Glauser, Frédéric; Barras, Anne-Catherine; Pache, Isabelle; Monti, Matteo
Abdominal paracentesis is frequently performed in the clinical setting. Every newly developed ascites need to be investigated by abdominal paracentesis. Any clinical or biological deterioration in patients with chronic ascites also requires a new paracentesis. Therapeutically abdominal paracentesis is performed for refractory or symptomatic ascites. As other invasive procedures, it is critical to master its indications, contra-indications and complications. The aim of this article is to review the basics of abdominal paracentesis in order to help physicians to carry out this technical skill.
Stafford, P. J.
A 62 year old man presented with abdominal ascites, without pleural effusion, due to peritoneal mesothelioma. He had chronic obstructive airways disease and a past history of right upper lobectomy for tuberculosis. On two occasions abdominal paracentesis was followed within 72 hours by pneumothorax. This previously unreported complication of abdominal paracentesis may be due to increased diaphragmatic excursion following the procedure and should be considered in patients with preexisting lung disease. PMID:2385561
Azuara-Blanco, A; Katz, L J
A paracentesis is performed in glaucoma procedures as a flat, beveled tract to allow access into the anterior chamber after the filtration fistula is made. Complications related to the paracentesis are infrequent because it is a self-sealing wound. The authors report a case of infectious keratitis that developed in a paracentesis tract.
Gaduputi, Vinaya; Tariq, Hassan; Chandrala, Chaitanya; Sakam, Sailaja; Abbas, Naeem; Chilimuri, Sridhar
Background Ascites remains the most common cause of hospitalization among patients with decompensated cirrhosis. Paracentesis is a relatively safe procedure with low complication rates. Computerized tomography (CT)-guided therapeutic paracentesis could be a safe and effective alternative to unaided or aided (ultrasonogram-guided) bedside paracentesis. In this retrospective study, we aimed to compare the efficacy, safety, and cost-effectiveness of CT-guided paracentesis with bedside paracentesis. Methods The period of study was from 2002 to 2012. All patients with cirrhosis who underwent therapeutic paracentesis were included in the study. These patients were divided into two groups. Group I consisted of patients who underwent CT-guided pigtail catheter insertion with ascitic fluid drainage. Group II consisted of patients who underwent beside therapeutic paracentesis after localization of fluid either by physical examination or sonographic localization. We measured the efficacy of CT-guided paracentesis and bedside paracentesis in terms of volume of fluid removed, length of stay, discharge doses of diuretics (spironolactone and furosemide) and number of days to readmission for symptomatic ascites. We also computed the cost-effectiveness of CT-guided therapeutic paracentesis when compared to a bedside procedure. Fischer exact test was used to analyze the distribution of categorical data and unpaired t-test was used for comparison of means. Results There were a total of 546 unique patients with diagnosed cirrhosis who were admitted to the hospital with symptomatic ascites and underwent therapeutic paracentesis. Two hundred and forty-seven patients underwent CT-guided paracentesis, while 272 patients underwent bedside paracentesis. There was significant inverse correlation between the amount of ascitic fluid removed and total length of stay in the hospital. We found that the volume of fluid removed via a CT-guided pigtail insertion and drainage (2.72 ± 2.02 L) is
Liver disease is a common cause of death in England and Wales, and ascites is associated with a 50% mortality rate. Most patients who present with ascites have underlying liver cirrhosis, and often require therapeutic paracentesis for symptomatic relief. This article describes a competency framework that was developed to enable advanced nurse practitioners to perform therapeutic paracentesis in an ambulatory care unit.
Danto, L A; Thomas, C W; Gorenbein, S; Wolfman, E F
Controversy still exists regarding the proper approach to patients with penetrating torso injuries. Mandatory immediate celiotomy and selective observation both have associated risks. Paracentesis with lavage is a rapid, easily performed and readily available technique which can, with a high degree of accuracy, differentiate on initial evaluation those patients with penetrating visceral injuries from those without such injuries. Complications are minimal. The use of these two procedures in evaluating penetrating torso injuries has led to improved patient care and produced major lowering of medical and socioeconomic costs.
Orman, Eric S.; Hayashi, Paul H.; Bataller, Ramon; Barritt, A. Sidney
Background & Aims Diagnostic paracentesis is recommended for patients with cirrhosis admitted to the hospital for ascites or encephalopathy. However, it is not known if clinicians in the United States adhere to this recommendation; a relationship between paracentesis and clinical outcome has not been reported. We analyzed a US database to determine the frequency of paracentesis and its association with mortality. Methods The 2009 Nationwide Inpatient Sample (which contains data from approximately 8 million hospital discharges each year) was used to identify patients with cirrhosis and ascites admitted with a primary diagnosis of ascites or encephalopathy. In-hospital mortality, length of stay, and hospital charges were compared for those who did and did not undergo paracentesis. Outcomes were compared for those who received an early paracentesis (within 1 day of admission) and those who received one later. Results Of 17,711 eligible admissions, only 61% underwent paracentesis. In-hospital mortality was reduced by 24% among patients who underwent paracentesis (6.5% vs 8.5%, adjusted odds ratio [OR], 0.55; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.41–0.74). Most paracenteses (66%) occurred ≤1 day after admission. In-hospital mortality was lower among patients who received early paracentesis than those who received it later (5.7% vs 8.1%; P=.049), although this difference was not significant after adjustment for confounders (OR, 1.26; 95% CI, 0.78–2.02). Among patients who underwent paracentesis, the mean hospital stay was 14% longer, and hospital charges were 29% greater than for patients that did not receive the procedure. Conclusions Paracentesis is underused for patients admitted to the hospital with ascites; the procedure is associated with increased short-term survival. These data support practice guidelines derived from expert opinion. Studies are needed to identify barriers to guideline adherence. PMID:23978348
Gaetano, John N; Micic, Dejan; Aronsohn, Andrew; Reddy, Gautham; Te, Helen; Reau, Nancy S; Jensen, Donald
The aim of this study is to assess paracentesis utilization and outcomes in hospitalized adults with cirrhosis and ascites. The 2011 Nationwide Inpatient Sample was used to identify adults, non-electively admitted with diagnoses of cirrhosis and ascites. The primary endpoint was in-hospital mortality. Variables included patient and hospital demographics, early (Day 0 or 1) or late (Day 2 or later) paracentesis, hepatic decompensation, and spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. Out of 8 023 590 admissions, 31 614 met inclusion criteria. Among these hospitalizations, approximately 51% (16 133) underwent paracentesis. The overall in-hospital mortality rate was 7.6%. There was a significantly increased mortality among patients who did not undergo paracentesis (8.9% vs 6.3%, P < 0.001). Patients who did not receive paracentesis died 1.83 times more often in the hospital than those patients who did receive paracentesis (95% confidence interval 1.66-2.02). Patients undergoing early paracentesis showed a trend towards reduction in mortality (5.5% vs 7.5%) compared with those undergoing late paracentesis. Patients admitted on a weekend demonstrated less frequent use of early paracentesis (50% weekend vs 62% weekday) and demonstrated increased mortality (adjusted odds ratio 1.12 95% confidence interval 1.01-1.25). Among patients diagnosed with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, early paracentesis was associated with shorter length of stay (7.55 vs 11.45 days, P < 0.001) and decreased hospitalization cost ($61 624 vs $107 484, P < 0.001). Paracentesis is under-utilized among cirrhotic patients presenting with ascites and is associated with decreased in-hospital mortality. These data support the use of paracentesis as a key inpatient quality measure among hospitalized adults with cirrhosis. Future studies are needed to investigate the barriers to paracentesis use on admission. © 2015 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and John Wiley
Gentile, S; Angelico, M; Bologna, E; Capocaccia, L
The use of paracentesis has recently been reproposed as a safe and effective alternative to diuretics for management of ascites. We have investigated the clinical and biochemical effects of large-volume paracentesis in 19 cirrhotics with tense ascites, and the relative changes in the hormones involved in sodium and water renal handling. Plasma renin activity (PRA), aldosterone (PA), and arginine vasopressin (AVP) levels and conventional liver and renal function tests were measured before and after 1, 2, and 7 days after the paracentesis. No complications were observed, but patients regained 37% of the weight lost after 1 wk. Percent weight regained was significantly and directly correlated with PA concentration measured before the paracentesis. No changes were recorded after paracentesis in biochemical and clinical data, except for a significant drop in diastolic blood pressure. No changes in AVP levels were observed. A significant increase in PA occurred after paracentesis, with a maximum peak after 48 h. The increase in PA was not accompanied by changes in PRA, but was associated with a reduction of urinary sodium excretion. A relevant fraction of body aldosterone was confined to the ascitic fluid. We conclude that the clinical results of a large-volume paracentesis can be predicted in part on the basis of PA measurement, and that removal of ascites is followed by an increase of PA of uncertain origin and effectiveness.
Appenrodt, Beate; Wolf, Andrea; Grünhage, Frank; Trebicka, Jonel; Schepke, Michael; Rabe, Christian; Lammert, Frank; Sauerbruch, Tilman; Heller, J
Large-volume paracentesis in patients with cirrhosis and ascites induces arterial vasodilatation and decreases effective arterial blood volume, termed paracentesis-induced circulatory dysfunction (PICD), which can be prevented by costly intravenous albumin. Vasoconstrictors, e.g. terlipressin, may also prevent PICD. The aim was to compare the less expensive vasoconstrictor midodrine, an alpha-adrenoceptor agonist, with albumin in preventing PICD. Twenty-four patients with cirrhosis and ascites were randomly assigned to be treated with either midodrine (n=11) (12.5 mg three times per day; over 2 days) or albumin (n=13) (8 g/L of removed ascites) after large-volume paracentesis. Effective arterial blood volume was assessed indirectly by measuring plasma renin and aldosterone concentration on days 0 and 6 after paracentesis; renal function and haemodynamic changes were also measured. PICD was defined as an increase in plasma renin concentration on day 6 by more than 50% of the baseline value. PICD developed in six patients of the midodrine group (60%) and in only four patients (31%) of the albumin group. Six days after paracentesis, the aldosterone concentration increased significantly in the midodrine group, but not in the albumin group. This pilot study suggests that midodrine is not as effective as albumin in preventing circulatory dysfunction after large-volume paracentesis in patients with cirrhosis and ascites.
Kao, H.W.; Rakov, N.E.; Savage, E.; Reynolds, T.B.
