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Sample records for para pilhas pacos

  1. PACO: PArticle COunting Method To Enforce Concentrations in Dynamic Simulations.

    PubMed

    Berti, Claudio; Furini, Simone; Gillespie, Dirk

    2016-03-08

    We present PACO, a computationally efficient method for concentration boundary conditions in nonequilibrium particle simulations. Because it requires only particle counting, its computational effort is significantly smaller than other methods. PACO enables Brownian dynamics simulations of micromolar electrolytes (3 orders of magnitude lower than previously simulated). PACO for Brownian dynamics is integrated in the BROWNIES package (www.phys.rush.edu/BROWNIES). We also introduce a molecular dynamics PACO implementation that allows for very accurate control of concentration gradients.

  2. Occurrence and prognosis of hand eczema in the car industry: results from the PACO follow-up study (PACO II).

    PubMed

    Apfelbacher, Christian J; Radulescu, Magda; Diepgen, Thomas L; Funke, Ulrich

    2008-06-01

    Only a few epidemiological studies on hand eczema (HE) in the metalworking industry have been conducted, and no study has attempted a long-term follow-up. In the Prospective Audi Cohort (PACO) II follow-up study, we aimed to estimate burden and prognosis of HE in a car industry setting (follow-up > 10 years). Eligible participants were individuals who had been examined in the original PACO study (1990-1998) and had been followed through until the end of their apprenticeship (n = 1909). Participants were interviewed and underwent dermatological examination. An exposure assessment was carried out according to a pre-defined algorithm. The follow-up rate was 78.3% (1494/1909). Mean follow-up time was 13.3 [standard deviation 1.3] years. The period prevalence of HE in the follow-up period was 21.0% [95% confidence interval (CI) 19.0-23.1%], yielding a cumulative incidence of 29.3% (95% CI 26.9-31.6%) in the entire study period. HE persisted after the end of apprenticeship in 40.0% (95% CI 33.3-46.7%) of subjects who had had HE during apprenticeship (n = 205). 18.0% (95% CI 15.9-20.1%) developed HE in the follow-up period (n = 1289). Around 30% of subjects were affected by HE at least once during the study period. HE persisted in 40% of the participants affected during apprenticeship.

  3. Cranial arterial patterns of the alpaca (Camelidae: Vicugna pacos)

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Artiodactyl cranial arterial patterns deviate significantly from the standard mammalian pattern, most notably in the possession of a structure called the carotid rete (CR)—a subdural arterial meshwork that is housed within the cavernous venous sinus, replacing the internal carotid artery (ICA). This relationship between the CR and the cavernous sinus facilitates a suite of unique physiologies, including selective brain cooling. The CR has been studied in a number of artiodactyls; however, to my knowledge, only a single study to date documents a subset of the cranial arteries of New World camelids (llamas, alpacas, vicugñas and guanacoes). This study is the first complete description of the cranial arteries of a New World camelid species, the alpaca (Vicugna pacos), and the first description of near-parturition cranial arterial morphology within New World camelids. This study finds that the carotid arterial system is conserved between developmental stages in the alpaca, and differs significantly from the pattern emphasized in other long-necked ruminant artiodactyls in that a patent, homologous ICA persists through the animal's life. PMID:28405385

  4. Cranial arterial patterns of the alpaca (Camelidae: Vicugna pacos).

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Haley D

    2017-03-01

    Artiodactyl cranial arterial patterns deviate significantly from the standard mammalian pattern, most notably in the possession of a structure called the carotid rete (CR)-a subdural arterial meshwork that is housed within the cavernous venous sinus, replacing the internal carotid artery (ICA). This relationship between the CR and the cavernous sinus facilitates a suite of unique physiologies, including selective brain cooling. The CR has been studied in a number of artiodactyls; however, to my knowledge, only a single study to date documents a subset of the cranial arteries of New World camelids (llamas, alpacas, vicugñas and guanacoes). This study is the first complete description of the cranial arteries of a New World camelid species, the alpaca (Vicugna pacos), and the first description of near-parturition cranial arterial morphology within New World camelids. This study finds that the carotid arterial system is conserved between developmental stages in the alpaca, and differs significantly from the pattern emphasized in other long-necked ruminant artiodactyls in that a patent, homologous ICA persists through the animal's life.

  5. PaCO2 in Surfactant, Positive Pressure, and Oxygenation Randomized Trial (SUPPORT)

    PubMed Central

    Ambalavanan, Namasivayam; Carlo, Waldemar A.; Wrage, Lisa A.; Das, Abhik; Laughon, Matthew; Cotten, C. Michael; Kennedy, Kathleen A.; Laptook, Abbot R.; Shankaran, Seetha; Walsh, Michele C.; Higgins, Rosemary D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the association of PaCO2 with severe intraventricular hemorrhage (sIVH), bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), and neurodevelopmental impairment (NDI) at 18–22 months in premature infants. Design Secondary exploratory data analysis of SUPPORT. Setting Multiple referral NICUs. Patients 1316 infants 24 0/7 to 27 6/7 weeks gestation randomized to different oxygenation (SpO2 target 85–89% vs 91–95%) and ventilation strategies. Main Outcome Measures Blood gases from postnatal days 0–14 were analyzed. Five PaCO2 variables were defined: minimum [Min], maximum [Max], standard deviation, average (time-weighted), and a 4 level categorical variable (hypercapnic [highest quartile of Max PaCO2], hypocapnic [lowest quartile of Min PaCO2], fluctuators [both hypercapnia and hypocapnia], and normocapnic [middle two quartiles of Max and Min PaCO2]). PaCO2 variables were compared for infants with and without sIVH, BPD, and NDI (+/− death). Multivariable logistic regression models were developed for adjusted results. Results sIVH, BPD, and NDI (+/− death) were associated with hypercapnic infants and fluctuators. Association of Max PaCO2 and outcomes persisted after adjustment (Per 10 mmHg increase: sIVH/death: OR 1.27 [1.13–1.41]; BPD/death: OR 1.27 [1.12–1.44]; NDI/death: OR 1.23 [1.10–1.38], Death: OR 1.27 [1.12–1.44], all p <0.001). No interaction was found between PaCO2 category and SpO2 treatment group for sIVH/death, NDI/death, or death. Max PaCO2 was positively correlated with maximum FiO2 (rs0.55, p<0.0001) & ventilator days (rs0.61, p<0.0001). Conclusions Higher PaCO2 was an independent predictor of sIVH/death, BPD/death, and NDI/death. Further trials are needed to evaluate optimal PaCO2 targets for high risk infants. PMID:25425651

  6. PaCO2 in surfactant, positive pressure, and oxygenation randomised trial (SUPPORT).

    PubMed

    Ambalavanan, Namasivayam; Carlo, Waldemar A; Wrage, Lisa A; Das, Abhik; Laughon, Matthew; Cotten, C Michael; Kennedy, Kathleen A; Laptook, Abbot R; Shankaran, Seetha; Walsh, Michele C; Higgins, Rosemary D

    2015-03-01

    To determine the association of arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide PaCO2 with severe intraventricular haemorrhage (sIVH), bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), and neurodevelopmental impairment (NDI) at 18-22 months in premature infants. Secondary exploratory data analysis of Surfactant, Positive Pressure, and Oxygenation Randomised Trial (SUPPORT). Multiple referral neonatal intensive care units. 1316 infants 24 0/7 to 27 6/7 weeks gestation randomised to different oxygenation (SpO2 target 85-89% vs 91-95%) and ventilation strategies. Blood gases from postnatal day 0 to day14 were analysed. Five PaCO2 variables were defined: minimum (Min), maximum (Max), SD, average (time-weighted), and a four level categorical variable (hypercapnic (highest quartile of Max PaCO2), hypocapnic (lowest quartile of Min PaCO2), fluctuators (hypercapnia and hypocapnia), and normocapnic (middle two quartiles of Max and Min PaCO2)). PaCO2 variables were compared for infants with and without sIVH, BPD and NDI (±death). Multivariable logistic regression models were developed for adjusted results. sIVH, BPD and NDI (±death) were associated with hypercapnic infants and fluctuators. Association of Max PaCO2 and outcomes persisted after adjustment (per 10 mm Hg increase: sIVH/death: OR 1.27 (1.13 to 1.41); BPD/death: OR 1.27 (1.12 to 1.44); NDI/death: OR 1.23 (1.10 to 1.38), death: OR 1.27 (1.12 to 1.44), all p<0.001). No interaction was found between PaCO2 category and SpO2 treatment group for sIVH/death, NDI/death or death. Max PaCO2 was positively correlated with maximum FiO2 (rs0.55, p<0.0001) and ventilator days (rs0.61, p<0.0001). Higher PaCO2 was an independent predictor of sIVH/death, BPD/death and NDI/death. Further trials are needed to evaluate optimal PaCO2 targets for high-risk infants. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  7. Normal bacterial conjunctival flora in the Huacaya alpaca (Vicugna pacos).

    PubMed

    Storms, Goedele; Meersschaert, Carole; Farnir, Frédéric; Grauwels, Magda

    2016-01-01

    To describe the bacterial flora of the normal conjunctiva of Huacaya alpacas (Vicugna pacos) and to determine the effect of age and gender on this flora. Fifty Huacaya alpacas. After a complete ophthalmic examination, conjunctival swabs were obtained from both eyes and cultured for aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. Logistic and Poisson regression analyses were used to evaluate the effect of age and gender on bacterial isolation. Four animals were excluded because of signs of external ocular disease. Of the remaining 46 alpacas, bacteria were recovered from 96.7% (89/92) of the eyes. A total of 190 bacterial isolates were cultured with a mean of 2.1 bacterial isolates per eye. The majority of isolates (70%) were Gram-positive. Staphylococcus xylosus (44/190: 23.2%) predominated, followed by viridans streptococci (32/190: 16.8%) and Pantoea agglomerans (24/190: 12.6%). Other frequently isolated bacteria included Rothia mucilaginosa (12/190: 6.3%), Staphylococcus equorum (12/190: 6.3%), Bacillus species (9/190: 4.7%), Moraxella ovis (9/190: 4.7%), and Moraxella catarrhalis (6/190: 3.2%). Statistical analysis showed that alpacas harboring viridans streptococci and Moraxella species were significantly younger. Gender did not significantly affect type of bacterial isolation. There appeared to be no significant effect of age or gender on number of bacteria isolated. Gram-positive aerobes were most commonly cultured, with S. xylosus and viridans streptococci predominating. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first report describing the presence of Moraxella species in the healthy conjunctival sac of alpacas. Alpacas harboring viridans streptococci and Moraxella species were significantly younger. © 2015 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  8. Diagnosis of toxoplasmosis-associated abortion in an alpaca (Vicugna pacos) fetus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A near full term alpaca (Vicugna pacos) was stillborn two days before expected date of delivery; necropsy examination was conducted within six hours of delivery. Gross lesions were enlarged liver and hydrocephalus. On histologic examination, mild inflammatory lesions were identified in the placenta,...

  9. Effect of PaCO2 and PaO2 on Lidocaine and Articaine Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Barcelos, K.C; Furtado, D.P; Ramacciato, J.C; Cabral, A.M; Haas, D.A

    2010-01-01

    Alterations in arterial PaCO2 can influence local anesthetic toxicity. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of stress-induced changes in PaCO2 and PaO2 on the seizure threshold of lidocaine and articaine. Lidocaine (2% with 1 ∶ 100,000 epinephrine) or articaine (4% with 1 ∶ 100,000 epinephrine) was administered intravenously under rest or stress conditions to 36 rats separated into 4 groups. Propranolol and prazosin were administered preoperatively to minimize cardiovascular effects of epinephrine. Mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), and arterial pH, PaCO2, and PaO2 were measured. Results showed no differences in MAP, HR, or pH. Stress significantly increased the latency period for the first tonic-clonic seizure induced by a toxic dose of both lidocaine and articaine (P < .05). Seizures were brought on more rapidly by articaine. No significant difference between toxic doses of lidocaine and articaine was noted. Stress raised the seizure threshold dose for both drugs and significantly (P < .01) increased arterial PaO2 from 94.0 ± 1.90 mm Hg to 113.0 ± 2.20 mm Hg, and reduced PaCO2 from 36.0 ± 0.77 mm Hg to 27.0 ± 0.98 mm Hg. In conclusion, reduction in PaCO2 and/or increase in PaO2 raised the seizure threshold of lidocaine and articaine. This study also confirmed that lidocaine and articaine have equipotent central nervous system toxicity. PMID:20843225

  10. Predicting what helminth parasites a fish species should have using Parasite Co-occurrence Modeler (PaCo)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Strona, Giovanni; Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2013-01-01

    Fish pathologists are often interested in which parasites would likely be present in a particular host. Parasite Co-occurrence Modeler (PaCo) is a tool for identifying a list of parasites known from fish species that are similar ecologically, phylogenetically, and geographically to the host of interest. PaCo uses data from FishBase (maximum length, growth rate, life span, age at maturity, trophic level, phylogeny, and biogeography) to estimate compatibility between a target host and parasite species–genera from the major helminth groups (Acanthocephala, Cestoda, Monogenea, Nematoda, and Trematoda). Users can include any combination of host attributes in a model. These unique features make PaCo an innovative tool for addressing both theoretical and applied questions in parasitology. In addition to predicting the occurrence of parasites, PaCo can be used to investigate how host characteristics shape parasite communities. To test the performance of the PaCo algorithm, we created 12,400 parasite lists by applying any possible combination of model parameters (248) to 50 fish hosts. We then measured the relative importance of each parameter by assessing their frequency in the best models for each host. Host phylogeny and host geography were identified as the most important factors, with both present in 88% of the best models. Habitat (64%) was identified in more than half of the best models. Among ecological parameters, trophic level (41%) was the most relevant while life span (34%), growth rate (32%), maximum length (28%), and age at maturity (20%) were less commonly linked to best models. PaCo is free to use at www.purl.oclc.org/fishpest.

  11. Predicting what helminth parasites a fish species should have using Parasite Co-occurrence Modeler (PaCo).

    PubMed

    Strona, Giovanni; Lafferty, Kevin D

    2013-02-01

    Fish pathologists are often interested in which parasites would likely be present in a particular host. Parasite Co-occurrence Modeler (PaCo) is a tool for identifying a list of parasites known from fish species that are similar ecologically, phylogenetically, and geographically to the host of interest. PaCo uses data from FishBase (maximum length, growth rate, life span, age at maturity, trophic level, phylogeny, and biogeography) to estimate compatibility between a target host and parasite species-genera from the major helminth groups (Acanthocephala, Cestoda, Monogenea, Nematoda, and Trematoda). Users can include any combination of host attributes in a model. These unique features make PaCo an innovative tool for addressing both theoretical and applied questions in parasitology. In addition to predicting the occurrence of parasites, PaCo can be used to investigate how host characteristics shape parasite communities. To test the performance of the PaCo algorithm, we created 12,400 parasite lists by applying any possible combination of model parameters (248) to 50 fish hosts. We then measured the relative importance of each parameter by assessing their frequency in the best models for each host. Host phylogeny and host geography were identified as the most important factors, with both present in 88% of the best models. Habitat (64%) was identified in more than half of the best models. Among ecological parameters, trophic level (41%) was the most relevant while life span (34%), growth rate (32%), maximum length (28%), and age at maturity (20%) were less commonly linked to best models. PaCo is free to use at www.purl.oclc.org/fishpest.

  12. Multivariate analysis of the volumetric capnograph for PaCO2 estimation

    PubMed Central

    Belenkiy, Slava M; Baker, William L; Batchinsky, Andriy I; Mittal, Sumit; Watkins, Taylor; Salinas, Jose; Cancio, Leopoldo C

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: End-tidal CO2 (eTCO2) can be used to estimate the arterial CO2 (PaCO2) under steady-state conditions, but that relationship deteriorates during hemodynamic or respiratory instability. We developed a multivariate method to improve our ability to estimate the PaCO2, by using additional information contained in the volumetric capnograph (Vcap) waveform. We tested this approach using data from a porcine model of chest trauma/hemorrhage. Methods: This experiment consisted of 3 stages: pre-injury, injury/resuscitation, and post-injury. In stage I, anesthetized pigs (n=26) underwent ventilator maneuvers (tidal volume and respiratory rate) to induce hypo-or hyper-ventilation. In stage II, pigs underwent either (A) unilateral pulmonary contusion, hemorrhage, and resuscitation (n=13); or (B) bilateral pulmonary contusion (n=13) followed by 30 min of monitoring. In stage III, the ventilator maneuvers were repeated. The following Vcap features were measured: eTCO2, phase 2 slope (p2m), phase 3 slope (p3m), and inter-breath interval. The data were fit to 2 models: (1) multivariate linear regression and (2) a machine-learning model (M5P). Results: 1750 10-breath sets were analyzed. Univariate models employing eTCO2 alone were adequate during stages I and III. During stage II, mean error for the linear model was -8.44 mmHg (R2=0.14, P<0.001) and for M5P it was -5.98 mmHg (R2=0.13, P<0.01). By adding Vcap features, all models exhibited improvement. In stage II, the mean error of the linear model improved to -4.64 mmHg (R2=0.11, P<0.01), and that of the M5P model improved to -1.62 mmHg (R2=0.25, P<0.01). Conclusions: By incorporating Vcap waveform features, multivariate methods modestly improved PaCO2 estimation, especially during periods of hemodynamic and respiratory instability. Further work would be needed to produce a clinically useful CO2 monitoring system under these challenging conditions. PMID:26550531

  13. The alpaca (Vicugna pacos) as a natural intermediate host of Taenia omissa (Cestoda: Taeniidae).

    PubMed

    Gomez-Puerta, Luis A; Yucra, Dora; Lopez-Urbina, Maria T; Gonzalez, Armando E

    2017-11-15

    Three metacestodes were collected from the mesentery and the surface of the liver of three adult alpacas (Vicugna pacos) in a slaughterhouse located in Puno, Peru. Various features of the metacestodes were observed for morphological identification. A molecular diagnosis was performed by PCR-based sequencing of mitochondrial genes of cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) and the NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (nad1). All metacestodes were identified as Taenia omissa by morphology and molecular methods The isolates from alpacas showed significant sequence similarity with previously reported isolates of T. omissa (95.7-98.1% in cox1 and 94.6-95.1% in nad1). Our report is the first to detect T. omissa metacestodes in alpacas and to reveal that alpacas are natural intermediate hosts for this parasite. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Pagetoid reticulosis (epitheliotropic cutaneous T-cell lymphoma) in an adult alpaca (Vicugna pacos).

    PubMed

    Hasbach, Andrea E; Stern, Adam W

    2016-07-01

    A 9-year-old, intact female alpaca (Vicugna pacos) was presented for a second opinion with a 1-year history of nonpruritic, multifocal scaling and crusted cutaneous lesions, mainly involving skin on the face, axillae, and ventral abdomen. Clinical abnormalities were limited to the skin, and the alpaca was otherwise healthy. The initial veterinarian had examined the alpaca, found no evidence of ectoparasites with laboratory testing, and had tried several trial therapies including oral antibiotics, ivermectin, and topical use of betadine solution. At the time of presentation, the lesions had neither improved nor worsened with any attempted therapy, and multiple skin biopsies were collected. Histopathology and immunohistochemical staining findings were consistent with the pagetoid reticulosis type of cutaneous epitheliotropic T-cell lymphoma. Our report describes the clinical, histopathologic, and immunophenotypic features of pagetoid reticulosis epitheliotropic cutaneous T-cell lymphoma in an alpaca. © 2016 The Author(s).

  15. A survey of gastrointestinal parasites of alpacas (Vicugna pacos) raised in Japan

    PubMed Central

    HYUGA, Ayako; MATSUMOTO, Jun

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in alpacas raised in Japan. From December 2010 to October 2011, 53 alpacas (Vicugna pacos) raised at a farm in the Kanto region, Japan, were examined for gastrointestinal parasites by 3 fecal tests: direct smear, centrifuged flotation and formalin-ether sedimentation. Eggs of Nematodirus sp. were found in 13.2%, Trichuris sp. in 11.3%, Capillaria spp. in 5.7%, strongyle-type in 50.9% and Moniezia sp. in 1.9%. Oocysts of Eimeria punoensis and/or E. alpacae were found in 69.8%, E. lamae in 1.9% and E. macusaniensis in 7.5%. We found that alpacas raised in Japan have gastrointestinal parasitic fauna similar to those in other countries. PMID:26725443

  16. Tracking time-varying cerebral autoregulation in response to changes in respiratory PaCO2.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jia; Simpson, M David; Yan, Jingyu; Allen, Robert

    2010-10-01

    Cerebral autoregulation has been studied by linear filter systems, with arterial blood pressure (ABP) as the input and cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV-from transcranial Doppler Ultrasound) as the output. The current work extends this by using adaptive filters to investigate the dynamics of time-varying cerebral autoregulation during step-wise changes in arterial PaCO(2). Cerebral autoregulation was transiently impaired in 11 normal adult volunteers, by switching inspiratory air to a CO(2)/air mixture (5% CO(2), 30% O(2) and 65% N(2)) for approximately 2 min and then back to the ambient air, causing step-wise changes in end-tidal CO(2) (EtCO(2)). Simultaneously, ABP and CBFV were recorded continuously. Simulated data corresponding to the same protocol were also generated using an established physiological model, in order to refine the signal analysis methods. Autoregulation was quantified by the time-varying phase lead, estimated from the adaptive filter model. The adaptive filter was able to follow rapid changes in autoregulation, as was confirmed in the simulated data. In the recorded signals, there was a slow decrease in autoregulatory function following the step-wise increase in PaCO(2) (but this did not reach a steady state within approximately 2 min of recording), with a more rapid change in autoregulation on return to normocapnia. Adaptive filter modelling was thus able to demonstrate time-varying autoregulation. It was further noted that impairment and recovery of autoregulation during transient increases in EtCO(2) occur in an asymmetric manner, which should be taken into account when designing experimental protocols for the study of autoregulation.

  17. Bovine xenograft application for treatment of a metatarsal nonunion fracture in an alpaca (Vicugna pacos).

    PubMed

    Longo, F; Finotti, L; Bellini, L; Zavan, B; Busetto, R; Isola, M

    2016-05-01

    A 15-year-old female huacaya alpaca (Vicugna pacos) was referred because of a non-weight-bearing lameness (4/4) in the left pelvic limb caused by a grade three open metatarsal fracture. The referring veterinarian treated the fracture with conservative management using bandages, but it progressively evolved to a non-union. Clinical examination revealed external wounds on the medial and lateral surfaces of the metatarsus. Radiographs confirmed an open, nonarticular, displaced, diaphyseal fracture of the left metatarsus. Cancellous bone was sourced from bovine proximal and distal femur epiphyses, followed by a thermal shock procedure to achieve decellularisation, to produce a xenograft. Open reduction and internal fixation of the fracture using locking plates was performed. Alignment of the fracture fragments was corrected and the xenograft was placed at the debrided fracture site to stimulate and harness osteogenesis in situ. Clinical and radiographic follow-up was performed up to 40 weeks postoperatively. Clinical evaluations revealed that the alpaca gradually increased weight bearing following bandage removal 10 days after surgery. Serial radiographs showed correct alignment of the left metatarsus, progressive bone modelling and, complete bone union at 12 weeks. Ten months postoperatively the alpaca showed no signs of lameness and resumed normal activity. For management of a metatarsal non-union, a combination of bovine xenograft application and angular stable internal fixation progressed toward an excellent long-term recovery.

  18. Dysuria due to discospondylitis and intervertebral disc herniation in a male alpaca (Vicugna pacos).

    PubMed

    Sickinger, Marlene; Hirz, Manuela; Schmidt, Martin J; Reinacher, Manfred

    2016-05-31

    Dysuria in camelids is usually associated with the presence of lower urinary tract disease such as urolithiasis. As another differential diagnosis, urine retention may be caused by neurological disturbances resulting from infections of the spinal cord, discospondylitis or trauma. A 2.5-year-old male Huacaya alpaca (Vicugna pacos) presented with dysuria due to damage of the lumbosacral intumescence of the spinal cord. On presentation the alpaca was recumbent. Clinical examination revealed abdominal pain, oliguria, leucopenia with neutrophilia, and slightly elevated creatinine kinase. Ultrasonography of the abdomen showed an irregularly shaped, dilated urinary bladder with hyperechoic serosa. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed discospondylitis of the fourth and fifth lumbar vertebrae and herniation of the intervertebral disc between these vertebrae and the spinal cord. Postmortem examination confirmed severe chronic purulent discospondylitis with ventral spondylosis and narrowing of the spinal canal. Urolithiasis could not be verified. Although rare, diseases of the spinal cord should be considered as a differential diagnosis for impaired micturition in camelids.

  19. The genetic inheritance of the blue-eyed white phenotype in alpacas (Vicugna pacos).

    PubMed

    Jackling, Felicity C; Johnson, Warren E; Appleton, Belinda R

    2014-01-01

    White-spotting patterns in mammals can be caused by mutations in the gene KIT, whose protein is necessary for the normal migration and survival of melanocytes from the neural crest. The alpaca (Vicugna pacos) blue-eyed white (BEW) phenotype is characterized by 2 blue eyes and a solid white coat over the whole body. Breeders hypothesize that the BEW phenotype in alpacas is caused by the combination of the gene causing gray fleece and a white-spotting gene. We performed an association study using KIT flanking and intragenic markers with 40 unrelated alpacas, of which 17 were BEW. Two microsatellite alleles at KIT-related markers were significantly associated (P < 0.0001) with the BEW phenotype (bew1 and bew2). In a larger cohort of 171 related individuals, we identify an abundance of an allele (bew1) in gray animals and the occurrence of bew2 homozygotes that are solid white with pigmented eyes. Association tests accounting for population structure and familial relatedness are consistent with a proposed model where these alleles are in linkage disequilibrium with a mutation or mutations that contribute to the BEW phenotype and to individual differences in fleece color. © The American Genetic Association. 2012. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Morphology of the Lingual and Buccal Papillae in Alpaca (Vicugna pacos) - Light and Scanning Electron Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Goździewska-Harłajczuk, K; Klećkowska-Nawrot, J; Janeczek, M; Zawadzki, M

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was the description of the lingual and buccal papillae in adult alpaca (Vicugna pacos) by light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The tongue consisted of apex, body and root. Four types of lingual papillae (filiform, fungiform, conical and circumvallate) in addition to two types of buccal papillae were observed. The filiform papillae, some with secondary papillae, were distributed on both the corpus and apex of the tongue, with stratified epithelium, and layer of keratin coat were recognized. The short (small) cone papillae had pointed top, while bunoform papillae were wide with smooth apex. The much less numerous circumvallate papillae with pseudopapillae on the each rim of the caudal lingual body were present with weak layer of keratin and intra-epithelial taste buds. The small fungiform papillae were found on the dorsal lingual surface, while the large fungiform papillae were situated on the ventral surface of the tongue, especially, in rostral part and were round in shape with numerous gustatory pores and very thin keratin coat. Pseudopapillae were present on the buccal conical 'bunoform' papillae surface, while 'elongate' buccal papillae surface was rather softly folded with thin coat of keratin. Microridges were observed in the less keratinized parts of each type of papillae. The orientation of either lingual or buccal papillae into the throat side facilitates the emptying of oral cavity from nutrient and swallowing of food. In conclusion, the anatomical features of the alpaca tongue are an adaptation to the feeding habits.

  1. Retinal ganglion cell distribution and visual acuity in alpacas (Vicugna pacos).

    PubMed

    Wang, Hsiao-Hui; Gallagher, Shannon K; Byers, Stacey R; Madl, James E; Gionfriddo, Juliet R

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the distribution of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and visual acuity in alpacas (Vicugna pacos) through Brn-3a immunofluorescent labeling. Five eyes from four healthy alpacas with normal ophthalmic examination findings were included in the study. The axial length of the globes was measured before fixation. All five retinas were treated with Brn-3a antibodies to label RGCs. Images taken with a fluorescent microscope were used for RGC counting. RGC density maps were reconstructed by computer software. Visual acuity was estimated based on the results of peak RGC density and ocular anatomical parameters. The reconstructed retinal maps from Brn-3a labeling showed a horizontal streak across the retinal meridian superior to the optic nerve head with a temporal, upward extension. The highest RGC densities were in the temporal retinas. The maximal visual acuity was located in the temporal retina and was estimated to range between 12.5 and 13.4 cycles per degree. Alpacas have a horizontal streak across the retinal meridian superior to the optic disk with a temporal, upward extension based on the Brn-3a labeling of RGCs. The maximal visual acuity was located in the temporal retina. The reconstructed retinal maps indicate the RGC topography of alpacas is similar to that of other herbivores, but is different from that of dromedary camels. © 2013 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  2. Presence and distribution of urocortin and its receptors in the epididymis of alpaca (Vicugna pacos).

    PubMed

    Liguori, G; Squillacioti, C; De Luca, A; Ciarcia, R; Vittoria, A; Mirabella, N

    2015-02-01

    Urocortin 1 (UCN) is a 40-amino acid peptide belonging to the corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) family. The biological effects of this peptide are modulated by binding two G-coupled receptors named CRH receptor 1 (CRHR1) and CRH receptor 2 (CRHR2). CRHR2 has high affinity for UCN. The aim of the present study was to investigate the presence and distribution of UCN, CRHR1 and CRHR2 in the epididymis of the South America camelid Alpaca (Vicugna pacos) by Western blotting analysis and immunohistochemistry. Tissue extracts of the organ reacted with the anti-UCN, anti-CRHR1 and anti-CRHR2 antibodies, recognizing in all the cases a single specific protein band. UCN- and CRHR2-immunoreactivities (IRs) were found in the cytoplasm of the principal cells (PCs) of the caput epididymis. A prevalent supranuclear localization of granular-shaped positive material was observed. CRHR1-IR was observed in the fibromuscular stromal cells encircling the tubules and in the smooth musculature of the blood vessels throughout the three epididymal segments. In addition, in the cauda, CRHR1-IR was observed in some apical epithelial cells (ACs) which were morphologically similar to apical mitochondria-rich cells (AMRCs). These results suggest that UCN, CRHR1 and CRHR2 are expressed in the alpaca epididymis and that CRH-related peptides might play multiple roles in maturation and storage of spermatozoa.

  3. A comprehensive whole-genome integrated cytogenetic map for the alpaca (Lama pacos).

    PubMed

    Avila, Felipe; Baily, Malorie P; Perelman, Polina; Das, Pranab J; Pontius, Joan; Chowdhary, Renuka; Owens, Elaine; Johnson, Warren E; Merriwether, David A; Raudsepp, Terje

    2014-01-01

    Genome analysis of the alpaca (Lama pacos, LPA) has progressed slowly compared to other domestic species. Here, we report the development of the first comprehensive whole-genome integrated cytogenetic map for the alpaca using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and CHORI-246 BAC library clones. The map is comprised of 230 linearly ordered markers distributed among all 36 alpaca autosomes and the sex chromosomes. For the first time, markers were assigned to LPA14, 21, 22, 28, and 36. Additionally, 86 genes from 15 alpaca chromosomes were mapped in the dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius, CDR), demonstrating exceptional synteny and linkage conservation between the 2 camelid genomes. Cytogenetic mapping of 191 protein-coding genes improved and refined the known Zoo-FISH homologies between camelids and humans: we discovered new homologous synteny blocks (HSBs) corresponding to HSA1-LPA/CDR11, HSA4-LPA/CDR31 and HSA7-LPA/CDR36, and revised the location of breakpoints for others. Overall, gene mapping was in good agreement with the Zoo-FISH and revealed remarkable evolutionary conservation of gene order within many human-camelid HSBs. Most importantly, 91 FISH-mapped markers effectively integrated the alpaca whole-genome sequence and the radiation hybrid maps with physical chromosomes, thus facilitating the improvement of the sequence assembly and the discovery of genes of biological importance.

  4. Mapping of tyrosine hydroxylase in the alpaca (Lama pacos) brainstem and colocalization with CGRP.

    PubMed

    Marcos, P; Arroyo-Jimenez, M M; Lozano, G; Aguilar, L A; Coveñas, R

    2011-03-01

    The distribution of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in the brainstem of alpaca (Lama pacos) has been analysed using immunohistochemical methods. The following catecholaminergic cell nuclei have been detected: A1, C1, A2, C2 and area postrema in the medulla oblongata; A5, A6d, A7sc and A7d in the pons; as have several mesencephalic groups: A8, A9l, A9m, A9v, A9pc, A10, A10c, A10d and A10dc. This nuclear parcellation differs from that found in rodents, but agrees with the results reported in other members of the Artiodactyla order, such as giraffe or pig, and with the catecholaminergic distribution detected in species of other mammalian orders. Thus, these findings support the hypothesis that the animals included in the same order show the same nuclear complement in the neuromodulatory systems. In addition, it seems that other species share the same catecholaminergic groups as the alpaca, suggesting that a specific nuclear disposition was important and worth maintaining throughout evolution. Moreover, the distribution of TH has been compared with that of CGRP by double immunohistochemistry. Double-labelled neurons were very isolated and observed only in a few catecholaminergic groups: A1 and C2 in the medulla oblongata, A6d, A7sc and A7d in the pons, and A9l in the mesencephalon. However, interaction between TH and CGRP may be possible in more brainstem regions, particularly the area postrema. This interaction may prove important in the regulation of the specific cardiovascular control of alpacas given their morphological characteristics.

  5. Transient decrease in PaCO(2) and asymmetric chest wall dynamics in early progressing pneumothorax.

    PubMed

    Waisman, Dan; Faingersh, Anna; Levy, Carmit; Colman-Klotzman, Ifat; Rotschild, Avi; Lichtenstein, Oscar; Landesberg, Amir

    2013-01-01

    Diagnosis of pneumothorax (PTX) in newborn infants has been reported as late. To explore diagnostic indices for early detection of progressing PTX, and offer explanations for delayed diagnoses. Progressing PTX was created in rabbits (2.3 ± 0.5 kg, n = 7) by injecting 1 ml/min of air into the pleural space. Hemodynamic parameters, tidal volume, EtCO(2), SpO(2), blood gas analyses and chest wall tidal displacements (TDi) on both sides of the chest were recorded. (Mean ± SD): A decrease in SpO(2) below 90 % was detected only after 46.6 ± 11.3 min in six experiments. In contrary to the expected gradual increase of CO(2), there was a prolonged transient decrease of 14.2 ± 4.5 % in EtCO(2) (p < 0.01), and a similar decrease in PaCO(2) (p < 0.025). EtCO(2) returned back to baseline only after 55.2 ± 24.7 min, and continued to rise thereafter. The decrease in CO(2) was a mirror image of the 14.6 ± 5.3 % increase in tidal volume. The analysis of endotracheal flow and pressure dynamics revealed a paradoxical transient increase in the apparent compliance. Significant decrease in mean arterial blood pressure was observed after 46.2 ± 40.1 min. TDi provided the most sensitive and earliest sign of PTX, decreasing on the PTX side after 16.1 ± 7.2 min. The TDi progressively decreased faster and lower on the PTX side, thus enabling detection of asymmetric ventilation. The counterintuitive transient prolonged decrease in CO(2) without changes in SpO(2) may explain the delay in diagnosis of PTX encountered in the clinical environment. An earlier indication of asymmetrically decreased ventilation on the affected side was achieved by monitoring the TDi.

  6. Presence and molecular characterisation of Giardia and Cryptosporidium in alpacas (Vicugna pacos) from Peru.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Couso, Hipólito; Ortega-Mora, Luis M; Aguado-Martínez, Adriana; Rosadio-Alcántara, Raúl; Maturrano-Hernández, Lenin; Luna-Espinoza, Luis; Zanabria-Huisa, Víctor; Pedraza-Díaz, Susana

    2012-07-06

    The presence of Giardia and Cryptosporidium was investigated in 274 faecal samples of alpacas (Vicugna pacos) from 12 herds from Peru by immunofluorescence microscopy and PCR amplification and sequencing of fragments of the ssu-rRNA and β-giardin genes from Giardia spp., as well as the ssu-rRNA gene from Cryptosporidium spp. A total of 137 samples (50.0%) were positive for Giardia spp., and 12 samples (4.4%) for Cryptosporidium spp. In ten samples (3.6%), co-infection by both pathogens was found. Herd prevalence was found to be 91.7% (11/12 herds) for Giardia and 58.3% (7/12 herds) for Cryptosporidium. Regarding the age of the animals, although Giardia was detected in animals as young as 1 week, the prevalence increased with age, reaching 80% by 8 weeks. Similarly, the highest percentage of Cryptosporidium detection (20%) was also found in the 8 week-old group. By PCR, 92 of the 274 analysed samples were positive for Giardia. Sequencing of the amplicons showed the existence of Giardia duodenalis assemblage A in 67 samples; G. duodenalis assemblage E in 24 samples; and inconsistent results between the two molecular markers used in a further sample. Cryptosporidium was only detected by PCR in 3 of the 274 samples; Cryptosporidium parvum was identified in two samples and Cryptosporidium ubiquitum in one sample. This study is the first performing molecular characterisation of both parasites in Peruvian alpacas, and the first report of C. ubiquitum in this host. The identification of G. duodenalis assemblage A, C. parvum and C. ubiquitum, suggests that zoonotic transmission of these enteropathogens between alpacas and humans is possible.

  7. Isotropic and anisotropic components of neutron emissions at the FN-II and PACO dense plasma focus devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castillo, F.; Herrera, J. J. E.; Rangel, J.; Milanese, M.; Moroso, R.; Pouzo, J.; Golzarri, J. I.; Espinosa, G.

    2003-03-01

    The average angular distribution of neutron emissions has been measured in the Fuego Nuevo II (FN-II) dense plasma focus device (5 kJ) by means of CR-39 plastic nuclear track detectors. When pure deuterium is used as the filling gas, the data can be adjusted to a Gaussian function, related to anisotropic emission, superposed on a constant pedestal, related to isotropic emission. When deuterium-argon admixtures are used, the anisotropic contribution is best represented by a parabola. The same analysis is applied to previously reported results, for fewer shots, in pure deuterium from the PACO device, which is similar in size to the FN-II. In both devices the anisotropic component is smaller than the isotropic one, but with different features. In PACO the anisotropic component is concentrated on a large narrow beam around the axis, but its contribution to the total neutron yield is significantly smaller than in the FN-II, where the anisotropic component spreads over a wider range. The neutron flux per shot is monitored in both devices with calibrated silver activation detectors, at 20° and at 90° from the axis. The average values of the neutron flux at these two angles are used, along with the angular distributions obtained form the track detectors, in order to estimate the absolute neutron yield of both the isotropic and the anisotropic contributions. From examining different groups of shots, it is found that the shape of the angular distribution is important in the estimation of anisotropy, and that the value usually reported, as the ratio of neutron counts head-on and side-on, as measured by activation counters, may be misleading.

  8. Functional Response of Tumor Vasculature to PaCO2: Determination of Total and Microvascular Blood Volume by MRI

    PubMed Central

    Packard, Scott D; Mandeville, Joseph B; Ichikawa, Tomotsugu; Ikeda, Keiro; Terada, Kinya; Niloff, Stephanie; Chiocca, E Antonio; Rosen, Bruce R; Marota, John J A

    2003-01-01

    Abstract In order to identify differences in functional activity, we compared the reactivity of glioma vasculature and the native cerebral vasculature to both dilate and constrict in response to altered PaCO2. Gliomas were generated by unilateral implantation of U87MGdEGFR human glioma tumor cells into the striatum of adult female athymic rats. Relative changes in total and microvascular cerebral blood volume were determined by steady state contrast agent-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging for transitions from normocarbia to hypercarbia and hypocarbia. Although hypercarbia induced a significant increase in both total and microvascular blood volume in normal brain and glioma, reactivity of glioma vasculature was significantly blunted in comparison to normal striatum; glioma total CBV increased by 0.6±0.1% / mm Hg CO2 whereas normal striatum increased by 1.5±0.2%/ mm Hg CO2, (P < .0001, group t-test). Reactivity of microvascular blood volume was also significantly blunted. In contrast, hypocarbia decreased both total and microvascular blood volumes more in glioma than in normal striatum. These results indicate that cerebral blood vessels derived by tumor-directed angiogenesis do retain reactivity to CO2. Furthermore, reduced reactivity of tumor vessels to a single physiological perturbation, such as hypercarbia, should not be construed as a generalized reduction of functional activity of the tumor vascular bed. PMID:14511404

  9. Determination of Schirmer tear test-1 values in clinically normal alpacas (Vicugña pacos) in North America.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Jessica E; Knollinger, Amy M; Dees, Darryl D; MacLaren, Nicole E

    2017-03-14

    To determine the normal reference range for Schirmer tear test-1 (STT-1) values in eyes of healthy alpacas (Vicugña pacos). Complete ophthalmic examinations were performed on forty healthy alpacas (80 eyes). STT-1 values were obtained in both eyes of all alpacas using a commercial STT strip of a single lot number. Data were analyzed, using a doubly repeated measures ANOVA design, Student's paired t-test, and Pearson correlation test, with P ≤ 0.05 considered significant. The STT-1 values ± standard deviation (SD) were 20.80 ± 4.01 mm/min OD, 20.00 ± 4.13 mm/min OS, and 20.88 ± 4.04 mm/min OU (range 15.50-30.50 mm/min). No significant differences in STT-1 were found between OD and OS. STT-1 was not significantly affected by breed. Schirmer tear test-1 values were significantly increased by 3.45 mm/min for every 10 year increase in age. This study provides a reference range of STT-1 in the healthy alpaca which can assist veterinarians in diagnosing potential keratoconjunctivitis sicca, tear film abnormalities, as well as ocular surface diseases in alpacas. © 2017 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  10. Turnover of stable carbon isotopes in the muscle, liver, and breath CO2 of alpacas (Lama pacos).

    PubMed

    Sponheimer, M; Robinson, T F; Cerling, T E; Tegland, L; Roeder, B L; Ayliffe, L; Dearing, M D; Ehleringer, J R

    2006-01-01

    Stable carbon isotope analysis of animal liver and muscle has become a widespread tool for investigating dietary ecology. Nonetheless, stable carbon isotope turnover of these tissues has not been studied in large mammals except with isotopically labelled tracer methodologies, which do not produce carbon half-lives analogous to those derived from naturalistic diet-switch experiments. To address this gap, we studied turnover of carbon isotopes in the liver, muscle, and breath CO2 of alpacas (Lama pacos) by switching them from a C3 grass diet to an isonitrogenous C4 grass diet. Breath samples as well as liver and muscle biopsies were collected and analyzed for up to 72 days to monitor the incorporation of the C4-derived carbon. The data suggest half-lives of 2.8, 37.3, and 178.7 days for alpaca breath CO2, liver, and muscle, respectively. Alpaca liver and muscle carbon half-lives are about 6 times longer than those of gerbils, which is about what would be expected given their size. In contrast, breath CO2 turnover does not scale readily with body mass. We also note that the breath CO2 and liver data are better described using a multiple-pool exponential decay model than a single-pool model. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Isolation and characterization of antigen-specific alpaca (Lama pacos) VHH antibodies by biopanning followed by high-throughput sequencing.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, Nobuo; Kiyose, Norihiko; Akazawa, Yoko; Takashima, Mizuki; Hagihara, Yosihisa; Inoue, Naokazu; Matsuda, Tomonari; Ogawa, Ryu; Inoue, Seiya; Ito, Yuji

    2015-09-01

    The antigen-binding domain of camelid dimeric heavy chain antibodies, known as VHH or Nanobody, has much potential in pharmaceutical and industrial applications. To establish the isolation process of antigen-specific VHH, a VHH phage library was constructed with a diversity of 8.4 × 10(7) from cDNA of peripheral blood mononuclear cells of an alpaca (Lama pacos) immunized with a fragment of IZUMO1 (IZUMO1PFF) as a model antigen. By conventional biopanning, 13 antigen-specific VHHs were isolated. The amino acid sequences of these VHHs, designated as N-group VHHs, were very similar to each other (>93% identity). To find more diverse antibodies, we performed high-throughput sequencing (HTS) of VHH genes. By comparing the frequencies of each sequence between before and after biopanning, we found the sequences whose frequencies were increased by biopanning. The top 100 sequences of them were supplied for phylogenic tree analysis. In total 75% of them belonged to N-group VHHs, but the other were phylogenically apart from N-group VHHs (Non N-group). Two of three VHHs selected from non N-group VHHs showed sufficient antigen binding ability. These results suggested that biopanning followed by HTS provided a useful method for finding minor and diverse antigen-specific clones that could not be identified by conventional biopanning.

  12. Molecular characterization of rotavirus isolated from alpaca (Vicugna pacos) crias with diarrhea in the Andean Region of Cusco, Peru.

    PubMed

    Garmendia, Antonio E; Lopez, Wellington; Ortega, Nastassja; Chamorro, Marycris J

    2015-10-22

    Alpacas (Vicugna pacos), a species of South American camelids (SAC), suffer high morbidity and mortality from infectious diseases. Diarrhea is one of the leading causes of alpaca cria mortality in Peru and elsewhere. In order to develop appropriate control and/or treatment, it is necessary to identify infectious pathogens that cause diarrhea in crias. Rotavirus was isolated in cell culture from feces collected from crias with acute diarrhea that tested positive to rotaviral antigen by rapid immunochromatographic methods in an earlier study. The isolates were identified as rotaviruses by RT-PCR run with specific primers for human rotavirus VP7 coding sequences using total RNA extracted from cells displaying cytopathic effects as template. These alpaca isolates were further identified as group A rotaviruses by means of a VP6-specific PCR and were designated as ALRVA-K'ayra/Perú/3368-10 and ALRVA-K'ayra/Perú/3386-10. Molecular G and P typing, placed the former as G3/P11 and the latter as G3/P?. Sequence analysis of two genome segments (coding for VP4 and VP7) from the alpaca isolates revealed partial homologies to swine and human rotaviruses, respectively. These results demonstrate that rotaviruses are associated with a proportion of cases of diarrhea in crias, although prevalence and impact remain to be determined. The isolation of rotaviruses from alpaca crias with diarrhea will contribute positively to further understand the pathogen and its role in the diarrhea complex.

  13. PRESENCE OF MYCOBACTERIUM AVIUM SUBSP. PARATUBERCULOSIS IN ALPACAS (LAMA PACOS) INHABITING THE CHILEAN ALTIPLANO.

    PubMed

    Salgado, Miguel; Sevilla, Iker; Rios, Carolina; Crossley, Jorge; Tejeda, Carlos; Manning, Elizabeth

    2016-03-01

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the etiologic agent of paratuberculosis. The organism causes disease in both domestically managed and wild ruminant species. South American camelids have a long, shared history with indigenous people in the Andes. Over the last few decades, increasing numbers of alpacas were exported to numerous countries outside South America. No paratuberculosis surveillance has been reported for these source herds. In this study, individual fecal samples from 85 adult alpacas were collected from six separate herds in the Chilean Altiplano. A ParaTB mycobacterial growth indicator tube (MGIT) liquid culture of each individual fecal sample, followed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) protocol was used for confirmation. DNA extracts from a subset of confirmed MAP isolates were subjected to mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units-variable number of tandem repeats (MIRU-VNTR) typing. Fifteen alpaca were fecal culture test-positive. Five false-positive culture samples were negative on PCR analysis for Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium (MAA), Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis), and the 16 S rDNA gene. Three MAP isolates subset-tested belonged to the same MIRU-VNTR type, showing four repeats for TR292 (locus 1) in contrast to the three repeats typical of the MAP reference strain K10. The number of repeats found in the remaining loci was identical to that of the K10 strain. It is not known how nor when MAP was introduced into the alpaca population in the Chilean Altiplano. The most plausible hypothesis to explain the presence of MAP in these indigenous populations is transmission by contact with infected domestic small ruminant species that may on occasion share pastures or range with alpacas. Isolation of this mycobacterial pathogen from such a remote region suggests that MAP has found its way beyond the confines of intensively managed domestic agriculture premises.

  14. The Pasadena Aerosol Characterization Observatory (PACO): chemical and physical analysis of the Western Los Angeles Basin aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hersey, S. P.; Craven, J. S.; Schilling, K. A.; Metcalf, A. R.; Sorooshian, A.; Chan, M. N.; Flagan, R. C.; Seinfeld, J. H.

    2011-02-01

    The Pasadena Aerosol Characterization Observatory (PACO) represents the first major aerosol characterization experiment centered in the Western/Central Los Angeles Basin. The sampling site, located on the campus of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, was positioned to sample a continuous afternoon influx of transported urban aerosol with a photochemical age of 1-2 h and generally free from major local contributions. Sampling spanned 5 months during the summer of 2009, which were broken into 3 regimes on the basis of distinct meteorological conditions. Regime I was characterized by a series of low pressure systems, resulting in high humidity and rainy periods with clean conditions. Regime II typified early summer meteorology, with significant morning marine layers and warm, sunny afternoons. Regime III was characterized by hot, dry conditions with little marine layer influence. Organic aerosol (OA) is the most significant constituent of Los Angeles aerosol (42, 43, and 55% of total submicron mass in regimes I, II, and III, respectively), and that the overall oxidation state remains relatively constant on timescales of days to weeks (O:C = 0.44 ± 0.08, 0.55 ± 0.05, and 0.48 ± 0.08 during regimes I, II, and III, respectively), with no difference in O:C between morning and afternoon periods. Periods characterized by significant morning marine layer influence followed by photochemically favorable afternoons displayed significantly higher aerosol mass and O:C ratio, suggesting that aqueous processes may be important in the generation of secondary aerosol and oxidized organic aerosol (OOA) in Los Angeles. Water soluble organic mass (WSOM) reaches maxima near 14:00-15:00 local time (LT), but the percentage of AMS organic mass contributed by WSOM remains relatively constant throughout the day. Sulfate and nitrate reside predominantly in accumulation mode aerosol, while afternoon SOA production coincides with the appearance of a distinct fine mode

  15. The Pasadena Aerosol Characterization Observatory (PACO): chemical and physical analysis of the Western Los Angeles basin aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hersey, S. P.; Craven, J. S.; Schilling, K. A.; Metcalf, A. R.; Sorooshian, A.; Chan, M. N.; Flagan, R. C.; Seinfeld, J. H.

    2011-08-01

    The Pasadena Aerosol Characterization Observatory (PACO) represents the first major aerosol characterization experiment centered in the Western/Central Los Angeles Basin. The sampling site, located on the campus of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, was positioned to sample a continuous afternoon influx of transported urban aerosol with a photochemical age of 1-2 h and generally free from major local contributions. Sampling spanned 5 months during the summer of 2009, which were broken into 3 regimes on the basis of distinct meteorological conditions. Regime I was characterized by a series of low pressure systems, resulting in high humidity and rainy periods with clean conditions. Regime II typified early summer meteorology, with significant morning marine layers and warm, sunny afternoons. Regime III was characterized by hot, dry conditions with little marine layer influence. Regardless of regime, organic aerosol (OA) is the most significant constituent of nonrefractory submicron Los Angeles aerosol (42, 43, and 55 % of total submicron mass in regimes I, II, and III, respectively). The overall oxidation state remains relatively constant on timescales of days to weeks (O:C = 0.44 ± 0.08, 0.55 ± 0.05, and 0.48 ± 0.08 during regimes I, II, and III, respectively), with no difference in O:C between morning and afternoon periods. Periods characterized by significant morning marine layer influence followed by photochemically favorable afternoons displayed significantly higher aerosol mass and O:C ratio, suggesting that aqueous processes may be important in the generation of secondary aerosol and oxidized organic aerosol (OOA) in Los Angeles. Online analysis of water soluble organic carbon (WSOC) indicates that water soluble organic mass (WSOM) reaches maxima near 14:00-15:00 local time (LT), but the percentage of AMS organic mass contributed by WSOM remains relatively constant throughout the day. Sulfate and nitrate reside predominantly in accumulation

  16. Non-invasive Pregnancy Diagnosis from Urine by the Cuboni Reaction and the Barium Chloride Test in Donkeys (Equus asinus) and Alpacas (Vicugna pacos).

    PubMed

    Kubátová, A; Fedorova, T; Skálová, I; Hyniová, L

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the research was to evaluate two chemical tests for non-invasive pregnancy diagnosis from urine, the Cuboni reaction and the barium chloride test, in donkeys (Equus asinus) and alpacas (Vicugna pacos). The research was carried out from April 2013 to September 2014. Urine samples were collected on five private Czech farms from 18 jennies and 12 alpaca females. Urine was collected non-invasively into plastic cups fastened on a telescopic rod, at 6-9 week intervals. In total, 60 and 54 urine samples from alpacas and jennies, respectively, were collected. The Cuboni reaction was performed by the State Veterinary Institute Prague. The barium chloride test was done with 5 ml of urine mixed together with 5 ml of 1% barium chloride solution. Results of the Cuboni reaction were strongly influenced by the reproductive status of jennies; the test was 100% successful throughout the second half of pregnancy. However, no relationship was found between the real reproductive status of alpaca females and results of the Cuboni reaction. It was concluded that the barium chloride test is not suitable for pregnancy diagnosis either in donkeys, due to significant influence of season on the results, or in alpacas, because no relationship between results of the test and the reproductive status of alpaca females was found. In conclusion, the Cuboni reaction has potential to become a standard pregnancy diagnostic method in donkeys.

  17. Detection of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis by IS900-based PCR assays from an alpaca (Vicugna pacos) kept in a German zoological garden.

    PubMed

    Münster, Pia; Völkel, Inger; von Buchholz, Aloys; Czerny, Claus-Peter

    2013-03-01

    An alpaca (Vicugna pacos) bred and kept in a German zoological garden exhibited clinical signs consistent with paratuberculosis. The presence of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) was confirmed in feces and in the ileocecal lymph node (ILN) by IS900-based polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays and culture. A bacterial burden of 7.6 x 10(6) MAP/g in feces and 4.4 x 10(7) MAP/g in lymph node tissue was determined by real-time PCR. For further characterization, a conventional PCR was developed. After sequencing of the 864-bp PCR amplicon covering nucleotide positions 13 to 876 within the IS900, the alpaca isolate shared 100% nucleotide homology with the bovine MAP-K10 IS900 reference sequence (GenBank: AE16958), indicating a cattle strain. This report supports the present occurrence of MAP in German camelid populations and highlights the need to expand routine MAP surveillance to South American camelids held in European zoos.

  18. Expression and tissue distribution of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and its receptor (c-Met) in alpacas (Vicugna pacos) skins associated with white and brown coat colors.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiuju; He, Xiaoyan; Jiang, Junbing; He, Junping; Fan, Ruiwen; Wang, Haidong; Geng, Jianjun; Dong, Changsheng

    2015-09-01

    Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)/c-Met signaling has been considered as a key pathway in both melanocyte development and melanogenesis. To understand better the expression patterns and tissue distribution characterization of HGF and its receptor c-Met in skin of white versus brown alpaca (Vicugna pacos), we detected the tissue distribution of HGF and c-Met using immunohistochemistry and analyzed the expression patterns by using Western blot and quantitative real time PCR (qPCR). Immunohistochemistry analysis demonstrated that HGF staining robustly increased in the dermal papilla and mesenchymal cells of white alpaca skin compared with that of brown. However, c-Met staining showed strongly positive result, particularly inhair matrix and root sheath in brown alpaca skin. Western blot and qPCR results suggested that HGF and c-Met were expressed at significantly high levels in white and brown alpaca skins, respectively, and protein and transcripts possessed the same expression pattern in white and brown alpaca skins. The results suggested that HGF/c-Met signaling functions in alpaca coat color formation offer essential theoretical basis for further exploration of the role of HGF/c-Met signaling in pigment formation.

  19. Molecular cloning, mRNA expression and tissue distribution analysis of Slc7a11 gene in alpaca (Lama paco) skins associated with different coat colors.

    PubMed

    Tian, Xue; Meng, Xiaolin; Wang, Liangyan; Song, Yunfei; Zhang, Danli; Ji, Yuankai; Li, Xuejun; Dong, Changsheng

    2015-01-25

    Slc7a11 encoding solute carrier family 7 member 11 (amionic amino acid transporter light chain, xCT), has been identified to be a critical genetic regulator of pheomelanin synthesis in hair and melanocytes. To better understand the molecular characterization of Slc7a11 and the expression patterns in skin of white versus brown alpaca (lama paco), we cloned the full length coding sequence (CDS) of alpaca Slc7a11 gene and analyzed the expression patterns using Real Time PCR, Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. The full length CDS of 1512bp encodes a 503 amino acid polypeptide. Sequence analysis showed that alpaca xCT contains 12 transmembrane regions consistent with the highly conserved amino acid permease (AA_permease_2) domain similar to other vertebrates. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis revealed that alpaca xCT had the highest identity and shared the same branch with Camelus ferus. Real Time PCR and Western blotting suggested that xCT was expressed at significantly high levels in brown alpaca skin, and transcripts and protein possessed the same expression pattern in white and brown alpaca skins. Additionally, immunohistochemical analysis further demonstrated that xCT staining was robustly increased in the matrix and root sheath of brown alpaca skin compared with that of white. These results suggest that Slc7a11 functions in alpaca coat color regulation and offer essential information for further exploration on the role of Slc7a11 in melanogenesis.

  20. Mapping of tyrosine hydroxylase in the diencephalon of alpaca (Lama pacos) and co-distribution with somatostatin-28 (1-12).

    PubMed

    Marcos, P; Arroyo-Jiménez, M M; Lozano, G; González-Fuentes, J; Lagartos-Donate, M J; Aguilar, L A; Coveñas, R

    2013-05-01

    Based on previous work describing the distribution of somatostatin-28 (1-12) in the male alpaca (Lama pacos) diencephalon, and owing to the well known interactions between this peptide and the catecholaminergic system, the aims of this work are (1) to describe the distribution of putative catecholaminergic cell groups in the alpaca diencephalon and (2) to study the possible morphological basis of the interactions between these substances in the diencephalon of the alpaca by using double immunohistochemistry methods. Thus, the distribution of catecholaminergic cell groups in the alpaca diencephalon agrees with that previously described in the diencephalon of other mammalian species of the same order: the A11, A12, A13, A14 and A15d cell groups have been identified; however, we have observed an additional hitherto undescribed cell group containing tyrosine hydroxylase in the medial habenula. In addition, double-labelling procedures did not reveal neurons containing tyrosine hydroxylase and somatostatin, suggesting that the hypothalamic interactions between catecholamines and somatostatin at intra-cellular level must be carried out by a somatostatin molecule other than fragment (1-12). Otherwise, the overlapping distribution patterns of these substances would suggest some interconnections between groups of chemospecific neurons. These results could be the starting point for future studies on hypothalamic functions in alpacas, for example those concerning reproductive control, since other physiological studies have suggested that this species could have different regulatory mechanisms from other mammalian species. Our results support the Manger hypothesis that the same nuclear complement of neural systems exists in the brain of species of the same order.

  1. Presence, distribution and steroidogenic effect of the peptides orexin A and receptor 1 for orexins in the testis of the South American camelid alpaca (Vicugna pacos).

    PubMed

    Liguori, Giovanna; Assisi, Loredana; Squillacioti, Caterina; Paino, Salvatore; Mirabella, Nicola; Vittoria, Alfredo

    2012-10-01

    The orexins A (oxA) and B are peptides discovered in the rat hypothalamus and successively found in some peripheral organs of the mammalian body. They binds two protein G-coupled receptors defined receptor 1 (ox1r) and 2 for orexins, the first of which is highly specific for oxA while the second binds both the peptides with equal affinity. This work aimed to detect the presence of oxA and ox1r in the testis of the South American camelid alpaca (Vicugna pacos) and investigate the role played by them on Leydig cell steroidogenesis. The species alpaca acquired, in the last years, increasing zootechnical interest for the quality of the wool produced and its breeding spread from the country of origin to USA, Australia and Europe. Immunohistochemistry allowed us to detect oxA in Leydig and Sertoli cells, spermatogonia, resting spermatocytes, round and oval spermatids. Ox1r-immunoreactivity was found in Leydig cells and round, oval and elongated spermatids. The expression of the two peptides in tissue extracts was established by using Western blotting technique. Such results demonstrated that in the alpaca testis exists in a cellular complex able to produce and/or internalize oxA. Finally, the effect of oxA on steroidogenesis was investigated by means of in vitro cultured thin testis slices which were added with oxA or/and Müllerian Inhibiting Substance (MIS), a steroidolitic agent basally produced by the Sertoli cell. OxA evoked increase of testosterone production while MIS a decrease. The consecutive addition of oxA and MIS, or vice versa, highlighted an antagonistic interplay between the two substances which has been thought to be the main molecular event at the basis of the oxA-stimulated steroidogenesis mechanism.

  2. Comparison of intraocular pressure measurements using rebound (TonoVet(®) ) and applanation (TonoPen-XL(®) ) tonometry in clinically normal alpacas (Vicugña pacos).

    PubMed

    McDonald, Jessica E; Knollinger, Amy M; Dustin Dees, D; MacLaren, Nicole E

    2017-03-01

    To evaluate intraocular pressure (IOP) estimates in eyes of healthy alpacas (Vicugña pacos) using rebound (TonoVet(®) ) in comparison with applanation (TonoPen-XL(®) ) tonometry. Complete ophthalmic examinations were performed on forty healthy alpacas (80 eyes). IOP measurements using both TonoVet(®) and TonoPen-XL(®) tonometers were obtained OU. Data were analyzed, using a doubly repeated-measures anova design and Student's paired t-test, with P ≤ 0.05 considered significant. The mean IOP values ±SD via rebound tonometry were 14.20 mm ± 2.58 mm OD, 14.22 mm ± 2.90 mm OS, and 14.21 ± 2.73 mmHg OU (range 8.67-20.67 mmHg). The IOP values ±SD via applanation tonometry were 12.49 ± 2.81 mmHg OD, 12.53 ± 2.79 mmHg OS, and 12.51 ± 2.78 mmHg OU (range 6.00-19.33 mmHg). There was a significant difference (P = 0.002) in the IOP obtained between the tonometers, with the rebound tonometer having a 1.7 mmHg (0.69-2.71 mmHg, 95% confidence interval (CI)) higher IOP compared to the applanation tonometer. No significant differences in IOP were found between OD and OS. Age, gender, and breed did not significantly affect IOP values. IOP readings from the rebound tonometer were statistically higher than those from the applanation tonometer; however, this is not considered clinically significant. The accuracy of rebound tonometry in diseased alpaca eyes remains to be determined. © 2016 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  3. Sarcocystis masoni, n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Sarcocystidae), and redescription of Sarcocystis aucheniae from llama (Lama glama), guanaco (Lama guanicoe) and alpaca (Vicugna pacos).

    PubMed

    Moré, Gastón; Regensburger, Cristian; Gos, M Laura; Pardini, Lais; Verma, Shiv K; Ctibor, Juliana; Serrano-Martínez, Marcos Enrique; Dubey, Jitender P; Venturini, M Cecilia

    2016-04-01

    There is considerable confusion concerning the species of Sarcocystis in South American camelids (SAC). Several species names have been used; however, proper descriptions are lacking. In the present paper, we redescribe the macroscopic sarcocyst forming Sarcocystis aucheniae and describe and propose a new name, Sarcocystis masoni for the microscopic sarcocyst forming species. Muscles samples were obtained from llamas (Lama glama) and guanacos (Lama guanicoe) from Argentina and from alpacas (Vicugna pacos) and llamas from Peru. Individual sarcocysts were processed by optical and electron microscopy, and molecular studies. Microscopic sarcocysts of S. masoni were up to 800 µm long and 35-95 µm wide, the sarcocyst wall was 2·5-3·5 µm thick, and had conical to cylindrical villar protrusions (vp) with several microtubules. Each vp had 11 or more rows of knob-like projections. Seven 18S rRNA gene sequences obtained from sarcocysts revealed 95-96% identity with other Sarcocystis spp. sequences reported in the GenBank. Sarcocysts of S. aucheniae were macroscopic, up to 1·2 cm long and surrounded by a dense and laminar 50 µm thick secondary cyst wall. The sarcocyst wall was up to 10 µm thick, and had branched vp, appearing like cauliflower. Comparison of the 11 sequences obtained from individual macroscopic cysts evidenced a 98-99% of sequence homology with other S. aucheniae sequences. In conclusion, 2 morphologically and molecularly different Sarcocystis species, S. masoni (microscopic cysts) and S. aucheniae (macroscopic cysts), were identified affecting different SAC from Argentina and Peru.

  4. PaCO2 and alveolar dead space are more relevant than PaO2/FiO2 ratio in monitoring the respiratory response to prone position in ARDS patients: a physiological study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Our aims in this study were to report changes in the ratio of alveolar dead space to tidal volume (VDalv/VT) in the prone position (PP) and to test whether changes in partial pressure of arterial CO2 (PaCO2) may be more relevant than changes in the ratio of partial pressure of arterial O2 to fraction of inspired O2 (PaO2/FiO2) in defining the respiratory response to PP. We also aimed to validate a recently proposed method of estimation of the physiological dead space (VDphysiol/VT) without measurement of expired CO2. Methods Thirteen patients with a PaO2/FiO2 ratio < 100 mmHg were included in the study. Plateau pressure (Pplat), positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP), blood gas analysis and expiratory CO2 were recorded with patients in the supine position and after 3, 6, 9, 12 and 15 hours in the PP. Responders to PP were defined after 15 hours of PP either by an increase in PaO2/FiO2 ratio > 20 mmHg or by a decrease in PaCO2 > 2 mmHg. Estimated and measured VDphysiol/VT ratios were compared. Results PP induced a decrease in Pplat, PaCO2 and VDalv/VT ratio and increases in PaO2/FiO2 ratios and compliance of the respiratory system (Crs). Maximal changes were observed after six to nine hours. Changes in VDalv/VT were correlated with changes in Crs, but not with changes in PaO2/FiO2 ratios. When the response was defined by PaO2/FiO2 ratio, no significant differences in Pplat, PaCO2 or VDalv/VT alterations between responders (n = 7) and nonresponders (n = 6) were observed. When the response was defined by PaCO2, four patients were differently classified, and responders (n = 7) had a greater decrease in VDalv/VT ratio and in Pplat and a greater increase in PaO2/FiO2 ratio and in Crs than nonresponders (n = 6). Estimated VDphysiol/VT ratios significantly underestimated measured VDphysiol/VT ratios (concordance correlation coefficient 0.19 (interquartile ranges 0.091 to 0.28)), whereas changes during PP were more reliable (concordance correlation coefficient

  5. Changes in blood hemoglobin and blood gases PaO2 and PaCO2 in severe COPD overa three-year telemonitored program of long-term oxygen treatment.

    PubMed

    Dal Negro, Roberto W; Tognella, Silvia; Bonadiman, Luca; Turco, Paola

    2012-07-17

    Information on the effects of long-term oxygen treatment (LTOT) on blood hemoglobin (Hb) in severe COPD are limited. The aim was to assess blood Hb values in severe COPD, and investigate the time-course of both Hb and blood gas changes during a 3-year telemetric LTOT. A cohort of 132 severe COPD patients (94 males; 71.4 years ± 8.8 sd), newly admitted to the tele-LTOT program, was investigated. Subjects were divided according to their original blood Hb: group A: <13 g/dL; group B: ≥13 < 15 g/dL; group C: ≥ 5 < 16 g/dL; group D: ≥16 g/dL. Blood Hb (g/dL), PaO2 and PaCO2 (mmHg), SaO2 (%), and BMI were measured at LTOT admission (t0), and at least quarterly over three years (t1-t3). Wilcoxon test was used to compare t0 vs. t1 values; linear regression to assess a possible Hb-BMI relationship; ANOVA to compare changes in Hb time-courses over the 3 years. LTOT induced a systematic increase of PaO2, and changes were significant since the first year (from 52.1 mmHg ± 6.6sd to 65.1 mmHg ± 8.7 sd, p < 0.001). Changes in SaO2 were quite similar. Comparable and equally significant trends were seen in all subgroups (p < 0.001). PaCO2 dropped within the first year of LTOT (from 49.4 mmHg ± 9.1sd to 45.9 mmHg ±7.5 sd, p < 0.001): the t0-t1 comparison proved significant (p < 0.01) only in subgroups with the highest basal Hb, who showed a further PaCO2 decline over the remaining two years (p < 0.001). Hb tended to normalization during LTOT only in subgroups with basal Hb > 15 g/dl (ANOVA p < 0.001); anemic subjects (Hb < 13 g/dl) ameliorated not significantly in the same period (ANOVA = 0.5). Survival was independent of the original blood Hb. Anemia and polyglobulia are differently prevalent in COPD, the latter being the most represented in our cohort. LTOT affected both conditions, but to a different extent and according to different time-courses. The most striking Hb improvement

  6. Histological, histochemical and fine structure studies of the lacrimal gland and superficial gland of the third eyelid and their significance on the proper function of the eyeball in alpaca (Vicugna pacos).

    PubMed

    Klećkowska-Nawrot, J; Nowaczyk, R; Goździewska-Harłajczuk, K; Krasucki, K; Janeczek, M

    2015-01-01

    The lacrimal gland (LG) and superficial gland of the third eyelid (SGTE) belong to accessory organs of the eye. The aim of the present studies was to evaluate the histological, histochemical and fine structure of the LG and SGTE obtained from 3 adult females and 2 adult males of alpaca (Vicugna pacos). The LG was situated in the dorsolateral angle of the orbit between the dorsal rectus and the lateral rectus muscles. The SGTE was located between the medial rectus muscle, the ventral rectus muscle and was partially covered by the ventral oblique muscle of the eyeball. There were no effect of gender on the morphometry of examined LG and SGTE. The third eyelid resembles an anchor in shape. During histological and ultrastructural analyses using light and transmission electron microscopy, it was established that the LG and SGTE are tubulo-acinar glands with mucoserous characters. The LG contains either lymphocytes or plasma cells, while SGTE had rare plasma cells and numerous lymphocytes in connective tissue. The cartilage of the third eyelid was composed of hyaline tissue. Numerous aggregations of lymphocytes as lymph nodules in bulbar surface of the third eyelid were observed. The LG and SGTE secretory cells exhibited a similar ultrastructure appearance in electron microscopic examination, with secretory cells tightly filled with intracytoplasmatic secretory granules and numerous clusters of mucus of different sizes which were observed in the peripheral cells compartment.

  7. Vγ9 and Vδ2 T cell antigen receptor genes and butyrophilin 3 (BTN3) emerged with placental mammals and are concomitantly preserved in selected species like alpaca (Vicugna pacos).

    PubMed

    Karunakaran, Mohindar M; Göbel, Thomas W; Starick, Lisa; Walter, Lutz; Herrmann, Thomas

    2014-04-01

    Human Vγ9Vδ2 T cells recognize phosphorylated products of isoprenoid metabolism (phosphoantigens) PAg with TCR comprising Vγ9JP γ-chains and Vδ2 δ-chains dependent on butyrophilin 3 (BTN3) expressed by antigen-presenting cells. They are massively activated in many infections and show anti-tumor activity and so far, they have been considered to exist only in higher primates. We performed a comprehensive analysis of databases and identified the three genes in species of both placental magnorders, but not in rodents. The common occurrence or loss of in silico translatable Vγ9, Vδ2, and BTN3 genes suggested their co-evolution based on a functional relationship. In the peripheral lymphocytes of alpaca (Vicugna pacos), characteristic Vγ9JP rearrangements and in-frame Vδ2 rearrangements were found and could be co-expressed in a TCR-negative mouse T cell hybridoma where they rescued CD3 expression and function. Finally, database sequence analysis of the extracellular domain of alpaca BTN3 revealed complete conservation of proposed PAg binding residues of human BTN3A1. In summary, we show emergence and preservation of Vγ9 and Vδ2 TCR genes with the gene of the putative antigen-presenting molecule BTN3 in placental mammals and lay the ground for analysis of alpaca as candidate for a first non-primate species to possess Vγ9Vδ2 T cells.

  8. ParaDIS_lib

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, Richard D.

    2016-05-25

    The ParaDIS_lib software is a project that is funded by the DOE ASC Program. Its purpose is to provide visualization and analysis capabilities for the existing ParaDIS parallel dislocation dynamics simulation code.

  9. Tiempo para un cambio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woltjer, L.

    1987-06-01

    En la reunion celebrada en diciembre dei ano pasado informe al Consejo de mi deseo de terminar mi contrato como Director General de la ESO una vez que fuera aprobado el proyecto dei VLT, que se espera sucedera hacia fines de este aAo. Cuando fue renovada mi designacion hace tres aAos, el Consejo conocia mi intencion de no completar los cinco aAos dei contrato debido a mi deseo de disponer de mas tiempo para otras actividades. Ahora, una vez terminada la fase preparatoria para el VLT, Y habiendose presentado el proyecto formalmente al Consejo el dia 31 de marzo, y esperando su muy probable aprobacion antes dei termino de este ano, me parece que el 10 de enero de 1988 presenta una excelente fecha para que se produzca un cambio en la administracion de la ESO.

  10. Radial Velocities with PARAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Arpita; Mahadevan, S.; Chakraborty, A.; Pathan, F. M.; Anandarao, B. G.

