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Sample records for para las plantas

  1. Las propiedades de las estrellas extrañas en el marco de una nueva ecuación de estado para la materia extraña

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lugones, G.; Benvenuto, O. G.

    Se estudian las propiedades generales de las estrellas constituídas por materia extraña (ME) en el marco de una nueva ecuación de estado (EOS) en la que consideramos la masa de los quarks como dependiente del número medio de bariones por unidad de volumen. Se asume esta dependencia de forma que los quarks sean livianos (pesados) a densidades altas (bajas). En esta aproximación, la EOS de la ME es similar a la predicha por el modelo de la Bolsa del MIT, pero es significativamente mas dura a bajas densidades. Esta propiedad modifica las propiedades de las estrellas extrañas en forma notable. Encontramos que, con esta nueva EOS, los objetos pueden ser más masivos que en el caso de la EOS de la bolsa del MIT y que, además, pueden presentar mayores redshifts gravitatorios en hasta un 10%. En el caso de las oscilaciones radiales de estos objetos, calculamos la relación período vs. redshift gravitacional y encontramos una expresión analítica simple para el caso de las oscilaciones de objetos de baja masa. Encontramos que, aún con hipótesis muy diferentes en cuanto a la ecuación de estado de la materia extraña, las propiedades generales de estos objetos no se ve afectada en forma fundamental, y, por lo tanto, no deberían ser muy diferentes de las aquí expuestas.

  2. Revision curricular a partir de un analisis comparativo de las discrepancias en los curriculos de una escuela de optometria en Puerto Rico con las competencias requeridas para las agencias de revalida y acreditacion 2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivera Pacheco, Andres

    El proposito de esta investigacion, un estudio cualitativo de caso, fue comparar y contrastar el curriculo vigente de la Escuela de Optometria de la UIAPR con las competencias y estandares requeridos por las agencias de acreditacion y de revalida. Con este proposito, decidimos realizar una revision y un analisis de documentos: el prontuario de cada uno de los cursos de los curriculos implantados en el 1993 y en el 2001; las competencias y estandares establecidos por las agencias de revalida y de acreditacion; y las estadisticas en las que se analiza el porcentaje de estudiantes que aprueban cada una de las partes de los examenes de revalida entre el 1998 al 2003. Se realizaron entrevistas dirigidas para dar apoyo y complementar la revision y el analisis de estos documentos. Los participantes de las entrevistas fueron tres estudiantes de la clase de optometria del 2004 (ultima clase del curriculo del 1993); tres estudiantes de la clase de optometria del 2005 (primera clase graduanda del curriculo vigente) y tres profesores y/o directores de los Departamentos de Ciencias Basicas, Ciencias Clinicas y Cuidado al Paciente. Esta investigacion se enmarco en el modelo de evaluacion curricular de discrepancia de Malcolm Provus y en el modelo de desarrollo basado en competencias. Uno de los hallazgos mas importantes del estudio es que los cambios que se implantaron al curriculo del 2001 no han logrado que los estudiantes mejoren su ejecucion en los examenes de revalida. Por otro lado, se encontro que el curriculo vigente atiende completamente los estandares de la practica de Optometria, pero no las competencias. Esta informacion fue validada mediante el uso de una tabla de cotejo para el analisis de los cursos y de la informacion obtenida de las entrevistas. El estudio determina y concluye que existen discrepancias entre los prontuarios de los cursos del curriculo y las competencias requeridas por la agencia de revalida. Segundo, que el Departamento de Ciencias Basicas es el

  3. Perspectivas para mejorar la salud sexual de las minorías sexuales y de identidad de género en Guatemala

    PubMed Central

    Alonzo, Jorge; Mann, Lilli; Simán, Florence; Sun, Christina J.; Andrade, Mario; Villatoro, Guillermo; Rhodes, Scott D.

    2016-01-01

    Resumen Las minorías sexuales y de identidad de género en Guatemala son afectadas de manera desproporcionada por el VIH y otras infecciones transmitidas sexualmente (ITS). Sin embargo, poco se sabe de los factores que contribuyen al riesgo de infección en estas minorías. Investigadores de Estados Unidos y Guatemala quisimos informarnos sobre las necesidades de salud sexual e identificar características de programas de prevención de VIH/ITS para estas minorías. Llevamos a cabo 8 grupos focales con hombres gay, bisexuales y personas transgénero y entrevistas en profundidad con líderes comunitarios. Utilizamos el Método Comparativo Constante para analizar las transcripciones. Identificamos 24 factores que influyen en la salud sexual y 16 características de programas para reducir el riesgo de VIH/ITS en estas poblaciones. La identificación de factores de conductas sexuales de riesgo y de características de programas potencialmente efectivos ofrece gran potencial para desarrollar intervenciones que contribuyan a reducir el riesgo de infección por VIH/ITS en estas minorías en Guatemala. PMID:27494000

  4. Informe sobre el avance del proyecto de determinaciones de V sen i para todas las estrellas B más brillantes que 6.5 mag.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abt, H.; Levato, H.

    Se ha finalizado con la determinación de V sen i para todas las estrellas B más brillantes que 6.5 mag y al norte de -30 grados de declinación. Esta muestra involucra casi 1000 estrellas. Las observaciones fueron realizadas desde KPNO. Mientras tanto, se ha completado desde CASLEO la observación de 350 estrellas B más brillantes que 6.5 mag. al sur de -30 grados. Además de la determinación de la rotación axial se determinan, en los casos posibles, los anchos equivalentes de las líneas 4471 Ådel He I y 4481 Ådel Mg II.

  5. EPA se mueve hacia la prohibición de desengrasantes en aerosol y quitamanchas para lavado en seco como una de las primeras acciones reglamentarias conforme a la ley reformada de sustancias químicas

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Comunicado de prensa de EPA: EPA se mueve hacia la prohibición de desengrasantes en aerosol y quitamanchas para lavado en seco como una de las primeras acciones reglamentarias conforme a la ley reformada de sustancias químicas

  6. Calidad del aire interior en las escuelas

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA ha desarrollado el Programa de Herramientas de Calidad del Aire Interior para las Escuelas para reducir la exposición a los contaminantes ambientales en las mismas a través de la adopción voluntaria de las prácticas para manejar la calidad del aire int

  7. Revisión de tecnología y riesgos: refinerías de petróleo - Hoja informativa para las comunidades

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    La Agencia de Protección Ambiental (EPA, por sus siglas en inglés) emitió un reglamento final que mejorará significativamente la calidad del aire en los vecindarios cercanos a las refinerías de petróleo mediante un control más exhaustivo de las emisiones a

  8. A Proposed Activity for a Meaningful Learning about the Moon Phases. (Breton Title: Uma Proposta de Atividade Para a Aprendizagem Significativa sobre as Fases da Lua.) Una Actividad Propuesta Para EL Aprendizaje Significativo Acerca de Las Fases de la Luna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, Bruno Andrade; Langhi, Rodolfo

    2012-12-01

    ínua avaliação durante o processo, culmina com a elaboração de uma história em quadrinhos envolvendo as fases da Lua. Portanto, o objetivo deste trabalho é apresentar uma proposta de atividade didática diferenciada sustentada pelos princípios teóricos da aprendizagem significativa aplicada ao ensino das fases da Lua durante as aulas de Física no ensino médio. En este trabajo se presenta uno de los contenidos de la Astronomía y el evidente fracaso en la enseñanza del tema en la escuela secundaria, a pesar del hecho que los documentos oficiales apuntan para la necesidad de trabajar contenidos de Astronomía en este nivel. Entre los conceptos alternativos en Astronomía que los alumnos secundarios llevan consigo, aún después de terminados los estudios, destacamos aquí el fenómeno de las fases de la Luna. El desarrollo de diferentes estrategias en relación con los métodos tradicionales, dirigidas al proceso de enseñanza-aprendizaje en este tema fue considerado en este trabajo como uno de los resultados obtenidos a la luz de los referenciales del aprendizaje significativo, tal como fueron fundamentados por Ausubel. Según la propuesta que aquí se presenta, la participación activa de los estudiantes en la ejecución de una actividad experimental y otras actividades educativas destinadas a la evaluación continua durante el proceso culminó en la elaboración de una historieta respecto de las fases de la Luna. Por lo tanto, el objetivo de este trabajo es presentar una propuesta de actividad de enseñanza diferenciada con el apoyo de los principios teóricos del aprendizaje significativo aplicado a la enseñanza de las fases de la luna durante las clases de física del ciclo secundario.

  9. La EPA propone normas más rigurosas para las personas que aplican los plaguicidas de más alto riesgo

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    La EPA emitió una propuesta para la revisión de la norma para la Certificación de Aplicadores de Plaguicidas. La norma ayudará a mantener nuestras comunidades seguras, salvaguardar el medio ambiente y reducir el riesgo a los que aplican los plaguicidas.

  10. Hyperthermophilic endoglucanase for in planta lignocellulose conversion

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The enzymatic conversion of lignocellulosic plant biomass into fermentable sugars is a crucial step in the sustainable and environmentally friendly production of biofuels. However, a major drawback of enzymes from mesophilic sources is their suboptimal activity under established pretreatment conditions, e.g. high temperatures, extreme pH values and high salt concentrations. Enzymes from extremophiles are better adapted to these conditions and could be produced by heterologous expression in microbes, or even directly in the plant biomass. Results Here we show that a cellulase gene (sso1354) isolated from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus can be expressed in plants, and that the recombinant enzyme is biologically active and exhibits the same properties as the wild type form. Since the enzyme is inactive under normal plant growth conditions, this potentially allows its expression in plants without negative effects on growth and development, and subsequent heat-inducible activation. Furthermore we demonstrate that the recombinant enzyme acts in high concentrations of ionic liquids and can therefore degrade α-cellulose or even complex cell wall preparations under those pretreatment conditions. Conclusion The hyperthermophilic endoglucanase SSO1354 with its unique features is an excellent tool for advanced biomass conversion. Here we demonstrate its expression in planta and the possibility for post harvest activation. Moreover the enzyme is suitable for combined pretreatment and hydrolysis applications. PMID:22928996

  11. Volkswagen gastará hasta $14.7 mil millones para transigir alegaciones de haber mentido en las pruebas de emisiones y haber engañado a los clientes de vehículos diesel de 2.0 litros

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Comunicado de prensa de la EPA: Volkswagen gastará hasta $14.7 mil millones para transigir alegaciones de haber mentido en las pruebas de emisiones y haber engañado a los clientes de vehículos diesel de 2.0 litros

  12. Las Vegas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This image of Las Vegas, NV was acquired on August, 2000 and covers an area 42 km (25 miles) wide and 30 km (18 miles) long. The image displays three bands of the reflected visible and infrared wavelength region, with a spatial resolution of 15 m. McCarran International Airport to the south and Nellis Air Force Base to the NE are the two major airports visible. Golf courses appear as bright red areas of worms. The first settlement in Las Vegas (which is Spanish for The Meadows) was recorded back in the early 1850s when the Mormon church, headed by Brigham Young, sent a mission of 30 men to construct a fort and teach agriculture to the Indians. Las Vegas became a city in 1905 when the railroad announced this city was to be a major division point. Prior to legalized gambling in 1931, Las Vegas was developing as an agricultural area. Las Vegas' fame as a resort area became prominent after World War II. The image is located at 36.1 degrees north latitude and 115.1 degrees west longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  13. Acerca de las ratas y los ratones

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Hay muchas especies de roedores, entre ellas, la ardilla, la ardilla listada, el castor, el perro de la pradera, la rata y el ratón. Se puede ver las medidas más importantes para eliminar y prevenir las infestaciones causadas por roedores.

  14. The parA resolvase performs site-specific genomic excision in Arabidopsis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have designed a site-specific excision detection system in Arabidopsis to study the in planta activity of the small serine recombinase ParA. Using a transient expression assay as well as stable transgenic plant lines, we show that the ParA recombinase is catalytically active and capable of perfo...

  15. Las ideologias, las ciencias naturales y sus implicaciones en la educacion cientifica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lozada Roldan, Sandra

    Este estudio ausculto las concepciones epistemologicas de los docentes de ciencia del nivel secundario con relacion a las ideologias y las ciencias naturales. Tambien examino las posiciones de los docentes ante asuntos publicos relacionados a la ciencia. Para propositos de este estudio se diseno y se valido el cuestionario con el cual se obtuvieron los resultados. La investigacion es de tipo cuantitativa y se utilizo como diseno la encuesta. El cuestionario se administro en varias actividades de desarrollo profesional para maestros de ciencia. Un total de 78 maestros del nivel secundario respondieron el cuestionario. Para analizar los datos obtenidos se utilizaron estadisticas descriptivas como la distribucion de frecuencia y el porciento. Ademas se establecieron codigos y categorias para describir las posiciones de los maestros ante asuntos publicos relacionados a la ciencia. Los analisis demostraron que entre los docentes participantes de este estudio prevalecen ciertas concepciones epistemologicas adecuadas acerca de las ciencias naturales, a la luz de la literatura consultada. Entre estas concepciones se destacan las siguientes: a) la filosofia materialista de las ciencias naturales, b) la naturaleza tentativa y constructivista del conocimiento cientifico, c) el uso de una metodologia que garantiza cierto grado de objetividad y con el que se justifican y validan los enunciados cientificos y d) la funcion instrumental del conocimiento cientifico. Sin embargo, entre los docentes participantes de este estudio prevalecen ciertas concepciones epistemologicas erroneas acerca de las ciencias naturales, a la luz de la literatura consultada. Entre estas concepciones se destacan las siguientes: a) tendencia inductivista en el que las teorias cientificas comienzan con observaciones que establecen generalizaciones, b) secuencia jerarquica de la metodologia cientifica. Ademas, entre los docentes participantes de este estudio prevalecen concepciones epistemologicas adecuadas

  16. Providing Meaningful Learning for Students of the Sixth Grade of Middle School: a Study on the Moon Phases. (Breton Title: Propiciando Aprendizagem Significativa Para Alunos do Sexto Ano do Ensino Fundamental: um Estudo sobre as Fases da Lua.) Propiciando el Aprendizaje Significativo Para Alumnos del Sexto Nivel de la Educación General Básica: un Estudio sobre Las Fases de la Luna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darroz, Luiz Marcelo; Samudio Pérez, Carlos Ariel; da Rosa, Cleci Werner; Heineck, Renato

    2012-07-01

    We relate in this article a didactic experience studying the moon phases with a group of middle school students of a private school of the municipality of Passo Fundo, RS. Based on David Ausubel's Meaningful Learning Theory, we have sought to develop a proposal following a didactic model which simulates the phases of the Moon, as based on the previous conceptions of the students. The signs of learning were evidenced by means of memory registries of the activity. From the obtained results we believe that the proposal achieved its goals, since the students were able to identify, differentiate and transfer the phenomenon of the moon phases to new contexts. Thus, it is concluded that a methodology focused on a meaningful content for the students is fundamental to the construction and genuine grasping of what is being learned. Neste artigo, relata-se uma experiência didática de estudo das fases da Lua com uma turma do 6° ano do Ensino Fundamental, de uma escola privada do município de Passo Fundo, RS. Tendo como fundamentação teórica a Teoria da Aprendizagem Significativa de David Ausubel, buscou-se desenvolver a proposta a partir de um modelo didático que simula as fases da Lua e com base nas concepções prévias dos estudantes. Os indícios da aprendizagem foram constatados através de registros de memórias da atividade. Pelos resultados apresentados, acredita-se que a proposta alcançou seus objetivos, uma vez que os estudantes conseguiram identificar, diferenciar e transferir o fenômeno das fases da Lua para novos contextos. Assim, conclui-se que uma metodologia com enfoque em um conteúdo significativo ao estudante é fundamental para a construção e compreensão genuína do que está sendo aprendido. En este artículo se relata una experiencia didáctica de estudio de las fases de la Luna con una clase de 6º año de la educación general básica de una escuela privada del municipio de Passo Fundo, RS. Teniendo como fundamentación teórica la Teor

  17. REFORZANDO LAS CAPACIDADES EN INVESTIGACIÓN EN INFORMÁTICA PARA LA SALUD GLOBAL EN LA REGIÓN ANDINA A TRAVÉS DE LA COLABORACIÓN INTERNACIONAL

    PubMed Central

    Curioso, Walter H.; García, Patricia J.; Castillo, Greta M.; Blas, Magaly M.; Perez-Brumer, Amaya; Zimic, Mirko

    2011-01-01

    RESUMEN Para mejorar la salud global y bienestar de una población se requiere de recursos humanos capacitados, no solo en el campo de la medicina y salud, sino también en el campo de la informática. Desafortunadamente, los programas de entrenamiento e investigación en informática biomédica en países en desarrollo son escasos y poco documentados. El objetivo del presente trabajo es reportar los resultados del primer Taller Internacional de Expertos en Informática para la región andina que se llevó a cabo en marzo de 2010 en Lima y que incluye la descripción de nueve casos de estudio procedentes de instituciones de América Latina. En el taller participaron 23 expertos latinoamericanos, quienes discutieron la necesidad de entrenamiento e investigación multidisciplinaria en informática biomédica en áreas prioritarias para América Latina. Además, se estableció la Red QUIPU debido a la necesidad de ampliar y consolidar una red de investigación y entrenamiento a nivel regional y global. PMID:21152740

  18. Physiology of ex planta nitrogenase activity in Rhizobium japonicum

    SciTech Connect

    Agarwal, A.K.; Keister, D.L.

    1983-05-01

    Thirty-nine wild-type strains of Rhizobium japonicum have been studied for their ability to synthesize nitrogenase ex planta in defined liquid media under microaerobic conditions. Twenty-one produced more than trace amounts of acetylene reduction activity, but only a few of these yielded high activity. The oxygen response curves were similar for most of the nitrogenase-positive strains. The strains derepressible for activity had several phenotypic characteristics different from non-derepressible strains. These included slower growth and lower oxygen consumption under microaerobic conditions and lower extracellular polysaccharide production. Extracellular polysaccharide production during growth on gluconate in every nitrogenase-positive strain assayed was lower under both aerobic and microaerobic conditions than the non-depressible strains. These phenotypic characteristics may be representative of a genotype of a subspecies of R. japonicum. These studies were done in part to enlarge the base number of strains available for studies on the physiology, biochemistry, and genetics of nitrogen fixation. (35 Refs.)

  19. Smallpox subunit vaccine produced in planta confers protection in mice

    PubMed Central

    Golovkin, Maxim; Spitsin, Sergei; Andrianov, Vyacheslav; Smirnov, Yuriy; Xiao, Yuhong; Pogrebnyak, Natalia; Markley, Karen; Brodzik, Robert; Gleba, Yuri; Isaacs, Stuart N.; Koprowski, Hilary

    2007-01-01

    We report here the in planta production of the recombinant vaccinia virus B5 antigenic domain (pB5), an attractive component of a subunit vaccine against smallpox. The antigenic domain was expressed by using efficient transient and constitutive plant expression systems and tested by various immunization routes in two animal models. Whereas oral administration in mice or the minipig with collard-derived insoluble pB5 did not generate an anti-B5 immune response, intranasal administration of soluble pB5 led to a rise of B5-specific immunoglobulins, and parenteral immunization led to a strong anti-B5 immune response in both mice and the minipig. Mice immunized i.m. with pB5 generated an antibody response that reduced virus spread in vitro and conferred protection from challenge with a lethal dose of vaccinia virus. These results indicate the feasibility of producing safe and inexpensive subunit vaccines by using plant production systems. PMID:17428917

  20. Pentahydroxyscirpene—Producing Strains, Formation In Planta, and Natural Occurrence

    PubMed Central

    Varga, Elisabeth; Wiesenberger, Gerlinde; Fruhmann, Philipp; Malachová, Alexandra; Svoboda, Thomas; Lemmens, Marc; Adam, Gerhard; Berthiller, Franz

    2016-01-01

    Trichothecenes are a class of structurally diverse mycotoxins with more than 200 naturally occurring compounds. Previously, a new compound, pentahydroxyscirpene (PHS), was reported as a byproduct of a nivalenol producing Fusarium strain, IFA189. PHS contains a hydroxy group at C-8 instead of the keto group of type B trichothecenes. In this work, we demonstrate that IFA189 belongs to the species Fusarium kyushuense using molecular tools. Production of PHS in vitro was also observed for several isolates of other Fusarium species producing nivalenol. Furthermore, we report the formation of 4-acetyl-PHS by F. kyushuense on inoculated rice. Wheat ears of the variety Remus were infected with IFA189 and the in planta production of PHS was confirmed. Natural occurrence of PHS was verified in barley samples from the Czech Republic using a liquid chromatographic-tandem mass spectrometric method validated for this purpose. Toxicity of PHS to wheat ribosomes was evaluated with a coupled in vitro transcription and translation assay, which showed that PHS inhibits protein biosynthesis slightly less than nivalenol and deoxynivalenol. PMID:27754401

  1. Time Gating of Chloroplast Autofluorescence Allows Clearer Fluorescence Imaging In Planta

    PubMed Central

    Kodama, Yutaka

    2016-01-01

    Chloroplast, an organelle facilitating photosynthesis, exhibits strong autofluorescence, which is an undesired background signal that restricts imaging experiments with exogenous fluorophore in plants. In this study, the autofluorescence was characterized in planta under confocal laser microscopy, and it was found that the time-gated imaging technique completely eliminates the autofluorescence. As a demonstration of the technique, a clearer signal of fluorescent protein-tagged phototropin, a blue-light photoreceptor localized at the chloroplast periphery, was visualized in planta. PMID:27027881

  2. Variación temporal de las constantes fundamentales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landau, S. J.; Vucetich, H.

    La variación temporal de las constantes fundamentales es un problema que ha motivado numerosos trabajos teóricos y experimentales desde la hipótesis de los grandes números de Dirac en 1937. Entre los métodos experimentales y observacionales para establecer restricciones sobre la variación de las constantes fundamentes es importante mencionar: comparación entre relojes atómicos[1], métodos geofísicos[2][3], análisis de sistemas de absorción en quasares[4][5][6] y cotas provenientes de la nucleosíntesis primordial[7]. En un trabajo reciente[5], se reportó una significativa variación en la constante de estructura fina. Intentos de unificar las cuatro interacciones fundamentales dieron como resultado teorías con múltiples dimensiones como las teorías de Kaluza-Klein y teorías de supercuerdas. Estas teorías proporcionan un marco teórico natural para el estudio de la variación temporal de las constantes fundamentales. A su vez, un modelo sencillo para estudiar la variación de la constante de estructura fina, fue propuesto en [8], a partir de premisas muy generales como ser covarianza, invarianza de gauge, causalidad y invarianza ante reversiones temporales en el electromagnetismo. Diferentes versiones de las teorías antes mencionadas coinciden en predecir variaciones temporales de las constantes fundamentales pero difieren en la forma de esta variación[9][10]. De esta manera, las restricciones establecidas experimentalmente sobre la variación de las constantes fundamentales pueden ser una herramienta importante para testear estas diferentes teorías. En este trabajo, utilizamos las cotas provenientes de diversas técnicas experimentales, para testear si las mismas son consistentes con alguna de las teorías antes mencionadas. En particular, establecemos cotas sobre la variación de los parámentros libres de las diferentes teorías como por ejemplo el radio de las dimensiones extras en las teorías tipo Kaluza-Klein.

  3. Antifreeze Proteins Modify the Freezing Process In Planta12

    PubMed Central

    Griffith, Marilyn; Lumb, Chelsey; Wiseman, Steven B.; Wisniewski, Michael; Johnson, Robert W.; Marangoni, Alejandro G.

    2005-01-01

    During cold acclimation, winter rye (Secale cereale L. cv Musketeer) plants accumulate antifreeze proteins (AFPs) in the apoplast of leaves and crowns. The goal of this study was to determine whether these AFPs influence survival at subzero temperatures by modifying the freezing process or by acting as cryoprotectants. In order to inhibit the growth of ice, AFPs must be mobile so that they can bind to specific sites on the ice crystal lattice. Guttate obtained from cold-acclimated winter rye leaves exhibited antifreeze activity, indicating that the AFPs are free in solution. Infrared video thermography was used to observe freezing in winter rye leaves. In the absence of an ice nucleator, AFPs had no effect on the supercooling temperature of the leaves. However, in the presence of an ice nucleator, AFPs lowered the temperature at which the leaves froze by 0.3°C to 1.2°C. In vitro studies showed that apoplastic proteins extracted from cold-acclimated winter rye leaves inhibited the recrystallization of ice and also slowed the rate of migration of ice through solution-saturated filter paper. When we examined the possible role of winter rye AFPs in cryoprotection, we found that lactate dehydrogenase activity was higher after freezing in the presence of AFPs compared with buffer, but the same effect was obtained by adding bovine serum albumin. AFPs had no effect on unstacked thylakoid volume after freezing, but did inhibit stacking of the thylakoids, thus indicating a loss of thylakoid function. We conclude that rye AFPs have no specific cryoprotective activity; rather, they interact directly with ice in planta and reduce freezing injury by slowing the growth and recrystallization of ice. PMID:15805474

  4. La importancia de la protección de las playas

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Las playas son una parte importante de la vida en Estados Unidos. Las playas ofrecen un sinnúmero de beneficios para el medio ambiente, actividades recreativas y la economía local. Aprenda la importancia de las playas y cómo protegerlas.

  5. Kit para aplicar la metodología de Lean en el gobierno

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Este Kit para comenzar a aplicar la metodología Lean (Gobierno optimizado) ofrece información para ayudar a las agencias de protección ambiental a planificar e implementar iniciativas Lean exitosas.

  6. Relevamiento de HI en las Nubes de Magallanes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bajaja, E.; Morras, R.; Arnal, E. M.; Pöppel, W. G. L.

    El relevamiento de HI en el hemisferio sur, que se está realizando desde el IAR con el nuevo receptor enfriado, abarca, en su rango de velocidades, las velocidades desplegadas por el hidrógeno neutro de las Nubes de Magallanes. Esto permite obtener los perfiles de velocidad correspondientes a estas galaxias con una sensibilidad y una completitud de grilla excepcionales para el estudio de la distribución y de la cinemática del gas a gran escala y con una resolución angular de 30' y una resolución en velocidad de 1 km/s. Estas condiciones permiten el estudio de los campos de velocidad, de las componentes múltiples en velocidad, de las asimetrías, concentraciones y burbujas en la distribución del gas, los puentes entre las Nubes y entre las Nubes y la Galaxia, etc. Estas características son de particular importancia para su correlación con los mapas obtenidos con las emisiones en el radio-continuo, el IR y el CO (relacionable con el hidrógeno molecular) todas las cuales permiten el estudio de la dinámica de las Nubes y su relación con la Galaxia, de la formación y evolución estelar y de la evolución de la Nubes mismas.

  7. Actitudes de los candidatos y maestros de ciencias en servicio acerca del uso de las herramientas computadorizadas en las clases de ciencias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayuelo, Ezequiel

    Este estudio examino y comparo las actitudes de los candidatos a maestros de ciencias y los maestros de ciencias en servicio acerca de la utilizacion de las herramientas computadorizadas en las clases de ciencias. Tambien identifico y diferencio el uso que ellos dan a estas herramientas en las clases de ciencias. Este estudio presenta un diseno descriptivo exploratorio. Constituyeron la muestra trescientos diez sujetos que fueron candidatos a maestros de ciencias o maestros de ciencias en servicio. Para recoger los datos se construyo y valido un cuestionario de treinta y un itemes. Se utilizaron las pruebas estadisticas no parametricas Kruskal Wallis y Chi-cuadrado (test de homogeneidad) para establecer las diferencias entre las actitudes de los sujetos con relacion al uso de las herramientas computadorizadas en las clases de ciencias. Los hallazgos evidenciaron que son positivas y muy parecidas las actitudes de los candidatos a maestros y maestros en servicio hacia el uso de las herramientas computadorizadas. No hubo diferencias entre los candidatos y maestros en servicio en terminos de las actitudes de confianza y empatia hacia el uso de las herramientas computadorizadas en las clases de ciencias. En aspectos como el uso del banco de datos bibliografico Eric y el uso de las herramientas computadorizadas en actividades educativas como explorar conceptos, conceptuar, aplicar lo aprendido y hacer asignaciones hubo diferencias estadisticamente significativas entre los candidatos y los maestros en servicio. Al comparar las frecuencias observadas con las esperadas hubo mas maestros en servicio y menos candidatos que indicaron usar el anterior banco de datos y las herramientas computadorizadas en las mencionadas actividades educativas.

  8. La edad de las familias Eos, Themis y Koronis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil-Hutton, R.

    Las familias de asteroides son el producto de la disrupción colisional de objetos destruídos por impactos ocurridos en el cinturón principal. Las colisiones posteriores han modificado los tamaños y las órbitas de los miembros de estas familias, por lo que las distribuciones que vemos hoy en día pueden ser muy diferentes de aquellas producidas inmediatamente después de la fragmentación del objeto original. En esta hipótesis, puede ser difícil reconstruir la evolución colisional de la familia basándose sólo en las actuales distribuciones y puede ser necesario hacer ciertas suposiciones para obtener información sobre las condiciones iniciales. En este trabajo se deriva una estimación de la edad de las familias Eos, Themis y Koronis obtenida de una simulación de la evolución colisional de un cuerpo original teórico para cada familia usando un modelo de distribución para el cinturón propuesto por Gil-Hutton (1996).

  9. La variación temporal de las constantes fundamentales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bersten, M.; Landau, S.; Vucetich, H.

    Las diferentes teorías que unifican las cuatro interacciones fundamentales coinciden en predecir variaciones temporales y espaciales de las constantes fundamentales pero difieren en la forma de esta variación. Las observaciones astronómicas y geofísicas permiten establecer cotas sobre la variación de dichas constantes. ésto nos proporciona una herramienta importante para testear las diferentes teorías. En particular, se utilizó el modelo de supercuerdas propuesto por Damour y Polyakov. Se obtuvieron límites sobre los parámetros libres de dicho modelo consistentes con un conjunto de datos astronómicos y geofísicos.

  10. Plan para las Escuelas "Sabatinas" (Plan for the "Saturday Schools").

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campos, Miguel A.; Williams, David R.

    The Escuelas "Sabatinas" (Saturday Schools) program in Costa Rica will be for adults 18 and over who wish to obtain a primary school diploma on the basis of maturity, and who have enough general knowledge, intelligence, and maturity to undertake independent study supplemented by formal instruction. The course will run two years, 36 weeks…

  11. ?Cuales son las amenazas o peligros volcanicos?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Myers, Bobbie; Brantley, Steven R.; Stauffer, Peter; Hendley, James W.

    2000-01-01

    Los volcanes son capaces de producir numerosos peligros geologicos e hidrologicos. Los cientificos del Servicio Geologico de los EE. UU. (USGS, por sus siglas en ingles) y de otras instituciones alrededor del mundo estan estudiando los peligros de muchos de los centenares de volcanes activos y potencialmente activos del mundo. Estos cientificos vigilan muy de cerca la actividad de algunos de los volcanes mas peligrosos, por lo que estan preparados para alertar a las autoridades y/o a la poblacion en caso de que aumente sustancialmente la probabilidad de que ocurra una erupcion u otro evento peligroso.

  12. Screening for in planta protein-protein interactions combining bimolecular fluorescence complementation with flow cytometry

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Understanding protein and gene function requires identifying interaction partners using biochemical, molecular or genetic tools. In plants, searching for novel protein-protein interactions is limited to protein purification assays, heterologous in vivo systems such as the yeast-two-hybrid or mutant screens. Ideally one would be able to search for novel protein partners in living plant cells. We demonstrate that it is possible to screen for novel protein-protein interactions from a random library in protoplasted Arabidopsis plant cells and recover some of the interacting partners. Our screen is based on capturing the bi-molecular complementation of mYFP between an YN-bait fusion partner and a completely random prey YC-cDNA library with FACS. The candidate interactions were confirmed using in planta BiFC assays and in planta FRET-FLIM assays. From this work, we show that the well characterized protein Calcium Dependent Protein Kinase 3 (CPK3) interacts with APX3, HMGB5, ORP2A and a ricin B-related lectin domain containing protein At2g39050. This is one of the first randomin planta screens to be successfully employed. PMID:22789293

  13. Land Analysis System (LAS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pease, P. B.

    1989-01-01

    Version 4.1 of LAS provides flexible framework for algorithm development and processing and analysis of image data. Over 500,000 lines of code enable image repair, clustering, classification, film processing, geometric registration, radiometric correction, and manipulation of image statistics.

  14. Inmunoterapias para las adicciones a las drogas Immunotherapies for Drug Addictions

    PubMed Central

    Montoya, Iván D.

    2008-01-01

    Immunotherapies in the form of vaccines (active immunization) or monoclonal antibodies (passive immunization) appear safe and a promising treatment approaches for some substance-related disorders. The mechanism of action of the antibody therapy is by preventing the rapid entry of drugs of abuse into the central nervous system. In theory, immunotherapies could have several clinical applications. Monoclonal antibodies may be useful to treat drug overdoses and prevent the neurotoxic effects of drugs by blocking the access of drugs to the brain. Vaccines may help to prevent the development of addiction, initiate drug abstinence in those already addicted to drugs, or prevent drug use relapse by reducing the pharmacological effects and rewarding properties of the drugs of abuse on the brain. Passive immunization with monoclonal antibodies has been investigated for cocaine, methamphetamine, nicotine, and phencyclidine (PCP). Active immunization with vaccines has been studied for cocaine, heroin, methamphetamine, and nicotine. These immunotherapies seem promising therapeutic tools and are at different stages in their development before they can be approved by regulatory agencies for the treatment of substance-related disorders. The purpose of this article is to review the current immunotherapy approaches with emphasis on the risks and benefits for the treatment of these disorders. PMID:18551223

  15. Las dificultades de sentir: el rol de las emociones en la estigmatización del VIH/SIDA

    PubMed Central

    MARZÁN-RODRÍGUEZ, Melissa; VARAS-DÍAZ, Nelson

    2009-01-01

    Resumen El Virus de Inmunodeficiencia Humana (VIH) y el Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida (SIDA) han sido motivo de estigmatización para las personas que viven con ellos. Esta estigmatización se ha estudiado consecuentemente desde la perspectiva de opiniones de agentes estigmatizantes. Estas opiniones han obviado sistemáticamente el rol de las emociones en el proceso de estigmatización. Llevamos a cabo este estudio con el propósito de identificar el rol de las emociones en el proceso de estigmatización de las personas que viven con el virus (PVVS) por parte de profesionales de la salud. Para lograr este objetivo utilizamos un diseño exploratorio y cualitativo en el cual utilizamos la técnica de entrevistas semiestructuradas a profundidad. La muestra estuvo compuesta por 80 profesionales de la salud y estudiantes de las siguientes especialidades: psicología, trabajo social, medicina y enfermería. Los resultados reflejaron la existencia de emociones asociadas al VIH/SIDA tales como pena, lástima, compasión, asco, fobia y miedo entre los/as profesionales y estudiantes que participaron. Las personas participantes evidenciaron la necesidad de controlar sus emociones al interactuar con PVVS. Los resultados apuntan a la necesidad de explorar aquellos factores que mediatizan las emociones, tales como el contexto social en que se manifiestan y ante quiénes se revelan, para lograr entender a cabalidad el estigma que rodea al VIH/SIDA. PMID:20212916

  16. Highly Efficient Agrobacterium-Mediated Transformation of Wheat Via In Planta Inoculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Risacher, Thierry; Craze, Melanie; Bowden, Sarah; Paul, Wyatt; Barsby, Tina

    This chapter details a reproducible method for the transformation of spring wheat using Agrobacterium tumefaciens via the direct inoculation of bacteria into immature seeds in planta as described in patent WO 00/63398(1. Transformation efficiencies from 1 to 30% have been obtained and average efficiencies of at least 5% are routinely achieved. Regenerated plants are phenotypically normal with 30-50% of transformation events carrying introduced genes at single insertion sites, a higher rate than is typically reported for transgenic plants produced using biolistic transformation methods.

  17. In planta cloning of geminiviral DNA: the true Sida micrantha mosaic virus.

    PubMed

    Jeske, Holger; Gotthardt, Diether; Kober, Sigrid

    2010-02-01

    The circular single-stranded DNAs of geminiviruses are multiplied efficiently and preferentially by rolling circle amplification (RCA), and can be diagnosed readily by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and direct sequencing of the RCA product. Two strategies are described for cloning geminiviruses from plants harboring mixed infections by using RCA and RFLP with plant-derived nucleic acids without the need for bacterial amplification. By combining both these approaches, the true Sida micrantha mosaic virus was identified. The advantages of maintaining the quasispecies nature of a virus during in planta cloning is discussed with respect to reliable virus identification and resistance breeding.

  18. i Planta

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This application was designed for farmers, agriculture researchers, and gardeners. The application includes a calculator, a data logger, and a GPS mapping function. It was designed for vegetable farming but can be used for open field applications. The calculator solves for the amount of pesticide,...

  19. Prediction of the in planta P. pachyrhizi secretome and potential effector families.

    PubMed

    De Carvalho, Mayra C da C G; Nascimento, Leandro Costa; Darben, Luana M; Polizel-Podanosqui, Adriana M; Lopes-Caitar, Valéria S; Qi, Mingsheng; Rocha, Carolina S; Carazzolle, Marcelo Falsarella; Kuwahara, Márcia K; Pereira, Goncalo A G; Abdelnoor, Ricardo V; Whitham, Steven A; Marcelino-Guimarães, Francismar C

    2016-03-24

    Asian soybean rust (ASR) caused by the obligate biotrophic fungus Phakopsora pachyrhizi can cause losses greater than 80%. Despite its economic importance, there is no soybean cultivar with durable ASR resistance (Goellner et al., 2010). In addition, the P. pachyrhizi genome is not yet available. However, the availability of other rust genomes as well as the development of sample enrichment strategies and bioinformatics tools has improved our knowledge of the ASR secretome and its potential effectors. In this context, we used a combination of laser capture microdissection (LCM), RNAseq and a bioinformatics pipeline to identify a total of 36,350 P. pachyrhizi contigs expressed in planta and a predicted secretome of 851 proteins. Some of the predicted secreted proteins had characteristics of candidate effectors, including small size, cysteine rich, do not contain PFAM domains (except those associated with pathogenicity), and were strongly expressed in planta. A comparative analysis of the predicted secreted proteins present in Pucciniales species identified new members of soybean rust and new Pucciniales- or P. pachyrhizi-specific families (tribes). Members of some families were strongly upregulated during early infection, starting with initial infection through haustorium formation. Effector candidates selected from two of these families were able to suppress immunity in transient assays, and were localized in the plant cytoplasm and nuclei. These experiments support our bioinformatics predictions and show that these families contain members that have functions consistent with P. pachyrhizi effectors. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  20. Inhibition of fungal and bacterial plant pathogens in vitro and in planta with ultrashort cationic lipopeptides.

    PubMed

    Makovitzki, Arik; Viterbo, Ada; Brotman, Yariv; Chet, Ilan; Shai, Yechiel

    2007-10-01

    Plant diseases constitute an emerging threat to global food security. Many of the currently available antimicrobial agents for agriculture are highly toxic and nonbiodegradable and cause extended environmental pollution. Moreover, an increasing number of phytopathogens develop resistance to them. Recently, we have reported on a new family of ultrashort antimicrobial lipopeptides which are composed of only four amino acids linked to fatty acids (A. Makovitzki, D. Avrahami, and Y. Shai, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103:15997-16002, 2006). Here, we investigated the activities in vitro and in planta and the modes of action of these short lipopeptides against plant-pathogenic bacteria and fungi. They act rapidly, at low micromolar concentrations, on the membranes of the microorganisms via a lytic mechanism. In vitro microscopic analysis revealed wide-scale damage to the microorganism's membrane, in addition to inhibition of pathogen growth. In planta potent antifungal activity was demonstrated on cucumber fruits and leaves infected with the pathogen Botrytis cinerea as well as on corn leaves infected with Cochliobolus heterostrophus. Similarly, treatment with the lipopeptides of Arabidopsis leaves infected with the bacterial leaf pathogen Pseudomonas syringae efficiently and rapidly reduced the number of bacteria. Importantly, in contrast to what occurred with many native lipopeptides, no toxicity was observed on the plant tissues. These data suggest that the ultrashort lipopeptides could serve as native-like antimicrobial agents economically feasible for use in plant protection.

  1. Bcmimp1, a Botrytis cinerea Gene Transiently Expressed in planta, Encodes a Mitochondrial Protein

    PubMed Central

    Benito-Pescador, David; Santander, Daniela; Arranz, M.; Díaz-Mínguez, José M.; Eslava, Arturo P.; van Kan, Jan A. L.; Benito, Ernesto P.

    2016-01-01

    Botrytis cinerea is a widespread necrotrophic fungus which infects more than 200 plant species. In an attempt to characterize the physiological status of the fungus in planta and to identify genetic factors contributing to its ability to infect the host cells, a differential gene expression analysis during the interaction B. cinerea-tomato was carried out. Gene Bcmimp1 codes for a mRNA detected by differential display in the course of this analysis. During the interaction with the host, it shows a transient expression pattern with maximal expression levels during the colonization and maceration of the infected tissues. Bioinformatic analysis suggested that BCMIMP1 is an integral membrane protein located in the mitochondrial inner membrane. Co-localization experiments with a BCMIMP1-GFP fusion protein confirmed that the protein is targeted to the mitochondria. ΔBcmimp1 mutants do not show obvious phenotypic differences during saprophytic growth and their infection ability was unaltered as compared to the wild-type. Interestingly, the mutants produced increased levels of reactive oxygen species, likely as a consequence of disturbed mitochondrial function. Although Bcmimp1 expression is enhanced in planta it cannot be considered a pathogenicity factor. PMID:26952144

  2. Dynamic root exudation of sorgoleone and its in planta mechanism of action

    PubMed Central

    Dayan, Franck E.; Howell, J'Lynn; Weidenhamer, Jeffrey D.

    2009-01-01

    The oily droplets exuded from the root hairs of sorghum are composed of a 1:1 ratio of sorgoleone and its lipid resorcinol analogue. The production of these droplets appears to be suppressed when c. 20 μg of exudate mg−1 root dry weight accumulates at the tip of the root hairs. However, more exudate is produced following gentle washing of the roots with water, suggesting that the biosynthesis of lipid benzoquinones and resorcinols is a dynamic process. Sorgoleone interferes with several molecular target sites, including photosynthetic electron transport, in in vitro assays. However, the in planta mechanism of action of sorgoleone remains controversial because it is not clear whether this lipid benzoquinone exuding from the roots of sorghum is taken up by roots of the receiving plants and translocated to their foliage where it must enter the chloroplast and inhibit PSII in the thylakoid membrane. Experiments designed to test the in planta mode of action of sorgoleone demonstrated that it has no effect on the photosynthesis of older plants, but inhibits photosynthesis in germinating seedlings. Sorgoleone is not translocated acropetally in older plants, but can be absorbed through the hypocotyl and cotyledonary tissues. Therefore, the mode of action of sorgoleone may be the result of inhibition of photosynthesis in young seedlings in concert with inhibition of its other molecular target sites in older plants. PMID:19357432

  3. A method for obtaining RNA from Hemileia vastatrix appressoria produced in planta, suitable for transcriptomic analyses.

    PubMed

    Loureiro, Andreia; Gil Azinheira, Helena; do Céu Silva, Maria; Talhinhas, Pedro

    2015-11-01

    Appressoria are the first infection structures developed by rust fungi and require specific topographic signals from the host for their differentiation. The ease in obtaining appressoria in vitro for these biotrophic fungi led to studies concerning gene expression and gene discovery at appressorial level, avoiding the need to distinguish plant and fungal transcripts. However, in some pathosystems, it was observed that gene expression in appressoria seems to be influenced by host-derived signals, suggesting that transcriptomic analyses performed from in planta differentiated appressoria would be potentially more informative than those from in vitro differentiated appressoria. Nevertheless analysing appressorial RNA obtained from in planta samples is often hampered by an excessive dilution of fungal RNA within plant RNA, besides uncertainty regarding the fungal or plant origin of RNA from highly conserved genes. To circumvent these difficulties, we have recovered Hemileia vastatrix appressoria from Arabica coffee leaf surface using a film of nitrocellulose dissolved in butyl and ethyl acetates (nail polish), and extracted fungal RNA from the polish peel. RNA thus obtained is of good quality and usable for cDNA synthesis and transcriptomic (quantitative PCR) studies. This method could provide the means to investigate specific host-induced appressoria-related fungal pathogenicity factors.

  4. Ethylene Production by Pseudomonas syringae Pathovars In Vitro and In Planta

    PubMed Central

    Weingart, H.; Volksch, B.

    1997-01-01

    Significant amounts of ethylene were produced by Pseudomonas syringae pv. glycinea, pv. phaseolicola (which had been isolated from viny weed Pueraria lobata [Willd.] Ohwi [common name, kudzu]), and pv. pisi in synthetic medium. On the other hand, the bean strains of P. syringae pv. phaseolicola and strains of 17 other pathovars did not produce ethylene. P. syringae pv. glycinea and P. syringae pv. phaseolicola produced nearly identical levels of ethylene (about 5 x 10(sup-7) nl h(sup-1) cell(sup-1)), which were about 10 times higher than the ethylene level of P. syringae pv. pisi. Two 22-bp oligonucleotide primers derived from the ethylene-forming enzyme (efe) gene of P. syringae pv. phaseolicola PK2 were investigated for their ability to detect ethylene-producing P. syringae strains by PCR analysis. PCR amplification with this primer set resulted in a specific 0.99-kb fragment in all ethylene-producing strains with the exception of the P. syringae pv. pisi strains. Therefore, P. syringae pv. pisi may use a different biosynthetic pathway for ethylene production or the sequence of the efe gene is less conserved in this bacterium. P. syringae pv. phaseolicola isolated from kudzu and P. syringae pv. glycinea also produced ethylene in planta. It could be shown that the enhanced ethylene production in diseased tissue was due to the production of ethylene by the inoculated bacteria. Ethylene production in vitro and in planta was strictly growth associated. PMID:16535480

  5. ParaDIS_lib

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, Richard D.

    2016-05-25

    The ParaDIS_lib software is a project that is funded by the DOE ASC Program. Its purpose is to provide visualization and analysis capabilities for the existing ParaDIS parallel dislocation dynamics simulation code.

  6. In planta production and characterization of a hyperthermostable GH10 xylanase in transgenic sugarcane.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae Yoon; Nong, Guang; Rice, John D; Gallo, Maria; Preston, James F; Altpeter, Fredy

    2017-03-01

    Sugarcane (Saccharum sp. hybrids) is one of the most efficient and sustainable feedstocks for commercial production of fuel ethanol. Recent efforts focus on the integration of first and second generation bioethanol conversion technologies for sugarcane to increase biofuel yields. This integrated process will utilize both the cell wall bound sugars of the abundant lignocellulosic sugarcane residues in addition to the sucrose from stem internodes. Enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass into its component sugars requires significant amounts of cell wall degrading enzymes. In planta production of xylanases has the potential to reduce costs associated with enzymatic hydrolysis but has been reported to compromise plant growth and development. To address this problem, we expressed a hyperthermostable GH10 xylanase, xyl10B in transgenic sugarcane which displays optimal catalytic activity at 105 °C and only residual catalytic activity at temperatures below 70 °C. Transgene integration and expression in sugarcane were confirmed by Southern blot, RT-PCR, ELISA and western blot following biolistic co-transfer of minimal expression cassettes of xyl10B and the selectable neomycin phosphotransferase II. Xylanase activity was detected in 17 transgenic lines with a fluorogenic xylanase activity assay. Up to 1.2% of the total soluble protein fraction of vegetative progenies with integration of chloroplast targeted expression represented the recombinant Xyl10B protein. Xyl10B activity was stable in vegetative progenies. Tissues retained 75% of the xylanase activity after drying of leaves at 35 °C and a 2 month storage period. Transgenic sugarcane plants producing Xyl10B did not differ from non-transgenic sugarcane in growth and development under greenhouse conditions. Sugarcane xylan and bagasse were used as substrate for enzymatic hydrolysis with the in planta produced Xyl10B. TLC and HPLC analysis of hydrolysis products confirmed the superior catalytic activity

  7. Explicación de las disparidades raciales en la salud neonatal en Brasil*

    PubMed Central

    Nyarko, Kwame A.; López-Camelo, Jorge; Castilla, Eduardo E.; Wehby, George L.

    2015-01-01

    Objetivos. Buscamos cuantificar la manera en que los efectos socioeconómicos, demográficos, geográficos y de atención de salud explican las disparidades raciales en las tasas de bajo peso al nacer y prematuridad en Brasil. Métodos. Utilizamos una muestra de 8 949 niños nacidos entre 1995 y el 2009 en 15 ciudades y 7 provincias de Brasil. Nos centramos en las disparidades en la prevalencia de bajo peso al nacer (< 2 500 g) y prematuridad (< 37 semanas de gestación) en recién nacidos de ascendencia solo africana o mezclada con otras ascendencias y de ascendencia solo europea. Usamos un modelo de descomposición para cuantificar la contribución de los factores conceptualmente pertinentes a esas disparidades. Resultados. El modelo permitió explicar entre 45% y 94% de las disparidades en cuanto al bajo peso al nacer y entre 64% y 94% de las disparidades en cuanto a la prematuridad entre los grupos de ascendencia africana y de ascendencia europea. Las diferencias en el uso de atención prenatal y en la ubicación geográfica fueron los factores más importantes, seguidos por las diferencias socioeconómicas. El modelo permitió explicar la mayoría de las disparidades en los recién nacidos de ascendencia africana mezclada y parte de las disparidades en los de ascendencia solo africana. Conclusiones. En las políticas públicas para mejorar la salud infantil se deben abordar las diferencias en cuanto a la atención prenatal y la ubicación geográfica a fin de reducir las disparidades en materia de salud entre los recién nacidos de ascendencia africana y los de ascendencia europea en Brasil.

  8. Mexican papita viroid and tomato planta macho viroid belong to a single species in the genus Pospiviroid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tomato planta macho viroid (TPMVd) and Mexican papita viroid (MPVd) are two closely-related (>90% sequence identity) members of the genus Pospiviroid. Their current status as separate species is based upon the reported ability of TPMVd to replicate in Gomphrena globosa and the inability of this viro...

  9. Las Campanas Stellar Library

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chilingarian, Igor; Zolotukhin, Ivan; Beletsky, Yuri; Worthey, Guy

    2015-08-01

    Stellar libraries are fundamental tools required to understand stellar populations in star clusters and galaxies as well as properties of individual stars. Comprehensive libraries exist in the optical domain, but the near-infrared (NIR) domain stays a couple of decades behind. Here we present the Las Campanas Stellar Library project aiming at obtaining high signal-to-noise intermediate-resolution (R=8000) NIR spectra (0.83<λ<2.5μm) for a sample of 1200 stars in the Southern sky using the Folded-port InfraRed Echelette spectrograph at the 6.5-m Magellan Baade telescope. We developed a dedicated observing strategy and customized the telescope control software in order to achieve the highest possible level of data homogeniety. As of 2015, we observed about 600 stars of all spectral types and luminosity classes making our library the largest homogeneous collection of stellar spectra covering the entire NIR domain. We also re-calibrated in flux and wavelength the two existing optical stellar libraries, INDO-US and UVES-POP and followed up about 400 non-variable stars in the NIR in order to get complete optical-NIR coverage. Worth mentioning that our current sample includes about 80 AGB stars and a few dozens of bulge/LMC/SMC stars.

  10. In planta transformation method for T-DNA transfer in orchids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semiarti, Endang; Purwantoro, Aziz; Mercuriani, Ixora S.; Anggriasari, Anida M.; Jang, Seonghoe; Suhandono, Sony; Machida, Yasunori; Machida, Chiyoko

    2014-03-01

    Transgenic plant technology is an efficient tool to study the function of gene(s) in plant. The most popular and widely used technique is Agrobacterium-mediated transformation in which cocultivation was done by immersing the plant tissues/organ in overnight bacterial cultured for about 30 minutes to one hour under in vitro condition. In this experiment, we developed more easier technique that omitted the in vitro step during cocultivation with Agrobacterium, namely in planta transformation method. Pollinaria (compact pollen mass of orchid) of Phalaenopsis amabilis and Spathoglottis plicata orchids were used as target explants that were immersed into bacterial culture for 30 minutes, then dried up the pollinaria, the transformed pollinaria was used to pollinate orchid flowers. The T-DNA used for this experiments were Ubipro∷PaFT/A. tumefaciens GV3101 for P. amabilis and MeEF1α2 pro∷GUS/ A. tumefaciens LBA 4404 for S.plicata. Seeds that were produced from pollinated flowers were grown onto 10 mg/l hygromicin containing NP (New Phalaenopsis) medium. The existance of transgene in putative transformant protocorm (developing orchid embryo) genome was confirmed using PCR with specific primers of either PaFT or GUS genes. Histochemical GUS assay was also performed to the putative transformants. The result showed that transformation frequencies were 2.1 % in P. amabilis, and 0,53% in S. plicata. These results indicates that in planta transformation method could be used for Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation, with advantage easier and more secure work from contaminants than that of the in vitro method.

  11. In Planta Localization of Stilbenes within Picea abies Phloem1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Kuroda, Katsushi; Pranovich, Andrey; Roig-Juan, Sílvia; Aoki, Dan

    2016-01-01

    Phenolic stilbene glucosides (astringin, isorhapontin, and piceid) and their aglycons commonly accumulate in the phloem of Norway spruce (Picea abies). However, current knowledge about the localization and accumulation of stilbenes within plant tissues and cells remains limited. Here, we used an innovative combination of novel microanalytical techniques to evaluate stilbenes in a frozen-hydrated condition (i.e. in planta) and a freeze-dried condition across phloem tissues. Semiquantitative time-of-flight secondary ion-mass spectrometry imaging in planta revealed that stilbenes were localized in axial parenchyma cells. Quantitative gas chromatography analysis showed the highest stilbene content in the middle of collapsed phloem with decreases toward the outer phloem. The same trend was detected for soluble sugar and water contents. The specimen water content may affect stilbene composition; the glucoside-to-aglycon ratio decreased slightly with decreases in water content. Phloem chemistry was correlated with three-dimensional structures of phloem as analyzed by microtomography. The outer phloem was characterized by a high volume of empty parenchyma, reduced ray volume, and a large number of axial parenchyma with porous vacuolar contents. Increasing porosity from the inner to the outer phloem was related to decreasing compactness of stilbenes and possible secondary oxidation or polymerization. Our results indicate that aging-dependent changes in phloem may reduce cell functioning, which affects the capacity of the phloem to store water and sugar, and may reduce the defense potential of stilbenes in the axial parenchyma. Our results highlight the power of using a combination of techniques to evaluate tissue- and cell-level mechanisms involved in plant secondary metabolite formation and metabolism. PMID:27531441

  12. Utilice en forma segura los productos con cebo para roedores

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Si se usan de manera inadecuada, los productos con veneno para ratas y ratones podrían hacerle daño a usted, a sus hijos o a sus mascotas. Siempre que use pesticidas lea la etiqueta del producto y siga todas las indicaciones.

  13. Native-sized spider silk proteins synthesized in planta via intein-based multimerization.

    PubMed

    Hauptmann, Valeska; Weichert, Nicola; Menzel, Matthias; Knoch, Dominic; Paege, Norman; Scheller, Jürgen; Spohn, Uwe; Conrad, Udo; Gils, Mario

    2013-04-01

    The synthesis of native-sized proteins is a pre-requisite for exploiting the potential of spider silk as a bio-based material. The unique properties of spider silk, such as extraordinary tensile strength and elasticity, result from the highly repetitive nature of spider silk protein motifs. The present report describes the combination of spider silk flagelliform protein (FLAG) production in the endoplasmic reticulum of tobacco plant leaf cells with an intein-based posttranslational protein fusion technology. The repeated ligation of FLAG monomers resulted in the formation of large multimers. This method avoids the need for highly repetitive transgenes, which may result in a higher genetic and transcriptional stability. Here we show, for the first time, the production of synthetic, high molecular weight spider silk proteins larger than 250 kDa based on the assembly of protein monomers via intein-mediated trans-splicing in planta. The resulting multimeric structures form microfibers, thereby demonstrating their great potential as a biomaterial.

  14. Root internalization, transport and in-planta survival of Salmonella enterica serovar Newport in sweet basil.

    PubMed

    Gorbatsevich, Elena; Sela Saldinger, Shlomo; Pinto, Riky; Bernstein, Nirit

    2013-02-01

    It is now acknowledged that food-borne pathogens present in the irrigation water or soil can become associated with crop plants in the field, penetrate internal plant tissues via the root, translocate and survive inside plants. Only little information is available concerning interaction between enteric pathogens and plants. The present study evaluated the potential for contamination of the aromatic plant, sweet basil during cultivation, by Salmonella enterica serovar Newport. Root internalization was plant-age-dependent, with the highest susceptibility occurring at the beginning of the rapid growth phase of the root. Higher incidence of internalization was detected in vegetative than reproductive plant organs, pointing at bacterial transport in the transpiration stream. Internalized Salmonella survived only < 30 h in the phyllosphere. In contrast, survival of Salmonella on the leaf surface was much pronounced (at least 8 days), and the initial decay rate was lower at the abaxial (lower) compared with the adaxial (upper) side of the leaf. Although the experiments were conducted with high concentration of Salmonella unlikely to happen in the field, internalization occurred at a low frequency and in-planta survival was limited to less than 30 h. These findings imply that leaf surface contamination, rather than root internalization, may pose higher risk for human infection following consumption of contaminated basil.

  15. In planta production of flock house virus transencapsidated RNA and its potential use as a vaccine.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yiyang; Maharaj, Payal D; Mallajosyula, Jyothi K; McCormick, Alison A; Kearney, Christopher M

    2015-04-01

    We have developed a transencapsidated vaccine delivery system based on the insect virus, Flock House virus (FHV). FHV is attractive due to its small genome size, simple organization, and nonpathogenic characteristics. With the insertion of a Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) origin of assembly (Oa), the independently replicating FHV RNA1 can be transencapsidated by TMV coat protein. In this study, we demonstrated that the Oa-adapted FHV RNA1 transencapsidation process can take place in planta, by using a bipartite plant expression vector system, where TMV coat protein is expressed by another plant virus vector, Foxtail mosaic virus (FoMV). Dual infection in the same cell by both FHV and FoMV was observed. Though an apparent classical coat protein-mediated resistance repressed FHV expression, this was overcome by delaying inoculation of the TMV coat protein vector by 3 days after FHV vector inoculation. Expression of the transgene marker in animals by these in vivo-generated transencapsidated nanoparticles was confirmed by mouse vaccination, which also showed an improved vaccine response compared to similar in vitro-produced vaccines.

  16. In Planta Determination of the mRNA-Binding Proteome of Arabidopsis Etiolated Seedlings.

    PubMed

    Reichel, Marlene; Liao, Yalin; Rettel, Mandy; Ragan, Chikako; Evers, Maurits; Alleaume, Anne-Marie; Horos, Rastislav; Hentze, Matthias W; Preiss, Thomas; Millar, Anthony A

    2016-10-01

    RNA binding proteins (RBPs) control the fate and expression of a transcriptome. Despite this fundamental importance, our understanding of plant RBPs is rudimentary, being mainly derived via bioinformatic extrapolation from other kingdoms. Here, we adapted the mRNA-protein interactome capture method to investigate the RNA binding proteome in planta. From Arabidopsis thaliana etiolated seedlings, we captured more than 700 proteins, including 300 with high confidence that we have defined as the At-RBP set. Approximately 75% of these At-RBPs are bioinformatically linked with RNA biology, containing a diversity of canonical RNA binding domains (RBDs). As no prior experimental RNA binding evidence exists for the majority of these proteins, their capture now authenticates them as RBPs. Moreover, we identified protein families harboring emerging and potentially novel RBDs, including WHIRLY, LIM, ALBA, DUF1296, and YTH domain-containing proteins, the latter being homologous to animal RNA methylation readers. Other At-RBP set proteins include major signaling proteins, cytoskeleton-associated proteins, membrane transporters, and enzymes, suggesting the scope and function of RNA-protein interactions within a plant cell is much broader than previously appreciated. Therefore, our foundation data set has provided an unbiased insight into the RNA binding proteome of plants, on which future investigations into plant RBPs can be based.

  17. Advances in alfalfa mosaic virus-mediated expression of anthrax antigen in planta

    SciTech Connect

    Brodzik, R.; Bandurska, K.; Deka, D.; Golovkin, M.; Koprowski, H. . E-mail: h_koprowski@jefferson.edu

    2005-12-16

    Plant viruses show great potential for production of pharmaceuticals in plants. Such viruses can harbor a small antigenic peptide(s) as a part of their coat proteins (CP) and elicit an antigen-specific immune response. Here, we report the high yield and consistency in production of recombinant alfalfa mosaic virus (AlMV) particles for specific presentation of the small loop 15 amino acid epitope from domain-4 of the Bacillus anthracis protective antigen (PA-D4s). The epitope was inserted immediately after the first 25 N-terminal amino acids of AlMV CP to retain genome activation and binding of CP to viral RNAs. Recombinant AlMV particles were efficiently produced in tobacco, easily purified for immunological analysis, and exhibited extended stability and systemic proliferation in planta. Intraperitional injections of mice with recombinant plant virus particles harboring the PA-D4s epitope elicited a distinct immune response. Western blotting and ELISA analysis showed that sera from immunized mice recognized both native PA antigen and the AlMV CP.

  18. TYLCV-Is movement in planta does not require V2 protein

    SciTech Connect

    Hak, Hagit; Levy, Yael; Chandran, Sam A.; Belausov, Eduard; Loyter, Abraham; Lapidot, Moshe; Gafni, Yedidya

    2015-03-15

    Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV), a major tomato pathogen causing extensive crop losses, is a whitefly-transmitted geminivirus. V2 mutants of TYLCV-Is and related viruses tend to induce symptomless infection with attenuated viral DNA levels, while accumulating close to wild-type DNA levels in protoplasts, suggesting V2 as a movement protein. The discovery of plant-silencing mechanisms and viral silencing suppressors, V2 included, led us to reconsider V2's involvement in viral movement. We studied two mutant versions of the virus, one impaired in V2 silencing-suppression activity, and another carrying a non-translatable V2. While both mutant viruses spread in the infected plant to newly emerged leaves at the same rate as the wild-type virus, their DNA-accumulation levels were tenfold lower than in the wild-type virus. Thus, we suggest that the setback in virus proliferation, previously ascribed to a movement impediment, is due to lack of silencing-suppression activity. - Highlights: • TYLCV-Is V2 protein is localized in distinct microbodies throughout the cell cytoplasm, around the nucleus and in association with cytoplasmic strands but is not associated with the plasmodesmata. • Disruption of RNA-silencing suppression activity of TYLCV-Is V2 protein causes low titer of the virus in the infected plants. • The movement of TYLCV-Is in planta does not require a functional V2 protein.

  19. Assessing environmental impacts of genetically modified plants on non-target organisms: The relevance of in planta studies.

    PubMed

    Arpaia, Salvatore; Birch, A Nicholas E; Kiss, Jozsef; van Loon, Joop J A; Messéan, Antoine; Nuti, Marco; Perry, Joe N; Sweet, Jeremy B; Tebbe, Christoph C

    2017-04-01

    In legal frameworks worldwide, genetically modified plants (GMPs) are subjected to pre-market environmental risk assessment (ERA) with the aim of identifying potential effects on the environment. In the European Union, the EFSA Guidance Document introduces the rationale that GMPs, as well as their newly produced metabolites, represent the potential stressor to be evaluated during ERA. As a consequence, during several phases of ERA for cultivation purposes, it is considered necessary to use whole plants or plant parts in experimental protocols. The importance of in planta studies as a strategy to address impacts of GMPs on non-target organisms is demonstrated, to evaluate both effects due to the intended modification in plant phenotype (e.g. expression of Cry proteins) and effects due to unintended modifications in plant phenotype resulting from the transformation process (e.g. due to somaclonal variations or pleiotropic effects). In planta tests are also necessary for GMPs in which newly expressed metabolites cannot easily be studied in vitro. This paper reviews the scientific literature supporting the choice of in planta studies as a fundamental tool in ERA of GMPs in cultivation dossiers; the evidence indicates they can realistically mimic the ecological relationships occurring in their receiving environments and provide important insights into the biology and sustainable management of GMPs.

  20. Assessment of factors influencing the Agrobacterium-mediated in planta seed transformation of brinjal (Solanum melongena L.).

    PubMed

    Subramanyam, Kondeti; Rajesh, Manoharan; Jaganath, Balusamy; Vasuki, Amirthalingam; Theboral, Jeevaraj; Elayaraja, Dhandapani; Karthik, Sivabalan; Manickavasagam, Markandan; Ganapathi, Andy

    2013-09-01

    An efficient and reproducible in planta transformation method was developed for brinjal using seed as an explant. The brinjal seeds were infected with Agrobacterium tumefaciens EHA 105 harbouring pCAMBIA 1301-bar plasmid, and the transformants were selected against BASTA®. Several parameters influencing the in planta seed transformation such as pre-culture duration, acetosyringone concentration, surfactants, duration of sonication, vacuum pressure and vacuum duration have been evaluated. The putatively transformed (T 0) brinjal plants were screened by GUS histochemical analysis. Among the different combinations and concentrations tested, when the 18-h pre-cultured brinjal seeds were sonicated for 20 min and vacuum infiltered for 3 min at 500 mm of Hg in Agrobacterium suspension containing 100 μM acetosyringone, 0.2 % Silwett L-77 favoured the Agrobacterium infection and showed maximum transformation efficiency. Among the five brinjal varieties evaluated, Arka Samhitha showed maximum transformation efficiency at 45.66 %. The transgene was successfully transmitted to progeny plants (T 1) which was evidenced by GUS histochemical analysis, polymerase chain reaction and Southern hybridisation. The in planta protocol developed in the present study would be beneficial to transfer the economically and nutritionally important genes into different varieties of brinjal, and the transgenic brinjal plants can be produced in less time (approximately 27 days).

  1. Modelo de accesibilidad de conceptos matematicos aplicados en el curso de Astronomia Descriptiva para estudiantes con impedimentos visuales en la UPR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isidro Villamizar, Gloria Maria

    Este estudio utiliza metodologia de investigacion cualitativa, con el proposito de describir, analizar y evaluar los procesos de diseno y desarrollo de un modelo de accesibilidad que consiste en estrategias de ensenanza de las matematicas para estudiantes con impedimentos visuales matriculados en el curso de Astronomia Descriptiva en la UPR. Se utilizaron las siguientes estrategias para recopilar la informacion, 1) reflexiones de la investigadora en el proceso de diseno y desarrollo de las lecciones adaptadas, que se registraron en un diario reflexivo. 2) entrevista semiestructurada luego de haber trabajado las lecciones de aprendizaje adaptadas con los participantes. 3) observaciones y notas de la investigadora del trabajo de los participantes. Para obtener la informacion de los participantes se obtuvo los permisos institucionales necesarios; se seleccionaron los participantes y se validaron los instrumentos; se realizo el desarrollo de las lecciones adaptadas con los participantes; y finalmente, se analizo la informacion obtenida. El diseno de las lecciones de aprendizaje adaptadas se hizo siguiendo las recomendaciones curriculares de los temas de matematicas aplicados en el curso de Astronomia Descriptiva realizado por la investigadora durante su semestre de internado. El testimonio de las voces de los participantes se obtuvo del proceso de desarrollo de las lecciones de aprendizaje adaptadas de temas seleccionados de conceptos matematicos requeridos en el curso de Astronomia Descriptiva y de la entrevista semiestructurada con los participantes, luego de haber trabajado las lecciones de aprendizaje. Para el desarrollo de las lecciones de aprendizaje, se utilizaron materiales tactiles adaptados, materiales tactiles disenados y materiales disponibles comercialmente. Los textos de las lecciones se imprimieron en tinta y en Braille. Se exhorta a disenar y desarrollar estrategias de ensenanza accesibles, considerando como recursos para evaluar su efectividad a

  2. The Land Analysis System (LAS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, Yun-Chi; Irani, Fred M.

    1991-01-01

    The Land Analysis System (LAS) is an interactive software system, available in the public domain, for the analysis, display, and management of multispectral and other digital image data. The system was developed to support earth sciences research and development activities. LAS provides over 240 applications functions and utilities, a flexible user interface, complete on-line and hardcopy documentation, extensive image data file management, reformatting, and conversion utilities, and high level device independent access to image display hardware. The capabilities are summarized of the latest release of the system (version 5). Emphasis is given to the system portability and the isolation of hardware and software dependencies in this release.

  3. A real-time fluorogenic assay for the visualization of glycoside hydrolase activity in planta.

    PubMed

    Ibatullin, Farid M; Banasiak, Alicja; Baumann, Martin J; Greffe, Lionel; Takahashi, Junko; Mellerowicz, Ewa J; Brumer, Harry

    2009-12-01

    There currently exists a diverse array of molecular probes for the in situ localization of polysaccharides, nucleic acids, and proteins in plant cells, including reporter enzyme strategies (e.g. protein-glucuronidase fusions). In contrast, however, there is a paucity of methods for the direct analysis of endogenous glycoside hydrolases and transglycosidases responsible for cell wall remodeling. To exemplify the potential of fluorogenic resorufin glycosides to address this issue, a resorufin beta-glycoside of a xylogluco-oligosaccharide (XXXG-beta-Res) was synthesized as a specific substrate for in planta analysis of XEH activity. The resorufin aglycone is particularly distinguished for high sensitivity in muro assays due to a low pK(a) (5.8) and large extinction coefficient (epsilon 62,000 M(-1) cm(-1)), long-wavelength fluorescence (excitation 571 nm/emission 585 nm), and high quantum yield (0.74) of the corresponding anion. In vitro analyses demonstrated that XXXG-beta-Res is hydrolyzed by the archetypal plant XEH, nasturtium (Tropaeolum majus) NXG1, with classical Michaelis-Menten substrate saturation kinetics and a linear dependence on both enzyme concentration and incubation time. Further, XEH activity could be visualized in real time by observing the localized increase in fluorescence in germinating nasturtium seeds and Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) inflorescent stems by confocal microscopy. Importantly, this new in situ XEH assay provides an essential complement to the in situ xyloglucan endotransglycosylase assay, thus allowing delineation of the disparate activities encoded by xyloglucan endotransglycosylase/hydrolase genes directly in plant tissues. The observation that XXXG-beta-Res is also hydrolyzed by diverse microbial XEHs indicates that this substrate, and resorufin glycosides in general, may find broad applicability for the analysis of wall restructuring by polysaccharide hydrolases during morphogenesis and plant-microbe interactions.