Large volume paracentesis, while effectively relieving symptoms in patients with tense ascites, has been generally avoided due to reports of complications attributed to an acute reduction in intravascular volume. Measurements of plasma volume in these subjects have been by indirect methods and have not uniformly confirmed hypovolemia. We have prospectively evaluated 18 patients (20 paracenteses) with tense ascites and peripheral edema due to chronic liver disease undergoing 5 liter paracentesis for relief of symptoms. Plasma volume pre- and postparacentesis was assessed by a /sup 125/I-labeled human serum albumin dilution technique as well as by the change in hematocrit and postural blood pressure difference. No significant change in serum sodium, urea nitrogen, hematocrit or postural systolic blood pressure difference was noted at 24 or 48 hr after paracentesis. Serum creatinine at 24 hr after paracentesis was unchanged but a small but statistically significant increase in serum creatinine was noted at 48 hr postparacentesis. Plasma volume changed -2.7% (n = 6, not statistically significant) during the first 24 hr and -2.8% (n = 12, not statistically significant) during the 0- to 48-hr period. No complications from paracentesis were noted. These results suggest that 5 liter paracentesis for relief of symptoms is safe in patients with tense ascites and peripheral edema from chronic liver disease.
Keil-Ríos, Daniel; Terrazas-Solís, Hiram; González-Garay, Alejandro; Sánchez-Ávila, Juan Francisco; García-Juárez, Ignacio
The pocket ultrasound device (PUD) is a new tool that may be of use in the early detection of ascites. Abdominal ultrasound-guided paracentesis has been reported to decrease the rate of complications due to the procedure, but must be performed in a healthcare setting; this new tool may be a useful on an ambulatory basis. The aim of this study was to determine the diagnostic usefulness of the PUD in the diagnosis of ascites and the safety of guided paracentesis. We conducted a retrospective study that included adult patients suspected of having ascites and in whom an evaluation was performed with the PUD to identify it. Concordance with abdominal ultrasound (AUS) was determined with the Kappa coefficient. Sensitivity (Se), specificity (Sp) and likelihood ratios (LR) were determined and compared with physical examination, AUS, computed tomography and procurement of fluid by paracentesis. Complications resulting from the guided paracentesis were analyzed. 89 participants were included and 40 underwent a paracentesis. The PUD for ascites detection had 95.8 % Se, 81.8 % Sp, 5.27 +LR and 0.05 -LR. It had a concordance with AUS of 0.781 (p < 0.001). Technical problems during the guided paracentesis were present in only two participants (5 %) and three patients (7.5 %) developed minor complications that required no further intervention. There were no severe complications or deaths. This study suggests that the PUD is a reliable tool for ascites detection as a complement to physical examination and appears to be a safe method to perform guided paracentesis.
Widjaja, Felix F; Khairan, Paramita; Kamelia, Telly; Hasan, Irsan
Large volume paracentesis may cause paracentesis induced circulatory dysfunction (PICD). Albumin is recommended to prevent this abnormality. Meanwhile, the price of albumin is too expensive and there should be another alternative that may prevent PICD. This report aimed to compare albumin to colloids in preventing PICD. Search strategy was done using PubMed, Scopus, Proquest, dan Academic Health Complete from EBSCO with keywords of "ascites", "albumin", "colloid", "dextran", "hydroxyethyl starch", "gelatin", and "paracentesis induced circulatory dysfunction". Articles was limited to randomized clinical trial and meta-analysis with clinical question of "In hepatic cirrhotic patient undergone large volume paracentesis, whether colloids were similar to albumin to prevent PICD". We found one meta-analysis and four randomized clinical trials (RCT). A meta analysis showed that albumin was still superior of which odds ratio 0.34 (0.23-0.51). Three RCTs showed the same results and one RCT showed albumin was not superior than colloids. We conclude that colloids could not constitute albumin to prevent PICD, but colloids still have a role in patient who undergone paracentesis less than five liters.
Kably Ambe, Alberto; Ruiz Anguas, Julián; Sánchez de León, Alejandra
The ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome is a serious complication in patients who undergo controlled ovarian stimulation and for that reason all clinicians who prescribe ovulation inducing agents must be prepared to recognize and manage ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome, to prevent severe and ocasionally mortal complications. To communicate the experience in the treatment of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome as a complication in patients who undergo controlled ovarian stimulation. In the present study seven patients who developed severe ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome were included, and were treated by ultrasound guided paracentesis and self-transfusion of the ascitic fluid. In all patients we observed a clinical improvement immediately after the drainage of ascitic fluid no hematological or infectious disease were observed after the self-transfusion. We observed a reduction in hemoglobin of 20.9% and 22.2% in the hematocrit after paracentesis and self-transfusion, meanwhile we observed an increase of 55.5% in the albumin level. Any patient developed hemodynamic disturbance after paracentesis after drainage of great volume in the paracentesis (mean of 4453.4 mL per patient). The drainage of ascitis by paracentesis and self-transfusion of the fluid is a good therapeutic option in patients with severe ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome in combination with intravenous fluids and administration of human albumin 25%.
Tan, Hiang Keat; James, Paul Damien; Wong, Florence
Large-volume total paracentesis may result in paracentesis-induced circulatory dysfunction, which is associated with poor outcomes. To explore the short- and long-term effects of paracentesis-induced circulatory dysfunction on systemic hemodynamics, renal function and other cirrhosis-related complications in patients with refractory ascites, following subtotal large-volume paracentesis. Patients with cirrhosis and refractory ascites without renal dysfunction had systemic hemodynamics, renal function, and neurohormones (plasma active renin, aldosterone, norepinephrine and angiotensin II) measured pre- and 6 days post-paracentesis. Paracentesis was limited to ≤8 L with 6-8 g of albumin per liter ascites drained. Patients were followed up until transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt insertion, liver transplantation, or death. Paracentesis-induced circulatory dysfunction was defined as >50 % increase in plasma active renin 6 days post-paracentesis. Fifty-seven patients (mean age 59.0 ± 9.4 years) had mean 6.8 ± 1.8 L of ascites removed with 9 ± 3 g of albumin given/L of ascites drained. Patients were followed up for 715 ± 104 days. Twenty-three patients (40.4 %) developed paracentesis-induced circulatory dysfunction with unchanged serum creatinine on day six, despite worsening of hemodynamics (mean arterial pressure 90 ± 10 mmHg at baseline vs. 84 ± 8 mmHg on day six, p < 0.05). Similar hemodynamic changes were observed among patients without paracentesis-induced circulatory dysfunction. There was no significant difference in the long-term renal function or cirrhosis-related complications between the groups. The occurrence of paracentesis-induced circulatory dysfunction, as defined by plasma active renin, may not have a significant short- and long-term impact on renal function or cirrhosis-related complications in patients with refractory ascites who undergo subtotal paracentesis with albumin infusion.
Ambulatory emergency care units are present in many hospitals and accommodate patients who need urgent medical assessment or procedures but do not require inpatient admission to achieve this. This article reports on a project undertaken in the ambulatory care unit at the Royal United Hospital Bath, which introduced a nurse-led paracentesis service with the intention of reducing waiting times and improving the service for patients. To evaluate the effect of the project, patient satisfaction levels and waiting times were measured before and after the introduction of nurse-led paracentesis. The results confirmed a significant reduction in waiting times after the nurse-led intervention was introduced and high levels of satisfaction. The results provide evidence that nurses are acquiring the knowledge and skills required to undertake interventional procedures that improve the patient's experience while contributing to pioneering developments in ambulatory emergency care services.
Sudulagunta, Sreenivasa Rao; Sodalagunta, Mahesh Babu; Bangalore Raja, Shiva Kumar; Khorram, Hadi; Sepehrar, Mona; Noroozpour, Zahra
Background Large volume paracentesis is found to be safer and more effective for the treatment of tense ascites compared with larger-than-usual doses of diuretics according to studies. The objectives of the study was to evaluate patients with refractory ascites regarding clinical profile, technique of paracentesis, complications, amount of ascites drained, prognosis and co-morbid conditions associated with it. Methods Retrospective study was performed including patients between January 2011 and December 2013 with data pooled from total of five hospitals. A total of 4,389 paracenteses were performed on the 1,218 patients with a mean volume of 4,900 ± 2,795 mL ascitic fluid drained. Blind technique, ultrasound-guided technique of paracentesis and pig tail catheter drainage were evaluated. Diabetes mellitus data from available patients and data regarding co-morbidities were analyzed. Coagulation abnormalities in patients were studied. Results Study group age ranged from 34 to 79 years, and alcohol is the main cause of cirrhosis. Dyslipidemia was observed in 1,080 patients (88.66%). At the time of inclusion in the study, 40% of the patients had ≥ 2 other cirrhosis-related complications and 20% of the study population had ≥ 3 complications. Early complications occurred in 27.5% (337) of patients and late complications constituted 16.83% (205 patients). Conclusions Even with abnormal coagulation, paracentesis is a safe procedure. But significant co-morbidities should be addressed with care in cirrhosis patients. Ultrasound guidance during the procedure whenever required should be encouraged. PMID:27785301
Trivedi, Deepali; Denniston, Alastair K O; Murray, Philip I
Anterior chamber paracentesis is a valuable diagnostic tool in the management of uveitis, but may be underutilized because of concerns over its safety. We evaluated the safety profile of anterior chamber paracentesis performed at the slit lamp as an outpatient procedure. Retrospective, observational case series in a single tertiary centre. Five hundred and sixty patients with uveitis undergoing anterior chamber paracentesis. All anterior chamber paracenteses performed at the slit lamp for diagnostic or research purposes between January 1997 and June 2009 were analysed with regard to adverse events and pipet/syringe used. Procedures were included whether carried out on undilated or dilated pupils. Adverse events and serious adverse events. Out of 560 paracenteses, 510 were performed with a 27-gauge fixed-needle tuberculin syringe, and 50 using an O'Rourke aqueous pipet. All patients were prescribed a short course of topical antibiotic and examined post-procedure and 1-2 weeks later. Out of 560 procedures there were four complications (0.7%). Two patients had inadvertent injection of sterile air into the anterior chamber but with spontaneous resolution and no adverse outcome (O'Rourke pipet for both). One patient had anterior lens capsule touch that was self-sealing and left a tiny localized opacity (tuberculin syringe). One patient had an allergic reaction to povidone iodine. No patients reported pain, and there were no cases of iris trauma, entry site leak, hypotony, hyphaema or endophthalmitis. Anterior chamber paracentesis can be performed safely as an outpatient procedure at the slit lamp following adequate aseptic precaution, and appropriate counselling. © 2011 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology © 2011 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.