    2010-01-01

    The Physical Research Laboratory Advanced Radial-velocity All-sky Search (PARAS) is an efficient fiber-fed cross-dispersed high-resolution echelle spectrograph that will see first light in early 2010. This instrument is being built at the Physical Research laboratory (PRL) and will be attached to the 1.2m telescope at Gurushikhar Observatory at Mt. Abu, India. PARAS has a single-shot wavelength coverage of 370nm to 850nm at a spectral resolution of R 70000 and will be housed in a vacuum chamber (at 1x10-2 mbar pressure) in a highly temperature controlled environment. This renders the spectrograph extremely suitable for exoplanet searches with high velocity precision using the simultaneous Thorium-Argon wavelength calibration method. We are in the process of developing an automated data analysis pipeline for echelle data reduction and precise radial velocity extraction based on the REDUCE package of Piskunov & Valenti (2002), which is especially careful in dealing with CCD defects, extraneous noise, and cosmic ray spikes. Here we discuss the current status of the PARAS project and details and tests of the data analysis procedure, as well as results from ongoing PARAS commissioning activities.

  11. Multifrequency polarimetry of a complete sample of PACO radio sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galluzzi, V.; Massardi, M.; Bonaldi, A.; Casasola, V.; Gregorini, L.; Trombetti, T.; Burigana, C.; De Zotti, G.; Ricci, R.; Stevens, J.; Ekers, R. D.; Bonavera, L.; di Serego Alighieri, S.; Liuzzo, E.; López-Caniego, M.; Mignano, A.; Paladino, R.; Toffolatti, L.; Tucci, M.

    2017-03-01

    We present high-sensitivity polarimetric observations (σP ≃0.6 mJy) in six bands covering the 5.5-38 GHz range of a complete sample of 53 compact extragalactic radio sources brighter than 200 mJy at 20 GHz. The observations, carried out with the Australia Telescope Compact Array, achieved a 91 per cent detection rate (at 5σ). Within this frequency range, the spectra of about 95 per cent of sources are well fitted by double power laws, both in total intensity and in polarization, but the spectral shapes are generally different in the two cases. Most sources were classified as either steep- or peaked-spectrum but less than 50 per cent have the same classification in total and in polarized intensity. No significant trends of the polarization degree with flux density or with frequency were found. The mean variability index in total intensity of steep-spectrum sources increases with frequency for a 4-5 yr lag, while no significant trend shows up for the other sources and for the 8 yr lag. In polarization, the variability index, which could be computed only for the 8 yr lag, is substantially higher than in total intensity and has no significant frequency dependence.

  12. Metastatic Malignant Melanoma in an alpaca (Vicugna pacos)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Malignant melanoma in a 7-year old, intact male alpaca with a chronic, non-healing wound on the left nares, weight loss and inappetance is described. Malignant melanoma was diagnosed in punch biopsy specimens from a mass on the maxilla associated with the non-healing wound and from a mass in the su...

  13. Pathophysiology of penetrating captive bolt stunning in Alpacas (Vicugna pacos).

    PubMed

    Gibson, Troy J; Whitehead, Claire; Taylor, Rebecca; Sykes, Olivia; Chancellor, Natalie M; Limon, Georgina

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the behavioural and cranial/spinal responses of alpacas culled by captive bolt shooting and the resulting pathophysiology of captive bolt injury. Ninety-six alpacas were shot (103 shots) in a range of locations with a penetrating captive bolt gun (CBG). Ten (9.8%) alpacas were incompletely concussed following the first shot. No animals required more than two shots. Incorrectly placed shots accounted for all of the animals that displayed signs of sensibility. Damage to the thalamus, hypothalamus, midbrain, medulla, cerebellum, parietal and occipital lobes were significantly associated with decreasing odds of incomplete concussion. In conclusion, the study confirmed that CBG stunning can induce insensibility in alpacas and suggests that the top of the head (crown) position maximises damage to structures of the thalamus and brainstem.

  14. Tuberculosis in Alpacas (Lama pacos) Caused by Mycobacterium bovis▿

    PubMed Central

    García-Bocanegra, I.; Barranco, I.; Rodríguez-Gómez, I. M.; Pérez, B.; Gómez-Laguna, J.; Rodríguez, S.; Ruiz-Villamayor, E.; Perea, A.

    2010-01-01

    We report three cases of tuberculosis in alpacas from Spain caused by Mycobacterium bovis. The animals revealed two different lesional patterns. Mycobacterial culture and PCR assay yielded positive results for M. bovis. Molecular typing of the isolates identified spoligotype SB0295 and identical variable-number tandem repeat (VNTR) allele sizes. PMID:20237097

  15. Characterization of paneth cells in alpacas (Vicugna pacos, Mammalia, Camelidae).

    PubMed

    Vásquez, María; Lira, Boris; Rodríguez, José; Falcón, Néstor; Ocampo, Jorge; Nishida, Fabián; Barbeito, Claudio; Zanuzzi, Carolina

    2016-08-01

    Paneth cells are secretory epithelial cells of the innate immune system of the intestine of several mammals, including alpacas. Little is known about the latter; thus, in the present study we described the morphology and histochemical characteristics of Paneth cells in healthy fetuses, and young and adult alpacas. For this purpose, samples of duodenum, jejunum and ileum were taken from 6 fetuses at different days of pregnancy (between days 221-330), 66 offsprings (between 0 and 45-days-old) and 5 adult alpacas (>2-years-old). Samples were fixed in 10% buffered formalin and processed for histological and morphometrical analysis using HE and Masson Trichomićs technique. Immunohistochemistry was used to identify Paneth cells using anti-lysozyme antibody. In addition, the lectinhistochemichal binding-pattern of Paneth celĺs granules was evaluated. Lyzozyme was immunohistochemically detected in the granules of Paneth cells from day 283 of pregnancy in all the small intestinal sections of the studied fetuses. In newborn alpacas Paneth cells were initially found in the duodenum, but the following days (days 18-21 after birth) they were also found in the ileum. Their size gradually increased after birth, but then no significant differences were found. In adult alpacas the number was lower than offsprings. We suggest that Paneth cells early differentiate in the small intestine of alpacas, and the increase in their number during the first two weeks of life strongly support their possible involvement in the intestinal defensive functions against the enteric diseases that occur during the lactancy stage.

  16. Tuberculosis in alpacas (Lama pacos) caused by Mycobacterium bovis.

    PubMed

    García-Bocanegra, I; Barranco, I; Rodríguez-Gómez, I M; Pérez, B; Gómez-Laguna, J; Rodríguez, S; Ruiz-Villamayor, E; Perea, A

    2010-05-01

    We report three cases of tuberculosis in alpacas from Spain caused by Mycobacterium bovis. The animals revealed two different lesional patterns. Mycobacterial culture and PCR assay yielded positive results for M. bovis. Molecular typing of the isolates identified spoligotype SB0295 and identical variable-number tandem repeat (VNTR) allele sizes.

  17. Anthelmintic resistance in a herd of alpacas (Vicugna pacos)

    PubMed Central

    Galvan, Noe; Middleton, John R.; Nagy, Dusty W.; Schultz, Loren G.; Schaeffer, Josh W.

    2012-01-01

    A herd of alpacas was examined because of a history of severe endoparasitism, anemia, hypoproteinemia, and weight loss. Resistance of gastrointestinal nematodes to albendazole, fenbendazole, and doramectin was documented. This report suggests that anthelmintic resistance may be an emerging problem in South American camelids in North America. PMID:23729829

  18. Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis liver abscess in a mature alpaca (Lama pacos)

    PubMed Central

    Sprake, Philippa; Gold, Jenifer R.

    2012-01-01

    A mature female alpaca was evaluated for weight loss and a 10-day history of anorexia, diarrhea, abdominal distension, and ventral edema. Ultrasonography revealed a hepatic mass, culture of which identified Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis. This is the first reported case of an internal caseous lymphadenitis lesion resulting in clinical disease in a camelid. PMID:23024384

  19. Factors affecting in vitro maturation of alpaca (Lama paco) oocytes.

    PubMed

    Leisinger, Ca; Coffman, Ea; Coutinho da Silva, Ma; Forshey, Bs; Pinto, Crf

    2014-11-10

    The present study utilized a 2×2×2 factorial design examining age (old vs. young), follicle size (≥2mm vs. <2mm) and media supplementation (with or without fetal bovine serum [FBS]) to determine factors that might affect in vitro maturation of alpaca oocytes. We hypothesized that oocytes collected from follicles ≥2mm from young alpacas and incubated in maturation media supplemented with FBS would have greater maturation rates than those incubated in any other factorial combination. Oocytes were collected from the ovaries of 11 young alpacas (<10 years old) and 14 old alpacas (>11 years old). Oocytes were classified as morphologically normal oocytes (MNO) and deemed suitable for incubation if ≥3 compact layers of cumulus cells and a homogeneous, evenly granulated cytoplasm were observed. Oocytes from each group of follicle sizes were incubated separately and halves of each group were randomly divided and incubated 24h in chemically defined maturation media with or without 10% FBS. Maturation was defined as the visualization of a polar body at the end of the incubation period. Overall, a greater proportion of MNO were collected from follicles ≥2mm than that obtained from smaller follicles, 55% (136/247) vs. 29.6% (162/547), respectively (P<0.05). A greater proportion of oocytes reached maturation when collected from ≥2mm follicles 36% (49/136) than from <2mm follicles 8% (13/162) (P<0.05). For oocytes obtained from ≥2mm follicles of old alpacas, a greater proportion reached maturation when incubated in media supplemented with FBS than when incubated without FBS; 57.6% (19/33) vs. 18.2% (6/33), respectively (P<0.05).

  20. Planar Para Algebras, Reflection Positivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaffe, Arthur; Liu, Zhengwei

    2017-05-01

    We define a planar para algebra, which arises naturally from combining planar algebras with the idea of ZN para symmetry in physics. A subfactor planar para algebra is a Hilbert space representation of planar tangles with parafermionic defects that are invariant under para isotopy. For each ZN, we construct a family of subfactor planar para algebras that play the role of Temperley-Lieb-Jones planar algebras. The first example in this family is the parafermion planar para algebra (PAPPA). Based on this example, we introduce parafermion Pauli matrices, quaternion relations, and braided relations for parafermion algebras, which one can use in the study of quantum information. An important ingredient in planar para algebra theory is the string Fourier transform (SFT), which we use on the matrix algebra generated by the Pauli matrices. Two different reflections play an important role in the theory of planar para algebras. One is the adjoint operator; the other is the modular conjugation in Tomita-Takesaki theory. We use the latter one to define the double algebra and to introduce reflection positivity. We give a new and geometric proof of reflection positivity by relating the two reflections through the string Fourier transform.

  1. Mensaje para alumnos y padres

    NASA Image and Video Library

    El astronauta de la NASA José Hernández alienta a los estudiantes a que sigan sus sueños. Hernández también habla acerca del papel que juegan los padres para ayudar a que sus hijos hagan realidad s...

  2. Programa de conservacion para aves migratorias neotropicales

    Treesearch

    Deborah Finch; Marcia Wilson; Roberto Roca

    1992-01-01

    Mas de 250 especies de aves terrestres migran a Norte America durante la epoca reproductiva para aprovechar los sistemas templados. No obstante, las aves migratorias neotropicales pasan la mayor parte de su ciclo de vida en los habitat tropicales y subtropicales de paises latinoamericanos y caribefios donde viven en una asociacion cercana con las aves residentes. Para...

  3. Functional Expression of Drosophila para Sodium Channels

    PubMed Central

    Warmke, Jeffrey W.; Reenan, Robert A.G.; Wang, Peiyi; Qian, Su; Arena, Joseph P.; Wang, Jixin; Wunderler, Denise; Liu, Ken; Kaczorowski, Gregory J.; Ploeg, Lex H.T. Van der; Ganetzky, Barry; Cohen, Charles J.

    1997-01-01

    The Drosophila para sodium channel α subunit was expressed in Xenopus oocytes alone and in combination with tipE, a putative Drosophila sodium channel accessory subunit. Coexpression of tipE with para results in elevated levels of sodium currents and accelerated current decay. Para/TipE sodium channels have biophysical and pharmacological properties similar to those of native channels. However, the pharmacology of these channels differs from that of vertebrate sodium channels: (a) toxin II from Anemonia sulcata, which slows inactivation, binds to Para and some mammalian sodium channels with similar affinity (Kd ≅ 10 nM), but this toxin causes a 100-fold greater decrease in the rate of inactivation of Para/TipE than of mammalian channels; (b) Para sodium channels are >10-fold more sensitive to block by tetrodotoxin; and (c) modification by the pyrethroid insecticide permethrin is >100-fold more potent for Para than for rat brain type IIA sodium channels. Our results suggest that the selective toxicity of pyrethroid insecticides is due at least in part to the greater affinity of pyrethroids for insect sodium channels than for mammalian sodium channels. PMID:9236205

  4. Using ParaPost Tenax fiberglass and ParaCore build-up material to restore severely damaged teeth.

    PubMed

    Caicedo, Ricardo; Castellon, Paulino

    2005-01-01

    This article describes a technique using ParaPost Tenax Fiber White, ParaPost Cement, and ParaPost ParaCore build-up material to restore a tooth with a significant loss of tooth structure. After successful root canal therapy, the posts were bonded in the canals and the core was built using ParaPost ParaCore build-up material. At that point, the tooth was prepared to receive a conventional porcelain-fused-to-metal crown.

  5. Calcineurin hydrolysis of para-nitrophenyl phosphorothioate.

    PubMed

    Spannaus-Martin, Donna J; Martin, Bruce L

    2004-04-01

    para-Nitrophenyl phosphorothioate (pNPT) was hydrolyzed by calcineurin at initial rates slightly, but comparable to rates for para-nitrophenyl phosphate (pNPP). Kinetic characterization yielded higher estimates for both Km and Vmax compared to pNPP. Metal ion activation of phosphorothioate hydrolysis was more promiscuous. Unlike the hydrolysis of with pNPP, Ca2+, Mg2+, and Ba2+ activated calcineurin as well as Mn2+.

  6. The para-HK/QK correspondence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyckmanns, Malte; Vaughan, Owen

    2017-06-01

    We generalise the hyper-Kähler/quaternionic Kähler (HK/QK) correspondence to include para-geometries, and present a new concise proof that the target manifold of the HK/QK correspondence is quaternionic Kähler. As an application, we construct one-parameter deformations of the temporal and Euclidean supergravity c-map metrics and show that they are para-quaternionic Kähler.

  7. Process for para-ethyltoluene dehydrogenation

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, C.C.

    1986-06-03

    A process is described of dehydrogenating para-ethyltoluene to selectively form para-methylstyrene comprising contacting to para-ethyltoluene under dehydrogenation reaction conditions with a catalyst composition comprising: (a) from about 30% to 60% by weight of iron oxide, calculated as ferric oxide; (b) from about 13% to 48% by weight of a potassium compound, calculated as potassium oxide; and (c) from about 0% to 5% by weight of a chromium compound, calculated as chromic oxide. The improvement is described comprising dehydrogenating the para-ethyltoluene with a catalyst composition comprising, in addition to the components (a), (b) and (c), a modifying component (d) capable of rendering the para-methylstyrene-containing dehydrogenation reaction effluent especially resistant to the subsequent formation of popcorn polymers when the dehydrogenation of para-ethyltoluene is conducted over the modified catalyst, the modifying component (d) being a bismuth compound present to the extent of from about 1% to 20% by weight of the catalyst composition, calculated as bismuth trioxide.

  8. A note on para-holomorphic Riemannian-Einstein manifolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ida, Cristian; Ionescu, Alexandru; Manea, Adelina

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this note is the study of Einstein condition for para-holomorphic Riemannian metrics in the para-complex geometry framework. First, we make some general considerations about para-complex Riemannian manifolds (not necessarily para-holomorphic). Next, using a one-to-one correspondence between para-holomorphic Riemannian metrics and para-Kähler-Norden metrics, we study the Einstein condition for a para-holomorphic Riemannian metric and the associated real para-Kähler-Norden metric on a para-complex manifold. Finally, it is shown that every semi-simple para-complex Lie group inherits a natural para-Kählerian-Norden Einstein metric.

  9. The ParaScope parallel programming environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Keith D.; Hall, Mary W.; Hood, Robert T.; Kennedy, Ken; Mckinley, Kathryn S.; Mellor-Crummey, John M.; Torczon, Linda; Warren, Scott K.

    1993-01-01

    The ParaScope parallel programming environment, developed to support scientific programming of shared-memory multiprocessors, includes a collection of tools that use global program analysis to help users develop and debug parallel programs. This paper focuses on ParaScope's compilation system, its parallel program editor, and its parallel debugging system. The compilation system extends the traditional single-procedure compiler by providing a mechanism for managing the compilation of complete programs. Thus, ParaScope can support both traditional single-procedure optimization and optimization across procedure boundaries. The ParaScope editor brings both compiler analysis and user expertise to bear on program parallelization. It assists the knowledgeable user by displaying and managing analysis and by providing a variety of interactive program transformations that are effective in exposing parallelism. The debugging system detects and reports timing-dependent errors, called data races, in execution of parallel programs. The system combines static analysis, program instrumentation, and run-time reporting to provide a mechanical system for isolating errors in parallel program executions. Finally, we describe a new project to extend ParaScope to support programming in FORTRAN D, a machine-independent parallel programming language intended for use with both distributed-memory and shared-memory parallel computers.

  10. Ortho-para-hydrogen equilibration on Jupiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, Barbara E.; Lacis, Andrew A.; Rossow, William B.

    1992-01-01

    Voyager IRIS observations reveal that the Jovian para-hydrogen fraction is not in thermodynamic equilibrium near the NH3 cloud top, implying that a vertical gradient exists between the high-temperature equilibrium value of 0.25 at depth and the cloud top values. The height-dependent para-hydrogen profile is obtained using an anisotropic multiple-scattering radiative transfer model. A vertical correlation is found to exist between the location of the para-hydrogen gradient and the NH3 cloud, strongly suggesting that paramagnetic conversion on NH3 cloud particle surfaces is the dominant equilibration mechanism. Below the NH3 cloud layer, the para fraction is constant with depth and equal to the high-temperature equilibrium value of 0.25. The degree of cloud-top equilibration appears to depend on the optical depth of the NH3 cloud layer. Belt-zone variations in the para-hydrogen profile seem to be due to differences in the strength of the vertical mixing.

  11. Para-methylstyrene from toluene and acetaldehyde

    SciTech Connect

    Innes, R.A.; Occelli, M.L.

    1984-08-01

    High yields of para-methylstyrene (PMS) were obtained in this study by coupling toluene and acetaldehyde then cracking the resultant 1,1-ditolylethane (DTE) to give equimolar amounts of PMS and toluene. In the first step, a total DTE and ''trimer'' yield of 98% on toluene and 93% on acetaldehyde was obtained using 98% sulfuric acid as catalyst at 5-10/sup 0/C. In the second step, a choline chloride-offretite cracked DTE with 84.0% conversion and 91% selectivity to PMS and toluene. Additional PMS can be obtained by cracking the by-product ''trimer'' formed by coupling DTE and toluene with acetaldehyde. Zeolite Rho was as active but yielded less PMS (86%) and produced more para-ethyltoluene (PET), an undesirable by-product.

  12. Comparison of uteroplacental glycosylation in the camel (Camelus dromedarius) and alpaca (Lama pacos).

    PubMed

    Jones, C J P; Abd-Elnaeim, M; Bevilacqua, E; Oliveira, L V; Leiser, R

    2002-01-01

    The recent birth of a camel-llama hybrid, after numerous failed attempts, has prompted an investigation into the glycosylation of apposing fetal and maternal tissues of pregnant camels and alpacas. This study was undertaken to determine whether interspecies differences in glycans are factors that may account in part for the difficulty in producing a viable hybrid. Specimens of camel placentae from day 60 to day 375 of gestation and alpaca placentae from day 22 to term (approximately 345 days) were fixed and embedded in resin, and sections were stained with a panel of 19 biotinylated lectins and an avidin--peroxidase revealing system. Several qualitative interspecies differences in tissue glycosylation were found, mainly in the trophoblast, and especially with respect to bi/tri-antennary bisected N-glycan, fucosylated structures, beta-galactosyl residues and sialyl termini. In the maternal uterine epithelium, differences were found mainly in bi/tri-antennary bisected complex N-glycan and beta-galactosyl residues, indicating that there is more conservation of glycosylation in maternal tissues compared with trophoblast. There were also many quantitative differences in the distribution of glycans. It is possible that a failure to effect the normal glycan--glycan complementation that occurs at the cell surface between maternal and fetal tissues during the implantation processes of apposition and adhesion may account in part for the difficulty in establishing a viable pregnancy between these two species.

  13. Biochemical composition and protein profile of alpaca (Vicugna pacos) oviductal fluid.

    PubMed

    Apichela, S A; Argañaraz, M E; Zampini, R; Vencato, J; Miceli, D C; Stelletta, C

    2015-03-01

    Knowledge and assessment of the constituents of the oviductal fluid (OF) in camelids is necessary for a correct formulation of specific culture media for the development of reproductive biotechnology. This study is the first describing the biochemical composition and SDS-PAGE protein profile of alpaca oviductal fluid in non-pregnant animals and animals that have completed the first month and second month of gestation. Samples were also classified into oviducts that were ipsilateral or contralateral to the ovary with corpus luteum. No differences were found between both oviducts, whereas pregnant and non-pregnant females displayed significant differences in the biochemical composition and protein profile of the oviductal fluid. Relative albumin content was higher in non-pregnant females. Relative creatinine content in OF from females that have completed the second month of gestation was lower than non-pregnant females and females that have completed the first month of gestation. Ion Na(+) concentration was higher in OF from non-pregnant females when compared with pregnant ones. The protein profile of non-pregnant females showed five protein bands of 70, 42, 25, 24 and 19kDa that were significantly more intense compared with pregnant animals. Bands were identified as moesin, actin cytoplasmic 2, hydroxypyruvate isomerase, ferritin light chain and peroxiredoxin-6 with MALDI/MS. Our results encourage more thorough future studies, in order to unravel the complex reproductive processes of the South American camelid oviduct.

  14. Effect of PaCO2 and PaO2 on lidocaine and articaine toxicity.

    PubMed

    Barcelos, K C; Furtado, D P; Ramacciato, J C; Cabral, A M; Haas, D A

    2010-01-01

    Alterations in arterial PaCO₂ can influence local anesthetic toxicity. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of stress-induced changes in PaCO₂ and PaO₂ on the seizure threshold of lidocaine and articaine. Lidocaine (2% with 1 : 100,000 epinephrine) or articaine (4% with 1 : 100,000 epinephrine) was administered intravenously under rest or stress conditions to 36 rats separated into 4 groups. Propranolol and prazosin were administered preoperatively to minimize cardiovascular effects of epinephrine. Mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), and arterial pH, PaCO₂, and PaO₂ were measured. Results showed no differences in MAP, HR, or pH. Stress significantly increased the latency period for the first tonic-clonic seizure induced by a toxic dose of both lidocaine and articaine (P < .05). Seizures were brought on more rapidly by articaine. No significant difference between toxic doses of lidocaine and articaine was noted. Stress raised the seizure threshold dose for both drugs and significantly (P < .01) increased arterial PaO₂ from 94.0 ± 1.90 mm Hg to 113.0 ± 2.20 mm Hg, and reduced PaCO₂ from 36.0 ± 0.77 mm Hg to 27.0 ± 0.98 mm Hg. In conclusion, reduction in PaCO₂ and/or increase in PaO₂ raised the seizure threshold of lidocaine and articaine. This study also confirmed that lidocaine and articaine have equipotent central nervous system toxicity.

  15. [Changes in cerebral hemodynamics in chronic users of "PACO" and cocaine: case-control study].

    PubMed

    Previgliano, Ignacio; Cortese, Silvia; Di Nardo, Victoria; Lara, Enrique; Da Ré, Sabrina; Villareal, Orlando; Poliszuk, Julieta; Fernández, María E; Quinteros, Mónica; Damín, Carlos; Nuñez, Myriam

    2014-01-01

    To assess if there are changes in brain hemodynamics evaluated by means of transcranial doppler's flow velocity, pulsatile index and cerebral perfusion pressure, between cocaine chronic abusers and healthy volunteers. Prospective, case and control, observational study. Sex, age, user history, vital signs and transcranial doppler findings.Statistical analysis was performed by means of normality test, Wilcoxon's test for non parametric samples and T Student test. Fifty-three abusers and 35 healthy volunteers were studied. Statistical differences were found for a diminish in age(p=0.008) and cerebral perfusion pressure in all cerebral arteries (p

  16. The combined effects of grain supplementation and tenderstretching on alpaca (Vicugna pacos) meat quality.

    PubMed

    Smith, M A; Bush, R D; van de Ven, R J; Hopkins, D L

    2017-03-01

    This study investigated the effects of feeding a mixed grain supplement and tenderstretching (TS) alpaca carcasses on meat quality. A total of 56 castrated 24month old alpacas were divided into two treatments (pasture-only, and pasture plus supplementation). Supplemented groups were fed a mixed grain ration in addition to ad lib pasture for 10weeks. Animals were slaughtered across two kill days (n=28). One half of each carcass was suspended by the pelvis (TS) prior to chilling, and the other half was Achilles tendon hung (AH). After 24h, muscles were removed and aged for 10 and 25d. TS significantly increased sarcomere length and reduced shear force and cooking loss in the m. semimembranosus. This trend was not observed in other muscles including the m. longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LL) and m. psoas major. Ageing period resulted in a marginal improvement in LL tenderness. There is clear evidence that TS improves tenderness in the hindquarter of alpacas. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Alpaca (Lama pacos) as a convenient source of recombinant camelid heavy chain antibodies (VHHs)

    PubMed Central

    Maass, David R.; Sepulveda, Jorge; Pernthaner, Anton; Shoemaker, Charles B.

    2007-01-01

    Recombinant single domain antibody fragments (VHHs) that derive from the unusual camelid heavy chain only IgG class (HCAbs) have many favourable properties compared with single-chain antibodies prepared from conventional IgG. As a result, VHHs have become widely used as binding reagents and are beginning to show potential as therapeutic agents. To date, the source of VHH genetic material has been camels and llamas despite their large size and limited availability. Here we demonstrate that the smaller, more tractable and widely available alpaca is an excellent source of VHH coding DNA. Alpaca sera IgG consists of about 50% HCAbs, mostly of the short-hinge variety. Sequencing of DNA encoding more than 50 random VHH and hinge domains permitted the design of PCR primers that will amplify virtually all alpaca VHH coding DNAs for phage display library construction. Alpacas were immunized with ovine tumour necrosis factor α (TNFα) and a VHH phage display library was prepared from a lymph node that drains the sites of immunizations and successfully employed in the isolation of VHHs that bind and neutralize ovine TNFα. PMID:17568607

  18. Molecular analysis of methanogenic archaea in the forestomach of the alpaca (Vicugna pacos)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Methanogens that populate the gastrointestinal tract of livestock ruminants contribute significantly to methane emissions from the agriculture industry. There is a great need to analyze archaeal microbiomes from a broad range of host species in order to establish causal relationships between the structure of methanogen communities and their potential for methane emission. In this report, we present an investigation of methanogenic archaeal populations in the foregut of alpacas. Results We constructed individual 16S rRNA gene clone libraries from five sampled animals and recovered a total of 947 sequences which were assigned to 51 species-level OTUs. Individuals were found to each have between 21 and 27 OTUs, of which two to six OTUs were unique. As reported in other host species, Methanobrevibacter was the dominant genus in the alpaca, representing 88.3% of clones. However, the alpaca archaeal microbiome was different from other reported host species, as clones showing species-level identity to Methanobrevibacter millerae were the most abundant. Conclusion From our analysis, we propose a model to describe the population structure of Methanobrevibacter-related methanogens in the alpaca and in previously reported host species, which may contribute in unraveling the complexity of symbiotic archaeal communities in herbivores. PMID:22221383

  19. Evaluation of CHD7 as a candidate gene for choanal atresia in alpacas (Vicugna pacos).

    PubMed

    Reed, Kent M; Mendoza, Kristelle M; Fleege, Elizabeth C; Damerow, John A; Armién, Aníbal G

    2013-10-01

    Choanal atresia (CA) is a craniofacial malformation characterized by obstruction of the posterior nasal aperture, resulting in laborious respiratory inspiration and exhalation. Alpaca crias with CA typically develop fatal pneumonia, frequently as the result of milk aspiration during nursing, and euthanasia is usually inevitable. Nonsense or missense mutations in the CHD7 gene cause a comparable condition (CHARGE syndrome) in humans. In this study, the coding region of CHD7 was sequenced in six CA-affected alpacas. Forty-nine sequence variants were identified, of which 10 would result in amino acid changes (non-synonymous), some with potentially deleterious effects. However, none of the observed variants would result in the obvious deleterious effects caused by nonsense or missense mutations. Although a role for CHD7 mutations in CA cannot be definitively dismissed, these do not appear to be the primary cause of CA in alpacas.

  20. Quality parameters for alpaca (Vicugna pacos) semen are affected by semen collection procedure.

    PubMed

    Morton, K M; Thomson, P C; Bailey, K; Evans, G; Maxwell, W M C

    2010-08-01

    Artificial insemination (AI) is poorly developed in camelids owing to the difficulty in collecting high quality semen and the highly viscous nature of the semen. Semen collected by artificial vagina (AV) is often of low quality and must be improved before any further development of AI technology can occur. The present study investigated the effects of adding a cervix-like stricture to the AV, presence of females, collecting semen into Androhep, skim-milk or Tris diluents, and catalase supplementation (0, 100, 200 or 600 units/ml) of Tris diluent on alpaca semen quality parameters. The addition of a cervix-like stricture increased mating length (p < 0.05), whilst the presence of females during semen collection did not improve semen quality parameters (p > 0.05). Collection of semen into Tris diluent improved sperm motility (58.0 +/- 11.9%) compared with the control (34.0 +/- 10.8%; p < 0.05), Androhep (33.5 +/- 10.7%) and skim-milk diluents (28.2 +/- 10.4%). Semen viscosity was reduced by collection into Androhep (4.6 +/- 1.7 mm) and skim-milk diluents (3.6 +/- 1.3 mm) compared with Tris diluent (5.7 +/- 2.1 mm) and no collection medium (9.3 +/- 3.5 mm; p < 0.05). Tris diluent supplemented with 100, 200 or 600 units/ml catalase increased semen viscosity (5.0 +/- 3.2 and 4.9 +/- 3.2 mm). Collection of alpaca semen by AV into Tris diluent increased semen quality facilitating further development of AI technology in alpacas.

  1. Carcass traits and saleable meat yield of alpacas (Vicugna pacos) in Australia.

    PubMed

    Smith, M A; Bush, R D; Thomson, P C; Hopkins, D L

    2015-09-01

    Carcass traits and saleable meat yield (SMY) of female and castrated male alpacas in Australia at 18, 24 and 36 months of age were investigated. Fifty huacaya alpacas, evenly distributed across 14, 20, 32 month ages and two genders, were grazed on coastal summer pastures for four months. Dressing percentage and carcass length were collected at slaughter. At 24h post-mortem the carcasses were prepared into four SMY combinations. Thirty six month animals had heavier hot carcass weights (33.7 ± 1 kg) and longer carcasses (81.2 ± 0.7 cm) as expected. The percentage of total carcass bone (17.5 ± 0.2%), fat trim (1.4 ± 0.1%) and meat trim (7.8 ± 0.4%) was assessed as a proportion of cold carcass weight. The proportion of fat increased and bone decreased with age. Females had more trim than males. SMY decreased in females and increased in males with age across all combinations suggesting that males are preferable for meat production.

  2. Volatile fatty acid profile for grass hay or alfalfa hay fed to alpacas (Vicugna pacos).

    PubMed

    Oldham, C L; Robinson, T F; Hunter, Z R; Taylor, L; White, J; Johnston, N P

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the diurnal composition and concentration of volatile fatty acids (VFA) and to determine VFA composition and concentration differences between stomach compartment 1 (C1) and caecum of alpacas fed grass and alfalfa hay. The study was divided into two experiments. In Experiment 1 (EXP 1), 10 male alpacas (3+ years old, 65 kg BW) were divided into two groups, housed in drylot pens, provided ad libitum water and fed alfalfa (AH) or grass hay (GH) for 30 days. The alpacas were slaughtered and the digestive tract collected, divided into sub-tract sections, weighed and digesta sampled for pH, dry matter (DM) and NDF. Volatile fatty acid composition and concentration were determined on C1 and caecal material. Four adult male (3+ years old, 60 kg BW), C1 fistulated alpacas were housed in metabolism crates and divided into two forage groups for Experiment 2 (EXP 2). Alpacas were fed the forages as in EXP 1. Diurnal C1 VFA samples were drawn at 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, 18 and 24 h post-feeding. There were no differences between forages for tract weight, C1 and caecum digesta DM or NDF. Differences were noted (p < 0.05) for pH between forages and sub-tract site. Volatile fatty acids concentrations were different (p < 0.05) for forage and site, and total VFA was higher for AH than GH (110.6 and 79.1 mm) and C1 than caecum (40.7 and 27.6 mm). Proportion of VFA was significant (p < 0.05) for forage and site, C1 acetate highest for GH (84.8 vs. 74.0 mm) and caecum acetate 83.7 and 76.2 mm for GH and AH respectively. These data demonstrate the level of VFA produced in C1 and the caecum of alpacas and the diurnal VFA patterns. Composition of VFA is similar to other ruminant species.

  3. Personality, Alzheimer's disease and behavioural and cognitive symptoms of dementia: the PACO prospective cohort study protocol.

    PubMed

    Rouch, Isabelle; Dorey, Jean-Michel; Boublay, Nawèle; Henaff, Marie-Anne; Dibie-Racoupeau, Florence; Makaroff, Zaza; Harston, Sandrine; Benoit, Michel; Barrellon, Marie-Odile; Fédérico, Denis; Laurent, Bernard; Padovan, Catherine; Krolak-Salmon, Pierre

    2014-10-10

    Alzheimer's disease is characterised by a loss of cognitive function and behavioural problems as set out in the term "Behavioural and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia". These behavioural symptoms have heavy consequences for the patients and their families. A greater understanding of behavioural symptoms risk factors would allow better detection of those patients, a better understanding of crisis situations and better management of these patients. Some retrospective studies or simple observations suggested that personality could play a role in the occurrence of behavioural symptoms. Finally, performance in social cognition like facial recognition and perspective taking could be linked to certain personality traits and the subsequent risks of behavioural symptoms. We propose to clarify this through a prospective, multicentre, multidisciplinary study. Main Objective: -To assess the effect of personality and life events on the risk of developing behavioural symptoms. Secondary Objectives: -To evaluate, at the time of inclusion, the connection between personality and performance in social cognition tests; -To evaluate the correlation between performance in social cognition at inclusion and the risks of occurrence of behavioural symptoms; -To evaluate the correlation between regional cerebral atrophy, using brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging at baseline, and the risk of behavioural symptoms. Study type and Population: Prospective multicentre cohort study with 252 patients with Alzheimer's disease at prodromal or mild dementia stage. The inclusion period will be of 18 months and the patients will be followed during 18 months. The initial evaluation will include: a clinical and neuropsychological examination, collection of behavioural symptoms data (Neuropsychiatric-Inventory scale) and their risk factors, a personality study using both a dimensional (personality traits) and categorical approach, an inventory of life events, social cognition tests and an Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Patients will be followed every 6 months (clinical examination and collection of behavioural symptoms data and risk factors) during 18 months. This study aims at better identifying the patients with Alzheimer's disease at high risk of developing behavioural symptoms, to anticipate, detect and quickly treat these disorders and so, prevent serious consequences for the patient and his caregivers. ClincalTrials.gov: NCT01297140.

  4. Genetic variation of the prion protein gene (PRNP) in alpaca (Vicugna pacos)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE) are caused by accumulation of a misfolded form of the prion protein (PrP). The normal cellular isoform of PrP is produced by the prion gene (PRNP) and is highly expressed in the central nervous system. Currently, there is an absence of information rega...

  5. Genotypic characterization of Chilean llama (Lama glama) and alpaca (Vicugna pacos) pestivirus isolates.

    PubMed

    Aguirre, I M; Fuentes, R; Celedón, M O

    2014-01-31

    Llamas and alpacas are domesticated South American camelids (SACs) important to ancestral population in the Altiplano region, and to different communities worldwide where they have been introduced. These ungulates have shown to be susceptible to several livestock viral pathogens such as members of the Pestivirus genus, in particular Bovine Viral Diarrhea (BVDV), but there is little data available on Pestivirus infections in SACs. In this study we aimed to detect and identify Pestivirus genotypes and subgroups infecting SACs in both wild and confined environments. Samples were collected from 136 llamas and 30 alpacas from different areas in the Chilean Altiplano (wild animals), and from 22 llamas and 26 alpacas diagnosed as Pestivirus positive from the Metropolitana region in Chile (confined animals). Seroneutralization tests showed titers lower than 2 in all 166 samples from Chilean Altiplano. These samples were also negative to BVDV isolation, indicating that these animals have not been exposed to Pestivirus. After reactivation of positive samples from the Metropolitana region, the 5' non-codifying region (5'NCR) and E2 glycoprotein were amplified by RT-PCR from the Pestivirus genome. Viral sequences were pairwise compared and phylogenetic trees were constructed. The 5'NCR analysis showed that all 12 sequenced isolates belonged to BVDV-1. Of particular interest, isolates from eight llama and two alpaca were BVDV-1j and two alpacas were BVDV-1b. In agreement with these results, E2 phylogenetic analysis rendered a similar grouping indicating that all 16 isolates belong to BVDV-1. However, the lower availability of E2 sequences determines the creation of a smaller number of sub-groups than the 5'NCR sequences. Based on the E2 sequences, the 5'NCR BVDV 1j group consisting of all the llamas and 3 alpacas are completely included in the E2 BVDV 1e group. Due to the universal availability of the 5'NCR segment, we propose the classification of these Chilean llamas and alpacas Pestivirus isolates as BVDV 1j and BVDV 1b respectively. Thus, this is the first time BVDV-1j is obtained in SACs. In addition, these results indicate Pestivirus infection in llamas and alpacas is associated with bovine population as genotypes and sub-groups are the same as those affecting Chilean livestock.

  6. Identification of a novel microRNA important for melanogenesis in alpaca (Vicugna pacos).

    PubMed

    Yang, S; Fan, R; Shi, Z; Ji, K; Zhang, J; Wang, H; Herrid, M; Zhang, Q; Yao, J; Smith, G W; Dong, C

    2015-04-01

    The molecular mechanisms underlying the formation of coat colors in animals are poorly understood. Recent studies have demonstrated that microRNA play important roles in the control of melanogenesis and coat color in mammals. In a previous study, we characterized the miRNA expression profiles in alpaca skin with brown and white coat color and identified a novel miRNA (named lpa-miR-nov-66) that is expressed significantly higher in white skin compared to brown skin. The present study was conducted to determine the functional roles of this novel miRNA in the regulation of melanogenesis in alpaca melanocytes. lpa-miR-nov-66 is predicted to target the soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) gene based on presence of a binding site in the sGC coding sequence (CDS). Overexpression of lpa-miR-nov-66 in alpaca melanocyes upregulated the expression of sGC both at the mRNA and protein level. Overexpression of lpa-miR-nov-66 in melanocyes also resulted in decreased expression of key melanogenic genes including tyrosinase (TYR), tyrosinase related protein 1 (TYRP1), and microphthalmia transcription factor (MITF). Our ELISA assays showed increased cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) but decreased cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) production in melanocytes overexpressing lpa-miR-nov-66. In addition, overexpression of lpa-miR-nov-66 also reduced melanin production in cultured melanocytes. Results support a role of lpa-miR-nov-66 in melanocytes by directly or indirectly targeting , which regulates melanogenesis via the cAMP pathway.

  7. Characterization of functional variables in epididymal alpaca (Vicugna pacos) sperm using imaging flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Santiani, Alexei; Ugarelli, Alejandra; Evangelista-Vargas, Shirley

    2016-10-01

    Epididymal alpaca sperm represent an alternative model for the study of alpaca semen. The objective of this study was to characterize the normal values of some functional variables in epididymal alpaca sperm using imaging flow cytometry. Alpaca testicles (n=150) were processed and sperm were recovered from the cauda epididymides. Only 76 samples with acceptable motility and sperm count were considered for assessment by imaging flow cytometry. Acrosome integrity and integrity/viability were assessed by FITC-PSA/PI and FITC-PNA/PI. Mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) was assessed by MitoTracker CMXRos and MitoTracker Deep Red FM. Lipid peroxidation was evaluated using BODIPY 581/591 C11. Results show that the mean values for acrosome-intact sperm were 95.03±6.39% and 93.34±7.96%, using FITC-PSA and FITC-PNA, respectively. The mean values for acrosome-intact viable sperm were 60.58±12.12% with FITC-PSA/PI and 58.81±12.94% with FITC-PNA/PI. Greater MMP was detected in 65.03±15.92% and 59.52±19.19%, using MitoTracker CMXRos and MitoTracker Deep Red FM, respectively. Lipid peroxidation was 0.84±0.95%. Evaluation of acrosome-intact and acrosome-intact viable sperm with FITC-PSA/PI compared with. FITC-PNA/PI or MMP with MitoTracker CMXRos compared with MitoTracker Deep Red FM were correlated (P<0.05). The MMP using MitoTracker CMXRos was the only variable correlated (P<0.05) with sperm motility (r=0.3979). This report provides a basis for future research related to alpaca semen using the epididymal sperm model.

  8. [Cowpox virus infection in an alpaca (Vicugna pacos) - clinical symptoms, laboratory diagnostic findings and pathological changes].

    PubMed

    Goerigk, D; Theuß, T; Pfeffer, M; Konrath, A; Kalthoff, D; Woll, D; Vahlenkamp, T W; Beer, M; Starke, A

    2014-01-01

    Orthopoxvirus infections appear to be rare in South American Camelids, because only a few cases have been reported in the literature. Based on a generalized infection with cowpox virus in an alpaca, the clinical symptoms, laboratory diagnostic findings and the pathological changes are described. The case history showed a long treatment because of chronic skin lesions. The main clinical symptom was miliary papules over the entire skin. Furthermore, a bilateral mucopurulent conjunctivitis occurred as well as excessive salivation due to a severe erosive-ulcerative stomatitis. Although the animal received intensive treatment, it died 8 days after admission to the clinic. During necropsy, an erosive-ulcerative laryngitis as well as a necrotising pneumonia and lymphadenitis were observed. Histopathological examination of representative organ samples led to the diagnosis of a suspected orthopoxvirus infection. Electron microscopy and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) of tissue samples confirmed this diagnosis. The virus could be isolated in tissue culture and a PCR with subsequent nucleotide sequencing identified cowpox virus as the causative agent for this generalised infection.

  9. Development of the Liver in Alpaca (Vicugna pacos): A Microscopic and Macroscopic Description.

    PubMed

    Castro, A N C; Domínguez, M T; Gómez, S A; Mendoza Torres, G J; Llerena Zavala, C A; Ghezzi, M D; Barbeito, C G

    2016-06-01

    South American camelids have several biological, morphological and behavioural adaptations that allow them to live in geographical areas dominated by high altitudes. The liver has hematopoietic functions during the prenatal life, which could be modified in response to the unfavorable habitat. However, there are no previous data on the prenatal development of the liver in these species. In the present work, a study on the macroscopic and microscopic morphology of the liver of the alpaca during ontogeny was performed. Forty-one animals ranging in age from 20 days of embryonic development to adults were studied. Macroscopic and microscopic observations were performed on samples subjected to different techniques. Less than 7-g specimens were studied with stereoscopic magnifying glass. The general characteristics of the prenatal liver are similar to those of other mammals, and the structures related to hematopoietic function follow an ontogenic pattern similar to that of previously studied precocial species. However, there are differences in morphology when compared to descriptions for the Old World camelids, including the absence of relation between the caudate lobe and the right kidney and the lack of interlobular connective tissue.

  10. Mapping of somatostatin-28 (1-12) in the alpaca (Lama pacos) brainstem.

    PubMed

    De Souza, Eliana; Sánchez, Manuel Lisardo; Aguilar, Luís Ángel; Díaz-Cabiale, Zaida; Narváez, José Ángel; Coveñas, Rafael

    2015-05-01

    Using an indirect immunoperoxidase technique, we studied the distribution of cell bodies and fibers containing somatostatin-28 (1-12) in the alpaca brainstem. Immunoreactive fibers were widely distributed throughout the whole brainstem: 34 brainstem nuclei/regions showed a high or a moderate density of these fibers. Perikarya containing the peptide were widely distributed throughout the mesencephalon, pons and medulla oblongata. Cell bodies containing somatostatin-28 (1-12) were observed in the lateral and medial divisions of the marginal nucleus of the brachium conjunctivum, reticular formation (mesencephalon, pons and medulla oblongata), inferior colliculus, periaqueductal gray, superior colliculus, pericentral division of the dorsal tegmental nucleus, interpeduncular nucleus, nucleus of the trapezoid body, vestibular nucleus, motor dorsal nucleus of the vagus, nucleus of the solitary tract, nucleus praepositus hypoglossi, and in the substantia nigra. This widespread distribution indicates that somatostatin-28 (1-12) is involved in multiple physiological actions in the alpaca brainstem.

  11. Effect of electrical stimulation and ageing period on alpaca (Vicugna pacos) meat and eating quality.

    PubMed

    Smith, M A; Bush, R D; van de Ven, R J; Hopkins, D L

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of using medium voltage (~300 V) electrical stimulation (ES) and ageing on alpaca meat. A total of 50 huacaya alpacas were distributed across three age groups (18, 24 and 36 months) and two genders (females and castrated males). At 24h post mortem the m. longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LL) and m. semimembranosus (SM) muscles were removed and aged for either 5 or 10 days. In comparison to non-ES samples, ES significantly reduced: LL purge values by 3.0% and LL shear force (SF) at 5 and 10 days (by 21.6N and ageing further reduced tenderness by 6.6N), and SM SF by 5.8 N with significant age effects observed in both ES and non-ES SM samples, such that SF increased by 0.53 N with each month increase in animal age. Consumers rated ES samples higher on tenderness, juiciness, flavour and overall rating. ES and ageing of alpaca carcasses are recommended.

  12. Biochemical and protein profile of alpaca (Vicugna pacos) uterine horn fluid during early pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Argañaraz, M E; Apichela, S A; Zampini, R; Vencato, J; Stelletta, C

    2015-02-01

    South American camelids show high embryo loss rate, during the first 60 days of pregnancy. One of the factors which may be related to this situation is that over 98% of the embryos implant in the left uterine horn (LUH) even though both ovaries contribute similarly to ovulation. There is scarce information about the uterine environment of female camelids at any physiological state that could explain the capability of the LUH to attract the embryo and maintain pregnancy. We describe, for the first time, the biochemical and protein profile of uterine fluid (UF), addressing the right and LUH environment in non-pregnant and pregnant alpacas. Different substrates, electrolytes and metabolites were assayed in both uterine horn fluids. Small changes were observed in glucose and total protein levels, which were more noticeable during pregnancy. In addition, 10 specific proteins were found in the left horn fluid in 5-week-pregnant alpacas, and two protein bands were identified in non-pregnant alpaca right horn fluid. These results would provide basic information for identification of possible markers for pregnancy diagnosis, reproductive diseases and hormone-treated animals evaluation and hence contributing to improve the pregnancy rate.

  13. Isolation and genetic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii from alpaca (Vicugna pacos) and sheep (Ovis aries).

    PubMed

    Dubey, Jitender Prakash; Casey, Sarah Jane; Zajac, Anne Marie; Wildeus, Stephen Arthur; Lindsay, David Scott; Verma, Shiv Kumar; Oliveira, Solange; Kwok, Oliver Chun Hung; Su, Chunlei

    2014-12-01

    Alpacas are important to the economy of several countries. Little is known of Toxoplasma gondii infection in alpacas worldwide. In the present study, T. gondii was isolated and genetically characterized from alpacas for the first time. Alpacas (n = 16) and rams (n = 12) pastured on a farm in Virginia, USA, were examined at necropsy. Antibodies to T. gondii were determined by the modified agglutination test (MAT, 1:25) and found in 6 of 16 alpacas with titers of 1:100 (2 alpaca), 1:400 (2 alpacas), 1:800 (1 alpaca), and 1:1,600 (1 alpaca), and 5 of 12 rams in titers of 1:50 in one, 1:400 in one, 1:800 in one, 1:1,600 in one, and 1:3,200 in one. Tissues of all 16 alpacas were bioassayed in mice or in cats. Muscles (heart, skeletal muscle) of nine alpacas with MAT titers of 1:25 were fed to T. gondii-free cats; the cats did not shed oocysts. Viable T. gondii was isolated from tissues of two of six seropositive alpacas by bioassay in mice. Viable T. gondii was isolated from three of three seropositive sheep by bioassay in mice. Genotyping using cell-cultured tachyzoites revealed four genotypes, including one for ToxoDB PCR-RFLP genotype #2 (type III), one for genotype #3 (type II variant), one for genotype #170, and two for a new genotype designated as ToxoDB PCR-RFLP genotype #230. Thus, four of the five T. gondii isolates in the present study belonged to different genotypes. These results indicate a higher genetic diversity among T. gondii isolates circulating in the USA than previously realized.

  14. Para Bombay phenotype--a case report.

    PubMed

    Mathai, J; Sulochana, P V; Sathyabhama, S

    1997-10-01

    Bombay phenotype is peculiar in that red cells are not agglutinated by antisera A, B or H; while serum contains anti A, B and H. Existence of modifying genes at independent loci with variable expression of ABO genes is postulated. We report here a case of partial suppression where antigens could be detected by elution tests and unlike classical Bombay type, normal amount of appropriate blood group substances were present in saliva. This case of para Bombay phenotype was detected as a result of discrepancy in cell and serum group ng. This highlights the importance of both forward and reverse grouping in ABO testing.

  15. On q-DEFORMED Para Oscillators and PARA-q Oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumari, M. Krishna; Shanta, P.; Chaturvedi, S.; Srinivasan, V.

    Three generalized commutation relations for a single mode of the harmonic oscillator which contains para-bose and q oscillator commutation relations are constructed. These are shown to be inequivalent. The coherent states of the annihilation operator for these three cases are also constructed.

  16. Allergic contact dermatitis to para-phenylenediamine.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, David; Chow, Elizabeth T

    2015-02-01

    Exposure to hair dye is the most frequent route of sensitisation to para-phenylenediamine (PPD), a common contact allergen. International studies have examined the profile of PPD, but Australian-sourced information is lacking. Patients are often dissatisfied with advice to stop dyeing their hair. This study examines patients' characteristics, patch test results and outcomes of PPD allergy from a single Australian centre, through a retrospective analysis of patch test data from 2006 to 2013 at the Liverpool Hospital Dermatology Department. It reviews the science of hair dye allergy, examines alternative hair dyes and investigates strategies for hair dyeing. Of 584 patients, 11 were allergic to PPD. Our PPD allergy prevalence rate of 2% is at the lower end of international reported rates. About half these patients also react to para-toluenediamine (PTD). Affected patients experience a significant lifestyle disturbance. In all, 78% tried alternative hair dyes after the patch test diagnosis and more than half continued to dye their hair. Alternative non-PPD hair dyes are available but the marketplace can be confusing. Although some patients are able to tolerate alternative hair dyes, caution is needed as the risk of developing an allergy to other hair dye ingredients, especially PTD, is high.

  17. Sensitization to para-tertiary-butylphenolformaldehyde resin.

    PubMed

    Massone, L; Anonide, A; Borghi, S; Usiglio, D

    1996-03-01

    Phenolformaldehyde resins, especially the para-tertiary-butylphenolformaldehyde resin (PTBP-FR), are widely used in industry and in numerous materials of everyday use, such as glues, adhesives, or inks. They can cause many occupational and nonoccupational cases of dermatitis. Forty-one patients with positive patch test results to PTBP-FR were selected for this study. They were patch-tested with a series of chemically related compounds and cross-reactions were noted. Phenolformaldehyde resin (PF-R) was frequently positive (65.8%), whereas other compounds gave a much smaller number of positive results. Cases of occupational exposure (24.4%), location of the dermatitis (hands were involved in 46.3% of cases), and possible sources of exposure (shoes were the responsible agent in 12.2% of cases) were evaluated. Phenolformaldehyde resins are an important cause of contact dermatitis and must be studied chemically and clinically to improve the prognosis of sensitized patients.

  18. [Laparoscopic treatment of para-esophageal hernias].

    PubMed

    Collet, D; Wagner, T; Sa Cunha, A; Rault, A; Masson, B

    2006-10-01

    This retrospective study aims at analyzing the functional results obtained in patients operated by laparoscopy for a para-esophageal hernia. From 1994 to 2004, 38 patients underwent a laparoscopic procedure for a symptomatic para-esophageal hiatal hernia of at least 3/4 of the proximal stomach: 27 females and 11 males, mean age 65 years (extreme: 22-84). There was no case on emergency, 4 patients had have at least one episode of intrathoracic volvulus. The operation consisted in gastric reduction into the abdominal cavity, excision of the sac, suture of the crura reinforced with a mesh in 6 patients and the construction of a gastric wrap. A postoperative barium swallow was performed on POD 3 in order to confirm the anatomical result. Mean operating time was 157 minutes (75-480), no case was converted into laparotomy. Four postoperative complications were observed (morbidity 10.8%): one gastric perforation diagnosed on POD 1, 2 severe dysphagias linked to the wrap, and one atelectasia. There was no death in this series. Functional results were evaluated by the mean of a questionnaire in 33 patients who had a follow up more than 6 months. Thirty-three questionnaires have been sent, 3 patients were lost and one was dead. Among the 29 patients analyzed, 14 were very satisfied, 11 were satisfied and 3 were deceived by the operation. Best results are obtained in patients with GERD, dysphagia or postprandial cardiothoracic symptoms. These results compared to the published data allow us to discuss about indications of surgery, the necessity to removal the hernia sac, and the advantages to reinforce the crura by the mean of a non absorbable mesh.

  19. Time domain para hydrogen induced polarization.

    PubMed

    Ratajczyk, Tomasz; Gutmann, Torsten; Dillenberger, Sonja; Abdulhussaein, Safaa; Frydel, Jaroslaw; Breitzke, Hergen; Bommerich, Ute; Trantzschel, Thomas; Bernarding, Johannes; Magusin, Pieter C M M; Buntkowsky, Gerd

    2012-01-01

    Para hydrogen induced polarization (PHIP) is a powerful hyperpolarization technique, which increases the NMR sensitivity by several orders of magnitude. However the hyperpolarized signal is created as an anti-phase signal, which necessitates high magnetic field homogeneity and spectral resolution in the conventional PHIP schemes. This hampers the application of PHIP enhancement in many fields, as for example in food science, materials science or MRI, where low B(0)-fields or low B(0)-homogeneity do decrease spectral resolution, leading to potential extinction if in-phase and anti-phase hyperpolarization signals cannot be resolved. Herein, we demonstrate that the echo sequence (45°-τ-180°-τ) enables the acquisition of low resolution PHIP enhanced liquid state NMR signals of phenylpropiolic acid derivatives and phenylacetylene at a low cost low-resolution 0.54 T spectrometer. As low field TD-spectrometers are commonly used in industry or biomedicine for the relaxometry of oil-water mixtures, food, nano-particles, or other systems, we compare two variants of para-hydrogen induced polarization with data-evaluation in the time domain (TD-PHIP). In both TD-ALTADENA and the TD-PASADENA strong spin echoes could be detected under conditions when usually no anti-phase signals can be measured due to the lack of resolution. The results suggest that the time-domain detection of PHIP-enhanced signals opens up new application areas for low-field PHIP-hyperpolarization, such as non-invasive compound detection or new contrast agents and biomarkers in low-field Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). Finally, solid-state NMR calculations are presented, which show that the solid echo (90y-τ-90x-τ) version of the TD-ALTADENA experiment is able to convert up to 10% of the PHIP signal into visible magnetization.

  20. The para-Bombay phenotype in Chinese persons.

    PubMed

    Lin-Chu, M; Broadberry, R E; Tsai, S J; Chiou, P W

    1987-01-01

    The para-Bombay phenotype occurs more frequently in Oriental than in white populations. This report describes the immunohematologic findings in 20 cases of the para-Bombay phenotype detected over a period of about 15 months in the Chinese population of Taiwan.

  1. Cooling by Para-to-Ortho-Hydrogen Conversion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherman, A.; Nast, T.

    1983-01-01

    Catalyst speeds conversion, increasing capacity of solid hydrogen cooling system. In radial-flow catalytic converter, para-hydrogen is converted to equilibrium mixture of para-hydrogen and ortho-hydrogen as it passes through porous cylinder of catalyst. Addition of catalyst increases capacity of hydrogen sublimation cooling systems for radiation detectors.

  2. Requisitos para utilizar el enlace | Smokefree Español

    Cancer.gov

    Espanol.smokefree.gov ofrece apoyo y recursos para norteamericanos que hablan español y quieren dejar de fumar. Este sitio en la red fue creada por la División de Investigación para el Control del Tabaco del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer.

  3. A nontraumatic para-aortic lymphocele complicating nephrolithiasis.

    PubMed

    Hyson, E A; Belleza, N A; Lowman, R M

    1977-09-01

    Many cases of traumatic para-aortic lymphocele have been reported. Recently, a case of nontraumatic para-aortic lymphocele was investigated. The etiologic consideration for this lymphocele formation is either a localized inflammatory process, or fibrosis induced by prior passage of calculi.

  4. Towards a double field theory on para-Hermitian manifolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaisman, Izu

    2013-12-01

    In a previous paper, we have shown that the geometry of double field theory has a natural interpretation on flat para-Kähler manifolds. In this paper, we show that the same geometric constructions can be made on any para-Hermitian manifold. The field is interpreted as a compatible (pseudo-)Riemannian metric. The tangent bundle of the manifold has a natural, metric-compatible bracket that extends the C-bracket of double field theory. In the para-Kähler case, this bracket is equal to the sum of the Courant brackets of the two Lagrangian foliations of the manifold. Then, we define a canonical connection and an action of the field that correspond to similar objects of double field theory. Another section is devoted to the Marsden-Weinstein reduction in double field theory on para-Hermitian manifolds. Finally, we give examples of fields on some well-known para-Hermitian manifolds.

  5. Towards a double field theory on para-Hermitian manifolds

    SciTech Connect

    Vaisman, Izu

    2013-12-15

    In a previous paper, we have shown that the geometry of double field theory has a natural interpretation on flat para-Kähler manifolds. In this paper, we show that the same geometric constructions can be made on any para-Hermitian manifold. The field is interpreted as a compatible (pseudo-)Riemannian metric. The tangent bundle of the manifold has a natural, metric-compatible bracket that extends the C-bracket of double field theory. In the para-Kähler case, this bracket is equal to the sum of the Courant brackets of the two Lagrangian foliations of the manifold. Then, we define a canonical connection and an action of the field that correspond to similar objects of double field theory. Another section is devoted to the Marsden-Weinstein reduction in double field theory on para-Hermitian manifolds. Finally, we give examples of fields on some well-known para-Hermitian manifolds.

  6. a New Equation of State for Solid para-HYDROGEN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lecheng; Le Roy, Robert J.; Roy, Pierre-Nicholas

    2015-06-01

    Solid para-H_2 is a popular accommodating host for impurity spectroscopy due to its unique softness and the spherical symmetry of para-H_2 in its J}=0 rotational level. To simulate the properties of impurity-doped solid para-H_2, a reliable model for the `soft' pure solid para-H_2 at different pressures is highly desirable. While a couple of experimental and theoretical studies aimed at elucidating the equation of state (EOS) of solid para-H_2 have been reported, the calculated EOS was shown to be heavily dependent on the potential energy surface (PES) between two para-H_2 that was used in the simulations. The current study also demonstrates that different choices of the parameters governing the Quantum Monte Carlo simulation could produce different EOS curves. To obtain a reliable model for pure solid para-H_2, we used a new 1-D para-H_2 PES reported by Faruk et al. that was obtained by averaging over Hinde's highly accurate 6-D H_2--H_2 PES. The EOS of pure solid para-H_2 was calculated using the PIMC algorithm with periodic boundary conditions (PBC). To precisely determine the equilibrium density of solid para-H_2, both the value of the PIMC time step (τ) and the number of particles in the PBC cell were extrapolated to convergence. The resulting EOS agreed well with experimental observations, and the hcp structured solid para-H_2 was found to be more stable than the fcc one at 4.2K, in agreement with experiment. The vibrational frequency shift of para-H_2 as a function of the density of the pure solid was also calculated, and the value of the shift at the equilibrium density is found to agree well with experiment. T. Momose, H. Honshina, M. Fushitani and H. Katsuki, Vib. Spectrosc. 34, 95(2004). M. E. Fajardo, J. Phys. Chem. A 117, 13504 (2013). I. F. Silvera, Rev. Mod. Phys. 52, 393(1980). F. Operetto and F. Pederiva, Phys. Rev. B 73, 184124(2006). T. Omiyinka and M. Boninsegni, Phys. Rev. B 88, 024112(2013). N. Faruk, M. Schmidt, H. Li, R. J. Le Roy, and P

  7. ParaDiS-FEM dislocation dynamics simulation code primer

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, M; Hommes, G; Aubry, S; Arsenlis, A

    2011-09-27

    The ParaDiS code is developed to study bulk systems with periodic boundary conditions. When we try to perform discrete dislocation dynamics simulations for finite systems such as thin films or cylinders, the ParaDiS code must be extended. First, dislocations need to be contained inside the finite simulation box; Second, dislocations inside the finite box experience image stresses due to the free surfaces. We have developed in-house FEM subroutines to couple with the ParaDiS code to deal with free surface related issues in the dislocation dynamics simulations. This primer explains how the coupled code was developed, the main changes from the ParaDiS code, and the functions of the new FEM subroutines.

  8. Cooling by conversion of para to ortho-hydrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherman, A. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    The cooling capacity of a solid hydrogen cooling system is significantly increased by exposing vapor created during evaporation of a solid hydrogen mass to a catalyst and thereby accelerating the endothermic para-to-ortho transition of the vapor to equilibrium hydrogen. Catalyst such as nickel, copper, iron or metal hydride gels of films in a low pressure drop catalytic reactor are suitable for accelerating the endothermic para-to-ortho conversion.

  9. Ortho- and para-hydrogen in neutron thermalization

    SciTech Connect

    Daemen, L. L.; Brun, T. O.

    1998-01-01

    The large difference in neutron scattering cross-section at low neutron energies between ortho- and para-hydrogen was recognized early on. In view of this difference (more than an order of magnitude), one might legitimately ask whether the ortho/para ratio has a significant effect on the neutron thermalization properties of a cold hydrogen moderator. Several experiments performed in the 60`s and early 70`s with a variety of source and (liquid hydrogen) moderator configurations attempted to investigate this. The results tend to show that the ortho/para ratio does indeed have an effect on the energy spectrum of the neutron beam produced. Unfortunately, the results are not always consistent with each other and much unknown territory remains to be explored. The problem has been approached from a computational standpoint, but these isolated efforts are far from having examined the ortho/para-hydrogen problem in neutron moderation in all its complexity. Because of space limitations, the authors cannot cover, even briefly, all the aspects of the ortho/para question here. This paper will summarize experiments meant to investigate the effect of the ortho/para ratio on the neutron energy spectrum produced by liquid hydrogen moderators.

  10. ParaText : scalable text modeling and analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Dunlavy, Daniel M.; Stanton, Eric T.; Shead, Timothy M.

    2010-06-01

    Automated processing, modeling, and analysis of unstructured text (news documents, web content, journal articles, etc.) is a key task in many data analysis and decision making applications. As data sizes grow, scalability is essential for deep analysis. In many cases, documents are modeled as term or feature vectors and latent semantic analysis (LSA) is used to model latent, or hidden, relationships between documents and terms appearing in those documents. LSA supplies conceptual organization and analysis of document collections by modeling high-dimension feature vectors in many fewer dimensions. While past work on the scalability of LSA modeling has focused on the SVD, the goal of our work is to investigate the use of distributed memory architectures for the entire text analysis process, from data ingestion to semantic modeling and analysis. ParaText is a set of software components for distributed processing, modeling, and analysis of unstructured text. The ParaText source code is available under a BSD license, as an integral part of the Titan toolkit. ParaText components are chained-together into data-parallel pipelines that are replicated across processes on distributed-memory architectures. Individual components can be replaced or rewired to explore different computational strategies and implement new functionality. ParaText functionality can be embedded in applications on any platform using the native C++ API, Python, or Java. The ParaText MPI Process provides a 'generic' text analysis pipeline in a command-line executable that can be used for many serial and parallel analysis tasks. ParaText can also be deployed as a web service accessible via a RESTful (HTTP) API. In the web service configuration, any client can access the functionality provided by ParaText using commodity protocols ... from standard web browsers to custom clients written in any language.

  11. A Comparative Usage-Based Approach to the Reduction of the Spanish and Portuguese Preposition "Para"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gradoville, Michael Stephen

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the frequency effect of two-word collocations involving "para" "to," "for" (e.g. "fui para," "para que") on the reduction of "para" to "pa" (in Spanish) and "pra" (in Portuguese). Collocation frequency effects demonstrate that language speakers…

  12. A Comparative Usage-Based Approach to the Reduction of the Spanish and Portuguese Preposition "Para"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gradoville, Michael Stephen

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the frequency effect of two-word collocations involving "para" "to," "for" (e.g. "fui para," "para que") on the reduction of "para" to "pa" (in Spanish) and "pra" (in Portuguese). Collocation frequency effects demonstrate that language speakers…

  13. Hox and ParaHox genes: a review on molluscs.

    PubMed

    Biscotti, Maria Assunta; Canapa, Adriana; Forconi, Mariko; Barucca, Marco

    2014-12-01

    Hox and ParaHox genes are involved in patterning the anterior-posterior body axis in metazoans during embryo development. Body plan evolution and diversification are affected by variations in the number and sequence of Hox and ParaHox genes, as well as by their expression patterns. For this reason Hox and ParaHox gene investigation in the phylum Mollusca is of great interest, as this is one of the most important taxa of protostomes, characterized by a high morphological diversity. The comparison of the works reviewed here indicates that species of molluscs, belonging to different classes, share a similar composition of Hox and ParaHox genes. Therefore evidence suggests that the wide morphological diversity of this taxon could be ascribed to differences in Hox gene interactions and expressions and changes in the Hox downstream genes rather than to Hox cluster composition. Moreover the data available on Hox and ParaHox genes in molluscs compared with those of other Lophotrochozoa shed light on the complex and controversial evolutionary histories that these genes have undergone within protostomes.

  14. Detection of the MW Transition Between Ortho and Para States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanamori, Hideto; Dehghani, Zeinab Tafti; Mizoguchi, Asao; Endo, Yasuki

    2017-06-01

    Thorough the detailed analysis of the hyperfine resolved rotational transitions, we have been pointed out that there exists not a little interaction between ortho and para states in the molecular Hamiltonian of S_2Cl_2. Using the ortho-para mixed molecular wavefunctions derived from the Hamiltonian, we calculated the transition moment and frequency of the ortho-para forbidden transitions in the cm- and mm-wave region, and picked up some promising candidate transitions for the spectroscopic detection. In the experiment, the S_2Cl_2 vapor with Ar buffer gas in a supersonic jet condition was used with FTMW spectrometer at National Chiao Tung University. As a result, seven hyperfine resolved rotational transitions in the cm-wave region were detected as the ortho-para transition at the predicted frequency within the experimental error range. The observed intensity was 10^{-3} smaller than that of an allowed transition, which is also consistent with the prediction. This is the first time the electric dipole transition between ortho and para states has been detected in a free isolated molecule. A. Mizoguchi, S. Ota, H. Kanamori, Y. Sumiyoshi, and Y. Endo, J. Mol. Spectrosc, 250, 86 (2008) Z. T. Dehghani, S. Ota, A. Mizoguchi and H. Kanamori, J. Phys. Chem. A, 117(39), 10041, (2013)

  15. Evolution of invertebrate deuterostomes and Hox/ParaHox genes.

    PubMed

    Ikuta, Tetsuro

    2011-06-01

    Transcription factors encoded by Antennapedia-class homeobox genes play crucial roles in controlling development of animals, and are often found clustered in animal genomes. The Hox and ParaHox gene clusters have been regarded as evolutionary sisters and evolved from a putative common ancestral gene complex, the ProtoHox cluster, prior to the divergence of the Cnidaria and Bilateria (bilaterally symmetrical animals). The Deuterostomia is a monophyletic group of animals that belongs to the Bilateria, and a sister group to the Protostomia. The deuterostomes include the vertebrates (to which we belong), invertebrate chordates, hemichordates, echinoderms and possibly xenoturbellids, as well as acoelomorphs. The studies of Hox and ParaHox genes provide insights into the origin and subsequent evolution of the bilaterian animals. Recently, it becomes apparent that among the Hox and ParaHox genes, there are significant variations in organization on the chromosome, expression pattern, and function. In this review, focusing on invertebrate deuterostomes, I first summarize recent findings about Hox and ParaHox genes. Next, citing unsolved issues, I try to provide clues that might allow us to reconstruct the common ancestor of deuterostomes, as well as understand the roles of Hox and ParaHox genes in the development and evolution of deuterostomes.

  16. β-Cyclodextrin- para-aminosalicylic acid inclusion complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roik, N. V.; Belyakova, L. A.; Oranskaya, E. I.

    2010-11-01

    Complex formation of β-cyclodextrin with para-aminosalicylic acid in buffer solutions is studied by UV spectroscopy. It is found that the stoichiometric proportion of the components in the β-cyclodextrin-para-aminosalicylic acid inclusion complex is 1:1. The Ketelar equation is used to calculate the stability constants of the inclusion complexes at different temperatures. The thermodynamic parameters of the complex formation process (ΔG, ΔH, ΔS) are calculated using the van't Hoff equation. The 1:1 β-cyclodextrin-para-aminosalicylic acid inclusion complex is prepared in solid form and its characteristics are determined by IR spectroscopic and x-ray diffraction techniques.

  17. Quantum simulation of driven para-Bose oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alderete, C. Huerta; Rodríguez-Lara, B. M.

    2017-01-01

    Quantum mechanics allows paraparticles with mixed Bose-Fermi statistics that have not been experimentally confirmed. We propose a trapped-ion scheme whose effective dynamics are equivalent to a driven para-Bose oscillator of even order. Our mapping suggest highly entangled vibrational and internal ion states as the laboratory equivalent of quantum simulated parabosons. Furthermore, we show the generation and reconstruction of coherent oscillations and para-Bose analogs of Gilmore-Perelomov coherent states from population inversion measurements in the laboratory frame. Our proposal, apart from demonstrating an analog quantum simulator of para-Bose oscillators, provides a quantum state engineering tool that foreshadows the potential use of paraparticle dynamics in the design of quantum information systems.

  18. Una técnica para filtrar patrones de fringing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostrov, P. G.

    Se presenta una nueva técnica para filtrar los patrones de fringing producidos en los CCDs tipo RCA. El método consiste en construir un mapa con los ángulos de inclinación de las franjas en cada punto de la imagen. Este mapa es ulteriormente utilizado para alinear con el patrón de interferencia una ventana estrecha, sobre la que se aplica un filtro de mediana. Este procedimiento permite eliminar la mayor parte del ruido del patrón de fringing sin destruirlo.

  19. Ortho and para-armalcolite samples in Apollo 17.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haggerty, S. E.

    1973-01-01

    Two paragenetically contrasting forms of armalcolite are present in basalts from the Apollo 17 Taurus-Littrow landing site. These armalcolites differ in optical properties, in crystal habit and in their distribution between coarse and fine grained rocks. It is proposed to call the two armalcolite forms ortho-armalcolite and para-armalcolite. Texural relationships and the evidence of experimental melting show that ortho-armalcolite is always the first crystalline phase to appear from unusually titanium rich magmas. The origin of para-armalcolite is not yet fully understood.

  20. On some examples of para-Hermite and para-Kähler Einstein spaces with Λ ≠ 0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chudecki, Adam

    2017-02-01

    Spaces equipped with two complementary (distinct) congruences of self-dual null strings and at least one congruence of anti-self-dual null strings are considered. It is shown that if such spaces are Einsteinian then the vacuum Einstein field equations can be reduced to a single nonlinear partial differential equation of the second order. Different forms of these equations are analyzed. Finally, several new explicit metrics of the para-Hermite and para-Kähler Einstein spaces with Λ ≠ 0 are presented. Some relation of that metrics to a modern approach to mechanical issues is discussed.

  1. Utilice en forma segura los productos con cebo para roedores

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Si se usan de manera inadecuada, los productos con veneno para ratas y ratones podrían hacerle daño a usted, a sus hijos o a sus mascotas. Siempre que use pesticidas lea la etiqueta del producto y siga todas las indicaciones.