  4. Bioinspired engineering study of Plantae vascules for self-healing composite structures.

    PubMed

    Trask, R S; Bond, I P

    2010-06-06

    This paper presents the first conceptual study into creating a Plantae-inspired vascular network within a fibre-reinforced polymer composite laminate, which provides an ongoing self-healing functionality without incurring a mass penalty. Through the application of a 'lost-wax' technique, orthogonal hollow vascules, inspired by the 'ray cell' structures found in ring porous hardwoods, were successfully introduced within a carbon fibre-reinforced epoxy polymer composite laminate. The influence on fibre architecture and mechanical behaviour of single vascules (located on the laminate centreline) when aligned parallel and transverse to the local host ply was characterized experimentally using a compression-after-impact test methodology. Ultrasonic C-scanning and high-resolution micro-CT X-ray was undertaken to identify the influence of and interaction between the internal vasculature and impact damage. The results clearly show that damage morphology is influenced by vascule orientation and that a 10 J low-velocity impact damage event is sufficient to breach the vasculature; a prerequisite for any subsequent self-healing function. The residual compressive strength after a 10 J impact was found to be dependent upon vascule orientation. In general, residual compressive strength decreased to 70 per cent of undamaged strength when vasculature was aligned parallel to the local host ply and a value of 63 per cent when aligned transverse. This bioinspired engineering study has illustrated the potential that a vasculature concept has to offer in terms of providing a self-healing function with minimum mass penalty, without initiating premature failure within a composite structure.

  5. Cytokine changes in gastric and colonic epithelial cell in response to Planta ovata extract.

    PubMed

    Yakoob, Javed; Jafri, Wasim; Mehmood, Malik Hassan; Abbas, Zaigham; Tariq, Kanwal

    2017-03-22

    Background Psyllium (Planta ovata, Ispaghul) seed and husk are used for treatment of altered bowel habit, i. e. constipation and diarrhea. We studied the effect of Ispaghul extract on secretion of interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) by AGS (ATCC CRL 1739) and SW480 (ATCC CCL-227) epithelial cell lines and determined whether Ispaghul extract has an effect on IL-1β secretion by Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori)-stimulated AGS cell and Escherichia coli K-12 (E. coli K-12)-stimulated SW480 cells in vitro. Methods The AGS cells and SW480 cells were pretreated with Ispaghul extract in concentrations, i. e. 3.5 and 7 μg/mL prior to infection with H. pylori and E. coli K-12. Results DNA fragmentation in AGS and SW480 cells treated with Ispaghul extract was not significant (2.3±0.8 %) compared with untreated cells (2.2±0.6 %). Ispaghul extract decreased the H. pylori-stimulated secretion of IL-1β by AGS cell (p<0.0001). This effect did not increase as the concentration of extract was increased. Ispaghul extract also decreased E. coli K-12-stimulated IL-1β secretion by SW480 cell (p<0.0001). This effect increased as the concentration of extracts was increased. Conclusions Ispaghul extract had an effect on stimulated secretion of IL-1β by the AGS and SW480 cell. It decreased pro-inflammatory reaction from both cell lines stimulated by bacteria.

  6. In planta comparative transcriptomics of host-adapted strains of Ralstonia solanacearum

    PubMed Central

    Ailloud, Florent; Lowe, Tiffany M.; Robène, Isabelle; Cruveiller, Stéphane; Allen, Caitilyn

    2016-01-01

    Background. Ralstonia solanacearum is an economically important plant pathogen with an unusually large host range. The Moko (banana) and NPB (not pathogenic to banana) strain groups are closely related but are adapted to distinct hosts. Previous comparative genomics studies uncovered very few differences that could account for the host range difference between these pathotypes. To better understand the basis of this host specificity, we used RNAseq to profile the transcriptomes of an R. solanacearum Moko strain and an NPB strain under in vitro and in planta conditions. Results. RNAs were sequenced from bacteria grown in rich and minimal media, and from bacteria extracted from mid-stage infected tomato, banana and melon plants. We computed differential expression between each pair of conditions to identify constitutive and host-specific gene expression differences between Moko and NPB. We found that type III secreted effectors were globally up-regulated upon plant cell contact in the NPB strain compared with the Moko strain. Genes encoding siderophore biosynthesis and nitrogen assimilation genes were highly up-regulated in the NPB strain during melon pathogenesis, while denitrification genes were up-regulated in the Moko strain during banana pathogenesis. The relatively lower expression of oxidases and the denitrification pathway during banana pathogenesis suggests that R. solanacearum experiences higher oxygen levels in banana pseudostems than in tomato or melon xylem. Conclusions. This study provides the first report of differential gene expression associated with host range variation. Despite minimal genomic divergence, the pathogenesis of Moko and NPB strains is characterized by striking differences in expression of virulence- and metabolism-related genes. PMID:26788428

  7. Abscisic acid metabolizing rhizobacteria decrease ABA concentrations in planta and alter plant growth.

    PubMed

    Belimov, Andrey A; Dodd, Ian C; Safronova, Vera I; Dumova, Valentina A; Shaposhnikov, Alexander I; Ladatko, Alexander G; Davies, William J

    2014-01-01

    Although endogenous phytohormones such as abscisic acid (ABA) regulate root growth, and many rhizobacteria can modulate root phytohormone status, hitherto there have been no reports of rhizobacteria mediating root ABA concentrations and growth by metabolising ABA. Using a selective ABA-supplemented medium, two bacterial strains were isolated from the rhizosphere of rice (Oryza sativa) seedlings grown in sod-podzolic soil and assigned to Rhodococcus sp. P1Y and Novosphingobium sp. P6W using partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing and phenotypic patterns by the GEN III MicroPlate test. Although strain P6W had more rapid growth in ABA-supplemented media than strain P1Y, both could utilize ABA as a sole carbon source in batch culture. When rice seeds were germinated on filter paper in association with bacteria, root ABA concentration was not affected, but shoot ABA concentration of inoculated plants decreased by 14% (strain P6W) and 22% (strain P1Y). When tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) genotypes differing in ABA biosynthesis (ABA deficient mutants flacca - flc, and notabilis - not and the wild-type cv. Ailsa Craig, WT) were grown in gnotobiotic cultures on nutrient solution agar, rhizobacterial inoculation decreased root and/or leaf ABA concentrations, depending on plant and bacteria genotypes. Strain P6W inhibited primary root elongation of all genotypes, but increased leaf biomass of WT plants. In WT plants treated with silver ions that inhibit ethylene perception, both ABA-metabolising strains significantly decreased root ABA concentration, and strain P6W decreased leaf ABA concentration. Since these changes in ABA status also occurred in plants that were not treated with silver, it suggests that ethylene was probably not involved in regulating bacteria-mediated changes in ABA concentration. Correlations between plant growth and ABA concentrations in planta suggest that ABA-metabolising rhizobacteria may stimulate growth via an ABA-dependent mechanism.

  8. Label-free chemically specific imaging in planta with stimulated Raman scattering microscopy.

    PubMed

    Mansfield, Jessica C; Littlejohn, George R; Seymour, Mark P; Lind, Rob J; Perfect, Sarah; Moger, Julian

    2013-05-21

    The growing world population puts ever-increasing demands on the agricultural and agrochemical industries to increase agricultural yields. This can only be achieved by investing in fundamental plant and agrochemical research and in the development of improved analytical tools to support research in these areas. There is currently a lack of analytical tools that provide noninvasive structural and chemical analysis of plant tissues at the cellular scale. Imaging techniques such as coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) and stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) microscopy provide label-free chemically specific image contrast based on vibrational spectroscopy. Over the past decade, these techniques have been shown to offer clear advantages for a vast range of biomedical research applications. The intrinsic vibrational contrast provides label-free quantitative functional analysis, it does not suffer from photobleaching, and it allows near real-time imaging in 3D with submicrometer spatial resolution. However, due to the susceptibility of current detection schemes to optical absorption and fluorescence from pigments (such as chlorophyll), the plant science and agrochemical research communities have not been able to benefit from these techniques and their application in plant research has remained virtually unexplored. In this paper, we explore the effect of chlorophyll fluorescence and absorption in CARS and SRS microscopy. We show that with the latter it is possible to use phase-sensitive detection to separate the vibrational signal from the (electronic) absorption processes. Finally, we demonstrate the potential of SRS for a range of in planta applications by presenting in situ chemical analysis of plant cell wall components, epicuticular waxes, and the deposition of agrochemical formulations onto the leaf surface.

  9. Floral benzenoid carboxyl methyltransferases: From in vitro to in planta function

    PubMed Central

    Effmert, Uta; Saschenbrecker, Sandra; Ross, Jeannine; Negre, Florence; Fraser, Chris M.; Noel, Joseph P.; Dudareva, Natalia; Piechulla, Birgit

    2010-01-01

    Benzenoid carboxyl methyltransferases synthesize methyl esters (e.g., methyl benzoate and methyl salicylate), which are constituents of aromas and scents of many plant species and play important roles in plant communication with the surrounding environment. Within the past five years, eleven such carboxyl methyltransferases were isolated and most of them were comprehensively investigated at the biochemical, molecular and structural level. Two types of enzymes can be distinguished according to their substrate preferences: the SAMT-type enzymes isolated from Clarkia breweri, Stephanotis floribunda, Antirrhinum majus, Hoya carnosa, and Petunia hybrida, which have a higher catalytic efficiency and preference for salicylic acid, while BAMT-type enzymes from A. majus, Arabidopsis thaliana, Arabidopsis lyrata, and Nicotiana suaveolens prefer benzoic acid. The elucidation of C. breweri SAMT’s three-dimensional structure allowed a detailed modelling of the active sites of the carboxyl methyltransferases and revealed that the SAM binding pocket is highly conserved among these enzymes while the methyl acceptor binding site exhibits some variability, allowing a classification into SAMT-type and BAMT-type enzymes. The analysis of expression patterns coupled with biochemical characterization showed that these carboxyl methyltransferases are involved either in floral scent biosynthesis or in plant defense responses. While the latter can be induced by biotic or abiotic stress, the genes responsible for floral scent synthesis exhibit developmental and rhythmic expression pattern. The nature of the product and efficiency of its formation in planta depend on the availability of substrates, the catalytic efficiency of the enzyme toward benzoic acid and/or salicylic acid, and the transcriptional, translational, and post-translational regulation at the enzyme level. The biochemical properties of benzenoid carboxyl methyltransferases suggest that the genes involved in plant defenses

  10. A rapid assay to quantify the cleavage efficiency of custom-designed nucleases in planta.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Ross A; Gurevich, Vyacheslav; Levy, Avraham A

    2013-06-01

    Custom-designed nucleases are a promising technology for genome editing through the catalysis of double-strand DNA breaks within target loci and subsequent repair by the host cell, which can result in targeted mutagenesis or gene replacement. Implementing this new technology requires a rapid means to determine the cleavage efficiency of these custom-designed proteins in planta. Here we present such an assay that is based on cleavage-dependent luciferase gene correction as part of a transient dual-luciferase(®) reporter (Promega) expression system. This assay consists of co-infiltrating Nicotiana benthamiana leaves with two Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains: one contains the target sequence embedded within a luciferase reporter gene and the second strain contains the custom-designed nuclease gene(s). We compared repair following site-specific nuclease digestion through non-homologous DNA end-joining, as opposed to single strand DNA annealing, as a means to restore an out-of-frame luciferase gene cleavage-reporter construct. We show, using luminometer measurements and bioluminescence imaging, that the assay for non-homologous end-joining is sensitive, quantitative, reproducible and rapid in estimating custom-designed nucleases' cleavage efficiency. We detected cleavage by two out of three transcription activator-like effector nucleases that we custom-designed for targets in the Arabidopsis CRUCIFERIN3 gene, and we compared with the well-established 'QQR' zinc-finger nuclease. The assay we report requires only standard equipment and basic plant molecular biology techniques, and it can be carried out within a few days. Different types of custom-designed nucleases can be preliminarily tested in our assay system before their downstream application in plant genome editing.

  11. El aprendizaje significativo en las ciencias al participar en proyectos de investigacion cientifica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mora Polanco, Miguelena

    La ciencia es el eje fundamental a traves del cual se desarrollan las habilidades necesarias para el pensar cientifico que va a la busqueda del conocimiento cientifico. La intencion de este estudio fue indagar en el tema de investigacion cientifica desde el punto de vista de los participantes en los siguientes aspectos relacionados con la experiencia de investigacion cientifica: a) conceptos, b) proceso, c) destrezas y d) disposicion. Tambien se analizaron: a) las perspectivas del metodo cientifico, b) la estrategia de ensenanza, c) la cultura cientifica y d) la exposicion del proyecto investigativo en la Feria Cientifica; como parte del aprendizaje significativo de la ciencias de los participantes. Esta investigacion cualitativa propuso como diseno el estudio de caso. Los aspectos relacionados a la experiencia de participar en proyecto de investigacion cientifica son el fenomeno o caso bajo estudio. En el estudio participaron cinco (5) estudiantes egresados de escuela publica o privada que cursaban hasta el tercer ano de estudios universitarios, conducentes a un bachillerato en educacion secundaria en ciencias o en ciencias naturales. Las tecnicas utilizadas para recopilar los datos fueron: analisis de documentos del DEPR, revision de artefactos y entrevistas profundas. Para el analisis de los datos de las entrevistas se utilizo el modelo de Wolcott (1994). Del analisis de documentos del DEPR se identificaron areas a mejorar en las guias de las cartas circulares con relacion a la investigacion escolar y la feria cientifica. El analisis de los artefactos proveyo evidencia de como los internados, simposios e investigaciones fomentan el que los estudiantes se superen en el aspecto cognitivo, se conviertan en creadores del conocimiento, al hacer suyo los conceptos para poder explicarlos al publico. De las entrevistas los participantes manifestaron que la experiencia de investigacion fue una de aprendizaje significativo que los marco para toda la vida y les expandio su

  12. Nodularin, a cyanobacterial toxin, is synthesized in planta by symbiotic Nostoc sp.

    PubMed

    Gehringer, Michelle M; Adler, Lewis; Roberts, Alexandra A; Moffitt, Michelle C; Mihali, Troco K; Mills, Toby J T; Fieker, Claus; Neilan, Brett A

    2012-10-01

    The nitrogen-fixing bacterium, Nostoc, is a commonly occurring cyanobacterium often found in symbiotic associations. We investigated the potential of cycad cyanobacterial endosymbionts to synthesize microcystin/nodularin. Endosymbiont DNA was screened for the aminotransferase domain of the toxin biosynthesis gene clusters. Five endosymbionts carrying the gene were screened for bioactivity. Extracts of two isolates inhibited protein phosphatase 2A and were further analyzed using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS)/MS. Nostoc sp. 'Macrozamia riedlei 65.1' and Nostoc sp. 'Macrozamia serpentina 73.1' both contained nodularin. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) HESI-MS/MS analysis confirmed the presence of nodularin at 9.55±2.4 ng μg-1 chlorophyll a in Nostoc sp. 'Macrozamia riedlei 65.1' and 12.5±8.4 ng μg-1 Chl a in Nostoc sp. 'Macrozamia serpentina 73.1' extracts. Further scans indicated the presence of the rare isoform [L-Har(2)] nodularin, which contains L-homoarginine instead of L-arginine. Nodularin was also present at 1.34±0.74 ng ml(-1) (approximately 3 pmol per g plant ww) in the methanol root extracts of M. riedlei MZ65, while the presence of [L-Har(2)] nodularin in the roots of M. serpentina MZ73 was suggested by HPLC HESI-MS/MS analysis. The ndaA-B and ndaF genomic regions were sequenced to confirm the presence of the hybrid polyketide/non-ribosomal gene cluster. A seven amino-acid insertion into the NdaA-C1 domain of N. spumigena NSOR10 protein was observed in all endosymbiont-derived sequences, suggesting the transfer of the nda cluster from N. spumigena to terrestrial Nostoc species. This study demonstrates the synthesis of nodularin and [L-Har(2)] nodularin in a non-Nodularia species and the production of cyanobacterial hepatotoxin by a symbiont in planta.

  13. Tiempo para un cambio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woltjer, L.

    1987-06-01

    En la reunion celebrada en diciembre dei ano pasado informe al Consejo de mi deseo de terminar mi contrato como Director General de la ESO una vez que fuera aprobado el proyecto dei VLT, que se espera sucedera hacia fines de este aAo. Cuando fue renovada mi designacion hace tres aAos, el Consejo conocia mi intencion de no completar los cinco aAos dei contrato debido a mi deseo de disponer de mas tiempo para otras actividades. Ahora, una vez terminada la fase preparatoria para el VLT, Y habiendose presentado el proyecto formalmente al Consejo el dia 31 de marzo, y esperando su muy probable aprobacion antes dei termino de este ano, me parece que el 10 de enero de 1988 presenta una excelente fecha para que se produzca un cambio en la administracion de la ESO.

  14. Medicines and You: A Guide for Older Adults = Las medicinas y usted: Guia para las personas mayores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Coalition of Hispanic Health and Human Services Organizations.

    Most people over 65 take many prescription and nonprescription medicines. Because the body is changing and more medicines are taken, many older adults experience harmful reactions to the medicines they take. This booklet, written in both English and Spanish (on facing pages), was developed to help older adults learn more about medicines, recognize…

  15. Aplicación del Teorema de Nekhorochev para tiempos de estabilidad en Mecánica Celeste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miloni, O.; Núñez, J.; Brunini, A.

    En Mecánica Celeste, uno de los problemas centrales consiste en la determinación de los tiempos de estabilidad. El teorema de Nekhorochev proporciona un método para dicho estudio, para un sistema determinado por un hamiltoniano descripto en las variables acción-ángulo. El trabajo consiste en la acotación tanto del potencial perturbador y de la matriz hessiana del hamiltoniano integrable para determinar luego el tiempo de estabilidad de dicho sistema, donde por estabilidad se entiende la separación en norma infinito en el espacio de las acciones.

  16. Nuevos sistemas de frecuencia intermedia para el IAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olalde, J. C.; Perilli, D.; Larrarte, J. J.

    Se presenta el diagrama en bloques de los nuevos sistemas de Frecuencia Intermedia para los dos radiómetros instalados en el IAR. Entre las características más importantes del sistema podemos mencionar la posibilidad de conectar cualquiera de las dos antenas a los ``backend" disponibles: analizador espectral de alta resolución (META II) de 0,05 Hz, autocorrelador de 1008 canales y contínuo. Se incorporan al sistema nuevos sintetizadores de frecuencia implementados con PLL y la moderna técnica de síntesis digital directa. Por último, el conjunto del sistema es susceptible de ser configurado por las computadoras de adquisición de datos, supervisadas por otra, que entrega el estado de funcionamiento actual y evita la selección de configuraciones incorrectas por parte del usuario.

  17. EMPACT: THE LAS VEGAS INTERAGENCY PILOT PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    ENPACT: The Las Vegas Interagency Pilot Project

    The Las Vegas Interagency Pilot Project of the EMPACT program has involved eleven efforts. These efforts are described in brief on the poster presentation. They include: Las Vegas Environmental Monitoring Inventory, the Qual...

  18. In planta expression of a mature Der p 1 allergen isolated from an Italian strain of Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus.

    PubMed

    Marconi, Gianpiero; Albertini, Emidio; Mari, Adriano; Palazzo, Paola; Porceddu, Andrea; Raggi, Lorenzo; Bolis, Luigi; Lancioni, Hovirag; Palomba, Antonella; Lucentini, Livia; Lanfaloni, Luisa; Marcucci, Francesco; Falcinelli, Mario; Panara, Fausto

    2012-06-01

    European (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus) and American (Dermatophagoides farinae) house dust mite species are considered the most common causes of asthma and allergic symptoms worldwide. Der p 1 protein, one of the main allergens of D. pteronyssinus, is found in high concentration in mites faecal pellets, which can became easily airborne and, when inhaled, can cause perennial rhinitis and bronchial asthma. Here we report the isolation of the Der p 1 gene from an Italian strain of D. pteronyssinus and the PVX-mediated expression of its mature form (I-rDer p 1) in Nicotiana benthamiana plants. Human sera from characterized allergic patients were used for IgE binding inhibition assays to test the immunological reactivity of I-rDer p 1 produced in N. benthamiana plants. The binding properties of in planta produced I-rDer p 1 versus the IgE of patients sera were comparable to those obtained on Der p 1 preparation immobilized on a microarray. In this paper we provide a proof of concept for the production of an immunologically active form of Der p 1 using a plant viral vector. These results pave the way for the development of diagnostic allergy tests based on in planta produced allergens.

  19. Degradación de Marismas Costera: el Impacto de la Eutrofización en la Supervivencia del las Marismas Costeras en New England y Central California, USA. (Salt Marsh Deterioration in New England and Central California: Impacts of Eutrophication on Salt Marsh Survival.)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Las marismas costeras proporcionan numerosos beneficios a los ecosistemas, incluyendo la proporción del hábitat de la flora y fauna, la protección de las zonas costeras contra inundaciones durante eventos extremos, mejoran la calidad del agua para las almejas y ostras a través de...

  20. A single base pair in the right terminal domain of Tomato planta macho viroid is a virulence determinant factor on tomato

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tomato planta macho viroid (TPMVd), including isolates previously designated as Mexican papita viroid (MPVd), causes serious disease on tomatoes in North America. Two predominant variants, sharing 93.8% sequence identity, incited distinct severe (MPVd-S) or mild (MPVd-M) symptoms on tomato. To ide...

  1. Plastid-localized amino acid biosynthetic pathways of Plantae are predominantly composed of non-cyanobacterial enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Reyes-Prieto, Adrian; Moustafa, Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Studies of photosynthetic eukaryotes have revealed that the evolution of plastids from cyanobacteria involved the recruitment of non-cyanobacterial proteins. Our phylogenetic survey of >100 Arabidopsis nuclear-encoded plastid enzymes involved in amino acid biosynthesis identified only 21 unambiguous cyanobacterial-derived proteins. Some of the several non-cyanobacterial plastid enzymes have a shared phylogenetic origin in the three Plantae lineages. We hypothesize that during the evolution of plastids some enzymes encoded in the host nuclear genome were mistargeted into the plastid. Then, the activity of those foreign enzymes was sustained by both the plastid metabolites and interactions with the native cyanobacterial enzymes. Some of the novel enzymatic activities were favored by selective compartmentation of additional complementary enzymes. The mosaic phylogenetic composition of the plastid amino acid biosynthetic pathways and the reduced number of plastid-encoded proteins of non-cyanobacterial origin suggest that enzyme recruitment underlies the recompartmentation of metabolic routes during the evolution of plastids. PMID:23233874

  2. Bioimaging techniques for subcellular localization of plant hemoglobins and measurement of hemoglobin-dependent nitric oxide scavenging in planta.

    PubMed

    Hebelstrup, Kim H; Østergaard-Jensen, Erik; Hill, Robert D

    2008-01-01

    Plant hemoglobins are ubiquitous in all plant families. They are expressed at low levels in specific tissues. Several studies have established that plant hemoglobins are scavengers of nitric oxide (NO) and that varying the endogenous level of hemoglobin in plant cells negatively modulates bioactivity of NO generated under hypoxic conditions or during cellular signaling. Earlier methods for determination of hemoglobin-dependent scavenging in planta were based on measuring activity in whole plants or organs. Plant hemoglobins do not contain specific organelle localization signals; however, earlier reports on plant hemoglobin have demonstrated either cytosolic or nuclear localization, depending on the method or cell type investigated. We have developed two bioimaging techniques: one for visualization of hemoglobin-catalyzed scavenging of NO in specific cells and another for visualization of subcellular localization of green fluorescent protein-tagged plant hemoglobins in transformed Arabidopsis thaliana plants.

  3. Homoserine and asparagine are host signals that trigger in planta expression of a pathogenesis gene in Nectria haematococca

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zhennai; Rogers, Linda M.; Song, Yuanda; Guo, Wenjin; Kolattukudy, P. E.

    2005-01-01

    Some pathogenesis-related genes are expressed in fungi only when the pathogen is in the host, but the host signals that trigger these gene expressions have not been identified. Virulent Nectria haematococca infects pea plants and requires either pelA, which is induced by pectin, or pelD, which is induced only in planta. However, the host signal(s) that trigger pelD expression was unknown. Here we report the isolation of the host signals and identify homoserine and asparagine, two free amino acids found in uniquely high levels in pea seedlings, as the pelD-inducing signals. N. haematococca has evolved a mechanism to sense the host tissue environment by using the high levels of two free amino acids in this plant, thereby triggering the expression of pelD to assist the pathogenic process. PMID:15753300

  4. Phytohormonal networks promote differentiation of fiber initials on pre-anthesis cotton ovules grown in vitro and in planta.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hee Jin; Hinchliffe, Doug J; Triplett, Barbara A; Chen, Z Jeffrey; Stelly, David M; Yeater, Kathleen M; Moon, Hong S; Gilbert, Matthew K; Thyssen, Gregory N; Turley, Rickie B; Fang, David D

    2015-01-01

    The number of cotton (Gossypium sp.) ovule epidermal cells differentiating into fiber initials is an important factor affecting cotton yield and fiber quality. Despite extensive efforts in determining the molecular mechanisms regulating fiber initial differentiation, only a few genes responsible for fiber initial differentiation have been discovered. To identify putative genes directly involved in the fiber initiation process, we used a cotton ovule culture technique that controls the timing of fiber initial differentiation by exogenous phytohormone application in combination with comparative expression analyses between wild type and three fiberless mutants. The addition of exogenous auxin and gibberellins to pre-anthesis wild type ovules that did not have visible fiber initials increased the expression of genes affecting auxin, ethylene, ABA and jasmonic acid signaling pathways within 1 h after treatment. Most transcripts expressed differentially by the phytohormone treatment in vitro were also differentially expressed in the ovules of wild type and fiberless mutants that were grown in planta. In addition to MYB25-like, a gene that was previously shown to be associated with the differentiation of fiber initials, several other differentially expressed genes, including auxin/indole-3-acetic acid (AUX/IAA) involved in auxin signaling, ACC oxidase involved in ethylene biosynthesis, and abscisic acid (ABA) 8'-hydroxylase an enzyme that controls the rate of ABA catabolism, were co-regulated in the pre-anthesis ovules of both wild type and fiberless mutants. These results support the hypothesis that phytohormonal signaling networks regulate the temporal expression of genes responsible for differentiation of cotton fiber initials in vitro and in planta.

  5. In planta Transformed Cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) Plants, Overexpressing the SbNHX1 Gene Showed Enhanced Salt Endurance.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Sonika; Patel, Manish Kumar; Mishra, Avinash; Jha, Bhavanath

    2016-01-01

    Cumin is an annual, herbaceous, medicinal, aromatic, spice glycophyte that contains diverse applications as a food and flavoring additive, and therapeutic agents. An efficient, less time consuming, Agrobacterium-mediated, a tissue culture-independent in planta genetic transformation method was established for the first time using cumin seeds. The SbNHX1 gene, cloned from an extreme halophyte Salicornia brachiata was transformed in cumin using optimized in planta transformation method. The SbNHX1 gene encodes a vacuolar Na+/H+ antiporter and is involved in the compartmentalization of excess Na+ ions into the vacuole and maintenance of ion homeostasis Transgenic cumin plants were confirmed by PCR using gene (SbNHX1, uidA and hptII) specific primers. The single gene integration event and overexpression of the gene were confirmed by Southern hybridization and competitive RT-PCR, respectively. Transgenic lines L3 and L13 showed high expression of the SbNHX1 gene compared to L6 whereas moderate expression was detected in L5 and L10 transgenic lines. Transgenic lines (L3, L5, L10 and L13), overexpressing the SbNHX1 gene, showed higher photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll a, b and carotenoid), and lower electrolytic leakage, lipid peroxidation (MDA content) and proline content as compared to wild type plants under salinity stress. Though transgenic lines were also affected by salinity stress but performed better compared to WT plants. The ectopic expression of the SbNHX1 gene confirmed enhanced salinity stress tolerance in cumin as compared to wild type plants under stress condition. The present study is the first report of engineering salt tolerance in cumin, so far and the plant may be utilized for the cultivation in saline areas.

  6. Development of fiber optic spectroscopy for in-vitro and in-planta detection of fluorescent proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liew, Oi Wah; Chen, Jun-Wei; Asundi, Anand K.

    2001-10-01

    The objective of this project is to apply photonics technology to bio-safety management of genetically modified (GM) plants. The conventional method for screening GM plants is through selection using antibiotic resistance markers. There is public concern with such approaches and these are associated with food safety issues, escape of antibiotic resistance genes to pathogenic microorganisms and interference with antibiotic therapy. Thus, the strategy taken in this project is to replace antibiotic resistance markers with fluorescent protein markers that allow for rapid and non-invasive optical screening of genetically modified plants. In this paper, fibre optic spectroscopy was developed to detect and quantify recombinant green (EGFP) and red (DsRED) fluorescent proteins in vitro and in planta. In vitro detection was first carried out to optimize the sensitivity of the optical system. The bacterial expression vectors carrying the coding regions of EGFP and DsRED were introduced into Escherichia coli host cells and fluorescent proteins were produced following induction with IPTG. Soluble EGFP and DsRED proteins were isolated from lysed bacterial cells and serially diluted for quantitative analysis by fibre optic spectroscopy using different light sources, namely, blue LED (475 nm), tungsten halogen (350 - 1000 nm) and double frequency Nd:YAG green laser (532 nm). Fluorescence near the expected emission wavelengths could be detected up to 320X dilution for EGFP and DsRED with blue LED and 532 nm green laser, respectively, as the excitation source. Tungsten halogen was found to be unsuitable for excitation of both EGFP and DsRED. EGFP was successfully purified by size separation under non-denaturing electrophoretic conditions and quantified. The minimum concentration of EGFP detectable with blue LED excitation was 5 mg/ml. To determine the capability of spectroscopy detection in planta, transgenic potato hairy roots and whole modified plant lines expressing the

  7. In planta Transformed Cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) Plants, Overexpressing the SbNHX1 Gene Showed Enhanced Salt Endurance

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Sonika; Patel, Manish Kumar; Jha, Bhavanath

    2016-01-01

    Cumin is an annual, herbaceous, medicinal, aromatic, spice glycophyte that contains diverse applications as a food and flavoring additive, and therapeutic agents. An efficient, less time consuming, Agrobacterium-mediated, a tissue culture-independent in planta genetic transformation method was established for the first time using cumin seeds. The SbNHX1 gene, cloned from an extreme halophyte Salicornia brachiata was transformed in cumin using optimized in planta transformation method. The SbNHX1 gene encodes a vacuolar Na+/H+ antiporter and is involved in the compartmentalization of excess Na+ ions into the vacuole and maintenance of ion homeostasis Transgenic cumin plants were confirmed by PCR using gene (SbNHX1, uidA and hptII) specific primers. The single gene integration event and overexpression of the gene were confirmed by Southern hybridization and competitive RT-PCR, respectively. Transgenic lines L3 and L13 showed high expression of the SbNHX1 gene compared to L6 whereas moderate expression was detected in L5 and L10 transgenic lines. Transgenic lines (L3, L5, L10 and L13), overexpressing the SbNHX1 gene, showed higher photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll a, b and carotenoid), and lower electrolytic leakage, lipid peroxidation (MDA content) and proline content as compared to wild type plants under salinity stress. Though transgenic lines were also affected by salinity stress but performed better compared to WT plants. The ectopic expression of the SbNHX1 gene confirmed enhanced salinity stress tolerance in cumin as compared to wild type plants under stress condition. The present study is the first report of engineering salt tolerance in cumin, so far and the plant may be utilized for the cultivation in saline areas. PMID:27411057

  8. Energia Renovable para Centros de Salud Rurales (Renewable Energy for Rural Health Clinics)

    SciTech Connect

    Jimenez, T.; Olson, K.

    1999-07-28

    Esta es la primera de una serie de guias de aplicaciones que el Programa de Energia de Villas de NREL esta comisionando para acoplar sistemas comerciales renovables con aplicaciones rurales, incluyendo agua, escuelas rurales y micro empresas. La guia esta complementada por las actividades de desarrollo del Programa de Energia de Villas de NREL, proyectos pilotos internacionales y programas de visitas profesionales.

  9. Leaving Las Vegas: Exposure to Las Vegas and risk of suicide.

    PubMed

    Wray, Matt; Miller, Matthew; Gurvey, Jill; Carroll, Joanna; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2008-12-01

    Residents of Las Vegas, Nevada have much higher suicide rates than residents of other metropolitan counties in the USA. Whether the risk of suicide among visitors to Las Vegas is also significantly elevated has been difficult to assess because person-time denominator information is not available. We used a case-control design to examine the association between exposure to Las Vegas and risk of suicide expressed as mortality odds ratios. We conceptualized four different types of potential suicide risk with respect to Las Vegas: (1) risk of suicide among usual residents of Las Vegas ("chronic risk"), (2) risk of suicide among temporary visitors to Las Vegas ("acute risk"), (3) risk of suicide among Las Vegas residents visiting elsewhere ("leaving Las Vegas risk"), and (4) risk of suicide among travelers in general ("traveler risk"). Controlling for age, gender, marital status, and year effects, the odds of suicide among Las Vegas residents was at least 50% greater than among residents elsewhere in each of the three decades we observed. Visitors to Las Vegas were at double the risk compared to those who stayed in their home county. Leaving Las Vegas was associated with a greater than 20% reduction in risk for suicide. Traveling to Las Vegas is associated with a twofold increase in risk compared to traveling elsewhere. We discuss three possible theoretical frameworks to help explain our observed results: ecological effects, whereby social factors unique to Las Vegas, or uniquely amplified in Las Vegas, result in increased risk to both residents and visitors; selection effects whereby those predisposed to suicide disproportionately choose Las Vegas to reside in and visit; and contagion effects, whereby high numbers of suicides tend to lead to even greater numbers over time, as people emulate the suicides of others. We compare our empirical evidence for each of the effects with existing sociological and historical scholarship on Las Vegas.

  10. TELEMEDICINA: UN DESAFÍO PARA AMÉRICA LATINA.

    PubMed

    Litewka, Sergio

    2005-01-01

    La telemedicina es una tendencia creciente en la prestación de los servicios médicos. Aunque la eficacia de esta práctica no ha estado bien establecida, es probable que los países en desarrollo compartirán este nuevo paradigma con los desarrollados. Los defensores de la telemedicina en América Latina sostienen que será una herramienta útil para reducir las disparidades y mejorar la accesibilidad de atención de salud. Aunque América Latina quizá se convierta en un lugar para la investigación e investigación de estos procedimientos, no está claro cómo la telemedicina podría contribuir a mejorar la accesibilidad para las poblaciones desfavorecidas, o coexistir con sistemas de atención de salud públicos crónicamente enfermos.Telemedicine is a growing trend in the provision of medical services. Although the effectiveness of this practice has not been well established, it is likely that developing countries will share this new paradigm with developed ones. Supporters of telemedicine in Latin America maintain that it will be a useful tool for reducing disparities and improving health care accessibility. Although Latin America might become a place for research and investigation of these procedures, it is not clear how telemedicine could contribute to improving accessibility for disadvantaged populations, or coexist with chronically ill-funded public healthcare systems.

  11. TELEMEDICINA: UN DESAFÍO PARA AMÉRICA LATINA

    PubMed Central

    Litewka, Sergio

    2011-01-01

    La telemedicina es una tendencia creciente en la prestación de los servicios médicos. Aunque la eficacia de esta práctica no ha estado bien establecida, es probable que los países en desarrollo compartirán este nuevo paradigma con los desarrollados. Los defensores de la telemedicina en América Latina sostienen que será una herramienta útil para reducir las disparidades y mejorar la accesibilidad de atención de salud. Aunque América Latina quizá se convierta en un lugar para la investigación e investigación de estos procedimientos, no está claro cómo la telemedicina podría contribuir a mejorar la accesibilidad para las poblaciones desfavorecidas, o coexistir con sistemas de atención de salud públicos crónicamente enfermos. Telemedicine is a growing trend in the provision of medical services. Although the effectiveness of this practice has not been well established, it is likely that developing countries will share this new paradigm with developed ones. Supporters of telemedicine in Latin America maintain that it will be a useful tool for reducing disparities and improving health care accessibility. Although Latin America might become a place for research and investigation of these procedures, it is not clear how telemedicine could contribute to improving accessibility for disadvantaged populations, or coexist with chronically ill-funded public healthcare systems. PMID:21625326

  12. El fenotipo de las mucinas en el esófago de Barrett

    PubMed Central

    Torrado, Julio; Piazuelo, María Blanca; Ruiz, Irune; Izarzugaza, María Isabel; Camargo, María Constanza; Delgado, Alberto; Abdirad, Afshin; Correa, Pelayo

    2011-01-01

    Antecedentes El esófago de Barrett es una reconocida lesión precursora de adenocarcinoma esofágico. Aunque generalmente asociada al reflujo gastroesofágico, los mecanismos patogénicos de la enfermedad no son bien conocidos. El objetivo del presente estudio es explorar la historia natural e identificar marcadores de progreso del proceso precanceroso. Material y métodos Se utilizaron cortes histológicos de 67 especímenes de esófago correspondientes a 14 pacientes con esófago de Barrett, a los que se siguió entre 1 – 9 años. Se clasificaron las lesiones en: esófago de Barrett sin displasia, indefinido para displasia o con displasia. Se evaluó la expresión de diferentes mucinas en las células caliciformes y en las columnares usando técnicas de histoquímica e inmunohistoquímica. Resultados En todos los casos se comprobó la presencia de metaplasia intestinal incompleta. Las células columnares dentro del epitelio metaplásico contenían mucinas neutras. A mayor severidad de la lesión se encontró significativamente menor expresión de sialomucinas en las células columnares (p de tendencia igual a 0,03). En sujetos con lesiones indefinidas para displasia se observó un mayor contenido de sulfomucinas en las células caliciformes (p=0,034) y de MUC2 en las células columnares (p=0,029) que en sujetos con esófago de Barrett sin displasia. Se observó expresión de la mucina intestinal MUC2 y de la mucina gástrica MUC5AC en todas las muestras. MUC6, una mucina de las glándulas profundas gástricas, se presentó ocasionalmente. Conclusión La evaluación de los perfiles de mucinas en el esófago de Barrett sugiere una transición gradual del fenotipo del epitelio metaplásico a medida que la lesión avanza en el tiempo. PMID:21804831

  13. Investigaccion-accion en la sala de clases sobre las creencias de la cultura de la ciencia de un grupo de estudiantes universitarios y su relacion reciproca con el aprendizaje de las ciencias biologicas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cordova-Santiago, Lizzette Astrid

    La investigacion---accion que se llevo a cabo en la sala de clases tenia como punto de partida las creencias de la cultura de la ciencia de un grupo de estudiantes universitarios para luego examinar sus implicaciones en el proceso de aprendizaje de las Ciencias Biologicas. ¿Que se supone que hagan las creencias en relacion con el aprendizaje? ¿En que consiste incorporar este aspecto a la practica educativa universitaria? Utilizando el modelo de Kemmis y McTaggart (1987) la investigacion-accion se planteo como un proceso dinamico en cuatro momentos en espiral constituidos por la planificacion, la accion, la observacion y la reflexion. Cada una de las fases tuvo una intencion retrospectiva y prospectiva formando una espiral de autorreflexion del conocimiento y la accion. Se llevaron a cabo audio grabaciones en clases y analisis de documentos. Ademas, la profesora-investigadora hizo un portafolio para reflexionar sobre las creencias de la cultura de la ciencia que tienen los estudiantes y las creencias del aprendizaje que tiene la profesora y sobre como la comprension de estos elementos ayudo a mejorar su practica educativa a traves del tiempo. Los resultados obtenidos apuntan a que las creencias de la cultura de la ciencia que tiene el grupo de estudiantes son diversas. Ellos si creen que la ciencia tiene una cultura la cual describieron como: complicada y desconocida que evoluciona constantemente, que es un conjunto de metodos, que es altamente tecnologica, que resuelve problemas de salud, ayuda a interpretar la realidad del mundo que los rodea y su origen y que existen unas intersecciones entre la ciencia y el poder. Sobre las creencias del proceso de aprendizaje de la profesora-investigadora, estas senalan que el modelaje de actores, la vision de la academia que tiene ella asi como la participacion y negociacion entre todos los involucrados en el proceso educativo, son factores que inciden en el proceso de aprendizaje.

  14. Descripción de la zona de alta difusión en un modelo bidimensional para hojas de corriente

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montero, M. F.; Paola, C. A.; Platzeck, A. M.

    Los modelos bidimensionales para describir hojas de corriente de alta simetría no suministran una descripción detallada de las regiones donde la difusión es considerablemente importante. Tal es el caso de los modelos desarrollados en la década del '60 por Sweet, Parker, Petschek y Sonnerup. En esta comunicación presentamos una solución de las ecuaciones MHD en el entorno del origen, construyendo series bidimensionales para todas las magnitudes físicas involucradas. Valiéndonos de la alta simetría y de las características del problema, logramos reducir el número de coeficientes a calcular. Utilizamos un programa autoconsistente para extender el cálculo a regiones vecinas con difusión moderada o despreciable.

  15. The in planta transcriptome of Ralstonia solanacearum: conserved physiological and virulence strategies during bacterial wilt of tomato.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Jonathan M; Babujee, Lavanya; Meng, Fanhong; Milling, Annett; Allen, Caitilyn

    2012-01-01

    Plant xylem fluid is considered a nutrient-poor environment, but the bacterial wilt pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum is well adapted to it, growing to 10(8) to 10(9) CFU/g tomato stem. To better understand how R. solanacearum succeeds in this habitat, we analyzed the transcriptomes of two phylogenetically distinct R. solanacearum strains that both wilt tomato, strains UW551 (phylotype II) and GMI1000 (phylotype I). We profiled bacterial gene expression at ~6 × 10(8) CFU/ml in culture or in plant xylem during early tomato bacterial wilt pathogenesis. Despite phylogenetic differences, these two strains expressed their 3,477 common orthologous genes in generally similar patterns, with about 12% of their transcriptomes significantly altered in planta versus in rich medium. Several primary metabolic pathways were highly expressed during pathogenesis. These pathways included sucrose uptake and catabolism, and components of these pathways were encoded by genes in the scrABY cluster. A UW551 scrA mutant was significantly reduced in virulence on resistant and susceptible tomato as well as on potato and the epidemiologically important weed host Solanum dulcamara. Functional scrA contributed to pathogen competitive fitness during colonization of tomato xylem, which contained ~300 µM sucrose. scrA expression was induced by sucrose, but to a much greater degree by growth in planta. Unexpectedly, 45% of the genes directly regulated by HrpB, the transcriptional activator of the type 3 secretion system (T3SS), were upregulated in planta at high cell densities. This result modifies a regulatory model based on bacterial behavior in culture, where this key virulence factor is repressed at high cell densities. The active transcription of these genes in wilting plants suggests that T3SS has a biological role throughout the disease cycle. IMPORTANCE Ralstonia solanacearum is a widespread plant pathogen that causes bacterial wilt disease. It inflicts serious crop losses on tropical

  16. Ideas Para Fortalecer Las Destrezas en Matematicas. Ideas for Strengthening Mathematics Skills. Spanish Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Bilingual Education.

    Presented is an overview of some specific schemes that have been used successfully by teachers throughout New York State to strengthen basic mathematics skills. Components offer ideas that have been successful with primary, intermediate, and secondary students. The contents of this Spanish language edition are identical to the English language and…

  17. Autofrecuencias de las ecuaciones de Helmholtz y Liouville para un modelo de tierra tipo Jeffreys simplificado.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sevilla, M. J.; González-Camacho, A.

    The authors obtain expressions for the free frequencies of polar motion for an ellipsoidal, rotating and perturbed earth model constituted by an elastic mantle with an homogeneous liquid core of additional simple motion.

  18. Stop Disease: Diapering Procedures = Alto a las Enfermedades: Procedimientos para Cambiar Panales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Child Care Health Program, Oakland.

    In order to prevent the occurrence and spread of disease in California child care programs, this set of laminated procedure pages, in English and Spanish versions, details infant and child care procedures for safe diapering. The document delineates important rules about diapering, gives directions for making a disinfecting solution, and provides…

  19. Bases para el Curriculum de las Escuelas de Nivel Elemental (Bases for the Elementary School Curriculum).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministerio de Cultura y Educacion, Buenos Aires (Argentina). Centro National de Documentacion e Informacion Educativa.

    This document proposes a detailed foundation for curriculum planning in grades 1, 2, and 3 in the Argentine elementary schools. The book covers such topics as curriculum objectives, contents and activities, personalization and individualization, socialization and regionalization, quality, organization, and suggestions for subject matter and…

  20. Construction of EGFP-labeling system for visualizing the infection process of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri in planta.

    PubMed

    Liu, Li-Ping; Deng, Zi-Niu; Qu, Jin-Wang; Yan, Jia-Wen; Catara, Vittoria; Li, Da-Zhi; Long, Gui-You; Li, Na

    2012-09-01

    Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri (Xac) is the causal agent of citrus bacterial canker, an economically important disease to world citrus industry. To monitor the infection process of Xac in different citrus plants, the enhanced green florescent protein (EGFP) visualizing system was constructed to visualize the propagation and localization in planta. First, the wild-type Xac was isolated from the diseased leaves of susceptible 'Bingtang' sweet orange, and then the isolated Xac was labeled with EGFP by triparental mating. After PCR identification, the growth kinetics and pathogenicity of the transformants were analyzed in comparison with the wild-type Xac. The EGFP-labeled bacteria were inoculated by spraying on the surface and infiltration in the mesophyll of 'Bingtang' sweet orange leaves. The bacterial cell multiplication and diffusion processes were observed directly under confocal laser scanning microscope at different intervals after inoculation. The results indicated that the EGFP-labeled Xac releasing clear green fluorescence light under fluorescent microscope showed the infection process and had the same pathogenicity as the wild type to citrus. Consequently, the labeled Xac demonstrated the ability as an efficient tool to monitor the pathogen infection.

  1. In Planta Single-Molecule Pull-Down Reveals Tetrameric Stoichiometry of HD-ZIPIII:LITTLE ZIPPER Complexes[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Husbands, Aman Y.; Aggarwal, Vasudha; Ha, Taekjip; Timmermans, Marja C.P.

    2016-01-01

    Deciphering complex biological processes markedly benefits from approaches that directly assess the underlying biomolecular interactions. Most commonly used approaches to monitor protein-protein interactions typically provide nonquantitative readouts that lack statistical power and do not yield information on the heterogeneity or stoichiometry of protein complexes. Single-molecule pull-down (SiMPull) uses single-molecule fluorescence detection to mitigate these disadvantages and can quantitatively interrogate interactions between proteins and other compounds, such as nucleic acids, small molecule ligands, and lipids. Here, we establish SiMPull in plants using the HOMEODOMAIN LEUCINE ZIPPER III (HD-ZIPIII) and LITTLE ZIPPER (ZPR) interaction as proof-of-principle. Colocalization analysis of fluorophore-tagged HD-ZIPIII and ZPR proteins provides strong statistical evidence of complex formation. In addition, we use SiMPull to directly quantify YFP and mCherry maturation probabilities, showing these differ substantially from values obtained in mammalian systems. Leveraging these probabilities, in conjunction with fluorophore photobleaching assays on over 2000 individual complexes, we determined HD-ZIPIII:ZPR stoichiometry. Intriguingly, these complexes appear as heterotetramers, comprising two HD-ZIPIII and two ZPR molecules, rather than heterodimers as described in the current model. This surprising result raises new questions about the regulation of these key developmental factors and is illustrative of the unique contribution SiMPull is poised to make to in planta protein interaction studies. PMID:27385814

  2. In Planta Single-Molecule Pull-Down Reveals Tetrameric Stoichiometry of HD-ZIPIII:LITTLE ZIPPER Complexes.

    PubMed

    Husbands, Aman Y; Aggarwal, Vasudha; Ha, Taekjip; Timmermans, Marja C P

    2016-08-01

    Deciphering complex biological processes markedly benefits from approaches that directly assess the underlying biomolecular interactions. Most commonly used approaches to monitor protein-protein interactions typically provide nonquantitative readouts that lack statistical power and do not yield information on the heterogeneity or stoichiometry of protein complexes. Single-molecule pull-down (SiMPull) uses single-molecule fluorescence detection to mitigate these disadvantages and can quantitatively interrogate interactions between proteins and other compounds, such as nucleic acids, small molecule ligands, and lipids. Here, we establish SiMPull in plants using the HOMEODOMAIN LEUCINE ZIPPER III (HD-ZIPIII) and LITTLE ZIPPER (ZPR) interaction as proof-of-principle. Colocalization analysis of fluorophore-tagged HD-ZIPIII and ZPR proteins provides strong statistical evidence of complex formation. In addition, we use SiMPull to directly quantify YFP and mCherry maturation probabilities, showing these differ substantially from values obtained in mammalian systems. Leveraging these probabilities, in conjunction with fluorophore photobleaching assays on over 2000 individual complexes, we determined HD-ZIPIII:ZPR stoichiometry. Intriguingly, these complexes appear as heterotetramers, comprising two HD-ZIPIII and two ZPR molecules, rather than heterodimers as described in the current model. This surprising result raises new questions about the regulation of these key developmental factors and is illustrative of the unique contribution SiMPull is poised to make to in planta protein interaction studies.

  3. Cell wall targeted in planta iron accumulation enhances biomass conversion and seed iron concentration in Arabidopsis and rice.

    PubMed

    Yang, Haibing; Wei, Hui; Ma, Guojie; Antunes, Mauricio S; Vogt, Stefan; Cox, Joseph; Zhang, Xiao; Liu, Xiping; Bu, Lintao; Gleber, S Charlotte; Carpita, Nicholas C; Makowski, Lee; Himmel, Michael E; Tucker, Melvin P; McCann, Maureen C; Murphy, Angus S; Peer, Wendy A

    2016-10-01

    Conversion of nongrain biomass into liquid fuel is a sustainable approach to energy demands as global population increases. Previously, we showed that iron can act as a catalyst to enhance the degradation of lignocellulosic biomass for biofuel production. However, direct addition of iron catalysts to biomass pretreatment is diffusion-limited, would increase the cost and complexity of biorefinery unit operations and may have deleterious environmental impacts. Here, we show a new strategy for in planta accumulation of iron throughout the volume of the cell wall where iron acts as a catalyst in the deconstruction of lignocellulosic biomass. We engineered CBM-IBP fusion polypeptides composed of a carbohydrate-binding module family 11 (CBM11) and an iron-binding peptide (IBP) for secretion into Arabidopsis and rice cell walls. CBM-IBP transformed Arabidopsis and rice plants show significant increases in iron accumulation and biomass conversion compared to respective controls. Further, CBM-IBP rice shows a 35% increase in seed iron concentration and a 40% increase in seed yield in greenhouse experiments. CBM-IBP rice potentially could be used to address iron deficiency, the most common and widespread nutritional disorder according to the World Health Organization.

  4. Overexpression of the rice carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase 1 gene in Golden Rice endosperm suggests apocarotenoids as substrates in planta.

    PubMed

    Ilg, Andrea; Yu, Qiuju; Schaub, Patrick; Beyer, Peter; Al-Babili, Salim

    2010-08-01

    Carotenoids are converted by carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases that catalyze oxidative cleavage reactions leading to apocarotenoids. However, apocarotenoids can also be further truncated by some members of this enzyme family. The plant carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase 1 (CCD1) subfamily is known to degrade both carotenoids and apocarotenoids in vitro, leading to different volatile compounds. In this study, we investigated the impact of the rice CCD1 (OsCCD1) on the pigmentation of Golden Rice 2 (GR2), a genetically modified rice variety accumulating carotenoids in the endosperm. For this purpose, the corresponding cDNA was introduced into the rice genome under the control of an endosperm-specific promoter in sense and anti-sense orientations. Despite high expression levels of OsCCD1 in sense plants, pigment analysis revealed carotenoid levels and patterns comparable to those of GR2, pleading against carotenoids as substrates in rice endosperm. In support, similar carotenoid contents were determined in anti-sense plants. To check whether OsCCD1 overexpressed in GR2 endosperm is active, in vitro assays were performed with apocarotenoid substrates. HPLC analysis confirmed the cleavage activity of introduced OsCCD1. Our data indicate that apocarotenoids rather than carotenoids are the substrates of OsCCD1 in planta.

  5. A rapid, highly efficient and economical method of Agrobacterium-mediated in planta transient transformation in living onion epidermis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Kedong; Huang, Xiaohui; Wu, Manman; Wang, Yan; Chang, Yunxia; Liu, Kun; Zhang, Ju; Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Fuli; Yi, Liming; Li, Tingting; Wang, Ruiyue; Tan, Guangxuan; Li, Chengwei

    2014-01-01

    Transient transformation is simpler, more efficient and economical in analyzing protein subcellular localization than stable transformation. Fluorescent fusion proteins were often used in transient transformation to follow the in vivo behavior of proteins. Onion epidermis, which has large, living and transparent cells in a monolayer, is suitable to visualize fluorescent fusion proteins. The often used transient transformation methods included particle bombardment, protoplast transfection and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Particle bombardment in onion epidermis was successfully established, however, it was expensive, biolistic equipment dependent and with low transformation efficiency. We developed a highly efficient in planta transient transformation method in onion epidermis by using a special agroinfiltration method, which could be fulfilled within 5 days from the pretreatment of onion bulb to the best time-point for analyzing gene expression. The transformation conditions were optimized to achieve 43.87% transformation efficiency in living onion epidermis. The developed method has advantages in cost, time-consuming, equipment dependency and transformation efficiency in contrast with those methods of particle bombardment in onion epidermal cells, protoplast transfection and Agrobacterium-mediated transient transformation in leaf epidermal cells of other plants. It will facilitate the analysis of protein subcellular localization on a large scale.

  6. A Rapid, Highly Efficient and Economical Method of Agrobacterium-Mediated In planta Transient Transformation in Living Onion Epidermis

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Kedong; Huang, Xiaohui; Wu, Manman; Wang, Yan; Chang, Yunxia; Liu, Kun; Zhang, Ju; Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Fuli; Yi, Liming; Li, Tingting; Wang, Ruiyue; Tan, Guangxuan; Li, Chengwei

    2014-01-01

    Transient transformation is simpler, more efficient and economical in analyzing protein subcellular localization than stable transformation. Fluorescent fusion proteins were often used in transient transformation to follow the in vivo behavior of proteins. Onion epidermis, which has large, living and transparent cells in a monolayer, is suitable to visualize fluorescent fusion proteins. The often used transient transformation methods included particle bombardment, protoplast transfection and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Particle bombardment in onion epidermis was successfully established, however, it was expensive, biolistic equipment dependent and with low transformation efficiency. We developed a highly efficient in planta transient transformation method in onion epidermis by using a special agroinfiltration method, which could be fulfilled within 5 days from the pretreatment of onion bulb to the best time-point for analyzing gene expression. The transformation conditions were optimized to achieve 43.87% transformation efficiency in living onion epidermis. The developed method has advantages in cost, time-consuming, equipment dependency and transformation efficiency in contrast with those methods of particle bombardment in onion epidermal cells, protoplast transfection and Agrobacterium-mediated transient transformation in leaf epidermal cells of other plants. It will facilitate the analysis of protein subcellular localization on a large scale. PMID:24416168

  7. Closed-reference metatranscriptomics enables in planta profiling of putative virulence activities in the grapevine trunk-disease complex.

    PubMed

    Morales-Cruz, Abraham; Allenbeck, Gabrielle; Figueroa-Balderas, Rosa; Ashworth, Vanessa E; Lawrence, Daniel P; Travadon, Renaud; Smith, Rhonda J; Baumgartner, Kendra; Rolshausen, Philippe E; Cantu, Dario

    2017-02-20

    Grapevines, like other perennial crops, are affected by so-called 'trunk diseases', which damage the trunk and other woody tissues. Mature grapevines typically contract more than one trunk disease and often multiple grapevine trunk pathogens (GTPs) are recovered from infected tissues. The co-existence of different GTP species in complex and dynamic microbial communities complicates the study of the molecular mechanisms underlying disease development especially under vineyard conditions. The objective of this study was to develop and optimize a community-level transcriptomics (i.e., metatranscriptomics) approach that can monitor simultaneously the virulence activities of multiple GTPs in planta. The availability of annotated genomes for the most relevant co-infecting GTPs in diseased grapevine wood provided the unprecedented opportunity to generate a multi-species reference for mapping and quantifying DNA and RNA sequencing reads. We first evaluated popular sequence read mappers using permutations of multiple simulated datasets. Alignment parameters of the selected mapper were optimized to increase the specificity and sensitivity for its application to metagenomics and metatranscriptomics analyses. Initial testing on grapevine wood experimentally inoculated with individual GTPs confirmed the validity of the method. Using naturally-infected field samples expressing a variety of trunk disease symptoms, we show that our approach provides quantitative assessments of species composition as well as genome-wide transcriptional profiling of potential virulence factors, namely cell wall degradation, secondary metabolism and nutrient uptake for all co-infecting GTPs. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  8. In planta distribution of 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' as revealed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Tatineni, Satyanarayana; Sagaram, Uma Shankar; Gowda, Siddarame; Robertson, Cecile J; Dawson, William O; Iwanami, Toru; Wang, Nian

    2008-05-01

    Huanglongbing (HLB) is one of the most devastating diseases of citrus worldwide, and is caused by a phloem-limited fastidious prokaryotic alpha-proteobacterium that is yet to be cultured. In this study, a combination of traditional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and real-time PCR targeting the putative DNA polymerase and 16S rDNA sequence of 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus,' respectively, were used to examine the distribution and movement of the HLB pathogen in the infected citrus tree. We found that 'Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus' was distributed in bark tissue, leaf midrib, roots, and different floral and fruit parts, but not in endosperm and embryo, of infected citrus trees. Quantification analysis of the HLB bacterium indicated that it was distributed unevenly in planta and ranged from 14 to 137,031 cells/mug of total DNA in different tissues. A relatively high concentration of 'Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus' was observed in fruit peduncles. Our data from greenhouse-infected plants also indicated that 'Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus' was transmitted systemically from infection site to different parts of the plant. Understanding the distribution and movement of the HLB bacterium inside an individual citrus tree is critical for discerning its virulence mechanism and to develop management strategies for HLB.

  9. Functional characterisation of metal(loid) processes in planta through the integration of synchrotron techniques and plant molecular biology

    PubMed Central

    Donner, Erica; Punshon, Tracy; Guerinot, Mary Lou; Lombi, Enzo

    2013-01-01

    Functional characterisation of the genes regulating metal(loid) homeostasis in plants is a major focus of crop biofortification, phytoremediation, and food security research. This paper focuses on the potential for advancing plant metal(loid) research by combining molecular biology and synchrotron-based techniques. Recent advances in x-ray focussing optics and fluorescence detection have greatly improved the potential of synchrotron techniques for plant science research, allowing metal(loids) to be imaged in vivo in hydrated plant tissues at sub-micron resolution. Laterally resolved metal(loid) speciation can also be determined. By using molecular techniques to probe the location of gene expression and protein localisation and combining it with this synchrotron-derived data, functional information can be effectively and efficiently assigned to specific genes. This paper provides a review of the state of the art in this field, and provides examples as to how synchrotron-based methods can be combined with molecular techniques to facilitate functional characterisation of genes in planta. PMID:22200921

  10. Desarrollo curricular, conciencia ambiental y tecnologia para estudiantes de intermedia: Una investigacion en accion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez Ramos, Teresita

    Se llevó a cabo una investigación en acción con los propósitos de 1) documentar las relaciones de las tecnologías de la información y la comunicación en las clases de ciencias de escuela intermedia como elemento de apoyo cuando se aborda el tema ambiental y sus conceptos pertinentes, a partir de las observaciones de la investigadora, así como las entrevistas y diarios reflexivos de los estudiantes de una escuela intermedia en la zona metropolitana, y luego 2) diseñar una unidad instruccional sobre el tema ambiental que integre actividades tecnologías para el curso de ciencias de la escuela intermedia según el modelo PROCIC y las observaciones que hayan iniciado los estudiantes participantes. Finalmente, se plantearon las implicaciones educativas para el currículo del Programa de Ciencias al instrumentar este modelo de unidad mediante PROCIC, e integrado la tecnología y el tema ambiental. Los hallazgos se analizaron y se categorizaron de acuerdo con las preguntas de investigación. El hallazgo principal de la investigación aborda las cuatro relaciones centrales en las que se articula la utilización de las tecnologías y sus aplicaciones en la clase de ciencias. Estas cuatro relaciones que recogen la posición de los estudiantes son: 1) Perspectiva de los estudiantes hacia la tecnología. 2) Participación de los estudiantes en los aspectos docentes. 3) Aprendizaje estudiantil sobre el ambiente, y 4) Conciencia ambiental en relación con la vida diaria. Estas relaciones ponen de manifiesto,cómo se plantea en las implicaciones, la necesidad de más investigación en acción en la sala de clases, la importancia—como tema transversal—de la conciencia ambiental mediante la tecnología al construir conocimientos significativos dentro y fuera de la escuela, asó como, valorar la investigación y la dialogicidad en la sala de clases como actividades que obligan al reexamen de la práctica didáctica en su formas curriculares de objetivos, recursos

  11. Contribución al flujo infrarrojo de las estrellas Be de la recombinación dielectrónica del MgII

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruzado, A.; di Rocco, H.; Ringuelet, A.

    Para evaluar la contribución del proceso de recombinación dielectrónica del átomo de MgII al exceso de flujo infrarrojo observado en las estrellas Be, calculamos la energía emitida en las líneas originadas por este proceso. Se evaluaron los efectos de las condiciones físicas del medio, como la temperatura electrónica y la densidad electrónica, sobre el flujo emitido. Se consideró también la influencia de una posible opacidad.

  12. Cigarrillos de mentol | Smokefree Español

    Cancer.gov

    ¿Qué es el mentol? El mentol es una sustancia encontrada naturalmente en las plantas de menta, tales como la menta fresca y la hierbabuena. Deja una sensación refrescante y se usa frecuentemente para aliviar el dolor y la irritación leve, y para prevenir infecciones [1].

  13. Hacia el consumo informado de tabaco en México: efecto de las advertencias con pictogramas en población fumadora

    PubMed Central

    Thrasher, James F; Pérez-Hernández, Rosaura; Arillo-Santillán, Edna; Barrientos-Gutiérrez, Inti

    2015-01-01

    Resumen Objetivo Evaluar el efecto de las advertencias sanitarias (AS) con pictogramas en las cajetillas de tabaco en adultos fumadores. Material y métodos Cohorte de fumadores con representatividad poblacional de siete ciudades mexi canas, antes (2010) y después (2011) de la implementación de AS con pictogramas (ASP). Para determinar el cambio en las variables sobre el impacto cognitivo y conductual de las advertencias, se estimaron modelos bivariados y ajustados de ecuaciones de estimación generalizada. En el Segundo levantamiento (2011), se estimaron modelos para determiner los factores que se asocian con el reporte de recordar cada advertencia que había entrado al mercado, además de los factores asociados con el autorreporte del impacto de cada advertencia vigente. Resultados Se observaron incrementos importantes de 2010 a 2011 en los conocimientos sobre los riesgos de fumar, los componentes tóxicos del tabaco y el número telefónico para recibir consejos sobre dejar de fumar. La recordación e impacto de las primeras advertencias con pictogramas parecen ser amplios y equitativos a través de la población fumadora. En comparación con 2010, un mayor nivel de ex fumadores entrevistados en 2011 reportaron que las advertencias habían influido mucho en dejar de fumar (RM=2.44, 95% IC 1.27–4.72). Conclusiones Las AS con pictogramas han logrado un impacto importante en el conocimiento y conducta, información relevante para la población y en tomadores de decisiones. PMID:22689162

  14. Las líneas de aluminio neutro como diagnóstico cromosférico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández Borda, R.; Mauas, P. J. D.

    Se presenta un modelo atómico para el cálculo de las lí neas del Aluminio neutro que se forman en la cromósfera solar. En particular, se estudia la línea λ 3961 Å, que, por estar muy próxima a la lí nea H del Ca II y a Hɛ es muy frecuentemente observada. Observaciones en esta lí nea obtenidas con el espectrógrafo a instalarse en el CASLEO, serán utilizadas para el estudio de fulguraciones solares.

  15. Overview of the land analysis system (LAS)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Quirk, Bruce K.; Olseson, Lyndon R.

    1987-01-01

    The Land Analysis System (LAS) is a fully integrated digital analysis system designed to support remote sensing, image processing, and geographic information systems research. LAS is being developed through a cooperative effort between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Goddard Space Flight Center and the U. S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation Systems (EROS) Data Center. LAS has over 275 analysis modules capable to performing input and output, radiometric correction, geometric registration, signal processing, logical operations, data transformation, classification, spatial analysis, nominal filtering, conversion between raster and vector data types, and display manipulation of image and ancillary data. LAS is currently implant using the Transportable Applications Executive (TAE). While TAE was designed primarily to be transportable, it still provides the necessary components for a standard user interface, terminal handling, input and output services, display management, and intersystem communications. With TAE the analyst uses the same interface to the processing modules regardless of the host computer or operating system. LAS was originally implemented at EROS on a Digital Equipment Corporation computer system under the Virtual Memorial System operating system with DeAnza displays and is presently being converted to run on a Gould Power Node and Sun workstation under the Berkeley System Distribution UNIX operating system.

  16. Effective and specific in planta RNAi in cyst nematodes: expression interference of four parasitism genes reduces parasitic success.

    PubMed

    Sindhu, Anoop S; Maier, Tom R; Mitchum, Melissa G; Hussey, Richard S; Davis, Eric L; Baum, Thomas J

    2009-01-01

    Cyst nematodes are highly evolved sedentary plant endoparasites that use parasitism proteins injected through the stylet into host tissues to successfully parasitize plants. These secretory proteins likely are essential for parasitism as they are involved in a variety of parasitic events leading to the establishment of specialized feeding cells required by the nematode to obtain nourishment. With the advent of RNA interference (RNAi) technology and the demonstration of host-induced gene silencing in parasites, a new strategy to control pests and pathogens has become available, particularly in root-knot nematodes. Plant host-induced silencing of cyst nematode genes so far has had only limited success but similarly should disrupt the parasitic cycle and render the host plant resistant. Additional in planta RNAi data for cyst nematodes are being provided by targeting four parasitism genes through host-induced RNAi gene silencing in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana, which is a host for the sugar beet cyst nematode Heterodera schachtii. Here it is reported that mRNA abundances of targeted nematode genes were specifically reduced in nematodes feeding on plants expressing corresponding RNAi constructs. Furthermore, this host-induced RNAi of all four nematode parasitism genes led to a reduction in the number of mature nematode females. Although no complete resistance was observed, the reduction of developing females ranged from 23% to 64% in different RNAi lines. These observations demonstrate the relevance of the targeted parasitism genes during the nematode life cycle and, potentially more importantly, suggest that a viable level of resistance in crop plants may be accomplished in the future using this technology against cyst nematodes.

  17. Barcoding the kingdom Plantae: new PCR primers for ITS regions of plants with improved universality and specificity.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Tao; Xu, Chao; Lei, Li; Li, Changhao; Zhang, Yu; Zhou, Shiliang

    2016-01-01

    The internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of nuclear ribosomal DNA is one of the most commonly used DNA markers in plant phylogenetic and DNA barcoding analyses, and it has been recommended as a core plant DNA barcode. Despite this popularity, the universality and specificity of PCR primers for the ITS region are not satisfactory, resulting in amplification and sequencing difficulties. By thoroughly surveying and analysing the 18S, 5.8S and 26S sequences of Plantae and Fungi from GenBank, we designed new universal and plant-specific PCR primers for amplifying the whole ITS region and a part of it (ITS1 or ITS2) of plants. In silico analyses of the new and the existing ITS primers based on these highly representative data sets indicated that (i) the newly designed universal primers are suitable for over 95% of plants in most groups; and (ii) the plant-specific primers are suitable for over 85% of plants in most groups without amplification of fungi. A total of 335 samples from 219 angiosperm families, 11 gymnosperm families, 24 fern and lycophyte families, 16 moss families and 17 fungus families were used to test the performances of these primers. In vitro PCR produced similar results to those from the in silico analyses. Our new primer pairs gave PCR improvements up to 30% compared with common-used ones. The new universal ITS primers will find wide application in both plant and fungal biology, and the new plant-specific ITS primers will, by eliminating PCR amplification of nonplant templates, significantly improve the quality of ITS sequence information collections in plant molecular systematics and DNA barcoding.

  18. Abundancias químicas de las estrellas CP del grupo HgMn μ Leporis y 53 Tauri. II. Boro, Berilio, Carbono, Magnesio, Aluminio y Silicio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López García, Z.; Malaroda, S. M.; Faraggiana, R.