Knudsen, Anne Wilkens; Krag, Aleksander; Nordgaard-Lassen, Inge; Frandsen, Erik; Tofteng, Flemming; Mortensen, Christian; Becker, Ulrik
Patients with decompensated cirrhosis often suffer from malnutrition. To enable appropriate nutritional supplementation a correct estimation of resting energy expenditure (REE) is needed. It is, however, unclear whether the volume of ascites should be included or not in the calculations of the REE. In 19 patients with cirrhosis and ascites, measurements of REE by indirect calorimetry were performed before paracentesis, after paracentesis, and four weeks after paracentesis. Moreover, handgrip strength (HGS), dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and biochemistry were assessed. Calculated and measured REE differed more than 10% in 63% of the patients at baseline. By including the weight of ascites in the calculation of REE, the REE was overestimated by 283 (-602-1381) kJ/day (p = 0.69). By subtracting the weight of ascites in the calculation of REE, it was underestimated by -379 (-1915 - 219) kJ/day, (p = 0.06). Patients in whom measured REE decreased after paracentesis had higher middle arterial pressure (MAP) (p = 0.02) and p-sodium (p = 0.02) at baseline. Low HGS (M: <30 kg; W < 20 kg) was evident in 68% of the patients. T-scores revealed osteopenia and osteoporosis in 58% and 16%, respectively. Reduced vitamin D levels (<50 nmol/l) were found in 68%. The presence of ascites seems to increase REE, why we suggest that when REE is calculated, the weight of ascites should be included. Indirect calorimetry is, however, preferable for REE estimation. More than two-third of patients with ascites suffer from muscle weakness and/or osteopenia.
Khodarahmi, Iman; Shahid, Muhammad Usman; Contractor, Sohail
We present two cases of umbilical hernia incarceration following large volume paracentesis (LVP) in patients with cirrhotic ascites. Both patients became symptomatic within 48 hours after the LVP. Although being rare, given the significantly higher mortality rate of cirrhotic patients undergoing emergent herniorrhaphy, this complication of LVP is potentially serious. Therefore, it is recommended that patients be examined closely for the presence of umbilical hernias before removal of ascitic fluid and an attempt should be made for external reduction of easily reducible hernias, if a hernia is present. PMID:26629305
Khodarahmi, Iman; Shahid, Muhammad Usman; Contractor, Sohail
We present two cases of umbilical hernia incarceration following large volume paracentesis (LVP) in patients with cirrhotic ascites. Both patients became symptomatic within 48 hours after the LVP. Although being rare, given the significantly higher mortality rate of cirrhotic patients undergoing emergent herniorrhaphy, this complication of LVP is potentially serious. Therefore, it is recommended that patients be examined closely for the presence of umbilical hernias before removal of ascitic fluid and an attempt should be made for external reduction of easily reducible hernias, if a hernia is present.
Regnier, A; Whitley, R D; Benard, P; Bonnefoi, M
The protein and PGE2 metabolite content of the aqueous humor from untreated and flunixin meglumine pretreated dogs was determined prior to and after anterior chamber paracentesis. In the untreated dogs the concentrations of protein and PGE2 metabolite in aqueous humor were greatly elevated secondary to paracentesis. Intravenously administered flunixin meglumine (1.1 mg/kg or 2.2 mg/kg) significantly reduced these inflammatory parameters, confirming that prostaglandins are involved in the stability of the blood-aqueous barrier by paracentesis in the canine eye. The clinical implication of these results is that intravenous administration of flunixin meglumine before intraocular surgery should be considered as an adjunct therapy to reduce intraoperative and postoperative uveitis.
Gamblin, Vincent; Da Silva, Arlette; Villet, Stéphanie; El Hajbi, Farid
Malignant ascites, occurring in advanced stages of cancer, is linked with poor prognosis and can cause invalidating symptoms. Physiopathological mechanisms of ascites formation are complex and have yet to be fully elucidated. In most cases, ascites is due to peritoneal carcinomatosis in which vascular permeability is enhanced by VEGF production while lymphatic drainage decreases. Ascites can also be secondary to portal hypertension, for example in case of multiple liver metastases, or due to lymphatic obstruction. While paracentesis and diuretics are commonly used, their efficiency has never been compared in a randomized controlled study. Paracentesis brings immediate but temporary relief in over 90% of cases, and implies multiple hospitalizations. Literature reports ascites control by aldosterone alone or in association with furosemide. But, available data is controversial, and there is no predictive factor to identify patients that respond to diuretic treatment. The indication of diuretic treatment is left to the appreciation of physicians. Existing recommendations are old, and practices influenced by results obtained in non-neoplastic ascites. Additional evidences are required before guidelines can be established for the palliative management of malignant ascites. Copyright © 2015 Société Française du Cancer. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Csokmay, John M.; Yauger, Belinda J.; Henne, Melinda B.; Armstrong, Alicia Y.; Queenan, John T.; Segars, James H.
Objective To compare the cost of two treatment regimens for moderate to severe ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS); conservative inpatient versus outpatient management with paracentesis. Study design A decision tree mathematical model comparing conservative inpatient versus outpatient management of moderate to severe OHSS was created. The common final pathway of either management was resolution of OHSS. Sensitivity analyses were performed over the range of variables. Main outcome measure Total management cost of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. Results The cost of conservative therapy including first tier complications was $10,098 (range $9,655 to $15,044). The cost of outpatient management with paracentesis was $1954 (range $788 to $12,041). This resulted in an estimated cost savings of $8,144 with outpatient management with paracentesis. One-way sensitivity analyses were performed. Varying the probability of admission after outpatient treatment still indicated outpatient treatment was the most cost effective (probability=1.0, cost $6,110). Varying the duration of hospitalization with primary inpatient treatment was equal to outpatient treatment costs only at a stay of 0.71 days or shorter. Conclusion Our model suggests early outpatient paracentesis for moderate to severe OHSS is the most cost effective management plan when compared to traditional conservative inpatient therapy. The cost savings for outpatient management persisted throughout a variety of outcome probabilities. PMID:18990389
Bureau, Christophe; Adebayo, Danielle; Chalret de Rieu, Mael; Elkrief, Laure; Valla, Dominique; Peck-Radosavljevic, Markus; McCune, Anne; Vargas, Victor; Simon-Talero, Macarena; Cordoba, Juan; Angeli, Paolo; Rosi, Silvia; MacDonald, Stewart; Malago, Massimo; Stepanova, Maria; Younossi, Zobair M; Trepte, Claudia; Watson, Randall; Borisenko, Oleg; Sun, Sun; Inhaber, Neil; Jalan, Rajiv
Patients with refractory ascites (RA) require repeated large volume paracenteses (LVP), which involves frequent hospital visits and is associated with a poor quality-of-life. This study assessed safety and efficacy of an automated, low-flow pump (alfapump® [AP]) compared with LVP standard of care [SoC]. A randomized controlled trial, in seven centers, with six month patient observation was conducted. Primary outcome was time to first LVP. Secondary outcomes included paracentesis requirement, safety, health-related quality-of-life (HRQoL), and survival. Nutrition, hemodynamics, and renal injury biomarkers were assessed in a sub-study at three months. Sixty patients were randomized and 58 were analyzed (27 AP, 31 SoC, mean age 61.9years, mean MELD 11.7). Eighteen patients were included in the sub-study. Compared with SoC, median time to first LVP was not reached after six months in the AP group, meaning a significant reduction in LVP requirement for the AP patients (AP, median not reached; SoC, 15.0days (HR 0.13; 95%CI 13.0-22.0; p<0.001), and AP patients also showed significantly improved Chronic Liver Disease Questionnaire (CLDQ) scores compared with SoC patients (p<0.05 between treatment arms). Improvements in nutritional parameters were observed for hand-grip strength (p=0.044) and body mass index (p<0.001) in the sub-study. Compared with SoC, more AP patients reported adverse events (AEs; 96.3% vs. 77.4%, p=0.057) and serious AEs (85.2 vs. 45.2%, p=0.002). AEs consisted predominantly of acute kidney injury in the immediate post-operative period, and re-intervention for pump related issues, and were treatable in most cases. Survival was similar in AP and SoC. The AP system is effective for reducing the need for paracentesis and improving HRQoL in cirrhotic patients with RA. Although the frequency of Quality of Life (and by inference hospitalizations) was significantly higher in the AP group, they were generally limited and did not impact survival. www
Kravetz, D; Romero, G; Argonz, J; Guevara, M; Suarez, A; Abecasis, R; Bildozola, M; Valero, J; Terg, R
It has been suggested that ascites is a risk factor for variceal bleeding in cirrhotic patients. However, no data of total volume paracentesis (TVP) effects on variceal hemodynamics has yet been published. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of TVP on variceal pressure, size, and tension in cirrhotic patients. Before sclerotherapy, 18 cirrhotic patients with grade II esophageal varices were studied. The following measurements were performed on 12 patients at basal condition and after TVP: inferior vena cava pressure, esophageal pressure (EP), and intravariceal pressure (IVP) by direct punction and variceal size at endoscopy. The same measurements were performed at basal condition and 1 hour later without TVP on the other 6 patients used as a control group. Variceal pressure gradient (VPG) and variceal wall tension (WT) were calculated. Paracentesis and intra-abdominal pressure were obtained with a direct punction. No demographic differences were observed between both groups. Paracentesis produced a significant reduction of IVP (from 25.6 +/- 2.4 to 17.9 +/- 2.1 mm Hg, means +/- SEM, -30%, P < .05), VPG (from 16.6 +/- 2.4 to 10.8 +/- 1.4 mm Hg, -35%, P < .05). TVP also reduced variceal size (from 9 +/- 0.3 to 5.6 + 0.4 mm, -38%, P < .05) and WT (from 75.3 +/- 11.6 to 30 +/- 4.7 mm Hg. mm, -60%, P < .05). Intra-abdominal pressure decreased from 18 +/- 2.2 to 4 +/- 0.9 mm Hg (P < .05), and IVC decreased from 15.5 +/- 2.4 to 5.7 +/- 1.5 mm Hg (P < .05). No significant differences were observed in mean arterial pressure and heart rate. The mean ascitic fluid removed was 8 +/- 0.71 L. No significant difference between measurements was observed in the control group. Our results show that TVP significantly decreases variceal pressure and tension. These results suggest that ascites removal can be useful in the treatment of variceal bleeding in cirrhotic patients.
Singh, Virendra; Dheerendra, Prashant C; Singh, Baljinder; Nain, Chander K; Chawla, Divya; Sharma, Navneet; Bhalla, Ashish; Mahi, Sushil K
Intravenous albumin has been used to prevent paracentesis-induced circulatory dysfunction (PICD) in cirrhotics; however, its use is costly and controversial. Splanchnic arterial vasodilatation is primarily responsible for PICD. There are no reports of use of midodrine in the prevention of PICD. In this pilot study, we evaluated midodrine and albumin in the prevention of PICD. Forty patients with cirrhosis underwent therapeutic paracentesis with midodrine or albumin in a randomized controlled trial at a tertiary center. Effective arterial blood volume was assessed by plasma renin activity. Plasma renin activity at baseline and at 6 days after paracentesis did not differ in the two groups (43.18 +/- 10.73 to 45.90 +/- 8.59 ng/mL/h, P= 0.273 in the albumin group and 44.44 +/- 8.44 to 41.39 +/- 10.21 ng/mL/h, P= 0.115 in the midodrine group). Two patients had an increase in plasma renin activity of more than 50% from baseline in the albumin group, and none in the midodrine group. A significant increase in 24-h urine volume and urine sodium excretion was noted in the midodrine group. Midodrine therapy was cheaper than albumin therapy. The study suggests that midodrine may be as effective as albumin in preventing PICD in cirrhotics, but at a fraction of the cost, and can be administered orally. Midodrine also resulted in an increase in 24-h urine volume and sodium excretion.
