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Sample records for par pond sewage

  1. K-Area and Par Pond Sewage Sludge Application Sites groundwater monitoring reports, second quarter 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    During second quarter 1992, the three wells at the K-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site (KSS wells) and the three wells at the Par Pond Sewage Sludge Application Site (PSS wells) were sampled for analyses required each quarter or annually by South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Construction Permit 13, 173. This report includes the results of those analyses. None of the analyzed constituents exceeded the Primary Drinking Water Standard or the Savannah River Site Flag 2 criteria at either the K-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site or the Par Pond Sewage Sludge Application Site.

  2. K-Area and Par Pond Sewage Sludge Application Sites groundwater monitoring report, Third quarter 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, C.Y.

    1993-01-01

    During third quarter 1992, the three wells at the K-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site (KSS wells) and the three wells at the Par Pond Sewage Sludge Application Site (PSS wells) were sampled for analyses required each quarter or annually by South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Construction Permit 13,173 and for base-neutral/acid semivolatile constituents. None of the analytical results exceeded standards.

  3. K-Area and Par Pond Sewage Sludge Application Sites groundwater monitoring report, Third quarter 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, C.Y.

    1993-01-01

    During third quarter 1992, the three wells at the K-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site (KSS wells) and the three wells at the Par Pond Sewage Sludge Application Site (PSS wells) were sampled for analyses required each quarter or annually by South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Construction Permit 13,173 and for base-neutral/acid semivolatile constituents. None of the analytical results exceeded standards.

  4. K-Area and Par Pond Sewage Sludge Application Sites groundwater monitoring report: Second quarter 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    During second quarter 1993, samples from the three monitoring wells at the K-Area site (KSS series) and the three monitoring wells at the Par Pond site (PSS series) were analyzed for constituents required by South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Construction Permit 13,173 and for other constituents as part of the Savannah River Site (SRS) Groundwater Monitoring Program. This report describes monitoring results that exceeded the final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or the SRS flagging criteria. During second quarter 1993, no constituents exceeded the final PDWS or any other flagging criteria at the K-Area and Par Pond Sewage Sludge Application Sites. During first quarter 1993, aluminum and iron exceeded the SRS Flag 2 criteria in one or more of the KSS and the PSS wells. These constituents were not analyzed second quarter 1993. In the KSS well series, the field measurement for alkalinity ranged as high as 35 mg/L in well KSS 1D. Alkalinity measurements were zero in the PSS wells, except for a single measurement of 1 mg/L in well PSS 1D. Historical and current water-level elevations at the K-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site indicate that the groundwater flow direction is south to southwest (SRS grid coordinates). The groundwater flow direction at the Par Pond Sewage Sludge Application Site could not be determined second quarter 1993.

  5. K-Area and Par Pond Sewage Sludge Application Sites Groundwater Monitoring Report

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, C.Y.

    1993-04-01

    During fourth quarter 1992, samples from the three monitoring wells at the K-Area site (KSS series) and the three monitoring wells at the Par Pond site (PSS series) were analyzed for constituents required by South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Construction Permit 13, 173 and for other constituents as part of the Savannah River Site (SRS) Groundwater Monitoring Program. This report describes monitoring results that exceeded the final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or the SRS flagging criteria. During fourth quarter 1992, no constituents analyzed exceeded the PDWS or the SRS Flag 2 criteria at the K-Area and Par Pond Sewage Sludge Application Sites. In the KSS well series, the field measurement for alkalinity ranged as high as 26 mg/L in well KSS 1D. Alkalinity measurements were zero in the PSS wells. Historical and current water-level elevations at the K-Area and Par Pond Sewage Sludge Application Site indicate that the groundwater flow directions are south to southwest (SRS grid coordinates).

  6. K-Area and Par Pond Sewage Sludge Application Sites Groundwater Monitoring Report. First quarter 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    Samples from the three wells at the K-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site (KSS wells) and the three wells at the Par Pond Sewage Sludge Application Site (PSS wells) are analyzed quarterly for constituents required by South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Construction Permit 13,173 and, as requested, for other constituents as part of the Savannah River Site Groundwater Monitoring Program. Annual analyses for other constituents, primarily metals, also are required by the permit. During first quarter 1993, no permit-required constituents exceeded standards at the two sites except iron, which was elevated in one KSS well and two PSS wells. Aluminum, not required by the permit, was the only other constituent that exceeded standards. Elevated levels of aluminum and iron at these two sites may be concurrent with a change in analytical methodology. As in previous quarters, chlordane concentrations did not exceed the detection limit in any of the wells.

  7. K-Area and Par Pond Sewage Sludge Application Sites Groundwater Monitoring Report: Third quarter 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    Samples from the three wells at the K-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site (KSS wells) and the three wells at the Par Pond Sewage Sludge Application Site (PSS wells) are analyzed quarterly for constituents required by South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Construction Permit 13,173 and, as requested, for other constituents as part of the Savannah River Site (SRS) Groundwater Monitoring Program. Annual analyses for other constituents, primarily metals, also are required by the permit. Iron and lead, permit-required constituents, and aluminum presently exceed SRS flagging standards in samples from the two sites. Elevated concentrations of metals at these sites, not reported during 1992, may be the reflection of a recent change in analytical methodology.

  8. K-Area and Par Pond Sewage Sludge Application Sites Groundwater Monitoring Report. Fourth quarter 1993 and summary 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-01

    Samples from the three wells at the K-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site (KSS wells) and the three wells at the Par Pond Sewage Sludge Application Site (PSS wells) are analyzed quarterly for constituents required by South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Construction Permit 13,173 and, as requested, for other constituents as part of the Savannah River Site (SRS) Groundwater Monitoring Program. Annual analyses for other constituents, primarily metals, also are required by the permit. Dichloromethane (methylene chloride) exceeded the final Primary Drinking Water Standard in a single well of the K-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site during fourth quarter 1993. Aluminum, iron, and lead, reported in excess of the SRS Flag 2 criteria at both the K-Area and Par Pond Sewage Sludge Application Sites during third quarter 1993, were not analyzed fourth quarter.

  9. H-Area, K-Area, and Par Pond Sewage Sludge Application Sites Groundwater Monitoring Report. Second quarter 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Chase, J.A.

    1995-09-01

    During second quarter 1995, samples from monitoring wells at the K-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site (KSS wells) and Par Pond Sewage Sludge Application Site (PSS wells) were analyzed for constituents required by SCDHEC Construction Permit 13,173. H-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site (HSS wells) samples were analyzed for constituents required by SCDHEC Construction Permit 12,076. All samples are also analyzed as requested for other constituents as part of the Savannah River Site (SRS) Groundwater Monitoring Program. Annual analyses for other constituents, primarily metals, also are required by the permits. There were no constituents which exceeded the SCDHEC final Primary Drinking Water Standard in any well from the H-Area, K-Area, and Par Pond Sewage Sludge Application Sites. There were also no constituents which were above the SRS Flag 2 criteria in any well at the three sites during second quarter 1995.

  10. H-Area, K-Area, and Par Pond Sewage Sludge Application Sites groundwater monitoring report. Second quarter 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-10-01

    Groundwater samples from the three wells at the H-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site (HSS wells) are analyzed quarterly for constituents as required by South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) Construction Permit 12,076. Samples from the three wells at the K-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site (KSS wells) and the three wells at the Par Pond Sewage Sludge Application Site (PSS wells) are analyzed quarterly for constituents required by SCDHEC Construction Permit 13,173. All samples are also analyzed as requested for other constituents as part of the Savannah River Site (SRS) Groundwater Monitoring Program. Annual analyses for other constituents, primarily metals, also are required by the permits. No constituents exceeded the SCDHEC final Primary Drinking Water Standard in any well from the H-Area, K-Area, and Par Pond Sewage Sludge Application Sites. Aluminum, iron, lead, and manganese, which were above standards and Flag 2 criteria in one or more wells in the three sites during first quarter 1994, were not analyzed this quarter. Second quarter results are similar to results for fourth quarter 1993.

  11. K-Area and Par Pond Sewage Sludge Application Sites Groundwater Monitoring Report. Fourth quarter 1992 and 1992 summary

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, C.Y.

    1993-04-01

    During fourth quarter 1992, samples from the three monitoring wells at the K-Area site (KSS series) and the three monitoring wells at the Par Pond site (PSS series) were analyzed for constituents required by South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Construction Permit 13, 173 and for other constituents as part of the Savannah River Site (SRS) Groundwater Monitoring Program. This report describes monitoring results that exceeded the final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or the SRS flagging criteria. During fourth quarter 1992, no constituents analyzed exceeded the PDWS or the SRS Flag 2 criteria at the K-Area and Par Pond Sewage Sludge Application Sites. In the KSS well series, the field measurement for alkalinity ranged as high as 26 mg/L in well KSS 1D. Alkalinity measurements were zero in the PSS wells. Historical and current water-level elevations at the K-Area and Par Pond Sewage Sludge Application Site indicate that the groundwater flow directions are south to southwest (SRS grid coordinates).

  12. H-Area, K-Area, and Par Pond Sewage Sludge Application sites groundwater monitoring report. First quarter 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Chase, J.A.

    1995-06-01

    During first quarter 1995, samples from monitoring wells at the K-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site (KSS wells) and Par Pond Sewage Sludge Application Site (PSS wells) were analyzed for constituents required by SCDHEC Construction Permit 13,173. H-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site (HSS wells) samples were analyzed for constituents required by SCDHEC Construction Permit 12,076. All samples are also analyzed as requested for other constituents as part of the Savannah River Site (SRS) Groundwater Monitoring Program. Annual analyses for other constituents, primarily metals, also are required by the permits. The only constituent that exceeded the SCDHEC final Primary Drinking Water Standard in any well was lead which was found in wells HSS 3D and PSS 3D. Aluminum and iron were above Flag 2 criteria in one or more wells in the three sites during first quarter 1995.

  13. H-Area, K-Area, and Par Pond Sewage Sludge Application Sites groundwater monitoring report. First quarter 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    Samples from the three wells at the H-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site (HSS wells) are analyzed quarterly for constituents as required by South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) Construction Permit 12,076. Samples from the three Wells at the K-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site (KSS wells) and the three wells at the Par Pond Sewage Sludge Application Site (PSS wells) are analyzed quarterly for constituents required by SCDHEC Construction Permit 13,173. All samples are also analyzed as requested for other constituents as part of the Savannah River Site (SRS) Groundwater Monitoring Program. Annual analyses for other constituents, primarily metals, also are required by the permits. Lead presently exceeds the SCDHEC final Primary Drinking Water Standard in two wells from the three sites. As in third quarter 1993, aluminum, iron, and lead were reported in excess of the SRS Flag 2 criteria during first quarter 1994. An elevated concentration of manganese was found in one well at the K-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site during first quarter.

  14. H-Area, K-Area, and Par Pond Sewage Sludge Application Sites groundwater monitoring report. Third quarter 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1995-01-01

    Groundwater samples from the three wells at the H-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site (HSS wells) are analyzed quarterly for constituents as required by South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) Construction Permit 12,076. Samples from the three wells at the K-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site (KSS wells) and the three wells at the quired by SCDHEC Construction Permit 13,173. All samples are also analyzed as requested for other constituents as part of the Savannah River Site (SRS) Groundwater Monitoring Program. Annual analyses for other constituents, primarily metals, also are required by the permits. No constituents exceeded the SCDHEC final Primary Drinking Water Standard in any well from the H-Area, K-Area, and Par Pond Sewage Sludge Application Sites. Aluminum and iron were above Flag 2 criteria in one or more wells in the three sites during third quarter 1994. These constituents were not analyzed during the previous quarter. Third quarter results are similar to results for first quarter 1994.

  15. H-Area, K-Area, and Par Pond Sewage Sludge Application Sites Groundwater Monitoring Report. Fourth quarter 1994 and 1994 summary

    SciTech Connect

    Chase, J.A.

    1995-04-01

    Groundwater samples from the three wells at the H-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site (HSS wells) are analyzed quarterly for constituents as required by South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Construction Permit 12,076. Samples from the three wells at the K-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site (KSS wells) and the three wells at the Par Pond Sewage Sludge Application Site (PSS wells) are analyzed quarterly for constituents required by SCDHEC Construction Permit 13,173. All samples are also analyzed as requested for other constituents as part of the Savannah River Site Groundwater Monitoring Program. Annual analyses for other constituents, primarily metals. also are required by the permits.

  16. Par Pond vegetation status 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Mackey, H.E. Jr.; Riley, R.S.

    1996-12-01

    The water level of Par Pond was lowered approximately 20 feet in mid-1991 in order to protect downstream residents from possible dam failure suggested by subsidence on the downstream slope of the dam and to repair the dam. This lowering exposed both emergent and nonemergent macrophyte beds to drying conditions resulting in extensive losses. A survey of the newly emergent, shoreline aquatic plant communities of Par Pond began in June 1995, three months after the refilling of Par Pond to approximately 200 feet above mean sea level. These surveys continued in July, September, and late October, 1995, and into the early spring and late summer of 1996. Communities similar to the pre-drawdown, Par Pond aquatic plant communities continue to become re-established. Emergent beds of maidencane, lotus, waterlily, watershield, and Pontederia are extensive and well developed. Measures of percent cover, width of beds, and estimates of area of coverage with satellite data indicate regrowth within two years of from 40 to 60% of levels prior to the draw down. Cattail occurrence continued to increase during the summer of 1996, especially in the former warm arm of Par Pond, but large beds common to Par Pond prior to the draw down still have not formed. Lotus has invaded and occupies many of the areas formerly dominated by cattail beds. To track the continued development of macrophytes in Par Pond, future surveys through the summer and early fall of 1997, along with the evaluation of satellite data to map the extent of the macrophyte beds of Par Pond, are planned.

  17. Par Pond Fish, Water, and Sediment Chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Paller, M.H.; Wike, L.D.

    1996-06-01

    The objectives of this report are to describe the Par Pond fish community and the impact of the drawdown and refill on the community, describe contaminant levels in Par Pond fish, sediments, and water and indicate how contaminant concentrations and distributions were affected by the drawdown and refill, and predict possible effects of future water level fluctuations in Par Pond.

  18. Par Pond vegetation status Summer 1995 -- Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Mackey, H.E. Jr.; Riley, R.S.

    1996-01-01

    The water level of Par Pond was lowered approximately 20 feet in mid-1991 in order to protect downstream residents from possible dam failure suggested by subsidence on the downstream slope of the dam and to repair the dam. This lowering exposed both emergent and nonemergent macrophyte beds to drying conditions resulting in extensive losses. A survey of the newly emergent, shoreline aquatic plant communities of Par Pond began in June 1995, three months after the refilling of Par Pond to approximately 200 feet above mean sea level. These surveys continued in July, September, and late October, 1995. Communities similar to the pre-drawdown, Par Pond aquatic plant communities are becoming re-established. Emergent beds of maidencane, lotus, waterlily, and watershield are extensive and well developed. Cattail occurrence continued to increase during the summer, but large beds common to Par Pond prior to the drawdown have not formed. Estimates from SPOT HRV, remote sensing satellite data indicated that as much as 120 hectares of emergent wetlands vegetation may have been present along the Par Pond shoreline by early October, 1995. To track the continued development of macrophytes in Par Pond, future surveys throughout 1996 and 1997, along with the continued evaluation of satellite data to map the areal extent of the macrophyte beds of Par Pond, are planned.

  19. Prevention of sewage pollution by stabilization ponds.

    PubMed

    Lakshminarayana, J S

    1975-01-01

    Water is polluted when it constitutes a health hazard or when its usefulness is impaired. The major sources of water pollution are municipal, manufacturing, mining, steam, electric power, cooling and agricultural. Municipal or sewage pollution forms a greater part of the man's activity and it is the immediate need of even smaller communities of today to combat sewage pollution. It is needless to stress that if an economic balance of the many varied services which a stream or a body of water is called upon to render is balanced and taken into consideration one could think of ending up in a wise management programme. In order to eliminate the existing water pollutional levels of the natural water one has to think of preventive and treatment methods. Of the various conventional and non-conventional methods of sewage treatment known today, in India, where the economic problems are complex, the waste stabilization ponds have become popular over the last two decades to let Public Health Engineers use them with confidence as a simple and reliable means of treatment of sewage and certain industrial wastes, at a fraction of the cost of conventional waste treatment plants used hitherto. A waste stabilization pond makes use of natural purification processes involved in an ecosystem through the regulating of such processes. The term "waste stabilization pond" in its simplest form is applied to a body of water, artificial or natural, employed with the intention of retaining sewage or organic waste waters until the wastes are rendered stable and inoffensive for discharge into receiving waters or on land, through physical, chemical and biological processes commonly referred to as "self-purification" and involving the symbiotic action of algae and bacteria under the influence of sunlight and air. Organic matter contained in the waste is stabilized and converted in the pond into more stable matter in the form of algal cells which find their way into the effluent and hence the term

  20. Par Pond refill water quality sampling

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, J.W. II; Martin, F.D.; Westbury, H.M.

    1996-08-01

    This study was designed to document anoxia and its cause in the event that the anoxia caused a fish kill. However, no fish kill was observed during this study, and dissolved oxygen and nutrient concentrations generally remained within the range expected for southeastern reservoirs. Par Pond water quality monitoring will continue during the second summer after refill as the aquatic macrophytes become reestablished and nutrients in the sediments are released to the water column.

  1. Limnological database for Par Pond: 1959 to 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Tilly, L.J.

    1981-03-01

    A limnological database for Par Pond, a cooling reservoir for hot reactor effluent water at the Savannah River Plant, is described. The data are derived from a combination of research and monitoring efforts on Par Pond since 1959. The approximately 24,000-byte database provides water quality, primary productivity, and flow data from a number of different stations, depths, and times during the 22-year history of the Par Pond impoundment. The data have been organized to permit an interpretation of the effects of twenty years of cooling system operations on the structure and function of an aquatic ecosystem.

  2. Algal bioflocculation and energy conservation in microalgal sewage ponds

    SciTech Connect

    Eisenberg, D.M.; Koopman, B.; Benemann, J.R.; Oswald, W.J.

    1981-01-01

    Controlled bioflocculation for harvesting of microalgae produced during municipal wastewater treatment in high-rate ponds was investigated. Nonflocculant algal cultures were produced in high-rate ponds operated at very high dilution rates or with poor mixing. Bioflocculation of such cultures was achieved by isolating them in secondary ponds, but isolation periods of up to 29 days were required. In-pond sedimentation of flocculant algal cultures produced by the isolation technique resulted in algal removals consistently exceeding 80%. When high-rate ponds were operated with improved mixing and at moderate-to-high dilution rates, flocculant algal cultures were developed. The settleability of flocculant algal cultures produced in this manner averaged 76 to 80% when measured in 24-h-detention Imhoff cones and 71% when measured in 48-h-detention settling ponds. It is estimated that, under suitable climate conditions, a high-rate pond system employing bioflocculation-sedimentation for algal removal would require less than one-half the direct energy input of an equivalently sized activated sludge or trickling filter plant. This requirement could be provided entirely through complete utilization of biogas produced from anaerobic digestion of primary (sewage) sludge.

  3. Par Pond vegetation status Summer 1995 -- June survey descriptive summary

    SciTech Connect

    Mackey, H.E. Jr.; Riley, R.S.

    1995-06-01

    The water level of Par Pond was lowered approximately 20 feet in mid-1991 in order to protect downstream residents from possible dam failure suggested by subsidence on the downstream slope of the dam and to repair the dam. This lowering exposed both emergent and nonemergent macrophyte beds to drying conditions resulting in extensive losses. A survey of the shoreline aquatic plant communities in June 1995, three months after the refilling of Par Pond to approximately 200 feet above mean sea level, indicated that much of the original plant communities and the intermediate shoreline communities present on the exposed sediments have been lost. The extensive old-field and emergent marsh communities that were present on the exposed shoreline during the drawdown have been flooded and much of the pre-drawdown Par Pond aquatic plant communities have not had sufficient time for re-establishment. The shoreline does, however, have extensive beds of maidencane which extend from the shoreline margin to areas as deep as 2 and perhaps 3 meters. Scattered individual plants of lotus and watershield are common and may indicate likely directions of future wetland development in Par Pond. In addition, within isolated coves, which apparently received ground water seepage and/or stream surface flows during the period of the Par Pond draw down, extensive beds of waterlilies and spike rush are common. Invasion of willow and red maple occurred along the lake shoreline as well. Although not absent from this survey, evidence of the extensive redevelopment of the large cattail and eel grass beds was not observed in this first survey of Par Pond. Future surveys during the growing seasons of 1995, 1996, and 1997 along with the evaluation of satellite date to map the areal extent of the macrophyte beds of Par Pond are planned.

  4. Par Pond vegetation status Summer 1995 -- October survey descriptive summary

    SciTech Connect

    Mackey, H.E. Jr.; Riley, R.S.

    1995-11-01

    The water level of Par Pond was lowered approximately 20 feet in mid-1991 in order to protect downstream residents from possible dam failure suggested by subsidence on the downstream slope of the dam and to repair the dam. This lowering exposed both emergent and nonemergent macrophyte beds to drying conditions resulting in extensive losses. A survey of the emergent shoreline aquatic plant communities began in June 1995, three months after the refilling of Par Pond to approximately 200 feet above mean sea level and continued with this late October survey. Communities similar to the pre-drawdown Par Pond aquatic plant communities are becoming re-established; especially, beds of maiden cane, lotus, waterlily, and watershield are now extensive and well established. Cattail occurrence continues to increase, but large beds common to Par Pond prior to the drawdown have not formed. Future surveys throughout 1996 and 1997, along with the continued evaluation of satellite data to map the areal extent of the macrophyte beds of Par Pond, are planned.

  5. Par Pond vegetation status Summer 1995 -- September survey descriptive summary

    SciTech Connect

    Mackey, H.E. Jr.; Riley, R.S.

    1995-09-01

    The water level of Par Pond was lowered approximately 20 feet in mid-1991 in order to protect downstream residents from possible dam failure suggested by subsidence on the downstream slope of the dam and to repair the dam. This lowering exposed both emergent and nonemergent macrophyte beds to drying conditions resulting in extensive losses. A survey of the emergent shoreline aquatic plant communities began in June 1995, three months after the refilling of Par Pond to approximately 200 feet above mean sea level and continued with this mid-September survey. Communities similar to the pre-drawdown Par Pond aquatic plant communities are becoming re-established; especially, beds of maidencane, lotus, waterlily, and watershield are now extensive and well established. Cattail occurrence continues to increase, but large beds common to Par Pond prior to the drawdown have not formed. Future surveys during the late growing seasons of 1995, and throughout 1996 and 1997, along with the evaluation of satellite data to map the areal extent of the macrophyte beds of Par Pond, are planned.

  6. Toxicity of ammonia to algae in sewage oxidation ponds.

    PubMed

    Abeliovich, A; Azov, Y

    1976-06-01

    Ammonia, at concentrations over 2.0 mM and at pH values over 8.0, inhibits photosynthesis and growth of Scenedesmus obliquus, a dominant species in high-rate sewage oxidation ponds. Photosynthesis of Chlorella pyrenoidosa, Anacystis nidulans, and Plectonema boryanum is also susceptible to ammonia inhibition. Dark respiration and cell morphology were unaffected by any combination of pH and ammonia concentrations tested, thus limiting the apparent effect to inhibition of the normal function of the chloroplasts. Methylamine had the same effect as ammonia, and its penetration into the cells was found to be pH dependent. Therefore, the dependence of toxicity of amines to algae on pH apparently results from the inability to penetrate the cell membrane in the ionized form. When operated at 120-h detention time of raw wastewater, the high-rate oxidation pond maintained a steady state with respect to algal growth and oxygen concentration, and the concentration of ammonia did not exceed 1.0 mM. Shifting the pond to 48-h detention time caused an increase in ammonia concentration in the pond water to 2.5 mM, and the pond gradually turned anaerobic. Photosynthesis, which usually elevates the pH of the pond water to 9.0 to 10.0, could not proceed beyond pH 7.9 because of the high concentration of ammonia, and the algal population was washed out and reduced to a concentration that could maintain a doubling time of 48 h without photosynthesis bringing the pH to inhibitory levels. Under these conditions, the pH of the bond becomes a factor that limits the operational efficiency of the oxidation pond.

  7. Water quality, phytoplankton and zooplankton of Par Pond and Pond B. Volume 2. Phytoplankton. Final report, January 1984-June 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Chimney, M.J.; Cody, W.R.; Starkel, W.M.

    1985-08-01

    This document reports on the Par Pond and Pond B phytoplankton community. The objectives of this study were to (1) characterize the biological communities and environmental conditions in Par Pond and Pond B; (2) assess the impact and significance of entrainment losses of plankton at the Par Pond pumphouse; (3) assess the impact of heated discharge on the biotic communities throughout the reservoir; and (4) help determine if Par Pond maintains an indigenous balanced biological community as defined in state and federal regulations. A total of 368 phytoplankton taxa, representing all the major taxonomic groups characteristic of North American freshwaters, were identified from Par Pond and Pond B during this study (73 Bacillariophyta, 166 Chlorophyta, 30 Chrysophyta, 5 Cryptophyta, 47 Cyanophyta, 18 Euglenophyta, 11 phytoflaggelates and 18 Pyrrophyta).

  8. Par Pond vegetation status summer 1995 - July survey descriptive summary

    SciTech Connect

    Mackey, H.E. Jr.; Riley, R.S.

    1995-07-01

    A survey of the emergent shoreline aquatic plant, communities began in June 1995, three months after the refilling of Par Pond to approximately 200 feet (61 meters) above mean sea level, and continued with this July survey. Aquatic plant communities, similar to the pre-drawdown Par Pond communities, are becoming reestablished. Beds of maidencane (Panicum hemitomon), lotus (Nelumbo lutea), water lily (Nymphaea odorata), and watershield (Brasenia schreberi) are now extensive and well established. In addition, within isolated coves, extensive beds of water lilies and spike-rush (Eleocharis sp.) are common. Cattail occurrence has increased since refill, but large beds common to Par Pond prior to the drawdown have not formed. Invasion of willow (Salix sp.) and red maple (Acer rubrum) occurred along the lake shoreline during drawdown. The red maples along the present shoreline are beginning to show evidence of stress and mortality from flooding over the past four months. Some of the willows appear to be stressed as well. The loblolly pines (Pinus taeda), which were flooded in all but the shallow shoreline areas, are now dead. Future surveys are planned for the growing seasons of 1995, 1996, and 1997, along with the evaluation of satellite data for mapping the areal extent of the macrophyte beds of Par Pond.

  9. Radiological impact of Par Pond drawdown from liquid effluent pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Carlton, W.H.; Hamby, D.M.

    1991-10-25

    The water level of Par Pond has been lowered over the past several months to reduce the effects in the event of catastrophic dam failure while assessing the condition of the dam and determining if repairs are necessary. In lowering the level of Par Pond, 60 billion liters of water containing low levels of tritium and cesium-137 were discharged to several onsite streams. SRS surface streams flow to the Savannah River. An assessment made to determine the total amount of tritium and Cs-137 discharged and to estimate the consequences to downstream Savannah River users. It is estimated that a total of 160 curies of tritium were displaced from Par Pond to the Savannah River between June 28, 1991 and September 19, 1991. This release could hypothetically result in a maximum individual dose of 3. 2{times}10{sup {minus}4} mrem and a total (80-km and drinking water populations) population dose of 1.4{times}10{sup {minus}2} person-rem. Likewise, a maximum individual dose of 5.0{times}10{sup {minus}2} mrem and a total population dose of 1.7{times}10{sup {minus}1} person- rem are predicted as a result of an estimated 0.21 curies of Cs-137 being discharged from Par Pond to the Savannah River.

  10. Polishing ponds for post-treatment of digested sewage. Part 1: Flow-through ponds.

    PubMed

    Cavalcanti, P F; van Haandel, A; Lettinga, G

    2001-01-01

    Polishing ponds are used to improve the quality of effluents from efficient anaerobic sewage treatment plants like UASB reactors, so that the final effluent quality becomes compatible with legal or desired standards. The residual organic material and suspended solids concentrations in the digested sewage are reduced, but often the main objective of polishing ponds is to improve the hygienic quality, measured by the concentration of two indicator organisms: helminth eggs and faecal coliforms (FC). The FC removal is normally the slowest process and for that reason becomes the main design criterion for a polishing pond. By contrast in conventional waste stabilisation pond (WSP) systems the organic material removal is the governing design parameter. The feasibility of operating a single polishing pond for the post-treatment of UASB effluent is shown in this paper and the final effluent quality as a function of the retention time is discussed. Even under the most adverse weather conditions (several weeks of rain) the population of algae remained stable and produced enough oxygen to maintain a predominantly aerobic environment. The final effluent TSS and BOD concentrations were not very low for retention times of less than 1 week, but this could be attributed to the presence of algae in the final effluent. Filtered effluent BOD and TSS concentrations were very low. For retention times of more than 1 week algae were efficiently removed from the liquid phase by the action of predators and algae flocculation and settling, so that a final effluent with a very low BOD and TSS concentrations was produced. To maximise the FC removal efficiency the polishing pond was constructed with the objective of approaching a plug flow regime. However, the observed efficiency was well below the expected value for all retention times, which was attributable to imperfections of the flow regime. From tracer studies it was established that the dispersion number was in the range of 0.14 to 0

  11. Avian botulism epizootiology from sewage oxidation ponds in Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moulton, D.W.; Jensen, W.I.; Low, J.B.

    1976-01-01

    n the microenvironment concept of avian botulism epizootiology, it is hypothesized that invertebrate carcasses may serve both as a substrate for toxin production by Clostridium botulinum type C and as a vehicle for toxin transmission to water birds. We field-tested that hypothesis by attempting to induce botulism in wing-clipped mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) on sewage oxidation ponds in Utah. The experimental ponds were inoculated with C. botulinum spores in June 1974. Aquatic insect populations were monitored throughout the summer. Rotenone was used in August to kill insects in two ponds (one served as control), thereby providing potential substrate for clostridial growth and toxin production. Botulism was not detected among the birds even though they routinely ingested invertebrate carcasses. Samples of dead invertebrates contained no botulinum toxin. We concluded that the microenvironment concept, as it now stands, cannot always be a sufficient explanation of how type C botulism epizootics are initiated in nature. Other microbes may inhibit the growth of clostridial cells or destroy botulinum toxin.

  12. Sewage reuse for aquaculture after treatment in oxidation and duckweed pond.

    PubMed

    Ghangrekar, M M; Kishor, N; Mitra, A

    2007-01-01

    The benefits of treating sewage by pond systems offer, through a simple and low-cost technology, social and commercial benefits, from the waste raw materials. The objective of this work was to demonstrate an effective treatment of the sewage by using natural treatment systems, and use of treated wastewater for aquaculture. The study was conducted for the sewage generated from the IIT Kharagpur campus. After characterization of the sewage, laboratory scale experiments were conducted for treatment using oxidation pond and duckweed pond. Survival and growth of fishes were observed in the experimental ponds using treated sewage. Based on the experimental results, full-scale treatment plant was designed to meet the aquaculture water quality. From the economics of the proposed full-scale plant, and utilization of the treated sewage for aquaculture, it is estimated that, the amount of Rs. 20,0000 can be generated every year. This amount recovered from the aquaculture will be more than the operating cost of the treatment plant, hence, making the operation of sewage treatment plant self sufficient. Use of a UASB reactor as the first stage treatment before sewage passes to the oxidation pond, can be a more attractive alternative because of less land requirement as compared to the oxidation pond alone, and additional land can be made available for aquaculture to increase revenue.

  13. Phytoplankton, zooplankton, primary productivity and physico-chemical parameters of Par Pond and Pond B. Interim report, December 1983-May 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Chimney, M.J.; Cody, W.R.

    1985-04-01

    This report summarizes phytoplankton, zooplankton, primary productivity and physico-chemical parameter data from Par Pond and Pond B during the first six months of a study initiated in December 1983 and scheduled to continue through June 1985. A total of 195 phytoplankton taxa from Par Pond and 105 taxa from pond B were recorded during this study. A total of 89 zooplankton taxa from Par Pond and 58 taxa from Pond B were identified during this study.

  14. Par Pond phytoplankton in association with refilling of the pond: Final Report for sampling from February 1995 -- September 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Wilde, E.W.; Johnson, M.A.; Cody, W.C.

    1996-12-31

    This report describes the results of phytoplankton analyses from Par Pond samples collected between February 1995 and September 1996. The principal objective of the study was to determine the effect of refilling of Par Pond following repair of the dam on the phytoplankton community. Algal blooms are often responsible for fish kills and other detrimental effects in ponds and lakes, and it was postulated that decaying vegetation from formerly exposed sediments might trigger algal blooms that could result in fish kills in Par Pond following the refill. Sporadic algal blooms involving blue-green algae were detected, especially during the summer of 1996. However, the data derived from the study demonstrates that overall, the refilling effort caused no significant negative impact to the pond attributable to phytoplankton dynamics.

  15. Results of submerged sediment core sampling and analysis on Par Pond, Pond C, and L Lake: July 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, J.W. II; Martin, F.D.; Friday, G.P.

    1996-06-01

    Sediment cores from shallow and deep water locations in Par Pond, Pond C, and L Lake were collected and analyzed in 1995 for radioactive and nonradioactive constituents. This core analysis was conducted to develop a defensible characterization of contaminants found in the sediments of Par Pond, Pond C, and L Lake. Mercury was the only nonradiological constituent with a nonestimated quantity that was detected above the U.S Environmental Protection Agency Region IV potential contaminants of concern screening criteria. It was detected at a depth of 0.3--0.6 meters (1.0--2.0 feet) at one location in L Lake. Cesium-137, promethium-146, plutonium-238, and zirconium-95 had significantly higher concentrations in Par Pond sediments than in sediments from the reference sites. Cobalt-60, cesium-137, plutonium-238, plutonium-239/240, and strontium-90 had significantly higher concentrations in L-Lake sediments than sediments from the reference sites.

  16. Water quality, phytoplankton and zooplankton of Par Pond and Pond B. Volume 1. Water quality. Final report, January 1984-June 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Chimney, M.J.; Cody, W.R.; Starkel, W.M.

    1985-08-01

    The objectives of this study were to: (1) characterize the biological communities and environmental conditions in Par Pond and pond B; (2) assess the impact and significance of entrainment losses of plankton at the Par Pond pumphouse; (3) assess the impact of heated discharge on the biotic communities throughout the reservior; and (4) help determine if Par Pond maintains an indigenous balanced biological community as defined in state and federal regulations.

  17. CERCLA interim action at the Par Pond unit: A case study

    SciTech Connect

    Hickey, H.M.; Matthews, S.S.; Neal, L.W.; Weiss, W.R.

    1993-11-01

    The Par Pond unit designated under CERCLA consists of sediments within a Savannah River Site (SRS) cooling water reservoir. The sediments are contaminated with radionuclides and nonradioactive constituents from nuclear production reactor operations. The mercury in Par Pond is believed to have originated from the Savannah River. Because of Par Pond Dam safety Issues, the water level of the reservoir was drawn down, exposing more than 1300 acres of contaminated sediments and triggering the need for CERCLA interim remedial action. This paper presents the interim action approach taken with Par Pond as a case study. The approach considered the complexity of the Par Pond ecosystem, the large size of Par Pond, the volume of contaminated sediments, and the institutional controls existing at SRS. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) considers units with large volumes of low-concentration wastes, as is the case with Par Pond, to be {open_quotes}special sites.{close_quotes} Accordingly, EPA guidance establishes that the range of alternatives developed focus primarily on containment options and other remedial approaches that mitigate potential risks associated with the {open_quotes}special site.{close_quotes} The remedial alternatives, according to EPA, are not to be prohibitively expensive or difficult to implement. This case study also is representative of the types of issues that will need to be addressed within the Department of Energy (DOE) complex as nuclear facilities are transitioned to inactive status and corrective/remedial actions are warranted.

  18. Quality control summary report for the RFI/RI assessment of the submerged sediment core samples taken at Par Pond, Pond C, and L-Lake

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, J. II

    1996-12-01

    This report presents a summary of the sediment characterization performed under the direction of the Westinghouse Savannah River Company`s (WSRC) Environmental Protection Department/Environmental Monitoring Section (EPD/EMS) in support of Par Pond, Pond C, and L- Lake. This characterization will be a screening study and will enable the Environmental Sciences Section (ESS) to develop a defensible contaminants of concern list for more extensive characterization of the Par Pond, Pond C, and L-Lake.

  19. Sewage treatment in integrated system of UASB reactor and duckweed pond and reuse for aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Mohapatra, D P; Ghangrekar, M M; Mitra, A; Brar, S K

    2012-06-01

    The performance of a laboratory-scale upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor and a duckweed pond containing Lemna gibba was investigated for suitability for treating effluent for use in aquaculture. While treating low-strength sewage having a chemical oxygen demand (COD) of typically less than 200 mg/L, with an increase in hydraulic retention time (HRT) from 10.04 to 33.49 h, COD removal efficiency of the UASB reactor decreased owing to a decrease in organic loading rate (OLR) causing poor mixing in the reactor. However, even at the lower OLR (0.475 kg COD/(m3 x d)), the UASB reactor gave a removal efficiency of 68% for COD and 74% for biochemical oxygen demand (BOD). The maximum COD, BOD, ammonia-nitrogen and phosphate removal efficiencies of the duckweed pond were 40.77%, 38.01%, 61.87% and 88.57%, respectively. Decreasing the OLR by increasing the HRT resulted in an increase in efficiency of the duckweed pond for removal of ammonia-nitrogen and phosphate. The OLR of 0.005 kg COD/(m2 x d) and HRT of 108 h in the duckweed pond satisfied aquaculture quality requirements. A specific growth rate of 0.23% was observed for tilapia fish fed with duckweed harvested from the duckweed pond. The economic analysis proved that it was beneficial to use the integrated system of a UASB reactor and a duckweed pond for treatment of sewage.

  20. Potential Ecological Effects of Contaminants in the Exposed Par Pond Sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Paller, M.H.; Wike, L.D.

    1996-08-01

    Sediment and small mammal samples were collected from the exposed sediments of Par Pond in early 1995, shortly before the reservoir was refilled after a 4-year drawdown. Sampling was confined to elevations between 58 and 61 meters (190 and 200 feet) above mean sea level, which includes the sediments likely to be exposed if the Par Pond water level is permitted to fluctuate naturally. Both soil and small mammal samples were analyzed for a number of radionuclides and metals. Some of the soil samples were also analyzed for organic contaminants. The objective of the study was to determine if contaminant levels in the Par Pond sediments were high enough to cause deleterious ecological effects.

  1. Dynamics of Aeromonas hydrophila, Aeromonas sobria, and Aeromonas caviae in a sewage treatment pond.

    PubMed Central

    Monfort, P; Baleux, B

    1990-01-01

    The spatiotemporal dynamics of Aeromonas spp. and fecal coliforms in the sewage treatment ponds of an urban wastewater center were studied after 20 months of sampling from five stations in these ponds. Isolation and identification of 247 Aeromonas strains were undertaken over four seasons at the inflow and outflow of this pond system. The hemolytic activity of these strains was determined. The Aeromonas spp. and the fecal coliform distributions showed seasonal cycles, the amplitude of which increased at distances further from the wastewater source, so that in the last pond there was an inversion of the Aeromonas spp. cycle in comparison with that of fecal coliforms. The main patterns in these cycles occurred simultaneously at all stations, indicating control of these bacterial populations by seasonal factors (temperature, solar radiation, phytoplankton), the effects of which were different on each bacterial group. The analysis of the Aeromonas spp. population structure showed that, regardless of the season, Aeromonas caviae was the dominant species at the pond system inflow. However at the outflow the Aeromonas spp. population was dominated by A. caviae in winter, whereas Aeromonas sobria was the dominant species in the treated effluent from spring to fall. Among the Aeromonas hydrophila and A. sobria strains, 100% produced hemolysin; whereas among the A. caviae strains, 96% were nonhemolytic. Images PMID:2389929

  2. Metal concentrations in water, sediment, and fish from sewage-fed aquaculture ponds of Kolkata, India.

    PubMed

    Adhikari, S; Ghosh, L; Rai, S P; Ayyappan, S

    2009-12-01

    The concentrations of lead, cadmium, chromium, copper, and zinc were investigated in the sewage-fed pond water, sediment, and the various organs of Labeo rohita, Catla catla, Cirrhinus mrigala, Oreochromis mossambicus, and Cyprinus carpio cultured in sewage-fed ponds, Kolkata, India. Among the metals, cadmium, lead, and zinc were detected in water and, except lead, were below the water quality guideline levels for the protection of freshwater aquatic life proposed by CEQG (Canadian Environmental Quality Guidelines) and AENV (Alberta Environment). Therefore, lead could pose danger to aquatic organisms. All the five metals were detected in the sediment and, except cadmium and lead, were below the sediment quality guideline levels for aquatic life proposed by EPA (Environmental Protection Agency). Therefore, these two metals could be toxic to aquatic organisms. Significant (P > 0.05) differences were observed among the five fish species for all these metals accumulation. Also, significant (P > 0.05) differences were noticed among these metals accumulation in fish organs. Cadmium showed the least bioaccumulation, while zinc showed the highest bioaccumulation in all the fish species. Though the metal concentration in the different fish tissues was variable, the highest concentration was found in kidney and the lowest in the muscle. Concentrations of these metals in the muscle tissue of all the fish species were well below the consumption safety tolerance in fish set by WHO/FAO, and thus, so far as these metals are concerned, these sewage-fed cultured fishes are safe and suitable for human consumption.

  3. Hydraulic and hydrologic evaluation of PAR Pond Dam. Technical evaluation report

    SciTech Connect

    Reich, M.; Wang, P.C.; Khanbilvardi, R.; Bezler, P.

    1993-10-01

    The PAR Pond Dam at Savannah River Plant was constructed in 1958--1959. Seepage, depressions, boils and spring flow were observed in varying locations on the dam in the last few years. Comprehensive geotechnical and hydraulic investigations pertaining to the effects of the above observations on the abilities of the dam to withstand future floods were made in 1991 and early 1993 where dam capacity to survive flooding and seismic events were evaluated. Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) was asked by the Department of Energy (EH) to carry out an independent review of the PAR Pond Dam response to future flooding and seismic events. This report addresses the studies made to evaluate the capacity of the dam to survive floods. A companion report will summarize the evaluations performed to assess the seismic capacity of the dam.

  4. Estimation of Downstream Cesium Concentrations Following a Postulated PAR Pond Dam Break

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, K.F.

    2002-07-08

    Following a postulated PAR Pond dam break, some of the PAR Pond sediment including the cesium could be eroded and be transported downstream to the Savannah River through the Lower Three Runs Creek. Studies showed that most of the eroded sediment including the cesium would deposit in the Lower Three Runs Creek and the remainder would discharge to the Savannah River from the mouth of Lower Three Runs Creek. A WASP5 model was developed to simulate the eroded sediment and cesium transport from the Lower Three Runs Creek mouth to the Atlantic coast. The dissolved cesium concentrations at the Highway 301 bridge and near the City of Savannah Industrial and Domestic Water Supply Plant are 30 and 27 pCi/l, respectively. The concentrations at both locations are less than the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency drinking water standard of 200 pCi/l.

  5. Seismic analysis of the Par Pond Dam: Study of slope failure and liquefaction. Technical evaluation report

    SciTech Connect

    Simos, N.; Reich, M.

    1994-07-01

    Stability concerns of the Par Pond Dam, an embankment structure in the Savannah River Site complex, resulted in a comprehensive evaluation of the state of its integrity. Specifically, excessive seepage through the embankment, slope failure due to an earthquake event as well as liquefaction potential of the embankment and the foundation are addressed and the potential of failure is evaluated. Lastly, remedial benefits of the addition of a berm structure are also assessed.

  6. An aerial radiological survey of Par Pond and associated drainage pathways of the Savannah River Site, Aiken, South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    The first of a three-phase effort to radiologically monitor the lowering of Par Pond and associated drainage pathways was conducted over three areas of the Savannah River Site (SRS). The areas surveyed during this first phase included Par Pond, the Savannah River swamp from Steel Creek to Little Hell Landing, and Lower Three Runs Creek from the mouth of Lower Three Runs to the Highway 301 Bridge. The first phase was conducted to coincide with the lowering of the water level of Par Pond to an elevation of 190 feet above sea level. Additional surveys were conducted when the water level was at an elevation of 180 feet and prior to refill. The first survey began August 19, 1991, and was completed September 11, 1991. The second survey was conducted in October/November, 1991, during the SRS site-wide survey, and the third survey was conducted in August/September, 1992. Only the Par Pond area itself was surveyed during the third and final phase. The radiation detected over the Creek Plantation portion of the Savannah River swamp and Lower Three Runs areas during the August 1991 survey was consistent with the spatial distribution, quantity, and kinds of radionuclides detected during the 1983 and 1986 surveys. No migration of man-made gamma emitting materials was detected when compared to the prior surveys. The major differences occurred along the Par Pond shoreline where lowered water levels exposed the contaminated pond bed. The activity in the pond bed was attenuated by the water cover prior to the start of the lowering of Par Pond in June 1991. The data collected during each survey were processed in the field and were presented to SRS. A comparison report is being generated after the completion of each survey. A final report will be generated for the three surveys and will include a quantitative comparison of the three surveys in the Par Pond area only.

  7. Pond treatment and effluent reuse of sewage from an oil production site in an arid coastal environment.

    PubMed

    Smith, E; Hegazy, S; El-Aassar, N

    2003-01-01

    A pond system consisting of two lines each of an anaerobic followed by facultative and maturation ponds is used to treat site sewage from oil and gas production operations in an arid coastal environment. The performance of the pond system was evaluated together with the suitability of treated effluent for reuse in local irrigation. Effluent from the pond system by-and-large satisfies criteria for irrigation of non-food crop plants with respect to chemical parameters. The primary problem is coliform bacteria levels which are an order of magnitude higher than preferred values. First-order decay rate constants for each pond were calculated from a mass balance model that assumes complete mixing and incorporates the considerable evaporation that occurs in this setting. While the anaerobic ponds of both lines exhibit suitable performance, rate calculations indicate that the facultative and maturation ponds of the East Line are performing better than the West. A tracer study of the facultative and maturation ponds indicates that some short-circuiting is occurring in the West Line. A field experiment of coliform transport in irrigated soil gives indications of short- and long-term risks associated with reuse of the effluent.

  8. Measurements of radionuclide in Par Pond sediments with an underwater HPGe detector

    SciTech Connect

    Winn, W.G.

    1993-11-01

    Savannah River Site (SRS) effluent gamma emitting radionuclides in Par Pond sediment were examined in situ with an underwater HPGe detector prior to and following a 19 ft drawdown of the pond in 1991 to address dam repairs. These measurements provide a map of the {sup 137}Cs concentrations of the pond sediment, indicating that 9.4 {plus_minus} 1.5 Ci is exposed by the drawdown and that 46.6 {plus_minus} 7.2 Ci is the entire pond inventory. The highest individual {sup 137}Cs concentration was 25 {mu}Ci/m{sup 2} for the exposed sediment and 50 {mu}Ci/m{sup 2} for the entire pond. The results are consistent with parallel studies conducted by SREL, as well as historical data. Aside from {sup 137}Cs, the only other SRS-produced isotope observed was {sup 60}Co, with activity of only about 1% of that for {sup 137}Cs. This observation was also confirmed in grab samples of pond sediment and vegetation, which were returned to the laboratory for ultra-low-level gamma spectrometry analysis. A special effort was required to calibrate the underwater HPGe detector, where both measurements and calculational models were used. The effects of sediment depth profiles for density and {sup 137}Cs concentration were addressed in the calibration. Calibration factors for sediment surface concentrations ({mu}Ci/m{sup 2}/cpm) and sediment mass concentrations (pCi/kg/cpm) were obtained. In general, the {mu}Ci/m{sup 2}/cpm factor is recommended, as the pCi/kg/cpm factor depends on the depth location of the sediment of interest. However, a pCi/kg/cpm factor, which is dependent on the depth within the sediment is presented to address dose calculations that require it.

  9. Comprehensive Cooling Water Study: Volume 7, Ecology of Par Pond, Savannah River Plant: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Wilde, E.W.

    1987-10-01

    The Comprehensive Cooling Water Study (CCWS) was initiated in 1983 to evaluate the environmental effects of the intake and release of cooling water on the structure and function of aquatic ecosystems at the Savannah River Plant. The initial report (Gladden et al., 1985) described the results from the first year of the study. This document is the final report and concludes the program. The report comprises eight volumes. The first is a summary of environmental effects. The other seven volumes address water quality, radionuclide and heavy metal transport, wetlands, aquatic ecology, Federally endangered species, ecology of Par Pond, and waterfowl. 222 refs., 31 figs., 67 tabs.

  10. Vegetation establishment and evolution in four ponds that received sewage and wastewater in a portion of the Olezoa wetland complex, Yaounde, Cameroon, central Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Atekwana, E.A. . Dept. of Geology); Agendia, P.L. . Dept. of Plant Biology)

    1994-04-01

    A study of the spatial and temporal changes in the pattern and distribution of tropical wetland vegetation in four ponds that received sewage and wastewater discharge, was undertaken for a small wetland ecosystem in the Olezoa drainage basin in Yaounde, Cameroon. More than 25 years of nutrient loading has led to the eutrophication and subsequent establishment of wetland vegetation in these ponds. Estimated free water surface areas of the ponds in 1964, 1976, and 1986 and 1992 determined from digitized aerial photographs and field measurements suggests a decline of 70 to 100% in the pond surface areas due to invasion and colonization by plants. The rate of pond surface decline and vegetation development is correlated with the construction of sewage plants and the discharge of untreated sewage and wastewater into the ponds. The main wetland plants that are established in the ponds consist of aquatic species Nymphae lotus, Enhydra fluctuants, Pistia stratiotes, Commelina sp., Ipomea aquatica and terrestrial species Echinochloa sp., Thalia welwitschii, Polygonum senegalense, Leersia haxandra and Cyperus papyrus. The pattern of wetland plant succession that resulted within each pond is correlated to the timing, duration and magnitude of sewage and wastewater discharge into the wetland complex.

  11. Radon tracing of groundwater input into Par Pond, Savannah River Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corbett, D. Reide; Burnett, William C.; Cable, Peter H.; Clark, Sue B.

    1997-12-01

    The groundwater contribution into Par Pond, a former cooling reservoir for two nuclear reactors located on the Department of Energy's Savannah River Site (South Carolina), was estimated using a standard hydrologic budget as well as one augmented by a natural tracer approach. We determined a geochemical budget for 222Rn, normally found at much higher concentrations in groundwater than surface waters, to assist in constraining the hydrologic estimates. The radon budget accounted for all quantifiable surface sources and sinks including the flux across the sediment-water interface which was determined by application of an advection-diffusion model. All hydrologic parameters and radon concentrations were monitored seasonally from February 1994 to August 1995. Using the water balance approach alone, the average groundwater discharge entering the lake was estimated to have an upper limit of approximately 0.95 ± 0.13 m 3 s -1. The groundwater contribution obtained using the combined hydrologic/ 222Rn approach ranged from 0.17 to 0.76 m 3 s -1 with a best estimate of 0.35 ± 0.16 m 3 s -1. Lake profiles show enhanced 222Rn concentrations in some areas indicating that groundwater enters Par Pond mostly through a small region in the northern portion of the lake, probably via small seeps or springs. Estimates show that groundwater plays a significant role in the overall water budget of the lake, accounting for 10%-33% of the total estimated inflow from all measured sources. Our results show that supplementing a standard hydrological water balance with radon budget considerations helps to constrain estimated groundwater flow into surface reservoirs.

  12. Geochemical and hydrologic controls on phosphorus transport in a sewage-contaminated sand and gravel aquifer near Ashumet Pond, Cape Cod, Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walter, Donald A.; Rea, Brigid A.; Stollenwerk, Kenneth G.; Savoie, Jennifer G.

    1996-01-01

    Currently (1993), about 170 kg/yr of phosphorus discharges into Ashumet Pond on Cape Cod from a plume of sewage-contaminated ground water. Phosphorus in the plume is mobile in two distinct geochemical environments--an anoxic zone containing dissolved iron and a suboxic zone containing dissolved oxygen. Phosphorus mobility in the suboxic zone is due to saturation of available sorption sites. Phosphorus loading to Ashumet Pond may increase significantly after sewage disposal is stopped due to phosphorus desorption from sediment surfaces.

  13. Two-step upflow anaerobic sludge bed system for sewage treatment under subtropical conditions with posttreatment in waste stabilization ponds.

    PubMed

    Seghezzo, Lucas; Trupiano, Aníbal P; Liberal, Viviana; Todd, Patrick G; Figueroa, María E; Gutiérrez, Marcelo A; Da Silva Wilches, Ana C; Iribarnegaray, Martín; Guerra, Raquel G; Arena, Angélica; Cuevas, Carlos M; Zeeman, Grietje; Lettinga, Gatze

    2003-01-01

    A pilot-scale sewage treatment system consisting of two upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactors followed by five waste stabilization ponds (WSPs) in series was studied under subtropical conditions. The first UASB reactor started up in only 1 mo (stable operation, high chemical oxygen demand [COD] removal efficiency, low volatile fatty acids concentration in the effluent, alkalinity ratio above 0.7, biogas production above 0.1 Nm3/kg of CODremoved). Removal efficiencies up to 90% were obtained in the anaerobic steps at a hydraulic retention time of 6 + 4 h (80% removal in the first step). Fecal coliform removal in the whole system was 99.9999% (99.94% in anaerobic steps and 99.98% in WSPs). COD balances over UASB reactors are provided. A minimum set of data necessary to build COD balances is proposed. Intermittent sludge washout was detected in the reactors with the COD balances. Sludge washout from single-step UASB reactors should be monitored and minimized in order to ensure constant compliance with discharge standards, especially when no posttreatment is provided. The system combined high COD and fecal coliform removal efficiency with an extremely low effluent concentration, complying with discharge standards, and making it an attractive option for sewage treatment in subtropical regions.

  14. Effect of depth of high-rate ponds on the assimilation of CO2 by microalgae cultivated in domestic sewage.

    PubMed

    Couto, E A; Calijuri, M L; Assemany, P P; Souza, M H B

    2017-08-16

    This study evaluated the effect of high-rate ponds (HRPs) of different depths (20, 30 and 40 cm) on the carbon assimilation by microalgae cultivated in domestic sewage. The efficiency of the dissolution provided by the carbonation column and the carbon release to the atmosphere through the movement of the paddle wheels were also investigated. Dissolution efficiencies of 50%, 48% and 46% were obtained in the HRPs of 20, 30 and 40 cm depth, respectively. These differences can be attributed to the time necessary to recirculate the volume of each HRP in the carbonation column. The volumetric mass transfer coefficients regarding the release to the atmosphere were 0.0007, 0.0005 and 0.0004 min(-1) for the 20, 30 and 40 cm HRPs, respectively. The carbon assimilation by the biomass was inversely proportional to depth, with values of 90%, 72% and 68% for the 20, 30 and 40 cm HRPs, respectively. Chlorophyll-a concentration was also higher in the 20 cm HRP. The radiation attenuation at the beginning of the operation was similar among the treatments, resulting in a greater fraction of the pond depth with available radiation in the 20 cm HRP.

  15. Fauna aquatic insects in sewage maturation ponds of Kashan University of Medical Science 2005.

    PubMed

    Dehghani, Rouhollah; Miranzadeh, Mohhamad Bagher; Yosefzadeh, Mehrnoosh; Zamani, Soheyla

    2007-03-15

    Organic materials in maturation ponds, the personal study was carried out to determine the aquatic insects living in the maturation pond of Kashan University of Medical Sciences in 2005. This was a descriptive study, 9 series of sampling including 1032 of larva, nymph and adults were collected and sent to a laboratory. Then they were diagnosed using stereo microscope and morphologic identification key. At of 1032 collected samples from 4 maturation ponds, the orders if Diptera (52%), Hempitera (24%), Ciclopodidade (12%), Hydroacarina (9.5%), Coleptera (0.77%), Aranida (0.67%), Hymenoptera (0.58%), Odonata (0.48%), were determined. The families of Chironomidae and Culicidae from Diptera order, Corixidae, Notonectidae, Cupepodae and Copepodidae families from Hemiptera order, Hydrophilidae family from Coleptera order, Aranidae family from Aranida order, Vospidae family from Hymenoptera order, Anizoptera suborder from Odonata order were determined. Maturation ponds are the artificial places where are appropriate for the growth and development of aquatic insects and also for their predators with taking in to account that some of these insects are the carriers of pathogens, make inconvenience for human and also has significant role in the cycle of changing materials, it is recommended that further specialized studies carry out in this regard.

  16. Municipal sewage treatment: Lagoons (ponds). (Latest citations from the Selected Water Resources Abstracts database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the treatment and storage of municipal wastewater and sewage in lagoons. Lagoon design, operation, and associated equipment for pretreatment, treatment, and storage techniques are discussed. Many citations describe the water treatment facilities of specific cities, and provide evaluations of the operations at those sites. Industrial and other non-municipal wastewater treatment lagoons are referenced in a related bibliography. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  17. Municipal sewage treatment: Lagoons (ponds). (Latest citations from the Selected Water Resources Abstracts database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the treatment and storage of municipal wastewater and sewage in lagoons. Lagoon design, operation, and associated equipment for pretreatment, treatment, and storage techniques are discussed. Many citations describe the water treatment facilities of specific cities, and provide evaluations of the operations at those sites. Industrial and other non-municipal wastewater treatment lagoons are referenced in a related bibliography. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  18. Determination of production biology of cladocera in a reservoir receiving hyperthermal effluents from a nuclear production reactor. [Par Pond

    SciTech Connect

    Vigerstad, T J

    1980-01-01

    The effects on zooplankton of residence in a cooling reservoir receiving hyperthermal effluents directly from a nuclear-production-reactor were studied. Rates of cladoceran population production were compared at two stations in the winter and summer of 1976 on Par Pond located on the Savannah River Plant, Aiken, SC. One station was located in an area of the reservoir directly receiving hyperthermal effluent (Station MAS) and the second was located about 4 km away in an area where surface temperatures were normal for reservoirs in the general geographical region (Station CAS). A non-parametric comparison between stations of standing stock and fecundity data for Bosmina longirostris, taken for the egg ratio model, was used to observe potential hyperthermal effluent effects. There was a statistically higher incidence of deformed eggs in the Bosmina population at Station MAS in the summer. Bosmina standing stock underwent two large oscillations in the winter and three large oscillations in the summer at Station MAS compared with two in the winter and one in the summer at Station CAS. These results are consistent with almost all other Par Pond studies which have found the two stations to be essentially similar in spectra composition but with some statistically significant differences in various aspects of the biology of the species.