    Se determinan las abundancias químicas de los elementos más livianos presentes en dos estrellas CP del grupo HgMn, μ Lep y 53 Tau, utilizando espectros IUE de alta resolución y técnicas de cálculo de espectros sintéticos. Para el cálculo de las líneas se utiliza la lista mas completa de datos atómicos disponible y el programa SYNTHE. Para el cálculo de la abundancia de un elemento se comparan, para cada imagen, los perfiles observados del mayor número de líneas presentes con los perfiles calculados obtenidos por variación de las abundancias iniciales, reteniendo la abundancia para la cual el acuerdo entre las líneas observadas y calculadas es considerado visualmente el mejor. Los resultados obtenidos son comparados con los estimados por la teoría de la difusión.

  19. Variaciones seculares de período en las RR Lyrae de ω~Centauri

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marraco, H. G.; Milesi, G. E.

    Utilizando 689 observaciones de 35 estrellas RR Lyrae del cúmulo globular ω Centauri hemos obtenido nuevas determinaciones de sus períodos y sus correspondientes variaciones seculares. Las observaciones fueron obtenidas de la literatura con la excepción de un grupo 66 determinaciones que se presentan por vez primera aquí. Utilizando el parámetro testigo σ descripto en Marraco & Muzzio (Publ. Astron. Soc. Pacific 92, 700, 1980), hemos realizado un ajuste bidimensional en P y β (donde β es la variación secular del período). Con este fin la totalidad de las 689 observaciones fueron llevadas a un sistema fotométrico común. Para esto se realizó un cuidadoso análisis de los numerosos errores en la identificación de las estrellas de las series de comparación. Los resultados de los ajustes bidimensionales fueron analizados utilizando técnicas de procesamiento de imágenes. Con este fin el parámetro de ajuste σ fue representado como función de P y β. En las imágenes resultantes se buscaron los mínimos y al menor de ellos se lo aceptó como período instantáneo verdadero y su variación secular β. La determinación precisa de cada parámetro se realizó mediante ajuste de gaussianas y se determinaron sus errores. A modo de ejemplo la variable #8 fue analizada en una matriz de 501 × 501 elementos representando el parámetro σ para valores comprendidos entre 0,521034 < P < 0,521534 dias y -150×10-10 < β < +150×10-10 dias/dia. El mejor período instantáneo (correspondiente a la época DJ=2.426.908) y su variación secular son P = 0,5212859±0,0000001 días y β 14,012±,010×10-10 días/día respectivamente. Con estos valores el parámetro testigo resulta σ= 0,127 . Si no se tiene en cuenta la variación secular del período y se busca aquél de mejor ajuste para β = 0, se obtiene P = 0,5212960 días, pero entonces el parámetro de ajuste resulta tan alto como σ = 0,23 .

  20. Como Promover el Exito de las Ninas y las Minorias en las Ciencias y en las Matematicas. Para Padres/sobre Padres (How To Promote the Science and Mathematics Achievement of Females and Minorities. For Parents/about Parents).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Wendy

    Some minority and female students traditionally have not been given the help they need to enroll and succeed in mathematics and science classes. Now, however, various approaches are available to give these students the extra attention they need. Parents can help children develop an interest in science and mathematics by: (1) identifying role…

  1. Requirement of the galU Gene for Polysaccharide Production by and Pathogenicity and Growth In Planta of Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri▿

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yinping; Sagaram, Uma Shankar; Kim, Jeong-soon; Wang, Nian

    2010-01-01

    Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri is the causal agent of citrus canker, which has a significant impact on citrus production. In this study, we characterized the galU gene of X. citri subsp. citri. Two galU mutants (F6 and D12) were identified in an X. citri subsp. citri EZ-Tn5 Tnp transposon library. Rescue cloning, sequence analysis, and Southern blot analysis indicated that both of these mutants had a single copy of the EZ-Tn5 transposon inserted in galU in the chromosome. Further study showed that galU was required for biosynthesis of extracellular polysaccharides (EPS; xanthan gum) and capsular polysaccharide (CPS) and biofilm formation. Mutation of galU resulted in a loss of pathogenicity for grapefruit. The loss of pathogenicity of a galU mutant resulted from its inability to grow in planta rather than from the effect on virulence genes. Quantitative reverse transcription-PCR assays indicated that mutation of galU did not impair the expression of key virulence genes, such as pthA of X. citri subsp. citri. Although D12 had a growth rate similar to that of the wild-type strain in nutrient broth, no D12 population became established in the intercellular spaces of citrus leaves. Coinoculation of a galU mutant with the wild-type strain did not promote growth of the galU mutant in planta. Defects in EPS and CPS production, pathogenicity, and growth in planta of the galU mutant were complemented to the wild-type level using plasmid pCGU2.1 containing an intact galU gene. These data indicate that the galU gene contributes to X. citri subsp. citri growth in intercellular spaces and is involved in EPS and CPS synthesis and biofilm formation. PMID:20118360

  2. Etnografía acelerada para transformar normas sociales sobre género y sexualidad en hombres puertorriqueños heterosexuales1,2

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz-Torres, Blanca; Rivera-Ortiz, Rafael J.; Mendoza, Sigrid

    2014-01-01

    Resumen La construcción de roles de género dominantes contribuyen al riesgo de contraer VIH, y por tal razón se ha urgido a que se integren las normas sociales relativas al género en las intervenciones preventivas del VIH. Este estudio pretende adaptar y desarrollar una intervención que facilite la transformación de normas sociales del género y de prácticas sexuales en hombres puertorriqueños. La intervención propone transformar normas sociales relacionadas al género y sexualidad en barras comunitarias utilizando el modelo de líderes de opinión. Luego de ser elegidos/as, los/as líderes de opinión diseminan mensajes integrando la importancia de relaciones equitativas entre parejas para la prevención del VIH. La primera fase de esta intervención es discutida en este artículo, la cual incluye un proceso de etnografía acelerada para identificar los escenarios comunitarios en los que podemos desarrollar esta intervención y permitirnos entender la cultura de las barras comunitarias. A partir de las observaciones etnográficas, pudimos: desarrollar un protocolo de seguridad para realizar las observaciones, desarrollar un perfil de la cultura de las barras, elegir las barras a participar en las dos condiciones del estudio y adaptar los instrumentos de la intervención para que respondieran a la particularidad de los/as participantes. PMID:25530828

  3. Modelizacion, control e implementacion de un procesador energetico paralelo para aplicacion en sistemas multisalida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreres Sabater, Agustin

    Cualquier sistema electronico que incluya un procesado o tratamiento de la senal, y ademas, algun tipo de actuador mecanico generalmente necesita, como minimo, dos tensiones diferentes de alimentacion. Excluyendo los sistemas de alimentacion distribuida, la solucion tecnica mas utilizada para proporcionar dos o mas tensiones consiste en las fuentes de alimentacion multisalida. En una fuente de alimentacion multisalida los diferentes circuitos que conforman cada salida comparten un mismo transformador de potencia optimizando coste, masa, y volumen. Las ventajas obtenidas con este procedimiento tienen en su contra el efecto que sobre cada salida individual provocan las demas en su conjunto debido, principalmente, a los efectos de los elementos parasitos de los componentes. Un cambio de carga en una de las salidas produce un transitorio que es visto por todas las demas como un efecto de impedancia cruzada, y al final del transitorio, la tension de cada salida es diferente respecto a la que tenian antes del transitorio. Este ultimo resultado se conoce como regulacion cruzada. La disminucion de los efectos de la regulacion cruzada ha sido objeto de estudio durante los ultimos anos. El objetivo ha sido el desarrollo de distintas estrategias que permiten, desde disminuir los efectos de la regulacion cruzada hasta los niveles deseables, a eliminarla completamente. El resultado final suele suponer una penalizacion sobre el diseno del sistema directamente proporcional al grado de regulacion a conseguir en las distintas salidas. Entre las soluciones propuestas para eliminar la regulacion cruzada las tecnicas de post-regulacion se han consolidado como la opcion mas aceptada ya que, pueden aplicarse a cualquier convertidor y no suponen ninguna complejidad adicional a la hora de plantear el diseno. En esta Tesis Doctoral se abordara el estudio de la tecnica conocida como postregulacion mediante transformador controlado, que si bien se ha empleado en convertidores resonantes, su

  4. Desarrollo de la Escala sobre el Estigma Relacionado con el VIH/SIDA para Profesionales de la Salud mediante el uso de métodos mixtos123

    PubMed Central

    Varas-Díaz, Nelson; Neilands, Torsten B.; Guilamo-Ramos, Vincent; Cintrón Bou, Francheska N.

    2009-01-01

    El estigma relacionado con el VIH/SIDA continúa siendo un obstáculo para la prevención primaria y secundaria del VIH. Las consecuencias para las personas que viven con la enfermedad han sido muy documentadas y continúan siendo una gran preocupación para las personas que proveen servicios de salud y para aquellas que investigan el tema. Estas consecuencias son preocupantes cuando el estigma emana de profesionales de la salud porque se puede limitar el acceso a los servicios. Uno de los principales obstáculos para la investigación del estigma relacionado con el VIH en Puerto Rico es la falta de instrumentos cuantitativos para evaluar las manifestaciones del estigma entre profesionales de la salud. El objetivo principal de este estudio fue desarrollar y probar las propiedades psicométricas de una escala sobre el estigma relacionado con el VIH/SIDA culturalmente apropiada para personas que proveen servicios de salud puertorriqueñas y desarrollar una versión corta de la escala que pudiera usarse en escenarios clínicos con tiempo limitado. El instrumento desarrollado estuvo basado en evidencia cualitativa recopilada entre profesionales y estudiantes de profesiones de la salud puertorriqueños/as (n=80) y administrado a una muestra de 421 profesionales de la salud en adiestramiento. La escala contenía 12 dimensiones del estigma relacionado con el VIH/SIDA. El análisis cuantitativo corroboró 11 de ellas, teniendo como resultado un instrumento con validez y confiabilidad satisfactoria. Estas dimensiones, a su vez, fueron subcomponentes de un factor de estigma general superior. PMID:20333258

  5. EPA orders City of North Las Vegas to safeguard Las Vegas Wash from potential water pollution

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    SAN FRANCISCO - The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency issued an order to the City of North Las Vegas to take immediate steps to address federal Clean Water Act violations. Deficiencies in the management of its wastewater pretreatment program have

  6. Mensaje para alumnos y padres

    NASA Video Gallery

    El astronauta de la NASA José Hernández alienta a los estudiantes a que sigan sus sueños. Hernández también habla acerca del papel que juegan los padres para ayudar a que sus hijos hagan realidad s...

  7. Autoguía para el telescopio 2,15 mts de CASLEO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aballay, J. A.; Casagrande, A. R.; Pereyra, P. F.; Marún, A. H.

    Se está desarrollando un sistema de autoguía para el telescopio de 2,15 mts. El mismo se realizará aprovechando el Offset Guider. Al ocular móvil de éste se vinculará alguna cámara digital (ST4-ST7-CH250) para lograr la visión del objeto. El funcionamiento del equipo será el siguiente: primero, dadas las coordenadas del objeto a observar, se tomarán las coordenadas del telescopio para que, a través de una base de datos, se determine un campo de objetos que sirvan para la cámara de visión, luego, la PC obtendrá el offset entre la estrella de observación y la estrella seleccionada como guía, este valor será trasladado a los motores que posicionarán en forma automática el ocular. Una vez que la estrella es visualizada en la cámara (monitor de PC ) se correrá el programa que guiará el telescopio automáticamente.

  8. PREVENCION DE VIH PARA MUJERES HISPANAS DE 50 AÑOS Y MÁS

    PubMed Central

    Villegas, N.; Cianelli, R.; Ferrer, L.; Kaelber, L.; Peragallo, N.; Yaya, Alexandra O.

    2012-01-01

    Introducción Las mujeres Hispanas de 50 años y más (MHC) son una minoría en Estados Unidos que está a elevado riesgo de adquirir VIH y son el grupo menos estudiado en lo que respecta a salud, características sociales y de comportamiento sexual. Objetivo Investigar los factores que incrementan el riesgo de VIH en las MHC con el propósito de desarrollar o adaptar una intervención apropiada para la “edad y la cultura "de este grupo de mujeres. Metodología Estudio descriptivo de corte transversal con una muestra de 50 MHC, sexualmente activas y que residían en Miami, Florida, Estados Unidos. Se utilizó un cuestionario estructurado administrado por entrevistadores entrenados y bilingües (inglés/español). Las participantes fueron reclutadas en diferentes lugares en el Sur de Florida. Para el análisis de los datos se utilizó estadística descriptiva, tanto medidas de tendencia central como medidas de dispersión. Resultados La edad promedio de las MHC fue de 55,7 ± 6 años (rango 50–76 años). Todas las MHC estaban en la menopausia. Prevención del VIH Las MHC reportaron niveles medios de conocimientos sobre VIH y comunicación con la pareja. En la muestra se reportó la presencia de síntomas depresivos, violencia en la pareja, actitudes negativas hacia las personas viviendo con VIH y baja percepción de riesgo de adquirir VIH. Las MHC mencionaron necesidades de aprendizaje en tópicos relacionados con prevención de VIH y cambios de la edad. Conclusión Las MHC están a riesgo de adquirir VIH y tienen necesidades especiales en términos de educación sobre prevención de VIH. PMID:25242862

  9. Mobilization of horizontally acquired island 2 is induced in planta in the phytopathogen Pectobacterium atrosepticum SCRI1043 and involves the putative relaxase ECA0613 and quorum sensing.

    PubMed

    Vanga, Bhanupratap R; Ramakrishnan, Pavithra; Butler, Ruth C; Toth, Ian K; Ronson, Clive W; Jacobs, Jeanne M E; Pitman, Andrew R

    2015-11-01

    Integrative and conjugative elements (ICEs) contribute to the rapid evolution of bacterial pathogens via horizontal gene transfer of virulence determinants. ICEs have common mechanisms for transmission, yet the cues triggering this process under natural environmental or physiological conditions are largely unknown. In this study, mobilization of the putative ICE horizontally acquired island 2 (HAI2), present in the chromosome of the phytopathogen Pectobacterium atrosepticum SCRI1043, was examined during infection of the host plant potato. Under these conditions, mobilization of HAI2 increased markedly compared with in vitro cultures. In planta-induced mobilization of HAI2 was regulated by quorum sensing and involved the putative ICE-encoded relaxase ECA0613. Disruption of ECA0613 also reduced transcription of genes involved in production of coronafacic acid (Cfa), the major virulence factor harboured on HAI2, whereas their expression was unaffected in the quorum-sensing (expI) mutant. Thus, suppression of cfa gene expression was not regulated by the mobilization of the ICE per se, but was due directly to inactivation of the relaxase. The identification of genetic factors associated solely with in planta mobilization of an ICE demonstrates that this process is highly adapted to the natural environment of the bacterial host and can influence the expression of virulence determinants.

  10. Violencia de Pareja en Mujeres Hispanas: Implicaciones para la Investigación y la Práctica

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Guarda, Rosa Maria; Becerra, Maria Mercedes

    2012-01-01

    Las investigaciones sobre la violencia entre parejas sugieren que las mujeres hispanas están siendo afectadas desproporcionadamente por la ocurrencia y consecuencias de este problema de salud pública. El objetivo del presente artículo es dar a conocer el estado del arte en relación a la epidemiologia, consecuencias y factores de riesgo para VP entre mujeres Hispanas, discutiendo las implicaciones para la investigación y la práctica. Investigaciones han demostrado una fuerte asociación del status socioeconómico, abuso de droga y el alcohol, la salud mental, aculturación, inmigración, comportamientos sexuales riesgosos e historia de abuso con la violencia entre parejas. Sin embargo, más estudios se deben llevar a cabo para identificar otros factores de riesgos y de protección a poblaciones hispanas no clínicas. Mientras que el conocimiento sobre la etiología de la VP entre mujeres Hispanas se expanda, enfermeras y otros profesionales de la salud deben desarrollar, implementar y evaluar estrategias culturalmente adecuadas para la prevención primaria y secundaria de la violencia entre pareja. PMID:26166938

  11. Conceptuaciones de los estudiantes de las facultades de educacion y ciencias naturales de la Universidad de Puerto Rico, recinto de Rio Piedras, acerca de la ciencia y la pseudociencia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyes Medina, Hector A.

    Esta investigacion describe las conceptuaciones de los estudiantes de tercer ano o mas a nivel de bachillerato de los programas de Educacion en Ciencia y Ciencias Naturales de la Universidad de Puerto Rico, Recinto de Rio Piedras, acerca de lo establecido en la literatura para distinguir el conocimiento cientifico de las creencias pseudocientificas. Este estudio se guio por un diseno tipo encuesta transversal que permitio conocer de manera consistente las conceptuaciones de los estudiantes encuestados acerca de la Ciencia y la Pseudociencia. Ademas, permitio desarrollar inferencias estadisticas relacionadas a la poblacion de estudio, sus conceptuaciones y su inclinacion teorica en torno al Realismo y al Racionalismo cientifico moderados. El instrumento utilizado fue el Cuestionario acerca de las concepciones de la ciencia y la pseudocienca en estudiantes universitarios, Reyes (2015). Este cuestionario fue validado mediante la recopilacion de diversas fuentes de evidencias, entre estas se encuentran las evidencias basadas en el contenido, el proceso de respuesta, la estructura interna y de constructo. Tambien, se calculo el Alfa de Crombach para la escala total y para cada componente y se realizo un analisis de factores que demostro la presencia de seis componentes claramente definidos de acuerdo a lo esperado sobre las caracteristicas originales del instrumento. Las estadisticas utilizadas fueron descriptivas. Participaron 302 alumnos, de las facultades de educacion y ciencias naturales. Se encontro que las conceptuaciones de los estudiantes de ambas facultades se inclinan en un 66.2% a favor con lo establecido en el modelo teorico en torno al Realismo y al Racionalismo cientifico moderados. Sin embargo, aun hay un 33.8% de los estudiantes de ambas facultades que poseen conceptuaciones distintas al modelo teorico propuesto.

  12. LANDSCAPE CHANGE OF THE LAS VEGAS VALLEY, 1972 TO 1998

    EPA Science Inventory

    Las Vegas has become one of the fastest growing metropolitan areas in the United States. The cities population has doubled from 1980 to 1994 and in 1995 Las Vegas has surpassed the one million mark. The population of Las Vegas is currently growing at a rate of 7 percent annually....

  13. Precisión de las velocidades radiales obtenidas con el REOSC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, J. F.; Lapasset, E.

    Complementando una línea de trabajo iniciada con anterioridad discutimos la estabilidad del espectrógrafo REOSC de CASLEO en DC para la medición de velocidades radiales en base al análisis de observaciones realizadas en enero y abril de 1997. En esas oportunidades obtuvimos 26 espectros de estrellas patrones y 27 espectros de 3 estrellas usadas como estrellas de referencia en nuestro programa de cúmulos abiertos. Además tomamos 26 espectros de crepúsculo con el telescopio en posiciones cubriendo el rango H=-4,+4 y δ =-90,+30. Mediante correlaciones cruzadas derivamos la velocidad de 19 órdenes en cada uno de estos espectros. En base a un análisis estadístico de los datos obtenidos discutimos la contribución de los distintos factores que afectan a la dispersión de lectura observada. En particular, la flexión del instrumento no introduciría errores significativos cuando se observa con masas de aire menores que 2.0. La dispersión de los valores de velocidad medidos para espectros de alta relación S/N de una misma estrella resultó del orden de 0.5 km/s. La comparación con los valores de velocidad publicados por distintos autores para las estrellas patrones no permite distinguir ninguna diferencia sistemática apreciable de las velocidades de CASLEO, siendo la media cuadrática de los residuos del orden de 1.0 km/s.

  14. RNA-Seq Revealed Differences in Transcriptomes between 3ADON and 15ADON Populations of Fusarium graminearum In Vitro and In Planta

    PubMed Central

    Puri, Krishna D.; Yan, Changhui; Leng, Yueqiang

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium graminearum is the major causal agent of Fusarium head blight (FHB) in barley and wheat in North America. The fungus not only causes yield loss of the crops but also produces harmful trichothecene mycotoxins [Deoxynivalenol (DON) and its derivatives-3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3ADON) and 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol (15ADON), and nivalenol (NIV)] that contaminate grains. Previous studies showed a dramatic increase of 3ADON-producing isolates with higher aggressiveness and DON production than the 15ADON-producing isolates in North America. However, the genetic and molecular basis of differences between the two types of isolates is unclear. In this study, we compared transcriptomes of the 3ADON and 15ADON isolates in vitro (in culture media) and in planta (during infection on the susceptible wheat cultivar ‘Briggs’) using RNA-sequencing. The in vitro gene expression comparison identified 479 up-regulated and 801 down-regulated genes in the 3ADON isolates; the up-regulated genes were mainly involved in C-compound and carbohydrate metabolism (18.6%), polysaccharide metabolism (7.7%) or were of unknown functions (57.6%). The in planta gene expression analysis revealed that 185, 89, and 62 genes were up-regulated in the 3ADON population at 48, 96, and 144 hours after inoculation (HAI), respectively. The up-regulated genes were significantly enriched in functions for cellular import, C-compound and carbohydrate metabolism, allantoin and allantoate transport at 48 HAI, for detoxification and virulence at 96 HAI, and for metabolism of acetic acid derivatives, detoxification, and cellular import at 144 HAI. Comparative analyses of in planta versus in vitro gene expression further revealed 2,159, 1,981 and 2,095 genes up-regulated in the 3ADON isolates, and 2,415, 2,059 and 1,777 genes up-regulated in the 15ADON isolates at the three time points after inoculation. Collectively, our data provides a foundation for further understanding of molecular mechanisms involved in

  15. Resource Conservation and a Sustainable Las Vegas

    SciTech Connect

    Piechota, Thomas C.

    2014-05-15

    This research project developed educational, research, and outreach activities that addressed the challenges of Las Vegas as related to a secure energy supply through conservation, clean and adequate water supply, economic growth and diversification, air quality, and the best use of land, and usable public places. This was part of the UNLV Urban Sustainability Initiative (USI) that responded to a community and state need where a unifying vision of sustainability was developed in a cost-effective manner that promoted formal working partnerships between government, community groups, and industry.

  16. Use of attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR FT-IR) spectroscopy in direct, non-destructive, and rapid assessment of developmental cotton fibers grown in planta and in culture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton fibers are routinely harvested from cotton plants (in planta), and their end-use qualities depend on their development stages. Cotton fibers are also cultured at controlled laboratory environments, so that cotton researchers can investigate many aspects of experimental protocols in cotton bre...

  17. INTERVENCIÓN EDUCATIVA EFECTIVA EN VIH PARA MUJERES

    PubMed Central

    Miner, Sarah; Poupin, Lauren; Bernales, Margarita; Ferrer, Lilian; Cianelli, Rosina

    2016-01-01

    RESUMEN En Chile se estima que aproximadamente 38 mil personas viven con el Virus de Inmunodeficiencia Humana [VIH]. En el año 2001, 1.092 mujeres chilenas vivían con VIH, actualmente se cree que hay más de 7.600 mujeres con el virus. Frente a estas cifras surge la necesidad de crear estrategias de prevención dirigidas a mujeres chilenas. Objetivo analizar los estudios ya realizados en la prevención de VIH para determinar qué aspectos se deben incluir en programas exitosos de prevención de VIH en mujeres. Diseño y Método se realizó una revisión de la literatura utilizando la base de datos Proquest, CINAHL, Pubmed y Scielo. Los límites comprendieron: textos completos, de los últimos 10 años, de acceso gratuito y escrito en español o inglés. Se seleccionaron 15 artículos para la revisión. Resultados todos los artículos comprenden la evaluación del efecto de una intervención sobre conocimiento y conductas relacionadas con VIH/SIDA. Catorce muestran resultados significativos en cambios positivos de conducta o conocimientos relacionados con la prevención de VIH. Conclusiones los programas de prevención de VIH en mujeres pueden ser efectivos para lograr cambios de conducta y de conocimiento. Las intervenciones exitosas son aquellas basadas en teorías o modelos de prevención y en cambios de conductas, todas adaptadas a la cultura de la población estudiada. PMID:27667897

  18. Sistemas Correctores de Campo Para EL Telescopio Ritchey-Chretien UNAM212

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cobos, F. J.; Galan, M. J.

    1987-05-01

    El telescopio UNAM2l2 fue inaugurado hace siete años y concebido para trabajar en las razones focales: f/7.5, F/13.5, F/27 y F/98. El diseño Ritchey-Chretién corresponde a la razón focal F/7.5 y el foco primario (F/2.286) no se consideró como utilizable para fotografía directa. En el Instituto de Astronomía de la UNAM, se diseñó y construyó un sistema corrector de campo para la razón focal F/7.5, que actualmente está en funcionamiento. Dentro de un programa de colaboración en diseflo y evaluación de sistemas ópticos, entre el Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias y el Instituto de Astronomía de la UNAM, decidimos intentar el diseño de una correctora de campo para el foco primario del tȩlescopio UNAM212 bajo la consideración de que no son insalvables los problemas que implicaría su instalación y de que es muy posible que, en un futuro relativamente cercano, podamom tener un detector bidimenmional tipo Mepsicrón cuya área sensible haga tentadora la idea de construir la cámara directa para foco primario

  19. Forward genetic in planta screen for identification of plant-protective traits of Sphingomonas sp. strain Fr1 against Pseudomonas syringae DC3000.

    PubMed

    Vogel, Christine; Innerebner, Gerd; Zingg, Judith; Guder, Jan; Vorholt, Julia A

    2012-08-01

    Sphingomonas sp. strain Fr1 has recently been shown to protect Arabidopsis thaliana against the bacterial leaf pathogen Pseudomonas syringae DC3000. Here, we describe a forward genetic in planta screen to identify genes in Sphingomonas sp. Fr1 necessary for this effect. About 5,000 Sphingomonas sp. Fr1 mini-Tn5 mutants were assayed for a defect in plant protection against a luxCDABE-tagged P. syringae DC3000 derivative in a space-saving 24-well plate system. The bioluminescence of the pathogen was used as the indicator of pathogen proliferation and allowed for the identification of Sphingomonas sp. Fr1 mutants that had lost the ability to restrict pathogen growth before disease symptoms were visible. Potential candidates were validated using the same miniaturized experimental system. Of these mutants, 10 were confirmed as plant protection defective yet colonization competent. The mutants were subsequently evaluated in a previously described standard microbox system, and plants showed enhanced disease phenotypes after pathogen infection relative to those inoculated with the parental strain as a control. However, the disease severities were lower than those observed for control plants that were grown axenically prior to pathogen challenge, which suggests that several traits may contribute to plant protection. Transposon insertion sites of validated mutants with defects in plant protection were determined and mapped to 7 distinct genomic regions. In conclusion, the established screening protocol allowed us to identify mutations that affect plant protection, and it opens the possibility to uncover traits important for in planta microbe-microbe interactions.

  20. The Small Subunit of Snapdragon Geranyl Diphosphate Synthase Modifies the Chain Length Specificity of Tobacco Geranylgeranyl Diphosphate Synthase in Planta[W

    PubMed Central

    Orlova, Irina; Nagegowda, Dinesh A.; Kish, Christine M.; Gutensohn, Michael; Maeda, Hiroshi; Varbanova, Marina; Fridman, Eyal; Yamaguchi, Shinjiro; Hanada, Atsushi; Kamiya, Yuji; Krichevsky, Alexander; Citovsky, Vitaly; Pichersky, Eran; Dudareva, Natalia

    2009-01-01

    Geranyl diphosphate (GPP), the precursor of many monoterpene end products, is synthesized in plastids by a condensation of dimethylallyl diphosphate and isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) in a reaction catalyzed by homodimeric or heterodimeric GPP synthase (GPPS). In the heterodimeric enzymes, a noncatalytic small subunit (GPPS.SSU) determines the product specificity of the catalytic large subunit, which may be either an active geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase (GGPPS) or an inactive GGPPS-like protein. Here, we show that expression of snapdragon (Antirrhinum majus) GPPS.SSU in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants increased the total GPPS activity and monoterpene emission from leaves and flowers, indicating that the introduced catalytically inactive GPPS.SSU found endogenous large subunit partner(s) and formed an active snapdragon/tobacco GPPS in planta. Bimolecular fluorescence complementation and in vitro enzyme analysis of individual and hybrid proteins revealed that two of four GGPPS-like candidates from tobacco EST databases encode bona fide GGPPS that can interact with snapdragon GPPS.SSU and form a functional GPPS enzyme in plastids. The formation of chimeric GPPS in transgenic plants also resulted in leaf chlorosis, increased light sensitivity, and dwarfism due to decreased levels of chlorophylls, carotenoids, and gibberellins. In addition, these transgenic plants had reduced levels of sesquiterpene emission, suggesting that the export of isoprenoid intermediates from the plastids into the cytosol was decreased. These results provide genetic evidence that GPPS.SSU modifies the chain length specificity of phylogenetically distant GGPPS and can modulate IPP flux distribution between GPP and GGPP synthesis in planta. PMID:20028839

  1. Transient Expression of Secretory IgA In Planta is Optimal Using a Multi-Gene Vector and may be Further Enhanced by Improving Joining Chain Incorporation

    PubMed Central

    Westerhof, Lotte B.; Wilbers, Ruud H. P.; van Raaij, Debbie R.; van Wijk, Christina Z.; Goverse, Aska; Bakker, Jaap; Schots, Arjen

    2016-01-01

    Secretory IgA (sIgA) is a crucial antibody in host defense at mucosal surfaces. It is a promising antibody isotype in a variety of therapeutic settings such as passive vaccination and treatment of inflammatory disorders. However, heterologous production of this heteromultimeric protein complex is still suboptimal. The challenge is the coordinate expression of the four required polypeptides; the alpha heavy chain, the light chain, the joining chain, and part of the polymeric-Ig-receptor called the secretory component, in a 4:4:1:1 ratio. We evaluated the transient expression of three sIgAκ variants, harboring the heavy chain isotype α1, α2m1, or α2m2, of the clinical antibody Ustekinumab in planta. Ustekinumab is directed against the p40 subunit that is shared by the pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-12 and IL-23. A sIgA variant of this antibody may enable localized treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. Of the three different sIgA variants we obtained the highest yield with sIgA1κ reaching up to 373 μg sIgA/mg total soluble protein. The use of a multi-cassette vector containing all four expression cassettes was most efficient. However, not the expression strategy, but the incorporation of the joining chain turned out to be the limiting step for sIgA production. Our data demonstrate that transient expression in planta is suitable for the economic production of heteromultimeric protein complexes such as sIgA. PMID:26793201

  2. Forward Genetic In Planta Screen for Identification of Plant-Protective Traits of Sphingomonas sp. Strain Fr1 against Pseudomonas syringae DC3000

    PubMed Central

    Vogel, Christine; Innerebner, Gerd; Zingg, Judith; Guder, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Sphingomonas sp. strain Fr1 has recently been shown to protect Arabidopsis thaliana against the bacterial leaf pathogen Pseudomonas syringae DC3000. Here, we describe a forward genetic in planta screen to identify genes in Sphingomonas sp. Fr1 necessary for this effect. About 5,000 Sphingomonas sp. Fr1 mini-Tn5 mutants were assayed for a defect in plant protection against a luxCDABE-tagged P. syringae DC3000 derivative in a space-saving 24-well plate system. The bioluminescence of the pathogen was used as the indicator of pathogen proliferation and allowed for the identification of Sphingomonas sp. Fr1 mutants that had lost the ability to restrict pathogen growth before disease symptoms were visible. Potential candidates were validated using the same miniaturized experimental system. Of these mutants, 10 were confirmed as plant protection defective yet colonization competent. The mutants were subsequently evaluated in a previously described standard microbox system, and plants showed enhanced disease phenotypes after pathogen infection relative to those inoculated with the parental strain as a control. However, the disease severities were lower than those observed for control plants that were grown axenically prior to pathogen challenge, which suggests that several traits may contribute to plant protection. Transposon insertion sites of validated mutants with defects in plant protection were determined and mapped to 7 distinct genomic regions. In conclusion, the established screening protocol allowed us to identify mutations that affect plant protection, and it opens the possibility to uncover traits important for in planta microbe-microbe interactions. PMID:22660707

  3. Atlas de aves: Un metodo para documentar distribucion y seguir poblaciones

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robbins, C.S.; Dowell, B.A.; Dawson, D.K.; Alvarez-Lopez, Humberto; Kattan, Gustavo; Murcia, Carolina

    1988-01-01

    Los Atlas de Aves son proyectos nacionales o regionalies para trazar en mapas la distribucion en reproduccion de cada especie de ave. Ese procedimiento se esta usando en Europa, Australia, Nueva Zelanda, Norteamerica, y partes de Africa. El tama?o de los cuadrados varia de medio grado de latitud y Iongitud hasta 5 x 5 km. El trabajo de campo de cada proyecto exige aproxlmadamente cinco a?os, pero los aficionados pueden llevar a cabo la mayor parte del trabajo. Es posible almacenar los resultados en un computador personal. Hay muchos beneficios: (I) se presenta la distribucion corriente de las aves de la nacion, del estado, o de la Iocalidad; (2) se desarrolla nueva informacion especialmente sobre especies raras o en peligro; (3) se descubren areas que tienen una avlfauna sobresaliente o habitats raros y ayuda a su proteccion, (4) se documentan cambios de dlstribucion; (5) se pueden usar para documentar cambios de poblacion, especialmente en los tropicos donde otros metodos son mas dificiles de usar porque hay muchas especies y no hay muchos observadores calificados en la identificacion de sonidos de las aves; (6) son proyectos buenos de investigacion para estudiantes graduados; (7) los turistas y los jefes de excursiones de historia natural pueden contribuir con muchas informaciones

  4. Bases para la elaboracion de unidades didacticas de calidad en el area de ciencias (Fisica y Quimica 3 deg ESO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maccioni, Elena Lucia

    Este Trabajo Fin de Master tiene como objeto, el estudio previo de la educacion de la ciencia en la actualidad y mas destacable, del diseno de las unidades didacticas segun las metodologias mas frecuentes aplicadas por los diferentes sistemas educativos en el area de las Ciencias teniendo en cuenta la importancia y el efecto de la psicologia del alumnado y todo ello como no puede ser de otro modo bajo el corse de la Legislacion aplicable, Estatal, Autonomica y europea. Con estos antecedentes, se extrae cuales son las preguntas que deben contestarse en la elaboracion de una unidad didactica de calidad en el contexto, generacional (edad y sexo), del Proyecto Educativo de Centro, y de la Programacion del Departamento, discutiendo y justificando cada uno de los apartados en que estructuradamente dividiremos dicha Unidad, con un formato manejable, util, y dinamico en el tiempo que sea un verdadero instrumento educativo de aula. Teniendo en cuenta estas premisas, se procede a hacer una recopilacion de una misma unidad didactica publicada por diferentes editoriales, elegidas no al azar, sino en funcion de su penetracion editorial en nuestros centros de ESO, siendo las elegidas (SM y Oxford). Las diferentes unidades seleccionadas son analizadas de forma critica, atendiendo a los criterios generales de calidad bajo parametros cientificos y normativos, concluyendo con la aportacion final que es la redaccion de unas pautas cientifico-pedagogicas, para redactar unidades didacticas de calidad en el area de la Ciencias, en concreto en la Asignatura de Fisica y Quimica de 3º de ESO.

  5. Desarrollo de un instrumento para medir percepciones sobre el contexto de construccion del conocimiento cientifico de estudiantes universitarios de nuevo ingreso

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Ramirez, Jaime Antonio

    En esta investigacion, se desarrollo un instrumento que permite medir percepciones relacionadas al contexto de constriccion del conocimiento cientifico. Se examinaron instrumentos existentes y se encontro que el VOSTS (Views on science, technology, and society), instrumento desarrollado empiricamente en Canada por Aikenhead, Ryan y Fleming, podia traducirse y validarse en el contexto cultural puertorriqueno. El instrumento es extenso, consta de 113 reactivos, cada uno con una premisa basica relacionada a la tematica ciencia, tecnologia y sociedad y un numero de alternativas relacionadas a la premisa que oscila entre siete y trece. Se delimito su utilizacion a los quince reactivos identificados por los autores como relacionados a la construccion social del conocimiento cientifico. Metodologicamente, se procedio a utilizar el modelo de adaptacion intercultural, que permite que el instrumento desarrollado satisfaga las dimensiones de equivalencia semantica, de contenido, tecnica, de criterio y conceptual, atemperado asi al instrumento original. Se cumplio con este proposito mediante la traduccion de la version original en ingles al espanol y viceversa. Se utilizaron comites para examinar la traduccion y la retro-traduccion del instrumento. Se realizo una prueba piloto con estudiantes universitarios de nuevo ingreso, utilizando el instrumento traducido para asegurar su intelegibilidad. La confiabilidad del instrumento se determino mediante la intervencion de un panel de expertos quienes clasificaron las distintas posiciones dentro de cada reactivo en: realista, con merito e ingenua; se transformaron estas opciones en valores numericos lo que permitio establecer una escala Likert para cada una. Se suministro el instrumento a una muestra de estudiantes universitarios de nuevo ingreso con caracteristicas similares a las de la poblacion puertorriquena en cuanto a ejecucion en las pruebas de aptitud verbal y matematica del College Board. Los resultados de sus contestaciones

  6. DISYUNTIVAS EN LAS CONCEPCIONES SOBRE AUTONOMÍA Y BENEFICENCIA QUE AFECTAN LA TERAPÉUTICA DEL INTENTO SUICIDA1

    PubMed Central

    Mondragón, Liliana; Monroy, Zuraya; Ito, Ma. Emily; Medina-Mora, Dra. Ma. Elena

    2010-01-01

    El objetivo del trabajo es conocer las disyuntivas entre los principios de beneficencia y autonomía, que se presentan en la relación médico-paciente, durante la terapéutica del intento de suicidio. La investigación se realizó en dos hospitales psiquiátricos de la Ciudad de México. La muestra incluyó a tres sujetos con intento de suicidio, mayores de 18 años, que eran atendidos en consulta externa a causa de una lesión autoinfligida en el último año, y a tres psiquiatras que trataban a estos pacientes. La información se obtuvo previo consentimiento informado en entrevistas individuales. Se llevó a cabo un análisis de discurso argumentado para encontrar los significados que los participantes otorgaron a los principios bioéticos y las posibles disyuntivas entre éstos. Las discordancias entre la beneficencia y la autonomía estuvieron relacionadas con el beneficio del tratamiento, el respeto por los valores y las creencias de los pacientes, entre otros. Este trabajo presenta consideraciones éticas relevantes en el escenario clínico, al ofrecer al psiquiatra un análisis bioético que le permita actuar de acuerdo con la beneficencia y respetando la autonomía del paciente frente a casos de intento de suicidio y, de esta forma procurar una mejor atención para ellos. PMID:20830214

  7. DISYUNTIVAS EN LAS CONCEPCIONES SOBRE AUTONOMÍA Y BENEFICENCIA QUE AFECTAN LA TERAPÉUTICA DEL INTENTO SUICIDA.

    PubMed

    Mondragón, Liliana; Monroy, Zuraya; Ito, Ma Emily; Medina-Mora, Dra Ma Elena

    2010-06-01

    El objetivo del trabajo es conocer las disyuntivas entre los principios de beneficencia y autonomía, que se presentan en la relación médico-paciente, durante la terapéutica del intento de suicidio.La investigación se realizó en dos hospitales psiquiátricos de la Ciudad de México. La muestra incluyó a tres sujetos con intento de suicidio, mayores de 18 años, que eran atendidos en consulta externa a causa de una lesión autoinfligida en el último año, y a tres psiquiatras que trataban a estos pacientes. La información se obtuvo previo consentimiento informado en entrevistas individuales. Se llevó a cabo un análisis de discurso argumentado para encontrar los significados que los participantes otorgaron a los principios bioéticos y las posibles disyuntivas entre éstos.Las discordancias entre la beneficencia y la autonomía estuvieron relacionadas con el beneficio del tratamiento, el respeto por los valores y las creencias de los pacientes, entre otros. Este trabajo presenta consideraciones éticas relevantes en el escenario clínico, al ofrecer al psiquiatra un análisis bioético que le permita actuar de acuerdo con la beneficencia y respetando la autonomía del paciente frente a casos de intento de suicidio y, de esta forma procurar una mejor atención para ellos.

  8. Cómo aumentar la actividad física de los niños durante el período del recreo en las escuelas

    PubMed Central

    Ludwig, David

    2014-01-01

    Objetivos. Analizamos si la participación de las escuelas en el Programa de Mejoramiento del Recreo (PMR) en la primavera del año 2011 estuvo asociada a tasas más altas de actividad física intensa en los niños. Métodos. En el PMR, un coordinador dirige a los niños para que practiquen juegos adecuados para la edad a fin de aumentar su nivel de actividad física. Durante el recreo en 25 escuelas primarias públicas de la ciudad de Nueva York (15 participantes en el PMR, 10 no participantes en el PMR) los investigadores observaron algunas áreas predeterminadas (n = 1 339 observaciones) y registraron el número de niños que estaban sedentarios, caminando o muy activos. Resultados. Tras el análisis estadístico con múltiples variables se encontró que la participación en el PMR era una variable predictiva significativa (P = 0,027) de la tasa de actividad física intensa (porcentaje de niños muy activos en las áreas de observación) cuyas medias de los mínimos cuadrados fueron de 41% en las escuelas participantes en el PMR y de 27% en escuelas no participantes en el PMR. En las escuelas participantes en el PMR se siguió registrando una tasa significativamente superior incluso cuando el coordinador de juegos no estaba en el área de observación, lo que sugiere un cambio en la cultura del recreo en las escuelas que participan en este programa. Conclusiones. La tasa de actividad física intensa en las escuelas participantes en el PMR fue 14 puntos porcentuales (o 52%) superior a la tasa registrada en las escuelas no participantes en el PMR. Esta intervención de bajo costo podría ser un agregado valioso a las herramientas para combatir la obesidad infantil y podría valer la pena reproducirla en otros sitios. PMID:24899455

  9. Pick and Choose: A Videotape Series on Nutrition for Migrant Families (Coja y Escoja: Peliculas para Television Sobre la Nutricion para las Familias Migratorias).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1979

    One of the major problems faced by migrant workers throughout the United States is a lack of awareness of the relationship between proper diet and an individual's general health and well being. To help solve this problem was the major objective of the series "Pick and Choose." The three 15-minute programs in the series present…

  10. Aceptabilidad del diagnóstico rápido casero para HIV entre hombres gay y otros hombres que tienen sexo con hombres (G&HSH) de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires.

    PubMed

    Balán, Iván C; Carballo-Diéguez, Alex; Marone, Rubén O; Pando, María A; Barreda, Victoria; Avila, María M

    2011-03-01

    El uso del diagnóstico rápido para HIV en Argentina, así como otros países de Latinoamérica, ha sido limitado hasta el momento. Este trabajo reporta los resultados provenientes de un estudio cualitativo realizado entre hombres gays y otros hombres que tienen sexo con hombres (G&HSH) de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires, Argentina. El objetivo principal del mismo fue conocer las ventajas y desventajas que los hombres G&HSH perciben en relación al diagnóstico rápido casero para HIV. Se realizaron ocho grupos focales con 73 participantes en los cuales se discutió acerca de las ventajas y desventajas del uso de los diagnósticos rápidos. Las respuestas fueron codificadas utilizando un programa para análisis de datos cualitativos (NVivo) y analizadas temáticamente. Los participantes describieron numerosas ventajas sobre el uso del diagnóstico rápido casero, aunque algunos reportaron importantes preocupaciones dentro de las cuales se destaca la posibilidad de impulsos suicidas si alguien recibe un resultado positivo estando solo. En términos generales se observó una gran aceptabilidad para el uso del diagnóstico rápido si el mismo es realizado por personal de salud en lugares acondicionados para este fin.

  11. Aceptabilidad del diagnóstico rápido casero para HIV entre hombres gay y otros hombres que tienen sexo con hombres (G&HSH) de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires

    PubMed Central

    Balán, Iván C.; Carballo-Diéguez, Alex; Marone, Rubén O.; Pando, María A.; Barreda, Victoria; Ávila, María M.

    2011-01-01

    Resumen El uso del diagnóstico rápido para HIV en Argentina, así como otros países de Latinoamérica, ha sido limitado hasta el momento. Este trabajo reporta los resultados provenientes de un estudio cualitativo realizado entre hombres gays y otros hombres que tienen sexo con hombres (G&HSH) de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires, Argentina. El objetivo principal del mismo fue conocer las ventajas y desventajas que los hombres G&HSH perciben en relación al diagnóstico rápido casero para HIV. Se realizaron ocho grupos focales con 73 participantes en los cuales se discutió acerca de las ventajas y desventajas del uso de los diagnósticos rápidos. Las respuestas fueron codificadas utilizando un programa para análisis de datos cualitativos (NVivo) y analizadas temáticamente. Los participantes describieron numerosas ventajas sobre el uso del diagnóstico rápido casero, aunque algunos reportaron importantes preocupaciones dentro de las cuales se destaca la posibilidad de impulsos suicidas si alguien recibe un resultado positivo estando solo. En términos generales se observó una gran aceptabilidad para el uso del diagnóstico rápido si el mismo es realizado por personal de salud en lugares acondicionados para este fin. PMID:25284951

  12. Una propuesta para el desarrollo de un arreglo de síntesis de apertura

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnal, E. M.

    Los estudios llevados a cabo en la transición del hidrógeno neutro a λ~21-cm han contribuído a incrementar nuestro conocimiento acerca de las propiedades globales del medio interestelar, sea este galáctico o extragaláctico. Avances en este campo han sido provocados, a menudo, por la puesta en servicio de radiotelescopios que poseen una mayor resolución angular. Aquí se presenta una propuesta para desarrollar un nuevo instrumento, un interferómetro, que permitirá abrir nuevas líneas de investigación. Este instrumento combinará la técnica de síntesis de apertura con la de espectroscopía de correlación digital, para alcanzar una resolución angular de 1' y un campo de visión de ~1o.7.

  13. Efectos combinados de la ampliación de la atención primaria de salud y de las transferencias condicionadas de dinero en efectivo sobre la mortalidad infantil en Brasil, 1998–2010*

    PubMed Central

    Guanais, Frederico C.

    2015-01-01

    Objetivos. Examiné los efectos combinados del acceso a la atención primaria mediante el Programa de Salud Familiar (PSF) y las transferencias condicionadas de dinero en efectivo del Programa Bolsa Familia (PBF) sobre la mortalidad infantil posneonatal (MIPN) en Brasil. Métodos. Empleé un análisis ecológico longitudinal usando datos en panel de 4 583 municipios brasileños de 1998 al 2010, con 54 253 observaciones en total. Estimé modelos de regresión de efectos fijos por mínimos cuadrados ordinarios, con la tasa de MIPN como la variable dependiente y el PSF, el PBF y sus interacciones como las principales variables independientes de interés. Resultados. La asociación de una mayor cobertura del PSF con una menor tasa de MIPN se volvió más fuerte conforme aumentaba la cobertura del PBF. En los promedios de todas las demás variables, cuando la cobertura de PBF era 25%, la MIPN predicha fue 5,24 (intervalo de confianza [IC] de 95% = 4,95, 5,53) para una cobertura del PSF de 0%, y de 3,54 (IC de 95% = 2,77, 4,31) para una cobertura del PSF de 100%. Cuando la cobertura del PBF era de 60%, la MIPN predicha fue 4,65 (IC de 95% = 4,36, 4,94) para una cobertura del PSF de 0%, y de 1,38 (IC de 95% = 0,88, 1,89) para una cobertura del PSF de 100%. Conclusiones. El efecto del PSF depende de la ampliación del PBF. Para las poblaciones empobrecidas y subatendidas, la combinación de intervenciones tanto del lado de la oferta como del lado de la demanda podría ser necesaria para mejorar los resultados en salud.

  14. The Las Campanas Infrared Survey Camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Persson, S. E.; Murphy, D. C.; Gunnels, S. M.; Birk, C.; Bagish, A.; Koch, E.

    2002-07-01

    The Las Campanas Infrared Survey Camera is a near-infrared (1.0-2.5 μm), wide-area instrument used to detect and measure the photometric properties of galaxies out to large redshifts, z>2. The camera, a modified Offner 1:1 reimaging optical system, is mounted at the f/7.5 focus of the 2.5 m du Pont Telescope. The detectors are four Rockwell 1024×1024 HgCdTe (HAWAII) arrays operating at a scale of 0.20" pixel-1. With four telescope pointings, the instrument produces a pipelined mosaic of J, H, or Ks images 13'×13' on the sky, with a measured point-spread function as good as 0.38" FWHM. The good imaging quality results in part from fast tip-tilt guiding on stars within a 9'×9' field centered on the optical axis of the telescope. Appropriately bright guide stars are found within 2 s from a catalog of 5×107 stars and presented as a ``finding chart'' to the observer. The optical, mechanical, and thermal design choices and their associated engineering implementations are discussed in some detail. The detector readout electronics, the automatic data acquisition and control system, and our data reduction pipeline are also described. The design goals of the camera-excellent imaging quality and throughput, low flexure and internal background, and 5 Hz on-axis guiding, are all realized and quantified.

  15. LAS - LAND ANALYSIS SYSTEM, VERSION 5.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pease, P. B.

    1994-01-01

    The Land Analysis System (LAS) is an image analysis system designed to manipulate and analyze digital data in raster format and provide the user with a wide spectrum of functions and statistical tools for analysis. LAS offers these features under VMS with optional image display capabilities for IVAS and other display devices as well as the X-Windows environment. LAS provides a flexible framework for algorithm development as well as for the processing and analysis of image data. Users may choose between mouse-driven commands or the traditional command line input mode. LAS functions include supervised and unsupervised image classification, film product generation, geometric registration, image repair, radiometric correction and image statistical analysis. Data files accepted by LAS include formats such as Multi-Spectral Scanner (MSS), Thematic Mapper (TM) and Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR). The enhanced geometric registration package now includes both image to image and map to map transformations. The over 200 LAS functions fall into image processing scenario categories which include: arithmetic and logical functions, data transformations, fourier transforms, geometric registration, hard copy output, image restoration, intensity transformation, multispectral and statistical analysis, file transfer, tape profiling and file management among others. Internal improvements to the LAS code have eliminated the VAX VMS dependencies and improved overall system performance. The maximum LAS image size has been increased to 20,000 lines by 20,000 samples with a maximum of 256 bands per image. The catalog management system used in earlier versions of LAS has been replaced by a more streamlined and maintenance-free method of file management. This system is not dependent on VAX/VMS and relies on file naming conventions alone to allow the use of identical LAS file names on different operating systems. While the LAS code has been improved, the original capabilities

  16. Haemophilus influenzae pneumonia in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients. The Grupo Andaluz para el Estudio de las Enfermedades Infecciosas.

    PubMed

    Cordero, E; Pachón, J; Rivero, A; Girón, J A; Gómez-Mateos, J; Merino, M D; Torres-Tortosa, M; González-Serrano, M; Aliaga, L; Collado, A; Hernández-Quero, J; Barrera, A; Nuño, E

    2000-03-01

    Although Haemophilus influenzae is a common etiologic agent of pneumonia in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the characteristics of this pneumonia have not been adequately assessed. We have prospectively studied features of H. influenzae pneumonia in 26 consecutive HIV-infected inpatients. Most of these patients were severely immunosuppressed; 73.1% had a CD4+ cell count <100/microL. A subacute clinical presentation was observed in 27% of the patients and was associated with a higher degree of immunosuppression (P=.04). Bilateral lung infiltrates were noted radiographically in 57.7% of the cases. The mortality attributable to H. influenzae pneumonia was 11.5%. Thus, pneumonia caused by H. influenzae affects mainly patients with advanced HIV disease, and since its clinical and radiological features may be diverse, this etiology should be considered when pneumonia occurs in patients with advanced HIV infection. The mortality rate associated with H. influenzae pneumonia is not higher than that occurring in the general population.

  17. Voluntarias De Sesame Street: Manual Para Conducir Las Sesiones "Sesame Street" Con Ninos De Edad Pre-Escolar.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filep, Robert T.; And Others

    This guide was prepared to aid Spanish-speaking volunteers working with preschool children before, during, and after viewing the television program, "Sesame Street". The text is written in Spanish. Suggestions in this booklet grew out of a study called the Sesame Mother Pilot Project conducted in 1970-71 by the Institute for Educational…

  18. Conexiones: Guia para Padres y Estudiantes. Directorio de Servicios y Programas de Educacion Especial de las Escuelas Publicas de Boston.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Celuzza, Paul W., Ed.; Clayton, Shelley Bakst, Ed.

    Intended for handicapped students and their parents, the booklet presents a guide in Spanish to special education services in the Boston public schools. Chapter 766, the Massachusetts law guaranteeing free appropriate public education to every child, is focused on. Section 1 discusses such evaluation aspects as early childhood screening, referral,…

  19. Genetic modification of potato against microbial diseases: in vitro and in planta activity of a dermaseptin B1 derivative, MsrA2.

    PubMed

    Osusky, Milan; Osuska, Lubica; Kay, William; Misra, Santosh

    2005-08-01

    Dermaseptin B1 is a potent cationic antimicrobial peptide found in skin secretions of the arboreal frog Phyllomedusa bicolor. A synthetic derivative of dermaseptin B1, MsrA2 (N-Met-dermaseptin B1), elicited strong antimicrobial activities against various phytopathogenic fungi and bacteria in vitro. To assess its potential for plant protection, MsrA2 was expressed at low levels (1-5 microg/g of fresh tissue) in the transgenic potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cv. Desiree. Stringent challenges of these transgenic potato plants with a variety of highly virulent fungal phytopathogens--Alternaria, Cercospora, Fusarium, Phytophthora, Pythium, Rhizoctonia and Verticillium species--and with the bacterial pathogen Erwinia carotovora demonstrated that the plants had an unusually broad-spectrum and powerful resistance to infection. MsrA2 profoundly protected both plants and tubers from diseases such as late blight, dry rot and pink rot and markedly extended the storage life of tubers. Due to these properties in planta, MsrA2 is proposed as an ideal antimicrobial peptide candidate to significantly increase resistance to phytopathogens and improve quality in a variety of crops worldwide with the potential to obviate fungicides and facilitate storage under difficult conditions.

  20. In Planta Biocontrol of Pectobacterium atrosepticum by Rhodococcus erythropolis Involves Silencing of Pathogen Communication by the Rhodococcal Gamma-Lactone Catabolic Pathway.

    PubMed

    Barbey, Corinne; Crépin, Alexandre; Bergeau, Dorian; Ouchiha, Asma; Mijouin, Lily; Taupin, Laure; Orange, Nicole; Feuilloley, Marc; Dufour, Alain; Burini, Jean-François; Latour, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    The virulence of numerous Gram-negative bacteria is under the control of a quorum sensing process based on synthesis and perception of N-acyl homoserine lactones. Rhodococcus erythropolis, a Gram-positive bacterium, has recently been proposed as a biocontrol agent for plant protection against soft-rot bacteria, including Pectobacterium. Here, we show that the γ-lactone catabolic pathway of R. erythropolis disrupts Pectobacterium communication and prevents plant soft-rot. We report the first characterization and demonstration of N-acyl homoserine lactone quenching in planta. In particular, we describe the transcription of the R. erythropolis lactonase gene, encoding the key enzyme of this pathway, and the subsequent lactone breakdown. The role of this catabolic pathway in biocontrol activity was confirmed by deletion of the lactonase gene from R. erythropolis and also its heterologous expression in Escherichia coli. The γ-lactone catabolic pathway is induced by pathogen communication rather than by pathogen invasion. This is thus a novel and unusual biocontrol pathway, differing from those previously described as protecting plants from phytopathogens. These findings also suggest the existence of an additional pathway contributing to plant protection.

  1. Energy Savers: Tips for Saving Energy and Money at Home; El Ahorro de Energa: Sugerencias para ahorrar energa y dinero en el hogar

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, J.

    2000-06-01

    The Department of Energy of the United States of America works to guarantee provisions of safe energy, reliable and economically accessible to support to one developing economy and to protect the atmosphere. These suggestions and ideas to increase the energy efficiency in their house represent simple ways in which our citizens can contribute to preserve the atmosphere at world-wide level, to reduce the level of contamination of the air and to reserve our natural resources for future generations. [Spanish] El Departamento de Energa de los Estados Unidos de America trabaja para garantizar suministros de energa seguros, confiables y econmicamente accesibles para apoyar a una economa en desarrollo y proteger el medio ambiente. Estas sugerencias e ideas para aumentar la eficiencia energetica en su casa representan maneras sencillas en que nuestros ciudadanos pueden contribuir a preservar el medio ambiente a nivel mundial, a reducir el nivel de contaminacin del aire y a reservar nuestros recursos naturales para las generaciones futuras.

  2. Fate of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) in activated sludge plants.

    PubMed

    Temmink, H; Klapwijk, Bram

    2004-02-01

    Monitoring data were collected in a pilot-scale municipal activated sludge plant to assess the fate of the C12-homologue of linear alkyl benzene sulfonate (LAS-C12). The pilot-plant was operated at influent LAS-C12 concentrations between 2 and 12 mg l(-1) and at sludge retention times of 10 and 27 days. Effluent and waste sludge concentrations varied between 5 and 10 microg l(-1) and between 37 and 69 microg g(-1) VSS, respectively. In the sludge samples only 2-8% was present as dissolved LAS-C12, whereas the remaining 92-98% was found to be adsorbed to the sludge. In spite of this high degree of sorption, more than 99% of the LAS-C12 load was removed by biodegradation, showing that not only the soluble fraction but also the adsorbed fraction of LAS-C12 is readily available for biodegradation. Sorption and biodegradation of LAS-C12 were also investigated separately. Sorption was an extremely fast and reversible process and could be described by a linear isotherm with a partition coefficient of 3.2 l g(-1) volatile suspended solids. From the results of biodegradation kinetic tests it was concluded that primary biodegradation of LAS-C12 cannot be described by a (growth) Monod model, but a secondary utilisation model should be used instead. The apparent affinity of the sludge to biodegrade LAS-C12 increased when the sludge was loaded with higher influent concentrations of LAS-C12.

  3. Safety of the Las Vegas left-turn display.

    PubMed

    Ozmen, Ozlem; Tian, Zong Z; Gibby, A Reed

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides a safety evaluation of a special protected/permitted left turn signal control (Las Vegas LT Display) that has been implemented in the urbanized area of Las Vegas, Nevada. The Las Vegas LT Display eliminates the yellow trap condition for leading approach in lead/lag operation. It provides protected only left turns during certain times of day by suppressing the permitted green ball and yellow ball displays. Before and after studies were conducted using the crash data from 10 intersections. Results from the analyses indicated that no obvious safety concerns due to use of the special display.

  4. The Land Analysis System (LAS) for multispectral image processing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wharton, S. W.; Lu, Y. C.; Quirk, Bruce K.; Oleson, Lyndon R.; Newcomer, J. A.; Irani, Frederick M.

    1988-01-01

    The Land Analysis System (LAS) is an interactive software system available in the public domain for the analysis, display, and management of multispectral and other digital image data. LAS provides over 240 applications functions and utilities, a flexible user interface, complete online and hard-copy documentation, extensive image-data file management, reformatting, conversion utilities, and high-level device independent access to image display hardware. The authors summarize the capabilities of the current release of LAS (version 4.0) and discuss plans for future development. Particular emphasis is given to the issue of system portability and the importance of removing and/or isolating hardware and software dependencies.

  5. Calcineurin hydrolysis of para-nitrophenyl phosphorothioate.

    PubMed

    Spannaus-Martin, Donna J; Martin, Bruce L

    2004-04-01

    para-Nitrophenyl phosphorothioate (pNPT) was hydrolyzed by calcineurin at initial rates slightly, but comparable to rates for para-nitrophenyl phosphate (pNPP). Kinetic characterization yielded higher estimates for both Km and Vmax compared to pNPP. Metal ion activation of phosphorothioate hydrolysis was more promiscuous. Unlike the hydrolysis of with pNPP, Ca2+, Mg2+, and Ba2+ activated calcineurin as well as Mn2+.

  6. RadNet Air Data From Las Vegas, NV

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page presents radiation air monitoring and air filter analysis data for Las Vegas, NV from EPA's RadNet system. RadNet is a nationwide network of monitoring stations that measure radiation in air, drinking water and precipitation.

  7. Relación masa-radio para estrellas enanas blancas y la interpretación de recientes mediciones hechas por Hipparcos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panei, J. A.; Althaus, L. G.; Benvenuto, O. G.

    Recientes mediciones de la masa y el radio hechas por Hipparcos de las estrellas enanas blancas 40 Eri B y Procyon B (Shipman, H. & Provencal, J. - ApJ. 1998, 494, 759), sugieren un núcleo compuesto de hierro para dichas estrellas, en lugar de carbono y oxígeno como predice la teoría standard de evolución estelar. Para interpretar estas observaciones, presentamos aquí, relaciones masa-radio para configuraciones degeneradas a temperatura finita para distintas composiciones químicas centrales. Para tal fin hemos calculado secuencias evolutivas de enanas blancas utilizando el código de evolución estelar, desarrollado en el Observatorio de La Plata. Dicho código resuelve las ecuaciones de estructura y evolución estelar mediante la técnica de relajación de Henyey, y esta basado en una descripción física muy detallada y actualizada.

  8. An overview of the Land Analysis System (LAS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, Yun-Chi

    1986-01-01

    An outline covering the history, development methodology, and major hardware/software components of the Land Analysis System (LAS) is presented. System support services including the Transportable Applications Executive (TAE), Catalog Manager, history files, and applications services are briefly described along with the general functional capabilities of the 224 available applications programs. Example interface menus are given and desired enhancements to the LAS system are listed.

  9. A note on para-holomorphic Riemannian-Einstein manifolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ida, Cristian; Ionescu, Alexandru; Manea, Adelina

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this note is the study of Einstein condition for para-holomorphic Riemannian metrics in the para-complex geometry framework. First, we make some general considerations about para-complex Riemannian manifolds (not necessarily para-holomorphic). Next, using a one-to-one correspondence between para-holomorphic Riemannian metrics and para-Kähler-Norden metrics, we study the Einstein condition for a para-holomorphic Riemannian metric and the associated real para-Kähler-Norden metric on a para-complex manifold. Finally, it is shown that every semi-simple para-complex Lie group inherits a natural para-Kählerian-Norden Einstein metric.

  10. Pea lectin receptor-like kinase promotes high salinity stress tolerance in bacteria and expresses in response to stress in planta.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Amita; Dang, Hung Quang; Vaid, Neha; Tuteja, Narendra

    2010-01-01

    The plant lectin receptor-like kinases (LecRLKs) are involved in various signaling pathways but their role in salinity stress tolerance has not heretofore been well described. Salinity stress negatively affects plant growth/productivity and threatens food security worldwide. Based on functional gene-mining assay, we have isolated 34 salinity tolerant genes out of one million Escherichia coli (SOLR) transformants containing pea cDNAs grown in 0.8 M NaCl. Sequence analysis of one of these revealed homology to LecRLK, which possesses N-myristilation and N-glycosylation sites thus corroborating the protein to be a glycoconjugate. The homology based computational modeling of the kinase domain suggested high degree of conservation with the protein already known to be stress responsive in plants. The NaCl tolerance provided by PsLecRLK to the above bacteria was further confirmed in E. coli (DH5alpha). In planta studies showed that the expression of PsLecRLK cDNA was significantly upregulated in response to NaCl as compared to K(+) and Li(+) ions, suggesting the Na(+) ion specific response. Transcript of the PsLecRLK gene accumulates mainly in roots and shoots. The purified 47 kDa recombinant PsLecRLK-KD (kinase domain) protein has been shown to phosphorylate general substrates like MBP and casein. This study not only suggests the conservation of the cellular response to high salinity stress across prokaryotes and plant kingdom but also provides impetus to develop novel concepts for better understanding of mechanism of stress tolerance in bacteria and plants. It also opens up new avenues for studying practical aspects of plant salinity tolerance for enhanced agricultural productivity.

  11. Boosting In Planta Production of Antigens Derived from the Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV) and Subsequent Evaluation of Their Immunogenicity

    PubMed Central

    Piron, Robin; De Koker, Stefaan; De Paepe, Annelies; Goossens, Julie; Grooten, Johan; Nauwynck, Hans; Depicker, Ann

    2014-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is a disease of swine, caused by an arterivirus, the PRRS virus (PRRSV). This virus infects pigs worldwide and causes huge economic losses. Due to genetic drift, current vaccines are losing their power. Adaptable vaccines could provide a solution to this problem. This study aims at producing in planta a set of antigens derived from the PRRSV glycoproteins (GPs) to be included in a subunit vaccine. We selected the GP3, GP4 and GP5 and optimized these for production in an Arabidopsis seed platform by removing transmembrane domains (Tm) and/or adding stabilizing protein domains, such as the green fluorescent protein (GFP) and immunoglobulin (IgG) ‘Fragment crystallizable’ (Fc) chains. Accumulation of the GPs with and without Tm was low, reaching no more than 0.10% of total soluble protein (TSP) in homozygous seed. However, addition of stabilizing domains boosted accumulation up to a maximum of 2.74% of TSP when GFP was used, and albeit less effectively, also the Fc chains of the porcine IgG3 and murine IgG2a increased antigen accumulation, to 0.96% and 1.81% of TSP respectively, while the murine IgG3 Fc chain did not. Antigens with Tm were less susceptible to these manipulations to increase yield. All antigens were produced in the endoplasmic reticulum and accordingly, they carried high-mannose N-glycans. The immunogenicity of several of those antigens was assessed and we show that vaccination with purified antigens did elicit the production of antibodies with virus neutralizing activity in mice but not in pigs. PMID:24614617

  12. Boosting in planta production of antigens derived from the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and subsequent evaluation of their immunogenicity.

    PubMed

    Piron, Robin; De Koker, Stefaan; De Paepe, Annelies; Goossens, Julie; Grooten, Johan; Nauwynck, Hans; Depicker, Ann

    2014-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is a disease of swine, caused by an arterivirus, the PRRS virus (PRRSV). This virus infects pigs worldwide and causes huge economic losses. Due to genetic drift, current vaccines are losing their power. Adaptable vaccines could provide a solution to this problem. This study aims at producing in planta a set of antigens derived from the PRRSV glycoproteins (GPs) to be included in a subunit vaccine. We selected the GP3, GP4 and GP5 and optimized these for production in an Arabidopsis seed platform by removing transmembrane domains (Tm) and/or adding stabilizing protein domains, such as the green fluorescent protein (GFP) and immunoglobulin (IgG) 'Fragment crystallizable' (Fc) chains. Accumulation of the GPs with and without Tm was low, reaching no more than 0.10% of total soluble protein (TSP) in homozygous seed. However, addition of stabilizing domains boosted accumulation up to a maximum of 2.74% of TSP when GFP was used, and albeit less effectively, also the Fc chains of the porcine IgG3 and murine IgG2a increased antigen accumulation, to 0.96% and 1.81% of TSP respectively, while the murine IgG3 Fc chain did not. Antigens with Tm were less susceptible to these manipulations to increase yield. All antigens were produced in the endoplasmic reticulum and accordingly, they carried high-mannose N-glycans. The immunogenicity of several of those antigens was assessed and we show that vaccination with purified antigens did elicit the production of antibodies with virus neutralizing activity in mice but not in pigs.

  13. In Planta Expression Screens of Phytophthora infestans RXLR Effectors Reveal Diverse Phenotypes, Including Activation of the Solanum bulbocastanum Disease Resistance Protein Rpi-blb2[W

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Sang-Keun; Young, Carolyn; Lee, Minkyoung; Oliva, Ricardo; Bozkurt, Tolga O.; Cano, Liliana M.; Win, Joe; Bos, Jorunn I.B.; Liu, Hsin-Yin; van Damme, Mireille; Morgan, William; Choi, Doil; Van der Vossen, Edwin A.G.; Vleeshouwers, Vivianne G.A.A.; Kamoun, Sophien

    2009-01-01

    The Irish potato famine pathogen Phytophthora infestans is predicted to secrete hundreds of effector proteins. To address the challenge of assigning biological functions to computationally predicted effector genes, we combined allele mining with high-throughput in planta expression. We developed a library of 62 infection-ready P. infestans RXLR effector clones, obtained using primer pairs corresponding to 32 genes and assigned activities to several of these genes. This approach revealed that 16 of the 62 examined effectors cause phenotypes when expressed inside plant cells. Besides the well-studied AVR3a effector, two additional effectors, PexRD8 and PexRD3645-1, suppressed the hypersensitive cell death triggered by the elicitin INF1, another secreted protein of P. infestans. One effector, PexRD2, promoted cell death in Nicotiana benthamiana and other solanaceous plants. Finally, two families of effectors induced hypersensitive cell death specifically in the presence of the Solanum bulbocastanum late blight resistance genes Rpi-blb1 and Rpi-blb2, thereby exhibiting the activities expected for Avrblb1 and Avrblb2. The AVRblb2 family was then studied in more detail and found to be highly variable and under diversifying selection in P. infestans. Structure-function experiments indicated that a 34–amino acid region in the C-terminal half of AVRblb2 is sufficient for triggering Rpi-blb2 hypersensitivity and that a single positively selected AVRblb2 residue is critical for recognition by Rpi-blb2. PMID:19794118

  14. Comportamiento Sexual y Autoeficacia para la Negociación de Sexo Más Seguro en Personas Heterosexuales

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Jiménez, David; Santiago-Rivas, Marimer; Serrano-García, Irma

    2012-01-01

    La autoeficacia se le ha identificado como uno de los factores que puede facilitar o dificultar llevar a cabo sexo más seguro. Estudios revelan que las personas que están el relaciones estables usan métodos de protección menos frecuente que quienes tienen parejas casuales. Realizamos un estudio con 447 personas heterosexuales activas sexualmente. Les administramos un cuestionario dirigido a medir el comportamiento sexual, el uso del condón masculino y la práctica de la masturbación mutua, y la autoeficacia para llevar a cabo estas conductas. Los resultados reflejan que los hombres están más activos sexualmente y que el uso del condón y la práctica de la masturbación mutua como alternativa de sexo más seguro es muy baja. En los casos donde se usa el condón esta práctica es realizada en su mayoría por las personas que se encuentran en una relación de pareja casual. No obstante, los/las participantes tienen altos niveles de autoeficacia hacia ambas prácticas. Aunque la autoeficacia es uno de los factores que incide en decidir llevar a cabo sexo más seguro, ésta no es suficiente para que esta meta se logre. PMID:22837585

  15. Incentivos para atraer y retener personal de salud de zonas rurales del Perú: un estudio cualitativo

    PubMed Central

    Huicho, Luis; Canseco, Francisco Díez; Lema, Claudia; Miranda, J. Jaime; Lescano, Andrés G.