Martin, Daniel K.; Walayat, Saqib; Jinma, Ren; Ahmed, Zohair; Ragunathan, Karthik; Dhillon, Sonu
Background The management of ascites can be problematic. This is especially true in patients with diuretic refractory ascites who develop a tense abdomen. This often results in hypotension and decreased venous return with resulting renal failure. In this paper, we further examine the risks and benefits of utilizing an indwelling peritoneal catheter to remove large-volume ascites over a 72-h period while maintaining intravascular volume and preventing renal failure. Methods We retrospectively reviewed charts and identified 36 consecutive patients undergoing continuous large-volume paracentesis with an indwelling peritoneal catheter. At the time of drain placement, no patients had signs or laboratory parameters suggestive of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. The patients underwent ascitic fluid removal through an indwelling peritoneal catheter and were supported with scheduled albumin throughout the duration. The catheter was used to remove up to 3 L every 8 h for a maximum of 72 h. Regular laboratory and ascitic fluid testing was performed. All patients had a clinical follow-up within 3 months after the drain placement. Results An average of 16.5 L was removed over the 72-h time frame of indwelling peritoneal catheter maintenance. The albumin infusion utilized correlated to 12 mg/L removed. The average creatinine trend improved in a statistically significant manner from 1.37 on the day of admission to 1.21 on the day of drain removal. No patients developed renal failure during the hospital course. There were no documented episodes of neutrocytic ascites or bacterial peritonitis throughout the study review. Conclusion Large-volume peritoneal drainage with an indwelling peritoneal catheter is safe and effective for patients with tense ascites. Concomitant albumin infusion allows for maintenance of renal function, and no increase in infectious complications was noted. PMID:27802853
Gaba, R C; Parvinian, A; Casadaban, L C; Couture, P M; Zivin, S P; Lakhoo, J; Minocha, J; Ray, C E; Knuttinen, M G; Bui, J T
To compare the impact of covered stent-graft transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) versus serial paracentesis on survival of patients with medically refractory ascites. In this retrospective study, cirrhotic patients who underwent covered stent-graft TIPS for refractory ascites from 2003-2013 were compared with similar patients who underwent serial paracentesis during 2009-2013. Demographic and liver disease data, Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) scores, and survival outcomes were obtained from hospital electronic medical records and the social security death index. After propensity score weighting to match study group characteristics, survival outcomes were compared using Kaplan-Meier statistics with log-rank analysis. Seventy TIPS (70% men, mean age 55.7 years, mean MELD 15.1) and 80 paracentesis (58% men, mean age 53.5 years, mean MELD 22.5) patients were compared. The TIPS haemodynamic success rate was 100% (mean portosystemic pressure gradient reduction 13 mmHg). Paracentesis patients underwent a mean of 7.9 procedures. After propensity score weighting to balance group features, TIPS patients showed a trend toward enhanced survival compared with paracentesis patients (median survival 1037 versus 262 days, p = 0.074). TIPS conferred a significant increase or trend toward improved survival compared with paracentesis at 1 (66% versus 44%, p = 0.018), 2 (56% versus 38%, p = 0.057), and 3 year (49% versus 32%, p = 0.077) time points. Thirty and 90 day mortality rates were not statistically increased by TIPS. Covered stent-graft TIPS improves intermediate- to long-term survival without significantly increasing short-term mortality of ascites patients, and suggests a greater potential role for TIPS in properly selected ascitic patients when medical management fails. Copyright © 2015 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
García-Compeán, D; Zacarías Villarreal, J; Bahena Cuevas, H; García Cantú, D A; Estrella, M; Garza Tamez, E; Valadez Castillo, R; Barragán, R F
We studied 35 cirrhotic patients with tense ascites assigned at random into two groups: Group I consisted of 17 patients treated by total therapeutic paracentesis (TTP) (6-15 l) plus i.v. albumin (5 g/l of fluid) and Group II consisted of 18 patients treated by TTP (5.5-15.5 l) without albumin. On 19 patients we performed a sequential assessment of cardiac output (CO), plasma renin activity (PRA) and plasma aldosterone (PA). Both groups were similar in age, sex, and etiology of cirrhosis. CO, PRA and PA values were expressed as mean changes occurring in relation to their respective baseline values. CO changes after TTP (l/min): Group I: 2.5 after 6 h and 2.2 after 12 h; Group II: 2.2 after 6 h and -0.4 after 12 h, (p < 0.05 comparing values after 12 h between the two groups). PRA changes after TTP (ng/dl/h): Group I: -7.4 after 1 h, -7.8 after 6 h and -3.2 after 24 h; Group II: -2.4 after 1 h, -0.8 after 6 h and 3.9 after 24 h (p < 0.05 comparing values between both groups after 6 and 24 h). PA changes after TTP (ng/dl): Group I: -50.5 after 1 h, -36.7 after 6 h and -34.6 after 24 h; Group II: -18.2 after 1 h, -2.2 after 6 h and 20 after 24 h, (p < 0.05 comparing values between both groups after 1 and 6 h). Complications were minimal in both groups.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Chaurasia, Sunita; Ramappa, Muralidhar
To study various types of morphological patterns of the air bubble and their relation to a peripheral paracentesis after air injection in corneal stroma in vitro experiment. Air was injected into the donor corneas from the endothelial side and pattern was noted. Four different scenarios were created, namely (a) air injection into the deep stroma (n=11), (b) air injection into the superficial stroma (n=3), (c) air injection into the deep stroma after making a peripheral incision internal to the trabecular meshwork region that simulated an anteriorly placed paracentesis incision, with the site of air injection within a clock hour of the peripheral incision (n=7) and (d) air injection into the deep stroma after making a peripheral incision, the site of air injection being 180° away from the peripheral incision site (n=3). Air injection at deep posterior stroma resulted in the formation of type-1 and type-2 bubbles, type 2 began from the periphery and followed the type-1 bubble pattern in majority of the donor corneas. The type-1 pattern was noted as a bubble in the central part of the donor disc that did not reach the peripheral extent of the cornea. The type-2 pattern was a bubble that started at the peripheral cornea and expanded but was limited by the limbus circumferentially. With a full-thickness peripheral incision and air injection in the same clock hour of the incision, only a type-1 bubble pattern was noted with air leakage from the site of the incision. The results of the study corroborate with the clinical observations made during deep lamellar keratoplasty (DLK). The placement of the paracentesis has a bearing on the pattern of the air bubble and can be used to an advantage during DLK surgery. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Hamdy, Hassan; ElBaz, Ahmed A; Hassan, Ahmed; Hassanin, Omayma
In this pilot study, we compared midodrine and albumin in the prevention of paracentesis-induced circulatory dysfunction (PICD). PICD with pronounced arterial vasodilatation in cirrhotics with tense ascites can be prevented by the infusion of albumin, which is an expensive treatment modality. Various vasoconstrictors have also been used to prevent PICD, but there are few studies about the usage of midodrine. Fifty patients with cirrhosis and tense refractory ascites were randomly assigned to be treated with either midodrine (n=25) (12.5 mg 3 times/d; over 3 d) or albumin (n=25) (8 g/L of removed ascites) after a large-volume paracentesis. Effective arterial blood volume was assessed indirectly by measuring serum creatinine, serum sodium, plasma renin activity, and aldosterone concentration before and 6 days after paracentesis. Midodrine therapy was cheaper compared with albumin therapy, but serum creatinine, serum sodium, plasma renin activity, and plasma aldosterone concentration values after treatment [0.99±0.19 to 3.02±2.58 mg/dL (P=0.001), 132.36±3.2 to 130.2±4.1 mEq/L (P<0.001), 3.03±0.33 to 4.2±0.76 ng/mL/h (P<0.001), and 166.72±64.26 to 298.64±130 pg/mL (P<0.001), respectively] significantly differed in the midodrine group from that in the albumin group [1.10±0.22 to 1.11±0.161 mg/dL (P=0.885), 132.2±3.524 to 131.88±3.09 mEq/L (P=0.246), 4±0.91 to 4.11±0.74 ng/mL/h (P=0.440), and 204.88±115.9 to 177.08±100.5 pg/mL (P<0.001), respectively]. Seven patients, among whom 6 were hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) positive, in the midodrine group of our study died as a consequence of liver failure complicated by acute renal failure, followed by hepatic encephalopathy. Whereas in the albumin group, even among the 7 patients with HCC, no patient died or developed hepatorenal syndrome or developed hepatic encephalopathy. This pilot study suggests that midodrine is not as effective as intravenous albumin in preventing circulatory dysfunction after large
Allegretti, Andrew S.; Ortiz, Guillermo; Cui, Jie; Wenger, Julia; Bhan, Ishir; Chung, Raymond T.; Thadhani, Ravi I.; Irani, Zubin
Background Patients with cirrhosis and refractory ascites have physiologic and hormonal dysregulation that contributes to decreased kidney function. Placement of a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) can reverse these changes and potentially improve kidney function. We sought to evaluate change in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) following TIPS. Study Design Retrospective, matched cohort analysis. Settings & Participants Patients who underwent first-time TIPS placement for refractory ascites in 1995–2014. Frequency matching was used to generate a comparator group of patients with cirrhosis and ascites treated with serial large-volume paracentesis (LVP) in a 1:1 fashion. Predictor TIPS placement compared to serial LVP. Outcome Change in eGFR over 90 days’ follow-up. Measurements Multivariable regression stratified by baseline eGFR <60 vs. ≥60 mL/min/1.73 m2; analysis of effect modification between TIPS placement and baseline eGFR. Results 276 subjects (TIPS, n=138; serial LVP, n=138) were analyzed. After 90 days, eGFR increased significantly after TIPS placement in subjects with baseline eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 compared to treatment with serial LVP (21 [95% CI, 13–29] mL/min/1.73 m2; p <0.001) and was no different in those with eGFR ≥60 mL/min/1.73 m2 (1 [−9 to 12] mL/min/1.73 m2; p = 0.8). There was significant effect modification between TIPS status and baseline eGFR (p = 0.001) in a model that included all subjects. Limitations Outcomes restricted by clinically recorded data; clinically important differences may still exist between TIPS and LVP cohorts despite good statistical matching. Conclusions TIPS placement was associated with a significant improvement in kidney function. This was most prominent in subjects with baseline eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m2. Prospective studies of TIPS in populations with eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 are needed to evaluate these findings. PMID:26994685
Bari, Khurram; Minano, Cecilia; Shea, Martha; Inayat, Irteza B.; Hashem, Hashem J.; Gilles, HoChong; Heuman, Douglas; Garcia-Tsao, Guadalupe