  19. Effect of solar radiation on the lipid characterization of biomass cultivated in high-rate algal ponds using domestic sewage.

    PubMed

    Assemany, Paula Peixoto; Calijuri, Maria Lúcia; Santiago, Anibal da Fonseca; do Couto, Eduardo de Aguiar; Leite, Mauricio de Oliveira; Sierra, Jose Jovanny Bermudez

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to compare the lipid content and composition ofbiomass produced by a consortium of microalgae and bacteria, cultivated under different solar radiation intensities and tropical conditions in pilot-scale high-rate ponds (HRPs) using domestic sewage as culture medium. The treatment system consisted of an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor followed by UV disinfection and six HRPs covered with shading screens that blocked 9%, 18%, 30%, 60% and 80% of the solar radiation. The total lipid content does not vary significantly among the units, showing a medium value of 9.5%. The results show that blocking over 30% of the solar radiation has a negative effect on the lipid productivity. The units with no shading and with 30% and 60% of solar radiation blocking have statistically significant lipid productivities, varying from 0.92 to 0.96 gm(-2) day(-1). Besides radiation, other variables such as volatile suspended solids and chlorophyll-a are able to explain the lipid accumulation. The lipid profile has a predominance of C16, C18:1 and C18:3 acids. The unsaturation of fatty acids increases with the reduction in solar radiation. On the other hand, the effect of polyunsaturation is not observed, which is probably due to the presence of a complex and diverse biomass.

  20. Feasibility of a constructed wetland and wastewater stabilisation pond system as a sewage reclamation system for agricultural reuse in a decentralised rural area.

    PubMed

    Ham, J H; Yoon, C G; Jeon, J H; Kim, H C

    2007-01-01

    The performance of a constructed wetland (CW) and wastewater stabilisation pond (WSP) system for sewage reclamation and paddy rice irrigation in a decentralised rural area was examined using a feasibility study. The CW was satisfactory for sewage treatment, with good removal efficiency even in the winter period, but the effluent concentration was relatively high in the winter period owing to the high influent concentration. The CW effluent was further treated in a WSP and the WSP effluent was considered safe for crop irrigation with respect to sewage-borne pathogens. Reclaimed water irrigation did not adversely affect the yield of rice; on the contrary, it resulted in an approximately 50% greater yield than in controls. The chemical characteristics of the soil did not change significantly during the experimental period of irrigation with reclaimed water. In the winter, CW effluent could be stored and treated in a WSP until the spring; the water could then be discharged or reused for supplemental irrigation during the typical Korean spring drought. Overall, sewage treatment and agronomic reuse using a CW-WSP system could be a practical integrated sewage management measure for protecting receiving water bodies and overcoming water shortages in decentralised rural areas.

  1. Predicting attenuation of solar radiation (UV-B, UV-A and PAR) in waste stabilization ponds under Sahelian climatic conditions.

    PubMed

    Maiga, Ynoussa; Wethé, Joseph; Ouattara, Aboubakar Sidiki; Traoré, Alfred S

    2017-07-17

    Because of its importance in pathogen removal and algal productivity in waste stabilization ponds, sunlight penetration was measured in microcosms and in situ under Sahelian climatic conditions. The different wavelengths were detected using a submersible radiometer equipped with three sensors: UV-B (311 nm), UV-A (369 nm) and photosynthetically available radiation (PAR, 400-700 nm). UV-B was more attenuated than UV-A and PAR. Facultative pond was more light-attenuating than maturation pond. The mean euphotic depths for UV-B were 0.20 and 0.31 m, respectively, in the facultative and maturation ponds; PAR penetrated deeper with mean euphotic depths of 0.27 and 0.42 m, respectively. The mean Secchi depths were 0.16 and 0.10 m in the maturation and facultative ponds waters, respectively. In view of the reported results, the contribution of the deeper sections of ponds to pathogen removal mediated by sunlight seems negligible. Therefore, when designing WSPs, these findings should be considered to increase the penetration of damaging wavelengths in order to ensure efficient microbial removal. For more pathogen elimination, downstream shallow ponds could be considered. The paper also shows how suspended solids, turbidity, and Secchi depth are related to the attenuation coefficients and euphotic depths. The developed models could be used to predict light penetration and then algal growth and pathogen removal mediated by sunlight in waste stabilization ponds located in Sahelian climate.

  2. Geochemical and hydrologic controls on phosphorus transport in a sewage-contaminated sand and gravel aquifer near Ashumet Pond, Cape Cod, Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walter, D.A.; Rea, B.A.; Stollenwerk, K.G.; Savoie, Jennifer G.

    1995-01-01

    The disposal of secondarily treated sewage onto rapid infiltration sand beds at the Massachusetts Military Reservation, Cape Cod, Massachusetts, has created a sewage plume in the underlying sand and gravel aquifer; the part of the\\x11sewage plume that contains dissolved phosphorus extends about 2,500 feet downgradient of the sewage-disposal beds. A part of the plume that\\x11contains nearly 2 milligrams per liter of phosphorus currently (1993) discharges into Ashumet Pond along about 700 feet of shoreline. The sewage plume discharges from about 59 to about 76 kilograms of phosphorus per year into the pond. Hydraulic-head measurements indicate that the north end of Ashumet Pond is a ground-water sink and an increased component of ground-water discharge and phosphorus flux into\\x11the pond occurs at higher water levels. Phosphorus was mobile in ground water in two distinct geochemical environments-an anoxic zone that contains no dissolved oxygen and as much as 25\\x11milligrams per liter of dissolved iron, and a more areally extensive suboxic zone that contains little or no iron, low but detectable dissolved oxygen, and as much as 12 milligrams per liter of dissolved manganese. Dissolved phosphorus is mobile in the suboxic geochemical environment because continued phosphorus loading has filled available sorption sites in the aquifer. Continued disposal of sewage since 1936 has created a large reservoir of sorbed phosphorus that is much greater than the mass of dissolved phosphorus in the ground water; the average ratio of sorbed to dissolved phosphorus in the anoxic and suboxic parts of the sewage plume were 31:1 and 155:1, respectively. Column experiments indicate that phosphorus in the anoxic core of the plume containing dissolved iron may be immobilized within 17 years by sorption and coprecipitation with new iron oxyhydroxides following the cessation of sewage disposal and the introduction of uncontaminated oxygenated ground water into the aquifer in December

  3. Environmental assessment for the natural fluctuation of water level in Par Pond and reduced water flow in Steel Creek below L-Lake at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    The Savannah River Operations Office Strategic Plan directs Savannah River Site (SRS) to find ways to reduce operating costs, and to determine what site infrastructure must be maintained and what infrastructure is surplus. Because of the mission change, L-Lake, Par Pond, and the river water system are no longer needed to support current missions and therefore provide an opportunity for operating cost reduction. If SRS determines that L-Lake, Par Pond, and the river water system are no longer needed to support future missions and are considered surplus, appropriate NEPA documentation will be prepared. The purpose of the proposed action in this Environmental Assessment is to begin an examination of the need for the Site`s river water system by (1) developing data needed to evaluate the potential environmental impacts of further reducing or eliminating the flow demands from the Site`s river water system and; (2) evaluating the potential of reducing operating costs by allowing the water level in Par Pond to fluctuate naturally through reduced pumping. This action also includes reducing the current flow rates from L-Lake to Steel Creek to natural stream flows while maintaining full pool. The recently approved Par Pond CERCLA Interim Action Proposed Plan (IAPP) committed to evaluate in a NEPA document the environmental consequences of this proposed action. This document evaluated the remediation of human health and ecological risks associated with the three year drawdown of Par Pond. Should any of the parameters sampled in the reservoir and streams (e.g., water quality, biota, etc.) exceed established threshold levels during the implementation of the proposed action, water would again be pumped into the reservoir to minimize any impacts by bringing the water level back to an appropriate level about 58.2 m (195 ft).

  4. Characterisation of a diverse range of circular replication-associated protein encoding DNA viruses recovered from a sewage treatment oxidation pond.

    PubMed

    Kraberger, Simona; Argüello-Astorga, Gerardo R; Greenfield, Laurence G; Galilee, Craig; Law, Donald; Martin, Darren P; Varsani, Arvind

    2015-04-01

    Our knowledge of circular replication-associated protein encoding single-stranded (CRESS) DNA virus diversity has increased dramatically in recent years, largely due to advances in high-throughput sequencing technologies. These viruses are apparently major virome components in most terrestrial and aquatic environments and it is therefore of interest to determine their diversity at the interfaces between these environments. Treated sewage water is a particularly interesting interface between terrestrial and aquatic viromes in that it is directly pumped into waterways and is likely to contain virus populations that have been strongly impacted by humans. We used a combination of high-throughput sequencing, full genome PCR amplification, cloning and Sanger sequencing to investigate the diversity of CRESS DNA viruses present in a sewage oxidation pond. Using this approach, we recovered 50 putatively complete novel CRESS viral genomes (it remains possible that some are components of multipartite viral genomes) and 11 putatively sub-genome-length circular DNA molecules which may be either defective genomes or components of multipartite genomes. Thirteen of the genomes have bidirectional genome organisations and share similar conserved replication-associated protein (Rep) motifs to those of the gemycircularviruses: a group that in turn is most closely related to the geminiviruses. The remaining 37 viral genomes share very low degrees of Rep similarity to those of all other known CRESS DNA viruses. This number of highly divergent CRESS DNA virus genomes within a single sewage treatment pond further reinforces the notion that there likely exist hundreds of completely unknown genus/family level CRESS DNA virus groupings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Nitrogen dynamics of the aquatic system is an important driving force for efficient sewage purification in single pond natural treatment wetlands at East Kolkata Wetland.

    PubMed

    Das Gupta, Anirban; Sarkar, Subhasis; Singh, Jayprakash; Saha, Tapan; Sil, Alok Kumar

    2016-12-01

    At East Kolkata Wetlands, though the domestic city sewage is purified very rapidly, the mechanisms of treatment remains inadequately explored. In this context, the present study investigated nitrogen dynamics of the single pond treatment systems during purification and explored its potential role in sewage treatment. For this purpose the concentrations of different forms of nitrogen present both in water and soil at different time points of purification were measured. The organic nitrogen content decreased sharply, in the early phase, with an increase in ammonium concentration. Notably the reduction in organic nitrogen was significantly higher than the increase in NH4(+) which can be attributed to the volatilization of NH4(+) under alkaline pH. This volatilization results in reduced oxygen demand. The nitrate-N concentration decreased sharply from soil with a concomitant increase in water column. However the reduction of nitrate in soil was significantly higher than the increase in water column. It indicated the occurrence of denitrification under anoxic condition wherein nitrate serves as terminal electron acceptor. Additionally a part of the nitrate supported planktonic growth. Thus it describes another mechanism of reducing oxygen demand. The initial NH4(+)-N concentration in the soil was very low and it increased gradually during purification due to increasing soil cation exchange capacity. Thus by trapping NH4(+) ion soil contributes towards preventing contamination of water. Thus at EKW, the cumulative activities in water and soil involved in nitrogen dynamics lead to overall reduction of the oxygen demand and contribute towards efficient sewage purification.

  6. Interim Control Strategy for the Test Area North/Technical Support Facility Sewage Treatment Facility Disposal Pond - Two-year Update

    SciTech Connect

    L. V. Street

    2007-04-01

    The Idaho Cleanup Project has prepared this interim control strategy for the U.S. Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office pursuant to DOE Order 5400.5, Chapter 11.3e (1) to support continued discharges to the Test Area North/Technical Support Facility Sewage Treatment Facility Disposal Pond. In compliance with DOE Order 5400.5, a 2-year review of the Interim Control Strategy document has been completed. This submittal documents the required review of the April 2005 Interim Control Strategy. The Idaho Cleanup Project's recommendation is unchanged from the original recommendation. The Interim Control Strategy evaluates three alternatives: (1) re-route the discharge outlet to an uncontaminated area of the TSF-07; (2) construct a new discharge pond; or (3) no action based on justification for continued use. Evaluation of Alternatives 1 and 2 are based on the estimated cost and implementation timeframe weighed against either alternative's minimal increase in protection of workers, the public, and the environment. Evaluation of Alternative 3, continued use of the TSF-07 Disposal Pond under current effluent controls, is based on an analysis of four points: - Record of Decision controls will protect workers and the public - Risk of increased contamination is low - Discharge water will be eliminated in the foreseeable future - Risk of contamination spread is acceptable. The Idaho Cleanup Project recommends Alternative 3, no action other than continued implementation of existing controls and continued deactivation, decontamination, and dismantlement efforts at the Test Area North/Technical Support Facility.

  7. Biomass granulation in an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor treating 500 m(3)/day low-strength sewage and post treatment in high-rate algal pond.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Pritha; Ghangrekar, M M

    2017-09-01

    A pilot-scale upflow anaerobic sludge blanket-moving bed biofilm (UASB-MBB) reactor followed by a high-rate algal pond (HRAP) was designed and operated to remove organic matter, nutrients and pathogens from sewage and to facilitate reuse. For an influent chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentration of 233 ± 20 mg/L, final effluent COD was 50 ± 6 mg/L. Successful biomass granulation was observed in the sludge bed of the upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor after 5 months of operation. Ammonia removal in HRAP was 85.1 ± 2.4% with average influent and effluent ammonia nitrogen concentrations of 20 ± 3 mg/L and 3 ± 1 mg/L, respectively. Phosphate removal after treatment in the HRAP was 91 ± 1%. There was a 2-3 log scale pathogen removal after treatment in HRAP with most probable number (MPN) of the final effluent being 600-800 per 100 mL, which is within acceptable standards for surface irrigation. The blackwater after treatment in UASB-MBBR-HRAP is being reused for gardening and landscaping. This proper hydro-dynamically designed UASB reactor demonstrated successful granulation and moving bed media improved sludge retention in UASB reactor. This combination of UASB-MBB reactor followed by HRAP demonstrated successful sewage treatment for a year covering all seasons.

  8. Estimation of the impact of water movement from sewage and settling ponds near a potential high level radioactive waste repository in Yucca Mountain, Nevada; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    SciTech Connect

    Sobolik, S.R.; Fewell, M.E.

    1992-02-01

    The Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project is studying Yucca Mountain in southwestern Nevada as a potential site for a high-level nuclear waste repository. Site characterization includes surface-based and underground testing. Analyses have been performed to design site characterization activities with minimal impact on the ability of the site to isolate waste, and on tests performed as part of the characterization process. One activity of site characterization is the construction of an Exploratory Studies Facility, which may include underground shafts, drifts, and ramps, and the accompanying ponds used for the storage of sewage water and muck water removed from construction operations. The information in this report pertains to the two-dimensional numerical calculations modelling the movement of sewage and settling pond water, and the potential effects of that water on repository performance and underground experiments. This document contains information that has been used in preparing Appendix I of the Exploratory Studies Facility Design Requirements document (ESF DR) for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project.

  9. Nitrogen Fixation (Acetylene Reduction) Associated with Decaying Leaves of Pond Cypress (Taxodium distichum var. nutans) in a Natural and a Sewage-Enriched Cypress Dome

    PubMed Central

    Dierberg, Forrest E.; Brezonik, Patrick L.

    1981-01-01

    Surface litter from a natural and a sewage-enriched cypress dome in north-central Florida showed a pronounced seasonal pattern of nitrogenase (acetylene reduction) activity associated with seasonal leaf fall from deciduous trees in the domes. Samples of peat from cores indicated negligible nitrogenase activity below the surface layer. Integrating the monthly rates of nitrogen fixation (based on the theoretical molar ratio of 3:2 for C2H4/NH3) yielded 0.39 and 0.12 g of N/m2 per year fixed in the litter of the natural and sewage-enriched domes, respectively. The nitrogen fixed in the first 3 months after leaf fall in the natural dome represented about 14% of the nitrogen increment in the decomposing cypress leaves, but fixation contributed a negligible amount of nitrogen (<1%) to decomposing litter in the sewage-enriched dome. PMID:16345796

  10. Performance comparison and economics analysis of waste stabilization ponds and horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands treating domestic wastewater: a case study of the Juja sewage treatment works.

    PubMed

    Mburu, Njenga; Tebitendwa, Sylvie M; van Bruggen, Johan J A; Rousseau, Diederik P L; Lens, Piet N L

    2013-10-15

    The performance, effluent quality, land area requirement, investment and operation costs of a full-scale waste stabilization pond (WSP) and a pilot scale horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetland (HSSF-CW) at Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology (JKUAT) were investigated between November 2010 to January 2011. Both systems gave comparable medium to high levels of organic matter and suspended solids removal. However, the WSP showed a better removal for Total Phosphorus (TP) and Ammonium (NH4(+)-N). Based on the population equivalent calculations, the land area requirement per person equivalent of the WSP system was 3 times the area that would be required for the HSSF-CW to treat the same amount of wastewater. The total annual cost estimates consisting of capital, operation and maintenance (O&M) costs were comparable for both systems. However, the evaluation of the capital cost of either system showed that it is largely influenced by the size of the population served, local cost of land and the construction materials involved. Hence, one can select either system in terms of treatment efficiency. When land is available other factor including the volume of wastewater or the investment, and O&M costs determine the technology selection. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Solar ponds

    SciTech Connect

    Jayadev, T.S.; Edesess, M.

    1980-04-01

    This report first describes the different types of solar ponds including the nonconvecting salt gradient pond and various saltless pond designs. It then discusses the availability and cost of salts for salt gradient ponds, and compares the economics of salty and saltless ponds as a function of salt cost. A simple computational model is developed to approximate solar pond performance. This model is later used to size solar ponds for district heating and industrial process heat applications. For district heating, ponds are sized to provide space conditioning for a group of homes, in different regions of the United States. Size requirements is on the order of one acre for a group of 25 to 50 homes. An economic analysis is performed of solar ponds used in two industrial process heat applications. The analysis finds that solar ponds are competitive when conventional heat sources are priced at $5 per million Btu and expected to rise in price at a rate of 10% per year. The application of solar ponds to the generation of electricity is also discussed. Total solar pond potential for displacing conventional energy sources is estimated in the range of from one to six quadrillion Btu per year in the near and intermediate future.

  12. Freshwater ponds

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This book chapter summarizes aquaculture pond ecology. The underlying theme is how ponds supply essential life-support functions (food, oxygen, and waste treatment) and how those functions are subsidized by external resources as culture intensity increases. Ponds are confined bodies of standing wate...

  13. Surface Sediments in Precooler Ponds 2, 4, and 5: March 2000

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, D.L.

    2001-01-29

    Pond 2, Pond 4, and Pond 5 are inactive reactor cooling impoundments built in 1961 on the R-Reactor Effluent System in the east-central portion of the Department of Energy's Savannah River Site in Aiken, South Carolina. These precooler ponds are part of the Par Pond cooling water system and are considered part of the Par Pond operable unit. The intent was not to characterize the ponds, but to identify the maximum levels of contamination that could be exposed if the ponds are drained to remove the danger of dam failure.

  14. Solar ponds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabor, H.

    1981-01-01

    The history and current status of salt-gradient non-convecting solar ponds are presented. These ponds are large-area collectors, capable of providing low-cost thermal, mechanical, or electrical energy using low-temperature turbo-generators. The basic theory of salt-gradient solar ponds is sketched; the effects of wind, leakage, and fouling and their constraints on location selection for solar ponds are discussed. The methods of building and filling the ponds, as well as extracting heat from them are explained in detail. Practical operating temperatures of 90 C can be obtained with collection efficiencies between 15% and 25%, demonstrating the practical use of the ponds for heating and cooling purposes, power production, and desalination. A condensed account of solar pond experience in several countries is given. This includes the 150 kW solar pond power station (SPPS) operating in Israel since December, 1979 and a 5000 kW unit currently under development. A study of the economics involved in using the ponds is presented: despite a low conversion efficiency, the SPPS is shown to have applications in many countries.

  15. Sewage Treatment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    A million gallon-a-day sewage treatment plant in Huntington Beach, CA converts solid sewage to activated carbon which then treats incoming waste water. The plant is scaled up 100 times from a mobile unit NASA installed a year ago; another 100-fold scale-up will be required if technique is employed for widespread urban sewage treatment. This unique sewage-plant employed a serendipitous outgrowth of a need to manufacture activated carbon for rocket engine insulation. The process already exceeds new Environmental Protection Agency Standards Capital costs by 25% compared with conventional secondary treatment plants.

  16. Sewage Treatment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    In the early 1970's, National Space Technology Laboratories discovered that water hyacinths literally thrive on sewage; they absorb and digest nutrients and minerals from wastewater, converting sewage effluents to clean water. They offer a means of purifying water at a fraction of the cost of a conventional sewage treatment plant, and provide a bonus value in byproducts. Hyacinths must be harvested at intervals; the harvested plants are used as fertilizers, high-protein animal feed and a source of energy. Already serving a number of small towns, the "aquaculture" technique has significantly advanced with its adoption by a major U.S. city.

  17. Solar pond

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, C. G.; Stephens, J. B. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    Shallow pools of liquid to collect low-temperature solar generated thermal energy are described. Narrow elongated trenches, grouped together over a wide area, are lined with a heat-absorbing black liner. The heat-absorbing liquid is kept separate from the thermal energy removing fluid by means such as clear polyethylene material. The covering for the pond may be a fluid or solid. If the covering is a fluid, fire fighting foam, continuously generated, or siloons are used to keep the surface covering clean and insulated. If the thermal energy removing fluid is a gas, a fluid insulation layer contained in a flat polyethlene tubing is used to cover the pond. The side of the tube directed towards the sun is treated to block out ultraviolet radiation and trap in infrared radiation.

  18. FACTORS AFFECTING PHYTOPLANKTON DISTRIBUTION IN A DOUBLE-CELL SEWAGE LAGOON (1) (2).

    PubMed

    DeNoyelles, F

    1967-12-01

    The distribution of phyioplankton in a double-cell sewage lagoon at Hallam, Nebraska, was studied in relation to physical, chemical, and biological factors during the summer and fall of 1965. Sixteen species of algae were recorded in the first and more organically rich of the two physically similar ponds, with 28 species recorded in the second pond. Population sizes were always greater in the first pond due to reduced grazing during the summer and large quantities of ammonia-nitrogen during the fall. The dominant algal species in both ponds on nearly all sampling dates was Ankistrodesmus falcatus v. acicularis. Declines in this population occurred with high organic pollution and heavy grazing. Both ponds had severe reductions in algal numbers during late October due to heavy grazing by the rotifer Brachionus. The distribution of phytoplankton in the Hallam ponds is compared to that of other sewage ponds in the United States, and the general pattern which emerged is discussed.

  19. Saltless Solar Ponds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, E. I.

    1984-01-01

    Problems associated with heat storage in solar ponds eliminated by transparent insulating cover at surface of pond. Cover makes unnecessary salt gradient that suppresses natural convection within pond to promote thermal storage.

  20. Sewage Treatment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Stennis Space Center's aquaculture research program has led to an attractive wastewater treatment for private homes. The system consists of a septic tank or tanks for initial sewage processing and a natural secondary treatment facility for further processing of septic tanks' effluent, consisting of a narrow trench, which contains marsh plants and rocks, providing a place for microorganisms. Plants and microorganisms absorb and digest, thus cleansing partially processed wastewater. No odors are evident and cleaned effluent may be discharged into streams or drainage canals. The system is useful in rural areas, costs about $1,900, and requires less maintenance than mechanical systems.

  1. Sewage Monitors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    Every U.S. municipality must determine how much waste water it is processing and more importantly, how much is going unprocessed into lakes and streams either because of leaks in the sewer system or because the city's sewage facilities were getting more sewer flow than they were designed to handle. ADS Environmental Services, Inc.'s development of the Quadrascan Flow Monitoring System met the need for an accurate method of data collection. The system consists of a series of monitoring sensors and microcomputers that continually measure water depth at particular sewer locations and report their findings to a central computer. This provides precise information to city managers on overall flow, flow in any section of the city, location and severity of leaks and warnings of potential overload. The core technology has been expanded upon in terms of both technical improvements, and functionality for new applications, including event alarming and control for critical collection system management problems.

  2. Purification of Solar Ponds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, S.

    1985-01-01

    Flocculatory agents added to solar saltponds remove turbidity to increase solar-energy collection efficiency. Flocculating agent or bacteriocide used to remove micro-organisms sprayed onto pond from airplane and allowed to settle to bottom of pond.

  3. Purification of Solar Ponds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, S.

    1985-01-01

    Flocculatory agents added to solar saltponds remove turbidity to increase solar-energy collection efficiency. Flocculating agent or bacteriocide used to remove micro-organisms sprayed onto pond from airplane and allowed to settle to bottom of pond.

  4. Sanitary and bacteriological aspects of sewage treatment.

    PubMed

    Filipkowska, Zofia

    2003-01-01

    A study into the removal of contamination load and indicator bacteria was carried out in 1992-1996 in the mechanical, biological and chemical waste-water treatment plant WTP in Lezany, in the County of Reszel, in the Province of Warmia and Mazury in Poland. The results of chemical analyses found a high efficiency of removal of carbon compounds, COD (90%) and BOD (98%), in the process of purification of household sewage. In addition, a high effectiveness of total nitrogen, on average 71%, and unsatisfactory removal of ammonia nitrogen and phosphorus compounds were found. The results of microbiological analyses confirmed the high efficiency of removal of indicator bacteria in the process of sewage treatment from 94 to 97%. In the sewage after the final phase of purification in stabilization ponds, the following pathogenic bacteria were identified with the use of the EPL 21tests: Escherichia coli, Enterobacter agglomerans, Enterobacter aerogenes, Enterobacter cloacae, Enterobacter georgoriae, Citrobacter freundii, Klebsiella pnemoniae, Klebsiella oxytoca, Klebsiella ozaenae, Ervinia herbicola, Edwardsiella tarda, Serratia odoriefra, Serratia marcescens, Providencia alcalifaciens, Hafnia alvei, Yersina pestis, Yersina pseudotuberculosis, Yersinia fredericksenii, Salmonella spp., Shigella dysenteriae, Aeromons hydrophila, Pseudomonas aerulginosa. The obtained results show that although the sewage purification system is efficient and reduces the contamination load to the level required by the regulations (Ministry of Environmental Protection, Natural Resources and Forestry from 20 September 1991) and removes a great percentage of indicator bacteria, the purified sewage may be a source of pathogenic bacteria in inland waters.

  5. State Waste Discharge Permit application, 100-N Sewage Lagoon

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    As part of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order negotiations (Ecology et al. 1994), the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the Washington State Department of Ecology agreed that liquid effluent discharges to the ground on the Hanford Site which affect groundwater or have the potential to affect groundwater would be subject to permitting under the structure of Chapter 173--216 (or 173--218 where applicable) of the Washington Administrative Code, the State Waste Discharge Permit Program. As a result of this decision, the Washington State Department of Ecology and the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office entered into Consent Order No. DE 91NM-177, (Ecology and DOE-RL 1991). This document constitutes the State Waste Discharge Permit application for the 100-N Sewage Lagoon. Since the influent to the sewer lagoon is domestic waste water, the State Waste Discharge Permit application for Public Owned Treatment Works Discharges to Land was used. Although the 100-N Sewage Lagoon is not a Public Owned Treatment Works, the Public Owned Treatment Works application is more applicable than the application for industrial waste water. The 100-N Sewage Lagoon serves the 100-N Area and other Hanford Site areas by receiving domestic waste from two sources. A network of sanitary sewer piping and lift stations transfers domestic waste water from the 100-N Area buildings directly to the 100-N Sewage Lagoon. Waste is also received by trucks that transport domestic waste pumped from on site septic tanks and holding tanks. Three ponds comprise the 100-N Sewage Lagoon treatment system. These include a lined aeration pond and stabilization pond, as well as an unlined infiltration pond. Both piped-in and trucked-in domestic waste is discharged directly into the aeration pond.

  6. Waste Stabilization Ponds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koundakjian, Philip

    This self-paced course contains reading assignments from a waste stabilization ponds operating manual, supportive text, example problems, and review questions, and a final examination. The course covers calculation of pond surface area, pond volume, organic load, detention time, drawdown, storage capacity, efficiency, and discharge. In addition,…

  7. Lagoons and Oxidation Ponds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, W. J.

    1978-01-01

    Presents the 1978 literature review of wastewater treatment. This review covers lagoons and oxidation ponds, and it includes some areas such as improving the effluents from ponds, stabilization ponds, aerated lagoons, and oxidation ditches. A list of 36 references is also presented. (HM)

  8. Lagoons and Oxidation Ponds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, W. J.

    1978-01-01

    Presents the 1978 literature review of wastewater treatment. This review covers lagoons and oxidation ponds, and it includes some areas such as improving the effluents from ponds, stabilization ponds, aerated lagoons, and oxidation ditches. A list of 36 references is also presented. (HM)

  9. Land application of sewage sludge: physicochemical and microbial response.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rajeev Pratap; Singh, Pooja; Ibrahim, M Hakimi; Hashim, Rokiah

    2011-01-01

    of sewage sludge may result in the transport of pathogens through aerosols downwind of sludge storage or dispersal sites, may contaminate ground water, stock ponds, or may produce food chain contamination from eating food grown in sludge-treated land.

  10. Microalgal separation from high-rate ponds

    SciTech Connect

    Nurdogan, Y.

    1988-01-01

    High rate ponding (HRP) processes are playing an increasing role in the treatment of organic wastewaters in sunbelt communities. Photosynthetic oxygenation by algae has proved to cost only one-seventh as much as mechanical aeration for activated sludge systems. During this study, an advanced HRP, which produces an effluent equivalent to tertiary treatment has been studied. It emphasizes not only waste oxidation but also algal separation and nutrient removal. This new system is herein called advanced tertiary high rate ponding (ATHRP). Phosphorus removal in HRP systems is normally low because algal uptake of phosphorus is about one percent of their 200-300 mg/L dry weights. Precipitation of calcium phosphates by autofluocculation also occurs in HRP at high pH levels, but it is generally not complete due to insufficient calcium concentration in the pond. In the case of Richmond where the studies were conducted, the sewage is very low in calcium. Therefore, enhancement of natural autoflocculation was studied by adding small amounts of lime to the pond. Through this simple procedure phosphorus and nitrogen removals were virtually complete justifying the terminology ATHRP.

  11. Temperature Impact of Nitrogen Transformation in Technological System: Vertical Flow Constructed Wetland and Polishing Pond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myszograj, Sylwia; Bydałek, Franciszek

    2016-12-01

    The article describes the results of the research, purpose of which was to evaluate influence of the temperature on the effectiveness of nitrification and denitrification in the sewage treatment system consisting of vertical flow constructed wetland and polishing pond. During the analysed period, the efficiency of removing total nitrogen was low and amounted to 12.7%. In the polishing pond in the summer period, content of total nitrogen in treated sewages was further decreased by nearly 50%. In the winter period, the polishing pond fulfilled mainly retention role and thus did not improve effectiveness of the whole system. Temperature coefficients, calculated on the basis of single first-order kinetics, for nitrification process in the filter bed (N-NH4+) and denitrification process in the polishing pond (N-NO3-) amounted to 1.039 and 1.089, respectively.

  12. Cadmium tolerance and antibiotic resistance in Escherichia coli isolated from waste stabilization ponds.

    PubMed

    Patra, Sova; Das, T K; Avila, C; Cabello, V; Castillo, F; Sarkar, D; Lahiri, Susmita; Jana, B B

    2012-04-01

    The incidence pattern of cadmium tolerance and antibiotics resistance by Escherichia coli was examined periodically from the samples of water, sludge and intestine of fish raised in waste stabilization ponds in a sewage treatment plant. Samples of water and sludge were collected from all the selected ponds and were monitored for total counts of fecal coliform (FC), total coliform (TC) and the population of Escherichia coli, which was also obtained from the intestine of fishes. Total counts of both FC and TC as well as counts of E. coli were markedly reduced from the facultative pond to the last maturation pond. Tolerance limit to cadmium by E. coli tended to decline as the distance of the sewage effluent from the source increased; the effective lethal concentration of cadmium ranged from 0.1 mM in split chamber to 0.05 mM in first maturation pond. E. coli isolated from water, sludge and fish gut were sensitive to seven out of ten antibiotics tested. It appears that holistic functions mediated through the mutualistic growth of micro algae and heterotrophic bacteria in the waste stabilization ponds were responsible for the promotion of water quality and significant reduction of coliform along the sewage effluent gradient.

  13. Solar ponds: a selected bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-11-01

    This bibliography contains citations on: regular solar ponds; shallow solar ponds; and patents. Certain references are specifically recommended. The data bases searched for the bibliography are listed. (LEW)

  14. Sewage: waste or resource

    SciTech Connect

    Hamlin, C.

    1980-10-01

    This article contains a historical review of sewage, its collection and disposal, its treatment and its application. It was not until the second half of the 19th Century that it was realized, that sewage should be returned to the soil where its immense fertilizer value would prove a source of prosperity. The production of biogas and/or alcohol has been largely overlooked and the utilization of sewage as a renewable resource is urged.

  15. Exploring Pond Water

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raun, Chester E.; Metz, William C.

    1975-01-01

    An activity utilizing a bucket of pond water for study of microorganisms as presented to elementary school preservice and inservice teachers, and subsequently to their pupils, is described. Procedures for collecting, studying, tabulating data and extended activities are presented. (EB)

  16. Rapid Sand Filtration for Best Practical Treatment of Domestic Wastewater Stabilization Pond Effluent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boatright, D. T.; Lawrence, C. H.

    1977-01-01

    The technical and economic feasibility of constructing and operating a rapid sand filtration sewage treatment system as an adjunct to a waste water stabilization pond is investigated. The study concludes that such units are within the technical and economic constraints of a small community and comply with the EPA criteria. (BT)

  17. Rapid Sand Filtration for Best Practical Treatment of Domestic Wastewater Stabilization Pond Effluent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boatright, D. T.; Lawrence, C. H.

    1977-01-01

    The technical and economic feasibility of constructing and operating a rapid sand filtration sewage treatment system as an adjunct to a waste water stabilization pond is investigated. The study concludes that such units are within the technical and economic constraints of a small community and comply with the EPA criteria. (BT)

  18. Sewage sludge additive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalvinskas, J. J.; Mueller, W. A.; Ingham, J. D. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    The additive is for a raw sewage treatment process of the type where settling tanks are used for the purpose of permitting the suspended matter in the raw sewage to be settled as well as to permit adsorption of the dissolved contaminants in the water of the sewage. The sludge, which settles down to the bottom of the settling tank is extracted, pyrolyzed and activated to form activated carbon and ash which is mixed with the sewage prior to its introduction into the settling tank. The sludge does not provide all of the activated carbon and ash required for adequate treatment of the raw sewage. It is necessary to add carbon to the process and instead of expensive commercial carbon, coal is used to provide the carbon supplement.

  19. Spatial Distribution of Nitrate in Mizoro-Ga a Pond with Floating Mat Bog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimamura, Tetsuya; Takemon, Yasuhiro; Osaka, Ken'ichi; Itoh, Masayuki; Ohte, Nobuhito

    Artificial nutrient loading has been linked to the decrease in plant diversity in peatlands, riparian areas, and swamps. Mizoro-ga-ike pond is one of the natural monuments of Japan and contains temperate floating mat and diverse plant community. The pond had experienced eutrophication by sewage and tap water. As the inflows of nutrient-rich water had been lessened, the amount of source area of the pond has decreased to 30%. We investigated factors that control water chemistry in and around the pond to assess the present situation of the pond. The pond has two mouths of inflows. One of the inflows includes leaked water from a tap water reserver. The other is the surface flow collected by a ditch. The result of water quality census indicates the pond has two sources of nutrient-rich water. One is the drainage from the surface water polluted by the road for automobile that flows into the northern coast of the pond, and the other is the tap water-contaminated water entering from the southern coast. Also the result of the census indicates that emergent plants such as reeds and wild rice modify the effect of nutrient-rich water by exploiting nutrients. Especially, it was suggested that the nursery effects of emergent grasslands that spread southern part of the pond protect the less robust plants, Nuphar subintegerrimum.

  20. Spatial Distribution of Nitrate in Mizoro-Ga a Pond with Floating at Bog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimamura, Tetsuya; Takemon, Yasuhiro; Osaka, Ken'ichi; Itoh, Masayuki; Ohte, Nobuhito

    Artificial nutrient loading has been linked to the decrease in plant diversity in peatlands, riparian areas, and swamps. Mizoro-ga-ike pond is one of the natural monuments of Japan and contains temperate floating mat and diverse plant community. The pond had experienced eutrophication by sewage and tap water. As the inflows of nutrient-rich water had been lessened, the amount of source area of the pond has decreased to 30%. We investigated factors that control water chemistry in and around the pond to assess the present situation of the pond. The pond has two mouths of inflows. One of the inflows includes leaked water from a tap water reserver. The other is the surface flow collected by a ditch. The result of water quality census indicates the pond has two sources of nutrient-rich water. One is the drainage from the surface water polluted by the road for automobile that flows into the northern coast of the pond, and the other is the tap water-contaminated water entering from the southern coast. Also the result of the census indicates that emergent plants such as reeds and wild rice modify the effect of nutrient-rich water by exploiting nutrients. Especially, it was suggested that the nursery effects of emergent grasslands that spread southern part of the pond protect the less robust plants, Nuphar subintegerrimum.

  1. Depletion of Cryptosporidium parvum Oocysts from Contaminated Sewage by Using Freshwater Benthic Pearl Clams (Hyriopsis schlegeli)

    PubMed Central

    Yagita, Kenji; Izumiyama, Shinji; Endo, Takuro; Itoh, Yasoo

    2012-01-01

    The freshwater benthic pearl clam, Hyriopsis schlegeli, was experimentally exposed to Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts, and it was verified that the oocysts were eliminated predominantly via the fecal route, retaining their ability to infect cultured cells (HCT-8). The total fecal oocyst elimination rate was more than 90% within 5 days after exposure to the oocysts. H. schlegeli was able to survive in the final settling pond of a sewage plant for long periods, as confirmed by its pearl production. In the light of these findings, the clam was placed in the final settling pond in a trial to test its long-term efficacy in depleting oocysts contaminating the pond water. The number of clams placed was set to ensure a theoretical oocyst removal rate of around 50%, and the turbidity and the density of feed microbes in the overflow trough water of the pond were about 35% and 40 to 60% lower, respectively, than in the control water throughout the year. It was found that the clam feces containing oocysts were sufficiently heavy for them to settle to the bottom of the pond, despite the upward water flow. From these results, we concluded that efficient depletion of oocysts in the sewage water of small or midscale sewage treatment plants can be achieved by appropriate placement of H. schlegeli clams. PMID:22904053

  2. Depletion of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts from contaminated sewage by using freshwater benthic pearl clams (Hyriopsis schlegeli).

    PubMed

    Izumi, Toshihiko; Yagita, Kenji; Izumiyama, Shinji; Endo, Takuro; Itoh, Yasoo

    2012-10-01

    The freshwater benthic pearl clam, Hyriopsis schlegeli, was experimentally exposed to Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts, and it was verified that the oocysts were eliminated predominantly via the fecal route, retaining their ability to infect cultured cells (HCT-8). The total fecal oocyst elimination rate was more than 90% within 5 days after exposure to the oocysts. H. schlegeli was able to survive in the final settling pond of a sewage plant for long periods, as confirmed by its pearl production. In the light of these findings, the clam was placed in the final settling pond in a trial to test its long-term efficacy in depleting oocysts contaminating the pond water. The number of clams placed was set to ensure a theoretical oocyst removal rate of around 50%, and the turbidity and the density of feed microbes in the overflow trough water of the pond were about 35% and 40 to 60% lower, respectively, than in the control water throughout the year. It was found that the clam feces containing oocysts were sufficiently heavy for them to settle to the bottom of the pond, despite the upward water flow. From these results, we concluded that efficient depletion of oocysts in the sewage water of small or midscale sewage treatment plants can be achieved by appropriate placement of H. schlegeli clams.

  3. Vessel Sewage Discharges

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Vessel sewage discharges are regulated under Section 312 of the Clean Water Act, which is jointly implemented by the EPA and Coast Guard. This homepage links to information on marine sanitation devices and no discharge zones.

  4. Lockport Sewage Lagoon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, John

    1995-01-01

    Describes a student initiated stewardship project that resulted in the transformation of a sewage lagoon near the school into a place to study nature. Contains a list of 20 things that discourage a successful stewardship project. (LZ)

  5. Lockport Sewage Lagoon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, John

    1995-01-01

    Describes a student initiated stewardship project that resulted in the transformation of a sewage lagoon near the school into a place to study nature. Contains a list of 20 things that discourage a successful stewardship project. (LZ)

  6. Saltless solar pond

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, E. I. H. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A solar pond adapted for efficiently trapping and storing radiant solar energy without the use of a salt concentration gradient in the pond is disclosed. A body of water which may be fresh, saline, relatively clear or turbid, is substantially covered by a plurality of floating honeycomb panels. The honeycomb panels are made of a material such as glass which is pervious to short wave solar radiation but impervious to infrared radiation. Each honeycomb panel includes a multitude of honeycomb cells. The honeycomb panels are divided into the elongated honeycomb cells by a multitude of intermediate plates disposed between a bottom plate and top plate of the panel. The solar pond is well suited for providing hot water of approximately 85 to 90 C temperature for direct heating applications, and for electrical power generation.

  7. Saltless solar pond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, E. I. H.

    1984-09-01

    A solar pond adapted for efficiently trapping and storing radiant solar energy without the use of a salt concentration gradient in the pond is disclosed. A body of water which may be fresh, saline, relatively clear or turbid, is substantially covered by a plurality of floating honeycomb panels. The honeycomb panels are made of a material such as glass which is pervious to short wave solar radiation but impervious to infrared radiation. Each honeycomb panel includes a multitude of honeycomb cells. The honeycomb panels are divided into the elongated honeycomb cells by a multitude of intermediate plates disposed between a bottom plate and top plate of the panel. The solar pond is well suited for providing hot water of approximately 85 to 90 C temperature for direct heating applications, and for electrical power generation.

  8. Evaluation of solar pond performance

    SciTech Connect

    Wittenberg, L.J.

    1980-01-01

    The City of Miamisburg, Ohio, constructed during 1978 a large, salt-gradient solar pond as part of its community park development project. The thermal energy stored in the pond is being used to heat an outdoor swimming pool in the summer and an adjacent recreational building during part of the winter. This solar pond, which occupies an area of 2020 m/sup 2/ (22,000 sq. ft.), was designed from experience obtained at smaller research ponds located at Ohio State University, the University of New Mexico and similar ponds operated in Israel. During the summer of 1979, the initial heat (40,000 kWh, 136 million Btu) was withdrawn from the solar pond to heat the outdoor swimming pool. All of the data collection systems were installed and functioned as designed so that operational data were obtained. The observed performance of the pond was compared with several of the predicted models for this type of pond. (MHR)

  9. Agricultural ponds support amphibian populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knutson, M.G.; Richardson, W.B.; Reineke, D.M.; Gray, B.R.; Parmelee, J.R.; Weick, S.E.

    2004-01-01

    In some agricultural regions, natural wetlands are scarce, and constructed agricultural ponds may represent important alternative breeding habitats for amphibians. Properly managed, these agricultural ponds may effectively increase the total amount of breeding habitat and help to sustain populations. We studied small, constructed agricultural ponds in southeastern Minnesota to assess their value as amphibian breeding sites. Our study examined habitat factors associated with amphibian reproduction at two spatial scales: the pond and the landscape surrounding the pond. We found that small agricultural ponds in southeastern Minnesota provided breeding habitat for at least 10 species of amphibians. Species richness and multispecies reproductive success were more closely associated with characteristics of the pond (water quality, vegetation, and predators) compared with characteristics of the surrounding landscape, but individual species were associated with both pond and landscape variables. Ponds surrounded by row crops had similar species richness and reproductive success compared with natural wetlands and ponds surrounded by nongrazed pasture. Ponds used for watering livestock had elevated concentrations of phosphorus, higher turbidity, and a trend toward reduced amphibian reproductive success. Species richness was highest in small ponds, ponds with lower total nitrogen concentrations, tiger salamanders (Ambystoma tigrinum) present, and lacking fish. Multispecies reproductive success was best in ponds with lower total nitrogen concentrations, less emergent vegetation, and lacking fish. Habitat factors associated with higher reproductive success varied among individual species. We conclude that small, constructed farm ponds, properly managed, may help sustain amphibian populations in landscapes where natural wetland habitat is rare. We recommend management actions such as limiting livestock access to the pond to improve water quality, reducing nitrogen input, and

  10. The Little School Pond

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rawitscher-Kunkel, Erika

    1973-01-01

    A small pond in a schoolyard provided year-round biological activities for children. As seasons changed, concepts and life relations also changed. Besides microscopic organisms in water, children learned about microscopic algae, detritus, and food chains. Concepts of predator-prey relationships and of ecosystems were successfully developed. (PS)

  11. The Little School Pond

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rawitscher-Kunkel, Erika

    1973-01-01

    A small pond in a schoolyard provided year-round biological activities for children. As seasons changed, concepts and life relations also changed. Besides microscopic organisms in water, children learned about microscopic algae, detritus, and food chains. Concepts of predator-prey relationships and of ecosystems were successfully developed. (PS)

  12. Partitioned pond aquaculture systems

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    World aquaculture is dominated by the use of simple earthen ponds in which suitable water quality is maintained by photosynthetic processes. Relying upon sunlight to maintain water quality offers the lowest cost and most sustainable approach to fish or shellfish production, which explains the popula...

  13. Effect of carbon dioxide and ammonium removal on pH changes in polishing ponds.

    PubMed

    Cavalcanti, P F F; van Haandel, A; Lettinga, G

    2002-01-01

    If nutrient removal is to be obtained in ponds treating sewage, the pH must be raised so that ammonia can desorb and phosphates can precipitate. In this paper it is shown that the pH increase in ponds can be predicted quantitatively from simple stoichiometry, taking into consideration physical and biological carbon dioxide removal, ammonia stripping and calcium carbonate precipitation. Biological CO2 removal by photosynthesis is identified as the main process to effect pH increase in ponds. The rate of pH increase and consequently the required retention time depend on the net rate of CO2 consumption, the extent of ammonium stripping, the characteristics of the influent (alkalinity and pH) as well as factors concerning the environment (temperature) and dimensions (depth) of the pond. A high pH (range 9 to 10) can be obtained in about 5 days if digested sewage is used (low organic material concentration), climate conditions are favourable and the pond is shallow (< 0.5 m deep).

  14. Evidence for growth of enterococci in municipal oxidation ponds, obtained using antibiotic resistance analysis.

    PubMed

    Moriarty, Elaine; Nourozi, Fariba; Robson, Beth; Wood, David; Gilpin, Brent

    2008-12-01

    The Christchurch wastewater treatment plant uses a series of six oxidation ponds to reduce the bacterial load of treated effluent before it is discharged into the local estuary. To ensure that this discharge does not adversely affect water quality in the receiving environment, local regulations specify maximum levels in the discharge for a number of parameters, including enterococci. Between 2001 and 2006, regulations required fewer than 300 enterococci per 100 ml in summer. During this period, the discharge intermittently exceeded this limit, with unexplained levels of enterococci of up to 180,000/100 ml. Characterization of these enterococci by antibiotic resistance analysis showed that enterococci sampled over 4 months had almost identical resistance profiles. In contrast, enterococci from raw sewage and wildfowl from around the oxidation ponds had a diverse range of antibiotic resistance profiles that could be distinguished from each other and also from those of enterococci from the discharge. The hypothesis of a clonal nature of the enterococci in the discharge was supported by molecular genotype analysis, suggesting that these bacteria may have replicated in the pond environment rather than being reflective of breakthrough in the sewage treatment process or the result of recent wildfowl inputs to the ponds. This study highlights the usefulness of antibiotic resistance analysis in identifying this phenomenon and is the first report of apparent replication of a specific type of enterococci in an oxidation pond environment.

  15. Evidence for Growth of Enterococci in Municipal Oxidation Ponds, Obtained Using Antibiotic Resistance Analysis▿

    PubMed Central

    Moriarty, Elaine; Nourozi, Fariba; Robson, Beth; Wood, David; Gilpin, Brent

    2008-01-01

    The Christchurch wastewater treatment plant uses a series of six oxidation ponds to reduce the bacterial load of treated effluent before it is discharged into the local estuary. To ensure that this discharge does not adversely affect water quality in the receiving environment, local regulations specify maximum levels in the discharge for a number of parameters, including enterococci. Between 2001 and 2006, regulations required fewer than 300 enterococci per 100 ml in summer. During this period, the discharge intermittently exceeded this limit, with unexplained levels of enterococci of up to 180,000/100 ml. Characterization of these enterococci by antibiotic resistance analysis showed that enterococci sampled over 4 months had almost identical resistance profiles. In contrast, enterococci from raw sewage and wildfowl from around the oxidation ponds had a diverse range of antibiotic resistance profiles that could be distinguished from each other and also from those of enterococci from the discharge. The hypothesis of a clonal nature of the enterococci in the discharge was supported by molecular genotype analysis, suggesting that these bacteria may have replicated in the pond environment rather than being reflective of breakthrough in the sewage treatment process or the result of recent wildfowl inputs to the ponds. This study highlights the usefulness of antibiotic resistance analysis in identifying this phenomenon and is the first report of apparent replication of a specific type of enterococci in an oxidation pond environment. PMID:18836001

  16. Hybrid treatment systems--anaerobic ponds and trickling filters in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Broome, J M; Morris, P M; Nanthambwe, J G

    2003-01-01

    The most economic combination of unit treatment processes for a new sewage treatment works in Zimbabwe was found to be anaerobic ponds followed by trickling filters. The regulations governing irrigation with treated effluent permitted the omission of humus tanks or further treatment. Two stage anaerobic ponds are desludged by gravity through fixed sludge outlet pipework. Sludge is disposed of by irrigation of a Eucalyptus plantation. Novel features of the inlet works and pond outlets are also described. The works has functioned for eight years without major problems, but the assumption that humus tanks or settling ponds were not required may have been mistaken. The sludge removal system has worked well. Without the sludge pipework, it is estimated that desludging of the primary ponds would have been required after two years of operation, but they have now operated successfully for eight years. The combination of anaerobic ponds and trickling filters should be considered where land availability or site conditions make facultative ponds difficult or expensive to construct.

  17. Basic Sewage Treatment Operation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ontario Ministry of the Environment, Toronto.

    This manual was developed for use at workshops designed to introduce operators to the fundamentals of sewage plant operation. The course consists of lecture-discussions and hands-on activities. Each of the lessons has clearly stated behavioral objectives to tell the trainee what he should know or do after completing that topic. Areas covered in…

  18. Plumbing and Sewage Disposal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutliff, Ronald D.; And Others

    This self-study course is designed to familiarize Marine enlisted personnel with the principles of plumbing and sewage disposal used by Marine Hygiene Equipment Operators to perform their mission. The course contains three study units. Each study unit begins with a general objective, which is a statement of what the student should learn from the…

  19. Basic Sewage Treatment Operation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ontario Ministry of the Environment, Toronto.

    This manual was developed for use at workshops designed to introduce operators to the fundamentals of sewage plant operation. The course consists of lecture-discussions and hands-on activities. Each of the lessons has clearly stated behavioral objectives to tell the trainee what he should know or do after completing that topic. Areas covered in…

  20. Treatment efficacy of algae-based sewage treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Mahapatra, Durga Madhab; Chanakya, H N; Ramachandra, T V

    2013-09-01

    Lagoons have been traditionally used in India for decentralized treatment of domestic sewage. These are cost effective as they depend mainly on natural processes without any external energy inputs. This study focuses on the treatment efficiency of algae-based sewage treatment plant (STP) of 67.65 million liters per day (MLD) capacity considering the characteristics of domestic wastewater (sewage) and functioning of the treatment plant, while attempting to understand the role of algae in the treatment. STP performance was assessed by diurnal as well as periodic investigations of key water quality parameters and algal biota. STP with a residence time of 14.3 days perform moderately, which is evident from the removal of total chemical oxygen demand (COD) (60 %), filterable COD (50 %), total biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) (82 %), and filterable BOD (70 %) as sewage travels from the inlet to the outlet. Furthermore, nitrogen content showed sharp variations with total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) removal of 36 %; ammonium N (NH4-N) removal efficiency of 18 %, nitrate (NO3-N) removal efficiency of 22 %, and nitrite (NO2-N) removal efficiency of 57.8 %. The predominant algae are euglenoides (in facultative lagoons) and chlorophycean members (maturation ponds). The drastic decrease of particulates and suspended matter highlights heterotrophy of euglenoides in removing particulates.

  1. Microbiology of solar salt ponds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Javor, B.

    1985-01-01

    Solar salt ponds are shallow ponds of brines that range in salinity from that of normal seawater (3.4 percent) through NaCl saturation. Some salterns evaporate brines to the potash stage of concentration (bitterns). All the brines (except the bitterns, which are devoid of life) harbor high concentrations of microorganisms. The high concentrations of microorganisms and their adaptation to life in the salt pond are discussed.

  2. METAPOPULATION STRUCTURE AND DYNAMICS OF POND BREEDING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Our review indicates that pond breeding amphibians exhibit highly variable spatial and temporal population dynamics, such that no single generalized model can realistically describe these animals. We propose that consideration of breeding pond permanence, and adaptations to pond ...

  3. Schoolyard Ponds: Safety and Liability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danks, Sharon Gamson

    2001-01-01

    Engaging, attractive schoolyard ponds provide habitat for wildlife and hold great educational promise. Reviews water safety and liability issues including mud, stagnant pond water that serves as mosquito breeding grounds, and drowning. Offers ideas for creatively addressing those issues through site planning, shallow water depth, signage and…

  4. Schoolyard Ponds: Safety and Liability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danks, Sharon Gamson

    2001-01-01

    Engaging, attractive schoolyard ponds provide habitat for wildlife and hold great educational promise. Reviews water safety and liability issues including mud, stagnant pond water that serves as mosquito breeding grounds, and drowning. Offers ideas for creatively addressing those issues through site planning, shallow water depth, signage and…

  5. The Pond Is Our Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marchewka, Barbara Turco

    1978-01-01

    This science teacher's laboratory is a pond within walking distance of his school that provides a stimulating environment for exploring the natural world. With simple materials students practice making careful observations, taking measurements and compiling and graphing information for their science studies. They also extend their pond experiences…

  6. Sewage sludge treatment system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalvinskas, John J. (Inventor); Mueller, William A. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    Raw sewage may be presently treated by mixing screened raw sewage with activated carbon. The mixture is then allowed to stand in a first tank for a period required to settle the suspended matter to the bottom of the tank as a sludge. Thereafter, the remaining liquid is again mixed with activated carbon and the mixture is transferred to a secondary settling tank, where it is permitted to stand for a period required for the remaining floating material to settle as sludge and for adsorption of sewage carbon as well as other impurities to take place. The sludge from the bottom of both tanks is removed and pyrolyzed to form activated carbon and ash, which is mixed with the incoming raw sewage and also mixed with the liquid being transferred from the primary to the secondary settling tank. It has been found that the output obtained by the pyrolysis process contains an excess amount of ash. Removal of this excess amount of ash usually also results in removing an excess amount of carbon thereby requiring adding carbon to maintain the treatment process. By separately pyrolyzing the respective sludges from the first and second settling tanks, and returning the separately obtained pyrolyzed material to the respective first and second tanks from which they came, it has been found that the adverse effects of the excessive ash buildup is minimized, the carbon yield is increased, and the sludge from the secondary tank can be pyrolyzed into activated carbon to be used as indicated many more times than was done before exhaustion occurs.

  7. Detection of micronucleus and abnormal nucleus in erythrocytes from the gill and kidney of Labeo bata cultivated in sewage-fed fish farms.

    PubMed

    Talapatra, S N; Banerjee, S K

    2007-02-01

    Determination of genotoxic effect in fish, micronucleus test as well as the study of the abnormal shape of nuclei is a suitable measure, in which the presence or absence of genotoxins can be detected in water. In the present study, micronuclei and abnormal nuclei frequencies were scored in the gill and kidney erythrocytes of the fish Labeo bata grown in the sewage-fed fish farms of East Calcutta wetlands. Three experimental sites were chosen, namely, Bantala, Chowbaga and Chingrihata (basically these sites have sewage-fed fishponds), which were compared with fishponds of no sewage influence as the control area. Highly significant differences (P<0.001) were noticed for micronucleus frequencies in the gill and kidney erythrocytes of experimental fishes, where kidney erythrocytes showed an increased value than gill erythrocytes without any statistical differences. The frequencies of nuclear abnormalities such as necrotic cells, apoptotic cells, notch nucleated cells and binucleated cells were also counted separately for gill and kidney erythrocytes, in which significantly (P<0.001, P<0.01, P<0.05) increased values were obtained in comparison to control populations. These genotoxicity results confirmed that the sewage-fed ponds contain genotoxic metals such as Cr, Zn, Cu, Pb, Mn, Fe through wastewater and sludge because of the direct use of sewage water without pretreatment which may lead to health risks among humans through chronic consumption of fish from these experimental fish ponds. Other vertebrates grown in sewage-fed ponds may also suffer a certain amount of genotoxic substances.

  8. Phosphorus in a ground-water contaminant plume discharging to Ashumet Pond, Cape Cod, Massachusetts, 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCobb, Timothy D.; LeBlanc, Denis R.; Walter, Donald A.; Hess, Kathryn M.; Kent, Douglas B.; Smith, Richard L.