    2014-01-01

    El objetivo fue identificar incentivos de atracción y retención en zonas rurales y distantes de Ayacucho, Perú. Fueron realizadas entrevistas en profundidad con 80 médicos, enfermeras, obstetras y técnicos (20 por grupo) de las zonas más pobres y con 11 funcionarios. No existen políticas sistemáticas de atracción y retención de personal de salud en Ayacucho. Los principales incentivos, en orden de importancia, fueron mejoras salariales, oportunidades de formación y capacitación, estabilidad laboral y nombramiento, mejoras en infraestructura y equipos, e incremento del personal. Se mencionaron también mejoras en la vivienda y alimentación, mayor cercanía con la familia y reconocimiento por el sistema de salud. Existen coincidencias y singularidades entre los distintos grupos sobre los incentivos clave para estimular el trabajo rural, que deben considerarse al diseñar políticas públicas. Las iniciativas del Estado deben comprender procesos rigurosos de monitoreo y evaluación, para asegurar que las mismas tengan el impacto deseado. PMID:22488318

  16. Bifurcación de las soluciones de vientos impulsados por radiación en estrellas Be: formación de líneas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curé, M.; Rial, D.; Cidale, L.; Venero, R.

    Se ha estudiado la topología de la ecuación hidrodinámica no-lineal que describe el perfil de velocidades de vientos impulsados por radiación en estrellas tempranas. Al aplicar este modelo a estrellas Be se encuentra que existen dos tipos De soluciones: la estándar, que describe el viento polar, y una nueva, que describe un viento más denso y lento y que explicaría el disco que se encuentra alrededor de estos objetos. Existe una región de transición en donde ambas soluciones coexisten (bifurcación}). Ambas soluciones satisfacen en esta región las mismas condiciones de borde. Para estas dos soluciones se han obtenido los perfiles de líneas de hidrógeno del visible y del IR, resolviendo el transporte de radiación en el ``comoving frame". Para la solución estándar, se obtienen perfiles con componentes en emisión, mientras que para la nueva solución se obtienen perfiles en absorción. Se comparan cualitativamente los resultados con las observaciones.

  17. El uso de la neuromodulación para el tratamiento del temblor

    PubMed Central

    Bendersky, Damián; Ajler, Pablo; Yampolsky, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    Introducción: El temblor puede ser un desorden incapacitante y el tratamiento de primera línea para estos pacientes es farmacológico. Sin embargo, este tratamiento puede llevar a una reducción satisfactoria del temblor en sólo el 50% de los pacientes con temblor esencial. La talamotomía era el tratamiento de elección para el temblor refractario al tratamiento médico hasta que comenzó a utilizarse la estimulación cerebral profunda (ECP) del núcleo ventral intermedio (Vim) del tálamo. En la actualidad, raramente se realiza la talamotomía. Métodos: Este artículo es una revisión no sistemática de las indicaciones, resultados, parámetros de programación y técnica quirúrgica de la ECP del Vim para el tratamiento del temblor. Resultados: Aunque los resultados clínicos son similares usando la talamotomía o la ECP del Vim, la primera causa más efectos adversos que la última. Además, la ECP puede ser usada bilateralmente, mientras que la talamotomía tiene un alto riesgo de causar disartria cuando se realiza de ambos lados. La ECP del Vim logró una adecuada mejoría del temblor en varias series de pacientes con temblor causado por temblor esencial, enfermedad de Parkinson o esclerosis múltiple. Además del Vim, hay otros blancos que están siendo usados por varios autores, tales como la zona incerta y las radiaciones prelemniscales. Conclusión: La ECP del Vim es un tratamiento útil para el temblor incapacitante refractario al tratamiento médico. Es esencial realizar una precisa selección de pacientes, así como utilizar una técnica quirúrgica correcta. Aún se desconoce el mejor blanco estereotáctico para el temblor, aunque el Vim es el más usado. PMID:25165613

  18. Ortho-para-hydrogen equilibration on Jupiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, Barbara E.; Lacis, Andrew A.; Rossow, William B.

    1992-01-01

    Voyager IRIS observations reveal that the Jovian para-hydrogen fraction is not in thermodynamic equilibrium near the NH3 cloud top, implying that a vertical gradient exists between the high-temperature equilibrium value of 0.25 at depth and the cloud top values. The height-dependent para-hydrogen profile is obtained using an anisotropic multiple-scattering radiative transfer model. A vertical correlation is found to exist between the location of the para-hydrogen gradient and the NH3 cloud, strongly suggesting that paramagnetic conversion on NH3 cloud particle surfaces is the dominant equilibration mechanism. Below the NH3 cloud layer, the para fraction is constant with depth and equal to the high-temperature equilibrium value of 0.25. The degree of cloud-top equilibration appears to depend on the optical depth of the NH3 cloud layer. Belt-zone variations in the para-hydrogen profile seem to be due to differences in the strength of the vertical mixing.

  19. Regiones de formación de estrellas masivas en las Nubes de Magallanes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbá, R.; Maíz Apellániz, J.; Rubio, M.; Walborn, N.

    Las Nubes de Magallanes son un laboratorio formidable para el estudio de regiones de formación estelar. A diferencia de lo que sucede en el plano galáctico, ambas galaxias contienen poco polvo que nos afecte la visión directa de dichas regiones. Por otra parte, la menor metalicidad de las Nubes, nos permiten hacer un estudio comparativo de la formación estelar en ambientes de baja metalicidad. El presente trabajo da una revisión de los progresos notables que hemos alcanzado en el conocimiento del contenido estelar de algunas regiones de formación de estrellas masivas en ambas Nubes, en base a la utilización de imágenes del Telescopio Espacial Hubble, Gemini Sur, y Very Large Telescope, entre otros. En especial, nos concentramos en 30 Doradus y N11 en la Nube Mayor, y en NGC 346 en la Nube Menor. Nuevas imágenes de N11 obtenidas en los últimos meses con la Advanced Camera for Surveys del Hubble (óptico), y con Flamingos en Gemini Sur (infrarrojo), nos han permitido descubrir un nuevo `jet' con origen en una fuente infrarroja sumergida en un pilar polvoriento similar al objeto Herbig-Haro de M20 en nuestra galaxia. Este `jet' (junto a otros tres que hemos descubierto en 30 Doradus), es el cuarto ejemplo confirmado de `jet' asociado a una protoestrella fuera de nuestra galaxia. Además, presentamos el descubrimiento del primer objeto estelar joven masivo de la Nube Menor confirmado espectroscópicamente.

  20. Colorado Guidelines for Service Coordination: Early Childhood Connections for Infants, Toddlers & Families = Guia para la Coordinacion de Servicios de Colorado: Conexiones para la Ninez Temprana para los Infantes, Parvulos y las Familias.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Jerri; Petersen, Sandy

    The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act entitles each family with an eligible infant or toddler to service coordination at no cost to them. This publication sets forth guidelines and describes the vision for how service coordination will be provided to families in Colorado. The publication, in English and Spanish versions, notes that…

  1. 77 FR 1720 - Notice of Public Meeting, Las Cruces District Resource Advisory Council Meeting, New Mexico

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-11

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Public Meeting, Las Cruces District Resource Advisory Council Meeting..., the U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management (BLM), Las Cruces District Resource... BLM Las Cruces District Office, 1800 Marquess Street, Las Cruces, NM 88005, from 10 a.m.-4 p.m....

  2. 77 FR 18858 - Notice of Public Meeting, Las Cruces District Resource Advisory Council Meeting, New Mexico

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-28

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Public Meeting, Las Cruces District Resource Advisory Council Meeting..., the U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management (BLM), Las Cruces District Resource... Las Cruces District Office, 1800 Marquess Street, Las Cruces, NM 88005, from 10 a.m.-4 p.m. The...

  3. Eficacia de la detección sistemática de la gripe en las fronteras en los viajeros que llegan por vía aérea*

    PubMed Central

    Priest, Patricia C.; Jennings, Lance C.; Duncan, Alasdair R.; Brunton, Cheryl R.; Baker, Michael G.

    2015-01-01

    Objetivos. Se midieron los síntomas y la prevalencia de la gripe (también llamada influenza), así como la eficacia del mecanismo de detección sistemática basado en los síntomas y la temperatura para diagnosticar la gripe en viajeros internacionales que llegaban por vía aérea. Métodos. El presente estudio transversal recopiló datos de viajeros que llegaron al aeropuerto internacional de Christchurch (Nueva Zelandia) en el invierno del 2008 mediante un cuestionario de salud, medición de la temperatura y toma de muestras de las vías respiratorias. Resultados. De los viajeros, 15 976 (68%) entregaron los formularios completos. De ellos, 17% notificaron al menos un síntoma de gripe; los síntomas más comunes fueron rinorrea o congestión nasal (10%) y tos (8%). Se tomaron muestras de las vías respiratorias de 3 769 viajeros. La prevalencia estimada de la gripe fue de 1,1% (4% en las personas sintomáticas, 0,2% en las asintomáticas). La sensibilidad de los criterios de detección varió de 84% para “cualquier síntoma” a 3% para la fiebre de 37,8 °C o mayor. El valor predictivo positivo fue bajo para todos los criterios. Conclusiones. El método de detección sistemática en las fronteras mediante la autonotificación de síntomas y la toma de la temperatura presenta limitaciones para impedir que una gripe pandémica entre en un país. Basarse en criterios como “cualquier síntoma” o la tos haría que se investigara a varias personas no infectadas, mientras que algunas personas infectadas pasarían inadvertidas. Si se usaran criterios más específicos como la fiebre, la mayoría de las personas infectadas entrarían en el país a pesar del mecanismo de detección.

  4. Estructura espacial de las órbitas caóticas en un modelo autoconsistente de galaxia elíptica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muzzio, J. C.

    Hemos logrado construir modelos autoconsistentes de sistemas estelares utilizando una aproximación cuadrupolar para el potencial. Esto nos permite determinar órbitas y exponentes de Lyapunov de objetos que tienen posiciones y velocidades equivalentes a las que se obtienen de la funcón de distribución del sistema. La distribución espacial de las órbitas caóticas exhibe considerable estructura y, lo que es más importante aún, los valores de los exponentes de Lyapunov calculados sobre intervalos finitos de tiempo, muestran una fuerte correlación con el comportamiento de la órbita en esos mismos intervalos, por lo que permiten reconocer distintos subsistemas con diferentes distribuciones espaciales.

  5. Tdp studies and tests for C. A. Energia Electrica de Venezuela (enelven) at planta ramon laguna, units RL-17 and RL-10. Volume 2. Unit RL-10 boiler condition assessment report. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-03-28

    The study, conducted by Babcock and Wilcox, was funded by the U.S. Trade and Development agency on behalf of Enelven. In order to maximize generated power output and minimize operating costs at Planta Ramon Laguna, tests were done to evaluate the condition of equipment at the plant. In order to identify any damage and determine the operating output of each unit, assessments were done of the furnaces, boilers, generators and boiler feed pumps being used in the plant. The report presents the results of these tests. This is the second of three volumes and it includes the following section: (1) Condition Assessment of Unit RL-10 Boiler.

  6. LAS: a software platform to support oncological data management.

    PubMed

    Baralis, Elena; Bertotti, Andrea; Fiori, Alessandro; Grand, Alberto

    2012-11-01

    The rapid technological evolution in the biomedical and molecular oncology fields is providing research laboratories with huge amounts of complex and heterogeneous data. Automated systems are needed to manage and analyze this knowledge, allowing the discovery of new information related to tumors and the improvement of medical treatments. This paper presents the Laboratory Assistant Suite (LAS), a software platform with a modular architecture designed to assist researchers throughout diverse laboratory activities. The LAS supports the management and the integration of heterogeneous biomedical data, and provides graphical tools to build complex analyses on integrated data. Furthermore, the LAS interfaces are designed to ease data collection and management even in hostile environments (e.g., in sterile conditions), so as to improve data quality.

  7. Navajo minettes in the Cerros de las Mujeres, New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaniman, D.; Laughlin, A. W.; Gladney, E. S.

    1985-06-01

    The Cerros de las Mujeres in west-central New Mexico are three mafic minette plugs that should be considered part of the Navajo volcanic fields on the central Colorado Plateau. This newly recognized occurrence extends the Navajo volcanic fields to the southeastern margin of the Colorado Plateau, within 45 km of the extensional tectonic setting in which the Mogollon ash-flow tuff cauldrons occur. The Cerros de las Mujeres provide additional evidence for contemporaneous sodic and potassic volcanism within the Navajo volcanic fields.

  8. The Las Vegas Sustainability Atlas: Modeling Place-based Interactions and Implications in the Las Vegas Valley Bioregion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ego, H.; McCown, K.; Saghafi, N.; Gross, E.; Hunter, W.; Zawarus, P.; Gann, A.; Piechota, T. C.

    2014-12-01

    Las Vegas, Nevada, with 2 million residents and 40 million annual visitors, is one of the driest metropolitan environments of its size in the world. The metro imports nearly all of its resources, including energy, water and food. Rapid population increases, drought, and temperature increases due to climate change create challenges for planning resilient systems in the Las Vegas Valley. Because of its growth rate, aridity, Las Vegas, Nevada is a significant and relevant region for the study of the water, energy, food and climate nexus. Cities in the United States and the world are seeing increasing trends in urbanization and water scarcity. How does the water-energy-climate-food nexus affect each metropolitan area? How can this complex information be used for resiliency planning? How can it be related to the public, so they can understand the issues in a way that makes them meaningful participants in the planning process? The topic of our presentation is a 'resiliency atlas.' The atlas is a place-based model tested in Las Vegas to explore bioregional distinctiveness of the water-energy-climate-food nexus, including regional transportation systems. The atlas integrates the systems within a utilitarian organization of information. Systems in this place-based model demonstrate how infrastructure services are efficiently provided for the Las Vegas Valley population. This resiliency atlas can clarify how the nexus applies to place; and how it can be used to spur geographically germane adaption strategies. In the Las Vegas Valley, climate change (drought and high sustained temperatures) and population affect water, energy, and food systems. This clarity of a place based model can help educate the public about the resilience of their place, and facilitate and organize the planning process in the face of uncertainty.

  9. Solar Hot Water for a Motor Inn -- Las Vegas, Nevada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Solar hot-water installation at motor inn in Las Vegas, Nevada is described in report containing descriptions of design, philosophy, operation of system and problems and solutions. Provides drawings of solar roof plan, operator's instructions, manufacturers' brochures and copy of acceptance report.

  10. Las Rocas Nos Cuentan (Rocks Tell Their Stories)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Llerandi-Roman, Pablo A.

    2012-01-01

    Many Earth science lessons today still focus on memorizing the names of rocks and minerals. This led the author to develop a lesson that reveals the fascinating stories told by rocks through the study of their physical properties. He first designed the lesson for Puerto Rican teachers, hence its Spanish title: "Las Rocas Nos Cuentan Su Historia."…

  11. Experiencing Architecture: The Young People's Library Department in Las Vegas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, Joyce K.

    1991-01-01

    Describes the development of the Young People's Library in Las Vegas (Nevada) as a symbolic and literal bridge to the Lied Discovery Children's Museum. The roles in the design process of library administration, library personnel, and the architect are explored, and how this project addressed differences between the architect's artistic vision and…

  12. Reading "Las Meninas": An Ekphrastic Approach to Teaching "Don Quijote"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ortuno, Marian

    2012-01-01

    Reading and teaching "Don Quijote" present multiple challenges to twenty-first century students and instructors who are culturally and historically distanced from the seventeenth century. With "Las Meninas" serving as a visual lexicon for cuing correlative themes and events in "Don Quijote", the instructor, through an ekphrastic, interdisciplinary…

  13. EPA Sparks Local Business in Las Cruces, N.M.

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    DALLAS - (Feb. 29, 2016) The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is awarding a $300,000 small business contract to Vista Photonics, Inc. in Las Cruces, N.M. The company plans to develop an inexpensive, high-performance, portable air pollution

  14. Astronomia para/com crianças carentes em Limeira

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bretones, P. S.; Oliveira, V. C.

    2003-08-01

    Em 2001, o Instituto Superior de Ciências Aplicadas (ISCA Faculdades de Limeira) iniciou um projeto pelo qual o Observatório do Morro Azul empreendeu uma parceria com o Centro de Promoção Social Municipal (CEPROSOM), instituição mantida pela Prefeitura Municipal de Limeira para atender crianças e adolescentes carentes. O CEPROSOM contava com dois projetos: Projeto Centro de Convivência Infantil (CCI) e Programa Criança e Adolescente (PCA), que atendiam crianças e adolescentes em Centros Comunitários de diversas áreas da cidade. Esses projetos têm como prioridades estabelecer atividades prazerosas para as crianças no sentido de retirá-las das ruas. Assim sendo, as crianças passaram a ter mais um tipo de atividade - as visitas ao observatório. Este painel descreve as várias fases do projeto, que envolveu: reuniões de planejamento, curso de Astronomia para as orientadoras dos CCIs e PCAs, atividades relacionadas a visitas das crianças ao Observatório, proposta de construção de gnômons e relógios de Sol nos diversos Centros Comunitários de Limeira e divulgação do projeto na imprensa. O painel inclui discussões sobre a aprendizagem de crianças carentes, relatos que mostram a postura das orientadoras sobre a pertinência do ensino de Astronomia, relatos do monitor que fez o atendimento no Observatório e o que o número de crianças atendidas representou para as atividades da instituição desde o início de suas atividades e, em particular, em 2001. Os resultados são baseados na análise de relatos das orientadoras e do monitor do Observatório, registros de visitas e matérias da imprensa local. Conclui com uma avaliação do que tal projeto representou para as Instituições participantes. Para o Observatório, em particular, foi feita uma análise com relação às outras modalidades de atendimentos que envolvem alunos de escolas e público em geral. Também é abordada a questão do compromisso social do Observatório na educação do

  15. [Agrobacterium-mediated sunflower transformation (Helianthus annuus L.) in vitro and in Planta using strain of LBA4404 harboring binary vector pBi2E with dsRNA-suppressor proline dehydrogenase gene].

    PubMed

    Tishchenko, E N; Komisarenko, A G; Mikhal'skaia, S I; Sergeeva, L E; Adamenko, N I; Morgun, B V; Kochetov, A V

    2014-01-01

    To estimate the efficiency of proline dehydrogenase gene suppression towards increasing of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) tolerance level to water deficit and salinity, we employed strain LBA4404 harboring pBi2E with double-stranded RNA-suppressor, which were prepared on basis arabidopsis ProDH1 gene. The techniques of Agrobacterium-mediated transformation in vitro and in planta during fertilization sunflower have been proposed. There was shown the genotype-depended integration of T-DNA in sunflower genome. PCR-analysis showed that ProDH1 presents in genome of inbred lines transformed in planta, as well as in T1- and T2-generations. In trans-genic regenerants the essential accumulation of free L-proline during early stages of in vitro cultivation under normal conditions was shown. There was established the essential accumulation of free proline in transgenic regenerants during cultivation under lethal stress pressure (0.4 M mannitol and 2.0% sea water salts) and its decline upon the recovery period. These data are declared about effectiveness of suppression of sunflower ProDH and gene participation in processes connected with osmotolerance.

  16. Um enfoque antropológico para o ensino de astronomia no nível médio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, G. B.; Jafelice, L. C.

    2003-08-01

    Há uma enorme carência de materiais didático-pedagógicos em astronomia para professores do ensino médio, sobretudo materiais que explorem também aspectos humanísticos. A origem do Universo é um bom exemplo desta constatação central. Embora tal origem teve explicações culturais diversas, os professores não têm informações sobre isso e muito menos material que trabalhe diferentes visões de mundo e treinamento que os capacite a abordá-las devidamente. Conseqüentemente o ensino de astronomia costuma ser tecnicista e dissociado do aspecto humano que alimenta o grande interesse e curiosidade que esses temas despertam. Aqui apresentamos propostas visando contribuir para reverter esse quadro e trabalhamos distintas visões de Universo: espontâneas, autóctones e científicas. Desenvolvemos práticas, materiais instrucionais e textos para viabilizar a adoção de um enfoque antropológico para o ensino de astronomia no nível médio, no qual as culturas humanística e científica sejam integradas de uma maneira contextualizada e eficaz para aquele ensino. Estas propostas foram aplicadas em um curso de treinamento para professores da rede pública de diferentes disciplinas. A receptividade dos professores à abordagem proposta e os resultados alcançados foram muito estimulantes. Destes, destacamos: produção de roteiros de atividades; desenvolvimento de práticas didático-pedagógicas específicas (e.g., encenação de mitos; dança primordial guarani; "criação" de constelações e interpretações pluriculturais; etc.); e sugestões concretas para a efetiva realização de um ensino interdisciplinar contextualizado, onde questões cosmogônicas servem de mote para iniciar tal ensino. Discutimos estes resultados e como o enfoque adotado pode instrumentalizar os professores para leituras de mundo que incluem naturalmente aspectos culturais, sociais e históricos associados aos temas estudados. (PPGECNM/UFRN; PRONEX/FINEP; NUPA/USP; Temáticos/FAPESP)

  17. Thermal expansion in metal/lithia-alumina-silica (LAS) composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolff, E. G.

    1988-03-01

    Lithia-alumina-silica (LAS) with metallic dispersions offers a new approach toward near-zero, isotropic, thermal expansion composites. The metallic phase contributes a positive coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) to the negative CTE of the glass/ceramic matrix. In addition, the metal will increase the electrical and thermal conductivities over those of the matrix alone. The LAS system offers tailorable negative CTEs and light weight compared to other negative CTE ceramics. The most negative CTE phase is crystalline β-eucryptite, whose proportion in an initially glassy matrix can be controlled by heat treatment. Dispersed metal powders were both hot-pressed and cold-pressed and sintered together with LAS matrices prepared by sol gel methods. Super Invar powder was studied for its minimal CTE mismatch, while titanium powders offered a compromise between light weight and low CTE. An ultralow-expansion (ULE) glass- and linear variable differential transducer (LVDT)-based differential dilatometer was developed for rapid screening of compositions, while a double-laser Michelson interferometer was used for precise near-zero CTE measurements. The reinforced β-eucryptite glass/ceramic matrix exhibited both a U-shaped ΔL/L curve with temperature and some thermal hysteresis, depending on the fabrication and heat treatment sequences. The temperature of the zero-CTE portion of this curve was found to change with increasing titanium powder content. Results are also given for mixtures of Super Invar powders in ULE glass and β-eucryptite matrices. Negative CTEs in a LAS matrix above ambient temperatures were more difficult to obtain than below, although the use of petalite (high-silica LAS) appears promising.

  18. El Proyecto Sismico "LARSE" - Trabajando Hacia un Futuro con Mas Seguridad para Los Angeles

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henyey, Thomas L.; Fuis, Gary S.; Benthien, Mark L.; Burdette, Thomas R.; Christofferson, Shari A.; Clayton, Robert W.; Criley, Edward E.; Davis, Paul M.; Hendley, James W.; Kohler, Monica D.; Lutter, William J.; McRaney, John K.; Murphy, Janice M.; Okaya, David A.; Ryberg, Trond; Simila, Gerald W.; Stauffer, Peter H.

    1999-01-01

    La region de Los Angeles contiene una red de fallas activas, incluyendo muchas fallas por empuje que son profundas y no rompen la superficie de la tierra. Estas fallas ocultas incluyen la falla anteriormente desconocida que fue responsable por la devastacion que ocurrio durante el terremoto de Northridge en enero de 1994, el terremoto mas costoso en la historia de los Estados Unidos. El Experimento Sismico en la Region de Los Angeles (Los Angeles Region Seismic Experiment, LARSE), esta localizando los peligros ocultos de los terremotos debajo de la region de Los Angeles para mejorar la construccion de las estructuras que pueden apoyar terremotos que son inevitables en el futuro, y que ayudaran a los cientificos determinar donde occurira el sacudimento mas fuerte y poderoso.

  19. Proyecto para la medición sistemática de seeing en CASLEO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández Lajus, E.; Forte, J. C.

    La calidad del seeing astronómico es ciertamente uno de los parámetros mas importantes que caracterizan el sitio de un observatorio. Por tanto se desea determinar si el alto valor de seeing observado con el telescopio de 2.15 m se debe a efectos internos y/o del entorno a la cupula o si se debe simplemente al seeing propio del lugar. El actual mecanismo de refrigeración del espejo primario del 2.15, parece haber mejorado notablemente la calidad del seeing. Sin embargo se hace necesario saber hasta que punto el valor del seeing puede ser mejorado. La primera etapa del proyecto consistió en la puesta a punto del telescopio emplazado para este propósito y la adquisición de las primeras medidas tentativas de seeing.

  20. Para-methylstyrene from toluene and acetaldehyde

    SciTech Connect

    Innes, R.A.; Occelli, M.L.

    1984-08-01

    High yields of para-methylstyrene (PMS) were obtained in this study by coupling toluene and acetaldehyde then cracking the resultant 1,1-ditolylethane (DTE) to give equimolar amounts of PMS and toluene. In the first step, a total DTE and ''trimer'' yield of 98% on toluene and 93% on acetaldehyde was obtained using 98% sulfuric acid as catalyst at 5-10/sup 0/C. In the second step, a choline chloride-offretite cracked DTE with 84.0% conversion and 91% selectivity to PMS and toluene. Additional PMS can be obtained by cracking the by-product ''trimer'' formed by coupling DTE and toluene with acetaldehyde. Zeolite Rho was as active but yielded less PMS (86%) and produced more para-ethyltoluene (PET), an undesirable by-product.

  1. PFI-ZEKE (Pulsed Field Ionization-Zero Electron Kinetic Energy) para el estudio de iones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castaño, F.; Fernández, J. A.; Basterretxea, A. Longarte. F.; Sánchez Rayo, M. N.; Martínez, R.

    Entre las áreas hacia donde ha evolucionado la Química en los últimos años están los estudios de sistemas con especies reactivas de alta energía y los dominados por fuerzas intermoleculares débiles, con energías de unas pocas kcal/mol. En efecto, el estudio de las propiedades de los iones, comenzando por su relación con la molécula neutra de la que procede, la energía de ionización, los estados vibracionales y rotacionales, energías de enlace de Van der Waals entre el ión y una amplia variedad de otras moléculas, sus confórmeros o isómeros y sus reacciones o semi-reacciones químicas están en la raíz de la necesidad de la espectroscopía conocida como PFI-ZEKE, Pulsed Field Ionization-Zero Electron Kinetic Energy. Entre las aplicaciones que requieren estos conocimientos se encuentran la generación de plasmas para la fabricación de semiconductores, memorias magnéticas, etc, así como los sistemas astrofísicos, la ionosfera terrestre, etc. La espectroscopía ZEKE es una evolución de las de fluorescencia inducida por láser, LIF, ionización multifotónica acrecentada por resonancia, REMPI, con uno y dos colores y acoplada a un sistema de tiempo de vuelo, REMPI-TOF-MS, y las espectroscopías de doble resonancia IR-UV y UV-UV. Sus espectros y la ayuda de cálculos ab inicio permite determinar las energías de enlace de complejos de van der Waals en estados fundamental y excitados, identificar confórmeros e isómeros, obtener energías de ionización experimentales aproximadas (100 cm-1) y otras variables de interés. Al igual que con LIF, REMPI y dobles resonancias, es posible utilizar muestras gaseosas, pero los espectros están muy saturados de bandas y su interpretación es difícil o imposible. Se evitan estas dificultades estudiando las moléculas o complejos en expansiones supersónicas, donde la T de los grados de libertad solo alcanzan unos pocos K. Para realizar experimentos de ZEKE hay que utilizar una propiedad recientemente

  2. Uso de Sustancias en Mujeres con Desventaja Social: Riesgo para el Contagio de VIH/SIDA

    PubMed Central

    Cianelli, R.; Ferrer, L; Bernales, M.; Miner, S.; Irarrázabal, L.; Molina, Y.

    2009-01-01

    Antecedentes La caracterización epidemiológica en Chile apunta a feminización, pauperización y heterosexualización de la epidemia del VIH, lo que implica un mayor riesgo para las mujeres en desventaja social. Si a esto se suma la utilización de sustancias, la vulnerabilidad de este grupo frente al VIH/SIDA aumenta. Objetivo Describir el uso de sustancias en mujeres con desventaja social e identificar factores de riesgo de contagio de VIH, asociados a este consumo. Material y Método 52 mujeres fueron entrevistadas como parte del proyecto “Testeando una intervención en prevención de VIH/SIDA en mujeres chilenas” GRANT # RO1 TW 006977. Se describen variables sociodemográficas y de consumo de sustancias a través de estadísticas descriptivas y se analiza la relación entre variables a través de pruebas de correlación. Resultados Los resultados indican un perfil sociodemográfico que sitúa a las mujeres en situación de vulnerabilidad frente al contagio de VIH/SIDA, con alto índice de uso de sustancias que acentúa el riesgo. Conclusiones Los hallazgos apuntan a la necesidad de considerar intervenciones que se enfoquen en la prevención de VIH en mujeres, abordando los riesgos asociados al consumo de sustancias. PMID:21197380

  3. [Biodegradation of LAS in the anaerobic water of a representative inlet of Lake Dianchi].

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhi; Tu, Xin-hai; Xiao, Bang-ding; Wu, Xing-qiang; Liu, Min; Chen, Xu-dong

    2008-08-01

    Biodegradation and degradation kinetics of anion-surfactant (LAS) in the anaerobic water of a representative inlet (Haihe River) of Lake Dianchi under different incubation conditions were studied by the 'river die-away' test method. The influences of temperature, pH, initial concentration of LAS, aeration condition and added nutrients (NH4Cl or NaH2PO4) on the biodegradation of LAS in the water were investigated. The results demonstrate that LAS can be biodegraded by microorganisms in the water and that the percentage of degradation of LAS was more than 95% after 26 d. The biodegradation of LAS fit the second kinetic model. Incubation temperature, initial concentration of LAS, aeration and added nutrients (NH4Cl or NaH2PO4) can all affect the biodegradation of LAS. When the incubation temperature increased from 10 degrees C to 25 degrees C, the biodegradation rate (p) of LAS increased from 0.21 d(-1) to 0.90 d(-1). The LAS degradation rate increased from 0.72 d(-1) under anaerobic condition to 1.97 d(-1) under continuous aeration condition. The increased initial concentrations of LAS lead to decrease of the biodegradation rate. NaH2PO4 accelerated the degradation of LAS but added NH4Cl instead inhibited degradation. In our experiment, pH value (7.05-9.44) had little influence on the biodegradation of LAS.

  4. Introduccion a la hidraulica de aguas subterraneas : un texto programado para auto-ensenanza

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bennett, Gordon D.

    1987-01-01

    Este ' texto programado esta diseflado para ayudarle a comprender la teoria de la hidniulica de aguas subterraneas por medio de la auto-enseflanza. La instrucci6n programada es un enfoque a una materia, un metodo de aprender;que no elimina el esfuerzo mental del proceso de aprendizaje. Algunas secciones de este programa necesitan solamente ser leidas; otras tendrian que ser elaboradas con lapiz y papel. Algunas preguntas pueden ser contestadas directamente; otras requieren calculos. A medida que se avanza en el texto, tendra que consultar frecuentemente textos o referencias sobre matematicas, mecanica de fluidos e hidrologia. En cada una de las ocho partes del texto, inicie el programa de instrucci6n leyendo la Secci6n 1. Elija una respuesta a la pregunta al final de la secci6n y dirijase a la nueva secci6n indicada al lado de la respuesta escogida. Si su respuesta fue correcta, pase a la secci6n que contiene materia nueva y otra pregunta, y proceda tal como en la Secci6n 1. Si su respuesta no fue correcta, dirijase a la secci6n que contiene explicaciones adicionales sobre el tema anterior y que le indica volver a la pregunta inicial e intentar de nuevo. En este caso, valdra Ia pena repasar el material de la secci6n anterior. Continue de esta man era en el programa hasta que llegue a Ia secci6n que indica el final de la parte. Observe que aunque las secciones estan en orden numerico en cada una de las ocho partes, por lo general, usted no procedeni en secuencia numerica (Secci6n 1 ala Secci6n 2, etc.) de principia a fin.

  5. Proving the Orbits of the Galilean Moons Through Astrophotography. (Spanish Title: Comprobando Las Órbitas de Las Lunas Galileanas a Través de la Astrofotografía.) Evidenciando as Órbitas das Luas Galileanas Atravéd da Astrofotografia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iachel, Gustavo

    2009-12-01

    An activity related to the observation of the Galilean moons and to amateur astrophotography is presented in this work. Through the reading of excerpts of the book Sidereus Nuncius (Sidereal Messenger), by Galileo, it is possible to trace a methodology to observe the planet and its natural satellites and, with the aid of the astrophotography, to analyze the field recordings. Moreover, it is possible to compare the images obtained after plotting the relative positions of these moons to prove their orbits. This activity can be conducted by teachers, students and amateur astronomers, in order to develop their capabilities of observation of astronomical phenomena. Se presenta en este trabajo una actividad relacionada a la observación de las lunas Galileanas y a la astrofotografía amateur. A través de la lectura de tramos de la obra Sidereus Nuncius (El Mensajero Sideral) de Galileo, es posible trazar una metodología para la observación del planeta y de sus satélites naturales y, con el auxilio de la astrofotografía, analizar las anotaciones de campo. Además, es posible comparar las imágenes obtenidas con el gráfico de las posiciones relativas de estas lunas para comprobar sus órbitas. Esa actividad puede ser realizada por maestros, estudiantes y astrónomos amateurs, de forma a desarrollar sus capacidades de observación de los fenómenos astronómicos. Uma atividade relacionada à observação das luas Galileanas e à astrofotografia amadora é apresentada neste trabalho. Através da leitura de trechos da obra Sidereus Nuncius (Mensageiro Sideral), de Galileu, é possível traçar uma metodologia para a observação do planeta e de seus satélites naturais e, com o auxílio da astrofotografia, analisar as anotações de campo. Além disso, é possível comparar as imagens obtidas com o gráfico das posições relativas destas luas para evidenciar suas órbitas. Essa atividade pode ser realizada por professores, estudantes e astrônomos amadores, de forma a

  6. Solar hot water system installed at Las Vegas, Nevada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    A solar energy hot water system installed in a motor inn at Las Vegas, Nevada is described. The inn is a three story building with a flat roof for installation of the solar panels. The system consists of 1,200 square feet of liquid flat plate collectors, a 2,500 gallon insulated vertical steel storage tank, two heat exchangers, and pumps and controls. The system was designed to supply approximately 74 percent of the total hot water load.

  7. Ecological protection in the Las Tres Virgenes, Mexico, geothermal field

    SciTech Connect

    Zirahuen Ortega Varela, J.R.

    1996-12-31

    The programs of environmental protection designed by Comision Federal de Electricidad are described in a general way. These programs detect, avoid, soften and compensate the environmental impacts product of the exploration, construction and operation activities of the geothermal field Las Tres Virgenes, this field is in the buffer zone of the biosphere reserve {open_quotes}El Vizcaino{close_quotes} at the north of the State of Baja California Sur, Mexico.

  8. Geology of Las Vegas, Nevada, United States of America

    SciTech Connect

    Wyman, R.V.; Karakouzian, M. ); Bax-Valentine, V. ); Peterson, L.; Palmer, S. ); Slemmons, D.B.

    1993-03-01

    Las Vegas is one of the fastest growing cities in the US. Its regional geologic setting is in the Basin and Range geomorphic province and in the Sevier orogenic belt. The city itself lies in a broad north-south valley formed by coalescing alluvial fans and lake beds which give rise to several soil and foundation problems. Although destructive earthquakes have not occurred in the Las Vegas area in modern times, the record is very short. Major earthquakes could have taken place in the past when the area was unoccupied except for a few nomadic tribes. Studies are underway to better define the seismicity. Although the climate is hot and dry, flash flooding occurs frequently from late summer thunderstorms and torrential rains. The Regional Flood Control District is actively constructing retention basins and drainage improvements for diversion and protection from such floods. Water supply is a problem for the increasing population. The groundwater supply has long been overdrawn, and the allotment to Nevada under the Colorado River Compact will be completely utilized in the near future. Las Vegas has faced the problems of solid waste disposal, water treatment, rational water use, flooding and earthquakes - all of which are related to the unique geologic and geomorphic setting.

  9. GIS methodology for quantifying channel change in Las Vegas, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buckingham, S.E.; Whitney, J.W.

    2007-01-01

    This study applies spatial analyses to examine the consequences of accelerated urban expansion on a hydrologic system over a period of 24 years. Three sets of historical aerial photos are used in a GIS analysis to document the geomorphic history of Las Vegas Wash, which drains the rapidly growing Las Vegas urban area in southern Nevada. New spatial techniques are introduced to make quantitative measurements of the erosion at three specific time intervals in the hydrologic evolution of the channel and floodplain. Unlike other erosion studies that use two different elevation surfaces to assess erosion, this study used a single elevation surface to remove systematic and nonsystemic elevation errors. The spatial analysis quantifies channel changes for discrete time periods, calculates erosion volumes, and provides a foundation to examine how the specific mechanisms related to urban expansion have affected Las Vegas Wash. The erosion calculated over 24 years is the largest documented sediment loss attributed to the effect of rapid urban growth. ?? 2007 American Water Resources Association.

  10. Estudio del comportamiento tribologico y de las interacciones de superficie de nuevos nanofluidos ionicos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espinosa Rodriguez, Tulia

    tribocorrosion processes. The formation of a coating layer on magnesium alloys from phosphonate imidazolium ionic liquids by immersion and by chronoamperometry has been described. The new coatings reduce the abrasive wear in the magnesium-aluminium alloy but they are not effective in the magnesium-zinc alloy, which prevent the formation of continuous coatings. Los liquidos ionicos son sales liquidas a temperatura ambiente o bajas temperaturas que presentan excelentes propiedades fisico-quimicas. En el presente trabajo se estudian como lubricantes en problemas tribologicos complejos como la lubricacion de metales contra si mismos, el desarrollo de lubricantes base agua y de nuevas superficies autolubricadas. Cuando no es posible reducir la friccion y desgaste mediante lubricacion, como en las aleaciones de magnesio, los liquidos ionicos se han estudiado como precursores de recubrimientos protectores. Se han determinado las interacciones superficiales y los procesos de corrosion sobre cobre y sobre acero con diferentes liquidos ionicos proticos y aproticos para desarrollar nuevos lubricantes y aditivos. En el contacto cobre/cobre, excepto el liquido ionico protico derivado del oleato, todos los liquidos ionicos estudiados presentan mejor comportamiento tribologico que el lubricante comercial Polialfaolefina 6. En el contacto acero/zafiro, los nuevos liquidos ionicos proticos son buenos lubricantes cuando se utilizan en estado puro, y, como aditivos en agua, generan peliculas adsorbidas sobre la superficie del metal reduciendo la friccion y el desgaste tras la evaporacion del agua. Para evitar el periodo de alta friccion inicial en presencia de agua, se han generado peliculas superficiales de liquido ionico sobre el acero en condiciones estaticas. El mejor comportamiento lubricante tanto en el contacto cobre/cobre como en el contacto acero/zafiro se obtiene para el liquido ionico protico derivado del anion adipato, con dos grupos carboxilicos. Las interacciones de los grupos

  11. "Estudio tribologico de aceros para moldes. Aplicacion al moldeo por inyeccion de polibutilentereftalato reforzado con fibra de vidrio"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez Mateo, Isidoro Jose

    fabricacion del molde, tienen una gran influencia sobre su comportamiento en servicio a lo largo de la vida util del molde. En la primera parte del presente estudio, a partir de ensayos punzon sobre disco, se ha determinado la relacion entre la resistencia al desgaste y la dureza de aceros para moldes obtenidos a partir de bloques de gran espesor, estudiando los principales mecanismos de desgaste que tienen lugar. A continuacion, con el fin de determinar el dano superficial que sufren los aceros para moldes en condiciones reales de inyeccion, se han estudiado distintos tipos de aceros utilizados comercialmente en moldes de inyeccion de polimeros y materiales compuestos, seleccionando las condiciones de operacion para determinar la variacion de la rugosidad superficial del acero en funcion del material inyectado, del numero de operaciones sucesivas de inyeccion y de la orientacion del flujo de inyeccion, mediante tecnicas de perfilometria optica y microscopia electronica de barrido. Ademas del dano superficial sufrido por el acero con el numero de piezas inyectadas, tambien se ha determinado la evolucion de la rugosidad superficial de los materiales inyectados, polibutilentereftalato (PBT) puro y materiales compuestos derivados de PBT por adicion de un 20 o un 50% en peso de fibra de vidrio. En el caso de las piezas inyectadas, se ha caracterizado su microestructura en funcion del flujo de inyeccion y de la densidad de fibra, se han determinado sus propiedades termicas y dinamico-mecanicas, asi como la variacion de la rugosidad superficial de las piezas inyectadas con el numero de operaciones de inyeccion y con la geometria de las distintas secciones de las piezas. Finalmente, se ha evaluado la resistencia a la abrasion de PBT reforzado con un 50% de fibra, en funcion del numero de piezas inyectadas y de la direccion de rayado con respecto a la orientacion del flujo de inyeccion.

  12. Port Risk Assessment Port of Ponce, Guayanilla, Yabucoa, and Las Mareas, Puerto Rico, After Action Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-02-10

    Port Assessment Ponce, Guayanilla, Yabucoa, and Las Mareas Port of Ponce, Guayanilla, Yabucoa, and Las Mareas , Puerto Rico, After Action Report...Introduction. A Port Risk Assessment was conducted for the port of Ponce, Guayanilla, Yabucoa, and Las Mareas , Puerto Rico (South Central...3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2000 to 00-00-2000 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Port Risk Assessment Port of Ponce, Guayanilla, Yabucoa, and Las Mareas

  13. Los plaguicidas y la contaminacion del medio ambiente Venezolano

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stickel, L.F.; Stickel, W.H.

    1972-01-01

    RESUMEN DE RECOMENDACIONES Recomendaciones para el Programa de Investigacion: 1. Establecer un sistema de muestreo biologico para detectar los niveles tendencias de los productos quimicos toxicos en un peque?o numero de si tios representativos. 2. Mantener continua vigilancia de la contaminacion ambiental, mediante la seleccion acertadamente dirigida de las zonas afectadas y de las fuentes de contaminacion. 3. Realizar estudios acerca de las poblaciones de animales silvestres, y del exito de los procesos reproductivos de las especies o grupos clayes de animales que se consideran mas gravemente afectados. 4. Preparar recomendaciones para una accion gubernamental de proteccion al hombre, a la fauna silvestre y al medio ambiente. Recomendaciones para la Accion Administrativa: 1. Establecer limites a la tolerancia de los residuos de plaguicidas en los alimentos. Constituye una medida clave para disminuir la contaminacion ambiental. 2. Establecer normas de calidad del agua para las corrientes, represas, la gos y otros cuerpos. Es la segunda medida clave para reducir la contaminacion del ambiente 3. Exigir un tratamiento adecuado de los efluentes industriales, especialmente antes de que se construyan las nuevas plantas. 4. Exigir a los agricultores que en el uso de plaguicidas sigan los consejos tecnicos autorizados y negar a los vendedores el derecho a recomendar productos por su cuenta. 5. Tomar medidas para recoger y eliminar los recipientes y sobrantes de los plaguicidas.

  14. Source Water Assessment for the Las Vegas Valley Surface Waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albuquerque, S. P.; Piechota, T. C.

    2003-12-01

    The 1996 amendment to the Safe Drinking Water Act of 1974 created the Source Water Assessment Program (SWAP) with an objective to evaluate potential sources of contamination to drinking water intakes. The development of a Source Water Assessment Plan for Las Vegas Valley surface water runoff into Lake Mead is important since it will guide future work on source water protection of the main source of water. The first step was the identification of the watershed boundary and source water protection area. Two protection zones were delineated. Zone A extends 500 ft around water bodies, and Zone B extends 3000 ft from the boundaries of Zone A. These Zones extend upstream to the limits of dry weather flows in the storm channels within the Las Vegas Valley. After the protection areas were identified, the potential sources of contamination in the protection area were inventoried. Field work was conducted to identify possible sources of contamination. A GIS coverage obtained from local data sources was used to identify the septic tank locations. Finally, the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Permits were obtained from the State of Nevada, and included in the inventory. After the inventory was completed, a level of risk was assigned to each potential contaminating activity (PCA). The contaminants of concern were grouped into five categories: volatile organic compounds (VOCs), synthetic organic compounds (SOCs), inorganic compounds (IOCs), microbiological, and radionuclides. The vulnerability of the water intake to each of the PCAs was assigned based on these five categories, and also on three other factors: the physical barrier effectiveness, the risk potential, and the time of travel. The vulnerability analysis shows that the PCAs with the highest vulnerability rating include septic systems, golf courses/parks, storm channels, gas stations, auto repair shops, construction, and the wastewater treatment plant discharges. Based on the current water quality

  15. 77 FR 77090 - Notice of Public Meeting, Las Cruces District Resource Advisory Council Meeting, New Mexico

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-31

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Public Meeting, Las Cruces District Resource Advisory Council Meeting... of Land Management's (BLM) Las Cruces District Resource Advisory Council (RAC) will meet as indicated..., 4100 Dripping Springs Road, Las Cruces, NM, 88005 from 9 a.m.-4 p.m. The public may send...

  16. 78 FR 20354 - Notice of Public Meeting, Las Cruces District Resource Advisory Council Meeting, New Mexico

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-04

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Public Meeting, Las Cruces District Resource Advisory Council Meeting... of Land Management's (BLM) Las Cruces District Resource Advisory Council (RAC) will meet as indicated below. DATES: The RAC will meet on April 23, 2013, at the BLM Las Cruces District Office Main...

  17. 78 FR 44590 - Notice of Public Meeting, Las Cruces District Resource Advisory Council Meeting, New Mexico

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-24

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Public Meeting, Las Cruces District Resource Advisory Council Meeting... of Land Management's (BLM) Las Cruces District Resource Advisory Council (RAC) will meet as indicated below. DATES: The RAC will meet on August 22, 2013, at the BLM Las Cruces District Office...

  18. 78 FR 65356 - Notice of Public Meeting, Las Cruces District Resource Advisory Council Meeting, New Mexico

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-31

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Public Meeting, Las Cruces District Resource Advisory Council Meeting... of Land Management's (BLM) Las Cruces District Resource Advisory Council (RAC) will meet as indicated below. DATES: The RAC will meet on November 20, 2013, at the BLM Las Cruces District Office...

  19. 76 FR 35371 - Proposed Modification of the Las Vegas, NV, Class B Airspace Area; Public Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-17

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Modification of the Las Vegas, NV, Class B... information from airspace users and others, concerning a proposal to modify Class B airspace at Las Vegas, NV... Centennial Parkway, Las Vegas, NV 89149; (2) The meeting on Tuesday, August 23, 2011, will be held...

  20. 40 CFR 81.80 - Las Vegas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Quality Control Regions § 81.80 Las Vegas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Las Vegas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Nevada) has been revised to consist of the territorial area encompassed by... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Las Vegas Intrastate Air...

  1. 40 CFR 81.80 - Las Vegas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Quality Control Regions § 81.80 Las Vegas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Las Vegas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Nevada) has been revised to consist of the territorial area encompassed by... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Las Vegas Intrastate Air...

  2. 40 CFR 81.80 - Las Vegas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Quality Control Regions § 81.80 Las Vegas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Las Vegas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Nevada) has been revised to consist of the territorial area encompassed by... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Las Vegas Intrastate Air...

  3. 40 CFR 81.80 - Las Vegas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Regions § 81.80 Las Vegas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Las Vegas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Nevada) has been revised to consist of the territorial area encompassed by... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Las Vegas Intrastate Air...

  4. 40 CFR 81.80 - Las Vegas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Quality Control Regions § 81.80 Las Vegas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Las Vegas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Nevada) has been revised to consist of the territorial area encompassed by... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Las Vegas Intrastate Air...

  5. Tdp studies and tests for C. A. Energia Electrica de Venezuela (enelven) at planta ramon laguna, units RL-17 and RL-10. Volume 1. Executive summary, RL-17 test report, and gas conversion proposals. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-03-28

    The study, conducted by Babcock and Wilcox, was funded by the U.S. Trade and Development agency on behalf of Enelven. In order to maximize generated power output and minimize operating costs at Planta Ramon Laguna, tests were done to evaluate the condition of equipment at the plant. In order to identify any damage and determine the operating output of each unit, assessments were done of the furnaces, boilers, generators and boiler feed pumps being used in the plant. The report presents the results of these tests. This is the first of three volumes and it is divided into the following sections: (1) Executive Summary; (2) Hydrogen Damage Assessment; (3) RL-17 Gas Conversion Proposal; (4) RL-10 and RL-11 Gas Conversion Proposals.

  6. A full-length infectious clone of beet soil-borne virus indicates the dispensability of the RNA-2 for virus survival in planta and symptom expression on Chenopodium quinoa leaves.

    PubMed

    Crutzen, François; Mehrvar, Mohsen; Gilmer, David; Bragard, Claude

    2009-12-01

    For a better understanding of the functionality and pathogenicity of beet soil-borne virus (BSBV), full-length cDNA clones have been constructed for the three genomic RNAs. With the aim of assessing their effectiveness and relative contribution to the virus housekeeping functions, transcripts were inoculated on Chenopodium quinoa and Beta macrocarpa leaves using five genome combinations. Both RNAs-1 (putative replicase) and -3 (putative movement proteins) proved to be essential for virus replication in planta and symptom production on C. quinoa, whereas RNA-2 (putative coat protein, CP, and a read-through domain, RT) was not. No symptoms were recorded on B. macrocarpa, but viral RNAs were detected. In both host plants, the 19 kDa CP was detected by Western blotting as well as a 115 kDa protein corresponding to the CP-RT.

  7. Capacitación-acción participativa: una experiencia de 24 años en las comunidades rurales de Oaxaca, México.

    PubMed

    Ysunza, Alberto M; Diez-Urdanivia, Silvia; Pérez-Gil, Sara E

    2016-06-08

    Resumen:En este artículo presentamos el proyecto de capacitación llevado a cabo en comunidades de la sierra y costa de Oaxaca, México, desde 1991, por el Centro de Capacitación Integral para Promotores Comunitarios (CECIPROC). La decisión de hacer este trabajo en Oaxaca responde a que ese estado ocupa uno de los primeros lugares de marginación y de desnutrición en menores de 5 años. El objetivo es describir un modelo de capacitación y compartir parte de las experiencias derivadas, tanto del modelo como del trabajo realizado en las distintas áreas (nutrición y alimentación, salud comunitaria, ecología y etnobotánica, y educación y organización), por promotores mujeres y hombres en sus comunidades.La experiencia obtenida en 24 años muestra la factibilidad técnica y social del proyecto en el ámbito de la salud, el reconocimiento social del proyecto del CECIPROC como un organismo civil que ha aportado alternativas como solución a la problemática de salud, el hacer suyo el proyecto por algunos promotores y los diferentes obstáculos a los que se ha enfrentado. Enfatizamos el hecho de que la situación socioeconómica y política prevaleciente en el estado de Oaxaca es una limitante para el buen desarrollo de los programas colectivos de salud, e insistimos en la necesidad de compartir nuestras experiencias para que puedan ser utilizadas en la planificación y ejecución de otros proyectos.

  8. Allergic contact dermatitis to para-phenylenediamine.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, David; Chow, Elizabeth T

    2015-02-01

    Exposure to hair dye is the most frequent route of sensitisation to para-phenylenediamine (PPD), a common contact allergen. International studies have examined the profile of PPD, but Australian-sourced information is lacking. Patients are often dissatisfied with advice to stop dyeing their hair. This study examines patients' characteristics, patch test results and outcomes of PPD allergy from a single Australian centre, through a retrospective analysis of patch test data from 2006 to 2013 at the Liverpool Hospital Dermatology Department. It reviews the science of hair dye allergy, examines alternative hair dyes and investigates strategies for hair dyeing. Of 584 patients, 11 were allergic to PPD. Our PPD allergy prevalence rate of 2% is at the lower end of international reported rates. About half these patients also react to para-toluenediamine (PTD). Affected patients experience a significant lifestyle disturbance. In all, 78% tried alternative hair dyes after the patch test diagnosis and more than half continued to dye their hair. Alternative non-PPD hair dyes are available but the marketplace can be confusing. Although some patients are able to tolerate alternative hair dyes, caution is needed as the risk of developing an allergy to other hair dye ingredients, especially PTD, is high.

  9. Application of Three-Dimensional Models for the Teaching of Time Zones. (Breton Title: Aplicação de Modelos Tridimensionais Para o Ensino de Fusos Horários.) Aplicación de Modelos Tridimensionales Para la Enseñanza de Husos Horarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azevedo Sobreira, Paulo Henrique

    2012-07-01

    deben trabajar en la enseñanza media y básica, en las asignaturas de Geografía y de Ciencias. Entre ellos, el de los husos horarios que es uno de los más importantes para correlacionar la rotación de la Tierra y sus implicaciones en las actividades diarias de los ciudadanos en escala local, regional y global, y en general, cuestiones que implican problemas de las diferencias horarias. Para la enseñanza de los husos horarios en las clases de Geografía, por ejemplo, hay representaciones bidimensionales de los mapas temáticos de husos horarios mundiales, en libros y atlas didácticos. Sin embargo, los profesores se enfrentan con algunas dificultades para hacer posible que sus alumnos tengan una visión tridimensional de este fenómeno astronómico, usando los materiales didácticos disponibles en las escuelas. El objetivo de este trabajo es presentar la construcción de dos propuestas de materiales de bajo costo, que hacen posible la elaboración de modelos tridimensionales para la enseñanza de los husos horarios.

  10. Geological Mapping Using Legacy Geophysical Data in Las Vegas Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donovan, D.; O'Donnell, J.; McLin, K.

    2014-12-01

    In 2008-2011, Clark County, Building Department contracted with Optim to collect 10,700 Reflection Microtremor (ReMi) 600 ft seismic lines that cover most of the metropolitan area of Las Vegas and other outlying communities such as Moapa, Laughlin, Primm, and Coyote Spring. The County completed their goal of characterizing seismic susceptibility of the top 100 ft and the results are posted at http://gisgate.co.clark.nv.us/openweb/. The research question of the authors is: What additional geologic information can be inferred from the data, either through reprocessing, cross correlation of drill hole data or additional data collection? An advantage of geophysical data is that it can be reprocessed to provide additional insight into the local geologic setting. The interpretation is also improved if combined with drill hole data and / or hydrologic information. It should be noted that there is also legacy geophysical data in limited areas collected by the USGS, primarily in conjunction with water well drilling, where some of the ReMi seismic data was collected. An unexpected result of the ReMi survey was a clear delineation of current and paleo channels in Laughlin, Moapa, and Las Vegas. The geometry of the paleochanel, of the Colorado River, is well away from the current position. however the signal is very similar to modern streams such as the Muddy River. Although the surficial geologic mapping in Las Vegas Valley was very detailed, and importantly, was performed prior to development; the new geophysical data provides better details of the lithologic properties of the units. That is it may be an excellent basis for remapping for specific properties related to engineering and hydrologic modeling.

  11. Linear alkyl benzene sulphonate (LAS) degradation by immobilized Pseudomonas aeruginosa under low intensity ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Lijun, Xiang; Bochu, Wang; Zhimin, Li; Chuanren, Duan; Qinghong, Wang; Liu, Liu

    2005-01-15

    We studied the LAS degradation of immobilized Pseudomonas aeruginosa with low-intensity ultrasonic and the influence of original LAS concentration, pH, rotary velocity and different conditions of low-intensity ultrasonic irradiation on the degradation of LAS. In our experiment, the degradation rate of LAS was the main index. We found that low-intensity ultrasonic irradiation could improve the metabolism of microorganism cells and promote the LAS biodegradation of immobilized cells. In the experiment, 50 mg/l LAS were used to simulate wastewater, and low-intensity ultrasonic was considered. We found the influence was obvious, and the optimal degradation rate was acquired when the conditions of ultrasonic were frequency 24 kHz, power 8 W, stimulation time 5 s, intermissive time 30 s, and total time 10 min. The LAS degradation rate of immobilized cells with ultrasonic were respectively 40% and 9.5% higher than that of the suspending cells and immobilized cells without irradiation.

  12. El libro del Relogio del Palacio de las Horas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales, J. D.

    2009-08-01

    This paper resume the investigation entitled ``El libro del Relogio del Palacio de las Horas''. That consist in an edition of the original text of the book of the Clock of the Palace of the Hours from the Books of the knowledge of Astronomy of Alfonso X (Manuscript 156, Complutense University). And a description of the astronomical functionality of the Clock of the Palace of the Hours. It includes a geometric description of the positional astronomy on which the operation of the Palace is based.

  13. Time domain para hydrogen induced polarization.

    PubMed

    Ratajczyk, Tomasz; Gutmann, Torsten; Dillenberger, Sonja; Abdulhussaein, Safaa; Frydel, Jaroslaw; Breitzke, Hergen; Bommerich, Ute; Trantzschel, Thomas; Bernarding, Johannes; Magusin, Pieter C M M; Buntkowsky, Gerd

    2012-01-01

    Para hydrogen induced polarization (PHIP) is a powerful hyperpolarization technique, which increases the NMR sensitivity by several orders of magnitude. However the hyperpolarized signal is created as an anti-phase signal, which necessitates high magnetic field homogeneity and spectral resolution in the conventional PHIP schemes. This hampers the application of PHIP enhancement in many fields, as for example in food science, materials science or MRI, where low B(0)-fields or low B(0)-homogeneity do decrease spectral resolution, leading to potential extinction if in-phase and anti-phase hyperpolarization signals cannot be resolved. Herein, we demonstrate that the echo sequence (45°-τ-180°-τ) enables the acquisition of low resolution PHIP enhanced liquid state NMR signals of phenylpropiolic acid derivatives and phenylacetylene at a low cost low-resolution 0.54 T spectrometer. As low field TD-spectrometers are commonly used in industry or biomedicine for the relaxometry of oil-water mixtures, food, nano-particles, or other systems, we compare two variants of para-hydrogen induced polarization with data-evaluation in the time domain (TD-PHIP). In both TD-ALTADENA and the TD-PASADENA strong spin echoes could be detected under conditions when usually no anti-phase signals can be measured due to the lack of resolution. The results suggest that the time-domain detection of PHIP-enhanced signals opens up new application areas for low-field PHIP-hyperpolarization, such as non-invasive compound detection or new contrast agents and biomarkers in low-field Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). Finally, solid-state NMR calculations are presented, which show that the solid echo (90y-τ-90x-τ) version of the TD-ALTADENA experiment is able to convert up to 10% of the PHIP signal into visible magnetization.

  14. [MEDICAGO SATIVA L: IMPROVEMENT AND NEW APPROACHES OF ITS NUTRITIONAL AND FUNCTIONAL VALUE BY BACTERIAL CO-INOCULATION].

    PubMed

    Martínez, Rosario; Nebot, Elena; Porres, Jesús María; Kapravelou, Garyfallia; Del Moral, Ana; Talbi, Chouhra; Bedmar, Eulogio Jose; López-Jurado, María

    2015-12-01

    Objetivo: estudiar el efecto de la inoculación con Ensifer meliloti y Halomonas maura sobre el crecimiento y el valor nutricional y funcional de la leguminosa Medicago sativa L., cultivada bajo condiciones de salinidad. Método: las plantas de M. sativa se cultivaron con una solución de mezcla de sales CaSO4, MgCl, NaCl and Na- HCO3 y se coinocularon con su rizobio específico y la bacteria H. maura. Se determinaron los parámetros fisiológicos de las plantas, así como el contenido en nitrógeno y minerales, y se llevó a cabo un proceso de digestibilidad in vitro. Resultados: la salinidad ejerció un efecto negativo sobre las plantas; sin embargo, la coinoculación de las mismas incrementó su productividad, el contenido en nitrógeno, minerales totales, Ca y Mg. Además, los parámetros fisiológicos de potencial hídrico y concentración de leghemoglobina se incrementaron. Tanto la salinidad como la coinoculación de las plantas aumentaron la capacidad antioxidante de la leguminosa en los dializados y retenidos obtenidos tras someter a la planta a un proceso de digestibilidad in vitro. Conclusión: la coinoculación con E. meliloti y H. maura podría mejorar el cultivo de la alfalfa bajo condiciones específicas de salinidad, aumentando su composición nutricional y funcional, pudiendo considerarse en la formulación de suplementos nutricionales para el consumo humano.

  15. Effects of process stability on anaerobic biodegradation of LAS in UASB reactors.

    PubMed

    Løbner, Trine; Toräng, Lars; Batstone, Damien John; Schmidt, Jens Ejbye; Angelidaki, Irini

    2005-03-30

    Anaerobic biodegradation of linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS) was studied in upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors operated under mesophilic (37 degrees C) and thermophilic (55 degrees C) conditions. LAS C12 concentration in the influents was 10 mg.L(-1), and the hydraulic retention time in the reactors was 2 days. Adsorption of LAS C12 was assessed in an autoclaved control reactor and ceased after 115 days. The reactors were operated for a minimum of 267 days; 40-80% removal of LAS C12 was observed. A temperature reduction from 55 degrees C to 32 degrees C for 30 h resulted in process imbalance as indicated by increase of volatile fatty acids (VFA). The imbalance was much more intense in the LAS amended reactor compared with an unamended reactor. At the same time, the process imbalance resulted in discontinued LAS removal. This finding indicates that process stability is a key factor in anaerobic biological removal of LAS. After a recovery period, the removal of LAS resumed, providing evidence of biological anaerobic LAS degradation. The removal remained constant until termination of experiments in the reactor. Biodegradation of LAS in the mesophilic reactor was at the same level as in the thermophilic reactor under stable conditions.

  16. Anaerobic bioprocessing of sewage sludge, focusing on degradation of linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS).

    PubMed

    Angelidaki, I; Toräng, L; Waul, C M; Schmidt, J E

    2004-01-01

    Anaerobic degradation of sludge amended with linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS) was tested in a one stage continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) and a two stage reactor system consisting of a CSTR as first step and upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactor as the second step. Anaerobic removal of LAS was only observed at the second step but not at the first step. Removal of LAS in the UASB reactors was approx. 80% where half was due to absorption and the other half was apparently due to biological removal as shown from the LAS mass balance. At the end of the experiment the reactors were spiked with 14C-LAS which resulted in 5.6% 14CO2 in the produced gas. Total mass balance of the radioactivity was however not achieved. In batch experiments it was found that LAS at concentrations higher than 50 mg/l is inhibitory for most microbial groups of the anaerobic process. Therefore, low initial LAS concentration is a prerequisite for successful LAS degradation. The results from the present study suggest that anaerobic degradation of LAS is possible in UASB reactors when the concentration of LAS is low enough to avoid inhibition of microorganisms active in the anaerobic process.

  17. Cooling by Para-to-Ortho-Hydrogen Conversion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherman, A.; Nast, T.

    1983-01-01

    Catalyst speeds conversion, increasing capacity of solid hydrogen cooling system. In radial-flow catalytic converter, para-hydrogen is converted to equilibrium mixture of para-hydrogen and ortho-hydrogen as it passes through porous cylinder of catalyst. Addition of catalyst increases capacity of hydrogen sublimation cooling systems for radiation detectors.

  18. Requisitos para utilizar el enlace | Smokefree Español

    Cancer.gov

    Espanol.smokefree.gov ofrece apoyo y recursos para norteamericanos que hablan español y quieren dejar de fumar. Este sitio en la red fue creada por la División de Investigación para el Control del Tabaco del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer.

  19. LAS homolog distribution shift during wastewater treatment and composting ecological implications

    SciTech Connect

    Prats, D.; Ruiz, F.; Vazquez, B.; Zarzo, D. . Div. Chemical Engineering); Berna, J.L.; Moreno, A. )

    1993-09-01

    The behavior of LAS (linear alkylbenzene sulfonate) in different environmental compartments was studied through wastewater treatment process steps in sewage treatment plants of Alicante and Benidorm (activated sludge type) as well as in Guardamar (lagoons). The fate of LAS, using a specific HPLC method, was monitored during treatment sludge compostage and soil amendment operations. Finally, the marine sediments close to a submarine wastewater sewer outfall were analyzed. The results show significant differences between distribution of LAS homologs in water and solids (sludges, sediments, and soils), as compared to the original distribution in detergent formulations, yielding a lower LAS average molecular weight in water samples. The change observed in the homolog distribution of LAS implies a reduction in the toxicity to Daphnia, because a lower average molecular weight of LAS is less toxic.

  20. Unnatural pregnancy deaths in Las Vegas: A descriptive study.

    PubMed

    Mahesan Paul, Anthea B; Simms, Lary; Paul, Abraham Ebenezer; Yorke, Jojo; Saroya, Tarnjot; Schmidseder, Christopher; Mahesan, Andrew A; Mahesan, Arnold M

    2016-11-01

    This study reports descriptive data assessing the prevalence of various risk factors and associations among pregnancy-related death by unnatural causes (PRUD), namely suicide, homicide and accidental causes in the city of Las Vegas. In 7215 women referred for autopsy, results showed PRUD 0.1% (n = 37) was more common in the Caucasian race 45.9% (n = 17), and ages 20-30 years 43.2% (n = 16). We also identified high prevalence of mental illness 51.3% (n = 19) and low prenatal care 37.8% (n = 14), particularly in our suicide cohort 100.0% (n = 13), and 15.3% (n = 2) respectively. Our study demonstrates the first investigation to identify the relationship between mental illness, particularly mood and substance disorders with pregnancy-related unnatural death.

  1. Proteus aircraft over Las Cruces International Airport in New Mexico.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The unique Proteus aircraft served as a test bed for NASA-sponsored flight tests designed to validate collision-avoidance technologies proposed for uninhabited aircraft. The tests, flown over southern New Mexico in March, 2002, used the Proteus as a surrogate uninhabited aerial vehicle (UAV) while three other aircraft flew toward the Proteus from various angles on simulated collision courses. Radio-based 'detect, see and avoid' equipment on the Proteus successfully detected the other aircraft and relayed that information to a remote pilot on the ground at Las Cruces Airport. The pilot then transmitted commands to the Proteus to maneuver it away from the potential collisions. The flight demonstration, sponsored by NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, New Mexico State University, Scaled Composites, the U.S. Navy and Modern Technology Solutions, Inc., were intended to demonstrate that UAVs can be flown safely and compatibly in the same skies as piloted aircraft.

  2. Proteus aircraft low-level flyby at Las Cruces Airport.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The unique Proteus aircraft served as a test bed for NASA-sponsored flight tests designed to validate collision-avoidance technologies proposed for uninhabited aircraft. The tests, flown over southern New Mexico in March, 2002, used the Proteus as a surrogate uninhabited aerial vehicle (UAV) while three other aircraft flew toward the Proteus from various angles on simulated collision courses. Radio-based 'detect, see and avoid' equipment on the Proteus successfully detected the other aircraft and relayed that information to a remote pilot on the ground at Las Cruces Airport. The pilot then transmitted commands to the Proteus to maneuver it away from the potential collisions. The flight demonstration, sponsored by NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, New Mexico State University, Scaled Composites, the U.S. Navy and Modern Technology Solutions, Inc., were intended to demonstrate that UAVs can be flown safely and compatibly in the same skies as piloted aircraft.

  3. Proteus in flight over mountains near Las Cruces, New Mexico.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The unique Proteus aircraft served as a test bed for NASA-sponsored flight tests designed to validate collision-avoidance technologies proposed for uninhabited aircraft. The tests, flown over southern New Mexico in March, 2002, used the Proteus as a surrogate uninhabited aerial vehicle (UAV) while three other aircraft flew toward the Proteus from various angles on simulated collision courses. Radio-based 'detect, see and avoid' equipment on the Proteus successfully detected the other aircraft and relayed that information to a remote pilot on the ground at Las Cruces Airport. The pilot then transmitted commands to the Proteus to maneuver it away from the potential collisions. The flight demonstration, sponsored by NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, New Mexico State University, Scaled Composites, the U.S. Navy and Modern Technology Solutions, Inc., were intended to demonstrate that UAVs can be flown safely and compatibly in the same skies as piloted aircraft.