Background & Aims Large-volume paracentesis (LVP) is the treatment of choice for patients with cirrhosis and refractory ascites. However, LVP can lead to post-paracentesis circulatory dysfunction (PCD), which is associated with faster ascites recurrence and renal failure. PCD results from vasodilatation, which reduces effective blood volume, and is prevented by intravenous administration of albumin. Vasoconstrictors could be used instead of albumin and, with longer use, prevent PCD and delay ascites recurrence. Methods We performed a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled trial to compare albumin with the vasoconstrictor combination of octreotide and midodrine in patients with refractory ascites who underwent LVP. Patients in the albumin group received a single intravenous dose of albumin at the time of LVP plus placebos for midodrine and octreotide (n=13). Patients in the vasoconstrictor group received saline solution (as a placebo for albumin), 10 mg of oral midodrine (3 times daily), and a monthly, 20 mcg intra-muscular injection of long-acting octreotide (n=12). Patients were followed until recurrence of ascites. Results The median times to recurrence of ascites were 10 days in the albumin group and 8 days in the vasoconstrictor group (P=.318). There were no significant differences in PCD between the albumin group (18%) and the vasoconstrictor group (25%, P=.574). When ascites recurred, serum levels of creatinine were higher in the vasoconstrictor group (1.2 vs 0.9 mg/dL in the albumin group, P=.051). Conclusions The combination of midodrine and octreotide after LVP is not superior to albumin in delaying recurrence of ascites or preventing PCD in patients with cirrhosis. Outcomes appear to be worse in patients given octreotide and midodrine. PMID:22801062
Sen Sarma, Moinak; Yachha, Surender Kumar; Bhatia, Vijayalakshmi; Srivastava, Anshu; Poddar, Ujjal
There are currently no published data on post-paracentesis circulatory dysfunction (PPCD) or its prevention in children. Our study was aimed to analyze the safety and complications of large volume paracentesis (LVP) in children with severe ascites due to chronic liver disease with or without albumin therapy. A prospective longitudinal observational study enrolled children with severe ascites who underwent single time LVP at admission. They were divided into albumin infused (AI) and albumin non-infused (ANI) groups. Hemodynamic monitoring and laboratory parameters including plasma renin activity (PRA) were compared between baseline, 48 h and day 6 of LVP. Their outcome at 3 months and maximal follow-up were noted. 32 children (AI, n=17; ANI, n=15) had comparable baseline characteristics and 90.6% had high PRA at onset. The incidence of PPCD was 37.5% (ANI: 67%; AI: 12%, p=0.003), occurred if ascitic fluid extraction was >197.5 ml/kg (sensitivity: 90%; specificity: 50%, p=0.01) and if flow rate was higher in ANI group (1224 ± 476 vs. 678 ± 214 ml/h, p=0.009). ANI patients were susceptible to asymptomatic, persistent hyponatremia (baseline vs. day 6, 131 ± 4 vs. 128 ± 6 mEq/L; p=0.04) and had higher rates of recurrent ascites (42%) and hospital readmission (67%) within 3 months. No survival benefit among the AI or non-PPCD groups was demonstrated. LVP is safe in all age groups, best performed under albumin cover to overcome the problems of PPCD and hyponatremia. It is prudent to restrict volume extraction to less than 200 ml/kg actual dry weight for all and flow rate of 680 ml/h in ANI. Copyright © 2015 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Enders, Philip; Sitnilska, Vasilena; Altay, Lebriz; Schaub, Friederike; Muether, Philipp S; Fauser, Sascha
To analyze peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFLT) change after long-term intravitreal anti-VEGF therapy. Patients with regular anterior chamber paracentesis (ACP) prior to intravitreal injections (IVIs) were compared to those without ACP. Neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) was treated in a pro re nata regimen with a minimum of 9 IVIs. RNFLT change was determined in spectral domain optical coherence tomography. In 32 patients without ACP, mean RNFLT loss (-2.16 ± 3.60 µm) was significantly higher than in 44 patients with regular ACP (0.16 ± 3.60; p = 0.029). Both groups were comparable in age (75.0 vs. 76.8 years; p = 0.35), number of IVIs (16.2 vs. 16.6; p = 0.98), and observational time (30.0 vs. 32.3 months; p = 0.32). In patients without ACP, RNFLT loss was higher compared to IVI-naive fellow eyes (p = 0.005), whereas in ACP patients, no difference was detected (p = 0.5). A moderate RNFLT loss is found in nonglaucomatous patients after injection therapy for nAMD. As it is decreased with regular ACP, tight management of intraocular pressure seems advisable. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Bari, Khurram; Miñano, Cecilia; Shea, Martha; Inayat, Irteza B; Hashem, Hashem J; Gilles, Hochong; Heuman, Douglas; Garcia-Tsao, Guadalupe
Large-volume paracentesis (LVP) is the treatment of choice for patients with cirrhosis and refractory ascites. However, LVP can lead to postparacentesis circulatory dysfunction (PCD), which is associated with faster ascites recurrence and renal failure. PCD results from vasodilatation, which reduces effective blood volume, and is prevented by intravenous administration of albumin. Vasoconstrictors could be used instead of albumin and, with longer use, prevent PCD and delay ascites recurrence. We performed a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to compare albumin with the vasoconstrictor combination of octreotide and midodrine in patients with refractory ascites who underwent LVP. Patients in the albumin group received a single intravenous dose of albumin at the time of LVP plus placebos for midodrine and octreotide (n = 13). Patients in the vasoconstrictor group received saline solution (as a placebo for albumin), 10 mg of oral midodrine (3 times/day), and a monthly 20-mg intramuscular injection of long-acting octreotide (n = 12). Patients were followed up until recurrence of ascites. The median times to recurrence of ascites were 10 days in the albumin group and 8 days in the vasoconstrictor group (P = .318). There were no significant differences in PCD between the albumin group (18%) and the vasoconstrictor group (25%, P = .574). When ascites recurred, serum levels of creatinine were higher in the vasoconstrictor group (1.2 vs 0.9 mg/dL in the albumin group; P = .051). The combination of midodrine and octreotide after LVP is not superior to albumin in delaying recurrence of ascites or preventing PCD in patients with cirrhosis. Outcomes appear to be worse in patients given octreotide and midodrine. ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00108355. Copyright © 2012 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
McClellan, K.; Coster, D. J.
A previously healthy 53-year-old man had keratitis of the right eye for six months, unresponsive to topical medical therapy. Acanthamoeba was grown from tissue obtained by corneal biopsy and from aqueous from an anterior chamber tap. The patient was treated with propamidine isethionate 0.1% drops and dibromopropamidine isethionate 0.15% ointment, and after two and a half months the ocular inflammation was continuing to resolve. This case supports a role for the diamidines in the treatment of acanthamoebic keratitis. Images PMID:3676141
Solà, Elsa; Sanchez-Cabús, Santiago; Rodriguez, Ezequiel; Elia, Chiara; Cela, Raquel; Moreira, Rebeca; Pose, Elisa; Sánchez-Delgado, Jordi; Cañete, Nuria; Morales-Ruiz, Manuel; Campos, Francisco; Balust, Jaume; Guevara, Mónica; García-Valdecasas, Juan Carlos; Ginès, Pere
The alfapump system has been proposed as a new treatment for the management of refractory ascites. The system removes ascites from the peritoneal cavity to urinary bladder, producing a continuous low-volume paracentesis.
Chronopoulos, Argyrios; Roquelaure, Daniel; Souteyrand, Georges; Seebach, Jörg Dieter; Schutz, James Scott; Thumann, Gabriele
To study the value and safety of aqueous humor polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis for Herpes simplex, varicella zoster, cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus and Toxoplasma gondii in patients with uveitis. Records of 45 consecutive patients with anterior and posterior uveitis who underwent AC paracentesis with PCR were reviewed. The main outcome measure was frequency of PCR positivity. Secondary outcomes were alteration of treatment, safety of paracentesis, and correlation of keratitic precipitates with PCR positivity, RESULTS: The overall PCR positivity was 48.9 % (22/45). Therapy was changed because of the PCR results in 14/45 patients (37.7 %). One patient experienced a paracentesis related complication (1/45, 2.2 %) without long-term sequelae. Aqueous PCR altered the diagnosis and treatment in over a third of our patients and was relatively safe. Aqueous PCR should be considered for uveitis of atypical clinical appearance, recurrent severe uveitis of uncertain etiology, and therapy refractory cases.
Fontana, Luigi; Parente, Gabriella; Tassinari, Giorgio
We describe a simple test to confirm big-bubble formation in deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty by observing the position and movements of small air bubbles injected into the anterior chamber through a limbal paracentesis. The test also allows evaluation of the extension of Descemet's membrane cleavage from the posterior stroma relative to the margins of the corneal trephination.
Alper, Michael M; Smith, Laura P; Sills, Eric Scott
Objective: To summarize current views on the pathophysiology, risk factors, prevention, clinical features, and management of Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome (OHSS). Design: Literature review Results: OHSS is a condition characterized by increased capillary permeability, and experimental evidence has identified a provocative link to pathologic vasoactive cytokine actions. Although the ultimate physiologic mechanism of OHSS is not yet known, there are well-known risk factors that must be considered during the administration of medications to treat infertility. Clinical features are consequences of third-spaced intravascular fluid, and OHSS may become life-threatening secondary to thromboembolism or compromised pulmonary or cardiovascular function. Cornerstones of prevention have historically included cycle cancellation, coasting, decreased dosing of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) trigger, use of an agonist trigger, and cryopreservation of all embryos. Newer methods of prevention include the administration of a dopamine agonist medication. Management options for OHSS include outpatient transvaginal paracentesis, outpatient transabdominal paracentesis, and inpatient hospitalization with or without paracentesis. Conclusions: OHSS continues to be a serious complication of assisted reproductive therapy (ART), with no universally agreed upon best method of prevention. Coasting and cryopreservation of all embryos are the most commonly used approaches in the literature, but cycle cancellation is the only method that can completely prevent the development of OHSS. Dopamine agonists are currently being investigated to both prevent and improve the clinical course in OHSS. Recent publications suggest that outpatient paracentesis both prevents the need for inpatient hospitalization and is a cost-effective strategy. PMID:20485578
Day, Rebecca; Hollywood, Coral; Durrant, Deborah; Perkins, Paul
Ascites is an accumulation of serous fluid in the abdominal cavity. It can be caused by both malignant and non-malignant conditions and produces distressing symptoms. There have been no qualitative studies looking at the experiences of patients with non-malignant ascites. To explore the experiences of patients living with non-malignant ascites and its management. Also, to explore the views of these patients about services available to them. Phenomenological qualitative research study using digitally recorded semi-structured interviews. Six adult patients with non-malignant ascites who were receiving paracentesis to manage their symptoms in an acute hospital day unit. Participants experienced a wide variety of physical symptoms. They discussed how the ascites impacted on their social lives. They had views on diuretics, low sodium diet and paracentesis as methods of symptom management. Participants' confidence in staff performing paracentesis was a common finding, particularly as ultrasound was rarely used. While only some were suitable for liver transplant, all discussed their future care needs. Participants' experiences of non-malignant ascites are that it has a considerable effect on their quality of life. Patients like the system of day case admission for drainage, but question whether this is sustainable. Advanced practitioners can successfully provide a paracentesis service for these patients in hospitals and potentially this is transferable to hospices. Patients seemed happy to consider the option of semi-permanent drains and pumps as methods of managing ascites.