  2. Analyzing and Visualizing Cosmological Simulations with ParaView

    SciTech Connect

    Woodring, Jonathan; Heitmann, Katrin; Ahrens, James P; Fasel, Patricia; Hsu, Chung-Hsing; Habib, Salman; Pope, Adrian

    2011-01-01

    The advent of large cosmological sky surveys - ushering in the era of precision cosmology - has been accompanied by ever larger cosmological simulations. The analysis of these simulations, which currently encompass tens of billions of particles and up to a trillion particles in the near future, is often as daunting as carrying out the simulations in the first place. Therefore, the development of very efficient analysis tools combining qualitative and quantitative capabilities is a matter of some urgency. In this paper, we introduce new analysis features implemented within ParaView, a fully parallel, open-source visualization toolkit, to analyze large N-body simulations. A major aspect of ParaView is that it can live and operate on the same machines and utilize the same parallel power as the simulation codes themselves. In addition, data movement is in a serious bottleneck now and will become even more of an issue in the future; an interactive visualization and analysis tool that can handle data in situ is fast becoming essential. The new features in ParaView include particle readers and a very efficient halo finder that identifies friends-of-friends halos and determines common halo properties, including spherical overdensity properties. In combination with many other functionalities already existing within ParaView, such as histogram routines or interfaces to programming languages like Python, this enhanced version enables fast, interactive, and convenient analyses of large cosmological simulations. In addition, development paths are available for future extensions.

  3. The total neutron cross section of liquid para-hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celli, M.; Rhodes, N.; Soper, A. K.; Zoppi, M.

    1999-12-01

    We have measured, using the pulsed neutron source ISIS, the total neutron cross section of liquid para-hydrogen in the vicinity of the triple point. The experimental results compare only qualitatively with the results of the Young and Koppel theory. However, a much better agreement is found once modifications are included in the model which effectively take into account the intermolecular interactions.

  4. "Espanol para ti": A Video Program That Works.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Elena; Johnson, Holly

    2000-01-01

    Describes the development of "Espanol para ti," a video program for teaching Spanish at the elementary school level. The program was designed for use in Clark County, Nevada elementary schools and is taught by a certified Spanish teacher via video twice a week, utilizing comprehensible input through visuals, games, and songs that are conducive to…

  5. Sistemas Correctores de Campo Para EL Telescopio Cassegrain IAC80

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galan, M. J.; Cobos, F. J.

    1987-05-01

    El proyecto de instrumentación de mayor importancia que ha tenido el Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias en los últimos afios ha sido el diseflo y construcción del te1escopio IAC8O. Este requería del esfuerzo con junto en mec´nica, óptica y electrónica, lo que facilitó la estructuración y el crecimiento de los respectivos grupos de trabajo, que posteriormente se integraron en departamentos En su origen (1977), el telescopio IAC80 fue concebido como un sistema clásico tipo Cassegrain, con una razón focal F/i 1.3 para el sistema Casse grain y una razón focal F/20 para el sistema Coudé. Posteriormente, aunque se mantuvo la filosofia de que el sistema básico fuera el F/11.3, se consideró conveniente el diseño de secundarios para razones focales F/16 y F/32, y se eliminó el de F/20. Sin embargo, dada la importancia relativa que un foco estrictamente fotográfico tiene en un telescopio moderno, diseñado básicamente para fotometría fotoeléctrica y con un campo util mínimamente de 40 minutos de arco, se decídió Ilevar a cabo el diseño de un secundario F/8 con un sistema corrector de campo, pero que estuviera formado únicamente por lentes con superficies esféricas para que asl su construcción fuera posible en España ó en México. La creciente utilización de detectores bidimensionales para fines de investigación astron6mica y la viabilidad de que en un futuro cercano éstos tengan un área sensible cada vez mayor, hicieron atractiva la idea de tener diseñado un sistema corrector de campo para el foco primario (F/3), con un campo útil mínimo de un grado, y también con la limitante de que sus componentes tuvieron sólamente supérficies esféricas. Ambos diseños de los sis-temas correctores de campo se llevaron a cabo, en gran medida, como parte de un proyecto de colaboración e intercambio en el área de diseño y evaluación de sistemas ópticos.

  6. Kit para aplicar la metodología de Lean en el gobierno

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Este Kit para comenzar a aplicar la metodología Lean (Gobierno optimizado) ofrece información para ayudar a las agencias de protección ambiental a planificar e implementar iniciativas Lean exitosas.

  7. Pharmacokinetics of ceftiofur crystalline free acid after single and multiple subcutaneous administrations in healthy alpacas (Vicugna pacos).

    PubMed

    Dechant, J E; Rowe, J D; Byrne, B A; Wetzlich, S E; Kieu, H T; Tell, L A

    2013-04-01

    Six adult male alpacas received one subcutaneous administration of ceftiofur crystalline free acid (CCFA) at a dosage of 6.6 mg/kg. After a washout period, the same alpacas received three subcutaneous doses of 6.6 mg/kg CCFA at 5-day intervals. Blood samples collected from the jugular vein before and at multiple time points after each CCFA administration were assayed for ceftiofur- and desfuroylceftiofur-related metabolite concentrations using high-performance liquid chromatography. Pharmacokinetic disposition of CCFA was analyzed by a noncompartmental approach. Mean pharmacokinetic parameters (± SD) following single-dose administration of CCFA were Cmax (2.7 ± 0.9 μg/mL); Tmax (36 ± 0 h); area under the curve AUC0→∞ (199.2 ± 42.1 μg·h/mL); terminal phase rate constant λz (0.02 ± 0.003/h); and terminal phase rate constant half-life t1/2λz (44.7 h; harmonic). Mean terminal pharmacokinetic parameters (±SD) following three administrations of CCFA were Cmax (2.0 ± 0.4 μg/mL); Tmax (17.3 ± 16.3 h); AUC0→∞ (216.8 ± 84.5 μg·h/mL); λz (0.01 ± 0.003/h); and t1/2λz (65.9 h; harmonic). The terminal phase rate constant and the Tmax were significantly different between single and multiple administrations. Local reactions were noted in two alpacas following multiple CCFA administrations. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. The impact of gender and age on the nutritional parameters of alpaca (Vicugna pacos) meat, colour stability and fat traits.

    PubMed

    Smith, M A; Bush, R D; van de Ven, R J; Hall, E J S; Greenwood, P L; Hopkins, D L

    2017-01-01

    Meat quality parameters for 50 huacaya alpacas, representing three age groups (18, 24 and 36months) and two genders (females and castrated males) were studied. Prior to chilling, samples of m. longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LL) were taken to determine isocitrate dehydrogenase activity and glycogen concentration, and further meat quality samples were taken after 24h. Alpaca meat has low levels (<1%) of intramuscular fat in the LL, m. semimembranosus and m. biceps femoris, but the level in the LL increases with animal age, with levels of desirable polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) ranging from 96.3 to 136.4mg/100g. Lipid oxidisation post retail display ranged from 1.27 to 1.96MDA/kg meat. Colour stability testing indicated alpaca meat was relatively stable during retail display with day of display having no significant effect on lightness (L*), or the 630nm/580nm ratio. These results may relate to the high proportion (76%) of glycolytic and type IIX muscle fibres in LL. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Localization of orexin B and receptor 2 for orexins in testicular cytotypes of the camelid alpaca (Vicugna pacos).

    PubMed

    Liguori, G; Squillacioti, C; Assisi, L; Mirabella, N; Langella, E; Costagliola, A; Vittoria, A

    2017-02-08

    The orexins A (OxA) and B (OxB) are two hypothalamic peptides involved in many physiological functions of the mammalian body. They act through the binding of two G-coupled receptors named receptor 1 (OX1 ) and receptor 2 (OX2 ) for orexins. The first receptor is specific for OxA, while the second binds both the substances with equal affinity. The orexins and the relative receptors have been traced by means of different techniques also at the periphery of the body and particularly in the adrenals, and in gastrointestinal and genital organs. Aim of this work was to investigate the presence of OxB and OX2 by means of immunohistochemistry and Western blotting analysis in the testis of the South American camelid alpaca, a species primarily breed in Chile and Ecuador and recently diffused in Europe where the quality of its wool is particularly appreciated. OxB immunoreactivity (IR) was found in the tubular compartment of the testis where spermatogonia (resting), zygotene and pachytene spermatocytes, and spermatids clearly showed differently sized and shaped cytoplasmic positive structures. OX2 -IR was found both in the interstitial and tubular compartments of the testis and particularly in Leydig cells and round and elongated spermatids. Western blotting analysis of testis lysates showed the presence of a protein band whose molecular weight corresponded to that currently assigned to OX2 . Such findings easily translate the hypothesis that OxB and its receptor 2 play a functional role both in the interstitial and tubular compartments of the alpaca testis.

  10. [Sandflies (Diptera, psychodidae) in a secondary forest area in the Paco do Lumiar city, Maranhao, Brazil: a leishmaniasis transmission area].

    PubMed

    Barros, V L; Rebêlo, J M; Silva, F S

    2000-01-01

    This paper analyzes the wealth of species, relative abundance, seasonal fluctuation, and nocturnal activity of sandflies. The field survey was conducted in a "capoeira" (secondary forest) area in the county of Paço do Lumiar, Maranhão, where cutaneous and transmission of visceral leishmaniasis frequently occurs. Sandflies were captured by CDC-type light traps from 6:00 PM to 6:00 AM, once a month, from March 1997 to February 1998. A total of 489 specimens were collected (251 males and 238 females), distributed among 10 species: Lutzomyia antunesi (45.19%), Lutzomyia whitmani (29.4%), Lutzomyia longipalpis (7.56%), Lutzomyia sordelli (6.34%), Lutzomyia flaviscutellata (4.5%), Brumptomyia avellari (4.09%), Lutzomyia evandroi (1.85%), Lutzomyia umbratilis (0.61%), Lutzomyia corossoniensis (0.41%), and Lutzomyia trispinosa (0.41%). The sandflies were present year round, with higher abundance during the rainy season. They were present in all intervals studied, with the highest frequency between 12:00 PM and 1:00 AM (31%).

  11. Mycoplasma hominis ssp. associated endocarditis with myocardial necrosis in an alpaca (Vicugna pacos) in Manitoba in 2011

    PubMed Central

    Tomczyk, Krzysztof M.; Copeland, Shelagh; Postey, Rosemary; Ngeleka, Musangu

    2015-01-01

    Severe endocarditis with myonecrosis, moderate to severe pleural and pericardial effusions, and mild ascites were found on necropsy in 3 alpacas. Mycoplasma hominis ssp. was detected on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of fresh affected endocardial tissue in 1 alpaca. PMID:25694661

  12. Case report: Abortion and disseminated infection by Coccidioides posadasii in an alpaca (Vicugna pacos) fetus in Southern California☆

    PubMed Central

    Diab, Santiago; Johnson, Suzanne M.; Garcia, Jorge; Carlson, Erin L.; Pappagianis, Demosthenes; Smith, Jana; Uzal, Francisco A.

    2013-01-01

    Coccidioidomycosis is a fungal disease affecting humans and other mammals caused by the soil-dwelling fungi Coccidioides immitis and C. posadasii. Abortion due to Coccidioides spp. infection is rare in domestic animals and transplacental transmission is considered uncommon in women. This report describes a case of placental-fetal infection and abortion in an alpaca with disseminated C. posadasii infection. PCR amplification and DNA sequencing were used to confirm the etiology, C. posadasii, in fetal tissues. PMID:24432245

  13. Mycoplasma hominis ssp. associated endocarditis with myocardial necrosis in an alpaca (Vicugna pacos) in Manitoba in 2011.

    PubMed

    Tomczyk, Krzysztof M; Copeland, Shelagh; Postey, Rosemary; Ngeleka, Musangu

    2015-02-01

    Severe endocarditis with myonecrosis, moderate to severe pleural and pericardial effusions, and mild ascites were found on necropsy in 3 alpacas. Mycoplasma hominis ssp. was detected on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of fresh affected endocardial tissue in 1 alpaca.

  14. Cysteine proteinases Fas1 and Fas2 are diagnostic markers for Fasciola hepatica infection in alpacas (Lama pacos).

    PubMed

    Neyra, Victor; Chavarry, Elizabeth; Espinoza, Jose R

    2002-04-19

    Circulating antibody against Fasciola hepatica antigens was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunoelectrophoresis in alpacas naturally exposed to F. hepatica. Serological assay parameters were established by using sera from eight infected animals and seven controls with no record of this parasitic infection. Excretory--secretory (ES-) products, Fas1- and Fas2-ELISA were used to survey 307 alpacas from a F. hepatica endemic area in the Peruvian Andes. Seroprevalence of F. hepatica infection varied from 56.7, 64.8 and 66.8% measured by Fas1-, Fas2- and ES-ELISA, respectively. The sensitivity for ES-ELISA was 95%, corresponding Fas1- and Fas2-ELISA sensitivity values were 90 and 95%. In this population, 7% of animals were positive for F. hepatica eggs in faeces, other parasites detected were Trichuris sp. (40%), Nematodirus sp. (34.6%), Lamanema sp. (12.8%) and Eimeria sp. (11.8%). The results show that F. hepatica infected animals elicit circulating antibodies against ES, Fas1 and Fas2. Fas2-ELISA may be proposed as a sensitive assay for the immunodiagnosis of fasciolosis in alpacas.

  15. Isolation and genetic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii from alpaca (Vicugna pacos) and sheep (Ovis aries) grazed on pasture in Virginia

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Muscles (heart, skeletal muscle) of nine alpacas with MAT titers of 1:25 were fed to T. gondii-free cats; the cats did not shed oocysts. Viable T. gondii was isolated from tissues of two of six seropositive alpacas by bioassay in mice. Viable T. gondii was isolated from three of three seropositive s...

  16. Prevalence and risk factors associated to Eimeria spp. infection in unweaned alpacas (Vicugna pacos) from Southern Peru.

    PubMed

    Díaz, Pablo; Panadero, Rosario; López, Rosalía; Cordero, Aida; Pérez-Creo, Ana; López, Ceferino M; Fernández, Gonzalo; Díez-Baños, Pablo; Morrondo, Patrocinio

    2016-01-01

    A total of 350 faecal samples from unweaned alpacas over 3 months of age were collected from 23 herds in order to determine the prevalence of Eimeria spp. in Southern Peru and to identify the risk factors associated to Eimeria infection in young alpacas. Samples were examined by a flotation technique and the identification of risk factors was assessed by a logistic regression analysis. Sixty four percent of the examined animals shed Eimeria oocysts; herd prevalence was 96%, with an intra-herd prevalence of 60% (range 5.9-100%). Five different Eimeria species were identified, being E. lamae (91%), E. alpacae (87%) and E. punoensis (78%) the most prevalent; E. macusaniensis (35%) and E. ivitaensis (13%) were less common. Mixed-species infections were more frequent (78%) than single infections (22%). E. lamae was the most common monospecific infection and E. lamae/E. alpacae the most frequent association. The geographical area has a significant effect on Eimeria infection rates (74.9% wet Puna vs 37.4% dry Puna) as well as the breeding system (65.1% traditional vs 63.8% modern). In contrast, the sex of the animals (64.6% males vs 64.0% females) showed no influence on the prevalence of infection by Eimeria. The high prevalence found at both individual and herd level and the common presence of highly pathogenic Eimeria species may lead to important economic losses for alpaca breeders and could require the implementation of suitable control measures.

  17. Antigenic variability in bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) isolates from alpaca (Vicugna pacos), llama (Lama glama) and bovines in Chile.

    PubMed

    Aguirre, I M; Quezada, M P; Celedón, M O

    2014-01-31

    Llamas and alpacas are domesticated South American camelids (SACs) important to ancestral population in the Altiplano region, and to different communities where they have been introduced worldwide. These ungulates have shown to be susceptible to several livestock viral pathogens such as members of the Pestivirus genus and mainly to bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV). Seventeen Chilean BVDV isolates were analyzed by serum cross neutralization with samples obtained from five llama, six alpacas, three bovines, plus three reference strains belonging to different subgroups and genotypes. The objective was to describe antigenic differences and similarities among them. Antigenic comparison showed significant differences between different subgroups. Consequently, antigenic similarities were observed among isolates belonging to the same subgroup and also between isolates from different animal species belonging the same subgroup. Among the analyzed samples, one pair of 1b subgroup isolates showed significant antigenic differences. On the other hand, one pair of isolates from different subgroups (1b and 1j) shared antigenic similarities indicating antigenic relatedness. This study shows for the first time the presence of antigenic differences within BVDV 1b subgroup and antigenic similarities within 1j subgroup isolates, demonstrating that genetic differences within BVDV subgroups do not necessary corresponds to differences on antigenicity.

  18. Para-acetabular periarthritis calcarea: its radiographic manifestations.

    PubMed

    Kawashima, A; Murayama, S; Ohuchida, T; Russell, W J

    1988-01-01

    On retrospective reviews of radiographs, periarthritis calcarea was distinguished from os acetabula by interval radiographic progression and regression. Among 59 men and 51 women, there were 137 instances of para-acetabular calcifications and ossifications, which were morphologically classified as 58 discrete, 58 amorphous, and 21 segmented types. Correlations with other radiographic abnormalities, symptoms, signs, and laboratory abnormalities were sought, but not established. Out of 93 serially imaged opacities, 90 changed, including 37 of the 40 instances (92.5%) of the discrete type and 53 instances (100%) of the amorphous and segmented types--due to periarthritis calcarea. At least 43 of 90 densities were newly developed. Mean age at first detection was 47.7 years. Three of the discrete densities were unchanged and represented os acetabula. Thus, recognition of para-acetabular periarthritis calcarea is not only of academic importance; it can facilitate proper treatment as well.

  19. Focal para-hisian atrial tachycardia with dual exits

    PubMed Central

    Lawrance Jesuraj, M.; Sharada, K.; Sridevi, C.; Narasimhan, C.

    2013-01-01

    Focal atrial tachycardias (AT) in the right atrium (RA) tend to cluster around the crista terminalis, coronary sinus (CS) region, tricuspid annulus, and para-hisian region. In most cases, the AT focus can be identified by careful activation mapping, and completely eliminated by radiofrequency (RF) catheter ablation. However, RF ablation near the His bundle (HB) carries a risk of inadvertent damage to the atrioventricular (AV) conduction system. Here we describe a patient with an AT originating in the vicinity of the AV node, which was successfully ablated earlier from non-coronary aortic cusp (NCC), and recurred with an exit from para-hisian location. Respiratory excursions of the catheter were associated with migration to the area of HIs. This was successfully ablated during controlled apnoea, using 3D electroanatomic mapping. PMID:23993015

  20. Conversion of para and ortho hydrogen in the Jovian planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Massie, S. T.; Hunten, D. M.

    1982-01-01

    A mechanism is proposed which partially equilibrates the para and ortho rotational levels of molecular hydrogen in the atmospheres of Jupiter, Saturn, and Uranus. Catalytic reactions between the free-radical surface sites of aerosol particles and hydrogen modecules yield significant equilibration near 1 bar pressure, if the efficiency of conversion per collision is between 10 to the -8th and 10 to the -10th and the effective eddy mixing coefficient is 10,000 sq cm/sec. At lower pressures the ortho-para ratio retains the value at the top of the cloud layer, except for a very small effect from conversion in the thermosphere. The influence of conversion on the specific heat and adiabatic lapse rate is also investigated. The effect is found to be generally small, though is can rise to 10% inside the aerosol layer.

  1. Production Ratio for Para- and Ortho-Ps in Photodetachment of Ps^-

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Igarashi, Akinori

    2017-01-01

    Para- and ortho-Ps atoms are formed in the photodetachment of positronium negative ion. Since the lifetime against the pair annihilation is much shorter for para-Ps( ns) than for ortho-Ps( ns), the production ratio of para- and ortho-Ps atoms is important for the photodetachment experiments. We have derived the ratio explicitly.

  2. Synthesis of High Molecular Weight Para-Phenylene PBI

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-11-01

    give high molecular weight m-phenylene PBI (Reference 7). The polymer was completely soluble in methanesulfonic acid and 98% formic acid . Polymer with...mono- mer is a white crystalline solid which can be quantitatively hydrolized in an acid medium to give the free TAB. Stoichiometric quantities of IX...WEIGHT "PARA"-PHENYLENE PBI TECHNICAL REPORT AFML-TR-74-199 NOVEMBER 1974 Distribution limited to U.S.Government agencies only, test and evaluation

  3. Photodissociation dynamics of the ortho- and para-xylyl radicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pachner, Kai; Steglich, Mathias; Hemberger, Patrick; Fischer, Ingo

    2017-08-01

    The photodissociation dynamics of the C8H9 isomers ortho- and para-xylyl are investigated in a free jet. The xylyl radicals are generated by flash pyrolysis from 2-(2-methylphenyl)- and 2-(4-methylphenyl) ethyl nitrite and are excited into the D3 state. REMPI- spectra show vibronic structure and the origin of the transition is identified at 32 291 cm-1 for the para- and at 32 132 cm-1 for the ortho-isomer. Photofragment H-atom action spectra show bands at the same energy and thus confirm H-atom loss from xylyl radicals. To gain further insight into the photodissociation dynamics, velocity map images of the hydrogen atom photofragments are recorded. Their angular distribution is isotropic and the translational energy release is in agreement with a dissociation to products in their electronic ground state. Photodissociation of para-xylyl leads to the formation of para-xylylene (C8H8), while the data for ortho-xylyl agree much better with the isomer benzocyclobutene as the dominant molecular fragment rather than ortho-xylylene. In computations we identified a new pathway for the reaction ortho-xylyl → benzocyclobutene + H with a barrier of 3.39 eV (27 340 cm-1), which becomes accessible at the employed excitation energy. It proceeds via a combination of scissoring and rotational motion of the -CH2 and -CH3 groups. However, the observed rate constants measured by delaying the excitation and ionization laser with respect to each other are significantly faster than computed ones, indicating intrinsic non-RRKM behaviour. A comparably high value of around 30% of the excess energy is released as translation of the H-atom photofragment.

  4. Relative Contributions of Agricultural Drift, Para-Occupational ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Background: Increased pesticide concentrations in house dust in agricultural areas have been attributed to several exposure pathways, including agricultural drift, para-occupational, and residential use. Objective: To guide future exposure assessment efforts, we quantified relative contributions of these pathways using meta-regression models of published data on dust pesticide concentrations. Methods: From studies in North American agricultural areas published from 1995-2015, we abstracted dust pesticide concentrations reported as summary statistics (e.g., geometric means (GM)). We analyzed these data using mixed-effects meta-regression models that weighted each summary statistic by its inverse variance. Dependent variables were either the log-transformed GM (drift) or the log-transformed ratio of GMs from two groups (para-occupational, residential use). Results: For the drift pathway, predicted GMs decreased sharply and nonlinearly, with GMs 64% lower in homes 250 m versus 23 m from fields (inter-quartile range of published data) based on 52 statistics from 7 studies. For the para-occupational pathway, GMs were 2.3 times higher (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.5-3.3; 15 statistics, 5 studies) in homes of farmers who applied pesticides more versus less recently or frequently. For the residential use pathway, GMs were 1.3 (95%CI: 1.1-1.4) and 1.5 (95%CI: 1.2-1.9) times higher in treated versus untreated homes, when the probability that a pesticide was used for

  5. TELEMEDICINA: UN DESAFÍO PARA AMÉRICA LATINA

    PubMed Central

    Litewka, Sergio

    2011-01-01

    La telemedicina es una tendencia creciente en la prestación de los servicios médicos. Aunque la eficacia de esta práctica no ha estado bien establecida, es probable que los países en desarrollo compartirán este nuevo paradigma con los desarrollados. Los defensores de la telemedicina en América Latina sostienen que será una herramienta útil para reducir las disparidades y mejorar la accesibilidad de atención de salud. Aunque América Latina quizá se convierta en un lugar para la investigación e investigación de estos procedimientos, no está claro cómo la telemedicina podría contribuir a mejorar la accesibilidad para las poblaciones desfavorecidas, o coexistir con sistemas de atención de salud públicos crónicamente enfermos. Telemedicine is a growing trend in the provision of medical services. Although the effectiveness of this practice has not been well established, it is likely that developing countries will share this new paradigm with developed ones. Supporters of telemedicine in Latin America maintain that it will be a useful tool for reducing disparities and improving health care accessibility. Although Latin America might become a place for research and investigation of these procedures, it is not clear how telemedicine could contribute to improving accessibility for disadvantaged populations, or coexist with chronically ill-funded public healthcare systems. PMID:21625326

  6. TELEMEDICINA: UN DESAFÍO PARA AMÉRICA LATINA.

    PubMed

    Litewka, Sergio

    2005-01-01

    La telemedicina es una tendencia creciente en la prestación de los servicios médicos. Aunque la eficacia de esta práctica no ha estado bien establecida, es probable que los países en desarrollo compartirán este nuevo paradigma con los desarrollados. Los defensores de la telemedicina en América Latina sostienen que será una herramienta útil para reducir las disparidades y mejorar la accesibilidad de atención de salud. Aunque América Latina quizá se convierta en un lugar para la investigación e investigación de estos procedimientos, no está claro cómo la telemedicina podría contribuir a mejorar la accesibilidad para las poblaciones desfavorecidas, o coexistir con sistemas de atención de salud públicos crónicamente enfermos.Telemedicine is a growing trend in the provision of medical services. Although the effectiveness of this practice has not been well established, it is likely that developing countries will share this new paradigm with developed ones. Supporters of telemedicine in Latin America maintain that it will be a useful tool for reducing disparities and improving health care accessibility. Although Latin America might become a place for research and investigation of these procedures, it is not clear how telemedicine could contribute to improving accessibility for disadvantaged populations, or coexist with chronically ill-funded public healthcare systems.

  7. Determination of the Ratio of Ortho Hydrogen and Para Hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, D.; Ihas, G. G.; Sullivan, N. S.

    2003-03-01

    The two different quantum states of hydrogen, ortho-hydrogen and para-hydrogen, possess different properties. The accurate determination of the ortho/para ratio in gaseous, liquid and solid state is important both for research needs and for applications in cryogenic engineering, such as H2 production, transport and storage. NMR can determine the ratio1 accurately, but it is cumbersome and often not practical. Cryogenic applications need a simple and reliable method. We report on the development of a thermal conductivity gauge employing a pure metal thin film that serves as both heater and thermometer for the detection of ortho-para hydrogen ratios in the gaseous state. This ratio-meter has been tested and found to have a nearly pressure-independent voltage response over a broad pressure range with a constant current. The thermal conductivity of hydrogen and nitrogen was measured and found to agree quantitatively with published data. The new development will be presented. *Thanks to Larry Phelps, Bill Malphurs, Stephen Wood, David Hernandez. # Supported by NASA Contract NAG3-2750 Ref. 1. D. Zhou, C. M. Edwards, and N. S. Sullivan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 1528 (1989)

  8. Surgical treatment of para-oesophageal hiatal hernia.

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, M. L.; Duffy, J. P.; Beggs, F. D.; Salama, F. D.; Knowles, K. R.; Morgan, W. E.

    2001-01-01

    The development of laparoscopic antireflux surgery has stimulated interest in laparoscopic para-oesophageal hiatal hernia repair. This review of our practice over 10 years using a standard transthoracic technique was undertaken to establish the safety and effectiveness of the open technique to allow comparison. Sixty patients with para-oesophageal hiatal hernia were operated on between 1989 and 1999. There were 38 women and 22 men with a median age of 69.5 years. There were 47 elective and 13 emergency presentations. Operation consisted of a left thoracotomy, hernia reduction and crural repair. An antireflux procedure was added in selected patients. There were no deaths among the elective cases and one among the emergency cases. Median follow-up time was 19 months. There was one recurrence (1.5%). Seven patients (12%) required a single oesophagoscopy and dilatation up to 2 years postoperatively but have been asymptomatic since. Two patients (3%) developed symptomatic reflux which has been well controlled on proton-pump inhibitors. Transthoracic para-oesophageal hernia repair can be safely performed with minimal recurrence. PMID:11777134

  9. Para rubber seed oil: new promising unconventional oil for cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Lourith, Nattaya; Kanlayavattanakul, Mayuree; Sucontphunt, Apirada; Ondee, Thunnicha

    2014-01-01

    Para rubber seed was macerated in petroleum ether and n-hexane, individually, for 30 min. The extraction was additionally performed by reflux and soxhlet for 6 h with the same solvent and proportion. Soxhlet extraction by petroleum ether afforded the greatest extractive yield (22.90 ± 0.92%). Although antioxidant activity by means of 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay was insignificantly differed in soxhleted (8.90 ± 1.15%) and refluxed (9.02 ± 0.71%) by n-hexane, soxhlet extraction by n-hexane was significantly (p < 0.05) potent scavenged 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothaiazoline)-6-sulfonic acid) or ABTS radical with trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) of 66.54 ± 6.88 mg/100 g oil. This extract was non cytotoxic towards normal human fibroblast cells. In addition, oleic acid and palmitic acid were determined at a greater content than in the seed of para rubber cultivated in Malaysia, although linoleic and stearic acid contents were not differed. This bright yellow extract was further evaluated on other physicochemical characters. The determined specific gravity, refractive index, iodine value, peroxide value and saponification value were in the range of commercialized vegetable oils used as cosmetic raw material. Therefore, Para rubber seed oil is highlighted as the promising ecological ingredient appraisal for cosmetics. Transforming of the seed that is by-product of the important industrial crop of Thailand into cosmetics is encouraged accordingly.

  10. [Genetic analysis of an individual with para-Bombay phenotype].

    PubMed

    Lin, Jia-jin; Huang, Ying; Zhu, Sui-yong

    2013-04-01

    To study genetic characteristics of an individual with para-Bombay phenotype and her family members. ABO and H antigens were detected with routine serological techniques.The entire coding region of FUT1 gene was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). PCR products was purified with enzymes digestion and directly sequenced. The RBCs of the proband did not agglutinate with H antibody. The proband therefore has a para-Bombay phenotype (Bmh). Direct sequencing indicated the FUT1 sequence of the proband contained a homozygous 547-552 del AG and heterozygous 814A>G mutation, which gave rise to two haplotypes of 547-552delAG, 547-552delAG and 814A>G. The ABO blood type of the proband' s mother and sisters were all B.Sequencing of the FUT1 gene has found heterozygous 547-552 del AG, 814A>G mutations in the mother and elder sister, and heterozygous 547-552 del AG mutation in her younger sister. The FUT1 547-552 del AG and 814 A>G mutations of the proband were inherited from her mother. A complex mutation of the FUT1 gene consisting of 547-55 del AG and 814 A>G has been identified in an individual with para-Bombay phenotype.

  11. The Regulation of para-Nitrophenol Degradation in Pseudomonas putida DLL-E4.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qiongzhen; Tu, Hui; Luo, Xue; Zhang, Biying; Huang, Fei; Li, Zhoukun; Wang, Jue; Shen, Wenjing; Wu, Jiale; Cui, Zhongli

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas putida DLL-E4 can efficiently degrade para-nitrophenol and its intermediate metabolite hydroquinone. The regulation of para-nitrophenol degradation was studied, and PNP induced a global change in the transcriptome of P. putida DLL-E4. When grown on PNP, the wild-type strain exhibited significant downregulation of 2912 genes and upregulation of 845 genes, whereas 2927 genes were downregulated and 891 genes upregulated in a pnpR-deleted strain. Genes related to two non-coding RNAs (ins1 and ins2), para-nitrophenol metabolism, the tricarboxylic acid cycle, the outer membrane porin OprB, glucose dehydrogenase Gcd, and carbon catabolite repression were significantly upregulated when cells were grown on para-nitrophenol plus glucose. pnpA, pnpR, pnpC1C2DECX1X2, and pnpR1 are key genes in para-nitrophenol degradation, whereas pnpAb and pnpC1bC2bDbEbCbX1bX2b have lost the ability to degrade para-nitrophenol. Multiple components including transcriptional regulators and other unknown factors regulate para-nitrophenol degradation, and the transcriptional regulation of para-nitrophenol degradation is complex. Glucose utilization was enhanced at early stages of para-nitrophenol supplementation. However, it was inhibited after the total consumption of para-nitrophenol. The addition of glucose led to a significant enhancement in para-nitrophenol degradation and up-regulation in the expression of genes involved in para-nitrophenol degradation and carbon catabolite repression (CCR). It seemed that para-nitrophenol degradation can be regulated by CCR, and relief of CCR might contribute to enhanced para-nitrophenol degradation. In brief, the regulation of para-nitrophenol degradation seems to be controlled by multiple factors and requires further study.

  12. The Regulation of para-Nitrophenol Degradation in Pseudomonas putida DLL-E4

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Qiongzhen; Tu, Hui; Luo, Xue; Zhang, Biying; Huang, Fei; Li, Zhoukun; Wang, Jue; Shen, Wenjing; Wu, Jiale; Cui, Zhongli

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas putida DLL-E4 can efficiently degrade para-nitrophenol and its intermediate metabolite hydroquinone. The regulation of para-nitrophenol degradation was studied, and PNP induced a global change in the transcriptome of P. putida DLL-E4. When grown on PNP, the wild-type strain exhibited significant downregulation of 2912 genes and upregulation of 845 genes, whereas 2927 genes were downregulated and 891 genes upregulated in a pnpR-deleted strain. Genes related to two non-coding RNAs (ins1 and ins2), para-nitrophenol metabolism, the tricarboxylic acid cycle, the outer membrane porin OprB, glucose dehydrogenase Gcd, and carbon catabolite repression were significantly upregulated when cells were grown on para-nitrophenol plus glucose. pnpA, pnpR, pnpC1C2DECX1X2, and pnpR1 are key genes in para-nitrophenol degradation, whereas pnpAb and pnpC1bC2bDbEbCbX1bX2b have lost the ability to degrade para-nitrophenol. Multiple components including transcriptional regulators and other unknown factors regulate para-nitrophenol degradation, and the transcriptional regulation of para-nitrophenol degradation is complex. Glucose utilization was enhanced at early stages of para-nitrophenol supplementation. However, it was inhibited after the total consumption of para-nitrophenol. The addition of glucose led to a significant enhancement in para-nitrophenol degradation and up-regulation in the expression of genes involved in para-nitrophenol degradation and carbon catabolite repression (CCR). It seemed that para-nitrophenol degradation can be regulated by CCR, and relief of CCR might contribute to enhanced para-nitrophenol degradation. In brief, the regulation of para-nitrophenol degradation seems to be controlled by multiple factors and requires further study. PMID:27191401

  13. Studies on barium bis-para-nitrophenolate para-nitrophenol tetra hydrate NLO single crystal by unidirectional growth method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uthrakumar, R.; Vesta, C.; Jose, M.; Sugandhi, K.; Krishnan, S.; Jerome Das, S.

    2010-08-01

    The unidirectional crystal growth technique has been employed for the bulk growth of semi-organic nonlinear optical barium bis-para-nitrophenolate para-nitrophenol tetra hydrate single crystals along the (2 2 0) direction with almost high solute-crystal conversion efficiency. The grown crystal was subjected to single crystal and powder XRD analyses in order to confirm the crystal identity. Optical absorption studies reveal very high transmittance in the entire visible and near IR region. The presence of various functional groups is confirmed by FTIR analysis. Low dielectric loss at high frequency region is indicative of enhanced optical quality with lesser defects. Photoconductivity measurements carried out on the grown crystal reveal the negative photoconducting nature.

  14. ORTHO-PARA SELECTION RULES IN THE GAS-PHASE CHEMISTRY OF INTERSTELLAR AMMONIA

    SciTech Connect

    Faure, A.; Hily-Blant, P.; Le Gal, R.; Rist, C.

    2013-06-10

    The ortho-para chemistry of ammonia in the cold interstellar medium is investigated using a gas-phase chemical network. Branching ratios for the primary reaction chain involved in the formation and destruction of ortho- and para-NH{sub 3} were derived using angular momentum rules based on the conservation of the nuclear spin. We show that the 'anomalous' ortho-to-para ratio of ammonia ({approx}0.7) observed in various interstellar regions is in fact consistent with nuclear spin selection rules in a para-enriched H{sub 2} gas. This ratio is found to be independent of temperature in the range 5-30 K. We also predict an ortho-to-para ratio of {approx}2.3 for NH{sub 2}. We conclude that a low ortho-to-para ratio of H{sub 2} naturally drives the ortho-to-para ratios of nitrogen hydrides below the statistical values.

  15. Amazon Land Wars in the South of Para

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simmons, Cynthia S.; Walker, Robert T.; Arima, Eugenio Y.; Aldrich, Stephen P.; Caldas, Marcellus M.

    2007-01-01

    The South of Para, located in the heart of the Brazilian Amazon, has become notorious for violent land struggle. Although land conflict has a long history in Brazil, and today impacts many parts of the country, violence is most severe and persistent here. The purpose of this article is to examine why. Specifically, we consider how a particular Amazonian place, the so-called South of Para has come to be known as Brazil's most dangerous badland. We begin by considering the predominant literature, which attributes land conflict to the frontier expansion process with intensified struggle emerging in the face of rising property values and demand for private property associated with capitalist development. From this discussion, we distill a concept of the frontier, based on notions of property rights evolution and locational rents. We then empirically test the persistence of place-based violence in the region, and assess the frontier movement through an analysis of transportation costs. The findings from the analyses indicate that the prevalent theorization of frontier violence in Amazonia does little to explain its persistent and pervasive nature in the South of Para. To fill this gap in understanding, we develop an explanation based the geographic conception of place, and we use contentious politics theory heuristically to elucidate the ways in which general processes interact with place specific history to engender a landscape of violence. In so doing, we focus on environmental, cognitive, and relational mechanisms (and implicated structures), and attempt to deploy them in an explanatory framework that allows direct observation of the accumulating layers of the region's tragic history. We end by placing our discussion within a political ecological context, and consider the implications of the Amazon Land War for the environment.

  16. Amazon Land Wars in the South of Para

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simmons, Cynthia S.; Walker, Robert T.; Arima, Eugenio Y.; Aldrich, Stephen P.; Caldas, Marcellus M.

    2007-01-01

    The South of Para, located in the heart of the Brazilian Amazon, has become notorious for violent land struggle. Although land conflict has a long history in Brazil, and today impacts many parts of the country, violence is most severe and persistent here. The purpose of this article is to examine why. Specifically, we consider how a particular Amazonian place, the so-called South of Para has come to be known as Brazil's most dangerous badland. We begin by considering the predominant literature, which attributes land conflict to the frontier expansion process with intensified struggle emerging in the face of rising property values and demand for private property associated with capitalist development. From this discussion, we distill a concept of the frontier, based on notions of property rights evolution and locational rents. We then empirically test the persistence of place-based violence in the region, and assess the frontier movement through an analysis of transportation costs. The findings from the analyses indicate that the prevalent theorization of frontier violence in Amazonia does little to explain its persistent and pervasive nature in the South of Para. To fill this gap in understanding, we develop an explanation based the geographic conception of place, and we use contentious politics theory heuristically to elucidate the ways in which general processes interact with place specific history to engender a landscape of violence. In so doing, we focus on environmental, cognitive, and relational mechanisms (and implicated structures), and attempt to deploy them in an explanatory framework that allows direct observation of the accumulating layers of the region's tragic history. We end by placing our discussion within a political ecological context, and consider the implications of the Amazon Land War for the environment.

  17. INTERVENCIÓN EDUCATIVA EFECTIVA EN VIH PARA MUJERES

    PubMed Central

    Miner, Sarah; Poupin, Lauren; Bernales, Margarita; Ferrer, Lilian; Cianelli, Rosina

    2016-01-01

    RESUMEN En Chile se estima que aproximadamente 38 mil personas viven con el Virus de Inmunodeficiencia Humana [VIH]. En el año 2001, 1.092 mujeres chilenas vivían con VIH, actualmente se cree que hay más de 7.600 mujeres con el virus. Frente a estas cifras surge la necesidad de crear estrategias de prevención dirigidas a mujeres chilenas. Objetivo analizar los estudios ya realizados en la prevención de VIH para determinar qué aspectos se deben incluir en programas exitosos de prevención de VIH en mujeres. Diseño y Método se realizó una revisión de la literatura utilizando la base de datos Proquest, CINAHL, Pubmed y Scielo. Los límites comprendieron: textos completos, de los últimos 10 años, de acceso gratuito y escrito en español o inglés. Se seleccionaron 15 artículos para la revisión. Resultados todos los artículos comprenden la evaluación del efecto de una intervención sobre conocimiento y conductas relacionadas con VIH/SIDA. Catorce muestran resultados significativos en cambios positivos de conducta o conocimientos relacionados con la prevención de VIH. Conclusiones los programas de prevención de VIH en mujeres pueden ser efectivos para lograr cambios de conducta y de conocimiento. Las intervenciones exitosas son aquellas basadas en teorías o modelos de prevención y en cambios de conductas, todas adaptadas a la cultura de la población estudiada. PMID:27667897

  18. RVA: A Plugin for ParaView 3.14

    SciTech Connect

    2015-09-04

    RVA is a plugin developed for the 64-bit Windows version of the ParaView 3.14 visualization package. RVA is designed to provide support in the visualization and analysis of complex reservoirs being managed using multi-fluid EOR techniques. RVA, for Reservoir Visualization and Analysis, was developed at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, with contributions from the Illinois State Geological Survey, Department of Computer Science and National Center for Supercomputing Applications. RVA was designed to utilize and enhance the state-of-the-art visualization capabilities within ParaView, readily allowing joint visualization of geologic framework and reservoir fluid simulation model results. Particular emphasis was placed on enabling visualization and analysis of simulation results highlighting multiple fluid phases, multiple properties for each fluid phase (including flow lines), multiple geologic models and multiple time steps. Additional advanced functionality was provided through the development of custom code to implement data mining capabilities. The built-in functionality of ParaView provides the capacity to process and visualize data sets ranging from small models on local desktop systems to extremely large models created and stored on remote supercomputers. The RVA plugin that we developed and the associated User Manual provide improved functionality through new software tools, and instruction in the use of ParaView-RVA, targeted to petroleum engineers and geologists in industry and research. The RVA web site (http://rva.cs.illinois.edu) provides an overview of functions, and the development web site (https://github.com/shaffer1/RVA) provides ready access to the source code, compiled binaries, user manual, and a suite of demonstration data sets. Key functionality has been included to support a range of reservoirs visualization and analysis needs, including: sophisticated connectivity analysis, cross sections through simulation results between

  19. Para-hydrogen narrow filament evaporation at low temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elizarova, T. G.; Gogolin, A. A.; Montero, S.

    2012-11-01

    Undercooling of liquid para-hydrogen (pH2) below its freezing point at equilibrium (13.8 K) has been shown recently in flowing micro-filaments evaporating in low density background gas [M. Kühnel et al, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 245301 (2011)]. An hydrodynamical model accounting for this process is reported here. Analytical expressions for the local temperature T of a filament, averaged over its cross section, are obtained as a function of distance z to the nozzle. Comparison with the experiment is shown. It is shown also that the thermocapillary forces induce a parabolic profile of velocity across the jet.

  20. RVA: A Plugin for ParaView 3.14

    SciTech Connect

    2015-09-04

    RVA is a plugin developed for the 64-bit Windows version of the ParaView 3.14 visualization package. RVA is designed to provide support in the visualization and analysis of complex reservoirs being managed using multi-fluid EOR techniques. RVA, for Reservoir Visualization and Analysis, was developed at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, with contributions from the Illinois State Geological Survey, Department of Computer Science and National Center for Supercomputing Applications. RVA was designed to utilize and enhance the state-of-the-art visualization capabilities within ParaView, readily allowing joint visualization of geologic framework and reservoir fluid simulation model results. Particular emphasis was placed on enabling visualization and analysis of simulation results highlighting multiple fluid phases, multiple properties for each fluid phase (including flow lines), multiple geologic models and multiple time steps. Additional advanced functionality was provided through the development of custom code to implement data mining capabilities. The built-in functionality of ParaView provides the capacity to process and visualize data sets ranging from small models on local desktop systems to extremely large models created and stored on remote supercomputers. The RVA plugin that we developed and the associated User Manual provide improved functionality through new software tools, and instruction in the use of ParaView-RVA, targeted to petroleum engineers and geologists in industry and research. The RVA web site (http://rva.cs.illinois.edu) provides an overview of functions, and the development web site (https://github.com/shaffer1/RVA) provides ready access to the source code, compiled binaries, user manual, and a suite of demonstration data sets. Key functionality has been included to support a range of reservoirs visualization and analysis needs, including: sophisticated connectivity analysis, cross sections through simulation results between

  1. Biodegradation of Para Amino Acetanilide by Halomonas sp. TBZ3

    PubMed Central

    Hajizadeh, Nader; Sefidi Heris, Youssof; Zununi Vahed, Sepideh; Vallipour, Javad; Hejazi, Mohammad Amin; Golabi, Sayyed Mahdi; Asadpour-Zeynali, Karim; Hejazi, Mohammad Saeid

    2015-01-01

    Background: Aromatic compounds are known as a group of highly persistent environmental pollutants. Halomonas sp. TBZ3 was isolated from the highly salty Urmia Lake of Iran. In this study, characterization of a new Halomonas isolate called Halomonas sp. TBZ3 and its employment for biodegradation of para-amino acetanilide (PAA), as an aromatic environmental pollutant, is described. Objectives: This study aimed to characterize the TBZ3 isolate and to elucidate its ability as a biodegradative agent that decomposes PAA. Materials and Methods: Primarily, DNA-DNA hybridization between TBZ3, Halomonas denitrificans DSM18045T and Halomonas saccharevitans LMG 23976T was carried out. Para-amino acetanilide biodegradation was assessed using spectrophotometry and confirmed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). Parameters effective on biodegradation of PAA were optimized by the Response Surface Methodology (RSM). Results: The DNA-DNA hybridization experiments between isolate TBZ3, H. denitrificans and H. saccharevitans revealed relatedness levels of 57% and 65%, respectively. According to GC-MS results, TBZ3 degrades PAA to benzene, hexyl butanoate, 3-methyl-1-heptanol and hexyl hexanoate. Temperature 32.92°C, pH 6.76, and salinity 14% are the optimum conditions for biodegradation with a confidence level of 95% (at level α = 0.05). Conclusions: According to our results, Halomonas sp. TBZ3 could be considered as a biological agent for bioremediation of PAA and possibly other similar aromatic compounds. PMID:26495103

  2. CYP96T1 of Narcissus sp. aff. pseudonarcissus Catalyzes Formation of the Para-Para' C-C Phenol Couple in the Amaryllidaceae Alkaloids.

    PubMed

    Kilgore, Matthew B; Augustin, Megan M; May, Gregory D; Crow, John A; Kutchan, Toni M

    2016-01-01

    The Amaryllidaceae alkaloids are a family of amino acid derived alkaloids with many biological activities; examples include haemanthamine, haemanthidine, galanthamine, lycorine, and maritidine. Central to the biosynthesis of the majority of these alkaloids is a C-C phenol-coupling reaction that can have para-para', para-ortho', or ortho-para' regiospecificity. Through comparative transcriptomics of Narcissus sp. aff. pseudonarcissus, Galanthus sp., and Galanthus elwesii we have identified a para-para' C-C phenol coupling cytochrome P450, CYP96T1, capable of forming the products (10bR,4aS)-noroxomaritidine and (10bS,4aR)-noroxomaritidine from 4'-O-methylnorbelladine. CYP96T1 was also shown to catalyzed formation of the para-ortho' phenol coupled product, N-demethylnarwedine, as less than 1% of the total product. CYP96T1 co-expresses with the previously characterized norbelladine 4'-O-methyltransferase. The discovery of CYP96T1 is of special interest because it catalyzes the first major branch in Amaryllidaceae alkaloid biosynthesis. CYP96T1 is also the first phenol-coupling enzyme characterized from a monocot.

  3. CYP96T1 of Narcissus sp. aff. pseudonarcissus Catalyzes Formation of the Para-Para' C-C Phenol Couple in the Amaryllidaceae Alkaloids

    PubMed Central

    Kilgore, Matthew B.; Augustin, Megan M.; May, Gregory D.; Crow, John A.; Kutchan, Toni M.

    2016-01-01

    The Amaryllidaceae alkaloids are a family of amino acid derived alkaloids with many biological activities; examples include haemanthamine, haemanthidine, galanthamine, lycorine, and maritidine. Central to the biosynthesis of the majority of these alkaloids is a C-C phenol-coupling reaction that can have para-para', para-ortho', or ortho-para' regiospecificity. Through comparative transcriptomics of Narcissus sp. aff. pseudonarcissus, Galanthus sp., and Galanthus elwesii we have identified a para-para' C-C phenol coupling cytochrome P450, CYP96T1, capable of forming the products (10bR,4aS)-noroxomaritidine and (10bS,4aR)-noroxomaritidine from 4′-O-methylnorbelladine. CYP96T1 was also shown to catalyzed formation of the para-ortho' phenol coupled product, N-demethylnarwedine, as less than 1% of the total product. CYP96T1 co-expresses with the previously characterized norbelladine 4′-O-methyltransferase. The discovery of CYP96T1 is of special interest because it catalyzes the first major branch in Amaryllidaceae alkaloid biosynthesis. CYP96T1 is also the first phenol-coupling enzyme characterized from a monocot. PMID:26941773

  4. Oropouche Virus. 3. Entomological Observations from Three Epidemics in Para, Brazil, 1975,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-10-06

    by block number) OROPOUCHE VIRUS, CULICOIDES PARAENSIS, EPIDEMICS, BRAZIL, PARA I&2 ABSThAC (Cantmus = revers e e* I nessamy and idewtty by block nmbe...8217)URBAN EPIDEMTCS OF OROPOUCHE ORO FEVER IN THREE MUNICIPALITIES IN PARA, BR.tZIL WERE SrUDIED IN 1975. CULICOIDES PARAENSIS GOELDI WERE COLLECTED...Medicine and Hygiene OROPOUCHE VIRUS III. ENTOMOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS FROM THREE EPIDEMICS IN PARA, BRAZIL, 1975* DONALD R. ROBERTS, ALFRED L. HOCH

  5. Crystal growth and DFT insight on sodium para-nitrophenolate para-nitrophenol dihydrate single crystal for NLO applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selvakumar, S.; Boobalan, Maria Susai; Anthuvan Babu, S.; Ramalingam, S.; Leo Rajesh, A.

    2016-12-01

    Single crystals of sodium para-nitrophenolate para-nitrophenol dihydrate (SPPD) were grown by slow evaporation technique and its structure has been studied by FT-IR, FT-Raman and single crystal X-ray diffraction techniques. The optical and electrical properties were characterized by UV-Vis spectrum, and dielectric studies respectively. SPPD was thermally stable up to 128 °C as determined by TG-DTA curves. Using the Kurtz-Perry powder method, the second-harmonic generation efficiency was found to be five times to that of KDP. Third-order nonlinear response was studied using Z-scan technique with a He-Ne laser (632.8 nm) and NLO parameters such as intensity dependent refractive index, nonlinear absorption coefficient and third-order susceptibility were also estimated. The molecular geometry from X-ray experiment in the ground state has been compared using density functional theory (DFT) with appropriate basis set. The first-order hyperpolarizability also calculated using DFT approaches. Stability of the molecule arising from hyperconjugative interactions leading to its nonlinear optical activity and charge delocalization were analyzed using natural bond orbital technique. HOMO-LUMO energy gap value suggests the possibility of charge transfer within the molecule. Based on optimized ground state geometries, Natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis was performed to study donor-acceptor interactions.

  6. Ortho- and para-hydrogen in dense clouds, protoplanets, and planetary atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decampli, W. M.; Cameron, A. G. W.; Bodenheimer, P.; Black, D. C.

    1978-01-01

    If ortho- and para-hydrogen achieve a thermal ratio on dynamical time scales in a molecular hydrogen cloud, then the specific heat is high enough in the temperature range 35-70 K to possibly induce hydrodynamic collapse. The ortho-para ratio in many interstellar cloud fragments is expected to meet this condition. The same may have been true for the primitive solar nebula. Detailed hydrodynamic and hydrostatic calculations are presented that show the effects of the assumed ortho-para ratio on the evolution of Jupiter during its protoplanetary phase. Some possible consequences of a thermalized ortho-para ratio in the atmospheres of the giant planets are also discussed.

  7. Nuevos sistemas de frecuencia intermedia para el IAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olalde, J. C.; Perilli, D.; Larrarte, J. J.

    Se presenta el diagrama en bloques de los nuevos sistemas de Frecuencia Intermedia para los dos radiómetros instalados en el IAR. Entre las características más importantes del sistema podemos mencionar la posibilidad de conectar cualquiera de las dos antenas a los ``backend" disponibles: analizador espectral de alta resolución (META II) de 0,05 Hz, autocorrelador de 1008 canales y contínuo. Se incorporan al sistema nuevos sintetizadores de frecuencia implementados con PLL y la moderna técnica de síntesis digital directa. Por último, el conjunto del sistema es susceptible de ser configurado por las computadoras de adquisición de datos, supervisadas por otra, que entrega el estado de funcionamiento actual y evita la selección de configuraciones incorrectas por parte del usuario.

  8. Para-phenylenediamine allergy: current perspectives on diagnosis and management

    PubMed Central

    Mukkanna, Krishna Sumanth; Stone, Natalie M; Ingram, John R

    2017-01-01

    Para-phenylenediamine (PPD) is the commonest and most well-known component of hair dyes. Oxidative hair dyes and dark henna temporary tattoos contain PPD. Individuals may be sensitized to PPD by temporary henna tattooing in addition to dyeing their hair. PPD allergy can cause severe reactions and may result in complications. In recent years, frequency of positive patch test reactions to PPD has been increasing. Cross-sensitization to other contact allergens may occur, in particular to other hair dye components. Hairdressers are at a high risk for PPD allergy and require counseling regarding techniques to minimize exposure and protective measures while handling hair dye. We focus this review on the current perspectives of diagnosis and management of PPD allergy. PMID:28176912

  9. Pneumatic protection applied to an airbag for para-gliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raievski, V.; Valladas, G.

    1998-02-01

    We present a theory of pneumatic protection based on the laws of thermodynamics, elasticity and fluid mechanics. A general pneumatic protection system is made up of several communicating compartments, the differences in pressure of the compartments generating a transfer of mass and energy between them. The transfer offers interesting possibilities to improve the performance of the system. An example of this type of protection in aerial sport is the airbag for para-gliders, it is used in this paper to illustrate the theory. As the pressure in the airbag depends uniquely on its volume, the geometric model in the theory can be simplified. Experiments carried out with crash-test dummies equipped with sensors have confirmed the theoretical predictions.

  10. Substrate mediated smooth growth of para-sexiphenyl on graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poelsema, Bene; Hlawacek, Gregor; Khokhar, Fawad S.; van Gastel, Raoul; Teichert, Christian

    2010-03-01

    We report on the layer-by-layer growthof lying para-sexiphenyl (6P) molecules on metal supported graphene flakes. The formation of multilayers has been monitored in situ by means of LEEM. μ-LEED has been used to reveal a bulk-like structure of the submonolayer, monolayer and multilayer regime. Graphene is a flexible, highly conductive and transparent electrode material, making it a promising technological substrate for organic semiconductors. 6P is a blue light emitting molecule with a high charge carrier mobility. The combination of an established deposition technique with the unique properties of organic semiconductors and graphene is an enabler for future flexible and cost efficient devices based on small conjugated molecules.

  11. Para-Hydrogen-Enhanced Gas-Phase Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Bouchard, Louis-S.; Kovtunov, Kirill V.; Burt, Scott R.; Anwar,M. Sabieh; Koptyug, Igor V.; Sagdeev, Renad Z.; Pines, Alexander

    2007-02-23

    Herein, we demonstrate magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) inthe gas phase using para-hydrogen (p-H2)-induced polarization. A reactantmixture of H2 enriched in the paraspin state and propylene gas is flowedthrough a reactor cell containing a heterogenized catalyst, Wilkinson'scatalyst immobilized on modified silica gel. The hydrogenation product,propane gas, is transferred to the NMR magnet and is spin-polarized as aresult of the ALTADENA (adiabatic longitudinal transport and dissociationengenders net alignment) effect. A polarization enhancement factor of 300relative to thermally polarized gas was observed in 1D1H NMR spectra.Enhancement was also evident in the magnetic resonance images. This isthe first demonstration of imaging a hyperpolarized gaseous productformed in a hydrogenation reaction catalyzed by a supported catalyst.This result may lead to several important applications, includingflow-through porous materials, gas-phase reaction kinetics and adsorptionstudies, and MRI in low fields, all using catalyst-free polarizedfluids.

  12. Electron impact ionization dynamics of para-benzoquinone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, D. B.; Ali, E.; Ning, C. G.; Colgan, J.; Ingólfsson, O.; Madison, D. H.; Brunger, M. J.

    2016-10-01

    Triple differential cross sections (TDCSs) for the electron impact ionization of the unresolved combination of the 4 highest occupied molecular orbitals (4b3g, 5b2u, 1b1g, and 2b3u) of para-benzoquinone are reported. These were obtained in an asymmetric coplanar geometry with the scattered electron being observed at the angles -7.5°, -10.0°, -12.5° and -15.0°. The experimental cross sections are compared to theoretical calculations performed at the molecular 3-body distorted wave level, with a marginal level of agreement between them being found. The character of the ionized orbitals, through calculated momentum profiles, provides some qualitative interpretation for the measured angular distributions of the TDCS.

  13. ParaText : scalable text analysis and visualization.

    SciTech Connect

    Dunlavy, Daniel M.; Stanton, Eric T.; Shead, Timothy M.

    2010-07-01

    Automated analysis of unstructured text documents (e.g., web pages, newswire articles, research publications, business reports) is a key capability for solving important problems in areas including decision making, risk assessment, social network analysis, intelligence analysis, scholarly research and others. However, as data sizes continue to grow in these areas, scalable processing, modeling, and semantic analysis of text collections becomes essential. In this paper, we present the ParaText text analysis engine, a distributed memory software framework for processing, modeling, and analyzing collections of unstructured text documents. Results on several document collections using hundreds of processors are presented to illustrate the exibility, extensibility, and scalability of the the entire process of text modeling from raw data ingestion to application analysis.

  14. Luttinger parameter of quasi-one-dimensional para -H2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferré, G.; Gordillo, M. C.; Boronat, J.

    2017-02-01

    We have studied the ground-state properties of para-hydrogen in one dimension and in quasi-one-dimensional configurations using the path-integral ground-state Monte Carlo method. This method produces zero-temperature exact results for a given interaction and geometry. The quasi-one-dimensional setup has been implemented in two forms: the inner channel inside a carbon nanotube coated with H2 and a harmonic confinement of variable strength. Our main result is the dependence of the Luttinger parameter on the density within the stable regime. Going from one dimension to quasi-one dimension, keeping the linear density constant, produces a systematic increase of the Luttinger parameter. This increase is, however, not enough to reach the superfluid regime and the system always remain in the quasicrystal regime, according to Luttinger liquid theory.

  15. Sponges, Tubules and Modulated Phases of Para-Antinematic Membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fournier, J. B.; Galatola, P.

    1997-10-01

    We theoretically analyze the behavior of membranes presenting a nematic susceptibility, induced by the presence of anisotropic phospholipids having a quadrupolar nematic symmetry. This kind of anisotropic phospholipids is either naturally found in some biological membranes, or can be chemically tailored by linking pairs of single surfactants at the level of their polar heads, giving rise to so-called “gemini” surfactants. We predict that such membranes can acquire a non-zero paranematic order induced by the membrane curvature, which in turn produces curvature instabilities. We call the resulting paranematic order para-antinematic, since it is opposite on opposite sides of the membrane. We find phase transitions toward sponges (L3), tubules, or modulated “egg-carton” phases.

  16. Ortho-Para Mixing Hyperfine Interaction in the H2O+ Ion and Nuclear Spin Equilibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Keiichi; Harada, Kensuke; Oka, Takeshi

    2013-10-01

    The ortho to para conversion of water ion, H2O+, due to the interaction between the magnetic moments of the unpaired electron and protons has been theoretically studied to calculate the spontaneous emission lifetime between the ortho- and para-levels. The electron spin-nuclear spin interaction term, Tab(Sa-Ib + Sb-Ia) mixes ortho (I = 1) and para (I = 0) levels to cause the -forbidden- ortho to para |-I| = 1 transition. The mixing term with Tab = 72.0 MHz is 4 orders of magnitude higher for H2O+ than for its neutral counterpart H2O where the magnetic field interacting with proton spins is by molecular rotation rather than the free electron. The resultant 108 increase of ortho to para conversion rate possibly makes the effect of conversion in H2O+ measurable in laboratories and possibly explains the anomalous ortho to para ratio recently reported by Herschel heterodyne instrument for the far-infrared (HIFI) observation. Results of our calculations show that the ortho - para mixings involving near-degenerate ortho and para levels are high (-10-3), but they tend to occur at high energy levels, -300 K. Because of the rapid spontaneous emission, such high levels are not populated in diffuse clouds unless the radiative temperature of the environment is very high. The low-lying 101 (para) and 111 (ortho) levels of H2O+ are mixed by -10-4 making the spontaneous emission lifetime for the para 101 - ortho 000 transition 520 years and 5200 years depending on the F value of the hyperfine structure. Thus the ortho - para conversion due to the unpaired electron is not likely to seriously affect thermalization of interstellar H2O+ unless either the radiative temperature is very high or number density of the cloud is very low.

  17. The Ratio of Ortho- to Para-H2 in Photodissociation Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sternberg, Amiel; Neufeld, David A.

    1999-01-01

    We discuss the ratio of ortho- to para-H2 in photodissociation regions (PDRs). We draw attention to an apparent confusion in the literature between the ortho-to-para ratio of molecules in FUV-pumped vibrationally excited states and the total H2 ortho-to-para abundance ratio. These ratios are not the same because the process of FUV pumping of fluorescent H2 emission in PDRs occurs via optically thick absorption lines. Thus gas with an equilibrium ratio of ortho- to para-H2 equal to 3 will yield FUV-pumped vibrationally excited ortho-to-para ratios smaller than 3, because the ortho-H2 pumping rates are preferentially reduced by optical depth effects. Indeed, if the ortho and para pumping lines are on the "square root" part of the curve of growth, then the expected ratio of ortho and para vibrational line strengths is 3(sup 1/2) approximately 1.7, close to the typically observed value. Thus, contrary to what has sometimes been stated in the literature, most previous measurements of the ratio of ortho- to para-H2 in vibrationally excited states are entirely consistent with a total ortho-to-para ratio of 3, the equilibrium value for temperatures greater than 200 K. We present an analysis and several detailed models that illustrate the relationship between the total ratios of ortho- to para-H2 and the vibrationally excited ortho-to-para ratios in PDRs. Recent Infrared Space Observatory measurements of pure rotational and vibrational H2 emissions from the PDR in the star-forming region S140 provide strong observational support for our conclusions.

  18. The Ratio of Ortho- to Para-H2 in Photodissociation Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sternberg, Amiel; Neufeld, David A.

    1999-01-01

    We discuss the ratio of ortho- to para-H2 in photodissociation regions (PDRs). We draw attention to an apparent confusion in the literature between the ortho-to-para ratio of molecules in FUV-pumped vibrationally excited states and the total H2 ortho-to-para abundance ratio. These ratios are not the same because the process of FUV pumping of fluorescent H2 emission in PDRs occurs via optically thick absorption lines. Thus gas with an equilibrium ratio of ortho- to para-H2 equal to 3 will yield FUV-pumped vibrationally excited ortho-to-para ratios smaller than 3, because the ortho-H2 pumping rates are preferentially reduced by optical depth effects. Indeed, if the ortho and para pumping lines are on the "square root" part of the curve of growth, then the expected ratio of ortho and para vibrational line strengths is 3(sup 1/2) approximately 1.7, close to the typically observed value. Thus, contrary to what has sometimes been stated in the literature, most previous measurements of the ratio of ortho- to para-H2 in vibrationally excited states are entirely consistent with a total ortho-to-para ratio of 3, the equilibrium value for temperatures greater than 200 K. We present an analysis and several detailed models that illustrate the relationship between the total ratios of ortho- to para-H2 and the vibrationally excited ortho-to-para ratios in PDRs. Recent Infrared Space Observatory measurements of pure rotational and vibrational H2 emissions from the PDR in the star-forming region S140 provide strong observational support for our conclusions.

  19. Ortho-para mixing hyperfine interaction in the H2O+ ion and nuclear spin equilibration.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Keiichi; Harada, Kensuke; Oka, Takeshi

    2013-10-03

    The ortho to para conversion of water ion, H2O(+), due to the interaction between the magnetic moments of the unpaired electron and protons has been theoretically studied to calculate the spontaneous emission lifetime between the ortho- and para-levels. The electron spin-nuclear spin interaction term, Tab(SaΔIb + SbΔIa) mixes ortho (I = 1) and para (I = 0) levels to cause the "forbidden" ortho to para |ΔI| = 1 transition. The mixing term with Tab = 72.0 MHz is 4 orders of magnitude higher for H2O(+) than for its neutral counterpart H2O where the magnetic field interacting with proton spins is by molecular rotation rather than the free electron. The resultant 10(8) increase of ortho to para conversion rate possibly makes the effect of conversion in H2O(+) measurable in laboratories and possibly explains the anomalous ortho to para ratio recently reported by Herschel heterodyne instrument for the far-infrared (HIFI) observation. Results of our calculations show that the ortho ↔ para mixings involving near-degenerate ortho and para levels are high (∼10(-3)), but they tend to occur at high energy levels, ∼300 K. Because of the rapid spontaneous emission, such high levels are not populated in diffuse clouds unless the radiative temperature of the environment is very high. The low-lying 101 (para) and 111 (ortho) levels of H2O(+) are mixed by ∼10(-4) making the spontaneous emission lifetime for the para 101 → ortho 000 transition 520 years and 5200 years depending on the F value of the hyperfine structure. Thus the ortho ↔ para conversion due to the unpaired electron is not likely to seriously affect thermalization of interstellar H2O(+) unless either the radiative temperature is very high or number density of the cloud is very low.

  20. Primer registro para Peru del genero Nielsonia Young, 1977 (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Cicadellinae: Cicadellini)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    En este articulo se reporta por primera vez para el Peru una especies del genero Nielsonia Young, 1977, de material procedente del Departamento de Tumbes. El genero ha sido reportada anteriormente de Ecuador, como unico registro para Sudamerica, y America Central. El unico especimen hembra encontra...

  1. Guía para la evaluación del riesgo de los polinizadores

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    La Guía para la evaluación del riesgo de los polinizadores de la EPA es parte de una estrategia de la evaluación de los riesgos que presentan los pesticidas para las abejas a fin de mejorar la protección de los polinizadores.

  2. Rate of para-aortic lymph node micrometastasis in patients with locally advanced cervical cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zand, Behrouz; Euscher, Elizabeth D.; Soliman, Pamela T.; Schmeler, Kathleen M.; Coleman, Robert L.; Frumovitz, Michael; Jhingran, Anuja; Ramondetta, Lois M.; Ramirez, Pedro T.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Patients with micrometastasis to para-aortic lymph nodes may benefit from extended field chemoradiation. To determine the rate of para-aortic node micrometastasis in patients with locally advanced cervical cancer undergoing laparoscopic extraperitoneal para-aortic lymphadenectomy Methods We prospectively identified consecutive patients diagnosed with stage IB2-IVA biopsy-proven cervical cancer. Eligible patients included those who were candidates for treatment with radiotherapy and concurrent chemotherapy and had no evidence of para-aortic lymphadenopathy (all lymph nodes < 2 cm in diameter) by preoperative computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. All patients underwent preoperative positron emission tomography/computed tomography and laparoscopic extraperitoneal para-aortic lymphadenectomy. All lymph nodes were assessed for metastasis by routine hematoxylin-eosin (H&E) staining. Ultrastaging (serial sectioning) and immunohistochemical analysis were performed in H&E-negative specimens. Results Thirteen (22%) of 60 consecutive patients had para-aortic lymph node metastases detected on routine H&E staining. Of the remaining 47 patients, one (2.1%) had evidence of micrometastasis, which was detected by ultrastaging. This patient completed whole pelvic radiotherapy and chemotherapy but had a recurrence 27 months after completion of therapy. Conclusions The rate of para-aortic node micrometastasis in patients with locally advanced cervical cancer is low. The role of routine ultrastaging and immunohistochemical analysis in such patients remains uncertain. Future studies are needed to determine the clinical impact of para-aortic node micrometastasis in patients with locally advanced cervical cancer. PMID:20837355

  3. The parA resolvase performs site-specific genomic excision in Arabidopsis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We have designed a site-specific excision detection system in Arabidopsis to study the in planta activity of the small serine recombinase ParA. Using a transient expression assay as well as stable transgenic plant lines, we show that the ParA recombinase is catalytically active and capable of perfo...

  4. Norma para la Certificación de Aplicadores de Plaguicidas Revisada

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    La EPA emitió una propuesta para la revisión de la norma para la Certificación de Aplicadores de Plaguicidas. La norma ayudará a mantener nuestras comunidades seguras, salvaguardar el medio ambiente y reducir el riesgo a los que aplican los plaguicidas.

  5. Overproduction and localization of Mycobacterium tuberculosis ParA and ParB proteins

    PubMed Central

    Maloney, Erin; Madiraju, Murty; Rajagopalan, Malini

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY The ParA and ParB family proteins are required for accurate partitioning of replicated chromosomes. The Mycobacterium tuberculosis genome contains parB, parA and two parA homologs, Rv1708 and Rv3213c. It is unknown if parA and its homologs are functionally related. To understand the roles of ParA and ParB proteins in M. tuberculosis cell cycle, we have evaluated the consequences of their overproduction and visualized their localization patterns in M. smegmatis. We show that cells overproducing of ParA, Rv1708 and Rv3213c and ParB are filamentous and multinucleoidal indicating defects in cell cycle progression. Visualization of green-fluorescent protein fusions of ParA and its homologues showed similar localization patterns with foci at poles, quarter-cell, midcell positions and spiral-like structures indicating that they are functionally related. On the other hand, the ParBGFP fusion protein localized only to the cell poles. The cyan and yellow fluorescent fusion proteins of ParA and ParB, respectively, colocalized at the cell poles indicating that these proteins interact and possibly associate with the chromosomal origin of replication. Collectively our results suggest that the M. tuberculosis Par proteins play important roles in cell cycle progression. PMID:20006309

  6. Protection of weanling hamsters from experimental infection with wild-type parainfluenza virus type 3 (para 3) by cold-adapted mutants of para 3.

    PubMed

    Crookshanks-Newman, F K; Belshe, R B

    1986-02-01

    Parainfluenza virus type 3 (para 3) was adapted to replicate at 20 degrees C, a nonpermissive temperature for wild-type (wt) para 3. Serial passage at 20 degrees C resulted in the generation of cold-adapted (ca) and temperature-sensitive (ts) mutants. These mutant viruses have been characterized both in vitro and in vivo [Belshe and Hissom (1982): Journal of Medical Virology 10:235-242; Crookshanks and Belshe (1984): Journal of Medical Virology 13:243-249]. We now report the evaluation of three mutants (clone 1150, passaged 12 times in the cold [cp12], clone 1146, passaged 18 times in the cold [cp18], and clone 1328, passaged 45 times in the cold [cp45]) for their ability to protect hamsters from infection by wild-type para 3. Ether-anesthetized male syrian hamsters were intranasally vaccinated with either wt para 3 (clone 127) or one of the ca para 3 mutants and on day 28 post-vaccination; each animal was intranasally challenged with 10(5.0) pfu of wt para 3. On days 1, 2, 3, and 4 post-challenge, 4 to 13 hamsters from each group were sacrificed, and the quantity of para 3 in the nasal turbinates and lungs was determined. Wt virus induced protection from challenge. cp12, cp18, and cp45 reduced the peak titer of wt replication in the lungs by greater than 100-fold, tenfold, and tenfold, respectively. The duration of virus replication was shortened also by intranasal vaccination with the mutants. These data give evidence of an inverse relationship between the degree of protection induced by vaccination with cold-adapted mutants and the number of passages of the virus in the cold.

  7. DYNA3D/ParaDyn Regression Test Suite Inventory

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, J I

    2011-01-25

    The following table constitutes an initial assessment of feature coverage across the regression test suite used for DYNA3D and ParaDyn. It documents the regression test suite at the time of production release 10.1 in September 2010. The columns of the table represent groupings of functionalities, e.g., material models. Each problem in the test suite is represented by a row in the table. All features exercised by the problem are denoted by a check mark in the corresponding column. The definition of ''feature'' has not been subdivided to its smallest unit of user input, e.g., algorithmic parameters specific to a particular type of contact surface. This represents a judgment to provide code developers and users a reasonable impression of feature coverage without expanding the width of the table by several multiples. All regression testing is run in parallel, typically with eight processors. Many are strictly regression tests acting as a check that the codes continue to produce adequately repeatable results as development unfolds, compilers change and platforms are replaced. A subset of the tests represents true verification problems that have been checked against analytical or other benchmark solutions. Users are welcomed to submit documented problems for inclusion in the test suite, especially if they are heavily exercising, and dependent upon, features that are currently underrepresented.

