sup 137}Cs. This observation was also confirmed in grab samples of pond sediment and vegetation, which were returned to the laboratory for ultra-low-level gamma spectrometry analysis. A special effort was required to calibrate the underwater HPGe detector, where both measurements and calculational models were used. The effects of sediment depth profiles for density and {sup 137}Cs concentration were addressed in the calibration. Calibration factors for sediment surface concentrations ({mu}Ci/m{sup 2}/cpm) and sediment mass concentrations (pCi/kg/cpm) were obtained. In general, the {mu}Ci/m{sup 2}/cpm factor is recommended, as the pCi/kg/cpm factor depends on the depth location of the sediment of interest. However, a pCi/kg/cpm factor, which is dependent on the depth within the sediment is presented to address dose calculations that require it.

  19. Comprehensive Cooling Water Study: Volume 7, Ecology of Par Pond, Savannah River Plant: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Wilde, E.W.

    1987-10-01

    The Comprehensive Cooling Water Study (CCWS) was initiated in 1983 to evaluate the environmental effects of the intake and release of cooling water on the structure and function of aquatic ecosystems at the Savannah River Plant. The initial report (Gladden et al., 1985) described the results from the first year of the study. This document is the final report and concludes the program. The report comprises eight volumes. The first is a summary of environmental effects. The other seven volumes address water quality, radionuclide and heavy metal transport, wetlands, aquatic ecology, Federally endangered species, ecology of Par Pond, and waterfowl. 222 refs., 31 figs., 67 tabs.

  20. Vegetation establishment and evolution in four ponds that received sewage and wastewater in a portion of the Olezoa wetland complex, Yaounde, Cameroon, central Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Atekwana, E.A. . Dept. of Geology); Agendia, P.L. . Dept. of Plant Biology)

    1994-04-01

    A study of the spatial and temporal changes in the pattern and distribution of tropical wetland vegetation in four ponds that received sewage and wastewater discharge, was undertaken for a small wetland ecosystem in the Olezoa drainage basin in Yaounde, Cameroon. More than 25 years of nutrient loading has led to the eutrophication and subsequent establishment of wetland vegetation in these ponds. Estimated free water surface areas of the ponds in 1964, 1976, and 1986 and 1992 determined from digitized aerial photographs and field measurements suggests a decline of 70 to 100% in the pond surface areas due to invasion and colonization by plants. The rate of pond surface decline and vegetation development is correlated with the construction of sewage plants and the discharge of untreated sewage and wastewater into the ponds. The main wetland plants that are established in the ponds consist of aquatic species Nymphae lotus, Enhydra fluctuants, Pistia stratiotes, Commelina sp., Ipomea aquatica and terrestrial species Echinochloa sp., Thalia welwitschii, Polygonum senegalense, Leersia haxandra and Cyperus papyrus. The pattern of wetland plant succession that resulted within each pond is correlated to the timing, duration and magnitude of sewage and wastewater discharge into the wetland complex.

  1. Radon tracing of groundwater input into Par Pond, Savannah River Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corbett, D. Reide; Burnett, William C.; Cable, Peter H.; Clark, Sue B.

    1997-12-01

    The groundwater contribution into Par Pond, a former cooling reservoir for two nuclear reactors located on the Department of Energy's Savannah River Site (South Carolina), was estimated using a standard hydrologic budget as well as one augmented by a natural tracer approach. We determined a geochemical budget for 222Rn, normally found at much higher concentrations in groundwater than surface waters, to assist in constraining the hydrologic estimates. The radon budget accounted for all quantifiable surface sources and sinks including the flux across the sediment-water interface which was determined by application of an advection-diffusion model. All hydrologic parameters and radon concentrations were monitored seasonally from February 1994 to August 1995. Using the water balance approach alone, the average groundwater discharge entering the lake was estimated to have an upper limit of approximately 0.95 ± 0.13 m 3 s -1. The groundwater contribution obtained using the combined hydrologic/ 222Rn approach ranged from 0.17 to 0.76 m 3 s -1 with a best estimate of 0.35 ± 0.16 m 3 s -1. Lake profiles show enhanced 222Rn concentrations in some areas indicating that groundwater enters Par Pond mostly through a small region in the northern portion of the lake, probably via small seeps or springs. Estimates show that groundwater plays a significant role in the overall water budget of the lake, accounting for 10%-33% of the total estimated inflow from all measured sources. Our results show that supplementing a standard hydrological water balance with radon budget considerations helps to constrain estimated groundwater flow into surface reservoirs.

  2. Geochemical and hydrologic controls on phosphorus transport in a sewage-contaminated sand and gravel aquifer near Ashumet Pond, Cape Cod, Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walter, Donald A.; Rea, Brigid A.; Stollenwerk, Kenneth G.; Savoie, Jennifer G.

    1996-01-01

    Currently (1993), about 170 kg/yr of phosphorus discharges into Ashumet Pond on Cape Cod from a plume of sewage-contaminated ground water. Phosphorus in the plume is mobile in two distinct geochemical environments--an anoxic zone containing dissolved iron and a suboxic zone containing dissolved oxygen. Phosphorus mobility in the suboxic zone is due to saturation of available sorption sites. Phosphorus loading to Ashumet Pond may increase significantly after sewage disposal is stopped due to phosphorus desorption from sediment surfaces.

  3. Fauna aquatic insects in sewage maturation ponds of Kashan University of Medical Science 2005.

    PubMed

    Dehghani, Rouhollah; Miranzadeh, Mohhamad Bagher; Yosefzadeh, Mehrnoosh; Zamani, Soheyla

    2007-03-15

    Organic materials in maturation ponds, the personal study was carried out to determine the aquatic insects living in the maturation pond of Kashan University of Medical Sciences in 2005. This was a descriptive study, 9 series of sampling including 1032 of larva, nymph and adults were collected and sent to a laboratory. Then they were diagnosed using stereo microscope and morphologic identification key. At of 1032 collected samples from 4 maturation ponds, the orders if Diptera (52%), Hempitera (24%), Ciclopodidade (12%), Hydroacarina (9.5%), Coleptera (0.77%), Aranida (0.67%), Hymenoptera (0.58%), Odonata (0.48%), were determined. The families of Chironomidae and Culicidae from Diptera order, Corixidae, Notonectidae, Cupepodae and Copepodidae families from Hemiptera order, Hydrophilidae family from Coleptera order, Aranidae family from Aranida order, Vospidae family from Hymenoptera order, Anizoptera suborder from Odonata order were determined. Maturation ponds are the artificial places where are appropriate for the growth and development of aquatic insects and also for their predators with taking in to account that some of these insects are the carriers of pathogens, make inconvenience for human and also has significant role in the cycle of changing materials, it is recommended that further specialized studies carry out in this regard.

  4. Municipal sewage treatment: Lagoons (ponds). (Latest citations from the Selected Water Resources Abstracts database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the treatment and storage of municipal wastewater and sewage in lagoons. Lagoon design, operation, and associated equipment for pretreatment, treatment, and storage techniques are discussed. Many citations describe the water treatment facilities of specific cities, and provide evaluations of the operations at those sites. Industrial and other non-municipal wastewater treatment lagoons are referenced in a related bibliography. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  5. Municipal sewage treatment: Lagoons (ponds). (Latest citations from the Selected Water Resources Abstracts database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the treatment and storage of municipal wastewater and sewage in lagoons. Lagoon design, operation, and associated equipment for pretreatment, treatment, and storage techniques are discussed. Many citations describe the water treatment facilities of specific cities, and provide evaluations of the operations at those sites. Industrial and other non-municipal wastewater treatment lagoons are referenced in a related bibliography. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  6. Determination of production biology of cladocera in a reservoir receiving hyperthermal effluents from a nuclear production reactor. [Par Pond

    SciTech Connect

    Vigerstad, T J

    1980-01-01

    The effects on zooplankton of residence in a cooling reservoir receiving hyperthermal effluents directly from a nuclear-production-reactor were studied. Rates of cladoceran population production were compared at two stations in the winter and summer of 1976 on Par Pond located on the Savannah River Plant, Aiken, SC. One station was located in an area of the reservoir directly receiving hyperthermal effluent (Station MAS) and the second was located about 4 km away in an area where surface temperatures were normal for reservoirs in the general geographical region (Station CAS). A non-parametric comparison between stations of standing stock and fecundity data for Bosmina longirostris, taken for the egg ratio model, was used to observe potential hyperthermal effluent effects. There was a statistically higher incidence of deformed eggs in the Bosmina population at Station MAS in the summer. Bosmina standing stock underwent two large oscillations in the winter and three large oscillations in the summer at Station MAS compared with two in the winter and one in the summer at Station CAS. These results are consistent with almost all other Par Pond studies which have found the two stations to be essentially similar in spectra composition but with some statistically significant differences in various aspects of the biology of the species.

  7. Feasibility of a constructed wetland and wastewater stabilisation pond system as a sewage reclamation system for agricultural reuse in a decentralised rural area.

    PubMed

    Ham, J H; Yoon, C G; Jeon, J H; Kim, H C

    2007-01-01

    The performance of a constructed wetland (CW) and wastewater stabilisation pond (WSP) system for sewage reclamation and paddy rice irrigation in a decentralised rural area was examined using a feasibility study. The CW was satisfactory for sewage treatment, with good removal efficiency even in the winter period, but the effluent concentration was relatively high in the winter period owing to the high influent concentration. The CW effluent was further treated in a WSP and the WSP effluent was considered safe for crop irrigation with respect to sewage-borne pathogens. Reclaimed water irrigation did not adversely affect the yield of rice; on the contrary, it resulted in an approximately 50% greater yield than in controls. The chemical characteristics of the soil did not change significantly during the experimental period of irrigation with reclaimed water. In the winter, CW effluent could be stored and treated in a WSP until the spring; the water could then be discharged or reused for supplemental irrigation during the typical Korean spring drought. Overall, sewage treatment and agronomic reuse using a CW-WSP system could be a practical integrated sewage management measure for protecting receiving water bodies and overcoming water shortages in decentralised rural areas.

  8. Environmental assessment for the natural fluctuation of water level in Par Pond and reduced water flow in Steel Creek below L-Lake at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    The Savannah River Operations Office Strategic Plan directs Savannah River Site (SRS) to find ways to reduce operating costs, and to determine what site infrastructure must be maintained and what infrastructure is surplus. Because of the mission change, L-Lake, Par Pond, and the river water system are no longer needed to support current missions and therefore provide an opportunity for operating cost reduction. If SRS determines that L-Lake, Par Pond, and the river water system are no longer needed to support future missions and are considered surplus, appropriate NEPA documentation will be prepared. The purpose of the proposed action in this Environmental Assessment is to begin an examination of the need for the Site`s river water system by (1) developing data needed to evaluate the potential environmental impacts of further reducing or eliminating the flow demands from the Site`s river water system and; (2) evaluating the potential of reducing operating costs by allowing the water level in Par Pond to fluctuate naturally through reduced pumping. This action also includes reducing the current flow rates from L-Lake to Steel Creek to natural stream flows while maintaining full pool. The recently approved Par Pond CERCLA Interim Action Proposed Plan (IAPP) committed to evaluate in a NEPA document the environmental consequences of this proposed action. This document evaluated the remediation of human health and ecological risks associated with the three year drawdown of Par Pond. Should any of the parameters sampled in the reservoir and streams (e.g., water quality, biota, etc.) exceed established threshold levels during the implementation of the proposed action, water would again be pumped into the reservoir to minimize any impacts by bringing the water level back to an appropriate level about 58.2 m (195 ft).

  9. Nitrogen dynamics of the aquatic system is an important driving force for efficient sewage purification in single pond natural treatment wetlands at East Kolkata Wetland.

    PubMed

    Das Gupta, Anirban; Sarkar, Subhasis; Singh, Jayprakash; Saha, Tapan; Sil, Alok Kumar

    2016-12-01

    At East Kolkata Wetlands, though the domestic city sewage is purified very rapidly, the mechanisms of treatment remains inadequately explored. In this context, the present study investigated nitrogen dynamics of the single pond treatment systems during purification and explored its potential role in sewage treatment. For this purpose the concentrations of different forms of nitrogen present both in water and soil at different time points of purification were measured. The organic nitrogen content decreased sharply, in the early phase, with an increase in ammonium concentration. Notably the reduction in organic nitrogen was significantly higher than the increase in NH4(+) which can be attributed to the volatilization of NH4(+) under alkaline pH. This volatilization results in reduced oxygen demand. The nitrate-N concentration decreased sharply from soil with a concomitant increase in water column. However the reduction of nitrate in soil was significantly higher than the increase in water column. It indicated the occurrence of denitrification under anoxic condition wherein nitrate serves as terminal electron acceptor. Additionally a part of the nitrate supported planktonic growth. Thus it describes another mechanism of reducing oxygen demand. The initial NH4(+)-N concentration in the soil was very low and it increased gradually during purification due to increasing soil cation exchange capacity. Thus by trapping NH4(+) ion soil contributes towards preventing contamination of water. Thus at EKW, the cumulative activities in water and soil involved in nitrogen dynamics lead to overall reduction of the oxygen demand and contribute towards efficient sewage purification.

  10. Interim Control Strategy for the Test Area North/Technical Support Facility Sewage Treatment Facility Disposal Pond - Two-year Update

    SciTech Connect

    L. V. Street

    2007-04-01

    The Idaho Cleanup Project has prepared this interim control strategy for the U.S. Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office pursuant to DOE Order 5400.5, Chapter 11.3e (1) to support continued discharges to the Test Area North/Technical Support Facility Sewage Treatment Facility Disposal Pond. In compliance with DOE Order 5400.5, a 2-year review of the Interim Control Strategy document has been completed. This submittal documents the required review of the April 2005 Interim Control Strategy. The Idaho Cleanup Project's recommendation is unchanged from the original recommendation. The Interim Control Strategy evaluates three alternatives: (1) re-route the discharge outlet to an uncontaminated area of the TSF-07; (2) construct a new discharge pond; or (3) no action based on justification for continued use. Evaluation of Alternatives 1 and 2 are based on the estimated cost and implementation timeframe weighed against either alternative's minimal increase in protection of workers, the public, and the environment. Evaluation of Alternative 3, continued use of the TSF-07 Disposal Pond under current effluent controls, is based on an analysis of four points: - Record of Decision controls will protect workers and the public - Risk of increased contamination is low - Discharge water will be eliminated in the foreseeable future - Risk of contamination spread is acceptable. The Idaho Cleanup Project recommends Alternative 3, no action other than continued implementation of existing controls and continued deactivation, decontamination, and dismantlement efforts at the Test Area North/Technical Support Facility.

  11. Nitrogen Fixation (Acetylene Reduction) Associated with Decaying Leaves of Pond Cypress (Taxodium distichum var. nutans) in a Natural and a Sewage-Enriched Cypress Dome

    PubMed Central

    Dierberg, Forrest E.; Brezonik, Patrick L.

    1981-01-01

    Surface litter from a natural and a sewage-enriched cypress dome in north-central Florida showed a pronounced seasonal pattern of nitrogenase (acetylene reduction) activity associated with seasonal leaf fall from deciduous trees in the domes. Samples of peat from cores indicated negligible nitrogenase activity below the surface layer. Integrating the monthly rates of nitrogen fixation (based on the theoretical molar ratio of 3:2 for C2H4/NH3) yielded 0.39 and 0.12 g of N/m2 per year fixed in the litter of the natural and sewage-enriched domes, respectively. The nitrogen fixed in the first 3 months after leaf fall in the natural dome represented about 14% of the nitrogen increment in the decomposing cypress leaves, but fixation contributed a negligible amount of nitrogen (<1%) to decomposing litter in the sewage-enriched dome. PMID:16345796

  12. Freshwater ponds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This book chapter summarizes aquaculture pond ecology. The underlying theme is how ponds supply essential life-support functions (food, oxygen, and waste treatment) and how those functions are subsidized by external resources as culture intensity increases. Ponds are confined bodies of standing wate...

  13. Solar ponds

    SciTech Connect

    Jayadev, T.S.; Edesess, M.

    1980-04-01

    This report first describes the different types of solar ponds including the nonconvecting salt gradient pond and various saltless pond designs. It then discusses the availability and cost of salts for salt gradient ponds, and compares the economics of salty and saltless ponds as a function of salt cost. A simple computational model is developed to approximate solar pond performance. This model is later used to size solar ponds for district heating and industrial process heat applications. For district heating, ponds are sized to provide space conditioning for a group of homes, in different regions of the United States. Size requirements is on the order of one acre for a group of 25 to 50 homes. An economic analysis is performed of solar ponds used in two industrial process heat applications. The analysis finds that solar ponds are competitive when conventional heat sources are priced at $5 per million Btu and expected to rise in price at a rate of 10% per year. The application of solar ponds to the generation of electricity is also discussed. Total solar pond potential for displacing conventional energy sources is estimated in the range of from one to six quadrillion Btu per year in the near and intermediate future.

  14. Performance comparison and economics analysis of waste stabilization ponds and horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands treating domestic wastewater: a case study of the Juja sewage treatment works.

    PubMed

    Mburu, Njenga; Tebitendwa, Sylvie M; van Bruggen, Johan J A; Rousseau, Diederik P L; Lens, Piet N L

    2013-10-15

    The performance, effluent quality, land area requirement, investment and operation costs of a full-scale waste stabilization pond (WSP) and a pilot scale horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetland (HSSF-CW) at Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology (JKUAT) were investigated between November 2010 to January 2011. Both systems gave comparable medium to high levels of organic matter and suspended solids removal. However, the WSP showed a better removal for Total Phosphorus (TP) and Ammonium (NH4(+)-N). Based on the population equivalent calculations, the land area requirement per person equivalent of the WSP system was 3 times the area that would be required for the HSSF-CW to treat the same amount of wastewater. The total annual cost estimates consisting of capital, operation and maintenance (O&M) costs were comparable for both systems. However, the evaluation of the capital cost of either system showed that it is largely influenced by the size of the population served, local cost of land and the construction materials involved. Hence, one can select either system in terms of treatment efficiency. When land is available other factor including the volume of wastewater or the investment, and O&M costs determine the technology selection.

  15. Surface Sediments in Precooler Ponds 2, 4, and 5: March 2000

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, D.L.

    2001-01-29

    Pond 2, Pond 4, and Pond 5 are inactive reactor cooling impoundments built in 1961 on the R-Reactor Effluent System in the east-central portion of the Department of Energy's Savannah River Site in Aiken, South Carolina. These precooler ponds are part of the Par Pond cooling water system and are considered part of the Par Pond operable unit. The intent was not to characterize the ponds, but to identify the maximum levels of contamination that could be exposed if the ponds are drained to remove the danger of dam failure.

  16. Solar ponds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabor, H.

    1981-01-01

    The history and current status of salt-gradient non-convecting solar ponds are presented. These ponds are large-area collectors, capable of providing low-cost thermal, mechanical, or electrical energy using low-temperature turbo-generators. The basic theory of salt-gradient solar ponds is sketched; the effects of wind, leakage, and fouling and their constraints on location selection for solar ponds are discussed. The methods of building and filling the ponds, as well as extracting heat from them are explained in detail. Practical operating temperatures of 90 C can be obtained with collection efficiencies between 15% and 25%, demonstrating the practical use of the ponds for heating and cooling purposes, power production, and desalination. A condensed account of solar pond experience in several countries is given. This includes the 150 kW solar pond power station (SPPS) operating in Israel since December, 1979 and a 5000 kW unit currently under development. A study of the economics involved in using the ponds is presented: despite a low conversion efficiency, the SPPS is shown to have applications in many countries.

  17. Sewage Treatment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    A million gallon-a-day sewage treatment plant in Huntington Beach, CA converts solid sewage to activated carbon which then treats incoming waste water. The plant is scaled up 100 times from a mobile unit NASA installed a year ago; another 100-fold scale-up will be required if technique is employed for widespread urban sewage treatment. This unique sewage-plant employed a serendipitous outgrowth of a need to manufacture activated carbon for rocket engine insulation. The process already exceeds new Environmental Protection Agency Standards Capital costs by 25% compared with conventional secondary treatment plants.

  18. Sewage Treatment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    In the early 1970's, National Space Technology Laboratories discovered that water hyacinths literally thrive on sewage; they absorb and digest nutrients and minerals from wastewater, converting sewage effluents to clean water. They offer a means of purifying water at a fraction of the cost of a conventional sewage treatment plant, and provide a bonus value in byproducts. Hyacinths must be harvested at intervals; the harvested plants are used as fertilizers, high-protein animal feed and a source of energy. Already serving a number of small towns, the "aquaculture" technique has significantly advanced with its adoption by a major U.S. city.

  19. Solar pond

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, C. G.; Stephens, J. B. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    Shallow pools of liquid to collect low-temperature solar generated thermal energy are described. Narrow elongated trenches, grouped together over a wide area, are lined with a heat-absorbing black liner. The heat-absorbing liquid is kept separate from the thermal energy removing fluid by means such as clear polyethylene material. The covering for the pond may be a fluid or solid. If the covering is a fluid, fire fighting foam, continuously generated, or siloons are used to keep the surface covering clean and insulated. If the thermal energy removing fluid is a gas, a fluid insulation layer contained in a flat polyethlene tubing is used to cover the pond. The side of the tube directed towards the sun is treated to block out ultraviolet radiation and trap in infrared radiation.

  20. Sewage Treatment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Stennis Space Center's aquaculture research program has led to an attractive wastewater treatment for private homes. The system consists of a septic tank or tanks for initial sewage processing and a natural secondary treatment facility for further processing of septic tanks' effluent, consisting of a narrow trench, which contains marsh plants and rocks, providing a place for microorganisms. Plants and microorganisms absorb and digest, thus cleansing partially processed wastewater. No odors are evident and cleaned effluent may be discharged into streams or drainage canals. The system is useful in rural areas, costs about $1,900, and requires less maintenance than mechanical systems.

  1. Purification of Solar Ponds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, S.

    1985-01-01

    Flocculatory agents added to solar saltponds remove turbidity to increase solar-energy collection efficiency. Flocculating agent or bacteriocide used to remove micro-organisms sprayed onto pond from airplane and allowed to settle to bottom of pond.

  2. Lagoons and Oxidation Ponds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, W. J.

    1978-01-01

    Presents the 1978 literature review of wastewater treatment. This review covers lagoons and oxidation ponds, and it includes some areas such as improving the effluents from ponds, stabilization ponds, aerated lagoons, and oxidation ditches. A list of 36 references is also presented. (HM)

  3. Waste Stabilization Ponds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koundakjian, Philip

    This self-paced course contains reading assignments from a waste stabilization ponds operating manual, supportive text, example problems, and review questions, and a final examination. The course covers calculation of pond surface area, pond volume, organic load, detention time, drawdown, storage capacity, efficiency, and discharge. In addition,…

  4. Sewage Monitors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    Every U.S. municipality must determine how much waste water it is processing and more importantly, how much is going unprocessed into lakes and streams either because of leaks in the sewer system or because the city's sewage facilities were getting more sewer flow than they were designed to handle. ADS Environmental Services, Inc.'s development of the Quadrascan Flow Monitoring System met the need for an accurate method of data collection. The system consists of a series of monitoring sensors and microcomputers that continually measure water depth at particular sewer locations and report their findings to a central computer. This provides precise information to city managers on overall flow, flow in any section of the city, location and severity of leaks and warnings of potential overload. The core technology has been expanded upon in terms of both technical improvements, and functionality for new applications, including event alarming and control for critical collection system management problems.

  5. Sanitary and bacteriological aspects of sewage treatment.

    PubMed

    Filipkowska, Zofia

    2003-01-01

    A study into the removal of contamination load and indicator bacteria was carried out in 1992-1996 in the mechanical, biological and chemical waste-water treatment plant WTP in Lezany, in the County of Reszel, in the Province of Warmia and Mazury in Poland. The results of chemical analyses found a high efficiency of removal of carbon compounds, COD (90%) and BOD (98%), in the process of purification of household sewage. In addition, a high effectiveness of total nitrogen, on average 71%, and unsatisfactory removal of ammonia nitrogen and phosphorus compounds were found. The results of microbiological analyses confirmed the high efficiency of removal of indicator bacteria in the process of sewage treatment from 94 to 97%. In the sewage after the final phase of purification in stabilization ponds, the following pathogenic bacteria were identified with the use of the EPL 21tests: Escherichia coli, Enterobacter agglomerans, Enterobacter aerogenes, Enterobacter cloacae, Enterobacter georgoriae, Citrobacter freundii, Klebsiella pnemoniae, Klebsiella oxytoca, Klebsiella ozaenae, Ervinia herbicola, Edwardsiella tarda, Serratia odoriefra, Serratia marcescens, Providencia alcalifaciens, Hafnia alvei, Yersina pestis, Yersina pseudotuberculosis, Yersinia fredericksenii, Salmonella spp., Shigella dysenteriae, Aeromons hydrophila, Pseudomonas aerulginosa. The obtained results show that although the sewage purification system is efficient and reduces the contamination load to the level required by the regulations (Ministry of Environmental Protection, Natural Resources and Forestry from 20 September 1991) and removes a great percentage of indicator bacteria, the purified sewage may be a source of pathogenic bacteria in inland waters.

  6. State Waste Discharge Permit application, 100-N Sewage Lagoon

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    As part of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order negotiations (Ecology et al. 1994), the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the Washington State Department of Ecology agreed that liquid effluent discharges to the ground on the Hanford Site which affect groundwater or have the potential to affect groundwater would be subject to permitting under the structure of Chapter 173--216 (or 173--218 where applicable) of the Washington Administrative Code, the State Waste Discharge Permit Program. As a result of this decision, the Washington State Department of Ecology and the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office entered into Consent Order No. DE 91NM-177, (Ecology and DOE-RL 1991). This document constitutes the State Waste Discharge Permit application for the 100-N Sewage Lagoon. Since the influent to the sewer lagoon is domestic waste water, the State Waste Discharge Permit application for Public Owned Treatment Works Discharges to Land was used. Although the 100-N Sewage Lagoon is not a Public Owned Treatment Works, the Public Owned Treatment Works application is more applicable than the application for industrial waste water. The 100-N Sewage Lagoon serves the 100-N Area and other Hanford Site areas by receiving domestic waste from two sources. A network of sanitary sewer piping and lift stations transfers domestic waste water from the 100-N Area buildings directly to the 100-N Sewage Lagoon. Waste is also received by trucks that transport domestic waste pumped from on site septic tanks and holding tanks. Three ponds comprise the 100-N Sewage Lagoon treatment system. These include a lined aeration pond and stabilization pond, as well as an unlined infiltration pond. Both piped-in and trucked-in domestic waste is discharged directly into the aeration pond.

  7. Environmental Assessment for the Management Options for Branch Memorial Park and Pond, Edwards Air Force Base, California

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-01

    sparsely vegetated ground at alkaline or saline lakes, reservoirs, and ponds; on riverine sand bars; and at sewage, salt-evaporation, and...evaporation ponds with the inland population regularly wintering at agricultural wastewater ponds in the San Joaquin Valley and at desert saline ...Eagle Aquila chrysaetos DFG: FP DFG: WL USFWS: BCC Black Tern Chlidonias niger DFG: SSC California Gull Larus californicus DFG: WL Double

  8. Microalgal separation from high-rate ponds

    SciTech Connect

    Nurdogan, Y.

    1988-01-01

    High rate ponding (HRP) processes are playing an increasing role in the treatment of organic wastewaters in sunbelt communities. Photosynthetic oxygenation by algae has proved to cost only one-seventh as much as mechanical aeration for activated sludge systems. During this study, an advanced HRP, which produces an effluent equivalent to tertiary treatment has been studied. It emphasizes not only waste oxidation but also algal separation and nutrient removal. This new system is herein called advanced tertiary high rate ponding (ATHRP). Phosphorus removal in HRP systems is normally low because algal uptake of phosphorus is about one percent of their 200-300 mg/L dry weights. Precipitation of calcium phosphates by autofluocculation also occurs in HRP at high pH levels, but it is generally not complete due to insufficient calcium concentration in the pond. In the case of Richmond where the studies were conducted, the sewage is very low in calcium. Therefore, enhancement of natural autoflocculation was studied by adding small amounts of lime to the pond. Through this simple procedure phosphorus and nitrogen removals were virtually complete justifying the terminology ATHRP.

  9. Temperature Impact of Nitrogen Transformation in Technological System: Vertical Flow Constructed Wetland and Polishing Pond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myszograj, Sylwia; Bydałek, Franciszek

    2016-12-01

    The article describes the results of the research, purpose of which was to evaluate influence of the temperature on the effectiveness of nitrification and denitrification in the sewage treatment system consisting of vertical flow constructed wetland and polishing pond. During the analysed period, the efficiency of removing total nitrogen was low and amounted to 12.7%. In the polishing pond in the summer period, content of total nitrogen in treated sewages was further decreased by nearly 50%. In the winter period, the polishing pond fulfilled mainly retention role and thus did not improve effectiveness of the whole system. Temperature coefficients, calculated on the basis of single first-order kinetics, for nitrification process in the filter bed (N-NH4+) and denitrification process in the polishing pond (N-NO3-) amounted to 1.039 and 1.089, respectively.

  10. Solar ponds: a selected bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-11-01

    This bibliography contains citations on: regular solar ponds; shallow solar ponds; and patents. Certain references are specifically recommended. The data bases searched for the bibliography are listed. (LEW)

  11. Exploring Pond Water

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raun, Chester E.; Metz, William C.

    1975-01-01

    An activity utilizing a bucket of pond water for study of microorganisms as presented to elementary school preservice and inservice teachers, and subsequently to their pupils, is described. Procedures for collecting, studying, tabulating data and extended activities are presented. (EB)

  12. Rapid Sand Filtration for Best Practical Treatment of Domestic Wastewater Stabilization Pond Effluent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boatright, D. T.; Lawrence, C. H.

    1977-01-01

    The technical and economic feasibility of constructing and operating a rapid sand filtration sewage treatment system as an adjunct to a waste water stabilization pond is investigated. The study concludes that such units are within the technical and economic constraints of a small community and comply with the EPA criteria. (BT)

  13. Sewage sludge additive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalvinskas, J. J.; Mueller, W. A.; Ingham, J. D. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    The additive is for a raw sewage treatment process of the type where settling tanks are used for the purpose of permitting the suspended matter in the raw sewage to be settled as well as to permit adsorption of the dissolved contaminants in the water of the sewage. The sludge, which settles down to the bottom of the settling tank is extracted, pyrolyzed and activated to form activated carbon and ash which is mixed with the sewage prior to its introduction into the settling tank. The sludge does not provide all of the activated carbon and ash required for adequate treatment of the raw sewage. It is necessary to add carbon to the process and instead of expensive commercial carbon, coal is used to provide the carbon supplement.

  14. Saltless solar pond

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, E. I. H. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A solar pond adapted for efficiently trapping and storing radiant solar energy without the use of a salt concentration gradient in the pond is disclosed. A body of water which may be fresh, saline, relatively clear or turbid, is substantially covered by a plurality of floating honeycomb panels. The honeycomb panels are made of a material such as glass which is pervious to short wave solar radiation but impervious to infrared radiation. Each honeycomb panel includes a multitude of honeycomb cells. The honeycomb panels are divided into the elongated honeycomb cells by a multitude of intermediate plates disposed between a bottom plate and top plate of the panel. The solar pond is well suited for providing hot water of approximately 85 to 90 C temperature for direct heating applications, and for electrical power generation.

  15. Evaluation of solar pond performance

    SciTech Connect

    Wittenberg, L.J.

    1980-01-01

    The City of Miamisburg, Ohio, constructed during 1978 a large, salt-gradient solar pond as part of its community park development project. The thermal energy stored in the pond is being used to heat an outdoor swimming pool in the summer and an adjacent recreational building during part of the winter. This solar pond, which occupies an area of 2020 m/sup 2/ (22,000 sq. ft.), was designed from experience obtained at smaller research ponds located at Ohio State University, the University of New Mexico and similar ponds operated in Israel. During the summer of 1979, the initial heat (40,000 kWh, 136 million Btu) was withdrawn from the solar pond to heat the outdoor swimming pool. All of the data collection systems were installed and functioned as designed so that operational data were obtained. The observed performance of the pond was compared with several of the predicted models for this type of pond. (MHR)

  16. Depletion of Cryptosporidium parvum Oocysts from Contaminated Sewage by Using Freshwater Benthic Pearl Clams (Hyriopsis schlegeli)

    PubMed Central

    Yagita, Kenji; Izumiyama, Shinji; Endo, Takuro; Itoh, Yasoo

    2012-01-01

    The freshwater benthic pearl clam, Hyriopsis schlegeli, was experimentally exposed to Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts, and it was verified that the oocysts were eliminated predominantly via the fecal route, retaining their ability to infect cultured cells (HCT-8). The total fecal oocyst elimination rate was more than 90% within 5 days after exposure to the oocysts. H. schlegeli was able to survive in the final settling pond of a sewage plant for long periods, as confirmed by its pearl production. In the light of these findings, the clam was placed in the final settling pond in a trial to test its long-term efficacy in depleting oocysts contaminating the pond water. The number of clams placed was set to ensure a theoretical oocyst removal rate of around 50%, and the turbidity and the density of feed microbes in the overflow trough water of the pond were about 35% and 40 to 60% lower, respectively, than in the control water throughout the year. It was found that the clam feces containing oocysts were sufficiently heavy for them to settle to the bottom of the pond, despite the upward water flow. From these results, we concluded that efficient depletion of oocysts in the sewage water of small or midscale sewage treatment plants can be achieved by appropriate placement of H. schlegeli clams. PMID:22904053

  17. Agricultural ponds support amphibian populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knutson, M.G.; Richardson, W.B.; Reineke, D.M.; Gray, B.R.; Parmelee, J.R.; Weick, S.E.

    2004-01-01

    In some agricultural regions, natural wetlands are scarce, and constructed agricultural ponds may represent important alternative breeding habitats for amphibians. Properly managed, these agricultural ponds may effectively increase the total amount of breeding habitat and help to sustain populations. We studied small, constructed agricultural ponds in southeastern Minnesota to assess their value as amphibian breeding sites. Our study examined habitat factors associated with amphibian reproduction at two spatial scales: the pond and the landscape surrounding the pond. We found that small agricultural ponds in southeastern Minnesota provided breeding habitat for at least 10 species of amphibians. Species richness and multispecies reproductive success were more closely associated with characteristics of the pond (water quality, vegetation, and predators) compared with characteristics of the surrounding landscape, but individual species were associated with both pond and landscape variables. Ponds surrounded by row crops had similar species richness and reproductive success compared with natural wetlands and ponds surrounded by nongrazed pasture. Ponds used for watering livestock had elevated concentrations of phosphorus, higher turbidity, and a trend toward reduced amphibian reproductive success. Species richness was highest in small ponds, ponds with lower total nitrogen concentrations, tiger salamanders (Ambystoma tigrinum) present, and lacking fish. Multispecies reproductive success was best in ponds with lower total nitrogen concentrations, less emergent vegetation, and lacking fish. Habitat factors associated with higher reproductive success varied among individual species. We conclude that small, constructed farm ponds, properly managed, may help sustain amphibian populations in landscapes where natural wetland habitat is rare. We recommend management actions such as limiting livestock access to the pond to improve water quality, reducing nitrogen input, and

  18. Lockport Sewage Lagoon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, John

    1995-01-01

    Describes a student initiated stewardship project that resulted in the transformation of a sewage lagoon near the school into a place to study nature. Contains a list of 20 things that discourage a successful stewardship project. (LZ)

  19. Vessel Sewage Discharges

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Vessel sewage discharges are regulated under Section 312 of the Clean Water Act, which is jointly implemented by the EPA and Coast Guard. This homepage links to information on marine sanitation devices and no discharge zones.

  20. The Little School Pond

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rawitscher-Kunkel, Erika

    1973-01-01

    A small pond in a schoolyard provided year-round biological activities for children. As seasons changed, concepts and life relations also changed. Besides microscopic organisms in water, children learned about microscopic algae, detritus, and food chains. Concepts of predator-prey relationships and of ecosystems were successfully developed. (PS)

  1. Effect of carbon dioxide and ammonium removal on pH changes in polishing ponds.

    PubMed

    Cavalcanti, P F F; van Haandel, A; Lettinga, G

    2002-01-01

    If nutrient removal is to be obtained in ponds treating sewage, the pH must be raised so that ammonia can desorb and phosphates can precipitate. In this paper it is shown that the pH increase in ponds can be predicted quantitatively from simple stoichiometry, taking into consideration physical and biological carbon dioxide removal, ammonia stripping and calcium carbonate precipitation. Biological CO2 removal by photosynthesis is identified as the main process to effect pH increase in ponds. The rate of pH increase and consequently the required retention time depend on the net rate of CO2 consumption, the extent of ammonium stripping, the characteristics of the influent (alkalinity and pH) as well as factors concerning the environment (temperature) and dimensions (depth) of the pond. A high pH (range 9 to 10) can be obtained in about 5 days if digested sewage is used (low organic material concentration), climate conditions are favourable and the pond is shallow (< 0.5 m deep).

  2. Evidence for growth of enterococci in municipal oxidation ponds, obtained using antibiotic resistance analysis.

    PubMed

    Moriarty, Elaine; Nourozi, Fariba; Robson, Beth; Wood, David; Gilpin, Brent

    2008-12-01

    The Christchurch wastewater treatment plant uses a series of six oxidation ponds to reduce the bacterial load of treated effluent before it is discharged into the local estuary. To ensure that this discharge does not adversely affect water quality in the receiving environment, local regulations specify maximum levels in the discharge for a number of parameters, including enterococci. Between 2001 and 2006, regulations required fewer than 300 enterococci per 100 ml in summer. During this period, the discharge intermittently exceeded this limit, with unexplained levels of enterococci of up to 180,000/100 ml. Characterization of these enterococci by antibiotic resistance analysis showed that enterococci sampled over 4 months had almost identical resistance profiles. In contrast, enterococci from raw sewage and wildfowl from around the oxidation ponds had a diverse range of antibiotic resistance profiles that could be distinguished from each other and also from those of enterococci from the discharge. The hypothesis of a clonal nature of the enterococci in the discharge was supported by molecular genotype analysis, suggesting that these bacteria may have replicated in the pond environment rather than being reflective of breakthrough in the sewage treatment process or the result of recent wildfowl inputs to the ponds. This study highlights the usefulness of antibiotic resistance analysis in identifying this phenomenon and is the first report of apparent replication of a specific type of enterococci in an oxidation pond environment.

  3. Hybrid treatment systems--anaerobic ponds and trickling filters in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Broome, J M; Morris, P M; Nanthambwe, J G

    2003-01-01

    The most economic combination of unit treatment processes for a new sewage treatment works in Zimbabwe was found to be anaerobic ponds followed by trickling filters. The regulations governing irrigation with treated effluent permitted the omission of humus tanks or further treatment. Two stage anaerobic ponds are desludged by gravity through fixed sludge outlet pipework. Sludge is disposed of by irrigation of a Eucalyptus plantation. Novel features of the inlet works and pond outlets are also described. The works has functioned for eight years without major problems, but the assumption that humus tanks or settling ponds were not required may have been mistaken. The sludge removal system has worked well. Without the sludge pipework, it is estimated that desludging of the primary ponds would have been required after two years of operation, but they have now operated successfully for eight years. The combination of anaerobic ponds and trickling filters should be considered where land availability or site conditions make facultative ponds difficult or expensive to construct.

  4. Microbiology of solar salt ponds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Javor, B.

    1985-01-01

    Solar salt ponds are shallow ponds of brines that range in salinity from that of normal seawater (3.4 percent) through NaCl saturation. Some salterns evaporate brines to the potash stage of concentration (bitterns). All the brines (except the bitterns, which are devoid of life) harbor high concentrations of microorganisms. The high concentrations of microorganisms and their adaptation to life in the salt pond are discussed.

  5. Treatment efficacy of algae-based sewage treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Mahapatra, Durga Madhab; Chanakya, H N; Ramachandra, T V

    2013-09-01

    Lagoons have been traditionally used in India for decentralized treatment of domestic sewage. These are cost effective as they depend mainly on natural processes without any external energy inputs. This study focuses on the treatment efficiency of algae-based sewage treatment plant (STP) of 67.65 million liters per day (MLD) capacity considering the characteristics of domestic wastewater (sewage) and functioning of the treatment plant, while attempting to understand the role of algae in the treatment. STP performance was assessed by diurnal as well as periodic investigations of key water quality parameters and algal biota. STP with a residence time of 14.3 days perform moderately, which is evident from the removal of total chemical oxygen demand (COD) (60 %), filterable COD (50 %), total biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) (82 %), and filterable BOD (70 %) as sewage travels from the inlet to the outlet. Furthermore, nitrogen content showed sharp variations with total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) removal of 36 %; ammonium N (NH4-N) removal efficiency of 18 %, nitrate (NO3-N) removal efficiency of 22 %, and nitrite (NO2-N) removal efficiency of 57.8 %. The predominant algae are euglenoides (in facultative lagoons) and chlorophycean members (maturation ponds). The drastic decrease of particulates and suspended matter highlights heterotrophy of euglenoides in removing particulates.

  6. Basic Sewage Treatment Operation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ontario Ministry of the Environment, Toronto.

    This manual was developed for use at workshops designed to introduce operators to the fundamentals of sewage plant operation. The course consists of lecture-discussions and hands-on activities. Each of the lessons has clearly stated behavioral objectives to tell the trainee what he should know or do after completing that topic. Areas covered in…

  7. Plumbing and Sewage Disposal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutliff, Ronald D.; And Others

    This self-study course is designed to familiarize Marine enlisted personnel with the principles of plumbing and sewage disposal used by Marine Hygiene Equipment Operators to perform their mission. The course contains three study units. Each study unit begins with a general objective, which is a statement of what the student should learn from the…

  8. METAPOPULATION STRUCTURE AND DYNAMICS OF POND BREEDING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Our review indicates that pond breeding amphibians exhibit highly variable spatial and temporal population dynamics, such that no single generalized model can realistically describe these animals. We propose that consideration of breeding pond permanence, and adaptations to pond ...

  9. Schoolyard Ponds: Safety and Liability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danks, Sharon Gamson

    2001-01-01

    Engaging, attractive schoolyard ponds provide habitat for wildlife and hold great educational promise. Reviews water safety and liability issues including mud, stagnant pond water that serves as mosquito breeding grounds, and drowning. Offers ideas for creatively addressing those issues through site planning, shallow water depth, signage and…

  10. Phosphorus in a ground-water contaminant plume discharging to Ashumet Pond, Cape Cod, Massachusetts, 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCobb, Timothy D.; LeBlanc, Denis R.; Walter, Donald A.; Hess, Kathryn M.; Kent, Douglas B.; Smith, Richard L.

    2003-01-01

    The discharge of a plume of sewagecontaminated ground water emanating from the Massachusetts Military Reservation to Ashumet Pond on Cape Cod, Massachusetts, has caused concern about excessive loading of nutrients, particularly phosphorus, to the pond. The U.S. Air Force is considering remedial actions to mitigate potentially adverse effects on the ecological characteristics of the pond from continued phosphorus loading. Concentrations as great as 3 milligrams per liter of dissolved phosphorus (as P) are in ground water near the pond's shoreline; concentrations greater than 5 milligrams per liter of phosphorus are in ground water farther upgradient. Temporary drive-point wells were used to collect water samples from 2 feet below the pond bottom to delineate concentration distributions in the pore waters of the pond-bottom sediments. Measurements in the field of specific conductance and colorimetrically determined orthophosphate concentrations provided real-time data to guide the sampling. The contaminant plume discharges to the Fishermans Cove area of Ashumet Pond as evidenced by elevated levels of specific conductance and boron, which are chemically conservative indicators of the sewage-contaminated ground water. Concentrations of nonconservative species, such as dissolved phosphorus, manganese, nitrate, and ammonium, also were elevated above background levels in ground water discharging to the pond, but in spatially complex distributions that reflect their distributions in ground water upgradient of the pond. Phosphorus concentrations exceeded background levels (greater than 0.10 milligram per liter) in the pond-bottom pore water along 875 feet of shoreline. Greatest concentrations (greater than 2 milligrams per liter) occurred within 30 feet of the shore in an area about 225 feet long. Calculations of phosphorus flux in the aquifer upgradient of Ashumet Pond, as determined from water-flux estimates from a steady-state ground-water-flow model and phosphorus

  11. Sewage sludge treatment system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalvinskas, John J. (Inventor); Mueller, William A. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    Raw sewage may be presently treated by mixing screened raw sewage with activated carbon. The mixture is then allowed to stand in a first tank for a period required to settle the suspended matter to the bottom of the tank as a sludge. Thereafter, the remaining liquid is again mixed with activated carbon and the mixture is transferred to a secondary settling tank, where it is permitted to stand for a period required for the remaining floating material to settle as sludge and for adsorption of sewage carbon as well as other impurities to take place. The sludge from the bottom of both tanks is removed and pyrolyzed to form activated carbon and ash, which is mixed with the incoming raw sewage and also mixed with the liquid being transferred from the primary to the secondary settling tank. It has been found that the output obtained by the pyrolysis process contains an excess amount of ash. Removal of this excess amount of ash usually also results in removing an excess amount of carbon thereby requiring adding carbon to maintain the treatment process. By separately pyrolyzing the respective sludges from the first and second settling tanks, and returning the separately obtained pyrolyzed material to the respective first and second tanks from which they came, it has been found that the adverse effects of the excessive ash buildup is minimized, the carbon yield is increased, and the sludge from the secondary tank can be pyrolyzed into activated carbon to be used as indicated many more times than was done before exhaustion occurs.

  12. Removal of viruses from sewage, effluents, and waters

    PubMed Central

    Berg, Gerald

    1973-01-01

    All sewage and water treatment processes remove or destroy viruses. Some treatment methods are better than others, but none is likely to remove all of the viruses present in sewage or in raw water. Primary settling of solids probably removes a great many of the viruses in sewage because viruses are largely associated with the solids. Long storage of effluents or water is destructive to viruses. Activated sludge is the best biological method for removing viruses from sewage. Trickling filters and oxidation ponds are erratic, the latter probably because of short-circuiting. Coagulation with metal ions is the most effective single treatment method for removing viruses from sewage and from raw waters, according to laboratory studies at least. Lime is the best coagulant for these purposes in the rapidly virucidal high pH range. Polyelectrolytes also can sediment viruses. Rapid filtration through clean sand does not remove viruses, but filtration of coagulated effluents does, probably because the layering floc itself adsorbs viruses. Clays and carbon adsorb viruses to some extent, but the process is not efficient. Ultimately, disinfection should help to produce virus-free waters for drinking and virus-free effluents for discharge into waters with which man may come into contact. Because disinfection is not a simple matter, disinfectants must be selected according to need. Effluents and waters containing solids can probably be disinfected only by heat or by penetrating radiation, waters discharged into streams should not be disinfected with anything that will injure or kill aquatic life (unless the toxic products can be neutralized), and drinking-waters should carry a disinfecting residue. PMID:4607010

  13. Pond Ecology in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kneidl, Sally Stenhouse

    1993-01-01

    Describes activities with organisms from freshwater ponds and ditches. Several experiments involve predation, some involve habitat choices, and one addressees the role of sunlight in supporting plant-eating animals. (PR)

  14. Biogeochemical ecology of aquaculture ponds

    SciTech Connect

    Weisburd, R.S.J.

    1988-01-01

    Two methods to determine rates of organic matter production and consumption were applied in shrimp aquaculture ponds. Several questions were posed: can net rates of organic matter production and consumption be determined accurately through application of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) mass balance in a pond with high advective through-put Are organically loaded aquaculture ponds autotrophic How do rates of organic production vary temporally Are there diurnal changes in respiration rates Four marine ponds in Hawaii have been evaluated for a 53 day period through the use of geochemical mass balances. All fluxes of DIC into and out of the ponds were considered. DIC was calculated from hourly pH measurements and weekly alkalinity measurements. Average uptake of DIC from the pond water, equivalent to net community production, revealed net autotrophy in all cases. Hourly and longer period variations in organic matter production rates were examined. The daily cycle dominated the variation in rates of net community production. Maximal rates of net community production were maintained for four to six hours starting in mid-morning. Respiration rates decreased rapidly during the night in two of the ponds and remained essentially constant in the others. A similar pattern of decreasing respiration at night was seen in freshwater shrimp ponds which were studied with incubations. A new method involving isotope dilution of {sup 14}C-labeled DIC was used to measure respiration rates in light and dark bottles. This method is an inexpensive and convenient procedure which should also be useful in other environments. The incubations demonstrated that plankton respiration rates peak at or soon after solar noon and vary over the course of the day by about a factor of two.

  15. Stable Stratification for Solar Ponds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehta, G. D.

    1982-01-01

    Stable density gradient forms in pond saturated with disodium phosphate (DSP). Volume of DSP saturated water tends to develop temperature and density layers. Since tests indicate thermal and density gradients remain in equilibrium at heat removal rates of 60 percent or more of heat input rate, pond containing DSP would be suitable for collecting solar energy and transferring it to heat exchanger for practical use.

  16. Salton Sea solar pond project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    French, R. L.; Meitlis, I.

    1980-01-01

    The feasibility of constructing salt gradient solar ponds within the Salton Sea is being studied. These ponds would serve a dual purpose: (1) become a depository for unwanted salt and (2) supply thermal energy for driving turbine electric power systems. Under present circumstances, the rise in salinity is expected to eliminate fish life and create other unfavorable conditions. The proposed concept would have a power generation potential of 600 MWe.

  17. Sewage treatment method

    DOEpatents

    Fassbender, Alex G.

    1995-01-01

    The invention greatly reduces the amount of ammonia in sewage plant effluent. The process of the invention has three main steps. The first step is dewatering without first digesting, thereby producing a first ammonia-containing stream having a low concentration of ammonia, and a second solids-containing stream. The second step is sending the second solids-containing stream through a means for separating the solids from the liquid and producing an aqueous stream containing a high concentration of ammonia. The third step is removal of ammonia from the aqueous stream using a hydrothermal process.

  18. Data report. The fate of human enteric viruses in a natural sewage recycling system

    SciTech Connect

    Vaughn, J.M.; Landry, E.F.

    1980-09-01

    A two-year study was conducted to determine the virus-removing capacity of two man-made ecosystems designed for the treatment of raw domestic wastewater. The first treatment system consisted of two meadows followed by a marsh-pond unit (M/M/P). The second system contained individual marsh and pond units (M/P). All systems demonstrated moderate virus removal, with the marsh/pond system yielding the most consistent removal rates. Within this system, the greater potential for virus removal appeared to occur in the marsh unit. In addition to the production of system-oriented data, improved techniques for the concentration and enumeration of human viruses from sewage-polluted aquatic systems were developed.

  19. Blogging from North Pond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marziali, C. G.; Edwards, K. J.

    2009-12-01

    Sea going research expeditions provide an ideal opportunity for outreach through blogs: the finite duration limits the author's commitment; scientists are usually in a remote location with fewer distractions; and fieldwork is visual and interesting to describe. Over four weeks this winter, Katrina Edwards of USC authored a blog about her deep-sea drilling expedition to North Pond, a depression in the ocean crust in the mid-Atlantic. She emailed daily dispatches and photos to USC Media Relations, which maintained a (still accessible) blog. Written for the general public, the blog quickly attracted interest from lay readers as well as from media organizations. Scientific American carried the blog on its web site, and the National Science Foundation linked to it in its "Science 360" electronic news digest. The blog also led to a Q&A with Edwards in the widely-read "Behind the Scenes" feature of LiveScience. Interest from science bloggers and National Geographic towards the end suggests that the blog could have expanded its reach given more time: expeditions lasting between six weeks and three months, such as occur during ocean drilling expeditions, would appear to be ideal candidates for a blog. Most importantly, the blog educated readers about the importance to planetary life of what Edwards calls the "intraterrestrials": the countless microbes that inhabit the oceanic crust and influence major chemical and biological cycles. Considering that the subjects of the expedition were invisible critters in a pitch-dark place, the blog shows what can be accomplished by scientists and institutions committed to public outreach.

  20. Evolution of plant colonization in acid and alkaline mine tailing ponds after amendments and microorganisms application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acosta, Jose Alberto; Faz, Ángel; Kabas, Sebla; Zornoza, Raúl; Martínez-Martínez, Silvia

    2014-05-01

    Intense mining activities in the past were carried out in Cartagena-La Unión mining district, SE Spain, and caused excessive accumulation of toxic metals in tailing ponds which poses a high environmental and ecological risk. One of the remediation options gaining considerable interest in recent years is the in situ immobilization of metals. A corresponding reduction in the plant-available metal fraction allows re-vegetation and ecosystem restoration of the heavily contaminated sites. In addition, the use of microorganisms to improve the soil condition is a new tool used to increase spontaneous plant colonization. The aim of this research was to assess the effect of amendments (pig manure, sewage sludge, and lime) and microorganisms on plant cover establishment, as a consequence of metal immobilization and the improvement of soil properties. The study was carried out in two mine ponds (acid and alkaline). Twenty seven square field plots, each one consisting of 4 m2, were located in each pond. Four different doses of microorganism (0 ml, 20 ml, 100 ml and 200 ml of microorganism solution in each plot) and one dose of pig manure (5 kg per plot), sewage sludge (4 kg per plot) and lime (22 kg per plot) were used. Organic amendment doses were calculated according to European nitrogen legislations, and lime dose was calculated according with the potential acid production through total sulphur oxidation. Three replicates of each treatment (organic amendment + lime + microorganism dose 0, 1, 2, or 3) and control soil (with no amendments) were carried out. Plots were left to the semi-arid climate conditions after the addition of amendments to simulate real potential applications of the results. Identification of plant species and biodiversity was determined on each plot, after 2, 4, 6 and 8 months of amendment addition. The results showed that, in those plots without application of microorganism, 8 months after applications the number of species and individuals of each

  1. Reactive-transport simulation of phosphorus in the sewage plume at the Massachusetts Military Reservation, Cape Cod, Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parkhurst, David L.; Stollenwerk, Kenneth G.; Colman, John A.