Bofinger, Jason J.; Fekete, Thomas; Samuel, Rafik
Kingella kingae is a commensal of the upper respiratory tract that occasionally causes skeletal infections in children and endocarditis in children and adults. We report a case of a 55-year-old man with liver disease and tense ascites who performed a paracentesis on himself and developed K. kingae peritonitis and bacteremia. PMID:17634309
Bofinger, Jason J; Fekete, Thomas; Samuel, Rafik
Kingella kingae is a commensal of the upper respiratory tract that occasionally causes skeletal infections in children and endocarditis in children and adults. We report a case of a 55-year-old man with liver disease and tense ascites who performed a paracentesis on himself and developed K. kingae peritonitis and bacteremia.
Siqueira, Fabiolla; Kelly, Traci
Refractory ascites is defined as ascites that does not recede or that recurs shortly after therapeutic paracentesis, despite sodium restriction and diuretic treatment. To date, there is no approved medical therapy specifically for refractory ascites. Management of these patients is based upon procedures such as large-volume paracentesis and transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunts (TIPS), which temporarily alleviate symptoms but are not curative. These patients have a poor prognosis and are at risk for a series of complications that are associated with the condition or are secondary to therapy. The most common complications include spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, hepatic hydrothorax, spontaneous bacterial empyema, and umbilical hernia. The predicted survival rate is as low as 50% at 1 year, and prognosis worsens as patients present with comorbidities such as hepatorenal syndrome, renal failure, and hepatocellular carcinoma. The only curative treatment is liver transplantation, though current studies have shown that TIPS also increases survival.
Moore, Christopher M; Van Thiel, David H
Ascites is a pathologic accumulation of peritoneal fluidcommonly observed in decompensated cirrhotic states.Its causes are multi-factorial, but principally involve significant volume and hormonal dysregulation in the setting of portal hypertension. The diagnosis of ascites is considered in cirrhotic patients given a constellation of clinical and laboratory findings, and ultimately confirmed, with insight into etiology, by imaging and paracentesis procedures. Treatment for ascites is multi-modal including dietary sodium restriction, pharmacologic therapies, diagnostic and therapeutic paracentesis, and in certain cases transjugular intra-hepatic portosystemic shunt. Ascites is associated with numerous complications including spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, hepato-hydrothorax and hepatorenal syndrome. Given the complex nature of ascites and associatedcomplications, it is not surprising that it heralds increased morbidity and mortality in cirrhotic patients and increased cost-utilization upon the health-care system. This review will detail the pathophysiology of cirrhotic ascites, common complications derived from it, and pertinent treatment modalities. PMID:23717736
Smith, Mitchell; Durham, Janette
Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt creation is a well-established therapy for refractory variceal bleeding and refractory ascites in patients who do not tolerate repeated large volume paracentesis. Experience and technical improvements including covered stents have led to improved TIPS outcomes that have encouraged an expanded application. Evidence for other less frequent indications continues to accumulate, including the indications of primary prophylaxis in patients with high-risk acute variceal bleeding, gastric and ectopic variceal bleeding, primary treatment of medically refractory ascites, recurrent refractory ascites following liver transplantation, hepatic hydrothorax, hepatorenal syndrome, Budd-Chiari syndrome, and portal vein thrombosis. Treatment of patients with high-risk acute variceal bleeding with early TIPS and using transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunts as a primary therapy rather than large volume paracentesis for refractory ascites would likely be the 2 circumstances that permit expansion in the frequency of TIPS procedures. The remaining populations discussed above are relatively rare.
Venzin, C; Kook, P; Jenni, S; Wilhelm, S; Degen, T; Braun, A; Rütten, M; Glaus, T M
A six-year-old Rottweiler with chronic ascites and moderate panhypoproteinaemia that had been treated with large volume paracentesis over several months duration was diagnosed with a large bi-atrial mass and hepatic fibrosis. For palliative treatment, a peritoneo-vesical automated fluid shunt system with an integrated chargeable battery and an integrated computer to control pump function and to transmit data transcutaneously was implanted by coeliotomy. The pump was left in place for 10 weeks, eliminating the need for further paracentesis during this time. At the end of this period, no ascites was discernible and serum protein concentrations had returned to their respective reference intervals. As a complication, decubitus with skin perforation had developed above the pump. Besides palliative treatment of chronic refractory ascites, this pump may have application in other conditions characterised by chronic cavity effusion or in peritoneal dialysis.
Navarro-Rodriguez, T; Hashimoto, C L; Carrilho, F J; Strauss, E; Laudanna, A A; Moraes-Filho, J P P
The effect of the reduction of intra-abdominal pressure on the lower esophageal sphincter pressure (LESP) and the 24-hour pH monitoring were studied in 16 patients with ascites before and after paracentesis. LESP did not change (P > 0.05) with the reduction of intra-abdominal pressure (before paracentesis: 17.48 mmHg and postparacentesis: 18.67 mmHg). The results were divided into two groups according to the achieved reduction in intra-abdominal pressure group A were those in who the reduction was greater than 70% and B consisted of those a reduction of less than 70%. LESP did not change even when results for each group were considered separately (P > 0.05): group A (before: 15.60 mmHg; after: 18.09 mmHg); group B (before: 23.09 mmHg; after: 20.40 mmHg). However the 24-h pH monitoring showed pathological reflux in patients with ascites that was reduced with the paracentesis (P < 0.05; total number of reflux episodes before paracentesis was 520.26, and after, 136.26). All pH-monitoring parameters were statistically different (P < 0.05) before and after the reduction of intra-abdominal pressure for group A but not for group B. LESP does not change significantly (P > 0.05) when the intra-abdominal pressure is significantly reduced (P < 0.05). Patients with ascites showed gastroesophageal reflux. Intra-abdominal pressure reduction greater than 70% lead to a significant reduction in gastroesophageal reflux.
Bari, Shamsul; Malik, Ajaz A; Parray, Fazul Q; Samoon, Hamid; Munfat, Malik; Bakshi, Iftikhar H
We present a patient with slow rupture of hydatid cyst into the peritoneal cavity, presenting as massive abdominal distension and respiratory embarrassment. On paracentesis, no fluid could be drained. A small lateral incision was made under local anaesthesia to drain the 'ascites', but daughter cysts typical of hydatid came out. On laparotomy, there was a cyst in the right lobe of liver which had ruptured into the peritoneal cavity leading to secondary echinococcosis.
Rosenberg, Stefanie M
The management of recurrent, symptomatic malignant ascites can be problematic for physicians and patients. The most common, low-risk method is large-volume paracentesis. Patient disease progression often leads to rapid reaccumulation of ascites, which requires frequent return visits to the hospital for symptom management. Other techniques have been developed to achieve palliation of symptoms, including tunneled external drainage catheters, peritoneal ports, and peritoneovenous
Stukan, Maciej; Dudziak, Mirosław; Pawłowski, Maciej
A case report of a woman with 90 kg ovarian tumor is presented. Paracentesis and intravenous alimentation was performed before operation. During the surgery the ovarian tumor was excised and abdominal cavity packing, followed by slow pressure decreasing, was done. Intravenous together with oral alimentation was continued after the operation. The patient was discharged on the 10th postoperative day without any complications, in a good overall condition.
Adesanya, Olubukunola; Naqvi, Mubariz
We report a rare, but serious, complication of a malpositioned umbilical venous catheter in a term male infant who developed laceration, hematoma, and necrosis of liver, ascites, and left-sided obstructive uropathy secondary to extravasation of total parenteral nutrition. Abdominal paracentesis confirmed the presence of parenteral nutrition in the peritoneal cavity. Although, the umbilical venous catheterization is a common intravenous access used in neonatal intensive care units, judicious continued monitoring of its use should be practiced to avoid serious complications. PMID:27766283
Day, Rebecca; Mitchell, Theresa; Keen, Alison; Perkins, Paul
Ascites secondary to cancer has a dramatic effect on all aspects of patients' lives. Healthcare professional surveys have shown that there is considerable variation in the management of ascites. To explore patients' experiences of living with ascites and its management. Qualitative research study using digitally recorded semi-structured interviews. Twelve adult patients with ascites who, between them, had undergone 47 paracentesis procedures in hospitals and/or specialist palliative care units in Southern England. Symptoms were pain, discomfort and effects on appetite, digestion, breathing and mobility. All participants had experienced paracentesis in hospital or a specialist palliative care unit, and these experiences differed. They had views on what constituted a good procedure: setting, competence and pain control. They reported rapid improvement of symptoms after paracentesis. While some did not like the idea of a semi-permanent drain, those with them appreciated the convenience and not having to wait for repeated admissions or the recurrence of symptoms. The interval between ascitic taps was seen as a useful guide as to when a semi-permanent drain should be offered. Participants had mixed views on participation in a hypothetical randomised controlled trial of repeated ascitic taps versus semi-permanent drains. Patients' experiences of ascites management are variable and could be improved. These experiences can inform healthcare professionals. They have views on when semi-permanent drains should be offered and future research.