  8. Conformation of ionizable poly Para phenylene ethynylene in dilute solutions

    DOE PAGES

    Wijesinghe, Sidath; Maskey, Sabina; Perahia, Dvora; ...

    2015-11-03

    The conformation of dinonyl poly para phenylene ethynylenes (PPEs) with carboxylate side chains, equilibrated in solvents of different quality is studied using molecular dynamics simulations. PPEs are of interest because of their tunable electro-optical properties, chemical diversity, and functionality which are essential in wide range of applications. The polymer conformation determines the conjugation length and their assembly mode and affects electro-optical properties which are critical in their current and potential uses. The current study investigates the effect of carboxylate fraction on PPEs side chains on the conformation of chains in the dilute limit, in solvents of different quality. The dinonylmore » PPE chains are modeled atomistically, where the solvents are modeled both implicitly and explicitly. Dinonyl PPEs maintained a stretched out conformation up to a carboxylate fraction f of 0.7 in all solvents studied. The nonyl side chains are extended and oriented away from the PPE backbone in toluene and in implicit good solvent whereas in water and implicit poor solvent, the nonyl side chains are collapsed towards the PPE backbone. Thus, rotation around the aromatic ring is fast and no long range correlations are seen within the backbone.« less

  9. Evidence for para dechlorination of polychlorobiphenyls by methanogenic bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Ye, D.; Quensen, J.F.; Tiedje, J.M.

    1995-06-01

    When microorganisms eluted from upper Hudson River sediment were cultured without any substrate except polychlorobiphenyl (PCB)-free Hudson River sediment, methane formation was the terminal step of the anaerobic food chain. In sediments containing Aroclor 1242, addition of eubacterium-inhibiting antibiotics, which should have directly inhibited fermentative bacteria and thereby should have indirectly inhibited methanogens, resulted in no dechlorination activity or methane production. However, when substrates for methanogenic bacteria were provided along with the antibiotics (to free the methanogens from dependence on eubacteria), concomitant methane production and dechlorination of PCBs were observed. The dechlorination of Aroclor 1242 was from the para positions, a pattern distinctly different from, and more limited than, the pattern observed with untreated or pasteurized inocula. Both methane production and dechlorination in cultures amended with antibiotics plus methanogenic substrates were inhibited by 2-bromoethanesulfonic acid. These results suggest that the methanogenic bacteria are among the physiological groups capable of anaerobic dechlorination of PCBs, but that the dechlorination observed with methanogenic bacteria is less extensive than the dechlorination observed with more complex anaerobic consortia. 27 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  10. DYNA3D/ParaDyn Regression Test Suite Inventory

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Jerry I.

    2016-09-01

    The following table constitutes an initial assessment of feature coverage across the regression test suite used for DYNA3D and ParaDyn. It documents the regression test suite at the time of preliminary release 16.1 in September 2016. The columns of the table represent groupings of functionalities, e.g., material models. Each problem in the test suite is represented by a row in the table. All features exercised by the problem are denoted by a check mark (√) in the corresponding column. The definition of “feature” has not been subdivided to its smallest unit of user input, e.g., algorithmic parameters specific to a particular type of contact surface. This represents a judgment to provide code developers and users a reasonable impression of feature coverage without expanding the width of the table by several multiples. All regression testing is run in parallel, typically with eight processors, except problems involving features only available in serial mode. Many are strictly regression tests acting as a check that the codes continue to produce adequately repeatable results as development unfolds; compilers change and platforms are replaced. A subset of the tests represents true verification problems that have been checked against analytical or other benchmark solutions. Users are welcomed to submit documented problems for inclusion in the test suite, especially if they are heavily exercising, and dependent upon, features that are currently underrepresented.

  11. Para-hydrogen induced polarization in heterogeneous hydrogenationreactions

    SciTech Connect

    Koptyug, Igor V.; Kovtunov, Kirill; Burt, Scott R.; Anwar, M.Sabieh; Hilty, Christian; Han, Song-I; Pines, Alexander; Sagdeev, Renad Z.

    2007-01-31

    We demonstrate the creation and observation ofpara-hydrogen-induced polarization in heterogeneous hydrogenationreactions. Wilkinson's catalyst, RhCl(PPh3)3, supported on eithermodified silica gel or a polymer, is shown to hydrogenate styrene intoethylbenzene and to produce enhanced spin polarizations, observed throughNMR, when the reaction was performed with H2 gas enriched in the paraspinisomer. Furthermore, gaseous phase para-hydrogenation of propylene topropane with two catalysts, the Wilkinson's catalyst supported onmodified silica gel and Rh(cod)(sulfos) (cod = cycloocta-1,5-diene;sulfos) - O3S(C6H4)CH2C(CH2PPh2)3) supported on silica gel, demonstratesheterogeneous catalytic conversion resulting in large spin polarizations.These experiments serve as a direct verification of the mechanism ofheterogeneous hydrogenation reactions involving immobilized metalcomplexes and can be potentially developed into a practical tool forproducing catalyst-free fluids with highly polarized nuclear spins for abroad range of hyperpolarized NMR and MRI applications.

  12. Para-nitrobenzyl esterases with enhanced activity in aqueous and nonaqueous media

    DOEpatents

    Arnold, F.H.; Moore, J.C.

    1999-05-25

    A method is disclosed for isolating and identifying modified para-nitrobenzyl esterases which exhibit improved stability and/or esterase hydrolysis activity toward selected substrates and under selected reaction conditions relative to the unmodified para-nitrobenzyl esterase. The method involves preparing a library of modified para-nitrobenzyl esterase nucleic acid segments (genes) which have nucleotide sequences that differ from the nucleic acid segment which encodes for unmodified para-nitrobenzyl esterase. The library of modified para-nitrobenzyl nucleic acid segments is expressed to provide a plurality of modified enzymes. The clones expressing modified enzymes are then screened to identify which enzymes have improved esterase activity by measuring the ability of the enzymes to hydrolyze the selected substrate under the selected reaction conditions. Specific modified para-nitrobenzyl esterases are disclosed which have improved stability and/or ester hydrolysis activity in aqueous or aqueous-organic media relative to the stability and/or ester hydrolysis activity of unmodified naturally occurring para-nitrobenzyl esterase. 43 figs.

  13. Para-nitrobenzyl esterases with enhanced activity in aqueous and nonaqueous media

    DOEpatents

    Arnold, Frances H.; Moore, Jeffrey C.

    1998-01-01

    A method for isolating and identifying modified para-nitrobenzyl esterases which exhibit improved stability and/or esterase hydrolysis activity toward selected substrates and under selected reaction conditions relative to the unmodified para-nitrobenzyl esterase. The method involves preparing a library of modified para-nitrobenzyl esterase nucleic acid segments (genes) which have nucleotide sequences that differ from the nucleic acid segment which encodes for unmodified para-nitrobenzyl esterase. The library of modified para-nitrobenzyl nucleic acid segments is expressed to provide a plurality of modified enzymes. The clones expressing modified enzymes are then screened to identify which enzymes have improved esterase activity by measuring the ability of the enzymes to hydrolyze the selected substrate under the selected reaction conditions. Specific modified para-nitrobenzyl esterases are disclosed which have improved stability and/or ester hydrolysis activity in aqueous or aqueous-organic media relative to the stability and/or ester hydrolysis activity of unmodified naturally occurring para-nitrobenzyl esterase.

  14. Para-nitrobenzyl esterases with enhanced activity in aqueous and nonaqueous media

    DOEpatents

    Arnold, Frances H.; Moore, Jeffrey C.

    1999-01-01

    A method for isolating and identifying modified para-nitrobenzyl esterases which exhibit improved stability and/or esterase hydrolysis activity toward selected substrates and under selected reaction conditions relative to the unmodified para-nitrobenzyl esterase. The method involves preparing a library of modified para-nitrobenzyl esterase nucleic acid segments (genes) which have nucleotide sequences that differ from the nucleic acid segment which encodes for unmodified para-nitrobenzyl esterase. The library of modified para-nitrobenzyl nucleic acid segments is expressed to provide a plurality of modified enzymes. The clones expressing modified enzymes are then screened to identify which enzymes have improved esterase activity by measuring the ability of the enzymes to hydrolyze the selected substrate under the selected reaction conditions. Specific modified para-nitrobenzyl esterases are disclosed which have improved stability and/or ester hydrolysis activity in aqueous or aqueous-organic media relative to the stability and/or ester hydrolysis activity of unmodified naturally occurring para-nitrobenzyl esterase.

  15. Para-nitrobenzyl esterases with enhanced activity in aqueous and nonaqueous media

    DOEpatents

    Arnold, F.H.; Moore, J.C.

    1998-04-21

    A method is disclosed for isolating and identifying modified para-nitrobenzyl esterases. These enzymes exhibit improved stability and/or esterase hydrolysis activity toward selected substrates and under selected reaction conditions relative to the unmodified para-nitrobenzyl esterase. The method involves preparing a library of modified para-nitrobenzyl esterase nucleic acid segments (genes) which have nucleotide sequences that differ from the nucleic acid segment which encodes for unmodified para-nitrobenzyl esterase. The library of modified para-nitrobenzyl nucleic acid segments is expressed to provide a plurality of modified enzymes. The clones expressing modified enzymes are then screened to identify which enzymes have improved esterase activity by measuring the ability of the enzymes to hydrolyze the selected substrate under the selected reaction conditions. Specific modified para-nitrobenzyl esterases are disclosed which have improved stability and/or ester hydrolysis activity in aqueous or aqueous-organic media relative to the stability and/or ester hydrolysis activity of unmodified naturally occurring para-nitrobenzyl esterase. 43 figs.

  16. Females prefer carotenoid colored males as mates in the pentamorphic livebearing fish, Poecilia parae.

    PubMed

    Bourne, Godfrey R; Breden, Felix; Allen, Teresa C

    2003-09-01

    The first results of female preference and chosen male mating success in a new model organism, the pentamorphic livebearing fish, Poecilia parae, are presented. Poecilia parae is a relative of the guppy, P. reticulata, and is assumed to have similar reproductive behavior. We tested the hypothesis that P. parae females, like female guppies, prefer carotenoid colored males as mates. Here we show that the time a female spent with males was significantly greater for carotenoid coloration in red and yellow melanzona, but time with these two morphs did not differ. The preferred red and yellow males mated significantly more often with their choosing females than did the non-preferred blue and parae males. The few blue melanzona and parae males that mated did so without performing courtship displays. Some females mated with all phenotypes including immaculata males during open group trials. Female P. parae clearly preferred males with carotenoid coloration, thereby corroborating the hypothesis. Alternative male mating tactics by blue melanzona, parae, and immaculata morphs and promiscuous mating by females also resembled features of reproductive behaviors exhibited by guppies.

  17. Quantum fluctuations increase the self-diffusive motion of para-hydrogen in narrow carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Kowalczyk, Piotr; Gauden, Piotr A; Terzyk, Artur P; Furmaniak, Sylwester

    2011-05-28

    Quantum fluctuations significantly increase the self-diffusive motion of para-hydrogen adsorbed in narrow carbon nanotubes at 30 K comparing to its classical counterpart. Rigorous Feynman's path integral calculations reveal that self-diffusive motion of para-hydrogen in a narrow (6,6) carbon nanotube at 30 K and pore densities below ∼29 mmol cm(-3) is one order of magnitude faster than the classical counterpart. We find that the zero-point energy and tunneling significantly smoothed out the free energy landscape of para-hydrogen molecules adsorbed in a narrow (6,6) carbon nanotube. This promotes a delocalization of the confined para-hydrogen at 30 K (i.e., population of unclassical paths due to quantum effects). Contrary the self-diffusive motion of classical para-hydrogen molecules in a narrow (6,6) carbon nanotube at 30 K is very slow. This is because classical para-hydrogen molecules undergo highly correlated movement when their collision diameter approached the carbon nanotube size (i.e., anomalous diffusion in quasi-one dimensional pores). On the basis of current results we predict that narrow single-walled carbon nanotubes are promising nanoporous molecular sieves being able to separate para-hydrogen molecules from mixtures of classical particles at cryogenic temperatures.

  18. Contextual Factors that Foster or Inhibit Para-Teacher Professional Development: The Case of an Indian, Non-Governmental Organization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raval, Harini; McKenney, Susan; Pieters, Jules

    2012-01-01

    The appointment of para-professionals to overcome skill shortages and/or make efficient use of expensive resources is well established in both developing and developed countries. The present research concerns para-teachers in India. The literature on para-teachers is dominated by training for special needs settings, largely in developed societies.…

  19. Irradiation of Pelvic and Para-Aortic Nodes in Carcinoma of the Cervix.

    PubMed

    Rotman; Aziz; Eifel

    1994-01-01

    Extended-field irradiation offers a significant chance of cure for patients with para-aortic node metastases if pelvic disease can be controlled. Prognosis is best for patients with microscopic para-aortic disease or with a single enlarged node. Complications of extended-field irradiation can be minimized with careful radiation therapy technique that uses multiple fields and high-energy beams of 18 MV or greater and by avoiding transperitoneal surgical staging. Although the role of prophylactic para-aortic irradiation is still being defined, randomized trials suggest that extended fields do benefit some patients with locoregionally advanced disease.

  20. Endovascular Treatment of a Ruptured Para-Anastomotic Aneurysm of the Abdominal Aorta

    SciTech Connect

    Sfyroeras, Giorgos S.; Lioupis, Christos Bessias, Nikolaos; Maras, Dimitris; Pomoni, Maria; Andrikopoulos, Vassilios

    2008-07-15

    We report a case of a ruptured para-anastomotic aortic aneurysm treated with implantation of a bifurcated stent-graft. A 72-year-old patient, who had undergone aortobifemoral bypass for aortoiliac occlusive disease 16 years ago, presented with a ruptured para-anastomotic aortic aneurysm. A bifurcated stent-graft was successfully deployed into the old bifurcated graft. This is the first report of a bifurcated stent-graft being placed through an 'end-to-side' anastomosed old aortobifemoral graft. Endovascular treatment of ruptured para-anastomotic aortic aneurysms can be accomplished successfully, avoiding open surgery which is associated with increased mortality and morbidity.

  1. Measurement of the formaldehyde ortho to para ratio in three molecular clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahane, C.; Lucas, R.; Frerking, M. A.; Langer, W. D.; Encrenaz, P.

    1984-01-01

    Observations of ortho and para H2CO in two types of clouds, a warm cloud (Orion A) and two cold clouds (L183 and TMC1), are presented. The ortho to para ratio in Orion deduced from the H2(C-13)O data is about three, while that for TMC1 is about one and that for L183 is 1-2. The former value is in agreement with the value calculated from chemical models of ortho and para H2CO production. The values for the cold clouds are consistent with thermal equilibrium at a temperature slightly smaller than 10 K.

  2. All the three ParaHox genes are present in Nuttallochiton mirandus (Mollusca: polyplacophora): evolutionary considerations.

    PubMed

    Barucca, Marco; Biscotti, Maria A; Olmo, Ettore; Canapa, Adriana

    2006-03-15

    The ParaHox gene cluster contains three homeobox genes, Gsx, Xlox and Cdx and has been demonstrated to be an evolutionary sister of the Hox gene cluster. Among deuterostomes the three genes are found in the majority of taxa, whereas among protostomes they have so far been isolated only in the phylum Sipuncula. We report the partial sequences of all three ParaHox genes in the polyplacophoran Nuttallochiton mirandus, the first species of the phylum Mollusca where all ParaHox genes have been isolated. This finding has phylogenetic implications for the phylum Mollusca and for its relationships with the other lophotrochozoan taxa.

  3. Measurement of the formaldehyde ortho to para ratio in three molecular clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahane, C.; Lucas, R.; Frerking, M. A.; Langer, W. D.; Encrenaz, P.

    1984-01-01

    Observations of ortho and para H2CO in two types of clouds, a warm cloud (Orion A) and two cold clouds (L183 and TMC1), are presented. The ortho to para ratio in Orion deduced from the H2(C-13)O data is about three, while that for TMC1 is about one and that for L183 is 1-2. The former value is in agreement with the value calculated from chemical models of ortho and para H2CO production. The values for the cold clouds are consistent with thermal equilibrium at a temperature slightly smaller than 10 K.

  4. Time is of the essence for ParaHox homeobox gene clustering

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    ParaHox genes, and their evolutionary sisters the Hox genes, are integral to patterning the anterior-posterior axis of most animals. Like the Hox genes, ParaHox genes can be clustered and exhibit the phenomenon of colinearity - gene order within the cluster matching gene activation. Two new instances of ParaHox clustering provide the first examples of intact clusters outside chordates, with gene expression lending weight to the argument that temporal colinearity is the key to understanding clustering. See research articles: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7007/11/68 and http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/13/129 PMID:23803337

  5. Blood transfusion in the para-Bombay phenotype.

    PubMed

    Lin-Chu, M; Broadberry, R E

    1990-08-01

    The H-deficient phenotypes found in Chinese so far, have all been secretors of soluble blood group substances in saliva. The corresponding isoagglutinin activity (e.g. anti-B in OB(Hm) persons) has been found to be weak in all cases. To determine the clinical significance of these weak isoagglutinins 51Cr red cell survival tests were performed on three OB(Hm) individuals transfused with small volumes (4 ml) of groups B and O RBC. Rapid destruction of most of the RBC occurred whether or not the isoagglutinins of the OB(Hm) individuals were indirect antiglobulin test (IAGT) reactive. When a larger volume (54 ml packed RBC) of group B cells (weakly incompatible by IAGT) was transfused to another OB(Hm) individual with IAGT active anti-HI, the survival of the transfused RBC was 93% at 24 h, with 30% of the RBC remaining in the circulation at 28 d in contrast to 76% as would be expected if the survival was normal. Therefore when whole units of blood of normal ABO blood groups, compatible by IAGT, are transfused, the survival is expected to be almost normal. These weak isoagglutinins may not be very clinically significant and we suggest that when para-Bombay blood is not available, the compatibility testing for OA(Hm) persons should be performed with group A and group O packed RBC; OB(Hm) with group B and group O packed RBC: OAB(Hm) with groups A, B, AB and O packed RBC. For cross matching, the indirect antiglobulin test by a prewarmed technique should be used.

  6. Management of large para-esophageal hiatal hernias.

    PubMed

    Collet, D; Luc, G; Chiche, L

    2013-12-01

    Para-esophageal hernias are relatively rare and typically occur in elderly patients. The various presenting symptoms are non-specific and often occur in combination. These include symptoms of gastro-esophageal reflux (GERD) in 26 to 70% of cases, microcytic anemia in 17 to 47%, and respiratory symptoms in 9 to 59%. Respiratory symptoms are not completely resolved by surgical intervention. Acute complications such as gastric volvulus with incarceration or strangulation are rare (estimated incidence of 1.2% per patient per year) but gastric ischemia leading to perforation is the main cause of mortality. Only patients with symptomatic hernias should undergo surgery. Prophylactic repair to prevent acute incarceration should only be undertaken in patients younger than 75 in good condition; surgical indications must be discussed individually beyond this age. The laparoscopic approach is now generally accepted. Resection of the hernia sac is associated with a lower incidence of recurrence. Repair of the hiatus can be reinforced with prosthetic material (either synthetic or biologic), but the benefit of prosthetic repair has not been clearly shown. Results of prosthetic reinforcement vary in different studies; it has been variably associated with four times fewer recurrences or with no measurable difference. A Collis type gastroplasty may be useful to lengthen a foreshortened esophagus, but no objective criteria have been defined to support this approach. The anatomic recurrence rate can be as high as 60% at 12years. But most recurrences are asymptomatic and do not affect the quality of life index. It therefore seems more appropriate to evaluate functional results and quality of life measures rather than to gauge success by a strict evaluation of anatomic hernia reduction.

  7. Cold-plasma assisted hydrophobisation of cellulose fibres with styrene and para-halogenated homologues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaiolas, C.; Costa, A. P.; Santos Silva, M. J.; Belgacem, M. N.

    2012-07-01

    Cold-plasma-assisted treatment of additive-free hand sheet paper samples with styrene (ST), para-fluorostyrene (FST), para-fluoro-α-methylstyrene (FMST) and para-chloro-α-methylstyrene (ClMST) and para-bromostyrene (BrST) was studied and found that the grafting has occurred efficiently, as established by contact angle measurement. Thus, after solvent extraction of the modified substrates, in order to remove unbounded grafts, the contact angle value of a drop of water deposited at the surface of paper increased from 40° for unmodified substrate to 102, 99, 116, 100 and 107°, for ST-, FST- FMST-, ClMST- and BrST-treated samples, respectively, indicating that the surface has became totally hydrophobic. In fact, the polar component of the surface energy of treated samples decreased from 25 mJ/m2 to practically zero, indicating that treated surfaces were rendered totally non polar.

  8. Successful Mnemonics for "por"/"para" and Affirmative Commands with Pronouns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Keith

    1992-01-01

    Two mnemonic devices, "4A Rule" and "PERFECT," are described to simplify the learning of two grammar points: the placement of object pronouns with respect to commands and the distinction between "por" and "para." (five references) (LB)

  9. Genomic organisation of the seven ParaHox genes of coelacanths.

    PubMed

    Mulley, John F; Holland, Peter W H

    2014-09-01

    Human and mouse genomes contain six ParaHox genes implicated in gut and neural patterning. In coelacanths and cartilaginous fish, an additional ParaHox gene exists-Pdx2-that dates back to the genome duplications in early vertebrate evolution. Here we examine the genomic arrangement and flanking genes of all ParaHox genes in coelacanths, to determine the full complement of these genes. We find that coelacanths have seven ParaHox genes in total, in four chromosomal locations, revealing that five gene losses occurred soon after vertebrate genome duplication. Comparison of intergenic sequences reveals that some Pdx1 regulatory regions associated with development of pancreatic islets are older than tetrapods, that Pdx1 and Pdx2 share few if any conserved non-coding elements, and that there is very high sequence conservation between coelacanth species.

  10. Lampreys, the jawless vertebrates, contain only two ParaHox gene clusters.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huixian; Ravi, Vydianathan; Tay, Boon-Hui; Tohari, Sumanty; Pillai, Nisha E; Prasad, Aravind; Lin, Qiang; Brenner, Sydney; Venkatesh, Byrappa

    2017-08-22

    ParaHox genes (Gsx, Pdx, and Cdx) are an ancient family of developmental genes closely related to the Hox genes. They play critical roles in the patterning of brain and gut. The basal chordate, amphioxus, contains a single ParaHox cluster comprising one member of each family, whereas nonteleost jawed vertebrates contain four ParaHox genomic loci with six or seven ParaHox genes. Teleosts, which have experienced an additional whole-genome duplication, contain six ParaHox genomic loci with six ParaHox genes. Jawless vertebrates, represented by lampreys and hagfish, are the most ancient group of vertebrates and are crucial for understanding the origin and evolution of vertebrate gene families. We have previously shown that lampreys contain six Hox gene loci. Here we report that lampreys contain only two ParaHox gene clusters (designated as α- and β-clusters) bearing five ParaHox genes (Gsxα, Pdxα, Cdxα, Gsxβ, and Cdxβ). The order and orientation of the three genes in the α-cluster are identical to that of the single cluster in amphioxus. However, the orientation of Gsxβ in the β-cluster is inverted. Interestingly, Gsxβ is expressed in the eye, unlike its homologs in jawed vertebrates, which are expressed mainly in the brain. The lamprey Pdxα is expressed in the pancreas similar to jawed vertebrate Pdx genes, indicating that the pancreatic expression of Pdx was acquired before the divergence of jawless and jawed vertebrate lineages. It is likely that the lamprey Pdxα plays a crucial role in pancreas specification and insulin production similar to the Pdx of jawed vertebrates.

  11. Spanish Coastal Patrol Ships for Argentina and Mexico (Guardacostas Espanoles para Argentina y Mejico),

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-12-22

    IN TRANS ATION ~TITLE: .SPANISH COASTAL PATROL SHIPS FOR ARGENTINA AND MEXICO GUARDACOSTAS EFPANOLES PARA ARGENTINA Y MEJICO AUTHOR: M; RAMIREZ...SHIPS FOR ARGENTINA AND MEXICO [Ramirez Gabarrus, M.; Guardacostas espaioles para Argentina y Mejico; Tecnologia Militar, No. 4, 1983; pP. 50, 53-54... Mexico , Mr. Alvarez de Vayo, signed a contract with the Mexican War Minister, General Cardenas, to build a series of 10 coastal patrol boats and five

  12. Chordate Hox and ParaHox gene clusters differ dramatically in their repetitive element content.

    PubMed

    Osborne, Peter W; Ferrier, David E K

    2010-02-01

    The ParaHox and Hox gene clusters control aspects of animal anterior-posterior development and are related as paralogous evolutionary sisters. Despite this relationship, it is not clear if the clusters operate in similar ways, with similar constraints. To compare clusters, we examined the transposable-element (TE) content of amphioxus and mammalian ParaHox and Hox clusters. Chordate Hox clusters are known to be largely devoid of TEs, possibly due to gene regulation and constraints on clustering in these animals. Here, we describe several novel amphioxus TEs and show that the amphioxus ParaHox cluster is a hotspot for TE insertion. TE contents of mammalian ParaHox loci are at background levels, in stark contrast to chordate Hox clusters. This marks a significant difference between Hox and ParaHox clusters. The presence of so many potentially disruptive elements implies selection constrains these ParaHox clusters as they have not dispersed despite 500 My of evolution for each lineage.

  13. para-C-H Borylation of Benzene Derivatives by a Bulky Iridium Catalyst.

    PubMed

    Saito, Yutaro; Segawa, Yasutomo; Itami, Kenichiro

    2015-04-22

    A highly para-selective aromatic C-H borylation has been accomplished. By a new iridium catalyst bearing a bulky diphosphine ligand, Xyl-MeO-BIPHEP, the C-H borylation of monosubstituted benzenes can be affected with para-selectivity up to 91%. This catalytic system is quite different from the usual iridium catalysts that cannot distinguish meta- and para-C-H bonds of monosubstituted benzene derivatives, resulting in the preferred formation of meta-products. The para-selectivity increases with increasing bulkiness of the substituent on the arene, indicating that the regioselectivity of the present reaction is primarily controlled by steric repulsion between substrate and catalyst. Caramiphen, an anticholinergic drug used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease, was converted into five derivatives via our para-selective borylation. The present [Ir(cod)OH]2/Xyl-MeO-BIPHEP catalyst represents a unique, sterically controlled, para-selective, aromatic C-H borylation system that should find use in streamlined, predictable chemical synthesis and in the rapid discovery and optimization of pharmaceuticals and materials.

  14. Diffusion Monte Carlo Study of Para-Diiodobenzene Polymorphism Revisited.

    PubMed

    Hongo, Kenta; Watson, Mark A; Iitaka, Toshiaki; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán; Maezono, Ryo

    2015-03-10

    We revisit our investigation of the diffusion Monte Carlo (DMC) simulation of para-diiodobenzene (p-DIB) molecular crystal polymorphism. [See J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 2010, 1, 1789-1794.] We perform, for the first time, a rigorous study of finite-size effects and choice of nodal surface on the prediction of polymorph stability in molecular crystals using fixed-node DMC. Our calculations are the largest that are currently feasible using the resources of the K-computer and provide insights into the formidable challenge of predicting such properties from first principles. In particular, we show that finite-size effects can influence the trial nodal surface of a small (1 × 1 × 1) simulation cell considerably. Therefore, we repeated our DMC simulations with a 1 × 3 × 3 simulation cell, which is the largest such calculation to date. We used a density functional theory (DFT) nodal surface generated with the PBE functional, and we accumulated statistical samples with ∼6.4 × 10(5) core hours for each polymorph. Our final results predict a polymorph stability that is consistent with experiment, but they also indicate that the results in our previous paper were somewhat fortuitous. We analyze the finite-size errors using model periodic Coulomb (MPC) interactions and kinetic energy corrections, according to the CCMH scheme of Chiesa, Ceperley, Martin, and Holzmann. We investigate the dependence of the finite-size errors on different aspect ratios of the simulation cell (k-mesh convergence) in order to understand how to choose an appropriate ratio for the DMC calculations. Even in the most expensive simulations currently possible, we show that the finite size errors in the DMC total energies are much larger than the energy difference between the two polymorphs, although error cancellation means that the polymorph prediction is accurate. Finally, we found that the T-move scheme is essential for these massive DMC simulations in order to circumvent population explosions and

  15. The PARA-suite: PAR-CLIP specific sequence read simulation and processing

    PubMed Central

    Kloetgen, Andreas; Borkhardt, Arndt; Hoell, Jessica I.

    2016-01-01

    Background Next-generation sequencing technologies have profoundly impacted biology over recent years. Experimental protocols, such as photoactivatable ribonucleoside-enhanced cross-linking and immunoprecipitation (PAR-CLIP), which identifies protein–RNA interactions on a genome-wide scale, commonly employ deep sequencing. With PAR-CLIP, the incorporation of photoactivatable nucleosides into nascent transcripts leads to high rates of specific nucleotide conversions during reverse transcription. So far, the specific properties of PAR-CLIP-derived sequencing reads have not been assessed in depth. Methods We here compared PAR-CLIP sequencing reads to regular transcriptome sequencing reads (RNA-Seq) to identify distinctive properties that are relevant for reference-based read alignment of PAR-CLIP datasets. We developed a set of freely available tools for PAR-CLIP data analysis, called the PAR-CLIP analyzer suite (PARA-suite). The PARA-suite includes error model inference, PAR-CLIP read simulation based on PAR-CLIP specific properties, a full read alignment pipeline with a modified Burrows–Wheeler Aligner algorithm and CLIP read clustering for binding site detection. Results We show that differences in the error profiles of PAR-CLIP reads relative to regular transcriptome sequencing reads (RNA-Seq) make a distinct processing advantageous. We examine the alignment accuracy of commonly applied read aligners on 10 simulated PAR-CLIP datasets using different parameter settings and identified the most accurate setup among those read aligners. We demonstrate the performance of the PARA-suite in conjunction with different binding site detection algorithms on several real PAR-CLIP and HITS-CLIP datasets. Our processing pipeline allowed the improvement of both alignment and binding site detection accuracy. Availability The PARA-suite toolkit and the PARA-suite aligner are available at https://github.com/akloetgen/PARA-suite and https://github.com/akloetgen/PARA

  16. Spontaneous Emission Between - and Para-Levels of Water-Ion H_2O^+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Keiichi; Harada, Kensuke; Nanbu, Shinkoh; Oka, Takeshi

    2012-06-01

    Nuclear spin conversion interaction of water ion, H_2O^+, has been studied to derive spontaneous emission lifetime between ortho- and para-levels. H_2O^+ is a radical ion with the ^2B_1 electronic ground state. Its off-diagonal electron spin-nuclear spin interaction term, Tab(S_aΔ I_b + S_bΔ I_a), connects para and ortho levels, because Δ I = I_1 - I_2 has nonvanishing matrix elements between I = 0 and 1. The mixing by this term with Tab = 72 MHz predicted by ab initio theory in the MRD-CI/Bk level, is many orders of magnitude larger than for closed shell molecules because of the large magnetic interaction due to the un-paired electron. Using the molecular constants reported by Mürtz et al. by FIR-LMR, we searched for ortho and para coupling channels below 1000 cm-1 with accidental near degeneracy between para and ortho levels. For example, hyperfine components of the 42,2(ortho) and 33,0(para) levels mix by 1.2 × 10-3 due to their near degeneracy (Δ E = 0.417 cm-1), and give the ortho-para spontaneous emission lifetime of about 0.63 year. The most significant low lying 10,1(para) and 11,1(ortho) levels, on the contrary, mix only by 8.7 × 10-5 because of their large separation (Δ E = 16.267 cm-1) and give the spontaneous emission lifetime from 10,1(para) to 00,0(ortho) of about 100 year.These results qualitatively help to understand the observed high ortho- to para- H_2O^+ ratio of 4.8 ± 0.5 toward Sgr B2 but they are too slow to compete with the conversion by collision unless the number density of the region is very low (n ˜1 cm-3) or radiative temperature is very high (T_r > 100 K). M. Staikova, B. Engels, M. Peric, and S.D. Peyerimhoff, Mol. Phys. 80, 1485 (1993) P. Mürtz, L.R. Zink, K.M. Evenson, and J.M. Brown J. Chem. Phys. 109, 9744 (1998). LP. Schilke, et al., A&A 521, L11 (2010).

  17. Vesicular erythema multiforme-like reaction to para-phenylenediamine in a henna tattoo.

    PubMed

    Sidwell, Rachel U; Francis, Nick D; Basarab, Tamara; Morar, Nilesh

    2008-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis reaction to topical "black henna" tattoo is usually described secondary to the organic dye para-phenylenediamine, a derivative of analine. Allergic contact dermatitis reactions to para-phenylenediamine are well recognized and most commonly involve an eczematous reaction that may become generalized and an acute angio-edema. Only four previous instances have been reported of an erythema multiforme-like reaction to para-phenylenediamine and its derivatives, including only one mild reaction to a tattoo. A vesicular erythema multiforme-like reaction has not been reported. An erythema multiforme-like reaction to contact allergens is usually caused by potent allergens including plant quinolones in Compositae and sesquiterpene lactones in exotic woods, and it is also reported to topical drugs, epoxy resin, metals (particularly nickel), and various chemicals. A generalized vesicular erythema multiforme-like reaction is unusual, and rarely reported. We describe a 6-year-old boy who developed a localized, eczematous and severe generalized vesicular erythema multiforme-like contact allergy to para-phenylenediamine secondary to a henna tattoo. As henna tattoos are becoming increasingly popular, one should be aware of the possibility of such a reaction. This presentation also highlights the call to ban the use of para-phenylenediamine and its derivatives in dyes.

  18. Estimation of Carbon Storage in Para Rubber Plantation in Eastern Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charoenjit, K.; Zuddas, P.; Allemand, P.

    2012-12-01

    This study aims to estimate the carbon stock and sequestration in Para rubber plantation of East Thailand using the THAICHOTE (Thailand Earth Observation System data). For that purpose we identify the area of every stage class Para rubber plantation by the analysis of different image objects (i.e., rule base and multiple regression classifications) and we map the carbon stock and sequestration of each Para rubber class using biomass allometric regressions and carbon content equations. THAICHOTE data include Multispectral image (4 bands at 15x15 m spatial resolution), Panchromatic image (2x2 m spatial resolution) and Stereo image, data acquisition from December 2011-April 2012. The preliminary investigated area is located in Wangchun, (Eastern, Thailand) and covers about 20 Km2. Calibrating the class stage, by image analysis that integrated edge-based segmentation, reflectance, remote sensing indices, texture analysis and canopy height model (CHM), we found that best classification was obtained by multiple regression (accuracy of 80%) compared to rule base logical operation (accuracy 70%) suggesting that manual 3D stereo measurements or Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR) both are able to construct the CHM. The results of this study indicate that for a total Para rubber biomass of 14,651 tons, the amount of stored carbon is of 7,326 tons. Mature stage of Para rubber plantations exhibits the highest capacity of sequestering with a global flux of 0.21 tons C/ Km2/year.

  19. The ortho/para ratio of water vapor in Comet Halley

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mumma, Michael J.; Larson, Harold P.; Weaver, Harold A.

    1986-01-01

    The ortho/para ratio of H2O is shown to be an invariant in the cometary coma. The dependence of ortho-para ratio on temperature in thermal equilibrium is given, and the nuclear-spin-temperature is defined. Its relation to the physical temperature of the cometary ices is discussed, and the prospects for using the observed ortho/para ratio to infer properties of the cometary nucleus are explored. The ortho/para ratio in Halley's comet is derived from high resolution infrared spectra of near 2.7 microns wavelength. On UT December 24.1, 1985 it was 2.73 + or - 0.17, and on UT March 22.7, 1986 it was 3.23 + or - 0.37. The nuclear-spin-temperature was 35 K (+9 K, -5 K) pre-perihelion, and less than 40 K post-perihelion, at the 67% confidence limit. Both numbers are consistent with modeled values of the equilibrium temperature of the cometary nucleus at aphelion (47 K). However, at the 95% confidence limit they are also fully consistent with temperatures less than 50 K, corresponding to an ortho/para ratio of about 3.0.

  20. The formaldehyde ortho/para ratio as a probe of dark cloud chemistry and evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickens, J. E.; Irvine, W. M.

    1999-01-01

    We present measurements of the H2CO ortho/para ratio toward four star-forming cores, L723, L1228, L1527, and L43, and one quiescent core, L1498. Combining these data with earlier results by Minh et al., three quiescent cores are found to have ortho/para ratios near 3, the ratio of statistical weights expected for gas-phase formation processes. In contrast, ortho/para ratios are 1.5-2.1 in five star-forming cores, suggesting thermalization at a kinetic temperature of 10 K. We attribute modification of the ortho/para ratio in the latter cores to formation and/or equilibration of H2CO on grains with sub-sequent release back into the gas phase due to the increased energy inputs from the forming star and outflow. We see accompanying enhancements in the H2CO abundance relative to H, to support this idea. The results suggest that the formaldehyde ortho/para ratio can differentiate between quiescent cores and those in which low-mass star formation has occurred.

  1. Influence of Molecular Oxygen on Ortho-Para Conversion of Water Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valiev, R. R.; Minaev, B. F.

    2017-07-01

    The mechanism of influence of molecular oxygen on the probability of ortho-para conversion of water molecules and its relation to water magnetization are considered within the framework of the concept of paramagnetic spin catalysis. Matrix elements of the hyperfine ortho-para interaction via the Fermi contact mechanism are calculated, as well as the Maliken spin densities on water protons in H2O and O2 collisional complexes. The mechanism of penetration of the electron spin density into the water molecule due to partial spin transfer from paramagnetic oxygen is considered. The probability of ortho-para conversion of the water molecules is estimated by the quantum chemistry methods. The results obtained show that effective ortho-para conversion of the water molecules is possible during the existence of water-oxygen dimers. An external magnetic field affects the ortho-para conversion rate given that the wave functions of nuclear spin sublevels of the water protons are mixed in the complex with oxygen.

  2. The formaldehyde ortho/para ratio as a probe of dark cloud chemistry and evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickens, J. E.; Irvine, W. M.

    1999-01-01

    We present measurements of the H2CO ortho/para ratio toward four star-forming cores, L723, L1228, L1527, and L43, and one quiescent core, L1498. Combining these data with earlier results by Minh et al., three quiescent cores are found to have ortho/para ratios near 3, the ratio of statistical weights expected for gas-phase formation processes. In contrast, ortho/para ratios are 1.5-2.1 in five star-forming cores, suggesting thermalization at a kinetic temperature of 10 K. We attribute modification of the ortho/para ratio in the latter cores to formation and/or equilibration of H2CO on grains with sub-sequent release back into the gas phase due to the increased energy inputs from the forming star and outflow. We see accompanying enhancements in the H2CO abundance relative to H, to support this idea. The results suggest that the formaldehyde ortho/para ratio can differentiate between quiescent cores and those in which low-mass star formation has occurred.

  3. Sistemas Correctores de Campo Para EL Telescopio Ritchey-Chretien UNAM212

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cobos, F. J.; Galan, M. J.

    1987-05-01

    El telescopio UNAM2l2 fue inaugurado hace siete años y concebido para trabajar en las razones focales: f/7.5, F/13.5, F/27 y F/98. El diseño Ritchey-Chretién corresponde a la razón focal F/7.5 y el foco primario (F/2.286) no se consideró como utilizable para fotografía directa. En el Instituto de Astronomía de la UNAM, se diseñó y construyó un sistema corrector de campo para la razón focal F/7.5, que actualmente está en funcionamiento. Dentro de un programa de colaboración en diseflo y evaluación de sistemas ópticos, entre el Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias y el Instituto de Astronomía de la UNAM, decidimos intentar el diseño de una correctora de campo para el foco primario del tȩlescopio UNAM212 bajo la consideración de que no son insalvables los problemas que implicaría su instalación y de que es muy posible que, en un futuro relativamente cercano, podamom tener un detector bidimenmional tipo Mepsicrón cuya área sensible haga tentadora la idea de construir la cámara directa para foco primario

  4. Modelos Teoricos de Linhas de Recombinacao EM Radio Frequencias Para Regioes H II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abraham, Z.; Cancoro, A. C. O.

    1987-05-01

    Foram feitos modelos de linhas de recombinção provenientes de regiões HII nas frequências de rádio para distintos números quãnticos. Estes modelos consideram regrões H II esfericamente simétricas com variações radiais na densidade e temperatura eletrônica, efeitos de colisoes inelásticas dos eletrons (alargarnento por pressão), e afastarnento do equiliíbrio termodinâmico local. 0 bojetivo é construir o perfil da linha para cada ponto da nuvern e obter o valor médio resultante da sua convoluçã com o feixe da antena de tarnanho comparável corn o tarnanho angular da nuvern para posterIor cornpara o corn

  5. Allergic contact dermatitis to para-phenylenediamine in a tattoo: a case report.

    PubMed

    Turan, Hakan; Okur, Mesut; Kaya, Ertugrul; Gun, Emrah; Aliagaoglu, Cihangir

    2013-06-01

    It is highly popular among children and young adults to have temporary henna tattoos on their bodies in different colors and figures. Henna is a greenish natural powder obtained from the flowers and dry leaves of Lawsonia alba plant and its allergenicity is very low. Henna is also used in combination with other coloring substances such as para-phenylenediamine in order to darken the color and create a permanent tattoo effect. Para-phenylenediamine is a substance with high allergenicity potential and may cause serious allergic reactions. Here, we aimed to draw attention to the potential harms of para-phenylenediamine containing temporary tattoos by presenting a child patient who developed allergic contact dermatitis after having a scorpion-shaped temporary tattoo on his forearm.

  6. The School of Posture as a postural training method for Paraíba Telecommunications Operators.

    PubMed

    Cardia, M C; Soares Màsculo, F

    2001-01-01

    This work proposes to show the experience of posture training accomplished in the Paraíba State Telecommunication Company, using the knowledge of the Back School. The sample was composed of 12 operators, employees of the company, representing 31% of this population. The model applied in TELPA (Paraíba Telecommunication Company, Brazil) was based on the models of Sherbrooke, Canada, and of the School of Posture of Paraìba Federal University. Fifty-eight point four percent of participants showed a reduction of column pain, 25% improved the quality of the rest and the received training was considered enough for the learning of correct postures at work in 75% of the cases. The whole population approved of the training, and 83.3% of the cases considered that this training influenced their lives very positively.

  7. Sobre la terapia génica para enfermedades de la retina.

    PubMed

    Fischer, M Dominik

    2017-07-11

    Las mutaciones en un gran número de genes provocan degeneración de la retina y ceguera sin que exista actualmente cura alguna. En las últimas décadas, la terapia génica para enfermedades de la retina ha evolucionado y se ha convertido en un nuevo y prometedor paradigma terapéutico para estas enfermedades poco comunes. Este artículo refleja las ideas y los conceptos que parten de la ciencia básica hacia la aplicabilidad de la terapia génica en el ámbito clínico. Se describen los avances y las reflexiones actuales sobre la eficacia de los ensayos clínicos en la actualidad y se discuten los posibles obstáculos y soluciones de cara al futuro de la terapia génica para enfermedades de la retina. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Complications of pelvic and para-aortic lymphadenectomy in patients with endometrial cancer.

    PubMed

    Arduino, S; Leo, L; Febo, G; Tessarolo, M; Wierdis, T; Lanza, A

    1997-01-01

    The International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) changed the staging criteria for endometrial cancer in 1988 and adopted a surgical-pathological staging involving also pelvic and/or para-aortic lymphadenectomy. A total of 236 patients were treated for endometrial adenocarcinoma at Department B of the Gynecologic and Obstetrics Institute, University of Turin, between January 1976 and December 1995. Our protocol for surgical staging always entails pelvic and para-aortic lymphadenectomy and a simple total hysterectomy and bilateral adnexectomy with removal of the upper third of the vagina. The aim of this study was to carry out a retrospective evaluation of the morbidity in patients with endometrial cancer after surgical treatment, either TAH-BSO alone or TAH-BSO with pelvic and para-aortic lymphadenectomy.

  9. Production and characterization of para-hydrogen gas for matrix isolation infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundararajan, K.; Sankaran, K.; Ramanathan, N.; Gopi, R.

    2016-08-01

    Normal hydrogen (n-H2) has 3:1 ortho/para ratio and the production of enriched para-hydrogen (p-H2) from normal hydrogen is useful for many applications including matrix isolation experiments. In this paper, we describe the design, development and fabrication of the ortho-para converter that is capable of producing enriched p-H2. The p-H2 thus produced was probed using infrared and Raman techniques. Using infrared measurement, the thickness and the purity of the p-H2 matrix were determined. The purity of p-H2 was determined to be >99%. Matrix isolation infrared spectra of trimethylphosphate (TMP) and acetylene (C2H2) were studied in p-H2 and n-H2 matrices and the results were compared with the conventional inert matrices.

  10. Evidence for disequilibrium of ortho and para hydrogen on Jupiter from Voyager IRIS measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conrath, B. J.; Gierasch, P. J.

    1983-01-01

    Preliminary results of an analysis of the ortho state/para state ratio (parallel/antiparallel) for molecular H2 in the Jovian atmosphere using Voyager IR spectrometer (IRIS) data are reported. The study was undertaken to expand the understanding of the thermodynamics of a predominantly H2 atmosphere, which takes about 100 million sec to reach equilibrium. IRIS data provided 4.3/cm resolution in the 300-700/cm spectral range dominated by H2 lines. Approximately 600 spectra were examined to detect any disequilibrium between the hydrogen species. The results indicate that the ortho-para ratio is not in an equilibrium state in the upper Jovian troposphere. A thorough mapping of the para-state molecules in the upper atmosphere could therefore aid in mapping the atmospheric flowfield.

  11. Evidence for disequilibrium of ortho and para hydrogen on Jupiter from Voyager IRIS measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conrath, B. J.; Gierasch, P. J.

    1983-01-01

    Preliminary results of an analysis of the ortho state/para state ratio (parallel/antiparallel) for molecular H2 in the Jovian atmosphere using Voyager IR spectrometer (IRIS) data are reported. The study was undertaken to expand the understanding of the thermodynamics of a predominantly H2 atmosphere, which takes about 100 million sec to reach equilibrium. IRIS data provided 4.3/cm resolution in the 300-700/cm spectral range dominated by H2 lines. Approximately 600 spectra were examined to detect any disequilibrium between the hydrogen species. The results indicate that the ortho-para ratio is not in an equilibrium state in the upper Jovian troposphere. A thorough mapping of the para-state molecules in the upper atmosphere could therefore aid in mapping the atmospheric flowfield.

  12. Electrical detection of ortho-para conversion in fullerene-encapsulated water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meier, Benno; Mamone, Salvatore; Concistrè, Maria; Alonso-Valdesueiro, Javier; Krachmalnicoff, Andrea; Whitby, Richard J.; Levitt, Malcolm H.

    2015-08-01

    Water exists in two spin isomers, ortho and para, that have different nuclear spin states. In bulk water, rapid proton exchange and hindered molecular rotation obscure the direct observation of two spin isomers. The supramolecular endofullerene H2O@C60 provides freely rotating, isolated water molecules even at cryogenic temperatures. Here we show that the bulk dielectric constant of this substance depends on the ortho/para ratio, and changes slowly in time after a sudden temperature jump, due to nuclear spin conversion. The attribution of the effect to ortho-para conversion is validated by comparison with nuclear magnetic resonance and quantum theory. The change in dielectric constant is consistent with an electric dipole moment of 0.51+/-0.05 Debye for an encapsulated water molecule, indicating the partial shielding of the water dipole by the encapsulating cage. The dependence of bulk dielectric constant on nuclear spin isomer composition appears to be a previously unreported physical phenomenon.

  13. Identificación de Intervenciones para el Desarrollo Positivo de la Juventud

    PubMed Central

    Sardiñas, Lili M.; Padilla, Viviana; Aponte, Mari; Boscio, Ana Morales; Pedrogo, Coralee Pérez; Santiago, Betzaida; Morales, Ángela Pérez; Dávila, Paloma Torres; Cesáreo, Marizaida Sánchez

    2017-01-01

    Resumen En el mundo hay más personas en la etapa de la juventud que en cualquier otra etapa del desarrollo. La juventud en Puerto Rico enfrenta muchas situaciones que inciden en su desarrollo y preparación para la adultez. Por lo tanto, es imperante identificar intervenciones para el desarrollo positivo de la juventud que han demostrado ser basadas en la evidencia. Además, a partir de dicha identificación, desarrollar prácticas que ayuden a los jóvenes a desarrollarse para prevenir situaciones adversas, promover experiencias positivas y propiciar que los niños y jóvenes estén involucrados y comprometidos. Se identificaron 147 intervenciones a través de una revisión tradicional de la literatura científica estadounidense. Los resultados reflejan que las intervenciones atienden la reducción de factores de riesgo y el incremento de factores de protección. Sin embargo, ninguna intervención propicia que los niños y jóvenes estén involucrados y comprometidos con su desarrollo óptimo y con sus comunidades. No obstante, todas brindan herramientas que podrían ser de utilidad para fomentar dichas prácticas en el contexto de Puerto Rico. De las 147 intervenciones identificadas seis están diseñadas para la población puertorriqueña residente en la Isla. Con el propósito de hacer la información accesible a los profesionales y la comunidad se expandió la colección del Archivo de Programas y Prácticas Basadas en Evidencia para la Prevención. PMID:28919943

  14. Quantitative structure–activity relationship analysis of the pharmacology of para-substituted methcathinone analogues

    PubMed Central

    Bonano, J S; Banks, M L; Kolanos, R; Sakloth, F; Barnier, M L; Glennon, R A; Cozzi, N V; Partilla, J S; Baumann, M H; Negus, S S

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Methcathinone (MCAT) is a potent monoamine releaser and parent compound to emerging drugs of abuse including mephedrone (4-CH3 MCAT), the para-methyl analogue of MCAT. This study examined quantitative structure–activity relationships (QSAR) for MCAT and six para-substituted MCAT analogues on (a) in vitro potency to promote monoamine release via dopamine and serotonin transporters (DAT and SERT, respectively), and (b) in vivo modulation of intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS), a behavioural procedure used to evaluate abuse potential. Neurochemical and behavioural effects were correlated with steric (Es), electronic (σp) and lipophilic (πp) parameters of the para substituents. Experimental Approach For neurochemical studies, drug effects on monoamine release through DAT and SERT were evaluated in rat brain synaptosomes. For behavioural studies, drug effects were tested in male Sprague-Dawley rats implanted with electrodes targeting the medial forebrain bundle and trained to lever-press for electrical brain stimulation. Key Results MCAT and all six para-substituted analogues increased monoamine release via DAT and SERT and dose- and time-dependently modulated ICSS. In vitro selectivity for DAT versus SERT correlated with in vivo efficacy to produce abuse-related ICSS facilitation. In addition, the Es values of the para substituents correlated with both selectivity for DAT versus SERT and magnitude of ICSS facilitation. Conclusions and Implications Selectivity for DAT versus SERT in vitro is a key determinant of abuse-related ICSS facilitation by these MCAT analogues, and steric aspects of the para substituent of the MCAT scaffold (indicated by Es) are key determinants of this selectivity. PMID:25438806

  15. Calcisponges have a ParaHox gene and dynamic expression of dispersed NK homeobox genes.

    PubMed

    Fortunato, Sofia A V; Adamski, Marcin; Ramos, Olivia Mendivil; Leininger, Sven; Liu, Jing; Ferrier, David E K; Adamska, Maja

    2014-10-30

    Sponges are simple animals with few cell types, but their genomes paradoxically contain a wide variety of developmental transcription factors, including homeobox genes belonging to the Antennapedia (ANTP) class, which in bilaterians encompass Hox, ParaHox and NK genes. In the genome of the demosponge Amphimedon queenslandica, no Hox or ParaHox genes are present, but NK genes are linked in a tight cluster similar to the NK clusters of bilaterians. It has been proposed that Hox and ParaHox genes originated from NK cluster genes after divergence of sponges from the lineage leading to cnidarians and bilaterians. On the other hand, synteny analysis lends support to the notion that the absence of Hox and ParaHox genes in Amphimedon is a result of secondary loss (the ghost locus hypothesis). Here we analysed complete suites of ANTP-class homeoboxes in two calcareous sponges, Sycon ciliatum and Leucosolenia complicata. Our phylogenetic analyses demonstrate that these calcisponges possess orthologues of bilaterian NK genes (Hex, Hmx and Msx), a varying number of additional NK genes and one ParaHox gene, Cdx. Despite the generation of scaffolds spanning multiple genes, we find no evidence of clustering of Sycon NK genes. All Sycon ANTP-class genes are developmentally expressed, with patterns suggesting their involvement in cell type specification in embryos and adults, metamorphosis and body plan patterning. These results demonstrate that ParaHox genes predate the origin of sponges, thus confirming the ghost locus hypothesis, and highlight the need to analyse the genomes of multiple sponge lineages to obtain a complete picture of the ancestral composition of the first animal genome.

  16. Superfluid Effects in PARA-H_2 Clusters Probed by CO_2 Rotation-Vibration Transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hui; Le Roy, Robert J.; Roy, Pierre-Nicholas; McKellar, A. R. W.

    2010-06-01

    The prospect of directly observing superfluidity in para-H_2 is a tantalizing but elusive goal. Like ^4He, para-H_2 is a light zero-spin boson. However, H_2-H_2 intermolecular interactions, though weak, are stronger than He-He interactions, and hydrogen is a solid below about 14 K. This makes detection of superfluidity in bulk hydrogen problematical, to say the least. But there are still possibilities for para-H_2 in the form of clusters or in nano-confined environments, and superfluid transition temperatures as high as ˜6 K have been predicted. Spectroscopic observations of (para-H_2)_N-CO_2 clusters were at first very difficult to interpret for N > 5. However, with the help of path integral Monte Carlo simulations and an accurate new H_2-CO_2 intermolecular potential surface which explicitly incorporates dependence on the CO_2 νb{3} asymmetric stretch, it is now possible to achieve a remarkably consistent picture of (para-H_2)_N-CO_2 clusters in the size range N = 1 ˜ 20. By combining the experimental spectroscopic measurements and theoretical simulations, we determine the size evolution of the superfluid response of the CO_2-doped para-H_2 clusters, which peaks for the "magic" number N = 12. V. L. Ginzburg and A. A. Sobyanin, JETP Lett. 15, 343 (1972). A. R. W. McKellar, Paper WH04, 63rd OSU International Symposium on Molecular Spectroscopy, June 16-20, 2008. H. Li, P.-N. Roy, and R. J. Le Roy, J. Chem. Phys., submitted.

  17. Evaluation of an immobilized cell bioreactor for degradation of meta- and para-nitrobenzoate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peretti, Steven W.; Thomas, Stuart M.

    1994-01-01

    Meta- and para-nitrobenzoic acid are pollutants found in waste streams from metal-stripping processes using cyanide-free solvents. The Kelly AFB industrial Waste Treatment Plant (IWTP) is currently incapable of removing these compounds from its wastewaters because of the presence of significant quantities of ethylenediamine, a preferred substrate and upper limit of 4-5 hours on the hydraulic residence time in the IWTP. This report describes the enrichment and preliminary characterization of a microbial consortium capable of utilizing both Meta- and Para-Nitrobenzoate as sole carbon sources.

  18. Quantum rotation of ortho and para-water encapsulated in a fullerene cage

    PubMed Central

    Beduz, Carlo; Carravetta, Marina; Chen, Judy Y.-C.; Concistrè, Maria; Denning, Mark; Frunzi, Michael; Horsewill, Anthony J.; Johannessen, Ole G.; Lawler, Ronald; Lei, Xuegong; Levitt, Malcolm H.; Li, Yongjun; Mamone, Salvatore; Murata, Yasujiro; Nagel, Urmas; Nishida, Tomoko; Ollivier, Jacques; Rols, Stéphane; Rõõm, Toomas; Sarkar, Riddhiman; Turro, Nicholas J.; Yang, Yifeng

    2012-01-01

    Inelastic neutron scattering, far-infrared spectroscopy, and cryogenic nuclear magnetic resonance are used to investigate the quantized rotation and ortho–para conversion of single water molecules trapped inside closed fullerene cages. The existence of metastable ortho-water molecules is demonstrated, and the interconversion of ortho-and para-water spin isomers is tracked in real time. Our investigation reveals that the ground state of encapsulated ortho water has a lifted degeneracy, associated with symmetry-breaking of the water environment. PMID:22837402

  19. Experiments at Scale with In-Situ Visualization Using ParaView/Catalyst in RAGE

    SciTech Connect

    Kares, Robert John

    2014-10-31

    In this paper I describe some numerical experiments performed using the ParaView/Catalyst in-situ visualization infrastructure deployed in the Los Alamos RAGE radiation-hydrodynamics code to produce images from a running large scale 3D ICF simulation on the Cielo supercomputer at Los Alamos. The detailed procedures for the creation of the visualizations using ParaView/Catalyst are discussed and several images sequences from the ICF simulation problem produced with the in-situ method are presented. My impressions and conclusions concerning the use of the in-situ visualization method in RAGE are discussed.

  20. Quantum rotation of ortho and para-water encapsulated in a fullerene cage.

    PubMed

    Beduz, Carlo; Carravetta, Marina; Chen, Judy Y-C; Concistrè, Maria; Denning, Mark; Frunzi, Michael; Horsewill, Anthony J; Johannessen, Ole G; Lawler, Ronald; Lei, Xuegong; Levitt, Malcolm H; Li, Yongjun; Mamone, Salvatore; Murata, Yasujiro; Nagel, Urmas; Nishida, Tomoko; Ollivier, Jacques; Rols, Stéphane; Rõõm, Toomas; Sarkar, Riddhiman; Turro, Nicholas J; Yang, Yifeng

    2012-08-07

    Inelastic neutron scattering, far-infrared spectroscopy, and cryogenic nuclear magnetic resonance are used to investigate the quantized rotation and ortho-para conversion of single water molecules trapped inside closed fullerene cages. The existence of metastable ortho-water molecules is demonstrated, and the interconversion of ortho-and para-water spin isomers is tracked in real time. Our investigation reveals that the ground state of encapsulated ortho water has a lifted degeneracy, associated with symmetry-breaking of the water environment.

  1. In para totale...una cosa da panico...sulla lingua dei giovani in Italia (In para totale...una cosa da panico...The Language of Young People in Italy).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcato, Carla

    1997-01-01

    Describes and analyzes the language of young people in Italy today. Particular focus is on the expressions using "para" (e.g., "in para totale" = to be very bored or worried) and the phrase "una cosa da panico" (something terrible or its opposite something wonderful). (CFM)

  2. In para totale...una cosa da panico...sulla lingua dei giovani in Italia (In para totale...una cosa da panico...The Language of Young People in Italy).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcato, Carla

    1997-01-01

    Describes and analyzes the language of young people in Italy today. Particular focus is on the expressions using "para" (e.g., "in para totale" = to be very bored or worried) and the phrase "una cosa da panico" (something terrible or its opposite something wonderful). (CFM)

  3. Surgical treatment of scapulohumeral subluxation in an alpaca (Vicugna pacos) using osteotomy of the acromion, open reduction and extracapsular tension sutures.

    PubMed

    Kofler, J; Eberspächer, E; Fischl, K; Vidoni, B

    2016-05-01

    A 3.3-year-old male alpaca, weighing 60 kg was referred for investigation of a severe left forelimb lameness of 4 weeks duration. A scapulohumeral subluxation had been diagnosed radiographically by the referring veterinarian. Based on clinical, ultrasonographic and radiographic findings the diagnosis of cranio-lateral subluxation of the left humeral head was confirmed. In addition, a full thickness lesion (approximately 1×1 cm) of the articular cartilage on the caudomedial aspect of the humeral head was diagnosed by arthroscopy. Treatment included open reduction with internal fixation. Severe muscle contraction and local tissue fibrosis around the scapulohumeral joint (SHJ) required osteotomy of the acromion 3 cm proximal to the distal acromial edge, to allow adequate access. Internal stabilisation was achieved by placing tension band sutures between one cortical screw in the scapular neck and two cortical screws, with washers, craniolaterally on the greater tubercle of the humerus. Post-surgery, a carpal flexion sling was applied with the carpus maintained in 70° flexion for 4 weeks to avoid postoperative weight-bearing. An exercise programme was started 8 days after surgery and continued for 12 weeks. The alpaca had an uneventful postsurgical recovery and showed no lameness after 8 weeks. The long-term outcome was excellent; 21 months after surgery the alpaca was sound and the range of movement of the left SHJ was equal to the right SHJ. Even in this chronic case of subluxation of the SHJ of 4 weeks duration, surgical treatment using osteotomy of the acromion, open reduction and internal fixation with extracapsular scapulohumeral tension sutures resulted in an excellent long-term outcome in this alpaca, despite the presence of a cartilage lesion.

  4. Assessment of spermatozoa in fertile alpaca (Vicugna pacos) males: Study of sperm head morphometry using a nonautomated digital method and sperm morphology based on strict criteria.

    PubMed

    Evangelista-Vargas, D; Evangelista-Vargas, S; Valdivia, M; Santiani, A

    2017-04-01

    Although computer-assisted systems for sperm morphometry and morphological analysis are important tools in the study of male fertility, their use in extensive systems in alpacas is limited by factors such as the expense of equipment and the high altitudes of the Andean region. The objectives of this study were to evaluate alpaca sperm head morphometry using a nonautomated digital method and determine the frequency of sperm abnormalities based on strict criteria for sperm morphology in fertile male alpacas. Ejaculates (n = 15) from seven alpacas were collected, and sperm smears stained with modified Papanicolaou were processed. For morphometric analysis, 3,000 sperm (200 cells/sample) images were captured at 400× magnification and Quick Photo MICRO 3.0 software was used for manual measurement of basic (sperm head length, width, perimeter and area) and derived variables (ellipticity, shape factor, elongation and regularity). For morphology assessment, smears were observed at 1000× magnification according to WHO and strict criteria. Average morphometric parameters were length 5.48 μm, width 2.99 μm, perimeter 13.62 μm, area 12.43 μm(2) , ellipticity 1.86, shape factor 1.20, elongation 0.29 and regularity 1.05. Significant between-individual and within-individual differences were found in morphometric parameters. Based on morphometric study, sperm heads were classified as elliptical or normal (49%), long (18%), short (2%), pyriform (12%), round (9%), large (6%) and small (4%). Morphological analysis found no additional sperm head defects in 49% of normal sperm obtained by morphometry, although a 4% incidence of neck/mid-piece defects and a 16% incidence of principal-piece defects were found. We conclude that sperm head morphometry assessment in fertile alpacas using a nonautomated digital method is feasible, and that defects in sperm heads constitute the main morphological alteration (>50% of the sperm population), based on WHO and strict criteria. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. Sarcocystis masoni, n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Sarcocystidae), and redescription of Sarcocystis aucheniae from llama (Lama glama), guanaco (Lama guanicoe) and alpaca (Vicugna pacos)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    There is considerable confusion concerning the species of Sarcocystis in South American camelids (SAC). Several species names have been used, however, proper descriptions are lacking. In the present paper we redescribe the macroscopic sarcocyst forming Sarcocystis aucheniae and describe and name the...

  6. Progesterone, pregnanediol-3-glucuronide, relaxin and oestrone sulphate concentrations in saliva, milk and urine of female alpacas (Vicugna pacos) and their application in pregnancy diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Volkery, J; Gottschalk, J; Sobiraj, A; Wittek, T; Einspanier, A

    2012-08-25

    The pregnancy-associated hormones, progesterone (P4), pregnanediol-3-glucuronide (PdG), relaxin (RLN) and oestrone sulphate (E1S) in plasma, saliva, milk and urine of alpacas were measured in order to assess their potential use for pregnancy diagnosis. Samples were obtained from 36 female alpacas before mating and at different stages throughout pregnancy (confirmed by ultrasonography). The hormone concentrations were determined using enzyme immunoassays. Milk samples were also tested using a commercial on-farm P4 kit, designed for dairy cattle. Although the concentration of P4 in plasma, milk and urine, and the concentration of PdG in urine were significantly higher in pregnant than in non-pregnant alpacas, there was no difference in the concentrations of P4 or PdG in saliva. The on-farm milk P4 kit showed a sensitivity of 90 per cent for diagnosis of pregnancy and a specificity of 69 per cent for non-pregnancy. The concentration of RLN in plasma increased significantly after the second month, and concentration of E1S in plasma and urine during the last month of pregnancy, whereas, there were no significant differences in RLN or E1S concentrations in saliva and milk between pregnant and non-pregnant alpacas. Values of P4, RLN and E1S in plasma, and PdG and E1S in urine are comparable with the previous reports in alpacas and, therefore, can be confirmed as an indicator for pregnancy. This is the first study to include determination of pregnancy-associated hormones in the saliva and milk of alpacas. However, saliva seems to be unsuitable for pregnancy diagnosis in alpacas, whereas, P4 in milk, as well as PdG and E1S in urine, seem to be adequate tools for diagnosis.

  7. Cross-sectional observational survey of serum biochemistry values in a population of 69 adult female alpacas (Vicugna pacos) in South Australia.

    PubMed

    Cockcroft, P D; Mackie, I; Perry, J; Caraguel, C; Townsend, K; Reichel, M P

    2016-04-01

    Blood samples were collected from 69 'healthy' female alpacas aged ≥12 months from 11 properties in South Australia. The 10-90 percentile ranges of the 16/19 analytes measured in this sample population were within the published ranges of four healthy alpaca populations from other geographic locations. Marginal exceptions were glutamate dehydrogenase and bicarbonate. Potassium was notably elevated, probably because of haemolysis of some samples. The sample size was insufficient to provide the appropriate statistical power to define diagnostic references ranges according to international standards. The health status of the sample population of alpacas was presumptive based on a physical examination. © 2016 Australian Veterinary Association.

  8. Otitis interna, media, and externa with destruction of the left tympanic bulla and subluxation and septic arthritis of the left temporomandibular joint in an alpaca (Vicugna pacos)

    PubMed Central

    Galvan, Noe; Middleton, John R.; Cook, Cristi; Britt, Lisa G.; Kuroki, Keiichi

    2013-01-01

    A 1.5-year-old, 37.7 kg, female alpaca was evaluated for a 2-week history of weight loss, left ear droop, and deviation of the rostral mandible to the right. Antemortem radiography and postmortem examination revealed otitis interna, media, and externa, destruction of the left tympanic bulla, and subluxation and septic arthritis of the left temporomandibular joint. PMID:23997267

  9. Diversity and abundance of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequences in forestomach of alpacas (Lama pacos) and sheep (Ovis aries).

    PubMed

    Pei, Cai-Xia; Liu, Qiang; Dong, Chang-Sheng; Li, HongQuan; Jiang, Jun-Bing; Gao, Wen-Jun

    2010-08-01

    Two bacterial 16S rRNA gene clone libraries were constructed from the forestomach of alpacas and sheep fed alfalfa. After the amplification using the universal 16S rRNA gene primers, equal quantities of PCR products from the same species were mixed and used to construct the two libraries. Sequence analysis showed that the 60 clones from alpacas were divided into 27 phylotypes with 25% clones affiliated with Eubacterium sp. F1. The 60 clones from sheep were divided into 21 phylotypes with 7 phylotypes affiliated with Prevotella ruminicola (40% clones). Clones closely related to Clostridium proteoclasticum, Eubacterium sp. F1, Clostridium cellobioparum, Mogibacterium neglectum, Eubacterium ventriosum, Clostridiaceae bacterium WN011, Clostridium coccoides, Clostridium orbiscindens, Eubacterium sp. F1, Cytophaga sp. Dex80-37, Treponema bryantii and Pelotomaculum sp. FP were only found in the forestomach of alpacas, and those to Anaerovorax odorimutans, Treponema zioleckii, Bifidobacterium indicum, Paludibacter propionicigenes, Paraprevotella clara, Eubacterium siraeum, Desulfotomaculum sp. CYP1, Clostridium bolteae, Clostridium termitidis and Clostridiaceae bacterium DJF_LS40 only in the rumen of sheep. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that the forestomach of alpacas had significantly lower density of bacteria, with bacterial 16S rRNA gene copies (6.89 [Log10 (copies per gram of wet weight)]), than that of sheep (7.71, P<0.01). The two clone libraries also appeared different in Shannon index (library from alpacas 3.30 and from sheep 3.04). Our results showed that there were apparent differences in the bacterial diversity and abundance in the forestomach between alpacas and sheep. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Evaluation of the performance of cellular and serological diagnostic tests for the diagnosis of tuberculosis in an alpaca (Vicugna pacos) herd naturally infected with Mycobacterium bovis.

    PubMed

    Bezos, Javier; Casal, Carmen; Alvarez, Julio; Díez-Guerrier, Alberto; Rodríguez-Bertos, Antonio; Romero, Beatriz; Rueda, Paloma; López, Lissette; Domínguez, Lucas; de Juan, Lucía

    2013-09-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) in llamas and alpacas has gained importance in recent years since they are imported into the European Union mainly for serving as pets and for production of natural fibre. The intradermal tuberculin test has been widely used for diagnosis of TB in these species showing lack of sensitivity (Se) although little information has been previously reported evaluating the effect on its performance of different PPD inoculation sites and time of readings. Moreover, different cost-effective serological assays have been developed in the recent years for TB diagnosis in camelids obtaining a variety of results and, for this reason, new assays still being developed. The main objectives of this study were: (1) to evaluate the performance of the intradermal tuberculin test using different inoculation sites (axillary, prescapular and cervical) and times of reading (72 and 120 h) and (2) to test a novel serological assay based on MPB83 antigen in a Mycobacterium bovis naturally infected alpaca herd in Spain. In regards to skin test, single intradermal tuberculin (SIT) test at the prescapular site and reading at 72 h showed the highest proportion of test-positive-culture positive animals among all culture positive animals (T+/C+), ranging from 53.8% (95% CI, 37.2-69.9) to 80% (95% CI, 44.4-97.5) using a more stringent interpretation than typically prescribed although, in general, low T+/C+ was achieved using both SIT and single comparative intradermal tuberculin (SCIT) tests alone. T+/C+ of the serological assay increased using samples collected 15-30 days after PPD injection [76.9% (95% CI, 60.7-88.9) - 100% (95% CI, 69.2-100)]. The best results of T+/C+ were obtained applying in parallel the most sensitive SIT test and serology using samples collected 15-30 days after PPD inoculation [90% (95% CI, 55.5-99.7)-100% (95% CI, 69.2-100)]. Therefore implementation of serology in parallel with the most sensitive skin test could maximize the detection of infected animals.

  11. [Fut1 gene mutation for para-bombay blood type individual in Fujian Province of China].

    PubMed

    Huang, Hao-Bou; Fan, Li-Ping; Wai, Shi-Jin; Zeng, Feng; Lin, Hai-Yan; Zhang, Rong

    2010-10-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the molecular mechanisms for para-Bombay blood type individual in Fujian Province of China. The para-Bombay blood type of this individual was identified by routine serological techniques. The full coding region of alpha (1,2) fucosyltransferase (FUT1) gene of this individual was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), then the PCR product was cloned into T vector. The mutation in coding region of fut1 gene was identified by TA cloning, so as to explore the molecular mechanisms for para-Bombay blood type individual. The results indicated that the full coding region of fut1 gene was successfully amplified by PCR. AG deletion at position 547-552 on 2 homologous chromosomes was detected by TA cloning method, leading to a reading frame shift and a premature stop codon. It is concluded that genetic mutation of fut1 gene in this para-bombay blood type individual was h1h1 homozygotic type.

  12. Performance characteristics of magnesium/para-nitrophenol cells in 2:1 magnesium electrolytes

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, G.; Sivashanugam, A.; Sridharan, R. )

    1993-11-01

    1 V/1 Ah magnesium/para-nitrophenol (PNP) reserve cells were fabricated and their performance was evaluated in different electrolytes [2M aqueous solutions of Mg(C1O[sub 4])[sub 2], MgCl[sub 2], and MgBr[sub 2

  13. Factor Structure of the "Escala de Autoeficacia para la Depresion en Adolescentes" (EADA)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diaz-Santos, Mirella; Cumba-Aviles, Eduardo; Bernal, Guillermo; Rivera-Medina, Carmen

    2011-01-01

    The current concept and measures of self-efficacy for depression in adolescents do not consider developmental and cultural aspects essential to understand and assess this construct in Latino youth. We examined the factor structure of the "Escala de Autoeficacia para la Depresion en Adolescentes" (EADA), a Spanish instrument designed to…

  14. Factor Structure of the "Escala de Autoeficacia para la Depresion en Adolescentes" (EADA)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diaz-Santos, Mirella; Cumba-Aviles, Eduardo; Bernal, Guillermo; Rivera-Medina, Carmen

    2011-01-01

    The current concept and measures of self-efficacy for depression in adolescents do not consider developmental and cultural aspects essential to understand and assess this construct in Latino youth. We examined the factor structure of the "Escala de Autoeficacia para la Depresion en Adolescentes" (EADA), a Spanish instrument designed to…

  15. Para-Professionals in Further Education: Changing Roles in Vocational Delivery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Gill

    2005-01-01

    Roles and structures within further education colleges seem to be in constant change and development; roles are becoming blurred, and lecturers are taking on more management tasks. Alongside this has been the development of para-professional roles, using non-lecturers to undertake teaching tasks. This can allow for the greater involvement of…

  16. Ortho-para conversion of endohedral water in the fullerene C60 at cryogenic temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shugai, Anna; Nagel, U.; Rõõm, T.; Mamone, S.; Concistrè, M.; Meier, B.; Krachmalnicoff, A.; Whitby, R. J.; Levitt, M. H.; Lei, Xuegong; Li, Yongjun; Turro, N. J.