    2003-01-01

    The subsurface transport of phosphorus introduced by the disposal of treated sewage effluent to ground-infiltration disposal beds at the Massachusetts Military Reservation on western Cape Cod was simulated with a three-dimensional reactive-transport model. The simulations were used to estimate the load of phosphorus transported to Ashumet Pond during operation of the sewage-treatment plant?from 1936 to 1995?and for 60 years following cessation of sewage disposal. The model accounted for spatial and temporal changes in water discharge from the sewage-treatment plant, ground-water flow, transport of associated chemical constituents, and a set of chemical reactions, including phosphorus sorption on aquifer materials, dissolution and precipitation of iron- and manganese-oxyhydroxide and iron phosphate minerals, organic carbon sorption and decomposition, cation sorption, and irreversible denitrification. The flow and transport in the aquifer were simulated by using parameters consistent with those used in previous flow models of this area of Cape Cod, except that numerical dispersion was much larger than the physical dispersion estimated in previous studies. Sorption parameters were fit to data derived from phosphorus sorption and desorption laboratory column experiments. Rates of organic carbon decomposition were adjusted to match the location of iron concentrations in an anoxic iron zone within the sewage plume. The sensitivity of the simulated load of phosphorus transported to Ashumet Pond was calculated for a variety of processes and input parameters. Model limitations included large uncertainties associated with the loading of the sewage beds, the flow system, and the chemistry and sorption characteristics in the aquifer. The results of current model simulations indicate a small load of phosphorus transported to Ashumet Pond during 1965?85, but this small load was particularly sensitive to model parameters that specify flow conditions and the chemical process by

  2. 216-B-3 expansion ponds closure plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-10-01

    This document describes the activities for clean closure under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) of the 216-B-3 Expansion Ponds. The 216-B-3 Expansion Ponds are operated by the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) and co-operated by Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford). The 216-B-3 Expansion Ponds consists of a series of three earthen, unlined, interconnected ponds that receive waste water from various 200 East Area operating facilities. The 3A, 3B, and 3C ponds are referred to as Expansion Ponds because they expanded the capability of the B Pond System. Waste water (primarily cooling water, steam condensate, and sanitary water) from various 200 East Area facilities is discharged to the Bypass pipe (Project X-009). Water discharged to the Bypass pipe flows directly into the 216-B-3C Pond. The ponds were operated in a cascade mode, where the Main Pond overflowed into the 3A Pond and the 3A Pond overflowed into the 3C Pond. The 3B Pond has not received waste water since May 1985; however, when in operation, the 3B Pond received overflow from the 3A Pond. In the past, waste water discharges to the Expansion Ponds had the potential to have contained mixed waste (radioactive waste and dangerous waste). The radioactive portion of mixed waste has been interpreted by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to be regulated under the Atomic Energy Act of 1954; the dangerous waste portion of mixed waste is regulated under RCRA.

  3. The dissipation of phosphorus in sewage and sewage effluents.

    PubMed

    Collingwood, R W

    Of the 41 kt of phosphorus reaching the sewage works in England and Wales 15 kt is removed in sewage sludge and the remainder is disposed of to rivers. 60% of the sewage sludge is now used as fertilizer and this proportion will no doubt increase in the future. The total use of sewage sludge, however, represents only about 5% of the current annual usage of artificial phosphorus fertilizer. At present there is no general economic incentive to make better use of the phosphorus in effluents. Phosphorus removal is expensive--about 2--3 pence/m3. If all the sewage effluents in England and Wales were to be so treated the cost would be about 100--150 million pounds annually, that is about 50% of the present costs of sewage treatment. In certain cases, but rarely in the UK, phosphate is removed, not to conserve phosphorus but to minimize the problems it creates in the environment. The phosphorus removed has little value as fertilizer. Alternative methods of using the phosphorus in effluents by the production and harvesting of crops of algae or aquatic plants have so far proved uneconomic. However, these methods need to be reviewed periodically as they may in the future become economically more attractive, especially in warmer climates where plant growth can be maintained throughout the year.

  4. Simulated pond-aquifer interactions under natural and stressed conditions near Snake Pond, Cape Cod, Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walter, Donald A.; Masterson, John P.; LeBlanc, Denis R.

    2002-01-01

    A numerical model was used to simulate pond-aquifer interactions under natural and stressed conditions near Snake Pond, Cape Cod, Massachusetts. Simulation results show that pond-bottom hydraulic conductivity, which represents the degree of hydraulic connection between the pond and the aquifer, is an important control on these interactions. As this parameter was incrementally increased from 10 to 350 feet per day, the rate of ground-water inflow into the pond under natural conditions increased by about 250 percent, the associated residence times of water in the pond decreased by about 50 percent, and ground-water inflow to the pond shifted closer to the pond shore. Most ground-water inflow (90 to 98 percent) was in the upper model layer, which corresponded to shallow, near-shore areas of the pond, over the entire range of pond-bottom hydraulic conductivity. Ground-water flow paths into the pond became more vertical, the contributing area to the pond became larger, and the pond captured water from greater depths in the aquifer as the hydraulic conductivity of the pond bottom was increased. The pond level, however, remained nearly constant, and regional ground-water levels and gradients differed little over the range of pond-bottom hydraulic conductivity, indicating that calibrated models with similar head solutions can have different pond-aquifer interaction characteristics. Hydrologic stresses caused by a simulated plume-containment system that specifies the extraction and injection of large volumes of ground water near the pond increased the pond level by about 0.4 foot and ground-water inflow rates into the pond by about 25 percent. Several factors related to the operation of the simulated containment system are affected by the hydraulic conductivity of the pond bottom. With increasing pond-bottom hydraulic conductivity, the amount of injected water that flows into Snake Pond increased and the amount of water recirculated between extraction and injection wells

  5. Biodiesel from wastewater: lipid production in high rate algal pond receiving disinfected effluent.

    PubMed

    Assemany, Paula Peixoto; Calijuri, Maria Lucia; do Couto, Eduardo de Aguiar; Santiago, Aníbal Fonseca; Dos Reis, Alberto José Delgado

    2015-01-01

    The production of different species of microalgae in consortium with other micro-organisms from wastewaters may represent an alternative process, to reduce the costs, for obtaining biofuels. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of pre-ultraviolet disinfection (UV) in the production of lipids from biomass produced in high rate ponds. Two high rate algal ponds were evaluated: a pond that received domestic sewage without disinfection and the other receiving domestic sewage previously disinfected by UV radiation (uvHRAP). The UV disinfection did not lead to significant differences in fatty acid profile and total lipid productivities, although it increased algal biomass concentration and productivity as well as lipid content. Moreover, the overall biomass concentrations and productivities decreased with the UV disinfection, mostly as a consequence of a loss in bacterial load. We thus conclude that uvHRAP disinfection may represent a potential strategy to promote the cleaner and safer growth of algal biomass when cultivated in consortium with other micro-organisms. Mainly regarding the use of wastewater as culture medium, together with a cheaper production of lipids for biodiesel, pre-disinfection may represent an advance since extraction costs could be significantly trimmed due to the increase in lipid content.

  6. Lagoons and oxidation ponds. [Wastewater treatment

    SciTech Connect

    George, D.B.

    1982-06-01

    A review of the literature on waste stabilization pond systems is presented. Factors such as wastewater temperature, and levels of heavy metals that affect the stability of the lagoons and oxidation ponds, and methods to upgrade stabilization pond effluent to meet state and federal effluent requirements are discussed. Model simulations utilized to predict the treatment efficiency of various waste stabilization pond geometries, and inlet and outlet configurations are reviewed. (KRM)

  7. Environmental Projects. Volume 8: Modifications of wastewater evaporation ponds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex (GDSCC), located in the Mojave Desert about 45 miles north of Barstow, California, and about 160 miles northeast of Pasadena, is part of NASA's Deep Space Network, one of the world's largest and most sensitive scientific telecommunications and radio navigation networks. The Goldstone Complex is managed, technically directed, and operated for NASA by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, California. Activities at the GDSCC are carried out in support of seven parabolic dish antennas. These activities may give rise to environmental hazards: use of hazardous chemicals, asbestos, and underground storage tanks as well as the generation of hazardous wastes and the disposal of wastewater. Federal, state, and local laws governing the management of hazardous substances, asbestos, underground storage tanks and wastewater disposal have become so complex there is a need to devise specific programs to comply with the many regulations that implement these laws. In support of the national goal of the preservation of the environment and the protection of human health and safety, NASA, JPL, and the GDSCC have adopted a position that their operating installations shall maintain a high level of compliance with these laws. One of the environmental problems at the GDSCC involved four active, operational, wastewater evaporation ponds designed to receive and evaporate sewage effluent from upstream septic tank systems. One pair of active wastewater evaporation ponds is located at Echo Site, while another operational pair is at Mars Site.

  8. Stabilization Pond Operation and Maintenance Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sexauer, Willard N.; Karn, Roger V.

    This manual provides the waste stabilization pond operator with the basics necessary for the treatment of wastewater in stabilization ponds. The material is organized as a comprehensive guide that follows the normal operation and maintenance procedures from the time the wastewater enters the left station until it leaves the pond. A comprehensive…

  9. Distance Education of Pennsylvania Pond Owners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Katherine L.; Swistock, Bryan R.; Sharpe, William E.

    2003-01-01

    Evaluations by 175 of 557 Pennsylvania pond owners who attended an Extension program via satellite revealed that most were interested in aesthetic/recreational pond use and pond management. They wanted more in-depth information over a shorter time frame. Only 10% did not favor satellite delivery. Shorter, more focused satellite programs and…

  10. How Healthy Is Our Pond?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterling, Donna R.; Hargrove, Dori L.

    2014-01-01

    With crosscutting concepts such as stability and change in the "Next Generation Science Standards," this article was written for those who have wondered how to teach these concepts in a way that is relevant to students. In this investigation, students ask the question, "Why is the pond dirty?" As students investigate the health…

  11. Nitrogen Removal in Wastewater Ponds,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-06-01

    by convection to the interaction between the algae and the CO,/ and radiation. Eckenfelder ’ developed the follow- alkalinity system in the pond. If...Pollu- 4. Eckenfelder , W.W. (1966) Industrial Water tion Control Federation, 54(4): 344. Pollution Control. New York: McGraw-Hill. 19. Porcella, D.B., P.H

  12. Studies on potential biological control agents of immature mosquitoes in sewage wastewater in southern California.

    PubMed

    Mian, L S; Mulla, M S; Wilson, B A

    1986-09-01

    Three biological control agents, a copepod, Mesocyclops leuckarti pilosa, and two fish, Cyprinodon macularius and Poecilia reticulata, were evaluated for their survival in secondary sewage effluent (SSE) and predation potential on mosquito larvae. Results showed that the survival of M. l. pilosa was not significantly affected in SSE or SSE diluted (50%) with water. In predation tests, the copepod consumed from 50 to 90% of the 1st-instar larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus in 24 to 72 hr and P. reticulata fed on almost all stages (egg to pupa) of the test mosquitoes. Survivorship of P. reticulata and C. macularius in SSE was not significantly affected by SSE under both greenhouse and sewage aquaculture conditions. Poecilia reticulata was distributed towards the influent end and C. macularius towards the effluent end of the aquaculture ponds, indicating the former species can tolerate higher levels of pollution which exists at the influent end of the pond. However, low water temperature and dissolved oxygen may be detrimental to these fish species in sewage aquacultural systems.

  13. POND MOUNTAIN AND POND MOUNTAIN ADDITION ROADLESS AREAS, TENNESSEE.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Griffitts, W.R.; Bitar, Richard

    1984-01-01

    As a result of a mineral study of the Pond Mountain Roadless Areas, Tennessee, a probable potential for the occurrence of tin, niobium, and tungsten resource with associated beryllium, molybdenum, zinc, and fluorite was identified in rocks of Precambrian age particularly in the southeastern part of the area. Detailed geologic mapping and geochemical sampling of the soils and rocks in the area of Precambrian rocks is recommended to identify and delimit the areas of potential resources of tin, niobium, and tungsten.

  14. Efficiency evaluation of sewage treatment plants with different technologies in Delhi (India).

    PubMed

    Jamwal, Priyanka; Mittal, Atul K; Mouchel, Jean-Marie

    2009-06-01

    Physical, chemical and microbiological efficiencies of Sewage Treatment Plants (STPs) located in Delhi's watershed in context of different treatment technologies employed in these plants have been determined. There were in all seventeen STPs treating domestic wastewater which were studied over a period of 12 months. These STPs were based on Conventional Activated sludge process (ASP), Extended aeration (Ex. Aeration), physical, chemical and biological removal treatment (BIOFORE) and oxidation pond treatment process. Results suggests that except "Mehrauli" STP which was based on Extended aeration process and "Oxidation pond", effluents from all other STPs exceeded FC standard of 10(3) MPN/100 ml for unrestricted irrigation criteria set by National river conservation directorate (NRCD). Actual integrated efficiency (IE(a)) of each STP was evaluated and compared with the standard integrated efficiency (IE(s)) based upon physical, biological and microbiological removal efficiencies depending upon influent sewage characteristics. The best results were obtained for STPs employing extended aeration, BIOFORE and oxidation pond treatment process thus can be safely used for irrigation purposes.

  15. 33 CFR 159.307 - Untreated sewage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Discharge of Effluents in Certain Alaskan Waters by Cruise Vessel Operations § 159.307 Untreated sewage. No person shall discharge any untreated sewage from a cruise...

  16. 33 CFR 159.307 - Untreated sewage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Discharge of Effluents in Certain Alaskan Waters by Cruise Vessel Operations § 159.307 Untreated sewage. No person shall discharge any untreated sewage from a cruise...

  17. Ground-water quality near a sewage-sludge recycling site and a landfill near Denver, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robson, Stanley G.

    1977-01-01

    The Metropolitan Denver Sewage Disposal District and the city and county of Denver operate a sewage-sludge recycling site and a landfill in an area about 15 miles (24 kilometers) east of Denver. The assessment of the effects of these facilities on the ground-water system indicated that five wells perforated in alluvium were found to have markedly degradedd water quality. One well is located in the landfill and water that was analyzed was obtained from near the base of the buried refuse, two others are located downgradient and near sewage-sludge burial areas, and the remaining two are located near stagnant surface ponds. Concentrations of nitrate in wells downgradient from fields where sludge is plowed into the soil were higher than background concentrations due to the effects of the sludge disposal. No evidence of water-quality degradation was detected in deeper wells perforated in the bedrock formations. (Woodard-USGS)

  18. Sewage sludge gasification: First studies

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia-Bacaicoa, P.; Bilbao, R.; Uson, C.

    1995-11-01

    Wastewater treatment installations produce a large quantity of sewage sludge, the disposal and treatment of which causes several problems because of its volume, its toxic organic constituents and the heavy metals that it contains. Certain methods of treatment and disposal do exist, but they are not entirely satisfactory. Moreover, it is important to develop a technology for the adequate treatment of sewage sludge in order to reduce the environmental problem and the costs of treatment. It can be assumed that gasification is a suitable technology because it reduces the waste volume, destroys the toxic organic compounds and fixes the heavy metals in the resultant solid. In order to gain knowledge of the processes occurring in the gasifier, the results obtained in experiments on the thermal decomposition of sewage sludge at different heating rates are shown.

  19. Effects of pond draining on biodiversity and water quality of farm ponds.

    PubMed

    Usio, Nisikawa; Imada, Miho; Nakagawa, Megumi; Akasaka, Munemitsu; Takamura, Noriko

    2013-12-01

    Farm ponds have high conservation value because they contribute significantly to regional biodiversity and ecosystem services. In Japan pond draining is a traditional management method that is widely believed to improve water quality and eradicate invasive fish. In addition, fishing by means of pond draining has significant cultural value for local people, serving as a social event. However, there is a widespread belief that pond draining reduces freshwater biodiversity through the extirpation of aquatic animals, but scientific evaluation of the effectiveness of pond draining is lacking. We conducted a large-scale field study to evaluate the effects of pond draining on invasive animal control, water quality, and aquatic biodiversity relative to different pond-management practices, pond physicochemistry, and surrounding land use. The results of boosted regression-tree models and analyses of similarity showed that pond draining had little effect on invasive fish control, water quality, or aquatic biodiversity. Draining even facilitated the colonization of farm ponds by invasive red swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarkii), which in turn may have detrimental effects on the biodiversity and water quality of farm ponds. Our results highlight the need for reconsidering current pond management and developing management plans with respect to multifunctionality of such ponds. Efectos del Drenado de Estanques sobre la Biodiversidad y la Calidad del Agua en Estanques de Cultivo.

  20. Review of SERI solar pond work

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zangrando, F.; Johnson, D. H.

    1985-07-01

    This report provides documentation of SERI's solar pond research effort, which began in 1979. The SERI staff analyzed solar pond topics from modeling and feasibility studies to laboratory experiments on physical properties and hydrodynamical stability. The SERI's perspective on the maturity of this solar technology is described, including the technical state-of-the-art of salt-gradient solar ponds, state of knowledge of pond design, estimated cost ranges for various locations and applications, and perceived barriers to commercial development. Recommendations for future work are also presented. The SERI research and development on solar ponds is described, emphasizing analytical and experimental tools developed at SERI. All AERI and subcontract reports dealing with solar ponds or related system components are summarized, and a bibliography is provided.

  1. South Bay Salt Pond Tidal Marsh Restoration at Pond A17 Project

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Information about the SFBWQP South Bay Salt Pond Tidal Marsh Restoration at Pond A17 Project, part of an EPA competitive grant program to improve SF Bay water quality focused on restoring impaired waters and enhancing aquatic resources.

  2. Review of SERI Solar Pond Work

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zangrando, F.; Johnson, D. H.

    1984-01-01

    Development of models of pond thermal performance; analysis of solar pond use for building space heat and hot water production; use of low-temperature pond-produced heat for industrial processes, desalination, and electricity production; development of direct-contact heat exchanger to reduce conversion equipment cost; determination of effects of extracted heat and mass from the storage layer on pond performance; and investigation of factors which determine gradient layer stability and the stability of this interface between this level and the upper and lower convecting layers were described.

  3. Variations in BOD, algal biomass and organic matter biodegradation constants in a wind-mixed tropical facultative waste stabilization pond.

    PubMed

    Meneses, C G R; Saraiva, L B; Melo, H N de S; de Melo, J L S; Pearson, H W

    2005-01-01

    This study considered the impact of wind mixing on the efficiency of BOD removal and the first order biodegradation constant for organic matter in a primary facultative pond. Wind speeds of 1-4 m/s blowing from the effluent end of the pond towards the influent created surface-water flows of up to 0.94 m/s as determined by orange and coconut drogues moving in the opposite direction to the bulk hydraulic flow of 0.217 m/s. This was sufficient to cause mixing of the water column resulting in loss of stratification in terms of chlorophyll a, temperature and dissolved oxygen. BOD and chlorophyll a concentrations were spatially and temporally homogeneous throughout this large pond. BOD removal efficiency was only 50.30% as opposed to a projected value of 79% despite an acceptable surface organic loading of 350 kgBOD5/ha/d and an actual k value for BOD removal using influent sewage samples of 0.29 d-1 close to the projected value of 0.30 d-1. It would seem that wind mixing reduced pond efficiency by destroying stratification and thus reducing the microbial activity necessary to consume organic material. Mixing also increased the mean chlorophyll a concentration compared to stratified facultative ponds receiving similar loads and non-motile algae dominated the water column.

  4. Digital Discover of Ephemeral Ponds

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-01

    ER D C/ CE RL T R - 12 -2 1 Center Directed Research Program Digital Discover of Ephemeral Ponds En gi ne er R es ea rc h an d D ev el...r.mapcalc formula : r.terraflow lidar_elev filled=elev_filled \\ accum=elev_accum memory=2000 \\ dir=elev_dir swater=elev_sink tci =elev_tci...J. D., M. Shapiro, W. D. Goran, and D. P. Gerdes. 1992. Geographic Resources Analysis Support System (GRASS) Version 4.0 User’s Reference Manual . N

  5. THE MEASURES PAR PROJECT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frouin, R. J.; Franz, B.

    2009-12-01

    The solar energy available for photosynthesis, known as PAR, controls the growth of phytoplankton and, therefore, regulates the composition and evolution of marine ecosystems. Knowing the spatial and temporal distribution of PAR over the oceans is critical to understanding biogeochemical cycles of carbon, nutrients, and oxygen, and to address important climate and global change issues such as the fate of anthropogenic atmospheric carbon dioxide. In view of this, a 12-year time series of PAR at the ocean surface, starting in September 1997, is being produced by the NASA Ocean Biology Processing Group from SeaWiFS, MODIS-Terra, and MODIS-Aqua data. The product covers the global oceans, with a spatial resolution of about 9.3x9.3 km (equal area grid) and a temporal resolution of one day. PAR is computed as the difference between the 400-700 nm solar flux incident on the top of the atmosphere (known) and reflected back to space by the atmosphere and surface (derived from satellite radiance), taking into account atmospheric absorption (modeled). Knowledge of pixel composition is not required, eliminating the need for cloud screening and arbitrary assumptions about sub-pixel cloudiness. Combining data from satellite sensors with different equatorial crossing times accounts for the diurnal variability of clouds and, therefore, increases accuracy on a daily time scale. The processing system, including routine check of accuracy and control of quality, is designed to operate during the entire lifetime of SeaWiFS and MODIS, and to accommodate future sensors with ocean-color capabilities. Maps of daily, weekly, and monthly PAR obtained from individual sensors are presented, as well as merged products. Accuracy is quantified in comparisons with other satellite estimates, the National Centers for Environmental Prediction reanalysis product, and in-situ measurements from fixed buoys and platforms. The good statistical performance makes the satellite PAR product suitable for large

  6. 33 CFR 117.600 - Lagoon Pond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Lagoon Pond. 117.600 Section 117.600 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Massachusetts § 117.600 Lagoon Pond. The draw of the Lagoon...

  7. 33 CFR 117.600 - Lagoon Pond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Lagoon Pond. 117.600 Section 117.600 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Massachusetts § 117.600 Lagoon Pond. The draw of the Lagoon...

  8. 33 CFR 117.600 - Lagoon Pond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Lagoon Pond. 117.600 Section 117.600 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Massachusetts § 117.600 Lagoon Pond. The draw of the Lagoon...

  9. 33 CFR 117.600 - Lagoon Pond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Lagoon Pond. 117.600 Section 117.600 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Massachusetts § 117.600 Lagoon Pond. The draw of the Lagoon...

  10. 33 CFR 117.600 - Lagoon Pond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lagoon Pond. 117.600 Section 117.600 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Massachusetts § 117.600 Lagoon Pond. The draw of the Lagoon...

  11. WMOST v2 Case Study: Monponsett Ponds

    EPA Science Inventory

    This webinar presents an overview of the preliminary results of a case study application of EPA's Watershed Management Optimization Support Tool v2 (WMOST) for stakeholders in the Monponsett Ponds Watershed Workgroup. Monponsett Ponds is a large water system consisting of two ba...

  12. Sydney Tar Ponds Remediation: Experience to China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Fan; Bryson, Ken A.

    2009-01-01

    The infamous "Sydney Tar Ponds" are well known as one of the largest toxic waste sites of Canada, due to almost 100 years of steelmaking in Sydney, a once beautiful and peaceful city located on the east side of Cape Breton Island, Nova Scotia. This article begins with a contextual overview of the Tar Ponds issue including a brief…

  13. 100-D Ponds closure plan. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Petersen, S.W.

    1997-09-01

    The 100-D Ponds is a Treatment, Storage, and Disposal (TSD) unit on the Hanford Facility that received both dangerous and nonregulated waste. This Closure Plan (Rev. 1) for the 100-D Ponds TSD unit consists of a RCRA Part A Dangerous Waste Permit Application (Rev. 3), a RCRA Closure Plan, and supporting information contained in the appendices to the plan. The closure plan consists of eight chapters containing facility description, process information, waste characteristics, and groundwater monitoring data. There are also chapters containing the closure strategy and performance standards. The strategy for the closure of the 100-D Ponds TSD unit is clean closure. Appendices A and B of the closure plan demonstrate that soil and groundwater beneath 100-D Ponds are below cleanup limits. All dangerous wastes or dangerous waste constituents or residues associated with the operation of the ponds have been removed, therefore, human health and the environment are protected. Discharges to the 100-D Ponds, which are located in the 100-DR-1 operable unit, were discontinued in June 1994. Contaminated sediment was removed from the ponds in August 1996. Subsequent sampling and analysis demonstrated that there is no contamination remaining in the ponds, therefore, this closure plan is a demonstration of clean closure.

  14. Gradient zone erosion in seawater solar ponds

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, J.; Hart, R.A.; Kleis, S.J.; Bannerot, R.B.

    1995-11-01

    An experimental program has been conducted to examine the feasibility of using seawater solar ponds in mariculture operations along the Texas gulf coast to protect fish crops from the potentially lethal, cold temperatures experienced in outdoor ponds. Seawater solar ponds in the form of floating thermal refuge areas are proposed as a method for reducing the loss of heat from small sections of a pond. Gradient zone erosion under various ambient and operating conditions is examined. Comparisons with previous laboratory studies show a much lower entrainment rate in the natural environment. A simple (linear) correlation of entrainment rate with wind speed was found, for conditions which are typical of those encountered in mariculture pond operations.

  15. Intermediate pond sizes contain the highest density, richness, and diversity of pond-breeding amphibians.

    PubMed

    Semlitsch, Raymond D; Peterman, William E; Anderson, Thomas L; Drake, Dana L; Ousterhout, Brittany H

    2015-01-01

    We present data on amphibian density, species richness, and diversity from a 7140-ha area consisting of 200 ponds in the Midwestern U.S. that represents most of the possible lentic aquatic breeding habitats common in this region. Our study includes all possible breeding sites with natural and anthropogenic disturbance processes that can be missing from studies where sampling intensity is low, sample area is small, or partial disturbance gradients are sampled. We tested whether pond area was a significant predictor of density, species richness, and diversity of amphibians and if values peaked at intermediate pond areas. We found that in all cases a quadratic model fit our data significantly better than a linear model. Because small ponds have a high probability of pond drying and large ponds have a high probability of fish colonization and accumulation of invertebrate predators, drying and predation may be two mechanisms driving the peak of density and diversity towards intermediate values of pond size. We also found that not all intermediate sized ponds produced many larvae; in fact, some had low amphibian density, richness, and diversity. Further analyses of the subset of ponds represented in the peak of the area distribution showed that fish, hydroperiod, invertebrate density, and canopy are additional factors that drive density, richness and diversity of ponds up or down, when extremely small or large ponds are eliminated. Our results indicate that fishless ponds at intermediate sizes are more diverse, produce more larvae, and have greater potential to recruit juveniles into adult populations of most species sampled. Further, hylid and chorus frogs are found predictably more often in ephemeral ponds whereas bullfrogs, green frogs, and cricket frogs are found most often in permanent ponds with fish. Our data increase understanding of what factors structure and maintain amphibian diversity across large landscapes.

  16. Migration and degradation of swine farm tetracyclines at the river catchment scale: Can the multi-pond system mitigate pollution risk to receiving rivers?

    PubMed

    Chen, Qiuwen; Guo, Xiao; Hua, Guofen; Li, Guoliang; Feng, Ranran; Liu, Xiaoli

    2017-01-01

    The study investigated the degradation behaviors of swine farm tetracyclines (TCs) at a catchment scale and explored whether multi-pond systems could be beneficial to the interception of TCs so as to reduce the pollution risk to receiving rivers. The occurrence and migration of 12 kinds of tetracycline antibiotics, including their degradation products, were studied in four swine farms of the Meijiang River basin in China. The migration paths of the TCs were examined through sampling and analyzing the soil and/or sediment at different points along the swine wastewater outlet, which included sewer, sewage pond, mixed-canal (stream and sewage), farmland (paddy and upland soil) and finally the river. TC concentrations of all collected samples were obtained by solid phase extraction followed by measurement with high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. The results showed that sediment TC concentrations varied greatly in different swine farms, from mg·kg(-1) to μg·kg(-1) levels. TCs had different decay patterns along different migration paths, such that TCs decayed exponentially in paddy soil, while linearly in sewer and mixed canal. The concentrations of TCs and their degradation products decreased in the order: sewer sediment > sewage pond sediment > mixed-canal sediment > paddy soil > upland soil, indicating that TCs tend to be more easily intercepted and accumulated in water-sediment systems such as ponds. Therefore, the multi-pond system could be an effective way to prevent TCs from migrating into rivers. These results provided essential information for contamination control of antibiotics in aquatic environments.

  17. Sewage sludge treatment with lime.

    PubMed

    Herbst, B

    2000-01-01

    The article describes the application of lime as a method for treatment and hygienisation of sewage sludges with lime products such as quicklime, slake lime and dolomitic lime. As a result of the increase in temperature and pH-value during sludge and lime mixing most pathogenic vectors of disease (i.e. bacteria, worms, viruses and parasites) are reduced in concentration and viability to manufacture a safe product for further application on agricultural land.

  18. Prospects for a self-sustainable sewage treatment system: a case study on full-scale UASB system in India's Yamuna River Basin.

    PubMed

    Sato, Nobuyuki; Okubo, Tsutomu; Onodera, Takashi; Ohashi, Akiyoshi; Harada, Hideki

    2006-08-01

    The government of India decided to launch a project to implement 16 full-scale Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) reactors (with a total capacity of 598,000 m(3)/d) in the Yamuna River basin under its Yamuna Action Plan (YAP). A polishing pond called the Final Polishing Unit (FPU) was utilized for post-treatment. This paper evaluates the sewage treatment efficiency of the combined system of full-scale UASB reactors and polishing ponds under Indian climatic conditions. Results have shown that the effluent from the sewage treatment plants (STPs) investigated failed to comply with applicable discharge standards in terms of BOD, SS, and fecal coliform removal. Therefore, it is proposed that such proper operation and maintenance as removing excess sludge and scum be conducted in order to increase treatment efficiency. Moreover, trained and experienced workers are also required to operate and maintain the systems, along with a scientific approach.

  19. Assessment of total mercury level in fish collected from East Calcutta Wetlands and Titagarh sewage fed aquaculture in West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharyya, Subarna; Chaudhuri, Punarbasu; Dutta, Siddartha; Santra, Subhas Chandra

    2010-05-01

    Total mercury levels were quantified in Tilapia mossambicus, Cirrhinus mrigela and Labio rohita, captured from East Calcutta Wetlands and Titagarh sewage fed aquaculture ponds. The bioconcentration factor of collected fish was assessed. Total mercury level ranged from 0.073 to 0.94 microg/g in both pre and post monsoon season. T. mossambicus in both season and C. mrigela at pre monsoon, cross the Indian recommended maximum limit (0.50 microg/g wet weight) for food consumption and according to World Health Organization guidelines all fish were not recommended for pregnant women and individuals under 15 years ages. A significant correlation was observed between mercury content of aquaculture pond water and fish muscle tissue. Total mercury concentration in experimental sites were higher than the control area (Wilcoxon Ranked-Sum test p > 0.05), which suggested the connection between mercury bioaccumulation and sewage fed aquaculture.

  20. 1. VIEW OF SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANT (BLDG. 769) SOUTH OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW OF SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANT (BLDG. 769) SOUTH OF STORAGE SHED (BLDG 773). SECURITY FENCE EAST OF SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANT. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Sewage Treatment Plant, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  1. La pelade par plaques

    PubMed Central

    Spano, Frank; Donovan, Jeff C.

    2015-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Présenter aux médecins de famille des renseignements de base pour faire comprendre l’épidémiologie, la pathogenèse, l’histologie et l’approche clinique au diagnostic de la pelade par plaques. Sources des données Une recension a été effectuée dans PubMed pour trouver des articles pertinents concernant la pathogenèse, le diagnostic et le pronostic de la pelade par plaques. Message principal La pelade par plaques est une forme de perte pileuse auto-immune dont la prévalence durant une vie est d’environ 2 %. Des antécédents personnels ou familiaux de troubles auto-immuns concomitants, comme le vitiligo ou une maladie de la thyroïde, peuvent être observés dans un petit sous-groupe de patients. Le diagnostic peut souvent être posé de manière clinique en se fondant sur la perte de cheveux non cicatricielle et circulaire caractéristique, accompagnée de cheveux en « point d’exclamation » en périphérie chez ceux dont le problème en est aux premiers stades. Le diagnostic des cas plus complexes ou des présentations inhabituelles peut être facilité par une biopsie et un examen histologique. Le pronostic varie largement et de mauvais résultats sont associés à une apparition à un âge précoce, une perte importante, la variante ophiasis, des changements aux ongles, des antécédents familiaux ou des troubles auto-immuns concomitants. Conclusion La pelade par plaques est une forme auto-immune de perte de cheveux périodiquement observée en soins primaires. Les médecins de famille sont bien placés pour identifier la pelade par plaques, déterminer la gravité de la maladie et poser le diagnostic différentiel approprié. De plus, ils sont en mesure de renseigner leurs patients à propos de l’évolution clinique de la maladie ainsi que du pronostic général selon le sous-type de patients.

  2. Sewage pollution in Negril, Jamaica: effects on nutrition and ecology of coral reef macroalgae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapointe, B. E.; Thacker, K.; Hanson, C.; Getten, L.

    2011-07-01

    Coral reefs in the Negril Marine Park (NMP), Jamaica, have been increasingly impacted by nutrient pollution and macroalgal blooms following decades of intensive development as a major tourist destination. A baseline survey of DIN and SRP concentrations, C:N:P and stable nitrogen isotope ratios (δ15N) of abundant reef macroalgae on shallow and deep reefs of the NMP in 1998 showed strong P-limitation and evidence of increasing sewage pollution. In 1999, a sewage collection and treatment project began diverting wastewater from the resort and urban areas to a pond system that discharged partially-treated effluent into the South Negril River (SNR). These sewage discharges significantly increased concentrations of NH{4/+} and SRP (N:P ˜13) in the SNR, which flows into Long Bay and around Negril's "West End". Concentrations of SRP, the primary limiting nutrient, were higher on shallow reefs of the West End in 2001 compared to 1998. Stable nitrogen isotope ratios (δ15N) of abundant reef macroalgae on both shallow and deep reefs of the West End in 2002 were significantly higher than baseline values in 1998, indicating an escalating impact of sewage nitrogen pollution over this timeframe. The increased nutrient concentrations and δ15N enrichment of reef macroalgae correlated with blooms of the chlorophyte Chaetomorpha linum in shallow waters of Long Bay and Codium isthmocladum and Caulerpa cupressoides on deep reefs of the West End. Sewage treatment systems adjacent to coral reefs must include nutrient removal to ensure that DIN and SRP concentrations, after dilution, are below the low thresholds noted for these oligotrophic ecosystems.

  3. Stable density stratification solar pond

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lansing, F. L. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A stable density-stratification solar pond for use in the collection and storage of solar thermal energy including a container having a first section characterized by an internal wall of a substantially cylindrical configuration and a second section having an internal wall of a substantially truncated conical configuration surmounting the first section in coaxial alignment therewith, the second section of said container being characterized by a base of a diameter substantially equal to the diameter of the first section and a truncated apex defining a solar energy acceptance opening is discussed. A body of immiscible liquids is disposed within the container and comprises a lower portion substantially filling the first section of the container and an upper portion substantially filling the second section of the container, said lower portion being an aqueous based liquid of a darker color than the upper portion and of a greater density. A protective cover plate is removably provided for covering the acceptance opening.

  4. CO₂ efflux from shrimp ponds in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Sidik, Frida; Lovelock, Catherine E

    2013-01-01

    The conversion of mangrove forest to aquaculture ponds has been increasing in recent decades. One of major concerns of this habitat loss is the release of stored 'blue' carbon from mangrove soils to the atmosphere. In this study, we assessed carbon dioxide (CO₂) efflux from soil in intensive shrimp ponds in Bali, Indonesia. We measured CO₂ efflux from the floors and walls of shrimp ponds. Rates of CO₂ efflux within shrimp ponds were 4.37 kg CO₂ m⁻² y⁻¹ from the walls and 1.60 kg CO₂ m⁻² y⁻¹ from the floors. Combining our findings with published data of aquaculture land use in Indonesia, we estimated that shrimp ponds in this region result in CO₂ emissions to the atmosphere between 5.76 and 13.95 Tg y⁻¹. The results indicate that conversion of mangrove forests to aquaculture ponds contributes to greenhouse gas emissions that are comparable to peat forest conversion to other land uses in Indonesia. Higher magnitudes of CO₂ emission may be released to atmosphere where ponds are constructed in newly cleared mangrove forests. This study indicates the need for incentives that can meet the target of aquaculture industry without expanding the converted mangrove areas, which will lead to increased CO₂ released to atmosphere.

  5. Photosynthesis and fish production in culture ponds

    SciTech Connect

    Szyper, J.P.

    1995-12-31

    The widely-cultured Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, has been the major species used in standardized experiments by the Pond Dynamics/Aquaculture Collaborative Research Support Program (PD/ACRSP). Yields of Nile Tilapia from fertilized, unfed ponds have served as a bioassay for effectiveness of pond management protocols developed during worldwide tropical experiments. Yield rates near 10 T/ha/y can be achieved without feed inputs in ponds which maintain high standing stocks of phytoplankton and exhibit high rates near 10 T/ha/y can be achieved without feed inputs in ponds which maintain high standing stocks of phytoplankton and exhibit high rates of primary production. Fish production is related to daytime net photosynthetic production, but it is not clear whether production of food materials or oxygen is the more direct influence. Excessively high standing stocks of phytoplankton are not the best net producers, and increase and risk of nighttime oxygen depletion. Fish readily grow to individual sizes of 200-300 g/fish in fertilized ponds, which is sufficient market size in many locations. Supplemental feeding of caged or free-ranging fish greatly accelerates growth beyond 300 g and potentiates high areal yields; the PD/A CRSP has also developed efficient feeding regimes and shown that supplemental feeding need not begin before fish reach 200 g weight. High standing stocks of phytoplankton and high photosynthetic rates in eutrophic ponds make study of photosynthesis possible without radioisotopes. Such ponds also exhibit complete extinction of incident solar radiation within shallow depths, and vertical temperature structure resembling that of deeper bodies of water. These characteristics make ponds useful as microcosms for study of some aspects of photosynthesis in natural waters.

  6. Solar ponds. Citations from the NTIS data base

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hundemann, A. S.

    1980-08-01

    Federally funded research on the design, performance, and use of solar ponds is discussed on these. Topic areas cover the use of solar ponds in industrial process heat production, roof ponds for passive solar buildings, and solar ponds use in the production of biomass for renewable fuels.

  7. La pelade par plaques

    PubMed Central

    Spano, Frank; Donovan, Jeff C.

    2015-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Présenter aux médecins de famille des renseignements de base pour faire comprendre les schémas thérapeutiques et les résultats des traitements pour la pelade par plaques, de même que les aider à identifier les patients pour qui une demande de consultation en dermatologie pourrait s’imposer. Sources des données Une recension a été effectuée dans PubMed pour trouver des articles pertinents concernant le traitement de la pelade par plaques. Message principal La pelade par plaques est une forme auto-immune de perte pileuse qui touche à la fois les enfants et les adultes. Même s’il n’y a pas de mortalité associée à la maladie, la morbidité découlant des effets psychologiques de la perte des cheveux peut être dévastatrice. Lorsque la pelade par plaques et le sous-type de la maladie sont identifiés, un schéma thérapeutique approprié peut être amorcé pour aider à arrêter la chute des cheveux et possiblement faire commencer la repousse. Les traitements de première intention sont la triamcinolone intralésionnelle avec des corticostéroïdes topiques ou du minoxidil ou les 2. Les médecins de famille peuvent prescrire ces traitements en toute sécurité et amorcer ces thérapies. Les cas plus avancés ou réfractaires pourraient avoir besoin de diphénylcyclopropénone topique ou d’anthraline topique. On peut traiter la perte de cils avec des analogues de la prostaglandine. Les personnes ayant subi une perte de cheveux abondante peuvent recourir à des options de camouflage ou à des prothèses capillaires. Il est important de surveiller les troubles psychiatriques en raison des effets psychologiques profonds de la perte de cheveux. Conclusion Les médecins de famille verront de nombreux patients qui perdent leurs cheveux. La reconnaissance de la pelade par plaques et la compréhension du processus pathologique sous-jacent permettent d’amorcer un schéma thérapeutique approprié. Les cas plus graves ou r

  8. Pond-aquifer interaction at South Pond of Lake Cochituate, Natick, Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friesz, Paul J.; Church, Peter E.

    2001-01-01

    A U.S. Army facility on a peninsula in South Pond of Lake Cochituate was designated a Superfund site by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in 1994 because contaminated ground water was detected at the facility, which is near the Natick Springvale public-supply wellfield. The interaction between South Pond and the underlying aquifer controls ground-water flow patterns near the pond and determines the source of water withdrawn from the wellfield.A map of the bathymetry and the thickness of fine-grained pond-bottom sediments was prepared on the basis of fathometer, ground-penetrating radar, and continuous seismic-reflection surveys. The geophysical data indicate that the bottom sediments are fine grained toward the middle of the pond but are coarse grained in shoreline areas. Natick Springvale wellfield, which consists of three active public-supply wells adjacent to South Pond, is 2,200 feet downgradient from the boundary of the Army facility. That part of South Pond between the Natick Springvale wellfield and the Army facility is 18 feet deep with at least 14 feet of fine-grained sediment beneath the pond-bottom. Water levels from the pond and underlying sediments indicate a downward vertical gradient and the potential for infiltration of pond water near the wellfield. Head differences between the pond and the wellfield ranged from 1.66 to 4.41 feet during this study. The velocity of downward flow from South Pond into the pond-bottom sediments, determined on the basis of temperature profiles measured over a diurnal cycle at two locations near the wellfield, was 0.5 and 1.0 feet per day. These downward velocities resulted in vertical hydraulic conductivities of 1.1 and 2.9 feet per day for the pond-bottom sediments.Naturally occurring stable isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen were used as tracers of pond water and ground water derived from recharge of precipitation, two potential sources of water to a well in a pond-aquifer setting. The isotopic composition of pond

  9. Revisiting methanotrophic communities in sewage treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Ho, Adrian; Vlaeminck, Siegfried E; Ettwig, Katharina F; Schneider, Bellinda; Frenzel, Peter; Boon, Nico

    2013-04-01

    The methanotrophic potential in sewage treatment sludge was investigated. We detected a diverse aerobic methanotrophic community that potentially plays a significant role in mitigating methane emission in this environment. The results suggest that community structure was determined by conditions specific to the processes in a sewage treatment plant.

  10. My Town, My Creek, My Sewage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodburn, John H.

    1972-01-01

    After summarizing the ecology of polluted streams as well as the technology and biology of sewage treatment methods, and considering the economic and social aspects of introducing advanced sewage treatment, comments on the role of biology teachers in providing public information are made. (AL)

  11. 33 CFR 159.85 - Sewage removal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sewage removal. 159.85 Section 159.85 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction, and Testing § 159.85 Sewage removal. The...

  12. 33 CFR 159.85 - Sewage removal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sewage removal. 159.85 Section 159.85 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction, and Testing § 159.85 Sewage removal. The...

  13. 33 CFR 159.85 - Sewage removal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sewage removal. 159.85 Section 159.85 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction, and Testing § 159.85 Sewage removal. The...

  14. 33 CFR 159.85 - Sewage removal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sewage removal. 159.85 Section 159.85 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction, and Testing § 159.85 Sewage removal. The...

  15. 33 CFR 159.85 - Sewage removal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sewage removal. 159.85 Section 159.85 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction, and Testing § 159.85 Sewage removal. The...

  16. Sewage Disposal in Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayotamuno, M. J.

    1993-01-01

    This survey of the Port Harcourt, Nigeria, sewage disposal system exemplifies sewage disposal in the developing world. Results reveal that some well-constructed and maintained drains, as well as many open drains and septic tanks, expose women and children to the possibility of direct contact with parasitic organisms and threaten water resources.…

  17. South Bay Salt Pond Mercury Studies Project

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Information about the SFBWQP South Bay Salt Pond Mercury Studies Project, part of an EPA competitive grant program to improve SF Bay water quality focused on restoring impaired waters and enhancing aquatic resources.

  18. This Pond Is Not for Ducks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American School and University, 1980

    1980-01-01

    The latest development in solar energy is a four-acre pond planned for Clark College in Vancouver (Washington). Filled with brine, it will serve both as collector and heat storage tank for the entire campus. (Author)

  19. Determining the Population Size of Pond Phytoplankton.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hummer, Paul J.

    1980-01-01

    Discusses methods for determining the population size of pond phytoplankton, including water sampling techniques, laboratory analysis of samples, and additional studies worthy of investigation in class or as individual projects. (CS)

  20. Sediment Pond Removal and Enhanced Designs

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Sediment Pond Removal Considerations; Scheduling, Baseflow diversion, Dewatering provisions, Sediment handling, Potential to discharge sediment, Down‐gradient sediment control(s), Erosion control(s), Stream reconstruction, Riparian vegetation.

  1. Material Selection Considerations for Solar Ponds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sastri, S.; Vaidyanathan, T. K.; Marsh, H. E.; French, R. L.

    1984-01-01

    Among the various candidate materials tested, stainless steel shows the best potential for applications as heat exchanger components in solar ponds. Even stainless steel may lead to pitting type of corrosion. Weight loss measurements are probably unsatisfactory for corrosion evaluation in solar pond situations. Also included are the results from the potentiodynamic anodic polarization analysis, corrosion rate calculation via corrosion behavior diagrams, and immersion weight loss measurements.

  2. Sewage sludge dewatering using flowing liquid metals

    DOEpatents

    Carlson, Larry W.

    1986-01-01

    A method and apparatus for reducing the moisture content of a moist sewage sludge having a moisture content of about 50% to 80% and formed of small cellular micro-organism bodies having internally confined water is provided. A hot liquid metal is circulated in a circulation loop and the moist sewage sludge is injected in the circulation loop under conditions of temperature and pressure such that the confined water vaporizes and ruptures the cellular bodies. The vapor produced, the dried sludge, and the liquid metal are then separated. Preferably, the moist sewage sludge is injected into the hot liquid metal adjacent the upstream side of a venturi which serves to thoroughly mix the hot liquid metal and the moist sewage sludge. The venturi and the drying zone after the venturi are preferably vertically oriented. The dried sewage sludge recovered is available as a fuel and is preferably used for heating the hot liquid metal.

  3. Pits, pipes, ponds--and me.

    PubMed

    Mara, Duncan

    2013-05-01

    My life in low-cost sanitation and low-cost wastewater treatment and the use of treated wastewater in agriculture and aquaculture really has been 'pits, pipes and ponds' - 'pits' are low-cost sanitation technologies (LCST) such as VIP latrines and pour-flush toilets; 'pipes' are low-cost sewerage, principally condominial (simplified) sewerage; and 'ponds' are low-cost wastewater treatment systems, especially waste stabilization ponds, and the use of treated wastewater in agriculture and aquaculture. 'Pits' were mainly working on World Bank LCST research projects, with fieldwork principally in Zimbabwe, 'pipes' were working on condominial sewerage projects in Brazil and disseminating this LCST to a wider global audience, and 'ponds' were waste stabilization ponds, with fieldwork mainly in Brazil, Colombia, Portugal and the United Kingdom, the development of aerated rock filters to polish facultative-pond effluents, and the human-health aspects of treated wastewater use in agriculture and aquaculture, with fieldwork in Brazil and the UK, and the application of quantitative microbial risk analysis. The paper provides a professional perspective and lessons from historical developments and gives recommended future directions based on my career working on low-cost sanitation technologies and treated wastewater use in agriculture and aquaculture.

  4. The effect of sewage effluent on the physico-chemical and biological characteristics of the Sand River, Limpopo, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seanego, K. G.; Moyo, N. A. G.

    Population growth in urban areas is putting pressure on sewage treatment plants. The improper treatment of sewage entering the aquatic ecosystems causes deterioration of the water quality of the receiving water body. The effect of sewage effluent on the Sand River was assessed. Eight sampling sites were selected, site 1 and 2 were upstream of the sewage treatment plant along the urbanised area of Polokwane, whilst sites 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8 were downstream. The physico-chemical parameters and coliform counts in the water samples were determined. The suitability of the water for irrigation was also determined. Hierarchical average linkage cluster analysis produced two clusters, grouping two sites above the sewage treatment works and six sites downstream of the sewage effluent discharge point. Principal component analysis (PCA) identified total nitrogen, total phosphorus, conductivity and salinity as the major factors contributing to the variability of the Sand River water quality. These factors are strongly associated with the downstream sites. Canonial correspondence analysis (CCA) indicated the macroinvertebrates, Chironomidae, Belastomatidae, Chaoborus and Hirudinea being strongly associated with nitrogen, phosphorus, conductivity and temperature. Escherichia coli levels in the Polokwane wastewater treatment works maturation ponds, could potentially lead to contamination of the Polokwane aquifer. The Sodium Adsorption Ratio was between 1.5 and 3.0 and residual sodium carbonate was below 1.24 Meq/l, indicating that the Sand River water is still suitable for irrigation. The total phosphorus concentrations fluctuated across the different site. Total nitrogen concentrations showed a gradual decrease downstream from the point of discharge. This shows that the river still has a good self-purification capacity.

  5. Sewage sludge pasteurization by gamma radiation: Financial viability case studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swinwood, Jean F.; Kotler, Jiri

    This paper examines the financial viability of sewage sludge pasteurization by gamma radiation, by examining the following three North American scenarios: 1) Small volume sewage treatment plant experiencing high sludge disposal costs. 2) Large volume sewage treatment plant experiencing low sludge disposal costs. 3) Large volume sewage treatment plant experiencing high sludge disposal costs.

  6. Use of aquaculture ponds and other habitats by autumn migrating shorebirds along the lower Mississippi river.

    PubMed

    Lehnen, Sarah E; Krementz, David G

    2013-08-01

    Populations of many shorebird species are declining; habitat loss and degradation are among the leading causes for these declines. Shorebirds use a variety of habitats along interior migratory routes including managed moist soil units, natural wetlands, sandbars, and agricultural lands such as harvested rice fields. Less well known is shorebird use of freshwater aquaculture facilities, such as commercial cat- and crayfish ponds. We compared shorebird habitat use at drained aquaculture ponds, moist soil units, agricultural areas, sandbars and other natural habitat, and a sewage treatment facility in the in the lower Mississippi River Alluvial Valley (LMAV) during autumn 2009. Six species: Least Sandpiper (Calidris minutilla), Killdeer (Charadrius vociferous), Semipalmated Sandpiper (Calidris pusilla), Pectoral Sandpiper (C. melanotos), Black-necked Stilt (Himantopus himantopus), and Lesser Yellowlegs (Tringa flavipes), accounted for 92 % of the 31,165 individuals observed. Sewage settling lagoons (83.4, 95 % confidence interval [CI] 25.3-141.5 birds/ha), drained aquaculture ponds (33.5, 95 % CI 22.4-44.6 birds/ha), and managed moist soil units on public lands (15.7, CI 11.2-20.3 birds/ha) had the highest estimated densities of shorebirds. The estimated 1,100 ha of drained aquaculture ponds available during autumn 2009 provided over half of the estimated requirement of 2,000 ha by the LMAV Joint Venture working group. However, because of the decline in the aquaculture industry, autumn shorebird habitats in the LMAV may be limited in the near future. Recognition of the current aquaculture habitat trends will be important to the future management activities of federal and state agencies. Should these aquaculture habitat trends continue, there may be a need for wildlife biologists to investigate other habitats that can be managed to offset the current and expected loss of aquaculture acreages. This study illustrates the potential for freshwater aquaculture to

  7. Use of Aquaculture Ponds and Other Habitats by Autumn Migrating Shorebirds Along the Lower Mississippi River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehnen, Sarah E.; Krementz, David G.

    2013-08-01

    Populations of many shorebird species are declining; habitat loss and degradation are among the leading causes for these declines. Shorebirds use a variety of habitats along interior migratory routes including managed moist soil units, natural wetlands, sandbars, and agricultural lands such as harvested rice fields. Less well known is shorebird use of freshwater aquaculture facilities, such as commercial cat- and crayfish ponds. We compared shorebird habitat use at drained aquaculture ponds, moist soil units, agricultural areas, sandbars and other natural habitat, and a sewage treatment facility in the in the lower Mississippi River Alluvial Valley (LMAV) during autumn 2009. Six species: Least Sandpiper ( Calidris minutilla), Killdeer ( Charadrius vociferous), Semipalmated Sandpiper ( Calidris pusilla), Pectoral Sandpiper ( C. melanotos), Black-necked Stilt ( Himantopus himantopus), and Lesser Yellowlegs ( Tringa flavipes), accounted for 92 % of the 31,165 individuals observed. Sewage settling lagoons (83.4, 95 % confidence interval [CI] 25.3-141.5 birds/ha), drained aquaculture ponds (33.5, 95 % CI 22.4-44.6 birds/ha), and managed moist soil units on public lands (15.7, CI 11.2-20.3 birds/ha) had the highest estimated densities of shorebirds. The estimated 1,100 ha of drained aquaculture ponds available during autumn 2009 provided over half of the estimated requirement of 2,000 ha by the LMAV Joint Venture working group. However, because of the decline in the aquaculture industry, autumn shorebird habitats in the LMAV may be limited in the near future. Recognition of the current aquaculture habitat trends will be important to the future management activities of federal and state agencies. Should these aquaculture habitat trends continue, there may be a need for wildlife biologists to investigate other habitats that can be managed to offset the current and expected loss of aquaculture acreages. This study illustrates the potential for freshwater aquaculture to

  8. Removal of Fecal Indicators, Pathogenic Bacteria, Adenovirus, Cryptosporidium and Giardia (oo)cysts in Waste Stabilization Ponds in Northern and Eastern Australia.

    PubMed

    Sheludchenko, Maxim; Padovan, Anna; Katouli, Mohammad; Stratton, Helen

    2016-01-02

    Maturation ponds are used in rural and regional areas in Australia to remove the microbial loads of sewage wastewater, however, they have not been studied intensively until present. Using a combination of culture-based methods and quantitative real-time PCR, we assessed microbial removal rates in maturation ponds at four waste stabilization ponds (WSP) with (n = 1) and without (n = 3) baffles in rural and remote communities in Australia. Concentrations of total coliforms, E. coli, enterococci, Campylobacter spp., Salmonella spp., F+ RNA coliphage, adenovirus, Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia (oo) cysts in maturation ponds were measured at the inlet and outlet. Only the baffled pond demonstrated a significant removal of most of the pathogens tested and therefore was subjected to further study by analyzing E. coli and enterococci concentrations at six points along the baffles over five sampling rounds. Using culture-based methods, we found a decrease in the number of E. coli and enterococci from the initial values of 100,000 CFU per 100 mL in the inlet samples to approximately 1000 CFU per 100 mL in the outlet samples for both bacterial groups. Giardia cysts removal was relatively higher than fecal indicators reduction possibly due to sedimentation.