    2003-01-01

    The discharge of a plume of sewagecontaminated ground water emanating from the Massachusetts Military Reservation to Ashumet Pond on Cape Cod, Massachusetts, has caused concern about excessive loading of nutrients, particularly phosphorus, to the pond. The U.S. Air Force is considering remedial actions to mitigate potentially adverse effects on the ecological characteristics of the pond from continued phosphorus loading. Concentrations as great as 3 milligrams per liter of dissolved phosphorus (as P) are in ground water near the pond's shoreline; concentrations greater than 5 milligrams per liter of phosphorus are in ground water farther upgradient. Temporary drive-point wells were used to collect water samples from 2 feet below the pond bottom to delineate concentration distributions in the pore waters of the pond-bottom sediments. Measurements in the field of specific conductance and colorimetrically determined orthophosphate concentrations provided real-time data to guide the sampling. The contaminant plume discharges to the Fishermans Cove area of Ashumet Pond as evidenced by elevated levels of specific conductance and boron, which are chemically conservative indicators of the sewage-contaminated ground water. Concentrations of nonconservative species, such as dissolved phosphorus, manganese, nitrate, and ammonium, also were elevated above background levels in ground water discharging to the pond, but in spatially complex distributions that reflect their distributions in ground water upgradient of the pond. Phosphorus concentrations exceeded background levels (greater than 0.10 milligram per liter) in the pond-bottom pore water along 875 feet of shoreline. Greatest concentrations (greater than 2 milligrams per liter) occurred within 30 feet of the shore in an area about 225 feet long. Calculations of phosphorus flux in the aquifer upgradient of Ashumet Pond, as determined from water-flux estimates from a steady-state ground-water-flow model and phosphorus

  9. Removal of viruses from sewage, effluents, and waters

    PubMed Central

    Berg, Gerald

    1973-01-01

    All sewage and water treatment processes remove or destroy viruses. Some treatment methods are better than others, but none is likely to remove all of the viruses present in sewage or in raw water. Primary settling of solids probably removes a great many of the viruses in sewage because viruses are largely associated with the solids. Long storage of effluents or water is destructive to viruses. Activated sludge is the best biological method for removing viruses from sewage. Trickling filters and oxidation ponds are erratic, the latter probably because of short-circuiting. Coagulation with metal ions is the most effective single treatment method for removing viruses from sewage and from raw waters, according to laboratory studies at least. Lime is the best coagulant for these purposes in the rapidly virucidal high pH range. Polyelectrolytes also can sediment viruses. Rapid filtration through clean sand does not remove viruses, but filtration of coagulated effluents does, probably because the layering floc itself adsorbs viruses. Clays and carbon adsorb viruses to some extent, but the process is not efficient. Ultimately, disinfection should help to produce virus-free waters for drinking and virus-free effluents for discharge into waters with which man may come into contact. Because disinfection is not a simple matter, disinfectants must be selected according to need. Effluents and waters containing solids can probably be disinfected only by heat or by penetrating radiation, waters discharged into streams should not be disinfected with anything that will injure or kill aquatic life (unless the toxic products can be neutralized), and drinking-waters should carry a disinfecting residue. PMID:4607010

  10. Melt Pond Optics

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-27

    On July 6, 2011, Don Perovich, of Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory, used a spectroradiometer to measure the amount of sunlight reflected from the surface of ice and melt ponds in the Chukchi Sea. The ICESCAPE mission, or "Impacts of Climate on Ecosystems and Chemistry of the Arctic Pacific Environment," is a NASA shipborne investigation to study how changing conditions in the Arctic affect the ocean's chemistry and ecosystems. The bulk of the research took place in the Beaufort and Chukchi seas in summer 2010 and 2011. Credit: NASA/Kathryn Hansen NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  11. Sampling Melt Ponds

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-27

    On July 10, 2011, Jens Ehn of Scripps Institution of Oceanography (left), and Christie Wood of Clark University (right), scooped water from melt ponds on sea ice in the Chukchi Sea. The water was later analyzed from the Healy's onboard science lab. The ICESCAPE mission, or "Impacts of Climate on Ecosystems and Chemistry of the Arctic Pacific Environment," is a NASA shipborne investigation to study how changing conditions in the Arctic affect the ocean's chemistry and ecosystems. The bulk of the research took place in the Beaufort and Chukchi seas in summer 2010 and 2011. Credit: NASA/Kathryn Hansen NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  12. [Intensive methods of sewage treatment].

    PubMed

    Karpukhin, V F; Terent'eva, N A; Faĭngol'd, Z L

    1988-08-01

    The results of the study on intensive treatment of sewage are presented and the general approach to it is proposed. Formation of oxygen active forms in biological systems, their generation during physico-chemical treatment under definite conditions and interaction with organic substances provide higher purity levels in treatment of sewage.

  13. Sewage treatment method

    DOEpatents

    Fassbender, Alex G.

    1995-01-01

    The invention greatly reduces the amount of ammonia in sewage plant effluent. The process of the invention has three main steps. The first step is dewatering without first digesting, thereby producing a first ammonia-containing stream having a low concentration of ammonia, and a second solids-containing stream. The second step is sending the second solids-containing stream through a means for separating the solids from the liquid and producing an aqueous stream containing a high concentration of ammonia. The third step is removal of ammonia from the aqueous stream using a hydrothermal process.

  14. Prevalence and transmission of antimicrobial resistance among Aeromonas populations from a duckweed aquaculture based hospital sewage water recycling system in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Mokhlasur; Huys, Geert; Kühn, Inger; Rahman, Motiur; Möllby, Roland

    2009-10-01

    In order to investigate the influence of a duckweed aquaculture based hospital sewage water recycling plant on the prevalence and dissemination of antibiotic resistance, we made use of an existing collection of 1,315 Aeromonas isolates that were previously typed by the biochemical fingerprinting PhP-AE system. In these treatment plant, hospital raw sewage water is first collected in a settlement pond (referred to as sewage water in this study) and is then transferred to a lagoon, where the duckweed (Lemnaceae) is grown (referred to as lagoon). The duckweed is harvested and used as feed for the fish in a separate pond (referred to as fish pond). From this collection, representatives of 288 PhP types were subjected to antibiotic susceptibility testing for eight antimicrobials by broth microdilution method. The overall resistance rates among Aeromonas isolates from the treatment plant were highest for ampicillin (87%) and erythromycin (79%) followed by cephalothin (58%), nalidixic acid (52%), streptomycin (51%), tetracycline (31%), chloramphenicol (13%) and gentamicin (8%). A significantly lower prevalence of antibiotic resistance was found in Aeromonas from environmental control water, patient stool samples, duckweed and fish compared to sewage water isolates. The prevalence of resistance in the sewage water was not significantly reduced compared to the lagoon water and fish pond. Throughout the treatment system, the frequencies of resistant strains were found to diminish during the sewage water purification process, i.e. in the lagoon where sewage water is used to grow the duckweed. However, the frequency of resistant strains again increased in the fish pond where sewage grown duckweed is used for aquaculture. Among the selected isolates, two multiresistant clonal groups of Aeromonas caviae HG4 were identified that exhibited indistinguishable PhP and amplified fragment length polymorphism fingerprints and shared a common plasmid of approximately 5 kb

  15. Assessment of the waste stabilization pond performance, New Borg El-Arab City.

    PubMed

    Hussein, Rim A; El-Sebaie, Olfat D; El-Sharkawy, Fahmy M; Mahmoud, Aleya H; Ramadan, Mohamed H

    2005-01-01

    New Borg Al-Arab city includes 9 residential areas and 4 industrial zones. The four industrial zones are occupied by 266 running factories belonging to different industrial sectors. All the domestic sewage as well as the industrial wastewater is treated at an oxidation pond treatment plant and the plant effluent is used in irrigation of silviculture areas. The plant consists of 2 pond complexes. Each complex comprises 9 facultative ponds, arranged in 3 parallel series. Raw wastewater is pre-treated through screens and grit removal before entering the primary ponds. The study aims at assessment of the performance of the waste stabilization ponds. The results revealed that pre-treatment units were not functioning properly. The retention time was calculated to be 6 days in each pond of the first complex and 3 days in each pond of the second complex. The mean BOD surface loading rate was calculated to be 676 kg/ha/d for the first complex and 1584 kg/ha/d for the second. The plant was hydraulically and organically overloaded. The percentage removal of BOD, COD, SS, and NH3-N had an annual mean of 57%, 56%, 44%, and 39%, respectively for the first complex and 21%, 42%, 39%, and 25%, respectively for the second. Faecal coliforms were reduced by about 1 log10 unit in both complexes. The final pond effluent was not complying with the Egyptian law for reuse in irrigation. The study proposed some recommendations which can improve the efficiency of the plant as well as the effluent quality.

  16. Pond Ecology in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kneidl, Sally Stenhouse

    1993-01-01

    Describes activities with organisms from freshwater ponds and ditches. Several experiments involve predation, some involve habitat choices, and one addressees the role of sunlight in supporting plant-eating animals. (PR)

  17. Pond Ecology in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kneidl, Sally Stenhouse

    1993-01-01

    Describes activities with organisms from freshwater ponds and ditches. Several experiments involve predation, some involve habitat choices, and one addressees the role of sunlight in supporting plant-eating animals. (PR)

  18. Data report. The fate of human enteric viruses in a natural sewage recycling system

    SciTech Connect

    Vaughn, J.M.; Landry, E.F.

    1980-09-01

    A two-year study was conducted to determine the virus-removing capacity of two man-made ecosystems designed for the treatment of raw domestic wastewater. The first treatment system consisted of two meadows followed by a marsh-pond unit (M/M/P). The second system contained individual marsh and pond units (M/P). All systems demonstrated moderate virus removal, with the marsh/pond system yielding the most consistent removal rates. Within this system, the greater potential for virus removal appeared to occur in the marsh unit. In addition to the production of system-oriented data, improved techniques for the concentration and enumeration of human viruses from sewage-polluted aquatic systems were developed.

  19. Salton Sea solar pond project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    French, R. L.; Meitlis, I.

    1980-01-01

    The feasibility of constructing salt gradient solar ponds within the Salton Sea is being studied. These ponds would serve a dual purpose: (1) become a depository for unwanted salt and (2) supply thermal energy for driving turbine electric power systems. Under present circumstances, the rise in salinity is expected to eliminate fish life and create other unfavorable conditions. The proposed concept would have a power generation potential of 600 MWe.

  20. Stable Stratification for Solar Ponds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehta, G. D.

    1982-01-01

    Stable density gradient forms in pond saturated with disodium phosphate (DSP). Volume of DSP saturated water tends to develop temperature and density layers. Since tests indicate thermal and density gradients remain in equilibrium at heat removal rates of 60 percent or more of heat input rate, pond containing DSP would be suitable for collecting solar energy and transferring it to heat exchanger for practical use.

  1. Biogeochemical ecology of aquaculture ponds

    SciTech Connect

    Weisburd, R.S.J.

    1988-01-01

    Two methods to determine rates of organic matter production and consumption were applied in shrimp aquaculture ponds. Several questions were posed: can net rates of organic matter production and consumption be determined accurately through application of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) mass balance in a pond with high advective through-put Are organically loaded aquaculture ponds autotrophic How do rates of organic production vary temporally Are there diurnal changes in respiration rates Four marine ponds in Hawaii have been evaluated for a 53 day period through the use of geochemical mass balances. All fluxes of DIC into and out of the ponds were considered. DIC was calculated from hourly pH measurements and weekly alkalinity measurements. Average uptake of DIC from the pond water, equivalent to net community production, revealed net autotrophy in all cases. Hourly and longer period variations in organic matter production rates were examined. The daily cycle dominated the variation in rates of net community production. Maximal rates of net community production were maintained for four to six hours starting in mid-morning. Respiration rates decreased rapidly during the night in two of the ponds and remained essentially constant in the others. A similar pattern of decreasing respiration at night was seen in freshwater shrimp ponds which were studied with incubations. A new method involving isotope dilution of {sup 14}C-labeled DIC was used to measure respiration rates in light and dark bottles. This method is an inexpensive and convenient procedure which should also be useful in other environments. The incubations demonstrated that plankton respiration rates peak at or soon after solar noon and vary over the course of the day by about a factor of two.

  2. Performance evaluation and spatial sludge distribution at facultative and maturation ponds treating wastewater from an international airport.

    PubMed

    Passos, Ricardo Gomes; von Sperling, Marcos; Ribeiro, Thiago Bressani

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a performance evaluation of facultative and maturation ponds in series treating wastewater from a large and intensively used international airport in Brazil, based on 16 years of regular monitoring. The wastewater from the airport showed similar or slightly lower concentrations compared to typical domestic sewage for most of the quality parameters. The contribution of effluents with possible industrial features (aircraft toilets and hangar effluent) did not seem to have adversely affected the characteristics of the influent in terms of aptitude to biological treatment. Overall, the ponds operated under very underloaded conditions (mean loading rate of 44 kg biochemical oxygen demand/ha.d in the facultative pond) and presented a satisfactory quality in terms of effluent concentrations for most parameters. A bathymetric survey of the ponds was done manually by a low-cost measurer constructed specifically for this purpose. After 27 years of operation, only 25% and 18% of the volumes of the facultative and maturation ponds were occupied by sludge. Specific sludge accumulation rates were 0.0071 m³/passenger.year for the facultative pond and 0.00017 m³/passenger.year for the maturation pond.

  3. Evolution of plant colonization in acid and alkaline mine tailing ponds after amendments and microorganisms application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acosta, Jose Alberto; Faz, Ángel; Kabas, Sebla; Zornoza, Raúl; Martínez-Martínez, Silvia

    2014-05-01

    Intense mining activities in the past were carried out in Cartagena-La Unión mining district, SE Spain, and caused excessive accumulation of toxic metals in tailing ponds which poses a high environmental and ecological risk. One of the remediation options gaining considerable interest in recent years is the in situ immobilization of metals. A corresponding reduction in the plant-available metal fraction allows re-vegetation and ecosystem restoration of the heavily contaminated sites. In addition, the use of microorganisms to improve the soil condition is a new tool used to increase spontaneous plant colonization. The aim of this research was to assess the effect of amendments (pig manure, sewage sludge, and lime) and microorganisms on plant cover establishment, as a consequence of metal immobilization and the improvement of soil properties. The study was carried out in two mine ponds (acid and alkaline). Twenty seven square field plots, each one consisting of 4 m2, were located in each pond. Four different doses of microorganism (0 ml, 20 ml, 100 ml and 200 ml of microorganism solution in each plot) and one dose of pig manure (5 kg per plot), sewage sludge (4 kg per plot) and lime (22 kg per plot) were used. Organic amendment doses were calculated according to European nitrogen legislations, and lime dose was calculated according with the potential acid production through total sulphur oxidation. Three replicates of each treatment (organic amendment + lime + microorganism dose 0, 1, 2, or 3) and control soil (with no amendments) were carried out. Plots were left to the semi-arid climate conditions after the addition of amendments to simulate real potential applications of the results. Identification of plant species and biodiversity was determined on each plot, after 2, 4, 6 and 8 months of amendment addition. The results showed that, in those plots without application of microorganism, 8 months after applications the number of species and individuals of each

  4. Reactive-transport simulation of phosphorus in the sewage plume at the Massachusetts Military Reservation, Cape Cod, Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parkhurst, David L.; Stollenwerk, Kenneth G.; Colman, John A.

    2003-01-01

    The subsurface transport of phosphorus introduced by the disposal of treated sewage effluent to ground-infiltration disposal beds at the Massachusetts Military Reservation on western Cape Cod was simulated with a three-dimensional reactive-transport model. The simulations were used to estimate the load of phosphorus transported to Ashumet Pond during operation of the sewage-treatment plant?from 1936 to 1995?and for 60 years following cessation of sewage disposal. The model accounted for spatial and temporal changes in water discharge from the sewage-treatment plant, ground-water flow, transport of associated chemical constituents, and a set of chemical reactions, including phosphorus sorption on aquifer materials, dissolution and precipitation of iron- and manganese-oxyhydroxide and iron phosphate minerals, organic carbon sorption and decomposition, cation sorption, and irreversible denitrification. The flow and transport in the aquifer were simulated by using parameters consistent with those used in previous flow models of this area of Cape Cod, except that numerical dispersion was much larger than the physical dispersion estimated in previous studies. Sorption parameters were fit to data derived from phosphorus sorption and desorption laboratory column experiments. Rates of organic carbon decomposition were adjusted to match the location of iron concentrations in an anoxic iron zone within the sewage plume. The sensitivity of the simulated load of phosphorus transported to Ashumet Pond was calculated for a variety of processes and input parameters. Model limitations included large uncertainties associated with the loading of the sewage beds, the flow system, and the chemistry and sorption characteristics in the aquifer. The results of current model simulations indicate a small load of phosphorus transported to Ashumet Pond during 1965?85, but this small load was particularly sensitive to model parameters that specify flow conditions and the chemical process by

  5. Blogging from North Pond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marziali, C. G.; Edwards, K. J.

    2009-12-01

    Sea going research expeditions provide an ideal opportunity for outreach through blogs: the finite duration limits the author's commitment; scientists are usually in a remote location with fewer distractions; and fieldwork is visual and interesting to describe. Over four weeks this winter, Katrina Edwards of USC authored a blog about her deep-sea drilling expedition to North Pond, a depression in the ocean crust in the mid-Atlantic. She emailed daily dispatches and photos to USC Media Relations, which maintained a (still accessible) blog. Written for the general public, the blog quickly attracted interest from lay readers as well as from media organizations. Scientific American carried the blog on its web site, and the National Science Foundation linked to it in its "Science 360" electronic news digest. The blog also led to a Q&A with Edwards in the widely-read "Behind the Scenes" feature of LiveScience. Interest from science bloggers and National Geographic towards the end suggests that the blog could have expanded its reach given more time: expeditions lasting between six weeks and three months, such as occur during ocean drilling expeditions, would appear to be ideal candidates for a blog. Most importantly, the blog educated readers about the importance to planetary life of what Edwards calls the "intraterrestrials": the countless microbes that inhabit the oceanic crust and influence major chemical and biological cycles. Considering that the subjects of the expedition were invisible critters in a pitch-dark place, the blog shows what can be accomplished by scientists and institutions committed to public outreach.

  6. Solar Pond Fluid Dynamics and Heat Transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, G. F.

    1984-01-01

    The primary objective of the solar pond research was to obtain an indepth understanding of solar pond fluid dynamics and heat transfer. The key product was the development of a validated one-dimensional computer model with the capability to accurately predict time-dependent solar pond temperature, salinities, and interface motions. Laboratory scale flow visualization experiments were conducted to better understand layer motion. Two laboratory small-scale ponds and a large-scale outdoor solar pond were designed and built to provide quantitative data. This data provided a basis for validating the model and enhancing the understanding of pond dynamic behavior.

  7. The dissipation of phosphorus in sewage and sewage effluents.

    PubMed

    Collingwood, R W

    Of the 41 kt of phosphorus reaching the sewage works in England and Wales 15 kt is removed in sewage sludge and the remainder is disposed of to rivers. 60% of the sewage sludge is now used as fertilizer and this proportion will no doubt increase in the future. The total use of sewage sludge, however, represents only about 5% of the current annual usage of artificial phosphorus fertilizer. At present there is no general economic incentive to make better use of the phosphorus in effluents. Phosphorus removal is expensive--about 2--3 pence/m3. If all the sewage effluents in England and Wales were to be so treated the cost would be about 100--150 million pounds annually, that is about 50% of the present costs of sewage treatment. In certain cases, but rarely in the UK, phosphate is removed, not to conserve phosphorus but to minimize the problems it creates in the environment. The phosphorus removed has little value as fertilizer. Alternative methods of using the phosphorus in effluents by the production and harvesting of crops of algae or aquatic plants have so far proved uneconomic. However, these methods need to be reviewed periodically as they may in the future become economically more attractive, especially in warmer climates where plant growth can be maintained throughout the year.

  8. 216-B-3 expansion ponds closure plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-10-01

    This document describes the activities for clean closure under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) of the 216-B-3 Expansion Ponds. The 216-B-3 Expansion Ponds are operated by the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) and co-operated by Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford). The 216-B-3 Expansion Ponds consists of a series of three earthen, unlined, interconnected ponds that receive waste water from various 200 East Area operating facilities. The 3A, 3B, and 3C ponds are referred to as Expansion Ponds because they expanded the capability of the B Pond System. Waste water (primarily cooling water, steam condensate, and sanitary water) from various 200 East Area facilities is discharged to the Bypass pipe (Project X-009). Water discharged to the Bypass pipe flows directly into the 216-B-3C Pond. The ponds were operated in a cascade mode, where the Main Pond overflowed into the 3A Pond and the 3A Pond overflowed into the 3C Pond. The 3B Pond has not received waste water since May 1985; however, when in operation, the 3B Pond received overflow from the 3A Pond. In the past, waste water discharges to the Expansion Ponds had the potential to have contained mixed waste (radioactive waste and dangerous waste). The radioactive portion of mixed waste has been interpreted by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to be regulated under the Atomic Energy Act of 1954; the dangerous waste portion of mixed waste is regulated under RCRA.

  9. Biodiesel from wastewater: lipid production in high rate algal pond receiving disinfected effluent.

    PubMed

    Assemany, Paula Peixoto; Calijuri, Maria Lucia; do Couto, Eduardo de Aguiar; Santiago, Aníbal Fonseca; Dos Reis, Alberto José Delgado

    2015-01-01

    The production of different species of microalgae in consortium with other micro-organisms from wastewaters may represent an alternative process, to reduce the costs, for obtaining biofuels. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of pre-ultraviolet disinfection (UV) in the production of lipids from biomass produced in high rate ponds. Two high rate algal ponds were evaluated: a pond that received domestic sewage without disinfection and the other receiving domestic sewage previously disinfected by UV radiation (uvHRAP). The UV disinfection did not lead to significant differences in fatty acid profile and total lipid productivities, although it increased algal biomass concentration and productivity as well as lipid content. Moreover, the overall biomass concentrations and productivities decreased with the UV disinfection, mostly as a consequence of a loss in bacterial load. We thus conclude that uvHRAP disinfection may represent a potential strategy to promote the cleaner and safer growth of algal biomass when cultivated in consortium with other micro-organisms. Mainly regarding the use of wastewater as culture medium, together with a cheaper production of lipids for biodiesel, pre-disinfection may represent an advance since extraction costs could be significantly trimmed due to the increase in lipid content.

  10. Simulated pond-aquifer interactions under natural and stressed conditions near Snake Pond, Cape Cod, Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walter, Donald A.; Masterson, John P.; LeBlanc, Denis R.

    2002-01-01

    A numerical model was used to simulate pond-aquifer interactions under natural and stressed conditions near Snake Pond, Cape Cod, Massachusetts. Simulation results show that pond-bottom hydraulic conductivity, which represents the degree of hydraulic connection between the pond and the aquifer, is an important control on these interactions. As this parameter was incrementally increased from 10 to 350 feet per day, the rate of ground-water inflow into the pond under natural conditions increased by about 250 percent, the associated residence times of water in the pond decreased by about 50 percent, and ground-water inflow to the pond shifted closer to the pond shore. Most ground-water inflow (90 to 98 percent) was in the upper model layer, which corresponded to shallow, near-shore areas of the pond, over the entire range of pond-bottom hydraulic conductivity. Ground-water flow paths into the pond became more vertical, the contributing area to the pond became larger, and the pond captured water from greater depths in the aquifer as the hydraulic conductivity of the pond bottom was increased. The pond level, however, remained nearly constant, and regional ground-water levels and gradients differed little over the range of pond-bottom hydraulic conductivity, indicating that calibrated models with similar head solutions can have different pond-aquifer interaction characteristics. Hydrologic stresses caused by a simulated plume-containment system that specifies the extraction and injection of large volumes of ground water near the pond increased the pond level by about 0.4 foot and ground-water inflow rates into the pond by about 25 percent. Several factors related to the operation of the simulated containment system are affected by the hydraulic conductivity of the pond bottom. With increasing pond-bottom hydraulic conductivity, the amount of injected water that flows into Snake Pond increased and the amount of water recirculated between extraction and injection wells

  11. Preliminary design of sedimentation ponds

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, L.C.; Wayland, L.D.

    1982-12-01

    Almost one-hundred sedimentation ponds were conceptually designed for a large surface mining study are in northeast Texas. An approximate procedure was developed to economically estimate construction quantities in order to predict surface water control costs. This procedure utilized site-specific empirical relationships developed from detailed analyses on a representative number of proposed sedimentation ponds. Use of these equations provided earthwork volumes, and spillway pipe lengths. The procedure developed for this study is presented along with the results of a verification analysis.

  12. Lagoons and oxidation ponds. [Wastewater treatment

    SciTech Connect

    George, D.B.

    1982-06-01

    A review of the literature on waste stabilization pond systems is presented. Factors such as wastewater temperature, and levels of heavy metals that affect the stability of the lagoons and oxidation ponds, and methods to upgrade stabilization pond effluent to meet state and federal effluent requirements are discussed. Model simulations utilized to predict the treatment efficiency of various waste stabilization pond geometries, and inlet and outlet configurations are reviewed. (KRM)

  13. Environmental Projects. Volume 8: Modifications of wastewater evaporation ponds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex (GDSCC), located in the Mojave Desert about 45 miles north of Barstow, California, and about 160 miles northeast of Pasadena, is part of NASA's Deep Space Network, one of the world's largest and most sensitive scientific telecommunications and radio navigation networks. The Goldstone Complex is managed, technically directed, and operated for NASA by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, California. Activities at the GDSCC are carried out in support of seven parabolic dish antennas. These activities may give rise to environmental hazards: use of hazardous chemicals, asbestos, and underground storage tanks as well as the generation of hazardous wastes and the disposal of wastewater. Federal, state, and local laws governing the management of hazardous substances, asbestos, underground storage tanks and wastewater disposal have become so complex there is a need to devise specific programs to comply with the many regulations that implement these laws. In support of the national goal of the preservation of the environment and the protection of human health and safety, NASA, JPL, and the GDSCC have adopted a position that their operating installations shall maintain a high level of compliance with these laws. One of the environmental problems at the GDSCC involved four active, operational, wastewater evaporation ponds designed to receive and evaporate sewage effluent from upstream septic tank systems. One pair of active wastewater evaporation ponds is located at Echo Site, while another operational pair is at Mars Site.

  14. Distance Education of Pennsylvania Pond Owners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Katherine L.; Swistock, Bryan R.; Sharpe, William E.

    2003-01-01

    Evaluations by 175 of 557 Pennsylvania pond owners who attended an Extension program via satellite revealed that most were interested in aesthetic/recreational pond use and pond management. They wanted more in-depth information over a shorter time frame. Only 10% did not favor satellite delivery. Shorter, more focused satellite programs and…

  15. 33 CFR 117.600 - Lagoon Pond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Lagoon Pond. 117.600 Section 117.600 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Massachusetts § 117.600 Lagoon Pond. The draw of the Lagoon Pond...

  16. 33 CFR 117.600 - Lagoon Pond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lagoon Pond. 117.600 Section 117.600 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Massachusetts § 117.600 Lagoon Pond. The draw of the Lagoon Pond...

  17. 33 CFR 117.600 - Lagoon Pond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Lagoon Pond. 117.600 Section 117.600 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Massachusetts § 117.600 Lagoon Pond. The draw of the Lagoon Pond...

  18. 33 CFR 117.600 - Lagoon Pond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Lagoon Pond. 117.600 Section 117.600 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Massachusetts § 117.600 Lagoon Pond. The draw of the Lagoon Pond...

  19. 33 CFR 117.600 - Lagoon Pond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Lagoon Pond. 117.600 Section 117.600 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Massachusetts § 117.600 Lagoon Pond. The draw of the Lagoon Pond...

  20. Distance Education of Pennsylvania Pond Owners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Katherine L.; Swistock, Bryan R.; Sharpe, William E.

    2003-01-01

    Evaluations by 175 of 557 Pennsylvania pond owners who attended an Extension program via satellite revealed that most were interested in aesthetic/recreational pond use and pond management. They wanted more in-depth information over a shorter time frame. Only 10% did not favor satellite delivery. Shorter, more focused satellite programs and…

  1. Stabilization Pond Operation and Maintenance Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sexauer, Willard N.; Karn, Roger V.

    This manual provides the waste stabilization pond operator with the basics necessary for the treatment of wastewater in stabilization ponds. The material is organized as a comprehensive guide that follows the normal operation and maintenance procedures from the time the wastewater enters the left station until it leaves the pond. A comprehensive…

  2. Stabilization Pond Operation and Maintenance Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sexauer, Willard N.; Karn, Roger V.

    This manual provides the waste stabilization pond operator with the basics necessary for the treatment of wastewater in stabilization ponds. The material is organized as a comprehensive guide that follows the normal operation and maintenance procedures from the time the wastewater enters the left station until it leaves the pond. A comprehensive…

  3. Nitrogen Removal in Wastewater Ponds,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-06-01

    by convection to the interaction between the algae and the CO,/ and radiation. Eckenfelder ’ developed the follow- alkalinity system in the pond. If...Pollu- 4. Eckenfelder , W.W. (1966) Industrial Water tion Control Federation, 54(4): 344. Pollution Control. New York: McGraw-Hill. 19. Porcella, D.B., P.H

  4. BLDG. - MISC - VIEW ACROSS POND

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1965-08-01

    S65-41769 (1965) --- View of facilities at the Manned Spacecraft Center, Houston, Texas. Photo is taken from across the fish pond. NOTE: The Manned Spacecraft Center was named Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center in memory of the late President following his death.

  5. How Healthy Is Our Pond?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterling, Donna R.; Hargrove, Dori L.

    2014-01-01

    With crosscutting concepts such as stability and change in the "Next Generation Science Standards," this article was written for those who have wondered how to teach these concepts in a way that is relevant to students. In this investigation, students ask the question, "Why is the pond dirty?" As students investigate the health…

  6. How Healthy Is Our Pond?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterling, Donna R.; Hargrove, Dori L.

    2014-01-01

    With crosscutting concepts such as stability and change in the "Next Generation Science Standards," this article was written for those who have wondered how to teach these concepts in a way that is relevant to students. In this investigation, students ask the question, "Why is the pond dirty?" As students investigate the health…

  7. Studies on potential biological control agents of immature mosquitoes in sewage wastewater in southern California.

    PubMed

    Mian, L S; Mulla, M S; Wilson, B A

    1986-09-01

    Three biological control agents, a copepod, Mesocyclops leuckarti pilosa, and two fish, Cyprinodon macularius and Poecilia reticulata, were evaluated for their survival in secondary sewage effluent (SSE) and predation potential on mosquito larvae. Results showed that the survival of M. l. pilosa was not significantly affected in SSE or SSE diluted (50%) with water. In predation tests, the copepod consumed from 50 to 90% of the 1st-instar larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus in 24 to 72 hr and P. reticulata fed on almost all stages (egg to pupa) of the test mosquitoes. Survivorship of P. reticulata and C. macularius in SSE was not significantly affected by SSE under both greenhouse and sewage aquaculture conditions. Poecilia reticulata was distributed towards the influent end and C. macularius towards the effluent end of the aquaculture ponds, indicating the former species can tolerate higher levels of pollution which exists at the influent end of the pond. However, low water temperature and dissolved oxygen may be detrimental to these fish species in sewage aquacultural systems.

  8. Behaviour of pharmaceuticals and endocrine disrupting chemicals in simplified sewage treatment systems.

    PubMed

    Brandt, Emanuel M F; de Queiroz, Fernanda B; Afonso, Robson J C F; Aquino, Sérgio F; Chernicharo, Carlos A L

    2013-10-15

    This work assessed the behaviour of nine pharmaceuticals and/or endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in demo-scale upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactors (UASB reactors) coupled to distinct simplified post-treatment units (submerged bed, polishing ponds, and trickling filters) fed on raw sewage taken from a municipality in Brazil. The dissolved concentration of the studied micropollutants in the raw and treated sewage was obtained using solid phase extraction (SPE) followed by analysis in a liquid chromatography system coupled to a hybrid high resolution mass spectrometer consisting of an ion-trap and time of flight (LC-MS-IT-TOF). The UASB reactors demonstrated that they were not appropriate for efficiently removing the assessed compounds from the sewage. Furthermore, this study demonstrated that the hydraulic retention time (HRT) was an important parameter for the removal of the hydrophilic and less biodegradable compounds, such as trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole. The post-treatment units substantially increased the removal of most target micropollutants present in the anaerobic effluents, with a greater removal of micropollutants in simplified systems that require a large construction area, such as the submerged bed and polishing ponds, probably because of the higher HRT employed. Alternatively, compact post-treatment systems, such as trickling filters, tended to be less effective at removing most of the micropollutants studied, and the type of packing proved to be crucial for determining the fate of such compounds using trickling filters. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Efficiency evaluation of sewage treatment plants with different technologies in Delhi (India).

    PubMed

    Jamwal, Priyanka; Mittal, Atul K; Mouchel, Jean-Marie

    2009-06-01

    Physical, chemical and microbiological efficiencies of Sewage Treatment Plants (STPs) located in Delhi's watershed in context of different treatment technologies employed in these plants have been determined. There were in all seventeen STPs treating domestic wastewater which were studied over a period of 12 months. These STPs were based on Conventional Activated sludge process (ASP), Extended aeration (Ex. Aeration), physical, chemical and biological removal treatment (BIOFORE) and oxidation pond treatment process. Results suggests that except "Mehrauli" STP which was based on Extended aeration process and "Oxidation pond", effluents from all other STPs exceeded FC standard of 10(3) MPN/100 ml for unrestricted irrigation criteria set by National river conservation directorate (NRCD). Actual integrated efficiency (IE(a)) of each STP was evaluated and compared with the standard integrated efficiency (IE(s)) based upon physical, biological and microbiological removal efficiencies depending upon influent sewage characteristics. The best results were obtained for STPs employing extended aeration, BIOFORE and oxidation pond treatment process thus can be safely used for irrigation purposes.

  10. Oxidation pond for municipal wastewater treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, Erick; Hung, Yung-Tse; Suleiman Al Ahmad, Mohammed; Yeh, Ruth Yu-Li; Liu, Robert Lian-Huey; Fu, Yen-Pei

    2017-03-01

    This literature review examines process, design, and cost issues related to using oxidation ponds for wastewater treatment. Many of the topics have applications at either full scale or in isolation for laboratory analysis. Oxidation ponds have many advantages. The oxidation pond treatment process is natural, because it uses microorganisms such as bacteria and algae. This makes the method of treatment cost-effective in terms of its construction, maintenance, and energy requirements. Oxidation ponds are also productive, because it generates effluent that can be used for other applications. Finally, oxidation ponds can be considered a sustainable method for treatment of wastewater.

  11. 33 CFR 159.307 - Untreated sewage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Discharge of Effluents in Certain Alaskan Waters by Cruise Vessel Operations § 159.307 Untreated sewage. No person shall discharge any untreated sewage from a cruise...

  12. 33 CFR 159.307 - Untreated sewage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Discharge of Effluents in Certain Alaskan Waters by Cruise Vessel Operations § 159.307 Untreated sewage. No person shall discharge any untreated sewage from a cruise...

  13. Sewage sludge gasification: First studies

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia-Bacaicoa, P.; Bilbao, R.; Uson, C.

    1995-11-01

    Wastewater treatment installations produce a large quantity of sewage sludge, the disposal and treatment of which causes several problems because of its volume, its toxic organic constituents and the heavy metals that it contains. Certain methods of treatment and disposal do exist, but they are not entirely satisfactory. Moreover, it is important to develop a technology for the adequate treatment of sewage sludge in order to reduce the environmental problem and the costs of treatment. It can be assumed that gasification is a suitable technology because it reduces the waste volume, destroys the toxic organic compounds and fixes the heavy metals in the resultant solid. In order to gain knowledge of the processes occurring in the gasifier, the results obtained in experiments on the thermal decomposition of sewage sludge at different heating rates are shown.

  14. Effect of duckweed cover on greenhouse gas emissions and odour release from waste stabilisation ponds.

    PubMed

    van der Steen, N P; Nakiboneka, P; Mangalika, L; Ferrer, A V M; Gijzen, H J

    2003-01-01

    Treatment of wastewater in stabilisation pond systems prevents the negative environmental impact of uncontrolled disposal of sewage. However, even a natural treatment system may generate secondary negative environmental impacts in terms of energy consumption, emission of greenhouse gases and emission of odorous compounds. Whereas natural systems have an advantage over electro-mechanical systems in that they use less hardware and less energy, it is not yet known whether secondary environmental effects in the form of greenhouse gas emissions are lower for these systems. This research intends to be a first step in the direction of answering this question by assessing gas emissions from two types of natural systems, namely algae-based and duckweed-based stabilisation ponds. The H2S volatilisation from laboratory scale pond-reactors has been determined by drawing the air above the water surface continuously through a solution of 1 M NaOH for absorption of sulphide. The amount of H2S that volatilised from the algae pond-reactor, and was trapped in the NaOH trap, was found to be 2.5-86 mg/m2/day. The H2S volatilisation from the duckweed pond-reactor was found to be negligible, even though the sulphide concentration was 9.7 mg/l S(2-). The duckweed cover was a physical barrier for volatilisation, since bubbles were trapped in the cover. In addition the duckweed layer was found to be afavourable environment for both aerobic sulphide oxidisers (Beggiatoa gigantae) as well as for photosynthetic purple sulphur bacteria belonging to the genus Chromatium. These may also have contributed to the prevention of H2S volatilisation. Results on methane emissions were not conclusive so far, but the same mechanisms that prevent H2S volatilisation may also prevent methane volatilisation. Therefore it was concluded that duckweed covers on stabilisation ponds may reduce the emission of both odorous and greenhouse gases.

  15. Suitability of constructed wetlands and waste stabilisation ponds in wastewater treatment: nitrogen transformation and removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senzia, M. A.; Mashauri, D. A.; Mayo, A. W.

    It is estimated that 90% of sewage in cities in developing countries are today discharged untreated into water bodies. In Tanzania, pollution of rivers such as Karanga, Njoro and Rao in Moshi; Mirongo in Mwanza and Themi in Arusha is the cause of frequent disease outbreaks in communities downstreams. Solutions to effluent crisis can be found by its proper treatment and disposal. The principal objective of wastewater treatment is to allow effluents to be disposed without danger to human health or unacceptable damage to the ecology of receiving water bodies. Field investigations were made on pilot scale horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands (CW) units located downstream of waste stabilisation ponds (WSP). Six units filled with gravel of 6-25 mm diameters in equal proportion, which gave an initial hydraulic conductivity of 86 m/d were used. While four units covering surface area of 40.7 m 2 each, were located downstream of primary facultative pond, the other two units with surface area 15.9 m 2 each were located downstream of maturation pond. An attempt was made to compare the output of mathematical models for Phragmites and Typha macrophytes located downstream of primary facultative pond. Based on total inflow nitrogen of 1.457 gN/m 2 d, while Phragmites has shown a removal of 54%, Typha had a removal of 44.2%. Furthermore, while the system downstream of primary facultative pond has accretion as a major pathway, accounting for 19.1% of inflow nitrogen, the system downstream of maturation pond has denitrification as its major removal mechanism accounting for 20.5%. In this paper, a comparison of land required by CW and WSP based on the amount of water to be treated is made.

  16. Ground-water quality near a sewage-sludge recycling site and a landfill near Denver, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robson, Stanley G.

    1977-01-01

    The Metropolitan Denver Sewage Disposal District and the city and county of Denver operate a sewage-sludge recycling site and a landfill in an area about 15 miles (24 kilometers) east of Denver. The assessment of the effects of these facilities on the ground-water system indicated that five wells perforated in alluvium were found to have markedly degradedd water quality. One well is located in the landfill and water that was analyzed was obtained from near the base of the buried refuse, two others are located downgradient and near sewage-sludge burial areas, and the remaining two are located near stagnant surface ponds. Concentrations of nitrate in wells downgradient from fields where sludge is plowed into the soil were higher than background concentrations due to the effects of the sludge disposal. No evidence of water-quality degradation was detected in deeper wells perforated in the bedrock formations. (Woodard-USGS)

  17. POND MOUNTAIN AND POND MOUNTAIN ADDITION ROADLESS AREAS, TENNESSEE.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Griffitts, W.R.; Bitar, Richard

    1984-01-01

    As a result of a mineral study of the Pond Mountain Roadless Areas, Tennessee, a probable potential for the occurrence of tin, niobium, and tungsten resource with associated beryllium, molybdenum, zinc, and fluorite was identified in rocks of Precambrian age particularly in the southeastern part of the area. Detailed geologic mapping and geochemical sampling of the soils and rocks in the area of Precambrian rocks is recommended to identify and delimit the areas of potential resources of tin, niobium, and tungsten.

  18. Nitrogen mass balance across pilot-scale algae and duckweed-based wastewater stabilisation ponds.

    PubMed

    Zimmo, O R; van der Steen, N P; Gijzen, H J

    2004-02-01

    Nitrogen removal processes and nitrogen mass balances in algae-based ponds (ABPs) and duckweed (Lemna gibba)-based ponds (DBPs) were assessed during periods of 4 months, each under different operational conditions. During periods 1 and 2, the effect of cold and warm temperature was studied. During periods 2 and 3, the effect of low- and high-system organic loading (OL) was studied in warm seasons operation. The pilot-scale systems consisted of four similar ponds in series fed with domestic sewage with hydraulic retention time of 7 days in each pond. Overall nitrogen removal was higher during warm temperature in both ABPs and DBPs, but similar during periods 2 and 3. Nitrogen removal in DBPs was lower than in ABPs by 20%, 12% and 8% during cold temperature, warm temperature and high-OL periods, respectively. Depending on temperature and OL rate, ABPs showed higher nitrogen removal via sedimentation (46-245% higher) compared to DBPs. Also, ABPs also showed higher nitrogen removal via denitrification (7-37% higher) compared to DBPs. Ammonia volatilisation in both systems did not exceed 1.1% of influent total nitrogen during the entire experimental period. N uptake by duckweed corresponds to 30% of the influent nitrogen during warm/low OL period and decreased to 10% and 19% during the cold and warm/high OL period, respectively. Predictive models for nitrogen removal presented a good reflection of nitrogen fluxes on overall nitrogen balance under the prevailing experimental conditions.

  19. THE MEASURES PAR PROJECT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frouin, R. J.; Franz, B.

    2009-12-01

    The solar energy available for photosynthesis, known as PAR, controls the growth of phytoplankton and, therefore, regulates the composition and evolution of marine ecosystems. Knowing the spatial and temporal distribution of PAR over the oceans is critical to understanding biogeochemical cycles of carbon, nutrients, and oxygen, and to address important climate and global change issues such as the fate of anthropogenic atmospheric carbon dioxide. In view of this, a 12-year time series of PAR at the ocean surface, starting in September 1997, is being produced by the NASA Ocean Biology Processing Group from SeaWiFS, MODIS-Terra, and MODIS-Aqua data. The product covers the global oceans, with a spatial resolution of about 9.3x9.3 km (equal area grid) and a temporal resolution of one day. PAR is computed as the difference between the 400-700 nm solar flux incident on the top of the atmosphere (known) and reflected back to space by the atmosphere and surface (derived from satellite radiance), taking into account atmospheric absorption (modeled). Knowledge of pixel composition is not required, eliminating the need for cloud screening and arbitrary assumptions about sub-pixel cloudiness. Combining data from satellite sensors with different equatorial crossing times accounts for the diurnal variability of clouds and, therefore, increases accuracy on a daily time scale. The processing system, including routine check of accuracy and control of quality, is designed to operate during the entire lifetime of SeaWiFS and MODIS, and to accommodate future sensors with ocean-color capabilities. Maps of daily, weekly, and monthly PAR obtained from individual sensors are presented, as well as merged products. Accuracy is quantified in comparisons with other satellite estimates, the National Centers for Environmental Prediction reanalysis product, and in-situ measurements from fixed buoys and platforms. The good statistical performance makes the satellite PAR product suitable for large

  20. Effects of pond draining on biodiversity and water quality of farm ponds.

    PubMed

    Usio, Nisikawa; Imada, Miho; Nakagawa, Megumi; Akasaka, Munemitsu; Takamura, Noriko

    2013-12-01

    Farm ponds have high conservation value because they contribute significantly to regional biodiversity and ecosystem services. In Japan pond draining is a traditional management method that is widely believed to improve water quality and eradicate invasive fish. In addition, fishing by means of pond draining has significant cultural value for local people, serving as a social event. However, there is a widespread belief that pond draining reduces freshwater biodiversity through the extirpation of aquatic animals, but scientific evaluation of the effectiveness of pond draining is lacking. We conducted a large-scale field study to evaluate the effects of pond draining on invasive animal control, water quality, and aquatic biodiversity relative to different pond-management practices, pond physicochemistry, and surrounding land use. The results of boosted regression-tree models and analyses of similarity showed that pond draining had little effect on invasive fish control, water quality, or aquatic biodiversity. Draining even facilitated the colonization of farm ponds by invasive red swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarkii), which in turn may have detrimental effects on the biodiversity and water quality of farm ponds. Our results highlight the need for reconsidering current pond management and developing management plans with respect to multifunctionality of such ponds. Efectos del Drenado de Estanques sobre la Biodiversidad y la Calidad del Agua en Estanques de Cultivo.

  1. Review of SERI solar pond work

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zangrando, F.; Johnson, D. H.

    1985-07-01

    This report provides documentation of SERI's solar pond research effort, which began in 1979. The SERI staff analyzed solar pond topics from modeling and feasibility studies to laboratory experiments on physical properties and hydrodynamical stability. The SERI's perspective on the maturity of this solar technology is described, including the technical state-of-the-art of salt-gradient solar ponds, state of knowledge of pond design, estimated cost ranges for various locations and applications, and perceived barriers to commercial development. Recommendations for future work are also presented. The SERI research and development on solar ponds is described, emphasizing analytical and experimental tools developed at SERI. All AERI and subcontract reports dealing with solar ponds or related system components are summarized, and a bibliography is provided.

  2. South Bay Salt Pond Tidal Marsh Restoration at Pond A17 Project

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Information about the SFBWQP South Bay Salt Pond Tidal Marsh Restoration at Pond A17 Project, part of an EPA competitive grant program to improve SF Bay water quality focused on restoring impaired waters and enhancing aquatic resources.

  3. The Salt-Gradient Solar Pond.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-02-01

    3.1.1.2 Radiation effects ........ ... 15 3.3.2 Concentration measurements .......... . 16 4. THE NUMERICAL MODEL ...... ................. ... 17 - -Maw...fraction of radiation which is absorbed in a small distance, 6, of solution (non-dimensional) I h irradiance at a given pond depth [=1 W/m 2 I s...simulate solar radiation . -2- Wilkins and Pinder have reported work done on a small- scale solar pond model (Ref. 3). The pond they used had surface

  4. Variations in BOD, algal biomass and organic matter biodegradation constants in a wind-mixed tropical facultative waste stabilization pond.

    PubMed

    Meneses, C G R; Saraiva, L B; Melo, H N de S; de Melo, J L S; Pearson, H W

    2005-01-01

    This study considered the impact of wind mixing on the efficiency of BOD removal and the first order biodegradation constant for organic matter in a primary facultative pond. Wind speeds of 1-4 m/s blowing from the effluent end of the pond towards the influent created surface-water flows of up to 0.94 m/s as determined by orange and coconut drogues moving in the opposite direction to the bulk hydraulic flow of 0.217 m/s. This was sufficient to cause mixing of the water column resulting in loss of stratification in terms of chlorophyll a, temperature and dissolved oxygen. BOD and chlorophyll a concentrations were spatially and temporally homogeneous throughout this large pond. BOD removal efficiency was only 50.30% as opposed to a projected value of 79% despite an acceptable surface organic loading of 350 kgBOD5/ha/d and an actual k value for BOD removal using influent sewage samples of 0.29 d-1 close to the projected value of 0.30 d-1. It would seem that wind mixing reduced pond efficiency by destroying stratification and thus reducing the microbial activity necessary to consume organic material. Mixing also increased the mean chlorophyll a concentration compared to stratified facultative ponds receiving similar loads and non-motile algae dominated the water column.

  5. Review of SERI Solar Pond Work

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zangrando, F.; Johnson, D. H.

    1984-01-01

    Development of models of pond thermal performance; analysis of solar pond use for building space heat and hot water production; use of low-temperature pond-produced heat for industrial processes, desalination, and electricity production; development of direct-contact heat exchanger to reduce conversion equipment cost; determination of effects of extracted heat and mass from the storage layer on pond performance; and investigation of factors which determine gradient layer stability and the stability of this interface between this level and the upper and lower convecting layers were described.

  6. Review of SERI Solar Pond Work

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zangrando, F.; Johnson, D. H.

    1984-01-01

    Development of models of pond thermal performance; analysis of solar pond use for building space heat and hot water production; use of low-temperature pond-produced heat for industrial processes, desalination, and electricity production; development of direct-contact heat exchanger to reduce conversion equipment cost; determination of effects of extracted heat and mass from the storage layer on pond performance; and investigation of factors which determine gradient layer stability and the stability of this interface between this level and the upper and lower convecting layers were described.

  7. La pelade par plaques

    PubMed Central

    Spano, Frank; Donovan, Jeff C.

    2015-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Présenter aux médecins de famille des renseignements de base pour faire comprendre l’épidémiologie, la pathogenèse, l’histologie et l’approche clinique au diagnostic de la pelade par plaques. Sources des données Une recension a été effectuée dans PubMed pour trouver des articles pertinents concernant la pathogenèse, le diagnostic et le pronostic de la pelade par plaques. Message principal La pelade par plaques est une forme de perte pileuse auto-immune dont la prévalence durant une vie est d’environ 2 %. Des antécédents personnels ou familiaux de troubles auto-immuns concomitants, comme le vitiligo ou une maladie de la thyroïde, peuvent être observés dans un petit sous-groupe de patients. Le diagnostic peut souvent être posé de manière clinique en se fondant sur la perte de cheveux non cicatricielle et circulaire caractéristique, accompagnée de cheveux en « point d’exclamation » en périphérie chez ceux dont le problème en est aux premiers stades. Le diagnostic des cas plus complexes ou des présentations inhabituelles peut être facilité par une biopsie et un examen histologique. Le pronostic varie largement et de mauvais résultats sont associés à une apparition à un âge précoce, une perte importante, la variante ophiasis, des changements aux ongles, des antécédents familiaux ou des troubles auto-immuns concomitants. Conclusion La pelade par plaques est une forme auto-immune de perte de cheveux périodiquement observée en soins primaires. Les médecins de famille sont bien placés pour identifier la pelade par plaques, déterminer la gravité de la maladie et poser le diagnostic différentiel approprié. De plus, ils sont en mesure de renseigner leurs patients à propos de l’évolution clinique de la maladie ainsi que du pronostic général selon le sous-type de patients.

  8. Digital Discover of Ephemeral Ponds

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-01

    ER D C/ CE RL T R - 12 -2 1 Center Directed Research Program Digital Discover of Ephemeral Ponds En gi ne er R es ea rc h an d D ev el...r.mapcalc formula : r.terraflow lidar_elev filled=elev_filled \\ accum=elev_accum memory=2000 \\ dir=elev_dir swater=elev_sink tci =elev_tci...J. D., M. Shapiro, W. D. Goran, and D. P. Gerdes. 1992. Geographic Resources Analysis Support System (GRASS) Version 4.0 User’s Reference Manual . N

  9. Assessing Chemical Retention Process Controls in Ponds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torgersen, T.; Branco, B.; John, B.

    2002-05-01

    Small ponds are a ubiquitous component of the landscape and have earned a reputation as effective chemical retention devices. The most common characterization of pond chemical retention is the retention coefficient, Ri= ([Ci]inflow-[Ci] outflow)/[Ci]inflow. However, this parameter varies widely in one pond with time and among ponds. We have re-evaluated literature reported (Borden et al., 1998) monthly average retention coefficients for two ponds in North Carolina. Employing a simple first order model that includes water residence time, the first order process responsible for species removal have been separated from the water residence time over which it acts. Assuming the rate constant for species removal is constant within the pond (arguable at least), the annual average rate constant for species removal is generated. Using the annual mean rate constant for species removal and monthly water residence times results in a significantly enhanced predictive capability for Davis Pond during most months of the year. Predictive ability remains poor in Davis Pond during winter/unstratified periods when internal loading of P and N results in low to negative chemical retention. Predictive ability for Piedmont Pond (which has numerous negative chemical retention periods) is improved but not to the same extent as Davis Pond. In Davis Pond, the rate constant for sediment removal (each month) is faster than the rate constant for water and explains the good predictability for sediment retention. However, the removal rate constant for P and N is slower than the removal rate constant for sediment (longer water column residence time for P,N than for sediment). Thus sedimentation is not an overall control on nutrient retention. Additionally, the removal rate constant for P is slower than for TOC (TOC is not the dominate removal process for P) and N is removed slower than P (different in pond controls). For Piedmont Pond, sediment removal rate constants are slower than the removal

  10. Sewage sludge treatment with lime.

    PubMed

    Herbst, B

    2000-01-01

    The article describes the application of lime as a method for treatment and hygienisation of sewage sludges with lime products such as quicklime, slake lime and dolomitic lime. As a result of the increase in temperature and pH-value during sludge and lime mixing most pathogenic vectors of disease (i.e. bacteria, worms, viruses and parasites) are reduced in concentration and viability to manufacture a safe product for further application on agricultural land.

  11. Sydney Tar Ponds Remediation: Experience to China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Fan; Bryson, Ken A.

    2009-01-01

    The infamous "Sydney Tar Ponds" are well known as one of the largest toxic waste sites of Canada, due to almost 100 years of steelmaking in Sydney, a once beautiful and peaceful city located on the east side of Cape Breton Island, Nova Scotia. This article begins with a contextual overview of the Tar Ponds issue including a brief…

  12. 100-D Ponds closure plan. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Petersen, S.W.

    1997-09-01

    The 100-D Ponds is a Treatment, Storage, and Disposal (TSD) unit on the Hanford Facility that received both dangerous and nonregulated waste. This Closure Plan (Rev. 1) for the 100-D Ponds TSD unit consists of a RCRA Part A Dangerous Waste Permit Application (Rev. 3), a RCRA Closure Plan, and supporting information contained in the appendices to the plan. The closure plan consists of eight chapters containing facility description, process information, waste characteristics, and groundwater monitoring data. There are also chapters containing the closure strategy and performance standards. The strategy for the closure of the 100-D Ponds TSD unit is clean closure. Appendices A and B of the closure plan demonstrate that soil and groundwater beneath 100-D Ponds are below cleanup limits. All dangerous wastes or dangerous waste constituents or residues associated with the operation of the ponds have been removed, therefore, human health and the environment are protected. Discharges to the 100-D Ponds, which are located in the 100-DR-1 operable unit, were discontinued in June 1994. Contaminated sediment was removed from the ponds in August 1996. Subsequent sampling and analysis demonstrated that there is no contamination remaining in the ponds, therefore, this closure plan is a demonstration of clean closure.

  13. WMOST v2 Case Study: Monponsett Ponds

    EPA Science Inventory

    This webinar presents an overview of the preliminary results of a case study application of EPA's Watershed Management Optimization Support Tool v2 (WMOST) for stakeholders in the Monponsett Ponds Watershed Workgroup. Monponsett Ponds is a large water system consisting of two ba...

  14. WMOST v2 Case Study: Monponsett Ponds

    EPA Science Inventory

    This webinar presents an overview of the preliminary results of a case study application of EPA's Watershed Management Optimization Support Tool v2 (WMOST) for stakeholders in the Monponsett Ponds Watershed Workgroup. Monponsett Ponds is a large water system consisting of two ba...

  15. Sydney Tar Ponds Remediation: Experience to China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Fan; Bryson, Ken A.

    2009-01-01

    The infamous "Sydney Tar Ponds" are well known as one of the largest toxic waste sites of Canada, due to almost 100 years of steelmaking in Sydney, a once beautiful and peaceful city located on the east side of Cape Breton Island, Nova Scotia. This article begins with a contextual overview of the Tar Ponds issue including a brief…

  16. Migration and degradation of swine farm tetracyclines at the river catchment scale: Can the multi-pond system mitigate pollution risk to receiving rivers?

    PubMed

    Chen, Qiuwen; Guo, Xiao; Hua, Guofen; Li, Guoliang; Feng, Ranran; Liu, Xiaoli

    2017-01-01

    The study investigated the degradation behaviors of swine farm tetracyclines (TCs) at a catchment scale and explored whether multi-pond systems could be beneficial to the interception of TCs so as to reduce the pollution risk to receiving rivers. The occurrence and migration of 12 kinds of tetracycline antibiotics, including their degradation products, were studied in four swine farms of the Meijiang River basin in China. The migration paths of the TCs were examined through sampling and analyzing the soil and/or sediment at different points along the swine wastewater outlet, which included sewer, sewage pond, mixed-canal (stream and sewage), farmland (paddy and upland soil) and finally the river. TC concentrations of all collected samples were obtained by solid phase extraction followed by measurement with high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. The results showed that sediment TC concentrations varied greatly in different swine farms, from mg·kg(-1) to μg·kg(-1) levels. TCs had different decay patterns along different migration paths, such that TCs decayed exponentially in paddy soil, while linearly in sewer and mixed canal. The concentrations of TCs and their degradation products decreased in the order: sewer sediment > sewage pond sediment > mixed-canal sediment > paddy soil > upland soil, indicating that TCs tend to be more easily intercepted and accumulated in water-sediment systems such as ponds. Therefore, the multi-pond system could be an effective way to prevent TCs from migrating into rivers. These results provided essential information for contamination control of antibiotics in aquatic environments.

  17. La pelade par plaques

    PubMed Central

    Spano, Frank; Donovan, Jeff C.

    2015-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Présenter aux médecins de famille des renseignements de base pour faire comprendre les schémas thérapeutiques et les résultats des traitements pour la pelade par plaques, de même que les aider à identifier les patients pour qui une demande de consultation en dermatologie pourrait s’imposer. Sources des données Une recension a été effectuée dans PubMed pour trouver des articles pertinents concernant le traitement de la pelade par plaques. Message principal La pelade par plaques est une forme auto-immune de perte pileuse qui touche à la fois les enfants et les adultes. Même s’il n’y a pas de mortalité associée à la maladie, la morbidité découlant des effets psychologiques de la perte des cheveux peut être dévastatrice. Lorsque la pelade par plaques et le sous-type de la maladie sont identifiés, un schéma thérapeutique approprié peut être amorcé pour aider à arrêter la chute des cheveux et possiblement faire commencer la repousse. Les traitements de première intention sont la triamcinolone intralésionnelle avec des corticostéroïdes topiques ou du minoxidil ou les 2. Les médecins de famille peuvent prescrire ces traitements en toute sécurité et amorcer ces thérapies. Les cas plus avancés ou réfractaires pourraient avoir besoin de diphénylcyclopropénone topique ou d’anthraline topique. On peut traiter la perte de cils avec des analogues de la prostaglandine. Les personnes ayant subi une perte de cheveux abondante peuvent recourir à des options de camouflage ou à des prothèses capillaires. Il est important de surveiller les troubles psychiatriques en raison des effets psychologiques profonds de la perte de cheveux. Conclusion Les médecins de famille verront de nombreux patients qui perdent leurs cheveux. La reconnaissance de la pelade par plaques et la compréhension du processus pathologique sous-jacent permettent d’amorcer un schéma thérapeutique approprié. Les cas plus graves ou r

  18. Prospects for a self-sustainable sewage treatment system: a case study on full-scale UASB system in India's Yamuna River Basin.