Livny, Eitan; Bahar, Irit; Hammel, Naama; Nahum, Yoav
In this study, we examined a novel variant of 'big-bubble' deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty using trypan-blue-stained viscoelastic device for the creation of a pre-descemetic bubble. Ten corneoscleral rims were mounted on an artificial anterior chamber (AC). The AC was filled with air through a limbal paracentesis. A Melles' triangulated spatula was inserted through the paracentesis, with its tip penetrating the AC, was then slightly retracted and pushed into the deep stroma above the roof of the paracentesis. A mixture of trypan blue and viscoelastic device (Healon, Abbott Medical Optics, Abbott Park, Illinois) was injected into this intra-stromal pocket using a 27-G cannula to create a pre-descemetic separation bubble. Bubble type and visualization of dyed viscoelastic device were noted. The method was later employed in three cases. In all 10 corneoscleral rims, the technique successfully created a visible pre-descemetic (type 1) bubble that could be expanded up to the predicted diameter of trephination. Subsequent trephination and the removal of corneal stroma were uneventful. In two out of four clinical cases, a type 1 bubble was created, while in two others, visco-dissection failed and dyed viscoelastic was seen in the AC. The presented technique holds promise of being a relatively easy to perform, predictable and well-controlled alternative for achieving a type 1 bubble during deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty surgery. The trypan-blue-stained viscoelastic device facilitates proper visualization and control of the separation bubble and assists in identifying the penetrance to the separation bubble prior to removal of the stromal cap. © 2017 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.
Guo, Ting Ting; Yang, Yue; Song, Yang; Ren, Yu; Liu, Zhi Xin; Cheng, Gang
Midodrine has been reported to improve systemic and renal hemodynamics in patients with cirrhotic ascites. However, the results of clinical trials are conflicting. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of midodrine on cirrhotic ascites through a meta-analysis and systematic review. We searched PubMed (January 1966-December 2014), EMBASE (January 1966-December 2014), the Cochrane Library (Issue 11, 2014), ScienceDirect (January 1966-December 2014), and the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (January 1979-December 2014) databases using the terms 'midodrine' AND 'cirrhosis' AND 'ascites' AND 'paracentesis' for all relevant randomized controlled trials using midodrine for treatment of cirrhotic ascites. In all, 10 trials with a total of 462 patients were included. As a novel therapy for cirrhotic ascites, midodrine was not found to improve survival [odds ratio (OR) 0.81, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.23-2.91]; although it might improve response rates (OR 3.36, 95% CI 1.47-7.69) and reduce plasma renin activity (MD -3.10, 95% CI -5.37 to -0.84). When midodrine was used as an alternative to albumin in large-volume paracentesis, the mortality was higher for midodrine than for albumin (OR 10.76, 95% CI 1.35-85.97). However, there was no statistically significant difference in the development of paracentesis-induced circulatory dysfunction between midodrine group and albumin group (OR 1.69, 95% CI 0.43-6.72). Midodrine may have treatment effects on cirrhotic ascites. Better powered and well-designed trials are required to assess the extent of the efficacy of midodrine in specifically targeted patients. © 2016 Chinese Medical Association Shanghai Branch, Chinese Society of Gastroenterology, Renji Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Bai, Ming; Qi, Xing-Shun; Yang, Zhi-Ping; Yang, Man; Fan, Dai-Ming; Han, Guo-Hong
AIM: To compare the liver transplantation-free (LTF) survival rates between patients who underwent transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunts (TIPS) and those who underwent paracentesis by an updated meta-analysis that pools the effects of both number of deaths and time to death. METHODS: MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library were searched from the inception to October 2012. LTF survival, liver transplantation, liver disease-related death, non-liver disease-related death, recurrent ascites, hepatic encephalopathy (HE) and severe HE, and hepatorenal syndrome were assessed as outcomes. LTF survival was estimated using a HR with a 95%CI. Other outcomes were estimated using OR with 95%CIs. Sensitivity analyses were performed to assess the effects of potential outliers in the studies according to the risk of bias and the study characteristics. RESULTS: Six randomized controlled trials with 390 patients were included. In comparison to paracentesis, TIPS significantly improved LTF survival (HR = 0.61, 95%CI: 0.46-0.82, P < 0.001). TIPS also significantly decreased liver disease-related death (OR = 0.62, 95%CI: 0.39-0.98, P = 0.04), recurrent ascites (OR = 0.15, 95%CI: 0.09-0.24, P < 0.001) and hepatorenal syndrome (OR = 0.32, 95%CI: 0.12-0.86, P = 0.02). However, TIPS increased the risk of HE (OR = 2.95, 95%CI: 1.87-4.66, P = 0.02) and severe HE (OR = 2.18, 95%CI: 1.27-3.76, P = 0.005). CONCLUSION: TIPS significantly improved the LTF survival of cirrhotic patients with refractory ascites and decreased the risk of recurrent ascites and hepatorenal syndrome with the cost of increased risk of HE compared with paracentesis. Further studies are warranted to validate the survival benefit of TIPS in clinical practice settings. PMID:24627607
Bai, Ming; Qi, Xing-Shun; Yang, Zhi-Ping; Yang, Man; Fan, Dai-Ming; Han, Guo-Hong
To compare the liver transplantation-free (LTF) survival rates between patients who underwent transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunts (TIPS) and those who underwent paracentesis by an updated meta-analysis that pools the effects of both number of deaths and time to death. MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library were searched from the inception to October 2012. LTF survival, liver transplantation, liver disease-related death, non-liver disease-related death, recurrent ascites, hepatic encephalopathy (HE) and severe HE, and hepatorenal syndrome were assessed as outcomes. LTF survival was estimated using a HR with a 95%CI. Other outcomes were estimated using OR with 95%CIs. Sensitivity analyses were performed to assess the effects of potential outliers in the studies according to the risk of bias and the study characteristics. Six randomized controlled trials with 390 patients were included. In comparison to paracentesis, TIPS significantly improved LTF survival (HR = 0.61, 95%CI: 0.46-0.82, P < 0.001). TIPS also significantly decreased liver disease-related death (OR = 0.62, 95%CI: 0.39-0.98, P = 0.04), recurrent ascites (OR = 0.15, 95%CI: 0.09-0.24, P < 0.001) and hepatorenal syndrome (OR = 0.32, 95%CI: 0.12-0.86, P = 0.02). However, TIPS increased the risk of HE (OR = 2.95, 95%CI: 1.87-4.66, P = 0.02) and severe HE (OR = 2.18, 95%CI: 1.27-3.76, P = 0.005). TIPS significantly improved the LTF survival of cirrhotic patients with refractory ascites and decreased the risk of recurrent ascites and hepatorenal syndrome with the cost of increased risk of HE compared with paracentesis. Further studies are warranted to validate the survival benefit of TIPS in clinical practice settings.
Acute otitis media is the most common bacterial infection in the child under 5 years of age and the leading reason for antibiotic prescriptions in Western countries. The choice of optimal antibiotic treatment is based essentially on microbiologic epidemiologic studies. The bacteria most often responsible for otitis belong to the commensal flora of the nasopharynx. French studies using paracentesis show that the main bacteria responsible for acute otitis media are H. influenzae, S. pneumoniae and M. catarrhalis. The epidemiology of resistance to antibiotics has recently changed, with the appearance of pneumococcal strains having reduced sensitivity to penicillin, and which have played a major role in treatment failures.
Wallace, Jodi-Anne; Hussain, Jonathan; Unzueta, Alberto; Morelli, Giuseppe
A 58-year-old male with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis cirrhosis presents with right lower extremity cellulitis, abdominal tenderness, and severe sepsis after sustaining puncture injury from a cactus on a property with feral cats. Blood cultures and diagnostic paracentesis were consistent with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis due to Pasteurella multocida, a gram-negative coccobacillus found in the respiratory tract of domestic animals. The patient received timely antibiotic coverage with resolution of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and sepsis after 14-day treatment. This case emphasizes the life-threatening nature of systemic Pasteurella multocida infection as well as an indirect way of acquiring a zoonotic infection in a patient with end-stage liver disease.
Masi, R J
A 22-year-old black female intravenous cocaine addict presented with an endophthalmitis of the right eye. Diagnostic evaluation included an immediate anterior chamber paracentesis and a delayed vitreous aspiration. Although cultures from the involved eye were negative, all 7 blood cultures grew Bacillus cereus suggesting that this organism was the responsible agent of an endogenous endophthalmitis. The patient was treated with appropriate systemic and local antibiotics with resolution of the acute inflammatory signs. However, a phthisical eye has been noted on follow-up examinations.
Grzybowski, Andrzej; Ascaso, Francisco J
It is generally accepted that Jacques Daviel introduced in the 18th century the extracapsular technique of extraction of the lens while the couching method of cataract operation had already been practiced since ancient times. Present study analyses the first known cataract surgery description in three translations into English from the original Sanskrit Sushruta textbook and all the available literature on the subject. We found evidences that some sort of extraocular expulsion of lens material through a limbal puncture (paracentesis) was described by the Indian surgeon. Nevertheless, this incision cannot be considered as a classic extracapsular procedure because it was not large enough to allow the extraction of the entire lens.
Radius, R L; Finkelstein, D
We report a case of central retinal artery occlusion in an 18-year-old black woman with sickle-trait haemoglobinopathy and acute glaucoma after hyphaema. The central retinal artery occlusion occurred immediately after treatment of the glaucoma with osmotic agents, raising the possibility that they played a precipitating role. We suggest that osmotic agents be used with extreme caution in sickle patients with glaucoma. The occlusion was treated by anterior chamber paracentesis with eventual return of good vision. The reversibility of retinal and optic nerve function after total ischaemia is discussed. PMID:952815
Lane, Erin R; Hsu, Evelyn K; Murray, Karen F
Ascites is the pathologic accumulation of fluid within the peritoneal cavity. There are many causes of fetal, neonatal and pediatric ascites; however, chronic liver disease and subsequent cirrhosis remain the most common. The medical and surgical management of ascites in children is dependent on targeting the underlying etiology. Broad categories of management strategies include: sodium restriction, diuresis, paracentesis, intravenous albumin, prevention and treatment of infection, surgical and endovascular shunts and liver transplantation. This review updates and expands the discussion of the unique considerations regarding the management of cirrhotic and non-cirrhotic ascites in the pediatric patient.