  9. Removal of Fecal Indicators, Pathogenic Bacteria, Adenovirus, Cryptosporidium and Giardia (oo)cysts in Waste Stabilization Ponds in Northern and Eastern Australia

    PubMed Central

    Sheludchenko, Maxim; Padovan, Anna; Katouli, Mohammad; Stratton, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Maturation ponds are used in rural and regional areas in Australia to remove the microbial loads of sewage wastewater, however, they have not been studied intensively until present. Using a combination of culture-based methods and quantitative real-time PCR, we assessed microbial removal rates in maturation ponds at four waste stabilization ponds (WSP) with (n = 1) and without (n = 3) baffles in rural and remote communities in Australia. Concentrations of total coliforms, E. coli, enterococci, Campylobacter spp., Salmonella spp., F+ RNA coliphage, adenovirus, Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia (oo) cysts in maturation ponds were measured at the inlet and outlet. Only the baffled pond demonstrated a significant removal of most of the pathogens tested and therefore was subjected to further study by analyzing E. coli and enterococci concentrations at six points along the baffles over five sampling rounds. Using culture-based methods, we found a decrease in the number of E. coli and enterococci from the initial values of 100,000 CFU per 100 mL in the inlet samples to approximately 1000 CFU per 100 mL in the outlet samples for both bacterial groups. Giardia cysts removal was relatively higher than fecal indicators reduction possibly due to sedimentation. PMID:26729150

  10. Microwave Supported Treatment of Sewage Sludge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janíček, František; Perný, Milan; Šály, Vladimír; Giemza, Markus; Hofmann, Peter

    2016-07-01

    This work is focused on microwave treatment of sewage sludge. The aim of our experiments was to investigate the impact of microwave radiation upon different sewage sludge parameters such as concentration of nitrates and nitrites, phosphates, COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand), SVI (Sludge Volume Index) and the microscopic structure of sludge. The experiments with microwave irradiation of sewage sludge indicate that moderate microwave power causes visible effects on the chemical, physical and biological properties of the sludge. The calculation of profitability and energy efficiency is also presented.

  11. A review of the salt-gradient solar pond technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, E. I. H.

    1982-01-01

    The state of the salt-gradient solar pond technology is reviewed. Highlights of findings and experiences from existing ponds to data are presented, and the behavior, energy yield, operational features, and economics of solar ponds are examined. It is concluded that salt-gradient solar ponds represent a technically feasible, environmentally benign, and economically attractive energy producing alternative. In order to bring this emerging technology to maturity, however, much research and development effort remains to be undertaken. Specific R&D areas requiring the attention and action of technical workers and decision-makers are discussed, both from the perspectives of smaller, thermally-oriented ponds and larger, electricity generating ponds.

  12. Heat extraction from a large solar pond

    SciTech Connect

    Wittenberg, L.J.; Etter, D.E.

    1982-08-01

    The largest operational, salt-gradient solar pond in the United States, occupying 2000 m/sup 2/, was constructed during 1978 in Miamisburg, Ohio. The heat from this solar pond, nearly 1055 GJ/y (1000 million Btu/y) is used to heat an outdoor swimming pool in the summer and an adjacent recreation building during part of the winter. A new heat exchanger system has been installed externally to the pond and operated successfully to deliver 391 GJ (371 million Btu) of heat during May-June. Hot brine water is drawn through a diffuser by a self-priming pump fabricated from fiberglass reinforced plastic. The brine water passes through copper-10% nickel tubes of a tube-and-shell heat exchanger and is then returned to the bottom of the pond. Cooling water from the swimming pool circulates through the shell side of the heat exchanger. Several designs and flow velocities of the brine inlet and outlet diffusers into the pond have been tested in order to minimize the effect of turbulence upon the salt gradient zone.

  13. Brulures par Diluant

    PubMed Central

    Benbrahim, A.; Jerrah, H.; Diouri, M.; Bahechar, N.; Boukind, E.H.

    2009-01-01

    Summary La flamme de diluant est une cause non rare de brûlure dans le contexte marocain. Nous avons jugé intéressant de faire une étude épidémiologique sur la brûlure par flamme de diluant (BFD) au centre national des brûlés (CNB) du CHU Ibn-Rochd de Casablanca. Ce travail a été réalisé sur une période de 10 mois (septembre 2007/juin 2008). Le but du travail est de montrer les caractéristiques de ce type de brûlures pour les prévenir et ce par l'information sur le diluant, produit causant ces brûlures, et ses différents dangers, la brûlure notamment. Durant cette période, nous avons colligé 17 cas de BFD sur un total de 356 patients admis au CNB pour brûlures aiguës toute étiologie confondue. La moyenne d'age des patients concernés est de 32 ans. Ils sont presque tous de sexe masculin (16 hommes/1 femme) et ont des antécédents de toxicomanie et/ou de délinquance. Tous nos patients sont de bas niveau socio-économique et habitent dans des bidonvilles pour la plupart. La brûlure est souvent secondaire à une agression dans la rue (92% des cas). Concernant les caractéristiques de la brûlure, la surface cutanée brûlée moyenne est de 23%; elle est souvent profonde et siège surtout au niveau des membres supérieurs et du tronc. PMID:21991179

  14. Evolution of soil properties and metals in acid and alkaline mine tailing ponds after amendments and microorganisms application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acosta, Jose A.; Faz, Ángel; Zornoza, Raúl; Martínez-Martínez, Silvia; Bech, Jaume

    2015-04-01

    Intense mining activities in the past were carried out in Cartagena-La Unión mining district, SE Spain, and caused excessive accumulation of toxic metals in tailing ponds which poses a high environmental and ecological risk. One of the remediation options gaining considerable interest in recent years is the in situ immobilization of metals. A corresponding reduction in the plant-available metal fraction allows re-vegetation and ecosystem restoration of the heavily contaminated sites. In addition, the use of microorganisms to improve the soil condition is a new tool used to increase spontaneous plant colonization. The aim of this research was to assess the effect of amendments (pig manure, sewage sludge, and lime) and microorganisms on the evolution of soil properties and metals in acid and alkaline tailing ponds and to evaluate the content of metals in Zygophylum fabago one year after amendments application. The study was carried out in two mine ponds (acid and alkaline). Twenty seven square field plots, each one consisting of 4 m2, were located in each pond. Four different doses of microorganism (EM) (0 ml, 20 ml, 100 ml and 200 ml of microorganism solution in each plot) and one dose of pig manure (5 kg per plot), sewage sludge (4 kg per plot) and lime (22 kg per plot) were used. Organic amendment doses were calculated according to European nitrogen legislations, and lime dose was calculated according with the potential acid production through total sulphur oxidation. Three replicates of each treatment (organic amendment + lime + microorganism dose 0, 1, 2, or 3) and control soil (with no amendments) were carried out. Plots were left to the semi-arid climate conditions after the addition of amendments to simulate real potential applications of the results. Soil samples was collected every 4 month from each plot during one year, after this time Zygophylum fabago plants were sampled from each plots. Soil properties including: pH, salinity, total, inorganic and

  15. The occurrence and significance to animal health of salmonellas in sewage and sewage sludges.

    PubMed Central

    Jones, P. W.; Rennison, L. M.; Lewin, V. H.; Redhead, D. L.

    1980-01-01

    A total of 882 samples of settled sewage, sewage sludges and final effluents from eight sewage treatment plants were examined for the presence of salmonellas. Of these samples 68% were positive, isolations being made most frequently from settled sewage (85%), raw sludge (87%) and anaerobically digested sludge (96%). Fewer isolations were made from final effluent (24%) and processed sludges (58%). Samples usually contained less than 200 salmonellas/100 ml and arguments are presented that such concentrations should not lead to disease in animals if suitable grazing restrictions are followed. PMID:6985928

  16. Flow characteristics of the raw sewage for the design of sewage-source heat pump systems.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ying; Wu, Yuebin; Sun, Qiang

    2014-01-01

    The flow characteristics of raw sewage directly affect the technical and economic performance of sewage-source heat pump systems. The purpose of this research is to characterize the flow characteristics of sewage by experimental means. A sophisticated and flexible experimental apparatus was designed and constructed. Then the flow characteristics of the raw sewage were studied through laboratorial testing and theoretical analyses. Results indicated that raw sewage could be characterized as a power-law fluid with the rheological exponent n being 0.891 and the rheological coefficient k being 0.00175. In addition, the frictional loss factor formula in laminar flow for raw sewage was deduced by theoretical analysis of the power-law fluid. Furthermore, an explicit empirical formula for the frictional loss factor in turbulent flow was obtained through curve fitting of the experimental data. Finally, the equivalent viscosity of the raw sewage is defined in order to calculate the Reynolds number in turbulent flow regions; it was found that sewage had two to three times the viscosity of water at the same temperature. These results contributed to appropriate parameters of fluid properties when designing and operating sewage-source heat pump systems.

  17. [Technology of sewage sludge hygienization].

    PubMed

    Keller, U

    1983-09-01

    That the use of modern technology against the laws of Nature must fail, has been clearly demonstrated again some years ago when sewage sludge postpasteurization was rashly introduced. Although many attempts were made to improve this procedure, it had to be abandoned because of unavoidable massive regrowth of pathogens which invaded the germ-free postpasteurized sludge. In contrast of postpasteurization, long-term large-scale tests with the pasteurization of fresh sludge (prepasteurization) have demonstrated that this procedure where methane digestion with its pathogen displacing effect constitutes the final stage, is basically able to function. With respect to the Swiss Sewage Sludge Decree which came into force in May 1981, and which imposes sludge hygienization for most applications throughout the year, various thermal prepasteurization methods have been offered on the market ready for application to meet the legally prescribed requirements. However, some of them still need selective improvements in order to ensure the desired hygienisation effect permanently. For some time now, attention has been focussed on a novel biological 2-stage procedure based on partial aerobic thermophilic fermentation followed by anaerobic sludge digestion which in addition to good hygienisation promises improved sludge thickening, reduced digestion time, more favourable energy consumption and added process stability etc. Although it has already been offered on the market, this interesting process is being thouroughly tested and optimized in parallel pilot tests plant at the WWTP Altenrhein. Finally, reference is made to further sludge treatment processes such as sludge drying and sludge composting which mostly comprise efficent sludge hygienisation although they may not entirely prevent pathogenic regrowth. Moreover, some unconventional and less popular processes such as liquid sludge irradiation and chemical methods are also mentioned.

  18. Event-based stormwater management pond runoff temperature model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabouri, F.; Gharabaghi, B.; Sattar, A. M. A.; Thompson, A. M.

    2016-09-01

    Stormwater management wet ponds are generally very shallow and hence can significantly increase (about 5.4 °C on average in this study) runoff temperatures in summer months, which adversely affects receiving urban stream ecosystems. This study uses gene expression programming (GEP) and artificial neural networks (ANN) modeling techniques to advance our knowledge of the key factors governing thermal enrichment effects of stormwater ponds. The models developed in this study build upon and compliment the ANN model developed by Sabouri et al. (2013) that predicts the catchment event mean runoff temperature entering the pond as a function of event climatic and catchment characteristic parameters. The key factors that control pond outlet runoff temperature, include: (1) Upland Catchment Parameters (catchment drainage area and event mean runoff temperature inflow to the pond); (2) Climatic Parameters (rainfall depth, event mean air temperature, and pond initial water temperature); and (3) Pond Design Parameters (pond length-to-width ratio, pond surface area, pond average depth, and pond outlet depth). We used monitoring data for three summers from 2009 to 2011 in four stormwater management ponds, located in the cities of Guelph and Kitchener, Ontario, Canada to develop the models. The prediction uncertainties of the developed ANN and GEP models for the case study sites are around 0.4% and 1.7% of the median value. Sensitivity analysis of the trained models indicates that the thermal enrichment of the pond outlet runoff is inversely proportional to pond length-to-width ratio, pond outlet depth, and directly proportional to event runoff volume, event mean pond inflow runoff temperature, and pond initial water temperature.

  19. The Transient Response of Cooling Ponds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, E. Eric

    1982-10-01

    Cooling ponds are a form of closed cycle cooling used for steam-electric power plants. Because of their thermal inertia they provide an advantage over cooling towers in filtering fluctuations in intake temperature, which results in improved plant efficiency. By using linear systems theory, the transient behavior of various types of ponds is analyzed in response to periodic meteorological conditions (characterized by equilibrium temperature) and plant operational conditions (characterized by condenser temperature rise). Frequency response is expressed in terms of dimensionless ratios involving frequency of input forcing, characteristic hydraulic residence and surface response times, and appropriate mixing parameters. Results are also interpreted with respect to physical design variables, such as pond area, depth, degree of stratification, intake submergence, discharge entrance mixing, condenser flow rate, and temperature rise.

  20. Contamination of ground water as a consequence of land disposal of dye waste mixed sewage effluents: a case study of Panipat district of Haryana, India.

    PubMed

    Dubey, S K; Yadav, Rashmi; Chaturvedi, R K; Yadav, R K; Sharma, V K; Minhas, P S

    2010-09-01

    Spatial samples of surface and ground water collected from land disposal site of dye waste mixed sewage effluents at Binjhole, in Haryana, India were analyzed to evaluate its effect on quality of pond, hand pumps and ground waters for human health and irrigation purposes. It was found that average COD and TDS of dye houses discharge (310 and 3,920 mg/L) and treated sewage (428 and 1,470 mg/L) on mixing acquired the values of 245 and 1,780 mg/L and only Pb (0.24 microg/L) was above the permissible limit for irrigation purpose. Disposal of this mixed water to village pond changes the COD and TDS to 428 and 1,470 mg/L, respectively. COD and TDS of hand pump water samples were 264 and 1,190 mg/L, where as in tube well water these values were 151 and 900 mg/L. Though the ground water contamination seemed to decrease with the increasing distance from the pond but COD, TDS and BOD values continued to be quite high in water samples drawn from the hand pumps up to a distance of 500 m from pond. However, the major cause of the concern in these waters was Pb (0.11-0.45 ppm). Crops grown with this water shows accumulation of heavy metals like Pb,Cd, Fe, Mn, Ni, Cu, and Zn but in few crops they (Zn, Pb and Cd) exceed the safe limits. Regular consumption of these crop products may lead heavy metal toxicity. It was concluded from this study that the deep seepage of effluents led to deterioration of ground water quality for drinking purposes and the well waters rendered unfit for irrigation purposes within a span of 2 years. This warrants appropriate disposal measures for sewage and dye industry effluents in order to prevent deterioration of ground water and health of human and animals.

  1. Falmouth pond watchers: Water quality monitoring of Falmouth's coastal ponds. Report from the 1992 season

    SciTech Connect

    Howes, B.L.; Goehringer, D.D.

    1993-04-01

    1992 has seen a significant expansion in the focus of the Pond Watchers program. The long-term, high quality data base for the ponds is now enabling more emphasis on the ecological management and remediation aspects of the study, the ultimate goal of the program. Overall, 1992 saw only slight variation in the water quality conditions of Oyster, Little, Green, Great and Bournes Ponds from previous years, with a declining trend for Green Pond and small improvements in lower Great and Bournes Ponds. However, Oyster Pond showed a potentially significant improvement in bottom water oxygen conditions which suggests a new management direction for this system. All of the ponds continue to exhibit high nutrient levels and periodic bottom water oxygen depletion, especially in their upper reaches, and all stations exceed the nutrient levels specified by the Nutrient Overlay Bylaw. In contrast, the first year measurements in West Falmouth Harbor indicate high levels of water quality, although the inner reaches of the harbor do exceed those levels specified by the Bylaw.

  2. [The introduction of the larvivorous fish Poecilia reticulata (Peters, 1895) (Cyprinodontiformes: Poeciliidae), a bioregulator of culicids in oxidation ponds and contaminated drainage ditches on the Isla de la Juventud].

    PubMed

    García Avila, I; Koldenkova, L; Santamarina Mijares, A; González Broche, R

    1991-01-01

    The larvivorous fish Poecilla reticulata, internationally known as mosquito larva bioregulators, was introduced in 2 oxidation ponds and 2 ditches containing polluted waters (sewage) without the presence of other fish species, in Isle of Youth, Cuba, in order to control the larva populations of the Culex quinquefasciatus mosquito Say, 1823 in these its main breeding sites. After 2.5 months, such reservoirs were free of mosquito larvae. The fish settled within one year, reaching enough density to be used in other aquatoria.

  3. A Family Physician's Guide to Sewage Sludge

    PubMed Central

    Connop, Peter J.

    1983-01-01

    The potential environmental and personal health effects from the agricultural uses of domestic sewage sludge may increasingly require the guidance of the family physician, especially in farming communities. This article summarizes the potential health hazards and outlines the tripartite risk phenomenon—hazard identification, risk assessment, and social evaluation. For the agricultural use of dewatered sewage sludge, strict adherence to regulated procedures should not increase risk beyond that of agriculture generally. Confirmation by prospective epidemiological studies is recommended. PMID:21283298

  4. Recovery of phosphorus from waste ponds

    SciTech Connect

    Crea, D. A.

    1985-01-08

    Process for recovery of elemental phosphorus from waste ponds by dredging the waste pond to obtain an aqueous phosphorus slurry, separating particles larger than 2 mm from the slurry, treating the remaining slurry in an initial hydrocyclone and removing an overflow of solids larger than 500 micrometers, treating the underflow from the initial hydrocyclones in smaller diameter hydrocyclones, removing a second overflow enriched in slimes and diminished in phosphorus, removing a second underflow enriched in phosphorus and diminished in slimes and heating it sufficiently to melt the phosphorus therein, treating the heated second underflow in a centrifugal separator, and separating and recovering a stream of coalesced phosphorus from a heavy fraction of impurities.

  5. 1. ENVIRONMENTAL VIEW OF SOUTHEAST PORTION OF LOWER POND AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. ENVIRONMENTAL VIEW OF SOUTHEAST PORTION OF LOWER POND AND SPILLWAY, LOOKING SOUTH - Whitman Estate, Lower Pond Spillway, Approx. .5 mile south of intersection of DE72 & Ebeneezer Church Road, Newark, New Castle County, DE

  6. 2. ENVIRONMENTAL VIEW OF SOUTHEAST PORTION OF LOWER POND AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. ENVIRONMENTAL VIEW OF SOUTHEAST PORTION OF LOWER POND AND SPILLWAY WITH FOREBAY IN FOREGROUND, LOOKING SOUTH - Whitman Estate, Lower Pond Spillway, Approx. .5 mile south of intersection of DE72 & Ebeneezer Church Road, Newark, New Castle County, DE

  7. Under-performance evaluation and rehabilitation strategy for waste stabilization ponds in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, B J; Leitner, A R; Vorkas, C A; Guganesharajah, R K

    2003-01-01

    Fourteen high altitude (> 2,500 m amsl) small Waste Stabilisation Pond systems (WSPs) commissioned during the last 12 years in the State of Mexico in Mexico, were built to a common 3-stage design. Each system is comprised of 2 parallel series of bio-digesters, anaerobic and facultative ponds. All fourteen WSP systems produce poor quality effluents, and eight studied in more detail did not meet any of the national standards for discharge to rivers or the standards required for reuse. The under-performance of these WSPs is underlined by the anaerobic condition of the upper reaches of the Lerma river which receives the sewage from the towns served by these treatment plants. Preliminary surveillance diagnostics identified fundamental operational problems in all eight WSP systems located in the upper Lerma catchment. The results of an intensive secondary diagnostic performance evaluation on one system were used to identify the reasons for under-performance. Under-performance was caused by under-design, hydraulic short-circuiting, adverse environmental conditions and poor operation and maintenance. A strategy for improvement of design and operation to meet national standards is presented.

  8. Costs and risks of catfish split-pond systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Split ponds are a recently developed, pond-based aquaculture system that allows intensification of catfish aquaculture. Successful industry-wide adoption of newly developing technologies like split-pond systems will depend upon their productivity and cost efficiencies. Costs and production performan...

  9. One year's experience with an operating saturated solar pond

    SciTech Connect

    Ochs, T.L.; Stojanoff, C.G.; Day, D.L.

    1980-01-01

    While the saturated non-convecting solar pond concept is not new, the borax pond at the Desert Research Institute (DRI) is the first application of the concept to an operating solar pond. As with any new application there have been experimentally identified problem areas. Four of these problems are discussed: 1) departure from saturation, 2) contamination, 3) bottom crystalization, and 4) covers.

  10. 33 CFR 117.598 - Eel Pond Channel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Eel Pond Channel. 117.598 Section... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Massachusetts § 117.598 Eel Pond Channel. The following requirements apply to the draw of Eel Pond (Water Street) drawbridge at mile 0.0 at...

  11. 33 CFR 117.598 - Eel Pond Channel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Eel Pond Channel. 117.598 Section... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Massachusetts § 117.598 Eel Pond Channel. The following requirements apply to the draw of Eel Pond (Water Street) drawbridge at mile 0.0 at...

  12. 33 CFR 117.598 - Eel Pond Channel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Eel Pond Channel. 117.598 Section... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Massachusetts § 117.598 Eel Pond Channel. The following requirements apply to the draw of Eel Pond (Water Street) drawbridge at mile 0.0 at...

  13. 33 CFR 117.598 - Eel Pond Channel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Eel Pond Channel. 117.598 Section... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Massachusetts § 117.598 Eel Pond Channel. The following requirements apply to the draw of Eel Pond (Water Street) drawbridge at mile 0.0 at...

  14. 33 CFR 117.598 - Eel Pond Channel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Eel Pond Channel. 117.598 Section... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Massachusetts § 117.598 Eel Pond Channel. The following requirements apply to the draw of Eel Pond (Water Street) drawbridge at mile 0.0 at...

  15. Cibola High Levee Pond annual report 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mueller, Gordon A.; Carpenter, Jeanette; Marsh, Paul C.

    2005-01-01

    Remaining work will be finished this coming summer and a final report describing CHLP and the ecology of these fish will be completed by the end of 2005. We offer our assistance to the Fish and Wildlife Service in the pond’s renovation and support for the creation of additional refuge ponds. Funding for this work ends September 2005.

  16. Plankton Management for Channel Catfish Nursery Ponds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We conducted a series of studies examining the fertilization practices used for channel catfish nursery ponds. The best fertilization protocol would be one that uses low-cost fertilizers, quickly establishes a desirable phytoplankton bloom, and produces the greatest number of large zooplankton. In...

  17. MONITORING OF A BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICE POND

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA's Urban Stormwater Management Branch has monitored stormwater drainage and best management practices (BMP) as part of its research program. One BMP being monitored, a wetland/retention pond, is in the Richmond Creek (RC) watershed in the New York City Department of Envi...

  18. Ecology of Great Salt Pond, Block Island

    EPA Science Inventory

    Great Salt Pond is an island of estuarine water on Block Island, which sits in the middle of the Northwest Atlantic Continental Shelf. When the last continental glaciers retreated, they left a high spot on a terminal moraine. The rising sea from melting glaciers formed two island...

  19. MONITORING OF A BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICE POND

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA's Urban Watershed Management Branch has monitored stormwater drainage and best management practices (BMP) as part of its research program. One BMP currently being monitored, a retention pond with wetland plantings, is in the Richmond Creek (RC) watershed part of New Yor...

  20. Pond fractals in a tidal flat.

    PubMed

    Cael, B B; Lambert, Bennett; Bisson, Kelsey

    2015-11-01

    Studies over the past decade have reported power-law distributions for the areas of terrestrial lakes and Arctic melt ponds, as well as fractal relationships between their areas and coastlines. Here we report similar fractal structure of ponds in a tidal flat, thereby extending the spatial and temporal scales on which such phenomena have been observed in geophysical systems. Images taken during low tide of a tidal flat in Damariscotta, Maine, reveal a well-resolved power-law distribution of pond sizes over three orders of magnitude with a consistent fractal area-perimeter relationship. The data are consistent with the predictions of percolation theory for unscreened perimeters and scale-free cluster size distributions and are robust to alterations of the image processing procedure. The small spatial and temporal scales of these data suggest this easily observable system may serve as a useful model for investigating the evolution of pond geometries, while emphasizing the generality of fractal behavior in geophysical surfaces.

  1. Excavations in Hanford ponds, cribs, or ditches

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, G.W., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-09-20

    This document supports the development and presentation of the following accident scenario in the TWRS Final Safety Analysis Report: Unplanned Excavation/Drilling in Pond/Ditch/Crib. The calculations needed to quantify the risk associated with this accident scenario are included within.

  2. Aquatic Habitats: Exploring Desktop Ponds. Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Katharine; Willard, Carolyn

    This book, for grades 2-6, is designed to provide students with a highly motivating and unique opportunity to investigate an aquatic habitat. Students set up, observe, study, and reflect upon their own "desktop ponds." Accessible plants and small animals used in these activities include Elodea, Tubifex worms, snails, mosquito larvae, and fish.…

  3. Removal of trace organic contaminants from domestic wastewater: A meta-analysis comparison of sewage treatment technologies.

    PubMed

    Melvin, Steven D; Leusch, Frederic D L

    2016-01-01

    Trace organic contaminants (TrOCs), such as endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) and pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), represent global threats to aquatic animals and ecosystems. A major source of TrOCs in the aquatic environment is via the discharge of treated sewage, so there is an urgent need to evaluate the comparative efficiencies of the most widely used sewage treatment technologies as regards elimination of these compounds from wastewater. To address this need, 976 published articles were compiled focusing on estimates of removal (%) for 20 common environmental TrOCs, from five major sewage treatment technologies: conventional activated sludge (CAS), oxidation ditch (OD), membrane bioreactor (MBR), ponds and constructed wetlands (PCW), and trickling biological filters (TBF). A quantitative meta-analysis was performed to compare standardized relative removal efficiencies (SREs) of the compounds amongst these technologies, and where possible potential sources of heterogeneity were considered (e.g., flow rates and chemical sorption potential). The results indicate that the most widely used CAS treatment and the less common TBF provide comparatively poor overall removal of common organic micropollutants. Membrane bioreactors appear to be capable of achieving the greatest overall removal efficiencies, but the sustainability and economic viability of this option has been questioned. Treatment with OD systems may be more economical while still achieving comparatively high removal efficiencies, and the analysis revealed OD to be the best option for targeting highly potent estrogenic EDCs. This study offers a unique global assessment of TrOC removal via leading sewage treatment technologies, and is an important step in the identification of effective options for treating municipal sewage.

  4. Vermistabilization of primary sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Hait, Subrata; Tare, Vinod

    2011-02-01

    An integrated composting-vermicomposting process has been developed for utilization of primary sewage sludge (PSS). Matured vermicompost was used as bulking material and a source of active microbial culture during aerobic activated composting (AAC). AAC resulted in sufficient enrichment of bulking material with organic matter after 20 cycles of recycling and mixing with PSS and produced materials acceptable for vermicomposting. Vermicomposting caused significant reduction in pH, volatile solids (VS), specific oxygen uptake rate (SOUR), total organic carbon (TOC), C/N ratio and pathogens and substantial increase in electrical conductivity (EC), total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorous (TP) as compared to compost. Environmental conditions and stocking density have profound effects on vermicomposting. Temperature of 20°C with high humidity is favorable environmental condition for vermicomposting employing Eisenia fetida. Favorable stocking density range for vermiculture is 0.5-2.0 kg m(-2) (optimum: 0.5 kg m(-2)) and for vermicomposting is 2.0-4.0 kg m(-2) (optimum: 3.0 kg m(-2)), respectively.

  5. Characterizing a sewage plume using the 3H-3He dating technique

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shapiro, Stephanie Dunkle; LeBlanc, Denis; Schlosser, Peter; Ludin, Andrea

    1999-01-01

    An extensive 3H-3He study was performed to determine detailed characteristics of a regional flow system and a sewage plume over a distance of 4 km in a sand and gravel aquifer at Otis Air Base in Falmouth, Massachusetts. 3H-3He ages increase with depth in individual piezometer clusters and with distance along flowpaths. However, the age gradient with depth (Δt/Δz) is smaller in the plume than that in the regional waters, due to the intense recharge in the infiltration beds. The 1960s bomb peak of tritium in precipitation is archived longitudinally along a flowline through the main axis of the plume and vertically in individual piezometer clusters. On the eastern side of the sampling area, where water from Ashumet Pond forces plume water deeper into the flow system, 3H-3He ages are young at depth because the 3H-3He "clock" is reset due to outgassing of helium in the pond. A reconstruction of the tritium input functions for the regional and plume samples shows that there is no offset in the peak [3H]+[3Hetrit] concentrations for the plume and regional water, indicating that the water from supply wells for use on the base is young. The 3H-3He ages and detergent concentrations in individual wells are consistent with the beginning of use of detergents and the time period when their concentrations in sewage would have been greatest. Ages and hydraulic properties calculated using the 3H-3He data compare well with those from previous investigations and from particle-tracking simulations.

  6. Combining mariculture and seawater-based solar ponds

    SciTech Connect

    Lowrey, P.; Ford, R.; Collando, F.; Morgan, J.; Frusti, E. . Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)

    1990-05-01

    Solar ponds have been thoroughly studied as a means to produce electricity or heat, but there may be comparable potential to use solar ponds to produce optimized environments for the cultivation of some aquaculture crops. For this, conventional brine-based solar ponds could be used. This strategy would probably be most suitable at desert sites where concentrated brine was abundant, pond liners might not be needed, and the crop produced could be shipped to market. Generally, a heat exchanger would be required to transfer heat from the solar pond into the culture ponds. Culture ponds could therefore use either fresh or marine water. In contrast, this paper explores seawater-based solar ponds. These are solar ponds which use seawater in the bottom storage zone and fresh water in the upper convective zone. Because the required temperature elevations for mariculture are only about 10{degrees}C, seawater-based solar ponds are conceivable. Seawater-based ponds should be very inexpensive because, by the shore, salt costs would be negligible and a liner might be unnecessary.

  7. Management of sewage sludge and ash containing radioactive materials.

    SciTech Connect

    Bachmaier, J. T.; Aiello, K.; Bastian, R. K.; Cheng, J.-J.; Chiu, W. A.; Goodman, J.; Hogan, R.; Jones, A. R.; Kamboj, S.; Lenhart, T.; Ott, W. R.; Rubin, A. B.; Salomon, S. N.; Schmidt, D. W.; Setlow, L. W.; Yu, C.; Wolbarst, A. B.; Environmental Science Division; Middlesex County Utilities Authority; U.S. EPA; N.J. Dept of Environmental Protection; NRC

    2007-01-01

    Approximately 50% of the seven to eight million metric tonnes of municipal sewage sludge produced annually in the US is reused. Beneficial uses of sewage sludge include agricultural land application, land reclamation, forestry, and various commercial applications. Excessive levels of contaminants, however, can limit the potential usefulness of land-applied sewage sludge. A recently completed study by a federal inter-agency committee has identified radioactive contaminants that could interfere with the safe reuse of sewage sludge. The study found that typical levels of radioactive materials in most municipal sewage sludge and incinerator ash do not present a health hazard to sewage treatment plant workers or to the general public. The inter-agency committee has developed recommendations for operators of sewage treatment plants for evaluating measured or estimated levels of radioactive material in sewage sludge and for determining whether actions to reduce potential exposures are appropriate.

  8. Vessel Sewage Discharges: Statutes, Regulations, and Related Laws and Treaties

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Vessel sewage discharges can be regulated under multiple statutes, regulations, and laws/treaties, including the Clean Water Act, Title XIV, MARPOL Annex IV and the Vessel General Permit. This page describes how these are applied to vessel sewage.

  9. JPL Activated Carbon Treatment System (ACTS) for sewage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    An Activated Carbon Treatment System (ACTS) was developed for sewage treatment and is being applied to a one-million gallon per day sewage treatment pilot plant in Orange County California. Activities reported include pyrolysis and activation of carbon-sewage sludge, and activated carbon treatment of sewage to meet ocean discharge standards. The ACTS Sewage treatment operations include carbon-sewage treatment, primary and secondary clarifiers, gravity (multi-media) filter, filter press dewatering, flash drying of carbon-sewage filter cake, and sludge pyrolysis and activation. Tests were conducted on a laboratory scale, 10,000 gallon per day demonstration plant and pilot test equipment. Preliminary economic studies are favorable to the ACTS process relative to activated sludge treatment for a 175,000,000 gallon per day sewage treatment plant.

  10. Urban ponds as an aquatic biodiversity resource in modified landscapes.

    PubMed

    Hill, Matthew J; Biggs, Jeremy; Thornhill, Ian; Briers, Robert A; Gledhill, David G; White, James C; Wood, Paul J; Hassall, Christopher

    2017-03-01

    Urbanization is a global process contributing to the loss and fragmentation of natural habitats. Many studies have focused on the biological response of terrestrial taxa and habitats to urbanization. However, little is known regarding the consequences of urbanization on freshwater habitats, especially small lentic systems. In this study, we examined aquatic macro-invertebrate diversity (family and species level) and variation in community composition between 240 urban and 782 nonurban ponds distributed across the United Kingdom. Contrary to predictions, urban ponds supported similar numbers of invertebrate species and families compared to nonurban ponds. Similar gamma diversity was found between the two groups at both family and species taxonomic levels. The biological communities of urban ponds were markedly different to those of nonurban ponds, and the variability in urban pond community composition was greater than that in nonurban ponds, contrary to previous work showing homogenization of communities in urban areas. Positive spatial autocorrelation was recorded for urban and nonurban ponds at 0-50 km (distance between pond study sites) and negative spatial autocorrelation was observed at 100-150 km and was stronger in urban ponds in both cases. Ponds do not follow the same ecological patterns as terrestrial and lotic habitats (reduced taxonomic richness) in urban environments; in contrast, they support high taxonomic richness and contribute significantly to regional faunal diversity. Individual cities are complex structural mosaics which evolve over long periods of time and are managed in diverse ways. This facilitates the development of a wide range of environmental conditions and habitat niches in urban ponds which can promote greater heterogeneity between pond communities at larger scales. Ponds provide an opportunity for managers and environmental regulators to conserve and enhance freshwater biodiversity in urbanized landscapes whilst also facilitating

  11. [Concentration and emission fluxes of halogenated flame retardants in sewage from sewage outlet in Dongjiang River].

    PubMed

    Zeng, Yan-Hong; Luo, Xiao-Jun; Sun, Yu-Xin; Yu, Le-Huan; Chen, She-Jun; Mai, Bi-Xian

    2011-10-01

    Fourteen sewage samples from sewage outlets in Dongjiang River were collected. Halogented flame retardants were extracted and purified using dichloromethane and alumina/silica-gel column, respectively. The concentrations of halogenated flame retardants were measured utilizing GC/MS, and the emission fluxes were estimated. Decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE) was the predominant halogenated pollutant (accounting for 64%) in sewage with the concentration ranging from 9.1 ng/L to 990 ng/L. The concentrations of polybrominated biphenyl ether (PBDEs), dominated by BDE209, in the sewage ranged from 6.9 ng/L to 470 ng/L, accounting for 30% of total halogenated flame retardants. The concentrations of other flame retardants, such as dechlorane plus (DP), 1, 2-bis(2, 4, 6-tribromophenoxy) ethane (BTBPE), hexabromobenzene (HBB), and pentabromotoluene (PBT), were ranged within 0.17-23.6, nd-26.3, nd-1.45 and nd-0.45 ng/L, respectively. The concentrations of PBDEs in sewage of Dongjiang River were comparable to those in influent wastewater of sewage treatment plants of Guangzhou, suggesting that the wastewater was discharged directly into Dongjiang River without any treatment. The emission flux of halogenated flame retardants from sewage was 191 kg. Emission from industrial wastewater, contributed to 48%-91% of total emission, was the main source of halogenated flame retardants.

  12. Lipid profiling in sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Fenfen; Wu, Xuemin; Zhao, Luyao; Liu, Xiaohui; Qi, Juanjuan; Wang, Xueying; Wang, Jiawei

    2017-03-20

    High value-added reutilization of sewage sludge from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is essential in sustainable development in WWTPs. However, despite the advantage of high value reutilization, this process must be based on a detailed study of organics in sludge. We used the methods employed in life sciences to determine the profile of lipids (cellular lipids, free fatty acids (FFAs), and wax/gum) in five sludge samples obtained from three typical WWTPs in Beijing; these samples include one sludge sample from a primary sedimentation tank, two activated sludge samples from two Anaerobic-Anoxic-Oxic (A2/O) tanks, and two activated sludge samples from two membrane bioreactor tanks. The percentage of total raw lipids varied from 2.90% to 12.3%. Sludge from the primary sedimentation tank showed the highest concentrations of lipid, FFA, and wax/gum and the second highest concentration of cellular lipids. All activated sludge contained an abundance of cellular lipids (>54%). Cells in sludge can from plants, animals, microbes and so on in wastewater. Approximately 14 species of cellular lipids were identified, including considerable high value-potential ceramide (9567-38774 mg/kg), coenzyme (937-3897 mg/kg), and some phosphatidylcholine (75-548 mg/kg). The presence of those lipid constituents would thus require a wider range of recovery methods for sludge. Both cellular lipids and FFAs contain an abundance of C16-C18 lipids at high saturation level, and they serve as good resources for biodiesel production.

  13. Biodegradation of Sewage Wastewater Using Autochthonous Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Dhall, Purnima; Kumar, Rita; Kumar, Anil

    2012-01-01

    The performance of isolated designed consortia comprising Bacillus pumilus, Brevibacterium sp, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa for the treatment of sewage wastewater in terms of reduction in COD (chemical oxygen demand), BOD (biochemical oxygen demand) MLSS (mixed liquor suspended solids), and TSS (total suspended solids) was studied. Different parameters were optimized (inoculum size, agitation, and temperature) to achieve effective results in less period of time. The results obtained indicated that consortium in the ratio of 1 : 2 (effluent : biomass) at 200 rpm, 35°C is capable of effectively reducing the pollutional load of the sewage wastewaters, in terms of COD, BOD, TSS, and MLSS within the desired discharge limits, that is, 32 mg/L, 8 mg/L, 162 mg/L, and 190 mg/L. The use of such specific consortia can overcome the inefficiencies of the conventional biological treatment facilities currently operational in sewage treatment plants. PMID:22272181

  14. Wastes to Resources: Appropriate Technologies for Sewage Treatment and Conversion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Stephen P.

    Appropriate technology options for sewage management systems are explained in this four-chapter report. The use of appropriate technologies is advocated for its health, environmental, and economic benefits. Chapter 1 presents background information on sewage treatment in the United States and the key issues facing municipal sewage managers.…

  15. Growth, chemical composition and soil properties of Tipuana speciosa (Benth.) Kuntze seedlings irrigated with sewage effluent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Hayssam M.; Khamis, Mohamed H.; Hassan, Fatma A.

    2012-06-01

    This study was carried out at a greenhouse of Sabahia Horticulture Research Station, Alexandria, Egypt, to study the effect of sewage effluent on the growth and chemical composition of Tipuana speciosa (Benth.) Kuntze seedlings as well as on soil properties for three stages. The irrigation treatments were primary-treated wastewater and secondary-treated wastewater, in addition to tap water as control. Therefore, the treated wastewater was taken from oxidation ponds of New Borg El-Arab City. Results of these study revealed that the primary effluent treatment explored the highest significant values for vegetative growth and biomass, compared to the other treatments. In addition, the higher significant concentration and uptake of chemical composition in different plant parts were obtained from the primary effluent treatment during the three stages of irrigation. It was found that the concentration of heavy metals in either plant or soil was below as compared to the world-recommended levels. These findings suggested that the use of sewage effluent in irrigating T. speciosa seedlings grown in calcareous soil was beneficial for the improvement of soil properties and production of timber trees, and also important for the safe manner of disposal of wastewater.

  16. Organotins' fate in lagoon sewage system: dealkylation and sludge sorption/desorption.

    PubMed

    Ophithakorn, Thiwari; Sabah, Aboubakr; Delalonde, Michele; Bancon-Montigny, Chrystelle; Suksaroj, Thunwadee Tachapattaworakul; Wisniewski, Christelle

    2016-11-01

    Organotin compounds (OTs) have been widely used for their biocidal properties and as stabilizers in various industrial applications. Due to their high toxicity, organotins are subject to many studies regarding their behavior in wastewater treatment plant and aquatic environment. However, few studies are available regarding their behavior in lagoon sewage system, although such treatment is commonly used for sewage treatment in low-population areas. The present study aimed at studying the fate of organotins (monobutyltin (MBT), dibutyltin (DBT), and tributyltin (TBT)) in lagoon sewage system. Short-term experiments, carried out at lab scale, consisted in sampling sludge from aerobic stabilization ponds, and then quantifying sorption and desorption of the different organotin species, as well as their respective transformation, under defined operating conditions (e.g., tributyltin spike and dilution) simulating possible change in the surrounding environment of sludge in the lagoon. Results established that a very important percentage of the OTs was localized in the solid phase of the sludge (more than 98 %), whatever the operating conditions may be; however, transformation and locations of the three OT species differed according to the different conditions of sludge dilution, TBT spiking, and test duration. After dilution of lagoon sludge, TBT desorption from sludge was observed; it was supposed that dealkylation of TBT after desorption occurred rapidly and increased dissolved MBT and DBT in liquid phase; MBT sorbed subsequently on solid phase. The nature of the diluent (i.e., tap water or saline solution) appeared to slightly influence the sludge behavior. After TBT spiking, TBT was supposed to be rapidly sorbed but also transformed in DBT and MBT that would as well sorbed on the sludge, which explained the decrease of these species in the liquid phase. Tests aimed at studying long-term effect of TBT spiking demonstrated that the sorbed species could be remobilized

  17. Simulated ground-water flow for a pond-dominated aquifer system near Great Sandy Bottom Pond, Pembroke, Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carlson, Carl S.; Lyford, Forest P.

    2005-01-01

    A ground-water flow simulation for a 66.4-square-mile area around Great Sandy Bottom (GSB) Pond (105 acres) near Pembroke, Massachusetts, was developed for use by local and State water managers to assess the yields for public water supply of local ponds and wells for average climatic and drought conditions and the effects of water withdrawals on nearby water levels and streamflows. Wetlands and ponds cover about 30 percent of the study area and the aquifer system is dominated by interactions between ground water and the ponds. The three largest surface-water bodies in the study area are Silver Lake (640 acres), Monponsett Pond (590 acres), and Oldham Pond (236 acres). The study area is drained by tributaries of the Taunton River to the southwest, the South and North Rivers to the northeast, and the Jones River to the southeast. In 2002, 10.8 million gallons per day of water was exported from ponds and 3.5 million gallons per day from wells was used locally for public supply. A transient ground-water-flow model with 69 monthly stress periods spanning the period from January 1998 through September 2003 was calibrated to stage at GSB Pond and nearby Silver Lake and streamflow and water levels collected from September 2002 through September 2003. The calibrated model was used to assess hydrologic responses to a variety of water-use and climatic conditions. Simulation of predevelopment (no pumping or export) average monthly (1949-2002) water-level conditions caused the GSB Pond level to increase by 6.3 feet from the results of a simulation using average 2002 pumping for all wells, withdrawals, and exports. Most of this decline can be attributed to pumping, withdrawals, and exports of water from sites away from GSB Pond. The effects of increasing the export rate from GSB Pond by 1.25 and 1.5 times the 2002 rate were a lowering of pond levels by a maximum of 1.6 and 2.8 feet, respectively. Simulated results for two different drought conditions, one mild drought similar to

  18. Effects of light and microbial activity on the degradation of two fluoroquinolone antibiotics in pond water and sediment.

    PubMed

    Lin, Juo-Shan; Pan, Hung-Yu; Liu, Shiu-Mei; Lai, Hong-Thih

    2010-07-01

    Enrofloxacin (ENR) and ciprofloxacin (CIP) are two fluoroquinolone (FQ) antibiotics widely used to treat diseases of human beings and cultured animals. These two FQs are usually detected in the effluent of municipal sewage plants and related aquatic environments. The purpose of this study was to understand the fates of ENR and CIP in aquaculture pond water and a sediment slurry in a laboratory-scale experiment. Effects of light and microbial activity on the degradation of these two FQs were investigated. Results indicated that natural irradiation plays a major role in the degradation of ENR and CIP in pond water and the sediment slurry. The 50 % dissipation times (DT(50)) with non-sterile treatment were 0.01 and 18.4 d for ENR, and 0.04 and 17.3 d for CIP in the water and sediment slurry, respectively. On the other hand, the degradation of ENR and CIP under dark conditions was slow or even hindered, and all of their DT(50) values exceeded 100 d. These two FQs degraded faster in the sediment slurry than in pond water under dark conditions. Artificial ultraviolet (UV) and fluorescence light had similar effects on the degradation of ENR in the pond water and sediment slurry. Degradation of CIP was faster with UV than with fluorescence light treatment, while no such difference was found for ENR degradation. CIP was a degradation product of ENR under both light and dark conditions, and DT(50) values for both compounds were shorter in the presence of light. The phenomenon of biodegradation was observed during degradation of CIP in the sediment slurry under natural light.

  19. Pharmaceutically active compounds in sludge stabilization treatments: anaerobic and aerobic digestion, wastewater stabilization ponds and composting.

    PubMed

    Martín, Julia; Santos, Juan Luis; Aparicio, Irene; Alonso, Esteban

    2015-01-15

    Sewage sludge disposal onto lands has been stabilized previously but still many pollutants are not efficiently removed. Special interest has been focused on pharmaceutical compounds due to their potential ecotoxicological effects. Nowadays, there is scarce information about their occurrence in different sludge stabilization treatments. In this work, the occurrence of twenty-two pharmaceutically active compounds has been studied in sludge from four sludge stabilization treatments: anaerobic digestion, aerobic digestion, composting and lagooning. The types of sludge evaluated were primary, secondary, anaerobically-digested and dehydrated, composted, mixed, aerobically-digested and dehydrated and lagoon sludge. Nineteen of the twenty-two pharmaceutically active compounds monitored were detected in sewage sludge. The most contaminated samples were primary sludge, secondary sludge and mixed sludge (the average concentrations of studied compounds in these sludges were 179, 310 and 142 μg/kg dm, respectively) while the mean concentrations found in the other types of sewage sludge were 70 μg/kg dm (aerobically-digested sludge), 63 μg/kg dm (lagoon sludge), 12 μg/kg dm (composted sludge) and 8 μg/kg dm (anaerobically-digested sludge). The antibiotics ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin were found at the highest concentration levels in most of the analyzed sludge samples (up to 2660 and 4328 μg/kg dm, respectively). Anaerobic-digestion treatment reduced more considerably the concentration of most of the studied compounds than aerobic-digestion (especially in the case of bezafibrate and fluoroquinolones) and more than anaerobic stabilization ponds (in the case of acetaminophen, atenolol, bezafibrate, carbamazepine, 17α-ethinylestradiol, naproxen and salicylic acid). Ecotoxicological risk assessment, of sludge application onto soils, has also been evaluated. Risk quotients, expressed as the ratio between the predicted environmental concentration and the predicted non

  20. New approaches for Artemia pond culture.

    PubMed

    Van Hoa, Nguyen; Le Tran, Huu; Hong Van, Nguyen Thi; Sorgeloos, P; Van Stappen, G

    2013-01-01

    A project for intensive culture of Artemia in Vinhchau solar saltwork was funded by Soctrang Authority. The aim of this project is to increase the average cyst yield of 50kg.ha-1.crop, and to build up a stable culture technique with a better yield for local farmers. Multiple laboratory experiments were set up with inert food including fermented rice bran, tiger shrimp feed (PL15), as well as their combination with live algae (Chaetoceros). Results showed that, under laboratory conditions, fermented rice bran and tiger shrimp feed can be used as supplemental food sources. The shrimp feed alone or in combination with algae always gave better cyst production compared to the others, but should not account for more than 50% of the diet. In the field trials, aeration of Artemia ponds also increased cyst yields (from 195.8+/-44.2 to 207+/-46.1kg.ha-1.crop with 6 and 12 aeration a day, respectively) compared to ponds with no aeration (88.2+/-27.5kg.ha-1.crop), however the returns on investment (ROI=2.73-2.71 with aera tion vs. 2.24 without) are not significantly different. Utilization of fermented rice bran (20kg.ha-1.day) and shrimp feed (6kg.ha-1.day) as a supplementary feed during pond production in combination with greenwater supplies (10% of pond volume daily) resulted in higher yields (96.0+/-15.9 and 157.2+/-15.0kg.ha-1.crop, respectively) than traditional culture; Shrimp feed as a supplemental feed supported the cyst yield but their negative effect was at a high cost vs. traditional culture and use of fermented rice bran. Based on the cyst yield and ROI, fermented rice bran should be a promising item for poor farmers.

  1. Inlet Processes at Eel Pond, Falmouth, Massachusetts.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-10-01

    7 D -A147 548 INLET PROCESSES AT EEL POND FALMOUTH MRSS CHUSETi7 jV 1/2.COASTAL ENGINEERING RESEARCH CENTER YICKSBURG MS A E DEWRLL ET AL. OCT 84...42 c. Sediment Transport. ................... 42 d . Aerial Photograph: 21 November 1938. .......... 46 e. Aerial Photograph...Structural Changes to Inlet Hydraulics. ......... 59 c. Predicted Channel Stability .. .............. 69 d . Longshore Transport Estimates

  2. Holocene Closure of Lib Pond, Marshall Islands

    PubMed Central

    Myhrvold, Conor L.; Janny, Fran; Nelson, Daniel; Ladd, S. Nemiah; Atwood, Alyssa; Sachs, Julian P.

    2014-01-01

    Well-preserved sediment from closed water bodies of atolls such as Lib Pond are rare opportunities to reconstruct the past regional climate, which pieced together across a latitude and longitude range identify the range of movement patterns of wider scale climate phenomena such as the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) and El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO). We conducted the first physico-chemical survey of Lib Pond, a shallow, closed-water saline lake located on remote and difficult to access Lib Island in the Marshall Islands at 8° 18′ 48.99″ N, 167 22′ 51.90″ E in the Pacific Ocean, in July 2009. We performed a bathymetric survey, recorded salinity, dissolved oxygen, pH, and temperature profiles, monitored the tidal variability, and conducted a vegetation survey surrounding the lake. From bathymetric data we calculated the lake volume, which we used to estimate the lake's salt budget, and ultimately the residence time of water in the lake basin. We took a series of sediment cores from the lake, cores which indicate Lib Island's changing environment and climate. Radiocarbon measurements determined sediment age, and reveal significant mixing over the last 2 ka of deposition. We conclude that prior to 3 ka, Lib Island was an atoll with a central lagoon connected to the open ocean, which was then closed off from the open ocean to form the brackish system that exists today. We predict that the sediment accumulation in Lib Pond evident today will continue. As seawater is inhibited from exchanging with fresh water, Lib Pond will become a shallower lake with increasingly fresh water. PMID:24638020

  3. Holocene closure of Lib Pond, Marshall Islands.

    PubMed

    Myhrvold, Conor L; Janny, Fran; Nelson, Daniel; Ladd, S Nemiah; Atwood, Alyssa; Sachs, Julian P

    2014-01-01

    Well-preserved sediment from closed water bodies of atolls such as Lib Pond are rare opportunities to reconstruct the past regional climate, which pieced together across a latitude and longitude range identify the range of movement patterns of wider scale climate phenomena such as the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) and El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO). We conducted the first physico-chemical survey of Lib Pond, a shallow, closed-water saline lake located on remote and difficult to access Lib Island in the Marshall Islands at 8° 18' 48.99″ N, 167 22' 51.90″ E in the Pacific Ocean, in July 2009. We performed a bathymetric survey, recorded salinity, dissolved oxygen, pH, and temperature profiles, monitored the tidal variability, and conducted a vegetation survey surrounding the lake. From bathymetric data we calculated the lake volume, which we used to estimate the lake's salt budget, and ultimately the residence time of water in the lake basin. We took a series of sediment cores from the lake, cores which indicate Lib Island's changing environment and climate. Radiocarbon measurements determined sediment age, and reveal significant mixing over the last 2 ka of deposition. We conclude that prior to 3 ka, Lib Island was an atoll with a central lagoon connected to the open ocean, which was then closed off from the open ocean to form the brackish system that exists today. We predict that the sediment accumulation in Lib Pond evident today will continue. As seawater is inhibited from exchanging with fresh water, Lib Pond will become a shallower lake with increasingly fresh water.

  4. Update: Cooling tower and spray pond technology

    SciTech Connect

    Bartz, J.A.

    1995-05-01

    The 9th Cooling Tower and Spray Pond Symposium, under the auspices of the International Association for Hydraulic Research, took place at the von Karman Institute for Fluid Dynamics, Belgium, in September 1994. Technical topics discussed included cooling system design, performance, operation, environmental effects, modeling and components. Symposium proceedings will not be published. However, information of primary interest to staffs of power plants in the United States is summarized in this article.

  5. Beaver ponds increase methylmercury concentrations in Canadian shield streams along vegetation and pond-age gradients.

    PubMed

    Roy, Virginie; Amyot, Marc; Carignan, Richard

    2009-08-01

    Beaver impoundments flood forested areas and may be important production sites for methylmercury (MeHg) because of the resulting enhanced microbial activity and oxygen depletion. The influence of 17 beaver impoundments on streamwater chemistry (total mercury (THg), MeHg, nutrients, cations, and anions)] was investigated by sampling sites located along vegetation and pond-age gradients in southwestern Quebec (Canada). Recently inundated beaver ponds (< 10 years old) and those located in coniferous watersheds had the highest MeHg concentrations (range, 0.10-4.53 ng L(-1)) and greatest methylation efficiencies (% THg as MeHg; range, 10-74%). High heterotrophic activity likely occurred in the beaver ponds as suggested by depletions of dissolved oxygen, sulfate and nitrite-nitrate concentrations, and increases in nutrients (e.g., dissolved organic carbon, total phosphorus, and total nitrogen) in outlets compared to inlets. Acidic waters at coniferous sites may have stimulated more MeHg production than in mixed woodland regions. Lower methylation efficiencies in older ponds (> 20 years old) may be due to the degradation of less labile organic matter as ponds age. Beavers actively alter watersheds by building impoundments, and our findings indicate that this landscape disturbance may be a significant source of MeHg to downstream water bodies.