    2015-03-01

    Water displays the phenomenon of spin isomerism in which the two proton spins either couple to form a triplet (ortho water, I = 1) or a singlet nuclear spin state (para water, I = 0). Here we study the interconversion of para and ortho water. The exact mechanism of this process is still not fully understood. In order to minimize interactions between molecules we use a sample where a single H2O is trapped in the C60 molecular cage (H2O@C60)andH2O@C60iscrystallized.H2O@C60 has long-lived ortho state and ortho-para conversion kinetics is non-exponential at LHeT. We studied mixtures of H2O@C60, D2O@C60 and C60 using IR absorption, NMR and dielectric measurements. We saw the speeding up of the interconversion with the growth of H2O@C60 concentration in C60 or when D2O@C60 was added. At some temperatures the kinetics is exponential. Models are discussed in order to explain the T and concentration dependence of ortho-para interconversion kinetics. This work was supported by institutional research funding IUT23-3 of the Estonian Ministry of Education and Research.

  17. Autoguía para el telescopio 2,15 mts de CASLEO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aballay, J. A.; Casagrande, A. R.; Pereyra, P. F.; Marún, A. H.

    Se está desarrollando un sistema de autoguía para el telescopio de 2,15 mts. El mismo se realizará aprovechando el Offset Guider. Al ocular móvil de éste se vinculará alguna cámara digital (ST4-ST7-CH250) para lograr la visión del objeto. El funcionamiento del equipo será el siguiente: primero, dadas las coordenadas del objeto a observar, se tomarán las coordenadas del telescopio para que, a través de una base de datos, se determine un campo de objetos que sirvan para la cámara de visión, luego, la PC obtendrá el offset entre la estrella de observación y la estrella seleccionada como guía, este valor será trasladado a los motores que posicionarán en forma automática el ocular. Una vez que la estrella es visualizada en la cámara (monitor de PC ) se correrá el programa que guiará el telescopio automáticamente.

  18. UPLC-ESI-MS/MS analysis of Sudan dyes and Para Red in food.

    PubMed

    Li, C; Wu, Y L; Shen, J Z

    2010-09-01

    An analytical method for the simultaneous determination of Sudan dyes (Sudan Red G, Sudan I, Sudan II, Sudan III, Sudan Red 7B and Sudan IV) and Para Red in food by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-MS/MS) was developed. Samples were extracted with acetonitrile, and water added into the extract. The supernatant was analysed by UPLC-MS/MS after refrigeration and centrifugation. The sample was separated on an Acquity BEH C(18) column, and detected by MS/MS with the multiple reaction monitoring mode. Matrix calibration was used for quantitative testing of the method. The linear matrix calibrations of Sudan dyes and Para Red were 2-50 and 10-250 ng g(-1), respectively, and the regression coefficients were >0.9945. The recoveries were 83.4-112.3% with good coefficients of variation of 2.0-10.8%. The limits of detection were between 0.3 and 1.4 ng g(-1) for the six Sudan dyes, and between 3.7 and 6.0 ng g(-1) for Para Red. The limits of quantification were between 0.9 and 4.8 ng g(-1) for the six Sudan dyes, and between 12.2 and 19.8 ng g(-1) for Para Red.

  19. Can para-aryl-dithiols cross-link two plasmonic noble nanoparticles as monolayer dithiolate spacers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Para-aryl-dithiols (PADTs, HS-(C6H4)n-SH, n = 1, 2, and 3) have been used extensively in molecular electronics, surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS), and quantum electron tunneling between two gold or silver nanoparticles (AuNPs and AgNPs). One popular belief is that these dithiols cross-link ...

  20. An Analysis of Interlanguage Development Over Time: Part 1, "por" and "para".

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guntermann, Gail

    1992-01-01

    The first part of a larger planned investigation, this study examines the use of "por" and "para" by nine Peace Corps volunteers in oral interviews at the end of training and roughly one year later, to trace their acquisition over time, in two learning contexts. (24 references) (LB)

  1. The Acquisition of Lexical Meaning in a Study Abroad Context: The Spanish Prepositions "por" and "para."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lafford, Barbara A.; Ryan, John M.

    1995-01-01

    Examination of the development of form/function relations of the prepositions "por" and "para" at different levels of proficiency in the interlanguage of study-abroad students in Granada, Spain, revealed "noncanonical" as well as "canonical" uses of these prepositions. The most common noncanonical uses were…

  2. Energia Renovable para Centros de Salud Rurales (Renewable Energy for Rural Health Clinics)

    SciTech Connect

    Jimenez, T.; Olson, K.

    1999-07-28

    Esta es la primera de una serie de guias de aplicaciones que el Programa de Energia de Villas de NREL esta comisionando para acoplar sistemas comerciales renovables con aplicaciones rurales, incluyendo agua, escuelas rurales y micro empresas. La guia esta complementada por las actividades de desarrollo del Programa de Energia de Villas de NREL, proyectos pilotos internacionales y programas de visitas profesionales.

  3. Interrupting Commemoration: Thinking with Art, Thinking through the Strictures of Argentina's "Espacio para la memoria"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paolantonio, Mario Di

    2011-01-01

    Recently, a few buildings within the "Espacio para la memoria" in Buenos Aires have been designated as a UNESCO Centre where, amongst other educational activities, evidentiary materials of the past repression are to be stored and displayed. Another building in the complex houses a Community Centre operated by the Mothers of the Plaza de…

  4. Irradiation of para-aortic lymph node metastases from carcinoma of the cervix or endometrium

    SciTech Connect

    Komaki, R.; Mattingly, R.F.; Hoffman, R.G.; Barber, S.W.; Satre, R.; Greenberg, M.

    1983-04-01

    Twenty-two patients with biopsy-proved para-aortic lymph node metastases from carcinoma of the cervix (15 patients) or endometrium (7 patients) received a median dose of 5,000 rad/25 fractions. Para-aortic nodal metastases were controlled in 77% of cases. Control was significantly lower following radical retroperitoneal lymph node dissection than less extensive sampling procedures. Obstruction of the small bowel developed in 3 patients with tumor recurrence in the para-aortic region. Eight of the 10 patients who were disease-free at 2 years received >5,000 rad. Three patients were still alive without disease at 129, 63, and 60 months, respectively. The 5-year disease-free survival rate was 40% for cervical cancer and 60% for endometrial cancer: in the former group, it was significantly different depending on whether the para-aortic nodes were irradiated (40%) or not (0%). The authors suggest that 5,000-5,500 rad in 5-5.5 weeks is well tolerated and can control aortic nodal metastases in cervical and possibly endometrial cancer.

  5. Interrupting Commemoration: Thinking with Art, Thinking through the Strictures of Argentina's "Espacio para la memoria"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paolantonio, Mario Di

    2011-01-01

    Recently, a few buildings within the "Espacio para la memoria" in Buenos Aires have been designated as a UNESCO Centre where, amongst other educational activities, evidentiary materials of the past repression are to be stored and displayed. Another building in the complex houses a Community Centre operated by the Mothers of the Plaza de…

  6. Anuncios de servicio público para proteger a los trabajadores de plaguicidas

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Estos archivos de anuncios de servicio público se pueden descargar libremente para su uso en la formación, transmisiones de audio, etc.(These public service announcement files can be freely downloaded for use in training, audio broadcasts, etc.)

  7. Antimicrobial effect of para-alkoxyphenylcarbamic acid esters containing substituted N-phenylpiperazine moiety

    PubMed Central

    Malík, Ivan; Bukovský, Marián; Andriamainty, Fils; Gališinová, Jana

    2013-01-01

    In current research, nine basic esters of para-alkoxyphenylcarbamic acid with incorporated 4-(4-fluoro-/3-trifluoromethylphenyl)piperazin-1-yl fragment, 6i–6m and 8f–8i, were screened for their in vitro antimicrobial activity against Candida albicans, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, respectively. Taking into account the minimum inhibitory concentration assay (MIC), as the most active against given yeast was evaluated 8i (MIC = 0.20 mg/mL), the most lipophilic structure containing para-butoxy and trifluoromethyl substituents. Investigating the efficiency of the compounds bearing only a single atom of fluorine and appropriate para-alkoxy side chain against Candida albicans, the cut-off effect was observed. From evaluated homological series, the maximum of the effectiveness was noticed for the stucture 6 k (MIC = 0.39 mg/mL), containing para-propoxy group attached to phenylcarbamoyloxy fragment, beyond which the compounds ceased to be active. On the contrary, all the tested molecules were against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli (MICs > 1.00 mg/mL) practically inactive. PMID:24294237

  8. Fabrication and Evaluation of New Resins. Volume 1. Synthesis of Para- Ordered Aromatic Polymers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-04-01

    identify by block number) Para-ordered Polymers Polybenzobisthiazoles Poly (diphenylbenzobisimidazoles) Polybenzobisoxazoles Thermally Stable Polymers...linear polybenzobisoxazole (PBO) , but with improved solubility, higher molecular weight, and increased thermooxidative stability. PBO PBO is soluble to...order to develop high strength in the oriented film or fiber this molecular weight may have to be increased. Although the thermooxidative stability of

  9. Development of High-Activity Para- to Ortho-Hydrogen Conversion Catalysts. Volume 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-09-28

    and Loeb1, E. M., J. Phys. Chem. 73, 894 (1969). G. C. Michael , Ph.D. thesis, The Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, 1969. Misono, M., and...hydrogen. Zhavoronkova, K. N.; Peshkov, A. V.; Spivak ,, N. A. Tr. - M’osk. Khim.-Tekhnol. Inst. im. 0. I. Mendeleeva, 99, 89-92 (1978). Ortho-para

  10. Conformational Explosion: Understanding the Complexity of the Para-Dialkylbenzene Potential Energy Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Piyush; Hewett, Daniel M.; Zwier, Timothy S.

    2017-06-01

    This talk focuses on the single-conformation spectroscopy of small-chain para-dialkylbenzenes. This work builds on previous studies from our group on long-chain n-alkylbenzenes that identified the first folded structure in octylbenzene. The dialkylbenzenes are representative of a class of molecules that are common components of coal and aviation fuel and are known to be present in vehicle exhaust. We bring the molecules para-diethylbenzene, para-dipropylbenzene and para-dibutylbenzene into the gas phase and cool the molecules in a supersonic expansion. The jet-cooled molecules are then interrogated using laser-induced fluorescence excitation, fluorescence dip IR spectroscopy (FDIRS) and dispersed fluorescence. The LIF spectra in the S_{0}-S_{1} origin region show dramatic increases in the number of resolved transitions with increasing length of alkyl chains, reflecting an explosion in the number of unique low-energy conformations formed when two independent alkyl chains are present. Since the barriers to isomerization of the alkyl chain are similar in size, this results in an 'egg carton' shape to the potential energy surface. We use a combination of electronic frequency shift and alkyl CH stretch infrared spectra to generate a consistent set of conformational assignments.

  11. Vínculos observacionais para o processo-S em estrelas gigantes de Bário

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smiljanic, R. H. S.; Porto de Mello, G. F.; da Silva, L.

    2003-08-01

    Estrelas de bário são gigantes vermelhas de tipo GK que apresentam excessos atmosféricos dos elementos do processo-s. Tais excessos são esperados em estrelas na fase de pulsos térmicos do AGB (TP-AGB). As estrelas de bário são, no entanto, menos massivas e menos luminosas que as estrelas do AGB, assim, não poderiam ter se auto-enriquecido. Seu enriquecimento teria origem em uma estrela companheira, inicialmente mais massiva, que evolui pelo TP-AGB, se auto-enriquece com os elementos do processo-s e transfere material contaminado para a atmosfera da atual estrela de bário. A companheira evolui então para anã branca deixando de ser observada diretamente. As estrelas de bário são, portanto, úteis como testes observacionais para teorias de nucleossíntese pelo processo-s, convecção e perda de massa. Análises detalhadas de abundância com dados de alta qualidade para estes objetos são ainda escassas na literatura. Neste trabalho construímos modelos de atmosferas e, procedendo a uma análise diferencial, determinamos parâmetros atmosféricos e evolutivos de uma amostra de dez gigantes de bário e quatro normais. Determinamos seus padrões de abundância para Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Sr, Y, Zr, Ba, La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu e Gd, concluindo que algumas estrelas classificadas na literatura como gigantes de bário são na verdade gigantes normais. Comparamos dois padrões médios de abundância, para estrelas com grandes excessos e estrelas com excessos moderados, com modelos teóricos de enriquecimento pelo processo-s. Os dois grupos de estrelas são ajustados pelos mesmos parâmetros de exposição de nêutrons. Tal resultado sugere que a ocorrência do fenômeno de bário com diferentes intensidades não se deve a diferentes exposições de nêutrons. Discutimos ainda efeitos nucleossintéticos, ligados ao processo-s, sugeridos na literatura para os elementos Cu, Mn, V e Sc.

  12. EVALUATION OF PARA-DICHLOROBENZENE EMISSIONS FROM SOLID MOTH REPELLANT AS A SOURCE OF INDOOR AIR POLLUTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mothcakes made of para-dichlorobenzene have been widely available for the general population to be used as a moth repellant to protect garments from insect damage. Usually, a mothcake is expected to last for weeks or even months during which the para-dichlorobenzene emits slowly ...

  13. EVALUATION OF PARA-DICHLOROBENZENE EMISSIONS FROM SOLID MOTH REPELLANT AS A SOURCE OF INDOOR AIR POLLUTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mothcakes made of para-dichlorobenzene have been widely available for the general population to be used as a moth repellant to protect garments from insect damage. Usually, a mothcake is expected to last for weeks or even months during which the para-dichlorobenzene emits slowly ...

  14. Hox and ParaHox gene expression in early body plan patterning of polyplacophoran mollusks

    PubMed Central

    Fritsch, Martin; Wollesen, Tim

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Molecular developmental studies of various bilaterians have shown that the identity of the anteroposterior body axis is controlled by Hox and ParaHox genes. Detailed Hox and ParaHox gene expression data are available for conchiferan mollusks, such as gastropods (snails and slugs) and cephalopods (squids and octopuses), whereas information on the putative conchiferan sister group, Aculifera, is still scarce (but see Fritsch et al., 2015 on Hox gene expression in the polyplacophoran Acanthochitona crinita). In contrast to gastropods and cephalopods, the Hox genes in polyplacophorans are expressed in an anteroposterior sequence similar to the condition in annelids and other bilaterians. Here, we present the expression patterns of the Hox genes Lox5, Lox4, and Lox2, together with the ParaHox gene caudal (Cdx) in the polyplacophoran A. crinita. To localize Hox and ParaHox gene transcription products, we also investigated the expression patterns of the genes FMRF and Elav, and the development of the nervous system. Similar to the other Hox genes, all three Acr‐Lox genes are expressed in an anteroposterior sequence. Transcripts of Acr‐Cdx are seemingly present in the forming hindgut at the posterior end. The expression patterns of both the central class Acr‐Lox genes and the Acr‐Cdx gene are strikingly similar to those in annelids and nemerteans. In Polyplacophora, the expression patterns of the Hox and ParaHox genes seem to be evolutionarily highly conserved, while in conchiferan mollusks these genes are co‐opted into novel functions that might have led to evolutionary novelties, at least in gastropods and cephalopods. PMID:27098677

  15. Hox and ParaHox gene expression in early body plan patterning of polyplacophoran mollusks.

    PubMed

    Fritsch, Martin; Wollesen, Tim; Wanninger, Andreas

    2016-03-01

    Molecular developmental studies of various bilaterians have shown that the identity of the anteroposterior body axis is controlled by Hox and ParaHox genes. Detailed Hox and ParaHox gene expression data are available for conchiferan mollusks, such as gastropods (snails and slugs) and cephalopods (squids and octopuses), whereas information on the putative conchiferan sister group, Aculifera, is still scarce (but see Fritsch et al., 2015 on Hox gene expression in the polyplacophoran Acanthochitona crinita). In contrast to gastropods and cephalopods, the Hox genes in polyplacophorans are expressed in an anteroposterior sequence similar to the condition in annelids and other bilaterians. Here, we present the expression patterns of the Hox genes Lox5, Lox4, and Lox2, together with the ParaHox gene caudal (Cdx) in the polyplacophoran A. crinita. To localize Hox and ParaHox gene transcription products, we also investigated the expression patterns of the genes FMRF and Elav, and the development of the nervous system. Similar to the other Hox genes, all three Acr-Lox genes are expressed in an anteroposterior sequence. Transcripts of Acr-Cdx are seemingly present in the forming hindgut at the posterior end. The expression patterns of both the central class Acr-Lox genes and the Acr-Cdx gene are strikingly similar to those in annelids and nemerteans. In Polyplacophora, the expression patterns of the Hox and ParaHox genes seem to be evolutionarily highly conserved, while in conchiferan mollusks these genes are co-opted into novel functions that might have led to evolutionary novelties, at least in gastropods and cephalopods.

  16. Ancient origins of axial patterning genes: Hox genes and ParaHox genes in the Cnidaria.

    PubMed

    Finnerty, J R; Martindale, M Q

    1999-01-01

    Among the bilaterally symmetrical, triploblastic animals (the Bilateria), a conserved set of developmental regulatory genes are known to function in patterning the anterior-posterior (AP) axis. This set includes the well-studied Hox cluster genes, and the recently described genes of the ParaHox cluster, which is believed to be the evolutionary sister of the Hox cluster (Brooke et al. 1998). The conserved role of these axial patterning genes in animals as diverse as frogs and flies is believed to reflect an underlying homology (i.e., all bilaterians derive from a common ancestor which possessed an AP axis and the developmental mechanisms responsible for patterning the axis). However, the origin and early evolution of Hox genes and ParaHox genes remain obscure. Repeated attempts have been made to reconstruct the early evolution of Hox genes by analyzing data from the triphoblastic animals, the Bilateria (Schubert et al. 1993; Zhang and Nei 1996). A more precise dating of Hox origins has been elusive due to a lack of sufficient information from outgroup taxa such as the phylum Cnidaria (corals, hydras, jellyfishes, and sea anemones). In combination with outgroup taxa, another potential source of information about Hox origins is outgroup genes (e.g., the genes of the ParaHox cluster). In this article, we present cDNA sequences of two Hox-like genes (anthox2 and anthox6) from the sea anemone, Nematostella vectensis. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that anthox2 (= Cnox2) is homologous to the GSX class of ParaHox genes, and anthox6 is homologous to the anterior class of Hox genes. Therefore, the origin of Hox genes and ParaHox genes occurred prior to the evolutionary split between the Cnidaria and the Bilateria and predated the evolution of the anterior-posterior axis of bilaterian animals. Our analysis also suggests that the central Hox class was invented in the bilaterian lineage, subsequent to their split from the Cnidaria.

  17. Rotational excitation of HCN by para- and ortho-H{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Vera, Mario Hernández; Kalugina, Yulia; Denis-Alpizar, Otoniel; Stoecklin, Thierry; Lique, François

    2014-06-14

    Rotational excitation of the hydrogen cyanide (HCN) molecule by collisions with para-H{sub 2}( j = 0, 2) and ortho-H{sub 2}( j = 1) is investigated at low temperatures using a quantum time independent approach. Both molecules are treated as rigid rotors. The scattering calculations are based on a highly correlated ab initio 4-dimensional (4D) potential energy surface recently published. Rotationally inelastic cross sections among the 13 first rotational levels of HCN were obtained using a pure quantum close coupling approach for total energies up to 1200 cm{sup −1}. The corresponding thermal rate coefficients were computed for temperatures ranging from 5 to 100 K. The HCN rate coefficients are strongly dependent on the rotational level of the H{sub 2} molecule. In particular, the rate coefficients for collisions with para-H{sub 2}( j = 0) are significantly lower than those for collisions with ortho-H{sub 2}( j = 1) and para-H{sub 2}( j = 2). Propensity rules in favor of even Δj transitions were found for HCN in collisions with para-H{sub 2}( j = 0) whereas propensity rules in favor of odd Δj transitions were found for HCN in collisions with H{sub 2}( j ⩾ 1). The new rate coefficients were compared with previously published HCN-para-H{sub 2}( j = 0) rate coefficients. Significant differences were found due the inclusion of the H{sub 2} rotational structure in the scattering calculations. These new rate coefficients will be crucial to improve the estimation of the HCN abundance in the interstellar medium.

  18. Conversion rate of para-hydrogen to ortho-hydrogen by oxygen: implications for PHIP gas storage and utilization.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Shawn

    2014-06-01

    To determine the storability of para-hydrogen before reestablishment of the room temperature thermal equilibrium mixture. Para-hydrogen was produced at near 100% purity and mixed with different oxygen quantities to determine the rate of conversion to the thermal equilibrium mixture of 75: 25% (ortho: para) by detecting the ortho-hydrogen (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance using a 9.4 T imager. The para-hydrogen to ortho-hydrogen velocity constant, k, near room temperature (292 K) was determined to be 8.27 ± 1.30 L/mol · min(-1). This value was calculated utilizing four different oxygen fractions. Para-hydrogen conversion to ortho-hydrogen by oxygen can be minimized for long term storage with judicious removal of oxygen contamination. Prior calculated velocity rates were confirmed demonstrating a dependence on only the oxygen concentration.

  19. Vibration and Vibration-Torsion Levels of the S_{1} and Ground Cationic D_{0}^{+} States of Para-Fluorotoluene and Para-Xylene Below 1000 \\wn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuttle, William Duncan; Gardner, Adrian M.; Whalley, Laura E.; Wright, Timothy G.

    2017-06-01

    We have employed resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionisation (REMPI) spectroscopy and zero-kinetic-energy (ZEKE) spectroscopy to investigate the first excited electronic singlet (S_{1}) state and the cationic ground state (D_{0}^{+}) of para-fluorotoluene (pFT) and para-xylene (pXyl). Spectra have been recorded via a large number of selected intermediate levels, to support assignment of the vibration and vibration-torsion levels in these molecules and to investigate possible couplings. The study of levels in this region builds upon previous work on the lower energy regions of pFT and pXyl and here we are interested in how vibration-torsion (vibtor) levels might combine and interact with vibrational ones, and so we consider the possible couplings which occur. Comparisons between the spectra of the two molecules show a close correspondence, and the influence of the second methyl rotor in para-xylene on the onset of intramolecular vibrational redistribution (IVR) in the S_{1} state is a point of interest. This has bearing on future work which will need to consider the role of both more flexible side chains of substituted benzene molecules, and multiple side chains. A. M. Gardner, W. D. Tuttle, L. Whalley, A. Claydon, J. H. Carter and T. G. Wright, J. Chem. Phys., 145, 124307 (2016). A. M. Gardner, W. D. Tuttle, P. Groner and T. G. Wright, J. Chem. Phys., (2017, in press). W. D. Tuttle, A. M. Gardner, K. O'Regan, W. Malewicz and T. G. Wright, J. Chem. Phys., (2017, in press).

  20. Anatomic Distribution of Fluorodeoxyglucose-Avid Para-aortic Lymph Nodes in Patients With Cervical Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Takiar, Vinita; Fontanilla, Hiral P.; Eifel, Patricia J.; Jhingran, Anuja; Kelly, Patrick; Iyer, Revathy B.; Levenback, Charles F.; Zhang, Yongbin; Dong, Lei; Klopp, Ann

    2013-03-15

    Purpose: Conformal treatment of para-aortic lymph nodes (PAN) in cervical cancer allows dose escalation and reduces normal tissue toxicity. Currently, data documenting the precise location of involved PAN are lacking. We define the spatial distribution of this high-risk nodal volume by analyzing fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-avid lymph nodes (LNs) on positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) scans in patients with cervical cancer. Methods and Materials: We identified 72 PANs on pretreatment PET/CT of 30 patients with newly diagnosed stage IB-IVA cervical cancer treated with definitive chemoradiation. LNs were classified as left-lateral para-aortic (LPA), aortocaval (AC), or right paracaval (RPC). Distances from the LN center to the closest vessel and adjacent vertebral body were calculated. Using deformable image registration, nodes were mapped to a template computed tomogram to provide a visual impression of nodal frequencies and anatomic distribution. Results: We identified 72 PET-positive para-aortic lymph nodes (37 LPA, 32 AC, 3 RPC). All RPC lymph nodes were in the inferior third of the para-aortic region. The mean distance from aorta for all lymph nodes was 8.3 mm (range, 3-17 mm), and from the inferior vena cava was 5.6 mm (range, 2-10 mm). Of the 72 lymph nodes, 60% were in the inferior third, 36% were in the middle third, and 4% were in the upper third of the para-aortic region. In all, 29 of 30 patients also had FDG-avid pelvic lymph nodes. Conclusions: A total of 96% of PET positive nodes were adjacent to the aorta; PET positive nodes to the right of the IVC were rare and were all located distally, within 3 cm of the aortic bifurcation. Our findings suggest that circumferential margins around the vessels do not accurately define the nodal region at risk. Instead, the anatomical extent of the nodal basin should be contoured on each axial image to provide optimal coverage of the para-aortic nodal compartment.

  1. Saturn’s Tropospheric Temperatures and Para-Hydrogen Distribution from Ten Years of Cassini Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fletcher, Leigh N.; Irwin, Patrick G.; Sinclair, James; Giles, Rohini; Barstow, Joanna; Achterberg, Richard K.; Orton, Glenn S.

    2014-11-01

    Cassini/CIRS observations of Saturn’s 10-1400 cm-1 spectrum have been inverted to construct a global record of tropospheric temperature and para-hydrogen variability over the ten-year span of the Cassini mission. The data record the slow reversal of seasonal asymmetries in tropospheric conditions from northern winter (2004, Ls=293), through northern spring equinox (2009, Ls=0) to the present day (2014, Ls=60). Mid-latitude tropospheric temperatures have cooled by approximately 4-6 K in the south and warmed by 2-4 K in the north, with the seasonal contrast decreasing with depth. CIRS detected the north polar minimum 100-mbar temperatures 6-8 years after winter solstice, whereas the south polar maximum occurred 1-2 years after summer solstice, consistent with the lag times predicted by radiative equilibrium models. Warm polar cyclones and the northern hexagon persist throughout the mission, suggesting that they are permanent features of Saturn’s tropospheric circulation. The 200-mbar thermal enhancement (“knee”) that was strongest in the summer but weak or absent in winter in 2004-2006 (Fletcher et al., 2007, Icarus 189, p.457-478) has now shifted northward and is present globally in 2014, suggestive of radiative heating in Saturn’s tropospheric haze layer. Saturn’s para-H2 fraction, which serves as a tracer of both tropospheric mixing and the efficiency of re-equilibration between the ortho- and para-hydrogen states, is slowly altering: super-equilibrium conditions (para-H2 fraction exceeding equilibrium expectations and suggestive of subsiding airmasses) that dominated the southern summer hemisphere are now weakening, whereas the sub-equilibrium conditions (suggestive of uplift) of the northern winter are being replaced by equilibrium or super-equilibrium conditions in spring. The thermal ‘knee’ and the para-H2 distribution are tracking both the increased spring illumination and the increasing tropospheric haze opacity of the springtime hemisphere

  2. Astronomia para/com crianças carentes em Limeira

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bretones, P. S.; Oliveira, V. C.

    2003-08-01

    Em 2001, o Instituto Superior de Ciências Aplicadas (ISCA Faculdades de Limeira) iniciou um projeto pelo qual o Observatório do Morro Azul empreendeu uma parceria com o Centro de Promoção Social Municipal (CEPROSOM), instituição mantida pela Prefeitura Municipal de Limeira para atender crianças e adolescentes carentes. O CEPROSOM contava com dois projetos: Projeto Centro de Convivência Infantil (CCI) e Programa Criança e Adolescente (PCA), que atendiam crianças e adolescentes em Centros Comunitários de diversas áreas da cidade. Esses projetos têm como prioridades estabelecer atividades prazerosas para as crianças no sentido de retirá-las das ruas. Assim sendo, as crianças passaram a ter mais um tipo de atividade - as visitas ao observatório. Este painel descreve as várias fases do projeto, que envolveu: reuniões de planejamento, curso de Astronomia para as orientadoras dos CCIs e PCAs, atividades relacionadas a visitas das crianças ao Observatório, proposta de construção de gnômons e relógios de Sol nos diversos Centros Comunitários de Limeira e divulgação do projeto na imprensa. O painel inclui discussões sobre a aprendizagem de crianças carentes, relatos que mostram a postura das orientadoras sobre a pertinência do ensino de Astronomia, relatos do monitor que fez o atendimento no Observatório e o que o número de crianças atendidas representou para as atividades da instituição desde o início de suas atividades e, em particular, em 2001. Os resultados são baseados na análise de relatos das orientadoras e do monitor do Observatório, registros de visitas e matérias da imprensa local. Conclui com uma avaliação do que tal projeto representou para as Instituições participantes. Para o Observatório, em particular, foi feita uma análise com relação às outras modalidades de atendimentos que envolvem alunos de escolas e público em geral. Também é abordada a questão do compromisso social do Observatório na educação do

  3. Two prevalent h alleles in para-Bombay haplotypes among 250,000 Taiwanese.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ding-Ping; Tseng, Ching-Ping; Wang, Wei-Ting; Peng, Chien-Ting; Tsao, Kuo-Chien; Wu, Tsu-Lan; Lin, Kuan-Tsou; Sun, Chien-Feng

    2004-01-01

    Alpha(1,2)-fucosyltransferase catalyzes the transfer of fucose to the C-2 position of galactose on type II precursor substrate Gal beta1-4GlcNAc beta1-R. It plays an important biological role in the formation of H antigen, a precursor oligosaccharide for both A and B antigens on red blood cells. Aberration of alpha(1,2)-fucosyltransferase activity by gene mutations results in decreased synthesis of H antigen, leading to the para-Bombay phenotype. In this study, we collected about 250,000 blood samples in Taiwan during 5 yr and identified the subjects with para-Bombay phenotype. Then we analyzed the sequence of the alpha(1,2)-fucosyltransferase gene by direct sequencing and gene cloning methods, using the blood samples of 30 para-Bombay individuals and 30 control subjects who were randomly selected. The goals of this study were to search for new h alleles, to determine the h allele frequencies, and to test whether the sporadic theory is applicable in Taiwan. Six different h alleles (ha, 547-548 AG-del; hb, 880-881 TT-del; hc, R220C; hd, R220H; he, F174L; and hf, N327T) were observed. Two h alleles, he and hf, were newly discovered in Taiwan. The he allele has a nucleotide 522C>A point mutation, predicting the amino acid 174 substitution of Phe to Leu; the hf allele has missense mutation of nucleotide 980A>C, predicting the amino acid 327 substitution of Asn to Thr. Frequencies of the 6 alleles are ha 46.67%, hb 38.33%, hc 5.00%, hd 1.67%, he 3.33%, and hf 5.00%, respectively. These findings in the Taiwanese population confirm previous observations in other populations that the Bombay and para-Bombay phenotypes are due to diverse, sporadic, nonfunctional alleles, predominantly ha and hb, leading to H deficiency of red blood cells. In contrast to previous reports of non-prevalent associations of h alleles with para-Bombay phenotype, our results suggest a regional allele preference associated with para-Bombay individuals in Taiwan.

  4. Functional expression of Drosophila para sodium channels. Modulation by the membrane protein TipE and toxin pharmacology.

    PubMed

    Warmke, J W; Reenan, R A; Wang, P; Qian, S; Arena, J P; Wang, J; Wunderler, D; Liu, K; Kaczorowski, G J; Van der Ploeg, L H; Ganetzky, B; Cohen, C J

    1997-08-01

    The Drosophila para sodium channel alpha subunit was expressed in Xenopus oocytes alone and in combination with tipE, a putative Drosophila sodium channel accessory subunit. Coexpression of tipE with para results in elevated levels of sodium currents and accelerated current decay. Para/TipE sodium channels have biophysical and pharmacological properties similar to those of native channels. However, the pharmacology of these channels differs from that of vertebrate sodium channels: (a) toxin II from Anemonia sulcata, which slows inactivation, binds to Para and some mammalian sodium channels with similar affinity (Kd congruent with 10 nM), but this toxin causes a 100-fold greater decrease in the rate of inactivation of Para/TipE than of mammalian channels; (b) Para sodium channels are >10-fold more sensitive to block by tetrodotoxin; and (c) modification by the pyrethroid insecticide permethrin is >100-fold more potent for Para than for rat brain type IIA sodium channels. Our results suggest that the selective toxicity of pyrethroid insecticides is due at least in part to the greater affinity of pyrethroids for insect sodium channels than for mammalian sodium channels.

  5. Do cnidarians have a ParaHox cluster? Analysis of synteny around a Nematostella homeobox gene cluster.

    PubMed

    Hui, Jerome H L; Holland, Peter W H; Ferrier, David E K

    2008-01-01

    The Hox gene cluster is renowned for its role in developmental patterning of embryogenesis along the anterior-posterior axis of bilaterians. Its supposed evolutionary sister or paralog, the ParaHox cluster, is composed of Gsx, Xlox, and Cdx, and also has important roles in anterior-posterior development. There is a debate as to whether the cnidarians, as an outgroup to bilaterians, contain true Hox and ParaHox genes, or instead the Hox-like gene complement of cnidarians arose from independent duplications to those that generated the genes of the bilaterian Hox and ParaHox clusters. A recent whole genome analysis of the cnidarian Nematostella vectensis found conserved synteny between this cnidarian and vertebrates, including a region of synteny between the putative Hox cluster of N. vectensis and the Hox clusters of vertebrates. No syntenic region was identified around a potential cnidarian ParaHox cluster. Here we use different approaches to identify a genomic region in N. vectensis that is syntenic with the bilaterian ParaHox cluster. This proves that the duplication that gave rise to the Hox and ParaHox regions of bilaterians occurred before the origin of cnidarians, and the cnidarian N. vectensis has bona fide Hox and ParaHox loci.

  6. ParA and ParB coordinate chromosome segregation with cell elongation and division during Streptomyces sporulation.

    PubMed

    Donczew, Magdalena; Mackiewicz, Paweł; Wróbel, Agnieszka; Flärdh, Klas; Zakrzewska-Czerwińska, Jolanta; Jakimowicz, Dagmara

    2016-04-01

    In unicellular bacteria, the ParA and ParB proteins segregate chromosomes and coordinate this process with cell division and chromosome replication. During sporulation of mycelial Streptomyces, ParA and ParB uniformly distribute multiple chromosomes along the filamentous sporogenic hyphal compartment, which then differentiates into a chain of unigenomic spores. However, chromosome segregation must be coordinated with cell elongation and multiple divisions. Here, we addressed the question of whether ParA and ParB are involved in the synchronization of cell-cycle processes during sporulation in Streptomyces To answer this question, we used time-lapse microscopy, which allows the monitoring of growth and division of single sporogenic hyphae. We showed that sporogenic hyphae stop extending at the time of ParA accumulation and Z-ring formation. We demonstrated that both ParA and ParB affect the rate of hyphal extension. Additionally, we showed that ParA promotes the formation of massive nucleoprotein complexes by ParB. We also showed that FtsZ ring assembly is affected by the ParB protein and/or unsegregated DNA. Our results indicate the existence of a checkpoint between the extension and septation of sporogenic hyphae that involves the ParA and ParB proteins.

  7. Differential regulation of ParaHox genes by retinoic acid in the invertebrate chordate amphioxus (Branchiostoma floridae).

    PubMed

    Osborne, Peter W; Benoit, Gérard; Laudet, Vincent; Schubert, Michael; Ferrier, David E K

    2009-03-01

    The ParaHox cluster is the evolutionary sister to the Hox cluster. Like the Hox cluster, the ParaHox cluster displays spatial and temporal regulation of the component genes along the anterior/posterior axis in a manner that correlates with the gene positions within the cluster (a feature called collinearity). The ParaHox cluster is however a simpler system to study because it is composed of only three genes. We provide a detailed analysis of the amphioxus ParaHox cluster and, for the first time in a single species, examine the regulation of the cluster in response to a single developmental signalling molecule, retinoic acid (RA). Embryos treated with either RA or RA antagonist display altered ParaHox gene expression: AmphiGsx expression shifts in the neural tube, and the endodermal boundary between AmphiXlox and AmphiCdx shifts its anterior/posterior position. We identified several putative retinoic acid response elements and in vitro assays suggest some may participate in RA regulation of the ParaHox genes. By comparison to vertebrate ParaHox gene regulation we explore the evolutionary implications. This work highlights how insights into the regulation and evolution of more complex vertebrate arrangements can be obtained through studies of a simpler, unduplicated amphioxus gene cluster.

  8. ParA and ParB coordinate chromosome segregation with cell elongation and division during Streptomyces sporulation

    PubMed Central

    Donczew, Magdalena; Mackiewicz, Paweł; Wróbel, Agnieszka; Flärdh, Klas; Zakrzewska-Czerwińska, Jolanta

    2016-01-01

    In unicellular bacteria, the ParA and ParB proteins segregate chromosomes and coordinate this process with cell division and chromosome replication. During sporulation of mycelial Streptomyces, ParA and ParB uniformly distribute multiple chromosomes along the filamentous sporogenic hyphal compartment, which then differentiates into a chain of unigenomic spores. However, chromosome segregation must be coordinated with cell elongation and multiple divisions. Here, we addressed the question of whether ParA and ParB are involved in the synchronization of cell-cycle processes during sporulation in Streptomyces. To answer this question, we used time-lapse microscopy, which allows the monitoring of growth and division of single sporogenic hyphae. We showed that sporogenic hyphae stop extending at the time of ParA accumulation and Z-ring formation. We demonstrated that both ParA and ParB affect the rate of hyphal extension. Additionally, we showed that ParA promotes the formation of massive nucleoprotein complexes by ParB. We also showed that FtsZ ring assembly is affected by the ParB protein and/or unsegregated DNA. Our results indicate the existence of a checkpoint between the extension and septation of sporogenic hyphae that involves the ParA and ParB proteins. PMID:27248800

  9. ParA encoded on chromosome II of Deinococcus radiodurans binds to nucleoid and inhibits cell division in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Charaka, Vijaya Kumar; Mehta, Kruti P; Misra, H S

    2013-09-01

    Bacterial genome segregation and cell division has been studied mostly in bacteria harbouring single circular chromosome and low-copy plasmids. Deinococcus radiodurans, a radiation-resistant bacterium, harbours multipartite genome system. Chromosome I encodes majority of the functions required for normal growth while other replicons encode mostly the proteins involved in secondary functions. Here, we report the characterization of putative P-loop ATPase (ParA2) encoded on chromosome II of D. radiodurans. Recombinant ParA2 was found to be a DNA-binding ATPase. E. coli cells expressing ParA2 showed cell division inhibition and mislocalization of FtsZ-YFP and those expressing ParA2-CFP showed multiple CFP foci formation on the nucleoid. Although, in trans expression of ParA2 failed to complement SlmA loss per se, it could induce unequal cell division in slmAminCDE double mutant. These results suggested that ParA2 is a nucleoid-binding protein, which could inhibits cell division in E. coli by affecting the correct localization of FtsZ and thereby cytokinesis. Helping slmAminCDE mutant to produce minicells, a phenotype associated with mutations in the 'Min' proteins, further indicated the possibility of ParA2 regulating cell division by bringing nucleoid compaction at the vicinity of septum growth.

  10. Patch tests with commercial hair dye products in patients with allergic contact dermatitis to para-phenylenediamine.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyun-Joo; Kim, Won-Jeong; Kim, Jun-Young; Kim, Hoon-Soo; Kim, Byung-Soo; Kim, Moon-Bum; Ko, Hyun-Chang

    2016-01-01

    Hair dye is one of the most common causes of allergic contact dermatitis. The main allergen has been identified as para-phenylenediamine. To prevent the recurrence of contact dermatitis to para-phenylenediamine, patients should discontinue the use of para-phenylenediamine-containing hair dye products. However, many patients are unable to discontinue their use for cosmetic or social reasons. Sometimes, they continue to have symptoms even after switching to so-called "less allergenic" hair dyes. To evaluate the safety of 15 commercially available hair dye products in patients with allergic contact dermatitis due to para-phenylenediamine. We performed patch tests using 15 hair dyes that were advertised as "hypoallergenic," "no para-phenylenediamine" and "non-allergenic" products in the market. Twenty three patients completed the study and 20 (87.0%) patients had a positive patch test reaction to at least one product. While four (26.7%) hair dye products contained para-phenylenediamine, 10 (66.7%) out of 15 contained m- aminophenol and 7 (46.7%) contained toluene-2,5-diamine sulfate. Only one product did not elicit a positive reaction in any patient. Small sample size and possibility of false-positive reactions. Dermatologists should educate patients with allergic contact dermatitis to para-phenylenediamine about the importance of performing sensitivity testing prior to the actual use of any hair dye product, irrespective of how it is advertised or labelled.

  11. A sensitive and selective enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the analysis of Para red in foods.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jia; Wei, Keyi; Li, Hao; Li, Qing X; Li, Ji; Xu, Ting

    2012-05-07

    Para red is a synthetic dye and a potential genotoxic carcinogen. A hapten mimicking Para red structure was synthesized by introducing a carboxyl to the naphthol part of Para red and coupled to carrier protein to form an immunogen for the production of specific antibodies. A sensitive and selective enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed for the detection of Para red in food samples. The limit of detection and inhibition half-maximum concentrations of Para red in phosphate buffered saline with 10% methanol were 0.06 and 2.2 ng mL(-1), respectively. Cross-reactivity values of the ELISA with the tested compounds including Sudan red I, II, III, IV, and G, sunset yellow, 2-naphthol, and 4-nitroaniline were ≤0.2%. This assay was used to determine Para red in tomato sauce, chilli sauce, chilli powder and sausage samples after ultrasonic extraction, cleanup and concentration steps. The average recoveries, repeatability (intraday extractions and analysis), and intra-laboratory reproducibility (interday extractions and analysis) were in the range 90-108%, 4-12% and 8-17%, respectively. This assay was compared to a high-performance liquid chromatographic method for 28 samples, displaying a good correlation (R(2) = 0.95). Para red residues in 53 real world samples determined by ELISA were below the limit of detection.

  12. Growth rate retardation and inhibitory effect of para-JEM(R) BLUE on Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Okwumabua, Ogi; Moua, Tou Vue; Danz, Tonya; Quinn, Joe; O'Connor, Mike; Gibbons-Burgener, Suzanne

    2010-09-01

    The effect of para-JEM(R) BLUE on Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) inoculated into broth-based culture media was evaluated by using 84 fecal samples with known MAP status. Results showed that growth of the organism in samples inoculated into the broth without the para-JEM BLUE was detectable 1-35 days (average of 6 days) earlier in 35 of the samples (42%) compared with the same samples inoculated in broth with para-JEM BLUE. Four additional samples (5%) that were MAP positive in the culture broth that lacked the para-JEM BLUE gave negative results when the reagent was included. Of the remaining 45 samples, growth of MAP was detected 1-4 days (average of 3 days) earlier in 4 of the samples (5%) inoculated in the broth with para-JEM BLUE compared with the same samples inoculated in the broth without the para-JEM BLUE, whereas 41 samples (49%) yielded equivalent results with respect to time-to-growth detection and negative growth, regardless of whether para-JEM BLUE was present in the culture broth. However, exclusion of para-JEM BLUE from the broth increased the number of samples that produced false-positive instrument signals compared with the number that produced false-positive signals when the reagent was added. Modification of the sample processing step had no measurable effect. Observations indicated that, although elimination of para-JEM BLUE from the broth increased false-positive instrument signals, its inclusion has an adverse effect on the growth of certain MAP, which suggests that its elimination from broth cultures may increase sensitivity.

  13. Regioselective Enzymatic β-Carboxylation of para-Hydroxy- styrene Derivatives Catalyzed by Phenolic Acid Decarboxylases

    PubMed Central

    Wuensch, Christiane; Pavkov-Keller, Tea; Steinkellner, Georg; Gross, Johannes; Fuchs, Michael; Hromic, Altijana; Lyskowski, Andrzej; Fauland, Kerstin; Gruber, Karl; Glueck, Silvia M; Faber, Kurt

    2015-01-01

    We report on a ‘green’ method for the utilization of carbon dioxide as C1 unit for the regioselective synthesis of (E)-cinnamic acids via regioselective enzymatic carboxylation of para-hydroxystyrenes. Phenolic acid decarboxylases from bacterial sources catalyzed the β-carboxylation of para-hydroxystyrene derivatives with excellent regio- and (E/Z)-stereoselectivity by exclusively acting at the β-carbon atom of the C=C side chain to furnish the corresponding (E)-cinnamic acid derivatives in up to 40% conversion at the expense of bicarbonate as carbon dioxide source. Studies on the substrate scope of this strategy are presented and a catalytic mechanism is proposed based on molecular modelling studies supported by mutagenesis of amino acid residues in the active site. PMID:26190963

  14. Sludge reduction by uncoupling metabolism: SBR tests with para-nitrophenol and a commercial uncoupler.

    PubMed

    Zuriaga-Agustí, E; Mendoza-Roca, J A; Bes-Piá, A; Alonso-Molina, J L; Amorós-Muñoz, I

    2016-11-01

    Nowadays cost reduction is a very important issue in wastewater treatment plants. One way, is to minimize the sludge production. Microorganisms break down the organic matter into inorganic compounds through catabolism. Uncoupling metabolism is a method which promote catabolism reactions instead of anabolism ones, where adenosine triphosphate synthesis is inhibited. In this work, the influence of the addition of para-nitrophenol and a commercial reagent to a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) on sludge production and process performance has been analyzed. Three laboratory SBRs were operated in parallel to compare the effect of the addition of both reagents with a control reactor. SBRs were fed with synthetic wastewater and were operated with the same conditions. Results showed that sludge production was slightly reduced for the tested para-nitrophenol concentrations (20 and 25 mg/L) and for a LODOred dose of 1 mL/day. Biological process performance was not influenced and high COD removals were achieved.

  15. Development of an integrated remote monitoring technique and its application to para-stressing bridge system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyamoto, Ayaho; Motoshita, Minoru; Casas, Joan R.

    2013-12-01

    Bridge monitoring system via information technology is capable of providing more accurate knowledge of bridge performance characteristics than traditional strategies. This paper describes not only an integrated Internet monitoring system that consists of a stand-alone monitoring system (SMS) and a Web-based Internet monitoring system (IMS) for bridge maintenance but also its application to para-stressing bridge system as an intelligent structure. IMS, as a Web-based system, is capable of addressing the remote monitoring by introducing measuring information derived from SMS into the system through Internet or intranet connected by either PHS or LAN. Moreover, the key functions of IMS such as data management system, condition assessment, and decision making with the proposed system are also introduced in this paper. Another goal of this study is to establish the framework of a para-stressing bridge system which is an intelligent bridge by integrating the bridge monitoring information into the system to control the bridge performance automatically.

  16. Renormalization-group approach for para-hydrogen adsorbed on exfoliated graphite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mello, E. V. L.; Carneiro, G. M.

    1986-04-01

    Heat-capacity measurements of para-hydrogen adsorbed on graphite were performed recently and revealed an interesting phase diagram similar to 4He. We report a renormalization-group study based on a three-state Potts model with vacancies which approximates the experimental situation. The resulting global phase diagram is in a three parameter space of pair-interaction constants and chemical potential as studied by Berker, Ostlund and Putnam. The Lennard-Jones or other effective potential between the para-H 2 adsorbed molecules determines the subspace relevant to this adsorbate. A method to calculate thermodynamic densities is discussed and the resulting temperature versus density diagram agrees well with the experiment.

  17. Effect of current-loop sizes on the para-Meissner effect in superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishna, N. Murali; Lingam, Lydia S.; Ghosh, P. K.; Shrivastava, Keshav N.

    1998-01-01

    We find that there is a range of current-loop sizes and a range of temperatures under which the para-Meissner effect is predicted. When the phase φ/ φ0 of the Josephson Hamiltonian varies in a certain range, the magnetization becomes positive. In general, the magnetization can be both positive as well as negative with zero resistivity in all phases. The susceptibility as a function of temperature at small magnetic fields is explained on the basis of Josephson interaction. The transition temperature of the para-Meissner effect, TpM, is different from that of the Meissner effect, Tc> TpM. The experimental measurements of the magnetization of Tl 2CaBa 2Cu 2O 8 at low fields are in agreement with the theoretical predictions.

  18. Molecular Characterization of Neurally Expressing Genes in the Para Sodium Channel Gene Cluster of Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Hong, C. S.; Ganetzky, B.

    1996-01-01

    To elucidate the mechanisms regulating expression of para, which encodes the major class of sodium channels in the Drosophila nervous system, we have tried to locate upstream cis-acting regulatory elements by mapping the transcriptional start site and analyzing the region immediately upstream of para in region 14D of the polytene chromosomes. From these studies, we have discovered that the region contains a cluster of neurally expressing genes. Here we report the molecular characterization of the genomic organization of the 14D region and the genes within this region, which are: calnexin (Cnx), actin related protein 14D (Arp14D), calcineurin A 14D (CnnA14D), and chromosome associated protein (Cap). The tight clustering of these genes, their neuronal expression patterns, and their potential functions related to expression, modulation, or regulation of sodium channels raise the possibility that these genes represent a functionally related group sharing some coordinate regulatory mechanism. PMID:8849894

  19. Kyste géant para-urétral feminine

    PubMed Central

    Kassogué, Amadou; Coulibaly, Mamadou; Ouattara, Zanafon; Diarra, Alkadri; Tembely, Aly; Ouattara, Kalilou; Farih, My Hassan

    2014-01-01

    Le kyste géant para-urétral féminin infecté est rarement rapporté dans la littérature. Ce kyste est différent du diverticule sous urétral sur le plan clinique, diagnostique et thérapeutique. Sa pathogénie se confond avec celle des diverticules sous urétraux. Son traitement n'est pas bien codifié, vu sa rareté. Nous rapportons un cas atypique de kyste géant para urétral infecté chez une jeune femme de 26 ans. Le kyste était symptomatique et la patiente a eu un traitement chirurgical. Nous discutons les aspects cliniques, diagnostiques et thérapeutiques de cette entité rare à travers une revue de la littérature.

  20. Potential of Brachiaria mutica (Para grass) for bioethanol production from Loktak Lake.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, Dinabandhu; Ummalyma, Sabeela Beevi; Okram, Aswini Kumar; Sukumaran, Rajeev K; George, Emrin; Pandey, Ashok

    2017-10-01

    The aim of present study was to evaluate feasibility of using the Para grass as feedstock for production of bioethanol. Process involved the pretreatment with dilute acid or alkali and followed by enzymatic saccharification with commercial cellulase. Maximum sugar release of 696mg/g was obtained from 10% biomass loading and 0.5% w/v of alkali whereas in the case of acid pretreatment maximum sugar of 660mg/g was obtained from 20% biomass loading and 2% w/v acid loading. Results showed that Para grass utilization as a biorefinery feedstock can be a potential strategy to address the sustainable utilization of this invasive grass thereby keeping its population in check in the Loktak Lake. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A Density Functional Approach to Para-hydrogen at Zero Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ancilotto, Francesco; Barranco, Manuel; Navarro, Jesús; Pi, Marti

    2016-10-01

    We have developed a density functional (DF) built so as to reproduce either the metastable liquid or the solid equation of state of bulk para-hydrogen, as derived from quantum Monte Carlo zero temperature calculations. As an application, we have used it to study the structure and energetics of small para-hydrogen clusters made of up to N=40 molecules. We compare our results for liquid clusters with diffusion Monte Carlo (DMC) calculations and find a fair agreement between them. In particular, the transition found within DMC between hollow-core structures for small N values and center-filled structures at higher N values is reproduced. The present DF approach yields results for (pH_2)_N clusters indicating that for small N values a liquid-like character of the clusters prevails, while solid-like clusters are instead energetically favored for N ≥ 15.

  2. Una propuesta para el desarrollo de un arreglo de síntesis de apertura

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnal, E. M.

    Los estudios llevados a cabo en la transición del hidrógeno neutro a λ~21-cm han contribuído a incrementar nuestro conocimiento acerca de las propiedades globales del medio interestelar, sea este galáctico o extragaláctico. Avances en este campo han sido provocados, a menudo, por la puesta en servicio de radiotelescopios que poseen una mayor resolución angular. Aquí se presenta una propuesta para desarrollar un nuevo instrumento, un interferómetro, que permitirá abrir nuevas líneas de investigación. Este instrumento combinará la técnica de síntesis de apertura con la de espectroscopía de correlación digital, para alcanzar una resolución angular de 1' y un campo de visión de ~1o.7.

  3. Photooxidation of Trimethyl Phosphite in Nitrogen, Oxygen, and para-Hydrogen Matrixes at Low Temperatures.

    PubMed

    Ramanathan, N; Sundararajan, K; Gopi, R; Sankaran, K

    2017-03-16

    Trimethyl phosphite (TMPhite) was photooxidized to trimethyl phosphate (TMP) in N2, O2, and para-H2 matrixes at low temperatures to correlate the conformational landscape of these two molecules. The photooxidation produced the trans (TGG)-rich conformer with respect to the ground state gauche (GGG) conformer of TMP in N2 and O2 matrixes, which has diverged from the conformational composition of freshly deposited pure TMP in the low-temperature matrixes. The enrichment of the trans conformer in preference to the gauche conformer of TMP during photooxidation is due to the TMPhite precursor, which exists exclusively in the trans conformer. Interestingly, whereas the photooxidized TMP molecule suffers site effects possibly due to the local asymmetry in N2 and O2 matrixes, in the para-H2 matrix owing to the quantum crystal nature the site effects were observed to be self-repaired.

  4. H2CS abundances and ortho-to-para ratios in interstellar clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minh, Y. C.; Irvine, W. M.; Brewer, M. K.

    1991-01-01

    Several H2CS ortho and para transitions have been observed toward interstellar molecular clouds, including cold, dark clouds and star-forming regions. H2CS fractional abundances f(H2CS) about 1-2 10 to the -9th relative to molecular hydrogen toward TMC-1, Orion A, and NGC 7538, and about 5 10 to the -10th for L134N are derived. The H2CS ortho-to-para ratios in TMC-1 are about 1.8 toward the cyanopolyyne peak and the ammonia peak, which may indicate the thermalization of H2CS on 10 K grains. A ratio of about 3, the statistical value, for Orion (3N, 1E) and NGC 7538 is derived, while a value of about 2 for Orion (KL) is found.

  5. Control of Photoluminescence of Carbon Nanodots via Surface Functionalization using Para-substituted Anilines

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Woosung; Do, Sungan; Kim, Ji-Hee; Seok Jeong, Mun; Rhee, Shi-Woo

    2015-01-01

    Carbon nanodots (C-dots) are a kind of fluorescent carbon nanomaterials, composed of polyaromatic carbon domains surrounded by amorphous carbon frames, and have attracted a great deal of attention because of their interesting properties. There are still, however, challenges ahead such as blue-biased photoluminescence, spectral broadness, undefined energy gaps and etc. In this report, we chemically modify the surface of C-dots with a series of para-substituted anilines to control their photoluminescence. Our surface functionalization endows our C-dots with new energy levels, exhibiting long-wavelength (up to 650 nm) photoluminescence of very narrow spectral widths. The roles of para-substituted anilines and their substituents in developing such energy levels are thoroughly studied by using transient absorption spectroscopy. We finally demonstrate light-emitting devices exploiting our C-dots as a phosphor, converting UV light to a variety of colors with internal quantum yields of ca. 20%. PMID:26218869

  6. Jupiter's Tropospheric Dynamics from SOFIA Mapping of Temperature, Para-Hydrogen, and Aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Pater, Imke

    We request time with FORCAST to observe Jupiter at mid-infrared wavelengths using 8-37 micron grism spectroscopy of the collisionally-induced H2-He continuum to derive the zonal mean tropospheric temperatures and para-H2 distribution. In addition, we request imaging in discrete filters between 5 and 37 micron to provide spatial context for the spectroscopy. This proposal is a follow-up of our successful observations in May 2014, where we confirmed the N-S polar asymmetry in the para-H2 fraction detected by Voyager 1, also during late summer in Jupiter's northern hemisphere. In spring 2017, during a world-wide campaign in support of the Juno mission, it gets close to southern summer solstice. This timing is ideal to assess seasonable variability on the planet.

  7. Charge Transfer Directed Radical Substitution Enables para-Selective C–H Functionalization

    PubMed Central

    Boursalian, Gregory B.; Ham, Won Seok; Mazzotti, Anthony R.; Ritter, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    Efficient C–H functionalization requires selectivity for specific C–H bonds. Progress has been made for directed aromatic substitution reactions to achieve ortho- and meta- selectivity, but a general strategy for para-selective C–H functionalization has remained elusive. Herein, we introduce a previously unappreciated concept which enables nearly complete para selectivity. We propose that radicals with high electron affinity elicit areneto-radical charge transfer in the transition state of radical addition, which is the factor primarily responsible for high positional selectivity. We demonstrate that the selectivity is predictable by a simple theoretical tool and show the utility of the concept through a direct synthesis of aryl piperazines. Our results contradict the notion, widely held by organic chemists, that radical aromatic substitution reactions are inherently unselective. The concept of charge transfer directed radical substitution could serve as the basis for the development of new, highly selective C–H functionalization reactions. PMID:27442288

  8. Charge-transfer-directed radical substitution enables para-selective C-H functionalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boursalian, Gregory B.; Ham, Won Seok; Mazzotti, Anthony R.; Ritter, Tobias

    2016-08-01

    Efficient C-H functionalization requires selectivity for specific C-H bonds. Progress has been made for directed aromatic substitution reactions to achieve ortho and meta selectivity, but a general strategy for para-selective C-H functionalization has remained elusive. Herein we introduce a previously unappreciated concept that enables nearly complete para selectivity. We propose that radicals with high electron affinity elicit arene-to-radical charge transfer in the transition state of radical addition, which is the factor primarily responsible for high positional selectivity. We demonstrate with a simple theoretical tool that the selectivity is predictable and show the utility of the concept through a direct synthesis of aryl piperazines. Our results contradict the notion, widely held by organic chemists, that radical aromatic substitution reactions are inherently unselective. The concept of radical substitution directed by charge transfer could serve as the basis for the development of new, highly selective C-H functionalization reactions.

  9. ROTATIONAL SPECTROSCOPY OF THE CO-PARA-H{sub 2} MOLECULAR COMPLEX

    SciTech Connect

    Potapov, A. V.; Surin, L. A.; Giesen, T. F.; Schlemmer, S.; Panfilov, V. A.; Dumesh, B. S.; Raston, P. L.; Jaeger, W.

    2009-10-01

    The rotational spectrum of the CO-para-H{sub 2} van der Waals complex, produced using a molecular jet expansion, was observed with two different techniques: OROTRON intracavity millimeter-wave spectroscopy and pulsed Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy. Thirteen transitions in the frequency range from 80 to 130 GHz and two transitions in the 14 GHz region were measured and assigned, allowing for a precise determination of the corresponding energy level positions of CO-para-H{sub 2}. The data obtained enable further radio astronomical searches for this molecular complex and provide a sensitive test of the currently best available intermolecular potential energy surface for the CO-H{sub 2} system.

  10. Complexation and determination of palladium (II) ion with para-Cl-phenylazo-R-acid spectrophotometrically.

    PubMed

    Hanna, W G

    1999-11-15

    The complexation of para-Cl-phenylazo-R-acid azo dye with Pd(II) has been studied spectrophotometrically. Protonation constant (pK(a)) of the ligand has been calculated and the stability conditional constants of para-Cl-phenylazo-R-acid ligand with palladium ion has been determined at a constant temperature (25.0 degrees C), where the molar ratio of this complex is 1:1 (metal:ligand) with logbeta(1)=3.75, and 1:2 with logbeta(2)=8.55. Solid complex of para-Cl-phenylazo-R-acid has been prepared and characterized on the basis of elemental analysis and FTIR spectral data. A procedure for the spectrophotometric determination of Pd(II) using para-Cl-phenylazo-R-acid as a new azo chromophore is proposed where it is rapid, sensitive and highly specific. Beer's law was obeyed in the range 0.50-10.00 ppm at pH 5.0-6.0 to form a violet-red complex (epsilon=7.7 x 10(4) l(-1) mol(-1) cm(-1) at lambda(max)=560 nm). Metal ions such as Cu(II), Cr(III), La(III), Yb(III), Y(III), and Rh(III) interfere with the complex. Ammonium salt of trimellitic acid is used to precipitate some of the interfering ions and a scheme for separation of Pd(II) from a synthetic mixture similar in composition to platinum ore or deposit was made.

  11. Role of pelvic and para-aortic lymphadenectomy in abandoned radical hysterectomy in cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Barquet-Muñoz, Salim Abraham; Rendón-Pereira, Gabriel Jaime; Acuña-González, Denise; Peñate, Monica Vanessa Heymann; Herrera-Montalvo, Luis Alonso; Gallardo-Alvarado, Lenny Nadia; Cantú-de León, David Francisco; Pareja, René

    2017-01-14

    Cervical cancer (CC) occupies fourth place in cancer incidence and mortality worldwide in women, with 560,505 new cases and 284,923 deaths per year. Approximately, nine of every ten (87%) take place in developing countries. When a macroscopic nodal involvement is discovered during a radical hysterectomy (RH), there is controversy in the literature between resect macroscopic lymph node compromise or abandonment of the surgery and sending the patient for standard chemo-radiotherapy treatment. The objective of this study is to compare the prognosis of patients with CC whom RH was abandoned and bilateral pelvic lymphadenectomy and para-aortic lymphadenectomy was performed with that of patients who were only biopsied or with removal of a suspicious lymph node, treated with concomitant radiotherapy/chemotherapy in the standard manner. A descriptive and retrospective study was conducted in two institutions from Mexico and Colombia. Clinical records of patients with early-stage CC programmed for RH with an intraoperative finding of pelvic lymph, para-aortic nodes, or any extracervical involvement that contraindicates the continuation of surgery were obtained. Between January 2007 and December 2012, 42 clinical patients complied with study inclusion criteria and were selected for analysis. In patients with CC whom RH was abandoned due to lymph node affectation, there is no difference in overall survival or in disease-free period between systematic lymphadenectomy and tumor removal or lymph node biopsy, in pelvic lymph nodes as well as in para-aortic lymph nodes, when these patients receive adjuvant treatment with concomitant radiotherapy/chemotherapy. This is a hypothesis-generator study; thus, the recommendation is made to conduct randomized prospective studies to procure better knowledge on the impact of bilateral pelvic and para-aortic lymphadenectomy on this group of patients.

  12. ParaDiS on Blue Gene/L: stepping up to the challenge

    SciTech Connect

    Hommes, G; Arsenlis, A; Bulatov, V; Cai, W; Cook, R; Hiratani, M; Oppestrup, T; Rhee, M; Tang, M

    2006-06-09

    This paper reports on the efforts to enable fully scalable simulations of Dislocation Line Dynamics (DLD) for direct calculations of strength of crystalline materials. DLD simulations are challenging and do not lend themselves naturally to parallel computing. Through a combinations of novel physical approaches, mathematical algorithms and computational science developments, a new DLD code ParaDiS is shown to take meaningful advantage of BG/L and, by doing so, to enable discovery class science by computation.

  13. Parallel Visualization and Analysis with ParaView on a Cray XT4

    SciTech Connect

    Patchett, John; Ahrens, James; Ahern, Sean; Pugmire, Dave

    2009-01-01

    Scienti c data sets produced by modern supercomputers like ORNL s Cray XT 4, Jaguar, can be extremely large, making visualization and analysis more di cult as moving large resultant data to dedicated analysis systems can be pro- hibitively expensive. We share our continuing work of integrating a parallel visu- alization system, ParaView, on ORNL s Jaguar system and our e orts to enable extreme scale interactive data visualization and analysis. We will discuss porting challenges and present performance numbers.

  14. 16. mu. m para-H/sub 2/ stimulated Raman laser

    SciTech Connect

    Jin Chunzhi; Lin Taiji; Wu Xuhua; Niu Zhenya; Ding Yishan; Li Dianjun; Zhu Youxin; Li Yulan; Yang Jinfeng; Wang Naihong; and others

    1988-08-01

    A para-H/sub 2/ stimulated Raman laser pumped by a TEA CO/sub 2/ laser was developed. The main factors affecting Raman conversion efficiency are discussed. At a working temperature of 100 K, the maximum output energy of the Stokes beam at 16 ..mu..m was 536 mJ, corresponding to an energy conversion efficiency of 13% and a quantum conversion efficiency greater than 20%.

  15. Synthesis and Properties of Rodlike Aromatic Heterocyclic Polymers: Phenylated Para-Terphenylene-Polybenzobis-Oxazoles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-12-01

    Polybenzobisoxazoles 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTHOR(s) S. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER(s) Dr. J. F. Wolfe Dr. F. E. Arnold 9. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION...number) Para-ordered Polymers Polybenzobisoxazoles Polyphenylated Terphenylene 20. ABSTRACT (Continue on reverse side If necessary and Identify by block...poly(amide hydrazide) fibers 1-4 recently described in the literature meet the first two of these criteria. The overriding structural feature of

  16. ParaDiS on BlueGene/L: scalable line dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Bulatov, V; Cai, W; Fier, J; Hiratani, M; Pierce, T; Tang, M; Rhee, M; Yates, R K; Arsenlis, A

    2004-04-29

    We describe an innovative highly parallel application program, ParaDiS, which computes the plastic strength of materials by tracing the evolution of dislocation lines over time. We discuss the issues of scaling the code to tens of thousands of processors, and present early scaling results of the code run on a prototype of the BlueGene/L supercomputer being developed by IBM in partnership with the US DOE's ASC program.

  17. Aplicación del Teorema de Nekhorochev para tiempos de estabilidad en Mecánica Celeste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miloni, O.; Núñez, J.; Brunini, A.

    En Mecánica Celeste, uno de los problemas centrales consiste en la determinación de los tiempos de estabilidad. El teorema de Nekhorochev proporciona un método para dicho estudio, para un sistema determinado por un hamiltoniano descripto en las variables acción-ángulo. El trabajo consiste en la acotación tanto del potencial perturbador y de la matriz hessiana del hamiltoniano integrable para determinar luego el tiempo de estabilidad de dicho sistema, donde por estabilidad se entiende la separación en norma infinito en el espacio de las acciones.

  18. Beyond Hox: the role of ParaHox genes in normal and malignant hematopoiesis.

    PubMed

    Rawat, Vijay P S; Humphries, R Keith; Buske, Christian

    2012-07-19

    During the past decade it was recognized that homeobox gene families such as the clustered Hox genes play pivotal roles both in normal and malignant hematopoiesis. More recently, similar roles have also become apparent for members of the ParaHox gene cluster, evolutionarily closely related to the Hox gene cluster. This is in particular found for the caudal-type homeobox genes (Cdx) genes, known to act as upstream regulators of Hox genes. The CDX gene family member CDX2 belongs to the most frequent aberrantly expressed proto-oncogenes in human acute leukemias and is highly leukemogenic in experimental models. Correlative studies indicate that CDX2 functions as master regulator of perturbed HOX gene expression in human acute myeloid leukemia, locating this ParaHox gene at a central position for initiating and maintaining HOX gene dysregulation as a driving leukemogenic force. There are still few data about potential upstream regulators initiating aberrant CDX2 expression in human leukemias or about critical downstream targets of CDX2 in leukemic cells. Characterizing this network will hopefully open the way to therapeutic approaches that target deregulated ParaHox genes in human leukemia.

  19. ParaView visualization of Abaqus output on the mechanical deformation of complex microstructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Qingbin; Li, Jiang; Liu, Jie

    2017-02-01

    Abaqus® is a popular software suite for finite element analysis. It delivers linear and nonlinear analyses of mechanical and fluid dynamics, includes multi-body system and multi-physics coupling. However, the visualization capability of Abaqus using its CAE module is limited. Models from microtomography have extremely complicated structures, and datasets of Abaqus output are huge, requiring a visualization tool more powerful than Abaqus/CAE. We convert Abaqus output into the XML-based VTK format by developing a Python script and then using ParaView to visualize the results. Such capabilities as volume rendering, tensor glyphs, superior animation and other filters allow ParaView to offer excellent visualizing manifestations. ParaView's parallel visualization makes it possible to visualize very big data. To support full parallel visualization, the Python script achieves data partitioning by reorganizing all nodes, elements and the corresponding results on those nodes and elements. The data partition scheme minimizes data redundancy and works efficiently. Given its good readability and extendibility, the script can be extended to the processing of more different problems in Abaqus. We share the script with Abaqus users on GitHub.

  20. The "drinking-buddy" scale as a measure of para-social behavior.

    PubMed

    Powell, Larry; Richmond, Virginia P; Cantrell-Williams, Glenda

    2012-06-01

    Para-social behavior is a form of quasi-interpersonal behavior that results when audience members develop bonds with media personalities that can resemble interpersonal social interaction, but is not usually applied to political communication. This study tested whether the "Drinking-Buddy" Scale, a simple question frequently used in political communication, could be interpreted as a single-item measure of para-social behavior with respect to political candidates in terms of image judgments related to interpersonal attraction and perceived similarity to self. The participants were college students who had voted in the 2008 election. They rated the candidates, Obama or McCain, as drinking buddies and then rated the candidates' perceived similarity to themselves in attitude and background, and also the social and task attraction to the candidate. If the drinking-buddy rating serves as a proxy measure for para-social behavior, then it was expected that participants' ratings for all four kinds of similarity to and attraction toward a candidate would be higher for the candidate they chose as a drinking buddy. The directional hypotheses were supported for interpersonal attraction, but not for perceived similarity. These results indicate that the drinking-buddy scale predicts ratings of interpersonal attraction, while voters may view perceived similarity as an important but not essential factor in their candidate preference.

  1. Atlas de aves: Un metodo para documentar distribucion y seguir poblaciones

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robbins, C.S.; Dowell, B.A.; Dawson, D.K.; Alvarez-Lopez, Humberto; Kattan, Gustavo; Murcia, Carolina

    1988-01-01

    Los Atlas de Aves son proyectos nacionales o regionalies para trazar en mapas la distribucion en reproduccion de cada especie de ave. Ese procedimiento se esta usando en Europa, Australia, Nueva Zelanda, Norteamerica, y partes de Africa. El tama?o de los cuadrados varia de medio grado de latitud y Iongitud hasta 5 x 5 km. El trabajo de campo de cada proyecto exige aproxlmadamente cinco a?os, pero los aficionados pueden llevar a cabo la mayor parte del trabajo. Es posible almacenar los resultados en un computador personal. Hay muchos beneficios: (I) se presenta la distribucion corriente de las aves de la nacion, del estado, o de la Iocalidad; (2) se desarrolla nueva informacion especialmente sobre especies raras o en peligro; (3) se descubren areas que tienen una avlfauna sobresaliente o habitats raros y ayuda a su proteccion, (4) se documentan cambios de dlstribucion; (5) se pueden usar para documentar cambios de poblacion, especialmente en los tropicos donde otros metodos son mas dificiles de usar porque hay muchas especies y no hay muchos observadores calificados en la identificacion de sonidos de las aves; (6) son proyectos buenos de investigacion para estudiantes graduados; (7) los turistas y los jefes de excursiones de historia natural pueden contribuir con muchas informaciones

  2. ParaDock: a flexible non-specific DNA--rigid protein docking algorithm.

    PubMed

    Banitt, Itamar; Wolfson, Haim J

    2011-11-01

    Accurate prediction of protein-DNA complexes could provide an important stepping stone towards a thorough comprehension of vital intracellular processes. Few attempts were made to tackle this issue, focusing on binding patch prediction, protein function classification and distance constraints-based docking. We introduce ParaDock: a novel ab initio protein-DNA docking algorithm. ParaDock combines short DNA fragments, which have been rigidly docked to the protein based on geometric complementarity, to create bent planar DNA molecules of arbitrary sequence. Our algorithm was tested on the bound and unbound targets of a protein-DNA benchmark comprised of 47 complexes. With neither addressing protein flexibility, nor applying any refinement procedure, CAPRI acceptable solutions were obtained among the 10 top ranked hypotheses in 83% of the bound complexes, and 70% of the unbound. Without requiring prior knowledge of DNA length and sequence, and within <2 h per target on a standard 2.0 GHz single processor CPU, ParaDock offers a fast ab initio docking solution.

  3. The ortho:para-H_2 ratio in C- and J-type shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilgenbus, D.; Cabrit, S.; Pineau des Forêts, G.; Flower, D. R.