    PubMed

    Sato, Nobuyuki; Okubo, Tsutomu; Onodera, Takashi; Ohashi, Akiyoshi; Harada, Hideki

    2006-08-01

    The government of India decided to launch a project to implement 16 full-scale Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) reactors (with a total capacity of 598,000 m(3)/d) in the Yamuna River basin under its Yamuna Action Plan (YAP). A polishing pond called the Final Polishing Unit (FPU) was utilized for post-treatment. This paper evaluates the sewage treatment efficiency of the combined system of full-scale UASB reactors and polishing ponds under Indian climatic conditions. Results have shown that the effluent from the sewage treatment plants (STPs) investigated failed to comply with applicable discharge standards in terms of BOD, SS, and fecal coliform removal. Therefore, it is proposed that such proper operation and maintenance as removing excess sludge and scum be conducted in order to increase treatment efficiency. Moreover, trained and experienced workers are also required to operate and maintain the systems, along with a scientific approach.

  19. Assessment of total mercury level in fish collected from East Calcutta Wetlands and Titagarh sewage fed aquaculture in West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharyya, Subarna; Chaudhuri, Punarbasu; Dutta, Siddartha; Santra, Subhas Chandra

    2010-05-01

    Total mercury levels were quantified in Tilapia mossambicus, Cirrhinus mrigela and Labio rohita, captured from East Calcutta Wetlands and Titagarh sewage fed aquaculture ponds. The bioconcentration factor of collected fish was assessed. Total mercury level ranged from 0.073 to 0.94 microg/g in both pre and post monsoon season. T. mossambicus in both season and C. mrigela at pre monsoon, cross the Indian recommended maximum limit (0.50 microg/g wet weight) for food consumption and according to World Health Organization guidelines all fish were not recommended for pregnant women and individuals under 15 years ages. A significant correlation was observed between mercury content of aquaculture pond water and fish muscle tissue. Total mercury concentration in experimental sites were higher than the control area (Wilcoxon Ranked-Sum test p > 0.05), which suggested the connection between mercury bioaccumulation and sewage fed aquaculture.

  20. 1. VIEW OF SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANT (BLDG. 769) SOUTH OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW OF SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANT (BLDG. 769) SOUTH OF STORAGE SHED (BLDG 773). SECURITY FENCE EAST OF SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANT. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Sewage Treatment Plant, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  1. Gradient zone erosion in seawater solar ponds

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, J.; Hart, R.A.; Kleis, S.J.; Bannerot, R.B.

    1995-11-01

    An experimental program has been conducted to examine the feasibility of using seawater solar ponds in mariculture operations along the Texas gulf coast to protect fish crops from the potentially lethal, cold temperatures experienced in outdoor ponds. Seawater solar ponds in the form of floating thermal refuge areas are proposed as a method for reducing the loss of heat from small sections of a pond. Gradient zone erosion under various ambient and operating conditions is examined. Comparisons with previous laboratory studies show a much lower entrainment rate in the natural environment. A simple (linear) correlation of entrainment rate with wind speed was found, for conditions which are typical of those encountered in mariculture pond operations.

  2. Solar pond technology for Navy applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, L. C. P.; Major, W. R.

    1985-04-01

    Many of the Navy and Marine Corps bases have potential for thermal solar pond systems that can cost-effectively displace existing thermal and electrical loads. The salt-gradient solar pond offers a simple method of collecting solar insulation while providing its own storage medium for the energy collected. The economic attractiveness of a solar pond is enhanced by this feature; however, the viability of a given application is dependent on site attributes and requirements. For the salt-gradient solar pond, site specific features such as solar radiation, siting area, type of load to be displaced, and availability of salt, clay, and water are important factors affecting the success of each application. An investigation of current salt-gradient solar pond technology was conducted and a preliminary technical and economic analysis was performed for a proposed application at the Marine Corps Logistics Base, Barstow, California.

  3. Intermediate pond sizes contain the highest density, richness, and diversity of pond-breeding amphibians.

    PubMed

    Semlitsch, Raymond D; Peterman, William E; Anderson, Thomas L; Drake, Dana L; Ousterhout, Brittany H

    2015-01-01

    We present data on amphibian density, species richness, and diversity from a 7140-ha area consisting of 200 ponds in the Midwestern U.S. that represents most of the possible lentic aquatic breeding habitats common in this region. Our study includes all possible breeding sites with natural and anthropogenic disturbance processes that can be missing from studies where sampling intensity is low, sample area is small, or partial disturbance gradients are sampled. We tested whether pond area was a significant predictor of density, species richness, and diversity of amphibians and if values peaked at intermediate pond areas. We found that in all cases a quadratic model fit our data significantly better than a linear model. Because small ponds have a high probability of pond drying and large ponds have a high probability of fish colonization and accumulation of invertebrate predators, drying and predation may be two mechanisms driving the peak of density and diversity towards intermediate values of pond size. We also found that not all intermediate sized ponds produced many larvae; in fact, some had low amphibian density, richness, and diversity. Further analyses of the subset of ponds represented in the peak of the area distribution showed that fish, hydroperiod, invertebrate density, and canopy are additional factors that drive density, richness and diversity of ponds up or down, when extremely small or large ponds are eliminated. Our results indicate that fishless ponds at intermediate sizes are more diverse, produce more larvae, and have greater potential to recruit juveniles into adult populations of most species sampled. Further, hylid and chorus frogs are found predictably more often in ephemeral ponds whereas bullfrogs, green frogs, and cricket frogs are found most often in permanent ponds with fish. Our data increase understanding of what factors structure and maintain amphibian diversity across large landscapes.

  4. Intermediate Pond Sizes Contain the Highest Density, Richness, and Diversity of Pond-Breeding Amphibians

    PubMed Central

    Semlitsch, Raymond D.; Peterman, William E.; Anderson, Thomas L.; Drake, Dana L.; Ousterhout, Brittany H.

    2015-01-01

    We present data on amphibian density, species richness, and diversity from a 7140-ha area consisting of 200 ponds in the Midwestern U.S. that represents most of the possible lentic aquatic breeding habitats common in this region. Our study includes all possible breeding sites with natural and anthropogenic disturbance processes that can be missing from studies where sampling intensity is low, sample area is small, or partial disturbance gradients are sampled. We tested whether pond area was a significant predictor of density, species richness, and diversity of amphibians and if values peaked at intermediate pond areas. We found that in all cases a quadratic model fit our data significantly better than a linear model. Because small ponds have a high probability of pond drying and large ponds have a high probability of fish colonization and accumulation of invertebrate predators, drying and predation may be two mechanisms driving the peak of density and diversity towards intermediate values of pond size. We also found that not all intermediate sized ponds produced many larvae; in fact, some had low amphibian density, richness, and diversity. Further analyses of the subset of ponds represented in the peak of the area distribution showed that fish, hydroperiod, invertebrate density, and canopy are additional factors that drive density, richness and diversity of ponds up or down, when extremely small or large ponds are eliminated. Our results indicate that fishless ponds at intermediate sizes are more diverse, produce more larvae, and have greater potential to recruit juveniles into adult populations of most species sampled. Further, hylid and chorus frogs are found predictably more often in ephemeral ponds whereas bullfrogs, green frogs, and cricket frogs are found most often in permanent ponds with fish. Our data increase understanding of what factors structure and maintain amphibian diversity across large landscapes. PMID:25906355

  5. Sewage pollution in Negril, Jamaica: effects on nutrition and ecology of coral reef macroalgae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapointe, B. E.; Thacker, K.; Hanson, C.; Getten, L.

    2011-07-01

    Coral reefs in the Negril Marine Park (NMP), Jamaica, have been increasingly impacted by nutrient pollution and macroalgal blooms following decades of intensive development as a major tourist destination. A baseline survey of DIN and SRP concentrations, C:N:P and stable nitrogen isotope ratios (δ15N) of abundant reef macroalgae on shallow and deep reefs of the NMP in 1998 showed strong P-limitation and evidence of increasing sewage pollution. In 1999, a sewage collection and treatment project began diverting wastewater from the resort and urban areas to a pond system that discharged partially-treated effluent into the South Negril River (SNR). These sewage discharges significantly increased concentrations of NH{4/+} and SRP (N:P ˜13) in the SNR, which flows into Long Bay and around Negril's "West End". Concentrations of SRP, the primary limiting nutrient, were higher on shallow reefs of the West End in 2001 compared to 1998. Stable nitrogen isotope ratios (δ15N) of abundant reef macroalgae on both shallow and deep reefs of the West End in 2002 were significantly higher than baseline values in 1998, indicating an escalating impact of sewage nitrogen pollution over this timeframe. The increased nutrient concentrations and δ15N enrichment of reef macroalgae correlated with blooms of the chlorophyte Chaetomorpha linum in shallow waters of Long Bay and Codium isthmocladum and Caulerpa cupressoides on deep reefs of the West End. Sewage treatment systems adjacent to coral reefs must include nutrient removal to ensure that DIN and SRP concentrations, after dilution, are below the low thresholds noted for these oligotrophic ecosystems.

  6. Stable density stratification solar pond

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lansing, F. L. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A stable density-stratification solar pond for use in the collection and storage of solar thermal energy including a container having a first section characterized by an internal wall of a substantially cylindrical configuration and a second section having an internal wall of a substantially truncated conical configuration surmounting the first section in coaxial alignment therewith, the second section of said container being characterized by a base of a diameter substantially equal to the diameter of the first section and a truncated apex defining a solar energy acceptance opening is discussed. A body of immiscible liquids is disposed within the container and comprises a lower portion substantially filling the first section of the container and an upper portion substantially filling the second section of the container, said lower portion being an aqueous based liquid of a darker color than the upper portion and of a greater density. A protective cover plate is removably provided for covering the acceptance opening.

  7. CO₂ efflux from shrimp ponds in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Sidik, Frida; Lovelock, Catherine E

    2013-01-01

    The conversion of mangrove forest to aquaculture ponds has been increasing in recent decades. One of major concerns of this habitat loss is the release of stored 'blue' carbon from mangrove soils to the atmosphere. In this study, we assessed carbon dioxide (CO₂) efflux from soil in intensive shrimp ponds in Bali, Indonesia. We measured CO₂ efflux from the floors and walls of shrimp ponds. Rates of CO₂ efflux within shrimp ponds were 4.37 kg CO₂ m⁻² y⁻¹ from the walls and 1.60 kg CO₂ m⁻² y⁻¹ from the floors. Combining our findings with published data of aquaculture land use in Indonesia, we estimated that shrimp ponds in this region result in CO₂ emissions to the atmosphere between 5.76 and 13.95 Tg y⁻¹. The results indicate that conversion of mangrove forests to aquaculture ponds contributes to greenhouse gas emissions that are comparable to peat forest conversion to other land uses in Indonesia. Higher magnitudes of CO₂ emission may be released to atmosphere where ponds are constructed in newly cleared mangrove forests. This study indicates the need for incentives that can meet the target of aquaculture industry without expanding the converted mangrove areas, which will lead to increased CO₂ released to atmosphere.

  8. Photosynthesis and fish production in culture ponds

    SciTech Connect

    Szyper, J.P.

    1995-12-31

    The widely-cultured Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, has been the major species used in standardized experiments by the Pond Dynamics/Aquaculture Collaborative Research Support Program (PD/ACRSP). Yields of Nile Tilapia from fertilized, unfed ponds have served as a bioassay for effectiveness of pond management protocols developed during worldwide tropical experiments. Yield rates near 10 T/ha/y can be achieved without feed inputs in ponds which maintain high standing stocks of phytoplankton and exhibit high rates near 10 T/ha/y can be achieved without feed inputs in ponds which maintain high standing stocks of phytoplankton and exhibit high rates of primary production. Fish production is related to daytime net photosynthetic production, but it is not clear whether production of food materials or oxygen is the more direct influence. Excessively high standing stocks of phytoplankton are not the best net producers, and increase and risk of nighttime oxygen depletion. Fish readily grow to individual sizes of 200-300 g/fish in fertilized ponds, which is sufficient market size in many locations. Supplemental feeding of caged or free-ranging fish greatly accelerates growth beyond 300 g and potentiates high areal yields; the PD/A CRSP has also developed efficient feeding regimes and shown that supplemental feeding need not begin before fish reach 200 g weight. High standing stocks of phytoplankton and high photosynthetic rates in eutrophic ponds make study of photosynthesis possible without radioisotopes. Such ponds also exhibit complete extinction of incident solar radiation within shallow depths, and vertical temperature structure resembling that of deeper bodies of water. These characteristics make ponds useful as microcosms for study of some aspects of photosynthesis in natural waters.

  9. Gas transfer velocities in small forested ponds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holgerson, Meredith A.; Farr, Emily R.; Raymond, Peter A.

    2017-05-01

    Inland waters actively exchange gases with the atmosphere, and the gas exchange rate informs system biogeochemistry, ecology, and global carbon budgets. Gas exchange in medium- to large-sized lakes is largely regulated by wind; yet less is known about processes regulating gas transfer in small ponds where wind speeds are low. In this study, we determined the gas transfer velocity, k600, in four small (<250 m2) ponds by using a propane (C3H8) gas injection. When estimated across 12 h periods, the average k600 ranged from 0.19 to 0.72 m d-1 across the ponds. We also estimated k600 at 2 to 3 h intervals during the day and evaluated the relationship with environmental conditions. The average daytime k600 ranged from 0.33 to 1.83 m d-1 across the ponds and was best predicted by wind speed and air or air-water temperature; however, the explanatory power was weak (R2 < 0.27) with high variability within and among ponds. To compare our results to larger water bodies, we compiled direct measurements of k600 from 67 ponds and lakes worldwide. Our k600 estimates were within the range of estimates for other small ponds, and variability in k600 increased with lake size. However, the majority of studies were conducted on medium-sized lakes (0.01 to 1 km2), leaving small ponds and large lakes understudied. Overall, this study adds four small ponds to the existing body of research on gas transfer velocities from inland waters and highlights uncertainty in k600, with implications for calculating metabolism and carbon emissions in inland waters.

  10. Sewage Disposal in Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayotamuno, M. J.

    1993-01-01

    This survey of the Port Harcourt, Nigeria, sewage disposal system exemplifies sewage disposal in the developing world. Results reveal that some well-constructed and maintained drains, as well as many open drains and septic tanks, expose women and children to the possibility of direct contact with parasitic organisms and threaten water resources.…

  11. Sewage Disposal in Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayotamuno, M. J.

    1993-01-01

    This survey of the Port Harcourt, Nigeria, sewage disposal system exemplifies sewage disposal in the developing world. Results reveal that some well-constructed and maintained drains, as well as many open drains and septic tanks, expose women and children to the possibility of direct contact with parasitic organisms and threaten water resources.…

  12. 33 CFR 159.85 - Sewage removal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sewage removal. 159.85 Section 159.85 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction, and Testing § 159.85 Sewage removal. The...

  13. 33 CFR 159.85 - Sewage removal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sewage removal. 159.85 Section 159.85 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction, and Testing § 159.85 Sewage removal. The...

  14. 33 CFR 159.85 - Sewage removal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sewage removal. 159.85 Section 159.85 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction, and Testing § 159.85 Sewage removal. The...

  15. 33 CFR 159.85 - Sewage removal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sewage removal. 159.85 Section 159.85 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction, and Testing § 159.85 Sewage removal. The...

  16. 33 CFR 159.85 - Sewage removal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sewage removal. 159.85 Section 159.85 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction, and Testing § 159.85 Sewage removal. The...

  17. Revisiting methanotrophic communities in sewage treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Ho, Adrian; Vlaeminck, Siegfried E; Ettwig, Katharina F; Schneider, Bellinda; Frenzel, Peter; Boon, Nico

    2013-04-01

    The methanotrophic potential in sewage treatment sludge was investigated. We detected a diverse aerobic methanotrophic community that potentially plays a significant role in mitigating methane emission in this environment. The results suggest that community structure was determined by conditions specific to the processes in a sewage treatment plant.

  18. My Town, My Creek, My Sewage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodburn, John H.

    1972-01-01

    After summarizing the ecology of polluted streams as well as the technology and biology of sewage treatment methods, and considering the economic and social aspects of introducing advanced sewage treatment, comments on the role of biology teachers in providing public information are made. (AL)

  19. Solar ponds. Citations from the NTIS data base

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hundemann, A. S.

    1980-08-01

    Federally funded research on the design, performance, and use of solar ponds is discussed on these. Topic areas cover the use of solar ponds in industrial process heat production, roof ponds for passive solar buildings, and solar ponds use in the production of biomass for renewable fuels.

  20. Floristics of ephemeral ponds in east-central Texas

    Treesearch

    Barbara R. MacRoberts; Michael H. MacRoberts; D. Craig Rudolph; David W. Peterson

    2014-01-01

    Beginning in 2009, we surveyed the vegetation of ephemeral ponds in Sabine and Nacogdoches counties in east-central Texas. These ponds are shallow and flat-bottomed, with a small but distinct flora dominated by grasses (Poaceae) and sedges (Cyperaceae). The floras of these ponds are most similar to those of flatwoods ponds located on the lower coastal plain. Once more...

  1. Sewage sludge dewatering using flowing liquid metals

    DOEpatents

    Carlson, Larry W.

    1986-01-01

    A method and apparatus for reducing the moisture content of a moist sewage sludge having a moisture content of about 50% to 80% and formed of small cellular micro-organism bodies having internally confined water is provided. A hot liquid metal is circulated in a circulation loop and the moist sewage sludge is injected in the circulation loop under conditions of temperature and pressure such that the confined water vaporizes and ruptures the cellular bodies. The vapor produced, the dried sludge, and the liquid metal are then separated. Preferably, the moist sewage sludge is injected into the hot liquid metal adjacent the upstream side of a venturi which serves to thoroughly mix the hot liquid metal and the moist sewage sludge. The venturi and the drying zone after the venturi are preferably vertically oriented. The dried sewage sludge recovered is available as a fuel and is preferably used for heating the hot liquid metal.

  2. Boston Harbor sewage stack (for microcomputers). Software

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    The Boston Harbor Sewage Stack is interactive educational computer program about how municipalities deal with sewage, how sewage systems work, non point pollution, and what citizens can do to help - focusing on Boston Harbor and the Boston Harbor Cleanup. The program is written at a level accessible to middle-school students, but with enough depth for adults. Schools and environmental organizations, especially in coastal areas, will find this program a useful addition to their environmental education offerings. The program shows what happens to sewage - from the moment of flush to its passage through the Massachusetts Water Resources Authority's sewage system and into Boston Harbor - now and as the cleanup proceeds. Users encounter topics for exploration, including storm sewers and combined sewer overflows (CSOs); non point pollution from pets, spilled waste oil, lawn and garden chemicals, and other sources; what not to flush and why; how officials can tell if water is polluted; and why it all matters.

  3. The effect of aeration and effluent recycling on domestic wastewater treatment in a pilot-plant system of duckweed ponds.

    PubMed

    Ben-shalom, Miriam; Shandalov, Semion; Brenner, Asher; Oron, Gideon

    2014-01-01

    Three pilot-scale duckweed pond (DP) wastewater treatment systems were designed and operated to examine the effect of aeration and effluent recycling on treatment efficiency. Each system consisted of two DPs in series fed by pre-settled domestic sewage. The first system (duckweed+ conventional treatment) was 'natural' and included only duckweed plants. The second system (duckweed aeration) included aeration in the second pond. The third system (duckweed+ aeration+ circulation) included aeration in the second pond and effluent recycling from the second to the first pond. All three systems demonstrated similarly efficient removal of organic matter and nutrients. Supplemental aeration had no effect on either dissolved oxygen levels or on pollutant removal efficiencies. Although recycling had almost no influence on nutrient removal efficiencies, it had a positive impact on chemical oxygen demand and total suspended solids removals due to equalization of load and pH, which suppressed algae growth. Recycling also improved the appearance and growth rate of the duckweed plants, especially during heavy wastewater loads.

  4. Pond-aquifer interaction at South Pond of Lake Cochituate, Natick, Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friesz, Paul J.; Church, Peter E.

    2001-01-01

    A U.S. Army facility on a peninsula in South Pond of Lake Cochituate was designated a Superfund site by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in 1994 because contaminated ground water was detected at the facility, which is near the Natick Springvale public-supply wellfield. The interaction between South Pond and the underlying aquifer controls ground-water flow patterns near the pond and determines the source of water withdrawn from the wellfield.A map of the bathymetry and the thickness of fine-grained pond-bottom sediments was prepared on the basis of fathometer, ground-penetrating radar, and continuous seismic-reflection surveys. The geophysical data indicate that the bottom sediments are fine grained toward the middle of the pond but are coarse grained in shoreline areas. Natick Springvale wellfield, which consists of three active public-supply wells adjacent to South Pond, is 2,200 feet downgradient from the boundary of the Army facility. That part of South Pond between the Natick Springvale wellfield and the Army facility is 18 feet deep with at least 14 feet of fine-grained sediment beneath the pond-bottom. Water levels from the pond and underlying sediments indicate a downward vertical gradient and the potential for infiltration of pond water near the wellfield. Head differences between the pond and the wellfield ranged from 1.66 to 4.41 feet during this study. The velocity of downward flow from South Pond into the pond-bottom sediments, determined on the basis of temperature profiles measured over a diurnal cycle at two locations near the wellfield, was 0.5 and 1.0 feet per day. These downward velocities resulted in vertical hydraulic conductivities of 1.1 and 2.9 feet per day for the pond-bottom sediments.Naturally occurring stable isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen were used as tracers of pond water and ground water derived from recharge of precipitation, two potential sources of water to a well in a pond-aquifer setting. The isotopic composition of pond

  5. South Bay Salt Pond Mercury Studies Project

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Information about the SFBWQP South Bay Salt Pond Mercury Studies Project, part of an EPA competitive grant program to improve SF Bay water quality focused on restoring impaired waters and enhancing aquatic resources.

  6. Ecologic simulation of warm water aquaculture ponds

    SciTech Connect

    Piedrahitu, R.H.; Brune, D.E.; Orlob, G.T.; Tchobanoglous, G.

    1983-06-01

    A generalized ecologic model of a fertilized warm-water aquaculture pond is under development. The model is intended to represent the pond ecosystem and its response to external stimuli. The major physical, chemical and biological processes and parameters are included in the model. A total of 19 state variables are included in the model (dissolved oxygen, alkalinity, pH, ammonia, phytoplankton, etc.). The model is formulated as a system of mass balance equations. The equations include stimulatory and inhibitory effects of environmental parameters on processes taking place in the pond. The equations may be solved for the entire growth period and diurnal as well as seasonal fluctuations may be identified. The ultimate objective of the model is to predict the fish biomass that can be produced in a pond under a given set of environmental conditions.

  7. Determining the Population Size of Pond Phytoplankton.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hummer, Paul J.

    1980-01-01

    Discusses methods for determining the population size of pond phytoplankton, including water sampling techniques, laboratory analysis of samples, and additional studies worthy of investigation in class or as individual projects. (CS)

  8. This Pond Is Not for Ducks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American School and University, 1980

    1980-01-01

    The latest development in solar energy is a four-acre pond planned for Clark College in Vancouver (Washington). Filled with brine, it will serve both as collector and heat storage tank for the entire campus. (Author)

  9. Sediment Pond Removal and Enhanced Designs

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Sediment Pond Removal Considerations; Scheduling, Baseflow diversion, Dewatering provisions, Sediment handling, Potential to discharge sediment, Down‐gradient sediment control(s), Erosion control(s), Stream reconstruction, Riparian vegetation.

  10. Optimisation of hydraulic performance to maximise faecal coliform removal in maturation ponds.

    PubMed

    Bracho, Nibis; Lloyd, Barry; Aldana, Gerardo

    2006-05-01

    The present study was conducted with the aim of improving faecal coliform (FC) and faecal streptococcus (FS) removal efficiencies in tertiary maturation stages of a sewage treatment plant in Southern England, where climatic conditions are sub-optimal. The research used intensive field assessments (bacteriological, general quality and hydraulic) to identify the parameters that affect the bacteriological quality of the effluent from three parallel maturation ponds (North, Central and South) of similar geometry and dimensions. An engineering intervention was carried out to convert the South pond to three channels to increase the L/W ratio from 9:1 to 79:1. Hydraulic tracer studies in the South pond with Rhodamine WT showed that the dispersion number 'd' was reduced from 0.37 (dispersed flow) to 0.074 by this intervention under similar flow conditions (4.5l/s). Hydraulic retention time was thus increased by 5h, delay in jet flow short-circuiting was increased from 2.5 to 17.5h thus increasing the exposure times for all elements. As a result of the intervention FC removal increased substantially. Maximum channel-lagoon efficiency of 99.84% was obtained at 4.5l/s and 19 degrees C, when exposure to sunlight was 17 h in summer. It is concluded that the channel configuration produces a higher hydraulic efficiency than conventional maturation ponds. It is therefore recommended as a viable engineering solution which permits a low-cost upgrading of plant performance, requiring no additional land, and with minimal maintenance costs.

  11. Wintertime Emissions from Produced Water Ponds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, J.; Lyman, S.; Mansfield, M. L.

    2013-12-01

    Every year oil and gas drilling in the U.S. generates billions of barrels of produced water (water brought to the surface during oil or gas production). Efficiently disposing of produced water presents a constant financial challenge for producers. The most noticeable disposal method in eastern Utah's Uintah Basin is the use of evaporation ponds. There are 427 acres of produced water ponds in the Uintah Basin, and these were used to evaporate more than 5 million barrels of produced water in 2012, 6% of all produced water in the Basin. Ozone concentrations exceeding EPA standards have been observed in the Uintah Basin during winter inversion conditions, with daily maximum 8 hour average concentrations at some research sites exceeding 150 parts per billion. Produced water contains ozone-forming volatile organic compounds (VOC) which escape into the atmosphere as the water is evaporated, potentially contributing to air quality problems. No peer-reviewed study of VOC emissions from produced water ponds has been reported, and filling this gap is essential for the development of accurate emissions inventories for the Uintah Basin and other air sheds with oil and gas production. Methane, carbon dioxide, and VOC emissions were measured at three separate pond facilities in the Uintah Basin in February and March of 2013 using a dynamic flux chamber. Pond emissions vary with meteorological conditions, so measurements of VOC emissions were collected during winter to obtain data relevant to periods of high ozone production. Much of the pond area at evaporation facilities was frozen during the study period, but areas that actively received water from trucks remained unfrozen. These areas accounted for 99.2% of total emissions but only 9.5% of the total pond area on average. Ice and snow on frozen ponds served as a cap, prohibiting VOC from being emitted into the atmosphere. Emissions of benzene, toluene, and other aromatic VOCs averaged over 150 mg m-2 h-1 from unfrozen pond

  12. Material Selection Considerations for Solar Ponds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sastri, S.; Vaidyanathan, T. K.; Marsh, H. E.; French, R. L.

    1984-01-01

    Among the various candidate materials tested, stainless steel shows the best potential for applications as heat exchanger components in solar ponds. Even stainless steel may lead to pitting type of corrosion. Weight loss measurements are probably unsatisfactory for corrosion evaluation in solar pond situations. Also included are the results from the potentiodynamic anodic polarization analysis, corrosion rate calculation via corrosion behavior diagrams, and immersion weight loss measurements.

  13. Material Selection Considerations for Solar Ponds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sastri, S.; Vaidyanathan, T. K.; Marsh, H. E.; French, R. L.

    1984-01-01

    Among the various candidate materials tested, stainless steel shows the best potential for applications as heat exchanger components in solar ponds. Even stainless steel may lead to pitting type of corrosion. Weight loss measurements are probably unsatisfactory for corrosion evaluation in solar pond situations. Also included are the results from the potentiodynamic anodic polarization analysis, corrosion rate calculation via corrosion behavior diagrams, and immersion weight loss measurements.

  14. The effect of sewage effluent on the physico-chemical and biological characteristics of the Sand River, Limpopo, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seanego, K. G.; Moyo, N. A. G.

    Population growth in urban areas is putting pressure on sewage treatment plants. The improper treatment of sewage entering the aquatic ecosystems causes deterioration of the water quality of the receiving water body. The effect of sewage effluent on the Sand River was assessed. Eight sampling sites were selected, site 1 and 2 were upstream of the sewage treatment plant along the urbanised area of Polokwane, whilst sites 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8 were downstream. The physico-chemical parameters and coliform counts in the water samples were determined. The suitability of the water for irrigation was also determined. Hierarchical average linkage cluster analysis produced two clusters, grouping two sites above the sewage treatment works and six sites downstream of the sewage effluent discharge point. Principal component analysis (PCA) identified total nitrogen, total phosphorus, conductivity and salinity as the major factors contributing to the variability of the Sand River water quality. These factors are strongly associated with the downstream sites. Canonial correspondence analysis (CCA) indicated the macroinvertebrates, Chironomidae, Belastomatidae, Chaoborus and Hirudinea being strongly associated with nitrogen, phosphorus, conductivity and temperature. Escherichia coli levels in the Polokwane wastewater treatment works maturation ponds, could potentially lead to contamination of the Polokwane aquifer. The Sodium Adsorption Ratio was between 1.5 and 3.0 and residual sodium carbonate was below 1.24 Meq/l, indicating that the Sand River water is still suitable for irrigation. The total phosphorus concentrations fluctuated across the different site. Total nitrogen concentrations showed a gradual decrease downstream from the point of discharge. This shows that the river still has a good self-purification capacity.

  15. Brulures par Diluant

    PubMed Central

    Benbrahim, A.; Jerrah, H.; Diouri, M.; Bahechar, N.; Boukind, E.H.

    2009-01-01

    Summary La flamme de diluant est une cause non rare de brûlure dans le contexte marocain. Nous avons jugé intéressant de faire une étude épidémiologique sur la brûlure par flamme de diluant (BFD) au centre national des brûlés (CNB) du CHU Ibn-Rochd de Casablanca. Ce travail a été réalisé sur une période de 10 mois (septembre 2007/juin 2008). Le but du travail est de montrer les caractéristiques de ce type de brûlures pour les prévenir et ce par l'information sur le diluant, produit causant ces brûlures, et ses différents dangers, la brûlure notamment. Durant cette période, nous avons colligé 17 cas de BFD sur un total de 356 patients admis au CNB pour brûlures aiguës toute étiologie confondue. La moyenne d'age des patients concernés est de 32 ans. Ils sont presque tous de sexe masculin (16 hommes/1 femme) et ont des antécédents de toxicomanie et/ou de délinquance. Tous nos patients sont de bas niveau socio-économique et habitent dans des bidonvilles pour la plupart. La brûlure est souvent secondaire à une agression dans la rue (92% des cas). Concernant les caractéristiques de la brûlure, la surface cutanée brûlée moyenne est de 23%; elle est souvent profonde et siège surtout au niveau des membres supérieurs et du tronc. PMID:21991179

  16. Sewage sludge pasteurization by gamma radiation: Financial viability case studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swinwood, Jean F.; Kotler, Jiri

    This paper examines the financial viability of sewage sludge pasteurization by gamma radiation, by examining the following three North American scenarios: 1) Small volume sewage treatment plant experiencing high sludge disposal costs. 2) Large volume sewage treatment plant experiencing low sludge disposal costs. 3) Large volume sewage treatment plant experiencing high sludge disposal costs.

  17. 33 CFR 159.121 - Sewage processing test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) The device must process human sewage in the manner for which it is designed when tested in accordance with this section. There must be no sewage or sewage-treating chemicals remaining on surfaces or in... discharge or store human sewage over at least an 8-consecutive hour period on at least 10 days within a 20...

  18. Pits, pipes, ponds--and me.

    PubMed

    Mara, Duncan

    2013-05-01

    My life in low-cost sanitation and low-cost wastewater treatment and the use of treated wastewater in agriculture and aquaculture really has been 'pits, pipes and ponds' - 'pits' are low-cost sanitation technologies (LCST) such as VIP latrines and pour-flush toilets; 'pipes' are low-cost sewerage, principally condominial (simplified) sewerage; and 'ponds' are low-cost wastewater treatment systems, especially waste stabilization ponds, and the use of treated wastewater in agriculture and aquaculture. 'Pits' were mainly working on World Bank LCST research projects, with fieldwork principally in Zimbabwe, 'pipes' were working on condominial sewerage projects in Brazil and disseminating this LCST to a wider global audience, and 'ponds' were waste stabilization ponds, with fieldwork mainly in Brazil, Colombia, Portugal and the United Kingdom, the development of aerated rock filters to polish facultative-pond effluents, and the human-health aspects of treated wastewater use in agriculture and aquaculture, with fieldwork in Brazil and the UK, and the application of quantitative microbial risk analysis. The paper provides a professional perspective and lessons from historical developments and gives recommended future directions based on my career working on low-cost sanitation technologies and treated wastewater use in agriculture and aquaculture.

  19. Microwave Supported Treatment of Sewage Sludge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janíček, František; Perný, Milan; Šály, Vladimír; Giemza, Markus; Hofmann, Peter

    2016-07-01

    This work is focused on microwave treatment of sewage sludge. The aim of our experiments was to investigate the impact of microwave radiation upon different sewage sludge parameters such as concentration of nitrates and nitrites, phosphates, COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand), SVI (Sludge Volume Index) and the microscopic structure of sludge. The experiments with microwave irradiation of sewage sludge indicate that moderate microwave power causes visible effects on the chemical, physical and biological properties of the sludge. The calculation of profitability and energy efficiency is also presented.

  20. Deodorization of sewage sludge-derived oils

    SciTech Connect

    Sawatzky, H.; Giddings, T.; Farnand, B.

    1993-07-06

    A method is described for treating a sewage sludge-derived oil comprising the steps of: (A) providing sewage sludge-derived oil having the following elemental composition: Nitrogen: about 2% to about 8%; Oxygen: about 3% to about 12%; Sulphur: about 0.1 % to about 4%; Hydrogen: about 8% to about 11%; Carbon: about 86.9% to about 65%; (B) distilling said sewage sludge-derived oil to a temperature of about 150 C. to remove water and volatile organic compounds; and (C) circulating a gas consisting essentially of carbon dioxide therethrough.

  1. Use of Aquaculture Ponds and Other Habitats by Autumn Migrating Shorebirds Along the Lower Mississippi River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehnen, Sarah E.; Krementz, David G.

    2013-08-01

    Populations of many shorebird species are declining; habitat loss and degradation are among the leading causes for these declines. Shorebirds use a variety of habitats along interior migratory routes including managed moist soil units, natural wetlands, sandbars, and agricultural lands such as harvested rice fields. Less well known is shorebird use of freshwater aquaculture facilities, such as commercial cat- and crayfish ponds. We compared shorebird habitat use at drained aquaculture ponds, moist soil units, agricultural areas, sandbars and other natural habitat, and a sewage treatment facility in the in the lower Mississippi River Alluvial Valley (LMAV) during autumn 2009. Six species: Least Sandpiper ( Calidris minutilla), Killdeer ( Charadrius vociferous), Semipalmated Sandpiper ( Calidris pusilla), Pectoral Sandpiper ( C. melanotos), Black-necked Stilt ( Himantopus himantopus), and Lesser Yellowlegs ( Tringa flavipes), accounted for 92 % of the 31,165 individuals observed. Sewage settling lagoons (83.4, 95 % confidence interval [CI] 25.3-141.5 birds/ha), drained aquaculture ponds (33.5, 95 % CI 22.4-44.6 birds/ha), and managed moist soil units on public lands (15.7, CI 11.2-20.3 birds/ha) had the highest estimated densities of shorebirds. The estimated 1,100 ha of drained aquaculture ponds available during autumn 2009 provided over half of the estimated requirement of 2,000 ha by the LMAV Joint Venture working group. However, because of the decline in the aquaculture industry, autumn shorebird habitats in the LMAV may be limited in the near future. Recognition of the current aquaculture habitat trends will be important to the future management activities of federal and state agencies. Should these aquaculture habitat trends continue, there may be a need for wildlife biologists to investigate other habitats that can be managed to offset the current and expected loss of aquaculture acreages. This study illustrates the potential for freshwater aquaculture to

  2. Use of aquaculture ponds and other habitats by autumn migrating shorebirds along the lower Mississippi river.

    PubMed

    Lehnen, Sarah E; Krementz, David G

    2013-08-01

    Populations of many shorebird species are declining; habitat loss and degradation are among the leading causes for these declines. Shorebirds use a variety of habitats along interior migratory routes including managed moist soil units, natural wetlands, sandbars, and agricultural lands such as harvested rice fields. Less well known is shorebird use of freshwater aquaculture facilities, such as commercial cat- and crayfish ponds. We compared shorebird habitat use at drained aquaculture ponds, moist soil units, agricultural areas, sandbars and other natural habitat, and a sewage treatment facility in the in the lower Mississippi River Alluvial Valley (LMAV) during autumn 2009. Six species: Least Sandpiper (Calidris minutilla), Killdeer (Charadrius vociferous), Semipalmated Sandpiper (Calidris pusilla), Pectoral Sandpiper (C. melanotos), Black-necked Stilt (Himantopus himantopus), and Lesser Yellowlegs (Tringa flavipes), accounted for 92 % of the 31,165 individuals observed. Sewage settling lagoons (83.4, 95 % confidence interval [CI] 25.3-141.5 birds/ha), drained aquaculture ponds (33.5, 95 % CI 22.4-44.6 birds/ha), and managed moist soil units on public lands (15.7, CI 11.2-20.3 birds/ha) had the highest estimated densities of shorebirds. The estimated 1,100 ha of drained aquaculture ponds available during autumn 2009 provided over half of the estimated requirement of 2,000 ha by the LMAV Joint Venture working group. However, because of the decline in the aquaculture industry, autumn shorebird habitats in the LMAV may be limited in the near future. Recognition of the current aquaculture habitat trends will be important to the future management activities of federal and state agencies. Should these aquaculture habitat trends continue, there may be a need for wildlife biologists to investigate other habitats that can be managed to offset the current and expected loss of aquaculture acreages. This study illustrates the potential for freshwater aquaculture to

  3. Sport fishery potential of power plant cooling ponds: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Heidinger, R.C.; Lewis, W.M.

    1986-10-01

    This research was undertaken to determine if cooling ponds could serve as habitat for several coolwater fish species and also to evaluate the potential use of cooling ponds as nursery areas for receiving waters. The work was conducted on two cooling ponds in northern Illinois. Walleye (Stizostedion vitreum), muskellunge (Esox masquinongy), striped bass (Morone saxatilis) fingerlings, and adult threadfin shad (Dorosoma petenense) were stocked into both cooling ponds. The hybrids between the striped bass and white bass (M. chrysops) had been previously stocked into Collins Pond. Smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieui) fingerlings and larval striped bass and walleye were stocked in Dresden Pond. Several sampling techniques including seining, electrofishing, and rotenoning were used to monitor growth and survival of stocked species. In addition, escapement of stocked and indigenous species was monitored at the Dresden Pond spillway. Walleye, muskellunge, striped bass and hybrid striped bass exhibited excellent growth in Collins Pond as did smallmouth bass in Dresden Pond. One of the primary differences between an open system (such as Dresden Pond) and a closed system (such as Collins Pond) is the potential that the open system has to serve as a fish nursery area for receiving waters. The stocking of ''coolwater'' species in a closed type system such as Collins Pond is an effective way to control and maintain selected sport species. Dresden Pond was not open to public fishing during this study, but Collins Pond developed an excellent sport fishery as a result of these stockings.

  4. [Technology of sewage sludge hygienization].

    PubMed

    Keller, U

    1983-09-01

    That the use of modern technology against the laws of Nature must fail, has been clearly demonstrated again some years ago when sewage sludge postpasteurization was rashly introduced. Although many attempts were made to improve this procedure, it had to be abandoned because of unavoidable massive regrowth of pathogens which invaded the germ-free postpasteurized sludge. In contrast of postpasteurization, long-term large-scale tests with the pasteurization of fresh sludge (prepasteurization) have demonstrated that this procedure where methane digestion with its pathogen displacing effect constitutes the final stage, is basically able to function. With respect to the Swiss Sewage Sludge Decree which came into force in May 1981, and which imposes sludge hygienization for most applications throughout the year, various thermal prepasteurization methods have been offered on the market ready for application to meet the legally prescribed requirements. However, some of them still need selective improvements in order to ensure the desired hygienisation effect permanently. For some time now, attention has been focussed on a novel biological 2-stage procedure based on partial aerobic thermophilic fermentation followed by anaerobic sludge digestion which in addition to good hygienisation promises improved sludge thickening, reduced digestion time, more favourable energy consumption and added process stability etc. Although it has already been offered on the market, this interesting process is being thouroughly tested and optimized in parallel pilot tests plant at the WWTP Altenrhein. Finally, reference is made to further sludge treatment processes such as sludge drying and sludge composting which mostly comprise efficent sludge hygienisation although they may not entirely prevent pathogenic regrowth. Moreover, some unconventional and less popular processes such as liquid sludge irradiation and chemical methods are also mentioned.

  5. The occurrence and significance to animal health of salmonellas in sewage and sewage sludges.

    PubMed Central

    Jones, P. W.; Rennison, L. M.; Lewin, V. H.; Redhead, D. L.

    1980-01-01

    A total of 882 samples of settled sewage, sewage sludges and final effluents from eight sewage treatment plants were examined for the presence of salmonellas. Of these samples 68% were positive, isolations being made most frequently from settled sewage (85%), raw sludge (87%) and anaerobically digested sludge (96%). Fewer isolations were made from final effluent (24%) and processed sludges (58%). Samples usually contained less than 200 salmonellas/100 ml and arguments are presented that such concentrations should not lead to disease in animals if suitable grazing restrictions are followed. PMID:6985928

  6. Flow characteristics of the raw sewage for the design of sewage-source heat pump systems.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ying; Wu, Yuebin; Sun, Qiang

    2014-01-01

    The flow characteristics of raw sewage directly affect the technical and economic performance of sewage-source heat pump systems. The purpose of this research is to characterize the flow characteristics of sewage by experimental means. A sophisticated and flexible experimental apparatus was designed and constructed. Then the flow characteristics of the raw sewage were studied through laboratorial testing and theoretical analyses. Results indicated that raw sewage could be characterized as a power-law fluid with the rheological exponent n being 0.891 and the rheological coefficient k being 0.00175. In addition, the frictional loss factor formula in laminar flow for raw sewage was deduced by theoretical analysis of the power-law fluid. Furthermore, an explicit empirical formula for the frictional loss factor in turbulent flow was obtained through curve fitting of the experimental data. Finally, the equivalent viscosity of the raw sewage is defined in order to calculate the Reynolds number in turbulent flow regions; it was found that sewage had two to three times the viscosity of water at the same temperature. These results contributed to appropriate parameters of fluid properties when designing and operating sewage-source heat pump systems.

  7. Removal of Fecal Indicators, Pathogenic Bacteria, Adenovirus, Cryptosporidium and Giardia (oo)cysts in Waste Stabilization Ponds in Northern and Eastern Australia

    PubMed Central

    Sheludchenko, Maxim; Padovan, Anna; Katouli, Mohammad; Stratton, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Maturation ponds are used in rural and regional areas in Australia to remove the microbial loads of sewage wastewater, however, they have not been studied intensively until present. Using a combination of culture-based methods and quantitative real-time PCR, we assessed microbial removal rates in maturation ponds at four waste stabilization ponds (WSP) with (n = 1) and without (n = 3) baffles in rural and remote communities in Australia. Concentrations of total coliforms, E. coli, enterococci, Campylobacter spp., Salmonella spp., F+ RNA coliphage, adenovirus, Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia (oo) cysts in maturation ponds were measured at the inlet and outlet. Only the baffled pond demonstrated a significant removal of most of the pathogens tested and therefore was subjected to further study by analyzing E. coli and enterococci concentrations at six points along the baffles over five sampling rounds. Using culture-based methods, we found a decrease in the number of E. coli and enterococci from the initial values of 100,000 CFU per 100 mL in the inlet samples to approximately 1000 CFU per 100 mL in the outlet samples for both bacterial groups. Giardia cysts removal was relatively higher than fecal indicators reduction possibly due to sedimentation. PMID:26729150

  8. Removal of Fecal Indicators, Pathogenic Bacteria, Adenovirus, Cryptosporidium and Giardia (oo)cysts in Waste Stabilization Ponds in Northern and Eastern Australia.

    PubMed

    Sheludchenko, Maxim; Padovan, Anna; Katouli, Mohammad; Stratton, Helen

    2016-01-02

    Maturation ponds are used in rural and regional areas in Australia to remove the microbial loads of sewage wastewater, however, they have not been studied intensively until present. Using a combination of culture-based methods and quantitative real-time PCR, we assessed microbial removal rates in maturation ponds at four waste stabilization ponds (WSP) with (n = 1) and without (n = 3) baffles in rural and remote communities in Australia. Concentrations of total coliforms, E. coli, enterococci, Campylobacter spp., Salmonella spp., F+ RNA coliphage, adenovirus, Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia (oo) cysts in maturation ponds were measured at the inlet and outlet. Only the baffled pond demonstrated a significant removal of most of the pathogens tested and therefore was subjected to further study by analyzing E. coli and enterococci concentrations at six points along the baffles over five sampling rounds. Using culture-based methods, we found a decrease in the number of E. coli and enterococci from the initial values of 100,000 CFU per 100 mL in the inlet samples to approximately 1000 CFU per 100 mL in the outlet samples for both bacterial groups. Giardia cysts removal was relatively higher than fecal indicators reduction possibly due to sedimentation.

  9. A review of the salt-gradient solar pond technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, E. I. H.

    1982-01-01

    The state of the salt-gradient solar pond technology is reviewed. Highlights of findings and experiences from existing ponds to data are presented, and the behavior, energy yield, operational features, and economics of solar ponds are examined. It is concluded that salt-gradient solar ponds represent a technically feasible, environmentally benign, and economically attractive energy producing alternative. In order to bring this emerging technology to maturity, however, much research and development effort remains to be undertaken. Specific R&D areas requiring the attention and action of technical workers and decision-makers are discussed, both from the perspectives of smaller, thermally-oriented ponds and larger, electricity generating ponds.

  10. Evolution of soil properties and metals in acid and alkaline mine tailing ponds after amendments and microorganisms application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acosta, Jose A.; Faz, Ángel; Zornoza, Raúl; Martínez-Martínez, Silvia; Bech, Jaume

    2015-04-01

    Intense mining activities in the past were carried out in Cartagena-La Unión mining district, SE Spain, and caused excessive accumulation of toxic metals in tailing ponds which poses a high environmental and ecological risk. One of the remediation options gaining considerable interest in recent years is the in situ immobilization of metals. A corresponding reduction in the plant-available metal fraction allows re-vegetation and ecosystem restoration of the heavily contaminated sites. In addition, the use of microorganisms to improve the soil condition is a new tool used to increase spontaneous plant colonization. The aim of this research was to assess the effect of amendments (pig manure, sewage sludge, and lime) and microorganisms on the evolution of soil properties and metals in acid and alkaline tailing ponds and to evaluate the content of metals in Zygophylum fabago one year after amendments application. The study was carried out in two mine ponds (acid and alkaline). Twenty seven square field plots, each one consisting of 4 m2, were located in each pond. Four different doses of microorganism (EM) (0 ml, 20 ml, 100 ml and 200 ml of microorganism solution in each plot) and one dose of pig manure (5 kg per plot), sewage sludge (4 kg per plot) and lime (22 kg per plot) were used. Organic amendment doses were calculated according to European nitrogen legislations, and lime dose was calculated according with the potential acid production through total sulphur oxidation. Three replicates of each treatment (organic amendment + lime + microorganism dose 0, 1, 2, or 3) and control soil (with no amendments) were carried out. Plots were left to the semi-arid climate conditions after the addition of amendments to simulate real potential applications of the results. Soil samples was collected every 4 month from each plot during one year, after this time Zygophylum fabago plants were sampled from each plots. Soil properties including: pH, salinity, total, inorganic and

  11. Contamination of ground water as a consequence of land disposal of dye waste mixed sewage effluents: a case study of Panipat district of Haryana, India.

    PubMed

    Dubey, S K; Yadav, Rashmi; Chaturvedi, R K; Yadav, R K; Sharma, V K; Minhas, P S

    2010-09-01

    Spatial samples of surface and ground water collected from land disposal site of dye waste mixed sewage effluents at Binjhole, in Haryana, India were analyzed to evaluate its effect on quality of pond, hand pumps and ground waters for human health and irrigation purposes. It was found that average COD and TDS of dye houses discharge (310 and 3,920 mg/L) and treated sewage (428 and 1,470 mg/L) on mixing acquired the values of 245 and 1,780 mg/L and only Pb (0.24 microg/L) was above the permissible limit for irrigation purpose. Disposal of this mixed water to village pond changes the COD and TDS to 428 and 1,470 mg/L, respectively. COD and TDS of hand pump water samples were 264 and 1,190 mg/L, where as in tube well water these values were 151 and 900 mg/L. Though the ground water contamination seemed to decrease with the increasing distance from the pond but COD, TDS and BOD values continued to be quite high in water samples drawn from the hand pumps up to a distance of 500 m from pond. However, the major cause of the concern in these waters was Pb (0.11-0.45 ppm). Crops grown with this water shows accumulation of heavy metals like Pb,Cd, Fe, Mn, Ni, Cu, and Zn but in few crops they (Zn, Pb and Cd) exceed the safe limits. Regular consumption of these crop products may lead heavy metal toxicity. It was concluded from this study that the deep seepage of effluents led to deterioration of ground water quality for drinking purposes and the well waters rendered unfit for irrigation purposes within a span of 2 years. This warrants appropriate disposal measures for sewage and dye industry effluents in order to prevent deterioration of ground water and health of human and animals.

  12. A Family Physician's Guide to Sewage Sludge

    PubMed Central

    Connop, Peter J.

    1983-01-01

    The potential environmental and personal health effects from the agricultural uses of domestic sewage sludge may increasingly require the guidance of the family physician, especially in farming communities. This article summarizes the potential health hazards and outlines the tripartite risk phenomenon—hazard identification, risk assessment, and social evaluation. For the agricultural use of dewatered sewage sludge, strict adherence to regulated procedures should not increase risk beyond that of agriculture generally. Confirmation by prospective epidemiological studies is recommended. PMID:21283298

  13. Clean and Efficient Utilization of Sewage Sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Zamansky, Vladimir; Rizeq, George

    2002-09-12

    This is the Final Report for the DOE SBIR Phase II project (Grant No. DE-FG03-98ER82573). This report summarizes accomplishments and results for the entire program. In this program an innovative technology has been devised for transforming sewage sludge into a high quality fuel and recovering its energy content. The technology being developed is generally applicable to nearly all municipal sewage sludge management facilities and coal-fired boilers. It will provide economic and environmental benefits.

  14. Sewage Reflects the Microbiomes of Human Populations

    PubMed Central

    Newton, Ryan J.; McLellan, Sandra L.; Dila, Deborah K.; Vineis, Joseph H.; Morrison, Hilary G.; Eren, A. Murat

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Molecular characterizations of the gut microbiome from individual human stool samples have identified community patterns that correlate with age, disease, diet, and other human characteristics, but resources for marker gene studies that consider microbiome trends among human populations scale with the number of individuals sampled from each population. As an alternative strategy for sampling populations, we examined whether sewage accurately reflects the microbial community of a mixture of stool samples. We used oligotyping of high-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequence data to compare the bacterial distribution in a stool data set to a sewage influent data set from 71 U.S. cities. On average, only 15% of sewage sample sequence reads were attributed to human fecal origin, but sewage recaptured most (97%) human fecal oligotypes. The most common oligotypes in stool matched the most common and abundant in sewage. After informatically separating sequences of human fecal origin, sewage samples exhibited ~3× greater diversity than stool samples. Comparisons among municipal sewage communities revealed the ubiquitous and abundant occurrence of 27 human fecal oligotypes, representing an apparent core set of organisms in U.S. populations. The fecal community variability among U.S. populations was significantly lower than among individuals. It clustered into three primary community structures distinguished by oligotypes from either: Bacteroidaceae, Prevotellaceae, or Lachnospiraceae/Ruminococcaceae. These distribution patterns reflected human population variation and predicted whether samples represented lean or obese populations with 81 to 89% accuracy. Our findings demonstrate that sewage represents the fecal microbial community of human populations and captures population-level traits of the human microbiome. PMID:25714718

  15. Models and observations of Arctic melt ponds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golden, K. M.

    2016-12-01

    During the Arctic melt season, the sea ice surface undergoes a striking transformation from vast expanses of snow covered ice to complex mosaics of ice and melt ponds. Sea ice albedo, a key parameter in climate modeling, is largely determined by the complex evolution of melt pond configurations. In fact, ice-albedo feedback has played a significant role in the recent declines of the summer Arctic sea ice pack. However, understanding melt pond evolution remains a challenge to improving climate projections. It has been found that as the ponds grow and coalesce, the fractal dimension of their boundaries undergoes a transition from 1 to about 2, around a critical length scale of 100 square meters in area. As the ponds evolve they take complex, self-similar shapes with boundaries resembling space-filling curves. I will outline how mathematical models of composite materials and statistical physics, such as percolation and Ising models, are being used to describe this evolution and predict key geometrical parameters that agree very closely with observations.

  16. Heat extraction from a large solar pond

    SciTech Connect

    Wittenberg, L.J.; Etter, D.E.

    1982-08-01

    The largest operational, salt-gradient solar pond in the United States, occupying 2000 m/sup 2/, was constructed during 1978 in Miamisburg, Ohio. The heat from this solar pond, nearly 1055 GJ/y (1000 million Btu/y) is used to heat an outdoor swimming pool in the summer and an adjacent recreation building during part of the winter. A new heat exchanger system has been installed externally to the pond and operated successfully to deliver 391 GJ (371 million Btu) of heat during May-June. Hot brine water is drawn through a diffuser by a self-priming pump fabricated from fiberglass reinforced plastic. The brine water passes through copper-10% nickel tubes of a tube-and-shell heat exchanger and is then returned to the bottom of the pond. Cooling water from the swimming pool circulates through the shell side of the heat exchanger. Several designs and flow velocities of the brine inlet and outlet diffusers into the pond have been tested in order to minimize the effect of turbulence upon the salt gradient zone.

  17. Heat extraction from a large solar pond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wittenberg, L. J.; Etter, D. E.

    1982-08-01

    The largest operational, salt-gradient solar pond in the United States, occupying 2000 squares meters, was constructed during 1978 in Miamisburg, Ohio. The heat from this solar pond, nearly 1055 GJ/y (1000 million Btu/y) is used to heat an outdoor swimming pool in the summer and an adjacent recreation building during part of the winter. A new heat exchanger system was installed externally to the pond and operated successfully to deliver 391 GJ (271 million Btu) of heat during May to June. Hot brine water is drawn through a diffuser by a self-priming pump fabricated from fiberglass reinforced plastic. The brine water passes through copper 10% nickel tubes of a tube-and-shell heat exchanger and is then returned to the bottom of the pond. Cooling water from the swimming pool circulates through the shell side of the heat exchanger. Several designs and flow velocities of the brine inlet and outlet diffusers into the pond were tested in order to minimize the effect of turbulence upon the salt gradient zone.

  18. Event-based stormwater management pond runoff temperature model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabouri, F.; Gharabaghi, B.; Sattar, A. M. A.; Thompson, A. M.

    2016-09-01

    Stormwater management wet ponds are generally very shallow and hence can significantly increase (about 5.4 °C on average in this study) runoff temperatures in summer months, which adversely affects receiving urban stream ecosystems. This study uses gene expression programming (GEP) and artificial neural networks (ANN) modeling techniques to advance our knowledge of the key factors governing thermal enrichment effects of stormwater ponds. The models developed in this study build upon and compliment the ANN model developed by Sabouri et al. (2013) that predicts the catchment event mean runoff temperature entering the pond as a function of event climatic and catchment characteristic parameters. The key factors that control pond outlet runoff temperature, include: (1) Upland Catchment Parameters (catchment drainage area and event mean runoff temperature inflow to the pond); (2) Climatic Parameters (rainfall depth, event mean air temperature, and pond initial water temperature); and (3) Pond Design Parameters (pond length-to-width ratio, pond surface area, pond average depth, and pond outlet depth). We used monitoring data for three summers from 2009 to 2011 in four stormwater management ponds, located in the cities of Guelph and Kitchener, Ontario, Canada to develop the models. The prediction uncertainties of the developed ANN and GEP models for the case study sites are around 0.4% and 1.7% of the median value. Sensitivity analysis of the trained models indicates that the thermal enrichment of the pond outlet runoff is inversely proportional to pond length-to-width ratio, pond outlet depth, and directly proportional to event runoff volume, event mean pond inflow runoff temperature, and pond initial water temperature.

  19. Comparative evaluation on the performance of bio-rack and shallow pond systems for domestic wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Valipour, A; Raman, V K; Badaliansgholikandi, G

    2012-10-01

    Constructed wetlands have been used successfully for treatment of wastewater during the last decades. The bio-rack and shallow pond systems are well engineered wetland process in wastewater treatment. The aim of this study is to compare the potential use of bio-rack and shallow pond systems for domestic wastewater treatment either in presence of high total dissolved solids (TDS) or heavy metal salts. The sewage treatment performance indicates 75.15% & 80.93% chemical oxygen demand (COD), 86.59% & 90.90% biological oxygen demand (BOD5), 27.54% & 15.98% total dissolved solids (TDS), 73.13% & 70.31% total suspended solids (TSS), 8.86% & 3.61% Chlorides, 70.22% & 74.18% ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N), 31.71% & 41.24% phosphate (PO4-P), 92.11% & 96.45% most probable number (MPN) and 93.05% & 98.24% total viable count (TVC) reduction at 10 & 21 h hydraulic retention time (HRT) in bio-rack and shallow pond system respectively. Likewise, the Phragmites sp. and water hyacinth can tolerate TDS up to 9000 and 2000 mg/L. The reduction in TDS is minor (14 & 19%) at the highest tolerable limit whereas the heavy metal reduction is 68 & 65%, 69 & 67%, 67 & 63%, 71 & 69% for Cd, Cu, Ni and Zn in bio-rack and shallow pond system respectively. The overall studies indicate the better treatment efficiency in bio-rack system at low foot print area (91 m2) compared to shallow pond system.

  20. Effects of urbanization on three ponds in Middleton, Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    House, Leo B.

    1984-01-01

    A digital hydrologic model was used to simulate the effects of future residential development on pond inflow volumes and resulting water levels of three ponds in Middleton, Wisconsin. The model computed the daily water budget and the resulting water level for each pond. The results of the model calibration are presented in the report, along with the existing watershed hydrologic conditions and runoff volumes for the 1982 study period. Data was collected during 1982 to claibrate the model; the data included pond stage, ground-water levels, precipitation and other meteorological characteristics. In addition, water-quality samples were collected at each pond to characterize the water quality. Simulation of pond levels with the 1982 rainfall and fully developed watersheds did not result in stages greater than those observed in 1982. Simulation of pond levels with rainfall having a 20-year recurrence interval (1978) and hypothetical, fully developed watersheds resulted in maximum pond stages above those observed in 1982. Peak stage of Tiedeman 's Pond would increase by 2.77 feet, Stricker 's Pond by 3.91 feet, and Esser 's Pond by 1.44 feet. Simulation of pond levels with an estimated 100-year rainfall and hyopthetical, fully developed watersheds would result in peak stage increases of 5.30, 5.32, and 1.97 feet above the peak 1982 observed stages for Tiedeman's, Stricker's, and Esser 's Ponds, respectively. (USGS)

  1. [The introduction of the larvivorous fish Poecilia reticulata (Peters, 1895) (Cyprinodontiformes: Poeciliidae), a bioregulator of culicids in oxidation ponds and contaminated drainage ditches on the Isla de la Juventud].