  4. Towards a double field theory on para-Hermitian manifolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaisman, Izu

    2013-12-01

    In a previous paper, we have shown that the geometry of double field theory has a natural interpretation on flat para-Kähler manifolds. In this paper, we show that the same geometric constructions can be made on any para-Hermitian manifold. The field is interpreted as a compatible (pseudo-)Riemannian metric. The tangent bundle of the manifold has a natural, metric-compatible bracket that extends the C-bracket of double field theory. In the para-Kähler case, this bracket is equal to the sum of the Courant brackets of the two Lagrangian foliations of the manifold. Then, we define a canonical connection and an action of the field that correspond to similar objects of double field theory. Another section is devoted to the Marsden-Weinstein reduction in double field theory on para-Hermitian manifolds. Finally, we give examples of fields on some well-known para-Hermitian manifolds.

  5. Towards a double field theory on para-Hermitian manifolds

    SciTech Connect

    Vaisman, Izu

    2013-12-15

    In a previous paper, we have shown that the geometry of double field theory has a natural interpretation on flat para-Kähler manifolds. In this paper, we show that the same geometric constructions can be made on any para-Hermitian manifold. The field is interpreted as a compatible (pseudo-)Riemannian metric. The tangent bundle of the manifold has a natural, metric-compatible bracket that extends the C-bracket of double field theory. In the para-Kähler case, this bracket is equal to the sum of the Courant brackets of the two Lagrangian foliations of the manifold. Then, we define a canonical connection and an action of the field that correspond to similar objects of double field theory. Another section is devoted to the Marsden-Weinstein reduction in double field theory on para-Hermitian manifolds. Finally, we give examples of fields on some well-known para-Hermitian manifolds.

  6. City of Las Vegas Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Demonstration Program

    SciTech Connect

    2013-12-31

    The City of Las Vegas was awarded Department of Energy (DOE) project funding in 2009, for the City of Las Vegas Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Demonstration Program. This project allowed the City of Las Vegas to purchase electric and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and associated electric vehicle charging infrastructure. The City anticipated the electric vehicles having lower overall operating costs and emissions similar to traditional and hybrid vehicles.

  7. Environmental levels of Linear alkylbenzene Sulfonates (LAS) in sediments from the Tagus estuary (Portugal): environmental implications.

    PubMed

    Hampel, M; Canário, J; Branco, V; Vale, C; Blasco, J

    2009-02-01

    Sediments from the Tagus estuary (Portugal) were collected at 40 stations in July and December 2004. Total LAS concentrations ranged between 0.03 and 17.76 mg LAS.kg(-1) dry weight in July, and between 0.09 and 9.57 mg LAS.kg(-1) in December. Highest LAS concentrations were found at the upper northern part of the estuary, coincident with the localisation of an important waste water treatment station. According to the Predicted No Effect Concentration (PNEC) of 8.1 mg.kg(-1) derived for this compound, Environmental Risk Assessment (ERA) identified a hazard for the ecosystem at the station with the highest LAS concentration, and similar results are obtained by Equilibrium Partitioning Method (EPM). Nevertheless, LAS concentrations decreased significantly between samplings in the stations with the highest LAS concentrations in July, whereas increased LAS concentrations at adjacent stations were found in December. In the remaining stations, LAS concentrations were up to three orders of magnitude lower, representing no hazard for the sediment community.

  8. Stationary Phase-Specific Virulence Factor Overproduction by a lasR Mutant of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Cabeen, Matthew T.

    2014-01-01

    Secreted virulence factors of the human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa are often under quorum sensing control. Cells lacking the quorum-sensing regulator LasR show reduced virulence factor production under typical laboratory conditions and are hypo-virulent in short-term animal infection models, yet lasR mutants are frequently associated with long-term infection in cystic fibrosis patients. Here, I show that in stationary-phase or slow-growth conditions, lasR cells continuously and strongly produce the important virulence factor pyocyanin while wild-type cells do not. Pyocyanin overproduction by lasR cells is permitted by loss of repression by RsaL, a LasR-dependent negative regulator. lasR cells also contribute pyocyanin in mixed cultures, even under “cheating” conditions where they depend on their wild-type neighbors for nutrients. Finally, some clinical P. aeruginosa isolates with lasR mutations can overproduce pyocyanin in the laboratory. These results imply that slow-growing clinical populations of lasR cells in chronic infections may contribute to virulence by producing pyocyanin under conditions where lasR+ cells do not. PMID:24533146

  9. Estudio comparativo de las moléculas isovalentes de interés atmosférico CF3Cl y CF3Br y sus correspondientes halógenos aislados Cl y Br.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayor, E.; Velasco, A. M.; Martín, I.; Lavín, C.

    Los estados Rydberg moleculares han suscitado en los últimos años un creciente interés entre los espectroscopistas experimentales, motivado en parte por el desarrollo de nuevas técnicas espectroscópicas capaces de investigar estos estados altamente excitados electrónicamente. Los procesos de fotoabsorción que implican estados Rydberg en los derivados halogenados del metano son de gran importancia, debido a su abundancia en la atmósfera y a sus implicaciones medioambientales. Por ello, la obtención de datos relativos a sus fuerzas de oscilador es de gran interés. En este trabajo se aborda el estudio de dichas propiedades para las moléculas isovalentes CF3Cl y CF3Br. Ambas moléculas presentan idéntica estructura electrónica para el estado fundamental por lo que se espera que sus espectros Rydberg presenten grandes similitudes, en ausencia de perturbaciones. Por ello y dada la escasez de datos relativos a fuerzas de oscilador, hemos establecido la corrección de nuestros resultados en base a las analogías esperadas en las intensidades espectrales correspondientes a transiciones análogas. Por otro lado, Novak y col. [1] han encontrado experimentalmente un marcado carácter atómico en el espectro correspondiente a estas moléculas, siendo muy similar a los de los átomos de Cl y Br. Por ello en el presente trabajo, además de establecer la comparación entre ambas moléculas hemos buscado las similitudes con sus respectivos halógenos. Los cálculos relativos a las especies moleculares se han realizado utilizando la Metodología Molécular de Orbítales de Defecto Cuántico (MQDO) [2], mientras que para el estudio de los átomos de Cl y Br se empleó la versión relativista del método (RQDO) [3].

  10. Discusión de las aproximaciones utilizadas en el estudio de la recombinación dielectrónica de los metales en envolturas estelares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruzado, A.; di Rocco, H. O.; Ringuelet, A.

    Se calcularon nuevos parámetros atómicos del MgI reemplazando los niveles de energía teóricos por los observados. Con ellos se calculó nuevamente el flujo originado en la Recombinación Dielectrónica (RD) del MgII y se comparó con resultados anteriores. Se evaluó también la posible influencia de diferentes fuentes de opacidad, en el flujo originado en la RD de los metales en atmósferas extendidas de estrellas tempranas. En particular, se calculó la profundidad óptica de las líneas de MgI para diferentes condiciones físicas del medio.

  11. An updated model for nitrate uptake modelling in plants. I. Functional component: cross-combination of flow–force interpretation of nitrate uptake isotherms, and environmental and in planta regulation of nitrate influx

    PubMed Central

    Le Deunff, Erwan; Malagoli, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims In spite of major breakthroughs in the last three decades in the identification of root nitrate uptake transporters in plants and the associated regulation of nitrate transport activities, a simplified and operational modelling approach for nitrate uptake is still lacking. This is due mainly to the difficulty in linking the various regulations of nitrate transport that act at different levels of time and on different spatial scales. Methods A cross-combination of a Flow–Force approach applied to nitrate influx isotherms and experimentally determined environmental and in planta regulation is used to model nitrate in oilseed rape, Brassica napus. In contrast to ‘Enzyme–Substrate’ interpretations, a Flow–Force modelling approach considers the root as a single catalytic structure and does not infer hypothetical cellular processes among nitrate transporter activities across cellular layers in the mature roots. In addition, this approach accounts for the driving force on ion transport based on the gradient of electrochemical potential, which is more appropriate from a thermodynamic viewpoint. Key Results and Conclusions Use of a Flow–Force formalism on nitrate influx isotherms leads to the development of a new conceptual mechanistic basis to model more accurately N uptake by a winter oilseed rape crop under field conditions during the whole growth cycle. This forms the functional component of a proposed new structure–function mechanistic model of N uptake. PMID:24638820

  12. Optimization of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) degradation in UASB reactors by varying bioavailability of LAS, hydraulic retention time and specific organic load rate.

    PubMed

    Okada, Dagoberto Y; Delforno, Tiago P; Esteves, Andressa S; Sakamoto, Isabel K; Duarte, Iolanda C S; Varesche, Maria B A

    2013-01-01

    Degradation of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) in UASB reactors was optimized by varying the bioavailability of LAS based on the concentration of biomass in the system (1.3-16 g TS/L), the hydraulic retention time (HRT), which was operated at 6, 35 or 80 h, and the concentration of co-substrates as specific organic loading rates (SOLR) ranging from 0.03-0.18 g COD/g TVS.d. The highest degradation rate of LAS (76%) was related to the lowest SOLR (0.03 g COD/g TVS.d). Variation of the HRT between 6 and 80 h resulted in degradation rates of LAS ranging from 18% to 55%. Variation in the bioavailability of LAS resulted in discrete changes in the degradation rates (ranging from 37-53%). According to the DGGE profiles, the archaeal communities exhibited greater changes than the bacterial communities, especially in biomass samples that were obtained from the phase separator. The parameters that exhibited more influence on LAS degradation were the SOLR followed by the HRT.

  13. Las Vegas Basin Seismic Response Project: Measured Shallow Soil Velocities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luke, B. A.; Louie, J.; Beeston, H. E.; Skidmore, V.; Concha, A.

    2002-12-01

    The Las Vegas valley in Nevada is a deep (up to 5 km) alluvial basin filled with interlayered gravels, sands, and clays. The climate is arid. The water table ranges from a few meters to many tens of meters deep. Laterally extensive thin carbonate-cemented lenses are commonly found across parts of the valley. Lenses range beyond 2 m in thickness, and occur at depths exceeding 200 m. Shallow seismic datasets have been collected at approximately ten sites around the Las Vegas valley, to characterize shear and compression wave velocities in the near surface. Purposes for the surveys include modeling of ground response to dynamic loads, both natural and manmade, quantification of soil stiffness to aid structural foundation design, and non-intrusive materials identification. Borehole-based measurement techniques used include downhole and crosshole, to depths exceeding 100 m. Surface-based techniques used include refraction and three different methods involving inversion of surface-wave dispersion datasets. This latter group includes two active-source techniques, the Spectral Analysis of Surface Waves (SASW) method and the Multi-Channel Analysis of Surface Waves (MASW) method; and a new passive-source technique, the Refraction Mictrotremor (ReMi) method. Depths to halfspace for the active-source measurements ranged beyond 50 m. The passive-source method constrains shear wave velocities to 100 m depths. As expected, the stiff cemented layers profoundly affect local velocity gradients. Scale effects are evident in comparisons of (1) very local measurements typified by borehole methods, to (2) the broader coverage of the SASW and MASW measurements, to (3) the still broader and deeper resolution made possible by the ReMi measurements. The cemented layers appear as sharp spikes in the downhole datasets and are problematic in crosshole measurements due to refraction. The refraction method is useful only to locate the depth to the uppermost cemented layer. The surface

  14. Enfoque en las horas despues del dia en escuela para la prevencion de violencia (Focus on After-School Time for Violence Prevention). ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patten, Peggy; Robertson, Anne S.

    Perhaps 8 million children spend the after-school hours at home alone. In the absence of adult supervision, many of these youth are likely to engage in delinquent or other high-risk activities. This Spanish-language digest reveals research that suggests after-school programs can help to prevent youths from engaging in these activities in two ways:…

  15. Metodo de Archivar las Observaciones del Comportamiento del Nino, Como Guia para Entenderlo Mejor (Methods of Recording Observations of Children's Behavior, A Guide for Better Understanding)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stamp, Isla M.

    1971-01-01

    Copies of the Behaviour Study Technique described in this article may be obtained in English from the Australian Council for Educational Research, Frederick St., Hawthorn, Victoria, Australia 3122. (RY)

  16. La Evolucion del Curriculo de las Matematicas: Un Folleto para los Padres de Familia. (The Changing Mathematics Curriculum: A Booklet for Parents).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento.

    This booklet, written in Spanish, provides a guide for parents to help their children become successful in school mathematics. The information is divided into four sections: (1) important facts about the mathematics curriculum and mathematics instruction; (2) expectations about participation, calculators, cooperative learning, dialogue, and…

  17. [Clinical experience with zidovudine in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Analysis of 117 cases. Grupo Andaluz para el Estudio de las Enfermedades Infecciosas].

    PubMed

    Biedma, D; Bascuñana, A; Viciana, P; Causse, M; Torres Tortosa, M; Lozano de León, F; Pujol, E; Pachón, J

    1992-09-01

    In order to assess the efficacy and the toxicity of zidovudine in AIDS patients, we have studied, prospectively, 117 patients that were treated with this drug, in several andalusian hospitals between January 1988 and June 1990. Initial dose of the drug was 200 mg every 4 hours. Mean survival was 100% at 6 months and 66.5% at 23 months. Survival at 19 months was higher in ADVP (77%) than in non-ADVP (48%). A positive influence on weight. Karnofsky index and number of opportunistic infections during the six first months of treatment was recorded, benefit that was lost progressively from that moment onwards. Main adverse effects were hematological, 10.1% of the patients requiring transfusions due to hemoglobin lower than 6.5 gr%. The more frequent cause to stop therapy was severe neutropenia (less than 500 neutrophils per mm). We consider that the beneficial effect of zidovudine is only transient, diminishing gradually when the treatment is prolonged. At present doses adverse effects are moderate not being present in most of the patients.

  18. Comparative study of bacteremias caused by Enterococcus spp. with and without high-level resistance to gentamicin. The Grupo Andaluz para el estudio de las Enfermedades Infecciosas.

    PubMed

    Caballero-Granado, F J; Cisneros, J M; Luque, R; Torres-Tortosa, M; Gamboa, F; Díez, F; Villanueva, J L; Pérez-Cano, R; Pasquau, J; Merino, D; Menchero, A; Mora, D; López-Ruz, M A; Vergara, A

    1998-02-01

    A prospective, multicenter study was carried out over a period of 10 months. All patients with clinically significant bacteremia caused by Enterococcus spp. were included. The epidemiological, microbiological, clinical, and prognostic features and the relationship of these features to the presence of high-level resistance to gentamicin (HLRG) were studied. Ninety-three patients with enterococcal bacteremia were included, and 31 of these cases were caused by HLRG (33%). The multivariate analysis selected chronic renal failure, intensive care unit stay, previous use of antimicrobial agents, and Enterococcus faecalis species as the independent risk factors that influenced the development of HLRG. The strains with HLRG showed lower levels of susceptibility to penicillin and ciprofloxacin. Clinical features (except for chronic renal failure) were similar in both groups of patients. HLRG did not influence the prognosis for patients with enterococcal bacteremia in terms of either the crude mortality rate (29% for patients with bacteremia caused by enterococci with HLRG and 28% for patients not infected with strains with HLRG) or the hospital stay after the acquisition of enterococcal bacteremia. Hemodynamic compromise, inappropriate antimicrobial therapy, and mechanical ventilation were revealed in the multivariate analysis to be the independent risk factors for mortality. Prolonged hospitalization was associated with the nosocomial acquisition of bacteremia and polymicrobial infections.

  19. Community-acquired bacterial pneumonia in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients: validation of severity criteria. The Grupo Andaluz para el Estudio de las Enfermedades Infecciosas.

    PubMed

    Cordero, E; Pachón, J; Rivero, A; Girón, J A; Gómez-Mateos, J; Merino, M D; Torres-Tortosa, M; González-Serrano, M; Aliaga, L; Collado, A; Hernández-Quero, J; Barrera, A; Nuño, E

    2000-12-01

    Severity criteria for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) have always excluded patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. A 1-yr, multicenter, prospective observational study of HIV-infected patients with bacterial CAP was done to validate the criteria used in the American Thoracic Society (ATS) guidelines for CAP, and to determine the prognosis-associated factors in the HIV-infected population with bacterial CAP. Overall, 355 cases were included, with an attributable mortality of 9.3%. Patients who met the ATS criteria had a longer hospital stay (p = 0.01), longer duration of fever (p < 0.001), and higher attributable mortality (13.1% versus 3.5%, p = 0.02) than those who did not. Three factors were independently related to mortality: CD4(+) cell count < 100/microl, radiologic progression of disease, and shock. Pleural effusion, cavities, and/or multilobar infiltrates at admission were independently associated with radiologic progression. A prognostic rule based on the five criteria of shock, CD4(+) cell count < 100/microl, pleural effusion, cavities, and multilobar infiltrates had a high negative predictive value for mortality (97.1%). The attributable mortality for severe pneumonia was 11.3%, as compared with 1.3% for nonsevere disease (p = 0.008). The ATS severity criteria are valid in HIV-infected patients with bacterial CAP. Our study provides the basis for identification of patients who may require hospitalization determined by clinical judgment and the five clinical criteria of shock, a CD4(+) cell count < 100/microl, pleural effusion, cavities, and multilobar involvement. These prognostic factors should be validated in independent cohort studies.

  20. Prospective evaluation of fever of unknown origin in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus. Grupo Andaluz para el Estudio de las Enfermedades Infecciosas.

    PubMed

    Lozano, F; Torre-Cisneros, J; Bascuñana, A; Polo, J; Viciana, P; García-Ordóñez, M A; Hernández-Quero, J; Márquez, M; Vergara, A; Díez, F; Pujol, E; Torres-Tortosa, M; Pasquau, J; Hernández-Burruezo, J J; Suárez, I

    1996-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the frequency and aetiology of fever of unknown origin (FUO) in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), to assess the value of the tests used in its diagnosis, and to evaluate possible models of diagnosis for the causes found most frequently. One hundred twenty-eight (3.5%) of 3603 hospitalised HIV-positive patients evaluated from October 1992 to December 1993 had FUO, defined by established criteria. Eighty-six percent of patients with FUO had previously progressed to AIDS. The median CD4+ cell count was 46/mm3. A definite diagnosis was made in 96 (75%) of the 128 patients and a possible diagnosis in 24 (18.7%). whilst no diagnosis was made in eight cases (6.2%). Tuberculosis (48.3%), visceral leishmaniasis (16%), and infection by Mycobacterium avium complex (6.9%) were the diseases found most frequently. The most useful diagnostic tests were liver biopsy (68.9%) and bone marrow aspirate/biopsy (39.7%). It is not possible to predict clinically the cases of FUO due to tuberculosis, whilst thrombocytopaenia < 100,000 cells/mm3 alone is useful for differentiating the cases of visceral leishmaniasis, with a negative predictive value of 95.2%.

  1. Curriculum Guide for Spanish Language Arts, Intermediate Level J = Guia para la ensenanza de las artes del lenguaje espanol, nivel elemental intermedio J. Grade 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chicago Board of Education, IL. Dept. of Curriculum.

    The curriculum guide for teachers of Spanish language arts for native Spanish-speaking students in the Chicago public schools' bilingual education program is introduced by a section defining the areas to be emphasized in the program: word attack, comprehension skills, study skills, and literature appreciation. Sections follow for each of the areas…

  2. Curriculum Guide for Spanish Language Arts, Primary Level B = Guia para la ensenanza de las artes del lenguaje espanol, primaria, nivel B.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chicago Board of Education, IL. Dept. of Curriculum.

    The curriculum guide for teachers of Spanish language arts for native Spanish-speaking primary students in the Chicago public schools' bilingual education program is introduced by a section on preparing instructional material for this group and a section defining the areas to be emphasized in the program: word attack, comprehension skills, study…

  3. Curriculum Guide for Spanish Language Arts, Primary Level A = Guia para la ensenanza de las artes del lenguaje espanol, primaria, nivel A.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chicago Board of Education, IL. Dept. of Curriculum.

    The curriculum guide for teachers of Spanish language arts for native Spanish-speaking primary students in the Chicago public schools' bilingual education program is introduced by a section on preparing instructional material for this group and a section defining the areas to be emphasized in the program: word attack, comprehension skills, study…

  4. Curriculum Guide for Spanish Language Arts, Level D. Working Draft = Guia para la ensenanza de las artes del lenguaje espanol, nivel D. Edicion experimental.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chicago Board of Education, IL. Dept. of Curriculum.

    The curriculum guide for teachers of Spanish language arts for native Spanish-speaking primary students in the Chicago public schools' bilingual education program is introduced by a section outlining the program and defining the areas to be emphasized in the program: word attack, comprehension skills, study skills, and literature appreciation.…

  5. Curriculum Guide for Spanish Language Arts, Intermediate Level K = Guia para la ensenanza de las artes del lenguaje espanol, nivel elemental intermedio K. Grade 5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chicago Board of Education, IL. Dept. of Curriculum.

    The curriculum guide for teachers of Spanish language arts for native Spanish-speaking students in the Chicago public schools' bilingual education program is introduced by a section defining the areas to be emphasized in the program: word attack, comprehension skills, study skills, and literature appreciation. Sections follow for each of the areas…

  6. Curriculum Guide for Spanish Language Arts, Elementary Level F. Field Test = Guia para la ensenanza de las artes del lenguaje espanol, nivel elemental primario F. Edicion experimental.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chicago Board of Education, IL. Dept. of Curriculum.

    The curriculum guide for teachers of Spanish language arts for native Spanish-speaking primary students in the Chicago public schools' bilingual education program is introduced by a section outlining the program and defining the areas to be emphasized in the program: word attack, comprehension skills, study skills, and literature appreciation.…

  7. Curriculum Guide for Spanish Language Arts, Primary Level C = Guia para la ensenanza de las artes del lenguaje espanol, primaria, nivel C. (Grade 1).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chicago Board of Education, IL. Dept. of Curriculum.

    The curriculum guide for teachers of Spanish language arts for native Spanish-speaking primary students in the Chicago public schools' bilingual education program is introduced by a section defining the areas to be emphasized in the program: word attack, comprehension skills, study skills, literature appreciation, and writing skills. Sections…

  8. Curriculum Guide for Spanish Language Arts, Level E. Working Draft = Guia para la ensenanza de las artes del lenguaje espanol, nivel E. Edicion experimental.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chicago Board of Education, IL. Dept. of Curriculum.

    The curriculum guide for teachers of Spanish language arts for native Spanish-speaking primary students in the Chicago public schools' bilingual education program is introduced by a section outlining the program and defining the areas to be emphasized in the program: word attack, comprehension skills, study skills, and literature appreciation.…

  9. Spanish Language Arts. A Handbook for the Primary Teachers = Las artes del lenguaje espanol. Un manual para maestros de nivel primario.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chicago Board of Education, IL. Dept. of Curriculum.

    A teaching guide for teachers of language arts for native Spanish-speaking primary school students in the Chicago public schools consists of four sections and appendices. Part I introduces the concepts of the language arts program, its behavioral objectives, suggestions for teachers, and notes on the characteristics of students of this age group.…

  10. Lo Que el Trabajo Requiere de las Escuelas. Informe de la Comision SCANS para America 2000 (What Work Requires of Schools. A SCANS Report for America 2000).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Labor, Washington, DC. Secretary's Commission on Achieving Necessary Skills.

    The Secretary's Commission on Achieving Necessary Skills (SCANS) examined the demands of the workplace and whether young people were capable of meeting those demands. Specifically, SCANS determined the level of skills required to enter employment. Fundamental changes in the nature of work were identified; these changes were found to hold…

  11. Nosotras viviremos. Las destrezas: Un manual de capacitacion para trabajar con jovenes latinas campesinas (A Capacity Building Training Manual for Working with Latina Farmworking Youth).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolomey, Antonieta; Munoz-Lopez, Rosie; Ramirez-Garnica, Gabriela; Ramos, Flavia S.

    This project builds organizational and staff capacity to deliver HIV/AIDS education to farmworking Hispanic female adolescents and women. It includes two training manuals, one addressing the issues of farmworking mothers/mentors, and one addressing the issues of preadolescent and adolescent farmworking girls. This manual for girls emphasizes…

  12. Perspectivas sobre las escuelas charter: Una resena para padres de familia (Perspectives on Charter Schools: A Review for Parents). ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donahoo, Saran

    Recently, charter schools have gained popularity with parents, students, and others as alternatives to public schools, but what are charter schools and what effects are they having? This Spanish-language Digest defines charter schools and clarifies some of the administrative and legal details surrounding such schools. The Digest also lays out some…

  13. Screenwriting: A Strategy for the Improvement of Writing Instructional Practices (La escritura de guiones: una estrategia para mejorar las prácticas instruccionales de escritura)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amado, Hernán

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a pedagogical experience that addresses the use of an instructional strategy called screenwriting aimed at improving the teaching of writing in an educational context. This pedagogical intervention took place in a private English language school, where three adult students willingly participated to create their own short…

  14. New Sounds of the English Consonants for Spanish Speakers Learning English (Sonidos Nuevos de las Consonantes Inglesas Para los de Habla Espanola Aprendiendo Ingles).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagore, Mary Louise

    This book "represents an effort to present in simply and readily understood terms some of the sounds in English that create problems for the Spanish speaker learning English." Each of the 18 chapters teaches a specific consonant through a comparison of the Spanish and English pronunciations, facial diagrams, explanations of articulation, minimal…

  15. Latino Families in the United States. A Resourcebook for Family Life Education = Las Familias Latinas en los Estados Unidos. Recursos para la Capacitacion Familiar.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrade, Sally J., Ed.

    The primary objectives of this resource book are to increase family life educators' knowledge and understanding of Latinos and to encourage advocacy by Latinos for appropriate family life programs in their communities. English and Spanish versions of the same text are included. There are six chapters. Chapter 1 outlines the book's objectives and…

  16. Bases para el Curriculum del Primer Ciclo de las Escuelas de Nivel Intermedio (Bases for the First Term Curriculum in Intermediate Schools).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fermin Mignone, Emilio; And Others

    This curriculum guide for intermediate schools in Argentina begins with a discussion of the historical development of such schools and of their place in the overall educational scheme. The section on the curriculum provides detailed information on objectives, content, and activities; philosophical, political, sociological, methodological, and…

  17. A Total Water Management Analysis of the Las Vegas Wash Watershed, Nevada

    EPA Science Inventory

    Climate change, land use change, and population growth are fundamental factors affecting future hydrologic conditions in streams, especially in arid regions with scarce water resources. Located in the arid southwest, Las Vegas Valley located within the Las Vegas Wash watershed is...

  18. Problem-Solving in Las Vegas: Students Are Building Skills and a Global Network.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Budd, Gregory; Curry, Don

    1995-01-01

    Describes a project initiated at Silverado High School in Las Vegas, where students from Las Vegas and schools across the United States monitor the levels of radon in the atmosphere. Enables students to learn first hand about the collection, analysis, and interpretation of scientific data and to network with other students from the United States…

  19. Inhibition of biogas production by alkyl benzene sulfonates (LAS) in a screening test for anaerobic biodegradability.

    PubMed

    Garcia, M Teresa; Campos, Encarna; Dalmau, Manel; Illán, Patricia; Sánchez-Leal, Joaquin

    2006-02-01

    The effect of the inoculum source on the digestion of linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS) under anaerobic conditions has been investigated. The potential for primary and ultimate LAS biodegradation of anaerobic sludge samples obtained from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) of different geographical locations was studied applying a batch test system. It was found that only 4-22% of the LAS added to the batch anaerobic digesters was primarily transformed suggesting a poor primary degradation of the LAS molecule in anaerobic discontinuous systems. Regarding ultimate biodegradation, the addition of LAS to the batch anaerobic digesters caused a reduction on the extent of biogas production. Significant differences in the inhibition extent of the biogas production were observed (4-26%) depending on the sludge used as inoculum. Effect of the surfactant on the anaerobic microorganisms was correlated with its concentration in the aqueous phase. Sorption of LAS on anaerobic sludge affects its toxicity by depletion of the available fraction of the surfactant. LAS content on sludge was related to the total amount of calcium and magnesium extractable ions. The presence of divalent cations promote the association of LAS with anaerobic sludge reducing its bioavailability and the extent of its inhibitory effect on the biogas production.

  20. 78 FR 43772 - Modification of Class B Airspace; Las Vegas, NV

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-22

    ...., long. 114 51'13'' W.); thence counterclockwise along the 15 DME arc to the point of beginning. Area D... modifies the Las Vegas, NV, Class B airspace area to ensure the containment of large turbine-powered... midair collision in the Las Vegas, NV, terminal area. DATES: Effective Date: 0901 UTC, August 22,...

  1. Report: EPA Needs to Improve Physical Security at Its Offices in Las Vegas, Nevada

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Report #10-P-0059, February 3, 2010. EPA needs to improve physical security at its Las Vegas facilities. The Las Vegas Finance Center’s (LVFC’s) server room and other key areas are susceptible to unauthorized access by personnel not a part of LVFC.

  2. FLS2 from Solanum tuberosum have interaction with FlaLas from Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ (Las) is a Gram-negative and phloem-limited alphaproteobacterium. Las attacks all citrus species and citrus hybrids in the genus of Citrus and other relatives, and causes a systemic disease. Currently, control of this devastating disease is extremely difficult sinc...

  3. REMOTE SENSING OF PERCHLORATE EFFECTS ON SALT CEDAR PRELIMINARY RESULTS FROM THE LAS VEGAS WASH

    EPA Science Inventory



    Sodium Perchlorate and ammonium Perchlorate, major components of solid rocket fuel, have been manufactured in the Las Vegas Valley immediately up gradient from the Las Vegas Wash, since 1945 and 1956, respectively. Measurements of emerging ground water quality in the vici...

  4. 75 FR 57289 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Pioneer Historical Society of Bent County, Las Animas, CO

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-20

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Pioneer Historical Society of Bent County, Las Animas... of an inventory of human remains in the control of the Pioneer Historical Society of Bent County, Las... Society of Bent County professional staff in consultation with representatives of the Apache Tribe...

  5. La Noche de las Brujas Module. Nivel Primario. [The Night of the Witches Module. Primary Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espinoza, Delia

    La Noche de las Brujas (Halloween) is the topic of this primary level unit. The objectives are to enable the child to: (1) draw scenery, using his imagination, about witches, castles, and devils; (2) write compositions on witches, devils, and Halloween; (3) explain the story "La Noche de las Brujas"; (4) tell about any adventures or…

  6. Desarrollo de un receptor polarimétrico en banda S para aplicación en estudios radioastronómicos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barberis, C. M.; Bava, J. A.; Sanz, A. J.

    Desde el punto de vista tecnológico, el objetivo principal de este proyecto es desarrollar un cabezal de receptor en la frecuencia de 3.3 GHz, con una temperatura del sistema de 60 K y un ancho de banda de 140 MHz. El mismo será instalado en el foco primario de un reflector parabólico de 30 metros de diámetro que funcionará como radiómetro en el IAR. El receptor es del tipo polarimétrico, con lo cual permite la posibilidad de obtener las componentes de polarización lineal y circular. Para tal fin el cabezal constará de dos ramas receptoras que amplificarán la señal y la trasladarán a una frecuencia menor, (frecuencia intermedia), permitiendo de esa forma un mejor transporte de la señal a la sala de control para su posterior procesamiento. El receptor, además de tener características polarimétricas, podrá ser usado en el contínuo y en la línea, utilizando las ventajas observacionales y de procesamiento de señal que actualmente posee el IAR.

  7. LasDamas Mock Galaxy Catalogs for SDSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McBride, Cameron; Berlind, A.; Scoccimarro, R.; Wechsler, R.; Busha, M.; Gardner, J.; van den Bosch, F.

    2009-01-01

    The statistical strength of galaxy redshift surveys, such as the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), have ushered us into the era of precision measurements of galaxy clustering. We are now fitting physical models to measured clustering statistics. Galaxy clustering is thus in a position to directly constrain cosmological and galaxy formation theories. This paradigm shift from qualitative to quantitative demands that we understand the statistical and systematic errors in our measurements. Moreover, we must quantify the theoretical uncertainties in our models, which are no longer clearly sub-dominant to observational errors. We address this emerging need with the LasDamas project (LArge Suite of DArk MAtter Simulations) by producing an unprecedented number of independent and realistic mock galaxy catalogs. To date, we have run over 100 independent N-body realizations using a fixed cosmology and initialized using 2nd order Lagrangian perturbation theory. We populate overdensities of dark matter using the halo occupation distribution framework, designed to match both small and large scale clustering of the observed SDSS data. A series of mock galaxy catalogs matching the geometry of the final SDSS release (DR7) are created over a wide luminosity range to correspond to Main and LRG volume-limited samples. We include important observational effects, such as redshift distortions and fiber collisions. These galaxy mocks are publicly available.

  8. Anaerobic degradation pathway of linear Alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS) in sulfate-reducing marine sediments.

    PubMed

    Lara-Martín, Pablo A; Gómez-Parra, Abelardo; Sanz, José Luis; González-Mazo, Eduardo

    2010-03-01

    Linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS) are among the principal synthetic surfactants used worldwide. Their presence in the environment has been reported in a significant number of studies, and it has been generally assumed that LAS are not biotransformed in the absence of oxygen. However, laboratory experiments performed by our group using anoxic marine sediments have reported LAS degradation percentages that can reach up to 79% in 165 days. Here, we show for the first time the initial reaction metabolites (generated via fumarate addition to the LAS molecules), their biotransformation into sulfophenyl carboxylic acids (SPC), and the progressive degradation of these by successive beta-oxidation reactions. Advanced mass spectrometry has been used to carry out the identification of these compounds. This is the first time that an anaerobic degradation pathway for LAS is described, and these results represent a significant advance in understanding the final fate of these and other similar compounds in anoxic environments.

  9. ParaDiS-FEM dislocation dynamics simulation code primer

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, M; Hommes, G; Aubry, S; Arsenlis, A

    2011-09-27

    The ParaDiS code is developed to study bulk systems with periodic boundary conditions. When we try to perform discrete dislocation dynamics simulations for finite systems such as thin films or cylinders, the ParaDiS code must be extended. First, dislocations need to be contained inside the finite simulation box; Second, dislocations inside the finite box experience image stresses due to the free surfaces. We have developed in-house FEM subroutines to couple with the ParaDiS code to deal with free surface related issues in the dislocation dynamics simulations. This primer explains how the coupled code was developed, the main changes from the ParaDiS code, and the functions of the new FEM subroutines.

  10. Sentido de coherencia y mapa de activos para la salud en jóvenes presos de la Comunidad Valenciana en España.

    PubMed

    Vera-Remartínez, Enrique J; Paredes-Carbonell, Joan J; Aviñó Juan-Ulpiano, Dory; Jiménez-Pérez, Mercedes; Araujo Pérez, Rosa; Agulló-Cantos, José M; Mora Notario, Almudena

    2016-04-07

    Estudio realizado desde el enfoque de la salutogénesis que pretende determinar el sentido de coherencia (SOC) en jóvenes presos de la Comunidad Valenciana en España y elaborar un mapa de activos para la salud dirigido a promover la salud en esta población. Se utilizó el test "SOC-13" y un cuestionario de preguntas abiertas elaboradoad hoc, el cual autocompletaron los internos de 18 a 22 años de edad, de los tres centros penitenciarios de la región. Participaron 124 jóvenes varones (ya que no había ninguna mujer) y se recogieron variables sociodemográficas y penitenciarias. En el análisis cuantitativo, las variables categóricas se expresaron como frecuencias absolutas y relativas; y las cuantitativas, mediante medias con intervalos de confianza (IC) al 95%. Se realizó un estudio comparativo bivariante, utilizando las siguientes pruebas: Studentt-test, análisis de variación (ANOVA), Wilcoxon y Ji-cuadrado. Del cuestionario de preguntas abiertas, se realizó un análisis cualitativo descriptivo temático de los activos identificados, clasificándolos en: internos (recursos personales, en relación con los demás y capacidad para realizar comportamientos saludables) y externos (personas, grupos, instituciones y espacios físicos, situados tanto dentro como fuera de prisión). La edad media fue de 21,1 años (IC 95%: 20,8-21,3); y el SOC de 52,4 (IC 95%: 50,5-54,3), de entre un valor mínimo de 13 y máximo de 91 para la prueba. Los internos del centro penitenciario que ofrecía más actividades escolares y deportivas obtuvieron una puntuación mayor en la dimensión de significatividad del SOC (p= 0,024), y los internos inmigrantes presentaron un SOC superior (p= 0,037) a los españoles, en los tres centros. Los jóvenes identificaron los activos internos que cualitativamente se vinculan con las dimensiones de comprensibilidad, manejabilidad y significatividad del SOC; y los activos externos, sobre todo los amigos, familiares y espacios relacionados con

  11. Keys to the Future: A Handbook for Parents of Children with Disabilities [and] Las Llaves para el Futuro: Un Libro para los Padres de Ninos con Problemas de Desarrollo.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Idaho State Council on Developmental Disabilities.

    Designed for parents of children with disabilities, this handbook (in both English and Spanish versions) provides information about services available in Idaho, how to use these services, and how to approach the job of parenting a child with disabilities. Chapters include: (1) "Beginnings: Understanding Your Family and Your Child with a…

  12. Building Support for Better Schools: Seven Steps to Engaging Hard-to-Reach Communities = La creacion de apoyo para mejores escuelas: Siete pasos para lograr la participacion de todas las comunidades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southwest Educational Development Lab., Austin, TX.

    In 1999, the Southern Educational Development Laboratory (SEDL) interviewed leaders from Hispanic, African American, Native American, and Asian communities in Arkansas and Oklahoma to understand what keeps parents and others from participating in community forums. After conducting more than fifty interviews, SEDL developed seven steps to help…

  13. Receta para el Exito. Una Guia Actualizada para Padres sobre el Mejoramiento de las Escuelas de Colorado y Logros Estudiantiles (Recipe for Success: An Updated Parents' Guide to Improving Colorado Schools and Student Achievement).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taher, Bonnie; Durr, Pamela

    This Spanish language guide describes ways that parents can help improve student achievement and school quality. It answers such questions as: how to choose the right early-education opportunity for a preschooler; how to make sure a 5-year-old is ready for school; how to help a daughter do well in school; how to work with a daughter's or son's…

  14. El Odio Se Cura: Un Programa Nacional para la Prevencion de los Crimenes de Odio para las Escuelas Intermedias (Healing the Hate: A National Crime Prevention Curriculum for Middle Schools).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaughlin, Karen A.; Brilliant, Kelly J.

    Designed for use in middle schools and youth organizations, this curriculum, in Spanish, deals with the extent of hate crime in the United States and presents strategies for reducing hate crimes among our youth. This flexible nine-unit curriculum is based on the principles that violence and prejudice are learned and therefore preventable, and that…

  15. Pasos para Aprender: Un Manual para las Personas Que Trabajan con Ninos Sordos-Ciegos en Establecimientos Residenciales (Learning Steps: A Handbook for Persons Working with Deaf-Blind Children in Residential Settings).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southwestern Region Deaf-Blind Center, Sacramento, CA.

    Written in Spanish, the handbook for persons working with deaf blind children in residential settings includes general suggestions, specific teaching activities, and an introduction to sign language. The book is based on the John Tracy Clinic Correspondence Learning Program for Parents of Preschool Deaf Blind Children. General suggestions are…

  16. Cooling by conversion of para to ortho-hydrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherman, A. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    The cooling capacity of a solid hydrogen cooling system is significantly increased by exposing vapor created during evaporation of a solid hydrogen mass to a catalyst and thereby accelerating the endothermic para-to-ortho transition of the vapor to equilibrium hydrogen. Catalyst such as nickel, copper, iron or metal hydride gels of films in a low pressure drop catalytic reactor are suitable for accelerating the endothermic para-to-ortho conversion.

  17. Ortho- and para-hydrogen in neutron thermalization

    SciTech Connect

    Daemen, L. L.; Brun, T. O.

    1998-01-01

    The large difference in neutron scattering cross-section at low neutron energies between ortho- and para-hydrogen was recognized early on. In view of this difference (more than an order of magnitude), one might legitimately ask whether the ortho/para ratio has a significant effect on the neutron thermalization properties of a cold hydrogen moderator. Several experiments performed in the 60`s and early 70`s with a variety of source and (liquid hydrogen) moderator configurations attempted to investigate this. The results tend to show that the ortho/para ratio does indeed have an effect on the energy spectrum of the neutron beam produced. Unfortunately, the results are not always consistent with each other and much unknown territory remains to be explored. The problem has been approached from a computational standpoint, but these isolated efforts are far from having examined the ortho/para-hydrogen problem in neutron moderation in all its complexity. Because of space limitations, the authors cannot cover, even briefly, all the aspects of the ortho/para question here. This paper will summarize experiments meant to investigate the effect of the ortho/para ratio on the neutron energy spectrum produced by liquid hydrogen moderators.

  18. Quorum-Sensing-Negative (lasR) Mutants of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Avoid Cell Lysis and Death

    PubMed Central

    Heurlier, Karin; Dénervaud, Valérie; Haenni, Marisa; Guy, Lionel; Krishnapillai, Viji; Haas, Dieter

    2005-01-01

    In Pseudomonas aeruginosa, N-acylhomoserine lactone signals regulate the expression of several hundreds of genes, via the transcriptional regulator LasR and, in part, also via the subordinate regulator RhlR. This regulatory network termed quorum sensing contributes to the virulence of P. aeruginosa as a pathogen. The fact that two supposed PAO1 wild-type strains from strain collections were found to be defective for LasR function because of independent point mutations in the lasR gene led to the hypothesis that loss of quorum sensing might confer a selective advantage on P. aeruginosa under certain environmental conditions. A convenient plate assay for LasR function was devised, based on the observation that lasR mutants did not grow on adenosine as the sole carbon source because a key degradative enzyme, nucleoside hydrolase (Nuh), is positively controlled by LasR. The wild-type PAO1 and lasR mutants showed similar growth rates when incubated in nutrient yeast broth at pH 6.8 and 37°C with good aeration. However, after termination of growth during 30 to 54 h of incubation, when the pH rose to ≥ 9, the lasR mutants were significantly more resistant to cell lysis and death than was the wild type. As a consequence, the lasR mutant-to-wild-type ratio increased about 10-fold in mixed cultures incubated for 54 h. In a PAO1 culture, five consecutive cycles of 48 h of incubation sufficed to enrich for about 10% of spontaneous mutants with a Nuh− phenotype, and five of these mutants, which were functionally complemented by lasR+, had mutations in lasR. The observation that, in buffered nutrient yeast broth, the wild type and lasR mutants exhibited similar low tendencies to undergo cell lysis and death suggests that alkaline stress may be a critical factor providing a selective survival advantage to lasR mutants. PMID:15995202

  19. La Observación Sistemática de Vecindarios: El caso de Chile y sus perspectivas para Trabajo Social

    PubMed Central

    Sanhueza, Guillermo E.; Delva, Jorge; Andrade, Fernando H.; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Bares, Cristina; Castillo, Marcela

    2012-01-01

    El estudio acerca de las características de los vecindarios y sus efectos sobre las personas ha llegado a ser un área de creciente atención por parte de investigadores de diversas disciplinas en países desarrollados. Aunque actualmente existen diversas metodologías para estudiar efectos del vecindario, una de las más utilizadas es la Observación Sistemática de Vecindarios –Systematic Social Observation SSO, en inglés—porque permite recolectar información acerca de diversas características del entorno físico, social, ambiental y económico de los vecindarios donde se aplica. El objetivo de este artículo es (i) dar a conocer sumariamente algunas investigaciones influyentes sobre efectos del vecindario en Estados Unidos, ii) describir cómo se diseñó e implementó la Observación Sistemática de Vecindarios en la ciudad de Santiago de Chile, iii) señalar algunos facilitadores y obstaculizadores de la implementación del proyecto y, finalmente iv) enunciar posibles contribuciones y limitaciones que esta metodología ofrecería al trabajo social en Chile. PMID:24791060

  20. [Dietary training for school food service providers in support of the Acuerdo Nacional para la Salud Alimentaria].

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Dávila, Carolina; Rangel-Peniche, Diana Beatriz

    2015-01-01

    Introducción: en apoyo a la problemática de sobrepeso y obesidad en México, en el 2010 se publicó el Acuerdo Nacional para la Salud Alimentaria. A nivel escolar, los comodatarios se consideraron fundamentales para cumplir con ciertos compromisos. El objetivo de esta intervención fue capacitar a comodatarios de los Establecimientos de Consumo Escolar (ECE) en cuanto a los criterios establecidos en los “Lineamientos Generales para el Expendio y Distribución de Alimentos en Planteles de Educación Básica.” Métodos: participaron 13 ECE en San Luis Potosí. Con base en un diagnóstico inicial, se diseñó un curso-taller de 5 sesiones. Se evaluaron conocimientos en materia alimentaria al inicio y al final de las sesiones. Se obtuvo el porcentaje de apego en cuanto a higiene general, preparación y distribución de alimentos, al inicio, al mes y a los dos meses postintervención. Resultados: los comodatarios presentaron pocos conocimientos en los objetivos que persigue el “Acuerdo” en grupos y combinación de alimentos así como en lectura de etiquetas; con cambios significativos en los dos últimos tras la intervención. El porcentaje inicial de cumplimiento en higiene general fue del 60 %, con un incremento de casi 20 % postcapacitación. La preparación y distribución de alimentos no presentaron cambios significativos. Conclusiones: los comodatarios adquirieron conocimientos sobre los lineamientos que debe cubrir un ECE, sin ponerlos en práctica, dado el impacto que ello implica en su economía.

  1. Managing Floods and Resources at the Arroyo Las Positas

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez, L; Van Hattem, M; Mathews, S

    2002-03-05

    Engineers and water resource professionals are challenged with protecting facilities from flood events within environmental resource protection, regulatory, and economic constraints. One case in point is the Arroyo Las Positas (ALP), an intermittent stream that traverses the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in Livermore, California. Increased runoff from post-drought rainfall, upstream development, and new perennial discharges from LLNL activities have resulted in increased dry weather flows and wetland vegetation. These new conditions have recently begun to provide improved habitat for the federally threatened California red-legged frog (Rana aurora draytonii; CRLF), but the additional vegetation diminishes the channel's drainage capacity and increases flood risk. When LLNL proposed to re-grade the channel to reestablish the 100-year flood capacity, traditional dredging practices were no longer being advocated by environmental regulatory agencies. LLNL therefore designed a desilting maintenance plan to protect LLNL facility areas from flooding, while minimizing impacts to wetland resources and habitat. The result was a combination of structural upland improvements and the ALP Five Year Maintenance Plan (Maintenance Plan), which includes phased desilting in segments so that the entire ALP is desilted after five years. A unique feature of the Maintenance Plan is the variable length of the segments designed to minimize LLNL's impact on CRLF movement. State and federal permits also added monitoring requirements and additional constraints on desilting activities. Two years into the Maintenance Plan, LLNL is examining the lessons learned on the cost-effectiveness of these maintenance measures and restrictions and reevaluating the direction of future maintenance activities.

  2. LAS degradability by marine biofilms derived from seawater in Spain and Sweden.

    PubMed

    Mauffret, A; Gillan, D C; Eriksson, K M; Rottiers, A; Blasco, J; Temara, A

    2011-07-01

    Marine biofilms were established on glass beads with or without deliberate pre-exposure to LAS (20 μg/L) in Spain (Cadiz) and Sweden (Kristineberg). The ability of each community to mineralize LAS (100 μg/L) was then assessed in biometers at four experimental temperatures (between 6 and 21°C). Genetic diversity and biomass of the biofilms were assessed by genetic fingerprinting (DGGE) and direct bacterial counts. With biofilms from Sweden, where LAS was not detected in seawater (n = 3), deliberate pre-exposure to LAS resulted in lower genetic diversity and higher mineralization rate constant; however, with biofilms from Spain, where 6.4 ± 3.9 μgLAS/L (n = 3) was measured during the colonization, pre-exposure did not affect the bacterial community. Bacterial acclimation therefore appeared to have been induced at environmental concentrations < 6 μgLAS/L. Environmental pre-exposure was not a pre-requisite for featuring the full consortia of LAS degraders in the biometers. The mineralization rate was described using an Arrhenius equation at experimental temperatures within the typical annual range; however, they departed from this model below this range.

  3. Effect of linear alkylbenzene sulphonates (LAS) on the anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Garcia, M T; Campos, E; Sánchez-Leal, J; Ribosa, I

    2006-08-01

    Batch anaerobic biodegradation tests with different alkylbenzene sulphonates (LAS) at increasing concentrations were performed in order to investigate the effect of LAS homologues on the anaerobic digestion process of sewage sludge. Addition of LAS homologues to the anaerobic digesters increased the biogas production at surfactant concentrations 5-10 g/kg dry sludge and gave rise to a partial or total inhibition of the methanogenic activity at higher surfactant loads. Therefore, at the usual LAS concentration range in sewage sludge, no adverse effects on the anaerobic digesters functioning of a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) can be expected. The increase of biogas production at low surfactant concentrations was attributed to an increase of the bioavailability and subsequent biodegradation of organic pollutants associated with the sludge, promoted by the surfactant adsorption at the solid/liquid interface. When the available surfactant fraction in the aqueous phase instead of the nominal surfactant concentration was used to evaluate the toxicity of LAS homologues, a highly significant relationship between toxicity and alkyl chain length was obtained. Taking into account the homologue distribution of commercial LAS in the liquid phase of the anaerobic digesters of a WWTP, an EC(50) value of 14 mg/L can be considered for LAS toxicity on the anaerobic microorganisms.

  4. Astronomía para ciegos y amblíopes. Proyecto de construcción de un planetario especial en la ciudad de Mar del Plata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musso, S.

    ?`Qué es la Astronomía para Ciegos?. El trabajo es una adaptación en base a la escala de magnitudes de Hipparco que cambia el concepto de luz por una adaptación sonora, donde las estrellas de magnitud 6 se escuchan en 10 dB, más o menos lo que consideramos el umbral de la audición humana. Quienes no escuchan muy bien no pueden escuchar las magnitudes 6, de la misma manera que muchos de nosotros, que no poseemos una visión perfecta, no podemos observar esas mismas estrellas en el cielo (más allá de la polución). A los astros de magnitud 5 vamos a relacionarlos a un sonido en 20 dB. Y así sucesivamente. También los colores estarán representados en una convención de graves a agudos y lo mismo algunas características del cielo. Por ejemplo, la Vía Láctea se mostrará como un ``ruido", como bien nos lo hicieron ver nuestros futuros destinatarios. En Mar del Plata nos encontramos ya trabajando en un proyecto que tiene como objetivo final la construcción del Primer Planetario Acústico del Mundo, una herramienta para la enseñanza de la astronomía, un espacio para la lucha contra la discriminación del discapacitado y una posibilidad de ``ver el cielo de un modo diferente".

  5. Orion Capsule and Launch Abort System (LAS) installed in the NASA Glenn 8x6 Supersonic Wind Tunnel f

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Orion Capsule and Launch Abort System (LAS) installed in the NASA Glenn 8x6 Supersonic Wind Tunnel for testing. This test is an Aero Acoustic test of the LAS. Pictured is the calibration of the model's angle of attack

  6. European risk assessment of LAS in agricultural soil revisited: species sensitivity distribution and risk estimates.

    PubMed

    Jensen, John; Smith, Stephen R; Krogh, Paul Henning; Versteeg, Donald J; Temara, Ali

    2007-10-01

    Linear alkylbenzene sulphonate (LAS) is used at a rate of approximately 430,000 tons/y in Western Europe, mainly in laundry detergents. It is present in sewage sludge (70-5,600 mg/kg; 5-95th percentile) because of its high usage per capita, its sorption and precipitation in primary settlers, and its lack of degradation in anaerobic digesters. Immediately after amendment, calculated and measured concentrations are <1 to 60 mg LAS/kg soil. LAS biodegrades rapidly in soil with primary and ultimate half-lives of up to 7 and 30 days, respectively. Calculated residual concentrations after the averaging time (30 days) are 0.24-18 mg LAS/kg soil. The long-term ecotoxicity to soil microbiota is relatively low (EC10 >or=26 mg sludge-associated LAS/kg soil). An extensive review of the invertebrate and plant ecotoxicological data, combined with a probabilistic assessment approach, led to a PNEC value of 35 mg LAS/kg soil, i.e. the 5th percentile (HC5) of the species sensitivity distribution (lognormal distribution of the EC10 and NOEC values). Risk ratios were identified to fall within a range of 0.01 (median LAS concentration in sludge) to 0.1 (95th percentile) and always below 0.5 (maximum LAS concentration measured in sludge) according to various scenarios covering different factors such as local sewage influent concentration, water hardness, and sewage sludge stabilisation process. Based on the present information, it can be concluded that LAS does not represent an ecological risk in Western Europe when applied via normal sludge amendment to agricultural soil.

  7. ParaText : scalable text modeling and analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Dunlavy, Daniel M.; Stanton, Eric T.; Shead, Timothy M.

    2010-06-01

    Automated processing, modeling, and analysis of unstructured text (news documents, web content, journal articles, etc.) is a key task in many data analysis and decision making applications. As data sizes grow, scalability is essential for deep analysis. In many cases, documents are modeled as term or feature vectors and latent semantic analysis (LSA) is used to model latent, or hidden, relationships between documents and terms appearing in those documents. LSA supplies conceptual organization and analysis of document collections by modeling high-dimension feature vectors in many fewer dimensions. While past work on the scalability of LSA modeling has focused on the SVD, the goal of our work is to investigate the use of distributed memory architectures for the entire text analysis process, from data ingestion to semantic modeling and analysis. ParaText is a set of software components for distributed processing, modeling, and analysis of unstructured text. The ParaText source code is available under a BSD license, as an integral part of the Titan toolkit. ParaText components are chained-together into data-parallel pipelines that are replicated across processes on distributed-memory architectures. Individual components can be replaced or rewired to explore different computational strategies and implement new functionality. ParaText functionality can be embedded in applications on any platform using the native C++ API, Python, or Java. The ParaText MPI Process provides a 'generic' text analysis pipeline in a command-line executable that can be used for many serial and parallel analysis tasks. ParaText can also be deployed as a web service accessible via a RESTful (HTTP) API. In the web service configuration, any client can access the functionality provided by ParaText using commodity protocols ... from standard web browsers to custom clients written in any language.

  8. Effects of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) on the interspecific competition between Microcystis and Scenedesmus.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wei; Chen, Huaimin; Guo, Lili; Li, Ming

    2016-08-01

    The widespread use of detergents increases the concentration of surfactant in lakes and reservoirs. High surfactant loads produces toxicity to algae; however, the influence of the increasing surfactant on the competition between algae is not clear. In this paper, different amounts of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) were added to test the effects of LAS on the competition between Microcystis aeruginosa and Scenedesmus obliquus under eutrophic condition. In single culture, the growth of S. obliquus was promoted under lower LAS concentrations (1 and 20 mg L(-1)), but cell density of S. obliquus reduced when treated with higher LAS concentration (100 mg L(-1)). The growth of M. aeruginosa was inhibited markedly with 20 and 100 mg L(-1) LAS. Compared with single culture, the result was opposite in co-cultures and the cell density of S. obliquus increased significantly when treated with LAS of 1, 20, and 100 mg L(-1). The specific growth rates of S. obliquus and M. aeruginosa in both cultures were 0.4-0.5 day(-1) and 0.6-0.7 day(-1), respectively, except that the specific growth rate of M. aeruginosa in both cultures treated with 100 mg L(-1) LAS was about 0.2 day(-1). M. aeruginosa dominated over S. obliquus in the co-culture without LAS, while the competition was completely opposite with the addition of 20 mg L(-1) LAS. The growth of S. obliquus treated with 20 mg L(-1) LAS was not affected significantly in single culture but was promoted by 75 % in co-culture. Moreover, the growth of S. obliquus in co-culture treated with 100 mg L(-1) LAS was promoted by more than 97 %. These results suggested that the increasing LAS would overturn the competition of algae in freshwater ecosystems.

  9. A Comparative Usage-Based Approach to the Reduction of the Spanish and Portuguese Preposition "Para"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gradoville, Michael Stephen

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the frequency effect of two-word collocations involving "para" "to," "for" (e.g. "fui para," "para que") on the reduction of "para" to "pa" (in Spanish) and "pra" (in Portuguese). Collocation frequency effects demonstrate that language speakers…

  10. 78 FR 32644 - Las Vegas Wash Hydro LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-31

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Las Vegas Wash Hydro LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted..., 2012, Las Vegas Wash Hydro LLC, filed an application for a preliminary permit, pursuant to section 4(f) of the Federal Power Act (FPA), proposing to study the feasibility of the Las Vegas...

  11. 76 FR 37034 - Proposed Modification of the Las Vegas, NV, Class B Airspace Area; Public Meetings; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-24

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Modification of the Las Vegas, NV, Class B... of June 17, 2011, concerning a proposal to modify Class B airspace at Las Vegas, NV. The document... Gough, Manager, Airspace and Procedures, and Bill Ruggiero, Support Manager Las Vegas, TRACON,...

  12. 40 CFR 81.82 - El Paso-Las Cruces-Alamogordo Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false El Paso-Las Cruces-Alamogordo... Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.82 El Paso-Las Cruces-Alamogordo Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The El Paso-Las Cruces-Alamogordo Interstate Air Quality Control Region (New...

  13. EXPERIENCIAS RELACIONADAS A UNA INTERVENCIÓN PARA REDUCIR EL ESTIGMA RELACIONADO AL VIH/SIDA ENTRE ESTUDIANTES DE MEDICINA EN PUERTO RICO

    PubMed Central

    Cintrón-Bou, Francheska; Varas-Díaz, Nelson; Marzán-Rodríguez, Melissa; Neilands, Torsten B.

    2016-01-01

    Existe estigma relacionado al VIH. A las personas con VIH/SIDA-PCVS se les viola sus derechos y obstaculiza su bienestar mental/físico. Profesionales de la salud-PS son fuente de apoyo primordial, sin embargo estos/as le estigmatizan. Es útil adiestrar a PS en relación al estigma social. Implantamos la intervención para reducir el estigma relacionado al VIH/SIDA con 507 estudiantes de medicina. Resultó ser una intervención efectiva, hubo reducción en los niveles de estigma a partir de nuestra intervención y diferencias significativas con el grupo control (p≤.05). Generar espacios de adiestramiento para atender el estigma relacionado al VIH/SIDA es pertinente para la psicología comunitaria porque colaboramos en la reducción de actitudes estigmatizantes que afectan adversamente la prevención de nuevas infecciones, la adherencia al tratamiento antirretroviral y la calidad de vida. PMID:27829690

  14. Hox and ParaHox genes: a review on molluscs.

    PubMed

    Biscotti, Maria Assunta; Canapa, Adriana; Forconi, Mariko; Barucca, Marco

    2014-12-01

    Hox and ParaHox genes are involved in patterning the anterior-posterior body axis in metazoans during embryo development. Body plan evolution and diversification are affected by variations in the number and sequence of Hox and ParaHox genes, as well as by their expression patterns. For this reason Hox and ParaHox gene investigation in the phylum Mollusca is of great interest, as this is one of the most important taxa of protostomes, characterized by a high morphological diversity. The comparison of the works reviewed here indicates that species of molluscs, belonging to different classes, share a similar composition of Hox and ParaHox genes. Therefore evidence suggests that the wide morphological diversity of this taxon could be ascribed to differences in Hox gene interactions and expressions and changes in the Hox downstream genes rather than to Hox cluster composition. Moreover the data available on Hox and ParaHox genes in molluscs compared with those of other Lophotrochozoa shed light on the complex and controversial evolutionary histories that these genes have undergone within protostomes.

  15. Evolution of invertebrate deuterostomes and Hox/ParaHox genes.

    PubMed

    Ikuta, Tetsuro

    2011-06-01

    Transcription factors encoded by Antennapedia-class homeobox genes play crucial roles in controlling development of animals, and are often found clustered in animal genomes. The Hox and ParaHox gene clusters have been regarded as evolutionary sisters and evolved from a putative common ancestral gene complex, the ProtoHox cluster, prior to the divergence of the Cnidaria and Bilateria (bilaterally symmetrical animals). The Deuterostomia is a monophyletic group of animals that belongs to the Bilateria, and a sister group to the Protostomia. The deuterostomes include the vertebrates (to which we belong), invertebrate chordates, hemichordates, echinoderms and possibly xenoturbellids, as well as acoelomorphs. The studies of Hox and ParaHox genes provide insights into the origin and subsequent evolution of the bilaterian animals. Recently, it becomes apparent that among the Hox and ParaHox genes, there are significant variations in organization on the chromosome, expression pattern, and function. In this review, focusing on invertebrate deuterostomes, I first summarize recent findings about Hox and ParaHox genes. Next, citing unsolved issues, I try to provide clues that might allow us to reconstruct the common ancestor of deuterostomes, as well as understand the roles of Hox and ParaHox genes in the development and evolution of deuterostomes.

  16. 78 FR 2646 - Proposed Modification of Class B Airspace; Las Vegas, NV

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-14

    ... FR 65332) closed on December 26, 2012, is reopened until February 13, 2013. ADDRESSES: Send comments... of Class B Airspace; Las Vegas, NV'' (77 FR 65332). The FAA requested that comments on that...

  17. Double star images taken by HST WFPC and Las Campanas Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Comparison of the same area of sky (a double star) taken by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) wide field planetary camera (WFPC) and ground-based image taken from the Las Campanas Observatory, Carnegie Institute of Washington.

  18. 76 FR 61379 - Notice of Public Meeting, Las Cruces District Resource Advisory Council Meeting, New Mexico

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-04

    ... public land management in New Mexico. Planned agenda items include a welcome and introduction of new... concerns in the BLM Las Cruces District and future project work for the RAC. A half-hour public...

  19. Terrestrial risk assessment for linear alkyl benzene sulfonate (LAS) in sludge-amended soils.

    PubMed

    de Wolf, W; Feijtel, T

    1998-03-01

    A comparison of the estimated environmental concentration and the effect concentrations (in the laboratory or field) in the receiving compartment form the basis of environmental risk assessments. This paper reviews processes that critically influence the fate of LAS in the terrestrial environment. Concentrations of LAS in sludge are quite high due to sorption to primary sludge, precipitation of Ca and Mg-salts of LAS, and lack of biodegradation under anaerobic digestion. This implies that when sludge is applied to soil e.g. as a fertilizer, considerable amounts of this important surfactant may enter the terrestrial environment. Influence of aerobic situations on LAS concentrations during sludge storage needs further research to allow incorporation into the risk assessment. Aerobic biodegradation in soil is considered the most important removal mechanism of LAS loading to the terrestrial environment through sludge-amendment. Sorption plays a role in determining the residence time of a chemical in the soil, hereby enabling more time for biodegradation to occur. In addition, sorption may affect the expression of effects of surfactants towards benthic and soil dwelling organisms and plants. Another factor that needs further attention is the form of LAS in the environment, which is not similar to the commercial material applied in detergents. The differential sorption and biodegradation of the LAS components lead to a shift in the alkyl chain length (homologue), and phenylisomer distribution towards increased hydrophobicity. Also, occurrence of Ca/Mg-salts in the environment versus the Na-salt for the commercial material critically impacts the extrapolation of effects data obtained in lab studies (mostly performed with the commercial material) to the field. The literature data were used in combination with strategies and methods provided by the European Union Technical Guidance Document in support of risk assessment of new and notified substances (1996) for the

  20. β-Cyclodextrin- para-aminosalicylic acid inclusion complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roik, N. V.; Belyakova, L. A.; Oranskaya, E. I.

    2010-11-01

    Complex formation of β-cyclodextrin with para-aminosalicylic acid in buffer solutions is studied by UV spectroscopy. It is found that the stoichiometric proportion of the components in the β-cyclodextrin-para-aminosalicylic acid inclusion complex is 1:1. The Ketelar equation is used to calculate the stability constants of the inclusion complexes at different temperatures. The thermodynamic parameters of the complex formation process (ΔG, ΔH, ΔS) are calculated using the van't Hoff equation. The 1:1 β-cyclodextrin-para-aminosalicylic acid inclusion complex is prepared in solid form and its characteristics are determined by IR spectroscopic and x-ray diffraction techniques.

  1. Quantum simulation of driven para-Bose oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alderete, C. Huerta; Rodríguez-Lara, B. M.

    2017-01-01

    Quantum mechanics allows paraparticles with mixed Bose-Fermi statistics that have not been experimentally confirmed. We propose a trapped-ion scheme whose effective dynamics are equivalent to a driven para-Bose oscillator of even order. Our mapping suggest highly entangled vibrational and internal ion states as the laboratory equivalent of quantum simulated parabosons. Furthermore, we show the generation and reconstruction of coherent oscillations and para-Bose analogs of Gilmore-Perelomov coherent states from population inversion measurements in the laboratory frame. Our proposal, apart from demonstrating an analog quantum simulator of para-Bose oscillators, provides a quantum state engineering tool that foreshadows the potential use of paraparticle dynamics in the design of quantum information systems.

  2. Best Practices Case Study: Pulte Homes and Communities of Del Webb, Las Vegas Division

    SciTech Connect

    2009-10-01

    Case study of Pulte Homes Las Vegas Division, who certified nearly 1,200 homes to the DOE Builders Challenge between 2008 and 2012. All of the homes by Las Vegas’ biggest builder achieved HERS scores of lower than 70, and many floor plans got down to the mid 50s, with ducts located in sealed attics insulated along the roof line, advanced framing, and extra attention to air sealing.

  3. LANDSAT-D assessment system library computer compatible tape (LASLIB-CCT/LAS-CCT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The format for computer compatible tapes containing thematic mapper archival data and product data generated by the LANDSAT-D Assessment System (LAS). These data tapes are engineering products developed primarily for LAS internal use to assist in the early evaluation of thematic mapper data quality and ground data processing algorithms during the limited period of one year following the launch of LANDSAT-D.

  4. Exposure of the marine deposit feeder Hydrobia ulvae to sediment spiked with LAS congeners.

    PubMed

    Mauffret, A; Temara, A; Blasco, J

    2010-05-01

    The lethal and sub-lethal toxicity of LAS congeners to the mollusc gastropod Hydrobia ulvae were assessed in spiked sediment bioassays. This complements the little knowledge available to date on mixture effects in the sediment compartment. The LAS homologues joint effect was concentration additive ([summation operator]TU(i) = 0.8-1). As opposed to the 10-d LC10 based on the sediment associated LAS concentration (91-330 mg/kg) which was independent of the homologue chain length, the LC10 based on the dissolved LAS fraction (0.804-0.068 mg/L) decreased as the homologue chain length increased from 10 to 13 carbons. The quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) derived from these data was log (1/LC10 (mol/L)) = 0.64 log K(ow) + 4.40 (n = 5; r(2) = 0.76; s = 0.24). It showed an apparent higher toxicity compared to the typical QSAR for polar narcosis in water-only systems probably due to the simultaneous exposure of the snail to LAS through the dissolved and the sediment associated fractions. The egestion rate of the surviving snails recovered after few days' exposure (1-d NOEC: 40-107 mg/kg, 9-d NOEC: 65-190 mg/kg) which suggests that the organisms were able to acclimate to LAS during the exposure.

  5. Effect of the test media and toxicity of LAS on the growth of Isochrysis galbana.

    PubMed

    Garrido-Perez, M C; Perales-VargasMachuca, J A; Nebot-Sanz, E; Sales-Márquez, D

    2008-11-01

    In this paper, the toxicity of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) was evaluated in the marine microalga Isochrysis galbana using data of growth inhibition toxicity tests at 96-h exposure time. Toxicity was examined in standard conditions and by means of the modification of two variables of the test media: (1) the dilution water and (2) the content of nutrients in the test medium. For this purpose, a total of 10 toxicity test were designed: five dilution waters, four natural marine waters and one synthetic seawater; each in two different nutritive conditions, saturated nutrient concentration (SC) by the addition of modified f/2 nutritive medium, and natural nutrient concentration (NC), i.e., without the addition of f/2. At threshold toxicity levels, the dilution waters used in the test and the nutrient concentrations did not affect the toxicity of LAS. At IC50 concentrations, the toxicity of LAS is influenced by both variables: under SC conditions, the toxic effect of LAS diminishes, obtaining in all the tests IC50 > 10 mg/L LAS. Under NC conditions, IC50 concentrations ranging between 3.15 and 9.26 mg/L LAS have been obtained.

  6. Adsorption/desorption of linear alkylbenzenesulfonate (LAS) and azoproteins by/from activated sludge flocs.

    PubMed

    Conrad, A; Cadoret, A; Corteel, P; Leroy, P; Block, J-C

    2006-01-01

    Our study investigated the adsorption/desorption by/from activated sludge flocs, dispersed in river water or in diluted wastewater, of organic compounds (C(11)-LAS, azoalbumin and azocasein) at concentrations relevant to environmental conditions. Activated sludge flocs, used as a model of biological aggregates, are characterized by a very heterogeneous matrix able to sorb the three organic compounds tested at 4 degrees C. The adsorbed amount of C(11)-LAS by activated sludge flocs was higher than that of azocasein or azoalbumin, as shown by the Freundlich parameters (K(ads)=8.6+/-1.7, 1.6+/-0.3 and 0.3+/-0.1 micromol(1-1/n)g(-1)l(1/n) for C(11)-LAS, azocasein and azoalbumin, respectively; n=3 sludges). C(11)-LAS sorption from activated sludge appeared to be partially reversible in river water, while a marked hysteresis phenomenon was observed for azocasein and azoalbumin, implying a low degree of reversibility in their exchange between activated sludge and river water. It has also been displayed that the conductivity variation of bulk water (comprised between 214 and 838 microS cm(-1)) exerted no dramatic effect on the C(11)-LAS desorption from activated sludge flocs, while a little effect of it on azocasein desorption was observed. Thus, biological aggregates as activated sludge flocs can serve as an intermediate carrier for C(11)-LAS, while it represents a sink for proteins.