    2000-04-01

    We have computed extensive grids of models of both C- and J-type planar shock waves, propagating in dark, cold molecular clouds, in order to study systematically the behaviour of the ortho:para-H_2 ratio. Careful attention was paid to both macroscopic (dynamical) and microscopic (chemical reactions and collisional population transfer in H_2) aspects. We relate the predictions of the models to observational determinations of the ortho:para-H_2 ratio using both pure rotational lines and rovibrational lines. As an illustration, we consider ISO and ground-based H_2 observations of HH 54. Neither planar C-type nor planar J-type shocks appear able to account fully for these observations. Given the additional constraints provided by the observed ortho:para H_2 ratios, a C-type bowshock, or a C-type precursor followed by a J-type shock, remain as plausible models. Tables~2a-f and 4a-f are only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html

  4. Theoretical study of the design of a catalyst for para to ortho hydrogen conversion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coffman, Robert E.

    1992-01-01

    The theory of Petzinger and Scalapino (1973) was thoroughly reviewed, and all of the basic equations for paramagnetic para to ortho hydrogen catalysis re-derived. There are only a few minor phase errors and errors of omission in the description of the theory. Three models (described by Petzinger and Scalapino) for the rate of para to ortho H2 catalysis were worked out, and uniform agreement obtained to within a constant factor of 2 pi. The analytical methods developed in the course of this study were then extended to two new models, which more adequately describe the process of surface catalysis including transfer of hydrogen molecules onto and off of the surface. All five equations for the para to ortho catalytic rate of conversion are described. The two new equations describe the catalytic rate for these models: H2 on the surface is a 2-D gas with lifetime tau; and H2 on the surface is a 2-D liquid undergoing Brownian motion (diffusion) with surface lifetime tau.

  5. ParaSAM: a parallelized version of the significance analysis of microarrays algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Ashok; Zhao, Jieping; Podolsky, Robert; McIndoe, Richard A.

    2010-01-01

    Motivation: Significance analysis of microarrays (SAM) is a widely used permutation-based approach to identifying differentially expressed genes in microarray datasets. While SAM is freely available as an Excel plug-in and as an R-package, analyses are often limited for large datasets due to very high memory requirements. Summary: We have developed a parallelized version of the SAM algorithm called ParaSAM to overcome the memory limitations. This high performance multithreaded application provides the scientific community with an easy and manageable client-server Windows application with graphical user interface and does not require programming experience to run. The parallel nature of the application comes from the use of web services to perform the permutations. Our results indicate that ParaSAM is not only faster than the serial version, but also can analyze extremely large datasets that cannot be performed using existing implementations. Availability:A web version open to the public is available at http://bioanalysis.genomics.mcg.edu/parasam. For local installations, both the windows and web implementations of ParaSAM are available for free at http://www.amdcc.org/bioinformatics/software/parasam.aspx Contact: rmcindoe@mail.mcg.edu Supplementary information: Supplementary Data is available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:20400455

  6. Base de linhas moleculares para síntese espectral estelar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milone, A.; Sanzovo, G.

    2003-08-01

    A análise das abundâncias quí micas fotosféricas em estrelas do tipo solar ou tardia, através do cálculo teórico de seus espectros, emprega a espectroscopia de alta resolução e necessita de uma base representativa de linhas atômicas e moleculares com suas respectivas constantes bem determinadas. Nesse trabalho, utilizamos como ponto de partida as extensas listas de linhas espectrais de sistemas eletrônicos de algumas moléculas diatômicas compiladas por Kurucz para a construção de uma base de linhas moleculares para a sí ntese espectral estelar. Revisamos as determinações dos fatores rotacionais de Honl-London das forças de oscilador das linhas moleculares, para cada banda vibracional de alguns sistemas eletrônicos, seguindo a regra usual de normalização. Usamos as forças de oscilador eletrônicas da literatura. Os fatores vibracionais de Franck-Condon de cada banda foram especialmente recalculados empregando-se novas constantes moleculares. Reproduzimos, com êxito, as absorções espectrais de determinadas bandas eletrônicas-vibracionais das espécies moleculares C12C12, C12N14 e Mg24H em espectros de estrelas de referência como o Sol e Arcturus.

  7. Madres para la Salud: design of a theory-based intervention for postpartum Latinas.

    PubMed

    Keller, Colleen; Records, Kathie; Ainsworth, Barbara; Belyea, Michael; Permana, Paska; Coonrod, Dean; Vega-López, Sonia; Nagle-Williams, Allison

    2011-05-01

    Weight gain in young women suggests that childbearing may be an important contributor to the development of obesity in women. Depressive symptoms can interfere with resumption of normal activity levels following childbirth or with the initiation of or adherence to physical activity programs essential for losing pregnancy weight. Depression symptoms may function directly to promote weight gain through a physiologic mechanism. Obesity and its related insulin resistance may contribute to depressed mood physiologically. Although physical activity has well-established beneficial effects on weight management and depression, women tend to under participate in physical activity during childbearing years. Further, the mechanisms underpinning the interplay of overweight, obesity, physical activity, depression, and inflammatory processes are not clearly explained. This report describes the theoretical rationale, design considerations, and cultural relevance for "Madres para la Salud" [Mothers for Health]. Madres para la Salud is a 12 month prospective, randomized controlled trial exploring the effectiveness of a culturally specific intervention using "bouts" of physical activity to effect changes in body fat, systemic and fat tissue inflammation, and postpartum depression symptoms in sedentary postpartum Latinas. The significance and innovation of Madres para la Salud includes use of a theory-driven approach to intervention, specification and cultural relevance of a social support intervention, use of a Promotora model to incorporate cultural approaches, use of objective measures of physical activity in post partum Latinas women, and the examination of biomarkers indicative of cardiovascular risk related to physical activity behaviors in postpartum Latinas. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Observing para-H2D+ absorption towards Serpens SMM1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlemmer, Stephan

    2013-10-01

    We propose to observe the the ground-state rotational line of para-H2D+ at 1370 GHz (? = 218?m) with SOFIA/GREAT. The line is predicted to be detectable in absorption towards the luminous low-mass Class 0 protostar Serpens SMM1. This northern source consists of a warm, edge-on dust disk with a strong FIR continuum emission (280 Jy at 218 ? m) surrounded by a massive, cool envelope. According to our estimates the para H2D+ line is optically thick (? = 1) and will absorb about 60% of the continuum emission. The expected line absorption signal is at least 0.2 K in TA?, but only ?1 km/s wide. Even with SOFIA/GREAT the proposed project is challenging and needs deep integration, but it also renders possible an unambiguos detection of para-H2D+. As the object is particularly well studied in molecular lines and dust continuum, the proposed observations will allow us to test our understanding of the deuterium chemistry.

  9. [Molecular genetic basis for para-Bombay phenotypes in two cases].

    PubMed

    He, Yang-Ming; Xu, Xian-Guo; Zhu, Fa-Ming; Yan, Li-Xing

    2007-06-01

    This study was purposed to investigate the molecular genetics basis for para-Bombay phenotype. The para-Bombay phenotype of two probands was identified by routine serological techniques. The full coding region of alpha (1, 2) fucosyltransferase gene (FUT1 and FUT2) in the probands was amplified by polymerase chain reaction and the amplified fragments were directly sequenced, meanwhile the mutations of FUT1 were also identified by TOPO TA cloning sequence method. The results indicated that two heterozygous mutations were detected by directly sequencing in two probands: AG deletion at position 547 - 552 and C to T mutation at position 658. Two different mutations were confirmed to be true compound heterozygotes with each mutation on a separate homologous chromosome by TOPO TA cloning sequence method. AG deletion at position 547 - 552 caused a reading frame shift and a premature stop codon. C658T mutation resulted in Arg-->Cys at amino acid position 220. It is suggested that the FUT1 mutation of two probands are compound heterozygous mutation with different chromosomes, which are named h1h3 and may be the genetics basis of para-Bombay phenotype.

  10. [Formation of para-Bombay phenotype caused by homozygous or heterozygous mutation of FUT1 gene].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jin-Ping; Zheng, Yan; Sun, Dong-Ni

    2014-02-01

    This study was aimed to explore the molecular mechanisms for para-Bombay phenotype formation. The H antigen of these individuals were identified by serological techniques. The full coding region of alpha (1, 2) fucosyltransferase (FUT1) gene of these individuals was amplified by high-fidelity polymerase chain reaction (PCR). PCR product was identified by TOPO cloning sequencing. Analysis and comparison were used to explore the mechanisms of para-bombay phenotype formation in individuals. The results indicated that the full coding region of FUT1 DNA was successfully amplified by PCR and gel electrophoresis. DNA sequencing and analysis found that h1 (547-552delAG) existed in one chromosome and h4 (35C > T) existed in the other chromosome of NO.1 individual. Meantime, h1 (547-552delAG) was found in two chromosomes of NO.2 and NO.3 individual. It also means that FUT1 gene of NO.1 individual was h1h4 heterozygote, FUT1 gene of NO.2 and NO.3 individuals were h1h1 homozygote. It is concluded that homozygous and heterozygous mutation of FUT1 gene can lead to the formation of para-Bombay phenotype.

  11. [Para-Bombay phenotype caused by combined heterozygote of two bases deletion on fut1 alleles].

    PubMed

    Ma, Kan-Rong; Tao, Shu-Dan; Lan, Xiao-Fei; Hong, Xiao-Zhen; Xu, Xian-Guo; Zhu, Fa-Ming; Lü, Hang-Jun; Yan, Li-Xing

    2011-02-01

    This study was purposed to investigate the molecular basis of a para-Bombay phenotype for screening and identification of rare blood group. ABO and H phenotypes of the proband were identified by serological techniques. The exon 6 to exon 7 of ABO gene and full coding region of α-1,2-fucosyltransferase (fut1) gene of the proband were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction and direct sequencing of the amplified fragments. The haplotype of compound heterozygote of fut1 was also identified by cloning sequencing. The results indicated that a rare para-Bombay phenotype was confirmed by serological techniques. Two deletion or insertion variant sites near nucleotide 547 and 880 were detected in fut1 gene. The results of cloning sequence showed that one haplotype of fut1 gene was two bases deletion at 547-552 (AGAGAG→AGAG), and another one was two bases deletion at position 880-882 (TTT→T). Both two variants caused a reading frame shift and a premature stop codon. It is concluded that a rare para-Bombay phenotype is found and confirmed in blood donor population. The molecular basis of this individual is compound heterozygote of two bases deletion on fut1 gene which weaken the activity of α-1, 2-fucosyltransferase.

  12. Fragrance material review on 1-(para-menthen-6-yl)-1-propanone.

    PubMed

    Scognamiglio, J; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2013-12-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of 1-(para-Menthen-6-yl)-1-propanone when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. 1-(para-Menthen-6-yl)-1-propanone is a member of the fragrance structural group Alkyl Cyclic Ketones. These fragrances can be described as being composed of an alkyl, R1, and various substituted and bicyclic saturated or unsaturated cyclic hydrocarbons, R2, in which one of the rings may include up to 12 carbons. Alternatively, R2 may be a carbon bridge of C2-C4 carbon chain length between the ketone and cyclic hydrocarbon. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for 1-(para-Menthen-6-yl)-1-propanone were evaluated then summarized and includes physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, and skin sensitization, data. A safety assessment of the entire Alkyl Cyclic Ketones will be published simultaneously with this document; please refer to Belsito et al. (2013) [Belsito, D., Bickers, D., Bruze, M., Calow, P., Dagli, M., Fryer, A.D., Greim, H., Miyachi, Y., Saurat, J.H., Sipes, I.G., 2013 A Toxicologic and Dermatologic Assessment of Alkyl Cyclic Ketones When Used as Fragrance Ingredients. Submitted with this manuscript.] for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all Alkyl Cyclic Ketones in fragrances. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Pelvic and para-aortic lymphadenectomy for surgical staging of endometrial cancer: morbidity and mortality.

    PubMed

    Larson, D M; Johnson, K; Olson, K A

    1992-06-01

    This analysis compared retrospectively the morbidity and mortality of patients with endometrial cancer who had total abdominal hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (TAH/BSO) alone or with pelvic and para-aortic lymphadenectomy performed by the same surgeon at one private institution. Between August 1987 and March 1991, 77 women with endometrial cancer were staged surgically by a standard protocol without preoperative radiotherapy. Thirty-five patients (45%) had TAH/BSO alone and 42 (55%) had TAH/BSO with pelvic and para-aortic lymphadenectomy. The median number of lymph nodes removed was 18. Patients having lymphadenectomy had an increased mean (+/- standard deviation) operative time (129 +/- 29 versus 87 +/- 26 minutes; P less than .0001), increased mean estimated blood loss (391 +/- 192 versus 272 +/- 219 mL; P = .013), and a longer postoperative hospital stay (P = .017) compared with patients having TAH/BSO alone. However, there was no difference in transfusion rate, febrile morbidity, postoperative complications, or mortality. We conclude that pelvic and para-aortic lymphadenectomy can be added to TAH/BSO in patients with endometrial cancer without a clinically significant increase in morbidity or mortality.

  14. El diseño final del espectrógrafo de banco (EBASIM) para CASLEO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simmons, J.; Levato, H.

    Utilizando el código de óptica ACCOS V se ha finalizado el diseño del espectrógrafo de banco para CASLEO. En una comunicación anterior habíamos indicado que utilizaríamos un colimador de 150 mm de diámetro con un radio de curvatura de 1540 mm. Para el espejo cámara, que tiene un diámetro de 200 mm, el radio de curvatura es de 1200 mm, ambos radios con una tolerancia no mayor a los 3 mm. En la presente, se informa sobre los detalles finales del cálculo del espectrógrafo que incluye el cómputo para 5 longitudes de onda diferentes y alrededor de 100 rayos. En todos los casos el 75 % de energía está dentro de un diámetro de 13 micrones. El diseño ha sido probado entre 3500 Å hasta 9000 Å con resultados satisfactorios.

  15. ParaSAM: a parallelized version of the significance analysis of microarrays algorithm.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Ashok; Zhao, Jieping; Podolsky, Robert; McIndoe, Richard A

    2010-06-01

    Significance analysis of microarrays (SAM) is a widely used permutation-based approach to identifying differentially expressed genes in microarray datasets. While SAM is freely available as an Excel plug-in and as an R-package, analyses are often limited for large datasets due to very high memory requirements. We have developed a parallelized version of the SAM algorithm called ParaSAM to overcome the memory limitations. This high performance multithreaded application provides the scientific community with an easy and manageable client-server Windows application with graphical user interface and does not require programming experience to run. The parallel nature of the application comes from the use of web services to perform the permutations. Our results indicate that ParaSAM is not only faster than the serial version, but also can analyze extremely large datasets that cannot be performed using existing implementations. A web version open to the public is available at http://bioanalysis.genomics.mcg.edu/parasam. For local installations, both the windows and web implementations of ParaSAM are available for free at http://www.amdcc.org/bioinformatics/software/parasam.aspx.

  16. The ortho:para ratio of H{sub 3}{sup +} in laboratory and astrophysical plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Crabtree, Kyle N.; Indriolo, Nick; Kreckel, Holger; McCall, Benjamin J.

    2015-01-22

    The discovery of H{sub 3}{sup +} in the diffuse interstellar medium has dramatically changed our view of the cosmic-ray ionization rate in diffuse molecular clouds. However, another surprise has been that the ortho:para ratio of H{sub 3}{sup +} in these clouds is inconsistent with the temperature derived from the excitation of H{sub 2}, the dominant species in these clouds. In an effort to understand this discrepancy, we have embarked on an experimental program to measure the nuclear spin dependence of the dissociative electron recombination rate of H{sub 3}{sup +} using the CRYRING and TSR ion storage rings. We have also performed the first measurements of the reaction H{sub 3}{sup +}+H{sub 2}→H{sub 2}+H{sub 3}{sup +} below room temperature. This reaction is likely the most common bimolecular reaction in the universe, and plays an important role in interconverting ortho- and para-H{sub 3}{sup +}. Finally, we have constructed a steady-state chemical model for diffuse clouds, which takes into account the spin-dependence of the formation of H{sub 3}{sup +}, its electron recombination, and its reaction with H{sub 2}. We find that the ortho:para ratio of H{sub 3}{sup +} in diffuse clouds is likely governed by a competition between dissociative recombination and thermalization by reactive collisions.

  17. Electrical detection of ortho–para conversion in fullerene-encapsulated water

    PubMed Central

    Meier, Benno; Mamone, Salvatore; Concistrè, Maria; Alonso-Valdesueiro, Javier; Krachmalnicoff, Andrea; Whitby, Richard J.; Levitt, Malcolm H.

    2015-01-01

    Water exists in two spin isomers, ortho and para, that have different nuclear spin states. In bulk water, rapid proton exchange and hindered molecular rotation obscure the direct observation of two spin isomers. The supramolecular endofullerene H2O@C60 provides freely rotating, isolated water molecules even at cryogenic temperatures. Here we show that the bulk dielectric constant of this substance depends on the ortho/para ratio, and changes slowly in time after a sudden temperature jump, due to nuclear spin conversion. The attribution of the effect to ortho–para conversion is validated by comparison with nuclear magnetic resonance and quantum theory. The change in dielectric constant is consistent with an electric dipole moment of 0.51±0.05 Debye for an encapsulated water molecule, indicating the partial shielding of the water dipole by the encapsulating cage. The dependence of bulk dielectric constant on nuclear spin isomer composition appears to be a previously unreported physical phenomenon. PMID:26299447

  18. The ParaShield entry vehicle concept - Basic theory and flight test development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akin, David L.

    The ParaShield concept of the Space Systems Laboratory is an ultra-low ballistic coefficient entry vehicle, created to meet the need for entry vehicle technology to return mass from low earth orbit. The concept involves decoupling the ballistic coefficient from the launch vehicle parameters, to pick a value (beta) which optimizes the desired entry vehicle characteristics. Trajectory simulations show that, as the ballistic coefficient is lowered to range of 100-150 Pa, the total heat load and peak heating flux drop markedly, due to primary deceleration in regions of extremely low dynamic pressure. These same low values of beta also result in a low terminal velocity, allowing the use of simple impact attenuation to provide a soft landing on water or dry land. Because the deployable fabric framework serves the functions of both heat shield and parachute, it is referred to as a ParaShield. The experience gained from the design, construction, and integration of a ParaShield test vehicle is discussed.

  19. Para-GMRF: parallel algorithm for anomaly detection of hyperspectral image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Chao; Zhao, Huijie; Li, Na; Wang, Wei

    2007-12-01

    The hyperspectral imager is capable of collecting hundreds of images corresponding to different wavelength channels for the observed area simultaneously, which make it possible to discriminate man-made objects from natural background. However, the price paid for the wealthy information is the enormous amounts of data, usually hundreds of Gigabytes per day. Turning the huge volume data into useful information and knowledge in real time is critical for geoscientists. In this paper, the proposed parallel Gaussian-Markov random field (Para-GMRF) anomaly detection algorithm is an attempt of applying parallel computing technology to solve the problem. Based on the locality of GMRF algorithm, we partition the 3-D hyperspectral image cube in spatial domain and distribute data blocks to multiple computers for concurrent detection. Meanwhile, to achieve load balance, a work pool scheduler is designed for task assignment. The Para-GMRF algorithm is organized in master-slave architecture, coded in C programming language using message passing interface (MPI) library and tested on a Beowulf cluster. Experimental results show that Para-GMRF algorithm successfully conquers the challenge and can be used in time sensitive areas, such as environmental monitoring and battlefield reconnaissance.

  20. Quantum chemical and experimental study of 1,2,4-trihydroxy-para-menthane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rottmannová, Lenka; Lukeš, Vladimír; Ilčin, Michal; Fodran, Peter; Herich, Peter; Kožíšek, Jozef; Liptaj, Tibor; Klein, Erik

    2013-10-01

    The conformational analysis of the para-menthane (PM) and 1,2,4-trihydroxy-para-menthane (TPM) is performed using the quantum chemical density functional theory (DFT) and ab initio Møller-Plesset perturbation theory up to the second order (MP2). In TPM, three hydroxyl groups generate eight stereoisomers comparing to the four para-menthane stereoisomers. From the thermodynamics point of view, the most preferred conformations show the chair-shaped configuration of the cyclohexane ring. The obtained energy barriers for the isopropyl group rotation in the chair-shaped stereoisomers are between 35 and 45 kJ mol-1. The crystal structure as well as the solvated TPM stereoisomer isolated from the Tea tree oil, Melaleuca alternifolia (Maiden & Betche) Cheel, were investigated experimentally. Isolated stereoisomer corresponds to the most energetically preferred conformation and the calculated structural data agree very well with the results from the X-ray and nuclear magnetic resonance measurements. Finally, the influence of the conformation and the presence of the intramolecular hydrogen bonds on the homolytic Osbnd H bond dissociation enthalpies and proton affinities were also discussed with respect to the simple alcohols (methanol, iso-propanol, iso-pentanol, tert-butanol, cyclohexanol) and phenol.

  1. ParaDyn Implementation in the US Navy's DYSMAS Simulation System: FY08 Progress Report

    SciTech Connect

    Ferencz, R M; DeGroot, A J; Lin, J I; Zywicz, E; Durrenberger, J K; Sherwood, R J; Corey, I R

    2008-07-29

    The goal of this project is to increase the computational efficiency and capacity of the Navy's DYSMAS simulation system for full ship shock response to underwater explosion. Specifically, this project initiates migration to a parallel processing capability for the structural portion of the overall fluid-structure interaction model. The capstone objective for the first phase is to demonstrate operation of the DYSMAS simulation engine with a production model on a Naval Surface Warfare Center (IHD) parallel platform using the ParaDyn code for parallel processing of the structural dynamics. This year saw a successful launch to integrate ParaDyn, the high-parallel structural dynamics code from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), into the DYSMAS system for simulating the response of ship structures to underwater explosion (UNDEX). The current LLNL version of DYNA3D, representing ten years of general development beyond the source branch used to initiate DYNA-N customization for DYSMAS, was first connected to the GEMINI flow code through DYSMAS Standard Coupler Interface (SCI). This permitted an early 'sanity check' by Naval Surface Warfare Center, Indian Head Division (NSWC-IHD) personnel that equivalent results were generated for their standard UNDEX test problems, thus ensuring the Verification & Validation pedigree they have developed remains intact. The ParaDyn code was then joined to the SCI in a manner requiring no changes to GEMINI. Three NSWC-IHD engineers were twice hosted at LLNL to become familiar with LLNL computer systems, the execution of the prototype software system, and to begin assessment of its accuracy and performance. Scaling data for the flow solver GEMINI was attained up to a one billion cell, 1000 processor run. The NSWC-IHD engineers were granted privileges to continue their evaluations through remote connections to LLNL's Open Computing Facility. Finally, the prototype changes were integrated into the mainline ParaDyn source

  2. Implementação de um algoritmo para a limpeza de mapas da RCFM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souza, C. L.; Wuensche, C. A.

    2003-08-01

    A Radiação Cósmica de Fundo em Microondas (RCFM), descoberta por Penzias e Wilson em 1965, é uma das ferramentas mais poderosas para o estudo da cosmologia. Com a descoberta de flutuações de temperatura na RCFM, da ordem de uma parte em 105, pelo COBE (1992), uma nova era teve início. Nos últimos onze anos, diversos instrumentos fizeram novas medidas de alta precisão, refinando os resultados apresentados pelo COBE, culminando com os resultados recentes do satélite WMAP. A análise de dados da RCFM, especialmente no caso de experimentos com pequena cobertura do céu, apresenta uma série de dificuldades devido a emissões de contaminantes externos, tais como a emissão da Galáxia e de fontes pontuais, e de ruídos intrínsecos tanto ao sistema de detecção quanto à estratégia de observação do céu. Uma das soluções típicas para a filtragem de dados brutos de um experimento para medir flutuações de temperatura é aplicar um gabarito (template) e um filtro passa alta ao produzir mapas simplificados (sem considerar matrizes de correlação ou covariância). No caso de experimentos que utilizam detectores HEMT, essa combinação de filtros remove, satisfatoriamente, ruídos do tipo 1/f gerados pela instabilidade no ganho do detector acoplado ao movimento do instrumento, definido pela estratégia de observação. Entretanto, o sinal resultante medido, tanto em simulações quanto em séries temporais reais, sugere que parte do sinal cosmológico pode estar sendo removido junto com o ruído dos detectores. Este trabalho descreve as etapas para a produção de um mapa típico (simulado) e os testes preliminares de um algoritmo para remover ruídos do tipo 1/f introduzidos pela estratégia de observação sem prejudicar a qualidade do sinal cosmológico presente no mapa.

  3. El uso de la neuromodulación para el tratamiento del temblor

    PubMed Central

    Bendersky, Damián; Ajler, Pablo; Yampolsky, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    Introducción: El temblor puede ser un desorden incapacitante y el tratamiento de primera línea para estos pacientes es farmacológico. Sin embargo, este tratamiento puede llevar a una reducción satisfactoria del temblor en sólo el 50% de los pacientes con temblor esencial. La talamotomía era el tratamiento de elección para el temblor refractario al tratamiento médico hasta que comenzó a utilizarse la estimulación cerebral profunda (ECP) del núcleo ventral intermedio (Vim) del tálamo. En la actualidad, raramente se realiza la talamotomía. Métodos: Este artículo es una revisión no sistemática de las indicaciones, resultados, parámetros de programación y técnica quirúrgica de la ECP del Vim para el tratamiento del temblor. Resultados: Aunque los resultados clínicos son similares usando la talamotomía o la ECP del Vim, la primera causa más efectos adversos que la última. Además, la ECP puede ser usada bilateralmente, mientras que la talamotomía tiene un alto riesgo de causar disartria cuando se realiza de ambos lados. La ECP del Vim logró una adecuada mejoría del temblor en varias series de pacientes con temblor causado por temblor esencial, enfermedad de Parkinson o esclerosis múltiple. Además del Vim, hay otros blancos que están siendo usados por varios autores, tales como la zona incerta y las radiaciones prelemniscales. Conclusión: La ECP del Vim es un tratamiento útil para el temblor incapacitante refractario al tratamiento médico. Es esencial realizar una precisa selección de pacientes, así como utilizar una técnica quirúrgica correcta. Aún se desconoce el mejor blanco estereotáctico para el temblor, aunque el Vim es el más usado. PMID:25165613

  4. Melhoramentos no código Wilson-Devinney para binárias eclipsantes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieira, L. A.; Vaz, L. P. R.

    2003-08-01

    A análise de curvas de luz e velocidades radiais de sistemas binários eclipsantes pode ser feita por meio de vários modelos. Um desses é o Modelo Wilson-Devinney (WD). Ao longo dos anos, esse modelo sofreu várias alterações em seus códigos principais, com a finalidade de torná-lo mais consistente tanto fíisica como numericamente. O Modelo WD tem sido melhorado de várias maneiras em seus dois códigos: um para a predição das curvas de luz teórica e de velocidade radiais e outra para as soluções destas curvas. Teoricamente, na física do modelo, nós introduzimos a possibilidade de levar em conta os efeitos do movimento apsidal. Numericamente, nós introduzimos a possibilidade de usar o Método SIMPLEX no procedimento da solução, como uma alternativa para o já implementado Método de Mínimos Quadrados (Least Squares Method). Estas modificações, juntamente com outras já introduzidas pelo nosso grupo anteriormente, tornam o código mais eficiente na solução das curvas de luz e de velocidade radiais de binárias eclipsantes. Como o modelo tem sido usado para analisar sistemas com componentes pré-sequência principal (TY CrA, Casey et al. 1998, Vaz et al. 1998), SM 790, Stassun et al. 2003), este melhoramento beneficiará estes casos também. Apresentamos os resultados obtidos com a modificação do código WD por meio do uso de dados da estrela GL Carinae, comprovando, (1) que os parâmetros orbitais calculados por nós são coerentes com os obtidos anteriormente na literatura (Giménez & Clausen, 1986) e com os obtidos por Faria (1987), e (2) que a implementação do Método SIMPLEX torna o código mais lento mas completamente consistente internamente e evita os problemas gerados pelo uso do Método de Mínimos Quadrados, tais como imprecisão no cálculo das derivadas parciais e convergência para mínimos locais.

  5. Pre-treatment surgical para-aortic lymph node assessment in locally advanced cervical cancer

    PubMed Central

    Brockbank, Elly; Kokka, Fani; Bryant, Andrew; Pomel, Christophe; Reynolds, Karina

    2014-01-01

    Background Cervical cancer is the most common cause of death from gynaecological cancers worldwide. Locally advanced cervical cancer, FIGO stage equal or more than IB1 is treated with chemotherapy and external beam radiotherapy followed by brachytherapy. If there is metastatic para-aortic nodal disease radiotherapy is extended to additionally cover this area. Due to increased morbidity, ideally extended-field radiotherapy is given only when para-aortic nodal disease is proven. Therefore accurate assessment of the extent of the disease is very important for planning the most appropriate treatment. Objectives To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of pre-treatment surgical para-aortic lymph node assessment for woman with locally advanced cervical cancer (FIGO stage IB2 to IVA). Search methods We searched the Cochrane Gynaecological Cancer Group Trials Register, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2011, Issue 1), MEDLINE and EMBASE (up to January 2011). We also searched registers of clinical trials, abstracts of scientific meetings, reference lists of included studies and contacted experts in the field. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that compared surgical para-aortic lymph node assessment and dissection with radiological staging techniques, in adult women diagnosed with locally advanced cervical cancer. Data collection and analysis Two reviewers independently assessed whether potentially relevant trials met the inclusion criteria, abstracted data and assessed risk of bias. One RCT was identified so no meta-analyses were performed. Main results We found only one trial, which included 61 women, that met our inclusion criteria. This trial reported data on surgical versus clinical staging and an assessment of the two surgical staging techniques; laparoscopic (LAP) versus extraperitoneal (EXP) surgical staging. The clinical staging was either a contrast-enhanced CT scan or MRI scan of the abdomen and

  6. An Experimental Investigation of Collisions of NH3 with Para-H2 at the Temperatures of Cold Molecular Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willey, D. R.; Timlin, R. E., Jr.; Merlin, J. M.; Sowa, M. M.; Wesolek, D. M.

    2002-03-01

    Experimentally measured cross sections for collisional broadening of ammonia by J=0, para-H2 are presented for the (J,K)=(1,1),(2,2), and (3,3) NH3 inversion transitions at temperatures from 12.5 to 40 K. The cross sections were obtained in a quasi-equilibrium environment utilizing the collisional cooling technique. These are the first laboratory measurements of interactions between NH3 and J=0, para-H2 at the temperatures of cold molecular clouds. The measured cross sections are compared to theoretical predictions using two existing ab initio NH3-H2 potential surfaces and to previously measured He broadening cross sections. In comparison to He broadening cross sections at these temperatures, the para-H2 results are up to 4 times larger. This is in contrast to 300 K experimental results where para-H2 cross sections are only 50% larger than He.

  7. Conformational isomerism in the solid-state structures of tetracaine and tamoxifen with para-sulphonato-calix[4]arene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danylyuk, Oksana; Monachino, Melany; Lazar, Adina N.; Suwinska, Kinga; Coleman, Anthony W.

    2010-02-01

    The solid-state complexes between para-sulphonato-calix[4]arene and the drugs tamoxifen and tetracaine show an unusual 4:1 guest-host stoichiometry with formation of hydrophobic layer of drug molecules held between bilayers of para-sulphonato-calix[4]arene. In both structures each of the four independent drug molecules adopts different conformation due to the different mode of interaction with the anionic host, the neighbouring drug cations and water molecules.

  8. Effects of para-substituents of styrene derivatives on their chemical reactivity on platinum nanoparticle surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Peiguang; Chen, Limei; Deming, Christopher P.; Lu, Jia-En; Bonny, Lewis W.; Chen, Shaowei

    2016-06-01

    Stable platinum nanoparticles were successfully prepared by the self-assembly of para-substituted styrene derivatives onto the platinum surfaces as a result of platinum-catalyzed dehydrogenation and transformation of the vinyl groups to the acetylene ones, forming platinum-vinylidene/-acetylide interfacial bonds. Transmission electron microscopic measurements showed that the nanoparticles were well dispersed without apparent aggregation, suggesting sufficient protection of the nanoparticles by the organic capping ligands, and the average core diameter was estimated to be 2.0 +/- 0.3 nm, 1.3 +/- 0.2 nm, and 1.1 +/- 0.2 nm for the nanoparticles capped with 4-tert-butylstyrene, 4-methoxystyrene, and 4-(trifluoromethyl)styrene, respectively, as a result of the decreasing rate of dehydrogenation with the increasing Taft (polar) constant of the para-substituents. Importantly, the resulting nanoparticles exhibited unique photoluminescence, where an increase of the Hammett constant of the para-substituents corresponded to a blue-shift of the photoluminescence emission, suggesting an enlargement of the HOMO-LUMO band gap of the nanoparticle-bound acetylene moieties. Furthermore, the resulting nanoparticles exhibited apparent electrocatalytic activity towards oxygen reduction in acidic media, with the best performance among the series of samples observed with the 4-tert-butylstyrene-capped nanoparticles due to an optimal combination of the nanoparticle core size and ligand effects on the bonding interactions between platinum and oxygen species.Stable platinum nanoparticles were successfully prepared by the self-assembly of para-substituted styrene derivatives onto the platinum surfaces as a result of platinum-catalyzed dehydrogenation and transformation of the vinyl groups to the acetylene ones, forming platinum-vinylidene/-acetylide interfacial bonds. Transmission electron microscopic measurements showed that the nanoparticles were well dispersed without apparent

  9. Madres para la Salud: Design of a Theory-based Intervention for Postpartum Latinas

    PubMed Central

    Keller, Colleen; Records, Kathie; Ainsworth, Barbara; Belyea, Michael; Permana, Paska; Coonrod, Dean; Vega-López, Sonia; Nagle-Williams, Allison

    2011-01-01

    Background Weight gain in young women suggests that childbearing may be an important contributor to the development of obesity in women. Depressive symptoms can interfere with resumption of normal activity levels following childbirth or with the initiation of or adherence to physical activity programs essential for losing pregnancy weight. Depression symptoms may function directly to promote weight gain through a physiologic mechanism. Obesity and its related insulin resistance may contribute to depressed mood physiologically. Although physical activity has well-established beneficial effects on weight management and depression, women tend to under participate in physical activity during childbearing years. Further, the mechanisms underpinning the interplay of overweight, obesity, physical activity, depression, and inflammatory processes are not clearly explained. Objectives This report describes the theoretical rationale, design considerations, and cultural relevance for “Madres para la Salud” [Mothers for Health]. Design and Methods Madres para la Salud is a 12 month prospective, randomized controlled trial exploring the effectiveness of a culturally specific intervention using “bouts” of physical activity to effect changes in body fat, systemic and fat tissue inflammation, and postpartum depression symptoms in sedentary postpartum Latinas. Summary The significance and innovation of Madres para la Salud includes use of a theory-driven approach to intervention, specification and cultural relevance of a social support intervention, use of a Promotora model to incorporate cultural approaches, use of objective measures of physical activity in post partum Latinas women, and the examination of biomarkers indicative of cardiovascular risk related to physical activity behaviors in postpartum Latinas. PMID:21238614

  10. Supported transition metal catalysts for para- to ortho-hydrogen conversion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, Christopher J.; Wang, Wei; Eyman, Darrell P.

    1994-01-01

    The main goal of this study was to develop and improve on existing catalysts for the conversion of ortho- to para-hydrogen. Starting with a commercially available Air Products nickel silicate, which had a beta value of 20, we were trying to synthesize catalysts that would be an improvement to AP. This was accomplished by preparing silicates with various metals as well as different preparation methods. We also prepared supported ruthenium catalysts by various techniques using several metal precursors to improve present technology. What was also found was that the activation conditions prior to catalytic testing was highly important for both the silicates and the supported ruthenium catalysts. While not the initial focus of the research, we made some interesting observations into the adsorption of H2 on ruthenium. This helped us to get a better understanding of how ortho- to para-H2 conversion takes place, and what features in a catalyst are important to optimize activity. Reactor design was the final area in which some interesting conclusions were drawn. As discussed earlier, the reactor catalyst bed must be constructed using straight 1/8 feet OD stainless steel tubing. It was determined that the use of 1/4 feet OD tubing caused two problems. First, the radius from the center of the bed to the wall was too great for thermal equilibrium. Since the reaction of ortho- to para-H2 is exothermic, the catalyst bed center was warmer than the edges. Second, the catalyst bed was too shallow using a 1/4 feet tube. This caused reactant blow-by which was thought to decrease the measured activity when the flow rate was increased. The 1/8 feet tube corrected both of these concerns.

  11. Molecular basis for H blood group deficiency in Bombay (Oh) and para-Bombay individuals.

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, R J; Ernst, L K; Larsen, R D; Bryant, J G; Robinson, J S; Lowe, J B

    1994-01-01

    The penultimate step in the biosynthesis of the human ABO blood group oligosaccharide antigens is catalyzed by alpha-(1,2)-fucosyltransferase(s) (GDP-L-fucose: beta-D-galactoside 2-alpha-L-fucosyltransferase, EC 2.4.1.69), whose expression is determined by the H and Secretor (SE) blood group loci (also known as FUT1 and FUT2, respectively). These enzymes construct Fuc alpha 1-->2Gal beta-linkages, known as H determinants, which are essential precursors to the A and B antigens. Erythrocytes from individuals with the rare Bombay and para-Bombay blood group phenotypes are deficient in H determinants, and thus A and B determinants, as a consequence of apparent homozygosity for null alleles at the H locus. We report a molecular analysis of a human alpha-(1,2)-fucosyltransferase gene, thought to correspond to the H blood group locus, in a Bombay pedigree and a para-Bombay pedigree. We find inactivating point mutations in the coding regions of both alleles of this gene in each H-deficient individual. These results define the molecular basis for H blood group antigen deficiency in Bombay and para-Bombay phenotypes, provide compelling evidence that this gene represents the human H blood group locus, and strongly support a hypothesis that the H and SE loci represent distinct alpha-(1,2)-fucosyltransferase genes. Candidate sequences for the human SE locus are identified by low-stringency Southern blot hybridization analyses, using a probe derived from the H alpha-(1,2)-fucosyltransferase gene. Images PMID:7912436

  12. Molecular basis for H blood group deficiency in Bombay (Oh) and para-Bombay individuals.

    PubMed

    Kelly, R J; Ernst, L K; Larsen, R D; Bryant, J G; Robinson, J S; Lowe, J B

    1994-06-21

    The penultimate step in the biosynthesis of the human ABO blood group oligosaccharide antigens is catalyzed by alpha-(1,2)-fucosyltransferase(s) (GDP-L-fucose: beta-D-galactoside 2-alpha-L-fucosyltransferase, EC 2.4.1.69), whose expression is determined by the H and Secretor (SE) blood group loci (also known as FUT1 and FUT2, respectively). These enzymes construct Fuc alpha 1-->2Gal beta-linkages, known as H determinants, which are essential precursors to the A and B antigens. Erythrocytes from individuals with the rare Bombay and para-Bombay blood group phenotypes are deficient in H determinants, and thus A and B determinants, as a consequence of apparent homozygosity for null alleles at the H locus. We report a molecular analysis of a human alpha-(1,2)-fucosyltransferase gene, thought to correspond to the H blood group locus, in a Bombay pedigree and a para-Bombay pedigree. We find inactivating point mutations in the coding regions of both alleles of this gene in each H-deficient individual. These results define the molecular basis for H blood group antigen deficiency in Bombay and para-Bombay phenotypes, provide compelling evidence that this gene represents the human H blood group locus, and strongly support a hypothesis that the H and SE loci represent distinct alpha-(1,2)-fucosyltransferase genes. Candidate sequences for the human SE locus are identified by low-stringency Southern blot hybridization analyses, using a probe derived from the H alpha-(1,2)-fucosyltransferase gene.

  13. ParaSight-F rapid manual diagnostic test of Plasmodium falciparum infection.

    PubMed Central

    Uguen, C.; Rabodonirina, M.; De Pina, J. J.; Vigier, J. P.; Martet, G.; Maret, M.; Peyron, F.

    1995-01-01

    The ParaSight(R)-F test is a qualitative diagnostic test of Plasmodium falciparum, which is based on the detection by a monoclonal antibody of a species-specific soluble antigen (histidine-rich protein (HRP-II)) in whole blood and which can be performed without special equipment. A visual reading is given by a polyclonal antibody coupled with dye-loaded liposomes; when positive, a pink line appears. The test has been compared with microscopic examination of thin blood smears and with Quantitative Buffy Coat malaria test (QBC(R) in a single-blind study. A total of 358 patients who had returned to France from malarial areas and consulted their doctor with symptoms or for a routine examination were enrolled in the study; 33 of them were found to have a falciparum malaria infection by the diagnostic test. On the day of consultation, the specificity of the ParaSight(R)-F test was 99% and its sensitivity 94%. The follow-up of infected patients after treatment showed that the test became negative later than the other reference tests. There was no correlation between antigen persistence and the intensity of the ParaSight(R)-F signal or circulating parasitaemia. No cross-reaction was noted for seven malaria cases due to other Plasmodium species. The test was performed quickly (10 tests in 20 minutes), was easy to read, and required minimal space. For cases of imported malaria, the test's specificity and low threshold for detection could make it a valuable adjunct test. However, in its present form, it cannot replace microscopic techniques which are species-specific and quantitative. In endemic areas, the test seems to be very promising by its results and ease of use according to published field studies. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:8846490

  14. Ortho/para ratio of H2O+ toward Sagittarius B2(M) revisited.

    PubMed

    Schilke, Peter; Lis, Dariusz C; Bergin, Edwin A; Higgins, Ronan; Comito, Claudia

    2013-10-03

    The HIFI instrument aboard the Herschel satellite has allowed the observation and characterization of light hydrides, the building blocks of interstellar chemistry. In this article, we revisit the ortho/para ratio for H2O(+) toward the Sgr B2(M) cloud core. The line of sight toward this star forming region passes through several spiral arms and the gas in the Bar potential in the inner Galaxy. In contrast to earlier findings, which used fewer lines to constrain the ratio, we find a ratio of 3, which is uniformly consistent with high-temperature formation of the species. In view of the reactivity of this ion, this matches the expectations.

  15. Salud Para Su Corazon (Health for Your Heart) Community Health Worker Model

    PubMed Central

    Balcazar, H.; Alvarado, M.; Ortiz, G.

    2012-01-01

    This article describes 6 Salud Para Su Corazon (SPSC) family of programs that have addressed cardiovascular disease risk reduction in Hispanic communities facilitated by community health workers (CHWs) or Promotores de Salud (PS). A synopsis of the programs illustrates the designs and methodological approaches that combine community-based participatory research for 2 types of settings: community and clinical. Examples are provided as to how CHWs can serve as agents of change in these settings. A description is presented of a sustainability framework for the SPSC family of programs. Finally, implications are summarized for utilizing the SPSC CHW/PS model to inform ambulatory care management and policy. PMID:21914992

  16. Manual de reforestación para América Tropical

    Treesearch

    Blanca I. Ruiz

    2002-01-01

    Aún cuando las comunidades tengan necesidad apremiante de sembrar árboles y tengan conciencia de ésta, la tarea que enfrentan no es sencilla ni barata (capítulo 5). Sin embargo, los beneficios que proveen los árboles son incontables (capítulo 2). De hecho, sin éstos nuestra civilización no podría existir tal cual la conocemos. Este manual fue escrito para ayudar a...

  17. Summary of Documentation for DYNA3D-ParaDyn's Software Quality Assurance Regression Test Problems

    SciTech Connect

    Zywicz, Edward

    2016-08-18

    The Software Quality Assurance (SQA) regression test suite for DYNA3D (Zywicz and Lin, 2015) and ParaDyn (DeGroot, et al., 2015) currently contains approximately 600 problems divided into 21 suites, and is a required component of ParaDyn’s SQA plan (Ferencz and Oliver, 2013). The regression suite allows developers to ensure that software modifications do not unintentionally alter the code response. The entire regression suite is run prior to permanently incorporating any software modification or addition. When code modifications alter test problem results, the specific cause must be determined and fully understood before the software changes and revised test answers can be incorporated. The regression suite is executed on LLNL platforms using a Python script and an associated data file. The user specifies the DYNA3D or ParaDyn executable, number of processors to use, test problems to run, and other options to the script. The data file details how each problem and its answer extraction scripts are executed. For each problem in the regression suite there exists an input deck, an eight-processor partition file, an answer file, and various extraction scripts. These scripts assemble a temporary answer file in a specific format from the simulation results. The temporary and stored answer files are compared to a specific level of numerical precision, and when differences are detected the test problem is flagged as failed. Presently, numerical results are stored and compared to 16 digits. At this accuracy level different processor types, compilers, number of partitions, etc. impact the results to various degrees. Thus, for consistency purposes the regression suite is run with ParaDyn using 8 processors on machines with a specific processor type (currently the Intel Xeon E5530 processor). For non-parallel regression problems, i.e., the two XFEM problems, DYNA3D is used instead. When environments or platforms change, executables using the current source code and the new

  18. Synthesis of icariin from kaempferol through regioselective methylation and para-Claisen–Cope rearrangement

    PubMed Central

    Mei, Qinggang; Wang, Chun; Zhao, Zhigang; Yuan, Weicheng

    2015-01-01

    Summary The hemisynthesis of the naturally occurring bioactive flavonoid glycoside icariin (1) has been accomplished in eleven steps with 7% overall yield from kaempferol. The 4′-OH methylation of kaempferol, the 8-prenylation of 3-O-methoxymethyl-4′-O-methyl-5-O-prenyl-7-O-benzylkaempferol (8) via para-Claisen–Cope rearrangement catalyzed by Eu(fod)3 in the presence of NaHCO3, and the glycosylation of icaritin (3) are the key steps. PMID:26425179

  19. Electrically conducting poly(para-phenylene sulfide) prepared by doping with nitrosyl salts from solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubner, Michael; Cukor, Peter; Jopson, Harriet; Deits, Walter

    1982-03-01

    Para(polyphenylene sulfide) may be doped spontaneously and rapidly with nitrosyl salts (NOPF6, NOSbF6) from solution to yield an electrically conducting material (10-1ohm-1cm-1). The level of conductivity is primarily dependent on the extent of dopant incorporation, which in turn is determined by the polymer’s crystallinity; the more amorphous the polymer, the more dopant it takes up and the more conductive it becomes. The incorporation of dopants produces irreversible chemical changes in the polymer resulting in the deterioration of its mechanical properties.

  20. Manual de métodos de campo para el monitoreo de aves terrestres

    Treesearch

    C. John Ralph; Geoffrey R. Geupel; Peter Pyle; Thomas E. Martin; David F DeSante; Borja Milá

    1996-01-01

    El presente manual es una recopilación de métodos de campo para la determinación de índices de abundancia y datos demográficos de poblaciones de aves terrestres en una amplia variedad de hábitats. Está dirigido a biólogos, técnicos de campo, e investigadores de cualquier parte del Continente Americano. Los métodos descritos incluyen cuatro tipos de censos...

  1. Salud Para Su Carozón--a Latino promotora-led cardiovascular health education program.

    PubMed

    Spinner, Jovonni R; Alvarado, Matilde

    2012-01-01

    Salud Para Su Carozón is a culturally sensitive, community-based program to increase heart healthy knowledge and behaviors among Latinos. Promotoras were trained using a 10-session manual to teach participants from 7 communities about heart disease risk factors and skills to achieve heart healthy behaviors. In 435 participants with pre-to-post self-reported data, there were increases in physical activity outside of work (57%-78%), heart health knowledge (49%-76%), and confidence in preparing heart healthy meals (66%-81%) (all Ps < .001). Results suggest that promotoras can provide effective health education to improve heart health risk behaviors in select Latino communities.

  2. [Analysis on FUT1 and FUT2 gene of 10 para-Bombay individuals in China].

    PubMed

    Guo, Zhong-hui; Xiang, Dong; Zhu, Zi-yan; Wang, Jian-lian; Zhang, Jia-min; Liu, Xi; Shen, Wei; Chen, He-ping

    2004-10-01

    This is a study on the allele composing of ABO, FUT1 and FUT2 gene loci of 10 para-Bombay individuals in China. Ten samples coming from different districts of China were suspected of para-Bombay phenotype by primary serology tests. Routine and absorb-elution tests were conducted to identify their ABO type, and duplex polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) was applied to getting their ABO genotype. Most of them were submitted to a test of their Lewis type as well. Then through direct DNA sequencing with PCR products of FUT1 and FUT2 genes, the genotypes of their H and SE gene loci were analyzed. It can be confirmed that the 10 samples are para-Bombay. All of their ABO genotypes are consistent with the serological absorb-elution results and the substances detected results in saliva. Seven out of 10 have recessive homozygous gene at their H locus. Each phenotype of h1h1 (nt547-552Deltaag), h2h2 (nt880-882Deltatt) and h4h4 (nt35 t-->c) are ascertained in 2 individuals; moreover, h3h3 (nt 658 c-->t) is identified in one individual. The rest are hh heterozygous individuals: one is h3/h(new-1); the other is h2/h(new-2); the last one is h1/h2. The h(new-1) (nt586 c-->t) allele has a point mutation at nt 586 C to T, which leads a nonsense mutation Gln(CAG) to stop (TAG).The second h (new-2) (nt328 g-->a) has an nt328 G to A missense mutation,which leads Ala (GCC),was replaced by Thr (ACC) at 110 amino acid position. All the 10 samples have Se (nt357 c-->t) synonymous mutation. One Bm(h) (B/O) individual with h4h4 phenotype has a Se(w)(nt357 c-->t; nt385 a-->t) allele, whose Lewis type is Le(a+b+). Moreover, the authors detected a (nt716 g-->a) mutation in two samples' Se gene. Four kinds of known h alleles (h1-h4), 2 kinds of novel non-functional FUT1 alleles, a Se(w) allele, and a novel SeG716A polymorphism in Chinese para-Bombay individuals were detected. At the same time, the authors noticed that all the 10 samples have the nt357 c

  3. ParaCEST MRI contrast agents capable of derivatization via"click" chemistry.

    PubMed

    Milne, Mark; Chicas, Kirby; Li, Alex; Bartha, Robert; Hudson, Robert H E

    2012-01-14

    A comprehensive series of lanthanide chelates has been prepared with a tetrapropargyl DOTAM type ligand. The complexes have been characterized by a combination of (1)H NMR, single-crystal X-ray crystallography, CEST and relaxation studies and have also been evaluated for potential use as paramagnetic chemical exchange saturation transfer (ParaCEST) contrast agents in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We demonstrate the functionalization of several chelates by means of alkyne-azide "click" chemistry in which a glucosyl azide is used to produce a tetra-substituted carbohydrate-decorated lanthanide complex. The carbohydrate periphery of the chelates has a potent influence on the CEST properties as described herein.

  4. NMR at earth's magnetic field using para-hydrogen induced polarization.

    PubMed

    Hamans, Bob C; Andreychenko, Anna; Heerschap, Arend; Wijmenga, Sybren S; Tessari, Marco

    2011-09-01

    A method to achieve NMR of dilute samples in the earth's magnetic field by applying para-hydrogen induced polarization is presented. Maximum achievable polarization enhancements were calculated by numerically simulating the experiment and compared to the experimental results and to the thermal equilibrium in the earth's magnetic field. Simultaneous 19F and 1H NMR detection on a sub-milliliter sample of a fluorinated alkyne at millimolar concentration (∼10(18) nuclear spins) was realized with just one single scan. A highly resolved spectrum with a signal/noise ratio higher than 50:1 was obtained without using an auxiliary magnet or any form of radio frequency shielding.

  5. Three-dimensional treatment planning for para-aortic node irradiation in patients with cervical cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Munzenrider, J.E.; Doppke, K.P.; Brown, A.P.; Burman, C.; Cheng, E.; Chu, J.; Chui, C.; Drzymala, R.E.; Goitein, M.; Manolis, J.M. )

    1991-05-15

    Three-dimensional treatment planning has been used by four cooperating centers to prepare and analyze multiple treatment plans on two cervix cancer patients. One patient had biopsy-proven and CT-demonstrable metastasis to the para-aortic nodes, while the other was at high risk for metastatic involvement of para-aortic nodes. Volume dose distributions were analyzed, and an attempt was made to define the role of 3-D treatment planning to the para-aortic region, where moderate to high doses (50-66 Gy) are required to sterilize microscopic and gross metastasis. Plans were prepared using the 3-D capabilities for tailoring fields to the target volumes, but using standard field arrangements (3-D standard), and with full utilization of the 3-D capabilities (3-D unconstrained). In some but not all 3-D unconstrained plans, higher doses were delivered to the large nodal volume and to the volume containing gross nodal disease than in plans analyzed but not prepared with full 3-D capability (3-D standard). The small bowel was the major dose limiting organ. Its tolerance would have been exceeded in all plans which prescribed 66 Gy to the gross nodal mass, although some reduction in small bowel near-maximum dose was achieved in the 3-D unconstrained plans. All plans were able to limit doses to other normal organs to tolerance levels or less, with significant reductions seen in doses to spinal cord, kidneys, and large bowel in the 3-D unconstrained plans, as compared to the 3-D standard plans. A high probability of small bowel injury was detected in one of four 3-D standard plans prescribed to receive 50 Gy to the large para-aortic nodal volume; the small bowel dose was reduced to an acceptable level in the corresponding 3-D unconstrained plan. An optimum beam energy for treating this site was not identified, with plans using 4, 6, 10, 15, 18, and 25 MV photons all being equally acceptable. (Abstract Truncated)

  6. Translation and adaptation of the Competencias Esenciales en Salud Pública para los recursos humanos en salud.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Maria de Lourdes de; Peres, Aida Maris; Ferreira, Maria Manuela Frederico; Mantovani, Maria de Fátima

    2017-06-05

    to perform the translation and cultural adaptation of the document named Marco Regional de Competencias Esenciales en Salud Pública para los Recursos Humanos en Salud de la Región de las Américas (Regional Framework of Core Competencies in Public Health for Health Human Resources in the Region of Americas) from Spanish to Brazilian Portuguese. a methodological study comprising the following phases: authorization for translation; initial translation; synthesis of translations and consensus; back-translation and formation of an expert committee. in the translation of domain names, there was no difference in 66.7% (N = 4); in the translation of domain description and competencies there were divergences in 100% of them (N = 6, N = 56). A consensus of more than 80% was obtained in the translation and improvement in the expert committee by the change of words and expressions for approximation of meanings to the Brazilian context. the translated and adapted document has the potential of application in research, and use in the practice of collective/public health care in Brazil. realizar a tradução e adaptação cultural do Marco Regional de Competencias Esenciales en Salud Pública para los Recursos Humanos en Salud de la Región de las Américas, do espanhol para a língua portuguesa do Brasil. pesquisa metodológica, que seguiu as fases: autorização para tradução; tradução inicial; síntese das traduções e consenso; retrotradução e composição de um comitê de especialistas. na tradução dos nomes dos domínios, não houve diferença em 66,7 % (N=4); na tradução da descrição dos domínios e das competências ocorreram divergências em 100 % destes (N=6, N=56), obteve-se consenso acima de 80% ainda na tradução, e aprimoramento no comitê de especialistas pela alteração de palavras e expressões para aproximar os significados ao contexto brasileiro. o documento traduzido e adaptado possui potencial de aplicação em pesquisas e utilização na pr

  7. Path integral molecular dynamics simulation of solid para-hydrogen with an aluminum impurity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirijanian, Dina T.; Alexander, Millard H.; Voth, Gregory A.

    2002-11-01

    The equilibrium properties of an aluminum impurity trapped in solid para-hydrogen have been studied. The results were compared to those of a previous study by Krumrine et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 113 (2000) 9079] with an atomic boron. In the presence of vacancy defect, when the orientation-dependent Al- pH 2 potential is used, the Al atom is displaced to a position half way between its original substituted site and the vacancy site. Thermodynamic results also indicate that the presence of a neighboring vacancy helps to stabilize the Al impurity to a far greater extent than in the case of the B impurity.

  8. Where does the electron go? The nature of ortho/para and meta group directing in electrophilic aromatic substitution

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Shubin

    2014-11-21

    Electrophilic aromatic substitution as one of the most fundamental chemical processes is affected by atoms or groups already attached to the aromatic ring. The groups that promote substitution at the ortho/para or meta positions are, respectively, called ortho/para and meta directing groups, which are often characterized by their capability to donate electrons to or withdraw electrons from the ring. Though resonance and inductive effects have been employed in textbooks to explain this phenomenon, no satisfactory quantitative interpretation is available in the literature. Here, based on the theoretical framework we recently established in density functional reactivity theory (DFRT), where electrophilicity and nucleophilicity are simultaneously quantified by the Hirshfeld charge, the nature of ortho/para and meta group directing is systematically investigated for a total of 85 systems. We find that regioselectivity of electrophilic attacks is determined by the Hirshfeld charge distribution on the aromatic ring. Ortho/para directing groups have most negative charges on the ortho/para positions, while meta directing groups often possess the largest negative charge on the meta position. Our results do not support that ortho/para directing groups are electron donors and meta directing groups are electron acceptors. Most neutral species we studied here are electron withdrawal in nature. Anionic systems are always electron donors. There are also electron donors serving as meta directing groups. We predicted ortho/para and meta group directing behaviors for a list of groups whose regioselectivity is previously unknown. In addition, strong linear correlations between the Hirshfeld charge and the highest occupied molecular orbital have been observed, providing the first link between the frontier molecular orbital theory and DFRT.

  9. Where does the electron go? The nature of ortho/para and meta group directing in electrophilic aromatic substitution.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shubin

    2014-11-21

    Electrophilic aromatic substitution as one of the most fundamental chemical processes is affected by atoms or groups already attached to the aromatic ring. The groups that promote substitution at the ortho/para or meta positions are, respectively, called ortho/para and meta directing groups, which are often characterized by their capability to donate electrons to or withdraw electrons from the ring. Though resonance and inductive effects have been employed in textbooks to explain this phenomenon, no satisfactory quantitative interpretation is available in the literature. Here, based on the theoretical framework we recently established in density functional reactivity theory (DFRT), where electrophilicity and nucleophilicity are simultaneously quantified by the Hirshfeld charge, the nature of ortho/para and meta group directing is systematically investigated for a total of 85 systems. We find that regioselectivity of electrophilic attacks is determined by the Hirshfeld charge distribution on the aromatic ring. Ortho/para directing groups have most negative charges on the ortho/para positions, while meta directing groups often possess the largest negative charge on the meta position. Our results do not support that ortho/para directing groups are electron donors and meta directing groups are electron acceptors. Most neutral species we studied here are electron withdrawal in nature. Anionic systems are always electron donors. There are also electron donors serving as meta directing groups. We predicted ortho/para and meta group directing behaviors for a list of groups whose regioselectivity is previously unknown. In addition, strong linear correlations between the Hirshfeld charge and the highest occupied molecular orbital have been observed, providing the first link between the frontier molecular orbital theory and DFRT.

  10. Modelizacion, control e implementacion de un procesador energetico paralelo para aplicacion en sistemas multisalida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreres Sabater, Agustin

    Cualquier sistema electronico que incluya un procesado o tratamiento de la senal, y ademas, algun tipo de actuador mecanico generalmente necesita, como minimo, dos tensiones diferentes de alimentacion. Excluyendo los sistemas de alimentacion distribuida, la solucion tecnica mas utilizada para proporcionar dos o mas tensiones consiste en las fuentes de alimentacion multisalida. En una fuente de alimentacion multisalida los diferentes circuitos que conforman cada salida comparten un mismo transformador de potencia optimizando coste, masa, y volumen. Las ventajas obtenidas con este procedimiento tienen en su contra el efecto que sobre cada salida individual provocan las demas en su conjunto debido, principalmente, a los efectos de los elementos parasitos de los componentes. Un cambio de carga en una de las salidas produce un transitorio que es visto por todas las demas como un efecto de impedancia cruzada, y al final del transitorio, la tension de cada salida es diferente respecto a la que tenian antes del transitorio. Este ultimo resultado se conoce como regulacion cruzada. La disminucion de los efectos de la regulacion cruzada ha sido objeto de estudio durante los ultimos anos. El objetivo ha sido el desarrollo de distintas estrategias que permiten, desde disminuir los efectos de la regulacion cruzada hasta los niveles deseables, a eliminarla completamente. El resultado final suele suponer una penalizacion sobre el diseno del sistema directamente proporcional al grado de regulacion a conseguir en las distintas salidas. Entre las soluciones propuestas para eliminar la regulacion cruzada las tecnicas de post-regulacion se han consolidado como la opcion mas aceptada ya que, pueden aplicarse a cualquier convertidor y no suponen ninguna complejidad adicional a la hora de plantear el diseno. En esta Tesis Doctoral se abordara el estudio de la tecnica conocida como postregulacion mediante transformador controlado, que si bien se ha empleado en convertidores resonantes, su

  11. Fire safety improvement of para-aramid fiber in thermoplastic polyurethane elastomer.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xilei; Wang, Wenduo; Li, Shaoxiang; Jiao, Chuanmei

    2017-02-15

    This article mainly studied fire safety effects of para-aramid fiber (AF) in thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU). The TPU/AF composites were prepared by molten blending method, and then the fire safety effects of all TPU composites were tested using cone calorimeter test (CCT), microscale combustion colorimeter test (MCC), smoke density test (SDT), and thermogravimetric/fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (TG-IR). The CCT test showed that AF could improve the fire safety of TPU. Remarkably, the peak value of heat release rate (pHRR) and the peak value of smoke production rate (pSPR) for the sample with 1.0wt% content of AF were decreased by 52.0% and 40.5% compared with pure TPU, respectively. The MCC test showed that the HRR value of AF-2 decreased by 27.6% compared with pure TPU. TG test showed that AF promoted the char formation in the degradation process of TPU; as a result the residual carbon was increased. The TG-IR test revealed that AF had increased the thermal stability of TPU at the beginning and reduced the release of CO2 with the decomposition going on. Through the analysis of the results of this experiment, it will make a great influence on the study of the para-aramid fiber in the aspect of fire safety of polymer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of para-fluorine substituent of polystyrene on gradient-index fiber-optic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koike, Kotaro; Suzuki, Akifumi; Makino, Kenji; Koike, Yasuhiro

    2015-01-01

    To study the effects of fluorine substituent of polystyrene (PSt) on gradient-index fiber-optic properties, a poly(para-fluorostyrene) (P(p-FSt))-based graded-index plastic optical fiber (GI POF) is fabricated, and its properties are compared with those of a PSt-based GI POF. The para-fluorine substitution positively affects the glass transition temperature (Tg) of the core, wavelength dispersion of the optimum refractive index profile, bandwidth, and attenuation. The core Tg of the P(p-FSt)-based GI POF is 88 °C, which is higher than that of the PSt-based GI POF by 9 °C when both fibers have an identical numerical aperture (NA = 0.2). The optimum refractive index profile coefficient for the P(p-FSt)-based GI POF varies from 2.2 to 2.1 in the 600-800 nm range, whereas that for the PSt-based GI POF varies from 2.6 to 2.3 in the same wavelength region. The bandwidth of the P(p-FSt)-based GI POF is intrinsically higher than that of PSt-based GI POF. Moreover, the fiber attenuation of the P(p-FSt)-based GI POF was significantly smaller than that of the PSt-based GI POF over the source wavelength range. Our study demonstrates that P(p-FSt) has favorable properties as a GI POF base material.

  13. Rotational relaxation of CS by collision with ortho- and para-H{sub 2} molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Denis-Alpizar, Otoniel; Stoecklin, Thierry Halvick, Philippe; Dubernet, Marie-Lise

    2013-11-28

    Quantum mechanical investigation of the rotationally inelastic collisions of CS with ortho- and para-H{sub 2} molecules is reported. The new global four-dimensional potential energy surface presented in our recent work is used. Close coupling scattering calculations are performed in the rigid rotor approximation for ortho- and para-H{sub 2} colliding with CS in the j = 0–15 rotational levels and for collision energies ranging from 10{sup −2} to 10{sup 3} cm{sup −1}. The cross sections and rate coefficients for selected rotational transitions of CS are compared with the ones previously reported for the collision of CS with He. The largest discrepancies are observed at low collision energy, below 1 cm{sup −1}. Above 10 cm{sup −1}, the approximation using the square root of the relative mass of the colliders to calculate the cross sections between a molecule and H{sub 2} from the data available with {sup 4}He is found to be a good qualitative approximation. The rate coefficients calculated with the electron gas model for the He-CS system show more discrepancy with our accurate results. However, scaling up these rates by a factor of 2 gives a qualitative agreement.

  14. Ortho-to-para ratio in interstellar water on the sightline toward Sagittarius B2(N).

    PubMed

    Lis, Dariusz C; Bergin, Edwin A; Schilke, Peter; van Dishoeck, Ewine F

    2013-10-03

    The determination of the water ortho-to-para ratio (OPR) is of great interest for studies of the formation and thermal history of water ices in the interstellar medium and protoplanetary disk environments. We present new Herschel observations of the fundamental rotational transitions of ortho- and para-water on the sightline toward Sagittarius B2(N), which allow improved estimates of the measurement uncertainties due to instrumental effects and assumptions about the excitation of water molecules. These new measurements, suggesting a spin temperature of 24-32 K, confirm the earlier findings of an OPR below the high-temperature value on the nearby sightline toward Sagittarius B2(M). The exact implications of the low OPR in the galactic center molecular gas remain unclear and will greatly benefit from future laboratory measurements involving water freeze-out and evaporation processes under low-temperature conditions, similar to those present in the galactic interstellar medium. Given the specific conditions in the central region of the Milky Way, akin to those encountered in active Galactic nuclei, gas-phase processes under the influence of strong X-ray and cosmic ray ionization also have to be carefully considered. We summarize some of the latest laboratory measurements and their implications here.

  15. Effects of acoustic feedback training in elite-standard Para-Rowing.

    PubMed

    Schaffert, Nina; Mattes, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Assessment and feedback devices have been regularly used in technique training in high-performance sports. Biomechanical analysis is mainly visually based and so can exclude athletes with visual impairments. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of auditory feedback on mean boat speed during on-water training of visually impaired athletes. The German National Para-Rowing team (six athletes, mean ± s, age 34.8 ± 10.6 years, body mass 76.5 ± 13.5 kg, stature 179.3 ± 8.6 cm) participated in the study. Kinematics included boat acceleration and distance travelled, collected with Sofirow at two intensities of training. The boat acceleration-time traces were converted online into acoustic feedback and presented via speakers during rowing (sections with and without alternately). Repeated-measures within-participant factorial ANOVA showed greater boat speed with acoustic feedback than baseline (0.08 ± 0.01 m·s(-1)). The time structure of rowing cycles was improved (extended time of positive acceleration). Questioning of athletes showed acoustic feedback to be a supportive training aid as it provided important functional information about the boat motion independent of vision. It gave access for visually impaired athletes to biomechanical analysis via auditory information. The concept for adaptive athletes has been successfully integrated into the preparation for the Para-Rowing World Championships and Paralympics.

  16. The rennet-induced clotting of para-kappa-casein revisited: inhibition experiments with pepstatin A.

    PubMed

    Brinkhuis, J; Payens, T A

    1985-12-20

    The proteolysis of micellar kappa-casein by rennet was followed by SDS-polyacrylamide gel-electrophoresis and the clotting of the para-kappa-casein formed by absorbance measurements. Up to a degree of proteolysis of about 0.4 the enzyme-inhibitor pepstatin A proved able to instantaneously stop the clotting. This effect is explained by the rapid condensation of monofunctional, monomeric and polymeric particles of para-kappa-casein. At higher degrees of proteolysis pepstatin was no longer able to completely block the polymerization. This is explained by the retardation of the condensation of the monofunctionals as their size grows larger. A kinetic analysis of the enzyme-controlled stage of the clotting process predicts that the system should gel at an early degree of proteolysis of about 0.07. The actual gel points occur at considerably higher degrees of proteolysis. This suggests that the enzymic attack of the polymeric inert kappa-casein particles is not completely at random. Primary micelles of kappa-casein, however, are degraded by random attack rather than by a 'catch-and-razor' mechanism.

  17. [Study on the molecular genetics basis for one para-Bombay phenotype].

    PubMed

    Hong, Xiao-Zhen; Shao, Xiao-Chun; Xu, Xian-Guo; Hu, Qing-Fa; Wu, Jun-Jie; Zhu, Fa-Ming; Fu, Qi-Hua; Yan, Li-Xing

    2005-12-01

    To investigate the molecular genetics basis for one para-Bombay phenotype, the red blood cell phenotype of the proband was characterized by standard serological techniques. Exon 6 and 7 of ABO gene, the entire coding region of FUT1 gene and FUT2 gene were amplified by polymerase chain reaction from genomic DNA of the proband respectively. The PCR products were purified by agarose gels and directly sequenced. The PCR-SSP and genescan were performed to confirm the mutations detected by sequencing. The results showed that the proband ABO genotype was A(102)A(102). Two heterozygous mutations of FUT1 gene, an A to G transition at position 682 and AG deletion at position 547-552 were detected in the proband. A682G could cause transition of Met-->Val at amino acid position 228, AG deletion at position 547-552 caused a reading frame shift and a premature stop codon. The FUT2 genotype was heterozygous for a functional allele Se(357) and a weakly functional allele Se(357), 385 (T/T homozygous at position 357 and A/T heterozygous at 385 position). It is concluded that the compound heterozygous mutation--a novel A682G missense mutation and a 547-552 del AG is the molecular mechanism of this para-Bombay phenotype.

  18. Theoretical study of the preferential solvation effect on the solvatochromic shifts of para-nitroaniline.

    PubMed

    Frutos-Puerto, Samuel; Aguilar, Manuel A; Fdez Galván, Ignacio

    2013-02-28

    The origin of the nonlinear solvatochromic shift of para-nitroaniline was investigated using a mean-field sequential QM/MM method, with electron transitions computed at the CASPT2/cc-pVDZ level. Experimental data shows that the solvatochromic shift has a strong nonlinear behavior in certain solvent mixtures. We studied the case of cyclohexane-triethylamine mixtures. The results are in good agreement with the experiments and correctly reproduce the nonlinear variation of the solvent shift. Preferential solvation is clearly observed, where the local solvent composition in the neighborhood of the solute is significantly different from the bulk. It is found that even at low triethylamine concentrations a strong hydrogen bond is formed between para-nitroaniline and triethylamine, and cyclohexane is practically absent from the first solvation layer already at a molar fraction of 0.6 in triethylamine. The hydrogen bond formed is sufficiently long-lived to determine an asymmetric environment around the solute molecule. The resulting nonlinear solvent effect is mainly due to this hydrogen bond influence, although there is also a small contribution from dielectric enrichment.

  19. Ortho-to-Para Ratio in Interstellar Water on the Sightline toward Sagittarius B2(N)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lis, Dariusz C.; Bergin, Edwin A.; Schilke, Peter; van Dishoeck, Ewine F.

    2013-10-01

    The determination of the water ortho-to-para ratio (OPR) is of great interest for studies of the formation and thermal history of water ices in the interstellar medium and protoplanetary disk environments. We present new Herschel observations of the fundamental rotational transitions of ortho- and para-water on the sightline toward Sagittarius B2(N), which allow improved estimates of the measurement uncertainties due to instrumental effects and assumptions about the excitation of water molecules. These new measurements, suggesting a spin temperature of 24-32 K, confirm the earlier findings of an OPR below the high-temperature value on the nearby sightline toward Sagittarius B2(M). The exact implications of the low OPR in the galactic center molecular gas remain unclear and will greatly benefit from future laboratory measurements involving water freeze-out and evaporation processes under low-temperature conditions, similar to those present in the galactic interstellar medium. Given the specific conditions in the central region of the Milky Way, akin to those encountered in active Galactic nuclei, gas-phase processes under the influence of strong X-ray and cosmic ray ionization also have to be carefully considered. We summarize some of the latest laboratory measurements and their implications here.

  20. The rapid manual ParaSight-F test. A new diagnostic tool for Plasmodium falciparum infection.

    PubMed

    Shiff, C J; Premji, Z; Minjas, J N

    1993-01-01

    A rapid manual test for Plasmodium falciparum, the ParaSight-F test, has been used on a series of patients in a holoendemic malaria area of coastal Tanzania. The test, which is an antigen capture test detecting trophozoite-derived histidine rich protein-II, is simple to perform and provides a definitive answer in about 10 min. It requires no special equipment and is read using a single drop of blood. When compared with 272 thick blood films examined microscopically by 2 observers and confirmed by the QBC malaria test, the ParaSight-F test had 88.9% sensitivity and 87.5% specificity. Detectable antigenaemia in a group of 40 people declined following treatment with Fansidar and by 10 d after treatment all but 4 individuals were antigen free. The remaining 4, although clear of peripheral parasitaemia, remained antigenaemic for 14 d. The test shows great promise for rapid effective diagnosis of P. falciparum in clinics and village health centres where there is no facility for microscopy. Because of its accuracy and rapid action it may even obviate the need for microscopical examination of blood films to diagnose P. falciparum malaria.