  6. Local and landscape determinants of amphibian communities in urban ponds.

    PubMed

    Hamer, Andrew J; Parris, Kirsten M

    2011-03-01

    Urbanization is currently responsible for widespread declines of amphibian populations globally through the loss, isolation, and degradation of habitat. However, it is not clear how urbanization affects amphibian communities at both local (pond) and landscape scales. We assessed the breeding distribution of frogs in ponds along an urban-rural gradient in Greater Melbourne, Australia, and examined community relationships with habitat quality and landscape context. We sampled frog larvae at 65 ponds on four separate occasions and collected data on local pond and landscape variables. Using Bayesian Poisson regression modeling we found that species richness decreased at ponds surrounded by high densities of human residents and at ponds with high water conductivity, whereas species richness increased substantially at ponds surrounded by a high proportion of green open space. Ordination of individual species presence-absence data by canonical correspondence analysis largely confirmed these findings. Ordination also highlighted the negative influences of pond shading and density of predatory fish, and the positive influence of aquatic vegetation, on community composition. Individual species' responses to urbanization varied. Urbanization had strong negative effects on species that were associated with well-vegetated, sunny, fish-free ponds. Our study highlights the importance of strategic management actions in urban landscapes to improve terrestrial habitat and connectivity around ponds and other wetlands, and local management actions to improve water quality, remove predatory fish, and plant aquatic vegetation at breeding sites.

  7. Rapid surface-water volume estimations in beaver ponds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karran, Daniel J.; Westbrook, Cherie J.; Wheaton, Joseph M.; Johnston, Carol A.; Bedard-Haughn, Angela

    2017-02-01

    Beaver ponds are surface-water features that are transient through space and time. Such qualities complicate the inclusion of beaver ponds in local and regional water balances, and in hydrological models, as reliable estimates of surface-water storage are difficult to acquire without time- and labour-intensive topographic surveys. A simpler approach to overcome this challenge is needed, given the abundance of the beaver ponds in North America, Eurasia, and southern South America. We investigated whether simple morphometric characteristics derived from readily available aerial imagery or quickly measured field attributes of beaver ponds can be used to approximate surface-water storage among the range of environmental settings in which beaver ponds are found. Studied were a total of 40 beaver ponds from four different sites in North and South America. The simplified volume-area-depth (V-A-h) approach, originally developed for prairie potholes, was tested. With only two measurements of pond depth and corresponding surface area, this method estimated surface-water storage in beaver ponds within 5 % on average. Beaver pond morphometry was characterized by a median basin coefficient of 0.91, and dam length and pond surface area were strongly correlated with beaver pond storage capacity, regardless of geographic setting. These attributes provide a means for coarsely estimating surface-water storage capacity in beaver ponds. Overall, this research demonstrates that reliable estimates of surface-water storage in beaver ponds only requires simple measurements derived from aerial imagery and/or brief visits to the field. Future research efforts should be directed at incorporating these simple methods into both broader beaver-related tools and catchment-scale hydrological models.

  8. Dispersion of plutonium from contaminated pond sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rees, T.F.; Cleveland, J.M.; Carl, Gottschall W.

    1978-01-01

    Sediment-water distributions of plutonium as a function of pH and contact time are investigated in a holding pond at the Rocky Flats plant of the Department of Energy. Although plutonium has been shown to sorb from natural waters onto sediments, the results of this study indicate that under the proper conditions it can be redispersed at pH 9 and above. Concentrations greater than 900 pCi Pu/L result after 34 h contact at pH 11 or 12 and the distribution coefficient, defined as the ratio of concentration in the sediment to that in the liquid, decreases from 1.1 ?? 105 at pH 7 to 1.2 ?? 103 at pH 11. The plutonium is probably dispersed as discrete colloids or as hydrolytic species adsorbed onto colloidal sediment particles whose average size decreases with increasing pH above pH 9. About 5% of the total plutonium is dispersed at pH 12, and the dispersion seems to readsorb on the sediment with time. Consequently, migration of plutonium from the pond should be slow, and it would be difficult to remove this element completely from pond sediment by leaching with high pH solutions. ?? 1978 American Chemical Society.

  9. Ecotoxicity Assessment of Stabilized Sewage Sludge from Municipal Sewage Treatment Plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Włodarczyk, Elżbieta; Próba, Marta; Wolny, Lidia

    2016-09-01

    Aim of this study was to evaluate the ecotoxicity of municipal sewage sludge conditioned with polyelectrolytes, taken from selected sewage treatment plant. Using the bioindication analysis overall toxicity was assessed, which allows to know the total toxicity of all the harmful substances contained in sewage sludge, in many cases acting synergistically. To prepare a sample of sludge for the basic test, all analyses were performed with a ratio of liquid to solid of 10:1 (water extract). Daphnia pulex biological screening test was used. A dilution series of an water extract of sludge were prepared to include within its scope the lowest concentration that causes 100% effect and the highest producing less than 10% of the effect within a specified range of the assay. The results of the test were read after 24 and 48 hours. Based on the research and analysis of test results it proved that the sewage sludge conditioned with polyelectrolytes exhibit the characteristics of eco-toxic.

  10. Sunlight Inactivation of Fecal Bacteriophages and Bacteria in Sewage-Polluted Seawater

    PubMed Central

    Sinton, Lester W.; Finlay, Rochelle K.; Lynch, Philippa A.

    1999-01-01

    Sunlight inactivation rates of somatic coliphages, F-specific RNA bacteriophages (F-RNA phages), and fecal coliforms were compared in seven summer and three winter survival experiments. Experiments were conducted outdoors, using 300-liter 2% (vol/vol) sewage-seawater mixtures held in open-top chambers. Dark inactivation rates (kDs), measured from exponential survival curves in enclosed (control) chambers, were higher in summer (temperature range: 14 to 20°C) than in winter (temperature range: 8 to 10°C). Winter kDs were highest for fecal coliforms and lowest for F-RNA phages but were the same or similar for all three indicators in summer. Sunlight inactivation rates (kS), as a function of cumulative global solar radiation (insolation), were all higher than the kDs with a consistent kS ranking (from greatest to least) as follows: fecal coliforms, F-RNA phages, and somatic coliphages. Phage inactivation was exponential, but bacterial curves typically exhibited a shoulder. Phages from raw sewage exhibited kSs similar to those from waste stabilization pond effluent, but raw sewage fecal coliforms were inactivated faster than pond effluent fecal coliforms. In an experiment which included F-DNA phages and Bacteroides fragilis phages, the kS ranking (from greatest to least) was as follows: fecal coliforms, F-RNA phages, B. fragilis phages, F-DNA phages, and somatic coliphages. In a 2-day experiment which included enterococci, the initial concentration ranking (from greatest to least: fecal coliforms, enterococci, F-RNA phages, and somatic coliphages) was reversed during sunlight exposure, with only the phages remaining detectable by the end of day 2. Inactivation rates under different optical filters decreased with the increase in spectral cutoff wavelength (50% light transmission) and indicated that F-RNA phages and fecal coliforms are more susceptible than somatic coliphages to longer solar wavelengths, which predominate in seawater. The consistently superior survival

  11. Exploration of locomotion in the ParA/ParB system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jindal, Lavisha; Emberly, Eldon

    2015-03-01

    In many bacteria the ParA/ParB system is responsible for actively segregating DNA during replication. ParB precessively moves by hydrolyzing DNA bound ParA-ATP forming a depleted ParA region in its wake. Recent in-vitro experiments have shown that a ParB covered bead can traverse a ParA bound DNA substrate. It has been suggested that the formation of a gradient in ParA leads to diffusion-ratchet like motion of the ParB bead but its origin and potential consequences requires investigation. We have developed a deterministic model for the in-vitro ParA/ParB system and show that any amount of spatial noise in ParA can lead to the spontaneous formation of its gradient. The velocity of the bead is independent of this noise but depends on the scale over which ParA exerts a force on the bead and the scale over which ParB hydrolyzes ParA from the substrate. There is a particular ratio of these scales at which the velocity is a maximum. We also explore the effects of cooperative vs independent rebinding of ParA to the substrate. Our model shows how the driving force for ParB originates and highlights necessary conditions for directed motion in the in-vitro system that may provide insight into the in-vivo behaviour of the ParA/ParB system.

  12. Water recovery from sewage using forward osmosis.

    PubMed

    Lutchmiah, Kerusha; Cornelissen, Emile R; Harmsen, Danny J H; Post, Jan W; Lampi, Keith; Ramaekers, Hans; Rietveld, Luuk C; Roest, Kees

    2011-01-01

    This research is part of the Sewer Mining project aimed at developing a new technological concept by extracting water from sewage by means of forward osmosis (FO). FO, in combination with a reconcentration system, e.g. reverse osmosis (RO) is used to recover high-quality water. Furthermore, the subsequent concentrated sewage (containing an inherent energy content) can be converted into a renewable energy (RE) source (i.e. biogas). The effectiveness of FO membranes in the recovery of water from sewage has been evaluated. Stable FO water flux values (>4.3 LMH) were obtained with primary effluent (screened, not treated) used as the feed solution. Fouling of the membrane was also induced and further investigated. Accumulated fouling was found to be apparent, but not irreversible. Sewer Mining could lead to a more economical and sustainable treatment of wastewater, facilitating the extraction of water and energy from sewage and changing the way it is perceived: not as waste, but as a resource.

  13. 33 CFR 159.307 - Untreated sewage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Untreated sewage. 159.307 Section 159.307 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Discharge of Effluents in Certain Alaskan Waters by Cruise...

  14. 33 CFR 159.307 - Untreated sewage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Untreated sewage. 159.307 Section 159.307 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Discharge of Effluents in Certain Alaskan Waters by Cruise...

  15. 33 CFR 159.307 - Untreated sewage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Untreated sewage. 159.307 Section 159.307 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Discharge of Effluents in Certain Alaskan Waters by Cruise...

  16. Home Sewage Disposal. Special Circular 212.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wooding, N. Henry

    This circular provides current information for homeowners who must repair or replace existing on-lot sewage disposal systems. Site requirements, characteristics and preparation are outlined for a variety of alternatives such as elevated sand mounds, sand-lined beds and trenches, and oversized absorption area. Diagrams indicating construction…

  17. Sewage sludge dewatering using flowing liquid metals

    DOEpatents

    Carlson, L.W.

    1985-08-30

    This invention relates generally to the dewatering of sludge, and more particularly to the dewatering of a sewage sludge having a moisture content of about 50 to 80% in the form of small cellular micro-organism bodies having internally confined water.

  18. In-situ caustic generation from sewage: the impact of caustic strength and sewage composition.

    PubMed

    Pikaar, Ilje; Rozendal, René A; Rabaey, Korneel; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2013-10-01

    Periodic caustic dosage is a commonly used method by the water industry to elevate pH levels and deactivate sewer biofilms responsible for hydrogen sulfide generation. Caustic (NaOH) can be generated in-situ from sewage using a divided electrochemical cell, which avoids the need for transport, handling and storage of concentrated caustic solutions. In this study, we investigated the impact of caustic strength in the cathode compartment and the impact of sodium concentration in sewage on the Coulombic efficiency (CE) for caustic generation. The CE was found to be independent of the caustic strength produced in the range of up to ~3 wt%. Results showed that a caustic solution of ~3 wt% could be produced directly from sewage at a CE of up to 75 ± 0.5%. The sodium concentration in sewage had a significant impact on the CE for caustic generation as well as on the energy requirements of the system, with a higher sodium concentration leading to a higher CE and lower energy consumption. The proton, calcium, magnesium and ammonium concentrations in sewage affected the CE for caustic generation, especially at low sodium concentrations. Economical assessment based on the experimental results indicated that sulfide control in sewers using electrochemically-generated caustic from sewage is an economically attractive strategy.

  19. Utilization of night-soil, sewage, and sewage sludge in agriculture.

    PubMed

    PETRIK, M

    1954-01-01

    The author reviews the agricultural use of night-soil, sewage, and sewage sludge from two points of view: the purely agricultural and the sanitary.Knowledge of the chemistry and bacteriology of human faecal matter is still rather scant, and much further work has to be done to find practical ways of digesting night-soil in a short time into an end-product of high fertilizing value and free of pathogens, parasites, and weeds.More is known about sewage and sewage sludge, but expert opinion is not unanimous as to the manner or the value of their use in agriculture. The author reviews a number of studies and experiments made in many countries of the world on the content, digestion, composting, agricultural value, and epidemiological importance of sewage and sewage sludge, but draws from these the conclusion that the chemistry, biology, and bacteriology of the various methods of treatment and use of waste matter need further investigation. He also considers that standards of quality might be set up for sludge and effluents used in agriculture and for water conservation.

  20. Utilization of night-soil, sewage, and sewage sludge in agriculture

    PubMed Central

    Petrik, Milivoj

    1954-01-01

    The author reviews the agricultural use of night-soil, sewage, and sewage sludge from two points of view: the purely agricultural and the sanitary. Knowledge of the chemistry and bacteriology of human faecal matter is still rather scant, and much further work has to be done to find practical ways of digesting night-soil in a short time into an end-product of high fertilizing value and free of pathogens, parasites, and weeds. More is known about sewage and sewage sludge, but expert opinion is not unanimous as to the manner or the value of their use in agriculture. The author reviews a number of studies and experiments made in many countries of the world on the content, digestion, composting, agricultural value, and epidemiological importance of sewage and sewage sludge, but draws from these the conclusion that the chemistry, biology, and bacteriology of the various methods of treatment and use of waste matter need further investigation. He also considers that standards of quality might be set up for sludge and effluents used in agriculture and for water conservation. PMID:13160760

  1. Truscott Brine Lake solar-pond system conceptual design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leboeuf, C. M.; May, E. K.

    1982-08-01

    Discussed is a conceptual design study for a system of electricity-producing salt-gradient solar ponds that will provide power to a chloride control project under construction near Truscott, Tex. The chloride control project comprises a 1200-ha (3000-acre) brine impoundment lake to which brine will be pumped from several salty sources in the Wichita River basin. The solar ponds are formed by natural evaporation of the briny water pumped to Truscott. Heat is extraced from the solar ponds and used to drive organic Rankine-cycle generators. Ponds were sized to provide the pumping needs of the chloride control project and the maintenance requirements of the solar ponds. The system includes six solar pond modules for a total area of 63.1 ha, and produces 1290 kW of base load electricity. Although sized for continuous power production, alternative operating scenarios involving production of peak power for shorter durations were also examined.

  2. A survey of catfish pond water chemistry parameters for copper toxicity modelling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water samples were collected from 20 catfish ponds in 2015 to obtain data useful in predicting copper toxicity and chemical behavior. Ponds were located in major catfish producing areas of west Alabama, east Arkansas, and Mississippi. Pond types included traditional levee ponds, split-ponds, water...

  3. A gradient maintenance technique for seawater solar ponds

    SciTech Connect

    Kleis, S.J.; Li, H.; Shi, J.

    1995-11-01

    Seawater solar ponds are being evaluated as a means of reducing heat losses from thermal refuge areas in outdoor mariculture ponds during cold weather. The thermal refuge areas are intended to provide a reliable means of protecting fish crops from lethal cold water temperatures in the winter months. A continuous filling technique is demonstrated for use in gradient zone maintenance of the seawater solar ponds. The technique allows indefinite operation of the refuge areas with a minimal amount of fresh water.

  4. A gradient maintenance technique for seawater solar ponds

    SciTech Connect

    Kleis, S.J.; Li, H.; Shi, J.

    1997-02-01

    Seawater solar ponds are being evaluated as a means of reducing heat losses from thermal refuge areas in outdoor mariculture ponds during cold weather. The thermal refuge areas are intended to provide a reliable means of protecting fish crops from lethal cold water temperatures in the winter months. A continuous filling technique is demonstrated for use in gradient zone maintenance of the seawater solar ponds. The technique allows indefinite operation of the refuge areas with a minimal amount of fresh water.

  5. Preparation of biochar from sewage sludge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieto, Aurora; María Méndez, Ana; Gascó, Gabriel

    2013-04-01

    Biomass waste materials appropriate for biochar production include crop residues (both field residues and processing residues such as nut shells, fruit pits, bagasse, etc), as well as yard, food and forestry wastes, and animal manures. Biochar can and should be made from biomass waste materials and must not contain unacceptable levels of toxins such as heavy metals which can be found in sewage sludge and industrial or landfill waste. Making biochar from biomass waste materials should create no competition for land with any other land use option—such as food production or leaving the land in its pristine state. Large amounts of agricultural, municipal and forestry biomass are currently burned or left to decompose and release CO2 and methane back into the atmosphere. They also can pollute local ground and surface waters—a large issue for livestock wastes. Using these materials to make biochar not only removes them from a pollution cycle, but biochar can be obtained as a by-product of producing energy from this biomass. Sewage sludge is a by-product from wastewater treatment plants, and contains significant amounts of heavy metals, organic toxins and pathogenic microorganisms, which are considered to be harmful to the environment and all living organisms. Agricultural use, land filling and incineration are commonly used as disposal methods. It was, however, reported that sewage sludge applications in agriculture gives rise to an accumulation of harmful components (heavy metals and organic compounds) in soil. For this reason, pyrolysis can be considered as a promising technique to treat the sewage sludge including the production of fuels. The objective of this work is to study the advantages of the biochar prepared from sewage sludge.

  6. Minimizing contamination hazards to waterbirds using agricultural drainage evaporation ponds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradford, David F.; Smith, Lynda A.; Drezner, Deborah S.; Shoemaker, J. David

    1991-11-01

    In much of the San Joaquin Valley, California, USA, inadequate drainage of applied irrigation water and accumulating salts in the soil have necessitated the installation of subsurface tile drainage systems to preserve crop productivity. At present, these subsurface drainage waters are disposed of by means of evaporation ponds or discharges into the San Joaquin River. Unfortunately, most of these agricultural drainage waters contain high concentrations of salts and naturally occurring trace elements, such as selenium, and recent evidence indicates that substantial numbers of waterbirds are exposed to contamination by selenium in the evaporation ponds. In order to avoid, minimize, or mitigate the adverse impacts on wildlife using the ponds, alternative pond management methods must be identified and evaluated for implementation. A number of methods have the potential to be cost-effective in significantly reducing the contamination hazard to birds using agricultural evaporation ponds. Twenty general methods were evaluated in this study, and four methods are recommended for implementation: remove levee vegetation, remove windbreaks, deepen the ponds, and haze birds. A number of other methods are recommended for further consideration because they appear to have good prospects for reducing the contamination hazard: steepen interior levee slopes, apply herbicides and insecticides, place netting on pond shorelines, and provide freshwater habitat adjacent to evaporation ponds. It may be necessary to use a combination of methods to effectively control selenium contamination of aquatic birds because it is unlikely that a single affordable pond management method will be able to entirely eliminate the contamination hazard.

  7. 7. William E. Barrett, Photographer, August 1975. LOG PONDS LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. William E. Barrett, Photographer, August 1975. LOG PONDS LOOKING WEST FROM POWERHOUSE ROOF. TRANSFORMER SHED IN FOREGROUND. - Meadow River Lumber Company, Highway 60, Rainelle, Greenbrier County, WV

  8. A model of the refreezing of melt ponds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flocco, D.; Feltham, D. L.; Schroeder, D.

    2012-12-01

    Melt ponds form on Arctic sea ice during the melting season and their presence affects the heat and mass balance of the ice cover. Towards the end of the melt season melt ponds cover up to 50% of the sea ice area decreasing the value of the surface albedo by up to 20%. The dramatic impact of melt ponds on the albedo feedback mechanism for sea ice melt has been demonstrated in previous studies. Here, we focus on the refreezing of melt ponds. As the ponds freeze from above, they gradually release latent heat that inhibits basal ice growth. The refreezing process can take up to three months. Within the ASBO (Arctic Synoptic Basin-wide Observations) project we have developed a model of refreezing melt ponds that uses mushy layer theory to describe the sea ice and takes account of the presence of salt in the refreezing melt pond. We use this model to investigate the rate at which melt ponds refreeze, releasing latent heat, and their impact on sea ice growth. Model results are compared with in situ data collected by Ice Mass Balance buoys in the Arctic. Furthermore we will give an estimate of the impact of the melt pond presence on sea ice growth in the Arctic basin.

  9. 7. PUMPING PLANT, SOUTHWEST AND SOUTHEAST SIDES, AND STILLING POND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. PUMPING PLANT, SOUTHWEST AND SOUTHEAST SIDES, AND STILLING POND - Outlook Irrigation District, Pumping Plant & Woodstave Pipe, Hudson Road & Snipes Lateral Road vicinity, Outlook, Yakima County, WA

  10. Oxygen and nitrogen dyamics in split ponds vs. intensive and conventional catfish production ponds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Split Pond aquaculture system (SP) has captured the attention of catfish producers across the southern U.S. The SP represents a lower cost adaptation of Clemson University’s Partitioned Aquaculture System (PAS). The original PAS design relied on slowly rotating paddlewheels to move water throu...

  11. Oxygen and nitrogen dynamics in split ponds vs. conventional catfish production ponds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Split Pond aquaculture system (SP) has captured the attention of catfish producers across the southern U.S. The SP represents a lower cost adaptation of Clemson University’s Partitioned Aquaculture System (PAS). The original PAS design relied on slowly rotating paddlewheels to move water throu...

  12. Comparison of phytoplankton communities in catfish split-pond aquaculture systems with conventional ponds.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There has been a growing interest and use of variations of partitioned aquaculture systems (PAS) in recent years by the southeastern United States of America farmed catfish industry. Split-pond systems, one type of PAS, are designed to better manage fish waste byproducts (e.g., ammonia) and dissolv...

  13. Salt-Pond Box Model (SPOOM) and Its Application to the Napa-Sonoma Salt Ponds, San Francisco Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lionberger, Megan L.; Schoellhamer, David H.; Buchanan, Paul A.; Meyer, Scott

    2004-01-01

    A box model to simulate water volume and salinity of a salt pond has been developed by the U.S. Geological Survey to obtain water and salinity budgets. The model, SPOOM, uses the principle of conservation of mass to calculate daily pond volume and salinity and includes a salt crystallization and dissolution algorithm. Model inputs include precipitation, evaporation, infiltration, and water transfers. Salinity and water-surface-elevation data were collected monthly in the Napa-Sonoma Salt-Pond Complex from February 1999 through September 2001 and were used to calibrate and validate the model. The months when water transfers occurred were known but the magnitudes were unknown, so the magnitudes of water transfers were adjusted in the model to calibrate simulated pond volumes to measured pond volumes for three ponds. Modeled salinity was then compared with measured salinity, which remained a free parameter, in order to validate the model. Comparison showed good correlation between modeled and measured salinity. Deviations can be attributed to lack of water-transfer information. Water and salinity budgets obtained through modeling will be used to help interpret ecological data from the ponds. This model has been formulated to be applicable to the Napa-Sonoma salt ponds, but can be applied to other salt ponds.

  14. Tracking human sewage microbiome in a municipal wastewater treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Cai, Lin; Ju, Feng; Zhang, Tong

    2014-04-01

    Human sewage pollution is a major threat to public health because sewage always comes with pathogens. Human sewage is usually received and treated by wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) to control pathogenic risks and ameliorate environmental health. However, untreated sewage that flows into water environments may cause serious waterborne diseases, as reported in India and Bangladesh. To examine the fate of the human sewage microbiome in a local municipal WWTP of Hong Kong, we used massively parallel sequencing of 16S rRNA gene to systematically profile microbial communities in samples from three sections (i.e., influent, activated sludge, and effluent) obtained monthly throughout 1 year. The results indicated that: (1) influent sewage bacterial profile reflected the human microbiome; (2) human gut bacterial community was the dominant force shaping influent sewage bacterial profile; (3) most human sewage bacteria could be effectively removed by the WWTP; (4) a total of 75 genera were profiled as potentially pathogenic bacteria, most of which were still present in the effluent although at a very low level; (5) a grouped pattern of bacterial community was observed among the same section samples but a dispersed pattern was found among the different section samples; and (6) activated sludge was less affected by the influent sewage bacteria, but it showed a significant impact on the effluent bacteria. All of these findings provide novel insights toward a mechanistic understanding of the fate of human sewage microbiome in the WWTP.

  15. Performance evaluation of a natural treatment system for small communities, composed of a UASB reactor, maturation ponds (baffled and unbaffled) and a granular rock filter in series.

    PubMed

    Dias, D F C; Passos, R G; Rodrigues, V A J; Matos, M P de; Santos, C R S; Sperling, M von

    2017-03-08

    Post-treatment of anaerobic reactor effluent with maturation ponds is a good option for small to medium-sized communities in tropical climates. The treatment line investigated, operating in Brazil, with an equivalent capacity to treat domestic sewage from 250 inhabitants, was comprised of a UASB reactor followed by two shallow maturation ponds (unbaffled and baffled) and a granular rock filter (decreasing grain size) in series, requiring an area of only 1.5 m(2).inhabitant(-1). With an overall hydraulic retention time of only 6.7 days, the performance was excellent for a natural treatment system. Based on over two years of continuous monitoring, median removal efficiencies were: BOD = 93%, COD = 79%, TSS = 87%, ammonia = 43% and E. coli = 6.1 log units. The final effluent complied with European discharge standards and WHO guidelines for some forms of irrigation, and showed to be a suitable alternative for treating domestic sewage for small communities in warm areas, especially in developing countries.

  16. First description of underwater acoustic diversity in three temperate ponds

    PubMed Central

    Rybak, Fanny; Depraetere, Marion; Gasc, Amandine; Le Viol, Isabelle; Pavoine, Sandrine; Sueur, Jérôme

    2015-01-01

    The past decade has produced an increased ecological interest in sonic environments, or soundscapes. However, despite this rise in interest and technological improvements that allow for long-term acoustic surveys in various environments, some habitats’ soundscapes remain to be explored. Ponds, and more generally freshwater habitats, are one of these acoustically unexplored environments. Here we undertook the first long term acoustic monitoring of three temperate ponds in France. By aural and visual inspection of a selection of recordings, we identified 48 different sound types, and according to the rarefaction curves we calculated, more sound types are likely present in one of the three ponds. The richness of sound types varied significantly across ponds. Surprisingly, there was no pond-to-pond daily consistency of sound type richness variation; each pond had its own daily patterns of activity. We also explored the possibility of using six acoustic diversity indices to conduct rapid biodiversity assessments in temperate ponds. We found that all indices were sensitive to the background noise as estimated through correlations with the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). However, we determined that the AR index could be a good candidate to measure acoustic diversities using partial correlations with the SNR as a control variable. Yet, research is still required to automatically compute the SNR in order to apply this index on a large data set of recordings. The results showed that these three temperate ponds host a high level of acoustic diversity in which the soundscapes were variable not only between but also within the ponds. The sources producing this diversity of sounds and the drivers of difference in daily song type richness variation both require further investigation. Such research would yield insights into the biodiversity and ecology of temperate ponds. PMID:26587351

  17. Examining Water Quality Variations of Tidal Pond System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chui, T. F. M.; Cui, W.

    2014-12-01

    Brackish tidal shrimp ponds, traditionally referred to as gei wais, have been constructed along coastal areas in many parts of the world. The regular exchange of pond water with the surrounding coastal environment is important as it brings shrimp larvae and nutrients, etc. into and out of the pond. Such a water exchange can reduce the quality of the receiving waters; though there are opposing views recently because farming practices are becoming more sustainable while other sources of pollutions in the surroundings are increasing. This project monitors the water quality of a tidal shrimp pond and its receiving water at high temporal resolution. The pond is located within the wetland complex of Mai Po Nature Reserve in Hong Kong, China. Water quality parameters (i.e., dissolved oxygen, temperature, salinity, pH, water depth and chlorophyll) were recorded at 15-minute interval from December 2013 to March 2014 within the pond and also at its receiving water which is a water channel within a mangrove forest. Data reveals both daily and fortnightly fluctuations. Daily variations in mangrove correspond to both tidal flushing and insolation, whereas those within the pond correspond mainly to insolation. For example, dissolved oxygen in mangrove shows two peaks daily which correlate with tidal elevation, and that within the pond shows only one peak which correlates with sunlight. Dissolved oxygen within the pond also shows a fortnightly pattern that corresponds to the schedule of water exchange. Such high temporal resolution of monitoring reveals the two-way water quality influences between the pond and the mangrove. It sheds insights that can possibly lead to refinement of water exchange practice and water sampling schedule given the temporal variations of the water quality both inside and outside the pond. It thus enables us to take a step closer in adopting more sustainable farming practices despite increasing pollution in the surrounding areas.

  18. Experimental canopy removal enhances diversity of vernal pond amphibians.

    PubMed

    Skelly, David K; Bolden, Susan R; Freidenburg, L Kealoha

    2014-03-01

    Vernal ponds are often treated as protected environments receiving special regulation and management. Within the landscapes where they are found, forest vegetation frequently dominates surrounding uplands and can grow to overtop and shade pond basins. Two bodies of research offer differing views of the role of forest canopy for vernal pond systems. Studies of landscape conversion suggest that removing forest overstory within uplands can cause local extinctions of amphibians by altering terrestrial habitat or hindering movement. Studies of canopy above pond basins imply an opposite relationship; encroachment of overstory vegetation can be associated with local extinctions potentially via changes in light, thermal, and food resource environments. Unresolved uncertainties about the role of forest canopy reveal significant gaps in our understanding of wetland species distributions and dynamics. Any misunderstanding of canopy influences is simultaneously important to managers because current practices emphasize promoting or conserving vegetation growth particularly within buffers immediately adjacent to ponds. We evaluated this apparent contradiction by conducting a landscape-scale, long-term experiment using 14 natural vernal ponds. Tree felling at six manipulated ponds was limited in spatial scope but was nevertheless effective in increasing water temperature. Compared with eight control ponds, manipulated ponds maintained more amphibian species during five years post-manipulation. There was little evidence that any species was negatively influenced, and the reproductive effort of species for which we estimated egg inputs maintained pretreatment population densities in manipulated compared with control ponds. Overall, our experiment shows that a carefully circumscribed reduction of overhead forest canopy can enhance the capacity of vernal ponds to support wildlife diversity and suggests a scale dependence of canopy influences on amphibians. These findings have

  19. The critical role of islands for waterbird breeding and foraging habitat in managed ponds of the South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project, South San Francisco Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ackerman, Joshua T.; Hartman, C. Alex; Herzog, Mark P.; Smith, Lacy M.; Moskal, Stacy M.; De La Cruz, Susan E. W.; Yee, Julie L.; Takekawa, John Y.

    2014-01-01

    The South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project aims to restore 50–90 percent of former salt evaporation ponds into tidal marsh in South San Francisco Bay, California. However, large numbers of waterbirds use these ponds annually as nesting and foraging habitat. Islands within ponds are particularly important habitat for nesting, foraging, and roosting waterbirds. To maintain current waterbird populations, the South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project plans to create new islands within former salt ponds in South San Francisco Bay. In a series of studies, we investigated pond and individual island attributes that are most beneficial to nesting, foraging, and roosting waterbirds.

  20. Ground-water flow and effects of agricultural application of sewage sludge and other fertilizers on the chemical quality of sediments in the unsaturated zone and ground water near Platteville, Colorado, 1985-89

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gaggiani, N.G.

    1995-01-01

    From fall 1985 through 1989, 6,431 dry tons of anaerobic, digested, sewage sludge were applied as a fertilizer on about 1 square mile of sandy farm- land near Platteville, Colorado. Mean nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen concentrations in the surficial aquifer increased during the period of sewage- sludge application. However, the effects of municipal sewage sludge applied to the soil in section 16 are difficult to ascertain because anhydrous ammonia and cattle and chicken manure were applied to section 16 prior to sewage-sludge application and anhydrous ammonia was applied during the period of sewage-sludge application. Mostly ammonia plus organic nitrogen was detected in the unsaturated zone while nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen predominated in the surficial aquifer. The areas of largest concentrations of nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen were in the northeastern and southwestern quarter sections os section 16. Changes in nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen concentrations with depth and time were detected in water samples from the multilevel ground-water sampling devices in the surficial aquifer. Nitrogen probably entered the saturated zone in the irrigated areas and low temporarily ponded areas and moved to the northeast with water in the surficial aquifer.

  1. Box Model of a Series of Salt Ponds, as Applied to the Alviso Salt Pond Complex, South San Francisco Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lionberger, Megan A.; Schoellhamer, David H.; Shellenbarger, Gregory; Orlando, James L.; Ganju, Neil K.

    2007-01-01

    This report documents the development and application of a box model to simulate water level, salinity, and temperature of the Alviso Salt Pond Complex in South San Francisco Bay. These ponds were purchased for restoration in 2003 and currently are managed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to maintain existing wildlife habitat and prevent a build up of salt during the development of a long-term restoration plan. The model was developed for the purpose of aiding pond managers during the current interim management period to achieve these goals. A previously developed box model of a salt pond, SPOOM, which calculates daily pond volume and salinity, was reconfigured to simulate multiple connected ponds and a temperature subroutine was added. The updated model simulates rainfall, evaporation, water flowing between the ponds and the adjacent tidal slough network, and water flowing from one pond to the next by gravity and pumps. Theoretical and measured relations between discharge and corresponding differences in water level are used to simulate most flows between ponds and between ponds and sloughs. The principle of conservation of mass is used to calculate daily pond volume and salinity. The model configuration includes management actions specified in the Interim Stewardship Plan for the ponds. The temperature subroutine calculates hourly net heat transfer to or from a pond resulting in a rise or drop in pond temperature and daily average, minimum, and maximum pond temperatures are recorded. Simulated temperature was compared with hourly measured data from pond 3 of the Napa?Sonoma Salt Pond Complex and monthly measured data from pond A14 of the Alviso Salt-Pond Complex. Comparison showed good agreement of measured and simulated pond temperature on the daily and monthly time scales.

  2. 2101-M Pond hydrogeologic characterization report

    SciTech Connect

    Chamness, M.A.; Luttrell, S.P.; Bates, D.J.; Martin, W.J.

    1990-09-01

    This report documents information collected by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory {sup (a)} at the request of Westinghouse Hanford Company. Presented in this report is the interpretation of the hydrogeologic environment at the 2101-M Pond, located in the 200-East Area of the Hanford Site. This information and its accompanying interpretation were derived from sampling and testing activities associated with the installation of four ground-water monitoring wells, in addition to data gathered from several previously existing wells. The new monitoring wells were installed as part of a groundwater monitoring program initiated in 1988. The four new monitoring wells were installed around the 2101-M Pond between May 23 and August 27, 1988. Geologic sampling, aquifer testing, and initial ground-water sampling were performed during the installation of these wells. Laboratory analyses of the sediment samples for particle size, calcium carbonate content, and selected natural and contaminant constituents were performed. A full year of quarterly ground-water sampling and the first statistical analysis of background and downgradient data have also been performed. 112 refs., 49 figs., 18 tabs.

  3. Directed and persistent movement arises from mechanochemistry of the ParA/ParB system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Longhua; Vecchiarelli, Anthony G.; Mizuuchi, Kiyoshi; Neuman, Keir C.; Liu, Jian

    The segregation of DNA prior to cell division is essential for faithful genetic inheritance. In many bacteria, segregation of the low-copy-number plasmids involves an active partition system composed of ParA ATPase and its stimulator protein ParB. Recent experiments suggest that ParA/ParB system motility is driven by a diffusion-ratchet mechanism in which ParB-coated plasmid both creates and follows a ParA gradient on the nucleoid surface. However, the detailed mechanism of ParA/ParB-mediated directed and persistent movement remains unknown. We develop a theoretical model describing ParA/ParB-mediated motility. We show that the ParA/ParB system can work as a Brownian ratchet, which effectively couples the ATPase-dependent cycling of ParA-nucleoid affinity to the motion of the ParB bound cargo. Paradoxically, the resulting processive motion relies on quenching diffusive plasmid motion through a large number of transient ParA/ParB-mediated tethers to the nucleoid surface. Our work sheds light on a new emergent phenomenon in which non-motor proteins work collectively via mechanochemical coupling to propel cargos -- an ingenious solution shaped by evolution to cope with the lack of processive motor proteins in bacteria.

  4. Sewage sludge disposal strategies for sustainable development.

    PubMed

    Kacprzak, Małgorzata; Neczaj, Ewa; Fijałkowski, Krzysztof; Grobelak, Anna; Grosser, Anna; Worwag, Małgorzata; Rorat, Agnieszka; Brattebo, Helge; Almås, Åsgeir; Singh, Bal Ram

    2017-03-14

    The main objective of the present review is to compare the existing sewage sludge management solutions in terms of their environmental sustainability. The most commonly used strategies, that include treatment and disposal has been favored within the present state-of-art, considering existing legislation (at European and national level), characterization, ecotoxicology, waste management and actual routs used currently in particular European countries. Selected decision making tools, namely End-of-waste criteria and Life Cycle Assessment has been proposed in order to appropriately assess the possible environmental, economic and technical evaluation of different systems. Therefore, some basic criteria for the best suitable option selection has been described, in the circular economy "from waste to resources" sense. The importance of sewage sludge as a valuable source of matter and energy has been appreciated, as well as a potential risk related to the application of those strategies.

  5. Delayed feeding of channel catfish fry stocked in ponds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We compared production variables between channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, nursery ponds fed according to industry standards, that is feeding immediately at stocking, to an alternative practice of delaying feeding for 6 wk after stocking in an effort to utilize natural pond productivity and red...

  6. Effects of acidification on algal assemblages in temporary ponds

    SciTech Connect

    Glackin, M.E.; Pratt, J.R.

    1994-12-31

    Atmospheric deposition monitoring in Pennsylvania has characterized a steep gradient of acidic ion depositions across the north-central portion of the state. This study evaluated acidification effects on the composition of algal assemblages in temporary ponds in two forested areas exposed to atmospheric deposition that varied in degree of acidity. Artificial substrates were used to sample and compare the algal assemblages in the two areas. Colonized communities were also transplanted to lower pH ponds to observe changes in species composition. A laboratory microcosm experiment manipulating pH was conducted to reduce the variables that differed between the two areas. Fewer algal taxa were present in lower pH ponds, on colonized substrates after transplant to lower pH ponds, and in lower pH laboratory treatments. Species composition was altered in the lower pH conditions. Most taxa that were excluded from the lower pH ponds naturally also did not survive when experimentally introduced to those conditions. These results suggest that acidification of temporary ponds can alter the structure of algal communities. There is interest in a possible link between acid deposition and reports of worldwide declines in amphibian populations. Algae are an important food source for larval amphibians, such as the wood frog, which require temporary ponds to breed. Changes in algal species composition could potentially impact the temporary pond and forest ecosystem.

  7. Falling head ponded infiltration in the nonlinear limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Triadis, D.

    2014-12-01

    The Green and Ampt infiltration solution represents only an extreme example of behavior within a larger class of very nonlinear, delta function diffusivity soils. The mathematical analysis of these soils is greatly simplified by the existence of a sharp wetting front below the soil surface. Solutions for more realistic delta function soil models have recently been presented for infiltration under surface saturation without ponding. After general formulation of the problem, solutions for a full suite of delta function soils are derived for ponded surface water depleted by infiltration. Exact expressions for the cumulative infiltration as a function of time, or the drainage time as a function of the initial ponded depth may take implicit or parametric forms, and are supplemented by simple asymptotic expressions valid for small times, and small and large initial ponded depths. As with surface saturation without ponding, the Green-Ampt model overestimates the effect of the soil hydraulic conductivity. At the opposing extreme, a low-conductivity model is identified that also takes a very simple mathematical form and appears to be more accurate than the Green-Ampt model for larger ponded depths. Between these two, the nonlinear limit of Gardner's soil is recommended as a physically valid first approximation. Relative discrepancies between different soil models are observed to reach a maximum for intermediate values of the dimensionless initial ponded depth, and in general are smaller than for surface saturation without ponding.

  8. Amphibian Oasis: Designing and Building a Schoolyard Pond.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gosselin, Heather; Johnson, Bob

    1996-01-01

    Building a pond in a schoolyard is a rewarding way to help boost local populations of amphibians, to increase the natural value of school grounds, and to serve as a locale for observing the life cycles of plants, invertebrates, and amphibians. This article outlines important considerations in designing and building a pond from siting through…

  9. Gauging the Health of New England's Lakes and Ponds

    EPA Science Inventory

    The New England Lakes and Ponds Project provides a consistent and first time comprehensive assessment of the ecological and water quality condition of lakes and ponds across the New England region. The project is being conducted by EPA along with the New England Interstate Water...

  10. A model of the refreezing of melt ponds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flocco, D.; Feltham, D. L.; Shroeder, D.

    2012-04-01

    Melt ponds form on Arctic sea ice during the melting season and their presence affects the heat and mass balance of the ice cover. Towards the end of the melt season melt ponds cover up to 50% of the sea ice area decreasing the value of the surface albedo by up to 20%. The dramatic impact of melt ponds on the albedo feedback mechanism for sea ice melt has been demonstrated in previous studies. Here, we focus on the refreezing of melt ponds. As the ponds freeze from above, they gradually release latent heat that inhibits basal ice growth. The refreezing process can take up to three months. Within the ASBO (Arctic Synoptic Basin-wide Observations) project we have developed a model of refreezing melt ponds that uses mushy layer theory to describe the sea ice and takes account of the presence of salt in the refreezing melt pond. We use this model to investigate the rate at which melt ponds refreeze, releasing latent heat, and their impact on sea ice growth. Model results are compared with in situ data collected by Ice Mass Balance buoys in the Arctic.

  11. Cannibalism in single-batch hybrid catfish production ponds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hybrid catfish are more efficiently harvested by seining than are Channel Catfish. Due to that, and their faster growth, hybrids are typically produced in “single-batch” production systems, either in intensively-aerated commercial ponds or in split-pond systems. In either production system, hybrids...

  12. Integrated odour modelling for sewage treatment works.

    PubMed

    Gostelow, P; Parsons, S A; Lovell, M

    2004-01-01

    Odours from sewage treatment works are a significant source of environmental annoyance. There is a need for tools to assess the degree of annoyance caused, and to assess strategies for mitigation of the problem. This is the role of odour modelling. Four main stages are important in the development of an odour problem. Firstly, the odorous molecules must be formed in the liquid phase. They must then transfer from the liquid to the gaseous phase. They are then transported through the atmosphere to the population surrounding the odour source, and are then perceived and assessed by that population. Odour modelling as currently practised tends to concentrate on the transportation of odorants through the atmosphere, with the other areas receiving less attention. Instead, odour modelling should consider each stage in an integrated manner. This paper describes the development of integrated odour models for annoyance prediction. The models describe the liquid-phase transformations and emission of hydrogen sulphide from sewage treatment processes. Model output is in a form suitable for integration with dispersion models, the predictions of which can in turn be used to indicate the probability of annoyance. The models have been applied to both hypothetical and real sewage treatment works cases. Simulation results have highlighted the potential variability of emission rates from sewage treatment works, resulting from flow, quality and meteorological variations. Emission rate variations can have significant effects on annoyance predictions, which is an important finding, as they are usually considered to be fixed and only meteorological variations are considered in predicting the odour footprint. Areas for further development of integrated odour modelling are discussed, in particular the search for improved links between analytical and sensory measurements, and a better understanding of dose/response relationships for odour annoyance.

  13. Gradient-zone erosion in seawater solar ponds

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, J.; Hart, R.A.; Kleis, S.J.; Bannerot, R.B.

    1997-02-01

    An experimental program has been conducted to examine the feasibility of using seawater solar ponds in mariculture operations along the Texas gulf coast to protect fish crops from the potentially lethal, cold temperatures experienced in outdoor ponds. Seawater solar ponds in the form of floating thermal refuge areas are proposed as a method for reducing the loss of heat from small sections of a pond. Gradient zone erosion under various ambient and operating conditions is examined. Comparisons with previous laboratory studies show a much lower entrainment rate in the natural environment. For conditions which are typical of those encountered in mariculture pond operation, the entrainment rate was found to depend only weakly on the Richardson number. For these conditions, a simple (linear) correlation of entrainment rate with wind speed was developed.

  14. Walden Pond, Massachusetts: Environmental Setting and Current Investigations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Colman, John A.; Waldron, Marcus C.

    1998-01-01

    Introduction Walden Pond, in Concord, Massachusetts, is famous among lakes because of its unique social history. Walden was the setting for American naturalist Henry David Thoreau's well-known essay 'Walden; or, Life in the Woods,' first published in 1854. Thoreau lived and wrote at Walden Pond from July 1845 to September 1847. In 'Walden,' Thoreau combined highly admired writing on Transcendental philosophy with pioneering observations of aquatic ecology and physical aspects of limnology, the study of lakes. Because Thoreau also defended so effectively the value of living close to nature in the Walden woods, the pond is considered by many to be the birthplace of the American conservation movement. Visitors come from all over the world to the pond, which has been designated a National Historic Landmark, and its fame has resulted in a major fund drive to preserve the surrounding woods. Walden Pond has no surfacewater inflow or outflow, and much of its ground-water contributing area likely is preserved within the Walden Pond Reservation area (fig. 1). Only 15 miles from Boston, the pond is unusually clear and pristine for an urban-area lake. However, point sources of nutrients near the pond, and a large annual visitor attendance, concentrated during the summer when the swimming beach (fig. 2) is open, may contribute a nutrient load sufficient to change the pond environment. The occurrence of nuisance algal species, a recent beach closing, and an awareness of water-quality problems suffered by other ponds in the region raise concerns about the risk of ecological change at Walden Pond. Despite the role of Walden Pond as a cultural and environmental icon, little is known about the pond's ecological features, such as its internal nutrient cycling or the structure of its food web, nor have consistent measurements been made to determine whether these features are changing or are stable. Production rates of aquatic plants in lakes and ponds naturally undergo a slow increase

  15. Salton Sea Project, Phase 1. [solar pond power plant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peelgren, M. L.

    1982-01-01

    A feasibility study was made for a salt gradient solar pond power plant in or near the Salton Sea of California. The conclusions support continuance 5-MWe proof-of-concept experiment, and ultimate construction by an electric utility company of a 600-MWe plant. The Solar Pond concept would be an environmental benefit to the Salton Sea by reversing the increasing salinity trend. The greatest cost drivers are the lake dike construction and pond sealing. Problems to be resolved include method of brine production from Salton Sea water for the first unit (which requires evaporation pond area and time), the high turbidity and color content of the Salton Sea water (which requires pretreatment), and other questions related to pond permeability, bio-activity and soil/brine chemical reactions. All technical and environmental problems appear solvable and/or manageable if care is taken in mitigating impacts.

  16. Phytoremediation efficiency of Eichhornia crassipes in fly ash pond.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Vimal Chandra

    2016-01-01

    The present study was focused on field research to examine the phytoremediation potential of naturally grown Eichhornia crassipes in fly ash (FA) pond. Field results indicate the efficiency of E. crassipes for remediation of heavy metals from FA pond. The bioconcentration factor trend was Cr (3.75) > Cu (2.62) > Cd (1.05), and Cu (1.35) in root and stem, respectively. The survival and abundance growth of E. crassipes in the circumstance of heavy metal enriched FA pond is another highlight of the present research that reveals its toxitolerant characteristics. Thus, this lesson on phytoremediation proved that E. crassipes is a potential accumulator of Cu, Cr, and Cd from FA ponds and is a promising species for FA pond's remediation globally.

  17. Odour measurements for sewage treatment works.

    PubMed

    Gostelow, P; Parsons, S A; Stuetz, R M

    2001-03-01

    Public concern over odours from sewage treatment works is increasing. More people are being exposed to odours, due to development around existing works or construction of new works. Increased awareness of both the environment and individual rights has meant people are now more likely to complain. Odour abatement and control is a major issue for sewage works operators. To control odours, they must first be measured. This is no easy task as response to odours is subjective. Our understanding of the sense of smell is incomplete, and there is no single measure that will directly relate to the likelihood of complaint. Odour measurement has often been regarded as an art as opposed to a science. Odour measurement techniques fall into two classes. Sensory measurements employ the human nose and measure the effects of the odour as perceived by an observer. Analytical measurements characterise odours in terms of their chemical composition and attempt to quantify the odorants present. Both methods are less than ideal--sensory measurements can be overly subjective and the interpretation of results requires care. Analytical measurements are complicated by the large number of odorants present, often at concentrations close to detection limits. Our incomplete understanding of odour perception makes linking analytical and sensory measurements difficult. This paper reviews the methods applied to sewage treatment works odour measurement. Sensory and analytical measurements are reviewed, along with a recent development, the electronic nose.

  18. Urban energy mining from sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Kwon, E E; Yi, H; Kwon, H H

    2013-01-01

    This work showed that sewage sludge could be a strong candidate for biodiesel production. High lipid content (18-20%) with C(16-18)-carbon range was experimentally identified and measured. These lipids from sewage sludge were converted into biodiesel via the transesterification reaction with MgO-CaO/Al(2)O(3) derived from magnesium slag, and biodiesel conversion was ~98%. The experimental work enabled explaining that temperature is the main driving force for the transesterification reaction, which can be enhanced in the presence of CO(2). This also enables combination of esterification of free fatty acids and transesterification of triglycerides into a single process within 1 min in the temperature range of 350-500°C. Sewage sludge residue after extracting lipids was also a good feedstock for recovering energy via thermo-chemical processes. The impact of CO(2) co-feed on the pyrolysis/gasification process of SS residue was also investigated in this work. The CO(2) injected into the thermo-chemical process remarkably increased the generation of CO by a factor of 2. Moreover, the introduction of CO(2) into the pyrolysis/gasification process enabled reducing condensable hydrocarbons (tar) by expediting cracking; thus, utilizing CO(2) as chemical feedstock for the gasification process not only leads to higher thermal efficiency but also has environmental benefits.

  19. Occurrence of Cytophagas in Sewage Plants

    PubMed Central

    Güde, Hans

    1980-01-01

    With the application of plate count methods and of the KOH-flexirubin test, bacteria belonging to the Cytophaga group were proved to occur regularly in samples from biological sewage treatment facilities. Generally, the percentage of Cytophaga colonies of the total heterotrophic colonies was lowest in the inflow sewage water as compared with the values found in activated sludge, trickling filter, and effluent samples. During an observation period of 16 months, the highest percentages of cytophagas were found in winter samples from activated sludge and trickling filters. Furthermore, cytophagas were shown to have high percentages of the bacteria lytic to polymeric substrates such as cellulose, chitin, dextran, pectin, xylan, and gelatin. Thus, it is suggested that cytophagas may contribute to sewage purification, especially at cold temperatures and by polymer breakdown. Cytophaga strains isolated were shown to have gliding motility, flexirubin pigmentation, and a low guanine plus cytosine base ratio in common. The strains were roughly subdivided into a spreading, a nonspreading, and a cellulolytic group. PMID:16345539

  20. Ammonia sanitisation of sewage sludge using urea.

    PubMed

    Fidjeland, Jørgen; Lalander, Cecilia; Jönsson, Håkan; Vinnerås, Björn

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to develop a simple, low-cost treatment for sewage sludge using urea as a sanitising agent. Sewage sludge was spiked with Enterococcus faecalis and Salmonella typhimurium, treated with 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2% w/w urea at laboratory scale, and the viability was monitored during 4 months of storage at 4, 10 and 22 °C (only 0.5%). A linear relationship was identified between Salmonella spp. inactivation rate and ammonia (NH3) concentration. Temperature had a positive impact on Salmonella spp. inactivation at higher temperatures, but in the range 4-10 °C temperature influenced this inactivation merely by its impact on the ammonia equilibrium. Enterococcus spp. was more persistent and a lag phase of up to 11 weeks was observed. Higher temperature and ammonia concentration reduced the lag phase duration significantly, and also had a clear effect on the inactivation rate for the treatments with 0.5% urea at 22 °C and 2% urea at 4 and 10 °C. Urea sanitisation of sewage sludge can give a 2 log10 reduction of Enterococcus spp. and more than a 5 log10 reduction of Salmonella spp. within 6 weeks with either 0.5% w/w urea at 22 °C or 2% urea at 10 °C.

  1. Water Hyacinths and Alligator Weeds for Final Filtration of Sewage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolverton, B. C.; Mcdonald, R. C.; Gordon, J.

    1976-01-01

    The potential of water hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes) (Mart.) Solms and alligator weeds (Alternanthera philoxerides) (Mart.) Griesb. as secondary and tertiary filtration systems for domestic sewage was demonstrated. These two vascular aquatic plants reduced the suspended solids, total Kjeldahl nitrogen, total phosphorus, BOD sub 5, and total organic carbon levels in domestic sewage from 60 percent to 98 percent within a two week period. These plants grown in domestic sewage were also free of toxic levels of trace heavy metals.

  2. Pollutant removal efficacy of three wet detention ponds.

    PubMed

    Mallin, Michael A; Ensign, Scott H; Wheeler, Tracey L; Mayes, David B

    2002-01-01

    Monthly inflow and outflow data were collected from three wet detention ponds in Wilmington, North Carolina, for a 29-mo period. Two ponds drained urban areas consisting primarily of residential, mixed services, and retail usage, while the third mainly drained residential and golf course areas. One of the urban ponds achieved significant reductions in total nitrogen, nitrate, ammonium, total phosphorus, orthophosphate, and fecal coliform bacterial counts. This pond was characterized by a high length to width ratio, with most inputs directed into the upper area, and extensive coverage by a diverse community of aquatic macrophyte vegetation. The second urban pond achieved significant reductions in turbidity and fecal coliform bacterial counts, but there were no significant differences between inflowing and outflowing water nutrient concentrations. There were substantial suburban runoff inputs entering the mid- and lower-pond areas that short-circuited pollutant removal contact time. The golf course pond showed significant increases in nitrate, ammonium, total phosphorus, and orthophosphate in the outflow relative to the inflow, probably as a result of course fertilization. However, nutrient concentrations in the outflow water were low compared with discharges from a selection of other area golf courses, possibly a result of the outflow passing through a wooded wetland following pond discharge. To achieve good reduction in a variety of pollutants, wet pond design should include maximizing the contact time of inflowing water with rooted vegetation and organic sediments. This can be achieved through a physical pond design that provides a high length to width ratio, and planting of native macrophyte species.

  3. Emissions from Produced Water Treatment Ponds, Uintah Basin, Utah, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansfield, M. L.; Lyman, S. N.; Tran, H.; O'Neil, T.; Anderson, R.