    PubMed

    García Avila, I; Koldenkova, L; Santamarina Mijares, A; González Broche, R

    1991-01-01

    The larvivorous fish Poecilla reticulata, internationally known as mosquito larva bioregulators, was introduced in 2 oxidation ponds and 2 ditches containing polluted waters (sewage) without the presence of other fish species, in Isle of Youth, Cuba, in order to control the larva populations of the Culex quinquefasciatus mosquito Say, 1823 in these its main breeding sites. After 2.5 months, such reservoirs were free of mosquito larvae. The fish settled within one year, reaching enough density to be used in other aquatoria.

  2. Trace metal concentrations in oxidation ponds

    SciTech Connect

    Suffern, J.S.; Fitzgerald, C.M.; Szluha, A.T.

    1981-11-01

    Heavy metal concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn in the wastewater, sludge, and biotic components of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory oxidation ponds were examined to determine whether metals accumulated in tilapia. Results indicated that metal levels in the wastewater and biotic components are generally low and that the major metal reservoir is the sludge. Metals did not accumulate beyond established standards in the muscle or liver of tilapia grown in the oxidation ponds. This result may be partially due to the rapid growth rates of these fish (1-2 g fish/sup -1//day/sup -1/), with new tissue developing more rapidly than metals can accumulate. Another factor may be that the high concentrations of organic complexes in the ponds lower the availability of metals to the biota.

  3. The Transient Response of Cooling Ponds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, E. Eric

    1982-10-01

    Cooling ponds are a form of closed cycle cooling used for steam-electric power plants. Because of their thermal inertia they provide an advantage over cooling towers in filtering fluctuations in intake temperature, which results in improved plant efficiency. By using linear systems theory, the transient behavior of various types of ponds is analyzed in response to periodic meteorological conditions (characterized by equilibrium temperature) and plant operational conditions (characterized by condenser temperature rise). Frequency response is expressed in terms of dimensionless ratios involving frequency of input forcing, characteristic hydraulic residence and surface response times, and appropriate mixing parameters. Results are also interpreted with respect to physical design variables, such as pond area, depth, degree of stratification, intake submergence, discharge entrance mixing, condenser flow rate, and temperature rise.

  4. Falmouth pond watchers: Water quality monitoring of Falmouth's coastal ponds. Report from the 1992 season

    SciTech Connect

    Howes, B.L.; Goehringer, D.D.

    1993-04-01

    1992 has seen a significant expansion in the focus of the Pond Watchers program. The long-term, high quality data base for the ponds is now enabling more emphasis on the ecological management and remediation aspects of the study, the ultimate goal of the program. Overall, 1992 saw only slight variation in the water quality conditions of Oyster, Little, Green, Great and Bournes Ponds from previous years, with a declining trend for Green Pond and small improvements in lower Great and Bournes Ponds. However, Oyster Pond showed a potentially significant improvement in bottom water oxygen conditions which suggests a new management direction for this system. All of the ponds continue to exhibit high nutrient levels and periodic bottom water oxygen depletion, especially in their upper reaches, and all stations exceed the nutrient levels specified by the Nutrient Overlay Bylaw. In contrast, the first year measurements in West Falmouth Harbor indicate high levels of water quality, although the inner reaches of the harbor do exceed those levels specified by the Bylaw.

  5. Salt Ponds, South San Francisco Bay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    higher resolution 1000 pixel-wide image The red and green colors of the salt ponds in South San Francisco Bay are brilliant visual markers for astronauts. The STS-111 crew photographed the bay south of the San Mateo bridge in June, 2002. This photograph is timely because a large number of the salt ponds (more than 16,500 acres) that are owned by Cargill, Inc. will be sold in September for wetlands restoration-a restoration project second in size only to the Florida Everglades project. Rough boundaries of the areas to be restored are outlined on the image. Over the past century, more than 80% of San Francisco Bay's wetlands have been filled and developed or diked off for salt mining. San Francisco Bay has supported salt mining since 1854. Cargill has operated most of the bay's commercial salt ponds since 1978, and had already sold thousands of acres to the State of California and the Don Edwards National Wildlife Refuge. This new transaction will increase San Francisco Bay's existing tidal wetlands by 50%. The new wetlands, to be managed by the California Department of Fish and Game and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, will join the Don Edwards National Wildlife Refuge, and provide valuable habitat for birds, fish and other wildlife. The wetlands will contribute to better water quality and flood control in the bay, and open up more coastline for public enjoyment. Additional information: Cargill Salt Ponds (PDF) Turning Salt Into Environmental Gold Salt Ponds on Way to Becoming Wetlands Historic Agreement Reached to Purchase San Francisco Bay Salt Ponds Astronaut photograph STS111-376-3 was provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory at Johnson Space Center. Additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts can be viewed at the NASA-JSC Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth

  6. 1. ENVIRONMENTAL VIEW OF SOUTHEAST PORTION OF LOWER POND AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. ENVIRONMENTAL VIEW OF SOUTHEAST PORTION OF LOWER POND AND SPILLWAY, LOOKING SOUTH - Whitman Estate, Lower Pond Spillway, Approx. .5 mile south of intersection of DE72 & Ebeneezer Church Road, Newark, New Castle County, DE

  7. 2. ENVIRONMENTAL VIEW OF SOUTHEAST PORTION OF LOWER POND AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. ENVIRONMENTAL VIEW OF SOUTHEAST PORTION OF LOWER POND AND SPILLWAY WITH FOREBAY IN FOREGROUND, LOOKING SOUTH - Whitman Estate, Lower Pond Spillway, Approx. .5 mile south of intersection of DE72 & Ebeneezer Church Road, Newark, New Castle County, DE

  8. Pond dyes are Culex mosquito oviposition attractants

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Background British mosquito population distribution, abundance, species composition and potential for mosquito disease transmission are intimately linked to the physical environment. The presence of ponds and water storage can significantly increase the density of particular mosquito species in the garden. Culex pipiens is the mosquito most commonly found in UK gardens and a potential vector of West Nile Virus WNV, although the current risk of transmission is low. However any factors that significantly change the distribution and population of C. pipiens are likely to impact subsequent risk of disease transmission. Pond dyes are used to control algal growth and improve aesthetics of still water reflecting surrounding planting. However, it is well documented that females of some species of mosquito prefer to lay eggs in dark water and/or containers of different colours and we predict that dyed ponds will be attractive to Culex mosquitoes. Methods Black pond dye was used in oviposition choice tests using wild-caught gravid C. pipiens. Larvae from wild-caught C. pipiens were also reared in the pond dye to determine whether it had any impact on survival. An emergence trap caught any adults that emerged from the water. Water butts (80 L) were positioned around university glasshouses and woodland and treated with black pond dye or left undyed. Weekly sampling over a six month period through summer and autumn was performed to quantified numbers of larvae and pupae in each treatment and habitat. Results Gravid female Culex mosquitoes preferred to lay eggs in dyed water. This was highly significant in tests conducted under laboratory conditions and in a semi-field choice test. Despite this, survivorship in black dyed water was significantly reduced compared to undyed water. Seasonal analysis of wild larval and pupal numbers in two habitats with and without dye showed no impact of dye but a significant impact of season and habitat. Mosquitoes were more successful, with

  9. Recovery of phosphorus from waste ponds

    SciTech Connect

    Crea, D. A.

    1985-01-08

    Process for recovery of elemental phosphorus from waste ponds by dredging the waste pond to obtain an aqueous phosphorus slurry, separating particles larger than 2 mm from the slurry, treating the remaining slurry in an initial hydrocyclone and removing an overflow of solids larger than 500 micrometers, treating the underflow from the initial hydrocyclones in smaller diameter hydrocyclones, removing a second overflow enriched in slimes and diminished in phosphorus, removing a second underflow enriched in phosphorus and diminished in slimes and heating it sufficiently to melt the phosphorus therein, treating the heated second underflow in a centrifugal separator, and separating and recovering a stream of coalesced phosphorus from a heavy fraction of impurities.

  10. Removal of trace organic contaminants from domestic wastewater: A meta-analysis comparison of sewage treatment technologies.

    PubMed

    Melvin, Steven D; Leusch, Frederic D L

    2016-01-01

    Trace organic contaminants (TrOCs), such as endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) and pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), represent global threats to aquatic animals and ecosystems. A major source of TrOCs in the aquatic environment is via the discharge of treated sewage, so there is an urgent need to evaluate the comparative efficiencies of the most widely used sewage treatment technologies as regards elimination of these compounds from wastewater. To address this need, 976 published articles were compiled focusing on estimates of removal (%) for 20 common environmental TrOCs, from five major sewage treatment technologies: conventional activated sludge (CAS), oxidation ditch (OD), membrane bioreactor (MBR), ponds and constructed wetlands (PCW), and trickling biological filters (TBF). A quantitative meta-analysis was performed to compare standardized relative removal efficiencies (SREs) of the compounds amongst these technologies, and where possible potential sources of heterogeneity were considered (e.g., flow rates and chemical sorption potential). The results indicate that the most widely used CAS treatment and the less common TBF provide comparatively poor overall removal of common organic micropollutants. Membrane bioreactors appear to be capable of achieving the greatest overall removal efficiencies, but the sustainability and economic viability of this option has been questioned. Treatment with OD systems may be more economical while still achieving comparatively high removal efficiencies, and the analysis revealed OD to be the best option for targeting highly potent estrogenic EDCs. This study offers a unique global assessment of TrOC removal via leading sewage treatment technologies, and is an important step in the identification of effective options for treating municipal sewage.

  11. Usage of sewage effluent in irrigation of some woody tree seedlings. Part 3: Swietenia mahagoni (L.) Jacq.

    PubMed

    Ali, Hayssam M; El-Mahrouk, El-Sayed M; Hassan, Fatma A; El-Tarawy, Mohamed A

    2011-04-01

    A pot experiment was investigated to study the effect of sewage irrigation treatments (primary and secondary effluents) compared with tap water on the growth and chemical constituents of mahogany seedlings (Swietenia mahagoni (L.) Jacq.) as well as soil chemical properties. The experiment was conducted at a greenhouse in the nursery of Timber Trees Research Department of Sabahia, Horticultural Research Station in Alexandria, Egypt, from June 2003 to December 2004 for three irrigation periods (6, 12 and 18 months). The sewage effluent waters were taken from oxidation ponds located in New Borg EL-Arab city and used directly for irrigation. The primary effluent treatment was superior than other treatments in improving the growth parameters (plant height, stem diameter, leaf area, leaves number, fresh and dry weights of leaves, shoots and roots and shoot/root ratio) and showed the highest concentration and total uptake of N, P, K, Cd, Ni, Pb and Fe in plant parts, followed by secondary effluent then tap water. The data revealed that soil salinity in terms of electrical conductivity of saturated paste (EC), CaCO3%, organic matter% and soluble anions and cations were influenced significantly by primary or secondary effluent treatment. The data also showed that the use of sewage effluent for irrigation increased N, P, K and DTPA-extractable-heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, Fe, Mn and Zn). The effects of sewage effluent on growth parameters and elements content in plant parts and treated soil were more pronounced as water treatments were used for long period. The results suggested that the use of sewage effluent in irrigating mahogany trees grown on calcareous sandy loam soil was an important agriculture practice for improving soil properties, increasing fuel and timber production, and is an economic and safe way to dispose wastewaters.

  12. Usage of sewage effluent in irrigation of some woody tree seedlings. Part 3: Swietenia mahagoni (L.) Jacq.

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Hayssam M.; EL-Mahrouk, EL-Sayed M.; Hassan, Fatma A.; EL-Tarawy, Mohamed A.

    2010-01-01

    A pot experiment was investigated to study the effect of sewage irrigation treatments (primary and secondary effluents) compared with tap water on the growth and chemical constituents of mahogany seedlings (Swietenia mahagoni (L.) Jacq.) as well as soil chemical properties. The experiment was conducted at a greenhouse in the nursery of Timber Trees Research Department of Sabahia, Horticultural Research Station in Alexandria, Egypt, from June 2003 to December 2004 for three irrigation periods (6, 12 and 18 months). The sewage effluent waters were taken from oxidation ponds located in New Borg EL-Arab city and used directly for irrigation. The primary effluent treatment was superior than other treatments in improving the growth parameters (plant height, stem diameter, leaf area, leaves number, fresh and dry weights of leaves, shoots and roots and shoot/root ratio) and showed the highest concentration and total uptake of N, P, K, Cd, Ni, Pb and Fe in plant parts, followed by secondary effluent then tap water. The data revealed that soil salinity in terms of electrical conductivity of saturated paste (EC), CaCO3%, organic matter% and soluble anions and cations were influenced significantly by primary or secondary effluent treatment. The data also showed that the use of sewage effluent for irrigation increased N, P, K and DTPA-extractable-heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, Fe, Mn and Zn). The effects of sewage effluent on growth parameters and elements content in plant parts and treated soil were more pronounced as water treatments were used for long period. The results suggested that the use of sewage effluent in irrigating mahogany trees grown on calcareous sandy loam soil was an important agriculture practice for improving soil properties, increasing fuel and timber production, and is an economic and safe way to dispose wastewaters. PMID:23961125

  13. Vermistabilization of primary sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Hait, Subrata; Tare, Vinod

    2011-02-01

    An integrated composting-vermicomposting process has been developed for utilization of primary sewage sludge (PSS). Matured vermicompost was used as bulking material and a source of active microbial culture during aerobic activated composting (AAC). AAC resulted in sufficient enrichment of bulking material with organic matter after 20 cycles of recycling and mixing with PSS and produced materials acceptable for vermicomposting. Vermicomposting caused significant reduction in pH, volatile solids (VS), specific oxygen uptake rate (SOUR), total organic carbon (TOC), C/N ratio and pathogens and substantial increase in electrical conductivity (EC), total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorous (TP) as compared to compost. Environmental conditions and stocking density have profound effects on vermicomposting. Temperature of 20°C with high humidity is favorable environmental condition for vermicomposting employing Eisenia fetida. Favorable stocking density range for vermiculture is 0.5-2.0 kg m(-2) (optimum: 0.5 kg m(-2)) and for vermicomposting is 2.0-4.0 kg m(-2) (optimum: 3.0 kg m(-2)), respectively.

  14. Under-performance evaluation and rehabilitation strategy for waste stabilization ponds in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, B J; Leitner, A R; Vorkas, C A; Guganesharajah, R K

    2003-01-01

    Fourteen high altitude (> 2,500 m amsl) small Waste Stabilisation Pond systems (WSPs) commissioned during the last 12 years in the State of Mexico in Mexico, were built to a common 3-stage design. Each system is comprised of 2 parallel series of bio-digesters, anaerobic and facultative ponds. All fourteen WSP systems produce poor quality effluents, and eight studied in more detail did not meet any of the national standards for discharge to rivers or the standards required for reuse. The under-performance of these WSPs is underlined by the anaerobic condition of the upper reaches of the Lerma river which receives the sewage from the towns served by these treatment plants. Preliminary surveillance diagnostics identified fundamental operational problems in all eight WSP systems located in the upper Lerma catchment. The results of an intensive secondary diagnostic performance evaluation on one system were used to identify the reasons for under-performance. Under-performance was caused by under-design, hydraulic short-circuiting, adverse environmental conditions and poor operation and maintenance. A strategy for improvement of design and operation to meet national standards is presented.

  15. Health impairments arising from drinking water polluted with domestic sewage and excreta in China.

    PubMed

    Ling, B

    2000-01-01

    Raw water of poor quality still causes many drinking-water associated health problems all over China, largely because of poor sanitation, inadequate disposal of sewage and excreta. Eutrophication due to excess of total nitrogen and phosphorous in some sources for drinking-water has led to massive proliferation of cyanobacteria. The dominant species of cyanophyta can produce microcystins, a potent liver cancer promotor. As in previous studies, high incidence of liver cancer coincided with high microcystin concentration in the source water, especially in pond water. A frequent consequence of heavy pollution of source water is further the high incidence of infectious intestinal diseases, which are more than 10-100 times as frequent in China than in developed countries.

  16. 33 CFR 117.598 - Eel Pond Channel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Eel Pond Channel. 117.598 Section... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Massachusetts § 117.598 Eel Pond Channel. The following requirements apply to the draw of Eel Pond (Water Street) drawbridge at mile 0.0 at...

  17. 33 CFR 117.598 - Eel Pond Channel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Eel Pond Channel. 117.598 Section... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Massachusetts § 117.598 Eel Pond Channel. The following requirements apply to the draw of Eel Pond (Water Street) drawbridge at mile 0.0 at...

  18. 33 CFR 117.598 - Eel Pond Channel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Eel Pond Channel. 117.598 Section... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Massachusetts § 117.598 Eel Pond Channel. The following requirements apply to the draw of Eel Pond (Water Street) drawbridge at mile 0.0 at...

  19. 33 CFR 117.598 - Eel Pond Channel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Eel Pond Channel. 117.598 Section... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Massachusetts § 117.598 Eel Pond Channel. The following requirements apply to the draw of Eel Pond (Water Street) drawbridge at mile 0.0 at...

  20. 33 CFR 117.598 - Eel Pond Channel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Eel Pond Channel. 117.598 Section... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Massachusetts § 117.598 Eel Pond Channel. The following requirements apply to the draw of Eel Pond (Water Street) drawbridge at mile 0.0 at...

  1. One year's experience with an operating saturated solar pond

    SciTech Connect

    Ochs, T.L.; Stojanoff, C.G.; Day, D.L.

    1980-01-01

    While the saturated non-convecting solar pond concept is not new, the borax pond at the Desert Research Institute (DRI) is the first application of the concept to an operating solar pond. As with any new application there have been experimentally identified problem areas. Four of these problems are discussed: 1) departure from saturation, 2) contamination, 3) bottom crystalization, and 4) covers.

  2. Vermont lakes and ponds: a pilot recreation planning process

    Treesearch

    Daniel T. Malone; John J. Lindsay

    1992-01-01

    This report analyzes a pilot planning study conducted on two Vermont ponds by University of Vermont outdoor recreation planning students. It discusses the planning process used for these ponds and offers ways in which a statewide lake and pond planning process could be implemented.

  3. Costs and risks of catfish split-pond systems

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Split ponds are a recently developed, pond-based aquaculture system that allows intensification of catfish aquaculture. Successful industry-wide adoption of newly developing technologies like split-pond systems will depend upon their productivity and cost efficiencies. Costs and production performan...

  4. Effect of effluent-treated water on mosquito development in simulated ponds at the Prado Wetlands of southern California.

    PubMed

    Mian, Lal S; Lovett, Joseph; Dhillon, Major S

    2009-09-01

    Studies were conducted to determine the effect of water quality on mosquito development at the Prado Wetlands in southern California during 2003-04. In field experimental ponds, mosquito abundance was significantly higher in the sewage effluent-treated water than in untreated control. As compared to untreated control, treated water had higher dissolved oxygen, total nitrogen, phosphorus, and turbidity, and it showed lower electrical conductivity, sulfate, carbonates, and bicarbonates. Diverse vegetation and invertebrate fauna as influenced by water quality may have contributed to higher mosquito breeding in the treated ponds. In laboratory studies, the treated water did not significantly affect the developmental rate, adult emergence, sex ratio, and overall mortality of Culex quinquefasciatus and Culex tarsalis, known vectors of encephalitides in southern California. However, the ovipositional response, especially of the former species, was numerically higher to the treated than to untreated control water. Besides smaller body size of 3rd/4th instars of both species, 4th-stage larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus reared in the treated pond water weighed lighter than the control larvae.

  5. Characterizing a sewage plume using the 3H-3He dating technique

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shapiro, Stephanie Dunkle; LeBlanc, Denis; Schlosser, Peter; Ludin, Andrea

    1999-01-01

    An extensive 3H-3He study was performed to determine detailed characteristics of a regional flow system and a sewage plume over a distance of 4 km in a sand and gravel aquifer at Otis Air Base in Falmouth, Massachusetts. 3H-3He ages increase with depth in individual piezometer clusters and with distance along flowpaths. However, the age gradient with depth (Δt/Δz) is smaller in the plume than that in the regional waters, due to the intense recharge in the infiltration beds. The 1960s bomb peak of tritium in precipitation is archived longitudinally along a flowline through the main axis of the plume and vertically in individual piezometer clusters. On the eastern side of the sampling area, where water from Ashumet Pond forces plume water deeper into the flow system, 3H-3He ages are young at depth because the 3H-3He "clock" is reset due to outgassing of helium in the pond. A reconstruction of the tritium input functions for the regional and plume samples shows that there is no offset in the peak [3H]+[3Hetrit] concentrations for the plume and regional water, indicating that the water from supply wells for use on the base is young. The 3H-3He ages and detergent concentrations in individual wells are consistent with the beginning of use of detergents and the time period when their concentrations in sewage would have been greatest. Ages and hydraulic properties calculated using the 3H-3He data compare well with those from previous investigations and from particle-tracking simulations.

  6. Aquatic Habitats: Exploring Desktop Ponds. Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Katharine; Willard, Carolyn

    This book, for grades 2-6, is designed to provide students with a highly motivating and unique opportunity to investigate an aquatic habitat. Students set up, observe, study, and reflect upon their own "desktop ponds." Accessible plants and small animals used in these activities include Elodea, Tubifex worms, snails, mosquito larvae, and fish.…

  7. MONITORING OF A BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICE POND

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA's Urban Watershed Management Branch has monitored stormwater drainage and best management practices (BMP) as part of its research program. One BMP currently being monitored, a retention pond with wetland plantings, is in the Richmond Creek (RC) watershed part of New Yor...

  8. Ecology of Great Salt Pond, Block Island

    EPA Science Inventory

    Great Salt Pond is an island of estuarine water on Block Island, which sits in the middle of the Northwest Atlantic Continental Shelf. When the last continental glaciers retreated, they left a high spot on a terminal moraine. The rising sea from melting glaciers formed two island...

  9. Excavations in Hanford ponds, cribs, or ditches

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, G.W., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-09-20

    This document supports the development and presentation of the following accident scenario in the TWRS Final Safety Analysis Report: Unplanned Excavation/Drilling in Pond/Ditch/Crib. The calculations needed to quantify the risk associated with this accident scenario are included within.

  10. Pond fractals in a tidal flat.

    PubMed

    Cael, B B; Lambert, Bennett; Bisson, Kelsey

    2015-11-01

    Studies over the past decade have reported power-law distributions for the areas of terrestrial lakes and Arctic melt ponds, as well as fractal relationships between their areas and coastlines. Here we report similar fractal structure of ponds in a tidal flat, thereby extending the spatial and temporal scales on which such phenomena have been observed in geophysical systems. Images taken during low tide of a tidal flat in Damariscotta, Maine, reveal a well-resolved power-law distribution of pond sizes over three orders of magnitude with a consistent fractal area-perimeter relationship. The data are consistent with the predictions of percolation theory for unscreened perimeters and scale-free cluster size distributions and are robust to alterations of the image processing procedure. The small spatial and temporal scales of these data suggest this easily observable system may serve as a useful model for investigating the evolution of pond geometries, while emphasizing the generality of fractal behavior in geophysical surfaces.

  11. Interconnected ponds operation for flood hazard distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putra, S. S.; Ridwan, B. W.

    2016-05-01

    The climatic anomaly, which comes with extreme rainfall, will increase the flood hazard in an area within a short period of time. The river capacity in discharging the flood is not continuous along the river stretch and sensitive to the flood peak. This paper contains the alternatives on how to locate the flood retention pond that are physically feasible to reduce the flood peak. The flood ponds were designed based on flood curve number criteria (TR-55, USDA) with the aim of rapid flood peak capturing and gradual flood retuning back to the river. As a case study, the hydrologic condition of upper Ciliwung river basin with several presumed flood pond locations was conceptually designed. A fundamental tank model that reproducing the operation of interconnected ponds was elaborated to achieve the designed flood discharge that will flows to the downstream area. The flood hazard distribution status, as the model performance criteria, will be computed within Ciliwung river reach in Manggarai Sluice Gate spot. The predicted hazard reduction with the operation of the interconnected retention area result had been bench marked with the normal flow condition.

  12. Aquatic Habitats: Exploring Desktop Ponds. Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Katharine; Willard, Carolyn

    This book, for grades 2-6, is designed to provide students with a highly motivating and unique opportunity to investigate an aquatic habitat. Students set up, observe, study, and reflect upon their own "desktop ponds." Accessible plants and small animals used in these activities include Elodea, Tubifex worms, snails, mosquito larvae, and fish.…

  13. MONITORING OF A BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICE POND

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA's Urban Stormwater Management Branch has monitored stormwater drainage and best management practices (BMP) as part of its research program. One BMP being monitored, a wetland/retention pond, is in the Richmond Creek (RC) watershed in the New York City Department of Envi...

  14. Solar Pond Research at Argonne National Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hull, J. R.

    1984-01-01

    Focus is on applications that utilize the seasonal heat-storage capability of the solar pond for low-temperature thermal processes, however the results of the research are directly applicable to electricity-generating and other applications. Important technical results are summarized.

  15. MONITORING OF A BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICE POND

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA's Urban Stormwater Management Branch has monitored stormwater drainage and best management practices (BMP) as part of its research program. One BMP being monitored, a wetland/retention pond, is in the Richmond Creek (RC) watershed in the New York City Department of Envi...

  16. Plankton Management for Channel Catfish Nursery Ponds

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We conducted a series of studies examining the fertilization practices used for channel catfish nursery ponds. The best fertilization protocol would be one that uses low-cost fertilizers, quickly establishes a desirable phytoplankton bloom, and produces the greatest number of large zooplankton. In...

  17. Ecology of Great Salt Pond, Block Island

    EPA Science Inventory

    Great Salt Pond is an island of estuarine water on Block Island, which sits in the middle of the Northwest Atlantic Continental Shelf. When the last continental glaciers retreated, they left a high spot on a terminal moraine. The rising sea from melting glaciers formed two island...

  18. Cibola High Levee Pond annual report 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mueller, Gordon A.; Carpenter, Jeanette; Marsh, Paul C.

    2005-01-01

    Remaining work will be finished this coming summer and a final report describing CHLP and the ecology of these fish will be completed by the end of 2005. We offer our assistance to the Fish and Wildlife Service in the pond’s renovation and support for the creation of additional refuge ponds. Funding for this work ends September 2005.

  19. Pond fractals in a tidal flat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cael, B. B.; Lambert, Bennett; Bisson, Kelsey

    2015-11-01

    Studies over the past decade have reported power-law distributions for the areas of terrestrial lakes and Arctic melt ponds, as well as fractal relationships between their areas and coastlines. Here we report similar fractal structure of ponds in a tidal flat, thereby extending the spatial and temporal scales on which such phenomena have been observed in geophysical systems. Images taken during low tide of a tidal flat in Damariscotta, Maine, reveal a well-resolved power-law distribution of pond sizes over three orders of magnitude with a consistent fractal area-perimeter relationship. The data are consistent with the predictions of percolation theory for unscreened perimeters and scale-free cluster size distributions and are robust to alterations of the image processing procedure. The small spatial and temporal scales of these data suggest this easily observable system may serve as a useful model for investigating the evolution of pond geometries, while emphasizing the generality of fractal behavior in geophysical surfaces.

  20. Contour Mapping for Pools and Ponds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Noel

    1985-01-01

    Simple jigs (positioning devices) to make contour mapping tasks easier and more accurate are easily constructed from 5mm-thick acetate sheets. These plastic holders are used with meter sticks to provide scanning guides to measure pools and ponds. Instructions for making the jigs and sample results are included. (DH)

  1. 12. Sewage Ejector Pumps, view to the southwest. These pumps ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Sewage Ejector Pumps, view to the southwest. These pumps are connected to sewage treatment tanks. - Washington Water Power Clark Fork River Cabinet Gorge Hydroelectric Development, Powerhouse, North Bank of Clark Fork River at Cabinet Gorge, Cabinet, Bonner County, ID

  2. JPL Activated Carbon Treatment System (ACTS) for sewage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    An Activated Carbon Treatment System (ACTS) was developed for sewage treatment and is being applied to a one-million gallon per day sewage treatment pilot plant in Orange County California. Activities reported include pyrolysis and activation of carbon-sewage sludge, and activated carbon treatment of sewage to meet ocean discharge standards. The ACTS Sewage treatment operations include carbon-sewage treatment, primary and secondary clarifiers, gravity (multi-media) filter, filter press dewatering, flash drying of carbon-sewage filter cake, and sludge pyrolysis and activation. Tests were conducted on a laboratory scale, 10,000 gallon per day demonstration plant and pilot test equipment. Preliminary economic studies are favorable to the ACTS process relative to activated sludge treatment for a 175,000,000 gallon per day sewage treatment plant.

  3. Vessel Sewage Discharges: Statutes, Regulations, and Related Laws and Treaties

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Vessel sewage discharges can be regulated under multiple statutes, regulations, and laws/treaties, including the Clean Water Act, Title XIV, MARPOL Annex IV and the Vessel General Permit. This page describes how these are applied to vessel sewage.

  4. Management of sewage sludge and ash containing radioactive materials.

    SciTech Connect

    Bachmaier, J. T.; Aiello, K.; Bastian, R. K.; Cheng, J.-J.; Chiu, W. A.; Goodman, J.; Hogan, R.; Jones, A. R.; Kamboj, S.; Lenhart, T.; Ott, W. R.; Rubin, A. B.; Salomon, S. N.; Schmidt, D. W.; Setlow, L. W.; Yu, C.; Wolbarst, A. B.; Environmental Science Division; Middlesex County Utilities Authority; U.S. EPA; N.J. Dept of Environmental Protection; NRC

    2007-01-01

    Approximately 50% of the seven to eight million metric tonnes of municipal sewage sludge produced annually in the US is reused. Beneficial uses of sewage sludge include agricultural land application, land reclamation, forestry, and various commercial applications. Excessive levels of contaminants, however, can limit the potential usefulness of land-applied sewage sludge. A recently completed study by a federal inter-agency committee has identified radioactive contaminants that could interfere with the safe reuse of sewage sludge. The study found that typical levels of radioactive materials in most municipal sewage sludge and incinerator ash do not present a health hazard to sewage treatment plant workers or to the general public. The inter-agency committee has developed recommendations for operators of sewage treatment plants for evaluating measured or estimated levels of radioactive material in sewage sludge and for determining whether actions to reduce potential exposures are appropriate.

  5. Saltwater Ponds: Biogeochemically Dynamic Components of Salt Marsh Ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spivak, A. C.; Gosselin, K.

    2016-02-01

    Saltwater ponds can be prominent features of salt marsh ecosystems. Located within the high marsh, these shallow depressions are continuously submerged and only hydrologically connected to saltwater tidal creeks on spring tides. The spatial extent of marsh ponds is expected to increase with sea level rise yet the consequences of pond expansion on marsh ecosystem processes, including organic matter production, burial and export, are largely unknown. To better understand how ponding affects the biogeochemistry of salt marshes, we characterized water column and sediment processes in three ponds within the Plum Island Ecosystems Long Term Ecological Research site (Rowley, MA). The ponds were characterized by different plant communities; two ponds were dominated by macroalgae and the submerged grass Ruppia while the third pond was unvegetated except for isolated patches of macroalgae. Sensors measuring dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations, salinity, temperature, and light levels were deployed in each of the ponds from May - November 2014. Sediment processes were evaluated over 11 weeks in summer and fall by characterizing by organic matter composition and pore water chemistry. The ponds were shallow ( 30cm) and had similar salinity and temperature regimes. Whole-pond metabolism varied with plant abundance and rates of production declined from summer to fall. In the vegetated ponds, water column DO concentrations were often supersaturated during the day and hypoxic at night. In contrast, day-to-night swings in DO were not as extreme in the unvegetated pond and concentrations rarely fell to hypoxic levels. In the sediments, concentrations bacteria-specific lipids as well as rates of respiration and sulfate reduction were higher in the vegetated ponds but varied over time. Considerable variability in plant community composition and abundance across seasons and between ponds as well as the unique hydrology of these systems make them biogeochemically dynamic components of

  6. [Concentration and emission fluxes of halogenated flame retardants in sewage from sewage outlet in Dongjiang River].

    PubMed

    Zeng, Yan-Hong; Luo, Xiao-Jun; Sun, Yu-Xin; Yu, Le-Huan; Chen, She-Jun; Mai, Bi-Xian

    2011-10-01

    Fourteen sewage samples from sewage outlets in Dongjiang River were collected. Halogented flame retardants were extracted and purified using dichloromethane and alumina/silica-gel column, respectively. The concentrations of halogenated flame retardants were measured utilizing GC/MS, and the emission fluxes were estimated. Decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE) was the predominant halogenated pollutant (accounting for 64%) in sewage with the concentration ranging from 9.1 ng/L to 990 ng/L. The concentrations of polybrominated biphenyl ether (PBDEs), dominated by BDE209, in the sewage ranged from 6.9 ng/L to 470 ng/L, accounting for 30% of total halogenated flame retardants. The concentrations of other flame retardants, such as dechlorane plus (DP), 1, 2-bis(2, 4, 6-tribromophenoxy) ethane (BTBPE), hexabromobenzene (HBB), and pentabromotoluene (PBT), were ranged within 0.17-23.6, nd-26.3, nd-1.45 and nd-0.45 ng/L, respectively. The concentrations of PBDEs in sewage of Dongjiang River were comparable to those in influent wastewater of sewage treatment plants of Guangzhou, suggesting that the wastewater was discharged directly into Dongjiang River without any treatment. The emission flux of halogenated flame retardants from sewage was 191 kg. Emission from industrial wastewater, contributed to 48%-91% of total emission, was the main source of halogenated flame retardants.

  7. Lipid profiling in sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Fenfen; Wu, Xuemin; Zhao, Luyao; Liu, Xiaohui; Qi, Juanjuan; Wang, Xueying; Wang, Jiawei

    2017-06-01

    High value-added reutilization of sewage sludge from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is essential in sustainable development in WWTPs. However, despite the advantage of high value reutilization, this process must be based on a detailed study of organics in sludge. We used the methods employed in life sciences to determine the profile of lipids (cellular lipids, free fatty acids (FFAs), and wax/gum) in five sludge samples obtained from three typical WWTPs in Beijing; these samples include one sludge sample from a primary sedimentation tank, two activated sludge samples from two Anaerobic-Anoxic-Oxic (A2/O) tanks, and two activated sludge samples from two membrane bioreactor tanks. The percentage of total raw lipids varied from 2.90% to 12.3%. Sludge from the primary sedimentation tank showed the highest concentrations of lipid, FFA, and wax/gum and the second highest concentration of cellular lipids. All activated sludge contained an abundance of cellular lipids (>54%). Cells in sludge can from plants, animals, microbes and so on in wastewater. Approximately 14 species of cellular lipids were identified, including considerable high value-potential ceramide (9567-38774 mg/kg), coenzyme (937-3897 mg/kg), and some phosphatidylcholine (75-548 mg/kg). The presence of those lipid constituents would thus require a wider range of recovery methods for sludge. Both cellular lipids and FFAs contain an abundance of C16-C18 lipids at high saturation level, and they serve as good resources for biodiesel production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Biodegradation of sewage wastewater using autochthonous bacteria.

    PubMed

    Dhall, Purnima; Kumar, Rita; Kumar, Anil

    2012-01-01

    The performance of isolated designed consortia comprising Bacillus pumilus, Brevibacterium sp, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa for the treatment of sewage wastewater in terms of reduction in COD (chemical oxygen demand), BOD (biochemical oxygen demand) MLSS (mixed liquor suspended solids), and TSS (total suspended solids) was studied. Different parameters were optimized (inoculum size, agitation, and temperature) to achieve effective results in less period of time. The results obtained indicated that consortium in the ratio of 1 : 2 (effluent : biomass) at 200 rpm, 35°C is capable of effectively reducing the pollutional load of the sewage wastewaters, in terms of COD, BOD, TSS, and MLSS within the desired discharge limits, that is, 32 mg/L, 8 mg/L, 162 mg/L, and 190 mg/L. The use of such specific consortia can overcome the inefficiencies of the conventional biological treatment facilities currently operational in sewage treatment plants.

  9. Biodegradation of Sewage Wastewater Using Autochthonous Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Dhall, Purnima; Kumar, Rita; Kumar, Anil

    2012-01-01

    The performance of isolated designed consortia comprising Bacillus pumilus, Brevibacterium sp, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa for the treatment of sewage wastewater in terms of reduction in COD (chemical oxygen demand), BOD (biochemical oxygen demand) MLSS (mixed liquor suspended solids), and TSS (total suspended solids) was studied. Different parameters were optimized (inoculum size, agitation, and temperature) to achieve effective results in less period of time. The results obtained indicated that consortium in the ratio of 1 : 2 (effluent : biomass) at 200 rpm, 35°C is capable of effectively reducing the pollutional load of the sewage wastewaters, in terms of COD, BOD, TSS, and MLSS within the desired discharge limits, that is, 32 mg/L, 8 mg/L, 162 mg/L, and 190 mg/L. The use of such specific consortia can overcome the inefficiencies of the conventional biological treatment facilities currently operational in sewage treatment plants. PMID:22272181

  10. Exploration of locomotion in the ParA/ParB system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jindal, Lavisha; Emberly, Eldon

    2015-03-01

    In many bacteria the ParA/ParB system is responsible for actively segregating DNA during replication. ParB precessively moves by hydrolyzing DNA bound ParA-ATP forming a depleted ParA region in its wake. Recent in-vitro experiments have shown that a ParB covered bead can traverse a ParA bound DNA substrate. It has been suggested that the formation of a gradient in ParA leads to diffusion-ratchet like motion of the ParB bead but its origin and potential consequences requires investigation. We have developed a deterministic model for the in-vitro ParA/ParB system and show that any amount of spatial noise in ParA can lead to the spontaneous formation of its gradient. The velocity of the bead is independent of this noise but depends on the scale over which ParA exerts a force on the bead and the scale over which ParB hydrolyzes ParA from the substrate. There is a particular ratio of these scales at which the velocity is a maximum. We also explore the effects of cooperative vs independent rebinding of ParA to the substrate. Our model shows how the driving force for ParB originates and highlights necessary conditions for directed motion in the in-vitro system that may provide insight into the in-vivo behaviour of the ParA/ParB system.

  11. Wastes to Resources: Appropriate Technologies for Sewage Treatment and Conversion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Stephen P.

    Appropriate technology options for sewage management systems are explained in this four-chapter report. The use of appropriate technologies is advocated for its health, environmental, and economic benefits. Chapter 1 presents background information on sewage treatment in the United States and the key issues facing municipal sewage managers.…

  12. Combining mariculture and seawater-based solar ponds

    SciTech Connect

    Lowrey, P.; Ford, R.; Collando, F.; Morgan, J.; Frusti, E. . Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)

    1990-05-01

    Solar ponds have been thoroughly studied as a means to produce electricity or heat, but there may be comparable potential to use solar ponds to produce optimized environments for the cultivation of some aquaculture crops. For this, conventional brine-based solar ponds could be used. This strategy would probably be most suitable at desert sites where concentrated brine was abundant, pond liners might not be needed, and the crop produced could be shipped to market. Generally, a heat exchanger would be required to transfer heat from the solar pond into the culture ponds. Culture ponds could therefore use either fresh or marine water. In contrast, this paper explores seawater-based solar ponds. These are solar ponds which use seawater in the bottom storage zone and fresh water in the upper convective zone. Because the required temperature elevations for mariculture are only about 10{degrees}C, seawater-based solar ponds are conceivable. Seawater-based ponds should be very inexpensive because, by the shore, salt costs would be negligible and a liner might be unnecessary.

  13. Growth, chemical composition and soil properties of Tipuana speciosa (Benth.) Kuntze seedlings irrigated with sewage effluent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Hayssam M.; Khamis, Mohamed H.; Hassan, Fatma A.

    2012-06-01

    This study was carried out at a greenhouse of Sabahia Horticulture Research Station, Alexandria, Egypt, to study the effect of sewage effluent on the growth and chemical composition of Tipuana speciosa (Benth.) Kuntze seedlings as well as on soil properties for three stages. The irrigation treatments were primary-treated wastewater and secondary-treated wastewater, in addition to tap water as control. Therefore, the treated wastewater was taken from oxidation ponds of New Borg El-Arab City. Results of these study revealed that the primary effluent treatment explored the highest significant values for vegetative growth and biomass, compared to the other treatments. In addition, the higher significant concentration and uptake of chemical composition in different plant parts were obtained from the primary effluent treatment during the three stages of irrigation. It was found that the concentration of heavy metals in either plant or soil was below as compared to the world-recommended levels. These findings suggested that the use of sewage effluent in irrigating T. speciosa seedlings grown in calcareous soil was beneficial for the improvement of soil properties and production of timber trees, and also important for the safe manner of disposal of wastewater.

  14. Urban ponds as an aquatic biodiversity resource in modified landscapes.

    PubMed

    Hill, Matthew J; Biggs, Jeremy; Thornhill, Ian; Briers, Robert A; Gledhill, David G; White, James C; Wood, Paul J; Hassall, Christopher

    2017-03-01

    Urbanization is a global process contributing to the loss and fragmentation of natural habitats. Many studies have focused on the biological response of terrestrial taxa and habitats to urbanization. However, little is known regarding the consequences of urbanization on freshwater habitats, especially small lentic systems. In this study, we examined aquatic macro-invertebrate diversity (family and species level) and variation in community composition between 240 urban and 782 nonurban ponds distributed across the United Kingdom. Contrary to predictions, urban ponds supported similar numbers of invertebrate species and families compared to nonurban ponds. Similar gamma diversity was found between the two groups at both family and species taxonomic levels. The biological communities of urban ponds were markedly different to those of nonurban ponds, and the variability in urban pond community composition was greater than that in nonurban ponds, contrary to previous work showing homogenization of communities in urban areas. Positive spatial autocorrelation was recorded for urban and nonurban ponds at 0-50 km (distance between pond study sites) and negative spatial autocorrelation was observed at 100-150 km and was stronger in urban ponds in both cases. Ponds do not follow the same ecological patterns as terrestrial and lotic habitats (reduced taxonomic richness) in urban environments; in contrast, they support high taxonomic richness and contribute significantly to regional faunal diversity. Individual cities are complex structural mosaics which evolve over long periods of time and are managed in diverse ways. This facilitates the development of a wide range of environmental conditions and habitat niches in urban ponds which can promote greater heterogeneity between pond communities at larger scales. Ponds provide an opportunity for managers and environmental regulators to conserve and enhance freshwater biodiversity in urbanized landscapes whilst also facilitating

  15. Organotins' fate in lagoon sewage system: dealkylation and sludge sorption/desorption.

    PubMed

    Ophithakorn, Thiwari; Sabah, Aboubakr; Delalonde, Michele; Bancon-Montigny, Chrystelle; Suksaroj, Thunwadee Tachapattaworakul; Wisniewski, Christelle

    2016-11-01

    Organotin compounds (OTs) have been widely used for their biocidal properties and as stabilizers in various industrial applications. Due to their high toxicity, organotins are subject to many studies regarding their behavior in wastewater treatment plant and aquatic environment. However, few studies are available regarding their behavior in lagoon sewage system, although such treatment is commonly used for sewage treatment in low-population areas. The present study aimed at studying the fate of organotins (monobutyltin (MBT), dibutyltin (DBT), and tributyltin (TBT)) in lagoon sewage system. Short-term experiments, carried out at lab scale, consisted in sampling sludge from aerobic stabilization ponds, and then quantifying sorption and desorption of the different organotin species, as well as their respective transformation, under defined operating conditions (e.g., tributyltin spike and dilution) simulating possible change in the surrounding environment of sludge in the lagoon. Results established that a very important percentage of the OTs was localized in the solid phase of the sludge (more than 98 %), whatever the operating conditions may be; however, transformation and locations of the three OT species differed according to the different conditions of sludge dilution, TBT spiking, and test duration. After dilution of lagoon sludge, TBT desorption from sludge was observed; it was supposed that dealkylation of TBT after desorption occurred rapidly and increased dissolved MBT and DBT in liquid phase; MBT sorbed subsequently on solid phase. The nature of the diluent (i.e., tap water or saline solution) appeared to slightly influence the sludge behavior. After TBT spiking, TBT was supposed to be rapidly sorbed but also transformed in DBT and MBT that would as well sorbed on the sludge, which explained the decrease of these species in the liquid phase. Tests aimed at studying long-term effect of TBT spiking demonstrated that the sorbed species could be remobilized

  16. Ecotoxicity Assessment of Stabilized Sewage Sludge from Municipal Sewage Treatment Plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Włodarczyk, Elżbieta; Próba, Marta; Wolny, Lidia

    2016-09-01

    Aim of this study was to evaluate the ecotoxicity of municipal sewage sludge conditioned with polyelectrolytes, taken from selected sewage treatment plant. Using the bioindication analysis overall toxicity was assessed, which allows to know the total toxicity of all the harmful substances contained in sewage sludge, in many cases acting synergistically. To prepare a sample of sludge for the basic test, all analyses were performed with a ratio of liquid to solid of 10:1 (water extract). Daphnia pulex biological screening test was used. A dilution series of an water extract of sludge were prepared to include within its scope the lowest concentration that causes 100% effect and the highest producing less than 10% of the effect within a specified range of the assay. The results of the test were read after 24 and 48 hours. Based on the research and analysis of test results it proved that the sewage sludge conditioned with polyelectrolytes exhibit the characteristics of eco-toxic.

  17. Effects of light and microbial activity on the degradation of two fluoroquinolone antibiotics in pond water and sediment.

    PubMed

    Lin, Juo-Shan; Pan, Hung-Yu; Liu, Shiu-Mei; Lai, Hong-Thih

    2010-07-01

    Enrofloxacin (ENR) and ciprofloxacin (CIP) are two fluoroquinolone (FQ) antibiotics widely used to treat diseases of human beings and cultured animals. These two FQs are usually detected in the effluent of municipal sewage plants and related aquatic environments. The purpose of this study was to understand the fates of ENR and CIP in aquaculture pond water and a sediment slurry in a laboratory-scale experiment. Effects of light and microbial activity on the degradation of these two FQs were investigated. Results indicated that natural irradiation plays a major role in the degradation of ENR and CIP in pond water and the sediment slurry. The 50 % dissipation times (DT(50)) with non-sterile treatment were 0.01 and 18.4 d for ENR, and 0.04 and 17.3 d for CIP in the water and sediment slurry, respectively. On the other hand, the degradation of ENR and CIP under dark conditions was slow or even hindered, and all of their DT(50) values exceeded 100 d. These two FQs degraded faster in the sediment slurry than in pond water under dark conditions. Artificial ultraviolet (UV) and fluorescence light had similar effects on the degradation of ENR in the pond water and sediment slurry. Degradation of CIP was faster with UV than with fluorescence light treatment, while no such difference was found for ENR degradation. CIP was a degradation product of ENR under both light and dark conditions, and DT(50) values for both compounds were shorter in the presence of light. The phenomenon of biodegradation was observed during degradation of CIP in the sediment slurry under natural light.

  18. Pharmaceutically active compounds in sludge stabilization treatments: anaerobic and aerobic digestion, wastewater stabilization ponds and composting.

    PubMed

    Martín, Julia; Santos, Juan Luis; Aparicio, Irene; Alonso, Esteban

    2015-01-15

    Sewage sludge disposal onto lands has been stabilized previously but still many pollutants are not efficiently removed. Special interest has been focused on pharmaceutical compounds due to their potential ecotoxicological effects. Nowadays, there is scarce information about their occurrence in different sludge stabilization treatments. In this work, the occurrence of twenty-two pharmaceutically active compounds has been studied in sludge from four sludge stabilization treatments: anaerobic digestion, aerobic digestion, composting and lagooning. The types of sludge evaluated were primary, secondary, anaerobically-digested and dehydrated, composted, mixed, aerobically-digested and dehydrated and lagoon sludge. Nineteen of the twenty-two pharmaceutically active compounds monitored were detected in sewage sludge. The most contaminated samples were primary sludge, secondary sludge and mixed sludge (the average concentrations of studied compounds in these sludges were 179, 310 and 142 μg/kg dm, respectively) while the mean concentrations found in the other types of sewage sludge were 70 μg/kg dm (aerobically-digested sludge), 63 μg/kg dm (lagoon sludge), 12 μg/kg dm (composted sludge) and 8 μg/kg dm (anaerobically-digested sludge). The antibiotics ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin were found at the highest concentration levels in most of the analyzed sludge samples (up to 2660 and 4328 μg/kg dm, respectively). Anaerobic-digestion treatment reduced more considerably the concentration of most of the studied compounds than aerobic-digestion (especially in the case of bezafibrate and fluoroquinolones) and more than anaerobic stabilization ponds (in the case of acetaminophen, atenolol, bezafibrate, carbamazepine, 17α-ethinylestradiol, naproxen and salicylic acid). Ecotoxicological risk assessment, of sludge application onto soils, has also been evaluated. Risk quotients, expressed as the ratio between the predicted environmental concentration and the predicted non

  19. Sunlight Inactivation of Fecal Bacteriophages and Bacteria in Sewage-Polluted Seawater

    PubMed Central

    Sinton, Lester W.; Finlay, Rochelle K.; Lynch, Philippa A.

    1999-01-01

    Sunlight inactivation rates of somatic coliphages, F-specific RNA bacteriophages (F-RNA phages), and fecal coliforms were compared in seven summer and three winter survival experiments. Experiments were conducted outdoors, using 300-liter 2% (vol/vol) sewage-seawater mixtures held in open-top chambers. Dark inactivation rates (kDs), measured from exponential survival curves in enclosed (control) chambers, were higher in summer (temperature range: 14 to 20°C) than in winter (temperature range: 8 to 10°C). Winter kDs were highest for fecal coliforms and lowest for F-RNA phages but were the same or similar for all three indicators in summer. Sunlight inactivation rates (kS), as a function of cumulative global solar radiation (insolation), were all higher than the kDs with a consistent kS ranking (from greatest to least) as follows: fecal coliforms, F-RNA phages, and somatic coliphages. Phage inactivation was exponential, but bacterial curves typically exhibited a shoulder. Phages from raw sewage exhibited kSs similar to those from waste stabilization pond effluent, but raw sewage fecal coliforms were inactivated faster than pond effluent fecal coliforms. In an experiment which included F-DNA phages and Bacteroides fragilis phages, the kS ranking (from greatest to least) was as follows: fecal coliforms, F-RNA phages, B. fragilis phages, F-DNA phages, and somatic coliphages. In a 2-day experiment which included enterococci, the initial concentration ranking (from greatest to least: fecal coliforms, enterococci, F-RNA phages, and somatic coliphages) was reversed during sunlight exposure, with only the phages remaining detectable by the end of day 2. Inactivation rates under different optical filters decreased with the increase in spectral cutoff wavelength (50% light transmission) and indicated that F-RNA phages and fecal coliforms are more susceptible than somatic coliphages to longer solar wavelengths, which predominate in seawater. The consistently superior survival

  20. Simulated ground-water flow for a pond-dominated aquifer system near Great Sandy Bottom Pond, Pembroke, Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carlson, Carl S.; Lyford, Forest P.

    2005-01-01

    A ground-water flow simulation for a 66.4-square-mile area around Great Sandy Bottom (GSB) Pond (105 acres) near Pembroke, Massachusetts, was developed for use by local and State water managers to assess the yields for public water supply of local ponds and wells for average climatic and drought conditions and the effects of water withdrawals on nearby water levels and streamflows. Wetlands and ponds cover about 30 percent of the study area and the aquifer system is dominated by interactions between ground water and the ponds. The three largest surface-water bodies in the study area are Silver Lake (640 acres), Monponsett Pond (590 acres), and Oldham Pond (236 acres). The study area is drained by tributaries of the Taunton River to the southwest, the South and North Rivers to the northeast, and the Jones River to the southeast. In 2002, 10.8 million gallons per day of water was exported from ponds and 3.5 million gallons per day from wells was used locally for public supply. A transient ground-water-flow model with 69 monthly stress periods spanning the period from January 1998 through September 2003 was calibrated to stage at GSB Pond and nearby Silver Lake and streamflow and water levels collected from September 2002 through September 2003. The calibrated model was used to assess hydrologic responses to a variety of water-use and climatic conditions. Simulation of predevelopment (no pumping or export) average monthly (1949-2002) water-level conditions caused the GSB Pond level to increase by 6.3 feet from the results of a simulation using average 2002 pumping for all wells, withdrawals, and exports. Most of this decline can be attributed to pumping, withdrawals, and exports of water from sites away from GSB Pond. The effects of increasing the export rate from GSB Pond by 1.25 and 1.5 times the 2002 rate were a lowering of pond levels by a maximum of 1.6 and 2.8 feet, respectively. Simulated results for two different drought conditions, one mild drought similar to

  1. Improving nitrogen reduction in waste stabilisation ponds.

    PubMed

    Archer, H E; O'Brien, B M

    2005-01-01

    This paper reviews the performance of two waste stablisation ponds (WSP) systems in the South Island of New Zealand that have been upgraded to multiple ponds-in-series to improve effluent quality. Results of monitoring are provided which show that it is possible to achieve relatively low ammonia (approximately 1 g/m3) and total nitrogen (approximately 10 g/m3) effluent concentrations through the use of nitrification filter beds (rock trickling filters) and sand filters. Evidence suggests that the nitrification and denitrification processes in the extra biofilm surface area provided by the rock filters or rock bank protection is primarily responsible for the improved effluent quality. The paper also compares the WSP results with effluent quality predicted by published formulae. It is concluded that these formulae do not reliably predict the performance of WSP systems and the development of universally applicable design guidelines would be useful.

  2. Sewage sludge dewatering using flowing liquid metals

    DOEpatents

    Carlson, L.W.

    1985-08-30

    This invention relates generally to the dewatering of sludge, and more particularly to the dewatering of a sewage sludge having a moisture content of about 50 to 80% in the form of small cellular micro-organism bodies having internally confined water.

  3. Sewage Effluent Infiltrates Frozen Forest Soil

    Treesearch

    Alfred Ray Harris

    1976-01-01

    Secondarily treated sewage effluent, applied at the rate of 1 and 2 inches per week, infiltrated a frozen Sparta sand soil forested with jack pine and scrub oak. Maximum frost depth in treated plots averaged 60 cm and in check plots averages 35 cm. Nitrogen was mobile with some accumulation. Phosphorus was absorbed.

  4. Digested sewage sludge gasification in supercritical water.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Yunbo; Wang, Chang; Chen, Hongmei; Li, Caiting; Zeng, Guangming; Pang, Daoxiong; Lu, Pei

    2013-04-01

    Digested sewage sludge gasification in supercritical water was studied. Influences of main reaction parameters, including temperature (623-698 K), pressure (25-35 Mpa), residence time (10-15 min) and dry matter content (5-25 wt%), were investigated to optimize the gasification process. The main gas products were methane, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and traces of ethene, etc. Results showed that 10 wt% dry matter content digested sewage sludge at a temperature of 698 K and residence time of 50 min, with a pressure of 25 MPa, were the most favorable conditions for the sewage sludge gasification and carbon gasification efficiencies. In addition, potassium carbonate (K2CO3) was also employed as the catalyst to make a comparison between gasification with and without catalyst. When 2.6 g K2CO3 was added, a gasification efficiency of 25.26% and a carbon gasification efficiency of 20.02% were achieved, which were almost four times as much as the efficiencies without catalyst. K2CO3 has been proved to be effective in sewage sludge gasification.

  5. Water recovery from sewage using forward osmosis.

    PubMed

    Lutchmiah, Kerusha; Cornelissen, Emile R; Harmsen, Danny J H; Post, Jan W; Lampi, Keith; Ramaekers, Hans; Rietveld, Luuk C; Roest, Kees

    2011-01-01

    This research is part of the Sewer Mining project aimed at developing a new technological concept by extracting water from sewage by means of forward osmosis (FO). FO, in combination with a reconcentration system, e.g. reverse osmosis (RO) is used to recover high-quality water. Furthermore, the subsequent concentrated sewage (containing an inherent energy content) can be converted into a renewable energy (RE) source (i.e. biogas). The effectiveness of FO membranes in the recovery of water from sewage has been evaluated. Stable FO water flux values (>4.3 LMH) were obtained with primary effluent (screened, not treated) used as the feed solution. Fouling of the membrane was also induced and further investigated. Accumulated fouling was found to be apparent, but not irreversible. Sewer Mining could lead to a more economical and sustainable treatment of wastewater, facilitating the extraction of water and energy from sewage and changing the way it is perceived: not as waste, but as a resource.

  6. 33 CFR 159.307 - Untreated sewage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Untreated sewage. 159.307 Section 159.307 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Discharge of Effluents in Certain Alaskan Waters by Cruise...

  7. 33 CFR 159.307 - Untreated sewage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Untreated sewage. 159.307 Section 159.307 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Discharge of Effluents in Certain Alaskan Waters by Cruise...

  8. 33 CFR 159.307 - Untreated sewage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Untreated sewage. 159.307 Section 159.307 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Discharge of Effluents in Certain Alaskan Waters by Cruise...

  9. Sewage Treatment by Controlled Eutrophication: Bacterial Study

    PubMed Central

    Songer, J. Glenn; Smith, Rodney F.; Trieff, N. M.