  1. Para-position derivatives of fungal anthelmintic cyclodepsipeptides engineered with Streptomyces venezuelae antibiotic biosynthetic genes.

    PubMed

    Yanai, Koji; Sumida, Naomi; Okakura, Kaoru; Moriya, Tatsuki; Watanabe, Manabu; Murakami, Takeshi

    2004-07-01

    PF1022A, a cyclooctadepsipeptide possessing strong anthelmintic properties and produced by the filamentous fungus Rosellinia sp. PF1022, consists of four alternating residues of N-methyl-L-leucine and four residues of D-lactate or D-phenyllactate. PF1022A derivatives obtained through modification of their benzene ring at the para-position with nitro or amino groups act as valuable starting materials for the synthesis of compounds with improved anthelmintic activities. Here we describe the production of such derivatives by fermentation through metabolic engineering of the PF1022A biosynthetic pathway in Rosellinia sp. PF1022. Three genes cloned from Streptomyces venezuelae, and required for the biosynthesis of p-aminophenylpyruvate from chorismate in the chloramphenicol biosynthetic pathway, were expressed in a chorismate mutase-deficient strain derived from Rosellinia sp. PF1022. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and NMR analyses confirmed that this approach facilitated the production of PF1022A derivatives specifically modified at the para-position. This fermentation method is environmentally safe and can be used for the industrial scale production of PF1022A derivatives.

  2. Asymmetric Top Rotors in Superfluid Para-Hydrogen Nano-Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Tao; Li, Hui; Roy, Pierre-Nicholas

    2012-06-01

    We present the first simulation study of bosonic clusters doped with an asymmetric top molecule. A variation of the path-integral Monte Carlo method is developed to study a para-water (pH_2O) impurity in para-hydrogen (pH_2) clusters. The growth pattern of the doped clusters is similar in nature to that of the pure clusters. The pH_2O molecule appears to rotate freely in the cluster due to its large rotational constants and the lack of adiabatic following. The presence of pH_2O substantially quenches the superfluid response of pH_2 with respect to the space fixed frame. We also study the behaviour of a sulphur dioxide (32S16O_2) dopant in the pH_2 clusters. For such a heavy rotor, the adiabatic following of the pH_2 molecules is established and the superfluid renormalization of the rotational constants is observed. The rotational structure of the SO_2-p(H_2)_N clusters' ro-vibrational spectra is predicted. The connection between the superfluid response respect to the external boundary rotation and the dopant rotation is discussed.

  3. Comparing the Well-Being of Para and Olympic Sport Athletes: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Macdougall, Hannah; O'Halloran, Paul; Shields, Nora; Sherry, Emma

    2015-07-01

    This systematic review included 12 studies that compared the well-being of Para and Olympic sport athletes. Meta-analyses revealed that Para athletes, compared with Olympic sport athletes, had lower levels of self-acceptance, indicated by athletic identity, d = 0.47, 95% confidence interval (CI) [0.77, 0.16], and body-image perceptions, d = 0.33, 95% CI [0.59, 0.07], and differed from Olympic sport athletes in terms of their motivation, indicated by a greater mastery-oriented climate, d = 0.74, 95% CI [0.46, 1.03]. Given an inability to pool the remaining data for meta-analysis, individual standardized mean differences were calculated for other dimensions of psychological and subjective well-being. The results have implications for professionals and coaches aiming to facilitate the well-being needs of athletes under their care. Future research would benefit from incorporating established models of well-being based on theoretical rationale combined with rigorous study designs.

  4. WormBase ParaSite - a comprehensive resource for helminth genomics.

    PubMed

    Howe, Kevin L; Bolt, Bruce J; Shafie, Myriam; Kersey, Paul; Berriman, Matthew

    2016-11-27

    The number of publicly available parasitic worm genome sequences has increased dramatically in the past three years, and research interest in helminth functional genomics is now quickly gathering pace in response to the foundation that has been laid by these collective efforts. A systematic approach to the organisation, curation, analysis and presentation of these data is clearly vital for maximising the utility of these data to researchers. We have developed a portal called WormBase ParaSite (http://parasite.wormbase.org) for interrogating helminth genomes on a large scale. Data from over 100 nematode and platyhelminth species are integrated, adding value by way of systematic and consistent functional annotation (e.g. protein domains and Gene Ontology terms), gene expression analysis (e.g. alignment of life-stage specific transcriptome data sets), and comparative analysis (e.g. orthologues and paralogues). We provide several ways of exploring the data, including genome browsers, genome and gene summary pages, text search, sequence search, a query wizard, bulk downloads, and programmatic interfaces. In this review, we provide an overview of the back-end infrastructure and analysis behind WormBase ParaSite, and the displays and tools available to users for interrogating helminth genomic data.

  5. In-Situ Visualization Experiments with ParaView Cinema in RAGE

    SciTech Connect

    Kares, Robert John

    2015-10-15

    A previous paper described some numerical experiments performed using the ParaView/Catalyst in-situ visualization infrastructure deployed in the Los Alamos RAGE radiation-hydrodynamics code to produce images from a running large scale 3D ICF simulation. One challenge of the in-situ approach apparent in these experiments was the difficulty of choosing parameters likes isosurface values for the visualizations to be produced from the running simulation without the benefit of prior knowledge of the simulation results and the resultant cost of recomputing in-situ generated images when parameters are chosen suboptimally. A proposed method of addressing this difficulty is to simply render multiple images at runtime with a range of possible parameter values to produce a large database of images and to provide the user with a tool for managing the resulting database of imagery. Recently, ParaView/Catalyst has been extended to include such a capability via the so-called Cinema framework. Here I describe some initial experiments with the first delivery of Cinema and make some recommendations for future extensions of Cinema’s capabilities.

  6. Semantics-based distributed I/O with the ParaMEDIC framework.

    SciTech Connect

    Balaji, P.; Feng, W.; Lin, H.; Mathematics and Computer Science; Virginia Tech; North Carolina State Univ.

    2008-01-01

    Many large-scale applications simultaneously rely on multiple resources for efficient execution. For example, such applications may require both large compute and storage resources; however, very few supercomputing centers can provide large quantities of both. Thus, data generated at the compute site oftentimes has to be moved to a remote storage site for either storage or visualization and analysis. Clearly, this is not an efficient model, especially when the two sites are distributed over a wide-area network. Thus, we present a framework called 'ParaMEDIC: Parallel Metadata Environment for Distributed I/O and Computing' which uses application-specific semantic information to convert the generated data to orders-of-magnitude smaller metadata at the compute site, transfer the metadata to the storage site, and re-process the metadata at the storage site to regenerate the output. Specifically, ParaMEDIC trades a small amount of additional computation (in the form of data post-processing) for a potentially significant reduction in data that needs to be transferred in distributed environments.

  7. Herschel/SPIRE observations of water production rates and ortho-to-para ratios in comets★

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Thomas G.; Rawlings, Jonathan M. C.; Swinyard, Bruce M.

    2017-04-01

    This paper presents Herschel/SPIRE (Spectral and Photometric Imaging Receiver) spectroscopic observations of several fundamental rotational ortho- and para-water transitions seen in three Jupiter-family comets and one Oort-cloud comet. Radiative transfer models that include excitation by collisions with neutrals and electrons, and by solar infrared radiation, were used to produce synthetic emission line profiles originating in the cometary coma. Ortho-to-para ratios (OPRs) were determined and used to derived water production rates for all comets. Comparisons are made with the water production rates derived using an OPR of 3. The OPR of three of the comets in this study is much lower than the statistical equilibrium value of 3; however they agree with observations of comets 1P/Halley and C/2001 A2 (LINEAR), and the protoplanetary disc TW Hydrae. These results provide evidence suggesting that OPR variation is caused by post-sublimation gas-phase nuclear-spin conversion processes. The water production rates of all comets agree with previous work and, in general, decrease with increasing nucleocentric offset. This could be due to a temperature profile, additional water source or OPR variation in the comae, or model inaccuracies.

  8. Genetic evidence that the degradation of para-cresol by Geobacter metallireducens is catalyzed by the periplasmic para-cresol methylhydroxylase.

    PubMed

    Chaurasia, Akhilesh Kumar; Tremblay, Pier-Luc; Holmes, Dawn E; Zhang, Tian

    2015-10-01

    Two pathways for para-cresol (p-cresol) degradation by anaerobic bacteria have been elucidated; one involves fumarate addition at the methyl group of p-cresol by a hydroxylbenzylsuccinate synthase protein while the other utilizes a methylhydroxylase protein (PCMH) to catalyze hydroxylation of the methyl group of p-cresol. In Geobacter metallireducens, in vitro enzymatic assays showed that p-cresol is degraded via the methylhydroxylation pathway. However, prior to this study these results had not been confirmed by genetic analyses. In this work, the gene coding for benzylsuccinate-CoA dehydrogenase (bbsG), an enzyme required for toluene degradation by G. metallireducens that is homologous to the p-hydroxybenzylsuccinyl-CoA dehydrogenase involved in p-cresol degradation by Desulfobacula toluolica Tol2 via fumarate addition, and the gene encoding the alpha prime subunit of PCMH (pcmI), were deleted to investigate the possibility of co-existing p-cresol degradation pathways in G. metallireducens. The absence of a functional PcmI protein completely inhibited p-cresol degradation, while deletion of the bbsG gene had little impact. These results further support the observation that G. metallireducens utilizes a PCMH-initiated pathway for p-cresol degradation.

  9. Association of plasma ortho-tyrosine/para-tyrosine ratio with responsiveness of erythropoiesis-stimulating agent in dialyzed patients.

    PubMed

    Kun, Szilárd; Mikolás, Esztella; Molnár, Gergo A; Sélley, Eszter; Laczy, Boglárka; Csiky, Botond; Kovács, Tibor; Wittmann, István

    2014-09-01

    Objectives Patients with end-stage renal failure (ESRF) treated with erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) are often ESA-hyporesponsive associated with free radical production. Hydroxyl free radical converts phenylalanine into ortho-tyrosine, while physiological isomer para-tyrosine is formed enzymatically, mainly in the kidney. Production of 'para-tyrosine' is decreased in ESRF and it can be replaced by ortho-tyrosine in proteins. Our aim was to study the role of tyrosines in ESA-responsiveness. Methods Four groups of volunteers were involved in our cross-sectional study: healthy volunteers (CONTR; n = 16), patients on hemodialysis without ESA-treatment (non-ESA-HD; n = 8), hemodialyzed patients with ESA-treatment (ESA-HD; n = 40), and patients on continuous peritoneal dialysis (CAPD; n = 21). Plasma ortho-, para-tyrosine, and phenylalanine levels were detected using a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-method. ESA-demand was expressed by ESA-dose, ESA-dose/body weight, and erythropoietin resistance index1 (ERI1, weekly ESA-dose/body weight/hemoglobin). Results We found significantly lower para-tyrosine levels in all groups of dialyzed patients when compared with control subjects, while in contrast ortho-tyrosine levels and ortho-tyrosine/para-tyrosine ratio were comparatively significantly higher in dialyzed patients. Among groups of dialyzed patients the ortho-tyrosine level and ortho-tyrosine/para-tyrosine ratio were significantly higher in ESA-HD than in the non-ESA-HD and CAPD groups. There was a correlation between weekly ESA-dose/body weight, ERI1, and ortho-tyrosine/para-tyrosine ratio (r = 0.441, P = 0.001; r = 0.434, P = 0.001, respectively). Our most important finding was that the ortho-tyrosine/para-tyrosine ratio proved to be an independent predictor of ERI1 (β = 0.330, P = 0.016). In these multivariate regression models most of the known predictors of ESA-hyporesponsiveness were included. Discussion Our findings may

  10. Um enfoque antropológico para o ensino de astronomia no nível médio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, G. B.; Jafelice, L. C.

    2003-08-01

    Há uma enorme carência de materiais didático-pedagógicos em astronomia para professores do ensino médio, sobretudo materiais que explorem também aspectos humanísticos. A origem do Universo é um bom exemplo desta constatação central. Embora tal origem teve explicações culturais diversas, os professores não têm informações sobre isso e muito menos material que trabalhe diferentes visões de mundo e treinamento que os capacite a abordá-las devidamente. Conseqüentemente o ensino de astronomia costuma ser tecnicista e dissociado do aspecto humano que alimenta o grande interesse e curiosidade que esses temas despertam. Aqui apresentamos propostas visando contribuir para reverter esse quadro e trabalhamos distintas visões de Universo: espontâneas, autóctones e científicas. Desenvolvemos práticas, materiais instrucionais e textos para viabilizar a adoção de um enfoque antropológico para o ensino de astronomia no nível médio, no qual as culturas humanística e científica sejam integradas de uma maneira contextualizada e eficaz para aquele ensino. Estas propostas foram aplicadas em um curso de treinamento para professores da rede pública de diferentes disciplinas. A receptividade dos professores à abordagem proposta e os resultados alcançados foram muito estimulantes. Destes, destacamos: produção de roteiros de atividades; desenvolvimento de práticas didático-pedagógicas específicas (e.g., encenação de mitos; dança primordial guarani; "criação" de constelações e interpretações pluriculturais; etc.); e sugestões concretas para a efetiva realização de um ensino interdisciplinar contextualizado, onde questões cosmogônicas servem de mote para iniciar tal ensino. Discutimos estes resultados e como o enfoque adotado pode instrumentalizar os professores para leituras de mundo que incluem naturalmente aspectos culturais, sociais e históricos associados aos temas estudados. (PPGECNM/UFRN; PRONEX/FINEP; NUPA/USP; Temáticos/FAPESP)

  11. Ordered expression pattern of Hox and ParaHox genes along the alimentary canal in the ascidian juvenile.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Satoshi; Satou, Kunihiro; Orito, Wataru; Ogasawara, Michio

    2016-07-01

    The Hox and ParaHox genes of bilateria share a similar expression pattern along the body axis and are known to be associated with anterior-posterior patterning. In vertebrates, the Hox genes are also expressed in presomitic mesoderm and gut endoderm and the ParaHox genes show a restricted expression pattern in the gut-related derivatives. Regional expression patterns in the embryonic central nervous system of the basal chordates amphioxus and ascidian have been reported; however, little is known about their endodermal expression in the alimentary canal. We focus on the Hox and ParaHox genes in the ascidian Ciona intestinalis and investigate the gene expression patterns in the juvenile, which shows morphological regionality in the alimentary canal. Gene expression analyses by using whole-mount in situ hybridization reveal that all Hox genes have a regional expression pattern along the alimentary canal. Expression of Hox1 to Hox4 is restricted to the posterior region of pharyngeal derivatives. Hox5 to Hox13 show an ordered expression pattern correlated with each Hox gene number along the postpharyngeal digestive tract. This expression pattern along the anterior-posterior axis has also been observed in Ciona ParaHox genes. Our observations suggest that ascidian Hox and ParaHox clusters are dispersed; however, the ordered expression patterns along the alimentary canal appear to be conserved among chordates.

  12. Comparing para-rowing set-ups on an ergometer using kinematic movement patterns of able-bodied rowers.

    PubMed

    Cutler, B; Eger, T; Merritt, T; Godwin, A

    2017-04-01

    While numerous studies have investigated the biomechanics of able-bodied rowing, few studies have been completed with para-rowing set-ups. The purpose of this research was to provide benchmark data for handle kinetics and joint kinematics for able-bodied athletes rowing in para- rowing set-ups on an indoor ergometer. Able-bodied varsity rowers performed maximal trials in three para-rowing set-ups; Legs, Trunk and Arms (LTA), Trunk and Arms (TA) and Arms and Shoulders (AS) rowing. The handle force kinetics of the LTA stroke were comparable to the values for able-bodied literature. Lumbar flexion at the catch, extension at the finish and total range of motion were, however, greater than values in the literature for able-bodied athletes in the LTA set-up. Additionally, rowers in TA and AS set-ups utilised more extreme ranges of motion for lumbar flexion, elbow flexion and shoulder abduction than the LTA set-up. This study provides the first biomechanical values of the para-rowing strokes for researchers, coaches and athletes to use while promoting the safest training programmes possible for para-rowing.

  13. Determination of the ortho to para ratio of H2Cl+ and H2O+ from submillimeter observations.

    PubMed

    Gerin, Maryvonne; de Luca, Massimo; Lis, Dariusz C; Kramer, Carsten; Navarro, Santiago; Neufeld, David; Indriolo, Nick; Godard, Benjamin; Le Petit, Franck; Peng, Ruisheng; Phillips, Thomas G; Roueff, Evelyne

    2013-10-03

    The opening of the submillimeter sky with the Herschel Space Observatory has led to the detection of new interstellar molecular ions, H2O(+), H2Cl(+), and HCl(+), which are important intermediates in the synthesis of water vapor and hydrogen chloride. In this paper, we report new observations of H2O(+) and H2Cl(+) performed with both Herschel and ground-based telescopes, to determine the abundances of their ortho and para forms separately and derive the ortho-to-para ratio. At the achieved signal-to-noise ratio, the observations are consistent with an ortho-to-para ratios of 3 for both H2O(+) and H2Cl(+), in all velocity components detected along the lines-of-sight to the massive star-forming regions W31C and W49N. We discuss the mechanisms that contribute to establishing the observed ortho-to-para ratio and point to the need for a better understanding of chemical reactions, which are important for establishing the H2O(+) and H2Cl(+) ortho-to-para ratios.

  14. Instrumentation for Astronomy Teaching: Projecting the Sun Image. (Spanish Title: Instrumentación Para la Enseñanza de Astronomía: Proyectando la Imagen del Sol.) Instrumentação Para O Ensino de Astronomia: Projetando a Imagem do Sol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catelli, Francisco; Giovan, Odilon; Balen, Osvaldo; Siqueira da Silva, Fernando

    2009-07-01

    In this work we describe a simple optical device to project the Sun image which is useful for solar eclipses observing and for sunspots' size estimating.

    Se describe un dispositivo óptico simple para proyectar la imagen del Sol, lo cual es apropiado para las observaciones de eclipses solares y para estimar las dimensiones de las manchas solares.

    É descrito um dispositivo ótico simples para projetar a imagem do Sol, adequado para observações de eclipses solares e à estimativa do tamanho das manchas solares.

  15. Amine vs. carboxylic acid protonation in ortho-, meta-, and para-aminobenzoic acid: An IRMPD spectroscopy study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cismesia, Adam P.; Nicholls, Georgina R.; Polfer, Nicolas C.

    2017-02-01

    Infrared multiple photon dissociation (IRMPD) spectroscopy and computational chemistry are applied to the ortho-, meta-, and para- positional isomers of aminobenzoic acid to investigate whether the amine or the carboxylic acid are the favored sites of proton attachment in the gas phase. The NH and OH stretching modes yield distinct patterns that establish the carboxylic acid as the site of protonation in para-aminobenzoic acid, as opposed to the amine group in ortho- and meta-aminobenzoic acid, in agreement with computed thermochemistries. The trends for para- and meta-substitutions can be rationalized simplistically by inductive effects and resonant stabilization, and will be discussed in light of computed charge distributions based from electrostatic potentials. In ortho-aminobenzoic acid, the close proximity of the amine and acid groups allow a simultaneous interaction of the proton with both groups, thus stabilizing and delocalizing the charge more effectively, and compensating for some of the resonance stabilization effects.

  16. Molecular hydrogen in the vicinity of NGC 7538 IRS 1 and IRS 2 - Temperature and ortho-to-para ratio

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoban, Susan; Reuter, Dennis C.; Mumma, Michael J.; Storrs, Alex D.

    1991-01-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopic observations of the active star-forming region near NGC 7538 IRS 1 and IRS 2 were made. The relative intensities of the v = 1-0 Q(1), Q(3), and Q(5) lines of molecular hydrogen are used to calculate a rotational excitation temperature. Comparison of the measured intensity of the Q(2) transition relative to the intensity of Q(1) and Q(3) permitted the retrieval of the ratio of ortho-to-para hydrogen. It is found that an ortho-to-para ratio of between 1.6 and 2.35 is needed to explain the Q-branch line intensity ratios, depending on the excitation model used. This range in ortho-to-para ratios implies a range of molecular hydrogen formation temperature of approximately 105 K to 140 K.

  17. A Case of Advanced Gastric Cancer with Para-Aortic Lymph Node Metastasis from Co-Occurring Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Park, Miyeong; Lee, Young-Joon; Park, Ji-Ho; Choi, Sang-Kyung; Hong, Soon-Chan; Jung, Eun-Jung; Ju, Young-tae; Jeong, Chi-Young; Lee, Jeong-Hee; Ha, Woo-Song

    2017-01-01

    An 84-year-old man was diagnosed with two synchronous adenocarcinomas, a Borrmann type IV advanced gastric adenocarcinoma in his antrum and a well-differentiated Borrmann type I carcinoma on the anterior wall of the higher body of his stomach. Pre-operatively, computed tomography of the abdomen revealed the presence of advanced gastric cancer with peri-gastric and para-aortic lymph node (LN) metastasis. He planned for palliative total gastrectomy owing to the risk of obstruction by the antral lesion. We performed a frozen biopsy of a para-aortic LN during surgery and found that the origin of the para-aortic LN metastasis was from undiagnosed prostate cancer. Thus, we performed radical total gastrectomy and D2 LN dissection. Post-operatively, his total prostate-specific antigen levels were high (227 ng/mL) and he was discharged 8 days after surgery without any complications. PMID:28337367

  18. Para-axillary subcutaneous endoscopic approach in torticollis: tips and tricks in the surgical technique.

    PubMed

    Tokar, Baran; Karacay, Safak; Arda, Surhan; Alici, Umut

    2015-04-01

    An obvious scar on the neck may appear following the open surgery for congenital muscular torticollis (CMT). The cosmetic result may displease the patient and the family. In this study, we describe a minimally invasive technique, para-axillary subcutaneous endoscopic approach (PASEA) in CMT. A total of 11 children (seven girls and four boys with the age range between 1 and 15 years) were operated for torticollis by PASEA. All patients had facial asymmetry and head and neck postural abnormality. Following an incision at the ipsilateral para-axillary region, a subcutaneous cavernous working space is formed toward sternocleidomastoid (SCM) muscle. The muscle and fascia are cut by cautery under endoscopic vision. The patients had postoperative 2nd-week and 3rd-month visits. The incision scar, inspection, and palpation findings of the region, head posture, and shoulder position of the affected side were considered in evaluation of the cosmetic outcome. Preoperative and postoperative range of motion of the head and neck were compared for functional outcome. We preferred single incision surgery in our last two patients; the rest had double para-axillary incision for port insertion. Incomplete transection of the muscle was not observed. There was no serious complication. Postoperatively, head posture and shoulder elevation were corrected significantly. Range of motion of the head was improved. Postoperatively, all the patients had rotation capacity with more than 30 degrees. The range of postoperative flexion and extension movements was between 45 and 60 degrees. The open surgery techniques of CMT causes visible lifelong incision scar on the neck. PASEA leaves a cosmetically hidden scar in the axillary region. A single incision surgery is also possible. A well-formed cavernous working space is needed. External manual palpation, delicate dissection, and cutting of SCM muscle with cautery are the important components of the procedure. Surgeons having experience in pediatric

  19. Metabolism of Doubly para-Substituted Hydroxychlorobiphenyls by Bacterial Biphenyl Dioxygenases

    PubMed Central

    Pham, Thi Thanh My; Sondossi, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we examined the profile of metabolites produced from the doubly para-substituted biphenyl analogs 4,4′-dihydroxybiphenyl, 4-hydroxy-4′-chlorobiphenyl, 3-hydroxy-4,4′-dichlorobiphenyl, and 3,3′-dihydroxy-4,4′-chlorobiphenyl by biphenyl-induced Pandoraea pnomenusa B356 and by its biphenyl dioxygenase (BPDO). 4-Hydroxy-4′-chlorobiphenyl was hydroxylated principally through a 2,3-dioxygenation of the hydroxylated ring to generate 2,3-dihydro-2,3,4-trihydroxy-4′-chlorobiphenyl and 3,4-dihydroxy-4′-chlorobiphenyl after the removal of water. The former was further oxidized by the biphenyl dioxygenase to produce ultimately 3,4,5-trihydroxy-4′-chlorobiphenyl, a dead-end metabolite. 3-Hydroxy-4,4′-dichlorobiphenyl was oxygenated on both rings. Hydroxylation of the nonhydroxylated ring generated 2,3,3′-trihydroxy-4′-chlorobiphenyl with concomitant dechlorination, and 2,3,3′-trihydroxy-4′-chlorobiphenyl was ultimately metabolized to 2-hydroxy-4-chlorobenzoate, but hydroxylation of the hydroxylated ring generated dead-end metabolites. 3,3′-Dihydroxy-4,4′-dichlorobiphenyl was principally metabolized through a 2,3-dioxygenation to generate 2,3-dihydro-2,3,3′-trihydroxy-4,4′-dichlorobiphenyl, which was ultimately converted to 3-hydroxy-4-chlorobenzoate. Similar metabolites were produced when the biphenyl dioxygenase of Burkholderia xenovorans LB400 was used to catalyze the reactions, except that for the three substrates used, the BPDO of LB400 was less efficient than that of B356, and unlike that of B356, it was unable to further oxidize the initial reaction products. Together the data show that BPDO oxidation of doubly para-substituted hydroxychlorobiphenyls may generate nonnegligible amounts of dead-end metabolites. Therefore, biphenyl dioxygenase could produce metabolites other than those expected, corresponding to dihydrodihydroxy metabolites from initial doubly para-substituted substrates. This finding shows that a clear

  20. Evolution of Antp-class genes and differential expression of Hydra Hox/paraHox genes in anterior patterning

    PubMed Central

    Gauchat, Dominique; Mazet, Françoise; Berney, Cédric; Schummer, Michèl; Kreger, Sylvia; Pawlowski, Jan; Galliot, Brigitte

    2000-01-01

    The conservation of developmental functions exerted by Antp-class homeoproteins in protostomes and deuterostomes suggested that homologs with related functions are present in diploblastic animals. Our phylogenetic analyses showed that Antp-class homeodomains belong either to non-Hox or to Hox/paraHox families. Among the 13 non-Hox families, 9 have diploblastic homologs, Msx, Emx, Barx, Evx, Tlx, NK-2, and Prh/Hex, Not, and Dlx, reported here. Among the Hox/paraHox, poriferan sequences were not found, and the cnidarian sequences formed at least five distinct cnox families. Two are significantly related to the paraHox Gsx (cnox-2) and the mox (cnox-5) sequences, whereas three display some relatedness to the Hox paralog groups 1 (cnox-1), 9/10 (cnox-3) and the paraHox cdx (cnox-4). Intermediate Hox/paraHox genes (PG 3 to 8 and lox) did not have clear cnidarian counterparts. In Hydra, cnox-1, cnox-2, and cnox-3 were not found chromosomally linked within a 150-kb range and displayed specific expression patterns in the adult head. During regeneration, cnox-1 was expressed as an early gene whatever the polarity, whereas cnox-2 was up-regulated later during head but not foot regeneration. Finally, cnox-3 expression was reestablished in the adult head once it was fully formed. These results suggest that the Hydra genes related to anterior Hox/paraHox genes are involved at different stages of apical differentiation. However, the positional information defining the oral/aboral axis in Hydra cannot be correlated strictly to that characterizing the anterior–posterior axis in vertebrates or arthropods. PMID:10781050

  1. Hole Transfer Processes in meta- and para-Conjugated Mixed Valence Compounds: Unforeseen effects of bridge substituents and solvent dynamics.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, Julian; Holzapfel, Marco; Mladenova, Boryana; Kattnig, Daniel; Krummenacher, Ivo; Braunschweig, Holger; Grampp, Günter; Lambert, Christoph

    2017-04-12

    To address the question whether donor substituents can be utilized to accelerate the hole transfer (HT) between redox sites attached in para- or in meta-positions to a central benzene bridge we investigated three series of mixed valence compounds based on triarylamine redox centers that are connected to a benzene bridge via alkyne spacers at para- and meta-positions. The electron density at the bridge was tuned by substituents with different electron donating or accepting character. By analyzing optical spectra and by DFT computations we show that the HT properties are independent of bridge substituents for one of the meta-series, while donor substituents can strongly decrease the intrinsic barrier in the case of the para-series. In stark contrast, temperature-dependent ESR measurements demonstrate a dramatic increase of both the apparent barrier and the rate of HT for strong donor substituents in the para-cases. This is caused by an unprecedented substituent-dependent change of the HT mechanism from that described by transition state theory to a regime controlled by solvent dynamics. For solvents with slow longitudinal relaxation (PhNO2, oDCB), this adds an additional contribution to the intrinsic barrier via the dielectric relaxation process. Attaching the donor substituents to the bridge at positions where the molecular orbital coefficients are large accelerates the HT rate for meta-conjugated compounds just as for the para-series. This effect demonstrates that the para-meta paradigm no longer holds if appropriate substituents and substitution patterns are chosen, thereby considerably broadening the applicability of meta-topologies for optoelectronic applications.

  2. ParaHaplo: A program package for haplotype-based whole-genome association study using parallel computing.

    PubMed

    Misawa, Kazuharu; Kamatani, Naoyuki

    2009-10-21

    Since more than a million single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are analyzed in any given genome-wide association study (GWAS), performing multiple comparisons can be problematic. To cope with multiple-comparison problems in GWAS, haplotype-based algorithms were developed to correct for multiple comparisons at multiple SNP loci in linkage disequilibrium. A permutation test can also control problems inherent in multiple testing; however, both the calculation of exact probability and the execution of permutation tests are time-consuming. Faster methods for calculating exact probabilities and executing permutation tests are required. We developed a set of computer programs for the parallel computation of accurate P-values in haplotype-based GWAS. Our program, ParaHaplo, is intended for workstation clusters using the Intel Message Passing Interface (MPI). We compared the performance of our algorithm to that of the regular permutation test on JPT and CHB of HapMap. ParaHaplo can detect smaller differences between 2 populations than SNP-based GWAS. We also found that parallel-computing techniques made ParaHaplo 100-fold faster than a non-parallel version of the program. ParaHaplo is a useful tool in conducting haplotype-based GWAS. Since the data sizes of such projects continue to increase, the use of fast computations with parallel computing--such as that used in ParaHaplo--will become increasingly important. The executable binaries and program sources of ParaHaplo are available at the following address: http://sourceforge.jp/projects/parallelgwas/?_sl=1.

  3. Precision velocimetry planet hunting with PARAS: current performance and lessons to inform future extreme precision radial velocity instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Arpita; Chakraborty, Abhijit; Mahadevan, Suvrath; Chaturvedi, Priyanka; Prasad, Neelam J. S. S. V.; Shah, Vishal; Pathan, F. M.; Anandarao, B. G.

    2016-08-01

    The PRL Advanced Radial-velocity Abu-sky Search (PARAS) instrument is a fiber-fed stabilized high-resolution cross-dispersed echelle spectrograph, located on the 1.2 m telescope in Mt. Abu India. Designed for exoplanet detection, PARAS is capable of single-shot spectral coverage of 3800 - 9600 Å, and currently achieving radial velocity (RV) precisions approaching 1 m s-1 over several months using simultaneous ThAr calibration. As such, it is one of the few dedicated stabilized fiber-fed spectrographs on small (1-2 m) telescopes that are able to fill an important niche in RV follow-up and stellar characterization. The success of ground-based RV surveys is motivating the push into extreme precisions, with goals of 10 cm s-1 in the optical and <1 m s-1 in the near-infrared (NIR). Lessons from existing instruments like PARAS are invaluable in informing hardware design, providing pipeline prototypes, and guiding scientific surveys. Here we present our current precision estimates of PARAS based on observations of bright RV standard stars, and describe the evolution of the data reduction and RV analysis pipeline as instrument characterization progresses and we gather longer baselines of data. Secondly, we discuss how our experience with PARAS is a critical component in the development of future cutting edge instruments like (1) the Habitable Zone Planet Finder (HPF), a near-infrared spectrograph optimized to look for planets around M dwarfs, scheduled to be commissioned on the Hobby Eberly Telescope in 2017, and (2) the NEID optical spectrograph, designed in response to the NN-EXPLORE call for an extreme precision Doppler spectrometer (EPDS) for the WIYN telescope. In anticipation of instruments like TESS and GAIA, the ground-based RV support system is being reinforced. We emphasize that instruments like PARAS will play an intrinsic role in providing both complementary follow-up and battlefront experience for these next generation of precision velocimeters.

  4. ORTHO-TO-PARA ABUNDANCE RATIO OF WATER ION IN COMET C/2001 Q4 (NEAT): IMPLICATION FOR ORTHO-TO-PARA ABUNDANCE RATIO OF WATER

    SciTech Connect

    Shinnaka, Yoshiharu; Kawakita, Hideyo; Kobayashi, Hitomi; Boice, Daniel C.; Martinez, Susan E.

    2012-04-20

    The ortho-to-para abundance ratio (OPR) of cometary molecules is considered to be one of the primordial characteristics of cometary ices, and contains information concerning their formation. Water is the most abundant species in cometary ices, and OPRs of water in comets have been determined from infrared spectroscopic observations of H{sub 2}O rovibrational transitions so far. In this paper, we present a new method to derive OPR of water in comets from the high-dispersion spectrum of the rovibronic emission of H{sub 2}O{sup +} in the optical wavelength region. The rovibronic emission lines of H{sub 2}O{sup +} are sometimes contaminated by other molecular emission lines but they are not affected seriously by telluric absorption compared with near-infrared observations. Since H{sub 2}O{sup +} ions are mainly produced from H{sub 2}O by photoionization in the coma, the OPR of H{sub 2}O{sup +} is considered to be equal to that of water based on the nuclear spin conservation through the reaction. We have developed a fluorescence excitation model of H{sub 2}O{sup +} and applied it to the spectrum of comet C/2001 Q4 (NEAT). The derived OPR of water is 2.54{sup +0.32}{sub -0.25}, which corresponds to a nuclear spin temperature (T{sub spin}) of 30{sup +10}{sub -4} K. This is consistent with the previous value determined in the near-infrared for the same comet (OPR = 2.6 {+-} 0.3, T{sub spin} = 31{sup +11}{sub -5} K).

  5. Practical in-situ determination of ortho-para hydrogen ratios via fiber-optic based Raman spectroscopy

    DOE PAGES

    Sutherland, Liese -Marie; Knudson, James N.; Mocko, Michal; ...

    2015-12-17

    An experiment was designed and developed to prototype a fiber-optic-based laser system, which measures the ratio of ortho-hydrogen to para-hydrogen in an operating neutron moderator system at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) spallation neutron source. Preliminary measurements resulted in an ortho to para ratio of 3.06:1, which is within acceptable agreement with the previously published ratio. As a result, the successful demonstration of Raman Spectroscopy for this measurement is expected to lead to a practical method that can be applied for similar in-situ measurements at operating neutron spallation sources.

  6. Ruthenium-Catalyzed Ortho C-H Arylation of Aromatic Nitriles with Arylboronates and Observation of Partial Para Arylation.

    PubMed

    Koseki, Yuta; Kitazawa, Kentaroh; Miyake, Masashi; Kochi, Takuya; Kakiuchi, Fumitoshi

    2016-12-29

    Ruthenium-catalyzed C-H arylation of aromatic nitriles with arylboronates is described. The use of RuH2(CO){P(4-MeC6H4)3}3 as a catalyst provided higher yields of the ortho arylation products than the conventional RuH2(CO)(PPh3)3 catalyst. The arylation takes place mostly at the ortho positions, but unprecedented para arylation was also partially observed to give ortho,para diarylation products. In addition to C-H bond cleavage, the cyano group was also found to function as a directing group for cleavage of C-O bonds in aryl ethers.

  7. Evaluation of para-dichlorobenzene emissions from solid moth repellant as a source of indoor air pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, J.C.S.; Krebs, K.A.

    1992-01-01

    The paper reports results of dynamic and static chamber tests to evaluate para-dichlorobenzene emission rates from mothcakes. The data were analyzed by a model that assumes that the emission rate is controlled by gas-phase mass transfer. Results indicate that the para-dichlorobenzene emission from mothcakes is a temperature-sensitive sublimation process. Full-scale house tests were also conducted to measure mass transfer coefficients based on the model developed. The values of the mass transfer coefficient obtained are very comparable to those estimated by theoretical heat transfer studies.

  8. Uma grade de perfis teóricos para estrelas massivas em transição

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nascimento, C. M. P.; Machado, M. A.

    2003-08-01

    Na XXVIII Reunião Anual da Sociedade Astronômica Brasileira (2002) apresentamos uma grade de perfis calculados de acordo com os pontos da trajetória evolutiva de metalicidade solar, Z = 0.02 e taxa de perda de massa () padrão, para estrelas com massa inicial de 25, 40, 60, 85 e 120 massas solares. Estes perfis foram calculados com o auxílio de um código numérico adequado para descrever os ventos de objetos massivos, supondo simetria esférica, estacionaridade e homogeneidade. No presente trabalho, apresentamos a complementação da grade com os perfis teóricos relativos às trajetórias de Z = 0.02 com taxa de perda de massa dobrada em relação a padrão (2´), e de metalicidade Z = 0.008. Para cada ponto das três trajetórias obtemos os perfis teóricos de Ha, Hb, Hg e Hd, e como esperado eles se apresentam em pura emissão, pura absorção ou em P-Cygni. Para valores de taxa de perda de massa muito baixos (~10-7) não há formação de linhas, o que é visto nos primeiros pontos em todas as trajetórias. Em geral, para um mesmo ponto a componente de emissão diminui e a absorção aumenta de Ha para Hd. É verificado que as trajetórias com Z = 0.02 e padrão possuem menos circuitos (loops) do que as com metalicidade Z = 0.02 e 2´ padrão, e seus perfis são, em geral, menos intensos. Em relação a trajetória de Z = 0.008, verifica-se menos circuitos e maior variação em luminosidade, e seus perfis mostram-se em, algumas trajetórias, mais intensos. Verificamos também que, pontos distintos em uma mesma trajetória, apresentam perfis diferentes para valores similares de luminosidade e temperatura efetiva. Sendo assim, uma grade de perfis teóricos parece ser útil para fornecer uma informação preliminar sobre o estágio evolutivo de uma estrela massiva.

  9. Genomic organization of Hox and ParaHox clusters in the echinoderm, Acanthaster planci.

    PubMed

    Baughman, Kenneth W; McDougall, Carmel; Cummins, Scott F; Hall, Mike; Degnan, Bernard M; Satoh, Nori; Shoguchi, Eiichi

    2014-12-01

    The organization of echinoderm Hox clusters is of interest due to the role that Hox genes play in deuterostome development and body plan organization, and the unique gene order of the Hox complex in the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, which has been linked to the unique development of the axial region. Here, it has been reported that the Hox and ParaHox clusters of Acanthaster planci, a corallivorous starfish found in the Pacific and Indian oceans, generally resembles the chordate and hemichordate clusters. The A. planci Hox cluster shared with sea urchins the loss of one of the medial Hox genes, even-skipped (Evx) at the anterior of the cluster, as well as organization of the posterior Hox genes.

  10. Wild birds as pets in Campina Grande, Paraíba State, Brazil: an ethnozoological approach.

    PubMed

    Licarião, Morgana R; Bezerra, Dandara M M; Alves, Rômulo R N

    2013-03-01

    Birds are one of the animals most widely used by humans and are highly valued as pets. The present work reports the use of wild birds as pets in the city of Campina Grande, Paraíba State (PB), Brazil. The owners' choice and perceptions of the species ecology was assessed as well. The methodology employed included unstructured and semi-structured interviews, guided tours and direct observations. A total of 26 bird species distributed among ten families and four orders were identified. The most frequently encountered order was Passeriformes (76.9%), with a predominance of the family Emberizidae (34.6%). The specimens kept as pets were principally obtained in public markets or between the breeders themselves. The popularity of birds as pets, compounded by the inefficiency of official controls over the commerce of wild animals has stimulated the illegal capture and breeding of wild birds in Campina Grande.

  11. Ostracoda and foraminifera from Paleocene (Olinda well), Paraíba Basin, Brazilian Northeast.

    PubMed

    Piovesan, Enelise K; Melo, Robbyson M; Lopes, Fernando M; Fauth, Gerson; Costa, Denize S

    2017-08-07

    Paleocene ostracods and planktonic foraminifera from the Maria Farinha Formation, Paraíba Basin, are herein presented. Eleven ostracod species were identified in the genera Cytherella Jones, Cytherelloidea Alexander, Eocytheropteron Alexander, Semicytherura Wagner, Paracosta Siddiqui, Buntonia Howe, Soudanella Apostolescu, Leguminocythereis Howe and, probably, Pataviella Liebau. The planktonic foraminifera are represented by the genera Guembelitria Cushman, Parvularugoglobigerina Hofker, Woodringina Loeblich and Tappan, Heterohelix Ehrenberg, Zeauvigerina Finlay, Muricohedbergella Huber and Leckie, and Praemurica Olsson, Hemleben, Berggren and Liu. The ostracods and foraminifera analyzed indicate an inner shelf paleoenvironment for the studied section. Blooms of Guembelitria spp., which indicate either shallow environments or upwelling zones, were also recorded reinforcing previous paleoenvironmental interpretations based on other fossil groups for this basin.

  12. High-pressure dissociation of crystalline para-diiodobenzene: optical experiments and Car-Parrinello calculations.

    PubMed

    Brillante, Aldo; Della Valle, Raffaele G; Farina, Luca; Venuti, Elisabetta; Cavazzoni, Carlo; Emerson, Andrew P J; Syassen, Karl

    2005-03-09

    We have investigated the high-pressure properties of the molecular crystal para-diiodobenzene, by combining optical absorption, reflectance, and Raman experiments with Car-Parrinello simulations. The optical absorption edge exhibits a large red shift from 4 eV at ambient conditions to about 2 eV near 30 GPa. Reflectance measurements up to 80 GPa indicate a redistribution of oscillator strength toward the near-infrared. The calculations, which describe correctly the two known molecular crystal phases at ambient pressure, predict a nonmolecular metallic phase, stable at high pressure. This high-density phase is characterized by an extended three-dimensional network, in which chemically bound iodine atoms form layers connected by hydrocarbon bridges. Experimentally, Raman spectra of samples recovered after compression show vibrational modes of elemental solid iodine. This result points to a pressure-induced molecular dissociation process which leads to the formation of domains of iodine and disordered carbon.

  13. Blood vitamin C levels of motorized tricycle drivers in Parañaque, Philippines.

    PubMed

    Sia Su, Glenn L; Kayali, Sara

    2008-08-01

    Vitamin C is an essential micronutrient maintaining the state of well being of individuals. This study examined factors affecting and the blood vitamin C levels of motorized tricycle drivers in Parañaque City, Philippines. Consenting drivers (N=49) were included in the study and were assessed through self-administered questionnaires, 24-h food recalls, and anthropometric measurements and on the analysis of their blood vitamin C levels. Factors related to the blood vitamin C levels of the motorized tricycle drivers were determined by correlation analysis. Majority (79.6%) of drivers had low blood vitamin C levels. Workplace and vitamin C supplementations (p<0.05) were significantly related to the blood vitamin C levels of the motorized tricycle drivers. Further studies are recommended to understand the problem and the determinants of vitamin C deficiency among the general population.

  14. Coordination nano-space as stage of hydrogen ortho-para conversion.

    PubMed

    Kosone, Takashi; Hori, Akihiro; Nishibori, Eiji; Kubota, Yoshiki; Mishima, Akio; Ohba, Masaaki; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Kato, Kenichi; Kim, Jungeun; Real, José Antonio; Kitagawa, Susumu; Takata, Masaki

    2015-07-01

    The ability to design and control properties of nano-sized space in porous coordination polymers (PCPs) would provide us with an ideal stage for fascinating physical and chemical phenomena. We found an interconversion of nuclear-spin isomers for hydrogen molecule H2 adsorbed in a Hofmann-type PCP, {Fe(pz)[Pd(CN)4]} (pz=pyrazine), by the temperature dependence of Raman spectra. The ortho (o)-para (p) conversion process of H2 is forbidden for an isolated molecule. The charge density study using synchrotron radiation X-ray diffraction reveals the electric field generated in coordination nano-space. The present results corroborate similar findings observed on different systems and confirm that o-p conversion can occur on non-magnetic solids and that electric field can induce the catalytic hydrogen o-p conversion.

  15. Leaf Pressure Volume Data in Caxiuana and Tapajos National Forest, Para, Brazil (2011)

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, Thomas; Moorcroft, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Pressure volume curve measurements on leaves of canopy trees from the from the Caxiuana and Tapajos National Forests, Para, Brazil. Tapajos samples were harvested from the km 67 forested area, which is adjacent to the decommissioned throughfall exclusion drought experimental plot. Caxiuana samples were harvested from trees growing in the throughfall exclusion plots. Data were collected in 2011. Dataset includes: date of measurement, site ID, plot ID, tree ID (species, tree tag #), leaf area, fresh weight, relative weight, leaf water potential, and leaf water loss. P-V curve parameters (turgor loss point, osmotic potential, and bulk modulus of elasticity) can be found in Powell et al. (2017) Differences in xylem cavitation resistance and leaf hydraulic traits explain differences in drought tolerance among mature Amazon rainforest trees. Global Change Biology.

  16. Searching for auxetics with DYNA3D and ParaDyn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoover, Wm. G.; Hoover, C. G.

    2005-03-01

    We sought to simulate auxetic behavior by carrying out dynamic analyses of mesoscopic model structures. We began by generating nearly periodic cellular structures. Four-node Shell elements and eight-node Brick elements are the basic building blocks for each cell. The shells and bricks obey standard elastic-plastic continuum mechanics. The dynamical response of the structures was next determined for a three-stage loading process: (1) homogeneous compression; (2) viscous relaxation; (3) uniaxial compression. The simulations were carried out with both serial and parallel computer codes - DYNA3D and ParaDyn - which describe the deformation of the shells and bricks with a robust contact algorithm. We summarize the results found here.

  17. Food for Life/Comida para la Vida: Creating a Food Festival to Raise Diabetes Awareness

    PubMed Central

    Lancaster, Kristie; Walker, Willie; Vance, Thomas; Kaskel, Phyllis; Arniella, Guedy; Horowitz, Carol

    2012-01-01

    African and Latino Americans have higher rates of diabetes and its complications than White Americans. Identifying people with undiagnosed diabetes and helping them obtain care can help to prevent complications and mortality. To kick off a screening initiative, our community-academic partnership created the “Food for Life Festival,” or “Festival Comida para la Vida.” This article will describe the community’s perspective on the Festival, which was designed to screen residents, and demonstrate that eating healthy can be fun, tasty, and affordable in a community-centered, culturally consonant setting. More than 1,000 residents attended the event; 382 adults were screened for diabetes, and 181 scored as high risk. Fifteen restaurants distributed free samples of healthy versions of their popular dishes. Community residents, restaurateurs, and clinicians commented that the event transformed many of their preconceived ideas about healthy foods and patient care. PMID:20097997

  18. pH-dependent spectral properties of para-aminobenzoic acid and its derivatives.

    PubMed

    Thayer, Mitchell P; McGuire, Colin; Stennett, Elana M S; Lockhart, Mary Kate; Canache, Daniela; Novak, Marnie; Schmidtke, Sarah J

    2011-12-15

    The local environment dictates the structural and functional properties of many important chemical and biological systems. The impact of pH on the photophysical properties of a series of para-aminobenzoic acids is examined using a combination of experimental spectroscopy and quantum chemical calculations. Following photoexcitation, PABA derivatives may undergo an intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) resulting in the formation of a zwitterionic species. The thermodynamics of the excited state reaction and temperature-dependence of the radiative emission processes are evaluated through variable temperature fluorescence spectroscopy carried out in a range of aqueous buffers. Quantum chemical calculations are used to analyze structural changes with modifications at the amine position and different protonation states. The ICT is only observed in the tertiary amine, which calculations show has more sp(2) character than the primary or secondary amines. Thermodynamic analysis indicates the ICT reaction is driven by entropy.

  19. Food for Life / Comida para la Vida: creating a food festival to raise diabetes awareness.

    PubMed

    Lancaster, Kristie; Walker, Willie; Vance, Thomas; Kaskel, Phyllis; Arniella, Guedy; Horowitz, Carol

    2009-01-01

    African and Latino Americans have higher rates of diabetes and its complications than White Americans. Identifying people with undiagnosed diabetes and helping them obtain care can help to prevent complications and mortality. To kick off a screening initiative, our community-academic partnership created the "Food for Life Festival," or "Festival Comida para la Vida." This article will describe the community's perspective on the Festival, which was designed to screen residents, and demonstrate that eating healthy can be fun, tasty, and affordable in a community-centered, culturally consonant setting. More than 1,000 residents attended the event; 382 adults were screened for diabetes, and 181 scored as high risk. Fifteen restaurants distributed free samples of healthy versions of their popular dishes. Community residents, restaurateurs, and clinicians commented that the event transformed many of their preconceived ideas about healthy foods and patient care.

  20. A Very Rare Cause of a Relapsing Para-Oesophageal Abscess

    PubMed Central

    Wespi, Simon Peter; Frei, Remus; Sulz, Michael Christian

    2016-01-01

    Oesophageal involvement in Crohn's disease (CD) is uncommon and most often accompanied by involvement of more distal parts. Its presentation is mostly non-specific, and therefore a diagnosis, especially in isolated oesophageal disease, is difficult. We present the case of a 42-year-old male patient who was referred to our gastroenterology department because of a para-oesophageal abscess. Under antibiotic treatment the abscess healed, but despite great diagnostic efforts, its aetiology remained unclear. Three years later the patient was hospitalized again because of an abscess at the same site. Endoscopy showed disseminated ulcerations of the lower oesophagus, raising suspicion of CD. After excluding other possible causes, we made the diagnosis of isolated CD of the oesophagus. We review the available literature on this topic and discuss the clinical presentation, symptoms, endoscopic findings, and histology as well as treatment of oesophageal CD. PMID:27403115

  1. Proyecto para la medición sistemática de seeing en CASLEO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández Lajus, E.; Forte, J. C.

    La calidad del seeing astronómico es ciertamente uno de los parámetros mas importantes que caracterizan el sitio de un observatorio. Por tanto se desea determinar si el alto valor de seeing observado con el telescopio de 2.15 m se debe a efectos internos y/o del entorno a la cupula o si se debe simplemente al seeing propio del lugar. El actual mecanismo de refrigeración del espejo primario del 2.15, parece haber mejorado notablemente la calidad del seeing. Sin embargo se hace necesario saber hasta que punto el valor del seeing puede ser mejorado. La primera etapa del proyecto consistió en la puesta a punto del telescopio emplazado para este propósito y la adquisición de las primeras medidas tentativas de seeing.

  2. Evaluation of apparent viscosity of Para rubber latex by diffuse reflection near-infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Sirisomboon, Panmanas; Chowbankrang, Rawiphan; Williams, Phil

    2012-05-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy in diffuse reflection mode was used to evaluate the apparent viscosity of Para rubber field latex and concentrated latex over the wavelength range of 1100 to 2500 nm, using partial least square regression (PLSR). The model with ten principal components (PCs) developed using the raw spectra accurately predicted the apparent viscosity with correlation coefficient (r), standard error of prediction (SEP), and bias of 0.974, 8.6 cP, and -0.4 cP, respectively. The ratio of the SEP to the standard deviation (RPD) and the ratio of the SEP to the range (RER) for the prediction were 4.4 and 16.7, respectively. Therefore, the model can be used for measurement of the apparent viscosity of field latex and concentrated latex in quality assurance and process control in the factory.

  3. Path integral centroid molecular dynamics simulation of para-hydrogen sandwiched by graphene sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minamino, Yuki; Kinugawa, Kenichi

    2016-11-01

    The carbon-hydrogen composite systems of para-hydrogen (p-H2) sandwiched by a couple of graphene sheets have been investigated by means of path integral centroid molecular dynamics simulations at 17 K. It has been shown that sandwiched hydrogen is liquid-like but p-H2 molecules are preferably adsorbed onto the graphene sheets because of attractive graphene-hydrogen interaction. The diffusion coefficient of p-H2 molecules in the direction parallel to the graphene sheets is comparable to that in pure liquid p-H2. There exists a characteristic mode of 140 cm-1 of the p-H2 molecules, attributed to adsorption-binding motion perpendicular to the graphene sheets.

  4. Theoretical and Experimental Studies on the Nonlinear Optical Chromophore para Bromoacetanilide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jothy, V. Bena; Vijayakumar, T.; Jayakumar, V. S.; Udayalekshmi, K.; Ramamurthy, K.; Joe, I. Hubert

    2008-11-01

    Vibrational spectral analysis of the hydrogen bonded non-linear optical (NLO) material para Bromo Acetanilide (PBA) is carried out using NIR FT-Raman and FT-IR spectroscopy. Ab initio molecular orbital computations have been performed at HF/6-31G(d) level to derive equilibrium geometry, vibrational wavenumbers, intensities and first hyperpolarizability. The lowering of the imino stretching wavenumbers suggests the existence of strong intermolecular N-H⋯O hydrogen bonding substantiated by the natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis. Blue shifting CH stretching wavenumbers, simultaneous activation of carbonyl stretching mode and the strong activation of low wavenumber H-bond stretching vibrations shows the presence of intramolecular charge transfer in the molecule.

  5. Quantum dynamical simulations for nuclear spin selective laser control of ortho- and para-fulvene.

    PubMed

    Belz, S; Grohmann, T; Leibscher, M

    2009-07-21

    In the present paper we explore the prospects for laser control of the photoinduced nonadiabatic dynamics of para- and ortho-fulvene with the help of quantum dynamical simulations. Previous investigations [Bearpark et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 118, 5253 (1996); Alfalah et al., J. Chem. Phys. 130, 124318 (2009)] show that photoisomerization of fulvene is hindered by ultrafast radiationless decay through a conical intersection at planar configuration. Here, we demonstrate that photoisomerization can nevertheless be initiated by damping unfavorable nuclear vibrations with properly designed laser pulses. Moreover, we show that the resulting intramolecular torsion is nuclear spin selective. The selectivity of the photoexcitation with respect to the nuclear spin isomers can be further enhanced by applying an optimized sequence of two laser pulses.

  6. pH-dependent spectral properties of para-aminobenzoic acid and its derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thayer, Mitchell P.; McGuire, Colin; Stennett, Elana M. S.; Lockhart, Mary Kate; Canache, Daniela; Novak, Marnie; Schmidtke, Sarah J.

    2011-12-01

    The local environment dictates the structural and functional properties of many important chemical and biological systems. The impact of pH on the photophysical properties of a series of para-aminobenzoic acids is examined using a combination of experimental spectroscopy and quantum chemical calculations. Following photoexcitation, PABA derivatives may undergo an intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) resulting in the formation of a zwitterionic species. The thermodynamics of the excited state reaction and temperature-dependence of the radiative emission processes are evaluated through variable temperature fluorescence spectroscopy carried out in a range of aqueous buffers. Quantum chemical calculations are used to analyze structural changes with modifications at the amine position and different protonation states. The ICT is only observed in the tertiary amine, which calculations show has more sp 2 character than the primary or secondary amines. Thermodynamic analysis indicates the ICT reaction is driven by entropy.

  7. Ortho-, meta-, and para-benzyne. A comparative CCSD (T) investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraka, Elfi; Cremer, Dieter

    1993-12-01

    Geometries and energies of ortho-benzyne ( 1), mata-benzyne ( 2), and para-benzyne ( 3) have been calculated at the CCSD (T), GVB, GVB-LSDC, and MBPT (2) levels of theory employing the 6-31G(d, p) basis. Calculations suggest relative energies of O, 13.7, and 25.3 kcal/mol, respectively, and Δ H0f(298) values of 110.8, 123.9, and 135.7 kcal/mol for 1, 2, and 3. With the Δ H0f(298) value of 3, the reaction enthalpy Δ RH(298) and the activation enthalpy Δ H#(298) for the Bergman cyclization of (Z)-hexa-1,5-diy -ene to 3 are calculated to be 9.1 and 28.5 kcal/mol.

  8. The spectrochemical behavior of composites based on poly (para-phenylenevinylene), reduced graphene oxide and pyrene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilie, Mirela; Baibarac, Mihaela

    2017-10-01

    A new composite material based on poly (para-phenylenevinylene) (PPV), pyrene (Py) and reduced graphene oxide (RGO) is synthesized using thermal conversion route. The properties of this material are investigated by Raman scattering, photoluminescence (PL), infrared (IR) and ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy. Adding Py at PPV precursor solution (PPV PS) containing RGO, yields to important modifications in both vibrational and electronic properties of these composites. The presence of Py into PPV matrix determines a blue shift of PPV PL. According to Raman and IR studies, PPV is non-covalently functionalized with Py which interacts forward with RGO through π-π interactions causing an important modification into the polymer chains conjugation length.

  9. Parallel Grand Canonical Monte Carlo (ParaGrandMC) Simulation Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yamakov, Vesselin I.

    2016-01-01

    This report provides an overview of the Parallel Grand Canonical Monte Carlo (ParaGrandMC) simulation code. This is a highly scalable parallel FORTRAN code for simulating the thermodynamic evolution of metal alloy systems at the atomic level, and predicting the thermodynamic state, phase diagram, chemical composition and mechanical properties. The code is designed to simulate multi-component alloy systems, predict solid-state phase transformations such as austenite-martensite transformations, precipitate formation, recrystallization, capillary effects at interfaces, surface absorption, etc., which can aid the design of novel metallic alloys. While the software is mainly tailored for modeling metal alloys, it can also be used for other types of solid-state systems, and to some degree for liquid or gaseous systems, including multiphase systems forming solid-liquid-gas interfaces.

  10. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer for investigation of the interaction of Para Red with serum albumins.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Lin; Zeng, Xiaodan; Zhang, Fusheng

    2016-03-01

    Para Red (PR) has been isolated from food additives, and shown to be toxic to humans. To facilitate examination of its toxicity, the interaction between PR and serum albumins (SA) was studied using fluorescence quenching and circular dichroism (CD) spectrophotometry. The experiments showed that the fluorescence intensity of serum albumins decreased with increasing concentrations of PR, which resulted from the binding of PR and SA. The binding constant, number of binding sites and thermodynamic parameters were calculated and hydrogen bond and van der Waals interactions were shown to play a key role in the binding process. Competition experiments indicated that PR mainly binds to Trp residues of SA within the site I. As the CD and three-dimensional spectra revealed, the addition of PR induced a conformational change in SA.

  11. Analysis of the thermal reaction products of para polyphenylene by combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fewell, L. L.

    1976-01-01

    Analysis of the volatiles and sublimate produced when para-polyphenylene is pyrolyzed to constant weight under vacuum in the temperature range from 380 to 1000 C indicates that the polymer undergoes thermal degradation in two stages. The first stage involved dehydrohalogenation, which is essentially a curing reaction that produces crosslinking between polyphenylene chains resulting from the loss of chlorine from the polymer in the form of hydrogen chloride. The second stage of the thermal degradation is dehydrogenation because hydrogen is the major volatile species. Increasing amounts of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (phenanthrene and 9, 10 benzphenanthrene) in the sublimate, concomitant with increasing C/H ratios of the polymeric residue with pyrolysis temperature, is consistent with the buildup of polynuclear structures in the polymer matrix.

  12. Searching for Auxetics with DYNA3D and ParaDyn

    SciTech Connect

    Hoover, W G; Hoover, C G

    2004-09-11

    We sought to simulate auxetic behavior by carrying out dynamic analyses of mesoscopic model structures. We began by generating nearly periodic cellular structures. Four-node 'Shell' elements and eight-node 'Brick' elements are the basic building blocks for each cell. The shells and bricks obey standard elastic-plastic continuum mechanics. The dynamical response of the structures was next determined for a three-stage loading process: (1) homogeneous compression; (2) viscous relaxation; (3) uniaxial compression. The simulations were carried out with both serial and parallel computer codes--DYNA3D and ParaDyn--which describe the deformation of the shells and bricks with a robust contact algorithm. We summarize the results found here.

  13. Analysis of the thermal reaction products of para polyphenylene by combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fewell, L. L.

    1976-01-01

    Analysis of the volatiles and sublimate produced when para-polyphenylene is pyrolyzed to constant weight under vacuum in the temperature range from 380 to 1000 C indicates that the polymer undergoes thermal degradation in two stages. The first stage involved dehydrohalogenation, which is essentially a curing reaction that produces crosslinking between polyphenylene chains resulting from the loss of chlorine from the polymer in the form of hydrogen chloride. The second stage of the thermal degradation is dehydrogenation because hydrogen is the major volatile species. Increasing amounts of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (phenanthrene and 9, 10 benzphenanthrene) in the sublimate, concomitant with increasing C/H ratios of the polymeric residue with pyrolysis temperature, is consistent with the buildup of polynuclear structures in the polymer matrix.

  14. Unusual Raman spectra of para-nitroaniline by sequential Fermi resonances.

    PubMed

    Xia, Jiarui; Zhu, Ling; Feng, Yanting; Li, Yongqing; Zhang, Zhenglong; Xia, Lixin; Liu, Liwei; Ma, Fengcai

    2014-01-01

    In this communication, we report the unusual Raman spectra of para-nitroaniline (PNA) by sequential Fermi resonances. The combinational mode 1292 cm(-1) in the experimental Raman spectrum indirectly gains the initial spectral weight at 1392 cm(-1) by three sequential Fermi resonances. These Fermi resonances result in the strong interaction between the donor group of NH2 and the acceptor group of NO2. Our theoretical calculations provide reasonable interpretation for the abnormal Raman spectra of PNA. Experimental surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectrum of PNA further confirmed our conclusion, where the strongest Raman peak at 1292 cm(-1) is very weak, while the Raman peak at 1392 cm(-1) becoming the strongest Raman peak, which is consistent with the theoretical simulations.

  15. Long-range excitons in conjugated polymers with ring torsions: poly( para-phenylene) and polyaniline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harigaya, Kikuo

    1998-08-01

    Ring torsion effects on the optical excitation properties of poly( para-phenylene) (PPP) and polyaniline (PAN) are investigated by extending the Shimoi-Abe model (Shimoi Y and Abe S 1996 Synth. Met. 78 219). The model is solved using the intermediate-exciton formalism. Long-range excitons are characterized, and the long-range component of the oscillator strengths is calculated. We find that ring torsions affect the long-range excitons in PAN more readily than those in PPP, due to the larger torsion angle of PAN and the large number of bonds whose hopping integrals are modulated by torsions. Next, ring torsional disorder effects simulated by the Gaussian distribution function are analysed. The long-range component of the total oscillator strengths after sample averaging is nearly independent of the disorder strength in the PPP case, while that in the PAN case decreases readily as the disorder becomes stronger.

  16. Applicability of the ParaDNA(®) Screening System to Seminal Samples.

    PubMed

    Tribble, Nicholas D; Miller, Jamie A D; Dawnay, Nick; Duxbury, Nicola J

    2015-05-01

    Seminal fluid represents a common biological material recovered from sexual assault crime scenes. Such samples can be prescreened using different techniques to determine cell type and relative amount before submitting for full STR profiling. The ParaDNA(®) Screening System is a novel forensic test which identifies the presence of DNA through amplification and detection of two common STR loci (D16S539 and TH01) and the Amelogenin marker. The detection of the Y allele in samples could provide a useful tool in the triage and submission of sexual assault samples by enforcement authorities. Male template material was detected on a range of common sexual assault evidence items including cotton pillow cases, condoms, swab heads and glass surfaces and shows a detection limit of 1 in 1000 dilution of neat semen. These data indicate this technology has the potential to be a useful tool for the detection of male donor DNA in sexual assault casework.

  17. Shaped Ceria Nanocrystals Catalyze Efficient and Selective Para-Hydrogen-Enhanced Polarization.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Evan W; Zheng, Haibin; Zhou, Ronghui; Hagelin-Weaver, Helena E; Bowers, Clifford R

    2015-11-23

    Intense para-hydrogen-enhanced NMR signals are observed in the hydrogenation of propene and propyne over ceria nanocubes, nano-octahedra, and nanorods. The well-defined ceria shapes, synthesized by a hydrothermal method, expose different crystalline facets with various oxygen vacancy densities, which are known to play a role in hydrogenation and oxidation catalysis. While the catalytic activity of the hydrogenation of propene over ceria is strongly facet-dependent, the pairwise selectivity is low (2.4% at 375 °C), which is consistent with stepwise H atom transfer, and it is the same for all three nanocrystal shapes. Selective semi-hydrogenation of propyne over ceria nanocubes yields hyperpolarized propene with a similar pairwise selectivity of (2.7% at 300 °C), indicating product formation predominantly by a non-pairwise addition. Ceria is also shown to be an efficient pairwise replacement catalyst for propene.

  18. [Neurocience in the Junta para Ampliación de Estudios].

    PubMed

    Díaz, Alfredo Baratas

    2007-01-01

    The development of the Neurociencias in the Spain at the first third of the 20th century had a strong histological and pathological component. The work of Santiago Ramon and Cajal and Luis Simarro was continued by some excellent disciples: Nicolas Achúcarro, Gonzalo Rodriguez Lafora, Fernando de Castro, etc. Some of them had to make compatible diverse occupations, even the professional exercise of psychiatry, before obtaining a modest - but stable - position of investigation. In spite of some misalignments in the institutional development of the centers and the personal biographical ups and downs, the Junta para Ampliación de Estudios was the great institution that fomented the international formation of the investigators and equipped to them with the means to develop its work.

  19. El Proyecto Sismico "LARSE" - Trabajando Hacia un Futuro con Mas Seguridad para Los Angeles

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henyey, Thomas L.; Fuis, Gary S.; Benthien, Mark L.; Burdette, Thomas R.; Christofferson, Shari A.; Clayton, Robert W.; Criley, Edward E.; Davis, Paul M.; Hendley, James W.; Kohler, Monica D.; Lutter, William J.; McRaney, John K.; Murphy, Janice M.; Okaya, David A.; Ryberg, Trond; Simila, Gerald W.; Stauffer, Peter H.

    1999-01-01

    La region de Los Angeles contiene una red de fallas activas, incluyendo muchas fallas por empuje que son profundas y no rompen la superficie de la tierra. Estas fallas ocultas incluyen la falla anteriormente desconocida que fue responsable por la devastacion que ocurrio durante el terremoto de Northridge en enero de 1994, el terremoto mas costoso en la historia de los Estados Unidos. El Experimento Sismico en la Region de Los Angeles (Los Angeles Region Seismic Experiment, LARSE), esta localizando los peligros ocultos de los terremotos debajo de la region de Los Angeles para mejorar la construccion de las estructuras que pueden apoyar terremotos que son inevitables en el futuro, y que ayudaran a los cientificos determinar donde occurira el sacudimento mas fuerte y poderoso.

  20. Anion photoelectron spectroscopy of deprotonated ortho-, meta-, and para-methylphenol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Daniel J.; Gichuhi, Wilson K.; Miller, Elisa M.; Lehman, Julia H.; Lineberger, W. Carl

    2017-02-01

    The anion photoelectron spectra of ortho-, meta-, and para-methylphenoxide, as well as methyl deprotonated meta-methylphenol, were measured. Using the Slow Electron Velocity Map Imaging technique, the Electron Affinities (EAs) of the o-, m-, and p-methylphenoxyl radicals were measured as follows: 2.1991±0.0014, 2.2177±0.0014, and 2.1199±0.0014 eV, respectively. The EA of m-methylenephenol was also obtained, 1.024±0.008 eV. In all four cases, the dominant vibrational progressions observed are due to several ring distortion vibrational normal modes that were activated upon photodetachment, leading to vibrational progressions spaced by ˜500 cm-1. Using the methylphenol O-H bond dissociation energies reported by King et al. and revised by Karsili et al., a thermodynamic cycle was constructed and the acidities of the methylphenol isomers were determined as follows: Δa c i dH298K 0=348.39 ±0.25 , 348.82±0.25, 350.08±0.25, and 349.60±0.25 kcal/mol for cis-ortho-, trans-ortho-, m-, and p-methylphenol, respectively. The excitation energies for the ground doublet state to the lowest excited doublet state electronic transition in o-, m-, and p-methylphenoxyl were also measured as follows: 1.029±0.009, 0.962±0.002, and 1.029±0.009 eV, respectively. In the photoelectron spectra of the neutral excited states, C-O stretching modes were excited in addition to ring distortion modes. Electron autodetachment was observed in the cases of both m- and p-methylphenoxide, with the para isomer showing a lower photon energy onset for this phenomenon.

  1. Prevalence of oral trauma in Para-Pan American Games athletes.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Rafaela Amarante; Modesto, Adriana; Evans, Patricia Louise Scabell; Almeida, Anne Louise Scabell; da Silva, Juliana de Jesus Rodrigues; Guedes, Aurelino Machado Lima; Guedes, Fábio Ribeiro; Ranalli, Dennis N; Tinoco, Eduardo Muniz Barretto

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional epidemiological survey was to assess the prevalence of oral trauma in athletes representing 25 countries competing at the most recent Para-Pan American Games (III PARAPAN) held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The study was approved by the appropriate institutional review board. The examiners participated in standardization and calibration training sessions before the field phase began. Invitations were sent to >1200 participating athletes competing in eight sports and to the Medical Committee of the Para-Pan American Sports Organization before and during the III PARAPAN. A convenience sample of 120 athletes was recruited. After signing an informed consent, all athletes answered a questionnaire. Data were collected at the clinical examination and recorded in a specific trauma form. The mean age of the athletes was 32.5 years. Males comprised 79.2% of the sample; females 20.8%. The prevalence of oral trauma among the athletes was 47.5% (N = 57). However, only 15 athletes reported that these traumatic injuries were sports-related. The sport with the highest prevalence of oral trauma was judo (75%); the least was volleyball with no reported traumatic injuries. The most common traumatic injury was enamel fracture (27.4%). The teeth most affected were the maxillary permanent central incisors (N = 19), followed by the maxillary premolars (N = 8). On the basis of the results of this study of oral trauma among athletes examined at the III PARAPAN, a recommendation for enhanced educational efforts and the use of properly fitted mouthguards to prevent traumatic injuries among high-performance athletes with disabilities seems warranted. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  2. A novel FUT1 allele was identified in a Chinese individual with para-Bombay phenotype.

    PubMed

    Xu, X; Tao, S; Ying, Y; Hong, X; He, Y; Zhu, F; Lv, H; Yan, L

    2011-12-01

    The para-Bombay phenotype is characterised by H-deficient or H partially deficient red blood cells (RBCs) in individuals who secrete ABH antigens in their saliva. Samples from an individual whose RBCs had an apparent para-Bombay phenotype and his family members were investigated and a novel FUT1 allele was identified. RBCs' phenotype was characterised by standard serologic technique. Genomic DNA was sequenced with primers that amplified the coding sequence of FUT1 and FUT2, respectively. Routine ABO genotyping analysis was performed. Haplotypes of FUT1 were identified by TOPO cloning sequencing. Recombination expression vectors of FUT1 mutation alleles were constructed and transfected into COS-7 cells. The pα-(1,2)-fucosyltransferase activity of expression protein was determined. B101/O02 genotype of the proband was correlated with ABH substances in saliva. The proband carried a new FUT1 allele which showed 35C/T, 235G/C and 682A/G heterozygote by directly DNA sequencing. Two haplotypes, 235C and 35T+682G, were identified by TOPO cloning sequencing and COS-7 cells transfected with five recombination vectors including wild-type, 35T, 235C, 682G and 35T+682G alleles were established respectively. The α-(1,2)-fucosyltransferase activities of cell lysates which had transfected with 35T, 235C, 682G and 35T+682G recombination vectors showed 79·45, 16·23, 80·32 and 24·59%, respectively, compared with that of the wild-type FUT1-transfected cell lysates. A novel FUT1 allele 235C was identified, which greatly diminished the activity of α-(1,2)-fucosyltransferase. © 2011 The Authors. Transfusion Medicine © 2011 British Blood Transfusion Society.

  3. A comparison of para-anastomotic compliance profiles after vascular anastomosis: nonpenetrating clips versus standard sutures.

    PubMed

    Baguneid, M S; Goldner, S; Fulford, P E; Hamilton, G; Walker, M G; Seifalian, A M

    2001-04-01

    Anastomotic compliance is an important predictive factor for long-term patency of small diameter vascular reconstruction. In this experimental study we compare the compliance of continuous and interrupted sutured vascular anastomoses with those using nonpenetrating clips. Both common carotid arteries in nine goats (average weight, 57 +/- 5.7 kg) were transected, and end-to-end anastomoses were constructed with nonpenetrating clips or polypropylene sutures. The latter were applied with both interrupted and continuous techniques. Intraluminal pressure was measured with a Millar Mikro-tip transducer, and vessel wall motion was determined with duplex ultrasound equipped with an echo-locked wall-tracking system. Diametrical compliance was determined. Environmental scanning electron microscopy was performed on explanted anastomoses. There was a reduction in anastomotic compliance and associated proximal and distal para-anastomotic hypercompliant zones with the use of all techniques. However, compliance loss was significantly less in those anastomoses with clips and interrupted sutures when compared with continuous suture (P <.001). Furthermore, the total compliance mismatch across anastomoses with continuous sutures was significantly greater than those with clips or interrupted sutures (P <.05). The mean time for constructing clipped anastomoses was 5.7 +/- 1.4 minutes, which was significantly less than either continuous (P <.0001) or interrupted sutures (P <.0001). Furthermore, environmental scanning electron microscopy demonstrated minimal intimal damage with good intimal apposition in the clip group. Anastomoses performed with nonpenetrating clips resulted in improved para-anastomotic compliance profiles and reduced intimal damage when compared with those with polypropylene sutures. These benefits may enhance long-term graft patency by reducing the risk of anastomotic intimal hyperplasia.