    2015-12-01

    An aqueous phase, known as "produced water," usually accompanies the hydrocarbon fluid phases that are extracted from Earth's crust during oil and natural gas extraction. Produced water contains dissolved and suspended organics and other contaminants and hence cannot be discharged directly into the hydrosphere. One common disposal method is to discharge produced water into open-pit evaporation ponds. Spent hydraulic fracturing fluids are also often discharged into the same ponds. It is obvious to anyone with a healthy olfactory system that such ponds emit volatile organics to the atmosphere, but very little work has been done to characterize such emissions. Because oil, gas, and water phases are often in contact in geologic formations, we can expect that more highly soluble compounds (e.g., salts, alcohols, carbonyls, carboxyls, BTEX, etc.) partition preferentially into produced water. However, as the water in the ponds age, many physical, chemical, and biological processes alter the composition of the water, and therefore the composition and strength of volatile organic emissions. For example, some ponds are aerated to hasten evaporation, which also promotes oxidation of organics dissolved in the water. Some ponds are treated with microbes to promote bio-oxidation. In other words, emissions from ponds are expected to be a complex function of the composition of the water as it first enters the pond, and also of the age of the water and of its treatment history. We have conducted many measurements of emissions from produced water ponds in the Uintah Basin of eastern Utah, both by flux chamber and by evacuated canister sampling with inverse modeling. These measurements include fluxes of CO2, CH4, methanol, and many other volatile organic gases. We have also measured chemical compositions and microbial content of water in the ponds. Results of these measurements will be reported.

  4. Factors Influencing Fecal Contamination in Pond of Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knappett, P. S.; Escamilla, V.; Layton, A.; McKay, L. D.; Emch, M.; Mailloux, B. J.; Williams, D. E.; Huq, M. R.; Alam, M.; Farhana, L.; Ferguson, A. S.; Sayler, G. S.; Ahmed, K.; Serre, M. L.; Akita, Y.; Yunus, M.; van Geen, A.

    2010-12-01

    Occurrence of diarrheal disease in villages in rural Bangladesh remains relatively common, even though many households have switched to tubewell water for drinking and cooking. One factor contributing to this may be exposure to fecal contamination in ponds, which are often used for bathing and fishing. The objective of this study is to determine the dominant sources of fecal pollution in typical ponds and to explore the relationship between local population, latrine density, latrine quality and concentrations of fecal bacteria and pathogens in pond water. Forty-three ponds were sampled and analyzed for E. coli using culture-based methods and for E. coli, Bacteroides and adenovirus using quantitative PCR. Population and sanitation infrastructure were surveyed and compared to levels of pond fecal contamination. Molecular fecal source tracking using Bacteroides, determined that humans were the dominant source of fecal contamination in 79% of the ponds. Ponds directly receiving latrine effluent had the highest concentrations of fecal indicator bacteria. Concentrations of fecal indicator bacteria correlated with population surveyed within a distance of 30-70 m (p<0.01) and total latrines surveyed within 50-70 m (p<0.05). Unsanitary latrines with visible effluent within the pond drainage basin were also significantly correlated to fecal indicator concentrations (p<0.05). The vast majority of the surveyed ponds contained unsafe levels of fecal contamination primarily due to unsanitary latrines, and to lesser extent to sanitary latrines and cattle. Since the majority of fecal pollution is from humans, use of pond water could help explain the persistence of diarrheal disease in rural Bangladesh.

  5. The economics of the disposal of sewage and trade effluents*

    PubMed Central

    Townend, C. B.

    1959-01-01

    In this review of the economics of the disposal of sewage and trade wastes, the author touches on all aspects of the subject, from the annual costs of sewerage and sewage-disposal services in England and Wales, and what he terms the “uneconomics” of pollution of natural waters, to the financing of capital expenditure on the construction of new sewage works and equipment and on alterations to existing works. He discusses the purposes and relative costs of the various processes in the treatment of domestic sewage and outlines the special problems involved in the disposal of trade wastes. PMID:13839093

  6. Growth of Vetiveria zizanioides and Phragmities australis on Pb/Zn and Cu mine tailings amended with manure compost and sewage sludge: a greenhouse study.

    PubMed

    Chiu, K K; Ye, Z H; Wong, M H

    2006-01-01

    The Lechang lead/zinc (Pb/Zn) mine and Dabao Shan copper (Cu) mine are located at the north of Guangdong Province in southern China. The residual tailings were permanently stored in tailings ponds which required revegetation to reduce their impact on the environment. A greenhouse study was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of using Vetiveria zizanioides (vetiver) and Phragmities australis (common reed) for the reclamation of Pb/Zn and Cu mine tailings and to evaluate the effects of organic amendments using manure compost (11.00, 22.03, 44.05 and 88.10 t/ha) and sewages sludge (11.00, 22.03, 44.05 and 88.10 t/ha) on the revegetation of these tailings. The results revealed that the applications of manure compost or sewage sludge not only increased N, P and K concentrations, but also decreased DTPA-extractable Pb and Zn contents in Pb/Zn tailings and DTPA-extractable Cu contents in Cu tailings. For Pb/Zn mine tailings, application of sewage sludge increased the yields of both species (highest yield at 44.05 t/ha), but not manure compost. For Cu mine tailings, application of manure compost (highest yield for both species at 44.05 and 22.03 t/ha for vetiver and common reed accordingly) or sewage sludge (highest yield at 22.03 and 44.05 t/ha for vetiver and common reed accordingly) increased the yield of both species. In general, vetiver achieved a higher yield when compared with common reed, under the same treatment. Plant tissue analysis showed that application of manure compost and sewage sludge could significantly reduce Pb uptake and accumulation, but not Cu in both vetiver and common reed.

  7. suPAR: The Molecular Crystal Ball

    PubMed Central

    Thunø, Maria; Macho, Betina; Eugen-Olsen, Jesper

    2009-01-01

    soluble urokinase Plasminogen Activator Receptor (suPAR) levels reflect inflammation and elevated suPAR levels are found in several infectious diseases and cancer. suPAR exists in three forms; suPARI-III, suPARII-III and suPARI which show different properties due to structural differences. Studies suggest that full-length suPAR is a regulator of uPAR/uPA by acting as uPA-scavenger, whereas the cleaved suPARII-III act as a chemotactic agent promoting the immune response via the SRSRY sequence in the linker-region. This review focus on the various suPAR fragments and their involvement in inflammation and pathogenic processes. We focus on the molecular mechanisms of the suPAR fragments and the link to the inflammatory process, as this could lead to medical applications in infectious and pathological conditions. PMID:19893210

  8. Characteristics of sewage sludge and distribution of heavy metal in plants with amendment of sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Dai, Jia-yin; Chen, Ling; Zhao, Jian-fu; Ma, Na

    2006-01-01

    In order to better understand land application of sewage sludge, the characterization of heavy metals and organic pollutants were investigated in three different sewage sludges in Shanghai City, China. It was found that the total concentrations of Cd in all of sewage sludge and total concentrations of Zn in Jinshan sewage sludge, as well as those of Zn, Cu, and Ni in Taopu sludge are higher than Chinese regulation limit of pollutants for sludge to be used in agriculture. Leachability of Hg in all of studied samples and that of Cd in Taopu sewage sludge exceed the limit values of waste solid extraction standard in China legislation. Based on the characteristics for three kinds of sewage sludge, a pot experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of soil amended with Quyang sewage sludge on the accumulation of heavy metal by Begonia semperflorens-hybr; Ophiopogon japonicus (L.F.) Ker-Gaw; Loropetalum chindense-var. rubrum; Dendranthema morifolium; Viola tricolor; A ntirrhinum majus; Buxus radicans Sieb; Viburnum macrocephalum; Osmanthus fragrans Lour; Cinnamomum camphora siebold and Ligustrum lucidum ait. Results showed that 8 species of plant survived in the amended soil, and moreover they flourished as well as those cultivated in the control soil. The heavy metal concentration in plants varied with species, As, Pb, Cd and Cr concentration being the highest in the four herbaceous species studied, particularly in the roots of D. morifolium. These plants, however, did not show accumulator of As, Pb, Cd and Cr. The highest concentration of Ni and Hg was found in the roots of D. morifolium, followed by the leaves of B. semperflorens-hybr. Levels of Zn and Cu were much higher in D. morifolium than in the other plant species. D. morifolium accumulated Ni, Hg, Cu and Zn, which may contribute to the decrease of heavy metal contents in the amended soil. Treatment with sewage sludge did not significantly affect the uptake of heavy metals by the L. chindense-var. rubrum

  9. Fuel Pond Sludge - Lessons Learned from Initial De-sludging of Sellafield's Pile Fuel Storage Pond - 12066

    SciTech Connect

    Carlisle, Derek; Adamson, Kate

    2012-07-01

    The Pile Fuel Storage Pond (PFSP) at Sellafield was built and commissioned between the late 1940's and early 1950's as a storage and cooling facility for irradiated fuel and isotopes from the two Windscale Pile reactors. The pond was linked via submerged water ducts to each reactor, where fuel and isotopes were discharged into skips for transfer along the duct to the pond. In the pond the fuel was cooled then de-canned underwater prior to export for reprocessing. The plant operated successfully until it was taken out of operation in 1962 when the First Magnox Fuel Storage Pond took over fuel storage and de-canning operations on the site. The pond was then used for storage of miscellaneous Intermediate Level Waste (ILW) and fuel from the UK's Nuclear Programme for which no defined disposal route was available. By the mid 1970's the import of waste ceased and the plant, with its inventory, was placed into a passive care and maintenance regime. By the mid 1990s, driven by the age of the facility and concern over the potential challenge to dispose of the various wastes and fuels being stored, the plant operator initiated a programme of work to remediate the facility. This programme is split into a number of key phases targeted at sustained reduction in the hazard associated with the pond, these include: - Pond Preparation: Before any remediation work could start the condition of the pond had to be transformed from a passive store to a plant capable of complex retrieval operations. This work included plant and equipment upgrades, removal of redundant structures and the provision of a effluent treatment plant for removing particulate and dissolved activity from the pond water. - Canned Fuel Retrieval: Removal of canned fuel, including oxide and carbide fuels, is the highest priority within the programme. Handling and export equipment required to remove the canned fuel from the pond has been provided and treatment routes developed utilising existing site facilities to

  10. Enhancing biomass energy yield from pilot-scale high rate algal ponds with recycling.

    PubMed

    Park, J B K; Craggs, R J; Shilton, A N

    2013-09-01

    This paper investigates the effect of recycling on biomass energy yield in High Rate Algal Ponds (HRAPs). Two 8 m(3) pilot-scale HRAPs treating primary settled sewage were operated in parallel and monitored over a 2-year period. Volatile suspended solids were measured from both HRAPs and their gravity settlers to determine biomass productivity and harvest efficiency. The energy content of the biomass was also measured. Multiplying biomass productivity and harvest efficiency gives the 'harvestable biomass productivity' and multiplying this by the energy content defines the actual 'biomass energy yield'. In Year 1, algal recycling was implemented in one of the ponds (HRAPr) and improved harvestable biomass productivity by 58% compared with the control (HRAPc) without recycling (HRAPr: 9.2 g/m(2)/d; HRAPc: 5.8 g/m(2)/d). The energy content of the biomass grown in HRAPr, which was dominated by Pediastrun boryanum, was 25% higher than the control HRAPc which contained a mixed culture of 4-5 different algae (HRAPr: 21.5 kJ/g; HRAPc: 18.6 kJ/g). In Year 2, HRAPc was then seeded with the biomass harvested from the P. boryanum dominated HRAPr. This had the effect of shifting algal dominance from 89% Dictyosphaerium sp. (which is poorly-settleable) to over 90% P. boryanum in 5 months. Operation of this pond was then switched to recycling its own harvested biomass, which maintained P. boryanum dominance for the rest of Year 2. This result confirms, for the first time in the literature, that species control is possible for similarly sized co-occurring algal colonies in outdoor HRAP by algal recycling. With regard to the overall improvement in biomass energy yield, which is a critical parameter in the context of algal cultivation for biofuels, the combined improvements that recycling triggered in biomass productivity, harvest efficiency and energy content enhanced the harvested biomass energy yield by 66% (HRAPr: 195 kJ/m(2)/day; HRAPc: 118 kJ/m(2)/day).

  11. Trapping carbon in small ponds and wetlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinton, J. N.; Ockenden, M. C.; Deasy, C.; Favaretto, N.

    2012-04-01

    There is no doubt that carbon (C) is on the move. Recent estimates have suggested that the global sediment flux in agricultural landscapes due to water and tillage erosion is 35±10 Pg C y-1. Some of this C is oxidised and lost to the atmosphere, other material may be deposited and burried in colluvium and some may be delivered through both surface and subsurface flow paths to surface waters. In many agricultural landscapes these surface waters may take the form of small ponds and wetlands (field wetlands). In this paper we explore the potential of field wetlands to trap particulate C and influence the fate of dissolved organic carbon within the context of a small agricultural catchments in England. Since 2008 the mitigation options for phosphorus and sediment project (MOPS) has established ten monitored field wetlands across three catchments in the UK at Crake Trees, Cumbria (silt soils, rainfall 1500 mm y-1), Whinton Hill Cumbria (sandy soils, rainfall 1200 mm y-1), Newton Rigg, Cumbria (Silt soils, rainfall c1200 mm y-1) and Loddington, Leicestershire (Clay soils, rainfall 650 mm y-1). Although originally designed to capture sediment and phosphorus, their potential for influencing catchment scale C dynamics is becoming apparent. The C contents of sediments from the three catchments are typically in the range of 1.8 - 3.0% at Crake Trees Catchment, 2.5 to 9% at Whinton Hill and 2.0 to 3.1 % at Crake Trees. At the high rainfall sites the wetlands trap upwards of 20 t y-1 of sediment equating to several hundred kilograms of C. There is also some evidence that the ponds and wetlands may influence DOC, with DOC concentrations falling from approximately 35 mg l-1 to 15 mg l-1 at the Whinton Hill site as water passes through a series of field wetlands. In this paper we will present data from the last two years of monitoring and consider the wider implications for C sequestration by ponds and wetlands in agricultural landscapes.

  12. Environmental selection of planktonic methanogens in permafrost thaw ponds.

    PubMed

    Crevecoeur, Sophie; Vincent, Warwick F; Lovejoy, Connie

    2016-08-09

    The warming and thermal erosion of ice-containing permafrost results in thaw ponds that are strong emitters of methane to the atmosphere. Here we examined methanogens and other Archaea, in two types of thaw ponds that are formed by the collapse of either permafrost peat mounds (palsas) or mineral soil mounds (lithalsas) in subarctic Quebec, Canada. Using high-throughput sequencing of a hypervariable region of 16S rRNA, we determined the taxonomic structure and diversity of archaeal communities in near-bottom water samples, and analyzed the mcrA gene transcripts from two sites. The ponds at all sites were well stratified, with hypoxic or anoxic bottom waters. Their archaeal communities were dominated by Euryarchaeota, specifically taxa in the methanogenic orders Methanomicrobiales and Methanosarcinales, indicating a potentially active community of planktonic methanogens. The order Methanomicrobiales accounted for most of the mcrA transcripts in the two ponds. The Archaeal communities differed significantly between the lithalsa and palsa ponds, with higher alpha diversity in the organic-rich palsa ponds, and pronounced differences in community structure. These results indicate the widespread occurrence of planktonic, methane-producing Archaea in thaw ponds, with environmental selection of taxa according to permafrost landscape type.

  13. Environmental selection of planktonic methanogens in permafrost thaw ponds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crevecoeur, Sophie; Vincent, Warwick F.; Lovejoy, Connie

    2016-08-01

    The warming and thermal erosion of ice-containing permafrost results in thaw ponds that are strong emitters of methane to the atmosphere. Here we examined methanogens and other Archaea, in two types of thaw ponds that are formed by the collapse of either permafrost peat mounds (palsas) or mineral soil mounds (lithalsas) in subarctic Quebec, Canada. Using high-throughput sequencing of a hypervariable region of 16S rRNA, we determined the taxonomic structure and diversity of archaeal communities in near-bottom water samples, and analyzed the mcrA gene transcripts from two sites. The ponds at all sites were well stratified, with hypoxic or anoxic bottom waters. Their archaeal communities were dominated by Euryarchaeota, specifically taxa in the methanogenic orders Methanomicrobiales and Methanosarcinales, indicating a potentially active community of planktonic methanogens. The order Methanomicrobiales accounted for most of the mcrA transcripts in the two ponds. The Archaeal communities differed significantly between the lithalsa and palsa ponds, with higher alpha diversity in the organic-rich palsa ponds, and pronounced differences in community structure. These results indicate the widespread occurrence of planktonic, methane-producing Archaea in thaw ponds, with environmental selection of taxa according to permafrost landscape type.

  14. CO2 Efflux from Shrimp Ponds in Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Sidik, Frida; Lovelock, Catherine E.

    2013-01-01

    The conversion of mangrove forest to aquaculture ponds has been increasing in recent decades. One of major concerns of this habitat loss is the release of stored ‘blue’ carbon from mangrove soils to the atmosphere. In this study, we assessed carbon dioxide (CO2) efflux from soil in intensive shrimp ponds in Bali, Indonesia. We measured CO2 efflux from the floors and walls of shrimp ponds. Rates of CO2 efflux within shrimp ponds were 4.37 kg CO2 m−2 y−1 from the walls and 1.60 kg CO2 m−2 y−1 from the floors. Combining our findings with published data of aquaculture land use in Indonesia, we estimated that shrimp ponds in this region result in CO2 emissions to the atmosphere between 5.76 and 13.95 Tg y−1. The results indicate that conversion of mangrove forests to aquaculture ponds contributes to greenhouse gas emissions that are comparable to peat forest conversion to other land uses in Indonesia. Higher magnitudes of CO2 emission may be released to atmosphere where ponds are constructed in newly cleared mangrove forests. This study indicates the need for incentives that can meet the target of aquaculture industry without expanding the converted mangrove areas, which will lead to increased CO2 released to atmosphere. PMID:23755306

  15. Renewable energy for the aeration of wastewater ponds.

    PubMed

    Hobus, I; Hegemann, W

    2003-01-01

    The application of a decentralised renewable energy supply for the aeration of wastewater ponds, and the influence of an unsteady oxygen supply on the specific conversion rate and biocoenose was investigated. With the discontinuous aeration the specific conversion rate is increased as compared to facultative ponds. The estimation of the microorganisms consortia was done with in situ hybridisation techniques. A significant shift in the bacteria population with the chosen specific probes for anaerobic, sulphate reducing and nitrifying bacteria could not be detected. Wastewater ponds have sufficient buffer volume to compensate for the fluctuating energy supply. But the efficiency of the energy supply of a photovoltaic plant decreases in shallow lakes (d < 1.5 m) corresponding to a high oxygen production of algae. For the layout of the individual components: photovoltaic and wind power plant, energy management, aeration system and wastewater pond, a simulation model was developed and tested. The application of renewable energy for the aeration of wastewater ponds is a useful alternative for the redevelopment of overloaded ponds as well as the construction of new wastewater ponds, especially in areas with an inadequate central electricity grid and a high availability of wind and solar energy.

  16. Environmental selection of planktonic methanogens in permafrost thaw ponds

    PubMed Central

    Crevecoeur, Sophie; Vincent, Warwick F.; Lovejoy, Connie

    2016-01-01

    The warming and thermal erosion of ice-containing permafrost results in thaw ponds that are strong emitters of methane to the atmosphere. Here we examined methanogens and other Archaea, in two types of thaw ponds that are formed by the collapse of either permafrost peat mounds (palsas) or mineral soil mounds (lithalsas) in subarctic Quebec, Canada. Using high-throughput sequencing of a hypervariable region of 16S rRNA, we determined the taxonomic structure and diversity of archaeal communities in near-bottom water samples, and analyzed the mcrA gene transcripts from two sites. The ponds at all sites were well stratified, with hypoxic or anoxic bottom waters. Their archaeal communities were dominated by Euryarchaeota, specifically taxa in the methanogenic orders Methanomicrobiales and Methanosarcinales, indicating a potentially active community of planktonic methanogens. The order Methanomicrobiales accounted for most of the mcrA transcripts in the two ponds. The Archaeal communities differed significantly between the lithalsa and palsa ponds, with higher alpha diversity in the organic-rich palsa ponds, and pronounced differences in community structure. These results indicate the widespread occurrence of planktonic, methane-producing Archaea in thaw ponds, with environmental selection of taxa according to permafrost landscape type. PMID:27501855

  17. Effects of substrate concentrations on the growth of heterotrophic bacteria and algae in secondary facultative ponds.

    PubMed

    Kayombo, S; Mbwette, T S A; Katima, J H Y; Jorgensen, S E

    2003-07-01

    This paper presents the effect of substrate concentration on the growth of a mixed culture of algae and heterotrophic bacteria in secondary facultative ponds (SFPs) utilizing settled domestic sewage as a sole source of organic carbon. The growth of the mixed culture was studied at the concentrations ranging between 200 and 800 mg COD/l in a series of batch chemostat reactors. From the laboratory data, the specific growth rate (micro) was determined using the modified Gompertz model. The maximum specific growth rate ( micro(max)) and half saturation coefficients (K(s)) were calculated using the Monod kinetic equation. The maximum observed growth rate ( micro(max)) for heterotrophic bacteria was 3.8 day(-1) with K(s) of 200 mg COD/l. The micro(max) for algal biomass based on suspended volatile solids was 2.7 day(-1) with K(s) of 110 mg COD/l. The micro(max) of algae based on the chlorophyll-a was 3.5 day(-1) at K(s) of 50mg COD/l. The observed specific substrate removal by heterotrophic bacteria varied between the concentrations of substrate used and the average value was 0.82 (mg COD/mg biomass). The specific substrate utilization rate in the bioreactors was direct proportional to the specific growth rate. Hence, the determined Monod kinetic parameters are useful for the definition of the operation of SFPs.

  18. Groundwater impact assessment report for the 100-D Ponds

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, D.J.

    1993-07-01

    The 183-D Water Treatment Facility (WTF) discharges effluent to the 120-0-1 Ponds (100-D Ponds) located north of the 100-D Area perimeter fence. This report satisfies one of the requirements of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) Milestone M-17-00B as agreed by the US Department of Energy, Washington State Department of Ecology, and the US Environmental Protection Agency. Tri-Party Agreement Milestone M-17-00B includes a requirement to assess impacts to groundwater from disposal of the 183-D WTF effluent to the 100-D Ponds. In addition, the 100-D Ponds are a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 treatment, storage, and disposal facility covered by the 100-D Ponds Closure Plan (DOE-RL 1993a). There is evidence of groundwater contamination, primarily nitrate, tritium, and chromium, in the unconfined aquifer beneath the 100-D Area and 100 Areas in general. The contaminant plumes are area wide and are a result of past-practice reactor and disposal operations in the 100-D Area currently being investigated as part of the 100-DR-1 and 100-HR-3 Operable Units (DOE-RL 1992b, 1992a). Based on current effluent conditions, continued operation of the 100-D Ponds will not adversely affect the groundwater quality in the 100-D Area. Monitoring wells near the pond have slightly higher alkaline pH values than wells in the rest of the area. Concentrations of known contaminants in these wells are lower than ambient 100-D Area groundwater conditions and exhibit a localized dilution effect associated with discharges to the pond. Hydraulic impact to the local groundwater system from these discharges is minor. The groundwater monitoring well network for the 100-D Ponds is adequate.

  19. Ponded Impact Melt Dynamics and its Effects on Pond Surface Morphology - Insights from King Crater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashley, J. W.; DiCarlo, N.; Enns, A. C.; Hawke, B. R.; Hiesinger, H.; Robinson, M. S.; Sato, H.; Speyerer, E.; van der Bogert, C.; Wagner, R.; Young, K. E.; LROC Science Team

    2011-12-01

    King crater is a 77-km diameter impact feature located at 5.0°N and 120.5°E on the lunar farside. Previous work delimited King crater with an asymmetric distribution of ejecta that includes a large impact melt pond (~385 square kilometer surface area), located in nearby Al-Tusi crater. The pond provides an opportunity to study the behavior of a large impact melt deposit. The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) Wide Angle Camera (WAC) and Narrow Angle Cameras (NAC) [1] imaged King crater from a nominal 50 km altitude at pixel scales of 100 meters and up to 0.5 meters, respectively providing the means to create geologic maps for the region. Digital terrain/elevation models (DTMs) were derived [2] from both WAC and NAC images for the area, and supplemented the mapping effort. The high-resolution (50 cm/p) NAC images show fine details within the Al-Tusi melt pond that raise questions about melt pond dynamics and evolution. These include both positive- and negative-relief features, anomalous crater morphologies, and flow features that show variable degrees of melt viscosity. WAC DTM processing reveals a horizontal and relatively flat (at the 20 m contour interval) pond, demonstrating that an equipotential surface was achieved during initial melt accumulation. The NAC DTM shows kilometer-scale zones of topographic down-warping within the 20 m contour interval. The perimeters of these depressed areas show moderate to high spatial correlation with the occurrence of negative relief features (~10 to 100 m in length). Such sagging may have occurred as the result of contraction and/or compaction within the melt both during and following cooling, with the negative relief features resulting from consequent structural failure and separation of the thickening surface crust. The variability in the degree of contraction/compaction may be explained by the presence of underlying hummocky ejecta deposits (which probably also explains the positive relief features) emplaced by

  20. Greenhouse Gas Exchange in Small Arctic Thaw Ponds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laurion, I.; Bégin, P. N.; Bouchard, F.; Preskienis, V.

    2014-12-01

    Arctic lakes and ponds can represent up to one quarter of the land surface in permafrost landscapes, particularly in lowland tundra landscapes characterized by ice wedge organic polygons. Thaw ponds can be defined as the aquatic ecosystems associated to thawing of organic soils, either resulting from active layer processes and located above low-center peat polygons (hereafter low-center polygonal or LCP ponds), or resulting from thermokarst slumping above melting ice wedges linked to the accelerated degradation of permafrost (hereafter ice-wedge trough or IWT ponds). These ponds can merge together forming larger water bodies, but with relatively stable shores (hereafter merged polygonal or MPG ponds), and with limnological characteristics similar to LCP ponds. These aquatic systems are very small and shallow, and present a different physical structure than the larger thermokarst lakes, generated after years of development and land subsidence. In a glacier valley on Bylot Island, Nunavut, Canada, thermokarst and kettle lakes together represent 29% of the aquatic area, with a thermal profile resembling those of more standard arctic lakes (mixed epilimnion). The IWT ponds (44% of the area) are stratified for a large fraction of the summer despite their shallowness, while LCP and MPG ponds (27% of the area) show a more homogeneous water column. This will affect gas exchange in these diverse aquatic systems, in addition to their unique microbiota and organic carbon lability that control the production and consumption rates of greenhouse gases. The stratification in IWT ponds generates hypoxic conditions at the bottom, and together with the larger availability of organic carbon, stimulates methanogenesis and limits the mitigating action of methanotrophs. Overall, thaw ponds are largely supersaturated in methane, with IWT ponds dominating the emissions in this landscape (92% of total aquatic emissions estimated for the same valley), and they present large variations in

  1. Evaluation of the Rulison drilling effluent pond as trout habitat

    SciTech Connect

    1998-06-23

    The Rulison Site is located in Section 25, township 7 South, Range 95 West, Garfield County, Colorado. The site is approximately 19 kilometers (km) (12 miles [mi]) southwest of Rifle Colorado, and approximately 65 km (40 mi) northeast of Grand Junction, Colorado. Project Ruhson was an experiment conducted jointly by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission and Austral Oil Company to test the feasibility of using a nuclear device to increase natural gas production in low permeability geological formations. The experiment was conducted on September 10, 1969, and consisted of detonating a 43-kiloton nuclear device at a depth of 2,568 meters (m) (8,426 feet [ft]) below the ground surface (DOE, 1994). The Rulison Drilling Effluent Pond (called `the pond`) is an engineered structure covering approximately 0.2 hectare (0.5 acre), which was excavated and used to store drilling fluids during drilling of the device emplacement well. The drilling fluids consisted of bentonitic drilling mud with additives such as diesel fuel and chrome lignosulfonate. Most of the drilling muds were removed from the pond when the site was decommissioned in 1976, and the pond was subsequently stocked with rainbow trout by the land owner and used as a fishing pond. In 1994 and 1995, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) conducted sampling of the pond to evaluate residual contamination from the drilling fluids. Based on the results of this sampling, the DOE conducted a voluntary cleanup action in order to reduce the levels of total petroleum hydrocarbons and chromium in pond sediments. The cleanup was conducted between August and mid-November of 1995. At the end of cleanup activities, the pond was lined with a clay geofabric and left dry. The geofabric was covered with sod to protect it. The pond has since been refilled by snowmelt and inflow from a spring. Prior to remediation, the pond apparently had sufficient water quality and food resources to support stocked rainbow trout. The purpose of this

  2. Radioactivity in municipal sewage and sludge.

    PubMed Central

    Martin, J E; Fenner, F D

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the environmental consequences of discharges of radioactivity from a large medical research facility into municipal sewage, specifically 131I activity in sewage sludge, and the radiation exposures to workers and the public when sludges are incinerated. METHODS: The authors measured radioactivity levels in the sludge at the Ann Arbor, Michigan, Waste Water Treatment Plant following radioiodine treatments of two patients at the University of Michigan hospital complex and performed a series of calculations to estimate potential radiation doses due to releases of 131I from incineration of sewage sludge. RESULTS: Approximately 1.1% of the radioactive 131I administered therapeutically to patients was measured in the primary sludge. Radiation doses from incineration of sludge were calculated to be 0.048 millirem (mrem) for a worker during a period in which the incinerator filtration system failed, a condition that could be considered to represent maximum exposure conditions, for two nine-hour days. Calculated results for a more typically exposed worker (with the filtration system in operation and a 22-week period of incineration) yielded a committed effective dose equivalent of 0.066 mrem. If a worker were exposed to both conditions during the period of incineration, the dose was calculated to be 0.11 mrem. For a member of the public, the committed effective dose equivalent was calculated as 0.003 mrem for a 22-week incineration period. Exposures to both workers and the public were a very small fraction of a typical annual dose (about 100 mrem excluding radon, or 300 mrem with radon) due to natural background radiation. Transport time to the treatment plant for radioiodine was found to be much longer than that of a normal sewage, possibly due to absorption of iodine by organic material in the sewer lines. The residence time of radioiodine in the sewer also appears to be longer than expected. CONCLUSION: 131I in land-applied sludge presents few

  3. Geohydrology and limnology of Walden Pond, Concord, Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Colman, John A.; Friesz, Paul J.

    2001-01-01

    The trophic ecology and ground-water contributing area of Walden Pond, in Concord and Lincoln, Mass., were investigated by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Management from April 1997 to July 2000. Bathymetric investigation indicated that Walden Pond (24.88 hectares), a glacial kettle-hole lake with no surface inlet or outlet, has three deep areas. The maximum depth (30.5 meters) essentially was unchanged from measurements made by Henry David Thoreau in 1846. The groundwater contributing area (621,000 square meters) to Walden Pond was determined from water-table contours in areas of stratified glacial deposits and from land-surface contours in areas of bedrock highs. Walden Pond is a flow-through lake: Walden Pond gains water from the aquifer along its eastern perimeter and loses water to the aquifer along its western perimeter. Walden Pond contributing area also includes Goose Pond and its contributing area. A water budget calculated for Walden Pond, expressed as depth of water over the lake surface, indicated that 45 percent of the inflow to the lake was from precipitation (1.215 meters per year) and 55 percent from ground water (1.47 meters per year). The groundwater inflow estimate was based on the average of two different approaches including an isotope mass-balance approach. Evaporation accounted for 26 percent of the outflow from the lake (0.71 meters per year) whereas lake-water seepage to the groundwater system contributed 74 percent of the outflow (1.97 meters per year). The water-residence time of Walden Pond is approximately 5 years. Potential point sources of nutrients to ground water, the Concord municipal landfill and a trailer park, were determined to be outside the Walden Pond groundwater contributing area. A third source, the septic leach field for the Walden Pond State Reservation facilities, was within the groundwater contributing area. Nutrient budgets for the lake indicated that

  4. 33 CFR 159.121 - Sewage processing test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sewage processing test. 159.121 Section 159.121 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction, and Testing § 159.121 Sewage processing test....

  5. 33 CFR 159.121 - Sewage processing test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sewage processing test. 159.121 Section 159.121 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction, and Testing § 159.121 Sewage processing test....

  6. 33 CFR 159.121 - Sewage processing test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sewage processing test. 159.121 Section 159.121 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction, and Testing § 159.121 Sewage processing test....

  7. 33 CFR 159.121 - Sewage processing test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sewage processing test. 159.121 Section 159.121 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction, and Testing § 159.121 Sewage processing test....

  8. [Assessing environmental and economical benefits of integrated sewage treatment systems].

    PubMed

    Li, Jin-rong; Zhang, Xiao-hong; Zhang, Hang-bin; Pan, Heng-yu; Liu, Qiang

    2015-08-01

    Sewage treatment, treated water treatment and sludge treatment are three basic units of an integrated sewage treatment system. This work assessed the influence of reusing or discharge of treated water and sludge landfill or compost on the sustainability of an integrated sewage treatment system using emergy analysis and newly proposed emergy indicators. This system's value included its environmental benefits and the products. Environmental benefits were the differences of the environmental service values before and after sewage treatment. Due to unavailability of data of the exchanged substance and energy in the internal system, products' values were attained by newly proposed substitution values. The results showed that the combination of sewage treatment, treated water reuse and sludge landfill had the strongest competitiveness, while the combination of sewage treatment, treated water reuse and earthworm compost was the most sustainable. Moreover, treated water reuse and earthworm compost were helpful for improving the sustainability of the integrated sewage treatment system. The quality of treated water and local conditions should be also considered when implementing the treated water reuse or discharge. The resources efficiency of earthworm compost unit needed to be further improved. Improved emergy indices were more suitable for integrated sewage treatment systems.

  9. Credit PSR. Northeast and southwest facades of Sewage Pumping Station ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Credit PSR. Northeast and southwest facades of Sewage Pumping Station (Building 4330). Building retains its World War II construction materials and character. In the background at the extreme left is Building 4305 (Unicon Portable Hangar) - Edwards Air Force Base, North Base, Sewage Pumping Station, Southwest of E Street, Boron, Kern County, CA

  10. Coxiella burnetii in sewage water at sewage water treatment plants in a Q fever epidemic area.

    PubMed

    Schets, F M; de Heer, L; de Roda Husman, A M

    2013-11-01

    During 2007-2010, over 4000 persons in The Netherlands contracted Q-fever, a zoonosis caused by the bacterium Coxiella burnetii. Goats and sheep are the main reservoir of C. burnetti and infected animals shed the bacterium with their urine, faeces and birth products. Human infections may occur through direct contact with infected animals, or through inhalation of contaminated dust particles or aerosols. Discharge of waste water from Q fever contaminated goat farms may result in the presence of C. burnetii in sewage water and aerosols at sewage water treatment plants (SWTPs) which may pose a health risk for workers or neighbouring residents. The objectives of this study were to determine the presence of C. burnetii at SWTPs and to optimize available detection methods. In March-July 2011, sewage influent and aeration tank samples from four SWTPs receiving discharge from Q fever positive goat farms were examined by using a multiplex real-time PCR detecting C. burnetii DNA by targeting IS1111 and com1 genes. Influent (44%; n=16/36) and active sludge (36%; n=13/36) samples were positive with low C. burnetii DNA content. Percentage positive samples per SWTP were 28-61%. Positive samples were most frequent in March 2011 and least frequent in May 2011. The presence of C. burnetii DNA in sewage water samples suggests that SWTPs receiving waste water from Q fever contaminated goat farms may contribute to the spread of C. burnetii to the environment. The low levels of C. burnetii DNA in sewage water during the decline of the Q fever outbreak in The Netherlands in 2011 indicate a low health risk for SWTP workers and residents.

  11. Genotoxic and mutagenic effects of sewage sludge on higher plants.

    PubMed

    Corrêa Martins, Maria Nilza; de Souza, Victor Ventura; Souza, Tatiana da Silva

    2016-02-01

    Sewage treatment yields sludge, which is often used as a soil amendment in agriculture and crop production. Although the sludge contains elevated concentrations of macro and micronutrients, high levels of inorganic and organic compounds with genotoxic and mutagenic properties are present in sludge. Application of sludge in agriculture is a pathway for direct contact of crops to toxic chemicals. The objective of this study was to compile information related to the genotoxic and mutagenic effects of sewage sludge in different plant species. In addition, data are presented on toxicological effects in animals fed with plants grown in soils supplemented with sewage sludge. Despite the benefits of using sewage sludge as organic fertilizer, the data showcased in this review suggest that this residue can induce genetic damage in plants. This review alerts potential risks to health outcomes after the intake of food cultivated in sewage sludge-amended soils.

  12. The effect of bioleaching on sewage sludge pyrolysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhihua; Hu, Mian; Cui, Baihui; Liu, Shiming; Guo, Dabin; Xiao, Bo

    2016-02-01

    The effects of bioleaching on sewage sludge pyrolysis were studied. Sewage sludge was treated by bioleaching with solid concentrations of 6% (w/v), 8% (w/v), 10% (w/v). Results showed that bioleaching treatment could modify the physicochemical properties of sewage sludge and enhance the metals removal. The optimum removal efficiencies of heavy metals were achieved with solid concentration of 6% (w/v) bioleaching treatment: Cu, 73.08%; Zn, 78.67%; Pb, 24.65%; Cd, 79.46%. The characterization results of thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) showed that the bioleached sewage sludge with a 6% (w/v) solid concentration treatment was the easiest to decompose. Pyrolytic experiments of bioleached sewage sludge were performed in a laboratory-scale fixed bed reactor. Results indicated that bioleaching treatment greatly influenced the product yields and gas composition.

  13. Occupational hepatitis B virus infection in sewage workers.

    PubMed

    Arvanitidou, M; Constantinidis, T C; Doutsos, J; Mandraveli, K; Katsouyannopoulos, V

    1998-01-01

    In a cross-sectional study the employees of a Sewage Company were tested for hepatitis B virus (HBV) markers--HBsAg, anti-HBs, anti-HBc--to determine the prevalence of HBV infection and assess the risk of exposed sewage workers becoming infected, so as to evaluate the necessity for appropriate vaccination. The overall prevalence of HBV markers was 43.9% and 6.6% of the employees were HBsAg carriers. In the univariate analysis the prevalence of past and current infection was significantly associated with exposure to sewage (p < 0.001), age (p < 0.001) and with educational level (p < 0.001). However, the logistic regression analysis confirmed that only exposure to sewage was independently associated with positivity for HBV infection (p < 0.001). Workers exposed to sewage should therefore be considered for vaccination against hepatitis B virus.

  14. Rural sewage treatment processing in Yongjia County, Zhejiang Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, W. H.; Kuan, T. H.

    2016-08-01

    Issues regarding water pollution in rural areas of China have garnered increased attention over the years. Further discussion on the circumstances and results of existing domestic sewage treatment methods may serve as an appropriate reference in solving these important issues. This article explored the current conditions of water contamination in rural areas of China, introduced the characteristics and effects of applicable sewage treatment technology, and summarized the results of the planning, installation, and operation of rural sewage treatment facilities in Yongjia County in Zhejiang Province. However, relying on a single technical design rule is not adequate for solving the practical problems that these villages face. Instead, methods of planning rural sewage treatment should be adapted to better suit local conditions and different residential forms. It is crucial, ultimately, for any domestic sewage treatment system in a rural area to be commissioned, engineered, and maintained by a market-oriented professional company.

  15. Sorption of lead by settling pond soils after reclamation treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asensio, Verónica; Forján, Rubén; Vega, Flora A.; Andrade, Luisa; Covelo, Emma F.

    2013-04-01

    The reclamation of degraded soils adding waste amendments can add significant concentrations of Pb. Because of this, it is important to know the sorption capacity of Pb by the soils where wastes with high concentrations of this metal are applied. To determine the sorption capacity of Pb by mine soils, before and after reclamation treatments, four different sites were selected at a settling pond mine zone: an untreated one as the control sample (B1), a vegetated one with pines for 21 years (B2v), a vegetated with eucalyptus for 6 years (B3v) and an amended with sewage sludges and paper mill residues for 5 months (B4w). All soils had one horizon except B4w, where twice were sampled (B4Aw and B4Bw). The B4Bw is considered analogous of the control soil. To evaluate the sorption capacity by the soils, sorption isotherms were constructed using single-metal solutions of Pb2+ nitrates (0.03, 0.05, 0.08, 0.1 and 0.5 mmol L-1) containing 0.01 M NaNO3 as background electrolyte (Vega et al., 2009). The overall capacity of the soil to sorb Pb was evaluated as the slope Kr (Vega et al., 2008). The obtained results show that the sorption isotherm of Pb by control soil (B1) and its analogous (B4Bw) are of L-type curve, whereas the sorption isotherms of the treated soils (B2v, B3v and B4Aw) are of H-type curve (Giles et al., 1974). The most of the obtained isotherms do not fit with the models of Langmuir or Freundlich, therefore sorption capacity was evaluated by Kr parameter. According to the obtained Kr parameter, B1 and B4Bw have the lowest Pb sorption capacity (Kr = 0.480 and 0.556, respectively), which increased two times after recently waste amending (B4Aw; Kr = 0.998). The vegetated sites (B2v and B3v) also have higher sorption capacity than B1, but lower than B4Aw (Kr = 0.692 and 0.725, respectively). The highest sorption capacity of Pb by the amended soil is due to its characteristics such as high pH and organic carbon content. This is corroborated by the significantly

  16. Vitrification as an alternative to landfilling of tannery sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Celary, Piotr; Sobik-Szołtysek, Jolanta

    2014-12-01

    Due to high content of heavy metals such as chromium, tannery sewage sludge is a material which is difficult to be biologically treated as it is in the case of organic waste. Consequently, a common practice in managing tannery sewage sludge is landfilling. This poses a potential threat to both soil and water environments and it additionally generates costs of construction of landfills that meet specific environment protection requirements. Vitrification of this kind of sewage sludge with the addition of mineral wastes can represent an alternative to landfilling. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of obtaining an environmentally safe product by means of vitrification of tannery sewage sludge from a flotation wastewater treatment process and chemical precipitation in order to address the upcoming issue of dealing with sewage sludge from the tannery industry which will be prohibited to be landfilled in Poland after 2016. The focus was set on determining mixtures of tannery sewage sludge with additives which would result in the lowest possible heavy metal leaching levels and highest hardness rating of the products obtained from their vitrification. The plasma vitrification process was carried out for mixtures with various amounts of additives depending on the type of sewage sludge used. Only the materials of waste character were used as additives. One finding of the study was an optimum content of mineral additives in vitrified mixture of 30% v/v waste molding sands with 20% v/v carbonate flotation waste from the zinc and lead industry for the formulations with flotation sewage sludge, and 45% v/v and 5% v/v, respectively, for precipitation sewage sludge. These combinations allowed for obtaining products with negligible heavy metal leaching levels and hardness similar to commercial glass, which suggests they could be potentially used as construction aggregate substitutes. Incineration of sewage sludge before the vitrification process lead to

  17. Treatment of oilfield produced water by waste stabilization ponds.

    PubMed

    Shpiner, R; Vathi, S; Stuckey, D C

    2007-01-01

    Produced water (PW) from oil wells can serve as an alternative water resource for agriculture if the main pollutants (hydrocarbons and heavy metals) can be removed to below irrigation standards. Waste stabilization ponds seem like a promising solution for PW treatment, especially in the Middle East where solar radiation is high and land is available. In this work, hydrocarbon removal from PW in a biological waste stabilization pond was examined at lab-scale followed by an intermittent slow sand filter. The system was run for 300 days and removed around 90% of the oil in the pond, and 95% after the sand filter. COD removal was about 80% in the pond effluent, and 85% after the filter. The system was tested under various operational modes and found to be stable to shock loads. Installation of oil booms and decantation of surface oil seem to be important in order to maintain good system performance over time.

  18. 2. VIEW OF POND B, LOOKING NORTHEAST FROM THE WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW OF POND B, LOOKING NORTHEAST FROM THE WEST SIDE OF THE SOURIS RIVER VALLEY, DUE SOUTH OF THE LOOKOUT TOWER - Upper Souris National Wildlife Refuge Dams, Souris River Basin, Foxholm, Surrey (England), ND

  19. 8. Environmental view facing northwest showing pond in relationship to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Environmental view facing northwest showing pond in relationship to house - John Bly House, East side of County Road 857, just north of intersection with Quarry Run Road, Cheat Neck, Monongalia County, WV

  20. [Reduction of radioactive cesium content in pond smelt by cooking].

    PubMed

    Nabeshi, Hiromi; Tsutsumi, Tomoaki; Hachisuka, Akiko; Matsuda, Rieko

    2013-01-01

    In Japan, seafood may be eaten raw or after having been cooked in diverse ways. Therefore, it is important to understand the effect of cooking on the extent of contamination with radioactive materials in order to avoid internal exposure to radioactive materials via seafood. In this study, we investigated the changes in radioactive cesium content in pond smelt cooked in four different ways: grilled, stewed (kanroni), fried and soaked (nanbanzuke). The radioactive cesium content in grilled, kanroni and fried pond smelt was almost unchanged compared with the uncooked state. In contrast, radioactive cesium content in nanbanzuke pond smelt was decreased by about 30%. Our result suggests that soaking cooked pond smelt in seasoning is an effective method of reducing the burden radioactive cesium.

  1. Using Stormwater Detention Ponds for Aquatic Science Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cahoon, Lawrence B.

    1996-01-01

    Describes the use of recently constructed stormwater detention ponds to conduct a set of field and laboratory exercises in an undergraduate limnology course. Provides a number of logistical advantages that can benefit those teaching aquatic sciences. (JRH)

  2. 5. UPSTREAM (WEST) VIEW OF SPILLWAY, WITH COOKE DAM POND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. UPSTREAM (WEST) VIEW OF SPILLWAY, WITH COOKE DAM POND IN FOREGROUND AND NORTH EMBANKMENT (MI-98-A) AT LEFT. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Cooke Hydroelectric Plant, Spillway, Cook Dam Road at Au Sable River, Oscoda, Iosco County, MI

  3. 10. VIEW OF THE SEDIMENT DAM AND POND, FACING SOUTH. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. VIEW OF THE SEDIMENT DAM AND POND, FACING SOUTH. PHOTO TAKEN FROM WATER PUMP (FEATURE B-25). - Nevada Lucky Tiger Mill & Mine, East slope of Buckskin Mountain, Paradise Valley, Humboldt County, NV

  4. VIEW WEST FROM BEHIND ISLAND AND INFIELD POND. EAST FACADE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW WEST FROM BEHIND ISLAND AND INFIELD POND. EAST FACADE OF CLUBHOUSE AND PORTION OF GRANDSTANDS IN BACKGROUND. FLAMINGOS IN FOREGROUND: CD-W. - Hialeah Park Race Track, East Fourth Avenue, Hialeah, Miami-Dade County, FL

  5. South Bay Salt Pond Tidal Wetland Restoration Phase II Planning

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Information about the SFBWQP South Bay Salt Pond Tidal Wetland Restoration Phase II Planning project, part of an EPA competitive grant program to improve SF Bay water quality focused on restoring impaired waters and enhancing aquatic re

  6. South Bay Salt Pond Restoration, Phase II at Ravenswood

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Information about the South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project: Phase II Construction at Ravenswood, part of an EPA competitive grant program to improve SF Bay water quality focused on restoring impaired waters and enhancing aquatic resources.

  7. Beyond Historical Fiction: Speare's "The Witch of Blackbird Pond."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thuente, Mary Helen

    1985-01-01

    Reviews "The Witch of Blackbird Pond" by E. Speare to show how the full narrative power of the novel derives from the author's successful integration of two separate narrative genres: historical fiction and the folktale. (EL)

  8. 54. View of footbridge from Wings Rest Pond looking from ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    54. View of footbridge from Wings Rest Pond looking from the east (similar to HALS no. LA-1-24) - Briarwood: The Caroline Dormon Nature Preserve, 216 Caroline Dormon Road, Saline, Bienville Parish, LA

  9. 52. View of "grandpappy" tree with Wings Rest Pond in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    52. View of "grandpappy" tree with Wings Rest Pond in background looking from the northeast (similar to HALS no. LA-1-22) - Briarwood: The Caroline Dormon Nature Preserve, 216 Caroline Dormon Road, Saline, Bienville Parish, LA

  10. 53. View of Wings Rest Pond with reflection of "grandpappy" ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    53. View of Wings Rest Pond with reflection of "grandpappy" looking from the southwest (similar to HALS no. LA-1-23) - Briarwood: The Caroline Dormon Nature Preserve, 216 Caroline Dormon Road, Saline, Bienville Parish, LA

  11. Determining surface meltwater pond volume using satellite imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sneed, W. A.; Hamilton, G. S.

    2006-12-01

    Ponded surface meltwater on Arctic ice caps and ice sheets is an important glaciological and climatological characteristic. Changes in the distribution and amount of ponds with time represent changes in the surface climate conditions controlling melting. The availability of large volumes of ponded surface water raises the possibility of sudden drainage to the bed, a change in basal lubrication, and a rapid increase in ice velocity. While the problem of calculating the areal extent of meltwater ponds using satellite imagery is fairly straightforward, determining the depth and thus the volume is not. We describe a method for deriving the depth of meltwater ponds using 15 m resolution ASTER imagery. We apply the technique to sequences of satellite imagery acquired over Austfonna, Svalbard and the western margin of the Greenland Ice Sheet, to derive changes in melt pond extent and volume during the period 2000-2005. These changes are probably related to accumulation and summer melt conditions. The method is well-suited to the near-optically-clear melt ponds of ice sheets and ice caps, but not to the turbid ponds of alpine glaciers. The method involves making some reasonable assumptions about the albedo of the bottom surface of the ponds and the optical attenuation characteristics of ASTER bands VNIR1 and VNIR3 through the ponded meltwater. Preliminary laboratory analysis of ponded meltwater from Greenland supports our assumption that such water contains little or no chlorophyll A with minimal levels of suspended organic and inorganic solids and, to a first approximation, can be consider laboratory-pure fresh water. For an ~78 km2 test area in northeastern Austfonna we have calculated a threefold increase in meltwater volume during one six-day period in July 2004. In northwestern Greenland, an ~171 km2 area near Melville Bay in July 2002 had a volume of surface meltwater of nearly 2x10^7 m3; in August 2005 the same area had a volume of 3.7x10^7 m3 of surface meltwater.

  12. Dissolved organic matter photolysis in Canadian arctic thaw ponds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laurion, Isabelle; Mladenov, Natalie

    2013-09-01

    The abundant thaw lakes and ponds in the circumarctic receive a new pool of organic carbon as permafrost peat soils degrade, which can be exposed to significant irradiance that potentially increases as climate warms and ice cover shortens. Exposure to sunlight is known to accelerate the transformation of dissolved organic matter (DOM) into molecules that can be more readily used by microbes. We sampled the water from two common classes of ponds found in the ice-wedge system of continuous permafrost regions of Canada, polygonal and runnel ponds, and followed the transformation of DOM over 12 days by looking at dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration and DOM absorption and fluorescence properties. The results indicate a relatively fast decay of color (3.4 and 1.6% loss d-1 of absorption at 320 nm for the polygonal and runnel pond, respectively) and fluorescence (6.1 and 8.3% loss d-1 of total fluorescent components, respectively) at the pond surface, faster in the case of humic-like components, but insignificant losses of DOC over the observed period. This result indicates that direct DOM mineralization (photochemical production of CO2) is apparently minor in thaw ponds compared to the photochemical transformation of DOM into less chromophoric and likely more labile molecules with a greater potential for microbial mineralization. Therefore, DOM photolysis in arctic thaw ponds can be considered as a catalytic mechanism, accelerating the microbial turnover of mobilized organic matter from thawing permafrost and the production of greenhouse gases, especially in the most shallow ponds. Under a warming climate, this mechanism will intensify as summers lengthen.

  13. Formation of the "ponds" on asteroid (433) Eros by fluidization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sears, D. W. G.; Tornabene, L. L.; Osinski, G. R.; Hughes, S. S.; Heldmann, J. L.

    2015-11-01

    The "ponds" on asteroid (433) Eros are fine-grained deposits approximating flat (quasi-equipotential) surfaces with respect to local topographic depressions (e.g., craters) in spacecraft images. These ponds are discussed in the context of laboratory simulation experiments, crater-related ponded and pitted deposits observed on Mars and Vesta, terrestrial phreatic craters, and degassing features associated with eroded impact craters on Earth. While the details of formation of these features on Mars, Vesta and the Earth are thought to be different, they all include mechanisms that require the interactions between surface materials and volatiles (e.g., water vapor). Indeed, analogous features similar to the Eros ponds can be reproduced in the laboratory by the release of vapor (ice sublimation, water evaporation, or N2) through an unconsolidated regolith (independent of regolith composition). Eros is widely thought to be dry, but the discovery of exogenic water on Vesta, and recent arguments that subsurface water might be present in the inner asteroid belt suggest that endogenic water might also be present and serve as a source of the gases produced in the ponds. The amount of water required is comparable to the amount of water observed in little-metamorphosed ordinary chondrites (a few wt%). The primary morphologic characteristics of the Eros ponds can be explained in this model. The heat source for degassing could have been solar heating following transfer from a main belt orbit to a near Earth orbit. Although other hypotheses (e.g., electrostatic levitation, seismic shaking, and comminution of boulders) can account for most of the features of the ponds, recent observations regarding the role of volatiles on planetary surfaces, our laboratory experiments, and fluidization deposits on active comets suggests that degassing is a reasonable hypothesis to be considered and further tested for explaining the Eros ponds, and similar features on other bodies.

  14. Level 1 remedial investigation work plan, 300 Area Process Ponds

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-06-01

    This report discusses the objectives of the site characterization for the 300 Area Process Ponds which are to identify and quantify contamination at the ponds and to estimate their potential impact on human health and the environment. The results of the site characterization will be used to identify any future actions related to contamination at the site and to identify any additional data requirements needed to support selection of a remedial action. 9 refs., 12 figs., 8 tabs.

  15. International cooling-tower and spray pond symposium

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-01

    This document contains the manuscripts of sixty-one papers that were presented at the 7th Cooling Tower and Spray Pond Symposium of the International Association for Hydraulic Research, organized by the B.E. Vedeneev Institute (VNIIG) and held in Leningrad, USSR, in June 1990. This report represents a worldwide state-of-the-art survey of recent work on cooling towers and spray ponds. Individual papers are indexed separately on the energy database.