  7. Methanogenic activity inhibition by increasing the linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) concentration.

    PubMed

    Souza, Luiza F C; Florencio, Lourdinha; Gavazza, Savia; Kato, Mario T

    2016-07-02

    The effect of the initial concentration of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) on specific methanogenic activity (SMA) was investigated in this work. Six anaerobic flasks reactors with 1 L of total volume were inoculated with anaerobic sludge (2 g VSS L(-1)). The reactors were assayed for 42 days, and fed with volatile fatty acids, nutrients, and LAS. The initial LAS concentrations were 0, 10, 30, 50, 75, and 100 mg L(-1) for the treatment flasks T1 (control), T2, T3, T4, T5, and T6, respectively. When compared with T1, T2 exhibited a 30% reduction in maximum SMA and total methane production (TMP). In treatment T3 through T6, the reductions were 44-97% (T3-T6) for SMA, and 30-90% (T3-T6) for TMP. Total LAS removal increased following the increase in the initial LAS concentration (from 36% at T1 to 76% at T6), primarily due to the high degree of sludge adsorption. LAS biodegradation also occurred (32% in all treatments), although this was most likely associated with the formation of non-methane intermediates. Greater removal by adsorption was observed in long-chain homologues, when compared to short-chain homologues (C13 > C10), whereas the opposite occurred for biodegradation (C10 > C13). The C13 homologue was adsorbed to a great extent (in mass) in T4, T5 and T6, and may also have inhibited methane formation in these treatments.

  8. A novel small molecule, LAS-0811, inhibits alcohol-induced apoptosis in VL-17A cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae-Hun; Venugopal, Senthil K; Zhu, Ming; Wang, Si-Si; Lau, Derick; Lam, Kit S; Clemens, Dahn L; Zern, Mark A

    2009-02-20

    One of the pathways by which alcohol induces hepatocyte apoptosis is via oxidative stress. We screened several chemically-synthesized small molecules and found LAS-0811, which inhibits oxidative stress. In this study, we elucidated its role in inhibiting alcohol-induced apoptosis in hepatocyte-like VL-17A cells. VL-17A cells were pre-incubated with LAS-0811, followed by ethanol incubation. Ethanol-induced reactive oxygen species and apoptosis were significantly inhibited in LAS-0811 pre-treated cells. VL-17A cells were transfected with a reporter (ARE/TK-GFP) plasmid containing green fluorescent protein (GFP) as a reporter gene and the anti-oxidant response element as the promoter. LAS-0811 pre-treatment significantly induced the GFP expression compared to the cells treated with ethanol alone. LAS-0811 induced the activation of nrf2 and enhanced the expression and activity of glutathione peroxidase, one of the downstream targets of nrf2. The results indicate that LAS-0811 protects VL-17A cells against ethanol-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis at least in part via nrf2 activation.

  9. The influence of faults in basin-fill deposits on land subsidence, Las Vegas Valley, Nevada, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burbey, Thomas

    2002-07-01

    -dimensional consolidation. Jour. Applied Physics 12:155-164), a été utilisé pour évaluer la nature du déplacement au voisinage de deux failles verticales. La faille a été simulée comme 1) une barrière de faible perméabilité pour l'écoulement horizontal, 2) une rupture structurale dans le milieu, mais sans obstruction de l'écoulement, et 3) une combinaison des deux précédentes conditions. Les résultats indiquent que la barrière de faible perméabilité favorise fortement le déplacement horizontal. Le plan de faille constitue aussi un lieu de subsidence différentielle verticale significative. Les fortes contraintes calculées au voisinage de la faille laissent penser qu'il existe un fort potentiel de rupture et le développement de fissures du sol quand on suppose que la faille possède une faible perméabilité. Les résultats utilisant une combinaison des deux conditions suggèrent que le développement potentiel de fissures peut être grand sur ou à proximité du plan de faille et que la déformation horizontale joue vraisemblablement un rôle clé dans ce développement. Resumen. Se conoce la contribución que la deformación horizontal causada por el bombeo de sistemas acuíferos confinados tienen en el desarrollo de fisuras en regiones semiáridas, como es el caso del Valle de Las Vegas (Nevada, Estados Unidos de América). A pesar de la estabilización de los niveles, se continúa desarrollando nuevas fisuras, mientras las ya existentes se alargan y ensanchan cerca de las fallas de relleno de cuenca. Se ha utilizado un modelo tridimensional de desplazamiento granular basado en la teoría de consolidación de Biot (Biot, M.A., 1941. General theory of three-dimensional consolidation. J. Applied Physics, 12: 155-164) para evaluar la naturaleza del desplazamiento junto a dos fallas verticales. Se ha simulado cada falla como (1) una barrera de baja permeabilidad al flujo horizontal, (2) un hueco o ruptura estructural en el medio pero sin obstrucción al flujo de aguas

  10. Ortho and para-armalcolite samples in Apollo 17.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haggerty, S. E.

    1973-01-01

    Two paragenetically contrasting forms of armalcolite are present in basalts from the Apollo 17 Taurus-Littrow landing site. These armalcolites differ in optical properties, in crystal habit and in their distribution between coarse and fine grained rocks. It is proposed to call the two armalcolite forms ortho-armalcolite and para-armalcolite. Texural relationships and the evidence of experimental melting show that ortho-armalcolite is always the first crystalline phase to appear from unusually titanium rich magmas. The origin of para-armalcolite is not yet fully understood.

  11. Educación sobre sexualidad y prevención del VIH: un diagnóstico para América Latina y el Caribe

    PubMed Central

    DeMaria, Lisa M.; Galárraga, Omar; Campero, Lourdes; Walker, Dilys M.

    2016-01-01

    RESUMEN Objetivo Mostrar, a través de un diagnóstico en América Latina y el Caribe, el panorama legislativo y curricular sobre sexualidad y prevención contra el virus de inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH) en el ámbito escolar, contrastándolo con los comportamientos sexuales reportados en encuestas demográficas y de salud. Métodos En mayo de 2008 se realizó, con el apoyo del Fondo de Población de las Naciones Unidas (UNFPA), una encuesta a informantes clave en 34 países de la Región. El cuestionario autoaplicado solicitó información sustantiva de agentes de las diferentes partes interesadas, como ministerios de educación y de salud, sobre los programas de prevención contra el VIH/Sida que se están aplicando en las escuelas. Resultados Respondieron a la encuesta 27 países que representan 95,5% de la población objetivo (6 a 18 años de edad). La mayoría de los países informó tener al menos un libro de texto o un capítulo específico para enseñar los temas de educación sobre sexualidad y prevención del VIH. En la escuela secundaria se cubren la mayor parte de los temas pertinentes relevantes para la educación sobre sexualidad, pero no todos. Por ejemplo, el problema de la discriminación por orientación o preferencia sexual no se incluye en los programas escolares. Conclusiones El material educativo sobre sexualidad debe ser revisado y actualizado periódicamente de modo que refleje los avances en los temas y en la forma de tratar los contenidos. En cada país el currículo debe abordar el tema del respeto a la diversidad sobre orientación, preferencia e identidad sexuales, y en particular el manejo apropiado de la educación para prevenir infecciones de transmisión sexual (ITS) en hombres que tienen sexo con hombres. Los esfuerzos de evaluación de la efectividad de los programas deben contemplar desenlaces tales como marcadores biológicos (incidencia y prevalencia de ITS y embarazo) y no únicamente indicadores de conocimiento y

  12. Monitoring Changes in Channel Morphology in Las Vegas Wash with Global Fiducials Program Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheeler, D. J.

    2012-12-01

    To borrow from a popular adage, "What happens in Las Vegas [Wash], stays in Las Vegas [Wash]"—but only with a lot of help. This past decade has seen a concerted effort to curb erosion and sediment transport along the 12 mile long channel between East Las Vegas and Lake Mead. Las Vegas Wash is prototypical of an urban river in an arid environment that is being impacted by increasing urban development and impervious surface runoff within its drainage area. Rapid urbanization since the 1970s has increased the flow of water into Las Vegas Wash, causing severe channel destabilization. Within two decades millions of cubic yards of rocks and sediment were scoured out of the wash and transported downstream to Lake Mead. The wetlands that once covered over 2,000 acres within Las Vegas Wash dwindled to 200 acres in the 1990s as the channel became as much as 40 feet deeper and 300 feet wider at some points. In 1999 the Las Vegas Wash Coordination Committee (LVWCC) initiated a 20-year plan to construct erosion control structures (weirs) for channel stabilization and rock riprap for stream bank protection. The hope is to design structures that will slow down the water flow, trap sediments, and to eventually restore much of the wetland environment. Using high-resolution satellite imagery from the Global Fiducials Program Library housed at the U. S. Geological Survey, this transition is being tracked from 1999 to the present. From November 1999 to July 2008 new residential and commercial development has claimed an additional 12 square kilometers (3000 acres) of land in Henderson, NV, along the south side of Las Vegas Wash. Even with the increased volume of surface and groundwater runoff entering the wash, current sediment yields are much lower than the 1999 totals. The imagery documents the construction of 14 of the 22 LVWCC planned weirs by the year 2011. It also shows many miles of stream bank stabilization by riprap, planting of riparian vegetation and placing of

  13. On some examples of para-Hermite and para-Kähler Einstein spaces with Λ ≠ 0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chudecki, Adam

    2017-02-01

    Spaces equipped with two complementary (distinct) congruences of self-dual null strings and at least one congruence of anti-self-dual null strings are considered. It is shown that if such spaces are Einsteinian then the vacuum Einstein field equations can be reduced to a single nonlinear partial differential equation of the second order. Different forms of these equations are analyzed. Finally, several new explicit metrics of the para-Hermite and para-Kähler Einstein spaces with Λ ≠ 0 are presented. Some relation of that metrics to a modern approach to mechanical issues is discussed.

  14. Generacion de Nuevas Capacidades en el Ejercito de Guatemala para el Combate al Trafico de Drogas y Delitos Conexos (Generating New Capacities within the Guatemalan Army in Order to Combat Drug Trafficking and Related Crimes)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-13

    actividades en el estado mexicano de Tamaulipas, extendiéndose luego, a todo el país utilizando una estructura de tipo militar. Con la captura de Osiel...servicios de seguridad o en las encargadas de impartir justicia. 2. Estructura jerárquica. El Crimen Organizado en nuestro medio tiene una...organización jerárquica (normalmente familiar) o de grandes relaciones de afinidad que les permite una estructura jerárquica sólida para planificar y definir

  15. The total neutron cross section of liquid para-hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celli, M.; Rhodes, N.; Soper, A. K.; Zoppi, M.

    1999-12-01

    We have measured, using the pulsed neutron source ISIS, the total neutron cross section of liquid para-hydrogen in the vicinity of the triple point. The experimental results compare only qualitatively with the results of the Young and Koppel theory. However, a much better agreement is found once modifications are included in the model which effectively take into account the intermolecular interactions.

  16. Sistemas Correctores de Campo Para EL Telescopio Cassegrain IAC80

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galan, M. J.; Cobos, F. J.

    1987-05-01

    El proyecto de instrumentación de mayor importancia que ha tenido el Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias en los últimos afios ha sido el diseflo y construcción del te1escopio IAC8O. Este requería del esfuerzo con junto en mec´nica, óptica y electrónica, lo que facilitó la estructuración y el crecimiento de los respectivos grupos de trabajo, que posteriormente se integraron en departamentos En su origen (1977), el telescopio IAC80 fue concebido como un sistema clásico tipo Cassegrain, con una razón focal F/i 1.3 para el sistema Casse grain y una razón focal F/20 para el sistema Coudé. Posteriormente, aunque se mantuvo la filosofia de que el sistema básico fuera el F/11.3, se consideró conveniente el diseño de secundarios para razones focales F/16 y F/32, y se eliminó el de F/20. Sin embargo, dada la importancia relativa que un foco estrictamente fotográfico tiene en un telescopio moderno, diseñado básicamente para fotometría fotoeléctrica y con un campo util mínimamente de 40 minutos de arco, se decídió Ilevar a cabo el diseño de un secundario F/8 con un sistema corrector de campo, pero que estuviera formado únicamente por lentes con superficies esféricas para que asl su construcción fuera posible en España ó en México. La creciente utilización de detectores bidimensionales para fines de investigación astron6mica y la viabilidad de que en un futuro cercano éstos tengan un área sensible cada vez mayor, hicieron atractiva la idea de tener diseñado un sistema corrector de campo para el foco primario (F/3), con un campo útil mínimo de un grado, y también con la limitante de que sus componentes tuvieron sólamente supérficies esféricas. Ambos diseños de los sis-temas correctores de campo se llevaron a cabo, en gran medida, como parte de un proyecto de colaboración e intercambio en el área de diseño y evaluación de sistemas ópticos.

  17. Environmentally Endemic Pseudomonas aeruginosa Strains with Mutations in lasR Are Associated with Increased Disease Severity in Corneal Ulcers

    PubMed Central

    Hammond, John H.; Hebert, Wesley P.; Naimie, Amanda; Ray, Kathryn; Van Gelder, Rachel D.; DiGiandomenico, Antonio; Lalitha, Prajna; Srinivasan, Muthiah; Acharya, Nisha R.; Lietman, Thomas; Hogan, Deborah A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The Steroids for Corneal Ulcers Trial (SCUT) was a multicenter, international study of bacterial keratitis in which 101 Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections were treated. Twenty-two of 101 P. aeruginosa isolates collected had a colony morphology characteristic of a loss-of-function mutation in lasR, the gene encoding a quorum-sensing master regulator. Ulcers caused by these 22 strains were associated with larger areas of corneal opacification, worse vision, and a lower rate of vision recovery in response to treatment than ulcers caused by the other isolates. The lasR sequences from these isolates each contained one of three nonsynonymous substitutions, and these strains were deficient in production of LasR-regulated protease and rhamnolipids. Replacement of lasR with either of the two most common lasR alleles from the SCUT isolates was sufficient to decrease protease and rhamnolipid production in PA14. Loss of LasR function is associated with increased production of CupA fimbriae, and the LasR-defective isolates exhibited higher production of CupA fimbriae than LasR-intact isolates. Strains with the same lasR mutation were of the same multilocus sequence type, suggesting that LasR-deficient, environmental P. aeruginosa strains were endemic to the area, and infections caused by these strains were associated with worse patient outcomes in the SCUT study. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT00324168.) IMPORTANCE The LasR transcription factor is an important regulator of quorum sensing in P. aeruginosa and positively controls multiple virulence-associated pathways. The emergence of strains with lasR loss-of-function alleles in chronic disease is well described and is thought to represent a specific adaptation to the host environment. However, the prevalence and virulence of these strains in acute infections remain unclear. This report describes observations revealing that lasR mutants were common among isolates from

  18. LasR Variant Cystic Fibrosis Isolates Reveal an Adaptable Quorum-Sensing Hierarchy in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Feltner, John B; Wolter, Daniel J; Pope, Christopher E; Groleau, Marie-Christine; Smalley, Nicole E; Greenberg, E Peter; Mayer-Hamblett, Nicole; Burns, Jane; Déziel, Eric; Hoffman, Lucas R; Dandekar, Ajai A

    2016-10-04

    Chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections cause significant morbidity in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Over years to decades, P. aeruginosa adapts genetically as it establishes chronic lung infections. Nonsynonymous mutations in lasR, the quorum-sensing (QS) master regulator, are common in CF. In laboratory strains of P. aeruginosa, LasR activates transcription of dozens of genes, including that for another QS regulator, RhlR. Despite the frequency with which lasR coding variants have been reported to occur in P. aeruginosa CF isolates, little is known about their consequences for QS. We sequenced lasR from 2,583 P. aeruginosa CF isolates. The lasR sequences of 580 isolates (22%) coded for polypeptides that differed from the conserved LasR polypeptides of well-studied laboratory strains. This collection included 173 unique lasR coding variants, 116 of which were either missense or nonsense mutations. We studied 31 of these variants. About one-sixth of the variant LasR proteins were functional, including 3 with nonsense mutations, and in some LasR-null isolates, genes that are LasR dependent in laboratory strains were nonetheless expressed. Furthermore, about half of the LasR-null isolates retained RhlR activity. Therefore, in some CF isolates the QS hierarchy is altered such that RhlR quorum sensing is independent of LasR regulation. Our analysis challenges the view that QS-silent P. aeruginosa is selected during the course of a chronic CF lung infection. Rather, some lasR sequence variants retain functionality, and many employ an alternate QS strategy involving RhlR.

  19. LasR Variant Cystic Fibrosis Isolates Reveal an Adaptable Quorum-Sensing Hierarchy in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Feltner, John B.; Wolter, Daniel J.; Pope, Christopher E.; Groleau, Marie-Christine; Smalley, Nicole E.; Greenberg, E. Peter; Mayer-Hamblett, Nicole; Burns, Jane; Hoffman, Lucas R.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections cause significant morbidity in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Over years to decades, P. aeruginosa adapts genetically as it establishes chronic lung infections. Nonsynonymous mutations in lasR, the quorum-sensing (QS) master regulator, are common in CF. In laboratory strains of P. aeruginosa, LasR activates transcription of dozens of genes, including that for another QS regulator, RhlR. Despite the frequency with which lasR coding variants have been reported to occur in P. aeruginosa CF isolates, little is known about their consequences for QS. We sequenced lasR from 2,583 P. aeruginosa CF isolates. The lasR sequences of 580 isolates (22%) coded for polypeptides that differed from the conserved LasR polypeptides of well-studied laboratory strains. This collection included 173 unique lasR coding variants, 116 of which were either missense or nonsense mutations. We studied 31 of these variants. About one-sixth of the variant LasR proteins were functional, including 3 with nonsense mutations, and in some LasR-null isolates, genes that are LasR dependent in laboratory strains were nonetheless expressed. Furthermore, about half of the LasR-null isolates retained RhlR activity. Therefore, in some CF isolates the QS hierarchy is altered such that RhlR quorum sensing is independent of LasR regulation. Our analysis challenges the view that QS-silent P. aeruginosa is selected during the course of a chronic CF lung infection. Rather, some lasR sequence variants retain functionality, and many employ an alternate QS strategy involving RhlR. PMID:27703072

  20. Evaluation of Linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonate (LAS) behaviour in agricultural soil through laboratory continuous studies.

    PubMed

    Oliver-Rodríguez, B; Zafra-Gómez, A; Reis, M S; Duarte, B P M; Verge, C; de Ferrer, J A; Pérez-Pascual, M; Vílchez, J L

    2015-07-01

    The behaviour of Linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonate (LAS) in agricultural soil is investigated in the laboratory using continuous-flow soil column studies in order to simultaneously analyze the three main underlying phenomena (adsorption/desorption, degradation and transport). The continuous-flow soil column experiments generated the breakthrough curves for each LAS homologue, C10, C11, C12 and C13, and by adding them up, for total LAS, from which the relevant retention, degradation and transport parameters could be estimated, after proposing adequate models. Several transport equations were considered, including the degradation of the sorbate in solution and its retention by soil, under equilibrium and non-equilibrium conditions between the sorbent and the sorbate. In general, the results obtained for the estimates of those parameters that were common to the various models studied (such as the isotherm slope, first order degradation rate coefficient and the hydrodynamic dispersion coefficient) were rather consistent, meaning that mass transfer limitations are not playing a major role in the experiments. These three parameters increase with the length of the LAS homologue chain. The study will provide the underlying conceptual framework and fundamental parameters to understand, simulate and predict the environmental behaviour of LAS compounds in agricultural soils.

  1. Cystic fibrosis-adapted Pseudomonas aeruginosa quorum sensing lasR mutants cause hyperinflammatory responses.

    PubMed

    LaFayette, Shantelle L; Houle, Daniel; Beaudoin, Trevor; Wojewodka, Gabriella; Radzioch, Danuta; Hoffman, Lucas R; Burns, Jane L; Dandekar, Ajai A; Smalley, Nicole E; Chandler, Josephine R; Zlosnik, James E; Speert, David P; Bernier, Joanie; Matouk, Elias; Brochiero, Emmanuelle; Rousseau, Simon; Nguyen, Dao

    2015-07-01

    Cystic fibrosis lung disease is characterized by chronic airway infections with the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa and severe neutrophilic pulmonary inflammation. P. aeruginosa undergoes extensive genetic adaptation to the cystic fibrosis (CF) lung environment, and adaptive mutations in the quorum sensing regulator gene lasR commonly arise. We sought to define how mutations in lasR alter host-pathogen relationships. We demonstrate that lasR mutants induce exaggerated host inflammatory responses in respiratory epithelial cells, with increased accumulation of proinflammatory cytokines and neutrophil recruitment due to the loss of bacterial protease- dependent cytokine degradation. In subacute pulmonary infections, lasR mutant-infected mice show greater neutrophilic inflammation and immunopathology compared with wild-type infections. Finally, we observed that CF patients infected with lasR mutants have increased plasma interleukin-8 (IL-8), a marker of inflammation. These findings suggest that bacterial adaptive changes may worsen pulmonary inflammation and directly contribute to the pathogenesis and progression of chronic lung disease in CF patients.

  2. Identification of methyl triclosan and halogenated analogues in male common carp (Cyprinus carpio) from Las Vegas Bay and semipermeable membrane devices from Las Vegas Wash, Nevada.

    PubMed

    Leiker, Thomas J; Abney, Sonja R; Goodbred, Steven L; Rosen, Michael R

    2009-03-01

    Methyl triclosan and four halogenated analogues have been identified in extracts of individual whole-body male carp (Cyprinus carpio) tissue that were collected from Las Vegas Bay, Nevada, and Semipermeable Membrane Devices (SPMD) that were deployed in Las Vegas Wash, Nevada. Methyl triclosan is believed to be the microbially methylated product of the antibacterial agent triclosan (2, 4, 4'-trichloro-4-hydroxydiphenyl ether, Chemical Abstract Service Registry Number 3380-34-5, Irgasan DP300). The presence of methyl triclosan and four halogenated analogues was confirmed in SPMD extracts by comparing low- and high-resolution mass spectral data and Kovats retention indices of methyl triclosan with commercially obtained triclosan that was derivatized to the methyl ether with ethereal diazomethane. The four halogenated analogues of methyl triclosan detected in both whole-body tissue and SPMD extracts were tentatively identified by high resolution mass spectrometry. Methyl triclosan was detected in all 29 male common carp from Las Vegas Bay with a mean concentration of 596 microg kg(-1) wet weight (ww) which is more than an order of magnitude higher than previously reported concentrations in the literature. The halogenated analogs were detected less frequently (21%-76%) and at much lower concentrations (<51 microg kg(-1) ww). None of these compounds were detected in common carp from a Lake Mead reference site in Overton Arm, Nevada.

  3. Identification of methyl triclosan and halogenated analogues in male common carp (Cyprinus carpio) from Las Vegas Bay and semipermeable membrane devices from Las Vegas Wash, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leiker, T.J.; Abney, S.R.; Goodbred, S.L.; Rosen, Michael R.

    2009-01-01

    Methyl triclosan and four halogenated analogues have been identified in extracts of individual whole-body male carp (Cyprinus carpio) tissue that were collected from Las Vegas Bay, Nevada, and Semipermeable Membrane Devices (SPMD) that were deployed in Las Vegas Wash, Nevada. Methyl triclosan is believed to be the microbially methylated product of the antibacterial agent triclosan (2, 4, 4'-trichloro-4-hydroxydiphenyl ether, Chemical Abstract Service Registry Number 3380-34-5, Irgasan DP300). The presence of methyl triclosan and four halogenated analogues was confirmed in SPMD extracts by comparing low- and high-resolution mass spectral data and Kovats retention indices of methyl triclosan with commercially obtained triclosan that was derivatized to the methyl ether with ethereal diazomethane. The four halogenated analogues of methyl triclosan detected in both whole-body tissue and SPMD extracts were tentatively identified by high resolution mass spectrometry. Methyl triclosan was detected in all 29 male common carp from Las Vegas Bay with a mean concentration of 596????g kg- 1 wet weight (ww) which is more than an order of magnitude higher than previously reported concentrations in the literature. The halogenated analogs were detected less frequently (21%-76%) and at much lower concentrations (< 51????g kg- 1 ww). None of these compounds were detected in common carp from a Lake Mead reference site in Overton Arm, Nevada.

  4. Carbon Dioxide Laser Absorption Spectrometer (CO2LAS) Aircraft Measurements of CO2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christensen, Lance E.; Spiers, Gary D.; Menzies, Robert T.; Jacob, Joseph C.; Hyon, Jason

    2011-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory Carbon Dioxide Laser Absorption Spectrometer (CO2LAS) utilizes Integrated Path Differential Absorption (IPDA) at 2.05 microns to obtain CO2 column mixing ratios weighted heavily in the boundary layer. CO2LAS employs a coherent detection receiver and continuous-wave Th:Ho:YLF laser transmitters with output powers around 100 milliwatts. An offset frequency-locking scheme coupled to an absolute frequency reference enables the frequencies of the online and offline lasers to be held to within 200 kHz of desired values. We describe results from 2009 field campaigns when CO2LAS flew on the Twin Otter. We also describe spectroscopic studies aimed at uncovering potential biases in lidar CO2 retrievals at 2.05 microns.

  5. Sobre las soluciones acotadas del problema instantáneo de dos cuerpos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altavista, C.

    La demostración se basa en el hecho de que las integrales del problema de los N-cuerpos admiten componentes en el campo complejo según las raíces n-ésimas de la unidad. Definida la matriz unitaria correspondiente, la fórmula de Cayley permite transformar la matriz unitaria en una matriz hermitiana. Utilizando como parámetros los cosenos direccionales de un sistema de coordenadas orbitales referidos a un sistema de referencia fijo, puede construirse, utilizando el operador hermitiano antes definido, una forma cuadrática cuyas raíces mínima y máxima definen las cotas respectivas de los movimientos de los mencionados cosenos direccionales.

  6. Estudio de la transparencia de las nubes de Magallanes a partir de la observación espectroscópica de galaxias ubicadas en dirección a las mismas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutra, C.; Bica, E.; Clariá, J. J.; Piatti, A. E.:

    Se presentan los primeros resultados obtenidos a partir de observaciones espectroscópicas de galaxias ubicadas en dirección a las Nubes de Magallanes. Los espectros fueron obtenidos con el telescopio de 2.15 m del CASLEO y cubren el rango 3500-7000 Å. El material observacional recolectado permite examinar poblaciones estelares y determinar el enrojecimiento interestelar que afecta a cada una de las galaxias. La distribución angular de la muestra de galaxias observadas permite efectuar el mapeamiento del enrojecimiento que afecta las distintas regiones de las Nubes de Magallanes.

  7. Bioconcentration of the anionic surfactant linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) in the marine shrimp Palaemonetes varians: a radiotracer study.

    PubMed

    Renaud, Florent; Warnau, Michel; Oberhänsli, François; Teyssié, Jean-Louis; Temara, Ali; Rouleau, Claude; Metian, Marc

    2014-08-15

    Uptake and depuration kinetics of dissolved [(14)C]C₁₂-6-linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) were determined in the shrimp Palaemonetes varians using environmentally relevant exposure concentration. The shrimp concentrated LAS from seawater with a mean BCF value of 120 L kg(-1) after a 7-day exposure. Uptake biokinetics were best described by a saturation model, with an estimated BCFss, of 159 ± 34 L kg(-1), reached after 11.5 days. Shrimp weight influenced significantly BCF value with smaller individuals presenting higher affinity to LAS. To the light of a whole body autoradiography, major accumulation of LAS occurred in the cephalothorax circulatory system (gills, heart, hepatopancreas) and ocular peduncle, but not in the flesh, limiting potential transfer to human consumers. LAS depuration rate constant value of the shrimp was 1.18 ± 0.08 d(-1) leading to less than 1% of remaining LAS in its tissues after 8 days of depuration.

  8. Focal para-hisian atrial tachycardia with dual exits

    PubMed Central

    Lawrance Jesuraj, M.; Sharada, K.; Sridevi, C.; Narasimhan, C.

    2013-01-01

    Focal atrial tachycardias (AT) in the right atrium (RA) tend to cluster around the crista terminalis, coronary sinus (CS) region, tricuspid annulus, and para-hisian region. In most cases, the AT focus can be identified by careful activation mapping, and completely eliminated by radiofrequency (RF) catheter ablation. However, RF ablation near the His bundle (HB) carries a risk of inadvertent damage to the atrioventricular (AV) conduction system. Here we describe a patient with an AT originating in the vicinity of the AV node, which was successfully ablated earlier from non-coronary aortic cusp (NCC), and recurred with an exit from para-hisian location. Respiratory excursions of the catheter were associated with migration to the area of HIs. This was successfully ablated during controlled apnoea, using 3D electroanatomic mapping. PMID:23993015

  9. Conversion of para and ortho hydrogen in the Jovian planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Massie, S. T.; Hunten, D. M.

    1982-01-01

    A mechanism is proposed which partially equilibrates the para and ortho rotational levels of molecular hydrogen in the atmospheres of Jupiter, Saturn, and Uranus. Catalytic reactions between the free-radical surface sites of aerosol particles and hydrogen modecules yield significant equilibration near 1 bar pressure, if the efficiency of conversion per collision is between 10 to the -8th and 10 to the -10th and the effective eddy mixing coefficient is 10,000 sq cm/sec. At lower pressures the ortho-para ratio retains the value at the top of the cloud layer, except for a very small effect from conversion in the thermosphere. The influence of conversion on the specific heat and adiabatic lapse rate is also investigated. The effect is found to be generally small, though is can rise to 10% inside the aerosol layer.

  10. Para-acetabular periarthritis calcarea: its radiographic manifestations.

    PubMed

    Kawashima, A; Murayama, S; Ohuchida, T; Russell, W J

    1988-01-01

    On retrospective reviews of radiographs, periarthritis calcarea was distinguished from os acetabula by interval radiographic progression and regression. Among 59 men and 51 women, there were 137 instances of para-acetabular calcifications and ossifications, which were morphologically classified as 58 discrete, 58 amorphous, and 21 segmented types. Correlations with other radiographic abnormalities, symptoms, signs, and laboratory abnormalities were sought, but not established. Out of 93 serially imaged opacities, 90 changed, including 37 of the 40 instances (92.5%) of the discrete type and 53 instances (100%) of the amorphous and segmented types--due to periarthritis calcarea. At least 43 of 90 densities were newly developed. Mean age at first detection was 47.7 years. Three of the discrete densities were unchanged and represented os acetabula. Thus, recognition of para-acetabular periarthritis calcarea is not only of academic importance; it can facilitate proper treatment as well.

  11. A reinterpretation of the Pleistocene human and faunal association at Las Buitreras Cave, Santa Cruz, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borrero, Luis A.; Martin, Fabiana M.

    2008-12-01

    The faunal assemblage recovered from Layers VIII-VII at Las Buitreras Cave has been considered as associated with human artifacts. On that basis, the previous analysis had concluded that human hunters had exploited ground sloths at the end of the Pleistocene. A reanalysis of the bones as well as the rest of the evidence suggests that there is no basis for that conclusion. On the contrary, it is suggested here that the lower layers at Las Buitreras are the result of the use of the cave as a den by ground sloths.

  12. Synthesis of High Molecular Weight Para-Phenylene PBI

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-11-01

    give high molecular weight m-phenylene PBI (Reference 7). The polymer was completely soluble in methanesulfonic acid and 98% formic acid . Polymer with...mono- mer is a white crystalline solid which can be quantitatively hydrolized in an acid medium to give the free TAB. Stoichiometric quantities of IX...WEIGHT "PARA"-PHENYLENE PBI TECHNICAL REPORT AFML-TR-74-199 NOVEMBER 1974 Distribution limited to U.S.Government agencies only, test and evaluation

  13. Production Ratio for Para- and Ortho-Ps in Photodetachment of Ps^-

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Igarashi, Akinori

    2017-01-01

    Para- and ortho-Ps atoms are formed in the photodetachment of positronium negative ion. Since the lifetime against the pair annihilation is much shorter for para-Ps( ns) than for ortho-Ps( ns), the production ratio of para- and ortho-Ps atoms is important for the photodetachment experiments. We have derived the ratio explicitly.

  14. Las fulguraciones como manifestación de reconexión en el campo magnético solar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagalá, L. G.; Mandrini, M. C.; Rovira, M. G.; Démoulin, P.

    Las fulguraciones solares son fenómenos transitorios de liberación de energía que se desarrollan en las estructuras magnéticas de las regiones activas del Sol. Las fulguraciones pueden llegar a liberar hasta 1032 erg en 100 seg. en todo el rango electromagnético, y acelerar partículas. En este trabajo mostramos que la ubicación de los abrillantamientos en Hα de diversas fulguraciones está relacionado con las propiedades de las conexiones de las líneas del campo magnético de la región, como se espera por las teorías de reconexión en 3D recientemente desarrolladas (Démoulin et al, 1996a). El campo magnético coronal se extrapola del campo fotosférico observado suponiendo una configuración libre de fuerzas lineal. Por medio de un algoritmo se determinan las regiones donde existe un cambio drástico en la conectividad de las líneas de campo (límites ``cuasi-discontinuos'', o cuasi-separatrices CS). Las CS son bandas abiertas que identifican zonas donde el campo magnético se reconectará con más probabilidad y, siempre que las mismas sean lo suficientemente finas, se producirá allíla liberación de energía proveniente del campo magnético. Hemos encontrado que en todas las regiones fulgurantes estudiadas (Démoulin et al, 1996b) existen CS en los mismos lugares donde se observaron los abrillantamientos en Hα. Allídonde coinciden los abrillantamientos con las CS, éstas tienen un espesor menor que 1 Mm. Las líneas de campo coronales extrapoladas de nuestro modelo tienen sus orígenes fotosféricos a ambos lados de las CS, como se espera dados los recientes estudios de reconexión magnética en 3D. Estos resultados ponen a prueba los modelos presentes sobre fulguraciones solares.

  15. Omega-oxygenation of the alkyl sidechain of linear alkylbenzenesulfonate (LAS) surfactant in Parvibaculum lavamentivorans(T).

    PubMed

    Schleheck, David; Cook, Alasdair M

    2005-09-01

    Parvibaculum lavamentivorans (T) DS-1, an aerobic, heterotrophic bacterium, requires a biofilm on a solid surface (e.g. glass particles) when utilizing commercial linear alkylbenzenesulfonate surfactant (LAS; 20 congeners) for growth. Catabolism involves the undefined 'omega-oxygenation' and beta-oxidation of the LAS side chain, and the organism excretes sulfophenyl carboxylates (SPC) quantitatively. A 3.5-l fermenter was developed which allowed gram-quantities of LAS-grown cells to be grown and harvested from medium with glass particles as the solid support. The catabolism of LAS was dominant: in diauxie experiments with acetate as second carbon source, LAS was utilized first. The biofilm-encoated LAS-grown cells were unsuitable for metabolic work in vitro because cell suspensions clumped and were not disrupted effectively, but the degradative enzymes were found to be expressed constitutively in acetate-grown cells, which formed no biofilm. LAS-dependent oxygen uptake was measured in acetate-grown cells at about 0.6 mkat (kg protein)(-1), but not in extracts of cells. Whole cells converted LAS to SPC in the presence of molecular oxygen only, and the reaction could be saturably inhibited by metyrapone, which acts on e.g. cytochromes P450 (CYP). However, despite the presence of CYP153-like sequences in the genome of strain DS-1(T), the difference spectra did not support the presence of a CYP in crude extracts, and the nature of the LAS-oxygenase remains unclear.

  16. Cloning and characterization of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa lasR gene, a transcriptional activator of elastase expression.

    PubMed Central

    Gambello, M J; Iglewski, B H

    1991-01-01

    We report the discovery of the lasR gene, which positively regulates elastase expression in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. The lasR gene was cloned by its ability to restore a positive elastase phenotype in strain PA103, a strain which possesses the elastase structural gene (lasB) but fails to synthesize the enzyme. Nucleotide sequence analysis revealed an open reading frame of 716 nucleotides encoding a protein of approximately 27 kDa. A labeled LasR protein of 27 kDa was detected in Escherichia coli by using a T7 RNA polymerase expression system. A chromosomal deletion mutant of the lasR gene was constructed in PAO1 by gene replacement. This mutant (PAO-R1) is devoid of elastolytic activity and elastase antigen. The deduced amino acid sequence of LasR is 27% homologous to the positive activator LuxR of Vibrio fischeri and the suspected activator 28K-UvrC of E. coli. Northern (RNA) analysis of total cellular RNA from PAO1, PAO-R1, and PAO-R1 containing the lasR gene on a multicopy plasmid (pMG1.7) revealed that a functional lasR gene is required for transcription of the elastase structural gene (lasB). Images PMID:1902216

  17. Para rubber seed oil: new promising unconventional oil for cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Lourith, Nattaya; Kanlayavattanakul, Mayuree; Sucontphunt, Apirada; Ondee, Thunnicha

    2014-01-01

    Para rubber seed was macerated in petroleum ether and n-hexane, individually, for 30 min. The extraction was additionally performed by reflux and soxhlet for 6 h with the same solvent and proportion. Soxhlet extraction by petroleum ether afforded the greatest extractive yield (22.90 ± 0.92%). Although antioxidant activity by means of 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay was insignificantly differed in soxhleted (8.90 ± 1.15%) and refluxed (9.02 ± 0.71%) by n-hexane, soxhlet extraction by n-hexane was significantly (p < 0.05) potent scavenged 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothaiazoline)-6-sulfonic acid) or ABTS radical with trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) of 66.54 ± 6.88 mg/100 g oil. This extract was non cytotoxic towards normal human fibroblast cells. In addition, oleic acid and palmitic acid were determined at a greater content than in the seed of para rubber cultivated in Malaysia, although linoleic and stearic acid contents were not differed. This bright yellow extract was further evaluated on other physicochemical characters. The determined specific gravity, refractive index, iodine value, peroxide value and saponification value were in the range of commercialized vegetable oils used as cosmetic raw material. Therefore, Para rubber seed oil is highlighted as the promising ecological ingredient appraisal for cosmetics. Transforming of the seed that is by-product of the important industrial crop of Thailand into cosmetics is encouraged accordingly.

  18. Surgical treatment of para-oesophageal hiatal hernia.

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, M. L.; Duffy, J. P.; Beggs, F. D.; Salama, F. D.; Knowles, K. R.; Morgan, W. E.

    2001-01-01

    The development of laparoscopic antireflux surgery has stimulated interest in laparoscopic para-oesophageal hiatal hernia repair. This review of our practice over 10 years using a standard transthoracic technique was undertaken to establish the safety and effectiveness of the open technique to allow comparison. Sixty patients with para-oesophageal hiatal hernia were operated on between 1989 and 1999. There were 38 women and 22 men with a median age of 69.5 years. There were 47 elective and 13 emergency presentations. Operation consisted of a left thoracotomy, hernia reduction and crural repair. An antireflux procedure was added in selected patients. There were no deaths among the elective cases and one among the emergency cases. Median follow-up time was 19 months. There was one recurrence (1.5%). Seven patients (12%) required a single oesophagoscopy and dilatation up to 2 years postoperatively but have been asymptomatic since. Two patients (3%) developed symptomatic reflux which has been well controlled on proton-pump inhibitors. Transthoracic para-oesophageal hernia repair can be safely performed with minimal recurrence. PMID:11777134

  19. Studies on barium bis-para-nitrophenolate para-nitrophenol tetra hydrate NLO single crystal by unidirectional growth method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uthrakumar, R.; Vesta, C.; Jose, M.; Sugandhi, K.; Krishnan, S.; Jerome Das, S.

    2010-08-01

    The unidirectional crystal growth technique has been employed for the bulk growth of semi-organic nonlinear optical barium bis-para-nitrophenolate para-nitrophenol tetra hydrate single crystals along the (2 2 0) direction with almost high solute-crystal conversion efficiency. The grown crystal was subjected to single crystal and powder XRD analyses in order to confirm the crystal identity. Optical absorption studies reveal very high transmittance in the entire visible and near IR region. The presence of various functional groups is confirmed by FTIR analysis. Low dielectric loss at high frequency region is indicative of enhanced optical quality with lesser defects. Photoconductivity measurements carried out on the grown crystal reveal the negative photoconducting nature.

  20. The Regulation of para-Nitrophenol Degradation in Pseudomonas putida DLL-E4.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qiongzhen; Tu, Hui; Luo, Xue; Zhang, Biying; Huang, Fei; Li, Zhoukun; Wang, Jue; Shen, Wenjing; Wu, Jiale; Cui, Zhongli

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas putida DLL-E4 can efficiently degrade para-nitrophenol and its intermediate metabolite hydroquinone. The regulation of para-nitrophenol degradation was studied, and PNP induced a global change in the transcriptome of P. putida DLL-E4. When grown on PNP, the wild-type strain exhibited significant downregulation of 2912 genes and upregulation of 845 genes, whereas 2927 genes were downregulated and 891 genes upregulated in a pnpR-deleted strain. Genes related to two non-coding RNAs (ins1 and ins2), para-nitrophenol metabolism, the tricarboxylic acid cycle, the outer membrane porin OprB, glucose dehydrogenase Gcd, and carbon catabolite repression were significantly upregulated when cells were grown on para-nitrophenol plus glucose. pnpA, pnpR, pnpC1C2DECX1X2, and pnpR1 are key genes in para-nitrophenol degradation, whereas pnpAb and pnpC1bC2bDbEbCbX1bX2b have lost the ability to degrade para-nitrophenol. Multiple components including transcriptional regulators and other unknown factors regulate para-nitrophenol degradation, and the transcriptional regulation of para-nitrophenol degradation is complex. Glucose utilization was enhanced at early stages of para-nitrophenol supplementation. However, it was inhibited after the total consumption of para-nitrophenol. The addition of glucose led to a significant enhancement in para-nitrophenol degradation and up-regulation in the expression of genes involved in para-nitrophenol degradation and carbon catabolite repression (CCR). It seemed that para-nitrophenol degradation can be regulated by CCR, and relief of CCR might contribute to enhanced para-nitrophenol degradation. In brief, the regulation of para-nitrophenol degradation seems to be controlled by multiple factors and requires further study.

  1. The Regulation of para-Nitrophenol Degradation in Pseudomonas putida DLL-E4

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Qiongzhen; Tu, Hui; Luo, Xue; Zhang, Biying; Huang, Fei; Li, Zhoukun; Wang, Jue; Shen, Wenjing; Wu, Jiale; Cui, Zhongli

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas putida DLL-E4 can efficiently degrade para-nitrophenol and its intermediate metabolite hydroquinone. The regulation of para-nitrophenol degradation was studied, and PNP induced a global change in the transcriptome of P. putida DLL-E4. When grown on PNP, the wild-type strain exhibited significant downregulation of 2912 genes and upregulation of 845 genes, whereas 2927 genes were downregulated and 891 genes upregulated in a pnpR-deleted strain. Genes related to two non-coding RNAs (ins1 and ins2), para-nitrophenol metabolism, the tricarboxylic acid cycle, the outer membrane porin OprB, glucose dehydrogenase Gcd, and carbon catabolite repression were significantly upregulated when cells were grown on para-nitrophenol plus glucose. pnpA, pnpR, pnpC1C2DECX1X2, and pnpR1 are key genes in para-nitrophenol degradation, whereas pnpAb and pnpC1bC2bDbEbCbX1bX2b have lost the ability to degrade para-nitrophenol. Multiple components including transcriptional regulators and other unknown factors regulate para-nitrophenol degradation, and the transcriptional regulation of para-nitrophenol degradation is complex. Glucose utilization was enhanced at early stages of para-nitrophenol supplementation. However, it was inhibited after the total consumption of para-nitrophenol. The addition of glucose led to a significant enhancement in para-nitrophenol degradation and up-regulation in the expression of genes involved in para-nitrophenol degradation and carbon catabolite repression (CCR). It seemed that para-nitrophenol degradation can be regulated by CCR, and relief of CCR might contribute to enhanced para-nitrophenol degradation. In brief, the regulation of para-nitrophenol degradation seems to be controlled by multiple factors and requires further study. PMID:27191401

  2. Hydrologic impacts of climate change and urbanization in Las Vegas Wash Watershed, Nevada

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this study, a cell-based model for the Las Vegas Wash (LVW) Watershed in Clark County, Nevada, was developed by combining the traditional hydrologic modeling methods (Thornthwaite’s water balance model and the Soil Conservation Survey’s Curve Number method) with the pixel-base...

  3. Changes in the morphometry of Las Vegas Wash and the impact on water quality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roline, Richard A.; Sartoris, James J.

    1988-01-01

    Las Vegas Wash, a natural wash east of Las Vegas, Nevada, carries stormwater, groundwater drainage, and sewage effluent from two sewage treatment plants to Lake Mean. Over 80 percent of the normal discharge of approximately 3.4 m3/s (120 ft3/s) consists of effluent from the City of Las Vegas and Clark County sewage treatment plants. Beginning in the 1950s, a large wetland area developed along the wash that supported waterfowl populations and contributed to some water quality transformations. Heavy rains and subsequent flooding in the area in 1983 and 1984 resulted in erosion and channelization that greatly reduced the wetland area within Las Vegas Wash. The reduction in wetland area shortened water travel time in the wash and affected water quality. The primary impacts on the water entering Lake Mead have been an increase in temperature, a decrease in dissolved oxygen concentration, and an increase in ammonia levels. Other physical-chemical parameters and changes in nutrient transformations are also discussed.

  4. The Development of Child Subjectivity in "La lengua de las mariposas"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Lorraine

    2012-01-01

    Jose Luis Cuerda's film "La lengua de las mariposas" is set in rural Galicia in the immediate lead-up to the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War. It portrays the tender relationship between a Republican schoolteacher, Don Gregorio, and a boy named Moncho. Upon the Nationalist capture of the town, the young Moncho hurls stones at his…

  5. Effect of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) on human intestinal Caco-2 cells at non cytotoxic concentrations.

    PubMed

    Bradai, Mohamed; Han, Junkyu; Omri, Abdelfatteh El; Funamizu, Naoyuki; Sayadi, Sami; Isoda, Hiroko

    2016-08-01

    Linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) is a cytotoxic synthetic anionic surfactant widely present in the environment due to its large-scale production and intensive use in the detergency field. In this study, we investigated the effect of LAS (CAS No. 25155-30-0) at non cytotoxic concentrations on human intestinal Caco-2 cells using different in vitro bioassays. As results, LAS increased Caco-2 cell proliferation at concentrations ranging from 1 to 15 ppm, more significantly for shorter exposure time (24 h), confirmed using flow cytometry and trypan blue exclusion methods. Moreover, proteomics analysis revealed that this effect was associated with an over-expression of elongation factor 2 and dipeptidyl peptidase 3, and a down-regulation of 14-3-3 protein theta, confirmed at mRNA level using real-time PCR. These findings suggest that LAS at non cytotoxic concentrations, similar to those observed at wastewater treatment plants outlets, increases the growth rate of colon cancer cells, raising thereby its tumor promotion effect potential.

  6. On the fate of LAS, NPEOs and DEHP in municipal sewage sludge during composting.

    PubMed

    Pakou, Constantina; Kornaros, Michael; Stamatelatou, Katerina; Lyberatos, Gerasimos

    2009-02-01

    The fate of hydrophobic xenobiotic pollutants such as linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS), nonylphenol ethoxylates (NPEO) and di-ethyl-hexyl phthalate (DEHP) during sewage sludge composting was addressed in this work. The experiments were conducted in a fully automated in-vessel autothermal composting system which was fed with a mixture of primary and secondary sludge and manure. The mixture composition was determined to achieve satisfactory humidity, C/N ratio and free air space (FAS). The effect of various parameters, such as the initial xenobiotic concentration, the presence of multiple xenobiotic compounds and the temperature of composting material sustained during the process on the xenobiotics biodegradation kinetics was investigated. It was generally established that significant xenobiotic reduction is achievable through composting under all conditions tested. According to the obtained results, the presence of LAS, NPEO and DEHP even at higher concentrations was not inhibitory to the bioprocess. However, the presence of multiple xenobiotic compounds such as NPEO, NP and DEHP in the sludge can influence LAS removal during LAS composting.

  7. Twelve Years of Sociocultural Action in the Las Villas Area. Chapter 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Quintin Garcia

    This chapter reports on the activities of the Rural Continuing Education Centre (CREPA), a nongovernmental organization run by volunteers from small agricultural villages in the Las Villas area of Salamanca, Spain. The organization was founded in 1983 with the goal of improving living conditions and community life for villagers through social…

  8. 75 FR 38778 - Expansion of Foreign-Trade Zone 89 Las Vegas, NV

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-06

    ... [Federal Register Volume 75, Number 128 (Tuesday, July 6, 2010)] [Notices] [Page 38778] [FR Doc No: 2010-16356] DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board [Order No. 1688] Expansion of Foreign-Trade Zone 89 Las Vegas, NV Pursuant to its authority under the Foreign-Trade Zones Act of June 18,...

  9. PERCHLORATE UPTAKE BY SALT CEDAR (TAMARIX RAMOSISSIMA) IN THE LAS VEGAS WASH RIPARIAN ECOSYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perchlorate ion (CIO4-) has been identified in samples of dormant salt cedar (Tamarix ramosissima) growing in the Las vegas Wash. Perchlorate is an oxidenat, but its reduction is kineticaly hindered. CXoncern over thyrpoid effects caused the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA...

  10. 77 FR 55225 - Notice of Public Meeting, Las Cruces District Resource Advisory Council Meeting, New Mexico

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-07

    ... (FIRS) at 1-800-877-8229 to contact the above individual during normal business hours. The FIRS is... receive a reply during normal business hours. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The 10-member RAC advises the.... Bill Childress, District Manager, Las Cruces. BILLING CODE 4310-VC-P...

  11. Perceptions toward the Value of Higher Education for Hotel Professionals in Las Vegas: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deel, Gary Lee

    2015-01-01

    This study concerns a qualitative investigation of the views toward higher education and its importance to hospitality career success among hotel professionals in the Las Vegas, Nevada area. Existing literature supported the premise that education may be important to professional career success in several different ways, and that values concerning…

  12. Orion Launch Abort System (LAS) Propulsion on Pad Abort 1 (PA-1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Daniel S.

    2015-01-01

    This presentation provides a concise overview of the highly successful Orion Pad Abort 1 (PA-1) flight test, and the three rocket motors that contributed to this success. The primary purpose of the Orion PA-1 flight was to help certify the Orion Launch Abort System (LAS), which can be utilized in the unlikely event of an emergency on the launchpad or during mission vehicle ascent. The PA-1 test was the first fully integrated flight test of the Orion LAS, one of the primary systems within the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV). The Orion MPCV is part of the architecture within the Space Launch System (SLS), which is being designed to transport astronauts beyond low-Earth orbit for future exploration missions. Had the Orion PA-1 flight abort occurred during launch preparations for a real human spaceflight mission, the PA-1 LAS would have saved the lives of the crew. The PA-1 flight test was largely successful due to the three solid rocket motors of the LAS: the Attitude Control Motor (ACM); the Jettison Motor (JM); and the Abort Motor (AM). All three rocket motors successfully performed their required functions during the Orion PA-1 flight test, flown on May 6, 2010 at the White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico, culminating in a successful demonstration of an abort capability from the launchpad.

  13. Hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance basic data for Las Cruces quadrangle, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-08-31

    Field and laboratory data are presented for 501 water samples and 1817 sediment samples from the Las Cruces Quadrangle, New Mexico. The samples were collected and uranium analysis performed by Los Alamos National Laboratory; multielement analysis and data reporting were performed by the Uranium Resource Evaluation Project at Oak Ridge, Tennessee.

  14. Episodic Impacts from California Wildfires Identified in Las Vegas Near-Road Air Quality Monitoring

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air pollutant concentrations near major highways are usually attributed to a combination of nearby traffic emissions and regional background, and generally presumed to be additive in nature. During a recent year-long near-road monitoring study conducted in Las Vegas, NV, a substa...

  15. 77 FR 65332 - Proposed Modification of Class B Airspace; Las Vegas, NV

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-26

    ... the containment of large turbine-powered aircraft within Class B airspace, reduce air traffic... to ensure that turbine-powered aircraft operations were fully contained within the TCA (47 FR 30052... LAS Class B does not fully contain turbine-powered aircraft as required by FAA directives....

  16. Geophysical constraints on the location and geometry of the Las Vegas Shear Zone, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langenheim, V.E.; Grow, J.A.; Jachens, R.C.; Dixon, G.L.; Miller, J.J.

    2001-01-01

    We model the basin configuration beneath Las Vegas Valley, Nevada, on the basis of gravity, drillhole, and seismic reflection data. We locate and characterize the various strands of the Las Vegas Valley Shear Zone (LVVSZ) by variations in basin thickness beneath the valley. The pre-Tertiary bedrock surface is complex, with subbasins buried beneath the flat alluvial surface of the valley. We suggest that these basins are formed from transtensional strain. Subbasins elongated N70??W and N50??W are interpreted as strike-slip basins. The deepest subbasin is 5 km west of Frenchman Mountain and strikes N40??E. This basin probably formed by combined movement on nonparallel strands of the LVVZ and an earlier episode of normal faulting. The basin thickness map constrains the minimum depth of the inferred detachment fault beneath Las Vegas Valley to at least 4 km. Seismic reflection data do not image a detachment fault in the upper 10 km beneath Las Vegas Valley. Our results also illustrate the utility of gravity in determining basinal structures and providing a three-dimensional perspective in areas with limited seismic reflection control.

  17. Builders Challenge High Performance Builder Spotlight - Masco Environments for Living, Las Vegas, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    2009-01-01

    Building America Builders Challenge fact sheet on Masco’s Environments for Living Certified Green demo home at the 2009 International Builders Show in Las Vegas. The home has a Home Energy Rating System (HERS) index score of 44, a right-sized air conditi

  18. Builders Challenge High Performance Builder Spotlight - NextGen Home, Las Vegas, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    2009-01-01

    Building America Builders Challenge fact sheet on the NextGen demo home built in Las Vegas. The home has a Home Energy Rating System (HERS) index score of 44 with R-40 spray foam attic insulation, R-40 insulated concrete walls, and a 4kW DC solar laminate

  19. ORTHO-PARA SELECTION RULES IN THE GAS-PHASE CHEMISTRY OF INTERSTELLAR AMMONIA

    SciTech Connect

    Faure, A.; Hily-Blant, P.; Le Gal, R.; Rist, C.

    2013-06-10

    The ortho-para chemistry of ammonia in the cold interstellar medium is investigated using a gas-phase chemical network. Branching ratios for the primary reaction chain involved in the formation and destruction of ortho- and para-NH{sub 3} were derived using angular momentum rules based on the conservation of the nuclear spin. We show that the 'anomalous' ortho-to-para ratio of ammonia ({approx}0.7) observed in various interstellar regions is in fact consistent with nuclear spin selection rules in a para-enriched H{sub 2} gas. This ratio is found to be independent of temperature in the range 5-30 K. We also predict an ortho-to-para ratio of {approx}2.3 for NH{sub 2}. We conclude that a low ortho-to-para ratio of H{sub 2} naturally drives the ortho-to-para ratios of nitrogen hydrides below the statistical values.

  20. Isolation of the Autoinducer-Quenching Strain that Inhibits LasR in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Weng, Lixing; Zhang, Yuqian; Yang, Yuxiang; Wang, Lianhui

    2014-01-01

    Quorum sensing (QS) has been recognized as a general phenomenon in microorganisms and plays an important role in many pathogenic bacteria. In this report, we used the Agrobacterium tumefaciens biosensor strain NT1 to rapidly screen for autoinducer-quenching inhibitors from bacteria. After initial screening 5389 isolates obtained from land and beach soil, 53 putative positive strains were identified. A confirmatory bioassay was carried out after concentrating the putative positive culture supernatant, and 22 strains were confirmed to have anti-LasR activity. Finally, we determined the strain JM2, which could completely inhibit biofilm formation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1, belonged to the genus Pseudomonas by analysis of 16S rDNA. Partially purified inhibitor factor(s) F5 derived from culture supernatants specifically inhibited LasR-controlled elastase and protease in wild type P. aeruginosa PAO1 by 68% and 73%, respectively, without significantly affecting growth; the rhl-controlled pyocyanin and rhamnolipids were inhibited by 54% and 52% in the presence of 100 μg/mL of F5. The swarming motility and biofilm of PAO1 were also inhibited by F5. Real time RT-PCR on samples from 100 μg/mL F5-treated P. aeruginosa showed downregulation of autoinducer synthase (LasRI and rhlI) and cognate receptor (lasR and rhlR) genes by 50%, 28%, 48%, and 29%, respectively. These results provide compelling evidence that the F5 inhibitor(s) interferes with the las system and significantly inhibits biofilm formation. PMID:24736783

  1. 75 FR 60496 - Kern Valley Railroad Company-Termination of Trackage Rights-in Las Animas County, CO

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Kern Valley Railroad Company--Termination of Trackage Rights--in Las Animas... milepost 0.0 and milepost 2.0 in Jansen, Las Animas County, Colo. (the line). The line traverses...

  2. Linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) in water of Lake Dianchi--spatial and seasonal variation, and kinetics of biodegradation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhi; Xiao, Bangding; Wu, Xingqiang; Tu, Xinhai; Wang, Yingcai; Sun, Xiaolei; Song, Lirong

    2010-12-01

    For the purpose of elucidating the environmental characteristics of anion surfactants [linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS)] in the water of Lake Dianchi, a sampling investigation in the field from October 2006 to July 2007 and a batch of biodegradation experiments in the laboratory were carried out. The results showed that concentrations of LAS ranged from 18.6 to 260.1 μg L(-1), and the average concentration was 52.6 μg L(-1) in Lake Dianchi. The highest concentrations of LAS were found in the Northwest region, and the distribution of LAS varied through seasons, with much lower concentrations in fall than in any other seasons. LAS can be primarily biodegraded by microorganisms in the lake water, and the percentage of degradation was >97% after 28 days. Biodegradation of LAS was well-fitted with the kinetic model presented in this paper, and the half-lives ranged from 3.2 to 16.3 days. Temperature, pH, and initial concentrations could affect the biodegradation of LAS, among which temperature was the major factor influencing on biodegradation of LAS in water of Lake Dianchi.

  3. Effect of linear alkylbenzene sulphonate (LAS) on non-specific defence mechanisms in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Bakirel, Tülay; Keleş, Oya; Karataş, Süheyla; Ozcan, Mukaddes; Türkmen, Gülhan; Candan, Akin

    2005-01-26

    Linear alkylbenzene sulphonate (LAS) is among the most widely disseminated xenobiotics to enter waste streams and the aquatic environment. In the present investigation, we present a novel approach to evaluate in toxicity of LAS. The effects of sublethal levels (0.2 and 0.4 mg/l) of LAS on non-specific immune system, phagocytosis, respiratory burst and lyzosyme activity, and specific growth rate in the rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, during a 54-day exposure were examined by a static bioassay test procedure. The phagocytic activity of leukocytes from fish exposed to 0.4 mg/l LAS statistically decreased compared with the control fish values. No significant reductions were observed in the extra-intracellular respiratory burst and lysozyme activities after exposure to LAS at any of the concentrations tested. The final body weight in fish groups exposed to the LAS were found to be significantly lower than in the control. The specific growth rate results also supported the result above. The results of this study showed sublethal doses (0.2-0.4 mg/l) of LAS caused to statistically insignificant suppression of non-specific immune system mechanisms excluding phagocytosis in fish at laboratory conditions. These doses of LAS may produce potential synergism on immune system when presented with other environmental pollutants.

  4. Amazon Land Wars in the South of Para

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simmons, Cynthia S.; Walker, Robert T.; Arima, Eugenio Y.; Aldrich, Stephen P.; Caldas, Marcellus M.

    2007-01-01

    The South of Para, located in the heart of the Brazilian Amazon, has become notorious for violent land struggle. Although land conflict has a long history in Brazil, and today impacts many parts of the country, violence is most severe and persistent here. The purpose of this article is to examine why. Specifically, we consider how a particular Amazonian place, the so-called South of Para has come to be known as Brazil's most dangerous badland. We begin by considering the predominant literature, which attributes land conflict to the frontier expansion process with intensified struggle emerging in the face of rising property values and demand for private property associated with capitalist development. From this discussion, we distill a concept of the frontier, based on notions of property rights evolution and locational rents. We then empirically test the persistence of place-based violence in the region, and assess the frontier movement through an analysis of transportation costs. The findings from the analyses indicate that the prevalent theorization of frontier violence in Amazonia does little to explain its persistent and pervasive nature in the South of Para. To fill this gap in understanding, we develop an explanation based the geographic conception of place, and we use contentious politics theory heuristically to elucidate the ways in which general processes interact with place specific history to engender a landscape of violence. In so doing, we focus on environmental, cognitive, and relational mechanisms (and implicated structures), and attempt to deploy them in an explanatory framework that allows direct observation of the accumulating layers of the region's tragic history. We end by placing our discussion within a political ecological context, and consider the implications of the Amazon Land War for the environment.

  5. Para-hydrogen narrow filament evaporation at low temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elizarova, T. G.; Gogolin, A. A.; Montero, S.

    2012-11-01

    Undercooling of liquid para-hydrogen (pH2) below its freezing point at equilibrium (13.8 K) has been shown recently in flowing micro-filaments evaporating in low density background gas [M. Kühnel et al, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 245301 (2011)]. An hydrodynamical model accounting for this process is reported here. Analytical expressions for the local temperature T of a filament, averaged over its cross section, are obtained as a function of distance z to the nozzle. Comparison with the experiment is shown. It is shown also that the thermocapillary forces induce a parabolic profile of velocity across the jet.

  6. RVA: A Plugin for ParaView 3.14

    SciTech Connect

    2015-09-04

    RVA is a plugin developed for the 64-bit Windows version of the ParaView 3.14 visualization package. RVA is designed to provide support in the visualization and analysis of complex reservoirs being managed using multi-fluid EOR techniques. RVA, for Reservoir Visualization and Analysis, was developed at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, with contributions from the Illinois State Geological Survey, Department of Computer Science and National Center for Supercomputing Applications. RVA was designed to utilize and enhance the state-of-the-art visualization capabilities within ParaView, readily allowing joint visualization of geologic framework and reservoir fluid simulation model results. Particular emphasis was placed on enabling visualization and analysis of simulation results highlighting multiple fluid phases, multiple properties for each fluid phase (including flow lines), multiple geologic models and multiple time steps. Additional advanced functionality was provided through the development of custom code to implement data mining capabilities. The built-in functionality of ParaView provides the capacity to process and visualize data sets ranging from small models on local desktop systems to extremely large models created and stored on remote supercomputers. The RVA plugin that we developed and the associated User Manual provide improved functionality through new software tools, and instruction in the use of ParaView-RVA, targeted to petroleum engineers and geologists in industry and research. The RVA web site (http://rva.cs.illinois.edu) provides an overview of functions, and the development web site (https://github.com/shaffer1/RVA) provides ready access to the source code, compiled binaries, user manual, and a suite of demonstration data sets. Key functionality has been included to support a range of reservoirs visualization and analysis needs, including: sophisticated connectivity analysis, cross sections through simulation results between

  7. Probabilistic risk assessment for linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) in sewage sludge used on agricultural soil.

    PubMed

    Schowanek, Diederik; David, Helen; Francaviglia, Rosa; Hall, Jeremy; Kirchmann, Holger; Krogh, Paul Henning; Schraepen, Nathalie; Smith, Stephen; Wildemann, Tanja

    2007-12-01

    Deterministic and probabilistic risk assessments were developed for commercial LAS in agricultural soil amended with sewage sludge. The procedure done according to ILSI Europe's Conceptual Framework [Schowanek, D., Carr, R., David, H., Douben, P., Hall, J., Kirchmann, H., Patria, L., Sequi, P., Smith, S., Webb, S.F., 2004. A risk-based methodology for deriving quality standards for organic contaminants in sewage sludge for use in agriculture-conceptual Framework. Regul. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 40 (3), 227-251], consists of three main steps. First, the most sensitive endpoint was determined. This was found to be the chronic ecotoxicity of LAS to soil invertebrates and plants. Additional endpoints, such as potential for plant uptake and transfer in the food chain, leaching to groundwater, surface erosion run-off, human health risk via drinking water, plant consumption and soil ingestion were also systematically evaluated but were all assessed to be of little toxicological significance. In the second step, a back-calculation was conducted from the Predicted No-Effect Concentration in soil (PNECsoil) to a safe level of LAS in sludge (here called 'Sludge Quality Standard'; SQS). The deterministic approach followed the default agricultural soil exposure scenario in the EU-Technical Guidance Document (TGD). The SQS for LAS was calculated as 49 g/kg sludge Dry Matter (DM). In order to assess the potential variability as a result of varying agricultural practices and local environmental conditions, two probabilistic exposure assessment scenarios were also developed. The mean SQS was estimated at 55 and 27.5 g/kg DM for the homogeneous soil mixing and soil injection scenarios, respectively. In the final step, the resulting SQS values were evaluated for consistency and relevance versus available information from agricultural experience and field tests. No build-up, adverse impact on soil fertility, agronomic performance, or animal/human health have been reported for agricultural

  8. Pincharse sin infectarse: estrategias para prevenir la infección por el VIH y el VHC entre usuarios de drogas inyectables

    PubMed Central

    MATEU-GELABERT, P.; FRIEDMAN, S.; SANDOVAL, M.

    2011-01-01

    Resumen Objetivo Desde principios de los noventa, en la ciudad de Nueva York se han implementado con éxito programas para reducir la incidencia del virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH) y, en menor medida, del virus de la hepatitis C (VHC). A pesar de ello, aproximadamente el 70% de los usuario de drogas inyectables (UDI) están infectados por el VHC. Queremos investigar cómo el 30% restante se las ha arreglado para no infectarse. El Staying safe (nombre original del estudio) explora los comportamientos y mecanismos que ayudan a evitar la infección por el VHC y el VIH a largo plazo. Material y métodos Hemos utilizado el concepto de «desviación positiva» aplicado en otros campos de salud pública. Estudiamos las estrategias, prácticas y tácticas de prevención de aquellos UDI que, viviendo en contextos de alta prevalencia, se mantienen sin infectar por VIH y el VHC, a pesar de haberse inyectado heroína durante años. Los resultados preliminares presentados en este artículo incluyen el análisis de las entrevistas realizadas a 25 UDI (17 doble negativos, 3 doble positivos y 5 con infección por el VHC y sin infección por el VIH). Se usaron entrevistas semiestructuradas que exploraban con detalle la historia de vida de los sujetos, incluyendo su consumo de drogas, redes sociales, contacto con instituciones, relaciones sexuales y estrategias de protección y vigilancia. Resultados La intencionalidad es importante para no infectarse, especialmente durante períodos de involución (períodos donde hay un deterioro económico y/o social que llevan al que se inyecta a situaciones de mayor riesgo). Presentamos tres dimensiones independientes de intencionalidad que conllevan comportamientos que pueden ayudar a prevenir la infección: a) evitar «el mono» (síntomas de abstención) asegurando el acceso a la droga; b) «llevarlo bien» para no convertirse en un junkie y así evitar la «muerte social» y la falta de acceso a los recursos, y c) seguir sin

  9. Tdp studies and tests for C. A. Energia Electrica de Venezuela (enelven) at planta ramon laguna, units RL-17 and RL-10. Volume 3. Unit RL-10 turbine generator condition assessment report and units RL-10 and RL-11 boiler feed pump conditon assessment report. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-03-28

    The study, conducted by Babcock and Wilcox, was funded by the U.S. Trade and Development agency on behalf of Enelven. In order to maximize generated power output and minimize operating costs at Planta Ramon Laguna, tests were done to evaluate the condition of equipment at the plant. In order to identify any damage and determine the operating output of each unit, assessments were done of the furnaces, boilers, generators and boiler feed pumps being used in the plant. The report presents the results of these tests. This is the last of three volumes and it is divided into the following sections: (1) Condition Assessment of Unit RL-10 Turbine-Generator; (2) Condition Assessment of Unit RL-10 and RL-11 Boiler Feed Pumps.

  10. Bioconcentration and toxicity of dodecylbenzene sulfonate (C12LAS) to aquatic organisms exposed in experimental streams.

    PubMed

    Versteeg, D J; Rawlings, J M

    2003-02-01

    Fish, mollusks, and crustaceans were caged in the tail pool of streams during a C(12)LAS (dodecyl benzene sulfonate) model ecosystem experimental program. Bioconcentration of total C(12)LAS and individual isomers and acute and chronic toxicity were investigated during this study. Toxicity endpoints were based on water and tissue (i.e., body burden) concentrations at which adverse effects were observed. At 32 days, total C(12)LAS bioconcentration factors (BCFs) for the fathead minnow and three invertebrate species ranged from 9 to 116. In general, bioconcentration was affected by isomer position, exposure concentration, and species. BCF values tended to decrease as isomer position moved from external (e.g., 2-phenyl) to internal (e.g., 5,6-phenyl). BCFs also decreased as exposure concentration increased. Mean acute 4-d LC(50) values ranged from 1.5 to >3.0 mg/L for the six species tested. Lethal body burdens associated with 50% mortality (LBB(50)) varied from 0.21 to 0.60 mmole/kg (wet weight). During the 32-day chronic exposures, the EC(20) values were 0.27 (0.204-0.352), 0.95 (0.597-1.29), and approximately 1.0 mg/L for Corbicula (length), Hyalella (survival), and fathead minnow (survival), respectively. At these EC(20) values, C(12)LAS body burdens were 0.035, 0.23, and 0.19 mmoles/kg wet weight in Corbicula, Hyalella, and fathead minnow, respectively. Fish exposed to wastewater treatment plant effluent had total C(12)LAS tissue concentrations ranging from 0.0005 to 0.0039 mmoles/kg wet weight. These concentrations are approximately 45-360 times below the tissue concentration associated with subtle effects in the model ecosystem stream exposures. Total C(12)LAS body burdens in feral and caged Corbicula exposed to WWTP effluents were approximately 0.0013 mmoles/kg; approximately 25-fold below concentrations associated with effects in stream exposures.