  4. Anion photoelectron spectroscopy of deprotonated ortho-, meta-, and para-methylphenol.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Daniel J; Gichuhi, Wilson K; Miller, Elisa M; Lehman, Julia H; Lineberger, W Carl

    2017-02-21

    The anion photoelectron spectra of ortho-, meta-, and para-methylphenoxide, as well as methyl deprotonated meta-methylphenol, were measured. Using the Slow Electron Velocity Map Imaging technique, the Electron Affinities (EAs) of the o-, m-, and p-methylphenoxyl radicals were measured as follows: 2.1991±0.0014, 2.2177±0.0014, and 2.1199±0.0014 eV, respectively. The EA of m-methylenephenol was also obtained, 1.024±0.008 eV. In all four cases, the dominant vibrational progressions observed are due to several ring distortion vibrational normal modes that were activated upon photodetachment, leading to vibrational progressions spaced by ∼500 cm(-1). Using the methylphenol O-H bond dissociation energies reported by King et al. and revised by Karsili et al., a thermodynamic cycle was constructed and the acidities of the methylphenol isomers were determined as follows: ΔacidH298K(0)=348.39±0.25, 348.82±0.25, 350.08±0.25, and 349.60±0.25 kcal/mol for cis-ortho-, trans-ortho-, m-, and p-methylphenol, respectively. The excitation energies for the ground doublet state to the lowest excited doublet state electronic transition in o-, m-, and p-methylphenoxyl were also measured as follows: 1.029±0.009, 0.962±0.002, and 1.029±0.009 eV, respectively. In the photoelectron spectra of the neutral excited states, C-O stretching modes were excited in addition to ring distortion modes. Electron autodetachment was observed in the cases of both m- and p-methylphenoxide, with the para isomer showing a lower photon energy onset for this phenomenon.

  5. Effects of lead on K(+)-para-nitrophenyl phosphatase activity and protection by thiol reagents.

    PubMed

    Rajanna, B; Chetty, C S; McBride, V; Rajanna, S

    1990-01-01

    Lead (Pb) inhibited K(+)-stimulated para-nitrophenyl phosphatase (K(+)-PNPPase) of rat brain P2 fraction in a concentration-dependent manner with IC50 3.5 microM. Altered pH versus activity demonstrated comparable inhibitions by Pb in buffered acidic, neutral and alkaline pH ranges. Inhibition of enzyme activity was higher at lower temperatures (17-27 degrees C) compared to 37 degrees C. Preincubation of enzyme with sulfhydryl (-SH) agents such as cysteine (Cyst) and dithiothreitol (DTT) but not glutathione (GSH) protected against Pb-inhibition. Uncompetitive type of inhibition with respect to the activation of K+ was indicated by a decrease in Vmax from 16.2 to 8.37 mumoles of para-nitrophenol (PNP)/mg protein/hr and Km from 18.99 to 12.39 mM. Kinetic studies on substrate (p-nitrophenyl phosphate) activation in the presence of Pb (3.5 microM) indicated a significant decrease in Vmax from 8.94 to 4.69 mumoles of PNP/mg protein/hr with no change in Km. Cyst (3 microM) and DTT (10 microM) reversed the Pb-inhibited Vmax from 4.69 to 8.38 and 7.24 mumoles of PNP/mg protein/hr respectively. These results suggest that the critical conformational property of K(+)-PNPPase is sensitive to Pb. The data also indicates that the Pb inhibits Na(+)-K+ ATPase system by interacting with dephosphorylation of the enzyme-phosphoryl complex, while Cyst and DTT protected against Pb-inhibition.

  6. Association between anemia and subclinical infection in children in Paraíba State, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Sales, Márcia Cristina; de Queiroz, Everton Oliveira; Paiva, Adriana de Azevedo

    2011-01-01

    Background With subclinical infection, serum iron concentrations are reduced, altering the synthesis of hemoglobin, the main indicator of anemia. Objective To evaluate the association between subclinical infection and anemia in children of Paraíba State. Methods This is a cross-sectional study involving 1116 children aged 6 to 59 months from nine municipalities of Paraíba State. Demographic and socioeconomic data were collected by means of a specific questionnaire. The C-reactive protein and hemoglobin levels were determined by the latex agglutination technique and automated counter, respectively. C-reactive protein values ≥ 6 mg/L were used as indicative of subclinical infection, while the presence of anemia was determined by hemoglobin values < 11.0 g/dL. The data were analyzed using the Epi Info computer program, with significance being set at 5%. Results Data from this research showed that 80.1% of the children belonged to families that were below the bread line, with per capita income < ½ of the minimum wage at that time (R$ 350.00 approximately US$ 175.00). The prevalences of subclinical infection and anemia were 11.3% and 36.3%, respectively. Subclinical infection was significantly associated with anemia (p-value < 0.05). There were lower levels of hemoglobin in children with C-reactive protein ≥ 6 mg/L, with a mean hemoglobin level in children with subclinical infection of 10.93 g/dL (standard deviation - SD = 1.21 g/dL) and without infection of 11.26 g/dL (SD = 1.18 g/dL) (p-value < 0.05). Conclusion Anemia is associated with subclinical infection in this population, indicating that this is an important variable to be considered in studies of the prevalence of anemia in children. PMID:23284254

  7. Extraperitoneal Robotic-Assisted Para-Aortic Lymphadenectomy in Gynecologic Cancer Staging: Current Evidence.

    PubMed

    Bogani, Giorgio; Ditto, Antonino; Martinelli, Fabio; Signorelli, Mauro; Chiappa, Valentina; Sabatucci, Ilaria; Scaffa, Cono; Lorusso, Domenica; Raspagliesi, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    We reviewed the current evidence on the safety, effectiveness, and applicability of extraperitoneal robotic-assisted para-aortic lymphadenectomy (ExtRA-PAL) as the staging procedure of gynecologic malignancies. PubMed (MEDLINE), Scopus, Web of Science databases, and ClinicalTrials.gov were searched for original studies reporting outcomes of ExtRA-PAL. Quality of the included studies and their level of recommendation were assessed using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists guidelines, respectively. Overall, 62 studies were identified; after a process of evidence acquisition 5 original investigations were available for this review that included 98 patients undergoing ExtRA-PAL. The main surgical indication was staging for cervical cancer (n = 71, 72%). The mean (SD) number of para-aortic node yielded was 15.4 (±4.7) nodes. Blood transfusion and intraoperative complication rates were 2% and 6%, respectively. ExtRA-PAL was completed in 88 patients (90%). Six (6%) and 4 (4%) patients had conversion to other minimally invasive procedures and open surgery, respectively. Success rate was 99% among patients undergoing ExtRA-PAL without concomitant procedures. Overall, mean (SD) length of hospital stay was 2.8 (±0.5) days. Twenty-four patients (24%) developed postoperative events. According to the Clavien-Dindo grading system, grades IIIa and IIIb morbidity rates were 12% and 2%, respectively. No grades IV and V morbidity occurred. ExtRA-PAL is associated with a high success rate and a relative low morbidity rate. However, because of the limited data on this issue, further studies are warranted to assess the long-term effectiveness of this procedure.

  8. On Ensino de Astronomia: Desafios para Implantação

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faria, R. Z.; Voelzke, M. R.

    2008-09-01

    Em 2002 o ensino de Astronomia foi proposto como um dos temas estruturadores pelos Parâmetros Curriculares Nacionais e sugerido como facilitador para que o aluno compreendesse a Física como construção humana e parte do seu mundo vivencial, mas raramente seus conceitos foram ensinados. A presente pesquisa discute dois aspectos relacionados à abordagem de Astronomia. O primeiro aspecto é se ela está sendo abordada pelos professores do Ensino Médio e o segundo, aborda a maneira como ela está sendo ensinada. Optou-se pela aplicação de um questionário a partir do 2° semestre de 2006 e durante o ano de 2007 com professores que ministram a disciplina de Física, os quais trabalham em escolas estaduais em Rio Grande da Serra, Ribeirão Pires e Mauá no estado São Paulo. Dos 66,2% dos professores que responderam ao questionário nos municípios de Rio Grande da Serra, Ribeirão Pires e Mauá, 57,4% não aplicaram nenhum tópico de astronomia, 70,2% não utilizaram laboratório, 89,4% não utilizaram qualquer tipo de programa computacional, 83,0% nunca fizeram visitas com alunos a museus e planetários e 38,3% não indicaram qualquer tipo de livro ou revista referente à astronomia aos seus alunos. Mesmo considerando a Astronomia um conteúdo potencialmente significativo, esta não fez parte dos planejamentos escolares. Portanto são necessárias propostas que visem estratégias para a educação continuada dos professores como, por exemplo, cursos específicos sobre o ensino em Astronomia.

  9. Electron Spin Polarization Transfer to ortho-H2 by Interaction of para-H2 with Paramagnetic Species: A Key to a Novel para → ortho Conversion Mechanism.

    PubMed

    Terenzi, Camilla; Bouguet-Bonnet, Sabine; Canet, Daniel

    2015-05-07

    We report that at ambient temperature and with 100% enriched para-hydrogen (p-H2) dissolved in organic solvents, paramagnetic spin catalysis of para → ortho hydrogen conversion is accompanied at the onset by a negative ortho-hydrogen (o-H2) proton NMR signal. This novel finding indicates an electron spin polarization transfer, and we show here that this can only occur if the H2 molecule is dissociated upon its transient adsorption by the paramagnetic catalyst. Following desorption, o-H2 is created until the thermodynamic equilibrium is reached. A simple theory confirms that in the presence of a static magnetic field, the hyperfine coupling between unpaired electrons and nuclear spins is responsible for the observed polarization transfer. Owing to the negative electron gyromagnetic ratio, this explains the experimental results and ascertains an as yet unexplored mechanism for para → ortho conversion. Finally, we show that the recovery of o-H2 magnetization toward equilibrium can be simply modeled, leading to the para → ortho conversion rate.

  10. Chlorination of 2-phenoxypropanoic acid with NCP in aqueous acetic acid: using a novel ortho-para relationship and the para/meta ratio of substituent effects for mechanism elucidation.

    PubMed

    Segurado, Manuel A P; Reis, João Carlos R; de Oliveira, Jaime D Gomes; Kabilan, Senthamaraikannan; Shanthi, Manohar

    2007-07-06

    Rate constants were measured for the oxidative chlorodehydrogenation of (R,S)-2-phenoxypropanoic acid and nine ortho-, ten para- and five meta-substituted derivatives using (R,S)-1-chloro-3-methyl-2,6-diphenylpiperidin-4-one (NCP) as chlorinating agent. The kinetics was run in 50% (v/v) aqueous acetic acid acidified with perchloric acid under pseudo-first-order conditions with respect to NCP at temperature intervals of 5 K between 298 and 318 K, except at the highest temperature for the meta derivatives. The dependence of rate constants on temperature was analyzed in terms of the isokinetic relationship (IKR). For the 20 reactions studied at five different temperatures, the isokinetic temperature was estimated to be 382 K, which suggests the preferential involvement of water molecules in the rate-determining step. The dependence of rate constants on meta and para substitution was analyzed using the tetralinear extension of the Hammett equation. The parameter lambda for the para/meta ratio of polar substituent effects was estimated to be 0.926, and its electrostatic modeling suggests the formation of an activated complex bearing an electric charge near the oxygen atom belonging to the phenoxy group. A new approach is introduced for examining the effect of ortho substituents on reaction rates. Using IKR-determined values of activation enthalpies for a set of nine pairs of substrates with a given substituent, a linear correlation is found between activation enthalpies of ortho and para derivatives. The correlation is interpreted in terms of the selectivity of the reactant toward para- or ortho-monosubstituted substrates, the slope of which being related to the ortho effect. This slope is thought to be approximated by the ratio of polar substituent effects from ortho and para positions in benzene derivatives. Using the electrostatic theory of through-space interactions and a dipole length of 0.153 nm, this ratio was calculated at various positions of a charged reaction

  11. Oxidative Heck Reaction as a Tool for Para-selective Olefination of Aniline: A DFT Supported Mechanism.

    PubMed

    Moghaddam, Firouz Matloubi; Pourkaveh, Raheleh; Karimi, Ashkan

    2017-09-13

    This study describes the first para-selective palladium-catalyzed alkenylation of tertiary amines. This regioselective C-H activation was conducted without any chelation moieties. A series of olefins were reacted under mild reaction conditions at 60 °C, and the corresponding products were obtained in good yields with high selectivity.

  12. Remodelar Correctamente: Guía de Prácticas Acreditadas Seguras Para Trabajar Con Plomo

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Información general sobre los requisitos legales de las prácticas relacionadas al manejo seguro del plomo para dueños de hogares, inquilinos, proveedores de cuido infantil, y padres durante las actividades de remodelación

  13. Madres Para Niños: Engaging Latina Mothers as Consultees to Promote Their Children's Early Elementary School Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knotek, Steven E.; Sánchez, Marta

    2017-01-01

    The Madres para Niños (MpN) program uses consultee-centered consultation as a vehicle to help immigrant Latino parents focus and reframe their preexisting child advocacy skills toward their children's successful transition into elementary school in a new geographic and cultural context. This article describes the Latina mother's experience as…

  14. 75 FR 34943 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Para-Aramid Fibers and Yarns Manufactured in a...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-21

    ... made from DuPont Kevlar. DuPont supplies its Kevlar staple fiber to four major and six minor yarn... para-aramid yarns: DuPont TM which makes Kevlar , and the Teijin Group which makes Twaron. DuPont TM...

  15. LBA-ECO TG-07 Trace Gas Fluxes, Undisturbed and Logged Sites, Para, Brazil: 2000-2002

    Treesearch

    M.M. Keller; R.K. Varner; J.D. Dias; H.S. Silva; P.M. Crill; Jr. de Oliveira; G.P. Asner

    2009-01-01

    Trace gas fluxes of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and nitric oxide were measured manually at undisturbed and logged forest sites in the Tapajos National Forest, near Santarem, Para, Brazil. Manual measurements were made approximately weekly at both the undisturbed and logged sites. Fluxes from clay and sand soils were completed at the undisturbed sites....

  16. ParaStream: A parallel streaming Delaunay triangulation algorithm for LiDAR points on multicore architectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Huayi; Guan, Xuefeng; Gong, Jianya

    2011-09-01

    This paper presents a robust parallel Delaunay triangulation algorithm called ParaStream for processing billions of points from nonoverlapped block LiDAR files. The algorithm targets ubiquitous multicore architectures. ParaStream integrates streaming computation with a traditional divide-and-conquer scheme, in which additional erase steps are implemented to reduce the runtime memory footprint. Furthermore, a kd-tree-based dynamic schedule strategy is also proposed to distribute triangulation and merging work onto the processor cores for improved load balance. ParaStream exploits most of the computing power of multicore platforms through parallel computing, demonstrating qualities of high data throughput as well as a low memory footprint. Experiments on a 2-Way-Quad-Core Intel Xeon platform show that ParaStream can triangulate approximately one billion LiDAR points (16.4 GB) in about 16 min with only 600 MB physical memory. The total speedup (including I/O time) is about 6.62 with 8 concurrent threads.

  17. Factor Analysis of the Spanish Version of the WAIS: The Escala de Inteligencia Wechsler para Adultos (EIWA).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomez, Francisco C., Jr.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    The standardization of the Escala de Inteligencia Wechsler para Adultos (EIWA) and the original Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) were subjected to principal components analysis to examine their comparability for 616 EIWA subjects and 800 WAIS subjects. Similarity of factor structures of both scales is supported. (SLD)

  18. Factor Analysis of the Spanish Version of the WAIS: The Escala de Inteligencia Wechsler para Adultos (EIWA).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomez, Francisco C., Jr.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    The standardization of the Escala de Inteligencia Wechsler para Adultos (EIWA) and the original Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) were subjected to principal components analysis to examine their comparability for 616 EIWA subjects and 800 WAIS subjects. Similarity of factor structures of both scales is supported. (SLD)

  19. PLASMA CLEARANCE OF VITELLOGENIN IN SHEEPSHEAD MINNOWS AFTER CESSATION OF EXPOSURE TO 17BETA-ESTRADIOL AND PARA-NONYLPHENOL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two experiments were performed to determine the rate of vitellogenin plasma accumulation and clearance in male sheepshead minnows (Cyprinodon variegatus) during and after exposure to either 17b-estradiol (E2) or para-nonylphenol (p-NP). Adult fish were continuously exposed to aqu...

  20. Four novel sequences in Drosophila melanogaster homologous to the auxiliary Para sodium channel subunit TipE.

    PubMed

    Derst, Christian; Walther, Christian; Veh, Rüdiger W; Wicher, Dieter; Heinemann, Stefan H

    2006-01-20

    TipE is an auxiliary subunit of the Drosophila Para sodium channel. Here we describe four sequences, TEH1-4, homologous to TipE in the Drosophila melanogaster genome, harboring all typical structures of both TipE and the beta-Subunit family of big-conductance Ca(2+)-activated potassium channels: short cytosolic N- and C-terminal stretches, two transmembrane domains, and a large extracellular loop with two disulfide bonds. Whereas TEH1 and TEH2 lack the TipE-specific extension in the extracellular loop, both TEH3 and TEH4 possess two extracellular EGF-like domains. A CNS-specific expression was found for TEH1, while TEH2-4 were more widely expressed. The genes for TEH2-4 are localized close to the tipE gene on chromosome 3L. Coexpression of TEH subunits with Para in Xenopus oocytes showed a strong (30-fold, TEH1), medium (5- to 10-fold, TEH2 and TEH3), or no (TEH4) increase in sodium current amplitude, while TipE increased the current 20-fold. In addition, steady-state inactivation and the recovery from fast inactivation were altered by coexpression of Para with TEH1. We conclude that members of the TEH-family are auxiliary subunits for Para sodium channels and possibly other ion channels.

  1. Theoretical Study of the Mechanism Behind the para-Selective Nitration of Toluene in Zeolite H-Beta

    SciTech Connect

    Andersen, Amity; Govind, Niranjan; Subramanian, Lalitha

    2011-11-28

    Periodic density functional theory calculations were performed to investigate the origin of the favorable para-selective nitration of toluene exhibited by zeolite H-beta with acetyl nitrate nitration agent. Energy calculations were performed for each of the 32 crystallographically unique Bronsted acid sites of a beta polymorph B zeolite unit cell with multiple Bronsted acid sites of comparable stability. However, one particular aluminum T-site with three favorable Bronsted site oxygens embedded in a straight 12-T channel wall provides multiple favorable proton transfer sites. Transition state searches around this aluminum site were performed to determine the barrier to reaction for both para and ortho nitration of toluene. A three-step process was assumed for the nitration of toluene with two organic intermediates: the pi- and sigma-complexes. The rate limiting step is the proton transfer from the sigma-complex to a zeolite Bronsted site. The barrier for this step in ortho nitration is shown to be nearly 2.5 times that in para nitration. This discrepancy appears to be due to steric constraints imposed by the curvature of the large 12-T pore channels of beta and the toluene methyl group in the ortho approach that are not present in the para approach.

  2. Desarrollo de fotonovelas para concienciar sobre trastornos de la conducta alimentaria en latinos en los Estados Unidos

    PubMed Central

    Reyes-Rodríguez, Mae Lynn; García, Marissa; Silva, Yormeri; Sala, Margarita; Quaranta, Michela; Bulik, Cynthia M.

    2016-01-01

    Resumen El objetivo de este estudio fue desarrollar fotonovelas, un tipo de novela gráfica popular en la población latina, para crear conciencia y educar sobre los trastornos de la conducta alimentaria (TCA). Cuatro caricaturas ilustradas y guiones adaptados para adultos y adolescentes de ambos sexos fueron presentados en discusiones focales y en una entrevista de profundidad. Diecisiete latinos adultos (14 mujeres; 3 hombres) y 10 adolescentes (9 féminas; 1 varón) participaron en el estudio. Los participantes encontraron las fotonovelas interesantes y que captaban más la atención que los folletos tradicionales. El uso del espanglish y la clarificación de las diferencias entre los TCA fueron sugeridos por las adolescentes femeninas. Los adultos varones sugirieron cambiar el título, que se enfocara en las consecuencias en la salud de los TCA para que llame la atención en los hombres a leer la historia. Basado en la aceptación encontrada en este estudio, la fotonovela pudiera ser una avenida prometedora para crear conciencia y educar a la comunidad latina sobre los TCA en los Estados Unidos. PMID:27313838

  3. Millimeter-wave spectroscopy of S2Cl2: a candidate molecule for measuring ortho-para transition.

    PubMed

    Dehghani, Zeinab Tafti; Ota, Shinji; Mizoguchi, Asao; Kanamori, Hideto

    2013-10-03

    S2Cl2 is a candidate for the observation of ortho-para transition. To estimate the ortho-para mixing in a hyperfine-resolved rotational state, pure rotational transitions were measured by millimeter-wave (mm-wave) spectroscopy using two different experimental set-ups. The transitions from the term value around 20 K was measured with a supersonic jet and those around 200 K were measured with a dry ice cooled gas cell. Several hundred peaks were assigned for the naturally abundant S2(35)Cl2 and S2(35)Cl(37)Cl isotopic species and the rotational molecular parameters including the fourth-order and sixth-order centrifugal distortion constants were determined. The hyperfine structures were partly resolved in some Q-branch transitions, which were well described with the hyperfine constants determined by FTMW spectroscopy in the centimeter-wave region. With the new rotational constants determined in our study and the previous hyperfine constants, it will be possible to obtain a more reliable ortho-para mixing ratio and to narrow down the possible candidate transitions in the mm-wave region for the observation of ortho-para transition.

  4. Electrochemical determination of para-nitrophenol at apatite-modified carbon paste electrode: application in river water samples.

    PubMed

    El Mhammedi, M A; Achak, M; Bakasse, M; Chtaini, A

    2009-04-15

    The behavior of a modified carbon paste electrode (CPE) for para-nitrophenol detection by cyclic and square wave voltammetry (SWV) was studied. The electrode was built by incorporating the hydroxyapatite (HAP) to carbon paste. The overall analysis involved a two-step procedure: an accumulation step at open circuit, followed by medium exchange to a pure electrolyte solution for the voltammetric quantification. During the preconcentration step, para-nitrophenol was adsorbed onto hydroxyapatite surface. The influence of various experimental parameters on the HAP-CPE response was investigated (i.e. pH, carbon paste composition, accumulation time). Under the optimized conditions, the reduction peak shows that the peak height was found to be directly proportional to the para-nitrophenol concentration in the range comprised between 2x10(-7) mol L(-1) and 1x10(-4) mol L(-1). With this, it was possible to determine detection limit (DL), which resulted in 8x10(-9) mol L(-1) for peak 1. The proposed electrode (HAP-CPE) presented good repeatability, evaluated in term of relative standard deviation (R.S.D.=2.87%) for n=7 and was applied for para-nitrophenol determination in water samples. The average recovery for these samples was 86.2%.

  5. A Conceptual Model for Supporting Para-Teacher Learning in an Indian Non-Governmental Organization (NGO)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raval, Harini; McKenney, Susan; Pieters, Jules

    2010-01-01

    Non-governmental organizations (NGOs) are being recognized globally for their influential role in realizing the UN Millennium Development Goal of education for all in developing countries. NGOs mostly employ untrained para-educators for grassroots activities. The professional development of these teachers is critical for NGO effectiveness, yet…

  6. [Genetics and the Junta para Ampliación de Estudios e Investigaciones Científicas].

    PubMed

    Peláez, Raquel Alvarez

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to show the essential paper developed by the Junta para Ampliación de Estudios in the origin of the Spanish genetics, using for that the most relevant researchers of the time, and between them two women, Jimena Fernández de la Vega and Käte Pariser.

  7. The Role Of Women In Popular Education In Bolivia: A Case Study Of The "Oficina Juridica Para La Mujer"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kollins, Judith M.; Hansman, Catherine A.

    2005-01-01

    This study examines how the Education Office of the "Oficina Juridica Para la Mujer" [Women's Legal Office] , a community-based popular education organization in Cochabamba, Bolivia, works with women to address personal, legal, and policy issues through local leadership training and popular education methodology. We investigate the…

  8. Global variation of the para hydrogen fraction in Jupiter's atmosphere and implications for dynamics on the outer planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conrath, B. J.; Gierasch, P. J.

    1984-01-01

    A detailed analysis of the Voyager infrared spectrometer measurements on Jupiter's atmosphere is presented, and possible implications of para hydrogen disequilibrium for the energetics and dynamics of that atmosphere are examined. The method of data analysis is described, and results for the large scale latitude variation of the para hydrogen fraction are presented. The Jovian results show pronounced latitude variation, and are compared with other parameters including wind fields, thermal structure, and various indicators of atmospheric clouds. The problem of equilibration rate is reexamined, and it is concluded that on Jupiter the equilibration time is longer than the radiative time constant at the level of emission to space, but that this inequality reverses at greater depths. A model for the interaction of fluid motions with the ortho-para conversion process is presented, and a consistent mixing length theory for the reacting ortho-para mixture is developed. Several implications of the Jovian data for atmospheric energetics and stability on the outer planets are presented.

  9. Violencia de Pareja en Mujeres Hispanas: Implicaciones para la Investigación y la Práctica

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Guarda, Rosa Maria; Becerra, Maria Mercedes

    2012-01-01

    Las investigaciones sobre la violencia entre parejas sugieren que las mujeres hispanas están siendo afectadas desproporcionadamente por la ocurrencia y consecuencias de este problema de salud pública. El objetivo del presente artículo es dar a conocer el estado del arte en relación a la epidemiologia, consecuencias y factores de riesgo para VP entre mujeres Hispanas, discutiendo las implicaciones para la investigación y la práctica. Investigaciones han demostrado una fuerte asociación del status socioeconómico, abuso de droga y el alcohol, la salud mental, aculturación, inmigración, comportamientos sexuales riesgosos e historia de abuso con la violencia entre parejas. Sin embargo, más estudios se deben llevar a cabo para identificar otros factores de riesgos y de protección a poblaciones hispanas no clínicas. Mientras que el conocimiento sobre la etiología de la VP entre mujeres Hispanas se expanda, enfermeras y otros profesionales de la salud deben desarrollar, implementar y evaluar estrategias culturalmente adecuadas para la prevención primaria y secundaria de la violencia entre pareja. PMID:26166938

  10. Contribuições para o projeto da câmara infravermelha Spartan do telescópio SOAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laporte, R.; Jablonski, F.; Loh, E.

    2003-08-01

    Como parte de uma colaboração entre a Divisão de Astrofísica do INPE, IAG-USP, Instituto do Milênio MEGALIT e a Michigan State University, trabalhamos durante um ano junto ao grupo do Dr. Edwin Loh (MSU) no projeto e detalhamento de diversos subsistemas para a câmara infravermelho Spartan do telescópio SOAR. Trata-se de um imageador para as bandas J, H e K que explora todo o potencial, em termos de qualidade de imagem e campo de visada, fornecido pelo sistema de óptica adaptativa de primeira ordem do telescópio SOAR. Projetamos soluções detalhadas para os subsistemas de rodas de filtros/grismas/máscaras de Lyot; subsistema de compactação do mosaico de detectores em duas versões distintas; subsistema de alimentação de Nitrogênio líquido. Mantivemos sempre uma supervisão geral sobre todas as partes restantes e os respectivos envelopes volumétricos produzindo soluções para a integração de todos os componentes. Neste trabalho, ilustramos as principais contribuições e fornecemos um resumo do estado atual do instrumento.

  11. Conservation of ParaHox genes' function in patterning of the digestive tract of the marine gastropod Gibbula varia

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Presence of all three ParaHox genes has been described in deuterostomes and lophotrochozoans, but to date one of these three genes, Xlox has not been reported from any ecdysozoan taxa and both Xlox and Gsx are absent in nematodes. There is evidence that the ParaHox genes were ancestrally a single chromosomal cluster. Colinear expression of the ParaHox genes in anterior, middle, and posterior tissues of several species studied so far suggest that these genes may be responsible for axial patterning of the digestive tract. So far, there are no data on expression of these genes in molluscs. Results We isolated the complete coding sequences of the three Gibbula varia ParaHox genes, and then tested their expression in larval and postlarval development. In Gibbula varia, the ParaHox genes participate in patterning of the digestive tract and are expressed in some cells of the neuroectoderm. The expression of these genes coincides with the gradual formation of the gut in the larva. Gva-Gsx patterns potential neural precursors of cerebral ganglia as well as of the apical sensory organ. During larval development this gene is involved in the formation of the mouth and during postlarval development it is expressed in the precursor cells involved in secretion of the radula, the odontoblasts. Gva-Xolx and Gva-Cdx are involved in gut patterning in the middle and posterior parts of digestive tract, respectively. Both genes are expressed in some ventral neuroectodermal cells; however the expression of Gva-Cdx fades in later larval stages while the expression of Gva-Xolx in these cells persists. Conclusions In Gibbula varia the ParaHox genes are expressed during anterior-posterior patterning of the digestive system. This colinearity is not easy to spot during early larval stages because the differentiated endothelial cells within the yolk permanently migrate to their destinations in the gut. After torsion, Gsx patterns the mouth and foregut, Xlox the midgut gland or

  12. Viviendo Con Incendios: Una guia para los duenos de casas en Nuevo Mexico [Living with Fire: A Guide for the Homeowner-New Mexico

    Treesearch

    U.S. Department of the Interior Bureau of Land Management

    2008-01-01

    La posibilidad de perdidas humanas y de propiedad en Nuevo Mexico debido a un incendio forestal ha ido incrementando. Para responder a este peligro, entidades locales, estatales, federales, particulares y sin fines de lucro se han unido para crear Como Reducir la Amenaza de Incendios Forestales, un programa dirigido a los propietarios de casas. Este no es un programa...

  13. La EPA propone normas más rigurosas para las personas que aplican los plaguicidas de más alto riesgo

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    La EPA emitió una propuesta para la revisión de la norma para la Certificación de Aplicadores de Plaguicidas. La norma ayudará a mantener nuestras comunidades seguras, salvaguardar el medio ambiente y reducir el riesgo a los que aplican los plaguicidas.

  14. PFI-ZEKE (Pulsed Field Ionization-Zero Electron Kinetic Energy) para el estudio de iones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castaño, F.; Fernández, J. A.; Basterretxea, A. Longarte. F.; Sánchez Rayo, M. N.; Martínez, R.

    Entre las áreas hacia donde ha evolucionado la Química en los últimos años están los estudios de sistemas con especies reactivas de alta energía y los dominados por fuerzas intermoleculares débiles, con energías de unas pocas kcal/mol. En efecto, el estudio de las propiedades de los iones, comenzando por su relación con la molécula neutra de la que procede, la energía de ionización, los estados vibracionales y rotacionales, energías de enlace de Van der Waals entre el ión y una amplia variedad de otras moléculas, sus confórmeros o isómeros y sus reacciones o semi-reacciones químicas están en la raíz de la necesidad de la espectroscopía conocida como PFI-ZEKE, Pulsed Field Ionization-Zero Electron Kinetic Energy. Entre las aplicaciones que requieren estos conocimientos se encuentran la generación de plasmas para la fabricación de semiconductores, memorias magnéticas, etc, así como los sistemas astrofísicos, la ionosfera terrestre, etc. La espectroscopía ZEKE es una evolución de las de fluorescencia inducida por láser, LIF, ionización multifotónica acrecentada por resonancia, REMPI, con uno y dos colores y acoplada a un sistema de tiempo de vuelo, REMPI-TOF-MS, y las espectroscopías de doble resonancia IR-UV y UV-UV. Sus espectros y la ayuda de cálculos ab inicio permite determinar las energías de enlace de complejos de van der Waals en estados fundamental y excitados, identificar confórmeros e isómeros, obtener energías de ionización experimentales aproximadas (100 cm-1) y otras variables de interés. Al igual que con LIF, REMPI y dobles resonancias, es posible utilizar muestras gaseosas, pero los espectros están muy saturados de bandas y su interpretación es difícil o imposible. Se evitan estas dificultades estudiando las moléculas o complejos en expansiones supersónicas, donde la T de los grados de libertad solo alcanzan unos pocos K. Para realizar experimentos de ZEKE hay que utilizar una propiedad recientemente

  15. Agrobacterium tumefaciens pTAR parA promoter region involved in autoregulation, incompatibility and plasmid partitioning.

    PubMed

    Gallie, D R; Kado, C I

    1987-02-05

    The locus responsible for directing proper plasmid partitioning of Agrobacterium tumefaciens pTAR is contained within a 1259 base-pair region. Insertions or deletions within this locus can result in the loss of the plasmid's ability to partition properly. One protein product (parA), approximately 25,000 Mr, is expressed from the par locus in Escherichia coli and A. tumefaciens protein analysis systems in vitro. DNA sequence analysis of the locus revealed a single 23,500 Mr open reading frame, confirming the protein data. A 248 base-pair region immediately upstream from the 23,500 Mr open reading frame, containing an array of 12 seven-base-pair palindromic repeats each of which are separated by exactly ten base-pairs of A + T-rich (75%) sequence, not only serves to provide the promoter but is also involved in parA autoregulation. In addition, this region containing a set of 12 seven-base-pair palindromic repeats, is responsible for plasmid-associated incompatibility within Inc Ag-1 and also functions as the cis-acting recognition site at which parA interacts to bring about partitioning. Transcriptional analysis indicated that only the DNA strand responsible for parA is actively transcribed, and that active transcription of the opposite strand of par can inhibit the production of parA, resulting in plasmid destabilization. The presence of the par locus in a plasmid results in stable inheritance within a wide range of members of Rhizobiaceae. Segregation rates of par-defective derivatives can be influenced by the host.

  16. Monoamine transporter and receptor interaction profiles of novel psychoactive substances: para-halogenated amphetamines and pyrovalerone cathinones.

    PubMed

    Rickli, Anna; Hoener, Marius C; Liechti, Matthias E

    2015-03-01

    The pharmacology of novel psychoactive substances is mostly unknown. We evaluated the transporter and receptor interaction profiles of a series of para-(4)-substituted amphetamines and pyrovalerone cathinones. We tested the potency of these compounds to inhibit the norepinephrine (NE), dopamine (DA), and serotonin (5-HT) transporters (NET, DAT, and SERT, respectively) using human embryonic kidney 293 cells that express the respective human transporters. We also tested the substance-induced efflux of NE, DA, and 5-HT from monoamine-loaded cells, binding affinities to monoamine receptors, and 5-HT2B receptor activation. Para-(4)-substituted amphetamines, including 4-methylmethcathinone (mephedrone), 4-ethylmethcathinone, 4-fluoroamphetamine, 4-fluoromethamphetamine, 4-fluoromethcatinone (flephedrone), and 4-bromomethcathinone, were relatively more serotonergic (lower DAT:SERT ratio) compared with their analogs amphetamine, methamphetamine, and methcathinone. The 4-methyl, 4-ethyl, and 4-bromo groups resulted in enhanced serotonergic properties compared with the 4-fluoro group. The para-substituted amphetamines released NE and DA. 4-Fluoramphetamine, 4-flouromethamphetamine, 4-methylmethcathinone, and 4-ethylmethcathinone also released 5-HT similarly to 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine. The pyrovalerone cathinones 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone, pyrovalerone, α-pyrrolidinovalerophenone, 3,4-methylenedioxy-α-pyrrolidinopropiophenone, and 3,4-methylenedioxy-α-pyrrolidinobutiophenone potently inhibited the NET and DAT but not the SERT. Naphyrone was the only pyrovalerone that also inhibited the SERT. The pyrovalerone cathinones did not release monoamines. Most of the para-substituted amphetamines exhibited affinity for the 5-HT2A receptor but no relevant activation of the 5-HT2B receptor. All the cathinones exhibited reduced trace amine-associated receptor 1 binding compared with the non-β-keto-amphetamines. In conclusion, para-substituted amphetamines exhibited

  17. Molecular genetic analysis of para-Bombay phenotypes in Chinese: a novel non-functional FUT1 allele is identified.

    PubMed

    Yip, S P; Chee, K Y; Chan, P Y; Chow, E Y D; Wong, H F

    2002-10-01

    The para-Bombay phenotype (also known as H-deficient secretor) is characterized by a lack of ABH antigens on red cells, but ABH substances are found in saliva. Molecular genetic analysis was performed for five Chinese individuals serologically typed as para-Bombay. ABO genotyping and mutational analysis of both FUT1 (or H) and FUT2 (or Se) loci were performed for these individuals using the polymerase chain reaction, single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis and direct DNA sequencing. The ABO genotypes of these para-Bombay individuals correlated with the types of ABH substances found in the saliva. Their FUT1 genotypes were h1h2 (three individuals), h2h2 (one individual) and h2h6 (one individual). Alleles h1 (547-552delAG) and h2 (880-882delTT) were known frameshift mutations, while h6 (522C > A) was a missense mutation (Phe174Leu) not previously reported. These three mutations were rare sequence variations, each with an allele frequency of less than 0.005. Phe174 might be functionally important because this residue is conserved from mouse to human. Their FUT2 genotypes were Se357se357,385 for the h2h6 individual and Se357Se357) for the others. Both FUT2 alleles were known: one functional (Se357) and one weakly functional (se357,385). That they carried at least one copy of a functional FUT2 allele was consistent with their secretor status. As FUT1 and FUT2 are adjacent on 19q13.3, there are three possible haplotypes in these para-Bombay individuals: h1-Se357; h2-Se357; and h6-se357,385. A novel non-functional FUT1 allele (522C > A, or Phe174Leu) was identified in a para-Bombay individual and on a se357,385 haplotype background.

  18. Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy for the Treatment of Squamous Cell Anal Cancer With Para-aortic Nodal Involvement

    SciTech Connect

    Hodges, Joseph C.; Das, Prajnan; Eng, Cathy; Reish, Andrew G.; Beddar, A. Sam; Delclos, Marc E.; Krishnan, Sunil; Crane, Christopher H.

    2009-11-01

    Purpose: To determine the rates of toxicity, locoregional control, distant control, and survival in anal cancer patients with para-aortic nodal involvement, treated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and concurrent chemotherapy at a single institution. Methods and Materials: Between 2001 and 2007, 6 patients with squamous cell anal cancer and para-aortic nodal involvement were treated with IMRT and concurrent infusional 5-fluorouracil and cisplatin. The primary tumor was treated with a median dose of 57.5 Gy (range, 54-60 Gy), involved para-aortic, pelvic, and inguinal lymph nodes were treated with a median dose of 55 Gy (range, 50.5-55 Gy), and noninvolved nodal regions were treated with a median dose of 45 Gy (range, 43.5-45 Gy). Results: After a median follow-up of 25 months, none of the patients had a recurrence at the primary tumor, pelvic/inguinal nodes, or para-aortic nodes, whereas 2 patients developed distant metastases to the liver. Four of the 6 patients are alive. The 3-year actuarial locoregional control, distant control, and overall survival rates were 100%, 56%, and 63%, respectively. Four of the 6 patients developed Grade 3 acute gastrointestinal toxicity during chemoradiation. Conclusions: Intensity-modulated radiotherapy and concurrent chemotherapy could potentially serve as definitive therapy in anal cancer patients with para-aortic nodal involvement. Adjuvant chemotherapy may be indicated in these patients, as demonstrated by the distant failure rates. These patients need to be followed carefully because of the potential for treatment-related toxicities.

  19. ParaCalc®--a novel tool to evaluate the economic importance of worm infections on the dairy farm.

    PubMed

    Charlier, Johannes; Van der Voort, Mariska; Hogeveen, Henk; Vercruysse, Jozef

    2012-03-23

    Subclinical infections with gastrointestinal nematodes and liver fluke are important causes of production losses in grazing cattle. Although there is an extensive compilation of literature describing the effect of these infections on animal performance, only a few attempts have been made to convert these production losses to an economic cost. Here, we propose a novel tool (ParaCalc(®)), available as a web-application, to provide herd-specific estimates of the costs of these infections on dairy farms. ParaCalc(®) is a deterministic spread-sheet model where results from diagnostic methods to monitor the helminth infection status on a herd and anthelmintic usage are used as input parameters. Default values are provided to describe the effects of the infections on production and the cost of these production losses, but the latter can be adapted to improve the herd-specificity of the cost estimate. After development, ParaCalc(®) was applied on input parameters that were available for 93 Belgian dairy herds. In addition, the tool was provided to 6 veterinarians and their user experiences were evaluated. The estimated median [25th-75th percentile] cost per year per cow was € 46 [29-58] and € 6 [0-19] for gastrointestinal nematode and liver fluke infection, respectively. For both infections, the major components in the total costs were those associated with milk production losses in the adult cows. The veterinarians evaluated ParaCalc(®) as a useful tool to raise the farmers' awareness on the costs of worm infections, providing added value for their services. However, the score given for user-friendliness was diverse among users. Although the model behind ParaCalc(®) is a strong simplification of the real herd processes inducing economic losses, the tool may be used in the future to support economic decisions on helminth control.

  20. Clinical significance of para-aortic lymph node dissection and prognosis in ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Li, Xianxian; Xing, Hui; Li, Lin; Huang, Yanli; Zhou, Min; Liu, Qiong; Qin, Xiaomin; He, Min

    2014-03-01

    Lymph node metastasis has an important effect on prognosis of patients with ovarian cancer. Moreover, the impact of para-aortic lymph node (PAN) removal on patient prognosis is still unclear. In this study, 80 patients were divided into groups A and B. Group A consisted of 30 patients who underwent PAN + pelvic lymph node (PLN) dissection, whereas group B consisted of 50 patients who only underwent PLN dissection. Analysis of the correlation between PAN clearance and prognosis in epithelial ovarian cancer was conducted. Nineteen cases of lymph node metastasis were found in group A, among whom seven cases were positive for PAN, three cases for PLN, and nine cases for both PAN and PLN. In group B, 13 cases were positive for lymph node metastasis. Our study suggested that the metastatic rate of lymph node is 40.0%. Lymph node metastasis was significantly correlated with FIGO stage, tumor differentiation, and histological type both in groups A and B (P < 0.05). In groups A and B, the three-year survival rates were 77.9% and 69.0%, and the five-year survival rates were 46.7% and 39.2%, respectively. However, the difference was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). The three-year survival rates of PLN metastasis in groups A and B were 68.5% and 41.4%, and the five-year survival rates were 49.7% and 26.4%, respectively. Furthermore, PLN-positive patients who cleared PAN had significantly higher survival rate (P = 0.044). In group A, the three-year survival rates of positive and negative lymph nodes were 43.5% and 72.7%, and the five-year survival rates were 27.2% and 58.5%, respectively. The difference was statistically significant (P = 0.048). Cox model analysis of single factor suggested that lymph node status affected the survival rate (P < 0.01), which was the death risk factor. Consequently, in ovarian carcinoma cytoreductive surgery, resection of the para-aortic lymph node, which has an important function in clinical treatment and prognosis of patients with

  1. Alternative hair-dye products for persons allergic to para-phenylenediamine.

    PubMed

    Scheman, Andrew; Cha, Christina; Bhinder, Manpreet

    2011-01-01

    Finding alternative hair dyes for individuals allergic to para-phenylenediamine (PPD) has been difficult. Newer permanent and demipermanent hair dyes that have replaced PPD with para-toluenediamine sulfate (PTDS) are now available. We examined whether individuals allergic to PPD will tolerate PPD-free hair dyes containing PTDS. A retrospective analysis of patch-test results since October 2006 was done and yielded 28 patients allergic to PPD who were also tested with a hair dye series. From January 2004 through October 2006, seven additional patients allergic to PPD were tested with PTDS but not the full dye series. Patch-test results were analyzed. The newer PTDS dyes were recommended for all PPD-positive PTDS-negative subjects starting in 2008, and these subjects were contacted to determine whether they tolerated the recommended hair-dye products. Of 28 PPD-allergic patients seen since October 2006, 16 (57.1%) tested negative to all other substances on the dye series. Eleven tested positive to PTDS; of these, several were also allergic to other substances in the hair dye series. There was only one patient who was allergic to ortho-nitro-PPD and not to PTDS. Of 7 additional PPD-allergic patients seen from 2004 through 2006, 4 (57.1%) tested negative to PTDS. In total, 20 of 35 individuals (57.1%) tested positive to PPD but negative to PTDS. Ten of 13 PPD-positive patients for whom PTDS hair dyes were recommended subsequently used a PTDS hair dye, and all tolerated these products. Fifty-seven percent of patients allergic to PPD in this study will likely tolerate newer permanent and demipermanent hair dyes based on PTDS. Most individuals not allergic to PTDS will also test negative to other substances in the dye series. All 10 patients who tested positive to PPD and negative to PTDS who subsequently used a PTDS dye free of PPD tolerated these products. Many individuals allergic to PPD will benefit from the newer PTDS-based products.

  2. Desarrollo curricular, conciencia ambiental y tecnologia para estudiantes de intermedia: Una investigacion en accion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez Ramos, Teresita

    Se llevó a cabo una investigación en acción con los propósitos de 1) documentar las relaciones de las tecnologías de la información y la comunicación en las clases de ciencias de escuela intermedia como elemento de apoyo cuando se aborda el tema ambiental y sus conceptos pertinentes, a partir de las observaciones de la investigadora, así como las entrevistas y diarios reflexivos de los estudiantes de una escuela intermedia en la zona metropolitana, y luego 2) diseñar una unidad instruccional sobre el tema ambiental que integre actividades tecnologías para el curso de ciencias de la escuela intermedia según el modelo PROCIC y las observaciones que hayan iniciado los estudiantes participantes. Finalmente, se plantearon las implicaciones educativas para el currículo del Programa de Ciencias al instrumentar este modelo de unidad mediante PROCIC, e integrado la tecnología y el tema ambiental. Los hallazgos se analizaron y se categorizaron de acuerdo con las preguntas de investigación. El hallazgo principal de la investigación aborda las cuatro relaciones centrales en las que se articula la utilización de las tecnologías y sus aplicaciones en la clase de ciencias. Estas cuatro relaciones que recogen la posición de los estudiantes son: 1) Perspectiva de los estudiantes hacia la tecnología. 2) Participación de los estudiantes en los aspectos docentes. 3) Aprendizaje estudiantil sobre el ambiente, y 4) Conciencia ambiental en relación con la vida diaria. Estas relaciones ponen de manifiesto,cómo se plantea en las implicaciones, la necesidad de más investigación en acción en la sala de clases, la importancia—como tema transversal—de la conciencia ambiental mediante la tecnología al construir conocimientos significativos dentro y fuera de la escuela, asó como, valorar la investigación y la dialogicidad en la sala de clases como actividades que obligan al reexamen de la práctica didáctica en su formas curriculares de objetivos, recursos

  3. An NMR study of cobalt-catalyzed hydroformylation using para-hydrogen induced polarisation.

    PubMed

    Godard, Cyril; Duckett, Simon B; Polas, Stacey; Tooze, Robert; Whitwood, Adrian C

    2009-04-14

    The syntheses of Co(eta3-C3H5)(CO)2PR2R' (R, R' = Ph, Me; R, R' = Me, Ph; R = R' = Ph, Cy, CH2Ph) and Co(eta3-C3H5)(CO)(L) (L = dmpe and dppe) are described, and X-ray structures for Co(eta3-C3H5)(CO)(dppe) and the PPh2Me, PCy3 derivatives reported. The relative ability of Co(eta3-C3H5)(CO)2(PR2R') to exchange phosphine for CO follows the trend PMe2Ph < PPh2Me < PCy3 < P(CH2Ph)3 < PPh3. Reactions of the allyl complexes with para-hydrogen (p-H2) lead to the observation of para-hydrogen induced polarisation (PHIP) in both liberated propene and propane. Reaction of these complexes with both CO and H2 leads to the detection of linear acyl containing species Co(COCH2CH2CH3)(CO)3(PR2R') and branched acyl complexes Co(COCH(CH3)2)(CO)3(PR2R') via the PHIP effect. In the case of PPh2Me, additional signals for Co(COCH2CH2CH3)(CO)2(PPh2Me)(propene) and Co(COCH(CH3)2)(CO)2(PPh2Me)(propene) are also detected. When the reactions of H2 and diphenylacetylene are studied with the same precursor, Co(CO)3(PPh2Me)(CHPhCH2Ph) is seen. Studies on how the appearance and ratio, of the PHIP enhanced signals vary as a function of reaction temperature and H2 : CO ratio are reported. These profiles are used to learn about the mechanism of catalysis and reveal how the rates of key steps leading to linear and branched hydroformylation products vary with the phosphine. These data also reveal that the PMe2Ph and PPh2Me based systems yield the highest selectivity for linear hydroformylation products.

  4. PREVENCION DE VIH PARA MUJERES HISPANAS DE 50 AÑOS Y MÁS

    PubMed Central

    Villegas, N.; Cianelli, R.; Ferrer, L.; Kaelber, L.; Peragallo, N.; Yaya, Alexandra O.

    2012-01-01

    Introducción Las mujeres Hispanas de 50 años y más (MHC) son una minoría en Estados Unidos que está a elevado riesgo de adquirir VIH y son el grupo menos estudiado en lo que respecta a salud, características sociales y de comportamiento sexual. Objetivo Investigar los factores que incrementan el riesgo de VIH en las MHC con el propósito de desarrollar o adaptar una intervención apropiada para la “edad y la cultura "de este grupo de mujeres. Metodología Estudio descriptivo de corte transversal con una muestra de 50 MHC, sexualmente activas y que residían en Miami, Florida, Estados Unidos. Se utilizó un cuestionario estructurado administrado por entrevistadores entrenados y bilingües (inglés/español). Las participantes fueron reclutadas en diferentes lugares en el Sur de Florida. Para el análisis de los datos se utilizó estadística descriptiva, tanto medidas de tendencia central como medidas de dispersión. Resultados La edad promedio de las MHC fue de 55,7 ± 6 años (rango 50–76 años). Todas las MHC estaban en la menopausia. Prevención del VIH Las MHC reportaron niveles medios de conocimientos sobre VIH y comunicación con la pareja. En la muestra se reportó la presencia de síntomas depresivos, violencia en la pareja, actitudes negativas hacia las personas viviendo con VIH y baja percepción de riesgo de adquirir VIH. Las MHC mencionaron necesidades de aprendizaje en tópicos relacionados con prevención de VIH y cambios de la edad. Conclusión Las MHC están a riesgo de adquirir VIH y tienen necesidades especiales en términos de educación sobre prevención de VIH. PMID:25242862

  5. Production of para-aminobenzoic acid from different carbon-sources in engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Averesch, Nils J H; Winter, Gal; Krömer, Jens O

    2016-05-26

    Biological production of the aromatic compound para-aminobenzoic acid (pABA) is of great interest to the chemical industry. Besides its application in pharmacy and as crosslinking agent for resins and dyes pABA is a potential precursor for the high-volume aromatic feedstocks terephthalic acid and para-phenylenediamine. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae synthesises pABA in the shikimate pathway: Outgoing from the central shikimate pathway intermediate chorismate, pABA is formed in two enzyme-catalysed steps, encoded by the genes ABZ1 and ABZ2. In this study S. cerevisiae metabolism was genetically engineered for the overproduction of pABA. Using in silico metabolic modelling an observed impact of carbon-source on product yield was investigated and exploited to optimize production. A strain that incorporated the feedback resistant ARO4 (K229L) and deletions in the ARO7 and TRP3 genes, in order to channel flux to chorismate, was used to screen different ABZ1 and ABZ2 genes for pABA production. In glucose based shake-flaks fermentations the highest titer (600 µM) was reached when over-expressing the ABZ1 and ABZ2 genes from the wine yeast strains AWRI1631 and QA23, respectively. In silico metabolic modelling indicated a metabolic advantage for pABA production on glycerol and combined glycerol-ethanol carbon-sources. This was confirmed experimentally, the empirical ideal glycerol to ethanol uptake ratios of 1:2-2:1 correlated with the model. A (13)C tracer experiment determined that up to 32% of the produced pABA originated from glycerol. Finally, in fed-batch bioreactor experiments pABA titers of 1.57 mM (215 mg/L) and carbon yields of 2.64% could be achieved. In this study a combination of genetic engineering and in silico modelling has proven to be a complete and advantageous approach to increase pABA production. Especially the enzymes that catalyse the last two steps towards product formation appeared to be crucial to direct flux to pABA. A stoichiometric model

  6. Cosmoeducação: uma proposta para o ensino de astronomia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medeiros, L. A. L.; Jafelice, L. C.

    2003-08-01

    Entende-se por cosmoeducação o desenvolvimento vivencial da unidade homem-cosmo. Este conceito é norteado pela psicologia transpessoal, que estuda o ser humano em sua totalidade, onde suas relações ecológicas e cósmicas são de grande importância. Constata-se uma necessidade latente no ser humano moderno em resgatar uma relação holística com o Universo. Neste trabalho exploramos meios de cultivar a consciência de que o ser humano constitui parte integrante do cosmo e se relaciona com este com o objetivo de promover em si uma percepção ambiental mais ampla. Nossa hipótese de trabalho inicial foi que o ensino de conteúdos básicos em astronomia realizado através de uma abordagem holística, que incorpore práticas vivenciais correlacionadas àqueles conteúdos, pode despertar no indivíduo sua identidade cósmica. O método que utilizamos é o fenomenológico e o universo desta pesquisa é um grupo de estudantes da disciplina de Astronomia (Curso de Licenciatura em Geografia/UFRN), onde realizamos observação participante, entrevistas, depoimentos e as práticas vivenciais mencionadas. Neste caso estamos desenvolvendo e adaptando exercícios de algumas técnicas terapêuticas de psicologia transpessoal, que um de nós (LALM) tem aplicado no contexto clínico, para trabalhar aspectos cognitivos envolvidos naquele processo de conscientização cósmica. Resultados parciais claramente referendam a hipótese inicial. Um resultado a destacar é fruto de uma dinâmica de representação corporal interiorizada do eclipse lunar, envolvendo um pequeno grupo daqueles estudantes, na qual conteúdos míticos afloraram de maneira espontânea e contundente para todos, sugerindo ressonância, ou pelo menos isomorfismo, entre o macro e o microcosmo. Este e outros resultados são discutidos em detalhe neste trabalho. (PPGECNM/UFRN; PRONEX/FINEP; NUPA/USP; Temáticos/FAPESP).

  7. Performance of three different anodes in electrochemical degradation of 4-para-nitrophenol.

    PubMed

    Murugaesan, Pramila; Aravind, Priyadharshini; Muniyandi, Neelavannan Guruswamy; Kandasamy, Subramanian

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, removal of pollutants from wastewater by electrochemical oxidation has become an attractive method. The present investigation deals with the degradation of 4-para-nitrophenol (4-PNP) by electrochemical oxidation using three different anodes, namely TiO2-RuO2-IrO2/Ti (titanium substrate insoluble anode - TSIA)), IrO2-PbO2/Ti and graphite. Electrochemical oxidation of 4-PNP was carried out employing sodium chloride as the supporting electrolyte, at pH 7 with a current density of 15 mA/cm(2). The degradation of 4-PNP by electro-oxidation was characterized by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and high-performance liquid chromatography. The performance efficiency and current efficiency of the three anodic materials in this study were evaluated by chemical oxygen demand (COD). Comparisons of energy consumption for the three anodes employed were also calculated. Among electrodes investigated, the IrO2-PbO2/Ti electrode resulted in 98% of COD removal in 30 min comparatively at a less energy consumption of 1 × 10(-2) kWh m(-3), depicting its higher performance efficiency in 4-PNP degradation.

  8. ParaText : scalable solutions for processing and searching very large document collections : final LDRD report.

    SciTech Connect

    Crossno, Patricia Joyce; Dunlavy, Daniel M.; Stanton, Eric T.; Shead, Timothy M.

    2010-09-01

    This report is a summary of the accomplishments of the 'Scalable Solutions for Processing and Searching Very Large Document Collections' LDRD, which ran from FY08 through FY10. Our goal was to investigate scalable text analysis; specifically, methods for information retrieval and visualization that could scale to extremely large document collections. Towards that end, we designed, implemented, and demonstrated a scalable framework for text analysis - ParaText - as a major project deliverable. Further, we demonstrated the benefits of using visual analysis in text analysis algorithm development, improved performance of heterogeneous ensemble models in data classification problems, and the advantages of information theoretic methods in user analysis and interpretation in cross language information retrieval. The project involved 5 members of the technical staff and 3 summer interns (including one who worked two summers). It resulted in a total of 14 publications, 3 new software libraries (2 open source and 1 internal to Sandia), several new end-user software applications, and over 20 presentations. Several follow-on projects have already begun or will start in FY11, with additional projects currently in proposal.

  9. Para-toluenesulfonamide induces tongue squamous cell carcinoma cell death through disturbing lysosomal stability.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhe; Liang, Chenyuan; Zhang, Zhuoyuan; Pan, Jian; Xia, Hui; Zhong, Nanshan; Li, Longjiang

    2015-11-01

    Para-toluenesulfonamide (PTS) has been implicated with anticancer effects against a variety of tumors. In the present study, we investigated the inhibitory effects of PTS on tongue squamous cell carcinoma (Tca-8113) and explored the lysosomal and mitochondrial changes after PTS treatment in vitro. High-performance liquid chromatography showed that PTS selectively accumulated in Tca-8113 cells with a relatively low concentration in normal fibroblasts. Next, the effects of PTS on cell viability, invasion, and cell death were determined. PTS significantly inhibited Tca-8113 cells' viability and invasive ability with increased cancer cell death. Flow cytometric analysis and the lactate dehydrogenase release assay showed that PTS induced cancer cell death by activating apoptosis and necrosis simultaneously. Morphological changes, such as cellular shrinkage, nuclear condensation as well as formation of apoptotic body and secondary lysosomes, were observed, indicating that PTS might induce cell death through disturbing lysosomal stability. Lysosomal integrity assay and western blot showed that PTS increased lysosomal membrane permeabilization associated with activation of lysosomal cathepsin B. Finally, PTS was shown to inhibit ATP biosynthesis and induce the release of mitochondrial cytochrome c. Therefore, our findings provide a novel insight into the use of PTS in cancer therapy.

  10. Synthesis and methemoglobinemia-inducing properties of analogues of para-aminopropiophenone designed as humane rodenticides.

    PubMed

    Rennison, David; Conole, Daniel; Tingle, Malcolm D; Yang, Junpeng; Eason, Charles T; Brimble, Margaret A

    2013-12-15

    A number of structural analogues of the known toxicant para-aminopropiophenone (PAPP) have been prepared and evaluated for their capacity to induce methemoglobinemia--with a view to their possible application as humane pest control agents. It was found that an optimal lipophilicity for the formation of methemoglobin (metHb) in vitro existed for alkyl analogues of PAPP (aminophenones 1-20; compound 6 metHb% = 74.1 ± 2). Besides lipophilicity, this structural sub-class suggested there were certain structural requirements for activity, with both branched (10-16) and cyclic (17-20) alkyl analogues exhibiting inferior in vitro metHb induction. Of the four candidates (compounds 4, 6, 13 and 23) evaluated in vivo, 4 exhibited the greatest toxicity. In parallel, aminophenone bioisosteres, including oximes 30-32, sulfoxide 33, sulfone 34 and sulfonamides 35-36, were found to be inferior metHb inducers to lead ketone 4. Closer examination of Hammett substituent constants suggests that a particular combination of the field and resonance parameters may be significant with respect to the redox mechanisms behind PAPPs metHb toxicity.

  11. RETRACTED ARTICLE: Quantum effects on translation and rotation of molecular chlorine in solid para-hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Accardi, Antonio; Schmidt, Burkhard

    2014-07-01

    Structure and quantum effects of a Cl2 molecule embedded in fcc and hcp para-hydrogen (pH2) crystals are investigated in the zero-temperature limit. The interaction is modelled in terms of Cl2-pH2 and pH2-pH2 pair potentials from ab initio CCSD(T) and MP2 calculations. Translational and rotational motions of the molecules are described within three-dimensional anharmonic Einstein and Devonshire models, respectively, where the crystals are either treated as rigid or allowed to relax. The pH2 molecules, as well as the heavier Cl2 molecule, show large translational zero-point energies (ZPEs) and undergo large-amplitude translational motions. This gives rise to substantial reductions in the cohesive energies and expansions of the lattices, in agreement with experimental results for pure hydrogen crystals. The rotational dynamics of the Cl2 impurity is restricted to small-amplitude librations, again with high librational ZPEs, which are described in terms of two-dimensional non-degenerate anharmonic oscillators. The lattice relaxation causes qualitative changes of the rotational energy surfaces, which finally favour librations around the crystallographic directions pointing towards the nearest neighbours, both for fcc and hcp lattices. Implications on the reactant orientation in the experimentally observed laser-induced chemical reaction, Cl + H2 → HCl + H, are discussed.

  12. Searching for auxetics with DYNA3D and ParaDyn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoover, Wm. G.; Hoover, C. G.

    2005-03-01

    The present special issue of physica status solidi (b), guest-edited by Krzysztof W. Wojciechowski, Andrew Alderson, Arkadiusz Braka, and Kim L. Alderson, is dedicated to Auxetics and Related Systems - materials which exhibit negative Poisson's ratio behaviour. Most papers were presented at a workshop which was held in Pozna-Bdlewo, 27-30 June 2004.In our Editor's Choice [1] novel simulations with a parallel finite element program, ParaDyn, have been conducted to study the formation of auxetic materials. Structures composed of either brick elements (hexahedra) or shell elements are constructed in a regular array of panels. These structures are compressed and relaxed to form an initial state for an auxetic (foam-like) material. The foam structure shown is composed of 208896 shell elements arranged in four by four panels. Applying a uniaxial compression to this structure characterizes the material behaviour of the lateral surfaces as normal (expanding) or auxetic (compressing).The first author, William G. Hoover, has been working in areas such as statistical and applied mechanics, nonlinear and molecular dynamics and is now pursuing, as he states on his own webpage, an active retired research career as Professor Emeritus of UC Davis.

  13. [Para-phenylenediamine allergic contact dermatitis due to henna tattoos in a child and adolescent population].

    PubMed

    Ortiz Salvador, José María; Esteve Martínez, Altea; Subiabre Ferrer, Daniela; Victoria Martínez, Ana Mercedes; de la Cuadra Oyanguren, Jesús; Zaragoza Ninet, Violeta

    2017-03-01

    Henna tattoos are a very common practice in the adolescent population. Henna is very often admixed with para-phenylenediamine (PPDA) to improve the appearance of the tattoo. PPDA is a potent allergen, and is a frequent cause of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). A study was conducted on the results of 726 consecutive children who had been patch tested in the University General Hospital Consortium of Valencia between 1980 and 2015. Almost half (49.7%; (361 cases) of the children had one or more positive patch test findings, with 4.7% (34) being allergic to PPDA. Mean age of patients allergic to PPDA was 12.4 years, and 44.2% were male. There were 2 cases (5.9%) of atopic dermatitis. Of the positive reactions, 73.5% were considered to be current clinically relevant. The sensitisation origin was a Henna tattoo in 50% of cases. PPDA sensitisation is relatively common in the child and adolescent population. The most frequent origin is the performing of Henna tattoos adulterated with PPDA. Adolescents are at the higher risk of developing ACD due to Henna tattoos. Henna tattooing should be strongly discouraged in children. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Conformation of ionizable poly Para phenylene ethynylene in dilute solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Wijesinghe, Sidath; Maskey, Sabina; Perahia, Dvora; Grest, Gary S.

    2015-11-03

    The conformation of dinonyl poly para phenylene ethynylenes (PPEs) with carboxylate side chains, equilibrated in solvents of different quality is studied using molecular dynamics simulations. PPEs are of interest because of their tunable electro-optical properties, chemical diversity, and functionality which are essential in wide range of applications. The polymer conformation determines the conjugation length and their assembly mode and affects electro-optical properties which are critical in their current and potential uses. The current study investigates the effect of carboxylate fraction on PPEs side chains on the conformation of chains in the dilute limit, in solvents of different quality. The dinonyl PPE chains are modeled atomistically, where the solvents are modeled both implicitly and explicitly. Dinonyl PPEs maintained a stretched out conformation up to a carboxylate fraction f of 0.7 in all solvents studied. The nonyl side chains are extended and oriented away from the PPE backbone in toluene and in implicit good solvent whereas in water and implicit poor solvent, the nonyl side chains are collapsed towards the PPE backbone. Thus, rotation around the aromatic ring is fast and no long range correlations are seen within the backbone.

  15. [Comparative assessment of antioxidant activity of para-aminobenzoic acid and emoxipin in retina].

    PubMed

    Akberova, S I; Musaev Galbinur, P I; Magomedov, N M; Babaev, Kh F; Gakhramanov, Kh M; Stroeva, O G

    1998-01-01

    Effect of para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) on lipid peroxidation (LPO) in rat and guinea pig retina exposed to hypoxic hypoxia is studied. PABA was injected intraperitoneally and parabulbarly before and after hypoxic exposure. Antioxidant activities of PABA and emoxipin were compared. An intraperitoneal injection of PABA in a dose of 10 mg/kg 24 h before hypoxia virtually completely prevented accumulation of lipid peroxides and preserved catalase activity in the retina. Parabulbar injection of 0.01% PABA solution 1 h before hypoxia prevented LPO intensification, stabilized catalase activity in hypoxia, and protected the retina starting from the moment immediately after hypoxic exposure. The efficacy of 0.01% PABA is comparable with that of 1% emoxipin, and a 0.01% solution of emoxipin is less effective than PABA in the same concentration. PABA exerts an antioxidant effect after hypoxia by decreasing the abnormally high level of lipid peroxides and reducing catalase activity in the retina after parabulbar injection of the drug. All the studied concentrations of the drug (from 0.007 to 0.08%) are active, but the optimal dose for the retina is 0.04%. By its efficacy this concentration is equivalent to 1% emoxipin.

  16. Local Ecological Knowledge about Endangered Primates in a Rural Community in Paraíba, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Torres Junior, Emanuel Ubaldino; Valença-Montenegro, Mônica Mafra; Castro, Carla Soraia Soares de

    2016-01-01

    The study of local ecological knowledge (LEK) fosters a better understanding of the relationship between humans and the environment. We assessed respondents' ecological knowledge of primates in a rural community located near the Atlantic Forest remnants in the state of Paraíba, Brazil. Populations of Alouatta belzebul (red-handed howler monkeys), Sapajus flavius (blonde capuchins), and Callithrix jacchus (the common marmoset) inhabit the region. We conducted 200 semi-structured interviews and applied thematic content analysis, with weighting, to the responses to quantify the LEK. Respondents showed a low LEK, despite the community's proximity to forest remnants. However, the LEK was significantly higher among men, as well as among those who had a greater degree of contact with the primates. Age did not influence LEK. The studied community apparently does not intensively exploit the forest resources nor does it economically depend on primates, which may explain these individuals' low levels of knowledge about these animals. Such data may support future studies, as well as environmental education and action plans, especially for A. belzebul and S. flavius, both of which are endangered species and targets of the National Action Plan for the Conservation of the Primates of the Northeast. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. An experimental and theoretical investigation into the electronically excited states of para-benzoquinone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, D. B.; Limão-Vieira, P.; Mendes, M.; Jones, N. C.; Hoffmann, S. V.; da Costa, R. F.; Varella, M. T. do N.; Bettega, M. H. F.; Blanco, F.; García, G.; Ingólfsson, O.; Lima, M. A. P.; Brunger, M. J.

    2017-05-01

    We report on a combination of experimental and theoretical investigations into the structure of electronically excited para-benzoquinone (pBQ). Here synchrotron photoabsorption measurements are reported over the 4.0-10.8 eV range. The higher resolution obtained reveals previously unresolved pBQ spectral features. Time-dependent density functional theory calculations are used to interpret the spectrum and resolve discrepancies relating to the interpretation of the Rydberg progressions. Electron-impact energy loss experiments are also reported. These are combined with elastic electron scattering cross section calculations performed within the framework of the independent atom model-screening corrected additivity rule plus interference (IAM-SCAR + I) method to derive differential cross sections for electronic excitation of key spectral bands. A generalized oscillator strength analysis is also performed, with the obtained results demonstrating that a cohesive and reliable quantum chemical structure and cross section framework has been established. Within this context, we also discuss some issues associated with the development of a minimal orbital basis for the single configuration interaction strategy to be used for our high-level low-energy electron scattering calculations that will be carried out as a subsequent step in this joint experimental and theoretical investigation.

  18. LabVIEW-based control software for para-hydrogen induced polarization instrumentation

    SciTech Connect

    Agraz, Jose Grunfeld, Alexander; Li, Debiao; Cunningham, Karl; Willey, Cindy; Pozos, Robert; Wagner, Shawn

    2014-04-15

    The elucidation of cell metabolic mechanisms is the modern underpinning of the diagnosis, treatment, and in some cases the prevention of disease. Para-Hydrogen induced polarization (PHIP) enhances magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) signals over 10 000 fold, allowing for the MRI of cell metabolic mechanisms. This signal enhancement is the result of hyperpolarizing endogenous substances used as contrast agents during imaging. PHIP instrumentation hyperpolarizes Carbon-13 ({sup 13}C) based substances using a process requiring control of a number of factors: chemical reaction timing, gas flow, monitoring of a static magnetic field (B{sub o}), radio frequency (RF) irradiation timing, reaction temperature, and gas pressures. Current PHIP instruments manually control the hyperpolarization process resulting in the lack of the precise control of factors listed above, resulting in non-reproducible results. We discuss the design and implementation of a LabVIEW based computer program that automatically and precisely controls the delivery and manipulation of gases and samples, monitoring gas pressures, environmental temperature, and RF sample irradiation. We show that the automated control over the hyperpolarization process results in the hyperpolarization of hydroxyethylpropionate. The implementation of this software provides the fast prototyping of PHIP instrumentation for the evaluation of a myriad of {sup 13}C based endogenous contrast agents used in molecular imaging.

  19. Para-veterinary professionals and the development of quality, self-sustaining community-based services.

    PubMed

    Catley, A; Leyland, T; Mariner, J C; Akabwai, D M O; Admassu, B; Asfaw, W; Bekele, G; Hassan, H Sh

    2004-04-01

    Livestock are a major asset for rural households throughout the developing world and are increasingly regarded as a means of reducing poverty. However, many rural areas are characterised by limited or no accessibility to veterinary services. Economic theory indicates that primary level services can be provided by para-veterinary professionals working as private operators and as an outreach component of veterinary clinics and pharmacies in small urban centres. Experience from the development of community-based animal health worker (CAHW) systems indicates that these workers can have a substantial impact on livestock morbidity and mortality through the treatment or prevention of a limited range of animal health problems. Factors for success include community involvement in the design and implementation of these systems, and involvement of the private sector to supply and supervise CAHWs. Examples of privatised and veterinary supervised CAHW networks are cited to show the considerable potential of this simple model to improve primary animal health services in marginalised areas. An analysis of constraints indicates that inappropriate policies and legislation are a major concern. By referring to the section on the evaluation of Veterinary Services in the OIE (World organisation for animal health) Terrestrial Animal Health Code, the paper proposes guidelines to assist governments in improving the regulation, quality, and co-ordination of privatised, veterinary supervised CAHW systems.

  20. Virilizing para-adrenocortical adenoma associated with idiopathic-acquired generalized anhidrosis in an adolescent girl.

    PubMed

    Gumus, Pinar; Luquette, Mark; Haymon, Marie Louise; Valerie, Evans; Morales, Jaime; Vargas, Alfonso

    2011-01-01

    Adrenocortical tumors are rare in childhood and adolescence. Virilization, alone or in combination with signs of overproduction of other adrenal hormones, is the most common clinical presentation. Here we report an unusual case of an African-American female adolescent presenting with idiopathic acquired generalized anhidrosis, dysregulation of body temperature, absence of adult body odor and dry skin in the face of a virilizing para-adrenocortical adenoma. Virilization signs regressed soon after removal of the tumor, but normalization of the 3alpha-androstenediol glucuronide (3alpha-AG) took longer compared to other measurable androgens; accompanied by anhidrosis. The association of remitting anhidrosis with normalized levels of 3alpha-AG suggests it might be a possible mechanism for anhidrosis. High 3alpha-AG levels might implicate the increased peripheral conversion of weak pro-androgens with different biochemical structure. We recommend obtaining 3alpha-AG beside other androgens in virilized patients with atypical dermatological symptoms in the face of hyperandrogenism.