  16. Microplastics in Sewage Sludge: Effects of Treatment.

    PubMed

    Mahon, A M; O'Connell, B; Healy, M G; O'Connor, I; Officer, R; Nash, R; Morrison, L

    2017-01-17

    Waste water treatment plants (WWTPs) are receptors for the cumulative loading of microplastics (MPs) derived from industry, landfill, domestic wastewater and stormwater. The partitioning of MPs through the settlement processes of wastewater treatment results in the majority becoming entrained in the sewage sludge. This study characterized MPs in sludge samples from seven WWTPs in Ireland which use anaerobic digestion (AD), thermal drying (TD), or lime stabilization (LS) treatment processes. Abundances ranged from 4196 to 15 385 particles kg(-1) (dry weight). Results of a general linear mixed model (GLMM) showed significantly higher abundances of MPs in smaller size classes in the LS samples, suggesting that the treatment process of LS shears MP particles. In contrast, lower abundances of MPs found in the AD samples suggests that this process may reduce MP abundances. Surface morphologies examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed characteristics of melting and blistering of TD MPs and shredding and flaking of LS MPs. This study highlights the potential for sewage sludge treatment processes to affect the risk of MP pollution prior to land spreading and may have implications for legislation governing the application of biosolids to agricultural land.

  17. Phosphate fertilizer from sewage sludge ash (SSA).

    PubMed

    Franz, M

    2008-01-01

    Ashes from sewage sludge incineration are rich in phosphorus content, ranging between 4% and 9%. Due to the current methods of disposal used for these ashes, phosphorus, which is a valuable plant nutrient, is removed from biological cycling. This article proposes the possible three-stage processing of SSA, whereby more than 90% of phosphorus can be extracted to make an adequate phosphate fertilizer. SSA from two Swiss sewage sludge incinerators was used for laboratory investigations. In an initial step, SSA was leached with sulfuric acid using a liquid-to-solid ratio of 2. The leaching time and pH required for high phosphorus dissolution were determined. Inevitably, dissolution of heavy metals takes place that would contaminate the fertilizer. Thus in a second step, leach solution has to be purified by having the heavy metals removed. Both ion exchange using chelating resins and sulfide precipitation turned out to be suitable for removing critical Cu, Ni and Cd. Thirdly, phosphates were precipitated as calcium phosphates with lime water. The resulting phosphate sludge was dewatered, dried and ground to get a powdery fertilizer whose efficacy was demonstrated by plant tests in a greenhouse. By measuring the weight of plants after 6 weeks of growth, fertilized in part with conventional phosphate fertilizer, fertilizer made from SSA was proven to be equal in its plant uptake efficiency.

  18. Microwave oxidation treatment of sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Lo, Kwang V; Srinivasan, Asha; Liao, Ping H; Bailey, Sam

    2015-01-01

    Microwave-oxidation treatment of sewage sludge using various oxidants was studied. Two treatment schemes with a combination of hydrogen peroxide and ozone were examined: hydrogen peroxide and ozone were introduced into the sludge simultaneously, followed by microwave heating. The other involved the ozonation first, and then the resulting solution was subjected to microwave and hydrogen peroxide treatment. The set with ozonation followed by hydrogen peroxide plus microwave heating yielded higher soluble materials than those of the set with hydrogen peroxide plus ozone first and then microwave treatment. No settling was observed for all treatments in the batch operation, except ozone/microwave plus hydrogen peroxide set at 120°C. The pilot-scale continuous-flow 915 MHz microwave study has demonstrated that microwave-oxidation process is feasible for real-time industrial application. It would help in providing key data for the design of a full-scale system for treating sewage sludge and the formulation of operational protocols.

  19. Complete survey of German sewage sludge ash.

    PubMed

    Krüger, Oliver; Grabner, Angela; Adam, Christian

    2014-10-21

    The amount of sewage sludge produced worldwide is expected to further increase due to rising efforts in wastewater treatment. There is a growing concern against its direct use as fertilizer due to contamination of the sludge with heavy metals and organic pollutants. Incinerating the sludge degrades organic compounds almost completely and concentrates heavy metals and phosphorus. However, the sewage sludge ash (SSA) is almost completely disposed of and with it all resources are removed from the economic cycle. Comprehensive knowledge of the composition of SSA is crucial to assess the resource recovery potentials. We conducted a survey of all SSA emerging in Germany and determined the respective mass fractions of 57 elements over a period of one year. The median content of phosphorus was 7.9%, indicating an important recovery potential. Important trace elements were Zn (2.5 g/kg), Mn (1.3 g/kg), and Cu (0.9 g/kg). Mass fractions of technology metals such as V, Cr, Ga, Nb, and rare earths were comparatively low. Considering the possible use of SSA as secondary raw material for fertilizer production it should be noted that its Cd and U content (2.7 mg/kg and 4.9 mg/kg respectively) is significantly lower than that of rock phosphate based mineral fertilizers.

  20. Supercritical water pyrolysis of sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Ma, Wenchao; Du, Guiyue; Li, Jian; Fang, Yuanhao; Hou, Li'an; Chen, Guanyi; Ma, Degang

    2017-01-01

    Municipal sewage sludge (SS) from wastewater treatment plant containing high water content (>85wt.%), lead to the difficulty of co-combustion with MSW or coal due to the high cost of drying. This study explores an alternative method by supercritical water (SCW) pyrolysis of sewage sludge (SS) in a high pressure reaction vessel. The effects of temperature and moisture content of SS on yield and composition of the products (bio-oil, bio char and non-condensable gas) were studied. A temperature of 385°C and moisture content of 85wt.% were found to be the optimum conditions for the maximum bio-oil production of 37.23wt.%, with a higher heating value of 31.08MJ/kg. In the optimum condition, the yields of aliphatic hydrocarbon and phenols were about 29.23wt.% and 12.51wt.%, respectively. The physical and chemical properties of bio-char were analyzed by using XRF and BET. Results of GC analyses of NCG showed that it has the maximum HHV of 13.39MJ/m(3) at 445°C and moisture content of 85wt.%. The reaction path from SS to bio-oil through SCW pyrolysis was given. Moreover, carbon balance was calculated for the optimal condition, and finding out that 64.27wt.% of the carbon content was transferred from SS to bio-oil. Finally, this work demonstrates that the SCW pyrolysis is a promising disposal method for SS.

  1. 2101-M pond closure plan. Volume 1, Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    Izatt, R. D.; Lerch, R. E.

    1993-06-01

    This document describes activities for the closure of a surface impoundment (2101-M Pond) at the Hanford Site. The 2101-H Pond was initially constructed in 1953 to serve as a drainage collection area for the 2101-H Building. (Until the Basalt Waste Isolation Project (BWIP) Laboratory was constructed in the 2101-M Building in 1979--1981, the only source contributing discharge to the pond was condensate water from the 2101-H Building heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system. The drains for the BWIP Laboratory rooms were plumbed into a 4-in., cast-iron, low-pressure drain pipe that carries waste water from the HVAC system to the pond. During the active life of the BWIP Laboratory, solutions of dissolved barium in groundwater samples were discharged to the 2101-M Pond via the laboratory drains. As a result of the discharges, a Part A permit application was initially submitted to the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) in August 1986 which designates the 2101-M Pond as a surface impoundment.

  2. Acidification as environmental pollution: effects on fish-pond ecology

    SciTech Connect

    Murad, H.A.

    1987-01-01

    To establish the impact of acidity on fish production in ponds, experiments were conducted in fertilized sunfish (Lepomis spp.) ponds and fed channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) ponds. The alkalinity and pH of pond water were lowered by additions of H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/. Total alkalinity levels were 1, 3, 6, 8, and 20 mg/liter in sunfish ponds and 0, 5, and 20 in catfish production ponds. Water quality and phytoplankton density were monitored. The decrease in alkalinity caused changes in fish production and phytoplankton communities. Production of sunfish decreased with decreasing alkalinity below 20 mg/liter. Channel catfish yields were not affected significantly at a total alkalinity of 5 mg/liter and above (P > 0.05). No sign of fish stress of aluminum accumulation in the tissue were detected in catfish. There was no relation between alkalinity level and off-flavor in catfish. Chlorophyll a concentration increased as alkalinity and pH decreased, although total number of phytoplankters, gross photosynthesis, and turbidity decreased with decreases in total alkalinity. Phosphorus was more available at low alkalinity levels. Total hardness increased as alkalinity decreased.

  3. Effectiveness of an urban runoff detention pond - Wetlands system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martin, E.H.

    1988-01-01

    The effectiveness of an urban detention system, composed of a detention pond and wetlands in series, in reducing constituent loads carried in runoff was determined. The detention pond was effective in reducing loads of suspended solids and suspended metals. Suspended-phase efficiencies for solids, lead, and zinc ranged between 42 and 66%. Nutrient efficiencies were variable, ranging for all species and phases, from less than 0 to 72%. The wetlands generally was effective in reducing both suspended and dissolved loads of solids and metals. Total (dissolved + suspended) solids, lead, and zinc efficiencies ranged between 41 and 73%. Efficiencies for total nitrogen and phosphorus were 21 and 17%, respectively. The system, by combining the treatment of the pond of wetlands, was very effective in reducing loads of most constituents. Total solids, lead, and zinc efficiencies ranged between 55 and 83%. Total nitrogen and phosphorus efficiencies were 36 and 43%, respectively.The effectiveness of an urban detention system, composed of a detention pond and wetlands in series, in reducing constituent loads carried in runoff was determined. The detention pond was effective in reducing loads of suspended solids and suspended metals. Nutrient efficiencies were variable, ranging for all species and phases, from less than 0 to 72 percent. The wetlands generally was effective in reducing both suspended and dissolved loads of solids and metals. The system, by combining the treatment of the pond and wetlands, was very effective in reducing loads of most constituents.

  4. Enhancing Ecoefficiency in Shrimp Farming through Interconnected Ponds.

    PubMed

    Barraza-Guardado, Ramón Héctor; Arreola-Lizárraga, José Alfredo; Miranda-Baeza, Anselmo; Juárez-García, Manuel; Juvera-Hoyos, Antonio; Casillas-Hernández, Ramón

    2015-01-01

    The future development of shrimp farming needs to improve its ecoefficiency. The purpose of this study was to evaluate water quality, flows, and nitrogen balance and production parameters on a farm with interconnected pond design to improve the efficiency of the semi-intensive culture of Litopenaeus vannamei ponds. The study was conducted in 21 commercial culture ponds during 180 days at densities of 30-35 ind m(-2) and daily water exchange <2%. Our study provides evidence that by interconnecting ponds nutrient recycling is favored by promoting the growth of primary producers of the pond as chlorophyll a. Based on the mass balance and flow of nutrients this culture system reduces the flow of solid, particulate organic matter, and nitrogen compounds to the environment and significantly increases the efficiency of water (5 to 6.5 m(3) kg(-1) cycle(-1)), when compared with traditional culture systems. With this culture system it is possible to recover up to 34% of the total nitrogen entering the system, with production in excess of 4,000 kg ha(-1) shrimp. We believe that the production system with interconnected ponds is a technically feasible model to improve ecoefficiency production of shrimp farming.

  5. Enhancing Ecoefficiency in Shrimp Farming through Interconnected Ponds

    PubMed Central

    Barraza-Guardado, Ramón Héctor; Arreola-Lizárraga, José Alfredo; Miranda-Baeza, Anselmo; Juárez-García, Manuel; Juvera-Hoyos, Antonio; Casillas-Hernández, Ramón

    2015-01-01

    The future development of shrimp farming needs to improve its ecoefficiency. The purpose of this study was to evaluate water quality, flows, and nitrogen balance and production parameters on a farm with interconnected pond design to improve the efficiency of the semi-intensive culture of Litopenaeus vannamei ponds. The study was conducted in 21 commercial culture ponds during 180 days at densities of 30–35 ind m−2 and daily water exchange <2%. Our study provides evidence that by interconnecting ponds nutrient recycling is favored by promoting the growth of primary producers of the pond as chlorophyll a. Based on the mass balance and flow of nutrients this culture system reduces the flow of solid, particulate organic matter, and nitrogen compounds to the environment and significantly increases the efficiency of water (5 to 6.5 m3 kg−1 cycle−1), when compared with traditional culture systems. With this culture system it is possible to recover up to 34% of the total nitrogen entering the system, with production in excess of 4,000 kg ha−1 shrimp. We believe that the production system with interconnected ponds is a technically feasible model to improve ecoefficiency production of shrimp farming. PMID:26525070

  6. PAR for the Course: A Congruent Pedagogical Approach for a PAR Methods Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammond, Joyce D.; Hicks, Maria; Kalman, Rowenn; Miller, Jason

    2005-01-01

    In the past two years, three graduate students and a senior faculty member have co-taught a participatory action research (PAR) course to undergraduate and graduate students. In this article the co-teachers advocate a set of pedagogical principles and practices in a PAR-oriented classroom that establishes congruency with community PAR projects in…

  7. Actinide behavior in a freshwater pond

    SciTech Connect

    Trabalka, J.R.; Bogle, M.A.; Scott, T.G.

    1983-01-01

    Long-term investigations of solution chemistry in an alkaline freshwater pond have revealed that actinide oxidation state behavior, particularly that of plutonium, is complex. The Pu(V,VI) fraction was predominant in solution, but it varied over the entire range reported from other natural aquatic environments, in this case, as a result of intrinsic biological and chemical cycles (redox and pH-dependent phenomena). A strong positive correlation between plutonium (Pu), but not uranium (U), and hydroxyl ion over the observation period, especially when both were known to be in higher oxidation states, was particularly notable. Coupled with other examples of divergent U and Pu behavior, this result suggests that Pu(V), or perhaps a mixture of Pu(V,VI), was the prevalent oxidation state in solution. Observations of trivalent actinide sorption behavior during an algal bloom, coupled with the association with a high-molecular weight (nominally 6000 to 10,000 mol wt) organic fraction in solution, indicate that solution-detritus cycling of organic carbon, in turn, may be the primary mechanism in amercium-curium (Am-Cm) cycling. Sorption by sedimentary materials appears to predominate over other factors controlling effective actinide solubility and may explain, at least partially, the absence of an expected strong positive correlation between carbonate and dissolved U. 49 references, 6 figures, 12 tables.

  8. Nitrogen removal in recirculated duckweed ponds system.

    PubMed

    Benjawan, L; Koottatep, T

    2007-01-01

    Duckweed-based ponds (DWBPs) have the potential for nitrogen (N) removal from wastewater; however, operational problems such as duckweed die-off regularly occur. In this study, effluent recirculation was applied to the DWBPs to solve the above problem as well as to investigate N removal mechanisms. Two pilot scale recirculated DWBPs were employed to treat municipal wastewater. The average removal efficiencies for TN, TKN and NH4-N were 75%, 89% and 92%, respectively at TN loading of 1.3 g/m2.d and were 73%, 74% and 76%, respectively at TN loading of 3.3 g/m2.d. The effluent of the system under both operational conditions had stable quality and met the effluent standard. Duckweed die-off was not observed during the study, which proves the system stability and effluent recirculation which is thought to be a reason. N-mass balance revealed that nitrification-denitrification and duckweed uptake play major roles in these recirculated DWBPs. The rates of nitrification-denitrification were increased as TN loading was higher, which might be an influence from an abundance of N and a suitable condition. The rates of N uptake by duckweed were found similar and did not depend on the higher TN loading applied, as the duckweed has limited capacity to assimilate it.

  9. Compost treatment of contaminated pond sediment

    SciTech Connect

    Francis, M.; Gukert, D. |

    1995-12-31

    This paper summarizes an experiment involving compost treatment of pond sediment contaminated with hydrocarbons. Experimental variables included the size, shape, and aeration of the compost pile. Pile temperature measurements and hydrocarbon analyses were made periodically. Temperatures in the pyramid shaped compost piles rose quickly and remained elevated above ambient for about one month; during this period, hydrocarbon loss from the piles was greatest. The flat pile did not show elevated temperatures at any time, and total hydrocarbon losses by volatilization were 19.1 g. Total losses from the passively aerated pile were 1.02 g, while the actively aerated pile had losses of 0.08 g. Individual identified component compounds in the sediment included polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Final levels were in the 2 to 20 ppM range compared to 100 to 400 ppM in the original sediment. Composting removed PAH components and other light organics, and the composted material can be stored onsite or landfilled without leaching concerns.

  10. Presence of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in sewage treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Boopathy, Raj

    2017-02-23

    The presence of antibiotic resistant bacteria and antibiotic resistance genes in rural sewage treatment plants are not well reported in the literature. The aim of the present study was to study the frequency occurrence of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in a rural sewage treatment plant. This study was conducted using raw sewage as well as treated sewage from a small town sewage treatment plant in rural southeast Louisiana of USA. Results showed the presence of MRSA consistently in both raw and treated sewage. The presence of mecA gene responsible for methicillin resistance was confirmed in the raw and treated sewage water samples.

  11. Identification of Comamonas testosteroni as an androgen degrader in sewage

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yi-Lung; Wang, Chia-Hsiang; Yang, Fu-Chun; Ismail, Wael; Wang, Po-Hsiang; Shih, Chao-Jen; Wu, Yu-Ching; Chiang, Yin-Ru

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies have reported the masculinization of freshwater wildlife exposed to androgens in polluted rivers. Microbial degradation is a crucial mechanism for eliminating steroid hormones from contaminated ecosystems. The aerobic degradation of testosterone was observed in various bacterial isolates. However, the ecophysiological relevance of androgen-degrading microorganisms in the environment is unclear. Here, we investigated the biochemical mechanisms and corresponding microorganisms of androgen degradation in aerobic sewage. Sewage samples collected from the Dihua Sewage Treatment Plant (Taipei, Taiwan) were aerobically incubated with testosterone (1 mM). Androgen metabolite analysis revealed that bacteria adopt the 9, 10-seco pathway to degrade testosterone. A metagenomic analysis indicated the apparent enrichment of Comamonas spp. (mainly C. testosteroni) and Pseudomonas spp. in sewage incubated with testosterone. We used the degenerate primers derived from the meta-cleavage dioxygenase gene (tesB) of various proteobacteria to track this essential catabolic gene in the sewage. The amplified sequences showed the highest similarity (87–96%) to tesB of C. testosteroni. Using quantitative PCR, we detected a remarkable increase of the 16S rRNA and catabolic genes of C. testosteroni in the testosterone-treated sewage. Together, our data suggest that C. testosteroni, the model microorganism for aerobic testosterone degradation, plays a role in androgen biodegradation in aerobic sewage. PMID:27734937

  12. Do concentrations of pharmaceuticals in sewage reflect prescription figures?

    PubMed

    van Nuijs, Alexander L N; Covaci, Adrian; Beyers, Herman; Bervoets, Lieven; Blust, Ronny; Verpooten, Gert; Neels, Hugo; Jorens, Philippe G

    2015-06-01

    In recent years, it has been demonstrated that sewage-based epidemiology can deliver interesting information on trends in illicit drug consumption. However, until now, no real evidence exists that the measured concentrations of drugs in sewage can be exactly correlated with the amounts of drugs used by a specific population. This study aimed therefore at correlating detailed monthly prescription figures of 11 pharmaceuticals (atenolol, bisoprolol, citalopram, fluoxetine, venlafaxine, losartan, telmisartan, valsartan, carbamazepine, metformin, and tramadol) with measured concentrations of these compounds in influent sewage from five sewage treatment plants in Belgium. For 7 out of the 11 substances, a ratio between loads calculated from the prescription figures and loads calculated from measured concentrations in the range of 0.30-3.00 was observed. For four pharmaceuticals (atenolol, bisoprolol, telmisartan, and venlafaxine), the observed relationship was less pronounced. The manuscript gives an overview of the possible uncertainties that are related with the calculated correlations. This study highlights the need for gathering all the necessary information regarding sewage sampling, stability of substances in sewage, pharmacokinetics, and analytical method performance when sewage-based epidemiology studies are performed.

  13. Direct Experimental Assessment of Microbial Activity in North Pond Sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferdelman, T. G.; Picard, A.; Morando, M.; Ziebis, W.

    2009-12-01

    North Pond, an isolated sediment pond located at 22°45’N on the western flank of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, offered the opportunity to study microbial activities in deeply-buried low-activity sediments. About 8 x 15 km in size with sediment maximum thickness of about 300 m, North Pond is completely surrounded by exposed 7 Ma old basement. North Pond lies above the carbonate compensation depth at a water depth about 4500 m; hydrostatic pressure at the seafloor is about 45 MPa and the temperature is near 2°C. During the a R/V MS Merian cruise (MSM-11/1) in February -March 2009, 14 gravity cores of up to 9 m length were successfully obtained, from which samples were taken with 1-m resolution for experimental activity measurements. The goal of the experimental work was 1) to examine potential metabolic pathways in North Pond sediments and carbon assimilation pathways in this low-energy environment, and 2) explore the effects of pressure on microbial metabolic activities. As dissolved oxygen penetrated through all depths, sediments were aerobically sampled, processed and incubated at 4°C. Selected samples were immediately stored at in situ pressure until further use. The microbial uptake of both organic and inorganic carbon in selected North Pond sediment samples was investigated by following the fate of 14C in radio-labeled organic and organic compounds in North Pond sediment slurry incubations. Shipboard and on-shore experiments using 14C-leucine, 14C-glucose and 14C-bicarbonate were performed on selected cores. Day- to month- incubations were performed at 4°C. Parallel incubations were conducted at atmospheric pressure (0.1 MPa) and in situ pressure (~45 MPa). Either whole cell extraction (Kallmeyer et al., Limnol. Oceanogr.: Methods 6, 2008, 238-245) or protein-DNA extraction was carried on after various incubations to determine the fraction of 14C incorporated into cellular components. Formation of 14C-labeled CO2 was determined on samples incubated with 14C

  14. Low cost reclamation using the Advanced Integrated Wastewater Pond Systems Technology and reverse osmosis.

    PubMed

    Downing, J B; Bracco, E; Green, F B; Ku, A Y; Lundquist, T J; Zubieta, I X; Oswald, W J

    2002-01-01

    The sustainability of wastewater reclamation and reuse schemes is often limited by the increase in salt concentration that occurs with each water use. In this pilot study, we show that the cost of reclaiming wastewater and removing salt can be dramatically decreased by integrating recent advances in wastewater pond design, solids separation equipment, and membrane technology. Effluent from an AIWPS Facility was clarified in a Krofta Supracell Dissolved Air Flotation (DAF) unit and a Slow Sand Filter (SSF) prior to final treatment in an Expertise S.r.l. reverse osmosis (RO) unit. The ponds of the AIWPS Facility removed an average of 82% of soluble BOD and 80% of soluble nitrogen. Following clarification, filtration, and RO treatment, the pollutant removals were > 99% for soluble BOD, > 99% for soluble nitrogen, and 98% for TDS. Based on membrane fouling rate data, the cleaning interval for the RO membranes in a full-scale AIWPS-RO Facility would be over 100 days. This interval is on par with that typically seen in full-scale reclamation facilities treating secondary activated sludge effluent with microfiltration prior to reverse osmosis. A 4-MLD AIWPS-RO Facility is expected to produce permeate water at substantially lower cost and lower energy consumption (US $698 and 443 kWh per million liters treated) than a system of equal capacity using conventional activated sludge secondary treatment followed by microfiltration and reverse osmosis (US $1274 and 911 kWh per million litres treated). This cost and energy differential is attributable to the lower capital and operating expenses of the AIWPS Technology in comparison with activated sludge.

  15. Individual variation affects departure rate from the natal pond in an ephemeral pond-breeding anuran

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chelgren, N.D.; Rosenberg, D.K.; Heppell, S.S.; Gitelman, A.I.

    2008-01-01

    Frogs exhibit extreme plasticity and individual variation in growth and behavior during metamorphosis, driven by interactions of intrinsic state factors and extrinsic environmental factors. In northern red-legged frogs (Rana aurora Baird and Girard, 1852), we studied the timing of departure from the natal pond as it relates to date and size of individuals at metamorphosis in the context of environmental uncertainty. To affect body size at metamorphosis, we manipulated food availability during the larval stage for a sample (317) of 1045 uniquely marked individuals and released them at their natal ponds as newly metamorphosed frogs. We recaptured 34% of marked frogs in pitfall traps as they departed and related the timing of their initial terrestrial movements to individual properties using a time-to-event model. Median age at first capture was 4 and 9 days postmetamorphosis at two sites. The rate of departure was positively related to body size and to date of metamorphosis. Departure rate was strongly negatively related to time elapsed since rainfall, and this effect was diminished for smaller and later metamorphosing frogs. Individual variation in metamorphic traits thus affects individuals' responses to environmental variability, supporting a behavioral link with variation in survival associated with these same metamorphic traits. ?? 2008 NRC.

  16. Metal transfer in vermicomposting of sewage sludge and plant wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Frank, R.; Klauck, C.; Stonefield, K.I.

    1983-12-01

    Sewage sludge is an urban waste that has a potential nutrient value for recycling into food production. A set of guidelines has been developed that prescribes the quality of sludge suitable for utilization on foodlands. A number of sewage sludges do not meet the criteria and are therefore not acceptable for direct foodland application. One of the options available for such sludges is the production of compost and one of these composting processes involves worms (vermicomposting). This study looks at a pilot vermicomposting operation and follows metal concentrations by batch lot from the sewage sludge to the final commercial product.

  17. Virus isolations from sewage and from a stream receiving effluents of sewage treatment plants*

    PubMed Central

    Grinstein, Saul; Melnick, Joseph L.; Wallis, Craig

    1970-01-01

    In order to detect viruses in sewage or streams, it is first necessary to concentrate the virus present in the fluid sample. Available methods are not readily manageable for concentrating virus from large volumes of fluid, and have not always yielded high recovery rates. In the study described in this paper, a method for concentration of viruses by adsorption on insoluble cross-linked maleic anhydride polyelectrolytes has been utilized to survey the viral flora of sewage and of a stream receiving sewage effluents, in a residential area of Houston, Texas. On a single day the virus flow at different points along the stream varied from 304 000 to 6 014 000 PFU/min. From 84 samples each of 1 US gal, 14 520 isolates were obtained, chiefly echovirus type 7 and polioviruses of all 3 types, some of them with characteristics of virulent wild strains. With virus isolation rates as high as those achieved, it is now possible to monitor virus in natural waters more effectively. PMID:4315865

  18. Comparison of phosphorus recovery from incinerated sewage sludge ash (ISSA) and pyrolysed sewage sludge char (PSSC).

    PubMed

    Kleemann, Rosanna; Chenoweth, Jonathan; Clift, Roland; Morse, Stephen; Pearce, Pete; Saroj, Devendra

    2017-02-01

    This research compares and contrasts the physical and chemical characteristics of incinerator sewage sludge ash (ISSA) and pyrolysis sewage sludge char (PSSC) for the purposes of recovering phosphorus as a P-rich fertiliser. Interest in P recovery from PSSC is likely to increase as pyrolysis is becoming viewed as a more economical method of sewage sludge thermal treatment compared to incineration. The P contents of ISSA and PSSC are 7.2-7.5% and 5.6%, respectively. Relative to the sludge, P concentrations are increased about 8-fold in ISSA, compared to roughly 3-fold in PSSC. Both PSSC and ISSA contain whitlockite, an unusual form of calcium phosphate, with PSSC containing more whitlockite than ISSA. Acid leaching experiments indicate that a liquid/solid ratio of 10 with 30min contact time is optimal to release PO4-P into leachate for both ISSA and PSSC. The proportion of P extracted from PSSC is higher due to its higher whitlockite content. Heavy metals are less soluble from PSSC because they are more strongly incorporated in the particles. The results suggest there is potential for the development of a process to recover P from PSSC.

  19. Pond permanence and the effects of exotic vertebrates on anurans

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adams, M.J.

    2000-01-01

    In many permanent ponds throughout western North America, the introduction of a variety of exotic fish and bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana) correlates with declines in native amphibians. Direct effects of exotics are suspected to be responsible for the rarity of some native amphibians and are one hypothesis to explain the prevalence of amphibian declines in western North America. However, the prediction that the permanent ponds occupied by exotics would be suitable for native amphibians if exotics were absent has not been tested. I used a series of enclosure experiments to test whether survival of northern red-legged frog (Rana aurora aurora) and Pacific treefrog (Hyla regilla) larvae is equal in permanent and temporary ponds in the Puget Lowlands, Washington State, USA. I also examined the direct effects of bullfrog larvae and sunfish. Survival of both species of native anuran larvae was generally lower in permanent ponds. Only one permanent pond out of six was an exception to this pattern and exhibited increased larval survival rates in the absence of direct effects by exotics. The presence of fish in enclosures reduced survival to near zero for both native species. An effect of bullfrog larvae on Pacific treefrog larval survival was not detected, but effects on red-legged frog larvae were mixed. A hypothesis that food limitation is responsible for the low survival of native larvae in some permanent ponds was not supported. My results confirm that direct negative effects of exotic vertebrates on native anurans occur but suggest that they may not be important to broad distribution patterns. Instead, habitat gradients or indirect effects of exotics appear to play major roles. I found support for the role of permanence as a structuring agent for pond communities in the Puget Lowlands, but neither permanence nor exotic vertebrates fully explained the observed variability in larval anuran survival.

  20. Modelling faecal coliform mortality in water hyacinths ponds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayo, A. W.; Kalibbala, M.

    Removal of faecal coliforms was investigated in pilot-scale water hyacinths ponds. The investigation was conducted to evaluate the role of solar intensity, pH, dissolved oxygen, temperature, sedimentation, and attachment of faecal coliforms on Eichhornia crassipes on disappearance of bacteria in water hyacinths ponds. A mathematical model that used the plug flow philosophy and incorporating the aforementioned factors was developed to predict faecal coliform mortality rate. The proposed multifactor model satisfactorily predicted mortality rate of faecal coliforms in a pilot-scale water hyacinths ponds. After optimization of the parameters, mortality rate constant for pH ( kpH) was 0.001, mortality rate constant for DO ( kDO) was 0.0037 and solar intensity mortality rate constant k s was 0.0102 cm 2/cal. The results also showed that the thickness of biofilm ( Lf) was 2.5 × 10 -4 m, and the effective surface area of water hyacinths roots per unit surface area of pond ( Rs) was 10.4 m 2/m 2. The results further showed that environmental factors such as solar intensity and pH were the key factors when water hyacinths ponds have a large exposed surface area. However, attachment of bacteria to water hyacinths played a major role in ponds fully covered with water hyacinths. The inclusion of sedimentation parameters in the model improved model efficiency by only 3.2%. It was concluded that sedimentation is not a major factor governing faecal coliform disappearance in water hyacinths pond systems receiving pretreated wastewaters.

  1. Evaluation of relocation of unionid mussels into artificial ponds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Newton, T.J.; Monroe, E.M.; Kenyon, R.; Gutreuter, S.; Welke, K.I.; Thiel, P.A.

    2001-01-01

    Relocation of unionid mussels into refuges (e.g., hatchery ponds) has been suggested as a management tool to protect these animals from the threat of zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) invasion. To evaluate the efficacy of relocation, we experimentally relocated 768 mussels, representing 5 species (Leptodea fragilis, Obliquaria reflexa, Fusconaia flava, Amblema plicata, and Quadrula quadrula) into an earthen pond at a National Fish Hatchery or back into the river. In both locations, mussels were placed into 1 of 4 treatments (mesh bags, corrals, and buried or suspended substrate-filled trays). Mussels were examined annually for survival, growth (shell length and wet mass), and physiological condition (glycogen concentration in foot and mantle and tissue condition index) for 36 mo in the pond or 40 mo in the river. We observed significant differences in mortality rates between locations (mortality was 4 times greater in the pond than in the river), among treatments (lowest mortality in the suspended trays), and among species (lower mortality in the amblemines than lamp-silines). Overall survival in both locations averaged 80% the 1st year; survival in the pond decreased dramatically after that. Although length and weight varied between locations and over time, these changes were small, suggesting that their utility as short-term measures of well being in long-lived unionids is questionable. Mussels relocated to the pond were in poor physiological condition relative to those in the river, but the magnitude of these differences was small compared to the inherent variability in physiological condition of reference mussels. These data suggest that relocation of unionids into artificial ponds is a high-risk conservation strategy; alternatives such as introduction of infected host fish, identification of mussel beds at greatest risk from zebra mussels, and a critical, large-scale assessment of the factors contributing to their decline should be explored.

  2. Design and Application of a Solar Mobile Pond Aquaculture Water Quality-Regulation Machine Based in Bream Pond Aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xingguo; Xu, Hao; Ma, Zhuojun; Zhang, Yongjun; Tian, Changfeng; Cheng, Guofeng; Zou, Haisheng; Lu, Shimin; Liu, Shijing; Tang, Rong

    2016-01-01

    Bream pond aquaculture plays a very important role in China's aquaculture industry and is the main source of aquatic products. To regulate and control pond water quality and sediment, a movable solar pond aquaculture water quality regulation machine (SMWM) was designed and used. This machine is solar-powered and moves on water, and its primary components are a solar power supply device, a sediment lifting device, a mechanism for walking on the water's surface and a control system. The solar power supply device provides power for the machine, and the water walking mechanism drives the machine's motion on the water. The sediment lifting device orbits the main section of the machine and affects a large area of the pond. Tests of the machine's mechanical properties revealed that the minimum illumination necessary for the SMWM to function is 13,000 Lx and that its stable speed on the water is 0.02-0.03 m/s. For an illumination of 13,000-52,500 Lx, the sediment lifting device runs at 0.13-0.35 m/s, and its water delivery capacity is 110-208 m(3)/h. The sediment lifting device is able to fold away, and the angle of the suction chamber can be adjusted, making the machine work well in ponds at different water depths from 0.5 m to 2 m. The optimal distance from the sediment lifting device to the bottom of the pond is 10-15 cm. In addition, adjusting the length of the connecting rod and the direction of the traction rope allows the SMWM to work in a pond water area greater than 80%. The analysis of water quality in Wuchang bream (Parabramis pekinensis) and silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) culture ponds using the SMWM resulted in decreased NH3(+)-N and available phosphorus concentrations and increased TP concentrations. The TN content and the amount of available phosphorus in the sediment were reduced. In addition, the fish production showed that the SMWM enhanced the yields of Wuchang bream and silver carp by more than 30% and 24%, respectively. These results

  3. Design and Application of a Solar Mobile Pond Aquaculture Water Quality-Regulation Machine Based in Bream Pond Aquaculture

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xingguo; Xu, Hao; Ma, Zhuojun; Zhang, Yongjun; Tian, Changfeng; Cheng, Guofeng; Zou, Haisheng; Lu, Shimin; Liu, Shijing; Tang, Rong

    2016-01-01

    Bream pond aquaculture plays a very important role in China’s aquaculture industry and is the main source of aquatic products. To regulate and control pond water quality and sediment, a movable solar pond aquaculture water quality regulation machine (SMWM) was designed and used. This machine is solar-powered and moves on water, and its primary components are a solar power supply device, a sediment lifting device, a mechanism for walking on the water’s surface and a control system. The solar power supply device provides power for the machine, and the water walking mechanism drives the machine’s motion on the water. The sediment lifting device orbits the main section of the machine and affects a large area of the pond. Tests of the machine’s mechanical properties revealed that the minimum illumination necessary for the SMWM to function is 13,000 Lx and that its stable speed on the water is 0.02–0.03 m/s. For an illumination of 13,000–52,500 Lx, the sediment lifting device runs at 0.13–0.35 m/s, and its water delivery capacity is 110–208 m3/h. The sediment lifting device is able to fold away, and the angle of the suction chamber can be adjusted, making the machine work well in ponds at different water depths from 0.5 m to 2 m. The optimal distance from the sediment lifting device to the bottom of the pond is 10–15 cm. In addition, adjusting the length of the connecting rod and the direction of the traction rope allows the SMWM to work in a pond water area greater than 80%. The analysis of water quality in Wuchang bream (Parabramis pekinensis) and silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) culture ponds using the SMWM resulted in decreased NH3+–N and available phosphorus concentrations and increased TP concentrations. The TN content and the amount of available phosphorus in the sediment were reduced. In addition, the fish production showed that the SMWM enhanced the yields of Wuchang bream and silver carp by more than 30% and 24%, respectively. These

  4. Plasma chemical gasification of sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Balgaranova, Janetta

    2003-02-01

    The possibility for plasma gasification of sewage sludge is investigated. Water steam is used as the plasma generating gas and as a chemical reagent. The experiments are carried out at a sludge to water steam ratio of 1 to 1.5 by weight, and at a plasma torch temperature of up to 2600 degrees C. The calculated average temperature in the reactor after mixing with the sludge particles is up to 1700 degrees C. Proximate and ultimate analyses of the sludge are given. The resulting gases are analysed by gas chromatography. High calorific gas containing mainly carbon monoxide (48% volume) and hydrogen (46% volume), as well as glass-like slag, is obtained. No water-soluble substances are detected within it. The amount of carbon dioxide produced is under 4% mass. No hydrocarbons are observed within the gas. The investigated process is environmentally safe, compact and shows a high rate of conversion.

  5. Sewage sludge dewatering using flowing liquid metals

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, L.W.

    1986-11-04

    A method is described of reducing the moisture content of a moist sewage sludge having a moisture content of about 50-80% and formed of small cellular micro-organism bodies having internally confined water. The method comprises: circulating a hot liquid metal in a loop; forming a mixture of the moist sludge and the hot liquid metal in a portion of the loop under conditions of temperature and pressure such that the confined water vaporizes and ruptures the cellular bodies; separating the liquid metal, dried sludge, and vaporized water in a separation zone of the loop; and drawing off the dried sludge and vaporized water from the loop whereby the liquid metal is left to be recirculated in the loop.

  6. Insight into biological phosphate recovery from sewage.

    PubMed

    Ye, Yuanyao; Ngo, Huu Hao; Guo, Wenshan; Liu, Yiwen; Zhang, Xinbo; Guo, Jianbo; Ni, Bing-Jie; Chang, Soon Woong; Nguyen, Dinh Duc

    2016-10-01

    The world's increasing population means that more food production is required. A more sustainable supply of fertilizers mainly consisting of phosphate is needed. Due to the rising consumption of scarce resources and limited natural supply of phosphate, the recovery of phosphate and their re-use has potentially high market value. Sewage has high potential to recover a large amount of phosphate in a circular economy approach. This paper focuses on utilization of biological process integrated with various subsequent processes to concentrate and recycle phosphate which are derived from liquid and sludge phases. The phosphate accumulation and recovery are discussed in terms of mechanism and governing parameters, recovery efficiency, application at plant-scale and economy.

  7. Thixotropic behaviour of thickened sewage sludge

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the work is a description of the rheological behaviour of thickened sewage sludge. The sample of thickened sludge was collected from the wastewater treatment plant, where pressure flotation unit is used for a process of thickening. The value of dry matter of collected sample was 3.52%. Subsequently the sample was diluted and the rheological properties of individual samples were obtained. Several types of rheological tests were used for the determination of the sample. At first the hysteresis loop test was performed. The next test was focused on the time-dependency, i.e. measurement of dependence of dynamic viscosity on the time at constant shear rate. Further dependence dynamic viscosity on the temperature was performed. Then the activation energy was obtained from measured values. Finally, the hysteresis areas were counted and measured values were evaluated with use of Herschel-Bulkley mathematical model. PMID:24860659

  8. Addition of biochar to sewage sludge decreases freely dissolved PAHs content and toxicity of sewage sludge-amended soil.

    PubMed

    Stefaniuk, Magdalena; Oleszczuk, Patryk

    2016-11-01

    Due to an increased content of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) frequently found in sewage sludges, it is necessary to find solutions that will reduce the environmental hazard associated with their presence. The aim of this study was to determine changes of total and freely dissolved concentration of PAHs in sewage sludge-biochar-amended soil. Two different sewage sludges and biochars with varying properties were tested. Biochars (BC) were produced from biogas residues at 400 °C or 600 °C and from willow at 600 °C. The freely dissolved PAH concentration was determined by means of passive sampling using polyoxymethylene (POM). Total and freely dissolved PAH concentration was monitored at the beginning of the experiment and after 90 days of aging of the sewage sludge with the biochar and soil. Apart from chemical evaluation, the effect of biochar addition on the toxicity of the tested materials on bacteria - Vibrio fischeri (Microtox(®)), plants - Lepidium sativum (Phytotestkit F, Phytotoxkit F), and Collembola - Folsomia candida (Collembolan test) was evaluated. The addition of biochar to the sewage sludges decreased the content of Cfree PAHs. A reduction from 11 to 43% of sewage sludge toxicity or positive effects on plants expressed by root growth stimulation from 6 to 25% to the control was also found. The range of reduction of Cfree PAHs and toxicity was dependent on the type of biochar. After 90 days of incubation of the biochars with the sewage sludge in the soil, Cfree PAHs and toxicity were found to further decrease compared to the soil with sewage sludge alone. The obtained results show that the addition of biochar to sewage sludges may significantly reduce the risk associated with their environmental use both in terms of PAH content and toxicity of the materials tested.

  9. Raw Sewage Harbors Diverse Viral Populations

    PubMed Central

    Cantalupo, Paul G.; Calgua, Byron; Zhao, Guoyan; Hundesa, Ayalkibet; Wier, Adam D.; Katz, Josh P.; Grabe, Michael; Hendrix, Roger W.; Girones, Rosina; Wang, David; Pipas, James M.

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT At this time, about 3,000 different viruses are recognized, but metagenomic studies suggest that these viruses are a small fraction of the viruses that exist in nature. We have explored viral diversity by deep sequencing nucleic acids obtained from virion populations enriched from raw sewage. We identified 234 known viruses, including 17 that infect humans. Plant, insect, and algal viruses as well as bacteriophages were also present. These viruses represented 26 taxonomic families and included viruses with single-stranded DNA (ssDNA), double-stranded DNA (dsDNA), positive-sense ssRNA [ssRNA(+)], and dsRNA genomes. Novel viruses that could be placed in specific taxa represented 51 different families, making untreated wastewater the most diverse viral metagenome (genetic material recovered directly from environmental samples) examined thus far. However, the vast majority of sequence reads bore little or no sequence relation to known viruses and thus could not be placed into specific taxa. These results show that the vast majority of the viruses on Earth have not yet been characterized. Untreated wastewater provides a rich matrix for identifying novel viruses and for studying virus diversity. Importance At this time, virology is focused on the study of a relatively small number of viral species. Specific viruses are studied either because they are easily propagated in the laboratory or because they are associated with disease. The lack of knowledge of the size and characteristics of the viral universe and the diversity of viral genomes is a roadblock to understanding important issues, such as the origin of emerging pathogens and the extent of gene exchange among viruses. Untreated wastewater is an ideal system for assessing viral diversity because virion populations from large numbers of individuals are deposited and because raw sewage itself provides a rich environment for the growth of diverse host species and thus their viruses. These studies suggest that

  10. Methane production in sediments of small tundra ponds during winter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macrae, M. L.; Fishback, L.; Bourbonniere, R. A.; Duguay, C. R.; Soliman, A. S.

    2011-12-01

    Shallow tundra ponds in the Churchill region of the Hudson Bay Lowlands (HBL) store large quantities of organic material in the form of sediments. Organic sediments in ponds and wetlands have been identified as a source of atmospheric methane (CH4) during the summer season in many landscapes. However, less is known about CH4 production and emission during the winter months, following the formation of an ice layer on the water surface. Unfrozen sediments may continue to produce methane (CH4) during this time, which may become trapped in the ponds beneath the ice layer. This occurrence has been identified in some regions through the sampling and analysis of CH4 bubbles frozen in lake ice. The goal of this project is to examine the potential for the production and trapping of CH4 in ponds beneath the pond ice (water/ice and sediment profiles) in the Churchill region of the HBL. Thermistor and gas sampling arrays were installed in the water and sediments of two ponds. Gas samples were collected at 1-4 week intervals at the sediment-water interface and at 0-15cm and 20-35 cm depth. Results show that sediments are indeed thawed for 3-4 months of the winter season, and deeper sediments remain within the range of 0 to -5 C whereas shallow sediment temperatures ranged between 10 and -10 C over an annual cycle. Laboratory experiments showed that little difference in CH4 production was observed at sediment temperatures between -2 and 5 C, whereas production was very low at -10 C. No significant differences in CH4 production rates were observed for different sediment depths in the laboratory. Field data collected between August 2010 and June 2011 showed consistent accumulation of CH4 in sediments following the formation of an ice layer on pond surfaces. However, CH4 concentrations in gas samplers decreased in February through April after sediments were frozen, but began to increase again (May-June) as sediments thawed and began to warm. Future work will include the examination

  11. Role of probiotics on the environment of shrimp pond.

    PubMed

    Sambasivam, S; Chandran, R; Khan, S Ajmal

    2003-01-01

    Recent disease outbreak in shrimp farming caused mainly by bacteria, virus, fungi or a combination of these etiologic agents is attributed to disturbance in the environment of pond. To combat this, different antibiotics and chemicals are being used which are reported to be not environment friendly. Of late, a new and unique biotechnological product called "Probiotics " is being used widely by all the shrimp farmers worldwide, which is found to be more effective and environmentally safe also. In the present study 2 probiotics were used in a small 0.7 ha shrimp farm near Pattukottai in Tamil Nadu State for one culture period for the management of pond environment and also the gut ecology of Penaeus monodon. The environmental parameters analysed were within the acceptable limits. It was evident from the results that the production was better in the experimental pond where the probiotics were used. The biological parameters such as the average body weight, FCR and total harvest achieved were better in the experimental pond than the control pond, all due to congenial environment, which obtained in the former mainly due to the use of probiotics.

  12. Beneficiation of coal pond ash by physical separation techniques.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sung-Joo; Cho, Hee-Chan; Kwon, Ji-Hoe

    2012-08-15

    In this study, investigations to develop a beneficiation process for separating coal pond ash into various products were undertaken. To this end, coal pond ash samples with different particle size ranges were tested in terms of their washability characteristics in a float-and-sink analysis. It was found that coal pond ash was heterogeneous in nature consisting of particles that varied in terms of their size and composition. However, it can be made more homogenous using a gravity separation method. Therefore, the possibility of separating coal pond ash was tested on standard equipment typically used for gravity concentration. To increase the separation efficiency, coal ash was separated according to the size of the particles and each size fraction was tested using equipment appropriate for the corresponding sizes. A hindered-settling column and a shaking table were tested for their ability to treat the 1.19 × 0.074 mm size fraction, and a Falcon concentrator was evaluated for its ability to treat the -0.074 mm size fraction. The results showed that various marketable products, such as lightweight aggregate, sand and high-carbon fuel, can be recovered from coal pond ash using simple physical separation techniques.

  13. Influences of radiation on carp from farm ponds in Fukushima.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Yuzuru

    2015-12-01

    A massive release of artificial radionuclides from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant caused radioactive contamination of farms as well as of aquatic products. Carp in small ponds in the highly radiocontaminated area of Iitate Village, Fukushima Prefecture, have been confined to the ponds since the accident, and it is thought that the carp may have suffered health issues as a result. Therefore, I investigated the health condition of the carp in order to elucidate the effects of radiation.Blood neutrophil, monocyte and lymphocyte counts in the carp from three ponds in Fukushima were lower than those in carp from a non-polluted pond in Tochigi Prefecture. Histological observations indicated abnormal hyperplasia of macrophages in the spleen, kidney, liver and pancreas of carp in Fukushima. Although there are likely to have been deleterious effects on carp health due to the radiation in Fukushima, this has not yet been confirmed because only one control pond was available for comparison, and I was not able to find any symptoms in the carp that correlated with internal cesium concentration. Further research is now being conducted to investigate the effects of radiation on carp.

  14. TRIMETHOPRIM-SULFAMETHOXAZOLE RESISTANCE IN SEWAGE ISOLATES OF ESCHERICHIA COLI

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sewage samples from seven locations in the United States were analyzed for Escherichia coli isolates which were resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (SXT). The prevalence rate of SXT resistant organisms varied between the different geographical locales. The majority of th...

  15. Bacteriophages active against Bacteroides fragilis in sewage-polluted waters.

    PubMed Central

    Tartera, C; Jofre, J

    1987-01-01

    Twelve strains of different Bacteroides species were tested for their efficiency of detection of bacteriophages from sewage. The host range of several isolated phages was investigated. The results indicated that there was a high degree of strain specificity. Then, by using Bacteroides fragilis HSP 40 as the host, which proved to be the most efficient for the detection of phages, feces from humans and several animal species and raw sewage, river water, water from lagoons, seawater, groundwater, and sediments were tested for the presence of bacteriophages that were active against B. fragilis HSP 40. Phages were detected in feces of 10% of the human fecal samples tested and was never detected in feces of the other animal species studied. Moreover, bacteriophages were always recovered from sewage and sewage-polluted samples of waters and sediments, but not from nonpolluted samples. The titers recovered were dependent on the degree of pollution in analyzed waters and sediments. PMID:3662510

  16. 13. Sewage treatment lagoon, drainage control at center left, looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Sewage treatment lagoon, drainage control at center left, looking south - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Delta Flight, Launch Control Facility, County Road CS23A, North of Exit 127, Interior, Jackson County, SD

  17. Impact of Mid-Atlantic sewage sludge probed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blue, Charles

    1992-01-01

    Every year since 1986, 8 million tons of raw sewage has been dumped into the ocean at the Mid-Atlantic Bight, an area 100 miles off the coast of New York and New Jersey. Originally, this location was thought to be a safe dump site because of its considerable depth and strong ocean currents, which would prevent sewage from accumulating on the ocean floor. Recently, several scientists tested that assumption and found evidence for significant amounts of sewage accumulation at the dump site.Scientific studies of the dump site, coordinated by NOAA's National Undersea Research Program, will be presented at the 1992 AGU Ocean Science Meeting in New Orleans, January 27-31. The studies reveal the extent of sewage sludge accumulation at the Mid-Atlantic Bight and determine the environmental impact that significant accumulations of this material has on the ocean environment.

  18. Sandis irradiator for dried sewage solids. Final safety analysis report

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, M.

    1980-07-01

    Analyses of the hazards associated with the operation of the Sandia irradiator for dried sewage solids, as well as methods and design considerations to minimize these hazards, are presented in accordance with DOE directives.

  19. Vessel Sewage Discharges: No-Discharge Zones (NDZs)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    States may petition the EPA to establish areas, called no discharge zones (NDZs), where vessel sewage discharges are prohibited. This page describes how NDZs are designated, the types of designations, who enforces them, and how to comply.

  20. Vitrification as an alternative to landfilling of tannery sewage sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Celary, Piotr Sobik-Szołtysek, Jolanta

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • The possibility of vitrification of tannery sewage sludge was investigated. • Glass cullet was substituted with different wastes of mineral character. • Component ratio in the processed mixtures was optimized. • Environmental safety of the acquired vitrificates was verified. • An alternative management approach of usually landfilled waste was presented. - Abstract: Due to high content of heavy metals such as chromium, tannery sewage sludge is a material which is difficult to be biologically treated as it is in the case of organic waste. Consequently, a common practice in managing tannery sewage sludge is landfilling. This poses a potential threat to both soil and water environments and it additionally generates costs of construction of landfills that meet specific environment protection requirements. Vitrification of this kind of sewage sludge with the addition of mineral wastes can represent an alternative to landfilling. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of obtaining an environmentally safe product by means of vitrification of tannery sewage sludge from a flotation wastewater treatment process and chemical precipitation in order to address the upcoming issue of dealing with sewage sludge from the tannery industry which will be prohibited to be landfilled in Poland after 2016. The focus was set on determining mixtures of tannery sewage sludge with additives which would result in the lowest possible heavy metal leaching levels and highest hardness rating of the products obtained from their vitrification. The plasma vitrification process was carried out for mixtures with various amounts of additives depending on the type of sewage sludge used. Only the materials of waste character were used as additives. One finding of the study was an optimum content of mineral additives in vitrified mixture of 30% v/v waste molding sands with 20% v/v carbonate flotation waste from the zinc and lead industry for the formulations with

  1. An estimate of the impact of trapped melt ponds on sea ice thinning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flocco, Daniela; Feltham, Daniel; Schroeder, David

    2013-04-01

    Melt ponds form on Arctic sea ice during the melting season and their presence affects the heat and mass balance of the ice cover. Towards the end of the melt season melt ponds cover up to 50% of the sea ice area decreasing the value of the surface albedo by up to 20%. The dramatic impact of melt ponds on the albedo feedback mechanism for sea ice melt has been demonstrated in previous studies. Here, we focus on the refreezing of melt ponds. As the ponds freeze from above, they gradually release latent heat that inhibits basal ice growth. The refreezing process can take up to three months. Freezing of the melt pond comes to an halt if the pond's freezing point reaches the air temperature since the Stefan condition for sea ice growth is not met anymore. Since the ice in presence of melt pond will stay thinner and flatter for longer, the areas where ponds are present are likely location for pond formation in the subsequent years. The presence of a pond trapped in the ice delays significantly the sea ice growth at locations where melt ponds form. The potential volume loss of sea ice per year in the Arctic considering a melt pond cover of 20% is up to 1000 km3 without considering the presence of snow. Within the ASBO (Arctic Synoptic Basin-wide Observations) project we have developed a model of refreezing melt ponds that uses mushy layer theory to describe the sea ice and takes account of the presence of salt in the refreezing melt pond. We use this model to investigate the rate at which melt ponds refreeze, releasing latent heat, and their impact on sea ice growth. In this work we would like to present model result with climatology input. We will give an estimate of the impact of the melt pond presence on sea ice growth in the Arctic basin.

  2. Effects of hydrology on zooplankton communities in high-mountain ponds, Mount Rainier National Park, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Girdner, Scott; Larson, Gary L.

    1995-01-01

    Ten high-mountain ponds in Mount Rainier National Park, Washington State, were studied from ice-out in June through September1992 to investigate the influences of fluctuating pond volumes on zooplankton communities. All of the ponds were at maximum volume immediately after ice-out. The temporary pond with the shortest wet phase was inhabited by rotifer taxa with short generation times and a crustacean taxon with the ability to encyst as drought-resistant resting bodies at immature stages of development. Dominant zooplankton taxa in three other temporary ponds and six permanent ponds were similar. Rotifer densities typically were lower in temporary ponds relative to those in permanent ponds, although Brachionus urceolaris was abundant shortly before the temporary ponds dried. Large volume loss was associated with large declines in total abundances of crustacean populations. Daphnia rosea was not present in temporary ponds following fall recharge. In deep-permanent ponds, copepods had slower developmental rates, smaller temporal changes in total abundances of crustacean populations and two additional large-bodied crustacean taxa were present relative to the characteristics of crustacean communities in shallow-permanent ponds. Owing to their small sizes and sensitivity to environmental change, collectively ponds such as these may provide an early signal of long-term climate change in aquatic systems.

  3. Revisiting salt marsh resilience to sea level rise: Are ponds responsible for permanent land loss?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mariotti, G.