  11. Tools for evaluating Lipolexis oregmae (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae) in the field: Effects of host aphid and host plant on mummy location and color plus improved methods for obtaining adults

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, R.; Hoy, M.A.

    2007-03-15

    , nosotros evaluamos el papel de otras especies de afidos y plantas hospederas potenciales sobre la produccion y ubicacion de las momias. Bajo condiciones de laboratorio, este parasitoide produjo el mayor numero de progenies sobre la especie de plaga enfocada, el afido pardo de los citricos sobre Citrus . Este parasitoide, no como la mayoria de los afidiidos (Hymenoptera), no produjo momias sobre cualquiera de las plantas hospederas probadas cuando fue criado sobre el afido negro de los citricos, ( T. aurantii (Boyer de Fonscolombe)) en toronja, el afido spirea (Aphis spiraecola Patch) en toronja y pittosporum, el afido del caupi (A. craccivora Koch) en toronja y caupi o el afido del melon (A. gossypii Glover) en toronja y pepino. Asi, el muestreo para momias de L. oregmae de estas especies de afidos hospederos y plantas hospederas tiene que incluir el mantenimiento de follaje en el laboratorio hasta que se produzcan las momias. Este parasitoide requiere una alta humedad relativa para producir los adultos por que ningun adulto emergio cuando las momias fueron mantenidas en capsulas de gelatina, pero una tasa alta de emergencia de adultos fue observada cuando se mantuvo las momias en platos con agar al 1.5%. Ademas de esto, nosotros comparamos el color de 6 especies de afidos hospederos, asi como el color de las momias producidos por L. oregmae cuando fue criado sobre ellos para determinar si se puede usar el color de las momias para la identificacion de L. oregmae . El color de las momias varia entre las especies de afidos hospederos y las plantas hospederas probadas, por lo que no es una herramienta util para la identificacion de L. oregmae o para la evaluacion de su efecto sobre los organismos que no son el enfoque del control. (author)

  12. Biodegradation of Para Amino Acetanilide by Halomonas sp. TBZ3

    PubMed Central

    Hajizadeh, Nader; Sefidi Heris, Youssof; Zununi Vahed, Sepideh; Vallipour, Javad; Hejazi, Mohammad Amin; Golabi, Sayyed Mahdi; Asadpour-Zeynali, Karim; Hejazi, Mohammad Saeid

    2015-01-01

    Background: Aromatic compounds are known as a group of highly persistent environmental pollutants. Halomonas sp. TBZ3 was isolated from the highly salty Urmia Lake of Iran. In this study, characterization of a new Halomonas isolate called Halomonas sp. TBZ3 and its employment for biodegradation of para-amino acetanilide (PAA), as an aromatic environmental pollutant, is described. Objectives: This study aimed to characterize the TBZ3 isolate and to elucidate its ability as a biodegradative agent that decomposes PAA. Materials and Methods: Primarily, DNA-DNA hybridization between TBZ3, Halomonas denitrificans DSM18045T and Halomonas saccharevitans LMG 23976T was carried out. Para-amino acetanilide biodegradation was assessed using spectrophotometry and confirmed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). Parameters effective on biodegradation of PAA were optimized by the Response Surface Methodology (RSM). Results: The DNA-DNA hybridization experiments between isolate TBZ3, H. denitrificans and H. saccharevitans revealed relatedness levels of 57% and 65%, respectively. According to GC-MS results, TBZ3 degrades PAA to benzene, hexyl butanoate, 3-methyl-1-heptanol and hexyl hexanoate. Temperature 32.92°C, pH 6.76, and salinity 14% are the optimum conditions for biodegradation with a confidence level of 95% (at level α = 0.05). Conclusions: According to our results, Halomonas sp. TBZ3 could be considered as a biological agent for bioremediation of PAA and possibly other similar aromatic compounds. PMID:26495103

  13. Consentimiento informado: una praxis dialogica para la investigacion

    PubMed Central

    Mondragon-Barrios, Liliana

    2009-01-01

    El consentimiento informado es un proceso, en el que una persona acepta participar en una investigation, conociendo los riesgos, beneficios, consecuencias o problemas que se puedan presenter durante el desarrollo de la misma. El objetivo de este trabajo es reunir las caracteristicas del proceso de consentimiento informado (PCI) pare que su discernimiento y cumplimiento posibilite el ejercicio etc° dialogico, reflexivo y responsable del investigador. Se presentan los resultados de una extensa revision de les elementos del PCI, desde sus cornponentes hasta su fundamento etico y legal, incluyendo los mites y realidades que existen sobre el formato de consentimiento informado come recurso legal de protection. El consentimiento informado no es un formato establecido que los investigadores repliquen, se trata de que la praxis del PCI sea una tarea cotidiana dentro de la investigation con seres humanos, como comunicaciOn deliberative y critica, responsable y comprometida entre dos agentes morales, investigador-investigado. PMID:19507477

  14. The effect of specific rhlA-las-box mutations on DNA binding and gene activation by Pseudomonas aeruginosa quorum-sensing transcriptional regulators RhlR and LasR.

    PubMed

    González-Valdez, Abigail; Servín-González, Luis; Juárez, Katy; Hernandez-Aligio, Alberto; Soberón-Chávez, Gloria

    2014-07-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a free-living bacterium and an important opportunistic pathogen. The genes coding for virulence-associated traits are regulated at the level of transcription by the quorum-sensing response. In this response, the regulator LasR coupled with the autoinducer 3-oxo-dodecanoyl homoserine lactone (3O-C12-HSL) activates transcription of genes for several virulence factors. LasR/3O-C12-HSL also activates transcription of rhlR, the gene coding for the transcriptional regulator RhlR, and of rhlI that encodes the synthase that produces the autoinducer butanoyl-homoserine lactone (C4-HSL) that interacts with RhlR. Genes activated by RhlR/C4-HSL include those involved in rhamnolipids production (like the rhlAB operon) and lecA, coding for PA-I lectin. The molecular basis of LasR/3O-C12-HSL- and RhlR/C4-HSLDNA-binding specificity (at the so-called las-boxes) has not been clearly determined, and the aim of this work was to contribute to its understanding. Therefore, we analyzed the interaction of LasR and RhlR to variants of the rhlA-las-box that were constructed based on the comparison of this las-box to the las-box of lecA. We conclude that LasR and RhlR DNA-binding specificity is a complex multifactorial phenomenon in which both positive and negative effects are involved and that binding of these proteins does not necessarily result in gene activation.

  15. Comprehensive quality evaluation of Chishao by HPLC.

    PubMed

    Zaiyou, Jian; Wenquan, Wang; Guifang, Xu; Li, Meng; Junling, Hou

    2013-01-01

    Objetivo: El propósito de este artículo es la evaluación cualitativa extensa de Chishao. Métodos: En el experimento de este trabajo, se establecen los espectros de identificación de Chishao en todas las localizaciones mediante RP-HPLC y el método del análisis de componentes principales con las áreas pico de RPHPLC. Resultados: La calidad de Chishao en el norte de China o del procedente de Paeonia lactiflora es mejor que la de otras localizaciones o procedente de P. obovata, P. mairei y P. anomala. Los resultados son congruentes con la impresión tradicional de la calidad de esta planta. Estos resultados indican que el análisis de los componentes principales (ACP) puede utilizarse como método eficaz y económico para evaluar la calidad de Chishao y podría aplicarse a otras plantas medicinales chinas. Conclusiones: Dada la complicada base de la eficacia de la Medicina tradicional china (MTC), un método como el ACP para diversos componentes químicos parece ser más adecuado para la evaluación de la calidad de la MTC en comparación con la determinación de un único o unos pocos agentes químicos.

  16. Reinterpretation of the stratigraphy and structure of the Rancho Las Norias area, central Sonora, Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Page, W.R.; Harris, A.G.; Poole, F.G.; Repetski, J.E.

    2003-01-01

    New geologic mapping and fossil data in the vicinity of Rancho Las Norias, 30 km east of Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico, show that rocks previously mapped as Precambrian instead are Paleozoic. Previous geologic maps of the Rancho Las Norias area show northeast-directed, southwest-dipping reverse or thrust faults deforming both Precambrian and Paleozoic rocks. The revised stratigraphy requires reinterpretation of some of these faults as high-angle normal or oblique-slip faults and the elimination of other faults. We agree with earlier geologic map interpretations that compressional structures have affected the Paleozoic rocks in the area, but our mapping suggests that the direction of compression is from southeast to northwest. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. LANDSAT-D project ADDS/LAS. Scrounge interface control document

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The content and format of all data to be exchanged between the Applications Developmental data System (ADDS) and the LANDSAT-D Assessment System (LAS) for satisfaction of early access thematic mapper product generation requirements is specified. The ADDS provides partially processed TM data tapes on CCT's. The LANDSAT-D Assessment System processes the TM data to fully processed data tapes on 6250 bpi computer compatible tapes and provides required film data products.

  18. Comenditic and pantelleritic ash-flow tuffs from Volcan Las Navajas, Nayarit, Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, S.A.; Hebre, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    Two distinctive ash-flow tuffs occur around the base of Volcan Las Navajas, a Pleistocene trachyte - peralkaline rhyolite center located in the northwestern segment of the Mexican Volcanic belt. The lower ash-flow unit is locally up to 65 m thick, is lithic rich and contains pumice blocks of comenditic rhyolite. The unit is not extensively exposed, and thus its areal extent and volume cannot be determined. Its chemical characteristics and stratigraphic relationship to other products erupted from Las Navajas suggest that it is related to the formation of the older of the two calderas which occur on Las Navajas. Unconformably overlying this unwelded ash-flow is a pantelleritic airfall pumice unit which is locally welded. This airfall unit is conformably overlain by a welded as-flow tuff that contains fiamme of pantelleritic composition (72 %SiO/sub 2/, 8% FeO*, 900 ppm Zr, agpaitic index of 1.7) as well as pumice blocks that show evidence of various degrees of mixing between pantellerite and trachyte. This suggests eruption from a chemically zoned magma chamber. This unit is locally up to 20 m thick, although its top has been removed by erosion. It is found on all sides of Las Navajas except on the south where it may be covered by Volcan Sanganguey, a Pleistocene to Recent calc-alkaline volcano. The welded ash-flow has been dated by K - Ar at 0.2+/-0.1 m.y. Stratigraphically and chemically this ash-flow appears to be related to the formation of younger of the two calderas.

  19. Solar hot water system installed at Las Vegas, Nevada. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1981-01-01

    The solar hot water system installed at LaQuinta Motor Inn Inc., at Las Vegas, Nevada is described. The Inn is a three-story building with a flat roof for installation of the solar panels. The system consists of 1200 square feet of liquid flat plate collectors, a 2500 gallon insulated vertical steel storage tank, two heat exchangers and pumps and controls. The system was designed to supply approximately 74 percent of the total hot water load.

  20. A Diagnostic Assessment for the Teaching of Astronomy. (Spanish Title: Una Evaluación Diagnóstica Para la Enseñanza de la Astronomia.) Uma Avaliação Diagnóstica Para o Ensino da Astronomia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pacifico Ribeiro de Assis Silveira, Felipa; Soares Gomes de Sousa, Célia Maria; Moreira, Antonio

    2011-07-01

    This article aims to present the results of a diagnostic evaluation, used as a tool for collecting data on prior knowledge of scientific concepts needed to understand the topic "Earth and Universe", from a group comprised of 47 students of 6th grade. The educational method of diagnosing the student's prior knowledge before teaching them is founded on the Meaningful Learning theory, proposed by David Ausubel. The diagnostic evaluation consisted of 25 questions; the answers were analyzed and categorized, making possible their interpretation, which allows us to understand the meanings assigned by the student to these concepts. It follows from the diagnostic evaluation, that the majority of students surveyed had difficulties in exposing scientific concepts on the topic "Earth and Universe" when starting the 6th grade. However, we identified relevant ideas and representations that contributed to the re-signification of scientific concepts proposed for the teaching of the subject in this grade. The results of diagnostic evaluation served as reference to the organization of the syllabus, making possible the learning process by matching the sequence of teaching to the students" characteristics and context of the classroom. It is expected that other researchers in this topic can also use the instrument presented in this paper. Este artículo tiene como objetivo presentar los resultados de una evaluación diagnóstica, utilizada como una herramienta para recoger datos sobre el conocimiento previo de los conceptos científicos necesarios para comprender el tema "Tierra y Universo", de un grupo compuesto por 47 alumnos de 6º grado de la escuela primaria. La acción pedagógica del diagnóstico de los conocimientos previos del estudiante antes de enseñarles está justificada por la teoría del Aprendizaje Significativo, propuesta por David Ausubel. La evaluación de diagnóstico consistió en 25 preguntas, las respuestas fueron analizadas y clasificadas objetivando-se su

  1. Nondegraded metabolites arising from the biodegradation of commercial linear alkylbenzenesulfonate (LAS) surfactants in a laboratory trickling filter

    SciTech Connect

    Koelbener, P.; Baumann, U.; Leisinger, T.; Cook, A.M. |

    1995-04-01

    The degradation of a commercial linear alkylbenzenesulfonate (LAS) surfactant was examined kinetically in a trickling filter, which allowed simultaneous chemical determinations in the aqueous phase (e.g., DOC) and in the gas phase (CO{sub 2}). About 60% of the carbon applied as LAS was released as CO{sub 2}, whereas 15% remained as DOC in the eluate of acclimated trickling filters. The biomass was analyzed after the experiment, and it was found to have sorbed about 23 mg LAS/g of dry biomass; this represented about 3% of the LAS applied to the filter. The LAS and the eluates from the trickling filter were further analyzed by HPLC and UV and IR spectrometry. The residual carbon from acclimated filters contained no LAS-like material (HPLC), which was obviously subject to quantitative biotransformation. The residual material comprised > 50 polar metabolites, some of whose UV spectra differed from that of LAS, and most or all of which were sulfonated. These nondegraded metabolites included carboxylated dialkyltetralinesulfonates and sulfophenylcarboxylates. These residual materials showed no detectable toxicity to algae or Daphnia, and did not significantly lower the surface tension of water.

  2. CYP96T1 of Narcissus sp. aff. pseudonarcissus Catalyzes Formation of the Para-Para' C-C Phenol Couple in the Amaryllidaceae Alkaloids

    PubMed Central

    Kilgore, Matthew B.; Augustin, Megan M.; May, Gregory D.; Crow, John A.; Kutchan, Toni M.

    2016-01-01

    The Amaryllidaceae alkaloids are a family of amino acid derived alkaloids with many biological activities; examples include haemanthamine, haemanthidine, galanthamine, lycorine, and maritidine. Central to the biosynthesis of the majority of these alkaloids is a C-C phenol-coupling reaction that can have para-para', para-ortho', or ortho-para' regiospecificity. Through comparative transcriptomics of Narcissus sp. aff. pseudonarcissus, Galanthus sp., and Galanthus elwesii we have identified a para-para' C-C phenol coupling cytochrome P450, CYP96T1, capable of forming the products (10bR,4aS)-noroxomaritidine and (10bS,4aR)-noroxomaritidine from 4′-O-methylnorbelladine. CYP96T1 was also shown to catalyzed formation of the para-ortho' phenol coupled product, N-demethylnarwedine, as less than 1% of the total product. CYP96T1 co-expresses with the previously characterized norbelladine 4′-O-methyltransferase. The discovery of CYP96T1 is of special interest because it catalyzes the first major branch in Amaryllidaceae alkaloid biosynthesis. CYP96T1 is also the first phenol-coupling enzyme characterized from a monocot. PMID:26941773

  3. CYP96T1 of Narcissus sp. aff. pseudonarcissus Catalyzes Formation of the Para-Para' C-C Phenol Couple in the Amaryllidaceae Alkaloids.

    PubMed

    Kilgore, Matthew B; Augustin, Megan M; May, Gregory D; Crow, John A; Kutchan, Toni M

    2016-01-01

    The Amaryllidaceae alkaloids are a family of amino acid derived alkaloids with many biological activities; examples include haemanthamine, haemanthidine, galanthamine, lycorine, and maritidine. Central to the biosynthesis of the majority of these alkaloids is a C-C phenol-coupling reaction that can have para-para', para-ortho', or ortho-para' regiospecificity. Through comparative transcriptomics of Narcissus sp. aff. pseudonarcissus, Galanthus sp., and Galanthus elwesii we have identified a para-para' C-C phenol coupling cytochrome P450, CYP96T1, capable of forming the products (10bR,4aS)-noroxomaritidine and (10bS,4aR)-noroxomaritidine from 4'-O-methylnorbelladine. CYP96T1 was also shown to catalyzed formation of the para-ortho' phenol coupled product, N-demethylnarwedine, as less than 1% of the total product. CYP96T1 co-expresses with the previously characterized norbelladine 4'-O-methyltransferase. The discovery of CYP96T1 is of special interest because it catalyzes the first major branch in Amaryllidaceae alkaloid biosynthesis. CYP96T1 is also the first phenol-coupling enzyme characterized from a monocot.

  4. The Las Vegas Valley Seismic Response Project: Ground Motions in Las Vegas Valley from Nuclear Explosions at the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Rodgers, A; Tkalcic, H; McCallen, D

    2005-03-18

    Between 2001-2004 the Las Vegas Seismic Response Project has sought to understand the response of Las Vegas Valley (LVV) to seismic excitation. In this study, the author report the findings of this project with an emphasis on ground motions in LVV from nuclear explosions at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). These ground motions are used to understand building structural response and damage as well as human perception. Historical nuclear explosion observations are augmented with earthquake recordings from a temporary deployment of seismometers to improve spatial coverage of LVV. The nuclear explosions were conducted between 1968 and 1989 and were recorded at various sites within Las Vegas. The data from past nuclear tests were used to constrain ground motions in LVV and to gain a predictive capability of ground motions for possible future nuclear tests at NTS. Analysis of ground motion data includes peak ground motions (accelerations and velocities) and amplification of basin sites relative to hard rock sites (site response). Site response was measured with the Standard Spectral Ratios (SSR) technique relative to hard rock reference sites on the periphery of LVV. The site response curves indicate a strong basin amplification of up to a factor of ten at frequencies between 0.5-2 Hz. Amplifications are strongest in the central and northern portions of LVV, where the basin is deeper than 1 km based on the reported basin depths of Langenheim et al (2001a). They found a strong correlation between amplification and basin depth and shallow shear wave velocities. Amplification below 1 Hz is strongly controlled by slowness-averaged shear velocities to depths of 30 and 100 meters. Depth averaged shear velocities to 10 meters has modest control of amplifications between 1-3 Hz. Modeling reveals that low velocity material in the shallow layers (< 200 m) effectively controls amplification. They developed a method to scale nuclear explosion ground motion time series to sites around LVV

  5. Crystal growth and DFT insight on sodium para-nitrophenolate para-nitrophenol dihydrate single crystal for NLO applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selvakumar, S.; Boobalan, Maria Susai; Anthuvan Babu, S.; Ramalingam, S.; Leo Rajesh, A.

    2016-12-01

    Single crystals of sodium para-nitrophenolate para-nitrophenol dihydrate (SPPD) were grown by slow evaporation technique and its structure has been studied by FT-IR, FT-Raman and single crystal X-ray diffraction techniques. The optical and electrical properties were characterized by UV-Vis spectrum, and dielectric studies respectively. SPPD was thermally stable up to 128 °C as determined by TG-DTA curves. Using the Kurtz-Perry powder method, the second-harmonic generation efficiency was found to be five times to that of KDP. Third-order nonlinear response was studied using Z-scan technique with a He-Ne laser (632.8 nm) and NLO parameters such as intensity dependent refractive index, nonlinear absorption coefficient and third-order susceptibility were also estimated. The molecular geometry from X-ray experiment in the ground state has been compared using density functional theory (DFT) with appropriate basis set. The first-order hyperpolarizability also calculated using DFT approaches. Stability of the molecule arising from hyperconjugative interactions leading to its nonlinear optical activity and charge delocalization were analyzed using natural bond orbital technique. HOMO-LUMO energy gap value suggests the possibility of charge transfer within the molecule. Based on optimized ground state geometries, Natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis was performed to study donor-acceptor interactions.

  6. Quantifying multi-temporal urban development characteristics in Las Vegas from Landsat and ASTER data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Xian, G.; Crane, M.; McMahon, C.

    2008-01-01

    Urban development has expanded rapidly in Las Vegas, Nevada of the United States, over the last fifty years. A major environmental change associated with this urbanization trend is the transformation of the landscape from natural cover types to increasingly anthropogenic impervious surface. This research utilizes remote sensing data from both the Landsat and Terra-Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) instruments in conjunction with digital orthophotography to estimate urban extent and its temporal changes by determining sub-pixel impervious surfaces. Percent impervious surface area has shown encouraging agreement with urban land extent and development density. Results indicate that total urban land-use increases approximately 110 percent from 1984 to 2002. Most of the increases are associated with medium-to high-density urban development. Places having significant increases in impervious surfaces are in the northwestern and southeastern parts of Las Vegas. Most high-density urban development, however, appears in central Las Vegas. Impervious surface conditions for 2002 measured from Landsat and ASTER satellite data are compared in terms of their accuracy.

  7. Surficial geology and distribution of post-impoundment sediment in Las Vegas Bay, Lake Mead

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Twichell, David C.; Cross, VeeAnn A.; Rudin, Mark J.; Parolski, Kenneth F.; Rendigs, Richard R.

    2001-01-01

    Sidescan sonar imagery and seismic-reflection profiles were collected in the northwestern part of Las Vegas Bay to map the distribution and volume of sediment that has accumulated in this part of Lake Mead since impoundment. The mapping suggests that three ephemeral streams are the primary source of this sediment, and of these, Las Vegas Wash is the largest. Two deltas off the mouth of Las Vegas Wash formed at different lake elevations and account for 41% of the total volume of post-impoundment sediment within the study area. Deltas off the other two washes (Gypsum and Government) account for only 6% of the total volume. The sediment beyond the front of the deltas is primarily mud, and it only occurs in valley floors, where it forms a flat-lying blanket that is mostly less than 1.5 m thick. Although a thin layer, the fine-grained sediment accounts for approximately 53% of the total post-impoundment sediment volume of 5.7 x 106 m3 that has accumulated in the study area. This sediment appears to have been transported several kilometers from the river sources by density flows.

  8. Investigating Remotely Sensed Evapotranspiration in the Las Conchas and Old Fires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poon, P.; Stewart, C.; Kinoshita, A. M.

    2015-12-01

    Wildfires significantly alter landscapes and can contribute to observed changes in hydrology. Evapotranspiration (ET) contributes significantly to the hydrologic cycle, however, there are limited studies on the impacts of fire on this variable. Using remote sensing derived products, this study explores the spatial variability of ET (specifically, the operational Simplified Surface Energy Balance (SSEBop)) within the 2011 Las Conchas Fire, New Mexico and the 2003 Old Fire, California. Following the Las Conchas Fire, spatial ET is compared with two ground-based meteorological stations and two nearby unburned stations. In the Old Fire, a simple water balance approach is used to approximate and compare watershed-scale ET pre- and post-fire. Preliminary analysis with SSEBop in Las Conchas shows relatively similar precipitation patterns while post-fire ET appears altered within high, moderate, and low burn severity areas. We will continue to evaluate the relation between post-fire ET and characteristics such as land cover, land surface temperature, and precipitation. This analysis will provide information on the application of spatial ET products to improve post-fire hydrologic estimates.

  9. Oropouche Virus. 3. Entomological Observations from Three Epidemics in Para, Brazil, 1975,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-10-06

    by block number) OROPOUCHE VIRUS, CULICOIDES PARAENSIS, EPIDEMICS, BRAZIL, PARA I&2 ABSThAC (Cantmus = revers e e* I nessamy and idewtty by block nmbe...8217)URBAN EPIDEMTCS OF OROPOUCHE ORO FEVER IN THREE MUNICIPALITIES IN PARA, BR.tZIL WERE SrUDIED IN 1975. CULICOIDES PARAENSIS GOELDI WERE COLLECTED...Urban epidemics of Oropouche (ORO) fever in three municipalities in Para, Brazil were studied in 1975. Culicoides paraensis (Goeldi) were collected during

  10. Origen de los rayos cósmicos a las más altas energías

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horvath, J. E.; Gouveia dal Pino, E. M.; Medina Tanco, G. A.

    Discutimos en este trabajo la identificación de las fuentes de rayos cósmicos de las más altas energías observadas (E >= 1020 eV). Presentamos los resultados de varias simulaciones numéricas 3-D donde se calcula explícitamente el ángulo de desviación α del primario por efecto de los campos magnéticos ambientes. Con estos resultados investigamos las hipótesis de un origen extragaláctico local y halo galáctico.

  11. Ortho- and para-hydrogen in dense clouds, protoplanets, and planetary atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decampli, W. M.; Cameron, A. G. W.; Bodenheimer, P.; Black, D. C.

    1978-01-01

    If ortho- and para-hydrogen achieve a thermal ratio on dynamical time scales in a molecular hydrogen cloud, then the specific heat is high enough in the temperature range 35-70 K to possibly induce hydrodynamic collapse. The ortho-para ratio in many interstellar cloud fragments is expected to meet this condition. The same may have been true for the primitive solar nebula. Detailed hydrodynamic and hydrostatic calculations are presented that show the effects of the assumed ortho-para ratio on the evolution of Jupiter during its protoplanetary phase. Some possible consequences of a thermalized ortho-para ratio in the atmospheres of the giant planets are also discussed.

  12. Final Report for the Arroyo Las Positas Maintenance Impact Study, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    van Hattem, M; Paterson, L

    2006-01-12

    In 2000, the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL) Environmental Protection Department, in coordination with Plant Engineering (PE), began dredging sections of the Arroyo Las Positas (ALP) to alleviate concerns about flooding of sensitive facilities within the mainsite of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. In order to reduce potential impacts on the federally threatened California red-legged frog (Rana aurora draytonii), LLNL proposed to dredge sections of the ALP in a ''checkerboard pattern'', resulting in a mosaic of open water habitat and vegetated sections (Figure 1). The Arroyo Las Positas Management Plan (Plan) was coordinated with both state and federal agencies including the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), California Department of Fish and Game (CDF&G), San Francisco Regional Water Quality Control Board (SFRWQCB), and the Army Corp of Engineers (ACOE). Water Discharge Requirements (WDRs) were issued for this project on December 30, 1999 (Order No. 99-086) by the SFRWQCB. Provision 19 of the WDRs outlined a five-year (2000 through 2004) Maintenance Impact Study (MIS) that LLNL began in coordination with dredging work that was conducted as part of the Arroyo Las Positas Management Plan. Provision 20 of these WDRs requires LLNL to submit a final report of the results of the Maintenance Impact Study for this project to the SFRWQCB. The purpose of this report is to present the results of the Maintenance Impact Study for Arroyo Las Positas and meet the requirements of Provision 20. A description of the annual monitoring included in this Maintenance Impact Study is included in the methods section of this report. Initially the Plan called for dredging the entire length of the Arroyo Las Positas (approximately 6,981 linear feet) over a 5-year period to minimize temporal impacts on the California red-legged frog. Dredging occurred in 2000 ({approx}1,300 ft.), 2001 ({approx}800 ft.), and 2002 ({approx}1,200 ft.), which constituted approximately

  13. An Aerial Radiological Survey of Selected Areas of the City of North Las Vegas

    SciTech Connect

    Piotr Wasiolek

    2008-06-01

    As part of the proficiency training for the Radiological Mapping mission of the Aerial Measuring System (AMS), a survey team from the Remote Sensing Laboratory-Nellis (RSL-Nellis) conducted an aerial radiological survey of selected areas of the city of North Las Vegas for the purpose of mapping natural radiation background and locating any man-made radioactive sources. Survey areas were selected in collaboration with the City Manager's office and included four separate areas: (1) Las Vegas Motor Speedway (10.6 square miles); (2) North Las Vegas Downtown Area (9.2 square miles); (3) I-15 Industrial Corridor (7.4 square miles); and (4) Future site of University of Nevada Las Vegas campus (17.4 square miles). The survey was conducted in three phases: Phase 1 on December 11-12, 2007 (Areas 1 and 2), Phase 2 on February 28, 2008 (Area 3), and Phase 3 on March 19, 2008 (Area 4). The total completed survey covered a total of 44.6 square miles. The flight lines (without the turns) over the surveyed areas are presented in Figures 1, 2, 3, and 4. A total of eight 2.5-hour-long flights were performed at an altitude of 150 ft above ground level (AGL) with 300 feet of flight-line spacing. Water line and test line flights were conducted over the Lake Mead and Government Wash areas to ensure quality control of the data. The data were collected by the AMS data acquisition system (REDAR V) using an array of twelve 2-inch x 4-inch x 16-inch sodium iodide (NaI) detectors flown on-board a twin-engine Bell 412 helicopter. Data, in the form of gamma energy spectra, were collected continually (every second) over the course of the survey and were geo-referenced using a differential Global Positioning System. Collection of spectral data allows the system to distinguish between ordinary fluctuations in natural background radiation levels and the signature produced by man-made radioisotopes. Spectral data can also be used to identify specific radioactive isotopes. As a courtesy service, with

  14. Luttinger parameter of quasi-one-dimensional para -H2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferré, G.; Gordillo, M. C.; Boronat, J.

    2017-02-01

    We have studied the ground-state properties of para-hydrogen in one dimension and in quasi-one-dimensional configurations using the path-integral ground-state Monte Carlo method. This method produces zero-temperature exact results for a given interaction and geometry. The quasi-one-dimensional setup has been implemented in two forms: the inner channel inside a carbon nanotube coated with H2 and a harmonic confinement of variable strength. Our main result is the dependence of the Luttinger parameter on the density within the stable regime. Going from one dimension to quasi-one dimension, keeping the linear density constant, produces a systematic increase of the Luttinger parameter. This increase is, however, not enough to reach the superfluid regime and the system always remain in the quasicrystal regime, according to Luttinger liquid theory.

  15. ParaText : scalable text analysis and visualization.

    SciTech Connect

    Dunlavy, Daniel M.; Stanton, Eric T.; Shead, Timothy M.

    2010-07-01

    Automated analysis of unstructured text documents (e.g., web pages, newswire articles, research publications, business reports) is a key capability for solving important problems in areas including decision making, risk assessment, social network analysis, intelligence analysis, scholarly research and others. However, as data sizes continue to grow in these areas, scalable processing, modeling, and semantic analysis of text collections becomes essential. In this paper, we present the ParaText text analysis engine, a distributed memory software framework for processing, modeling, and analyzing collections of unstructured text documents. Results on several document collections using hundreds of processors are presented to illustrate the exibility, extensibility, and scalability of the the entire process of text modeling from raw data ingestion to application analysis.

  16. Electron impact ionization dynamics of para-benzoquinone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, D. B.; Ali, E.; Ning, C. G.; Colgan, J.; Ingólfsson, O.; Madison, D. H.; Brunger, M. J.

    2016-10-01

    Triple differential cross sections (TDCSs) for the electron impact ionization of the unresolved combination of the 4 highest occupied molecular orbitals (4b3g, 5b2u, 1b1g, and 2b3u) of para-benzoquinone are reported. These were obtained in an asymmetric coplanar geometry with the scattered electron being observed at the angles -7.5°, -10.0°, -12.5° and -15.0°. The experimental cross sections are compared to theoretical calculations performed at the molecular 3-body distorted wave level, with a marginal level of agreement between them being found. The character of the ionized orbitals, through calculated momentum profiles, provides some qualitative interpretation for the measured angular distributions of the TDCS.

  17. Para-phenylenediamine allergy: current perspectives on diagnosis and management

    PubMed Central

    Mukkanna, Krishna Sumanth; Stone, Natalie M; Ingram, John R

    2017-01-01

    Para-phenylenediamine (PPD) is the commonest and most well-known component of hair dyes. Oxidative hair dyes and dark henna temporary tattoos contain PPD. Individuals may be sensitized to PPD by temporary henna tattooing in addition to dyeing their hair. PPD allergy can cause severe reactions and may result in complications. In recent years, frequency of positive patch test reactions to PPD has been increasing. Cross-sensitization to other contact allergens may occur, in particular to other hair dye components. Hairdressers are at a high risk for PPD allergy and require counseling regarding techniques to minimize exposure and protective measures while handling hair dye. We focus this review on the current perspectives of diagnosis and management of PPD allergy. PMID:28176912

  18. Pneumatic protection applied to an airbag for para-gliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raievski, V.; Valladas, G.

    1998-02-01

    We present a theory of pneumatic protection based on the laws of thermodynamics, elasticity and fluid mechanics. A general pneumatic protection system is made up of several communicating compartments, the differences in pressure of the compartments generating a transfer of mass and energy between them. The transfer offers interesting possibilities to improve the performance of the system. An example of this type of protection in aerial sport is the airbag for para-gliders, it is used in this paper to illustrate the theory. As the pressure in the airbag depends uniquely on its volume, the geometric model in the theory can be simplified. Experiments carried out with crash-test dummies equipped with sensors have confirmed the theoretical predictions.

  19. Para-Hydrogen-Enhanced Gas-Phase Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Bouchard, Louis-S.; Kovtunov, Kirill V.; Burt, Scott R.; Anwar,M. Sabieh; Koptyug, Igor V.; Sagdeev, Renad Z.; Pines, Alexander

    2007-02-23

    Herein, we demonstrate magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) inthe gas phase using para-hydrogen (p-H2)-induced polarization. A reactantmixture of H2 enriched in the paraspin state and propylene gas is flowedthrough a reactor cell containing a heterogenized catalyst, Wilkinson'scatalyst immobilized on modified silica gel. The hydrogenation product,propane gas, is transferred to the NMR magnet and is spin-polarized as aresult of the ALTADENA (adiabatic longitudinal transport and dissociationengenders net alignment) effect. A polarization enhancement factor of 300relative to thermally polarized gas was observed in 1D1H NMR spectra.Enhancement was also evident in the magnetic resonance images. This isthe first demonstration of imaging a hyperpolarized gaseous productformed in a hydrogenation reaction catalyzed by a supported catalyst.This result may lead to several important applications, includingflow-through porous materials, gas-phase reaction kinetics and adsorptionstudies, and MRI in low fields, all using catalyst-free polarizedfluids.

  20. Prevalencia y factores de riesgo para infecciones del tracto urinario de inicio en la comunidad causadas por Escherichia coli productor de betalactamasas de espectro extendido en Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Blanco, Victor M.; Maya, Juan J.; Correa, Adriana; Perenguez, Marcela; Muñoz, Juan S.; Motoa, Gabriel; Pallares, Christian J.; Rosso, Fernando; Matta, Lorena; Celis, Yamile; Garzon, Martha; Villegas, y María V.

    2016-01-01

    RESUMEN Introducción Las infecciones del tracto urinario (ITU) son frecuentes en la comunidad. Sin embargo, la información de aislamientos resistentes en este contexto es limitada en Latinoamérica. Este estudio tiene como objetivo determinar la prevalencia y los factores de riesgo asociados con ITU de inicio en la comunidad (ITU-IC) causadas por Escherichia coli productor de betalactamasas de espectro extendido (BLEE) en Colombia. Materiales y métodos Entre agosto y diciembre de 2011 se realizó un estudio de casos y controles en 3 instituciones de salud de tercer nivel en Colombia. Se invitó a participar a todos los pacientes admitidos a urgencias con diagnóstico probable de ITU-IC, y se les pidió una muestra de orina. En los aislamien-tos de E. coli se realizaron pruebas confirmatorias para BLEE, susceptibilidad antibiótica, caracterización molecular (PCR en tiempo real para genes bla, repetitive element palindromic PCR [rep-PCR], multilocus sequence typing [MLST] y factores de virulencia por PCR). Se obtuvo información clínica y epidemiológica, y posteriormente se realizó el análisis estadístico. Resultados De los 2.124 pacientes seleccionados, 629 tuvieron un urocultivo positivo, en 431 de estos se aisló E. coli, 54 fueron positivos para BLEE y 29 correspondieron a CTX-M-15. La mayoría de los aislamientos de E. coli productor de BLEE fueron sensibles a ertapenem, fosfomicina y amikacina. La ITU complicada se asoció fuertemente con infecciones por E. coli productor de BLEE (OR = 3,89; IC 95%: 1,10–13,89; p = 0,03). E. coli productor de CTX-M-15 mostró 10 electroferotipos diferentes; de estos, el 65% correspondieron al ST131. La mayoría de estos aislamientos tuvieron 8 de los 9 factores de virulencia analizados. Discusión E. coli portador del gen blaCTX-M-15 asociado al ST131 sigue siendo frecuente en Colombia. La presencia de ITU-IC complicada aumenta el riesgo de tener E. coli productor de BLEE, lo cual debe tenerse en cuenta para ofrecer

  1. Long-term assessment of ultrafine particles on major roadways in Las Vegas, Nevada and Detroit, Michigan

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is a presentation at the National Air Monitoring conference, given at the request of OAQPS partners. The presentation will cover ultrafine particle data collected at three locations - Las Vegas, Detroit, and Research Triangle Park.

  2. The Ratio of Ortho- to Para-H2 in Photodissociation Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sternberg, Amiel; Neufeld, David A.

    1999-01-01

    We discuss the ratio of ortho- to para-H2 in photodissociation regions (PDRs). We draw attention to an apparent confusion in the literature between the ortho-to-para ratio of molecules in FUV-pumped vibrationally excited states and the total H2 ortho-to-para abundance ratio. These ratios are not the same because the process of FUV pumping of fluorescent H2 emission in PDRs occurs via optically thick absorption lines. Thus gas with an equilibrium ratio of ortho- to para-H2 equal to 3 will yield FUV-pumped vibrationally excited ortho-to-para ratios smaller than 3, because the ortho-H2 pumping rates are preferentially reduced by optical depth effects. Indeed, if the ortho and para pumping lines are on the "square root" part of the curve of growth, then the expected ratio of ortho and para vibrational line strengths is 3(sup 1/2) approximately 1.7, close to the typically observed value. Thus, contrary to what has sometimes been stated in the literature, most previous measurements of the ratio of ortho- to para-H2 in vibrationally excited states are entirely consistent with a total ortho-to-para ratio of 3, the equilibrium value for temperatures greater than 200 K. We present an analysis and several detailed models that illustrate the relationship between the total ratios of ortho- to para-H2 and the vibrationally excited ortho-to-para ratios in PDRs. Recent Infrared Space Observatory measurements of pure rotational and vibrational H2 emissions from the PDR in the star-forming region S140 provide strong observational support for our conclusions.

  3. Ortho-para mixing hyperfine interaction in the H2O+ ion and nuclear spin equilibration.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Keiichi; Harada, Kensuke; Oka, Takeshi

    2013-10-03

    The ortho to para conversion of water ion, H2O(+), due to the interaction between the magnetic moments of the unpaired electron and protons has been theoretically studied to calculate the spontaneous emission lifetime between the ortho- and para-levels. The electron spin-nuclear spin interaction term, Tab(SaΔIb + SbΔIa) mixes ortho (I = 1) and para (I = 0) levels to cause the "forbidden" ortho to para |ΔI| = 1 transition. The mixing term with Tab = 72.0 MHz is 4 orders of magnitude higher for H2O(+) than for its neutral counterpart H2O where the magnetic field interacting with proton spins is by molecular rotation rather than the free electron. The resultant 10(8) increase of ortho to para conversion rate possibly makes the effect of conversion in H2O(+) measurable in laboratories and possibly explains the anomalous ortho to para ratio recently reported by Herschel heterodyne instrument for the far-infrared (HIFI) observation. Results of our calculations show that the ortho ↔ para mixings involving near-degenerate ortho and para levels are high (∼10(-3)), but they tend to occur at high energy levels, ∼300 K. Because of the rapid spontaneous emission, such high levels are not populated in diffuse clouds unless the radiative temperature of the environment is very high. The low-lying 101 (para) and 111 (ortho) levels of H2O(+) are mixed by ∼10(-4) making the spontaneous emission lifetime for the para 101 → ortho 000 transition 520 years and 5200 years depending on the F value of the hyperfine structure. Thus the ortho ↔ para conversion due to the unpaired electron is not likely to seriously affect thermalization of interstellar H2O(+) unless either the radiative temperature is very high or number density of the cloud is very low.

  4. Seismic Data for Evaluation of Ground Motion Hazards in Las Vegas in Support of Test Site Readiness Ground Motion

    SciTech Connect

    Rodgers, A

    2008-01-16

    In this report we describe the data sets used to evaluate ground motion hazards in Las Vegas from nuclear tests at the Nevada Test Site. This analysis is presented in Rodgers et al. (2005, 2006) and includes 13 nuclear explosions recorded at the John Blume and Associates network, the Little Skull Mountain earthquake and a temporary deployment of broadband station in Las Vegas. The data are available in SAC format on CD-ROM as an appendix to this report.

  5. Intelligence Professionalism in the Americas (profesionalismo de inteligencia en las americas)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-11-01

    inteligencia. Aspecto importante para el profesionalismo de la actividad de inteligencia: evitar su empleo indiscriminado en materia policial. Otro...consiste, fundamentalmente, en el empleo por parte de instituciones policiales dentro de la actividad policial de determinados métodos propios de la...Tam- bién, por extensión, a actividades delictivas complejas o cuyas características requerían del empleo de una importante capacidad de análisis

  6. New sample treatment for determination of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) in agricultural soils by liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection.

    PubMed

    Nimer, M; Ballesteros, O; Navalón, A; Crovetto, G; Verge, C; López, I; Berna, J L; Vílchez, J L

    2007-03-01

    A new sample-treatment procedure has been developed for determination of total linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS), i.e. homologues and isomers, in agricultural soil. The procedure involves two steps, ultrasound-assisted extraction of LAS from the samples with methanol then clean-up of the methanolic extracts and preconcentration of the LAS by solid-phase extraction on two adsorbent cartridges (SAX and C18). The ultrasound-assisted procedure reduces extraction time (10 min in contrast with 6-12 h for conventional Soxhlet extraction) and requires only small volumes of organic solvent. The effect of different variables interacting in the ultrasound-assisted extraction process was studied. Finally, separation and quantification of the homologues and isomers of LAS was performed by liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (LC-FD). 2-Octylbenzenesulfonic acid sodium salt (Na-2ØC8-LAS) was used as internal standard. The proposed method was satisfactorily used for determination of LAS in agricultural soil samples from the fertile plain of Granada (Spain).

  7. Anaerobic degradation of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) in fluidized bed reactor by microbial consortia in different support materials.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Lorena Lima; Costa, Rachel Biancalana; Okada, Dagoberto Yukio; Vich, Daniele Vital; Duarte, Iolanda Cristina Silveira; Silva, Edson Luiz; Varesche, Maria Bernadete Amâncio

    2010-07-01

    Four anaerobic fluidized bed reactors filled with activated carbon (R1), expanded clay (R2), glass beads (R3) and sand (R4) were tested for anaerobic degradation of LAS. All reactors were inoculated with sludge from a UASB reactor treating swine wastewater and were fed with a synthetic substrate supplemented with approximately 20 mg l(-1) of LAS, on average. To 560 mg l(-1) COD influent, the maximum COD and LAS removal efficiencies were mean values of 97+/-2% and 99+/-2%, respectively, to all reactors demonstrating the potential applicability of this reactor configuration for treating LAS. The reactors were kept at 30 degrees C and operated with a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 18h. The use of glass beads and sand appear attractive because they favor the development of biofilms capable of supporting LAS degradation. Subsequent 16S rRNA gene sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of samples from reactors R3 and R4 revealed that these reactors gave rise to broad microbial diversity, with microorganisms belonging to the phyla Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria, indicating the role of microbial consortia in degrading the surfactant LAS.

  8. A brief hydrologic appraisal of the July 3-4, 1975, flash flood in Las Vegas Valley, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Katzer, T.L.; Glancy, Patrick A.; Harmsen, Lynn

    1976-01-01

    Heavy thunderstorm precipitation on the afternoon of July 3, 1975, between metropolitan Las Vegas and the mountains to the south, west, and north, caused flash flooding in the city area. Total storm precipitation equaled or exceeded 3 inches (76 mm) in some areas. The total storm yield on the area of significant runoff was probably between 20,000 and 25,000 acre-feet (2.5 x 107 m3 and 3.1 x 107 m3) of water. Of this amount, probably less than 3,000 acre-feet (37 x 106 m3) flowed directly to Lake Mead. Peak flows of Tropicana Wash, Flamingo Wash, Las Vegas Creek, and Las Vegas Wash were the highest ever determined. Flooding caused the loss of two lives and inflicted extensive property damage. Total damage was reportedly estimated by the Clark County Flood Control District at $4-5 million. Problems associated with sediment erosion, transportation, and deposition occurred throughout the flooded area. An unknown amount of the material transported during the flood was deposited in Lake Mead near the mouth of Las Vegas Wash. Lateral erosion appeared more prominent than vertical erosion along most major channels, except on Las Vegas Wash at Northshore Road where downcutting threatened the loss of the highway. Sediment deposits were particularly noticeable and troublesome in Flamingo Wash at Caesars Palace parking lot and on the Winterwood Golf Course near the junction of Flamingo Wash and Las Vegas Wash.

  9. High School Students' Previous Knowledge about the Stars. (Spanish Title: Conocimientos Previos de Estudiantes de Secundaria Acerca de Las Estrellas.) O Conhecimento Prévio de Alunos do Ensino Médio sobre as Estrelas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iachel, Gustavo

    2011-12-01

    Based on the readings of articles related to Astronomy Education published in Brazil, it was noticed a lack of research on previous knowledge of students about the physical characteristics of stars, a fact that motivated us to develop this study. Previous knowledge of 125 students (approximated 15 years old) constituted the study sample; data was collected through written questionnaires (Appendix A) for analysis. From the content analysis of these responses it was possible to achieve some inferences as, for example, many students have some difficult to develop an explanatory model on the functioning of a star; there are few who say that the stars have a certain length of existence; some students have said that stars have tips; few recognize that a star is formed by a mass of gas; some previous knowledge come from purely visual aspects; furthermore, some students do not have the habit of observing nature in detail. We see this research as a reference in which science teachers can recognize the importance of previous knowledge for practice teaching and acquire resources for planning their lessons. De la lectura de artículos relacionados con la Educación en Astronomía publicados en el Brasil, se encuentra una falta de investigaciones acerca del conocimiento previo de los estudiantes sobre las características físicas de las estrellas, hecho que nos motivó a desarrollar este estudio. Los datos analizados se obtuvieron al aplicar un cuestionario a 125 estudiantes de secundaria, para posteriormente realizar un análisis de contenido, tal cuestionario se presenta en el Anexo A. Al realizar el análisis de contenido de las respuestas obtenidas, fue posible hacer algunas inferencias, como por ejemplo; muchos estudiantes tienen dificultades para desarrollar un modelo explicativo acerca del funcionamiento de una estrella; pocos estudiantes dicen que las estrellas tienen un cierto tiempo de vida; algunos estudiantes imaginan que las estrellas tienen puntas; pocos

  10. Estrategia innovadora enfocada en parejas del mismo sexo para disminuir la infección del VIH en hombres Latinos

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Omar; Wu, Elwin; Sandfort, Theo; Shultz, Andrew Z.; Capote, Jonathan; Chávez, Silvia; Moya, Eva; Dodge, Brian; Morales, Gabriel; Porras, Antonio; Ovejero, Hugo

    2014-01-01

    Resumen El VIH es un problema de salud importante dentro de la comunidad latina de los Estados Unidos. Gracias a los esfuerzos de prevención, los niveles de contagio entre los latinos se han mantenido estables por más de una década. Sin embargo, esta población sigue siendo afectada a niveles muy altos, en particular entre hombres que tienen sexo con hombres (HSH), de origen latino y que hablan principalmente el idioma español. Existen varios factores que contribuyen a la transmisión del VIH entre esta población, como son: el uso de drogas; la violencia dentro de la pareja; la presencia de infecciones de transmisión sexual; relaciones sexuales sin protección, dentro y fuera de la pareja; el evadir la búsqueda de recursos (prueba y tratamiento adecuado) por temor a ser discriminado o por su estatus migratorio; la escasez de recursos económicos o estado de pobreza y los patrones relacionados a la migración. En particular, Investigaciones Epidemiológicas de Comportamientos han determinado: cómo algunas dinámicas en parejas están directamente asociadas a los comportamientos sexuales de riesgos. En consecuencia, es necesaria mayor investigación para identificar esas dinámicas, y a su vez, realizar intervenciones dirigidas a la reducción de conductas de riesgo enfocadas en parejas de hombres del mismo sexo. En este escrito, se describe la importancia del uso de las relaciones de pareja como estrategia en la reducción de la trasmisión del VIH/SIDA en HSH de origen latino y que hablan principalmente el idioma español en los Estados Unidos. PMID:25580466

  11. Primer registro para Peru del genero Nielsonia Young, 1977 (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Cicadellinae: Cicadellini)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    En este articulo se reporta por primera vez para el Peru una especies del genero Nielsonia Young, 1977, de material procedente del Departamento de Tumbes. El genero ha sido reportada anteriormente de Ecuador, como unico registro para Sudamerica, y America Central. El unico especimen hembra encontra...

  12. The Liege Acromegaly Survey (LAS): a new software tool for the study of acromegaly.

    PubMed

    Petrossians, Patrick; Tichomirowa, Maria A; Stevenaert, Achile; Martin, Didier; Daly, Adrian F; Beckers, Albert

    2012-06-01

    Acromegaly is a chronic rare disease associated with negative pathological effects on multiple systems and organs. We designed a new informatics tool to study data from patients with acromegaly, the Liege Acromegaly Survey (LAS). This relational database permits the inclusion of anonymous historical and prospective data on patients and includes pathophysiology, clinical features, responses to therapy and long term outcomes of acromegaly. We deployed the LAS in a validation study at a single center in order to study the characteristics of patients with acromegaly diagnosed at our center from 1970-2011. A total of 290 patients with acromegaly were included (147 males and 143 females). There was a linear relationship between age at diagnosis and the date of diagnosis, indicating that older patients are being diagnosed with acromegaly more frequently. A majority presented with macroadenomas (77.5%) and the median diameter was 14 mm. Patients with macroadenomas were significantly younger than patients with microadenomas (P=0.01). GH values at diagnosis decreased with the age of the patients (P=0.01) and there was a correlation between GH values and tumor size at diagnosis (P=0.02). No correlation existed between insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) levels and tumor characteristics. The prevalence of diabetes was 21.4% in this population and 41.0% had hypertension. The presence of hypertension and diabetes were significantly associated with one another (P<0.001). There was a linear relation between initial GH and IGF-1 levels at diagnosis and those obtained during SSA analog treatment and the lowest GH and IGF-1 values following SSA therapy were obtained in older patients (GH: P<0.001; IGF-1: P<0.001). The LAS is a new relational database that is feasible to use in the clinical research setting and permits ready pooling of anonymous patient data from multiple study sites to undertake robust statistical analyses of clinical and therapeutic characteristics.

  13. Elevation Changes of LAS, East Antarctica, Derived From ICESat and CryoSat-2 Altimetric Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, L.; Xie, H.; Hai, G.; Liu, S.; Liu, J.; Tong, X.; Li, R.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding of mass changes of the Antarctic ice sheet is essential for sea level rise study. A research effort has been made to estimate elevation mass changes at Lambert Glacier-Amery Ice Shelf System (LAS), East Antarctica using ICESat data of 2004-2008 and Cryosat-2 data of 2010-2015. A repeat-tack processing method that includes a trend and the first order terrain terms is applied to repeat-track points of all ICESat Campaigns of 2004-2008. The estimated change rate in LAS from 2004-2008 is 3.14±4.13 Gt yr-1. At the basin level, two basins show a combined positive trend of 8.16±2.96 Gt yr-1 while other four basins a combined negative trend of -5.39±6.04 Gt yr-1. Cryosat-2 altimeter works in three modes with the "synthetic aperture interferometer mode" (SARIn) and "low-resolution mode" (LRM) in LAS. Our data coverage is from 2010 to 2015. Cryosat-2 ground tracks do not maintain repeated points. We further divide the entire area into a grid of 5km by 5km. Then we estimate the elevation change rate in each grid cell using a least-squares fitting model with a trend and a second order polynomial. We found that the quality of the estimates is correlated with slopes of cells. The progress of the CryoSat-2 data processing result as well as the analysis with the existing ICESat result will be presented. An integrated model of both ICESat and CryoSat-2 data processing will be developed.

  14. An Aerial Radiological Survey of the Las Vegas Strip and Adjacent Areas

    SciTech Connect

    Wasiolek, Piotr

    2009-02-01

    As proficiency training for the Radiological Mapping mission of the Aerial Measuring System (AMS), a survey team from the Remote Sensing Laboratory–Nellis (RSL-Nellis) conducted an aerial radiological survey of the Las Vegas Strip and adjacent areas on December 29, 2008. This survey was one of the bi-annual surveys carried in support of the city of Las Vegas Police Department (LVPD) before significant events on the Las Vegas Strip: e.g., the annual New Year’s Eve and July Fourth celebrations. The AMS operation and appropriate law enforcement agencies selected this area as an appropriate urban location to exercise AMS capability for mapping environmental radiation and searching for man-made radioactive sources. The surveys covered approximately 11 square miles. Each survey required a 2.5-hour-long flight, performed at an altitude of 300 ft above ground level (AGL) at a line spacing of 600 ft. Water line and test line flights are conducted over the Lake Mead and Government Wash areas to determine the non-terrestrial background contributed by aircraft, radon, and cosmic activity, and to determine the altitude-dependent air mass correction. The data were collected by the AMS data acquisition system (REDAR V) using an array of twelve 2" x 4" x 16" sodium iodide (NaI) detectors flown on-board a twin-engine Bell 412 helicopter. Gamma energy spectral data were collected second-by-second over the survey area. This spectral data allows the system to distinguish between natural terrestrial background contributions and man-made radioisotope contributions. Spectral data can also be used to identify specific man-made radioactive isotopes. Data geo-locations were determined with a Real-Time Differential Global Positioning System (RDGPS).

  15. Interferograms showing land subsidence and uplift in Las Vegas Valley, Nevada, 1992-99

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pavelko, Michael T.; Hoffmann, Jorn; Damar, Nancy A.

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Nevada Department of Conservation and Natural Resources-Division of Water Resources and the Las Vegas Valley Water District, compiled 44 individual interferograms and 1 stacked interferogram comprising 29 satellite synthetic aperture radar acquisitions of Las Vegas Valley, Nevada, from 1992 to 1999. The interferograms, which depict short-term, seasonal, and long-term trends in land subsidence and uplift, are viewable with an interactive map. The interferograms show that land subsidence and uplift generally occur in localized areas, are responsive to ground-water pumpage and artificial recharge, and, in part, are fault controlled. Information from these interferograms can be used by water and land managers to mitigate land subsidence and associated damage. Land subsidence attributed to ground-water pumpage has been documented in Las Vegas Valley since the 1940s. Damage to roads, buildings, and other engineered structures has been associated with this land subsidence. Land uplift attributed to artificial recharge and reduced pumping has been documented since the 1990s. Measuring these land-surface changes with traditional benchmark and Global Positioning System surveys can be costly and time consuming, and results typically are spatially and temporally sparse. Interferograms are relatively inexpensive and provide temporal and spatial resolutions previously not achievable. The interferograms are viewable with an interactive map. Landsat images from 1993 and 2000 are viewable for frames of reference to locate areas of interest and help determine land use. A stacked interferogram for 1992-99 is viewable to visualize the cumulative vertical displacement for the period represented by the individual interferograms. The interactive map enables users to identify and estimate the magnitude of vertical displacement, visually analyze deformation trends, and view interferograms and Landsat images side by side. The

  16. An Aerial Radiological Survey of the City of North Las Vegas (Downtown) and the Motor Speedway

    SciTech Connect

    Piotr Wasiolek

    2007-12-01

    As part of the proficiency training for the Radiological Mapping mission of the Aerial Measuring System (AMS), a survey team from the Remote Sensing Laboratory-Nellis (RSL-Nellis) conducted an aerial radiological survey on December 11-12, 2007, with the purpose of mapping natural radiation background and locating any man-made radioactive sources. The survey covered 19.4 square miles (9.2 square miles over the downtown area of the City of North Las Vegas and 10.2 square miles over the Las Vegas Motor Speedway [LVMS]). The flight lines over the surveyed areas are presented in Figures 1 and 2. A total of four 2.5-hour-long flights were performed at an altitude of 150 ft above ground level (AGL) with 300 ft of flight line spacing. Water line and test line flights were conducted over the Lake Mead and Government Wash areas to ensure quality control of the data. The data were collected by the AMS data acquisition system-REDAR V using an array of twelve 2-inch x 4-inch x 16-inch sodium iodide (NaI) detectors flown on-board a twin-engine Bell 412 helicopter. Data in the form of gamma energy spectra were collected continually (every second) over the course of the survey and were geo-referenced using a differential Global Positioning System. Collection of spectral data allows the system to distinguish between ordinary fluctuations in natural background radiation levels and the signature produced by man-made radioisotopes sources. Spectral data can also be used to identify specific radioactive isotopes. As a courtesy service with the approval of the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, Nevada Site Office, RSL-Nellis is providing this summary to the office of the Mayor of City of North Las Vegas and LVMS security along with the gross counts-based exposure rate and man-made counts maps.

  17. Las Cumbres Observatory: Building a global telescope network from the ground up

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez, E. L.

    2015-03-01

    Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network (LCOGT) are building a global network of telescopes which will be available to both professional scientists and the science curious public. This telescope network will be global and so will the community, therefore all aspects of the endeavour must be online and self-sustaining - from the observing software to the analysis tools. During 2012 LCOGT have deployed the first 1-meter telescopes, and launched a citizen science project using LCOGT data, Agent Exoplanet, as well as many other online resources for anyone to use as they explore astronomy.

  18. Agregación de para-H2 en chorros supersónicos: del dímero al sólido

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    María Fernández, José

    En este trabajo se mostrarán los estudios de expansiones supersónicas de para-H2 desde toberas criogénicas, realizados en el laboratorio de Fluidodinámica Molecular del IEM. Hemos registrado los espectros Raman de dichas expansiones en el intervalo de frecuencias de 4145 a 4162 cm-1, próximo a la línea Q(0) del monómero no rotante H2, a 4161.18 cm-1. En el espectro Raman, además de la línea Q(0) del monómero, se observan unos picos débiles, que, por su comportamiento con la temperatura de la tobera y la distancia a la misma, asignamos a la transición homóloga en agregados de p-H2. Dependiendo de las condiciones, se observan agregados pequeños (de 2 a 13 moléculas de p-H2), agregados medios y masivos, y se llega incluso al líquido y al sólido. Las asignaciones se apoyan en un modelo sencillo, basado en la perturbación, debida al potencial intermolecular, de los estados vibracionales v=0 y v=1 en los agregados de p-H2. Se mostrarán detalles de la instalación experimental, ejemplos de los espectros obtenidos en diversas condiciones, y detalles de la interpretación cuantitativa.

  19. Para-hydrogen induced polarization in heterogeneous hydrogenationreactions

    SciTech Connect

    Koptyug, Igor V.; Kovtunov, Kirill; Burt, Scott R.; Anwar, M.Sabieh; Hilty, Christian; Han, Song-I; Pines, Alexander; Sagdeev, Renad Z.

    2007-01-31

    We demonstrate the creation and observation ofpara-hydrogen-induced polarization in heterogeneous hydrogenationreactions. Wilkinson's catalyst, RhCl(PPh3)3, supported on eithermodified silica gel or a polymer, is shown to hydrogenate styrene intoethylbenzene and to produce enhanced spin polarizations, observed throughNMR, when the reaction was performed with H2 gas enriched in the paraspinisomer. Furthermore, gaseous phase para-hydrogenation of propylene topropane with two catalysts, the Wilkinson's catalyst supported onmodified silica gel and Rh(cod)(sulfos) (cod = cycloocta-1,5-diene;sulfos) - O3S(C6H4)CH2C(CH2PPh2)3) supported on silica gel, demonstratesheterogeneous catalytic conversion resulting in large spin polarizations.These experiments serve as a direct verification of the mechanism ofheterogeneous hydrogenation reactions involving immobilized metalcomplexes and can be potentially developed into a practical tool forproducing catalyst-free fluids with highly polarized nuclear spins for abroad range of hyperpolarized NMR and MRI applications.

  20. Conformation of ionizable poly Para phenylene ethynylene in dilute solutions

    DOE PAGES

    Wijesinghe, Sidath; Maskey, Sabina; Perahia, Dvora; ...

    2015-11-03

    The conformation of dinonyl poly para phenylene ethynylenes (PPEs) with carboxylate side chains, equilibrated in solvents of different quality is studied using molecular dynamics simulations. PPEs are of interest because of their tunable electro-optical properties, chemical diversity, and functionality which are essential in wide range of applications. The polymer conformation determines the conjugation length and their assembly mode and affects electro-optical properties which are critical in their current and potential uses. The current study investigates the effect of carboxylate fraction on PPEs side chains on the conformation of chains in the dilute limit, in solvents of different quality. The dinonylmore » PPE chains are modeled atomistically, where the solvents are modeled both implicitly and explicitly. Dinonyl PPEs maintained a stretched out conformation up to a carboxylate fraction f of 0.7 in all solvents studied. The nonyl side chains are extended and oriented away from the PPE backbone in toluene and in implicit good solvent whereas in water and implicit poor solvent, the nonyl side chains are collapsed towards the PPE backbone. Thus, rotation around the aromatic ring is fast and no long range correlations are seen within the backbone.« less

  1. Evidence for para dechlorination of polychlorobiphenyls by methanogenic bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Ye, D.; Quensen, J.F.; Tiedje, J.M.

    1995-06-01

    When microorganisms eluted from upper Hudson River sediment were cultured without any substrate except polychlorobiphenyl (PCB)-free Hudson River sediment, methane formation was the terminal step of the anaerobic food chain. In sediments containing Aroclor 1242, addition of eubacterium-inhibiting antibiotics, which should have directly inhibited fermentative bacteria and thereby should have indirectly inhibited methanogens, resulted in no dechlorination activity or methane production. However, when substrates for methanogenic bacteria were provided along with the antibiotics (to free the methanogens from dependence on eubacteria), concomitant methane production and dechlorination of PCBs were observed. The dechlorination of Aroclor 1242 was from the para positions, a pattern distinctly different from, and more limited than, the pattern observed with untreated or pasteurized inocula. Both methane production and dechlorination in cultures amended with antibiotics plus methanogenic substrates were inhibited by 2-bromoethanesulfonic acid. These results suggest that the methanogenic bacteria are among the physiological groups capable of anaerobic dechlorination of PCBs, but that the dechlorination observed with methanogenic bacteria is less extensive than the dechlorination observed with more complex anaerobic consortia. 27 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  2. DYNA3D/ParaDyn Regression Test Suite Inventory

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Jerry I.

    2016-09-01

    The following table constitutes an initial assessment of feature coverage across the regression test suite used for DYNA3D and ParaDyn. It documents the regression test suite at the time of preliminary release 16.1 in September 2016. The columns of the table represent groupings of functionalities, e.g., material models. Each problem in the test suite is represented by a row in the table. All features exercised by the problem are denoted by a check mark (√) in the corresponding column. The definition of “feature” has not been subdivided to its smallest unit of user input, e.g., algorithmic parameters specific to a particular type of contact surface. This represents a judgment to provide code developers and users a reasonable impression of feature coverage without expanding the width of the table by several multiples. All regression testing is run in parallel, typically with eight processors, except problems involving features only available in serial mode. Many are strictly regression tests acting as a check that the codes continue to produce adequately repeatable results as development unfolds; compilers change and platforms are replaced. A subset of the tests represents true verification problems that have been checked against analytical or other benchmark solutions. Users are welcomed to submit documented problems for inclusion in the test suite, especially if they are heavily exercising, and dependent upon, features that are currently underrepresented.

  3. DYNA3D/ParaDyn Regression Test Suite Inventory

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, J I

    2011-01-25

    The following table constitutes an initial assessment of feature coverage across the regression test suite used for DYNA3D and ParaDyn. It documents the regression test suite at the time of production release 10.1 in September 2010. The columns of the table represent groupings of functionalities, e.g., material models. Each problem in the test suite is represented by a row in the table. All features exercised by the problem are denoted by a check mark in the corresponding column. The definition of ''feature'' has not been subdivided to its smallest unit of user input, e.g., algorithmic parameters specific to a particular type of contact surface. This represents a judgment to provide code developers and users a reasonable impression of feature coverage without expanding the width of the table by several multiples. All regression testing is run in parallel, typically with eight processors. Many are strictly regression tests acting as a check that the codes continue to produce adequately repeatable results as development unfolds, compilers change and platforms are replaced. A subset of the tests represents true verification problems that have been checked against analytical or other benchmark solutions. Users are welcomed to submit documented problems for inclusion in the test suite, especially if they are heavily exercising, and dependent upon, features that are currently underrepresented.

  4. Crystal Structure of the LasA Virulence Factor from Pseudomonas aeruginosa: Substrate Specificity and Mechanism of M23 Metallopeptidases

    SciTech Connect

    Spencer, James; Murphy, Loretta M.; Conners, Rebecca; Sessions, Richard B.; Gamblin, Steven J.

    2010-09-21

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunist Gram-negative bacterial pathogen responsible for a wide range of infections in immunocompromized individuals and is a leading cause of mortality in cystic fibrosis patients. A number of secreted virulence factors, including various proteolytic enzymes, contribute to the establishment and maintenance of Pseudomonas infection. One such is LasA, an M23 metallopeptidase related to autolytic glycylglycine endopeptidases such as Staphylococcus aureus lysostaphin and LytM, and to DD-endopeptidases involved in entry of bacteriophage to host bacteria. LasA is implicated in a range of processes related to Pseudomonas virulence, including stimulating ectodomain shedding of the cell surface heparan sulphate proteoglycan syndecan-1 and elastin degradation in connective tissue. Here we present crystal structures of active LasA as a complex with tartrate and in the uncomplexed form. While the overall fold resembles that of the other M23 family members, the LasA active site is less constricted and utilizes a different set of metal ligands. The active site of uncomplexed LasA contains a five-coordinate zinc ion with trigonal bipyramidal geometry and two metal-bound water molecules. Using these structures as a starting point, we propose a model for substrate binding by LasA that explains its activity against a wider range of substrates than those used by related lytic enzymes, and offer a catalytic mechanism for M23 metallopeptidases consistent with available structural and mutagenesis data. Our results highlight how LasA is a structurally distinct member of this endopeptidase family, consistent with its activity against a wider range of substrates and with its multiple roles in Pseudomonas virulence.

  5. Machines, medication, modulation: circuits of dependency and self-care in Las Vegas.

    PubMed

    Schüll, Natasha Dow

    2006-06-01

    The intensive entertainment infrastructure of Las Vegas is overlaid with a robust therapeutic network for those who become addicted to its technologies. Although the objectives of gambling machines and addiction therapeutics are seemingly at odds--the first work to encourage play, the second to stop it--both gear their interventions around a model of the self as a continuum of behavioral potentials that can be externally modulated. For compulsive gamblers implicated in this circuit of modulation, pharmaceutical drugs that have been prescribed to dampen cravings for machine play sometimes function as intensifiers of its effects. Caught in an intractable play between technologies of harm and technologies of care, recovering gambling addicts are challenged to assemble a technical array through which they can maintain balance; health itself, for these individuals, becomes a state of managed dependency. This essay explores the shifting terms and changing stakes of subjectivity and health in the contemporary United States by way of ethnographic research on compulsive gamblers who live and work in Las Vegas. The analysis draws on interviews with gamblers as well as on observations in local self-help groups, directed group therapy sessions, and chat rooms of Internet recovery Web sites.

  6. Excess air during aquifer storage and recovery in an arid basin (Las Vegas Valley, USA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solomon, D. Kip; Cole, Erin; Leising, Joseph F.

    2011-02-01

    The Las Vegas Valley Water District in Nevada, USA, has operated an artificial recharge (AR) program since 1989. In summer 2001, observations of gas exsolving from tap water prompted a study that revealed total dissolved gas (TDG) pressures approaching 2 atm with a gas composition that it is predominantly air. Measurements of TDG pressure at well heads and in the distribution system indicated two potential mechanisms for elevated TDG pressures: (1) air entrainment during AR operations, and (2) temperature changes between the winter recharge season and the summer withdrawal season. Air entrainment during pumping was investigated by intentionally allowing the forebay (upstream reservoir) of a large pumping station to drawdown to the point of vortex formation. This resulted in up to a 0.7 atm increase in TDG pressure. In general, the solubility of gases in water decreases as the temperature increases. In the Las Vegas Valley, water that acquired a modest amount of dissolved gas during winter artificial recharge operations experienced an increase in dissolved gas pressure (0.04 atm/°C) as the water warmed in the subsurface. A combination of air entrainment during AR operations and its amplification by temperature increase after recharge can account for most of the observed amounts of excess gas at this site.

  7. Seasonal subsidence and rebound in Las Vegas Valley, Nevada, observed by synthetic aperture radar interferometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoffmann, J.; Zebker, H.A.; Galloway, D.L.; Amelung, F.