    1974-01-01

    Several groups of bacteria were isolated and identified in an evaluation of the microbiological properties of a sewage treatment system involving the process of controlled eutrophication in a marine setting (J. G. Songer, N. M. Trieff, R. F. Smith, and D. Grajcer, 1974). Fecal coliforms, enterococci, Salmonellae, Shigellae, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, and Vibrio alginolyticus were studied at three stages of the treatment process. Significant reductions in fecal coliforms (P < 0.01) and enterococci (P < 0.01) were noted from raw sewage to effluent. Salmonellae and Shigellae were not detected at any stage, nor was V. parahaemolyticus. V. alginolyticus was isolated from the effluent only, reflecting the halophilic nature of the organism; low concentrations in raw sewage increased in the more saline effluent. Brine shrimp (Artemia salina), the herbivores in this system, were tested and found to have extremely low numbers of the organisms under study associated with them. Findings point further toward the use of this system as a combined mariculture-sewage treatment facility. PMID:4608162

  10. Home Sewage Disposal. Special Circular 212.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wooding, N. Henry

    This circular provides current information for homeowners who must repair or replace existing on-lot sewage disposal systems. Site requirements, characteristics and preparation are outlined for a variety of alternatives such as elevated sand mounds, sand-lined beds and trenches, and oversized absorption area. Diagrams indicating construction…

  11. In-situ caustic generation from sewage: the impact of caustic strength and sewage composition.

    PubMed

    Pikaar, Ilje; Rozendal, René A; Rabaey, Korneel; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2013-10-01

    Periodic caustic dosage is a commonly used method by the water industry to elevate pH levels and deactivate sewer biofilms responsible for hydrogen sulfide generation. Caustic (NaOH) can be generated in-situ from sewage using a divided electrochemical cell, which avoids the need for transport, handling and storage of concentrated caustic solutions. In this study, we investigated the impact of caustic strength in the cathode compartment and the impact of sodium concentration in sewage on the Coulombic efficiency (CE) for caustic generation. The CE was found to be independent of the caustic strength produced in the range of up to ~3 wt%. Results showed that a caustic solution of ~3 wt% could be produced directly from sewage at a CE of up to 75 ± 0.5%. The sodium concentration in sewage had a significant impact on the CE for caustic generation as well as on the energy requirements of the system, with a higher sodium concentration leading to a higher CE and lower energy consumption. The proton, calcium, magnesium and ammonium concentrations in sewage affected the CE for caustic generation, especially at low sodium concentrations. Economical assessment based on the experimental results indicated that sulfide control in sewers using electrochemically-generated caustic from sewage is an economically attractive strategy.

  12. Utilization of night-soil, sewage, and sewage sludge in agriculture.

    PubMed

    PETRIK, M

    1954-01-01

    The author reviews the agricultural use of night-soil, sewage, and sewage sludge from two points of view: the purely agricultural and the sanitary.Knowledge of the chemistry and bacteriology of human faecal matter is still rather scant, and much further work has to be done to find practical ways of digesting night-soil in a short time into an end-product of high fertilizing value and free of pathogens, parasites, and weeds.More is known about sewage and sewage sludge, but expert opinion is not unanimous as to the manner or the value of their use in agriculture. The author reviews a number of studies and experiments made in many countries of the world on the content, digestion, composting, agricultural value, and epidemiological importance of sewage and sewage sludge, but draws from these the conclusion that the chemistry, biology, and bacteriology of the various methods of treatment and use of waste matter need further investigation. He also considers that standards of quality might be set up for sludge and effluents used in agriculture and for water conservation.

  13. Utilization of night-soil, sewage, and sewage sludge in agriculture

    PubMed Central

    Petrik, Milivoj

    1954-01-01

    The author reviews the agricultural use of night-soil, sewage, and sewage sludge from two points of view: the purely agricultural and the sanitary. Knowledge of the chemistry and bacteriology of human faecal matter is still rather scant, and much further work has to be done to find practical ways of digesting night-soil in a short time into an end-product of high fertilizing value and free of pathogens, parasites, and weeds. More is known about sewage and sewage sludge, but expert opinion is not unanimous as to the manner or the value of their use in agriculture. The author reviews a number of studies and experiments made in many countries of the world on the content, digestion, composting, agricultural value, and epidemiological importance of sewage and sewage sludge, but draws from these the conclusion that the chemistry, biology, and bacteriology of the various methods of treatment and use of waste matter need further investigation. He also considers that standards of quality might be set up for sludge and effluents used in agriculture and for water conservation. PMID:13160760

  14. Local and landscape determinants of amphibian communities in urban ponds.

    PubMed

    Hamer, Andrew J; Parris, Kirsten M

    2011-03-01

    Urbanization is currently responsible for widespread declines of amphibian populations globally through the loss, isolation, and degradation of habitat. However, it is not clear how urbanization affects amphibian communities at both local (pond) and landscape scales. We assessed the breeding distribution of frogs in ponds along an urban-rural gradient in Greater Melbourne, Australia, and examined community relationships with habitat quality and landscape context. We sampled frog larvae at 65 ponds on four separate occasions and collected data on local pond and landscape variables. Using Bayesian Poisson regression modeling we found that species richness decreased at ponds surrounded by high densities of human residents and at ponds with high water conductivity, whereas species richness increased substantially at ponds surrounded by a high proportion of green open space. Ordination of individual species presence-absence data by canonical correspondence analysis largely confirmed these findings. Ordination also highlighted the negative influences of pond shading and density of predatory fish, and the positive influence of aquatic vegetation, on community composition. Individual species' responses to urbanization varied. Urbanization had strong negative effects on species that were associated with well-vegetated, sunny, fish-free ponds. Our study highlights the importance of strategic management actions in urban landscapes to improve terrestrial habitat and connectivity around ponds and other wetlands, and local management actions to improve water quality, remove predatory fish, and plant aquatic vegetation at breeding sites.

  15. Changes in tundra pond limnology: re-sampling Alaskan ponds after 40 years.

    PubMed

    Lougheed, Vanessa L; Butler, Malcolm G; McEwen, Daniel C; Hobbie, John E

    2011-09-01

    The arctic tundra ponds at the International Biological Program (IBP) site in Barrow, AK, were studied extensively in the 1970s; however, very little aquatic research has been conducted there for over three decades. Due to the rapid climate changes already occurring in northern Alaska, identifying any changes in the ponds' structure and function over the past 30-40 years can help identify any potential climate-related impacts. Current research on the IBP ponds has revealed significant changes in the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of these ponds over time. These changes include increased water temperatures, increased water column nutrient concentrations, the presence of at least one new chironomid species, and increased macrophyte cover. However, we have also observed significant annual variation in many measured variables and caution that this variation must be taken into account when attempting to make statements about longer-term change. The Barrow IBP tundra ponds represent one of the very few locations in the Arctic where long-term data are available on freshwater ecosystem structure and function. Continued monitoring and protection of these invaluable sites is required to help understand the implications of climate change on freshwater ecosystems in the Arctic.

  16. Beaver ponds increase methylmercury concentrations in Canadian shield streams along vegetation and pond-age gradients.

    PubMed

    Roy, Virginie; Amyot, Marc; Carignan, Richard

    2009-08-01

    Beaver impoundments flood forested areas and may be important production sites for methylmercury (MeHg) because of the resulting enhanced microbial activity and oxygen depletion. The influence of 17 beaver impoundments on streamwater chemistry (total mercury (THg), MeHg, nutrients, cations, and anions)] was investigated by sampling sites located along vegetation and pond-age gradients in southwestern Quebec (Canada). Recently inundated beaver ponds (< 10 years old) and those located in coniferous watersheds had the highest MeHg concentrations (range, 0.10-4.53 ng L(-1)) and greatest methylation efficiencies (% THg as MeHg; range, 10-74%). High heterotrophic activity likely occurred in the beaver ponds as suggested by depletions of dissolved oxygen, sulfate and nitrite-nitrate concentrations, and increases in nutrients (e.g., dissolved organic carbon, total phosphorus, and total nitrogen) in outlets compared to inlets. Acidic waters at coniferous sites may have stimulated more MeHg production than in mixed woodland regions. Lower methylation efficiencies in older ponds (> 20 years old) may be due to the degradation of less labile organic matter as ponds age. Beavers actively alter watersheds by building impoundments, and our findings indicate that this landscape disturbance may be a significant source of MeHg to downstream water bodies.

  17. Update: Cooling tower and spray pond technology

    SciTech Connect

    Bartz, J.A.

    1995-05-01

    The 9th Cooling Tower and Spray Pond Symposium, under the auspices of the International Association for Hydraulic Research, took place at the von Karman Institute for Fluid Dynamics, Belgium, in September 1994. Technical topics discussed included cooling system design, performance, operation, environmental effects, modeling and components. Symposium proceedings will not be published. However, information of primary interest to staffs of power plants in the United States is summarized in this article.

  18. Holocene closure of Lib Pond, Marshall Islands.

    PubMed

    Myhrvold, Conor L; Janny, Fran; Nelson, Daniel; Ladd, S Nemiah; Atwood, Alyssa; Sachs, Julian P

    2014-01-01

    Well-preserved sediment from closed water bodies of atolls such as Lib Pond are rare opportunities to reconstruct the past regional climate, which pieced together across a latitude and longitude range identify the range of movement patterns of wider scale climate phenomena such as the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) and El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO). We conducted the first physico-chemical survey of Lib Pond, a shallow, closed-water saline lake located on remote and difficult to access Lib Island in the Marshall Islands at 8° 18' 48.99″ N, 167 22' 51.90″ E in the Pacific Ocean, in July 2009. We performed a bathymetric survey, recorded salinity, dissolved oxygen, pH, and temperature profiles, monitored the tidal variability, and conducted a vegetation survey surrounding the lake. From bathymetric data we calculated the lake volume, which we used to estimate the lake's salt budget, and ultimately the residence time of water in the lake basin. We took a series of sediment cores from the lake, cores which indicate Lib Island's changing environment and climate. Radiocarbon measurements determined sediment age, and reveal significant mixing over the last 2 ka of deposition. We conclude that prior to 3 ka, Lib Island was an atoll with a central lagoon connected to the open ocean, which was then closed off from the open ocean to form the brackish system that exists today. We predict that the sediment accumulation in Lib Pond evident today will continue. As seawater is inhibited from exchanging with fresh water, Lib Pond will become a shallower lake with increasingly fresh water.

  19. Holocene Closure of Lib Pond, Marshall Islands

    PubMed Central

    Myhrvold, Conor L.; Janny, Fran; Nelson, Daniel; Ladd, S. Nemiah; Atwood, Alyssa; Sachs, Julian P.

    2014-01-01

    Well-preserved sediment from closed water bodies of atolls such as Lib Pond are rare opportunities to reconstruct the past regional climate, which pieced together across a latitude and longitude range identify the range of movement patterns of wider scale climate phenomena such as the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) and El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO). We conducted the first physico-chemical survey of Lib Pond, a shallow, closed-water saline lake located on remote and difficult to access Lib Island in the Marshall Islands at 8° 18′ 48.99″ N, 167 22′ 51.90″ E in the Pacific Ocean, in July 2009. We performed a bathymetric survey, recorded salinity, dissolved oxygen, pH, and temperature profiles, monitored the tidal variability, and conducted a vegetation survey surrounding the lake. From bathymetric data we calculated the lake volume, which we used to estimate the lake's salt budget, and ultimately the residence time of water in the lake basin. We took a series of sediment cores from the lake, cores which indicate Lib Island's changing environment and climate. Radiocarbon measurements determined sediment age, and reveal significant mixing over the last 2 ka of deposition. We conclude that prior to 3 ka, Lib Island was an atoll with a central lagoon connected to the open ocean, which was then closed off from the open ocean to form the brackish system that exists today. We predict that the sediment accumulation in Lib Pond evident today will continue. As seawater is inhibited from exchanging with fresh water, Lib Pond will become a shallower lake with increasingly fresh water. PMID:24638020

  20. New approaches for Artemia pond culture.

    PubMed

    Van Hoa, Nguyen; Le Tran, Huu; Hong Van, Nguyen Thi; Sorgeloos, P; Van Stappen, G

    2013-01-01

    A project for intensive culture of Artemia in Vinhchau solar saltwork was funded by Soctrang Authority. The aim of this project is to increase the average cyst yield of 50kg.ha-1.crop, and to build up a stable culture technique with a better yield for local farmers. Multiple laboratory experiments were set up with inert food including fermented rice bran, tiger shrimp feed (PL15), as well as their combination with live algae (Chaetoceros). Results showed that, under laboratory conditions, fermented rice bran and tiger shrimp feed can be used as supplemental food sources. The shrimp feed alone or in combination with algae always gave better cyst production compared to the others, but should not account for more than 50% of the diet. In the field trials, aeration of Artemia ponds also increased cyst yields (from 195.8+/-44.2 to 207+/-46.1kg.ha-1.crop with 6 and 12 aeration a day, respectively) compared to ponds with no aeration (88.2+/-27.5kg.ha-1.crop), however the returns on investment (ROI=2.73-2.71 with aera tion vs. 2.24 without) are not significantly different. Utilization of fermented rice bran (20kg.ha-1.day) and shrimp feed (6kg.ha-1.day) as a supplementary feed during pond production in combination with greenwater supplies (10% of pond volume daily) resulted in higher yields (96.0+/-15.9 and 157.2+/-15.0kg.ha-1.crop, respectively) than traditional culture; Shrimp feed as a supplemental feed supported the cyst yield but their negative effect was at a high cost vs. traditional culture and use of fermented rice bran. Based on the cyst yield and ROI, fermented rice bran should be a promising item for poor farmers.

  1. Rapid surface-water volume estimations in beaver ponds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karran, Daniel J.; Westbrook, Cherie J.; Wheaton, Joseph M.; Johnston, Carol A.; Bedard-Haughn, Angela

    2017-02-01

    Beaver ponds are surface-water features that are transient through space and time. Such qualities complicate the inclusion of beaver ponds in local and regional water balances, and in hydrological models, as reliable estimates of surface-water storage are difficult to acquire without time- and labour-intensive topographic surveys. A simpler approach to overcome this challenge is needed, given the abundance of the beaver ponds in North America, Eurasia, and southern South America. We investigated whether simple morphometric characteristics derived from readily available aerial imagery or quickly measured field attributes of beaver ponds can be used to approximate surface-water storage among the range of environmental settings in which beaver ponds are found. Studied were a total of 40 beaver ponds from four different sites in North and South America. The simplified volume-area-depth (V-A-h) approach, originally developed for prairie potholes, was tested. With only two measurements of pond depth and corresponding surface area, this method estimated surface-water storage in beaver ponds within 5 % on average. Beaver pond morphometry was characterized by a median basin coefficient of 0.91, and dam length and pond surface area were strongly correlated with beaver pond storage capacity, regardless of geographic setting. These attributes provide a means for coarsely estimating surface-water storage capacity in beaver ponds. Overall, this research demonstrates that reliable estimates of surface-water storage in beaver ponds only requires simple measurements derived from aerial imagery and/or brief visits to the field. Future research efforts should be directed at incorporating these simple methods into both broader beaver-related tools and catchment-scale hydrological models.

  2. Dispersion of plutonium from contaminated pond sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rees, T.F.; Cleveland, J.M.; Carl, Gottschall W.

    1978-01-01

    Sediment-water distributions of plutonium as a function of pH and contact time are investigated in a holding pond at the Rocky Flats plant of the Department of Energy. Although plutonium has been shown to sorb from natural waters onto sediments, the results of this study indicate that under the proper conditions it can be redispersed at pH 9 and above. Concentrations greater than 900 pCi Pu/L result after 34 h contact at pH 11 or 12 and the distribution coefficient, defined as the ratio of concentration in the sediment to that in the liquid, decreases from 1.1 ?? 105 at pH 7 to 1.2 ?? 103 at pH 11. The plutonium is probably dispersed as discrete colloids or as hydrolytic species adsorbed onto colloidal sediment particles whose average size decreases with increasing pH above pH 9. About 5% of the total plutonium is dispersed at pH 12, and the dispersion seems to readsorb on the sediment with time. Consequently, migration of plutonium from the pond should be slow, and it would be difficult to remove this element completely from pond sediment by leaching with high pH solutions. ?? 1978 American Chemical Society.

  3. Screw pyrolysis technology for sewage sludge treatment.

    PubMed

    Tomasi Morgano, Marco; Leibold, Hans; Richter, Frank; Stapf, Dieter; Seifert, Helmut

    2017-06-07

    Sewage sludge quantities have grown continuously since the introduction of the European Directive (UWWTD 91/271/EEC) relating to the treatment of urban wastewater. In the present, most of the sewage sludge is combusted in single fuels incineration plants or is co-fired in waste incineration or coal power plants. The combustion of sewage sludge is a proven technology. Other treatments, such as fluidized bed gasification, were successfully adopted to produce suitable syngas for power production. Besides, the number of large wastewater treatment plants is relatively small compared to the local rural ones. Moreover, alternative technologies are arising with the main target of nutrients recovery, with a special focus on phosphorus. The aforementioned issues, i.e. the small scale (below 1MW) and the nutrients recovery, suggest that pyrolysis in screw reactors may become an attractive alternative technology for sewage sludge conversion, recovery and recycling. In this work, about 100kg of dried sewage sludge from a plant in Germany were processed at the newly developed STYX Reactor, at KIT. The reactor combines the advantages of screw reactors with the high temperature filtration, in order to produce particle and ash free vapors and condensates, respectively. Experiments were carried out at temperatures between 350°C and 500°C. The yield of the char decreased from 66.7wt.% to 53.0wt.%. The same trend was obtained for the energy yield, while the maximum pyrolysis oil yield of 13.4wt.% was obtained at 500°C. Besides mercury, the metals and the other minerals were completely retained in the char. Nitrogen and sulfur migrated from the solid to the condensate and to the gas, respectively. Based on the energy balance, a new concept for the decentral production of char as well as heat and power in an externally fired micro gas turbine showed a cogeneration efficiency up to about 40%. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Preparation of biochar from sewage sludge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieto, Aurora; María Méndez, Ana; Gascó, Gabriel

    2013-04-01

    Biomass waste materials appropriate for biochar production include crop residues (both field residues and processing residues such as nut shells, fruit pits, bagasse, etc), as well as yard, food and forestry wastes, and animal manures. Biochar can and should be made from biomass waste materials and must not contain unacceptable levels of toxins such as heavy metals which can be found in sewage sludge and industrial or landfill waste. Making biochar from biomass waste materials should create no competition for land with any other land use option—such as food production or leaving the land in its pristine state. Large amounts of agricultural, municipal and forestry biomass are currently burned or left to decompose and release CO2 and methane back into the atmosphere. They also can pollute local ground and surface waters—a large issue for livestock wastes. Using these materials to make biochar not only removes them from a pollution cycle, but biochar can be obtained as a by-product of producing energy from this biomass. Sewage sludge is a by-product from wastewater treatment plants, and contains significant amounts of heavy metals, organic toxins and pathogenic microorganisms, which are considered to be harmful to the environment and all living organisms. Agricultural use, land filling and incineration are commonly used as disposal methods. It was, however, reported that sewage sludge applications in agriculture gives rise to an accumulation of harmful components (heavy metals and organic compounds) in soil. For this reason, pyrolysis can be considered as a promising technique to treat the sewage sludge including the production of fuels. The objective of this work is to study the advantages of the biochar prepared from sewage sludge.

  5. A survey of catfish pond water chemistry parameters for copper toxicity modelling

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Water samples were collected from 20 catfish ponds in 2015 to obtain data useful in predicting copper toxicity and chemical behavior. Ponds were located in major catfish producing areas of west Alabama, east Arkansas, and Mississippi. Pond types included traditional levee ponds, split-ponds, water...

  6. Treatment of piggery wastes in waste stabilization ponds.

    PubMed

    Estrada, V E E; Hernández, D E A

    2002-01-01

    The piggery industry produces high effluent loads. This is due to the high concentration of animals kept in a confined space, foods with high protein content that are not well assimilated by the animals, and poor on-farm water management. In this study, we present the characteristics, design, site selection, soil study, and the construction of a pilot pond system for a family farm located in a warm climate area. The design includes a solids sedimentation phase, an anaerobic pond, a facultative pond and three maturation ponds. Once the system had reached steady state, the organic and bacterial kinetic constants were determined for each pond. The control parameters were determined and the dissolved oxygen and removal efficiency profiles were obtained. The results indicate that the effluent from the second maturation pond complies with the Official Mexican Standard for reuse in agriculture ("1000 FC/100 ml).

  7. Truscott Brine Lake solar-pond system conceptual design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leboeuf, C. M.; May, E. K.

    1982-08-01

    Discussed is a conceptual design study for a system of electricity-producing salt-gradient solar ponds that will provide power to a chloride control project under construction near Truscott, Tex. The chloride control project comprises a 1200-ha (3000-acre) brine impoundment lake to which brine will be pumped from several salty sources in the Wichita River basin. The solar ponds are formed by natural evaporation of the briny water pumped to Truscott. Heat is extraced from the solar ponds and used to drive organic Rankine-cycle generators. Ponds were sized to provide the pumping needs of the chloride control project and the maintenance requirements of the solar ponds. The system includes six solar pond modules for a total area of 63.1 ha, and produces 1290 kW of base load electricity. Although sized for continuous power production, alternative operating scenarios involving production of peak power for shorter durations were also examined.

  8. Directed and persistent movement arises from mechanochemistry of the ParA/ParB system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Longhua; Vecchiarelli, Anthony G.; Mizuuchi, Kiyoshi; Neuman, Keir C.; Liu, Jian

    The segregation of DNA prior to cell division is essential for faithful genetic inheritance. In many bacteria, segregation of the low-copy-number plasmids involves an active partition system composed of ParA ATPase and its stimulator protein ParB. Recent experiments suggest that ParA/ParB system motility is driven by a diffusion-ratchet mechanism in which ParB-coated plasmid both creates and follows a ParA gradient on the nucleoid surface. However, the detailed mechanism of ParA/ParB-mediated directed and persistent movement remains unknown. We develop a theoretical model describing ParA/ParB-mediated motility. We show that the ParA/ParB system can work as a Brownian ratchet, which effectively couples the ATPase-dependent cycling of ParA-nucleoid affinity to the motion of the ParB bound cargo. Paradoxically, the resulting processive motion relies on quenching diffusive plasmid motion through a large number of transient ParA/ParB-mediated tethers to the nucleoid surface. Our work sheds light on a new emergent phenomenon in which non-motor proteins work collectively via mechanochemical coupling to propel cargos -- an ingenious solution shaped by evolution to cope with the lack of processive motor proteins in bacteria.

  9. A gradient maintenance technique for seawater solar ponds

    SciTech Connect

    Kleis, S.J.; Li, H.; Shi, J.

    1997-02-01

    Seawater solar ponds are being evaluated as a means of reducing heat losses from thermal refuge areas in outdoor mariculture ponds during cold weather. The thermal refuge areas are intended to provide a reliable means of protecting fish crops from lethal cold water temperatures in the winter months. A continuous filling technique is demonstrated for use in gradient zone maintenance of the seawater solar ponds. The technique allows indefinite operation of the refuge areas with a minimal amount of fresh water.

  10. A gradient maintenance technique for seawater solar ponds

    SciTech Connect

    Kleis, S.J.; Li, H.; Shi, J.

    1995-11-01

    Seawater solar ponds are being evaluated as a means of reducing heat losses from thermal refuge areas in outdoor mariculture ponds during cold weather. The thermal refuge areas are intended to provide a reliable means of protecting fish crops from lethal cold water temperatures in the winter months. A continuous filling technique is demonstrated for use in gradient zone maintenance of the seawater solar ponds. The technique allows indefinite operation of the refuge areas with a minimal amount of fresh water.

  11. Tracking human sewage microbiome in a municipal wastewater treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Cai, Lin; Ju, Feng; Zhang, Tong

    2014-04-01

    Human sewage pollution is a major threat to public health because sewage always comes with pathogens. Human sewage is usually received and treated by wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) to control pathogenic risks and ameliorate environmental health. However, untreated sewage that flows into water environments may cause serious waterborne diseases, as reported in India and Bangladesh. To examine the fate of the human sewage microbiome in a local municipal WWTP of Hong Kong, we used massively parallel sequencing of 16S rRNA gene to systematically profile microbial communities in samples from three sections (i.e., influent, activated sludge, and effluent) obtained monthly throughout 1 year. The results indicated that: (1) influent sewage bacterial profile reflected the human microbiome; (2) human gut bacterial community was the dominant force shaping influent sewage bacterial profile; (3) most human sewage bacteria could be effectively removed by the WWTP; (4) a total of 75 genera were profiled as potentially pathogenic bacteria, most of which were still present in the effluent although at a very low level; (5) a grouped pattern of bacterial community was observed among the same section samples but a dispersed pattern was found among the different section samples; and (6) activated sludge was less affected by the influent sewage bacteria, but it showed a significant impact on the effluent bacteria. All of these findings provide novel insights toward a mechanistic understanding of the fate of human sewage microbiome in the WWTP.

  12. Modeling sewage leakage to surrounding groundwater and stormwater drains.

    PubMed

    Ly, Duy Khiem; Chui, Ting Fong May

    2012-01-01

    Underground sewage pipe systems deteriorate over time resulting in cracks and joint defects. Sewage thus leaks out and contaminates the surrounding groundwater and the surface water in stormwater drains. Many studies have investigated the problem of sewage leakage but no published studies, to the best knowledge of the authors, have examined the hydrologic interactions between leaky sewage pipes, groundwater and stormwater drains. This study numerically models such interactions using generic conditions in Singapore. It first develops accurate representations of weep holes and leaky sewage pipes, and further shows the long-term and short-term system responses to rainfall events. Some of the implications include: (1) quality of water seeping into the drains tends to be low in dry years; (2) complete contaminant attenuation after pipe rehabilitation takes several years; (3) responses to rainfall events at weep holes are immediate but the effects on sewage leakage might only show up a few days later. The simulation results allow us to better understand the local-scale migration of sewage leakage from a sewage pipe to nearby stormwater drains. With calibrations and verifications with local field data, the modeling framework would be applicable and beneficial to the sewage leakage monitoring and sewage pipe rehabilitation worldwide.

  13. Cold Vacuum Drying facility sanitary sewage collection system design description (SYS 27)

    SciTech Connect

    PITKOFF, C.C.

    1999-07-02

    This document describes the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF) sanitary sewage collection system. The sanitary sewage collection system provides collection and storage of effluents and raw sewage from the CVDF to support the cold vacuum drying process. This system is comprised of a sanitary sewage holding tank and pipes for collection and transport of effluents to the sanitary sewage holding tank.

  14. 7. PUMPING PLANT, SOUTHWEST AND SOUTHEAST SIDES, AND STILLING POND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. PUMPING PLANT, SOUTHWEST AND SOUTHEAST SIDES, AND STILLING POND - Outlook Irrigation District, Pumping Plant & Woodstave Pipe, Hudson Road & Snipes Lateral Road vicinity, Outlook, Yakima County, WA

  15. 7. William E. Barrett, Photographer, August 1975. LOG PONDS LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. William E. Barrett, Photographer, August 1975. LOG PONDS LOOKING WEST FROM POWERHOUSE ROOF. TRANSFORMER SHED IN FOREGROUND. - Meadow River Lumber Company, Highway 60, Rainelle, Greenbrier County, WV

  16. A model of the refreezing of melt ponds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flocco, D.; Feltham, D. L.; Schroeder, D.

    2012-12-01

    Melt ponds form on Arctic sea ice during the melting season and their presence affects the heat and mass balance of the ice cover. Towards the end of the melt season melt ponds cover up to 50% of the sea ice area decreasing the value of the surface albedo by up to 20%. The dramatic impact of melt ponds on the albedo feedback mechanism for sea ice melt has been demonstrated in previous studies. Here, we focus on the refreezing of melt ponds. As the ponds freeze from above, they gradually release latent heat that inhibits basal ice growth. The refreezing process can take up to three months. Within the ASBO (Arctic Synoptic Basin-wide Observations) project we have developed a model of refreezing melt ponds that uses mushy layer theory to describe the sea ice and takes account of the presence of salt in the refreezing melt pond. We use this model to investigate the rate at which melt ponds refreeze, releasing latent heat, and their impact on sea ice growth. Model results are compared with in situ data collected by Ice Mass Balance buoys in the Arctic. Furthermore we will give an estimate of the impact of the melt pond presence on sea ice growth in the Arctic basin.

  17. Minimizing contamination hazards to waterbirds using agricultural drainage evaporation ponds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradford, David F.; Smith, Lynda A.; Drezner, Deborah S.; Shoemaker, J. David

    1991-11-01

    In much of the San Joaquin Valley, California, USA, inadequate drainage of applied irrigation water and accumulating salts in the soil have necessitated the installation of subsurface tile drainage systems to preserve crop productivity. At present, these subsurface drainage waters are disposed of by means of evaporation ponds or discharges into the San Joaquin River. Unfortunately, most of these agricultural drainage waters contain high concentrations of salts and naturally occurring trace elements, such as selenium, and recent evidence indicates that substantial numbers of waterbirds are exposed to contamination by selenium in the evaporation ponds. In order to avoid, minimize, or mitigate the adverse impacts on wildlife using the ponds, alternative pond management methods must be identified and evaluated for implementation. A number of methods have the potential to be cost-effective in significantly reducing the contamination hazard to birds using agricultural evaporation ponds. Twenty general methods were evaluated in this study, and four methods are recommended for implementation: remove levee vegetation, remove windbreaks, deepen the ponds, and haze birds. A number of other methods are recommended for further consideration because they appear to have good prospects for reducing the contamination hazard: steepen interior levee slopes, apply herbicides and insecticides, place netting on pond shorelines, and provide freshwater habitat adjacent to evaporation ponds. It may be necessary to use a combination of methods to effectively control selenium contamination of aquatic birds because it is unlikely that a single affordable pond management method will be able to entirely eliminate the contamination hazard.

  18. Parallel Climate Analysis Toolkit (ParCAT)

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Brian Edward

    2013-06-30

    The parallel analysis toolkit (ParCAT) provides parallel statistical processing of large climate model simulation datasets. ParCAT provides parallel point-wise average calculations, frequency distributions, sum/differences of two datasets, and difference-of-average and average-of-difference for two datasets for arbitrary subsets of simulation time. ParCAT is a command-line utility that can be easily integrated in scripts or embedded in other application. ParCAT supports CMIP5 post-processed datasets as well as non-CMIP5 post-processed datasets. ParCAT reads and writes standard netCDF files.

  19. Ground-water flow and effects of agricultural application of sewage sludge and other fertilizers on the chemical quality of sediments in the unsaturated zone and ground water near Platteville, Colorado, 1985-89

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gaggiani, N.G.

    1995-01-01

    From fall 1985 through 1989, 6,431 dry tons of anaerobic, digested, sewage sludge were applied as a fertilizer on about 1 square mile of sandy farm- land near Platteville, Colorado. Mean nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen concentrations in the surficial aquifer increased during the period of sewage- sludge application. However, the effects of municipal sewage sludge applied to the soil in section 16 are difficult to ascertain because anhydrous ammonia and cattle and chicken manure were applied to section 16 prior to sewage-sludge application and anhydrous ammonia was applied during the period of sewage-sludge application. Mostly ammonia plus organic nitrogen was detected in the unsaturated zone while nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen predominated in the surficial aquifer. The areas of largest concentrations of nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen were in the northeastern and southwestern quarter sections os section 16. Changes in nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen concentrations with depth and time were detected in water samples from the multilevel ground-water sampling devices in the surficial aquifer. Nitrogen probably entered the saturated zone in the irrigated areas and low temporarily ponded areas and moved to the northeast with water in the surficial aquifer.

  20. Overproduction and localization of Mycobacterium tuberculosis ParA and ParB proteins

    PubMed Central

    Maloney, Erin; Madiraju, Murty; Rajagopalan, Malini

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY The ParA and ParB family proteins are required for accurate partitioning of replicated chromosomes. The Mycobacterium tuberculosis genome contains parB, parA and two parA homologs, Rv1708 and Rv3213c. It is unknown if parA and its homologs are functionally related. To understand the roles of ParA and ParB proteins in M. tuberculosis cell cycle, we have evaluated the consequences of their overproduction and visualized their localization patterns in M. smegmatis. We show that cells overproducing of ParA, Rv1708 and Rv3213c and ParB are filamentous and multinucleoidal indicating defects in cell cycle progression. Visualization of green-fluorescent protein fusions of ParA and its homologues showed similar localization patterns with foci at poles, quarter-cell, midcell positions and spiral-like structures indicating that they are functionally related. On the other hand, the ParBGFP fusion protein localized only to the cell poles. The cyan and yellow fluorescent fusion proteins of ParA and ParB, respectively, colocalized at the cell poles indicating that these proteins interact and possibly associate with the chromosomal origin of replication. Collectively our results suggest that the M. tuberculosis Par proteins play important roles in cell cycle progression. PMID:20006309

  1. suPAR: The Molecular Crystal Ball

    PubMed Central

    Thunø, Maria; Macho, Betina; Eugen-Olsen, Jesper

    2009-01-01

    soluble urokinase Plasminogen Activator Receptor (suPAR) levels reflect inflammation and elevated suPAR levels are found in several infectious diseases and cancer. suPAR exists in three forms; suPARI-III, suPARII-III and suPARI which show different properties due to structural differences. Studies suggest that full-length suPAR is a regulator of uPAR/uPA by acting as uPA-scavenger, whereas the cleaved suPARII-III act as a chemotactic agent promoting the immune response via the SRSRY sequence in the linker-region. This review focus on the various suPAR fragments and their involvement in inflammation and pathogenic processes. We focus on the molecular mechanisms of the suPAR fragments and the link to the inflammatory process, as this could lead to medical applications in infectious and pathological conditions. PMID:19893210

  2. Performance evaluation of a natural treatment system for small communities, composed of a UASB reactor, maturation ponds (baffled and unbaffled) and a granular rock filter in series.

    PubMed

    Dias, D F C; Passos, R G; Rodrigues, V A J; Matos, M P de; Santos, C R S; Sperling, M von

    2017-03-08

    Post-treatment of anaerobic reactor effluent with maturation ponds is a good option for small to medium-sized communities in tropical climates. The treatment line investigated, operating in Brazil, with an equivalent capacity to treat domestic sewage from 250 inhabitants, was comprised of a UASB reactor followed by two shallow maturation ponds (unbaffled and baffled) and a granular rock filter (decreasing grain size) in series, requiring an area of only 1.5 m(2).inhabitant(-1). With an overall hydraulic retention time of only 6.7 days, the performance was excellent for a natural treatment system. Based on over two years of continuous monitoring, median removal efficiencies were: BOD = 93%, COD = 79%, TSS = 87%, ammonia = 43% and E. coli = 6.1 log units. The final effluent complied with European discharge standards and WHO guidelines for some forms of irrigation, and showed to be a suitable alternative for treating domestic sewage for small communities in warm areas, especially in developing countries.

  3. Salt-Pond Box Model (SPOOM) and Its Application to the Napa-Sonoma Salt Ponds, San Francisco Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lionberger, Megan L.; Schoellhamer, David H.; Buchanan, Paul A.; Meyer, Scott

    2004-01-01

    A box model to simulate water volume and salinity of a salt pond has been developed by the U.S. Geological Survey to obtain water and salinity budgets. The model, SPOOM, uses the principle of conservation of mass to calculate daily pond volume and salinity and includes a salt crystallization and dissolution algorithm. Model inputs include precipitation, evaporation, infiltration, and water transfers. Salinity and water-surface-elevation data were collected monthly in the Napa-Sonoma Salt-Pond Complex from February 1999 through September 2001 and were used to calibrate and validate the model. The months when water transfers occurred were known but the magnitudes were unknown, so the magnitudes of water transfers were adjusted in the model to calibrate simulated pond volumes to measured pond volumes for three ponds. Modeled salinity was then compared with measured salinity, which remained a free parameter, in order to validate the model. Comparison showed good correlation between modeled and measured salinity. Deviations can be attributed to lack of water-transfer information. Water and salinity budgets obtained through modeling will be used to help interpret ecological data from the ponds. This model has been formulated to be applicable to the Napa-Sonoma salt ponds, but can be applied to other salt ponds.

  4. Oxygen and nitrogen dyamics in split ponds vs. intensive and conventional catfish production ponds

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Split Pond aquaculture system (SP) has captured the attention of catfish producers across the southern U.S. The SP represents a lower cost adaptation of Clemson University’s Partitioned Aquaculture System (PAS). The original PAS design relied on slowly rotating paddlewheels to move water throu...

  5. Oxygen and nitrogen dynamics in split ponds vs. conventional catfish production ponds

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Split Pond aquaculture system (SP) has captured the attention of catfish producers across the southern U.S. The SP represents a lower cost adaptation of Clemson University’s Partitioned Aquaculture System (PAS). The original PAS design relied on slowly rotating paddlewheels to move water throu...

  6. Comparison of phytoplankton communities in catfish split-pond aquaculture systems with conventional ponds.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    There has been a growing interest and use of variations of partitioned aquaculture systems (PAS) in recent years by the southeastern United States of America farmed catfish industry. Split-pond systems, one type of PAS, are designed to better manage fish waste byproducts (e.g., ammonia) and dissolv...

  7. The Magnetism of Ponds: Getting the Most Out of a Class Excursion To a Nearby Pond.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Earley, Chris

    1996-01-01

    Offers suggestions for leading a field trip to a pond. Such field trips encourage children to be comfortable in natural habitats, to ask questions about the natural world and to discuss the validity of the answers, understand that their behavior affects the environment, and take active part in preserving resources. Includes activities and…

  8. Sewage sludge disposal strategies for sustainable development.

    PubMed

    Kacprzak, Małgorzata; Neczaj, Ewa; Fijałkowski, Krzysztof; Grobelak, Anna; Grosser, Anna; Worwag, Małgorzata; Rorat, Agnieszka; Brattebo, Helge; Almås, Åsgeir; Singh, Bal Ram

    2017-03-14

    The main objective of the present review is to compare the existing sewage sludge management solutions in terms of their environmental sustainability. The most commonly used strategies, that include treatment and disposal has been favored within the present state-of-art, considering existing legislation (at European and national level), characterization, ecotoxicology, waste management and actual routs used currently in particular European countries. Selected decision making tools, namely End-of-waste criteria and Life Cycle Assessment has been proposed in order to appropriately assess the possible environmental, economic and technical evaluation of different systems. Therefore, some basic criteria for the best suitable option selection has been described, in the circular economy "from waste to resources" sense. The importance of sewage sludge as a valuable source of matter and energy has been appreciated, as well as a potential risk related to the application of those strategies.

  9. Directed and persistent movement arises from mechanochemistry of the ParA/ParB system

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Longhua; Vecchiarelli, Anthony G.; Mizuuchi, Kiyoshi; Neuman, Keir C.; Liu, Jian

    2015-01-01

    The segregation of DNA before cell division is essential for faithful genetic inheritance. In many bacteria, segregation of low-copy number plasmids involves an active partition system composed of a nonspecific DNA-binding ATPase, ParA, and its stimulator protein ParB. The ParA/ParB system drives directed and persistent movement of DNA cargo both in vivo and in vitro. Filament-based models akin to actin/microtubule-driven motility were proposed for plasmid segregation mediated by ParA. Recent experiments challenge this view and suggest that ParA/ParB system motility is driven by a diffusion ratchet mechanism in which ParB-coated plasmid both creates and follows a ParA gradient on the nucleoid surface. However, the detailed mechanism of ParA/ParB-mediated directed and persistent movement remains unknown. Here, we develop a theoretical model describing ParA/ParB-mediated motility. We show that the ParA/ParB system can work as a Brownian ratchet, which effectively couples the ATPase-dependent cycling of ParA–nucleoid affinity to the motion of the ParB-bound cargo. Paradoxically, this resulting processive motion relies on quenching diffusive plasmid motion through a large number of transient ParA/ParB-mediated tethers to the nucleoid surface. Our work thus sheds light on an emergent phenomenon in which nonmotor proteins work collectively via mechanochemical coupling to propel cargos—an ingenious solution shaped by evolution to cope with the lack of processive motor proteins in bacteria. PMID:26647183

  10. Integrated odour modelling for sewage treatment works.

    PubMed

    Gostelow, P; Parsons, S A; Lovell, M

    2004-01-01

    Odours from sewage treatment works are a significant source of environmental annoyance. There is a need for tools to assess the degree of annoyance caused, and to assess strategies for mitigation of the problem. This is the role of odour modelling. Four main stages are important in the development of an odour problem. Firstly, the odorous molecules must be formed in the liquid phase. They must then transfer from the liquid to the gaseous phase. They are then transported through the atmosphere to the population surrounding the odour source, and are then perceived and assessed by that population. Odour modelling as currently practised tends to concentrate on the transportation of odorants through the atmosphere, with the other areas receiving less attention. Instead, odour modelling should consider each stage in an integrated manner. This paper describes the development of integrated odour models for annoyance prediction. The models describe the liquid-phase transformations and emission of hydrogen sulphide from sewage treatment processes. Model output is in a form suitable for integration with dispersion models, the predictions of which can in turn be used to indicate the probability of annoyance. The models have been applied to both hypothetical and real sewage treatment works cases. Simulation results have highlighted the potential variability of emission rates from sewage treatment works, resulting from flow, quality and meteorological variations. Emission rate variations can have significant effects on annoyance predictions, which is an important finding, as they are usually considered to be fixed and only meteorological variations are considered in predicting the odour footprint. Areas for further development of integrated odour modelling are discussed, in particular the search for improved links between analytical and sensory measurements, and a better understanding of dose/response relationships for odour annoyance.

  11. Biological nitrogen removal from sewage via anammox: Recent advances.

    PubMed

    Ma, Bin; Wang, Shanyun; Cao, Shenbin; Miao, Yuanyuan; Jia, Fangxu; Du, Rui; Peng, Yongzhen

    2016-01-01

    Biological nitrogen removal from sewage via anammox is a promising and feasible technology to make sewage treatment energy-neutral or energy-positive. Good retention of anammox bacteria is the premise of achieving sewage treatment via anammox. Therefore the anammox metabolism and its factors were critically reviewed so as to form biofilm/granules for retaining anammox bacteria. A stable supply of nitrite for anammox bacteria is a real bottleneck for applying anammox in sewage treatment. Nitritation and partial-denitrification are two promising methods of offering nitrite. As such, the strategies for achieving nitritation in sewage treatment were summarized by reviewing the factors affecting nitrite oxidation bacteria growth. Meanwhile, the methods of achieving partial-denitrification have been developed through understanding the microorganisms related with nitrite accumulation and their factors. Furthermore, two cases of applying anammox in the mainstream sewage treatment plants were documented. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Experimental canopy removal enhances diversity of vernal pond amphibians.

    PubMed

    Skelly, David K; Bolden, Susan R; Freidenburg, L Kealoha

    2014-03-01

    Vernal ponds are often treated as protected environments receiving special regulation and management. Within the landscapes where they are found, forest vegetation frequently dominates surrounding uplands and can grow to overtop and shade pond basins. Two bodies of research offer differing views of the role of forest canopy for vernal pond systems. Studies of landscape conversion suggest that removing forest overstory within uplands can cause local extinctions of amphibians by altering terrestrial habitat or hindering movement. Studies of canopy above pond basins imply an opposite relationship; encroachment of overstory vegetation can be associated with local extinctions potentially via changes in light, thermal, and food resource environments. Unresolved uncertainties about the role of forest canopy reveal significant gaps in our understanding of wetland species distributions and dynamics. Any misunderstanding of canopy influences is simultaneously important to managers because current practices emphasize promoting or conserving vegetation growth particularly within buffers immediately adjacent to ponds. We evaluated this apparent contradiction by conducting a landscape-scale, long-term experiment using 14 natural vernal ponds. Tree felling at six manipulated ponds was limited in spatial scope but was nevertheless effective in increasing water temperature. Compared with eight control ponds, manipulated ponds maintained more amphibian species during five years post-manipulation. There was little evidence that any species was negatively influenced, and the reproductive effort of species for which we estimated egg inputs maintained pretreatment population densities in manipulated compared with control ponds. Overall, our experiment shows that a carefully circumscribed reduction of overhead forest canopy can enhance the capacity of vernal ponds to support wildlife diversity and suggests a scale dependence of canopy influences on amphibians. These findings have

  13. Sludge accumulation in polishing ponds treating anaerobically digested wastewater.

    PubMed

    Cavalcanti, P; van Haandel, A; Lettinga, G

    2002-01-01

    When ponds are used for wastewater treatment, settleable solids will form a steadily growing bottom sludge layer, which reduces their effective volume. Eventually this sludge must be removed to ensure that the pond maintains the required retention time to keep performing properly. The settleable solids may either be present in the influent or they are formed during the treatment as a result of algal flocculation. An experimental investigation was carried out to evaluate bottom sludge accumulation in a polishing pond used for treatment of UASB effluent. The mass and composition of the bottom sludge formed in a polishing pond was evaluated after the pilot scale pond had been in operation for 1 year and about 60 m3 of digested wastewater had been treated per m3 of pond. The bottom sludge mass represented a solids accumulation of 70 g per m3 of digested wastewater. About half of these solids were the result of settling of influent solids in the first part of the pond, while the other half was attributable to settling of algae, formed in the pond. It is concluded that the bottom sludge growth in a polishing pond is so low, that desludging during the useful life span of the pond will most likely not be necessary. This leads to the important conclusion that excess sludge discharge from UASB reactors (a major factor in operational costs) may be omitted, if a polishing pond is used for post-treatment. The bottom sludge had a high volatile solids concentration (58%) and the macronutrient fractions were also high (3.9% N and 1.1% P of the TSS mass). The bottom sludge was stable and could be dried directly without problems. The hygienic quality of the bottom sludge was very poor: about half the influent helminth eggs during one year of operation were found in the bottom sludge and the faecal coliform concentration was very high.

  14. First description of underwater acoustic diversity in three temperate ponds

    PubMed Central

    Rybak, Fanny; Depraetere, Marion; Gasc, Amandine; Le Viol, Isabelle; Pavoine, Sandrine; Sueur, Jérôme

    2015-01-01

    The past decade has produced an increased ecological interest in sonic environments, or soundscapes. However, despite this rise in interest and technological improvements that allow for long-term acoustic surveys in various environments, some habitats’ soundscapes remain to be explored. Ponds, and more generally freshwater habitats, are one of these acoustically unexplored environments. Here we undertook the first long term acoustic monitoring of three temperate ponds in France. By aural and visual inspection of a selection of recordings, we identified 48 different sound types, and according to the rarefaction curves we calculated, more sound types are likely present in one of the three ponds. The richness of sound types varied significantly across ponds. Surprisingly, there was no pond-to-pond daily consistency of sound type richness variation; each pond had its own daily patterns of activity. We also explored the possibility of using six acoustic diversity indices to conduct rapid biodiversity assessments in temperate ponds. We found that all indices were sensitive to the background noise as estimated through correlations with the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). However, we determined that the AR index could be a good candidate to measure acoustic diversities using partial correlations with the SNR as a control variable. Yet, research is still required to automatically compute the SNR in order to apply this index on a large data set of recordings. The results showed that these three temperate ponds host a high level of acoustic diversity in which the soundscapes were variable not only between but also within the ponds. The sources producing this diversity of sounds and the drivers of difference in daily song type richness variation both require further investigation. Such research would yield insights into the biodiversity and ecology of temperate ponds. PMID:26587351

  15. Examining Water Quality Variations of Tidal Pond System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chui, T. F. M.; Cui, W.

    2014-12-01

    Brackish tidal shrimp ponds, traditionally referred to as gei wais, have been constructed along coastal areas in many parts of the world. The regular exchange of pond water with the surrounding coastal environment is important as it brings shrimp larvae and nutrients, etc. into and out of the pond. Such a water exchange can reduce the quality of the receiving waters; though there are opposing views recently because farming practices are becoming more sustainable while other sources of pollutions in the surroundings are increasing. This project monitors the water quality of a tidal shrimp pond and its receiving water at high temporal resolution. The pond is located within the wetland complex of Mai Po Nature Reserve in Hong Kong, China. Water quality parameters (i.e., dissolved oxygen, temperature, salinity, pH, water depth and chlorophyll) were recorded at 15-minute interval from December 2013 to March 2014 within the pond and also at its receiving water which is a water channel within a mangrove forest. Data reveals both daily and fortnightly fluctuations. Daily variations in mangrove correspond to both tidal flushing and insolation, whereas those within the pond correspond mainly to insolation. For example, dissolved oxygen in mangrove shows two peaks daily which correlate with tidal elevation, and that within the pond shows only one peak which correlates with sunlight. Dissolved oxygen within the pond also shows a fortnightly pattern that corresponds to the schedule of water exchange. Such high temporal resolution of monitoring reveals the two-way water quality influences between the pond and the mangrove. It sheds insights that can possibly lead to refinement of water exchange practice and water sampling schedule given the temporal variations of the water quality both inside and outside the pond. It thus enables us to take a step closer in adopting more sustainable farming practices despite increasing pollution in the surrounding areas.

  16. The critical role of islands for waterbird breeding and foraging habitat in managed ponds of the South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project, South San Francisco Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ackerman, Joshua T.; Hartman, C. Alex; Herzog, Mark P.; Smith, Lacy M.; Moskal, Stacy M.; De La Cruz, Susan E. W.; Yee, Julie L.; Takekawa, John Y.

    2014-01-01

    The South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project aims to restore 50–90 percent of former salt evaporation ponds into tidal marsh in South San Francisco Bay, California. However, large numbers of waterbirds use these ponds annually as nesting and foraging habitat. Islands within ponds are particularly important habitat for nesting, foraging, and roosting waterbirds. To maintain current waterbird populations, the South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project plans to create new islands within former salt ponds in South San Francisco Bay. In a series of studies, we investigated pond and individual island attributes that are most beneficial to nesting, foraging, and roosting waterbirds.

  17. Occurrence of Cytophagas in Sewage Plants

    PubMed Central

    Güde, Hans

    1980-01-01

    With the application of plate count methods and of the KOH-flexirubin test, bacteria belonging to the Cytophaga group were proved to occur regularly in samples from biological sewage treatment facilities. Generally, the percentage of Cytophaga colonies of the total heterotrophic colonies was lowest in the inflow sewage water as compared with the values found in activated sludge, trickling filter, and effluent samples. During an observation period of 16 months, the highest percentages of cytophagas were found in winter samples from activated sludge and trickling filters. Furthermore, cytophagas were shown to have high percentages of the bacteria lytic to polymeric substrates such as cellulose, chitin, dextran, pectin, xylan, and gelatin. Thus, it is suggested that cytophagas may contribute to sewage purification, especially at cold temperatures and by polymer breakdown. Cytophaga strains isolated were shown to have gliding motility, flexirubin pigmentation, and a low guanine plus cytosine base ratio in common. The strains were roughly subdivided into a spreading, a nonspreading, and a cellulolytic group. PMID:16345539

  18. Urban energy mining from sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Kwon, E E; Yi, H; Kwon, H H

    2013-01-01

    This work showed that sewage sludge could be a strong candidate for biodiesel production. High lipid content (18-20%) with C(16-18)-carbon range was experimentally identified and measured. These lipids from sewage sludge were converted into biodiesel via the transesterification reaction with MgO-CaO/Al(2)O(3) derived from magnesium slag, and biodiesel conversion was ~98%. The experimental work enabled explaining that temperature is the main driving force for the transesterification reaction, which can be enhanced in the presence of CO(2). This also enables combination of esterification of free fatty acids and transesterification of triglycerides into a single process within 1 min in the temperature range of 350-500°C. Sewage sludge residue after extracting lipids was also a good feedstock for recovering energy via thermo-chemical processes. The impact of CO(2) co-feed on the pyrolysis/gasification process of SS residue was also investigated in this work. The CO(2) injected into the thermo-chemical process remarkably increased the generation of CO by a factor of 2. Moreover, the introduction of CO(2) into the pyrolysis/gasification process enabled reducing condensable hydrocarbons (tar) by expediting cracking; thus, utilizing CO(2) as chemical feedstock for the gasification process not only leads to higher thermal efficiency but also has environmental benefits.

  19. Odour measurements for sewage treatment works.

    PubMed

    Gostelow, P; Parsons, S A; Stuetz, R M

    2001-03-01

    Public concern over odours from sewage treatment works is increasing. More people are being exposed to odours, due to development around existing works or construction of new works. Increased awareness of both the environment and individual rights has meant people are now more likely to complain. Odour abatement and control is a major issue for sewage works operators. To control odours, they must first be measured. This is no easy task as response to odours is subjective. Our understanding of the sense of smell is incomplete, and there is no single measure that will directly relate to the likelihood of complaint. Odour measurement has often been regarded as an art as opposed to a science. Odour measurement techniques fall into two classes. Sensory measurements employ the human nose and measure the effects of the odour as perceived by an observer. Analytical measurements characterise odours in terms of their chemical composition and attempt to quantify the odorants present. Both methods are less than ideal--sensory measurements can be overly subjective and the interpretation of results requires care. Analytical measurements are complicated by the large number of odorants present, often at concentrations close to detection limits. Our incomplete understanding of odour perception makes linking analytical and sensory measurements difficult. This paper reviews the methods applied to sewage treatment works odour measurement. Sensory and analytical measurements are reviewed, along with a recent development, the electronic nose.

  20. Estrogens from sewage in coastal marine environments.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, Shannon; Atkinson, Marlin J; Tarrant, Ann M

    2003-04-01

    Estrogens are ancient molecules that act as hormones in vertebrates and are biologically active in diverse animal phyla. Sewage contains natural and synthetic estrogens that are detectable in streams, rivers, and lakes. There are no studies reporting the distribution of steroidal estrogens in marine environments. We measured estrogens in sewage, injection-well water, and coastal tropical and offshore tropical water in the Pacific Ocean, western Atlantic Ocean, and Caribbean Sea. Concentrations of unconjugated estrone ranged from undetectable (< 40 pg/L) in the open ocean to nearly 2,000 pg/L in Key West, Florida, and Rehoboth Bay, Delaware (USA); estrone concentrations were highest near sources of sewage. Enzymatic hydrolysis of steroid conjugates in seawater samples indicated that polar conjugates comprise one-half to two-thirds of "total estrone" (unconjugated plus conjugated) in Hawaiian coastal samples. Adsorption to basalt gravel and carbonate sand was less than 20% per week and indicates that estrogens can easily leach into the marine environment from septic fields and high-estrogen groundwater. Of 20 sites (n = 129 samples), the mean values from 12 sites were above the threshold concentration for uptake into coral, indicating that there is a net uptake of anthropogenic steroidal estrogen into these environments, with unknown impacts.

  1. Ammonia sanitisation of sewage sludge using urea.

    PubMed

    Fidjeland, Jørgen; Lalander, Cecilia; Jönsson, Håkan; Vinnerås, Björn

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to develop a simple, low-cost treatment for sewage sludge using urea as a sanitising agent. Sewage sludge was spiked with Enterococcus faecalis and Salmonella typhimurium, treated with 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2% w/w urea at laboratory scale, and the viability was monitored during 4 months of storage at 4, 10 and 22 °C (only 0.5%). A linear relationship was identified between Salmonella spp. inactivation rate and ammonia (NH3) concentration. Temperature had a positive impact on Salmonella spp. inactivation at higher temperatures, but in the range 4-10 °C temperature influenced this inactivation merely by its impact on the ammonia equilibrium. Enterococcus spp. was more persistent and a lag phase of up to 11 weeks was observed. Higher temperature and ammonia concentration reduced the lag phase duration significantly, and also had a clear effect on the inactivation rate for the treatments with 0.5% urea at 22 °C and 2% urea at 4 and 10 °C. Urea sanitisation of sewage sludge can give a 2 log10 reduction of Enterococcus spp. and more than a 5 log10 reduction of Salmonella spp. within 6 weeks with either 0.5% w/w urea at 22 °C or 2% urea at 10 °C.

  2. Water Hyacinths and Alligator Weeds for Final Filtration of Sewage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolverton, B. C.; Mcdonald, R. C.; Gordon, J.

    1976-01-01

    The potential of water hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes) (Mart.) Solms and alligator weeds (Alternanthera philoxerides) (Mart.) Griesb. as secondary and tertiary filtration systems for domestic sewage was demonstrated. These two vascular aquatic plants reduced the suspended solids, total Kjeldahl nitrogen, total phosphorus, BOD sub 5, and total organic carbon levels in domestic sewage from 60 percent to 98 percent within a two week period. These plants grown in domestic sewage were also free of toxic levels of trace heavy metals.

  3. From poison ponds to pleasure spots.

    PubMed

    Rao, E Nageswara

    2008-10-01

    The Hyderabad Metropolitan Area had 562 lakes at one time, but only 162 now remain. These are polluted to various degrees and pose environmental and health hazards. The Hussain Sagar Lake provided water for irrigation and drinking until 1930 and supported aquatic life till 1976. It is now contaminated by organic chemicals discharged by many industrial estates in its basin. An estimated 28,190 cmum of industrial effluents and domestic sewage are let into it daily. Phenols, benzenes, cyanides, and toxic metals make it poisonous. The ground water around the lake is also polluted. The polluted lakes ruin vegetable farms, kill fetuses in the womb, and cause mental retardation, still births, and infertility. In the city's outskirts, clinically confirmed cancer is 11 times higher and heart ailments 16 times more than elsewhere. The Hyderabad Urban Development Authority (HUDA) took up a Lake Conservation and Restoration Project as part of its Green Environment Program in 2002. Several lakes have been restored by setting up effluent (or sewage) treatment plants. HUDA also built lake parks with recreation facilities and environment education centers. HUDA also organized jointly with the World Water Institute, Pune, India, an international workshop on urban lake conservation and management in June 2003. It adopted the Hyderabad Declaration which, among other things, states the worthy aim of restoring all the water bodies by 2009. Even if it takes a few more years, the restoration of all the polluted lakes will usher in multiple benefits to Hyderabad citizens.

  4. Box Model of a Series of Salt Ponds, as Applied to the Alviso Salt Pond Complex, South San Francisco Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lionberger, Megan A.; Schoellhamer, David H.; Shellenbarger, Gregory; Orlando, James L.; Ganju, Neil K.

    2007-01-01

    This report documents the development and application of a box model to simulate water level, salinity, and temperature of the Alviso Salt Pond Complex in South San Francisco Bay. These ponds were purchased for restoration in 2003 and currently are managed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to maintain existing wildlife habitat and prevent a build up of salt during the development of a long-term restoration plan. The model was developed for the purpose of aiding pond managers during the current interim management period to achieve these goals. A previously developed box model of a salt pond, SPOOM, which calculates daily pond volume and salinity, was reconfigured to simulate multiple connected ponds and a temperature subroutine was added. The updated model simulates rainfall, evaporation, water flowing between the ponds and the adjacent tidal slough network, and water flowing from one pond to the next by gravity and pumps. Theoretical and measured relations between discharge and corresponding differences in water level are used to simulate most flows between ponds and between ponds and sloughs. The principle of conservation of mass is used to calculate daily pond volume and salinity. The model configuration includes management actions specified in the Interim Stewardship Plan for the ponds. The temperature subroutine calculates hourly net heat transfer to or from a pond resulting in a rise or drop in pond temperature and daily average, minimum, and maximum pond temperatures are recorded. Simulated temperature was compared with hourly measured data from pond 3 of the Napa?Sonoma Salt Pond Complex and monthly measured data from pond A14 of the Alviso Salt-Pond Complex. Comparison showed good agreement of measured and simulated pond temperature on the daily and monthly time scales.