    2016-07-01

    Ponds are unvegetated rounded depressions commonly present on marsh platforms. The role of ponds on the long-term morphological evolution of tidal marshes is unclear—at times ponds expand but eventually recover the marsh platform, at other times ponds never recover and lead to permanent marsh loss. Existing field observations indicate that episodic disturbances of the marsh vegetation cause the formation of small (1-10 m) isolated ponds, even if the vegetated platform keeps pace with relative sea level rise (RSLR) and that isolated ponds tend to deepen and enlarge until they eventually connect to the channel network. Here I implement a simple model to study the vertical and planform evolution of a single connected pond. A newly connected pond recovers if its bed lies above the limit for marsh plant growth or if the inorganic deposition rate is larger than the RSLR rate. A pond that cannot accrete faster than RSLR will deepen and enlarge, eventually entering a runaway erosion by wave edge retreat. A large tidal range, a large sediment supply, and a low rate of RSLR favor pond recovery. The model suggests that inorganic sediment deposition alone controls pond recovery, even in marshes where organic matter dominates accretion of the vegetated platform. As such, halting permanent marsh loss by pond collapse requires to increase inorganic sediment deposition. Because pond collapse is possible even if the vegetated platform keeps pace with RSLR, I conclude that marsh resilience to RSLR is less than previously quantified.

  4. Impact of sewage sludge applications on the biogeochemistry of soils.

    PubMed

    Devaney, D; Godley, A R; Hodson, M E; Purdy, K; Yamulki, S

    2008-01-01

    This report describes an investigation into the bioavailability and fate of trace metals and their subsequent impact on important soil microbiological functions such as nitrification, denitrification and methane oxidation in low and high Cu containing soils in the presence and absence of residual organic matter from sewage sludge additions made 10 years earlier. The soils being studied are part of long term sewage sludge trials and include a low Cu soil (13.3 mg Cu/kg soil, 4.18 LOI %), left un-amended to serve as a control soil, soil amended with a high Cu sewage sludge (278.3 mg Cu/kg soil, 6.52 LOI %) and soil amended with a low Cu sewage sludge (46.3 mg Cu/kg soil, 6.18 LOI %). Soil was also amended with inorganic metal salts (273.4 mg Cu/kg soil, 4.52 LOI %) to further investigate the impact of Cu in the absence of additional organic matter contained in applied sewage sludge. Data from the first two years of a project are presented which has included field-based studies at long term sewage sludge trials based in Watlington, Oxford, UK and laboratory based studies at the Institute of Grassland & Environmental Research, North Wyke, Devon, UK.

  5. Evaluation of bangkok sewage sludge for possible agricultural use.

    PubMed

    Pasda, Nuanjun; Panichsakpatana, Supamard; Limtong, Pitayakon; Oliver, Robert; Montange, Denis

    2006-04-01

    Bangkok (Thailand) covers more than 1500 km2 and has 10 million inhabitants. The disposal of wastewater is creating huge problems of pollution. The estimated amount of sewage sludge was estimated to be around 108 tonnes dry matter (DM) per day in 2005. In order to find a lasting way of disposal for this sewage sludge, the suitability of the sludge produced from three waste-water treatment plants for use as fertilizing material was investigated. Monthly samplings and analysis of sewage sludge from each plant showed that the composition of sludge varied according to the area of collection and period of sampling, and there was no link to rainfall cycle. Plant nutrient content was high (i.e. total N from 19 to 38 g kg(-1) DM) whereas organic matter content was low. The concentrations of heavy metals varied between sludge samples, and were sometimes higher than the E.U. or U.S. regulations for sewage sludge use in agriculture. Faecal coliforms were present in the sludge from one of the plants, indicating a possible contamination by night soil. In order to decrease this potentially pathogenic population the sewage sludge should be heated by composting. As the C/N ratio of sewage sludge was low (around 6) some organic by-products with high carbon content could be added as structural material to enhance the composting.

  6. ESBL-producing E. coli in Austrian sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Reinthaler, Franz Ferdinand; Feierl, Gebhard; Galler, Herbert; Haas, Doris; Leitner, Eva; Mascher, Franz; Melkes, Angelika; Posch, Josefa; Winter, Ingrid; Zarfel, Gernot; Marth, Egon

    2010-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the degree of contamination of sewage sludge with ESBL-producing Escherichia coli strains and the effectiveness of different sewage sludge treatment methods. Monthly sewage sludge samples were collected between January and September 2009 in 5 different sewage treatment plants and tested for the presence of ESBL E. coli. In addition, the number of colony forming units (CFU) of E. coli and coliform bacteria before and after the different sludge treatment methods (aerobic/anaerobic digestion, lime stabilization, and thermal treatment) was investigated. Of the 72 sewage sludge samples investigated, ESBL-positive E. coli were found in 44 (61.1%) sewage sludge samples. The classification of beta-lactamase groups was carried out in 15 strains resulting in the detection of 2 different groups (CTX-M and TEM) of bla genes. All 15 of them had a CTX-M gene and 4 of these strains furthermore carried a TEM gene. With regard to the CFU of E. coli and coliform bacteria, thermal treatment and lime stabilization following dehydration sufficiently reduced pathogen concentrations. The plants using merely stabilization and dehydration showed an increase of E. coli and coliform bacteria and thus also an increase in ESBL-producing E. coli.

  7. Oceanographic effects of the 1992 Point Loma sewage pipe spill

    SciTech Connect

    Casey, R.; Ciccateri, A.; Dougherty, K.; Gacek, L.; Lane, S.; Liponi, K.; Leeds, R.; Walsh, F. )

    1992-01-01

    Early in early 1992, 180 million gallons of advanced primarily treated sewage emptied into 10 meters of water from the broken Point Loma sewage pipe, San Diego. For about two months a sewage boil about the size of a football field existed at the surface and within the Point Loma kelp bed. Sampling and observations taken during the spill indicated the surface waters at the spill site were grayish and smelling of sewage. The sewage water had mixed with the marine waters reducing salinity to about one-half normal (or 15 ppt.). The sediment load of the sewage coated the blades of the giant kelp and the kelp was limp and withdrawn from the surface. At the site of the main boil the kelp appeared to have dropped to the bottom. Sediments on the bottom in the boil area were mainly coarse sands as compared to the surrounding sandy-muds. Preliminary results using laboratory analysis suggest: one month into the spill no infauna were observed in the sediments or planktons in the water of the boil area, but were in the surrounding sediments and water; the observed phytoplankton were dominated by dinoflagellates and suggested red tide conditions surrounding the boil. The site has been monitored monthly since the spill to observe further impact and recovery.

  8. Ammonia volatilisation in waste stabilisation ponds: a cascade of misinterpretations?

    PubMed

    Camargo Valero, M A; Mara, D D

    2010-01-01

    Ammonia volatilisation has generally been reported as, or assumed to be, the main nitrogen removal mechanism in waste stabilisation ponds (WSP). Nitrogen removal via ammonia volatilisation is based on two observations: (a) in-pond pH values can reach high values (>9, even >10), so increasing the proportion of the total ammonia present as the un-ionized form or free ammonia (NH(3)); and (b) in-pond temperatures can also be high, so improving the mass transfer rate of free ammonia to the atmosphere. Consequently, one of the most widely accepted models for ammonia removal in WSP is that reported by Pano & Middlebrooks in 1982, which was developed to reflect the occurrence of these two observations. This work reports how simple mathematical models for ammonia volatilisation in WSP, in spite of the possibility of their giving good predictions, may not accurately describe the main pathways and mechanisms involved in ammonia removal in WSP.

  9. Production and Cycling of Methylmercury in High Arctic Wetland Ponds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehnherr, I.; St. Louis, V. L.

    2010-12-01

    Some species of freshwater fish in the Canadian high Arctic contain levels of methylmercury (MeHg) that pose health risks to the northern Inuit peoples that harvest these species as a traditional food source. In temperate regions, wetlands are known natural sites of MeHg production and hence significant MeHg sources to downstream ecosystems. However, the importance of wetlands to Hg methylation in the Arctic is unclear and the sources of MeHg to arctic freshwater ecosystems are still largely unidentified. Our research is demonstrating that some shallow and warm wetland ponds on the Arctic landscape contain high MeHg concentrations compared to nearby deep and cold lakes. We used a mass-balance approach to measure the net in-pond production of MeHg in two warm wetland ponds (Ponds 1 and 2) near Lake Hazen, Ellesmere Island, Nunavut (81° N latitude). We quantified external inputs and outputs of MeHg to and from the ponds, as well as the accumulation of MeHg in the water column during the summers of 2005 and 2008. Any changes in water column MeHg concentrations that could not be accounted for by external inputs or sinks were attributed to in-pond production. The principal external input and sink of MeHg was, respectively, wet atmospheric deposition and water-column MeHg photodemethylation. For 2005, we estimate that the net flux of MeHg from sediments into the water column was 0.015 μg m-2 d-1 in Pond 1 and 0.0016 μg m-2 d-1 in Pond 2. Compared to sediment-water MeHg fluxes measured in Alaskan tundra lakes (0.0015-0.0045 μg m-2 d-1), Pond 1 sediments are a greater source of MeHg while Pond 2 is similar to the Alaskan lakes. Furthermore, the accumulation of MeHg in the water column of Pond 1 (0.0061 μg m-2 d-1) was similar to the net yield of MeHg from temperate boreal wetlands (0.0005-0.006 μg m-2 d-1), demonstrating that these Arctic wetlands are important sites of MeHg production. In addition, we used mercury stable-isotope tracers to quantify methylation and

  10. A simple pond parametrization for malaria transmission models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tompkins, A. M.; Asare, E.; Amekudzi, L. K.

    2012-04-01

    In order to model malaria effectively using a dynamical modelling approach, a realistic representation of the surface hydrology is required. Achieving this goal is hindered by the fact that key vector breeding sites are small in spatial scale, ranging from small permanent ponds to temporary puddles. This small spatial scale confounds modelling efforts as the topography on such small scales is unknown, and also renders detection by remote sensing techniques difficult implying a requirement of in-situ measurements. Results from ongoing measurements of breeding sites in Kumasi (Ghana) are shown, along with attempts to reproduce these using a simple pond 'parametrization'. The significant impact of the pond model implementation and settings on malaria simulations using the new VECTRI dynamical disease model is demonstrated.

  11. Investigation of indigenous water, salt and soil for solar ponds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marsh, H. E.

    1983-01-01

    The existence of salt-gradient solar ponds in nature is a strong indication that the successful exploitation of this phenomenon must account adequately for the influences of the local setting. Sun, weather and other general factors are treated elsewhere. This paper deals with water, salt, and soil. A general methodology for evaluating and, where feasible, adjusting the effects of these elements is under development. Eight essential solar pond characteristics have been identified, along with a variety of their dependencies upon properties of water, salt and soil. The comprehensive methodology, when fully developed, will include laboratory investigation in such diverse areas as brine physical chemistry, light transmission, water treatment, brine-soil interactions, sealants, and others. With the Salton Sea solar pond investigation as an example, some methods under development will be described.

  12. A model for anaerobic ponds combining settling and biological processes.

    PubMed

    Effebi, K R; Jupsin, H; Keffala, C; Vasel, J L

    2013-01-01

    This work presents an approach to an anaerobic pond model by combining the stoichiometry of the hydrolysis and acidogenic processes of the main constituents of wastewater, i.e. carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids, grouped as a 'combined substrate' with a previously published settling model (see 'Suspended solids settling and half removal time in stabilization ponds (Tunisia)' by Effebi et al. (2011)). This approach includes biomass production. Coupling the kinetics and stoichiometry of the previous processes with the usual methanogenic model, we developed an anaerobic pond model. This paper gives the stoichiometry of the different chemical reactions that occur during the degradation of a conventional influent (corresponding to what we define as a 'combined substrate') of domestic wastewater and the model's first results.

  13. Solar salt pond potential site survey for electrical power generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurick, M. G.

    1982-01-01

    A solar salt gradient pond acts as a passive heat sink or thermal battery in which energy can be recovered through the conversion of thermal energy into electrical energy. Here, a condensation of a larger report that focused on the identification of potential salt gradient pond sites in the United States using in-situ resources is presented. It is shown that there are at least 24 states that lie in a primary or secondary potential site category. Fourteen states are assigned as primary states and ten are assigned as secondary. The division is subjectively based on the severity of winter weather. The most promising states are those that lie in the southern half of the country. When the primary and secondary category states are combined with the other states that may be able to support a pond, a total of 38 states exhibit the possibility of supporting power generation sites of various size.

  14. A holistic water depth simulation model for small ponds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Shakir; Ghosh, Narayan C.; Mishra, P. K.; Singh, R. K.

    2015-10-01

    Estimation of time varying water depth and time to empty of a pond is prerequisite for comprehensive and coordinated planning of water resource for its effective utilization. A holistic water depth simulation (HWDS) and time to empty (TE) model for small, shallow ephemeral ponds have been derived by employing the generalized model based on the Green-Ampt equation in the basic water balance equation. The HWDS model includes time varying rainfall, runoff, surface water evaporation, outflow and advancement of wetting front length as external inputs. The TE model includes two external inputs; surface water evaporation and advancement of wetting front length. Both the models also consider saturated hydraulic conductivity and fillable porosity of the pond's bed material as their parameters. The solution of the HWDS model involved numerical iteration in successive time intervals. The HWDS model has successfully evaluated with 3 years of field data from two small ponds located within a watershed in a semi-arid region in western India. The HWDS model simulated time varying water depth in the ponds with high accuracy as shown by correlation coefficient (R2 ⩾ 0.9765), index of agreement (d ⩾ 0.9878), root mean square errors (RMSE ⩽ 0.20 m) and percent bias (PB ⩽ 6.23%) for the pooled data sets of the measured and simulated water depth. The statistical F and t-tests also confirmed the reliability of the HWDS model at probability level, p ⩽ 0.0001. The response of the TE model showed its ability to estimate the time to empty the ponds. An additional field calibration and validation of the HWDS and TE models with observed field data in varied hydro-climatic conditions could be conducted to increase the applicability and credibility of the models.

  15. Carbon dynamics in highly heterotrophic subarctic thaw ponds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roiha, T.; Laurion, I.; Rautio, M.

    2015-07-01

    Global warming has accelerated the formation of permafrost thaw ponds in several subarctic and arctic regions. These ponds are net heterotrophic as evidenced by their greenhouse gas (GHG) supersaturation levels (CO2 and CH4), and generally receive large terrestrial carbon inputs from the thawing and eroding permafrost. We measured seasonal and vertical variations in the concentration and type of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in five subarctic thaw (thermokarst) ponds in northern Quebec, and explored how environmental gradients influenced heterotrophic and phototrophic biomass and productivity. Late winter DOM had low aromaticity indicating reduced inputs of terrestrial carbon, while the high concentration of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) suggests that some production of non-chromophoric dissolved compounds by the microbial food web took place under the ice cover. Summer DOM had a strong terrestrial signature, but was also characterized with significant inputs of algal-derived carbon, especially at the pond surface. During late winter, bacterial production was low (maximum of 0.8 mg C m-3 d-1) and was largely based on free-living bacterioplankton (58 %). Bacterial production in summer was high (up to 58 mg C m-3 d-1), dominated by particle-attached bacteria (67 %), and strongly correlated to the amount of terrestrial carbon. Primary production was restricted to summer surface waters due to strong light limitation deeper in the water column or in winter. The phototrophic biomass was equal to the heterotrophic biomass, but as the algae were mostly composed of mixotrophic species, most probably they used bacteria rather than solar energy in such shaded ponds. According to the δ13C analyses, non-algal carbon supported 51 % of winter and 37 % of summer biomass of the phantom midge larvae, Chaoborus sp., that are at the top of the trophic chain. Our results point to a strong heterotrophic energy pathway in these thaw pond ecosystems, where bacterioplankton dominates

  16. Carbon dynamics in highly heterotrophic subarctic thaw ponds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roiha, T.; Laurion, I.; Rautio, M.

    2015-12-01

    Global warming has accelerated the formation of permafrost thaw ponds in several subarctic and arctic regions. These ponds are net heterotrophic as evidenced by their greenhouse gas (GHG) supersaturation levels (CO2 and CH4), and generally receive large terrestrial carbon inputs from the thawing and eroding permafrost. We measured seasonal and vertical variations in the concentration and type of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in five subarctic thaw (thermokarst) ponds in northern Quebec, and explored how environmental gradients influenced heterotrophic and phototrophic biomass and productivity. Late winter DOM had low aromaticity indicating reduced inputs of terrestrial carbon, while the high concentration of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) suggests that some production of non-chromophoric dissolved compounds by the microbial food web took place under the ice cover. Summer DOM had a strong terrestrial signature, but was also characterized with significant inputs of algal-derived carbon, especially at the pond surface. During late winter, bacterial production was low (maximum of 0.8 mg C m-3 d-1) and was largely based on free-living bacterioplankton (58 %). Bacterial production in summer was high (up to 58 mg C m-3 d-1), dominated by particle-attached bacteria (67 %), and strongly correlated with the amount of terrestrial carbon. Primary production was restricted to summer surface waters due to strong light limitation deeper in the water column or in winter. The phototrophic biomass was equal to the heterotrophic biomass, but as the algae were mostly composed of mixotrophic species, most probably they used bacteria rather than solar energy in such shaded ponds. Our results point to a strong heterotrophic energy pathway in these thaw pond ecosystems, where bacterioplankton dominates the production of new carbon biomass in both summer and winter.

  17. Toxicity of stormwater treatment pond sediments to Hyalella azteca (Amphipoda)

    SciTech Connect

    Karouna-Renier, N.K. |; Sparling, D.W.

    1997-04-01

    Stormwater runoff from highways and commercial, industrial, and residential areas contains a wide spectrum of pollutants including heavy metals, petroleum hydrocarbons, pesticides, herbicides, sediment, and nutrients. Recent efforts to reduce the impacts of urbanization on natural wetlands and other receiving waters have included the construction of stormwater treatment ponds and wetlands. These systems provide flood control and improve water quality through settling, adsorption, and precipitation of pollutants removing up to 95% of metals, nutrients and sediment before discharged from the site. The design of stormwater ponds to provide habitat for aquatic wildlife has prompted concern over the potential exposure of aquatic organisms to these contaminants. Aquatic sediments concentrate a wide array of organic and inorganic pollutants. Although water quality criteria may not be exceeded, organisms living in or near the sediments may be adversely affected. The availability of chemicals in sediments depends strongly on the prevailing chemistry. Physical conditions of the sediment and water quality characteristics including pH, redox potential and hardness, also influence contaminant availability. Studies have shown that heavy metals and nutrients carried by runoff concentrate in the sediment of stormwater ponds. Although several investigations have assessed the toxicity of sediments in streams receiving urban runoff, there have been few studies of the toxicity of stormwater treatment pond sediments to aquatic organisms. This study was part of a large-scale assessment of the contaminant hazards of stormwater treatment ponds. The objective of this study was to evaluate the toxicity of sediments and water from stormwater ponds over a 10-d period to juvenile Hyalella azteca. Bioassay results were related to concentrations of acid volatile sulfides and metals of the tested sediments. 17 refs., 4 tabs.

  18. Comparative cactus architecture and par interception

    SciTech Connect

    Geller, G.N.; Nobel, P.S. )

    1987-07-01

    Because CO{sup 2} uptake by cacti can be limited by low levels of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and because plant form affects PAR interception, various cactus forms were studied using a computer model, field measurements, and laboratory phototropic studies. Model predictions indicated that CO{sub 2} uptake by individual stems at an equinox was greatest when the stem were vertical, but at the summer and the winter solstice CO{sub 2} uptake was greatest for stems titled 30{degree} away from the equator. Stem tilting depended on form and taxonomic group. Not only can the shape of cacti be affected by PAR, but also shape influences PAR interception and hence CO{sub 2} uptake.

  19. Gradient zone boundary control in salt gradient solar ponds

    DOEpatents

    Hull, John R.

    1984-01-01

    A method and apparatus for suppressing zone boundary migration in a salt gradient solar pond includes extending perforated membranes across the pond at the boundaries, between the convective and non-convective zones, the perforations being small enough in size to prevent individual turbulence disturbances from penetrating the hole, but being large enough to allow easy molecular diffusion of salt thereby preventing the formation of convective zones in the gradient layer. The total area of the perforations is a sizable fraction of the membrane area to allow sufficient salt diffusion while preventing turbulent entrainment into the gradient zone.

  20. Valuating Ecosystem Services of Urban Ponds - case study from Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carle, Nina

    2016-04-01

    A climate risk assessment for the city of Barisal was carried out by a consultancy firm, financed by KfW Development Bank of Germany. Due to high dependencies on natural capital of people in developing countries they are facing high vulnerability when it comes to changes of the asset category 'natural capital' (here: urban ponds), whether due to the exposition on climate (change) related impacts, implemented measures or land use change. With a closer view on the city's assets, the question remained open to the author 1) Under current conditions, what is the demand for ecosystem services (ES) 2) What is the value of the benefits and the how much is the contribution to the city's welfare? 3) What are the future changes in the demand for ES? And what are the future changes on the supply side (pressures and threats to the ecosystem)? Methodology: The City of Barisal in Bangladesh has a calculated number of around 10.000 urban rain-fed ponds,representing 6.5% of the city area, which represents a huge natural water supply and gives the city its characteristic face. In August 2015 a user survey was conducted in the city of Barisal, in every ward (administrative unit), to determine the demand for ecosystem services related to urban ponds, evaluating over 600 ponds. The findings will present the huge variation of provisioning ecosystem services and an important regulating service, related to economic and domestic use, in a spatial resolution. It will be shown, how the importance of ES changes, by changing the unit of analysis (families or ponds or the city) and the importance for the livelihood of pond owners and users. A relationship between pond area(m2) and number of users was detected, also the role of compensation payments for the pond owners by the users. It will be shown how natural capital, privately and publicly owned,contributes in an important way in buffering unequal distribution of societies resources in the short- and long-run. However society's demand for ES

  1. Arctic melt ponds and energy balance in the climate system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudakov, Ivan

    2017-02-01

    Elements of Earth's cryosphere, such as the summer Arctic sea ice pack, are melting at precipitous rates that have far outpaced the projections of large scale climate models. Understanding key processes, such as the evolution of melt ponds that form atop Arctic sea ice and control its optical properties, is crucial to improving climate projections. These types of critical phenomena in the cryosphere are of increasing interest as the climate system warms, and are crucial for predicting its stability. In this paper, we consider how geometrical properties of melt ponds can influence ice-albedo feedback and how it can influence the equilibria in the energy balance of the planet.

  2. Solar pond power plant feasibility study for Davis, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Y. C.; Singer, M. J.; Marsh, H. E.; Harris, J.; Walton, A. L.

    1982-01-01

    The feasibility of constructing a solar pond power plant at Davis, California was studied. Site visits, weather data compilation, soil and water analyses, conceptual system design and analyses, a material and equipment market survey, conceptual site layout, and a preliminary cost estimate were studied. It was concluded that a solar pond power plant is technically feasible, but economically unattractive. The relatively small scale of the proposed plant and the high cost of importing salt resulted in a disproportionately high capital investment with respect to the annual energy production capacity of the plant. Cycle optimization and increased plant size would increase the economical attractiveness of the proposed concept.

  3. Primary production and biochemical compositions in Arctic melt ponds.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S.

    2015-12-01

    Areal extent of melt ponds within sea ice recently have increased during the arctic summer but the biological impacts of these changes on the arctic marine ecosystem have rarely been studied. Our survey of environmental conditions in melt ponds was conducted in 22 at sea ice camp 1 and 11 ponds at camp 2, respectively during the Korean Arctic expedition in 2014. The temperature range of melt ponds showed low variability at sea ice camp 1 (-1.3~0.8 °C) and camp 2 (-1.5~0.4 °C). In contrast, the salinity represented high variations ranging from 0.1 to 26.8 (mean ± S.D. = 16.7 ± 10.8) and 0 to 26.9 (mean ± S.D. = 12.3 ± 11.6), respectively. The average chlorophyll a (chl-a) concentrations were 0.124 mg m-2 (S.D. = ± 0.121 mg m-2) and 0.158 mg m-2 (S.D. = ± 0.067 mg m-2) in melt ponds, respectively at camp 1 and camp 2. Middle sized cells of phytoplankton (2-20 μm) were predominant in melt ponds accounting for 78 % and 63 % of total chl-a concentration at camp 1 and 2, respectively. The carbon uptake rates of phytoplankton in melt ponds ranged from 0.001 to 0.080 mg C m-3 h-1 (mean ± S.D. = 0.025 ± 0.024 mg C m-3 h-1) at camp 1 and 0.022 to 0.21 mg C m-3 h-1 (mean ± S.D. = 0.077 ± 0.006 mg C m-3 h-1) at camp 2 which is about three times higher than those of camp 1. The biochemical compositions averaged from various melt ponds were 35% (S.D. = ± 14.9%), 40% (S.D. = ± 13.2%), and 25% (S.D. = ± 12.9%), respectively for lipids, carbohydrates, and proteins at camp 1. In comparison, the overall average compositions of lipids, carbohydrates, and proteins were 29% (S.D. = ± 11.4%), 51% (S.D. = ± 9.8%), and 20% (S.D. = ± 7.9%), respectively at camp 2.

  4. Salt-gradient Solar Ponds: Summary of US Department of Energy Sponsored Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    French, R. L.; Johnson, D. H.; Jones, G. F.; Zangrando, F.

    1984-01-01

    The solar pond research program conducted by the United States Department of Energy was discontinued after 1983. This document summarizes the results of the program, reviews the state of the art, and identifies the remaining outstanding issues. Solar ponds is a generic term but, in the context of this report, the term solar pond refers specifically to saltgradient solar pond. Several small research solar ponds have been built and successfully tested. Procedures for filling the pond, maintaining the gradient, adjusting the zone boundaries, and extracting heat were developed. Theories and models were developed and verified. The major remaining unknowns or issues involve the physical behavior of large ponds; i.e., wind mixing of the surface, lateral range or reach of horizontally injected fluids, ground thermal losses, and gradient zone boundary erosion caused by pumping fluid for heat extraction. These issues cannot be scaled and must be studied in a large outdoor solar pond.

  5. Utilization of surface mine ponds in East Tennessee by breeding amphibians. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, L.J.; Fowler, D.K.

    1981-06-01

    Breeding amphibians were found in 21 of 24 ponds examined on the Ollis Creek Surface Mine in Campbell County, Tennessee. Twelve species of amphibians were identified in ponds that range from 4.0 to 8.0 in pH. Although ponds with low pH values were used by breeding amphibians, significantly more amphibian species were found in ponds with higher pH values. Findings indicated high biological productivity in the surface mine ponds examined. Aquatic vegetation was present in 20 of the 24 ponds. Aquatic insects and a diverse wildlife fauna utilized the study ponds. Surface mine ponds were found to supply an important habitat component for a variety of wildlife species.

  6. Sedimentation rates and patterns in beaver ponds in a mountain environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, David R.; Malanson, George P.

    1995-09-01

    Sediment depth was measured at several sites within each of eight beaver ponds in Glacier National Park, Montana, and sediment samples wen; collected from five of these ponds. Accumulation rates of sediments far exceeded published rates from boreal forest landscapes in eastem and central North America. Pond area strongly predicts volume of sedimentation. Textural differences illustrated spatial variations associated with position in a pond and along a pond sequence. Organic matter content was significantly higher in older ponds, and has ramifications for the development of the benthos and the long-term storage of matter in ponds. The role of beavers as biogeomorphic agents is profound, but requires further elucidation to distinguish between fluvial sediment deposition in ponds and sediment deposition associated with beaver excavational activity.

  7. Influence of pH, Oxygen, and Humic Substances on Ability of Sunlight To Damage Fecal Coliforms in Waste Stabilization Pond Water

    PubMed Central

    Curtis, Thomas P.; Mara, D. Duncan; Silva, Salomao A.

    1992-01-01

    Simple beaker experiments established that light damages fecal coliforms in waste stabilization ponds by an oxygen-mediated exogenous photosensitization. Wavelengths of up to 700 nm were able to damage bacteria. The ability of wavelengths of >425 nm to damage fecal coliforms was dependent on the presence of dissolved sensitizers. The sensitizers were ubiquitous in raw sewage, unaffected by sewage treatment, not derivatives of bacteriochlorophyll or chlorophyll, absorbed well in UV light, and had a slight yellowish color; they are therefore believed to be humic substances. The ability of light to damage fecal coliforms was highly sensitive to, and completely dependent on, oxygen. Scavengers of H2O2 and singlet oxygen could protect the bacteria from the effects of sunlight, but scavengers of hydroxyl radicals and superoxides could not. Light-mediated damage of fecal coliforms was highly sensitive to elevated pH values, which also enabled light with wavelengths of >425 nm (in the presence of the sensitizer) to damage the bacteria. We conclude that humic substances, pH, and dissolved oxygen are important variables in the process by which light damages microorganisms in this and other environments and that these variables should be considered in future research on, and models of, the effects of light. PMID:16348698

  8. Assessment of the effects of municipal sewage, immersed idols and boating on the heavy metal and other elemental pollution of surface water of the eutrophic Hussainsagar Lake (Hyderabad, India).

    PubMed

    Reddy, M Vikram; Babu, K Sagar; Balaram, V; Satyanarayanan, M

    2012-04-01

    The surface water qualities of Hussainsagar, an eutrophic urban lake in the midst of twin cities of Hyderabad and Secunderabad (India) receiving large quantities of external inputs--both untreated municipal sewage containing industrial effluents, and treated sewage, a large number of annually immersed idols of God and Goddess, and intense boating activities were assessed in relation to the concentration of elements including heavy metals of the water along the necklace road of the lake. Elemental analyses of water using ICP-MS revealed 26 elements including heavy metals--As, Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb, Cu, Fe, Mn, Se, Ba, Zn, Mo, V, Co, Ag, Sr, Rb, Mg, K, Ca, Al, Si, Sb, Na, Li, and B, in the surface water of the lake. Of these, the first 15 elements were found in elevated concentrations in the water at the outfall point of the untreated municipal sewage (site 3), which was the main dominating source of contamination of the lake water while Cu and Sb were recorded in higher concentrations at the outfall of treated effluent from Sewage Treatment Plant, and three elements (Ba, Si, and B) were in higher concentration at the sites of outfall of sewage flowing from an oxygenated pond (site 4), Ca, Zn, and Sr, at the site immersed with idols (site 1), and Pb, Ag, and Al at the center of the lake (site 5) with intense boating activities. Concentrations of most of these elements exceeded the maximum permissible limits of national (Indian Council Medical Research) standards for drinking water. The concentrations of most of the elemental contaminants showed significant positive correlations between them.

  9. Occurrence of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes in a sewage treatment plant and its effluent-receiving river.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jian; Xu, Yan; Wang, Hongmei; Guo, Changsheng; Qiu, Huiyun; He, Yan; Zhang, Yuan; Li, Xiaochen; Meng, Wei

    2015-01-01

    The extensive use of antibiotics has caused the contamination of both antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in the environment. In this study, the abundance and distribution of antibiotics and ARGs from a sewage treatment plant (STP) and its effluent-receiving river in Beijing China were characterized. Three classes of antibiotics including tetracycline, sulfonamide and quinolone were quantified by LC-MS/MS. In the secondary effluent they were detected at 195, 2001 and 3866 ng L(-1), respectively, which were higher than in the receiving river water. A total of 13 ARGs (6 tet genes: tetA, tetB, tetE, tetW, tetM and tetZ, 3 sulfonamide genes: sul1, sul2 and sul3, and 4 quinolone genes: gryA, parC, qnrC and qnrD) were determined by quantitative PCR. For all ARGs, sulfonamide resistance genes were present at relatively high concentrations in all samples, with the highest ARG concentration above 10(-1). ARGs remained relatively stable along each sewage treatment process. The abundances of detected ARGs from the STP were also higher than its receiving river. Bivariate correlation analysis showed that relative tet gene copies (tetB/16S-rRNA and tetW/16S-rRNA) were strongly correlated with the concentrations of tetracycline residues (r(2)>0.8, p<0.05), while no significant correlations occurred between sulfonamides and sul genes. A negative correlation between the relative abundance of quinolone resistance gene (qnrC/16S-rRNA) and the concentrations of enrofloxacin (ENR) was also determined. The difference of ARGs levels in the raw influent and secondary effluent suggested that the STP treatment process may induce to increase the abundance of resistance genes. The results showed that the sewage was an important repository of the resistance genes, which need to be effectively treated before discharge into the natural water body.

  10. Production Responses of Channel Catfish to Minimum Daily Dissolved Oxygen Concentrations in Earthen Ponds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of the minimum daily dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration on production parameters of channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus in earthen ponds. Fifteen one-acre ponds (5 ponds per treatment) were managed as High Oxygen (minimum DO concentrations aver...

  11. Estimating the ratio of pond size to irrigated soybeans land in Mississippi: A case study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although more on-farm storage ponds have been constructed in recent years to mitigate groundwater resources depletion in Mississippi, little effort has been devoted to estimating the ratio of pond size to irrigated crop land based on pond matric and its hydrological conditions. Knowledge of this ra...

  12. Pumping performance of a modified commercial paddlewheel aerator for split-pond aquaculture systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The split-pond aquaculture system consists of a small fish-holding basin connected to a waste-treatment lagoon by two conduits. Split ponds require large water volumes circulated between the two basins (10,000 to 20,000 gal/min for 5- to 10-ac ponds) to remove fish waste and provide oxygenated water...

  13. Estimated hydrologic budgets of kettle-hole ponds in coastal aquifers of southeastern Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walter, Donald A.; Masterson, John P.

    2011-01-01

    Water fluxes through the ponds are a function of several factors, including the size, shape, and bathymetry of the pond, orientation of the pond relative to the regional hydraulic gradient, and hydrologic setting relative to the proximity of groundwater divides and discharge boundaries. Total steady-state fluxes through the ponds range from more than 3,300,000 to less than 2,000 cubic feet per day. For ponds without surface-water inlets or outlets, groundwater inflow accounts for 98 to 3 percent of total inflow; conversely, recharge onto the pond surface accounts for the remainder of inflow (between 2 and 97 percent). All natural flows from these ponds are through recharge from the pond into the aquifer. In one pond, about 94 percent of the total outflow is removed for water supply. For ponds that are connected to surface-water drainages, most inflow and outflow are through streams. Ponds that receive water from streams receive most (58 to 89 percent) of their water from those streams. Ponds that are drained by streams lose between 5 and 100 percent of their water to those streams.

  14. Oxygen transfer in marsh-pond-marsh constructed wetlands treating swine wastewater

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Marsh-pond-marsh (M-P-M) constructed wetlands have been used to treat wastewater from swine anaerobic lagoons. To mitigate undesired ammonia emission from M-P-M, ponds were covered with floating wetlands (M-FB-M). The pond sections of the M-FB-M were covered with floating wetlands consisted of recyc...

  15. Pumping performance of a slow-rotating paddlewheel for split-pond aquaculture systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Commercial catfish farmers are intensifying production by retrofitting ponds with variations of the partitioned aquaculture system (PAS). The split-pond system is the most common variation used commercially. The split-pond consists of a small fish-holding basin connected to a waste treatment lagoon ...

  16. Pumping performance of a slow-rotating paddlewheel for split-ponds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Commercial catfish farmers are intensifying production by retrofitting ponds with variations of the partitioned aquaculture system. The split-pond system is the most common variation used commercially. The split-pond consists of a small fish-holding basin connected to a waste treatment lagoon by two...

  17. Utilization of surface mine ponds in East Tennessee by breeding amphibians

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, L.J.; Fowler, D.K.

    1981-06-01

    Of 24 ponds examined on Ollis Creek Surface Mine, Campbell County, Tennessee, 21 contained breeding amphibians. Twelve species of amphibians were identified in ponds that ranged from 4.0 to 8.0 in pH. Although ponds with low pH values were used by breeding amphibians, significantly more amphibian species were found in ponds with higher pH values. The average pH of ponds occupied by each amphibian species varied. Spring peepers (Hyla crucifer) occupied ponds with the lowest average pH (5.22) while upland chorus frogs (Pseudacris triseriata feriarum) utilized ponds with the highest average pH (6.33). Findings indicated high biological productivity in surface mine ponds. Aquatic vegetation was present in 20 of the 24 ponds. Aquatic insects and a diverse wildlife fauna utilized the study ponds. Large mammals (3 species), waterbirds (17 species), and snakes (2 species) were among those species observed. Surface mine ponds were found to supply an important habitat component for a variety of wildlife species and therefore improve the quality of wildlife habitat on the surface mines. In some areas, mine ponds are the only source of surface water available for wildlife use. 23 references, 9 figures, 5 tables.

  18. A commercial-scale in-pond raceway system for ictalurid catfish production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A commercial-scale, in-pond raceway system was constructed in 2007 on a commercial catfish fish farm in west Alabama. The in-pond raceway system was installed in a 2.43-ha earthen pond with an average depth of 1.67 m. A slow-rotating paddlewheel (1.17 revolutions per minute) installed in each rac...

  19. Transport of trace elements in runoff from unamended and pond-ash amended feedlot surfaces

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of pond ash (fly ash that has been placed in evaporative ponds for storage and subsequently dewatered) for feedlot surfaces provides a drier environment for livestock and furnishes economic benefits. However, pond ash is known to have high concentrations of trace elements and the runoff wate...

  20. Evaluation of the Preservation Value and Location of Farm Ponds in Yunlin County, Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Wen-Wen; Lee, Soen-Han; Wu, Chen-Fa

    2013-01-01

    Farm ponds in Yunlin County first appeared in 1,622 and have played roles in habitation, production, the ecology, culture, and disaster reduction. Farm ponds largely disappeared with the development of urban areas and the industrial sector; thus, effective preservation of the remaining ponds is critical. The criteria to evaluate the preservation value of farm ponds is established by expert questionnaires which follow the Fuzzy Delphi Method (FDM) and Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process (FAHP), and GIS, which are integrated into a spatial analysis of the remaining 481 farm ponds in Yunlin County. The results show that 28 ponds should be preserved to continue the cultural interaction between farm ponds and settlements; 36 ponds should preserved to connect coasts and streams, which are important habitats for birds; 30 ponds should be preserved to increase storage capacity, recharge groundwater, and reduce land subsidence; four ponds should be preserved as Feng-Shui ponds in front of temples in settlements or as recreation areas for local citizens; and four farms should be preserved (high priority) in agricultural production areas to support irrigation. In short, FAHP and GIS are integrated to evaluate the number and locations of farm ponds that provide water for habitation, production, the ecology, culture, and disaster reduction and maintain the overall preservation value in Yunlin County. The results could inform governmental departments when considering conservation policies. PMID:24384776

  1. Central Facilities Area Sewage Lagoon Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Mark R. Cole

    2013-12-01

    The Central Facilities Area (CFA), located in Butte County, Idaho, at the Idaho National Laboratory has an existing wastewater system to collect and treat sanitary wastewater and non-contact cooling water from the facility. The existing treatment facility consists of three cells: Cell #1 has a surface area of 1.7 acres, Cell #2 has a surface area of 10.3 acres, and Cell #3 has a surface area of 0.5 acres. If flows exceed the evaporative capacity of the cells, wastewater is discharged to a 73.5-acre land application site that uses a center-pivot irrigation sprinkler system. As flows at CFA have decreased in recent years, the amount of wastewater discharged to the land application site has decreased from 13.64 million gallons in 2004 to no discharge in 2012 and 2013. In addition to the decreasing need for land application, approximately 7.7 MG of supplemental water was added to the system in 2013 to maintain a water level and prevent the clay soil liners in the cells from drying out and “cracking.” The Idaho National Laboratory is concerned that the sewage lagoons and land application site may be oversized for current and future flows. A further concern is the sustainability of the large volumes of supplemental water that are added to the system according to current operational practices. Therefore, this study was initiated to evaluate the system capacity, operational practices, and potential improvement alternatives, as warranted.

  2. Sewage coliphages studied by electron microscopy.

    PubMed Central

    Ackermann, H W; Nguyen, T M

    1983-01-01

    Sewage was enriched with 35 Escherichia coli strains, and sediments of enrichment cultures were studied in the electron microscope. They contained up to 10 varieties of morphologically different particles. T-even-type phages predominated in 14 samples. Thirteen phages were enriched, representing the families Myoviridae (seven), Styloviridae (two), Podoviridae (three), and Microviridae (one). Twelve of these corresponded to known enterobacterial phage species, namely, 121, K19, FC3-9, O1, 9266, T2, 16-19, kappa, beta 4, N4, T7, and phi X174. Cubic RNA phages and filamentous phages were not detected. Types 121 and 9266 have previously been observed only in Romania and South Africa. Identification by morphology is usually simple. Our investigative technique is qualitative and will not detect all phages present. Most enrichment strains are polyvalent, and electron microscopy is always required for phage identification. In a general way, electron microscopy seems to be the method of choice for investigation of phage geography and ecology. Images PMID:6847179

  3. Comparison of physico-chemical parameters and zooplankton diversity in two perennial ponds at Aligarh, India.

    PubMed

    Parveen, Saltanat; Abdel Mola, Hesham R

    2013-07-01

    Investigations were carried out on the diversity of zooplankton in relation to physico-chemical parameters of two perennial ponds (Chautal Pond and Medical Pond) of Aligarh, India. Thirty nine species of holoplankton were identified belonging to copepoda (2 species), rotifera (28 species), cladocera (6 species) and protozoa (3 species). Other forms; like as meroplankton (insects) and tychoplankton (nematodes and ostracodes) were also recorded. Higher values of physico-chemical parameters and low zooplankton diversity were recorded in the Chautal Pond, whereas low values of physico-chemical parameters and high diversity were recorded in the Medical Pond. Ostracods considered to be the most dominant group in Medical Pond (32.16% of the total zooplankton) while Cladocerans are considered to be the most dominant group in Chautal Pond (38.83% of the total zooplankton). Rotifera contributed more in Medical Pond (16.42%) as compared to Chautal Pond (15.81%). Five species of Brachionus was recorded during study. Out of five, four Brachionus species were recorded in Chautal Pond while only two species were recorded in Medical pond. This indicates that Chautal Pond is more eutrophic than Medical pond. In addition, higher carbon dioxide values (37-105 mg l(-1)), low dissolved oxygen (0.7-3.3 mg I(-1)) and higher electrical conductivity values (1069-1691 mg l(-1)) were also indicative of eutrophic nature of Chautal Pond. Present study also revealed that total zooplankton species, species richness and diversity indices (Evenness, Shannon-Winner and Simpson) were comparatively higher in Medical pond. The rotifer species Philodina roseola (146 Org. l(-1)) and Monstyla closterocerca (109 Org. l(-1)) was dominated in Medical Pond while the rotifers Brachionus urceolaris (512 Org. l(-1)) and the cladocern species Ceriodaphnia cornuta (1540 Org. l(-1)) dominated in Chautal Pond during post-monsoon season. This might be due to the effect of rain water which played an important role in

  4. Greenhouse gas emissions from stabilization ponds in subtropical climate.

    PubMed

    Hernandez-Paniagua, I Y; Ramirez-Vargas, R; Ramos-Gomez, M S; Dendooven, L; Avelar-Gonzalez, F J; Thalasso, F

    2014-01-01

    Waste stabilization ponds (WSPs) are a cost-efficient method to treat municipal and non-toxic industrial effluents. Numerous studies have shown that WSPs are a source of greenhouse gas (GHG). However, most reports concerned anaerobic ponds (AP) and few have addressed GHG emissions from facultative (FP) and aerobic/maturation ponds (MPs). In this paper, GHG emissions from three WSP in series are presented. These WSPs were designed as anaerobic, facultative and aerobic/maturation and were treating agricultural wastewater. CH4 fluxes from 0.6 +/- 0.4 g CH4 m(-2) d(-1) in the MP, to 7.0 +/- 1.0 g CH4 m(-2) d(-1) in the (AP), were measured. A linear correlation was found between the loading rates of the ponds and CH4 emissions. Relatively low CO2 fluxes (0.2 +/- 0.1 to 1.0 +/- 0.8 g CO2 m(-2) d(-1)) were found, which suggest that carbonate/bicarbonate formation is caused by alkaline pH. A mass balance performed showed that 30% of the total chemical oxygen demand removed was converted to CH4. It has been concluded that the WSP system studied emits at least three times more GHG than aerobic activated sludge systems and that the surface loading rate is the most important design parameter for CH4 emissions.

  5. Phylogenetics of pond and lake lifestyles in Chaoborus midge larvae.

    PubMed

    Berendonk, Thomas U; Barraclough, Timothy G; Barraclough, Jonelle C

    2003-09-01

    Aquatic invertebrates experience strong trade-offs between habitats due to the selective effects of different predators. Diel vertical migration and small body size are thought to be effective strategies against fish predation in lakes. In the absence of fish in small ponds, migration is ineffective against invertebrate predators and large body size is an advantage. Although widely discussed, this phenomenon has never been tested in a phylogenetic context. We reconstructed a mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) tree to investigate the phylogenetic distribution of pond and lake lifestyles among 10 species of northern temperate Chaoborus midge larvae. The mtDNA tree is similar to previous morphological trees for Chaoborus, the only difference being the disruption of the subgenus Chaoborus sensu stricto. At least three shifts have occurred between pond and lake lifestyles, each time associated with evolution of diel vertical migration in the lake taxon. The trend in larval body size with habitat type is sensitive to tree and character reconstruction methods, only weakly consistent with the effects of fish predation. Despite long time periods over which adaptation to each habitat type could have occurred, there remains significant phylogenetic heritability in larval body size. The tree provides a framework for comparative studies of the metapopulation genetic consequences of pond and lake lifestyles.

  6. How Circulation of Water Affects Freezing in Ponds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreau, Theresa; Lamontagne, Robert; Letzring, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    One means of preventing the top of a pond from freezing involves running a circulating pump near the bottom to agitate the surface and expose it to air throughout the winter months. This phenomenon is similar to that of the flowing of streams in subzero temperatures and to the running of taps to prevent pipe bursts in winter. All of these cases…

  7. Groundwater impact assessment report for the 284-WB Powerplant Ponds

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, D.J.; Johnson, V.G.; Lindsey, K.A.

    1993-09-01

    As required by the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement Milestone M-17-00A), this report assesses the impact of wastewater discharged to the 284-WB Powerplant Ponds on groundwater quality. The assessment reported herein expands upon the initial analysis conducted between 1989 and 1990 for the Liquid Effluent Study Final Project Plan.

  8. Substantial overnight reaeration by convective cooling discovered in pond ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holgerson, Meredith A.; Zappa, Christopher J.; Raymond, Peter A.

    2016-08-01

    Trends in freshwater dissolved oxygen (DO) reflect whole-ecosystem properties and influence organismal survival and behavior. Here we show that small ponds have unique oxygen dynamics that differ from larger lakes. We discovered that ponds undersaturated in DO experienced substantial increases in oxygen concentration overnight. Nighttime increases in DO occurred on 45% of the nights sampled and resulted in DO saturation increasing 12-fold (22% saturation) on average. Oxygen spikes were likely to occur when ponds became at least 1.8°C warmer than the air and later in the season when oxygen levels were low (<31% saturation) and the air was warm (≥5.8°C). We demonstrate that overnight increases in surface water DO resulted from atmospheric oxygen invasion as opposed to internal production. Convective cooling enhanced turbulence and air-water gas exchange, leading to intense bursts of oxygen invasion during nighttime hours. This mechanism has not been demonstrated before and has important implications for the biogeochemistry of these systems, as well as understanding how organisms survive in hypoxic small ponds.

  9. Hydrologic considerations associated with dredging spring ponds in Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rose, William J.

    1977-01-01

    Ground water and surface water in the study area are of a calcium magnesium bicarbonate type. Dissolved-solids concentration ranges from 170 to 250 milligrams per liter. Temperature of ground water discharging into the spring ponds in the study ranged from 6 to 7 Celsius.

  10. Water quality in hybrid catfish ponds after partial fish harvest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Intensification of United States catfish aquaculture involves hybrid catfish ('channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus x ' blue catfish I. furcatus) grown in ponds with abundant aeration and high feeding rates. High feeding rates cause water quality deterioration because most of the nitrogen, phosphorus...

  11. COOKE DAM POND AND UPSTREAM (WEST) SIDE OF (LR) NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    COOKE DAM POND AND UPSTREAM (WEST) SIDE OF (L-R) NORTH EMBANKMENT (MI-98-A), SPILLWAY (MI-98-B), PENSTOCK ENTRANCES, POWERHOUSE (MI-98-C), AND SOUTH EMBANKMENT (MI-98-E). VIEW TO NORTHEAST - Cooke Hydroelectric Plant, Cook Dam Road at Au Sable River, Oscoda, Iosco County, MI

  12. MONITORING OF A RETENTION POND BEFORE AND AFTER MAINTENANCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA’s Urban Watershed Management Branch has monitored stormwater drainage and best management practices (BMP) as part of its research program. One BMP being monitored is a retention pond with wetland plantings in the Richmond Creek (RC) watershed. This BMP, designated RC-...

  13. MONITORING OF A RETENTION POND FOR EFFECTS OF MAINTENANCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA’s Urban Watershed Management Branch has monitored stormwater drainage and best management practices (BMP) as part of its research program. One BMP monitored was a retention pond with wetland plantings in the Richmond Creek (RC) watershed. This BMP, designated RC-5, is o...

  14. Role of livestock effluent suspended particulate in sealing effluent ponds.

    PubMed

    Bennett, J McL; Warren, B R

    2015-05-01

    Intensive livestock feed-lots have become more prevalent in recent years to help in meeting the predicted food production targets based on expected population growth. Effluent from these is stored in ponds, representing a potential concern for seepage and contamination of groundwater. Whilst previous literature suggests that effluent particulate can limit seepage adequately in combination with a clay liner, this research addresses potential concerns for sealing of ponds with low concentration fine and then evaluates this against proposed filter-cake based methodologies to describe and predict hydraulic reduction. Short soil cores were compacted to 98% of the maximum dry density and subject to ponded head percolation with unfiltered-sediment-reduced effluent, effluent filtered to <3 μm, and chemically synthesized effluent. Reduction in hydraulic conductivity was observed to be primarily due to the colloidal fraction of the effluent, with larger particulate fractions providing minimal further reduction. Pond sealing was shown to follow mathematical models of filter-cake formation, but without the formation of a physical seal on top of the soil surface. Management considerations based on the results are presented.

  15. View looking northwest from the south side of pond. Buildings ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View looking northwest from the south side of pond. Buildings in foreground from right to left, building nos. 1004 (Cheyenne Double), 1005 (Twin Owls), 1008 (Beaver), 1006 (Arapahoe), 1010 (Laundry), 1007 (Osage/Columbine) and 1009 (Bighorn). - McGraw Ranch, McGraw Ranch Road, Estes Park, Larimer County, CO

  16. The characterization of microorganisms in dairy wastewater storage ponds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dairy wastewaters from storage ponds are commonly land applied to irrigate silage crops. Given that diverse microbial populations are associated with cattle feces, the objective of this study was to use a culture-independent approach to characterize Bacteria and Archaea in dairy wastewaters. Using d...

  17. Operation of Stabilization Ponds in a Tropical Area

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-10-01

    aeration rather than photosynthesis ( Eckenfelder , 1966). 3) Aerobic Pond - A shallow depression, approximately 18 inches deep, in which the suspended and...Vietnam", Civil Engineering, Vol. 39, Kay, 1969, pp. 47-49. Eckenfelder , W. W., Jr., Industrial Water Pollution Control, McGraw- ^ Hill Book Co

  18. 25. VIEW OF MILL FROM UPPER TAILINGS POND. SHOWS ROASTER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. VIEW OF MILL FROM UPPER TAILINGS POND. SHOWS ROASTER ON LEFT EDGE OF VIEW. THE SECONDARY THICKENER No. 7 IS OFF VIEW TO THE RIGHT. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  19. Science from the Pond up: Using Measurement to Introduce Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demir, Abdulkadir; Schmidt, Frank; Abell, Sandra K.

    2010-01-01

    The authors engaged nonscience majors enrolled in an integrated science course with a prototype activity designed to change their mindset from cookbook to inquiry science. This article describes the activity, the Warm Little Pond, which helped students develop essential understanding of basic statistics, significant figures, and the idea that…

  20. 57. View of the lily pond in the northern portion ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    57. View of the lily pond in the northern portion of the hillside garden, from the southeast. The view includes stone footbridges, a directed fall of water through rocks at center, and a tariki stoneware bench by Eric O'Leary (1992) at the top of the waterfall. - Marsh-Billings-Rockefeller National Historical Park, 54 Elm Street, Woodstock, Windsor County, VT

  1. 9. Looking northeast, foreground Clenny Run Road, duck pond and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Looking northeast, foreground Clenny Run Road, duck pond and Clenny Run, with intersection of State Routes 92 and 100 beyond, Brandywine Creek State Park in background, mixed deciduous trees along top of hill - Winterthur Farms, Intersection State Routes 92 & 100, Intersection State Routes 92 & 100, Winterthur, New Castle County, DE

  2. Campus Ecology, Part 2 of a Series: Pond Water

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryan, R. C.

    1974-01-01

    Presents a series of activities which focus on the study of the physical characteristics of water, including temperatures, opacity, pH-values, oxygen concentrations, reagents, and free CO2 concentrations. Indicates that ponds can provide the students with opportunities to learn chemistry, geology, biology, botany, and the effects of weather. (CC)

  3. 21. DREDGING POND USED TO TEST THE ADAPTABILITY OF JET ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. DREDGING POND USED TO TEST THE ADAPTABILITY OF JET PUMPS FOR PUMPING SAND, AND WEAR RATES OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF DREDGING PIPE. - Waterways Experiment Station, Hydraulics Laboratory, Halls Ferry Road, 2 miles south of I-20, Vicksburg, Warren County, MS

  4. Coleman Revisited: School Segregation, Peers, and Frog Ponds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldsmith, Pat Rubio

    2011-01-01

    Students from minority segregated schools tend to achieve and attain less than similar students from White segregated schools. This study examines whether peer effects can explain this relationship using normative models and frog-pond models. Normative models (where peers become alike) suggest that minority schoolmates are a liability. Frog-pond…

  5. 1. GENERAL VIEW OF LOG POND AND BOOM FOR UNLOADING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. GENERAL VIEW OF LOG POND AND BOOM FOR UNLOADING CEDAR LOGS FROM TRUCKS AT LOG DUMP, ADJACENT TO MILL; TRUCKS FORMERLY USED TRIP STAKES, THOUGH FOR SAFER HANDLING OF LOGS WELDED STAKES ARE NOW REQUIRED; AS A RESULT LOADING IS NOW DONE WITH A CRANE - Lester Shingle Mill, 1602 North Eighteenth Street, Sweet Home, Linn County, OR

  6. Bilingual Creativity in Chinese English: Ha Jin's "In the Pond."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Hang

    2002-01-01

    Addresses issues related to bilingual creativity in Chinese English and their implications for world Englishes in the Chinese context. The language examined is drawn from Ha Jin's novella, "In the Pond, in which the author's use of English is nativized in the Chinese context in order to recast the cultural meanings of the language.…

  7. MONITORING OF A RETENTION POND BEFORE AND AFTER MAINTENANCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA’s Urban Watershed Management Branch monitored a retention pond with wetland plantings in the Richmond Creek (RC) watershed. This BMP, designated RC-5, is owned and operated by the New York City Department of Environmental Protection’s (DEP) as part of the Bluebelt progr...