    2001-01-01

    Analyses of areal variations in the subsidence and rebound occurring over stressed aquifer systems, in conjunction with measurements of the hydraulic head fluctuations causing these displacements, can yield valuable information about the compressibility and storage properties of the aquifer system. Historically, stress-strain relationships have been derived from paired extensometer/piezometer installations, which provide only point source data. Because of the general unavailability of spatially detailed deformation data, areal stress-strain relations and their variability are not commonly considered in constraining conceptual and numerical models of aquifer systems. Interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) techniques can map ground displacements at a spatial scale of tens of meters over 100 km wide swaths. InSAR has been used previously to characterize larger magnitude, generally permanent aquifer system compaction and land subsidence at yearly and longer timescales, caused by sustained drawdown of ground-water levels that produces intergranular stresses consistently greater than the maximum historical stress. We present InSAR measurements of the typically small-magnitude, generally recoverable deformations of the Las Vegas Valley aquifer system occurring at seasonal timescales. From these we derive estimates of the elastic storage coefficient for the aquifer system at several locations in Las Vegas Valley. These high-resolution measurements offer great potential for future investigations into the mechanics of aquifer systems and the spatial heterogeneity of aquifer system structure and material properties as well as for monitoring ongoing aquifer system compaction and land subsidence.

  8. INTRAVAL Phase 2: Modeling testing at the Las Cruces Trench Site

    SciTech Connect

    Hills, R.G.; Wierenga, P.J.; Luis, S.; McLaughlin, D.; Rockhold, M.; Xiang, J.; Scanlon, B.; Wittmeyer, G.

    1994-01-01

    Several field experiments have been performed by scientists from the University of Arizona and New Mexico State University at the Las Cruces Trench Site to provide data tc test deterministic and stochastic models for water flow and solute transport. These experiments were performed in collaboration with INTRAVAL, an international effort toward validation of geosphere models for the transport of radionuclides. During Phase I of INTRAVAL, qualitative comparisons between experimental data and model predictions were made using contour plots of water contents and solute concentrations. Detailed quantitative comparisons were not made. To provide data for more rigorous model testing, a third Las Cruces Trench experiment was designed by scientists from the University of Arizona and New Mexico State University. Modelers from the Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analysis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, New Mexico State University, Pacific Northwest Laboratory, and the University of Texas provided predictions of water flow and tritium transport to New Mexico State University for analysis. The corresponding models assumed soil characterizations ranging from uniform to deterministically heterogeneous to stochastic. This report presents detailed quantitative comparisons to field data.

  9. [A new species of the genus Phenylobacterium for the degradation of LAS (linear alkylbenzene sulfonate)].

    PubMed

    Ke, Na; Xiao, Changsong; Ying, Qifeng; Ji, Shulan

    2003-02-01

    A strain GZ6 that can biodegrade LAS (Linear Alkylbenzene Sulphonate) is identified. It is aerobic gram-negative rod or short-rod (0.5 to 0.8 by 1.0 to 2.0 Mm). It is mobile with a single polar flagellum. Optimum growth occurred at 30 degrees C and pH7.0. It is catalase positive, urease positive, and arginine decarboxylase positive. All the other physiological and biochemical tests performed were negative. It utilizes the xenobiotic compounds chloridazon, antipyrin and LAS as sole carbon sources. Most sugars, alcohols, and carboxylic acids are not utilized. It has Q-10 as the major quinone. The main cell fatty acids are Sum7, C16:0 and Sum4. The DNA G + C mol % content is 70.10. A phylogenic tree was constructed on the basis of 16S rDNA sequences. It showed that the previously known member of the genus Phenylobacterium, Phenylobacterium mobile DSM1986T, is the nearest neighbor to strain GZ6. The level of binary sequence similarity between them is 97.49%. And the DNA-DNA relatedness is 40%. These genetic analysis and their morphological difference show that they are different species of Phenylobacterium. A new species, Phenylobacterium mobile sp. nov., has been proposed.

  10. Late quaternary environmental changes in the upper Las Vegas valley, Nevada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quade, Jay

    1986-11-01

    Five stratigraphic units and five soils of late Pleistocene to Holocene age crop out in dissected badlands on Corn Creek Flat, 30 km northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada, and at Tule Springs, nearer to Las Vegas. The record is dominantly fluvial but contains evidence of several moister, marsh-forming periods: the oldest (Unit B) dates perhaps to the middle Wisconsin, and the more widespread Unit D falls between 30,000 and 15,000 yr B.P. Unit D therefore correlates with pluvial maximum lacustrine deposits elsewhere in the Great Basin. Standing water was not of sufficient depth or extent during either period to form lake strandlines. Between 14,000 and 7200 yr B.P. (Unit E), standing surface water gradually decreased, a trend also apparent in Great Basin pluvial lake chronologies during the same period. Groundwater carbonate cementation and burrowing by cicadas (Cicadae) accompany the moist-phase units. After 7200 yr B.P., increased wind action, decreased biotic activity, and at least 25 m of water-table lowering accompanied widespread erosion of older fine-grained deposits. Based on pack-rat midden and pollen evidence, this coincides with major vegetation changes in the valley, from sagebrush-dominated steppe to lower Mohave desertscrub.

  11. On an LAS-integrated soft PLC system based on WorldFIP fieldbus.

    PubMed

    Liang, Geng; Li, Zhijun; Li, Wen; Bai, Yan

    2012-01-01

    Communication efficiency is lowered and real-time performance is not good enough in discrete control based on traditional WorldFIP field intelligent nodes in case that the scale of control in field is large. A soft PLC system based on WorldFIP fieldbus was designed and implemented. Link Activity Scheduler (LAS) was integrated into the system and field intelligent I/O modules acted as networked basic nodes. Discrete control logic was implemented with the LAS-integrated soft PLC system. The proposed system was composed of configuration and supervisory sub-systems and running sub-systems. The configuration and supervisory sub-system was implemented with a personal computer or an industrial personal computer; running subsystems were designed and implemented based on embedded hardware and software systems. Communication and schedule in the running subsystem was implemented with an embedded sub-module; discrete control and system self-diagnosis were implemented with another embedded sub-module. Structure of the proposed system was presented. Methodology for the design of the sub-systems was expounded. Experiments were carried out to evaluate the performance of the proposed system both in discrete and process control by investigating the effect of network data transmission delay induced by the soft PLC in WorldFIP network and CPU workload on resulting control performances. The experimental observations indicated that the proposed system is practically applicable.

  12. Rock magnetic properties and ore microscopy of the iron ore deposit of Las Truchas, Michoacan, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alva-Valdivia, L. M.; Urrutia-Fucugauchi, J.

    1998-02-01

    Iron ore and host rocks have been sampled (90 oriented samples from 19 sites) from the Las Truchas mine, western Mexico. A broad range of magnetic parameters have been studied to characterize the samples: saturation magnetization, Curie temperature, density, susceptibility, remanence intensity, Koenigsberger ratio, and hysteresis parameters. Magnetic properties are controlled by variations in titanomagnetite content, deuteric oxidation, and hydrothermal alteration. Las Truchas deposit formed by contact metasomatism in a Mesozoic volcano-sedimentary sequence intruded by a batholith, and titanomagnetites underwent intermediate degrees of deuteric oxidation. Post-mineralization hydrothermal alteration, evidenced by pyrite, epidote, sericite, and kaolin, seems to be the major event that affected the minerals and magnetic properties. Magnetite grain sizes in iron ores range from 5 to >200 μm, which suggest dominance of multidomain (MD) states. Curie temperatures are 580±5°C, characteristic of magnetite. Hysteresis parameters indicate that most samples have MD magnetite, some samples pseudo-single domain (PSD), and just a few single domain (SD) particles. AF demagnetization and IRM acquisition indicate that NRM and laboratory remanences are carried by MD magnetite in iron ores and PSD-SD magnetite in host rocks. The Koenigsberger ratio falls in a narrow range between 0.1 and 10, indicating the significance of MD and PSD magnetites.

  13. Ground-water conditions in Las Veags Valley, Clark County, Nevada; part 1 Hydrogeologic Framework

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Plume, Russell W.

    1989-01-01

    This report describes the lithology, thickness, and extent of valley-fill deposits in Las Vegas Valley, Nev. This information will be used to develop a hydraulic model of the valley's ground-water system. Las Vegas Valley is a structural basin formed by bedrock that ranges in age from Precambrian through Miocene. Gravity data indicate that the deeper parts of the basin are filled with 3,000-5,000 feet of clastic sedimentary deposits that range in age from Miocene through Holocene. These deposits constitute the valley-fill aquifer and yield most of the water pumped in the valley. The upper 1,000 feet of this valley fill consist of coarse-grained deposits (sand and gravel), fine-grained deposits (silt and clay), and heterogeneous deposits that comprise either thinly interbedded coarse- and fine-grained deposits or mixtures of the two. Coarse-grained deposits, in places more than 1,000 feet thick, underlie the south and west sides of the valley and interfinger with fine-grained and heterogeneous deposits toward the center of the valley. Intervals of fairly thin heterogeneous deposits underlie parts of the valley, but they are not laterally persistent. The distribution of coarse-grained and fine-grained deposits in three depth zones of the valley fill (0-200 feet, 200-700 feet, and 700-1,000 feet) suggests that: (1) the Spring Mountains and McCullough Range were the major sources of clastic material for the valley fill; (2) Frenchman Mountain and the Las Vegas Range were emplaced later than the Spring Mountains; (3) the east side of the Spring Mountains, which was originally closer to the center of the valley, has receded westward because of erosion; and (4) shallow, fine-grained deposits (0-200 feet deep) are more susceptible to subsidence than deeper ones. The bedrock basin that underlies Las Vegas Valley consists of a deeply buried part that underlies most of the valley and a shallow bedrock surface on the west side of the valley. The deep part of the basin is

  14. The Moon Phases in a Paper Box. (Spanish Title: Las Fases de la Luna en Una Caja de Cartón.) As Fases da Lua Numa Caixa de Papelão

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Fátima O. Saraiva, Maria; Amador, Cláudio B.; Kemper, Érico; Goulart, Paulo; Muller, Angela

    2007-12-01

    We present a very simple concrete model to demonstrate the concept of phases of an illuminated body. The main objective of our model is to help the understanding of the Moon phases as viewed from the perspective of an observer on Earth. The material allows the visualization of two important effects: (1st) even though all the time half Moon is illuminated by the Sun, we see different fractions of the illuminated Moon surface, depending on our angle of sight; (2nd) the orientation of the convex part of the Moon in the crescent and waning phases on the sky also depends on our perspective from Earth. The use of a closed box allows one to see the contrast among the different phases with no need of a dark room. We also present a text on the Moon phases, emphasizing the dependence of the aspect of the bright part on the angle of sight. En este trabajo proponemos la construcción de material didáctico de bajo costo para demostración del concepto de fases de un cuerpo iluminado. El principal objetivo de nuestro material es facilitar la comprensión de las fases de la Luna desde la perspectiva de un observador en la Tierra. El material ayuda la visualización de dos efectos importantes: (1º) a pesar de tener siempre la mitad de la Luna (representada por una bolita de espuma plástica o de ping-pong), iluminada por el Sol ( representado por una fuente de luz natural o artificial), vemos diferentes fracciones de su superficie iluminada, dependiendo del ángulo por el cual la vemos; (2º) la orientación del borde convexo de la Luna en las fases Creciente y Menguante también depende de la perspectiva por la cual la miramos desde la Tierra. El uso de una caja cerrada permite observar el contraste entre las diferentes fases sin necesidad de estar en un recinto oscuro. Presentamos también un texto explicativo sobre las fases de la Luna, enfatizando la dependencia de la apariencia de la parte iluminada con el ángulo de visión. Neste trabalho propomos a construção de

  15. Derechos Educacionales de los Padres: Una Explicacion de los Procedimientos de Seguridad para los Padres de Ninos con Discapacidades. Bajo la Clausula del Acta de Educacion para Individuos con Discapacidades (IDEA) y las Reglas para la Administracion del Acta de Educacion para Ninos Excepcionales (Educational Rights of Parents: An Explanation of Procedural Safeguards Available to Parents of Children with Disabilities. Under Provisions of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) and the Rules for the Administration of the Exceptional Children's Educational Act [ECEA]).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mountain Plains Regional Resource Center, Des Moines, IA.

    This pamphlet, in Spanish, describes Colorado parents' educational rights under federal and state special education rules and regulations. It addresses: (1) free appropriate public education and termination of services; (2) required prior notice to parents if there is a proposed change or refusal to change a child's special education program; (3)…

  16. Para-nitrobenzyl esterases with enhanced activity in aqueous and nonaqueous media

    DOEpatents

    Arnold, F.H.; Moore, J.C.

    1998-04-21

    A method is disclosed for isolating and identifying modified para-nitrobenzyl esterases. These enzymes exhibit improved stability and/or esterase hydrolysis activity toward selected substrates and under selected reaction conditions relative to the unmodified para-nitrobenzyl esterase. The method involves preparing a library of modified para-nitrobenzyl esterase nucleic acid segments (genes) which have nucleotide sequences that differ from the nucleic acid segment which encodes for unmodified para-nitrobenzyl esterase. The library of modified para-nitrobenzyl nucleic acid segments is expressed to provide a plurality of modified enzymes. The clones expressing modified enzymes are then screened to identify which enzymes have improved esterase activity by measuring the ability of the enzymes to hydrolyze the selected substrate under the selected reaction conditions. Specific modified para-nitrobenzyl esterases are disclosed which have improved stability and/or ester hydrolysis activity in aqueous or aqueous-organic media relative to the stability and/or ester hydrolysis activity of unmodified naturally occurring para-nitrobenzyl esterase. 43 figs.

  17. Para-nitrobenzyl esterases with enhanced activity in aqueous and nonaqueous media

    DOEpatents

    Arnold, Frances H.; Moore, Jeffrey C.

    1998-01-01

    A method for isolating and identifying modified para-nitrobenzyl esterases which exhibit improved stability and/or esterase hydrolysis activity toward selected substrates and under selected reaction conditions relative to the unmodified para-nitrobenzyl esterase. The method involves preparing a library of modified para-nitrobenzyl esterase nucleic acid segments (genes) which have nucleotide sequences that differ from the nucleic acid segment which encodes for unmodified para-nitrobenzyl esterase. The library of modified para-nitrobenzyl nucleic acid segments is expressed to provide a plurality of modified enzymes. The clones expressing modified enzymes are then screened to identify which enzymes have improved esterase activity by measuring the ability of the enzymes to hydrolyze the selected substrate under the selected reaction conditions. Specific modified para-nitrobenzyl esterases are disclosed which have improved stability and/or ester hydrolysis activity in aqueous or aqueous-organic media relative to the stability and/or ester hydrolysis activity of unmodified naturally occurring para-nitrobenzyl esterase.

  18. Para-nitrobenzyl esterases with enhanced activity in aqueous and nonaqueous media

    DOEpatents

    Arnold, Frances H.; Moore, Jeffrey C.

    1999-01-01

    A method for isolating and identifying modified para-nitrobenzyl esterases which exhibit improved stability and/or esterase hydrolysis activity toward selected substrates and under selected reaction conditions relative to the unmodified para-nitrobenzyl esterase. The method involves preparing a library of modified para-nitrobenzyl esterase nucleic acid segments (genes) which have nucleotide sequences that differ from the nucleic acid segment which encodes for unmodified para-nitrobenzyl esterase. The library of modified para-nitrobenzyl nucleic acid segments is expressed to provide a plurality of modified enzymes. The clones expressing modified enzymes are then screened to identify which enzymes have improved esterase activity by measuring the ability of the enzymes to hydrolyze the selected substrate under the selected reaction conditions. Specific modified para-nitrobenzyl esterases are disclosed which have improved stability and/or ester hydrolysis activity in aqueous or aqueous-organic media relative to the stability and/or ester hydrolysis activity of unmodified naturally occurring para-nitrobenzyl esterase.

  19. Para-nitrobenzyl esterases with enhanced activity in aqueous and nonaqueous media

    DOEpatents

    Arnold, F.H.; Moore, J.C.

    1999-05-25

    A method is disclosed for isolating and identifying modified para-nitrobenzyl esterases which exhibit improved stability and/or esterase hydrolysis activity toward selected substrates and under selected reaction conditions relative to the unmodified para-nitrobenzyl esterase. The method involves preparing a library of modified para-nitrobenzyl esterase nucleic acid segments (genes) which have nucleotide sequences that differ from the nucleic acid segment which encodes for unmodified para-nitrobenzyl esterase. The library of modified para-nitrobenzyl nucleic acid segments is expressed to provide a plurality of modified enzymes. The clones expressing modified enzymes are then screened to identify which enzymes have improved esterase activity by measuring the ability of the enzymes to hydrolyze the selected substrate under the selected reaction conditions. Specific modified para-nitrobenzyl esterases are disclosed which have improved stability and/or ester hydrolysis activity in aqueous or aqueous-organic media relative to the stability and/or ester hydrolysis activity of unmodified naturally occurring para-nitrobenzyl esterase. 43 figs.

  20. Quantum fluctuations increase the self-diffusive motion of para-hydrogen in narrow carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Kowalczyk, Piotr; Gauden, Piotr A; Terzyk, Artur P; Furmaniak, Sylwester

    2011-05-28

    Quantum fluctuations significantly increase the self-diffusive motion of para-hydrogen adsorbed in narrow carbon nanotubes at 30 K comparing to its classical counterpart. Rigorous Feynman's path integral calculations reveal that self-diffusive motion of para-hydrogen in a narrow (6,6) carbon nanotube at 30 K and pore densities below ∼29 mmol cm(-3) is one order of magnitude faster than the classical counterpart. We find that the zero-point energy and tunneling significantly smoothed out the free energy landscape of para-hydrogen molecules adsorbed in a narrow (6,6) carbon nanotube. This promotes a delocalization of the confined para-hydrogen at 30 K (i.e., population of unclassical paths due to quantum effects). Contrary the self-diffusive motion of classical para-hydrogen molecules in a narrow (6,6) carbon nanotube at 30 K is very slow. This is because classical para-hydrogen molecules undergo highly correlated movement when their collision diameter approached the carbon nanotube size (i.e., anomalous diffusion in quasi-one dimensional pores). On the basis of current results we predict that narrow single-walled carbon nanotubes are promising nanoporous molecular sieves being able to separate para-hydrogen molecules from mixtures of classical particles at cryogenic temperatures.

  1. [Parenteral administration medicines: recommendations of preparation, administration and stability].

    PubMed

    Gaspar Carreño, M; Torrico Martín, F; Novajarque Sala, L; Batista Cruz, M; Ribeiro Gonçalves, P; Porta Oltra, B; Sánchez Santos, J C

    2014-11-03

    Objetivo: Elaborar unas recomendaciones de preparacion de medicamentos de administracion parenteral (MAP) para valorar la posibilidad de transferir su preparacion, desde las unidades de enfermeria en planta de hospitalizacion al servicio de farmacia (SF). Método: Se procede a elaborar una tabla de estabilidades de los medicamentos incluidos en la guia farmacoterapeutica del Hospital, aplicando la Guia USP (Pharmaceutical compounding Sterile Preparations) y la Guia de de buenas practicas de preparacion de medicamentos en los servicios de farmacia hospitalaria. Se recopilo informacion sobre las MAP: metodo de preparacion, compatibilidad, conservacion, periodo de validez, modo de administracion y tipo de envase. Los datos se obtuvieron mediante consulta de las fichas tecnicas, laboratorios, revision bibliografica y otras bases de datos. Resultados: Tras revisar 209 farmacos se elaboro un listado de recomendaciones. Segun los datos obtenidos, las MAP se prepararan de la siguiente forma: 89 seran preparadas desde el SF, 62 en unidad de enfermeria en planta de hospitalizacion pues son medicamentos que requieren administracion inmediata y 58 ya van acondicionados para su administracion por la industria. De los 62 farmacos que se prepararan por enfermeria, en 14 de ellos las dosis siguientes se prepararan desde el SF. Por lo tanto de los 209 farmacos solo 48 se prepararan exclusivamente en la unidad de enfermeria. Conclusiones: Desde el SF se ha establecido un metodo normalizado de preparacion, conservacion, administracion y periodo de validez de MAP. La preparacion de MAP en SF ampliaria su tiempo de conservacion, al tener en cuenta la estabilidad fisicoquimica, el nivel de riesgo y la vulnerabilidad del preparado a la contaminacion microbiologica. La informacion aportada contribuira a una disminucion de errores asociados al proceso de preparacion y administracion de MAP.

  2. MBAS (Methylene Blue Active Substances) and LAS (Linear Alkylbenzene Sulphonates) in Mediterranean coastal aerosols: Sources and transport processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becagli, S.; Ghedini, C.; Peeters, S.; Rottiers, A.; Traversi, R.; Udisti, R.; Chiari, M.; Jalba, A.; Despiau, S.; Dayan, U.; Temara, A.

    2011-12-01

    Methylene Blue Active Substances (MBAS) and Linear Alkylbenzene Sulphonates (LAS) concentrations, together with organic carbon and ions were measured in atmospheric coastal aerosols in the NW Mediterranean Basin. Previous studies have suggested that the presence of surfactants in coastal aerosols may result in vegetation damage without specifically detecting or quantifying these surfactants. Coastal aerosols were collected at a remote site (Porquerolles Island-Var, France) and at a more anthropised site (San Rossore National Park-Tuscany, Italy). The chemical data were interpreted according to a comprehensive local meteorological analysis aiming to decipher the airborne source and transport processes of these classes of compounds. The LAS concentration (anthropogenic surfactants) was measured in the samples using LC-MS/MS, a specific analytical method. The values were compared with the MBAS concentration, determined by a non-specific analytical method. At Porquerolles, the MBAS concentration (103 ± 93 ng m -3) in the summer samples was significantly higher than in the winter samples. In contrast, LAS concentrations were rarely greater than in the blank filters. At San Rossore, the mean annual MBAS concentration (887 ± 473 ng m -3 in PM10) contributed about 10% to the total atmospheric particulate organic matter. LAS mean concentration in these same aerosol samples was 11.5 ± 10.5 ng m -3. A similar MBAS (529 ± 454 ng m -3) - LAS (7.1 ± 4.1 ng m -3 LAS) ratio of ˜75 was measured in the fine (PM2.5) aerosol fraction. No linear correlation was found between MBAS and LAS concentrations. At San Rossore site the variation of LAS concentrations was studied on a daily basis over a year. The LAS concentrations in the coarse fraction (PM10-2.5) were higher during strong sea storm conditions, characterized by strong air flow coming from the sea sector. These events, occurring with more intensity in winter, promoted the formation of primary marine aerosols containing LAS

  3. The degradation of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) in the presence of light and natural biofilms: the important role of photosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Hua, Xiuyi; Li, Ming; Su, Yulong; Dong, Deming; Guo, Zhiyong; Liang, Dapeng

    2012-08-30

    Photosynthesis of algae usually changes the chemical conditions of microenvironment in natural waters. However, few studies have been carried out to examine the effects of diurnal variation and photosynthesis on behavior of organic pollutants in aquatic environments. In this study, linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) was selected as a representative of non-persistent organic pollutants to investigate the degradation of this type of pollutants in the presence of light and natural biofilms by laboratory batch experiments, with special emphasis on the effect of photosynthesis of the biofilms. The maximum decrease of LAS was observed in the coexistence of both illumination and fully active biofilms, and about 75% of the LAS were removed after a 36-h degradation experiment. The removal of LAS was found to be dominated by photosynthesis of the biofilms, with lesser roles attributed to biodegradation and adsorption by the biofilms, and the role of direct photolysis was negligible. The production of some reactive oxygen species might account for the role of photosynthesis in decomposing the LAS. The study confirms the important roles of algae biofilms and their photosynthesis in determining the fate of organic pollutants in aquatic environments.

  4. Wide-range and accurate modeling of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) adsorption/desorption on agricultural soil.

    PubMed

    Oliver-Rodríguez, B; Zafra-Gómez, A; Reis, M S; Duarte, B P M; Verge, C; de Ferrer, J A; Pérez-Pascual, M; Vílchez, J L

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, rigorous data and adequate models about linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) adsorption/desorption on agricultural soil are presented, contributing with a substantial improvement over available adsorption works. The kinetics of the adsorption/desorption phenomenon and the adsorption/desorption equilibrium isotherms were determined through batch studies for total LAS amount and also for each homologue series: C10, C11, C12 and C13. The proposed multiple pseudo-first order kinetic model provides the best fit to the kinetic data, indicating the presence of two adsorption/desorption processes in the general phenomenon. Equilibrium adsorption and desorption data have been properly fitted by a model consisting of a Langmuir plus quadratic term, which provides a good integrated description of the experimental data over a wide range of concentrations. At low concentrations, the Langmuir term explains the adsorption of LAS on soil sites which are highly selective of the n-alkyl groups and cover a very small fraction of the soil surface area, whereas the quadratic term describes adsorption on the much larger part of the soil surface and on LAS retained at moderate to high concentrations. Since adsorption/desorption phenomenon plays a major role in the LAS behavior in soils, relevant conclusions can be drawn from the obtained results.

  5. Overexpression of the Brassica napus BnLAS gene in Arabidopsis affects plant development and increases drought tolerance.

    PubMed

    Yang, Minggui; Yang, Qingyong; Fu, Tingdong; Zhou, Yongming

    2011-03-01

    The GRAS proteins are a family of transcription regulators found in plants and play diverse roles in plant growth and development. To study the biological roles of GRAS family genes in Brassica napus, an Arabidopsis LAS homologous gene, BnLAS and its two homologs were cloned from B. napus and its two progenitor species, Brassica rapa and Brassica oleracea. Relatively high levels of BnLAS were observed in roots, shoot tips, lateral meristems and flower organs based on the analysis of the transcripts by quantitative RT-PCR and promoter-reporter assays. Constitutive overexpression of BnLAS in Arabidopsis resulted in inhibition of growth, and delays in leaf senescence and flowering time. A large portion of transgenic lines had darker leaf color and higher chlorophyll content than in wild type plants. Interestingly, water lose rates in transgenic leaves were reduced, and transgenic plants exhibited enhanced drought tolerance and increased recovery after exposed to dehydration treatment. The stomatal density on leaves of the transgenic plants increased significantly due to the smaller cell size. However, the stomatal aperture on the leaves of the transgenic plants reduced significantly compared with wild type plants. More epidermal wax deposition on transgenic leaves was observed. Furthermore, several genes involved in wax synthesis and regulation, including CER1, CER2, KCS1 and KCS2, were upregulated in the transgenic plants. Our results indicate a potential to utilize BnLAS in the improvement of drought tolerance in plants.

  6. The study of ozone variations in the Las Vegas metropolitan area using remote sensing information and ground observations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Xian, G.; Crane, M.

    2006-01-01

    Urban development in the Las Vegas Valley, Nevada, has grown rapidly in the past fifty years. Associated with this growth has been a change in landscape from natural cover types to developed urban land mixed with planned vegetation canopy throughout in the metropolitan area. Air quality in the Las Vegas Valley has been affected by increases in anthropogenic emissions and concentrations of carbon monoxide, ozone, and criteria pollutants of particular matter. Ozone concentration in the region is generally influenced by synoptic and mesoscale meteorological conditions, as well as regional transport of pollutants from the western side of Las Vegas. Local influences from ground-level nitrogen oxide emissions and vegetation canopy coverage also affect ozone concentration. Multi-year observational data collected by a network of local air monitoring stations in Clark County, Nevada, indicate that ozone maximums develop in May and June, while minimums exist primarily from November to February. Ozone concentrations are high on the west and northwest sides of the valley. A nighttime ozone reduction in the urban area characterizes the heterogeneous features of spatial distribution for average ozone levels in the Las Vegas urban area. The urban vegetation canopy has a locally positive effect by reducing ozone in urban areas. Decreased ozone levels associated with increased urban development density suggests that the highest ozone concentrations are associated with medium- to low-density urban development in Las Vegas.

  7. Management of large para-esophageal hiatal hernias.

    PubMed

    Collet, D; Luc, G; Chiche, L

    2013-12-01

    Para-esophageal hernias are relatively rare and typically occur in elderly patients. The various presenting symptoms are non-specific and often occur in combination. These include symptoms of gastro-esophageal reflux (GERD) in 26 to 70% of cases, microcytic anemia in 17 to 47%, and respiratory symptoms in 9 to 59%. Respiratory symptoms are not completely resolved by surgical intervention. Acute complications such as gastric volvulus with incarceration or strangulation are rare (estimated incidence of 1.2% per patient per year) but gastric ischemia leading to perforation is the main cause of mortality. Only patients with symptomatic hernias should undergo surgery. Prophylactic repair to prevent acute incarceration should only be undertaken in patients younger than 75 in good condition; surgical indications must be discussed individually beyond this age. The laparoscopic approach is now generally accepted. Resection of the hernia sac is associated with a lower incidence of recurrence. Repair of the hiatus can be reinforced with prosthetic material (either synthetic or biologic), but the benefit of prosthetic repair has not been clearly shown. Results of prosthetic reinforcement vary in different studies; it has been variably associated with four times fewer recurrences or with no measurable difference. A Collis type gastroplasty may be useful to lengthen a foreshortened esophagus, but no objective criteria have been defined to support this approach. The anatomic recurrence rate can be as high as 60% at 12years. But most recurrences are asymptomatic and do not affect the quality of life index. It therefore seems more appropriate to evaluate functional results and quality of life measures rather than to gauge success by a strict evaluation of anatomic hernia reduction.

  8. Blood transfusion in the para-Bombay phenotype.

    PubMed

    Lin-Chu, M; Broadberry, R E

    1990-08-01

    The H-deficient phenotypes found in Chinese so far, have all been secretors of soluble blood group substances in saliva. The corresponding isoagglutinin activity (e.g. anti-B in OB(Hm) persons) has been found to be weak in all cases. To determine the clinical significance of these weak isoagglutinins 51Cr red cell survival tests were performed on three OB(Hm) individuals transfused with small volumes (4 ml) of groups B and O RBC. Rapid destruction of most of the RBC occurred whether or not the isoagglutinins of the OB(Hm) individuals were indirect antiglobulin test (IAGT) reactive. When a larger volume (54 ml packed RBC) of group B cells (weakly incompatible by IAGT) was transfused to another OB(Hm) individual with IAGT active anti-HI, the survival of the transfused RBC was 93% at 24 h, with 30% of the RBC remaining in the circulation at 28 d in contrast to 76% as would be expected if the survival was normal. Therefore when whole units of blood of normal ABO blood groups, compatible by IAGT, are transfused, the survival is expected to be almost normal. These weak isoagglutinins may not be very clinically significant and we suggest that when para-Bombay blood is not available, the compatibility testing for OA(Hm) persons should be performed with group A and group O packed RBC; OB(Hm) with group B and group O packed RBC: OAB(Hm) with groups A, B, AB and O packed RBC. For cross matching, the indirect antiglobulin test by a prewarmed technique should be used.

  9. All the three ParaHox genes are present in Nuttallochiton mirandus (Mollusca: polyplacophora): evolutionary considerations.

    PubMed

    Barucca, Marco; Biscotti, Maria A; Olmo, Ettore; Canapa, Adriana

    2006-03-15

    The ParaHox gene cluster contains three homeobox genes, Gsx, Xlox and Cdx and has been demonstrated to be an evolutionary sister of the Hox gene cluster. Among deuterostomes the three genes are found in the majority of taxa, whereas among protostomes they have so far been isolated only in the phylum Sipuncula. We report the partial sequences of all three ParaHox genes in the polyplacophoran Nuttallochiton mirandus, the first species of the phylum Mollusca where all ParaHox genes have been isolated. This finding has phylogenetic implications for the phylum Mollusca and for its relationships with the other lophotrochozoan taxa.

  10. Measurement of the formaldehyde ortho to para ratio in three molecular clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahane, C.; Lucas, R.; Frerking, M. A.; Langer, W. D.; Encrenaz, P.

    1984-01-01

    Observations of ortho and para H2CO in two types of clouds, a warm cloud (Orion A) and two cold clouds (L183 and TMC1), are presented. The ortho to para ratio in Orion deduced from the H2(C-13)O data is about three, while that for TMC1 is about one and that for L183 is 1-2. The former value is in agreement with the value calculated from chemical models of ortho and para H2CO production. The values for the cold clouds are consistent with thermal equilibrium at a temperature slightly smaller than 10 K.

  11. Endovascular Treatment of a Ruptured Para-Anastomotic Aneurysm of the Abdominal Aorta

    SciTech Connect

    Sfyroeras, Giorgos S.; Lioupis, Christos Bessias, Nikolaos; Maras, Dimitris; Pomoni, Maria; Andrikopoulos, Vassilios

    2008-07-15

    We report a case of a ruptured para-anastomotic aortic aneurysm treated with implantation of a bifurcated stent-graft. A 72-year-old patient, who had undergone aortobifemoral bypass for aortoiliac occlusive disease 16 years ago, presented with a ruptured para-anastomotic aortic aneurysm. A bifurcated stent-graft was successfully deployed into the old bifurcated graft. This is the first report of a bifurcated stent-graft being placed through an 'end-to-side' anastomosed old aortobifemoral graft. Endovascular treatment of ruptured para-anastomotic aortic aneurysms can be accomplished successfully, avoiding open surgery which is associated with increased mortality and morbidity.

  12. Shallow Shear Velocity and Seismic Microzonation of the Las Vegas Urban Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasmussen, T.; Smith, S. B.; Clark, M.; Lopez, C.; Loughner, C.; Park, H.; Scott, J. B.; Thelen, W.; Greschke, B.; Louie, J. N.

    2003-12-01

    In July 2003 we performed a seismic microzonation study of the Las Vegas basin along a 15 kilometer transect. Using 120 Reftek RT-125 "Texans" on loan from PASSCAL, we completed this transect in two days. 4.5-Hz geophones collected Rayleigh-wave data for dispersion analysis and velocity-profile modeling. Only passive urban seismic noise sources are needed for this refraction microtremor analysis; freeway and commuter traffic are used in this case. Using a geophone spacing of 20 meters, fifty 260-m array sections were analyzed to create a transect of 30-m shear velocity measurements 15 km long. The transect runs approximately parallel to Interstate 15 from Cheyenne Avenue at the north to Tropicana Avenue at the south, passing most of The Strip and downtown Las Vegas. We added a few refraction lines, with a sledgehammer source, to augment the microtremor dispersion data with P velocities. The lowest shear velocities observed in Las Vegas are in the NEHRP class D range, at 230 m/s, well above the NEHRP class E range. These lower velocities are found near Interstate 15 and Lake Mead Blvd. Velocities then rise smoothly southward to the middle of the NEHRP-C range (450-600 m/s) near Sahara Blvd. to the south. There appears to be a slight decline further south to Tropicana Blvd. Our results from only 3 km out of the 15-km-long transect have velocities near or below the NEHRP-C/D boundary at 350 m/s. This survey suggests a medium-scale study with a limited budget can be completed in a short time. The study is a crucial new step in the characterization of the effects of ground shaking due to a seismic source in the surrounding region. Similar studies have been completed in the Reno area basin and in the Los Angeles Basin. All of these studies suggest that shallow shear velocity does not correlate well with geologic map units. The range of velocities within one map unit is greater than the average difference between units.

  13. Sociohydrology of an Arid City: Development of a Coupled Model of Water Management in Las Vegas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, M. E.; Islam, S.; Portney, K. E.

    2014-12-01

    Rapidly growing cities in arid regions present a significant water management challenge. Key to tackling this challenge is understanding how and why some cities transition to more sustainable water management; acknowledging that urban water resources decisions are both responding to and precipitating hydrologic change, this question is best tackled through a sociohydrology approach. While coupling of natural and societal systems is in it's infancy in the field of hydrology, there is a strong tradition of studying coupled systems in the field of Socio-Ecological Systems. We build on Ostrom's Socio-Ecological Systems framework to develop a system dynamics model of water management for the Las Vegas metropolitan area using Vensim. A key objective our proposed modeling framework is to illuminate the dynamic interactions of the sociohydrologic system components and enable testing of various assumptions and strategies. The model of Las Vegas water management consists of five sub-modules: water supply, water demand, finances, public perception and policy making process. The development of the first three modules were based on clearly defined system structure. The public perception sub-module tracks the level public risk perception of a water supply shortage and represents the hypothesis that public risk perception is updated periodically when shortage events are experienced. The policy making process module uses an algorithm capturing the hypothesized decision making process to select policy actions (or in-action) from a set of feasible actions in response to the system states tracked by the model and observable to decision makers. The model was tested and parameterized using mix of quantitative data on water demands, supplies and costs and qualitative data from document analysis and interview data covering 1990 to 2010 period. Given that not only the parameters but also the structure of the public perception and the policy making process sub-systems is contested, a

  14. Geodetic Constraints on Fault Slip Rates and Seismic Hazard in the Greater Las Vegas Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammond, W. C.; Kreemer, C.; Blewitt, G.; Broermann, J.; Bennett, R. A.

    2014-12-01

    We address fundamental questions about how contemporary tectonic deformation of the crust in the southern Great Basin occurs in the region around Las Vegas (LV) Nevada, western Arizona and eastern California. This area lies in the intersection of the eastern Walker Lane Belt, southern Great Basin and western Colorado Plateau (CP), sharing features of transtensional and extensional deformation associated with Pacific/North America relative motion. We use GPS data collected from 48 stations of the MAGNET semi-continuous network and 77 stations from continuous networks including BARGEN and EarthScope Plate Boundary Observatory. MAGNET stations have been observed for a minimum of 7 years, while most continuous stations have longer records. From these data we estimate the velocity of crustal motion for all stations with respect to the stable North America reference frame NA12. To correct for transients from recent large earthquakes including the 1999 Hector Mine and 2010 El Mayor-Cucapah events we use models of co- and post-seismic deformation, subtracting the predicted motions from the time series before estimating interseismic stain rates. We find approximately 2 mm/yr of relative motion distributed over 200 km centered on Las Vegas, with a mean strain accumulation rate of 10 × 10-9 yr-1, with lower rates of predominantly extensional strain to the east and higher rates of predominantly shear deformation to the west. The mean strain rate is lower than that of the western Walker Lane but about twice that of eastern Nevada where e.g., the Wells, NV MW 6.0 earthquake occurred in 2008. From this new velocity field we generated a horizontal tensor strain rate map and a crustal block motion model to portray the transition of active strain from the CP into the Walker Lane. For faults in the Las Vegas Valley, including the Eglington Fault and Frenchman Mountain Fault, the observed velocity gradients and model results are consistent with normal slip rates of 0.2 mm/yr, which

  15. 20 years of mass balances on the Piloto glacier, Las Cuevas river basin, Mendoza, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leiva, J. C.; Cabrera, G. A.; Lenzano, L. E.

    2007-10-01

    Climatic changes of the 20th century have altered the water cycle in the Andean basins of central Argentina. The most visible change is seen in the mountain glaciers, with loss of part of their mass due to decreasing thickness and a substantial recession in the last 100 years. This paper briefly describes the results of glacier mass balance research since 1979 in the Piloto Glacier at the Cajón del Rubio, in the headwaters of Las Cuevas River, presenting new results for the period 1997-2003. Very large interannual variability of net annual specific balance is evident, due largely to variations in winter snow accumulation, with a maximum net annual value of + 151 cm w.e. and a minimum value of - 230 cm w.e. Wet El Niño years are normally associated with positive net annual balances, while dry La Niña years generally result in negative balances. Within the 24-year period, 67% of the years show negative net annual specific balances, with a cumulative mass balance loss of - 10.50 m water equivalent (w.e.). Except for exceptions normally related to El Niño events, a general decreasing trend of winter snow accumulation is evident in the record, particularly after 1992, which has a strong effect in the overall negative mass balance values. The glacier contribution to Las Cuevas River runoff is analysed based on the Punta de Vacas River gauge station for a hypothetical year without snow precipitation (YWSP), when the snowmelt component is zero. Extremely dry years similar to a YWSP have occurred in 1968-1969, 1969-1970 and 1996-1997. The Punta de Vacas gauge station is located 62 km downstream from Piloto Glacier, and the basin contains 3.0% of uncovered glacier ice and 3.7% of debris-covered ice. The total glacier contribution to Las Cuevas River discharge is calculated as 82 ± 8% during extremely dry years. If glacier wastage continues at the present trend as observed during the last 2 decades, it will severely affect the water resources in the arid central Andes of

  16. Antioxidant responses of damiana (Turnera diffusa Willd) to exposure to artificial ultraviolet (UV) radiation in an in vitro model; part I; UV-C radiation.

    PubMed

    Soriano-Melgar, Lluvia de Abril Alexandra; Alcaraz-Meléndez, Lilia; Méndez-Rodríguez, Lía C; Puente, María Esther; Rivera-Cabrera, Fernando; Zenteno-Savín, Tania

    2014-05-01

    Introducción: La radiación ultravioleta tipo C (UV-C) presenta mayor energía y es menos estudiada que la radiación UV-B, debido a que se considera que es totalmente absorbida por la capa de ozono. Sin embargo, la radiación UV-C artificial es capaz de generar diversas modificaciones en las plantas. Dado que la exposición a UV-C por intervalos de tiempo cortos incrementa la concentración de compuestos antioxidantes, mejorando la apariencia y vida de anaquel de los productos, su potencial aplicación en tratamientos poscosecha para modificar el contenido antioxidante de plantas medicinales, como la damiana (Turnera diffusa), es novedoso y relevante. Objetivo: Determinar el efecto de la radiación UV-C sobre las defensas antioxidantes enzimáticas y no enzimáticas, así como en los niveles de daño oxidativo de damiana (Turnera diffusa) in vitro. Resultados: La radiación UV-C disminuyó la actividad de las enzimas superóxido dismutasa (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1) y peroxidasas totales (POX, CE 1.11.1), la concentración de clorofila (a y b), carotenos, vitamina C y la capacidad antioxidante total, e incrementó el contenido de compuestos fenólicos en damiana. La disminución de las defensas antioxidantes fue mayor en plantas de damiana expuestas a dosis más altas de UV-C o por períodos más largos. Estos resultados sugieren que la radiación UV-C induce estrés oxidativo, evidenciado por el incremento del contenido de carbonilos proteicos y el contenido de compuestos fenólicos en damiana (T. diffusa). Conclusión: Dosis bajas y menor exposición a UV-C estimulan la síntesis de compuestos fenólicos en damiana. Por ello, tratamientos controlados con UV-C podrían emplearse como tratamientos poscosecha para incrementar el contenido de compuestos fenólicos en plantas de damiana.

  17. A design for a new catalog manager and associated file management for the Land Analysis System (LAS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenhagen, Cheryl

    1986-01-01

    Due to the larger number of different types of files used in an image processing system, a mechanism for file management beyond the bounds of typical operating systems is necessary. The Transportable Applications Executive (TAE) Catalog Manager was written to meet this need. Land Analysis System (LAS) users at the EROS Data Center (EDC) encountered some problems in using the TAE catalog manager, including catalog corruption, networking difficulties, and lack of a reliable tape storage and retrieval capability. These problems, coupled with the complexity of the TAE catalog manager, led to the decision to design a new file management system for LAS, tailored to the needs of the EDC user community. This design effort, which addressed catalog management, label services, associated data management, and enhancements to LAS applications, is described. The new file management design will provide many benefits including improved system integration, increased flexibility, enhanced reliability, enhanced portability, improved performance, and improved maintainability.

  18. 3D inversion of aeromagnetic Data on Las Tablas District, Panama

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batista-Rodríguez, José A.; Caballero, Alberto; Pérez-Flores, Marco A.; Almaguer-Carmenates, Yuri

    2017-03-01

    We present a 3D model of Las Tablas District, Panama, obtained from the 3D inversion of aeromagnetic data, and constrained with information from surface geology, water wells and topography. The 3D model suggests the location, boundary, shape and depths of the sedimentary basin where the Mensabé and Salados rivers hydrogeological sub-basin is located. The model shows the connections between tectonics and the sedimentary basin, suggesting the probable areas for aquifers, the relations between them, their zone of recharge and discharge, and the probable zone of pollution. The inferred faults in the model may be the main recharge and discharge conduits for the groundwater and anthropogenic pollution. The geological and geometric characteristics shown in the 3D model are fundamental data for further hydrogeological and geophysical studies such as the location for future drinking water wells.

  19. Neighborhood Reputation and Resident Sentiment in the Wake of the Las Vegas Foreclosure Crisis.

    PubMed

    Pais, Jeremy; Batson, Christie D; Monnat, Shannon M

    2014-09-01

    This study examines how two major components of a neighborhood's reputation-perceived disorder and collective efficacy-shape individuals' sentiments toward their neighborhoods during the foreclosure crisis triggered by the Great Recession. Of central interest are whether neighborhood reputations are durable in the face of a crisis (neighborhood resiliency hypothesis) or whether neighborhood reputations wane during times of duress (foreclosure crisis hypothesis). Geo-coded individual-level data from the Las Vegas Metropolitan Area Social Survey merged with data on census tract foreclosure rates are used to address this question. The results provide qualified support for both perspectives. In support of the neighborhood resiliency hypothesis, collective efficacy is positively associated with how residents feel about the quality of their neighborhoods, and this relationship is unaltered by foreclosure rates. In support of the foreclosure crisis hypothesis, foreclosure rates mediate the effects of neighborhood disorder on resident sentiment. The implications of these findings for community resiliency are discussed.

  20. The Proteus aircraft and NASA Dryden's T-34 in flight over Las Cruces, New Mexico.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The unique Proteus aircraft served as a test bed for NASA-sponsored flight tests designed to validate collision-avoidance technologies proposed for uninhabited aircraft. The tests, flown over southern New Mexico in March, 2002, used the Proteus as a surrogate uninhabited aerial vehicle (UAV) while three other aircraft flew toward the Proteus from various angles on simulated collision courses. Radio-based 'detect, see and avoid' equipment on the Proteus successfully detected the other aircraft and relayed that information to a remote pilot on the ground at Las Cruces Airport. The pilot then transmitted commands to the Proteus to maneuver it away from the potential collisions. The flight demonstration, sponsored by NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, New Mexico State University, Scaled Composites, the U.S. Navy and Modern Technology Solutions, Inc., were intended to demonstrate that UAVs can be flown safely and compatibly in the same skies as piloted aircraft.

  1. The Palomar-Las Campanas Observatory-NOAO (PLCON) Open Cluster Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phelps, R. L.; Tollefson, J.; Reafsnyder, S.; Frinchaboy, P.; Craig, Aidan; Postlethwaite, J.; Marshall, T.

    2000-12-01

    The Palomar-Las Campanas Observatory-NOAO (PLCON) Open Cluster Survey is a long-term survey intended to provide CCD derived, VI color-magnitude diagrams for the majority of the Milky Way's open clusters, most of which have been poorly studied in the past, or never studied at all. From these data, systematic estimates of cluster reddenings, distances and ages can be derived using a limited number of telescopes, CCDs and filter sets. These data will be useful for systematic studies of Galactic structure in the disk, the properties of unique/interesting stars within clusters, stellar evolution theory, and a host of other timely astrophysical questions. This paper will report on recent results from the Survey. This work is supported, in part, by grants from the National Science Foundation and the California State University, Sacramento Research and Creative Activity Awards Program.

  2. Prevalence of ectoparasitic arthropods on wild animals and cattle in the Las Merindades area (Burgos, Spain)

    PubMed Central

    Domínguez-Peñafiel, G.; Giménez-Pardo, C.; Gegúndez, M.I.; Lledó, L.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the prevalence of ectoparasitic arthropods in sampled groups of wild (n = 128; 16 species) and domestic (n = 69; 3 species) animals in the Las Merindades area of the Province of Burgos, Spain. The study revealed that wild animals were more infested and with a wider variety of ectoparasites than domestic animals. The parasitic prevalence was 67% for wild animals and 48% for livestock. In this way, 39% of animals were infected by ticks. Ixodes ricinus and Ixodes hexagonus were the most prevalent species whereas Dermacentor reticulatus showed affinity for the fox and wolf. The overall prevalence of parasitisation by fleas was 27%. Ctenophthalmus spp. showed the wider range host in wild animals, while Pulex irritans was the most frequent specie found. The parasitic prevalences by lice (Trichodectes melis, Trichodectes canis and Trichodectes mustelae) and by mite (Neotrombicula spp., Laelaps agilis and Sarcoptes scabiei) were 4% and 12%, respectively. In both cases only wild animals were found parasited. PMID:21894267

  3. Neighborhood Reputation and Resident Sentiment in the Wake of the Las Vegas Foreclosure Crisis

    PubMed Central

    Pais, Jeremy; Batson, Christie D.; Monnat, Shannon M.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines how two major components of a neighborhood’s reputation—perceived disorder and collective efficacy—shape individuals’ sentiments toward their neighborhoods during the foreclosure crisis triggered by the Great Recession. Of central interest are whether neighborhood reputations are durable in the face of a crisis (neighborhood resiliency hypothesis) or whether neighborhood reputations wane during times of duress (foreclosure crisis hypothesis). Geo-coded individual-level data from the Las Vegas Metropolitan Area Social Survey merged with data on census tract foreclosure rates are used to address this question. The results provide qualified support for both perspectives. In support of the neighborhood resiliency hypothesis, collective efficacy is positively associated with how residents feel about the quality of their neighborhoods, and this relationship is unaltered by foreclosure rates. In support of the foreclosure crisis hypothesis, foreclosure rates mediate the effects of neighborhood disorder on resident sentiment. The implications of these findings for community resiliency are discussed. PMID:25678735

  4. Late Neandertals in Southeastern Iberia: Sima de las Palomas del Cabezo Gordo, Murcia, Spain

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Michael J.; Gibert, Josep; López, Mariano V.; Lombardi, A. Vincent; Pérez-Pérez, Alejandro; Zapata, Josefina; Ortega, Jon; Higham, Thomas; Pike, Alistair; Schwenninger, Jean-Luc; Zilhão, João; Trinkaus, Erik

    2008-01-01

    Middle Paleolithic fossil human remains from the Sima de las Palomas in southeastern Iberia (dated to ≤43,000–40,000 calendar years before present) present a suite of derived Neandertal and/or retained ancestral morphological features in the mandibular symphysis, mandibular ramus, dental occlusal morphology, and distal hand phalanx. These traits are combined with variation in the mandibular corpus, discrete dental morphology, tooth root lengths, and anterior dental size that indicate a frequency difference with earlier Iberian and more northern European Neandertals. The Palomas Neandertals therefore confirm the late presence of Neandertals associated with the Iberian persistence of the Middle Paleolithic, but suggest microevolutionary processes and/or population contact with contemporaneous modern humans to the north. PMID:19074275

  5. Neandertal postcranial remains from the Sima de las Palomas del Cabezo Gordo, Murcia, southeastern Spain.

    PubMed

    Walker, Michael J; Ortega, Jon; López, Mariano V; Parmová, Klára; Trinkaus, Erik

    2011-04-01

    The Sima de las Palomas, southeastern Spain, has yielded a series of Neandertal postcranial remains, including immature and mature isolated elements and the fragmentary partial skeleton of a young adult (Palomas 92). The remains largely conform to the general late archaic/Neandertal morphological pattern in terms of humeral diaphyseal shape, pectoralis major tuberosity size and pillar thickness, ulnar coronoid process height, manual middle phalangeal epiphyseal breadth, manual distal phalangeal tuberosity shape and breadth, femoral diaphyseal shape, and probably body proportions. Palomas 92 contrasts with the Neandertals in having variably gracile hand remains, a more sellar trapezial metacarpal 1 facet, more anteroposteriorly expanded mid-proximal femoral diaphysis, and less robust pedal proximal phalanges. The Palomas Neandertals contrast with more northern European Neandertals particularly in various reflections of overall body size.

  6. Late neandertals in southeastern Iberia: Sima de las Palomas del Cabezo Gordo, Murcia, Spain.

    PubMed

    Walker, Michael J; Gibert, Josep; López, Mariano V; Lombardi, A Vincent; Pérez-Pérez, Alejandro; Zapata, Josefina; Ortega, Jon; Higham, Thomas; Pike, Alistair; Schwenninger, Jean-Luc; Zilhão, João; Trinkaus, Erik

    2008-12-30

    Middle Paleolithic fossil human remains from the Sima de las Palomas in southeastern Iberia (dated to

  7. Spatial distribution and contamination assessment of heavy metals in urban topsoils from Las Tunas City, Cuba.

    PubMed

    Díaz Rizo, O; Fonticiella Morell, D; Arado López, J O; Borrell Muñoz, J L; D'Alessandro Rodríguez, K; López Pino, N

    2013-07-01

    Concentrations of Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Pb and Fe in the topsoils (0-10 cm) from Las Tunas city were measured by X-ray fluorescence analysis. The mean Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb contents in the urban topsoil samples (97 ± 30, 14 ± 2, 35 ± 36, 94 ± 26, 199 ± 87 and 42 ± 29 mg kg⁻¹ dry weight, respectively) were compared with mean concentrations for other cities around the world with similar population. Cr content in school grounds, parks and residential areas exceed in 20 % the average Cr background level. Highest content for Ni was determined in residential areas, for Zn in market gardens soils and as for Pb, the highest topsoil-background content ratios were observed for market gardens (2.7) and residential areas (2.3). Spatial distribution maps indicated the same behaviour for Cr-Co-Ni and Pb-Zn, respectively, whereas the spatial distribution of Cu differs from other heavy metals. On the other hand, the metal-to-iron normalisation, using (10-20 cm) bottom soil contents as background, showed that topsoils in Las Tunas city are severely enriched with lead and not enriched with the rest of the determined metals. The average values of integrated pollution index (IPI) indicated that soils are moderately contaminated by heavy metals (1.17 ≤ IPI(ave) ≤ 1.39), but enrichment index values shows that metal concentrations on the studied locations are not above the permissible levels for urban agriculture.

  8. Fishery of the Green Jack Caranx caballus (Osteichytes: Carangidae) in Las Perlas Archipelago, Pacific Panama.

    PubMed

    Mair, James M; Cipriani, Roberto; Guzman, Hector M; Usan, David

    2012-09-01

    Green Jacks, Caranx caballus, are distributed along the Eastern Pacific coast. In Panama, C. caballus was heavily fished around Las Perlas Archipelago to sustain local markets until 2007, when the archipelago was declared a marine protected area. This first study in Panama, analyzed a sample of 4 990 individuals from Las Perlas, obtained monthly from June 2005 to June 2006, from landings at the central fish market. Average total length was 36.1 +/- 6.4cm and optimum length 38.9cm. Approximately 68% of fish lengths were within +/-10% of the optimal length but only six (15%) were considered mega-spawners. The von Bertalanffy parameters describe a long-lived and fast growing species, while mortality rates revealed that C. caballus is under high fishing pressure. Standard length at which half of the population is mature was 38.8cm, and the size at which individuals matured massively, 33cm. Only 10-13% of the fish were immature. C. caballus reproduces two to three times per year, with peaks in December, April, and probably September, and recruits to the population at least twice per year. Catch per unit effort (CPUE) was best predicted by minimum annual values of the Multivariate ENSO/LNSO Index (MEI) (R2=0.54). Results show that C. caballus in Pacific Panama is overfished. We recommend the raising of the minimum capture/landing size of this species in order to increase the proportion of mega-spawners in the population and guarantee the sustainability of this resource.

  9. Stratospheric contribution to surface ozone in the desert Southwest during the 2013 Las Vegas Ozone Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langford, A. O.; Senff, C. J.; Alvarez, R. J. _II, II; Brioude, J. F.; Cooper, O. R.; Holloway, J. S.; Lin, M.; Marchbanks, R.; Pierce, R. B.; Reddy, P. J.; Sandberg, S.; Weickmann, A. M.; Williams, E. J.; Gustin, M. S.; Iraci, L. T.; Leblanc, T.; Yates, E. L.

    2014-12-01

    The 2013 Las Vegas Ozone Study (LVOS) was designed to investigate the potential impact of stratosphere-troposphere transport (STT) and long-range transport of pollution from Asia on surface O3 concentrations in Clark County, NV. This measurement campaign, which took place in May and June of 2013, was conducted at Angel Peak, NV, a high elevation site about 2.8 km above mean sea level and 45 km west of Las Vegas. The study was organized around the NOAA ESRL truck-based TOPAZ scanning ozone lidar with collocated in situ sampling of O3, CO, and meteorological parameters. These measurements were supported by the NOAA/NESDIS real time modelling system (RAQMS), FLEXPART particle dispersion model, and the NOAA GFDL AM3 model. In this talk, I will describe one of several STT events that occurred during the LVOS campaign. This intrusion, which was profiled by TOPAZ on the night of May 24-25, was also sampled by the NASA Alpha Jet, the Table Mountain ozone lidar, and by an ozonesonde flying above southern California. This event also led to significant ozone increases at surface monitors operated by Clark County, the California Air Resources Board, the U.S. National Park Service, and the Nevada Rural Ozone Initiative (NRVOI), and resulted in exceedances of the 2008 75 ppbv O3 NAAQS both in Clark County and in surrounding areas of Nevada and southern California. The potential implications of this and similar events for air quality compliance in the western U.S. will be discussed.

  10. Characterization of stormwater discharges from Las Flores Industrial Park, Rio Grande, Puerto Rico, 1998-99

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rodriguez, Jose M.

    2000-01-01

    Stormwater discharges from Las Flores Industrial Park, Rio Grande, Puerto Rico, were characterized from June 1998 to July 1999 by measuring the flow rate at two outfalls, delineating the drainage areas for each outfall, and calculating the volume of the stormwater discharges. Stormwater-discharge samples were collected and analyzed to determine the quality of the discharges. Constituent loads and loads per area were estimated for each drainage area. The studied drainage subareas covered approximately 46 percent of the total area of the Las Flores Industrial Park. Industrial groups represented in the study areas include manufacturers of textile, electronics, paper, fabricated metal, plastic, and chemical products. The concentrations of oil and grease (1 to 6 milligrams per liter), biochemical oxygen demand (4.7 to 16 milligrams per liter), total organic carbon (5.8 to 36 milligrams per liter), total suspended solids (28 to 100 milligrams per liter), and total phosphorous (0.11 to 0.78 milligrams per liter) from all the samples collected were less than the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency stormwater benchmark concentrations. Concentrations of chemical oxygen demand (15.8 to 157 milligrams per liter) and nitrate and nitrite (0.06 to 1.75 milligrams per liter) exceeded benchmark concentrations at one of the studied drainage areas. Total Kjeldahl nitrogen concentrations (1.00 to 3.20 milligrams per liter) exceeded the benchmark concentrations at the two studied drainage areas. Maximum concentrations for oil and grease, biochemical oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, total organic carbon, total Kjeldahl nitrogen, nitrate plus nitrite, and total phosphorous were detected in an area where electronics, plastics, and chemical products are currently manufactured. The maximum concentration of total suspended solids was detected at an area where textile, paper, plastic, chemical, and fabricated metal products are manufactured.

  11. Cold-plasma assisted hydrophobisation of cellulose fibres with styrene and para-halogenated homologues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaiolas, C.; Costa, A. P.; Santos Silva, M. J.; Belgacem, M. N.

    2012-07-01

    Cold-plasma-assisted treatment of additive-free hand sheet paper samples with styrene (ST), para-fluorostyrene (FST), para-fluoro-α-methylstyrene (FMST) and para-chloro-α-methylstyrene (ClMST) and para-bromostyrene (BrST) was studied and found that the grafting has occurred efficiently, as established by contact angle measurement. Thus, after solvent extraction of the modified substrates, in order to remove unbounded grafts, the contact angle value of a drop of water deposited at the surface of paper increased from 40° for unmodified substrate to 102, 99, 116, 100 and 107°, for ST-, FST- FMST-, ClMST- and BrST-treated samples, respectively, indicating that the surface has became totally hydrophobic. In fact, the polar component of the surface energy of treated samples decreased from 25 mJ/m2 to practically zero, indicating that treated surfaces were rendered totally non polar.

  12. Genomic organisation of the seven ParaHox genes of coelacanths.

    PubMed

    Mulley, John F; Holland, Peter W H

    2014-09-01

    Human and mouse genomes contain six ParaHox genes implicated in gut and neural patterning. In coelacanths and cartilaginous fish, an additional ParaHox gene exists-Pdx2-that dates back to the genome duplications in early vertebrate evolution. Here we examine the genomic arrangement and flanking genes of all ParaHox genes in coelacanths, to determine the full complement of these genes. We find that coelacanths have seven ParaHox genes in total, in four chromosomal locations, revealing that five gene losses occurred soon after vertebrate genome duplication. Comparison of intergenic sequences reveals that some Pdx1 regulatory regions associated with development of pancreatic islets are older than tetrapods, that Pdx1 and Pdx2 share few if any conserved non-coding elements, and that there is very high sequence conservation between coelacanth species.

  13. Molecular insight into the activity of LasR protein from Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the regulation of virulence gene expression by this organism.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Nilkanta; Bagchi, Angshuman

    2016-04-10

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic human pathogen. This organism attacks human patients suffering from diseases like AIDS, cancer, cystic fibrosis, etc. One of the important virulent factors produced by this organism is Hydrogen Cyanide. This is expressed from the genes encoded by the hcnABC operon. The expressions of the genes encoded by hcnABC operon are mediated mainly by the interactions of LasR protein with the corresponding promoter region of the hcnABC operon. The LasR protein acts as a dimer and binds to the promoter DNA with the help of an autoinducer ligand. However, till date the detailed molecular mechanism of how the LasR protein interacts with the promoter DNA is not clearly known. Therefore, in this work, an attempt has been made to analyze the mode of interactions of the LasR protein with the promoter DNA region of the hcnABC operon. We analyzed the three dimensional structure of the LasR protein from Pseudomonas aeruginosa and docked the protein with the autoinducer ligand. We then docked the ligand-bound-LasR-protein as well the LasR-protein-without-the-autoinducer-ligand on to the promoter DNA region of hcnABC operon. We analyzed the details of the interaction profiles of LasR protein with the autoinducer ligand. We also deciphered the details of the LasR promoter-DNA interactions. We compared the modes of DNA bindings by the LasR protein in presence and absence of the autoinducer ligand and tried to analyze the molecular details of the binding of LasR protein with the promoter DNA region of hcnABC operon during hcnABC gene expression. This study may therefore pave the pathway for future experiments to determine the relative effects of the amino acid residues of LasR protein in DNA binding during the transcription of hcnABC operon.

  14. Amplificadores en bandas para receptores de uso radioastronómicos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bava, A. J.; Sanz, A. J.

    Está en curso de realización en el IAR un cabezal de receptor, en la frecuencia de 3.3 GHz. Este receptor, conjuntamente con los sistemas de procesamientos actuales del IAR y con los futuros proyectos de procesamientos, permitirán las observaciones de las líneas de la molécula de CH, de gran interés astrofísico, y las observaciones en el continuo que complementarán las realizadas en 1420 MHz. En este trabajo, se presentan el diseño de los amplificadores de bajo ruido, que van a conformar las primeras etapas del receptor de 3.3 GHz. El desarrollo de los mismos se realizó teniendo en cuenta que la temperatura del sistema, según consideraciones observacionales, deberá ser de 60oK. Por tal motivo se realizó un diseño de bajo ruido utilizando como elemento activo un HEMT. Tanto los métodos de diseño, como el circuito final, fueron realizados y comprobados con programas de simulación, permitiendo de esta forma obtener el amplificador deseado.

  15. Spanish Coastal Patrol Ships for Argentina and Mexico (Guardacostas Espanoles para Argentina y Mejico),

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-12-22

    IN TRANS ATION ~TITLE: .SPANISH COASTAL PATROL SHIPS FOR ARGENTINA AND MEXICO GUARDACOSTAS EFPANOLES PARA ARGENTINA Y MEJICO AUTHOR: M; RAMIREZ...SHIPS FOR ARGENTINA AND MEXICO [Ramirez Gabarrus, M.; Guardacostas espaioles para Argentina y Mejico; Tecnologia Militar, No. 4, 1983; pP. 50, 53-54... Mexico , Mr. Alvarez de Vayo, signed a contract with the Mexican War Minister, General Cardenas, to build a series of 10 coastal patrol boats and five

  16. Diffusion Monte Carlo Study of Para-Diiodobenzene Polymorphism Revisited.

    PubMed

    Hongo, Kenta; Watson, Mark A; Iitaka, Toshiaki; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán; Maezono, Ryo

    2015-03-10

    We revisit our investigation of the diffusion Monte Carlo (DMC) simulation of para-diiodobenzene (p-DIB) molecular crystal polymorphism. [See J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 2010, 1, 1789-1794.] We perform, for the first time, a rigorous study of finite-size effects and choice of nodal surface on the prediction of polymorph stability in molecular crystals using fixed-node DMC. Our calculations are the largest that are currently feasible using the resources of the K-computer and provide insights into the formidable challenge of predicting such properties from first principles. In particular, we show that finite-size effects can influence the trial nodal surface of a small (1 × 1 × 1) simulation cell considerably. Therefore, we repeated our DMC simulations with a 1 × 3 × 3 simulation cell, which is the largest such calculation to date. We used a density functional theory (DFT) nodal surface generated with the PBE functional, and we accumulated statistical samples with ∼6.4 × 10(5) core hours for each polymorph. Our final results predict a polymorph stability that is consistent with experiment, but they also indicate that the results in our previous paper were somewhat fortuitous. We analyze the finite-size errors using model periodic Coulomb (MPC) interactions and kinetic energy corrections, according to the CCMH scheme of Chiesa, Ceperley, Martin, and Holzmann. We investigate the dependence of the finite-size errors on different aspect ratios of the simulation cell (k-mesh convergence) in order to understand how to choose an appropriate ratio for the DMC calculations. Even in the most expensive simulations currently possible, we show that the finite size errors in the DMC total energies are much larger than the energy difference between the two polymorphs, although error cancellation means that the polymorph prediction is accurate. Finally, we found that the T-move scheme is essential for these massive DMC simulations in order to circumvent population explosions and

  17. TECNOLOGÍAS DE INFORMACIÓN Y COMUNICACIÓN PARA LA PREVENCIÓN Y CONTROL DE LA INFECCIÓN POR EL VIH Y OTRAS ITS*

    PubMed Central

    Curioso, Walter H.; Blas, Magaly M.; Kurth, Ann E.; Klausner, Jeffrey D.

    2010-01-01

    Avances tecnológicos innovadores como Internet, computadoras personales de bolsillo, teléfonos celulares y otros equipos son un arsenal en crecimiento en el esfuerzo de impedir y controlar el VIH y otras infecciones de transmisión sexual (ITS). A pesar que existe una diversidad de tecnologías de información y comunicación en diferentes etapas de desarrollo para la prevención del VIH e ITS, la investigación en esta área se encuentra aún en crecimiento, y el impacto en la incidencia de enfermedad, las evaluaciones con diseños rigurosos y los estudios económicos todavía son muy limitados. Sin embargo, algunas de estas evidencias son prometedoras y poseen un gran potencial para su uso en nuestro medio. En este artículo hemos realizado una revisión sistemática de la literatura relacionada con el uso de la tecnología aplicada a la prevención y control del VIH e ITS. De ser usada apropiadamente, esta tecnología podría mejorar la vigilancia del VIH y otras ITS, diagnóstico, notificación de parejas, prevención, manejo clínico, y capacitación de profesionales de la salud. PMID:26339254

  18. Diseño de un programa basado en la promoción del desarrollo positivo en la infancia para la prevención temprana de la violencia en Colombia.

    PubMed

    Hernández Holguín, Dora M; Páez Zapata, Esteban; Múnera Restrepo, Laura M; Duque Ramírez, Luis F

    2017-03-01

    Aunque algunos informes identifiquen a Colombia como ejemplo de un país que ha logrado revertir los niveles crecientes de violencia, estos siguen siendo altos. Por este motivo se han convocado acciones de promoción de la convivencia y prevención de la violencia, a las cuales responde el programa que presentamos en este artículo. Este programa está basado en la perspectiva contextual-evolutiva del modelo ecológico y en la educación para la salud, tendiente al cuidado de sí en los padres o cuidadores, y al ejercicio de una crianza, centrada en los derechos de los niños, el desarrollo infantil y la promoción de la salud mental, con el fin de promover el desarrollo saludable y prevenir comportamientos agresivos en los niños; éste es presentado como una alternativa de orientación psicosocial para el fortalecimiento de estrategias y programas dirigidos a la primera infancia.

  19. para-C-H Borylation of Benzene Derivatives by a Bulky Iridium Catalyst.

    PubMed

    Saito, Yutaro; Segawa, Yasutomo; Itami, Kenichiro

    2015-04-22

    A highly para-selective aromatic C-H borylation has been accomplished. By a new iridium catalyst bearing a bulky diphosphine ligand, Xyl-MeO-BIPHEP, the C-H borylation of monosubstituted benzenes can be affected with para-selectivity up to 91%. This catalytic system is quite different from the usual iridium catalysts that cannot distinguish meta- and para-C-H bonds of monosubstituted benzene derivatives, resulting in the preferred formation of meta-products. The para-selectivity increases with increasing bulkiness of the substituent on the arene, indicating that the regioselectivity of the present reaction is primarily controlled by steric repulsion between substrate and catalyst. Caramiphen, an anticholinergic drug used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease, was converted into five derivatives via our para-selective borylation. The present [Ir(cod)OH]2/Xyl-MeO-BIPHEP catalyst represents a unique, sterically controlled, para-selective, aromatic C-H borylation system that should find use in streamlined, predictable chemical synthesis and in the rapid discovery and optimization of pharmaceuticals and materials.

  20. Como ayudar a su hijo a tener exito en la escuela, con actividades para ninos entre las edades de 5 a 11 anos (Helping Your Child Succeed in School, with Activities for Children Ages 5 through 11).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulu, Nancy

    At the heart of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 is a promise to raise standards for all children and to help all children meet those standards. This Spanish-language booklet provides information that parents can use to help their child succeed in school. Following an introduction, the second section of the booklet, "The Basics," offers…