  5. Sewage pollution: mitigation is key for coral reef stewardship.

    PubMed

    Wear, Stephanie L; Thurber, Rebecca Vega

    2015-10-01

    Coral reefs are in decline worldwide, and land-derived sources of pollution, including sewage, are a major force driving that deterioration. This review presents evidence that sewage discharge occurs in waters surrounding at least 104 of 112 reef geographies. Studies often refer to sewage as a single stressor. However, we show that it is more accurately characterized as a multiple stressor. Many of the individual agents found within sewage, specifically freshwater, inorganic nutrients, pathogens, endocrine disrupters, suspended solids, sediments, and heavy metals, can severely impair coral growth and/or reproduction. These components of sewage may interact with each other to create as-yet poorly understood synergisms (e.g., nutrients facilitate pathogen growth), and escalate impacts of other, non-sewage-based stressors. Surprisingly few published studies have examined impacts of sewage in the field, but those that have suggest negative effects on coral reefs. Because sewage discharge proximal to sensitive coral reefs is widespread across the tropics, it is imperative for coral reef-focused institutions to increase investment in threat-abatement strategies for mitigating sewage pollution. © 2015 The Authors. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences published by Wiley Periodicals Inc. on behalf of The New York Academy of Sciences.

  6. The economics of the disposal of sewage and trade effluents*

    PubMed Central

    Townend, C. B.

    1959-01-01

    In this review of the economics of the disposal of sewage and trade wastes, the author touches on all aspects of the subject, from the annual costs of sewerage and sewage-disposal services in England and Wales, and what he terms the “uneconomics” of pollution of natural waters, to the financing of capital expenditure on the construction of new sewage works and equipment and on alterations to existing works. He discusses the purposes and relative costs of the various processes in the treatment of domestic sewage and outlines the special problems involved in the disposal of trade wastes. PMID:13839093

  7. [Ambroise Paré, landlord].

    PubMed

    Pion-Graff, Joëlle; Bonnichon, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    Paré is well-known through many papers. His incomes allowed him to have a middle-class Parisian living. It is impossible to have an accurate knowledge of his fortune before his death but we have a good idea of his landed property. In fact as a Parishioner of Saint-Andre-des-Arts Church he probably was a landlord only in Paris and its vicinity with a building (rue de l'Hirondelle), two houses (rue Garancière), Meudon, Cormeille-en-Parisis and La-Ville-Du-Bois which the authors describe the present state of.

  8. Cannibalism in single-batch hybrid catfish production ponds

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Hybrid catfish are more efficiently harvested by seining than are Channel Catfish. Due to that, and their faster growth, hybrids are typically produced in “single-batch” production systems, either in intensively-aerated commercial ponds or in split-pond systems. In either production system, hybrids...

  9. Amphibian Oasis: Designing and Building a Schoolyard Pond.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gosselin, Heather; Johnson, Bob

    1996-01-01

    Building a pond in a schoolyard is a rewarding way to help boost local populations of amphibians, to increase the natural value of school grounds, and to serve as a locale for observing the life cycles of plants, invertebrates, and amphibians. This article outlines important considerations in designing and building a pond from siting through…

  10. Effects of riparian buffers on hydrology of northern seasonal ponds

    Treesearch

    Randall K. Kolka; Brian J. Palik; Daniel P. Tersteeg; James C. Bell

    2011-01-01

    Although seasonal ponds are common in northern, glaciated, forested landscapes, forest management guidelines are generally lacking for these systems. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of riparian buffer type on seasonal pond hydrology following harvest of the adjacent upland forest. A replicated block design consisting of four buffer treatments...

  11. Gauging the Health of New England's Lakes and Ponds

    EPA Science Inventory

    The New England Lakes and Ponds Project provides a consistent and first time comprehensive assessment of the ecological and water quality condition of lakes and ponds across the New England region. The project is being conducted by EPA along with the New England Interstate Water...

  12. Amphibian Oasis: Designing and Building a Schoolyard Pond.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gosselin, Heather; Johnson, Bob

    1996-01-01

    Building a pond in a schoolyard is a rewarding way to help boost local populations of amphibians, to increase the natural value of school grounds, and to serve as a locale for observing the life cycles of plants, invertebrates, and amphibians. This article outlines important considerations in designing and building a pond from siting through…

  13. STORMWATER TREATMENT: WET/DRY PONDS VS. CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Extant data were used to assess the relative effectiveness of ponds vs. wetland-type BMPs. Compared to wet ponds, wetlands tended toward higher constituent concentrations in effluent, were inefficient at nitrogen removal, and appeared to preferentially retain phosphorous. These d...

  14. Falling head ponded infiltration in the nonlinear limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Triadis, D.

    2014-12-01

    The Green and Ampt infiltration solution represents only an extreme example of behavior within a larger class of very nonlinear, delta function diffusivity soils. The mathematical analysis of these soils is greatly simplified by the existence of a sharp wetting front below the soil surface. Solutions for more realistic delta function soil models have recently been presented for infiltration under surface saturation without ponding. After general formulation of the problem, solutions for a full suite of delta function soils are derived for ponded surface water depleted by infiltration. Exact expressions for the cumulative infiltration as a function of time, or the drainage time as a function of the initial ponded depth may take implicit or parametric forms, and are supplemented by simple asymptotic expressions valid for small times, and small and large initial ponded depths. As with surface saturation without ponding, the Green-Ampt model overestimates the effect of the soil hydraulic conductivity. At the opposing extreme, a low-conductivity model is identified that also takes a very simple mathematical form and appears to be more accurate than the Green-Ampt model for larger ponded depths. Between these two, the nonlinear limit of Gardner's soil is recommended as a physically valid first approximation. Relative discrepancies between different soil models are observed to reach a maximum for intermediate values of the dimensionless initial ponded depth, and in general are smaller than for surface saturation without ponding.

  15. Attributes of successful stock water ponds in southern Arizona

    Treesearch

    Barry L. Imler; Richard H. Wawkins; D. Phillip Guertin; Don W. Young

    2000-01-01

    The attributes of 20 ponds (or stock tanks) on the Nogales Ranger District of the Coronado National Forest were studied in detail by groups. Two contrasting groups, judged to be either functional (n = 11) or nonfunctional (n = 9) were used in the study. Differences between the groups were evaluated on the basis of attributes of the ponds themselves, the contributing...

  16. Effects of acidification on algal assemblages in temporary ponds

    SciTech Connect

    Glackin, M.E.; Pratt, J.R.

    1994-12-31

    Atmospheric deposition monitoring in Pennsylvania has characterized a steep gradient of acidic ion depositions across the north-central portion of the state. This study evaluated acidification effects on the composition of algal assemblages in temporary ponds in two forested areas exposed to atmospheric deposition that varied in degree of acidity. Artificial substrates were used to sample and compare the algal assemblages in the two areas. Colonized communities were also transplanted to lower pH ponds to observe changes in species composition. A laboratory microcosm experiment manipulating pH was conducted to reduce the variables that differed between the two areas. Fewer algal taxa were present in lower pH ponds, on colonized substrates after transplant to lower pH ponds, and in lower pH laboratory treatments. Species composition was altered in the lower pH conditions. Most taxa that were excluded from the lower pH ponds naturally also did not survive when experimentally introduced to those conditions. These results suggest that acidification of temporary ponds can alter the structure of algal communities. There is interest in a possible link between acid deposition and reports of worldwide declines in amphibian populations. Algae are an important food source for larval amphibians, such as the wood frog, which require temporary ponds to breed. Changes in algal species composition could potentially impact the temporary pond and forest ecosystem.

  17. Gauging the Health of New England's Lakes and Ponds

    EPA Science Inventory

    The New England Lakes and Ponds Project provides a consistent and first time comprehensive assessment of the ecological and water quality condition of lakes and ponds across the New England region. The project is being conducted by EPA along with the New England Interstate Water...

  18. Delayed feeding of channel catfish fry stocked in ponds

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We compared production variables between channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, nursery ponds fed according to industry standards, that is feeding immediately at stocking, to an alternative practice of delaying feeding for 6 wk after stocking in an effort to utilize natural pond productivity and red...

  19. A model of the refreezing of melt ponds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flocco, D.; Feltham, D. L.; Shroeder, D.

    2012-04-01

    Melt ponds form on Arctic sea ice during the melting season and their presence affects the heat and mass balance of the ice cover. Towards the end of the melt season melt ponds cover up to 50% of the sea ice area decreasing the value of the surface albedo by up to 20%. The dramatic impact of melt ponds on the albedo feedback mechanism for sea ice melt has been demonstrated in previous studies. Here, we focus on the refreezing of melt ponds. As the ponds freeze from above, they gradually release latent heat that inhibits basal ice growth. The refreezing process can take up to three months. Within the ASBO (Arctic Synoptic Basin-wide Observations) project we have developed a model of refreezing melt ponds that uses mushy layer theory to describe the sea ice and takes account of the presence of salt in the refreezing melt pond. We use this model to investigate the rate at which melt ponds refreeze, releasing latent heat, and their impact on sea ice growth. Model results are compared with in situ data collected by Ice Mass Balance buoys in the Arctic.

  20. Characteristics of sewage sludge and distribution of heavy metal in plants with amendment of sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Dai, Jia-yin; Chen, Ling; Zhao, Jian-fu; Ma, Na

    2006-01-01

    In order to better understand land application of sewage sludge, the characterization of heavy metals and organic pollutants were investigated in three different sewage sludges in Shanghai City, China. It was found that the total concentrations of Cd in all of sewage sludge and total concentrations of Zn in Jinshan sewage sludge, as well as those of Zn, Cu, and Ni in Taopu sludge are higher than Chinese regulation limit of pollutants for sludge to be used in agriculture. Leachability of Hg in all of studied samples and that of Cd in Taopu sewage sludge exceed the limit values of waste solid extraction standard in China legislation. Based on the characteristics for three kinds of sewage sludge, a pot experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of soil amended with Quyang sewage sludge on the accumulation of heavy metal by Begonia semperflorens-hybr; Ophiopogon japonicus (L.F.) Ker-Gaw; Loropetalum chindense-var. rubrum; Dendranthema morifolium; Viola tricolor; A ntirrhinum majus; Buxus radicans Sieb; Viburnum macrocephalum; Osmanthus fragrans Lour; Cinnamomum camphora siebold and Ligustrum lucidum ait. Results showed that 8 species of plant survived in the amended soil, and moreover they flourished as well as those cultivated in the control soil. The heavy metal concentration in plants varied with species, As, Pb, Cd and Cr concentration being the highest in the four herbaceous species studied, particularly in the roots of D. morifolium. These plants, however, did not show accumulator of As, Pb, Cd and Cr. The highest concentration of Ni and Hg was found in the roots of D. morifolium, followed by the leaves of B. semperflorens-hybr. Levels of Zn and Cu were much higher in D. morifolium than in the other plant species. D. morifolium accumulated Ni, Hg, Cu and Zn, which may contribute to the decrease of heavy metal contents in the amended soil. Treatment with sewage sludge did not significantly affect the uptake of heavy metals by the L. chindense-var. rubrum

  1. Fate of permethrin in model outdoor ponds

    SciTech Connect

    Rawn, G.P.; Webster, G.R.; Muir, D.C.

    1982-01-01

    In 1979 and 1980, outdoor artificial ponds were treated with /sup 14/C-permethrin (labelled at either the cyclopropyl or methylene position) at 0.028 kg/ha (15 ug/L). Uptake of permethrin by duckweed and hydrosoil was monitored by direct combustion, TLC-autoradiography, HPLC, and liquid scintillation counting. Rapid loss of permethrin from the water coincided with the detection of five degradation products in the water at concentrations below 2.0 ug/L. The products were cis- and trans-cyclopropyl acid, phenoxybenzoic acid, and phenoxybenzyl alcohol, and an unknown non-cleaved product of permethrin. Permethrin was readily sorbed by duckweed but was not persistent. Permethrin residues in the hydrosoil, which was the major sink for permethrin added to the ponds, were persistent and were detected at 420 days post-treatment. Cis-permethrin was more persistent in the hydrosoil than the trans-permethrin. The results indicated that permethrin in water was short-lived at an application rate of 15 ug/L because of the rapid degradation of permethrin in the water and sorption of permethrin by the hydrosoil and vegetation. However, at one year post-treatment, permethrin residues were still detected in the hydrosoil at 1.0 ug/kg.

  2. 2101-M Pond hydrogeologic characterization report

    SciTech Connect

    Chamness, M.A.; Luttrell, S.P.; Bates, D.J.; Martin, W.J.

    1990-09-01

    This report documents information collected by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory {sup (a)} at the request of Westinghouse Hanford Company. Presented in this report is the interpretation of the hydrogeologic environment at the 2101-M Pond, located in the 200-East Area of the Hanford Site. This information and its accompanying interpretation were derived from sampling and testing activities associated with the installation of four ground-water monitoring wells, in addition to data gathered from several previously existing wells. The new monitoring wells were installed as part of a groundwater monitoring program initiated in 1988. The four new monitoring wells were installed around the 2101-M Pond between May 23 and August 27, 1988. Geologic sampling, aquifer testing, and initial ground-water sampling were performed during the installation of these wells. Laboratory analyses of the sediment samples for particle size, calcium carbonate content, and selected natural and contaminant constituents were performed. A full year of quarterly ground-water sampling and the first statistical analysis of background and downgradient data have also been performed. 112 refs., 49 figs., 18 tabs.

  3. Growth of Vetiveria zizanioides and Phragmities australis on Pb/Zn and Cu mine tailings amended with manure compost and sewage sludge: a greenhouse study.

    PubMed

    Chiu, K K; Ye, Z H; Wong, M H

    2006-01-01

    The Lechang lead/zinc (Pb/Zn) mine and Dabao Shan copper (Cu) mine are located at the north of Guangdong Province in southern China. The residual tailings were permanently stored in tailings ponds which required revegetation to reduce their impact on the environment. A greenhouse study was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of using Vetiveria zizanioides (vetiver) and Phragmities australis (common reed) for the reclamation of Pb/Zn and Cu mine tailings and to evaluate the effects of organic amendments using manure compost (11.00, 22.03, 44.05 and 88.10 t/ha) and sewages sludge (11.00, 22.03, 44.05 and 88.10 t/ha) on the revegetation of these tailings. The results revealed that the applications of manure compost or sewage sludge not only increased N, P and K concentrations, but also decreased DTPA-extractable Pb and Zn contents in Pb/Zn tailings and DTPA-extractable Cu contents in Cu tailings. For Pb/Zn mine tailings, application of sewage sludge increased the yields of both species (highest yield at 44.05 t/ha), but not manure compost. For Cu mine tailings, application of manure compost (highest yield for both species at 44.05 and 22.03 t/ha for vetiver and common reed accordingly) or sewage sludge (highest yield at 22.03 and 44.05 t/ha for vetiver and common reed accordingly) increased the yield of both species. In general, vetiver achieved a higher yield when compared with common reed, under the same treatment. Plant tissue analysis showed that application of manure compost and sewage sludge could significantly reduce Pb uptake and accumulation, but not Cu in both vetiver and common reed.

  4. Phytoremediation efficiency of Eichhornia crassipes in fly ash pond.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Vimal Chandra

    2016-01-01

    The present study was focused on field research to examine the phytoremediation potential of naturally grown Eichhornia crassipes in fly ash (FA) pond. Field results indicate the efficiency of E. crassipes for remediation of heavy metals from FA pond. The bioconcentration factor trend was Cr (3.75) > Cu (2.62) > Cd (1.05), and Cu (1.35) in root and stem, respectively. The survival and abundance growth of E. crassipes in the circumstance of heavy metal enriched FA pond is another highlight of the present research that reveals its toxitolerant characteristics. Thus, this lesson on phytoremediation proved that E. crassipes is a potential accumulator of Cu, Cr, and Cd from FA ponds and is a promising species for FA pond's remediation globally.

  5. Walden Pond, Massachusetts: Environmental Setting and Current Investigations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Colman, John A.; Waldron, Marcus C.

    1998-01-01

    Introduction Walden Pond, in Concord, Massachusetts, is famous among lakes because of its unique social history. Walden was the setting for American naturalist Henry David Thoreau's well-known essay 'Walden; or, Life in the Woods,' first published in 1854. Thoreau lived and wrote at Walden Pond from July 1845 to September 1847. In 'Walden,' Thoreau combined highly admired writing on Transcendental philosophy with pioneering observations of aquatic ecology and physical aspects of limnology, the study of lakes. Because Thoreau also defended so effectively the value of living close to nature in the Walden woods, the pond is considered by many to be the birthplace of the American conservation movement. Visitors come from all over the world to the pond, which has been designated a National Historic Landmark, and its fame has resulted in a major fund drive to preserve the surrounding woods. Walden Pond has no surfacewater inflow or outflow, and much of its ground-water contributing area likely is preserved within the Walden Pond Reservation area (fig. 1). Only 15 miles from Boston, the pond is unusually clear and pristine for an urban-area lake. However, point sources of nutrients near the pond, and a large annual visitor attendance, concentrated during the summer when the swimming beach (fig. 2) is open, may contribute a nutrient load sufficient to change the pond environment. The occurrence of nuisance algal species, a recent beach closing, and an awareness of water-quality problems suffered by other ponds in the region raise concerns about the risk of ecological change at Walden Pond. Despite the role of Walden Pond as a cultural and environmental icon, little is known about the pond's ecological features, such as its internal nutrient cycling or the structure of its food web, nor have consistent measurements been made to determine whether these features are changing or are stable. Production rates of aquatic plants in lakes and ponds naturally undergo a slow increase

  6. Salton Sea Project, Phase 1. [solar pond power plant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peelgren, M. L.

    1982-01-01

    A feasibility study was made for a salt gradient solar pond power plant in or near the Salton Sea of California. The conclusions support continuance 5-MWe proof-of-concept experiment, and ultimate construction by an electric utility company of a 600-MWe plant. The Solar Pond concept would be an environmental benefit to the Salton Sea by reversing the increasing salinity trend. The greatest cost drivers are the lake dike construction and pond sealing. Problems to be resolved include method of brine production from Salton Sea water for the first unit (which requires evaporation pond area and time), the high turbidity and color content of the Salton Sea water (which requires pretreatment), and other questions related to pond permeability, bio-activity and soil/brine chemical reactions. All technical and environmental problems appear solvable and/or manageable if care is taken in mitigating impacts.

  7. Gradient-zone erosion in seawater solar ponds

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, J.; Hart, R.A.; Kleis, S.J.; Bannerot, R.B.

    1997-02-01

    An experimental program has been conducted to examine the feasibility of using seawater solar ponds in mariculture operations along the Texas gulf coast to protect fish crops from the potentially lethal, cold temperatures experienced in outdoor ponds. Seawater solar ponds in the form of floating thermal refuge areas are proposed as a method for reducing the loss of heat from small sections of a pond. Gradient zone erosion under various ambient and operating conditions is examined. Comparisons with previous laboratory studies show a much lower entrainment rate in the natural environment. For conditions which are typical of those encountered in mariculture pond operation, the entrainment rate was found to depend only weakly on the Richardson number. For these conditions, a simple (linear) correlation of entrainment rate with wind speed was developed.

  8. Factors Influencing Fecal Contamination in Pond of Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knappett, P. S.; Escamilla, V.; Layton, A.; McKay, L. D.; Emch, M.; Mailloux, B. J.; Williams, D. E.; Huq, M. R.; Alam, M.; Farhana, L.; Ferguson, A. S.; Sayler, G. S.; Ahmed, K.; Serre, M. L.; Akita, Y.; Yunus, M.; van Geen, A.

    2010-12-01

    Occurrence of diarrheal disease in villages in rural Bangladesh remains relatively common, even though many households have switched to tubewell water for drinking and cooking. One factor contributing to this may be exposure to fecal contamination in ponds, which are often used for bathing and fishing. The objective of this study is to determine the dominant sources of fecal pollution in typical ponds and to explore the relationship between local population, latrine density, latrine quality and concentrations of fecal bacteria and pathogens in pond water. Forty-three ponds were sampled and analyzed for E. coli using culture-based methods and for E. coli, Bacteroides and adenovirus using quantitative PCR. Population and sanitation infrastructure were surveyed and compared to levels of pond fecal contamination. Molecular fecal source tracking using Bacteroides, determined that humans were the dominant source of fecal contamination in 79% of the ponds. Ponds directly receiving latrine effluent had the highest concentrations of fecal indicator bacteria. Concentrations of fecal indicator bacteria correlated with population surveyed within a distance of 30-70 m (p<0.01) and total latrines surveyed within 50-70 m (p<0.05). Unsanitary latrines with visible effluent within the pond drainage basin were also significantly correlated to fecal indicator concentrations (p<0.05). The vast majority of the surveyed ponds contained unsafe levels of fecal contamination primarily due to unsanitary latrines, and to lesser extent to sanitary latrines and cattle. Since the majority of fecal pollution is from humans, use of pond water could help explain the persistence of diarrheal disease in rural Bangladesh.

  9. Impact of permafrost thaw on Arctic tundra pond geochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyes, F.; Lougheed, V.

    2012-12-01

    Increasing evidence indicates the arctic tundra is changing physically, biologically, and chemically due to climate warming. With a warmer climate, permafrost is expected to thaw and influence the chemistry of arctic aquatic ecosystems. However, knowledge is limited on how geochemistry of arctic tundra pond ecosystems will respond. By re-sampling historical IBP ponds in Barrow, AK first sampled in the 1970s, previous studies have shown an increase in water temperature, nutrients and algal biomass through time. Results from this study indicate an increase of Ca, Mg, and Na in the water column, and a decrease in pH relative to the 1970s, suggesting an increased rate and magnitude of carbonate and Mg release. Seasonal trends were also examined to understand what processes, such as mineral weathering, peat decomposition and evaporation, were currently most influential in determining pond geochemistry. An increase in Ca/Na molar ratios, and carbonate and magnesium concentrations indicates that these tundra ponds are experiencing greater carbonate weathering compared to the 1970s and the rate of carbonate weathering increases in ponds as the summer progresses. However, increasing dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations originating from peat decomposition are likely neutralizing additional inputs of carbonate, causing pond pH to decrease and exacerbating mineral weathering. A strong positive relationship between element concentrations and active layer pond thaw depth suggests that the origin of these additional solutes is likely from permafrost thaw. Active layer thaw depth has increased substantially over the past 40 years in the IBP ponds. Chloride/Bromide molar ratios and Deuterium/ 18-Oxygen isotope ratios will be used to determine the degree of evaporation occurring in tundra ponds. Ultimately, this study provides evidence for how geochemistry can identify the sources of chemical inputs to Arctic ponds affected by climate change and permafrost thaw.

  10. Pollutant removal efficacy of three wet detention ponds.

    PubMed

    Mallin, Michael A; Ensign, Scott H; Wheeler, Tracey L; Mayes, David B

    2002-01-01

    Monthly inflow and outflow data were collected from three wet detention ponds in Wilmington, North Carolina, for a 29-mo period. Two ponds drained urban areas consisting primarily of residential, mixed services, and retail usage, while the third mainly drained residential and golf course areas. One of the urban ponds achieved significant reductions in total nitrogen, nitrate, ammonium, total phosphorus, orthophosphate, and fecal coliform bacterial counts. This pond was characterized by a high length to width ratio, with most inputs directed into the upper area, and extensive coverage by a diverse community of aquatic macrophyte vegetation. The second urban pond achieved significant reductions in turbidity and fecal coliform bacterial counts, but there were no significant differences between inflowing and outflowing water nutrient concentrations. There were substantial suburban runoff inputs entering the mid- and lower-pond areas that short-circuited pollutant removal contact time. The golf course pond showed significant increases in nitrate, ammonium, total phosphorus, and orthophosphate in the outflow relative to the inflow, probably as a result of course fertilization. However, nutrient concentrations in the outflow water were low compared with discharges from a selection of other area golf courses, possibly a result of the outflow passing through a wooded wetland following pond discharge. To achieve good reduction in a variety of pollutants, wet pond design should include maximizing the contact time of inflowing water with rooted vegetation and organic sediments. This can be achieved through a physical pond design that provides a high length to width ratio, and planting of native macrophyte species.

  11. Emissions from Produced Water Treatment Ponds, Uintah Basin, Utah, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansfield, M. L.; Lyman, S. N.; Tran, H.; O'Neil, T.; Anderson, R.

    2015-12-01

    An aqueous phase, known as "produced water," usually accompanies the hydrocarbon fluid phases that are extracted from Earth's crust during oil and natural gas extraction. Produced water contains dissolved and suspended organics and other contaminants and hence cannot be discharged directly into the hydrosphere. One common disposal method is to discharge produced water into open-pit evaporation ponds. Spent hydraulic fracturing fluids are also often discharged into the same ponds. It is obvious to anyone with a healthy olfactory system that such ponds emit volatile organics to the atmosphere, but very little work has been done to characterize such emissions. Because oil, gas, and water phases are often in contact in geologic formations, we can expect that more highly soluble compounds (e.g., salts, alcohols, carbonyls, carboxyls, BTEX, etc.) partition preferentially into produced water. However, as the water in the ponds age, many physical, chemical, and biological processes alter the composition of the water, and therefore the composition and strength of volatile organic emissions. For example, some ponds are aerated to hasten evaporation, which also promotes oxidation of organics dissolved in the water. Some ponds are treated with microbes to promote bio-oxidation. In other words, emissions from ponds are expected to be a complex function of the composition of the water as it first enters the pond, and also of the age of the water and of its treatment history. We have conducted many measurements of emissions from produced water ponds in the Uintah Basin of eastern Utah, both by flux chamber and by evacuated canister sampling with inverse modeling. These measurements include fluxes of CO2, CH4, methanol, and many other volatile organic gases. We have also measured chemical compositions and microbial content of water in the ponds. Results of these measurements will be reported.

  12. Eutrophic urban ponds suffer from cyanobacterial blooms: Dutch examples.

    PubMed

    Waajen, Guido W A M; Faassen, Elisabeth J; Lürling, Miquel

    2014-01-01

    Ponds play an important role in urban areas. However, cyanobacterial blooms counteract the societal need for a good water quality and pose serious health risks for citizens and pets. To provide insight into the extent and possible causes of cyanobacterial problems in urban ponds, we conducted a survey on cyanobacterial blooms and studied three ponds in detail. Among 3,500 urban ponds in the urbanized Dutch province of North Brabant, 125 showed cyanobacterial blooms in the period 2009-2012. This covered 79% of all locations registered for cyanobacterial blooms, despite the fact that urban ponds comprise only 11% of the area of surface water in North Brabant. Dominant bloom-forming genera in urban ponds were Microcystis, Anabaena and Planktothrix. In the three ponds selected for further study, the microcystin concentration of the water peaked at 77 μg l(-1) and in scums at 64,000 μg l(-1), which is considered highly toxic. Microcystin-RR and microcystin-LR were the most prevalent variants in these waters and in scums. Cyanobacterial chlorophyll-a peaked in August with concentrations up to 962 μg l(-1) outside of scums. The ponds were highly eutrophic with mean total phosphorus concentrations between 0.16 and 0.44 mg l(-1), and the sediments were rich in potential releasable phosphorus. High fish stocks dominated by carp lead to bioturbation, which also favours blooms. As urban ponds in North Brabant, and likely in other regions, regularly suffer from cyanobacterial blooms and citizens may easily have contact with the water and may ingest cyanobacterial material during recreational activities, particularly swimming, control of health risk is of importance. Monitoring of cyanobacteria and cyanobacterial toxins in urban ponds is a first step to control health risks. Mitigation strategies should focus on external sources of eutrophication and consider the effect of sediment P release and bioturbation by fish.

  13. Characterizing bacterial communities in tilapia pond surface sediment and their responses to pond differences and temporal variations.

    PubMed

    Fan, Limin; Barry, Kamira; Hu, Gengdong; Meng, Shunlong; Song, Chao; Qiu, Liping; Zheng, Yao; Wu, Wei; Qu, Jianhong; Chen, Jiazhang; Xu, Pao

    2017-01-01

    Bacterial community compositions in the surface sediment of tilapia ponds and their responses to pond characteristics or seasonal variations were investigated. For that, three ponds with different stocking densities were selected to collect the samples. And the method of Illumina high-throughput sequencing was used to amplify the bacterial 16S rRNA genes. A total of 662, 876 valid reads and 5649 operational taxonomic units were obtained. Further analysis showed that the dominant phyla in all three ponds were Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexi, and Acidobacteria. The phyla Planctomycetes, Firmicutes, Chlorobi, and Spirochaetae were also relatively abundant. Among the eight phyla, the abundances of only Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, and Spirochaetae were affected by seasonal variations, while seven of these (with the exception of Acidobacteria) were affected by pond differences. A comprehensive analysis of the richness and diversity of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene, and of the similarity in bacterial community composition in sediment also showed that the communities in tilapia pond sediment were shaped more by pond differences than by seasonal variations. Linear discriminant analysis further indicated that the influences of pond characteristics on sediment bacterial communities might be related to feed coefficients and stocking densities of genetically improved farmed tilapia (GIFT).

  14. Enhancing biomass energy yield from pilot-scale high rate algal ponds with recycling.

    PubMed

    Park, J B K; Craggs, R J; Shilton, A N

    2013-09-01

    This paper investigates the effect of recycling on biomass energy yield in High Rate Algal Ponds (HRAPs). Two 8 m(3) pilot-scale HRAPs treating primary settled sewage were operated in parallel and monitored over a 2-year period. Volatile suspended solids were measured from both HRAPs and their gravity settlers to determine biomass productivity and harvest efficiency. The energy content of the biomass was also measured. Multiplying biomass productivity and harvest efficiency gives the 'harvestable biomass productivity' and multiplying this by the energy content defines the actual 'biomass energy yield'. In Year 1, algal recycling was implemented in one of the ponds (HRAPr) and improved harvestable biomass productivity by 58% compared with the control (HRAPc) without recycling (HRAPr: 9.2 g/m(2)/d; HRAPc: 5.8 g/m(2)/d). The energy content of the biomass grown in HRAPr, which was dominated by Pediastrun boryanum, was 25% higher than the control HRAPc which contained a mixed culture of 4-5 different algae (HRAPr: 21.5 kJ/g; HRAPc: 18.6 kJ/g). In Year 2, HRAPc was then seeded with the biomass harvested from the P. boryanum dominated HRAPr. This had the effect of shifting algal dominance from 89% Dictyosphaerium sp. (which is poorly-settleable) to over 90% P. boryanum in 5 months. Operation of this pond was then switched to recycling its own harvested biomass, which maintained P. boryanum dominance for the rest of Year 2. This result confirms, for the first time in the literature, that species control is possible for similarly sized co-occurring algal colonies in outdoor HRAP by algal recycling. With regard to the overall improvement in biomass energy yield, which is a critical parameter in the context of algal cultivation for biofuels, the combined improvements that recycling triggered in biomass productivity, harvest efficiency and energy content enhanced the harvested biomass energy yield by 66% (HRAPr: 195 kJ/m(2)/day; HRAPc: 118 kJ/m(2)/day). Copyright © 2013

  15. Fuel Pond Sludge - Lessons Learned from Initial De-sludging of Sellafield's Pile Fuel Storage Pond - 12066

    SciTech Connect

    Carlisle, Derek; Adamson, Kate

    2012-07-01

    The Pile Fuel Storage Pond (PFSP) at Sellafield was built and commissioned between the late 1940's and early 1950's as a storage and cooling facility for irradiated fuel and isotopes from the two Windscale Pile reactors. The pond was linked via submerged water ducts to each reactor, where fuel and isotopes were discharged into skips for transfer along the duct to the pond. In the pond the fuel was cooled then de-canned underwater prior to export for reprocessing. The plant operated successfully until it was taken out of operation in 1962 when the First Magnox Fuel Storage Pond took over fuel storage and de-canning operations on the site. The pond was then used for storage of miscellaneous Intermediate Level Waste (ILW) and fuel from the UK's Nuclear Programme for which no defined disposal route was available. By the mid 1970's the import of waste ceased and the plant, with its inventory, was placed into a passive care and maintenance regime. By the mid 1990s, driven by the age of the facility and concern over the potential challenge to dispose of the various wastes and fuels being stored, the plant operator initiated a programme of work to remediate the facility. This programme is split into a number of key phases targeted at sustained reduction in the hazard associated with the pond, these include: - Pond Preparation: Before any remediation work could start the condition of the pond had to be transformed from a passive store to a plant capable of complex retrieval operations. This work included plant and equipment upgrades, removal of redundant structures and the provision of a effluent treatment plant for removing particulate and dissolved activity from the pond water. - Canned Fuel Retrieval: Removal of canned fuel, including oxide and carbide fuels, is the highest priority within the programme. Handling and export equipment required to remove the canned fuel from the pond has been provided and treatment routes developed utilising existing site facilities to

  16. An evaluation of duckweed-based pond systems as an alternative option for decentralised treatment and reuse of wastewater in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Nhapi, I; Dalu, J; Ndamba, J; Siebel, M A; Gijzen, H J

    2003-01-01

    A study was carried out in Zimbabwe to evaluate the performance of duckweed ponds as an option for treating and reusing wastewater in small, decentralised communities. The study focused on nitrogen and phosphorus removal, operational problems, and duckweed application. Two full-scale trial plants at Nemanwa and Gutu-Mupandawana growth points were used. Sewage samples were collected and analysed monthly from September 2000 to August 2001 for NO3, NH4(-)1 TKN, TP, COD, and other field measurements. The duckweed was harvested daily and fed to chickens. The Nemanwa plant had high nutrient levels due to nil outflows caused by water rationing in the area. The Gutu effluent had averages of 38.7 +/- 23.1 mg/l TN and 7.5 +/- 2.4 mg/l TP which are above the respective Zimbabwean standards of 10 mg/l TN and 1 mg/l TP. COD removal efficiency at Gutu was poor at 45%. The performance of Gutu and Nemanwa plants suffered from inappropriate design especially pond depth and short-circuiting. The duckweed died off in the November-January period, this being attributed to excessive levels of ammonia. It was concluded that the duckweed pond systems would offer a good alternative for managing and reusing wastewater at community level provided due regard is paid to appropriate design criteria.

  17. Trapping carbon in small ponds and wetlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinton, J. N.; Ockenden, M. C.; Deasy, C.; Favaretto, N.

    2012-04-01

    There is no doubt that carbon (C) is on the move. Recent estimates have suggested that the global sediment flux in agricultural landscapes due to water and tillage erosion is 35±10 Pg C y-1. Some of this C is oxidised and lost to the atmosphere, other material may be deposited and burried in colluvium and some may be delivered through both surface and subsurface flow paths to surface waters. In many agricultural landscapes these surface waters may take the form of small ponds and wetlands (field wetlands). In this paper we explore the potential of field wetlands to trap particulate C and influence the fate of dissolved organic carbon within the context of a small agricultural catchments in England. Since 2008 the mitigation options for phosphorus and sediment project (MOPS) has established ten monitored field wetlands across three catchments in the UK at Crake Trees, Cumbria (silt soils, rainfall 1500 mm y-1), Whinton Hill Cumbria (sandy soils, rainfall 1200 mm y-1), Newton Rigg, Cumbria (Silt soils, rainfall c1200 mm y-1) and Loddington, Leicestershire (Clay soils, rainfall 650 mm y-1). Although originally designed to capture sediment and phosphorus, their potential for influencing catchment scale C dynamics is becoming apparent. The C contents of sediments from the three catchments are typically in the range of 1.8 - 3.0% at Crake Trees Catchment, 2.5 to 9% at Whinton Hill and 2.0 to 3.1 % at Crake Trees. At the high rainfall sites the wetlands trap upwards of 20 t y-1 of sediment equating to several hundred kilograms of C. There is also some evidence that the ponds and wetlands may influence DOC, with DOC concentrations falling from approximately 35 mg l-1 to 15 mg l-1 at the Whinton Hill site as water passes through a series of field wetlands. In this paper we will present data from the last two years of monitoring and consider the wider implications for C sequestration by ponds and wetlands in agricultural landscapes.

  18. Radioactivity in municipal sewage and sludge.

    PubMed Central

    Martin, J E; Fenner, F D

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the environmental consequences of discharges of radioactivity from a large medical research facility into municipal sewage, specifically 131I activity in sewage sludge, and the radiation exposures to workers and the public when sludges are incinerated. METHODS: The authors measured radioactivity levels in the sludge at the Ann Arbor, Michigan, Waste Water Treatment Plant following radioiodine treatments of two patients at the University of Michigan hospital complex and performed a series of calculations to estimate potential radiation doses due to releases of 131I from incineration of sewage sludge. RESULTS: Approximately 1.1% of the radioactive 131I administered therapeutically to patients was measured in the primary sludge. Radiation doses from incineration of sludge were calculated to be 0.048 millirem (mrem) for a worker during a period in which the incinerator filtration system failed, a condition that could be considered to represent maximum exposure conditions, for two nine-hour days. Calculated results for a more typically exposed worker (with the filtration system in operation and a 22-week period of incineration) yielded a committed effective dose equivalent of 0.066 mrem. If a worker were exposed to both conditions during the period of incineration, the dose was calculated to be 0.11 mrem. For a member of the public, the committed effective dose equivalent was calculated as 0.003 mrem for a 22-week incineration period. Exposures to both workers and the public were a very small fraction of a typical annual dose (about 100 mrem excluding radon, or 300 mrem with radon) due to natural background radiation. Transport time to the treatment plant for radioiodine was found to be much longer than that of a normal sewage, possibly due to absorption of iodine by organic material in the sewer lines. The residence time of radioiodine in the sewer also appears to be longer than expected. CONCLUSION: 131I in land-applied sludge presents few

  19. Radioactivity in municipal sewage and sludge.

    PubMed

    Martin, J E; Fenner, F D

    1997-01-01

    To determine the environmental consequences of discharges of radioactivity from a large medical research facility into municipal sewage, specifically 131I activity in sewage sludge, and the radiation exposures to workers and the public when sludges are incinerated. The authors measured radioactivity levels in the sludge at the Ann Arbor, Michigan, Waste Water Treatment Plant following radioiodine treatments of two patients at the University of Michigan hospital complex and performed a series of calculations to estimate potential radiation doses due to releases of 131I from incineration of sewage sludge. Approximately 1.1% of the radioactive 131I administered therapeutically to patients was measured in the primary sludge. Radiation doses from incineration of sludge were calculated to be 0.048 millirem (mrem) for a worker during a period in which the incinerator filtration system failed, a condition that could be considered to represent maximum exposure conditions, for two nine-hour days. Calculated results for a more typically exposed worker (with the filtration system in operation and a 22-week period of incineration) yielded a committed effective dose equivalent of 0.066 mrem. If a worker were exposed to both conditions during the period of incineration, the dose was calculated to be 0.11 mrem. For a member of the public, the committed effective dose equivalent was calculated as 0.003 mrem for a 22-week incineration period. Exposures to both workers and the public were a very small fraction of a typical annual dose (about 100 mrem excluding radon, or 300 mrem with radon) due to natural background radiation. Transport time to the treatment plant for radioiodine was found to be much longer than that of a normal sewage, possibly due to absorption of iodine by organic material in the sewer lines. The residence time of radioiodine in the sewer also appears to be longer than expected. 131I in land-applied sludge presents few health concerns because sufficient decay

  20. Reductive hydrothermal treatment of sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Catallo, W J; Comeaux, J L

    2008-11-01

    The United States and the European Union each generate around 6900 million dry tons of sewage sludge annually. This is disposed of by land application, landfilling, incineration and other approaches. Reductive hydrothermal (HT) treatment refers here to simple aqueous systems heated and pressurized above 300 degrees C/100 bar under anoxic and/or reducing conditions. The purpose of this study was to examine the HT treatment of municipal sewage sludge and infectious fecal microbial cultures with respect to waste volume reduction, biological sterilization, and the generation of usable hydrocarbon product mixtures. These endpoints from HT treatment also were compared to those from pyrolysis. HT at 400 degrees C/150 bar transformed sewage sludge solids into complex gas phase (4%) and liquid (6%) hydrocarbon mixtures (approximately 11% combined yield), along with similar amounts (5%) of solid residues. HT products in the aqueous phase (e.g., alcohols) were present but not analysed. Viable mixed fecal cultures (10(9) colony forming units/mL) were completely sterilized by HT treatment, and a hydrocarbon mixture also was generated from the cells, but it was markedly different from that resulting from HT of the sludge. The hydrocarbon assemblage generated from the sludge included n-hydrocarbons (C9-C20) and alkyl substituted benzenes, phenols, and related compound series of higher mass (e.g., indanes, naphthalenes). Light aromatic parent compounds were significantly less abundant than their substituted C1-C5 alkyl series and there was a paucity of N-, O- and S-heterocycles and polycyclic systems with more than three fused rings. This was different from the products of pyrolysis which were dominated by a relatively simple mixture of linear and branched hydrocarbons and their oxidized homologues (e.g., aldehydes).

  1. Application of municipal sewage sludge in forest and degraded land

    Treesearch

    D.H. Marx; C.R. Berry; Paul P. Kormanik

    1995-01-01

    Nearly 8 million dry tons of municipal sewage sludge are produced each year in the USA by the more than 15,000 publicly owned treatment plants and the tonnage is increasing.For two decades, researchers in the USA have been studying the feasibility of land application of municipal sewage sludge. Research, large-scale practical projects, and commercial ventures have...

  2. Dosimetry report for the Sandia irradiator for dried sewage solids

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, R.T.; McFarland, E.W.; Dickson, H.W.

    1981-06-01

    Gamma dose measurements were made at the Sandia Irradiator for Dried Sewage Solids. Passive plastic, chemical, and thermoluminescent dosimeters were exposed in the facility under conditions designed to simulate typical plant operation. Absolute dose and dose distribution information were obtained in air, water, compost, fruit, and sewage sludge.

  3. [Assessing environmental and economical benefits of integrated sewage treatment systems].

    PubMed

    Li, Jin-rong; Zhang, Xiao-hong; Zhang, Hang-bin; Pan, Heng-yu; Liu, Qiang

    2015-08-01

    Sewage treatment, treated water treatment and sludge treatment are three basic units of an integrated sewage treatment system. This work assessed the influence of reusing or discharge of treated water and sludge landfill or compost on the sustainability of an integrated sewage treatment system using emergy analysis and newly proposed emergy indicators. This system's value included its environmental benefits and the products. Environmental benefits were the differences of the environmental service values before and after sewage treatment. Due to unavailability of data of the exchanged substance and energy in the internal system, products' values were attained by newly proposed substitution values. The results showed that the combination of sewage treatment, treated water reuse and sludge landfill had the strongest competitiveness, while the combination of sewage treatment, treated water reuse and earthworm compost was the most sustainable. Moreover, treated water reuse and earthworm compost were helpful for improving the sustainability of the integrated sewage treatment system. The quality of treated water and local conditions should be also considered when implementing the treated water reuse or discharge. The resources efficiency of earthworm compost unit needed to be further improved. Improved emergy indices were more suitable for integrated sewage treatment systems.

  4. Vancomycin resistant enterococci (VRE) in Swedish sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Sahlström, Leena; Rehbinder, Verena; Albihn, Ann; Aspan, Anna; Bengtsson, Björn

    2009-05-29

    Antimicrobial resistance is a serious threat in veterinary medicine and human healthcare. Resistance genes can spread from animals, through the food-chain, and back to humans. Sewage sludge may act as the link back from humans to animals. The main aims of this study were to investigate the occurrence of vancomycin resistant enterococci (VRE) in treated sewage sludge, in a Swedish waste water treatment plant (WWTP), and to compare VRE isolates from sewage sludge with isolates from humans and chickens. During a four month long study, sewage sludge was collected weekly and cultured for VRE. The VRE isolates from sewage sludge were analysed and compared to each other and to human and chicken VRE isolates by biochemical typing (PhenePlate), PFGE and antibiograms. Biochemical typing (PhenePlate-FS) and pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) revealed prevalence of specific VRE strains in sewage sludge for up to 16 weeks. No connection was found between the VRE strains isolated from sludge, chickens and humans, indicating that human VRE did not originate from Swedish chicken. This study demonstrated widespread occurrence of VRE in sewage sludge in the studied WWTP. This implies a risk of antimicrobial resistance being spread to new farms and to the society via the environment if the sewage sludge is used on arable land.

  5. 33 CFR 159.121 - Sewage processing test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sewage processing test. 159.121 Section 159.121 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction, and Testing § 159.121 Sewage processing test....

  6. 33 CFR 159.121 - Sewage processing test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sewage processing test. 159.121 Section 159.121 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction, and Testing § 159.121 Sewage processing test....

  7. 33 CFR 159.121 - Sewage processing test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sewage processing test. 159.121 Section 159.121 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction, and Testing § 159.121 Sewage processing test....

  8. 33 CFR 159.121 - Sewage processing test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sewage processing test. 159.121 Section 159.121 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction, and Testing § 159.121 Sewage processing test....

  9. 21 CFR 211.50 - Sewage and refuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sewage and refuse. 211.50 Section 211.50 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR FINISHED PHARMACEUTICALS Buildings and Facilities § 211.50 Sewage...

  10. Vancomycin resistant enterococci (VRE) in Swedish sewage sludge

    PubMed Central

    Sahlström, Leena; Rehbinder, Verena; Albihn, Ann; Aspan, Anna; Bengtsson, Björn

    2009-01-01

    Background Antimicrobial resistance is a serious threat in veterinary medicine and human healthcare. Resistance genes can spread from animals, through the food-chain, and back to humans. Sewage sludge may act as the link back from humans to animals. The main aims of this study were to investigate the occurrence of vancomycin resistant enterococci (VRE) in treated sewage sludge, in a Swedish waste water treatment plant (WWTP), and to compare VRE isolates from sewage sludge with isolates from humans and chickens. Methods During a four month long study, sewage sludge was collected weekly and cultured for VRE. The VRE isolates from sewage sludge were analysed and compared to each other and to human and chicken VRE isolates by biochemical typing (PhenePlate), PFGE and antibiograms. Results Biochemical typing (PhenePlate-FS) and pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) revealed prevalence of specific VRE strains in sewage sludge for up to 16 weeks. No connection was found between the VRE strains isolated from sludge, chickens and humans, indicating that human VRE did not originate from Swedish chicken. Conclusion This study demonstrated widespread occurrence of VRE in sewage sludge in the studied WWTP. This implies a risk of antimicrobial resistance being spread to new farms and to the society via the environment if the sewage sludge is used on arable land. PMID:19480649

  11. Credit PSR. Northeast and southwest facades of Sewage Pumping Station ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Credit PSR. Northeast and southwest facades of Sewage Pumping Station (Building 4330). Building retains its World War II construction materials and character. In the background at the extreme left is Building 4305 (Unicon Portable Hangar) - Edwards Air Force Base, North Base, Sewage Pumping Station, Southwest of E Street, Boron, Kern County, CA

  12. Effects of substrate concentrations on the growth of heterotrophic bacteria and algae in secondary facultative ponds.

    PubMed

    Kayombo, S; Mbwette, T S A; Katima, J H Y; Jorgensen, S E

    2003-07-01

    This paper presents the effect of substrate concentration on the growth of a mixed culture of algae and heterotrophic bacteria in secondary facultative ponds (SFPs) utilizing settled domestic sewage as a sole source of organic carbon. The growth of the mixed culture was studied at the concentrations ranging between 200 and 800 mg COD/l in a series of batch chemostat reactors. From the laboratory data, the specific growth rate (micro) was determined using the modified Gompertz model. The maximum specific growth rate ( micro(max)) and half saturation coefficients (K(s)) were calculated using the Monod kinetic equation. The maximum observed growth rate ( micro(max)) for heterotrophic bacteria was 3.8 day(-1) with K(s) of 200 mg COD/l. The micro(max) for algal biomass based on suspended volatile solids was 2.7 day(-1) with K(s) of 110 mg COD/l. The micro(max) of algae based on the chlorophyll-a was 3.5 day(-1) at K(s) of 50mg COD/l. The observed specific substrate removal by heterotrophic bacteria varied between the concentrations of substrate used and the average value was 0.82 (mg COD/mg biomass). The specific substrate utilization rate in the bioreactors was direct proportional to the specific growth rate. Hence, the determined Monod kinetic parameters are useful for the definition of the operation of SFPs.

  13. Coxiella burnetii in sewage water at sewage water treatment plants in a Q fever epidemic area.

    PubMed

    Schets, F M; de Heer, L; de Roda Husman, A M

    2013-11-01

    During 2007-2010, over 4000 persons in The Netherlands contracted Q-fever, a zoonosis caused by the bacterium Coxiella burnetii. Goats and sheep are the main reservoir of C. burnetti and infected animals shed the bacterium with their urine, faeces and birth products. Human infections may occur through direct contact with infected animals, or through inhalation of contaminated dust particles or aerosols. Discharge of waste water from Q fever contaminated goat farms may result in the presence of C. burnetii in sewage water and aerosols at sewage water treatment plants (SWTPs) which may pose a health risk for workers or neighbouring residents. The objectives of this study were to determine the presence of C. burnetii at SWTPs and to optimize available detection methods. In March-July 2011, sewage influent and aeration tank samples from four SWTPs receiving discharge from Q fever positive goat farms were examined by using a multiplex real-time PCR detecting C. burnetii DNA by targeting IS1111 and com1 genes. Influent (44%; n=16/36) and active sludge (36%; n=13/36) samples were positive with low C. burnetii DNA content. Percentage positive samples per SWTP were 28-61%. Positive samples were most frequent in March 2011 and least frequent in May 2011. The presence of C. burnetii DNA in sewage water samples suggests that SWTPs receiving waste water from Q fever contaminated goat farms may contribute to the spread of C. burnetii to the environment. The low levels of C. burnetii DNA in sewage water during the decline of the Q fever outbreak in The Netherlands in 2011 indicate a low health risk for SWTP workers and residents. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. PAR for the Course: A Congruent Pedagogical Approach for a PAR Methods Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammond, Joyce D.; Hicks, Maria; Kalman, Rowenn; Miller, Jason

    2005-01-01

    In the past two years, three graduate students and a senior faculty member have co-taught a participatory action research (PAR) course to undergraduate and graduate students. In this article the co-teachers advocate a set of pedagogical principles and practices in a PAR-oriented classroom that establishes congruency with community PAR projects in…

  15. CO2 Efflux from Shrimp Ponds in Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Sidik, Frida; Lovelock, Catherine E.

    2013-01-01

    The conversion of mangrove forest to aquaculture ponds has been increasing in recent decades. One of major concerns of this habitat loss is the release of stored ‘blue’ carbon from mangrove soils to the atmosphere. In this study, we assessed carbon dioxide (CO2) efflux from soil in intensive shrimp ponds in Bali, Indonesia. We measured CO2 efflux from the floors and walls of shrimp ponds. Rates of CO2 efflux within shrimp ponds were 4.37 kg CO2 m−2 y−1 from the walls and 1.60 kg CO2 m−2 y−1 from the floors. Combining our findings with published data of aquaculture land use in Indonesia, we estimated that shrimp ponds in this region result in CO2 emissions to the atmosphere between 5.76 and 13.95 Tg y−1. The results indicate that conversion of mangrove forests to aquaculture ponds contributes to greenhouse gas emissions that are comparable to peat forest conversion to other land uses in Indonesia. Higher magnitudes of CO2 emission may be released to atmosphere where ponds are constructed in newly cleared mangrove forests. This study indicates the need for incentives that can meet the target of aquaculture industry without expanding the converted mangrove areas, which will lead to increased CO2 released to atmosphere. PMID:23755306

  16. Life-history evolution when Lestes damselflies invaded vernal ponds.

    PubMed

    De Block, Marjan; McPeek, Mark A; Stoks, Robby

    2008-02-01

    We know little about the macroevolution of life-history traits along environmental gradients, especially with regard to the directionality compared to the ancestral states and the associated costs to other functions. Here we examine how age and size at maturity evolved when Lestes damselflies shifted from their ancestral temporary pond habitat (i.e., ponds that may dry once every decade or so) to extremely ephemeral vernal ponds (ponds that routinely dry completely each year). Larvae of three species were reared from eggs until emergence under different levels of photoperiod and transient starvation stress. Compared to the two temporary-pond Lestes, the phylogenetically derived vernal-pond Lestes dryas developed more rapidly across photoperiod treatments until the final instar, and only expressed plasticity in development time in the final instar under photoperiod levels that simulated a later hatching date. The documented change in development rate can be considered adaptive and underlies the success of the derived species in vernal ponds. Results suggest associated costs of faster development are lower mass at maturity and lower immune function after transient starvation stress. These costs may not only have impeded further evolution of the routine development rate to what is physiologically maximal, but also maintained some degree of plasticity to time constraints when the habitat shift occurred.

  17. Environmental selection of planktonic methanogens in permafrost thaw ponds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crevecoeur, Sophie; Vincent, Warwick F.; Lovejoy, Connie

    2016-08-01

    The warming and thermal erosion of ice-containing permafrost results in thaw ponds that are strong emitters of methane to the atmosphere. Here we examined methanogens and other Archaea, in two types of thaw ponds that are formed by the collapse of either permafrost peat mounds (palsas) or mineral soil mounds (lithalsas) in subarctic Quebec, Canada. Using high-throughput sequencing of a hypervariable region of 16S rRNA, we determined the taxonomic structure and diversity of archaeal communities in near-bottom water samples, and analyzed the mcrA gene transcripts from two sites. The ponds at all sites were well stratified, with hypoxic or anoxic bottom waters. Their archaeal communities were dominated by Euryarchaeota, specifically taxa in the methanogenic orders Methanomicrobiales and Methanosarcinales, indicating a potentially active community of planktonic methanogens. The order Methanomicrobiales accounted for most of the mcrA transcripts in the two ponds. The Archaeal communities differed significantly between the lithalsa and palsa ponds, with higher alpha diversity in the organic-rich palsa ponds, and pronounced differences in community structure. These results indicate the widespread occurrence of planktonic, methane-producing Archaea in thaw ponds, with environmental selection of taxa according to permafrost landscape type.

  18. Environmental selection of planktonic methanogens in permafrost thaw ponds

    PubMed Central

    Crevecoeur, Sophie; Vincent, Warwick F.; Lovejoy, Connie

    2016-01-01

    The warming and thermal erosion of ice-containing permafrost results in thaw ponds that are strong emitters of methane to the atmosphere. Here we examined methanogens and other Archaea, in two types of thaw ponds that are formed by the collapse of either permafrost peat mounds (palsas) or mineral soil mounds (lithalsas) in subarctic Quebec, Canada. Using high-throughput sequencing of a hypervariable region of 16S rRNA, we determined the taxonomic structure and diversity of archaeal communities in near-bottom water samples, and analyzed the mcrA gene transcripts from two sites. The ponds at all sites were well stratified, with hypoxic or anoxic bottom waters. Their archaeal communities were dominated by Euryarchaeota, specifically taxa in the methanogenic orders Methanomicrobiales and Methanosarcinales, indicating a potentially active community of planktonic methanogens. The order Methanomicrobiales accounted for most of the mcrA transcripts in the two ponds. The Archaeal communities differed significantly between the lithalsa and palsa ponds, with higher alpha diversity in the organic-rich palsa ponds, and pronounced differences in community structure. These results indicate the widespread occurrence of planktonic, methane-producing Archaea in thaw ponds, with environmental selection of taxa according to permafrost landscape type. PMID:27501855

  19. Renewable energy for the aeration of wastewater ponds.

    PubMed

    Hobus, I; Hegemann, W

    2003-01-01

    The application of a decentralised renewable energy supply for the aeration of wastewater ponds, and the influence of an unsteady oxygen supply on the specific conversion rate and biocoenose was investigated. With the discontinuous aeration the specific conversion rate is increased as compared to facultative ponds. The estimation of the microorganisms consortia was done with in situ hybridisation techniques. A significant shift in the bacteria population with the chosen specific probes for anaerobic, sulphate reducing and nitrifying bacteria could not be detected. Wastewater ponds have sufficient buffer volume to compensate for the fluctuating energy supply. But the efficiency of the energy supply of a photovoltaic plant decreases in shallow lakes (d < 1.5 m) corresponding to a high oxygen production of algae. For the layout of the individual components: photovoltaic and wind power plant, energy management, aeration system and wastewater pond, a simulation model was developed and tested. The application of renewable energy for the aeration of wastewater ponds is a useful alternative for the redevelopment of overloaded ponds as well as the construction of new wastewater ponds, especially in areas with an inadequate central electricity grid and a high availability of wind and solar energy.

  20. Performance of a baffled facultative pond treating piggery wastes.

    PubMed

    Zanotelli, C T; Medri, W; Belli, Filho P; Perdomo, C C; Mulinari, M R; Costa, R H R

    2002-01-01

    This paper shows the performance of a baffled facultative pond for the treatment of piggery wastes. The full-scale system is composed of an equalizer, one decanter (DP), two anaerobic ponds (LA1 and LA2), one facultative pond (LF), with five baffles, and one maturation pond with water hyacinths (LAG). The studies were conducted over a 12 month period in the west region of Santa Catarina, Brazil. The system was supplied daily with a volume of 3 m3/day of farm wastes. A good performance of the treatment system was obtained with average removal efficiencies of 98% for chemical oxygen demand, 93% for total solids, 98% for total phosphorus, 92% for total nitrogen, 7 log units of faecal coliforms and 5 log units of total coliforms. The facultative pond performed well, removing 43% of the chemical oxygen demand, 47% of total nitrogen and 54% of total phosphorus. It was found that the first baffle in the facultative pond was mainly responsible for the efficiency of this pond, and compared with another study the introduction of the baffles improved the removal efficiency by 20% for total phosphorus.

  1. Solar pond research at the Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, G.F.; Meyer, K.A.; Hedstrom, J.C.; Grimmer, D.P.

    1984-01-01

    A description of solar pond research at Los Alamos National Laboratory is presented. The main issues in the theory of solar ponds are discussed. Among these are the interfacial-boundary-layer model, models for interface motion and pond performance, heat extraction, and ground heat loss. The core of the research effort at Los Alamos was the development of a one-dimensional computer program to accurately predict dynamic performance of a solar pond. The computer model and the experiments that were designed and performed to validate it are described. The experiments include two laboratory tanks wherein temperature, salinity, and flow visualization data were obtained and a 232 m/sup 2/ outdoor solar pond. Results from preliminary validation show good agreement between the pond's predicted dynamic behavior and that which actually occurred in the experiments. More validation using data from full-sized solar ponds is needed. A new correlation for the ratio of interfacial salt-flux to heat-flux is proposed which agrees well with our data. Recommendations for future research are given.