  8. 12. Upstream view showing thelower log pond log chute in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Upstream view showing thelower log pond log chute in the main channel of the Hudson River. The log chute in the dam can be seen in the background. Facing southwest. - Glens Falls Dam, 100' to 450' West of U.S. Route 9 Bridge Spanning Hudson River, Glens Falls, Warren County, NY

  9. Approximate furrow infiltration model for time-variable ponding depth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A methodology is proposed for estimating furrow infiltration under time-variable ponding depth conditions. The methodology approximates the solution to the two-dimensional Richards equation, and is a modification of a procedure that was originally proposed for computing infiltration under constant ...

  10. Techniques for measuring intercepted and absorbed PAR in corn canopies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallo, K. P.; Daughtry, C. S. T.

    1984-01-01

    The quantity of radiation potentially available for photosynthesis that is captured by the crop is best described as absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (PAR). Absorbed PAR (APAR) is the difference between descending and ascending fluxes. The four components of APAR were measured above and within two planting densities of corn (Zea mays L.) and several methods of measuring and estimating APAR were examined. A line quantum sensor that spatially averages the photosynthetic photon flux density provided a rapid and portable method of measuring APAR. PAR reflectance from the soil (Typic Argiaquoll) surface decreased from 10% to less than 1% of the incoming PAR as the canopy cover increased. PAR reflectance from the canopy decreased to less than 3% at maximum vegetative cover. Intercepted PAR (1 - transmitted PAR) generally overestimated absorbed PAR by less than 4% throughout most of the growing season. Thus intercepted PAR appears to be a reasonable estimate of absorbed PAR.

  11. Don Quixote Pond Sediments: Surface and Subsurface Chemistry and Mineralogy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Englert, P. A. J.; Bishop, J. L.; Patel, S.; Gibson, E. K.; Koeberl, C.

    2014-12-01

    Don Quixote Pond, like Don Juan Pond in the South Fork of Wright Valley, Antarctica, is a model for calcium and chlorine weathering and distribution on Mars. It is located in the western part of the North Fork about 100 m above Mean Seawater Level; its brine is seasonally frozen [1]. Field observations show zones of discoloration which grow lighter with distance from the pond edges. Four sediment cores, a set of radial surface samples, special surface samples, and samples of local rocks were obtained [2]. We report on chemical and mineral analyses of traverse samples and on two cores. Core DQ20 is a northeastern shoreline core. Its soluble salt concentration exceeds 200 micromoles/g in the top 5 cm, and then falls to less than 70 micromoles/g at the permafrost depth of 15 cm. These concentrations are low when compared to similarly positioned locations at Don Juan Pond and to cores from Prospect Mesa close to Lake Vanda, Wright Valley. Halite, soda niter, tachyhydrite and/bischovite are suggested from the ionic molar relationships Measured halite concentrations of surface samples, collected along a traverse of 35 m from the pond outwards, range from over 5% to trace amounts, decreasing with distance. Gypsum is also present in almost all of these samples ranging from 0.2% to 2.6%, but does not exhibit a trend. However, in core DQ35, located at a distance of 15 m along the traverse, gypsum decreases from 2.5% to 0.6% from the surface to the permafrost depth of 12 cm. While DQ35 and radial samples show high quartz and albite abundance, samples that contained visible encrustations and evaporites are low in these minerals and rich in highly diverse alteration products. Don Juan Basin ponds may have formed by a complex surface water mobilization of weathering products [3] and local groundwater action [4,5]. In contrast, Don Quixote pond mineralogy and chemistry may be consistent with a less complex shallow and deep groundwater system origin [1]. [1] Harris H

  12. Protease-activated receptor (PAR) 1 and PAR4 differentially regulate factor V expression from human platelets.

    PubMed

    Duvernay, Matthew; Young, Summer; Gailani, David; Schoenecker, Jonathan; Hamm, Heidi E; Hamm, Heidi

    2013-04-01

    With the recent interest of protease-activated receptors (PAR) 1 and PAR4 as possible targets for the treatment of thrombotic disorders, we compared the efficacy of protease-activated receptor (PAR)1 and PAR4 in the generation of procoagulant phenotypes on platelet membranes. PAR4-activating peptide (AP)-stimulated platelets promoted thrombin generation in plasma up to 5 minutes earlier than PAR1-AP-stimulated platelets. PAR4-AP-mediated factor V (FV) association with the platelet surface was 1.6-fold greater than for PAR1-AP. Moreover, PAR4 stimulation resulted in a 3-fold greater release of microparticles, compared with PAR1 stimulation. More robust FV secretion and microparticle generation with PAR4-AP was attributable to stronger and more sustained phosphorylation of myosin light chain at serine 19 and threonine 18. Inhibition of Rho-kinase reduced PAR4-AP-mediated FV secretion and microparticle generation to PAR1-AP-mediated levels. Thrombin generation assays measuring prothrombinase complex activity demonstrated 1.5-fold higher peak thrombin levels on PAR4-AP-stimulated platelets, compared with PAR1-AP-stimulated platelets. Rho-kinase inhibition reduced PAR4-AP-mediated peak thrombin generation by 25% but had no significant effect on PAR1-AP-mediated thrombin generation. In conclusion, stimulation of PAR4 on platelets leads to faster and more robust thrombin generation, compared with PAR1 stimulation. The greater procoagulant potential is related to more efficient FV release from intracellular stores and microparticle production driven by stronger and more sustained myosin light chain phosphorylation. These data have implications about the role of PAR4 during hemostasis and are clinically relevant in light of recent efforts to develop PAR antagonists to treat thrombotic disorders.

  13. Pharmaceuticals as indictors of sewage-influenced groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Beate; Scheytt, Traugott; Asbrand, Martin; de Casas, Andrea Mross

    2012-09-01

    A set of human pharmaceuticals enables identification of groundwater that is influenced by sewage and provides information on the time of recharge. As the consumption rates of the investigated pharmaceuticals have changed over time, so too has the composition of the sewage. At the study area, south of Berlin (Germany), irrigation was performed as a method of wastewater clean-up at sewage irrigation farms until the early 1990s. Today, treated wastewater is discharged into the surface-water-stream Nuthegraben. Groundwater and surface-water samples were analyzed for the pharmaceutical substances clofibric acid, bezafibrate, diclofenac, carbamazepine and primidone, the main ions and organic carbon. The pharmaceutical substances were detected at concentrations up to microgram-per-liter level in groundwater and surface-water samples from the Nuthegraben Lowland area and from the former irrigation farms. Concentrations detected in groundwater are generally much lower than in surface water and there is significant variation in the distribution of pharmaceutical concentrations in groundwater. Groundwater influenced by the irrigation of sewage water shows higher primidone and clofibric-acid concentrations. Groundwater influenced by recent discharge of treated sewage water into the surface water shows high carbamazepine concentrations while concentrations of primidone and clofibric acid are low.

  14. Co-digestion of pig slaughterhouse waste with sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Borowski, Sebastian; Kubacki, Przemysław

    2015-06-01

    Slaughterhouse wastes (SHW) are potentially very attractive substrates for biogas production. However, mono-digestion of these wastes creates great technological problems associated with the inhibitory effects of ammonia and fatty acids on methanogens as well as with the foaming in the digesters. In the following study, the co-digestion of slaughterhouse wastes with sewage sludge (SS) was undertaken. Batch and semi-continuous experiments were performed at 35°C with municipal sewage sludge and pig SHW composed of meat tissue, intestines, bristles and post-flotation sludge. In batch assays, meat tissue and intestinal wastes gave the highest methane productions of 976 and 826 dm(3)/kg VS, respectively, whereas the methane yield from the sludge was only 370 dm(3)/kg VS. The co-digestion of sewage sludge with 50% SHW (weight basis) provided the methane yield exceeding 600 dm(3)/kg VS, which was more than twice as high as the methane production from sewage sludge alone. However, when the loading rate exceeded 4 kg VS/m(3) d, a slight inhibition of methanogenesis was observed, without affecting the digester stability. The experiments showed that the co-digestion of sewage sludge with large amount of slaughterhouse wastes is feasible, and the enhanced methane production does not affect the digester stability.

  15. Five synthetic rubber pond liners protect against leakage and weather

    SciTech Connect

    Weinreich, G.; Hofsess, R.; Toy, D.A.

    1987-03-01

    More than 137 million cu ft of pipeline quality gas is produced daily at the Great Plains Coal Gasification Project in Beulah, ND. The facility is the only commercial plant in the US which produces gaseous and liquid fuels from low-grade coal. The plant needs to recycle and reuse 100% of the organic process wastewater, requiring a complicated treatment system of cooling towers, evaporators, a liquid waste incinerator and other units, each of which has its own surge pond. In total, the plant has five surge ponds which hold near 80 million gallons. To prevent the seepage of wastewater from the surge ponds into the ground water, a liner material was needed that would fulfill several design criteria. The liner had to be resistant to degradation caused by a very wide range of temperatures and it had to have a low coefficient of expansion. Resistance to both organic and inorganic chemical substances was another key requirement. Finally, the liner material needed to be easy to seam during field installation. An elastomeric membrane liner using the synthetic rubber and reinforcing polyester scrim best met the plant's requirements. One of the primary reasons for selecting synthetic rubber was its low coefficient of expansion. Extreme seasonal weather conditions, with temperatures ranging from below zero in the winter to over 100/sup 0/F in the summer, are common in North Dakota. And because the level of wastewater in the ponds constantly varies, a liner is frequently exposed to the elements. Overall, the synthetic rubber pond liners have performed through extreme weather conditions and have proven to be a cost-effective solution to wastewater storage at the gasification project.

  16. Changes in bacterial and eukaryotic communities during sewage decomposition in Mississippi River water

    EPA Science Inventory

    Microbial decay processes are one of the mechanisms whereby sewage contamination is reduced in the environment. This decomposition process involves a highly complex array of bacterial and eukaryotic communities from both sewage and ambient waters. However, relatively little is kn...

  17. 40 CFR 60.4780 - What sewage sludge incineration units are exempt from this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... combustion units that incinerate sewage sludge and are not located at a wastewater treatment facility designed to treat domestic sewage sludge. These units may be subject to another subpart of this part...

  18. Joint NRC/EPA Sewage Sludge Radiological Survey: Survey Design & Test Site Results

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This report contains the results of a radiological survey of nine publicly POTWs around the country, which was commissioned by the Sewage Sludge Subcommittee, to determine whether and to what extent radionuclides concentrate in sewage treatment wastes.

  19. Problems encountered in operating salt gradient solar ponds in the Arabian Gulf region

    SciTech Connect

    Hassab, M.A.; Tag, I.A.; Kamal, W.A. ); Al-Noaimi, F.M.

    1989-01-01

    The paper highlights the main problems encountered in operating salt gradient solar ponds in the Arabian Gulf region, characterized by hot, windy, and dusty environment. These problems are excessive erosion of the gradient zone, the formation of sizeable localized convective zones, the deterioration of pond water clarity and the high rates of surface evaporation. These weather-related problems severely impair the pond operation, as they lead to a serious drop in its collection and storage efficiency, and an excessive increase in salt consumption. Experience gained from operating a 1,600 m{sup 2} pond and a small-scale experimental pond is presented.

  20. Development of a submersible shadowgraph for the study of interfaces in salt-gradient solar ponds

    SciTech Connect

    Huacuz, J.M.; Sierra, F.; Venegas, C.; Ramos, C. )

    1989-01-01

    In this paper the processes of development and testing of a submersible shadowgraph are described. This instrument was devised as a tool for the study of interfaces in salt-gradient solar ponds. Tests were carried out in the solar pond of the University of Texas at El Paso. Photographs of interfaces inside the pond were taken for the first time. The submersible shadowgraph can be stationed inside the pond for time dependent studies of a given region, or it can be used to scan the pond depth.

  1. Decontamination and decommissioning of the BORAX-V leach pond. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.L.

    1985-01-01

    This report describes the decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) of the BORAX-V leach pond located at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The leach pond became radioactively contaminated from the periodic discharge of low-level liquid waste during operation of the Boiling Water Reactor Experiments (BORAX) from 1954 to 1964. This report describes work performed to accomplish the D and D objectives of stabilizing the leach pond and preventing the spread of contamination. D and D of the BORAX-V leach pond consisted to backfilling the pond with clean soil, grading and seeding the area, and erecting a permanent marker to identify very low-level subsurface contamination.

  2. One-dimensional transient finite difference model of an operational salinity gradient solar pond

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hicks, Michael C.; Golding, Peter

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the modeling approach used to simulate the transient behavior of a salinity gradient solar pond. A system of finite difference equations are used to generate the time dependent temperature and salinity profiles within the pond. The stability of the pond, as determined by the capacity of the resulting salinity profile to suppress thermal convection within the primary gradient region of the pond, is continually monitored and when necessary adjustments are made to the thickness of the gradient zone. Results of the model are then compared to measurements taken during two representative seasonal periods at the University of Texas at El Paso's (UTEP's) research solar pond.

  3. PAR2 regulates regeneration, transdifferentiation, and death

    PubMed Central

    Piran, Ron; Lee, Seung-Hee; Kuss, Pia; Hao, Ergeng; Newlin, Robbin; Millán, José Luis; Levine, Fred

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms by which cells sense and respond to injury is central to developing therapies to enhance tissue regeneration. Previously, we showed that pancreatic injury consisting of acinar cell damage+β-cell ablation led to islet cell transdifferentiation. Here, we report that the molecular mechanism for this requires activating protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR2), a G-protein-coupled receptor. PAR2 modulation was sufficient to induce islet cell transdifferentiation in the absence of β-cells. Its expression was modulated in an islet cell type-specific manner in murine and human type 1 diabetes (T1D). In addition to transdifferentiation, PAR2 regulated β-cell apoptosis in pancreatitis. PAR2's role in regeneration is broad, as mice lacking PAR2 had marked phenotypes in response to injury in the liver and in digit regeneration following amputation. These studies provide a pharmacologically relevant target to induce tissue regeneration in a number of diseases, including T1D. PMID:27809303

  4. Occurrences and potential risks of 16 fragrances in five German sewage treatment plants and their receiving waters.

    PubMed

    Klaschka, Ursula; von der Ohe, Peter Carsten; Bschorer, Anne; Krezmer, Sonja; Sengl, Manfred; Letzel, Marion

    2013-04-01

    Fragrances are used in a wide array of everyday products and enter the aquatic environment via wastewater. While several musk compounds have been studied in detail, little is known about the occurrence and fate of other fragrances. We selected 16 fragrance compounds and scrutinized their presence in Bavarian sewage treatment plants (STP) influents and effluents and discussed their ecological risks for the receiving surface waters. Moreover, we followed their concentrations along the path in one STP by corresponding time-related water sampling and derived the respective elimination rates in the purification process. Six fragrance substances (OTNE, HHCB, lilial, acetyl cedrene, menthol, and, in some grab samples, also methyl-dihydrojasmonate) could be detected in the effluents of the investigated sewage treatment plants. The other fragrances under scrutiny were only found in the inflow and were eliminated in the purification process. Only OTNE and HHCB were found in the receiving surface waters of the STP in congruent concentrations, which exceeded the preliminary derived environmental thresholds by a factor of 1.15 and 1.12, respectively, indicating potential risks. OTNE was also detected in similar concentration ranges as HHCB in muscles and livers of fish from surface waters and from ponds that are supplied with purified wastewater. The findings show that some fragrance compounds undergo high elimination rates, whereas others-not only musks-are present in receiving surface water and biota and may present a risk to local aquatic biota. Hence, our results suggest that the fate and potential effects of fragrance compounds in the aquatic environment deserve more attention.

  5. Altered bioenergetics and developmental effects in striped marsh frog (Limnodynastes peronii) tadpoles exposed to UV treated sewage.

    PubMed

    Melvin, Steven D; Lanctôt, Chantal M; van de Merwe, Jason P; Leusch, Frederic D L

    2016-06-01

    Effectively treating domestic wastewater so that it can be safely discharged or reused is critical for maintaining the integrity of freshwater resources, and for protecting the health of animals that rely on these systems. Amphibians are currently facing widespread population declines, so there is a particularly urgent need to investigate exposure scenarios that might result in weakened amphibian populations. Domestic sewage has received little attention as a possible factor that could influence the survival, growth and development, or general health of amphibians. However, wastewater reuse for crop irrigation and other purposes is increasing and holding ponds and constructed wetlands exist at many wastewater treatment facilities, introducing conceivable pathways that could result in the exposure of amphibians to treated wastewater. We exposed developing striped marsh frog (Limnodynastes peronii) tadpoles, to control water and 12.5, 25, 50 and 100% UV treated domestic sewage, and quantified effects on growth and development, hepatic energy reserves, and enzymatic pathways associated with detoxification and oxidative stress. Growth and development were accelerated and relative liver size was increased in exposed animals. The exposure resulted in an apparently hormetic increase in hepatic triglycerides and dose-dependent reduction in glycogen stores, as well as increased lipase and NADPH activity, indicating a general disruption to energy metabolism and/or mobilization. Contrary to expectations based on published studies with fish, we found no evidence of lipid peroxidation or induction of the detoxification enzyme Superoxide Dismutase (SOD), however, this may reflect the use of UV treatment as opposed to chlorination for disinfection. Chemical analysis and risk-based prioritization consistently identified fluoxetine, triclosan and diazinon as high-risk contaminants in the wastewater, with nonylphenol and mestranol flagged as risks during one early collection

  6. Levels of heavy metals and organochlorine pesticides of cyprinid fish reared four years in a wastewater treatment pond

    SciTech Connect

    Guerrin, F. ); Burgat-Sacaze, V.; de Saqui-Sannes, P. )

    1990-03-01

    Sanitary risks to public health are certainly the most serious bottleneck for wastewater aquaculture extension. Apart from the fact of an eventual transmission to man of pathological organisms such as bacteria, viruses and parasites by fish, the wide occurrence in domestic sewage of micro-pollutants like heavy metals and pesticides, generally considered as bio-cumulative, is troublesome. In this respect, short-term analyses cannot give a good idea of potential hazard, as its is widely assumed that accumulation by fish or aquatic animals is related to age, size, feeding habits and retention time in polluted waters. The authors present here the results of a study on a sample of 14 tench (Tinca tinca) and 4 rudd (Scardinius erythrophtalmus), introduced 4 years before in a wastewater treatment pond of the town of Realmont (France). Both species may be considered as good test for heavy metal and pesticide contamination, according to their feeding behavior. After the estimation of age, growth and sanitary state of the fish, analytical results of three metals (cadmium, lead and mercury) and sic organochlorine pesticides and derived compounds (DDT, heptachloride, aldrin, dieldrin, HCB and HCH) are compared with natural water fish content and discussed in relation to international recommendations concerning food product quality.

  7. ATP-regulated interactions between P1 ParA, ParB and non-specific DNA that are stabilized by the plasmid partition site, parS

    PubMed Central

    Havey, James C.; Vecchiarelli, Anthony G.; Funnell, Barbara E.

    2012-01-01

    Localization of the P1 plasmid requires two proteins, ParA and ParB, which act on the plasmid partition site, parS. ParB is a site-specific DNA-binding protein and ParA is a Walker-type ATPase with non-specific DNA-binding activity. In vivo ParA binds the bacterial nucleoid and forms dynamic patterns that are governed by the ParB–parS partition complex on the plasmid. How these interactions drive plasmid movement and localization is not well understood. Here we have identified a large protein–DNA complex in vitro that requires ParA, ParB and ATP, and have characterized its assembly by sucrose gradient sedimentation and light scattering assays. ATP binding and hydrolysis mediated the assembly and disassembly of this complex, while ADP antagonized complex formation. The complex was not dependent on, but was stabilized by, parS. The properties indicate that ParA and ParB are binding and bridging multiple DNA molecules to create a large meshwork of protein–DNA molecules that involves both specific and non-specific DNA. We propose that this complex represents a dynamic adaptor complex between the plasmid and nucleoid, and further, that this interaction drives the redistribution of partition proteins and the plasmid over the nucleoid during partition. PMID:21965538

  8. 78 FR 56921 - South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project, Phase 2 (Ponds R3, R4, R5, S5, A1, A2W, A8, A8S, A19...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-16

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project, Phase 2 (Ponds R3, R4, R5, S5, A1... 2 of the South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project and consists of restoring and enhancing over 2,000.... The overall south bay salt pond restoration area includes 15,100 acres which the USFWS and the...

  9. Current state of sewage treatment in China.

    PubMed

    Jin, Lingyun; Zhang, Guangming; Tian, Huifang

    2014-12-01

    The study reported and analyzed the current state of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in urban China from the aspects of scale, treatment processes, sludge handling, geographical distribution, and discharge standards. By 2012, there were 3340 WWTPs in operation in China with a capacity of 1.42 × 10(8) m(3)/d. The number of medium-scale WWTPs (1-10 × 10(4) m(3)/d) counted for 75% of total WWTPs. On average, the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiencies of small-scale, medium-scale, large-scale and super-large-scale WWTPs were 81, 85.5, 87.5 and 86.5%, respectively. Generally speaking, the nutrients removal instead of COD removal was of concern. As to the different processes, oxidation ditch, anaerobic-anoxic-oxic (A(2)/O) and sequencing batch reactor (SBR) were the mainstream technologies in China. These technologies had minor difference in terms of overall COD removal efficiency. The sludge treatment in WWTPs was basically "thickening-coagulation-mechanical dehydration" and the major disposal method was sanitary landfill in China. The distributions of WWTPs and their utilization showed significant regional characteristics. The sewage treatment capacity of China concentrated on the coastal areas and middle reaches of Yangtze River, which were the economically developed zones. Besides, most WWTPs enforced the Class 1 or Class 2 discharge standards, but few realized wastewater reuse. Finally, existing problems were discussed, including low removal efficiency of nitrogen and phosphorus, emerging contaminants, low reuse of reclaimed water, poor sludge treatment and disposal, low execution standard of effluent, and emissions of greenhouse gas from WWTPs. Suggestions regarding potential technical and administrative measures were given.

  10. Variovorax defluvii sp. nov., isolated from sewage.

    PubMed

    Jin, Long; Kim, Kwang Kyu; Ahn, Chi-Yong; Oh, Hee-Mock

    2012-08-01

    A polyphasic taxonomic study was carried out on 2C1-b(T) and 2C-21, two strains isolated from sewage flowing into River Geumho in Korea. Cells of the two strains were Gram-negative, non-spore-forming, motile and oval or rod-shaped. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence studies showed a clear affiliation of these two isolates with members of the Betaproteobacteria; they were most closely related to Variovorax boronicumulans KCTC 22010(T), Variovorax dokdonensis KCTC 12544(T), Variovorax ginsengisoli KCTC 12583(T), Variovorax paradoxus ATCC 17713(T) and Variovorax soli KACC 11579(T) showing 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities of 97.4-98.8% with these strains and shared 100% similarity with each other. The genomic DNA G+C contents of strains 2C1-b(T) and 2C1-21 were 65.5 and 65.2 mol%, respectively. Phenotypic and chemotaxonomic data [Q-8 as the major ubiquinone; C(16:0), summed feature 4 (C(16:1)ω7c and/or iso-C(15:0) 2-OH), C(17:0) cyclo and summed feature 7 (C(18:1)ω7c and/or ω9t and/or ω12t) as major fatty acids] supported the affiliation of strains 2C1-b(T) and 2C-21 to the genus Variovorax. Based on evidence derived from this polyphasic analysis, it is proposed that strains 2C1-b(T) and 2C1-21 represent a novel species for which the name Variovorax defluvii sp. nov. is proposed; the type strain is 2C1-b(T) ( = KCTC 12768(T) = JCM 17804(T)).

  11. Fine-scale urbanization affects Odonata species diversity in ponds of a megacity (Paris, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeanmougin, Martin; Leprieur, Fabien; Loïs, Grégoire; Clergeau, Philippe

    2014-08-01

    Current developments in urban ecology include very few studies focused on pond ecosystems, though ponds are recognized as biodiversity hotspots. Using Odonata as an indicator model, we explored changes in species composition in ponds localized along an urban gradient of a megacity (Paris, France). We then assessed the relative importance of local- and landscape-scale variables in shaping Odonata α-diversity patterns using a model-averaging approach. Analyses were performed for adult (A) and adult plus exuviae (AE) census data. At 26 ponds, we recorded 657 adults and 815 exuviae belonging to 17 Odonata species. The results showed that the Odonata species assemblage composition was not determined by pond localization along the urban gradient. Similarly, pond characteristics were found to be similar among urban, suburban and periurban ponds. The analyses of AE census data revealed that fine-scale urbanization (i.e., increased density of buildings surrounding ponds) negatively affects Odonata α-diversity. In contrast, pond localization along the urban gradient weakly explained the α-diversity patterns. Several local-scale variables, such as the coverage of submerged macrophytes, were found to be significant drivers of Odonata α-diversity. Together, these results show that the degree of urbanization around ponds must be considered instead of pond localization along the urban gradient when assessing the potential impacts of urbanization on Odonata species diversity. This work also indicates the importance of exuviae sampling in understanding the response of Odonata to urbanization.

  12. Lethal and sublethal effects of embryonic and larval exposure of Hyla versicolor to Stormwater pond sediments.

    PubMed

    Brand, Adrianne B; Snodgrass, Joel W; Gallagher, Matthew T; Casey, Ryan E; Van Meter, Robin

    2010-02-01

    Stormwater ponds are common features of modern stormwater management practices. Stormwater ponds often retain standing water for extended periods of time, develop vegetative characteristics similar to natural wetlands, and attract wildlife. However, because stormwater ponds are designed to capture pollutants, wildlife that utilize ponds might be exposed to pollutants and suffer toxicological effects. To investigate the toxicity of stormwater pond sediments to Hyla versicolor, an anuran commonly found using retention ponds for breeding, we exposed embryos and larvae to sediments in laboratory microcosms. Exposure to pond sediments reduced survival of embryos by approximately 50% but did not affect larval survival. Larvae exposed to stormwater pond sediment developed significantly faster (x = 39 days compared to 42 days; p = 0.005) and were significantly larger at metamorphosis (x = 0.49 g compared to 0.36 g; p < 0.001) than controls that were exposed to clean sand. Substantial amounts (712-2215 mg/l) of chloride leached from pond sediments into the water column of treatment microcosms; subsequently, survival of embryos was negatively correlated (r (2) = 0.50; p < 0.001) with water conductivity during development. Our results, along with the limited number of other toxicological studies of stormwater ponds, suggest that road salt contributes to the degradation of stormwater pond habitat quality for amphibian reproduction and that future research should focus on understanding interactions among road salts and other pollutants and stressors characteristic of urban environments.

  13. Homing and movement of yellow-phase American eels in freshwater ponds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lamothe, P.J.; Gallagher, M.; Chivers, D.P.; Moring, J.R.

    2000-01-01

    Ten yellow-phase American eels, Anguilla rostrata, were captured from Hammond Pond, a small freshwater pond located in central Maine, U.S.A. The eels were implanted with radio transmitters and released into nearby Hermon Pond. At the same time, 10 eels were captured from Hermon Pond, implanted with radio transmitters and returned to Hermon Pond to serve as a control group. The two ponds are connected by a 1.6km section of Souadabscook Stream. We tracked the 20 eels over the 90-day duration of the experiment. Four of the ten displaced eels returned to their home pond. None of the control fish were located outside of their home pond during the study. Three of the four eels that successfully returned to their home pond did so under the darkness of the new moon and the fourth made the journey during the first quarter moon phase. Location data showed that translocated and native eels tended to occupy different areas of Hermon Pond. This study provides evidence of homing behavior in American eels living in small freshwater ponds and indications that homing activity may be linked to lunar cycle.

  14. Estrogenic compounds in Tunisian urban sewage treatment plant: occurrence, removal and ecotoxicological impact of sewage discharge and sludge disposal.

    PubMed

    Belhaj, Dalel; Athmouni, Khaled; Jerbi, Bouthaina; Kallel, Monem; Ayadi, Habib; Zhou, John L

    2016-12-01

    The occurrence, fate and ecotoxicological assessment of selected estrogenic compounds were investigated at Tunisian urban sewage treatment plant. The influents, effluents, as well as primary, secondary and dehydrated sludge, were sampled and analyzed for the target estrogens to evaluate their fate. All target compounds were detected in both sewage and sludge with mean concentrations from 0.062 to 0.993 μg L(-1) and from 11.8 to 792.9 μg kg(-1)dry weight, respectively. A wide range of removal efficiencies during the treatment processes were observed, from 6.3 % for estrone to 76.8 % for estriol. Ecotoxicological risk assessment revealed that the highest ecotoxicological risk in sewage effluent and dehydrated sludge was due to 17β-estradiol with a risk quotient (RQ) of 4.6 and 181.9, respectively, and 17α-ethinylestradiol with RQ of 9.8 and 14.85, respectively. Ecotoxicological risk after sewage discharge and sludge disposal was limited to the presence of 17β-estradiol in dehydrated-sludge amended soil with RQ of 1.38. Further control of estrogenic hormones in sewage effluent and sludge is essential before their discharge and application in order to prevent their introduction into the natural environment.

  15. Mourning dove use of man-made ponds in a cold-desert ecosystem in Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Howe, F.P.; Flake, L.D. )

    1989-10-31

    Mourning doves (Zenaida macroura) in a cold-desert ecosystem used man-made ponds for watering, feeding, gritting, loafing, and courting. Diurnal pond use by doves peaked in the morning and evening. Monthly dove use of ponds fluctuated slightly during the summers of 1984 and 1985. Pond size, pH, and shoreline characteristics had little association with the intensity of pond use by doves; but geographic isolation of ponds was weakly associated had pond-use intensity. The number of doves present at the beginning of the one-hour period was a poor indicator of the number of arrivals during that period. We conclude that man-made water sources are important in areas where water availability may limit mourning dove productivity and abundance. It is suggested that mourning dove arrival rates could be used as a population index in cold-desert areas.

  16. Small thaw ponds: an unaccounted source of methane in the Canadian high Arctic.

    PubMed

    Negandhi, Karita; Laurion, Isabelle; Whiticar, Michael J; Galand, Pierre E; Xu, Xiaomei; Lovejoy, Connie

    2013-01-01

    Thawing permafrost in the Canadian Arctic tundra leads to peat erosion and slumping in narrow and shallow runnel ponds that surround more commonly studied polygonal ponds. Here we compared the methane production between runnel and polygonal ponds using stable isotope ratios, ¹⁴C signatures, and investigated potential methanogenic communities through high-throughput sequencing archaeal 16S rRNA genes. We found that runnel ponds had significantly higher methane and carbon dioxide emissions, produced from a slightly larger fraction of old carbon, compared to polygonal ponds. The methane stable isotopic signature indicated production through acetoclastic methanogenesis, but gene signatures from acetoclastic and hydrogenotrophic methanogenic Archaea were detected in both polygonal and runnel ponds. We conclude that runnel ponds represent a source of methane from potentially older C, and that they contain methanogenic communities able to use diverse sources of carbon, increasing the risk of augmented methane release under a warmer climate.

  17. Groundwater monitoring plan for the Hanford Site 216-B-3 pond RCRA facility

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, D.B.; Chou, C.J.

    1998-06-01

    The 216-B-3 pond system was a series of ponds for disposal of liquid effluent from past Hanford production facilities. In operation since 1945, the B Pond system has been a RCRA facility since 1986, with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) interim-status groundwater monitoring in place since 1988. In 1994, discharges were diverted from the main pond, where the greatest potential for contamination was thought to reside, to the 3C expansion pond. In 1997, all discharges to the pond system were discontinued. In 1990, the B Pond system was elevated from detection groundwater monitoring to an assessment-level status because total organic halogens and total organic carbon were found to exceed critical means in two wells. Subsequent groundwater quality assessment failed to find any specific hazardous waste contaminant that could have accounted for the exceedances, which were largely isolated in occurrence. Thus, it was recommended that the facility be returned to detection-level monitoring.

  18. Small Thaw Ponds: An Unaccounted Source of Methane in the Canadian High Arctic

    PubMed Central

    Negandhi, Karita; Laurion, Isabelle; Whiticar, Michael J.; Galand, Pierre E.; Xu, Xiaomei; Lovejoy, Connie

    2013-01-01

    Thawing permafrost in the Canadian Arctic tundra leads to peat erosion and slumping in narrow and shallow runnel ponds that surround more commonly studied polygonal ponds. Here we compared the methane production between runnel and polygonal ponds using stable isotope ratios, 14C signatures, and investigated potential methanogenic communities through high-throughput sequencing archaeal 16S rRNA genes. We found that runnel ponds had significantly higher methane and carbon dioxide emissions, produced from a slightly larger fraction of old carbon, compared to polygonal ponds. The methane stable isotopic signature indicated production through acetoclastic methanogenesis, but gene signatures from acetoclastic and hydrogenotrophic methanogenic Archaea were detected in both polygonal and runnel ponds. We conclude that runnel ponds represent a source of methane from potentially older C, and that they contain methanogenic communities able to use diverse sources of carbon, increasing the risk of augmented methane release under a warmer climate. PMID:24236014

  19. Surface and subsurface soils at the Pond B dam: July 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Halverson, N.V.

    1999-12-03

    Pond B, 685-13G, is an inactive reactor cooling impoundment built in 1961 on the Savannah River Site (SRS). Between 1961 and 1964, Pond B received R-Reactor cooling water discharges that were contaminated with {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr and plutonium. Though the pond has not been used since 1964, radionuclides from the contaminated cooling water remain in the water and in the surface sediments of the pond. The current proposal to fix and repair the Pond B dam structure includes installing a new drain system and monitoring equipment. The dam will be reinforced with additional previous material on the downstream face of the dam. The objectives of this report are to describe the sampling methodology used during the July 1998 sampling event at the downstream face of the Pond B dam and in Pond B, present the results of the sampling event, and compare, where possible, these results to related risk-based standards.

  20. Useful Ingredients Recovery from Sewage Sludge by using Hydrothermal Reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Koichi; Moriyama, Mika; Yamasaki, Yuki; Takahashi, Yui; Inoue, Chihiro

    2006-05-01

    Hydrothermal treatment of sludge from a sewage treatment plant was conducted to obtain useful ingredients for culture of specific microbes which can reduce polysulfide ion into sulfide ion and/or hydrogen sulfide. Several additives such as acid, base, and oxidizer were added to the hydrothermal reaction of excess sludge to promote the production of useful materials. After hydrothermal treatment, reaction solution and precipitation were qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed and estimated the availability as nutrition in cultural medium. From the results of product analysis, most of organic solid in sewage was basically decomposed by hydrothermal hydrolysis and transformed into oily or water-soluble compounds. Bacterial culture of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) showed the good results in multiplication with medium which was obtained from hydrothermal treatment of sewage sludge with magnesium or calcium hydroxide and hydrogen peroxide.

  1. Impacts on groundwater due to land application of sewage sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Higgins, A.J.

    1984-06-01

    The project was designed to demonstrate the potential benefits of utilizing sewage sludge as a soil conditioner and fertilizer on Sassafras sandy loam soil. Aerobically digested, liquid sewage sludge was applied to the soil at rates of 0, 22.4, and 44.8 Mg of dry solids/ha for three consecutive years between 1978 and 1981. Groundwater, soil, and crop contamination levels were monitored to establish the maximum sewage solids loading rate that could be applied without causing environmental deterioration. The results indicate that application of 22.4 Mg of dry solids/ha of sludge is the upper limit to ensure protection of the groundwater quality on the site studied. Application rates at or slightly below 22.4 Mg of dry solids/ha are sufficient for providing plant nutrients for the dent corn and rye cropping system utilized in the study.

  2. Agronomic characterisation of different types of sewage sludge: policy implications.

    PubMed

    Mosquera-Losada, M R; Muñoz-Ferreiro, N; Rigueiro-Rodríguez, A

    2010-03-01

    Spain is one of the main municipal sewage sludge producers of Europe. This paper aims to agronomically characterise different types of sewage sludge stabilised by different methods (anaerobically digested, composted, and pelletised) and deliver policy recommendations from the results of this characterisation. Anaerobic sewage sludge quality is found to be better in plants with a lower volume of water processing. Composted sludge shows the best quality from a heavy metal point of view, but its low available nitrogen content increases the input of heavy metals when spread, as compared to digested or pelletised sludge. Pelletised sludge has higher heavy metal content than anaerobically digested sludge. Despite the good quality of the sludges, future regulations, especially with regard to Cd levels, will limit the use of this waste in agriculture.

  3. Neurotoxic effects of solvent exposure on sewage treatment workers

    SciTech Connect

    Kraut, A.; Lilis, R.; Marcus, M.; Valciukas, J.A.; Wolff, M.S.; Landrigan, P.J.

    1988-07-01

    Nineteen Sewage Treatment Workers (STWs) exposed to industrial sewage that contained benzene, toluene, and other organic solvents at a primary sewage treatment plant in New York City (Plant A) were examined for evidence of solvent toxicity. Fourteen (74%) complained of central nervous system (CNS) symptoms consistent with solvent exposure, including lightheadedness, fatigue, increased sleep requirement, and headache. The majority of these symptoms resolved with transfer from the plant. Men working less than 1 yr at Plant A were more likely to complain of two or more CNS symptoms than men who were working there longer than 1 yr (p = .055). Objective abnormalities in neurobehavioral testing were found in all 4 men working longer than 9 yr at this plant, but in only 5 of 15 employed there for a shorter period (p = .03). These results are consistent with the known effects of solvent exposure. Occupational health personnel must be aware that STWs can be exposed to solvents and other industrial wastes.

  4. Municipal sewage sludge as fertilizer. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-12-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of sewage sludge as fertilizer. References study the effects of municipal sewage sludge on vegetation such as maize, beans, roadside plant life, and hardwood trees. Sewage sludge used as fertilizer to reclaim mined land is explored. Public attitudes are also considered. (Contains a minimum of 247 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  5. Municipal sewage sludge as fertilizer. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of sewage sludge as fertilizer. References study the effects of municipal sewage sludge on vegetation such as maize, beans, roadside plant life, and hardwood trees. Sewage sludge used as fertilizer to reclaim mined land is explored. Public attitudes are also considered. (Contains a minimum of 226 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  6. Municipal sewage sludge as fertilizer. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of sewage sludge as fertilizer. References study the effects of municipal sewage sludge on vegetation such as maize, beans, roadside plant life, and hardwood trees. Sewage sludge used as fertilizer to reclaim mined land is explored. Public attitudes are also considered. (Contains a minimum of 230 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  7. Detection and distribution of rotavirus in raw sewage and creeks in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Mehnert, D.U.; Stewien, K.E. )

    1993-01-01

    Rotavirus invection is an important cause of hospitalization and mortality of infants and children in developing countries, especially where the water supply and sewage disposal systems are in precarious conditions. This report describes the detection, quantitation, and distribution of rotaviruses in domestic sewage and sewage polluted creeks in the city of San Paulo. 22 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  8. PROCESS DESIGN MANUAL: LAND APPLICATION OF SEWAGE SLUDGE AND DOMESTIC SEPTAGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Land application of sewage sludge generated by domestic sewage treatment is performed in an environmentally safe and cost–effective manner in many communities. Land application involves taking advantage of the fertilizing and soil conditioning properties of sewage sludge by sp...

  9. A COMPREHENSIVE STUDY OF HOURLY AND DAILY SEWAGE FLOW RATES IN FLORIDA PUBLIC SCHOOLS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FOGARTY, WILLIAM J.; REEDER, MILTON E.

    A DETERMINATION OF THE HOURLY AND DAILY SEWAGE FLOW RATES IN FLORIDA PUBLIC SCHOOLS WAS MADE TO IDENTIFY THE FLOW CHARACTERISTICS AND TO PROVIDE A MORE PRECISE BASIS FOR THE ESTABLISHMENT OF DESIGN CRITERIA FOR SEWAGE DISPOSAL FACILITIES IN SCHOOLS. WATER FLOW DATA WAS COLLECTED FOR 158 SCHOOLS AND SEWAGE FLOW DATA FROM 42 SCHOOLS. THE FINDINGS…

  10. Comparison of microwave assisted, ultrasonic assisted and Soxhlet extractions of N-nitrosamines and aromatic amines in sewage sludge, soils and sediments.

    PubMed

    Jurado-Sánchez, Beatriz; Ballesteros, Evaristo; Gallego, Mercedes

    2013-10-01

    This paper describes a cost-effective and sensitive method for the gas chromatographic determination of 10 aliphatic and aromatic N-nitrosamines and 14 aromatic amines (including aniline, several chloroanilines and 2-nitroaniline) in various soil matrices, after microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) combined with continuous solid-phase extraction. A systematic comparison of MAE with ultrasonic assisted and Soxhlet extraction alternatives showed that MAE provided the highest extraction efficiency (94-96%) with the shortest extraction time (3 min). The method developed provides a linear response throughout the concentration range 0.1-150 ng g(-1) and features low limits of detection (0.03-0.35 ng g(-1)) and good precision. The method was successfully applied to study the occurrence of the analytes in sewage sludge, agricultural soils, and river and pond sediments. Aniline and chloroanilines were the amines most frequently detected (0.4-5.4 ng g(-1)), whereas N-nitrosodimethylamine, N-nitrosodiethylamine and N-nitrosomorpholine were only found in two of the urban sewage sludge samples analyzed (0.4-1.6 ng g(-1)).

  11. Simultaneous nutrient removal, optimised CO2 mitigation and biofuel feedstock production by Chlorogonium sp. grown in secondary treated non-sterile saline sewage effluent.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kwan Yin; Ng, Tsz Wai; Li, Guiying; An, Taicheng; Kwan, Ka Ki; Chan, King Ming; Huang, Guocheng; Yip, Ho Yin; Wong, Po Keung

    2015-10-30

    The phycoremediation process has great potential for effectively addressing environmental pollution. To explore the capabilities of simultaneous algal nutrient removal, CO2 mitigation and biofuel feedstock production from spent water resources, a Chlorogonium sp. isolated from a tilapia pond in Hong Kong was grown in non-sterile saline sewage effluent for a bioremediation study. With high removal efficiencies of NH3-N (88.35±14.39%), NO3(-)-N (85.39±14.96%), TN (93.34±6.47%) and PO4(3-)-P (91.80±17.44%), Chlorogonium sp. achieved a CO2 consumption rate of 58.96 mg L(-1) d(-1), which was optimised by the response surface methodology. Under optimised conditions, the lipid content of the algal biomass reached 24.26±2.67%. Overall, the isolated Chlorogonium sp. showed promising potential in the simultaneous purification of saline sewage effluent in terms of tertiary treatment and CO2 sequestration while delivering feedstock for potential biofuel production in a waste-recycling manner.

  12. Patterns of Assemblage Structure Indicate a Broader Conservation Potential of Focal Amphibians for Pond Management

    PubMed Central

    Soomets, Elin; Rannap, Riinu; Lõhmus, Asko

    2016-01-01

    Small freshwater ponds host diverse and vulnerable biotic assemblages but relatively few conspicuous, specially protected taxa. In Europe, the amphibians Triturus cristatus and Pelobates fuscus are among a few species whose populations have been successfully restored using pond restoration and management activities at the landscape scale. In this study, we explored whether the ponds constructed for those two target species have wider conservation significance, particularly for other species of conservation concern. We recorded the occurrence of amphibians and selected aquatic macro-invertebrates (dragonflies; damselflies; diving beetles; water scavenger beetles) in 66 ponds specially constructed for amphibians (up to 8 years post construction) and, for comparison, in 100 man-made ponds (created by local people for cattle or garden watering, peat excavation, etc.) and 65 natural ponds in Estonia. We analysed nestedness of the species assemblages and its dependence on the environment, and described the co-occurrence patterns between the target amphibians and other aquatic species. The assemblages in all ponds were significantly nested, but the environmental determinants of nestedness and co-occurrence of particular species differed among pond types. Constructed ponds were most species-rich irrespective of the presence of the target species; however, T. cristatus was frequent in those ponds and rare elsewhere, and it showed nested patterns in every type of pond. We thus conclude that pond construction for the protected amphibians can serve broader habitat conservation aims in the short term. However, the heterogeneity and inconsistent presence of species of conservation concern observed in other types of ponds implies that long-term perspectives on pond management require more explicit consideration of different habitat and biodiversity values. We also highlight nestedness analysis as a tool that can be used for the practical task of selecting focal species for

  13. Farmed Areas Predict the Distribution of Amphibian Ponds in a Traditional Rural Landscape

    PubMed Central

    Hartel, Tibor; von Wehrden, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Background Traditional rural landscapes of Eastern Europe are undergoing major changes due to agricultural intensification, land abandonment, change in agricultural practices and infrastructural development. Small man-made ponds are important yet vulnerable components of rural landscapes. Despite their important role for biodiversity, these ponds tend to be excluded from conservation strategies. Methodology/Findings Our study was conducted in a traditional rural landscape in Eastern Europe. The aim of this study is twofold: (i) to model the distribution of four major man-made pond types and (ii) to present the importance of man-made ponds for the endangered Yellow Bellied Toad (Bombina variegata) and the Common Toad (Bufo bufo). Six environmental variables were used to model pond distribution: Corine landcover, the heterogeneity of the landcover, slope, road distance, distance to closest village and the human population density. Land cover heterogeneity was the most important driver for the distribution of fishponds. Areas used for agriculture with significant areas of natural vegetation were the most important predictors for the distribution of temporary ponds. In addition, areas covered by transitional woodland and scrub were important for the open cattle ponds. Bombina variegata was found predominantly in the temporary ponds (e.g. ponds created by cattle and buffalo, dirt road ponds and concrete ponds created for livestock drinking) and Bufo bufo in fishponds. Conclusions/Significance Our Maxent models revealed that the highest probability of occurrence for amphibian ponds was in areas used as farmland. The traditional farming practices combined with a low level of infrastructure development produces a large number of amphibian ponds. The challenge is to harmonize economic development and the maintenance of high densities of ponds in these traditional rural landscapes. PMID:23704928

  14. Patterns of Assemblage Structure Indicate a Broader Conservation Potential of Focal Amphibians for Pond Management.

    PubMed

    Soomets, Elin; Rannap, Riinu; Lõhmus, Asko

    2016-01-01

    Small freshwater ponds host diverse and vulnerable biotic assemblages but relatively few conspicuous, specially protected taxa. In Europe, the amphibians Triturus cristatus and Pelobates fuscus are among a few species whose populations have been successfully restored using pond restoration and management activities at the landscape scale. In this study, we explored whether the ponds constructed for those two target species have wider conservation significance, particularly for other species of conservation concern. We recorded the occurrence of amphibians and selected aquatic macro-invertebrates (dragonflies; damselflies; diving beetles; water scavenger beetles) in 66 ponds specially constructed for amphibians (up to 8 years post construction) and, for comparison, in 100 man-made ponds (created by local people for cattle or garden watering, peat excavation, etc.) and 65 natural ponds in Estonia. We analysed nestedness of the species assemblages and its dependence on the environment, and described the co-occurrence patterns between the target amphibians and other aquatic species. The assemblages in all ponds were significantly nested, but the environmental determinants of nestedness and co-occurrence of particular species differed among pond types. Constructed ponds were most species-rich irrespective of the presence of the target species; however, T. cristatus was frequent in those ponds and rare elsewhere, and it showed nested patterns in every type of pond. We thus conclude that pond construction for the protected amphibians can serve broader habitat conservation aims in the short term. However, the heterogeneity and inconsistent presence of species of conservation concern observed in other types of ponds implies that long-term perspectives on pond management require more explicit consideration of different habitat and biodiversity values. We also highlight nestedness analysis as a tool that can be used for the practical task of selecting focal species for

  15. Zoo-heleoplankton structure in three artificial ponds of North-eastern Argentina.

    PubMed

    Frutos, S M; Carnevali, R

    2008-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the abundance and species richness of zoo-heleoplankton bigger than 53 microm in an annual cycle under similar climate conditions in three artificial ponds, in order to observe the changes during an annual cycle. Samples were taken monthly from June 1993 to July 1994 in Corrientes, Argentina. The first pond (A) was covered an 80% by Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.), the second one (B) with bloom of Microcystis aeruginosa (Kurtzing) and the last one (C) with organic matter deposited in the bottom. The water was more acidic at pond A, and the water at pond B contained more dissolved oxygen concentration than the water at the other two ponds. The zoo-heleoplankton densities varied between 20-1728 ind.l(-1) at pond A, 42-4082 ind.l(-1) at pond B and 148-2447 ind.l(-1) at pond C. The maximum zoo-heleoplankton abundance was found in the pond with cyanobacteria bloom during Autumn 1994 and the minimum abundance was found in the one with a predominance of E. crassipes. The rank of species richness was pond A > pond B > pond C. Rotifera was the most abundant group in pond A whereas the larval stages of Copepoda were abundant in the other two ponds. Anuraeopsis navicula Rousselt 1910 was the dominant population in the pond with macrophytes prevalence. Brachionus calyciflorus Pallas 1776 and larval stage of Copepoda had variable proportions in the pond with cyanobacteria bloom. Thermocyclops decipiens (Kiefer 1929) was present during the annual cycle only in the pond with organic matter deposited in the bottom. The succession of taxa was observed in the pond with coverage of aquatic macrophytes and with cyanobacteria bloom. Differences in species richness and low similarity in zoo-heleoplankton between ponds were determined by differences in the quality of the water in relation to the presence of macrophytes, cyanobacteria, organic matter deposited in the bottom and fish predation. Multiple regression analysis (stepwise) revealed that

  16. Isolation of viruses from sewage, with special regard to poliovirus

    PubMed Central

    Böttiger, Margareta

    1978-01-01

    This report concerns experiments to isolate different viruses from sewage. Using a special cell-line from Utrecht, derived from human amniotic cells, it was possible to isolate poliovirus selectively when antisera against six types of coxsackievirus B were added to the tissue culture. The method was tested in connexion with the epidemiological investigation of a case of poliomyelitis in Sweden in 1977. It rapidly demonstrated that the virus implicated was present in all neighbouring sewage plants, indicating a wide distribution of the virus in the area. PMID:216501

  17. Spreading lagooned sewage sludge on farm land: A case history

    SciTech Connect

    Robson, C.M.; Sommers, L.E.

    1995-06-01

    This report describes the development of a project involving the application of approximately 265,000 cubic meters of lagooned sewage sludge from a metropolitan area on privately-owned farm land in an adjacent, rural county. The sludge application project was initiated to enable use of the land occupied by the lagoons for expansion of the sewage treatment plant. The procedures developed will be valuable to those proposing to practice land disposal of stabilized sludge as part of the Nation`s resource conservation program.

  18. Evaluation of forest trees growth after sewage sludge application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaitkutä--, Dovilé; Balträ--Naitä--, Edita; Booth, Colin A.; Fullen, Michael A.; Pereira, Paulo

    2010-05-01

    Sewage sludge is extensively used in forest to improve soil properties. It is expected that sewage sludge rich in phosphorus, nitrogen and organic material enhance the germination of tree seedlings in poor soils. In Lithuania, the deforested soils are highly acid, and have a lack of nutrients, especially in exploited peat areas. Sewage sludge from industry contains beneficial components for the soils (such as organic matter, phosphorus, nitrogen, calcium, magnesium, etc.). However, it is also rich in heavy metals, especially Cd, Pb, Cu and Zn. High heavy metals concentrations in soil can be phytotoxic and cause reduced plant growth or plant death. The main objectives of this research was to determine the influence of industrial sewage sludge in the forestry and to highlight the idea that industrial sewage sludge containing metals does not favour development of birch and pine trees. The study was performed in Taruskos experimental plot in Panevezys region (Lithuania), amended with industrial sewage sludge ten years ago was afforestated with birch and pine seedlings. In order to observe the effects of the amendment in accumulation the mentioned metals and tree growth we collected data from trees in amended plot and control plot. The results showed that soil parameters were improved in the amended plot, in comparing with control site (higher pH, organic matter and cation exchange capacity). However, the growth of investigated trees was slower (e.g. birch roots, shoot, stem and leaves biomass was 40, 7.4, 18.6, 22% smaller than in control site. In pine case: 30, 1.2, 17, 36%, respectively; the stem height of birch was 16% and pine - 12% smaller than in control site). This reduced growth can be related with heavy metals concentration load on soil and accumulation in trees. Cu and Cd concentrations were higher in soil amended with sewage sludge comparing with control site (60 and 36%, respectively). Also, in contaminated trees Cu and Cd concentrations were higher (Cu

  19. The application of potassium ferrate for sewage treatment.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jia-Qian; Panagoulopoulos, Alex; Bauer, Mike; Pearce, Pete

    2006-04-01

    The comparative performance of potassium ferrate(VI), ferric sulphate and aluminium sulphate for the removal of turbidity, chemical oxygen demand (COD), colour (as Vis400-abs) and bacteria in sewage treatment was evaluated. For coagulation and disinfection of sewage, potassium ferrate(VI) can remove more organic contaminants, COD and bacteria in comparison with the other two coagulants for the same doses used. Also, potassium ferrate(VI) produces less sludge volume and removes more contaminants, which should make subsequent sludge treatment easier.

  20. Salmonellosis in wild birds feeding at sewage treatment works.

    PubMed Central

    Plant, C. W.

    1978-01-01

    Between June 1976 and August 1977 faeces were collected from 599 wild British birds caught during ringing operations at two sewage treatment works in south-east England. Samples were incubated with selenite-F broth to detect the presence of Salmonella. Salm. anatum was isolated from one bird, a Dunnock Prunella modularis an incidence of 0.17% of the total birds examined and 3.23% of the Dunnocks. Comparisons are drawn with previously reported studies and it is suggested that sewage treatment works play little part in the transmission of Salmonella infections to wild birds feeding there. PMID:690424