  2. Environmental selection of planktonic methanogens in permafrost thaw ponds.

    PubMed

    Crevecoeur, Sophie; Vincent, Warwick F; Lovejoy, Connie

    2016-08-09

    The warming and thermal erosion of ice-containing permafrost results in thaw ponds that are strong emitters of methane to the atmosphere. Here we examined methanogens and other Archaea, in two types of thaw ponds that are formed by the collapse of either permafrost peat mounds (palsas) or mineral soil mounds (lithalsas) in subarctic Quebec, Canada. Using high-throughput sequencing of a hypervariable region of 16S rRNA, we determined the taxonomic structure and diversity of archaeal communities in near-bottom water samples, and analyzed the mcrA gene transcripts from two sites. The ponds at all sites were well stratified, with hypoxic or anoxic bottom waters. Their archaeal communities were dominated by Euryarchaeota, specifically taxa in the methanogenic orders Methanomicrobiales and Methanosarcinales, indicating a potentially active community of planktonic methanogens. The order Methanomicrobiales accounted for most of the mcrA transcripts in the two ponds. The Archaeal communities differed significantly between the lithalsa and palsa ponds, with higher alpha diversity in the organic-rich palsa ponds, and pronounced differences in community structure. These results indicate the widespread occurrence of planktonic, methane-producing Archaea in thaw ponds, with environmental selection of taxa according to permafrost landscape type.

  3. Occupational hepatitis B virus infection in sewage workers.

    PubMed

    Arvanitidou, M; Constantinidis, T C; Doutsos, J; Mandraveli, K; Katsouyannopoulos, V

    1998-01-01

    In a cross-sectional study the employees of a Sewage Company were tested for hepatitis B virus (HBV) markers--HBsAg, anti-HBs, anti-HBc--to determine the prevalence of HBV infection and assess the risk of exposed sewage workers becoming infected, so as to evaluate the necessity for appropriate vaccination. The overall prevalence of HBV markers was 43.9% and 6.6% of the employees were HBsAg carriers. In the univariate analysis the prevalence of past and current infection was significantly associated with exposure to sewage (p < 0.001), age (p < 0.001) and with educational level (p < 0.001). However, the logistic regression analysis confirmed that only exposure to sewage was independently associated with positivity for HBV infection (p < 0.001). Workers exposed to sewage should therefore be considered for vaccination against hepatitis B virus.

  4. The effect of bioleaching on sewage sludge pyrolysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhihua; Hu, Mian; Cui, Baihui; Liu, Shiming; Guo, Dabin; Xiao, Bo

    2016-02-01

    The effects of bioleaching on sewage sludge pyrolysis were studied. Sewage sludge was treated by bioleaching with solid concentrations of 6% (w/v), 8% (w/v), 10% (w/v). Results showed that bioleaching treatment could modify the physicochemical properties of sewage sludge and enhance the metals removal. The optimum removal efficiencies of heavy metals were achieved with solid concentration of 6% (w/v) bioleaching treatment: Cu, 73.08%; Zn, 78.67%; Pb, 24.65%; Cd, 79.46%. The characterization results of thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) showed that the bioleached sewage sludge with a 6% (w/v) solid concentration treatment was the easiest to decompose. Pyrolytic experiments of bioleached sewage sludge were performed in a laboratory-scale fixed bed reactor. Results indicated that bioleaching treatment greatly influenced the product yields and gas composition.

  5. Genotoxic and mutagenic effects of sewage sludge on higher plants.

    PubMed

    Corrêa Martins, Maria Nilza; de Souza, Victor Ventura; Souza, Tatiana da Silva

    2016-02-01

    Sewage treatment yields sludge, which is often used as a soil amendment in agriculture and crop production. Although the sludge contains elevated concentrations of macro and micronutrients, high levels of inorganic and organic compounds with genotoxic and mutagenic properties are present in sludge. Application of sludge in agriculture is a pathway for direct contact of crops to toxic chemicals. The objective of this study was to compile information related to the genotoxic and mutagenic effects of sewage sludge in different plant species. In addition, data are presented on toxicological effects in animals fed with plants grown in soils supplemented with sewage sludge. Despite the benefits of using sewage sludge as organic fertilizer, the data showcased in this review suggest that this residue can induce genetic damage in plants. This review alerts potential risks to health outcomes after the intake of food cultivated in sewage sludge-amended soils.

  6. Rural sewage treatment processing in Yongjia County, Zhejiang Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, W. H.; Kuan, T. H.

    2016-08-01

    Issues regarding water pollution in rural areas of China have garnered increased attention over the years. Further discussion on the circumstances and results of existing domestic sewage treatment methods may serve as an appropriate reference in solving these important issues. This article explored the current conditions of water contamination in rural areas of China, introduced the characteristics and effects of applicable sewage treatment technology, and summarized the results of the planning, installation, and operation of rural sewage treatment facilities in Yongjia County in Zhejiang Province. However, relying on a single technical design rule is not adequate for solving the practical problems that these villages face. Instead, methods of planning rural sewage treatment should be adapted to better suit local conditions and different residential forms. It is crucial, ultimately, for any domestic sewage treatment system in a rural area to be commissioned, engineered, and maintained by a market-oriented professional company.

  7. Groundwater impact assessment report for the 100-D Ponds

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, D.J.

    1993-07-01

    The 183-D Water Treatment Facility (WTF) discharges effluent to the 120-0-1 Ponds (100-D Ponds) located north of the 100-D Area perimeter fence. This report satisfies one of the requirements of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) Milestone M-17-00B as agreed by the US Department of Energy, Washington State Department of Ecology, and the US Environmental Protection Agency. Tri-Party Agreement Milestone M-17-00B includes a requirement to assess impacts to groundwater from disposal of the 183-D WTF effluent to the 100-D Ponds. In addition, the 100-D Ponds are a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 treatment, storage, and disposal facility covered by the 100-D Ponds Closure Plan (DOE-RL 1993a). There is evidence of groundwater contamination, primarily nitrate, tritium, and chromium, in the unconfined aquifer beneath the 100-D Area and 100 Areas in general. The contaminant plumes are area wide and are a result of past-practice reactor and disposal operations in the 100-D Area currently being investigated as part of the 100-DR-1 and 100-HR-3 Operable Units (DOE-RL 1992b, 1992a). Based on current effluent conditions, continued operation of the 100-D Ponds will not adversely affect the groundwater quality in the 100-D Area. Monitoring wells near the pond have slightly higher alkaline pH values than wells in the rest of the area. Concentrations of known contaminants in these wells are lower than ambient 100-D Area groundwater conditions and exhibit a localized dilution effect associated with discharges to the pond. Hydraulic impact to the local groundwater system from these discharges is minor. The groundwater monitoring well network for the 100-D Ponds is adequate.

  8. Disentangling natural and anthropogenic influences on Patagonian pond water quality.

    PubMed

    Epele, Luis B; Manzo, Luz M; Grech, Marta G; Macchi, Pablo; Claverie, Alfredo Ñ; Lagomarsino, Leonardo; Miserendino, M Laura

    2017-09-20

    The water quality of wetlands is governed not only by natural variability in hydrology and other factors, but also by anthropogenic activities. Patagonia is a vast sparsely-populated in which ponds are a key component of rural and urban landscapes because they provide several ecosystem services such as habitat for wildlife and watering for livestock. Integrating field-based and geospatial data of 109 ponds sampled across the region, we identified spatial trends and assessed the effects of anthropogenic and natural factors in pond water quality. The studied ponds were generally shallow, well oxygenated, with maximum nutrient values reported in sites used for livestock breeding. TN:TP ratio values were lower than 14 in >90% of the ponds, indicating nitrogen limitation. Water conductivity decreased from de east to the west, meanwhile pH and dissolved oxygen varied associated with the latitude. To assess Patagonian ponds water status we recommend the measure of total suspended solids and total nitrogen in the water, and evaluate the mallín (wetland vegetation) coverage in a 100m radius from the pond, since those features were significantly influenced by livestock land use. To evaluate the relative importance of natural variability and anthropogenic influences as driving factors of water quality we performed three generalized linear models (GLM) that encompassed the hydrology, hydroperiod and biome (to represent natural influences), and land use (to represent anthropogenic influences) as fixed effects. Our results revealed that at the Patagonian scale, ponds water quality would be strongly dependent on natural gradients. We synthetized spatial patterns of Patagonian pond water quality, and disentangled natural and anthropic factors finding that the dominant environmental influence is rainfall gradient. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Ponded Impact Melt Dynamics and its Effects on Pond Surface Morphology - Insights from King Crater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashley, J. W.; DiCarlo, N.; Enns, A. C.; Hawke, B. R.; Hiesinger, H.; Robinson, M. S.; Sato, H.; Speyerer, E.; van der Bogert, C.; Wagner, R.; Young, K. E.; LROC Science Team

    2011-12-01

    King crater is a 77-km diameter impact feature located at 5.0°N and 120.5°E on the lunar farside. Previous work delimited King crater with an asymmetric distribution of ejecta that includes a large impact melt pond (~385 square kilometer surface area), located in nearby Al-Tusi crater. The pond provides an opportunity to study the behavior of a large impact melt deposit. The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) Wide Angle Camera (WAC) and Narrow Angle Cameras (NAC) [1] imaged King crater from a nominal 50 km altitude at pixel scales of 100 meters and up to 0.5 meters, respectively providing the means to create geologic maps for the region. Digital terrain/elevation models (DTMs) were derived [2] from both WAC and NAC images for the area, and supplemented the mapping effort. The high-resolution (50 cm/p) NAC images show fine details within the Al-Tusi melt pond that raise questions about melt pond dynamics and evolution. These include both positive- and negative-relief features, anomalous crater morphologies, and flow features that show variable degrees of melt viscosity. WAC DTM processing reveals a horizontal and relatively flat (at the 20 m contour interval) pond, demonstrating that an equipotential surface was achieved during initial melt accumulation. The NAC DTM shows kilometer-scale zones of topographic down-warping within the 20 m contour interval. The perimeters of these depressed areas show moderate to high spatial correlation with the occurrence of negative relief features (~10 to 100 m in length). Such sagging may have occurred as the result of contraction and/or compaction within the melt both during and following cooling, with the negative relief features resulting from consequent structural failure and separation of the thickening surface crust. The variability in the degree of contraction/compaction may be explained by the presence of underlying hummocky ejecta deposits (which probably also explains the positive relief features) emplaced by

  10. Vitrification as an alternative to landfilling of tannery sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Celary, Piotr; Sobik-Szołtysek, Jolanta

    2014-12-01

    Due to high content of heavy metals such as chromium, tannery sewage sludge is a material which is difficult to be biologically treated as it is in the case of organic waste. Consequently, a common practice in managing tannery sewage sludge is landfilling. This poses a potential threat to both soil and water environments and it additionally generates costs of construction of landfills that meet specific environment protection requirements. Vitrification of this kind of sewage sludge with the addition of mineral wastes can represent an alternative to landfilling. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of obtaining an environmentally safe product by means of vitrification of tannery sewage sludge from a flotation wastewater treatment process and chemical precipitation in order to address the upcoming issue of dealing with sewage sludge from the tannery industry which will be prohibited to be landfilled in Poland after 2016. The focus was set on determining mixtures of tannery sewage sludge with additives which would result in the lowest possible heavy metal leaching levels and highest hardness rating of the products obtained from their vitrification. The plasma vitrification process was carried out for mixtures with various amounts of additives depending on the type of sewage sludge used. Only the materials of waste character were used as additives. One finding of the study was an optimum content of mineral additives in vitrified mixture of 30% v/v waste molding sands with 20% v/v carbonate flotation waste from the zinc and lead industry for the formulations with flotation sewage sludge, and 45% v/v and 5% v/v, respectively, for precipitation sewage sludge. These combinations allowed for obtaining products with negligible heavy metal leaching levels and hardness similar to commercial glass, which suggests they could be potentially used as construction aggregate substitutes. Incineration of sewage sludge before the vitrification process lead to

  11. Evaluation of the Rulison drilling effluent pond as trout habitat

    SciTech Connect

    1998-06-23

    The Rulison Site is located in Section 25, township 7 South, Range 95 West, Garfield County, Colorado. The site is approximately 19 kilometers (km) (12 miles [mi]) southwest of Rifle Colorado, and approximately 65 km (40 mi) northeast of Grand Junction, Colorado. Project Ruhson was an experiment conducted jointly by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission and Austral Oil Company to test the feasibility of using a nuclear device to increase natural gas production in low permeability geological formations. The experiment was conducted on September 10, 1969, and consisted of detonating a 43-kiloton nuclear device at a depth of 2,568 meters (m) (8,426 feet [ft]) below the ground surface (DOE, 1994). The Rulison Drilling Effluent Pond (called `the pond`) is an engineered structure covering approximately 0.2 hectare (0.5 acre), which was excavated and used to store drilling fluids during drilling of the device emplacement well. The drilling fluids consisted of bentonitic drilling mud with additives such as diesel fuel and chrome lignosulfonate. Most of the drilling muds were removed from the pond when the site was decommissioned in 1976, and the pond was subsequently stocked with rainbow trout by the land owner and used as a fishing pond. In 1994 and 1995, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) conducted sampling of the pond to evaluate residual contamination from the drilling fluids. Based on the results of this sampling, the DOE conducted a voluntary cleanup action in order to reduce the levels of total petroleum hydrocarbons and chromium in pond sediments. The cleanup was conducted between August and mid-November of 1995. At the end of cleanup activities, the pond was lined with a clay geofabric and left dry. The geofabric was covered with sod to protect it. The pond has since been refilled by snowmelt and inflow from a spring. Prior to remediation, the pond apparently had sufficient water quality and food resources to support stocked rainbow trout. The purpose of this

  12. A review of virus removal in wastewater treatment pond systems.

    PubMed

    Verbyla, Matthew E; Mihelcic, James R

    2015-03-15

    Wastewater treatment ponds (lagoons) are one of the most common types of technologies used for wastewater management worldwide, especially in small cities and towns. They are particularly well-suited for systems where the effluent is reused for irrigation. However, the efficiency of virus removal in wastewater treatment pond systems is not very well understood. The main objective of this paper is to critically review the major findings related to virus removal in wastewater treatment pond systems and to statistically analyze results reported in the literature from field studies on virus removal in these systems. A comprehensive analysis of virus removal reported in the literature from 71 different wastewater treatment pond systems reveals only a weak to moderate correlation of virus removal with theoretical hydraulic retention time. On average, one log10 reduction of viruses was achieved for every 14.5-20.9 days of retention, but the 95th percentile value of the data analyzed was 54 days. The mechanisms responsible for virus removal in wastewater treatment ponds were also reviewed. One recent finding is that sedimentation may not be a significant virus removal mechanism in some wastewater ponds. Recent research has also revealed that direct and indirect sunlight-mediated mechanisms are not only dependent on pond water chemistry and optics, but also on the characteristics of the virus and its genome. MS2 coliphage is considered to be the best surrogate for studying sunlight disinfection in ponds. The interaction of viruses with particles, with other microorganisms, and with macroinvertebrates in wastewater treatment ponds has not been extensively studied. It is also unclear whether virus internalization by higher trophic-level organisms has a protective or a detrimental effect on virus viability and transport in pond systems. Similarly, the impact of virus-particle associations on sunlight disinfection in ponds is not well understood. Future research should focus on

  13. Dual Wall Angles Would Enhance Performance Of A Solar Pond

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noever, David A.

    1995-01-01

    Proposed dual-angle design for Sun-facing wall of solar pond enhances solar-energy-storage performance of pond; increase in performance over that of similar pond with conventional (single-angle) wall estimated to be 25 percent. Design compromises between maximizing heating and minimizing convection. Top part of Sun-facing wall optimized for top colder layer of water, less tendency toward convective mixing. Bottom part of wall optimized for bottom, warmer layer of water, greater tendency towards convection. Optimization involves consideration of both anticipated temperature-vs.-depth profile (affects tendency toward convection) and latitude (affects angle of incidence of solar radiation and rate of heating).

  14. Greenhouse Gas Exchange in Small Arctic Thaw Ponds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laurion, I.; Bégin, P. N.; Bouchard, F.; Preskienis, V.

    2014-12-01

    Arctic lakes and ponds can represent up to one quarter of the land surface in permafrost landscapes, particularly in lowland tundra landscapes characterized by ice wedge organic polygons. Thaw ponds can be defined as the aquatic ecosystems associated to thawing of organic soils, either resulting from active layer processes and located above low-center peat polygons (hereafter low-center polygonal or LCP ponds), or resulting from thermokarst slumping above melting ice wedges linked to the accelerated degradation of permafrost (hereafter ice-wedge trough or IWT ponds). These ponds can merge together forming larger water bodies, but with relatively stable shores (hereafter merged polygonal or MPG ponds), and with limnological characteristics similar to LCP ponds. These aquatic systems are very small and shallow, and present a different physical structure than the larger thermokarst lakes, generated after years of development and land subsidence. In a glacier valley on Bylot Island, Nunavut, Canada, thermokarst and kettle lakes together represent 29% of the aquatic area, with a thermal profile resembling those of more standard arctic lakes (mixed epilimnion). The IWT ponds (44% of the area) are stratified for a large fraction of the summer despite their shallowness, while LCP and MPG ponds (27% of the area) show a more homogeneous water column. This will affect gas exchange in these diverse aquatic systems, in addition to their unique microbiota and organic carbon lability that control the production and consumption rates of greenhouse gases. The stratification in IWT ponds generates hypoxic conditions at the bottom, and together with the larger availability of organic carbon, stimulates methanogenesis and limits the mitigating action of methanotrophs. Overall, thaw ponds are largely supersaturated in methane, with IWT ponds dominating the emissions in this landscape (92% of total aquatic emissions estimated for the same valley), and they present large variations in

  15. Fate of endocrine disrupters in waste stabilization pond systems.

    PubMed

    Gomez, E; Wang, X; Dagnino, S; Leclercq, M; Escande, A; Casellas, C; Picot, B; Fenet, H

    2007-01-01

    The performance in the removal of estrogenicity from wastewater was studied in three wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Different treatment processes were evaluated: stabilization ponds and trickling filter. Sampling was performed from the input to the output of the treatment systems. The total estrogenic activity was determined with MCF-7-derived cell lines which express the endogenous estrogen receptor alpha. The two wastewater stabilization ponds with long retention time had high removal of estrogenicity (90% to 95%). Trickling filters despite being effective at removing organic load were less effective in removing estrogenicity (42%), and post tertiary ponds enhanced estrogenicity removal.

  16. Geohydrology and limnology of Walden Pond, Concord, Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Colman, John A.; Friesz, Paul J.

    2001-01-01

    The trophic ecology and ground-water contributing area of Walden Pond, in Concord and Lincoln, Mass., were investigated by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Management from April 1997 to July 2000. Bathymetric investigation indicated that Walden Pond (24.88 hectares), a glacial kettle-hole lake with no surface inlet or outlet, has three deep areas. The maximum depth (30.5 meters) essentially was unchanged from measurements made by Henry David Thoreau in 1846. The groundwater contributing area (621,000 square meters) to Walden Pond was determined from water-table contours in areas of stratified glacial deposits and from land-surface contours in areas of bedrock highs. Walden Pond is a flow-through lake: Walden Pond gains water from the aquifer along its eastern perimeter and loses water to the aquifer along its western perimeter. Walden Pond contributing area also includes Goose Pond and its contributing area. A water budget calculated for Walden Pond, expressed as depth of water over the lake surface, indicated that 45 percent of the inflow to the lake was from precipitation (1.215 meters per year) and 55 percent from ground water (1.47 meters per year). The groundwater inflow estimate was based on the average of two different approaches including an isotope mass-balance approach. Evaporation accounted for 26 percent of the outflow from the lake (0.71 meters per year) whereas lake-water seepage to the groundwater system contributed 74 percent of the outflow (1.97 meters per year). The water-residence time of Walden Pond is approximately 5 years. Potential point sources of nutrients to ground water, the Concord municipal landfill and a trailer park, were determined to be outside the Walden Pond groundwater contributing area. A third source, the septic leach field for the Walden Pond State Reservation facilities, was within the groundwater contributing area. Nutrient budgets for the lake indicated that

  17. Cogeneration plant serves Prague sewage works

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    The new cogeneration plant at the sewage works in Prague, Czech Republic, was commissioned in June of this year. The plant is based on three gas engine modules from Deutz MWM-Gastechnik, which supply power and heat from the sewage gas. Also installed was a central plant control system (CPCS) for automation of the power plant, including long-term data storage for operation optimization. The gas engines are equipped with an individual total electronic management system (TEM) that optimizes engine operation and heat transfer. The TEM system also serves for safety monitoring of the relevant modules. Data communication between the TEM system and the CPCS is realized via a serial interface. The CPCS can thus test the availability of the individual heat generators and, depending on the condition of an individual module, switch over to another. With due consideration to environmental protection, Deutz MWM-Gastechnik guarantees NO{sub x} emissions of less than 500 mg/Nm{sup 3} (at 5% O{sub 2}) and CO emissions of less than 650 mg/Nm{sup 3}. The plant operator has also encapsulated the three gas engine modules in soundproofing enclosures in order to reduce noise emissions from 105 down to 78 dB(A).

  18. [Monitoring of parasites in domestic sewage].

    PubMed

    Semenas, L; Brugni, N; Viozzi, G; Kreiter, A

    1999-08-01

    The evaluation of the presence of parasites in semisolid and liquid sewage in Argentinian Patagonia in view of the fact that this is a restriction for its use. The samples taken at 4 Domestic Sewage Plants were analyzed in accordance with Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, Environmental Protection Agency, World Health Organization and some other classifications. Only 2 of 6 semisolid samples analyzed had non-viable Ascaris lumbricoides eggs. Of the 10 liquid samples analyzed, only 2 did not contain eggs whereas the remaining ones had pathogens of categories I (Giardia sp., Hymenolepis nana and Enterobius vermicularis) and III (Ascaris lumbricoides, Ancylostoma duodenale and Trichuris trichiura). All semisolid samples turned out to be satisfactory for use as fertilizer as no viable Ascaris lumbricoides eggs were found in any of them. But only 6 of the liquid samples were satisfactory for use as they had no eggs or their concentrations was equal to or less than 1 egg per litre.

  19. Microwave oxidation treatment of sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Lo, Kwang V; Srinivasan, Asha; Liao, Ping H; Bailey, Sam

    2015-01-01

    Microwave-oxidation treatment of sewage sludge using various oxidants was studied. Two treatment schemes with a combination of hydrogen peroxide and ozone were examined: hydrogen peroxide and ozone were introduced into the sludge simultaneously, followed by microwave heating. The other involved the ozonation first, and then the resulting solution was subjected to microwave and hydrogen peroxide treatment. The set with ozonation followed by hydrogen peroxide plus microwave heating yielded higher soluble materials than those of the set with hydrogen peroxide plus ozone first and then microwave treatment. No settling was observed for all treatments in the batch operation, except ozone/microwave plus hydrogen peroxide set at 120°C. The pilot-scale continuous-flow 915 MHz microwave study has demonstrated that microwave-oxidation process is feasible for real-time industrial application. It would help in providing key data for the design of a full-scale system for treating sewage sludge and the formulation of operational protocols.

  20. Microplastics in Sewage Sludge: Effects of Treatment.

    PubMed

    Mahon, A M; O'Connell, B; Healy, M G; O'Connor, I; Officer, R; Nash, R; Morrison, L

    2017-01-17

    Waste water treatment plants (WWTPs) are receptors for the cumulative loading of microplastics (MPs) derived from industry, landfill, domestic wastewater and stormwater. The partitioning of MPs through the settlement processes of wastewater treatment results in the majority becoming entrained in the sewage sludge. This study characterized MPs in sludge samples from seven WWTPs in Ireland which use anaerobic digestion (AD), thermal drying (TD), or lime stabilization (LS) treatment processes. Abundances ranged from 4196 to 15 385 particles kg(-1) (dry weight). Results of a general linear mixed model (GLMM) showed significantly higher abundances of MPs in smaller size classes in the LS samples, suggesting that the treatment process of LS shears MP particles. In contrast, lower abundances of MPs found in the AD samples suggests that this process may reduce MP abundances. Surface morphologies examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed characteristics of melting and blistering of TD MPs and shredding and flaking of LS MPs. This study highlights the potential for sewage sludge treatment processes to affect the risk of MP pollution prior to land spreading and may have implications for legislation governing the application of biosolids to agricultural land.

  1. Phosphate fertilizer from sewage sludge ash (SSA).

    PubMed

    Franz, M

    2008-01-01

    Ashes from sewage sludge incineration are rich in phosphorus content, ranging between 4% and 9%. Due to the current methods of disposal used for these ashes, phosphorus, which is a valuable plant nutrient, is removed from biological cycling. This article proposes the possible three-stage processing of SSA, whereby more than 90% of phosphorus can be extracted to make an adequate phosphate fertilizer. SSA from two Swiss sewage sludge incinerators was used for laboratory investigations. In an initial step, SSA was leached with sulfuric acid using a liquid-to-solid ratio of 2. The leaching time and pH required for high phosphorus dissolution were determined. Inevitably, dissolution of heavy metals takes place that would contaminate the fertilizer. Thus in a second step, leach solution has to be purified by having the heavy metals removed. Both ion exchange using chelating resins and sulfide precipitation turned out to be suitable for removing critical Cu, Ni and Cd. Thirdly, phosphates were precipitated as calcium phosphates with lime water. The resulting phosphate sludge was dewatered, dried and ground to get a powdery fertilizer whose efficacy was demonstrated by plant tests in a greenhouse. By measuring the weight of plants after 6 weeks of growth, fertilized in part with conventional phosphate fertilizer, fertilizer made from SSA was proven to be equal in its plant uptake efficiency.

  2. Quality requirements for irrigation with sewage water

    SciTech Connect

    Bouwer, H.; Idelovitch, E. )

    1987-11-01

    Irrigation is an excellent use for sewage effluent because it is mostly water with nutrients. For small flows, the effluent can be used on special, well-supervised sewage farms, where forage, fiber, or seed crops are grown that can be irrigated with standard primary or secondary effluent. Large-scale use of the effluent requires special treatment so that it meets the public health, agronomic, and aesthetic requirements for unrestricted use. Crops in the unrestricted-use category include those that are consumed raw or brought raw into the kitchen. Most state or government standards deal only with public health aspects, and prescribe the treatment processes or the quality parameters that the effluent must meet before it can be used to irrigate a certain category of crops. However, agronomic aspects related to crops and soils must also be taken into account. Quality parameters to be considered include bacteria, viruses, and other pathogens; total salt content and sodium adsorption ratio of the water; nitrogen; phosphorus; chloride and chlorine; bicarbonate; heavy metals, boron, and other trace elements; pH; and synthetic organics. 23 refs., 9 tabs.

  3. Supercritical water pyrolysis of sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Ma, Wenchao; Du, Guiyue; Li, Jian; Fang, Yuanhao; Hou, Li'an; Chen, Guanyi; Ma, Degang

    2017-01-01

    Municipal sewage sludge (SS) from wastewater treatment plant containing high water content (>85wt.%), lead to the difficulty of co-combustion with MSW or coal due to the high cost of drying. This study explores an alternative method by supercritical water (SCW) pyrolysis of sewage sludge (SS) in a high pressure reaction vessel. The effects of temperature and moisture content of SS on yield and composition of the products (bio-oil, bio char and non-condensable gas) were studied. A temperature of 385°C and moisture content of 85wt.% were found to be the optimum conditions for the maximum bio-oil production of 37.23wt.%, with a higher heating value of 31.08MJ/kg. In the optimum condition, the yields of aliphatic hydrocarbon and phenols were about 29.23wt.% and 12.51wt.%, respectively. The physical and chemical properties of bio-char were analyzed by using XRF and BET. Results of GC analyses of NCG showed that it has the maximum HHV of 13.39MJ/m(3) at 445°C and moisture content of 85wt.%. The reaction path from SS to bio-oil through SCW pyrolysis was given. Moreover, carbon balance was calculated for the optimal condition, and finding out that 64.27wt.% of the carbon content was transferred from SS to bio-oil. Finally, this work demonstrates that the SCW pyrolysis is a promising disposal method for SS.

  4. Complete survey of German sewage sludge ash.

    PubMed

    Krüger, Oliver; Grabner, Angela; Adam, Christian

    2014-10-21

    The amount of sewage sludge produced worldwide is expected to further increase due to rising efforts in wastewater treatment. There is a growing concern against its direct use as fertilizer due to contamination of the sludge with heavy metals and organic pollutants. Incinerating the sludge degrades organic compounds almost completely and concentrates heavy metals and phosphorus. However, the sewage sludge ash (SSA) is almost completely disposed of and with it all resources are removed from the economic cycle. Comprehensive knowledge of the composition of SSA is crucial to assess the resource recovery potentials. We conducted a survey of all SSA emerging in Germany and determined the respective mass fractions of 57 elements over a period of one year. The median content of phosphorus was 7.9%, indicating an important recovery potential. Important trace elements were Zn (2.5 g/kg), Mn (1.3 g/kg), and Cu (0.9 g/kg). Mass fractions of technology metals such as V, Cr, Ga, Nb, and rare earths were comparatively low. Considering the possible use of SSA as secondary raw material for fertilizer production it should be noted that its Cd and U content (2.7 mg/kg and 4.9 mg/kg respectively) is significantly lower than that of rock phosphate based mineral fertilizers.

  5. Treatment of sewage sludge using electrokinetic geosynthetics.

    PubMed

    Glendinning, Stephanie; Lamont-Black, John; Jones, Colin J F P

    2007-01-31

    The treatment and disposal of sewage sludge is one of the most problematical issues affecting wastewater treatment in the developed world. The traditional outlets for sewage sludge are to spread it on agricultural land, or to form a cake for deposit to landfill or incineration. In order to create a sludge cake, water must be removed. Existing dewatering technology based on pressure can only remove a very limited amount of this water because of the way in which water is bound to the sludge particles or flocs. Several researchers have shown that electrokinetic dewatering of sludge is more efficient than conventional hydraulically driven methods. This involves the application of a dc voltage across the sludge, driving water under an electrical gradient from positive (anode) electrode to negative (cathode) electrode. However, there have been several reasons why this technique has not been adopted in practice, not least because the, normally metallic, anode rapidly dissolves due to the acidic environment created by the electrolysis of water. This paper will describe experimentation using electrokinetic geosynthetics (EKG): polymer-based materials containing conducting elements. These have been used to minimise the problem of electrode corrosion and create a sludge treatment system that can produce dry solids contents in excess of 30%. It will suggest different options for the treatment of sludges both in situ in sludge lagoons and windrows, and ex situ as a treatment process.

  6. Sorption of lead by settling pond soils after reclamation treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asensio, Verónica; Forján, Rubén; Vega, Flora A.; Andrade, Luisa; Covelo, Emma F.

    2013-04-01

    The reclamation of degraded soils adding waste amendments can add significant concentrations of Pb. Because of this, it is important to know the sorption capacity of Pb by the soils where wastes with high concentrations of this metal are applied. To determine the sorption capacity of Pb by mine soils, before and after reclamation treatments, four different sites were selected at a settling pond mine zone: an untreated one as the control sample (B1), a vegetated one with pines for 21 years (B2v), a vegetated with eucalyptus for 6 years (B3v) and an amended with sewage sludges and paper mill residues for 5 months (B4w). All soils had one horizon except B4w, where twice were sampled (B4Aw and B4Bw). The B4Bw is considered analogous of the control soil. To evaluate the sorption capacity by the soils, sorption isotherms were constructed using single-metal solutions of Pb2+ nitrates (0.03, 0.05, 0.08, 0.1 and 0.5 mmol L-1) containing 0.01 M NaNO3 as background electrolyte (Vega et al., 2009). The overall capacity of the soil to sorb Pb was evaluated as the slope Kr (Vega et al., 2008). The obtained results show that the sorption isotherm of Pb by control soil (B1) and its analogous (B4Bw) are of L-type curve, whereas the sorption isotherms of the treated soils (B2v, B3v and B4Aw) are of H-type curve (Giles et al., 1974). The most of the obtained isotherms do not fit with the models of Langmuir or Freundlich, therefore sorption capacity was evaluated by Kr parameter. According to the obtained Kr parameter, B1 and B4Bw have the lowest Pb sorption capacity (Kr = 0.480 and 0.556, respectively), which increased two times after recently waste amending (B4Aw; Kr = 0.998). The vegetated sites (B2v and B3v) also have higher sorption capacity than B1, but lower than B4Aw (Kr = 0.692 and 0.725, respectively). The highest sorption capacity of Pb by the amended soil is due to its characteristics such as high pH and organic carbon content. This is corroborated by the significantly

  7. Treatment of oilfield produced water by waste stabilization ponds.

    PubMed

    Shpiner, R; Vathi, S; Stuckey, D C

    2007-01-01

    Produced water (PW) from oil wells can serve as an alternative water resource for agriculture if the main pollutants (hydrocarbons and heavy metals) can be removed to below irrigation standards. Waste stabilization ponds seem like a promising solution for PW treatment, especially in the Middle East where solar radiation is high and land is available. In this work, hydrocarbon removal from PW in a biological waste stabilization pond was examined at lab-scale followed by an intermittent slow sand filter. The system was run for 300 days and removed around 90% of the oil in the pond, and 95% after the sand filter. COD removal was about 80% in the pond effluent, and 85% after the filter. The system was tested under various operational modes and found to be stable to shock loads. Installation of oil booms and decantation of surface oil seem to be important in order to maintain good system performance over time.

  8. VIEW WEST FROM BEHIND ISLAND AND INFIELD POND. EAST FACADE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW WEST FROM BEHIND ISLAND AND INFIELD POND. EAST FACADE OF CLUBHOUSE AND PORTION OF GRANDSTANDS IN BACKGROUND. FLAMINGOS IN FOREGROUND: CD-W. - Hialeah Park Race Track, East Fourth Avenue, Hialeah, Miami-Dade County, FL

  9. 52. View of "grandpappy" tree with Wings Rest Pond in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    52. View of "grandpappy" tree with Wings Rest Pond in background looking from the northeast (similar to HALS no. LA-1-22) - Briarwood: The Caroline Dormon Nature Preserve, 216 Caroline Dormon Road, Saline, Bienville Parish, LA

  10. 54. View of footbridge from Wings Rest Pond looking from ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    54. View of footbridge from Wings Rest Pond looking from the east (similar to HALS no. LA-1-24) - Briarwood: The Caroline Dormon Nature Preserve, 216 Caroline Dormon Road, Saline, Bienville Parish, LA

  11. 53. View of Wings Rest Pond with reflection of "grandpappy" ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    53. View of Wings Rest Pond with reflection of "grandpappy" looking from the southwest (similar to HALS no. LA-1-23) - Briarwood: The Caroline Dormon Nature Preserve, 216 Caroline Dormon Road, Saline, Bienville Parish, LA

  12. 8. Environmental view facing northwest showing pond in relationship to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Environmental view facing northwest showing pond in relationship to house - John Bly House, East side of County Road 857, just north of intersection with Quarry Run Road, Cheat Neck, Monongalia County, WV

  13. 10. VIEW OF THE SEDIMENT DAM AND POND, FACING SOUTH. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. VIEW OF THE SEDIMENT DAM AND POND, FACING SOUTH. PHOTO TAKEN FROM WATER PUMP (FEATURE B-25). - Nevada Lucky Tiger Mill & Mine, East slope of Buckskin Mountain, Paradise Valley, Humboldt County, NV

  14. Beyond Historical Fiction: Speare's "The Witch of Blackbird Pond."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thuente, Mary Helen

    1985-01-01

    Reviews "The Witch of Blackbird Pond" by E. Speare to show how the full narrative power of the novel derives from the author's successful integration of two separate narrative genres: historical fiction and the folktale. (EL)

  15. South Bay Salt Pond Tidal Wetland Restoration Phase II Planning

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Information about the SFBWQP South Bay Salt Pond Tidal Wetland Restoration Phase II Planning project, part of an EPA competitive grant program to improve SF Bay water quality focused on restoring impaired waters and enhancing aquatic re

  16. 2. VIEW OF POND B, LOOKING NORTHEAST FROM THE WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW OF POND B, LOOKING NORTHEAST FROM THE WEST SIDE OF THE SOURIS RIVER VALLEY, DUE SOUTH OF THE LOOKOUT TOWER - Upper Souris National Wildlife Refuge Dams, Souris River Basin, Foxholm, Surrey (England), ND

  17. Using Stormwater Detention Ponds for Aquatic Science Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cahoon, Lawrence B.

    1996-01-01

    Describes the use of recently constructed stormwater detention ponds to conduct a set of field and laboratory exercises in an undergraduate limnology course. Provides a number of logistical advantages that can benefit those teaching aquatic sciences. (JRH)

  18. Using Stormwater Detention Ponds for Aquatic Science Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cahoon, Lawrence B.

    1996-01-01

    Describes the use of recently constructed stormwater detention ponds to conduct a set of field and laboratory exercises in an undergraduate limnology course. Provides a number of logistical advantages that can benefit those teaching aquatic sciences. (JRH)

  19. Investigation of the environmental impacts of sedimentation in Anzali Pond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barmal, Milad; Neshaei, Seyed Ahmad; Farzan, Niloofar

    2016-04-01

    Anzali harbor is the most essential transportation pole between Iran and other countries of the Caspian Sea basin. Anzali pond is an important ecosystem in the region due to its unique plant and animal species. In order to determine the effects of interaction between pond and sea, a series of in-depth studies and analysis on the pattern of sedimentation in Anzali harbor and pond were performed. The study area is Anzali harbor and pond which is located in southwest of the Caspian Sea in Iran. In recent years the economical importance and improvement program of this region has devoted many scientists and authorities attention to itself. In this paper, researches on environmental impact by sediment and pollution in this zone are performed. Analysis indicates that by disposal of sediment and pollution in this area, the physical and chemical quality of water has declined. Some practical suggestions are made to improve the quality of the studied region in terms of environmental aspects.

  20. [Reduction of radioactive cesium content in pond smelt by cooking].

    PubMed

    Nabeshi, Hiromi; Tsutsumi, Tomoaki; Hachisuka, Akiko; Matsuda, Rieko

    2013-01-01

    In Japan, seafood may be eaten raw or after having been cooked in diverse ways. Therefore, it is important to understand the effect of cooking on the extent of contamination with radioactive materials in order to avoid internal exposure to radioactive materials via seafood. In this study, we investigated the changes in radioactive cesium content in pond smelt cooked in four different ways: grilled, stewed (kanroni), fried and soaked (nanbanzuke). The radioactive cesium content in grilled, kanroni and fried pond smelt was almost unchanged compared with the uncooked state. In contrast, radioactive cesium content in nanbanzuke pond smelt was decreased by about 30%. Our result suggests that soaking cooked pond smelt in seasoning is an effective method of reducing the burden radioactive cesium.

  1. 90. VIEW OF THE HEAD ARCHES AND FAIRMOUNT POND, CA. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    90. VIEW OF THE HEAD ARCHES AND FAIRMOUNT POND, CA. 1875 Collection of the Fairmount Park Commission - Fairmount Waterworks, East bank of Schuylkill River, Aquarium Drive, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  2. 5. UPSTREAM (WEST) VIEW OF SPILLWAY, WITH COOKE DAM POND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. UPSTREAM (WEST) VIEW OF SPILLWAY, WITH COOKE DAM POND IN FOREGROUND AND NORTH EMBANKMENT (MI-98-A) AT LEFT. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Cooke Hydroelectric Plant, Spillway, Cook Dam Road at Au Sable River, Oscoda, Iosco County, MI

  3. South Bay Salt Pond Restoration, Phase II at Ravenswood

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Information about the South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project: Phase II Construction at Ravenswood, part of an EPA competitive grant program to improve SF Bay water quality focused on restoring impaired waters and enhancing aquatic resources.

  4. Beyond Historical Fiction: Speare's "The Witch of Blackbird Pond."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thuente, Mary Helen

    1985-01-01

    Reviews "The Witch of Blackbird Pond" by E. Speare to show how the full narrative power of the novel derives from the author's successful integration of two separate narrative genres: historical fiction and the folktale. (EL)

  5. Determining surface meltwater pond volume using satellite imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sneed, W. A.; Hamilton, G. S.

    2006-12-01

    Ponded surface meltwater on Arctic ice caps and ice sheets is an important glaciological and climatological characteristic. Changes in the distribution and amount of ponds with time represent changes in the surface climate conditions controlling melting. The availability of large volumes of ponded surface water raises the possibility of sudden drainage to the bed, a change in basal lubrication, and a rapid increase in ice velocity. While the problem of calculating the areal extent of meltwater ponds using satellite imagery is fairly straightforward, determining the depth and thus the volume is not. We describe a method for deriving the depth of meltwater ponds using 15 m resolution ASTER imagery. We apply the technique to sequences of satellite imagery acquired over Austfonna, Svalbard and the western margin of the Greenland Ice Sheet, to derive changes in melt pond extent and volume during the period 2000-2005. These changes are probably related to accumulation and summer melt conditions. The method is well-suited to the near-optically-clear melt ponds of ice sheets and ice caps, but not to the turbid ponds of alpine glaciers. The method involves making some reasonable assumptions about the albedo of the bottom surface of the ponds and the optical attenuation characteristics of ASTER bands VNIR1 and VNIR3 through the ponded meltwater. Preliminary laboratory analysis of ponded meltwater from Greenland supports our assumption that such water contains little or no chlorophyll A with minimal levels of suspended organic and inorganic solids and, to a first approximation, can be consider laboratory-pure fresh water. For an ~78 km2 test area in northeastern Austfonna we have calculated a threefold increase in meltwater volume during one six-day period in July 2004. In northwestern Greenland, an ~171 km2 area near Melville Bay in July 2002 had a volume of surface meltwater of nearly 2x10^7 m3; in August 2005 the same area had a volume of 3.7x10^7 m3 of surface meltwater.

  6. Presence of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in sewage treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Boopathy, Raj

    2017-02-23

    The presence of antibiotic resistant bacteria and antibiotic resistance genes in rural sewage treatment plants are not well reported in the literature. The aim of the present study was to study the frequency occurrence of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in a rural sewage treatment plant. This study was conducted using raw sewage as well as treated sewage from a small town sewage treatment plant in rural southeast Louisiana of USA. Results showed the presence of MRSA consistently in both raw and treated sewage. The presence of mecA gene responsible for methicillin resistance was confirmed in the raw and treated sewage water samples.

  7. Dissolved organic matter photolysis in Canadian arctic thaw ponds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laurion, Isabelle; Mladenov, Natalie

    2013-09-01

    The abundant thaw lakes and ponds in the circumarctic receive a new pool of organic carbon as permafrost peat soils degrade, which can be exposed to significant irradiance that potentially increases as climate warms and ice cover shortens. Exposure to sunlight is known to accelerate the transformation of dissolved organic matter (DOM) into molecules that can be more readily used by microbes. We sampled the water from two common classes of ponds found in the ice-wedge system of continuous permafrost regions of Canada, polygonal and runnel ponds, and followed the transformation of DOM over 12 days by looking at dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration and DOM absorption and fluorescence properties. The results indicate a relatively fast decay of color (3.4 and 1.6% loss d-1 of absorption at 320 nm for the polygonal and runnel pond, respectively) and fluorescence (6.1 and 8.3% loss d-1 of total fluorescent components, respectively) at the pond surface, faster in the case of humic-like components, but insignificant losses of DOC over the observed period. This result indicates that direct DOM mineralization (photochemical production of CO2) is apparently minor in thaw ponds compared to the photochemical transformation of DOM into less chromophoric and likely more labile molecules with a greater potential for microbial mineralization. Therefore, DOM photolysis in arctic thaw ponds can be considered as a catalytic mechanism, accelerating the microbial turnover of mobilized organic matter from thawing permafrost and the production of greenhouse gases, especially in the most shallow ponds. Under a warming climate, this mechanism will intensify as summers lengthen.

  8. Operation of Stabilization Ponds in a Tropical Area

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-10-01

    The efficiency of solar energy conversion into useable photo- synthetic energy was estimated to be 2-A7. by Rich (1963), while Herman and Gloyna... solar radiation would be available throughout the year. Temperature also affects pond performance in still a different Banner. Algal cells acting as...treatment efficiency . The approach to design depends upon whether the pond is a single or multi- cell system, and whether it is to be an aerobic, a

  9. Formation of the "ponds" on asteroid (433) Eros by fluidization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sears, D. W. G.; Tornabene, L. L.; Osinski, G. R.; Hughes, S. S.; Heldmann, J. L.

    2015-11-01

    The "ponds" on asteroid (433) Eros are fine-grained deposits approximating flat (quasi-equipotential) surfaces with respect to local topographic depressions (e.g., craters) in spacecraft images. These ponds are discussed in the context of laboratory simulation experiments, crater-related ponded and pitted deposits observed on Mars and Vesta, terrestrial phreatic craters, and degassing features associated with eroded impact craters on Earth. While the details of formation of these features on Mars, Vesta and the Earth are thought to be different, they all include mechanisms that require the interactions between surface materials and volatiles (e.g., water vapor). Indeed, analogous features similar to the Eros ponds can be reproduced in the laboratory by the release of vapor (ice sublimation, water evaporation, or N2) through an unconsolidated regolith (independent of regolith composition). Eros is widely thought to be dry, but the discovery of exogenic water on Vesta, and recent arguments that subsurface water might be present in the inner asteroid belt suggest that endogenic water might also be present and serve as a source of the gases produced in the ponds. The amount of water required is comparable to the amount of water observed in little-metamorphosed ordinary chondrites (a few wt%). The primary morphologic characteristics of the Eros ponds can be explained in this model. The heat source for degassing could have been solar heating following transfer from a main belt orbit to a near Earth orbit. Although other hypotheses (e.g., electrostatic levitation, seismic shaking, and comminution of boulders) can account for most of the features of the ponds, recent observations regarding the role of volatiles on planetary surfaces, our laboratory experiments, and fluidization deposits on active comets suggests that degassing is a reasonable hypothesis to be considered and further tested for explaining the Eros ponds, and similar features on other bodies.

  10. International cooling-tower and spray pond symposium

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-01

    This document contains the manuscripts of sixty-one papers that were presented at the 7th Cooling Tower and Spray Pond Symposium of the International Association for Hydraulic Research, organized by the B.E. Vedeneev Institute (VNIIG) and held in Leningrad, USSR, in June 1990. This report represents a worldwide state-of-the-art survey of recent work on cooling towers and spray ponds. Individual papers are indexed separately on the energy database.

  11. Level 1 remedial investigation work plan, 300 Area Process Ponds

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-06-01

    This report discusses the objectives of the site characterization for the 300 Area Process Ponds which are to identify and quantify contamination at the ponds and to estimate their potential impact on human health and the environment. The results of the site characterization will be used to identify any future actions related to contamination at the site and to identify any additional data requirements needed to support selection of a remedial action. 9 refs., 12 figs., 8 tabs.

  12. Spatial Distribution and Effects of Sewage in Coastal Hawaiian Waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abaya, L.; Wiegner, T. N.; Colbert, S.; Lindsey, K.; Beets, J.

    2016-02-01

    Sewage pollution is a worldwide threat to marine ecosystems and human health through the release of pathogens and nutrients into nearshore waters. Goals of this study were to document hydrological connections between cesspools and nearshore waters, detect the presence of sewage through biological and chemical tracers, and determine the spatial extent of sewage offshore. Puakō, located on Hawaíi Island, was the focus of this study as most homes have cesspools. Fluorescein dye injected into cesspools was detected at the shoreline in as little as three days. Elevated δ 15N signatures in macroalgae and high Enterococcus counts further confirmed presence of sewage in nearshore waters. Offshore sampling revealed significant differences among distances from shore for fecal indicator bacteria and δ 15N signatures in macroalgae. Results indicated distance from shore and stations are important factors of variability. Additionally, nutrient concentrations and macroalgal cover were higher in areas with high groundwater discharge. Surprisingly, δ15N macroalgal signatures and Enterococcus were not correlated with salinity. These results suggest that possibly the location of cesspools, subsurface geology, and/or nearshore circulation may affect sewage transport to the coastline and offshore. Spatial analysis techniques helped visualize potential hot spots of sewage pollution using δ15N macroalgal and Enterococcus data. The combination of tools used here to document sewage pollution presence may be useful for communities facing similar environmental problems.

  13. Identification of Comamonas testosteroni as an androgen degrader in sewage

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yi-Lung; Wang, Chia-Hsiang; Yang, Fu-Chun; Ismail, Wael; Wang, Po-Hsiang; Shih, Chao-Jen; Wu, Yu-Ching; Chiang, Yin-Ru

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies have reported the masculinization of freshwater wildlife exposed to androgens in polluted rivers. Microbial degradation is a crucial mechanism for eliminating steroid hormones from contaminated ecosystems. The aerobic degradation of testosterone was observed in various bacterial isolates. However, the ecophysiological relevance of androgen-degrading microorganisms in the environment is unclear. Here, we investigated the biochemical mechanisms and corresponding microorganisms of androgen degradation in aerobic sewage. Sewage samples collected from the Dihua Sewage Treatment Plant (Taipei, Taiwan) were aerobically incubated with testosterone (1 mM). Androgen metabolite analysis revealed that bacteria adopt the 9, 10-seco pathway to degrade testosterone. A metagenomic analysis indicated the apparent enrichment of Comamonas spp. (mainly C. testosteroni) and Pseudomonas spp. in sewage incubated with testosterone. We used the degenerate primers derived from the meta-cleavage dioxygenase gene (tesB) of various proteobacteria to track this essential catabolic gene in the sewage. The amplified sequences showed the highest similarity (87–96%) to tesB of C. testosteroni. Using quantitative PCR, we detected a remarkable increase of the 16S rRNA and catabolic genes of C. testosteroni in the testosterone-treated sewage. Together, our data suggest that C. testosteroni, the model microorganism for aerobic testosterone degradation, plays a role in androgen biodegradation in aerobic sewage. PMID:27734937

  14. Redistribution of sewage-nitrogen in estuarine food webs following sewage treatment upgrades.

    PubMed

    Pitt, Kylie A; Connolly, Rod M; Maxwell, Paul

    2009-04-01

    Stable nitrogen isotopes were used to assess the effects of wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) upgrades on the utilisation of sewage-N by estuarine biota in Moreton Bay, Australia. We measured delta(15)N of filamentous algae, mangrove leaves and shore crabs at the Brisbane and Logan Rivers before and after scheduled WWTP upgrades, and at two reference rivers where WWTPs had been upgraded >4 years previously. The total N discharged into Brisbane River decreased by >80% after the upgrades had occurred, but N loads remained similar at Logan River despite the upgrade. In Brisbane River, delta(15)N values of algae and crabs decreased and were comparable to the reference rivers within 1-2 years but no changes occurred at Logan River. The delta(15)N of mangrove leaves remained elevated in all rivers, indicating that sewage-N remained a major source to mangroves either from residual WWTP discharges or from N accumulated in the sediments over many years.

  15. Calibration of laboratory bioassays with results from microcosms and ponds

    SciTech Connect

    Giddings, J.M.; Franco, P.J.

    1985-01-01

    Effects of an organic contaminant (as synthetic coal-derived crude oil) were measured in outdoor ponds and indoor pond-derived microcosms and compared with results of laboratory bioassays. Ponds and microcosms were treated with the oil continuously for eight weeks. Concentrations of phenolic compounds spanned the range of acute and chronic toxicity concentrations determined in single-species bioassays. Effects were similar in microcosms and ponds, implying that microcosms are suitable models for field studies for some purposes. Significant changes in community metabolism and zooplankton populations occurred in microcosms and ponds exposed to less than 0.05 mg/L phenols, near the 28-day lowest observed effect concentration (LOEC) for Daphnia magna. Ponds and microcosms were seriously damaged at concentrations near acute bioassay mean lethal concentration (LC/sub 50/) values. Indirect effects in the ecosystems occurred at all treatment levels, and included changes in water quality, replacement of sensitive taxa by more tolerant competitors, and changes in abundance of some species because of increases or decreases in their predators or grazers. The safe exposure level determined from the ecosystem experiments was accurately predicted by an application factor of 0.03 in conjunction with the most sensitive acute bioassay result (the D. magna 48-h LC/sub 50/). Less conservative extrapolation methods overestimated the safe concentration of this material in these ecosystems. 32 references, 3 figures, 5 tables.

  16. Calibration of laboratory bioassays with results from microcosms and ponds

    SciTech Connect

    Giddings, J.M.; Franco, P.J.

    1983-01-01

    Effects of an organic contaminant (a synthetic coal-derived crude oil) were measured in outdoor ponds and indoor pond-derived microcosms and compared with results of laboratory bioassays. Ponds and microcosms were treated with the oil continuously for 8 weeks. Concentrations of phenolic compounds (the major water-soluble constituents of the oil) spanned the range of acute and chronic toxicity concentrations determined in single-species bioassays. Effects were similar in microcosms and ponds, implying that microcosms are suitable models for field studies for some purposes. Significant changes in community metabolism and zooplankton populations occurred in microcosms and ponds exposed to less than 0.05 mg/litre phenols, near the 28-day Lowest Observed Effect Concentration for Daphnia magna. Ponds and microcosms were seriously damaged at concentrations near acute bioassay LC50 values. Indirect effects in the ecosystems occurred at all treatment levels, and included changes in water quality, replacement of sensitive taxa by more tolerant competitors, and changes in abundance of some species because of increases or decreases in their predators or grazers. The safe exposure level determined from the ecosystem experiments were accurately predicted by an application factor of 0.03 in conjunction with the most sensitive acute bioassay result (the D. magna 48-h LC50). Less conservative extrapolation methods overestimated the safe concentration of this material in these ecosystems. 28 references, 3 figures, 5 tables.

  17. Effectiveness of an urban runoff detention pond - Wetlands system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martin, E.H.

    1988-01-01

    The effectiveness of an urban detention system, composed of a detention pond and wetlands in series, in reducing constituent loads carried in runoff was determined. The detention pond was effective in reducing loads of suspended solids and suspended metals. Suspended-phase efficiencies for solids, lead, and zinc ranged between 42 and 66%. Nutrient efficiencies were variable, ranging for all species and phases, from less than 0 to 72%. The wetlands generally was effective in reducing both suspended and dissolved loads of solids and metals. Total (dissolved + suspended) solids, lead, and zinc efficiencies ranged between 41 and 73%. Efficiencies for total nitrogen and phosphorus were 21 and 17%, respectively. The system, by combining the treatment of the pond of wetlands, was very effective in reducing loads of most constituents. Total solids, lead, and zinc efficiencies ranged between 55 and 83%. Total nitrogen and phosphorus efficiencies were 36 and 43%, respectively.The effectiveness of an urban detention system, composed of a detention pond and wetlands in series, in reducing constituent loads carried in runoff was determined. The detention pond was effective in reducing loads of suspended solids and suspended metals. Nutrient efficiencies were variable, ranging for all species and phases, from less than 0 to 72 percent. The wetlands generally was effective in reducing both suspended and dissolved loads of solids and metals. The system, by combining the treatment of the pond and wetlands, was very effective in reducing loads of most constituents.

  18. Water treatment plant sludge disposal into stabilization ponds.

    PubMed

    Filho, Sidney Seckler Ferreira; Piveli, Roque Passos; Cutolo, Silvana Audrá; de Oliveira, Alexandre Alves

    2013-01-01

    Researchers have paid particular attention to the disposal of sludge produced in water treatment plants (WTPs) into wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) for further processing, mainly because it is considered an attractive alternative for the treatment of waste generated in water production processes. This study evaluated the effects of flow equalization and disposal of sludge, from a conventional WTP, into a WWTP system that includes an anaerobic stabilization pond followed by a facultative pond. During the period of sludge discharge from the WTP into the wastewater system, the influent to the WWTP presented an increase of 17% (from 171 to 200 mg L(-1)) of total suspended solids (TSS) and a 7.0% flow rate increase, without showing adverse effects on the organic load, TSS and nutrients removal. The most significant impact observed in the WWTP was the increase of solids accumulation rate in the anaerobic pond, with a value of 141 mm/year during the sludge discharge period. The operating time, before the dredging and desludging cycles required for this specific anaerobic pond, decreased from 12.7 to 10.4 years, which is consistent with previous studies in literature. Thus, based on the observed parameters of this study, it is viable to release solids from a WTP effluent into a WWTP that includes anaerobic stabilization ponds followed by a facultative pond. Indeed, this process scheme becomes a viable technical, environmental, and economical alternative for small to medium WWTPs.

  19. Acidification as environmental pollution: effects on fish-pond ecology

    SciTech Connect

    Murad, H.A.

    1987-01-01

    To establish the impact of acidity on fish production in ponds, experiments were conducted in fertilized sunfish (Lepomis spp.) ponds and fed channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) ponds. The alkalinity and pH of pond water were lowered by additions of H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/. Total alkalinity levels were 1, 3, 6, 8, and 20 mg/liter in sunfish ponds and 0, 5, and 20 in catfish production ponds. Water quality and phytoplankton density were monitored. The decrease in alkalinity caused changes in fish production and phytoplankton communities. Production of sunfish decreased with decreasing alkalinity below 20 mg/liter. Channel catfish yields were not affected significantly at a total alkalinity of 5 mg/liter and above (P > 0.05). No sign of fish stress of aluminum accumulation in the tissue were detected in catfish. There was no relation between alkalinity level and off-flavor in catfish. Chlorophyll a concentration increased as alkalinity and pH decreased, although total number of phytoplankters, gross photosynthesis, and turbidity decreased with decreases in total alkalinity. Phosphorus was more available at low alkalinity levels. Total hardness increased as alkalinity decreased.

  20. Enhancing Ecoefficiency in Shrimp Farming through Interconnected Ponds.

    PubMed

    Barraza-Guardado, Ramón Héctor; Arreola-Lizárraga, José Alfredo; Miranda-Baeza, Anselmo; Juárez-García, Manuel; Juvera-Hoyos, Antonio; Casillas-Hernández, Ramón

    2015-01-01

    The future development of shrimp farming needs to improve its ecoefficiency. The purpose of this study was to evaluate water quality, flows, and nitrogen balance and production parameters on a farm with interconnected pond design to improve the efficiency of the semi-intensive culture of Litopenaeus vannamei ponds. The study was conducted in 21 commercial culture ponds during 180 days at densities of 30-35 ind m(-2) and daily water exchange <2%. Our study provides evidence that by interconnecting ponds nutrient recycling is favored by promoting the growth of primary producers of the pond as chlorophyll a. Based on the mass balance and flow of nutrients this culture system reduces the flow of solid, particulate organic matter, and nitrogen compounds to the environment and significantly increases the efficiency of water (5 to 6.5 m(3) kg(-1) cycle(-1)), when compared with traditional culture systems. With this culture system it is possible to recover up to 34% of the total nitrogen entering the system, with production in excess of 4,000 kg ha(-1) shrimp. We believe that the production system with interconnected ponds is a technically feasible model to improve ecoefficiency production of shrimp farming.