Jordan, K; Luetkens, T; Gog, C; Killing, B; Arnold, D; Hinke, A; Stahl, M; Freier, W; Rüssel, J; Atanackovic, D; Hegewisch-Becker, S
Malignant ascites is debilitating for patients with advanced cancer. As shown previously, tumour cell production of vascular endothelial growth factor might be a major cause of the formation of malignant ascites. Intraperitoneal bevacizumab could therefore be an option for symptom control in refractory ascites. Patients with advanced gastrointestinal cancer and malignant ascites who had undergone paracentesis at least twice within the past 4 weeks were randomly assigned in a 2:1 ratio to intraperitoneal bevacizumab (400 mg absolute) or placebo after paracentesis. During the 8-week treatment period, a minimum interval of 14 d was kept between the applications of the study drug. Primary end-point was paracentesis-free survival (ParFS). Fifty-three patients (median age 63 years) were randomised. Forty-nine patients received at least one study drug application and qualified for the main analysis. The proportion of patients with at least one common toxicity criteria grade III-V event was similar with 20/33 (61%) on bevacizumab and 11/16 (69%) on placebo. Median ParFS was 14 d (95% confidence interval [CI]: 11-17) in the bevacizumab arm and 10.5 d (95% CI: 7-21) on placebo (hazard ratio 0.74, 95% CI: 0.40-1.37; P = 0.16). The longest paracentesis-free period was 19 d on bevacizumab (range 6-66 d) and 17.5 d in the placebo arm (range 4-42) (P = 0.85). Median overall survival was 64 d (95% CI: 45-103) on bevacizumab compared to 31.5 d (95% CI: 20-117) on placebo (P = 0.31). Intraperitoneal bevacizumab was well tolerated. Overall, treatment did not result in a significantly better symptom control of malignant ascites. However, patients defined by specific immune characteristics may benefit. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sipes, S.L.; Newton, M.; Lurain, J.R.
Chylous ascites is an unusual condition with many causes. Two cases are presented in which it appeared to be related to whole pelvis irradiation in one patient for carcinoma of the vagina and in another for carcinoma of the vulva. The diagnosis is made by paracentesis and analysis of the fluid. The underlying disease usually requires identification by exploratory laparotomy. Although a malignant process is the most common cause, the only findings in the authors' cases were widespread radiation changes in the intestine. After diagnosis treatment by low-fat diet with medium-chain triglyceride supplements resulted in disappearance of chylous ascites.
Although the factors involved in cirrhotic ascites have been studied for a century, a number of observations are not understood, including the action of diuretics in the treatment of ascites and the ability of the plasma-ascitic albumin gradient to diagnose portal hypertension. This communication presents an explanation of ascites based solely on pathophysiological alterations within the peritoneal cavity. A quantitative model is described based on experimental vascular and intraperitoneal pressures, lymph flow, and peritoneal space compliance. The model's predictions accurately mimic clinical observations in ascites, including the magnitude and time course of changes observed following paracentesis or diuretic therapy. PMID:22453061
Shao, J; Zhang, L; Han, G H; Fan, D M
Ascites is a common clinical manifestation of cirrhotic portal hypertension, and about 60%-80% of cirrhotic patients develop the symptom of ascites within 10 years. Once ascites occurs, the 5-year survival rate is reduced from 80% to 50%. With the progression of liver diseases, approximately 5%-10% of patients with ascites develop refractory ascites, and the median survival time is only 6-12 months. This article reviews the definition and diagnosis of refractory ascites, evaluation of prognostic factors, and treatment regimens, including large-volume paracentesis combined with protein supplementation, transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt, and liver transplantation.
Wong, Clare; Merkur, Harry
The anatomical position of the inferior epigastric artery (IEA) subjects it to risk of injury during abdominal procedures that are close to the artery, such as laparoscopic trocar insertion, insertion of intra-abdominal drains, Tenckhoff(®) catheter (peritoneal dialysis catheter) and paracentesis. This article aims to raise the awareness of the anatomical variations of the course of the IEA in relation to abdominal landmarks in order to define a safer zone for laparoscopic ancillary trocar placement. Methods of managing the IEA injury as well as techniques to minimise the risk of injury to the IEA are reviewed and discussed.
Caraceni, Paolo; Angeli, Paolo; Prati, Daniele; Bernardi, Mauro; Liumbruno, Giancarlo M.; Bennardello, Francesco; Piccoli, Pierluigi; Velati, Claudio
The use of human albumin is common in hepatology since international scientific societies support its administration to treat or prevent severe complications of cirrhosis, such as the prevention of post-paracentesis circulatory dysfunction after large-volume paracentesis and renal failure induced by spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, and the treatment of hepatorenal syndrome in association with vasoconstrictors. However, these indications are often disregarded, mainly because the high cost of human albumin leads health authorities and hospital administrations to restrict its use. On the other hand, physicians often prescribe human albumin in patients with advanced cirrhosis for indications that are not supported by solid scientific evidence and/or are still under investigation in clinical trials. In order to implement appropriate prescription of human albumin and to avoid its futile use, the Italian Association for the Study of the Liver (AISF) and the Italian Society of Transfusion Medicine and Immunohaematology (SIMTI) nominated a panel of experts, who reviewed the available clinical literature and produced practical clinical recommendations for the use of human albumin in patients with cirrhosis. PMID:26820615
Miller, Joe; Uttamchandani, Deepak G.
The authors report on the design of a system which will enable real time measurements of (therapeutic) drug concentrations in the anterior chamber of the eye. Currently the concentration of therapeutic drugs in the anterior chamber is determined by analyzing samples which have been removed from the aqueous humor of laboratory animal eyes. This sampling via paracentesis can be painful and does not provide a continuous measurement. Our system will be far less invasive, removing the need for sampling via paracentesis, and also providing a continuous measurement, enabling a more complete understanding of the kinetics of ophthalmic drugs. A key component in our novel system is a specially constructed contact lens. We report on the design, optimization and manufacture of such a contact lens system capable of directing UV/VIS light in, across and out of the anterior chamber of the eye, thereby enabling absorption spectroscopy measurements of the aqueous humor to be undertaken. Design of the one piece contact lens/mirror system was achieved using the Zemax optical design software package and the lens was fabricated from synthetic fused silica. Results from modeling of the lens and experimental measurements on light propagation across the anterior chamber of animal eyes assisted by the lens will be reported.
Ascites is one of the major complications of liver cirrhosis and is associated with a poor prognosis. It is important to distinguish noncirrhotic from cirrhotic causes of ascites to guide therapy in patients with noncirrhotic ascites. Mild to moderate ascites is treated by salt restriction and diuretic therapy. The diuretic of choice is spironolactone. A combination treatment with furosemide might be necessary in patients who do not respond to spironolactone alone. Tense ascites is treated by paracentesis, followed by albumin infusion and diuretic therapy. Treatment options for refractory ascites include repeated paracentesis and transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt placement in patients with a preserved liver function. Potential complications of ascites are spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) and hepatorenal syndrome (HRS). SBP is diagnosed by an ascitic neutrophil count > 250 cells/mm3 and is treated with antibiotics. Patients who survive a first episode of SBP or with a low protein concentration in the ascitic fluid require an antibiotic prophylaxis. The prognosis of untreated HRS type 1 is grave. Treatment consists of a combination of terlipressin and albumin. Hemodialysis might serve in selected patients as a bridging therapy to liver transplantation. Liver transplantation should be considered in all patients with ascites and liver cirrhosis. PMID:21455322
Çekiç, Bulent; Toslak, Iclal Erdem; Şahintürk, Yasin; Cekin, Ayhan Hilmi; Koksel, Yasemin Kocabas; Koroglu, Mert; Demos, Terrence C
The purpose of this article is to differentiate exudative from transudative ascites using B-mode gray-scale ultrasound histogram analysis. Sixty-two consecutive patients with ascites were prospectively studied from June 2014 through June 2015. All underwent ultrasound (US) and paracentesis in the radiology department. Five patients were excluded (three with hemorrhage and two with peritoneal carcinomatosis). The remaining 57 patients were divided into those with exudative and transudative ascites according to results of paracentesis. Electronically recorded US images were transferred to a workstation, and gray-scale histograms were generated. The ascites-to-rectus abdominis muscle echogenicity ratio (ARAER) was obtained from ascites adjacent to the rectus abdominis muscle. ROC curves were used to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of this method in differentiating exudative from transudative ascites. ARAERs for exudative ascites were significantly higher than those for transudative ascites (p < 0.001). ROC was done to evaluate ARAERs for exudative ascites. The best cutoff value for ARAER histogram was 0.002. The sensitivity and specificity of ARAER were 87.5% and 79.2% (AUC = 0.843), respectively. ARAER is an easily applicable noninvasive quantitative sonographic method with high sensitivity and specificity in differentiating exudative from transudative ascites.
Caraceni, Paolo; Angeli, Paolo; Prati, Daniele; Bernardi, Mauro; Liumbruno, Giancarlo M; Bennardello, Francesco; Piccoli, Pierluigi; Velati, Claudio
The use of human albumin is common in hepatology since international scientific societies support its administration to treat or prevent severe complications of cirrhosis, such as the prevention of post-paracentesis circulatory dysfunction after large-volume paracentesis and renal failure induced by spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, and the treatment of hepatorenal syndrome in association with vasoconstrictors. However, these indications are often disregarded, mainly because the high cost of human albumin leads health authorities and hospital administrations to restrict its use. On the other hand, physicians often prescribe human albumin in patients with advanced cirrhosis for indications that are not supported by solid scientific evidence and/or are still under investigation in clinical trials.In order to implement appropriate prescription of human albumin and to avoid its futile use, the Italian Association for the Study of the Liver (AISF) and the Italian Society of Transfusion Medicine and Immunohaematology (SIMTI) nominated a panel of experts, who reviewed the available clinical literature and produced practical clinical recommendations for the use of human albumin in patients with cirrhosis.
Grossman, Lisa C.; Michalakis, Konstantinos G.; Browne, Hyacinth; Payson, Mark D.; Segars, James H.
Objective To compare and contrast the pathophysiology of ovarian hyperstimualtion syndrome (OHSS) with known syndromes of increased intraabdominal pressure (IAP), and to explore the relationship of increased IAP with symptom severity in OHSS. Design Literature review. Main Outcome Measure(s) Correlation of OHSS symptoms with IAP; effects of paracentesis on IAP in patients with OHSS. Setting Academic Research Institution. Intervention(s) None. Result(s) OHSS involves a rapid accumulation of volume (from 1.5–17 liters) in the peritoneal cavity that can lead to organ dysfunction, including respiratory impairment and oliguria. In published reports of 20 moderate-to-severe OHSS patients in whom IAP was measured, IAP was found to be elevated to a pathologic range. The increased IAP indicates that OHSS may be considered a compartment syndrome and meets criteria for abdominal compartment syndrome in advanced cases. For this reason, management of OHSS should include reduction of pressure by paracentesis to avoid morbidity and syndrome progression. In addition, measurement of IAP may help to classify the stage of OHSS. Conclusion(s) IAP was found to be elevated in the few cases of OHSS in which it was measured, substantiating the conclusion that OHSS may be considered a compartment syndrome. An understanding of the pathophysiology of increased intrabdominal pressure is useful in the management of OHSS. PMID:19836016
Chen, Ying-Chuan; Li, Jun-Ju; Zhu, Guan-Yu; Shi, Lin; Yang, An-Chao; Jiang, Yin; Zhang, Xin; Zhang, Jian-Guo
Nowadays, the patients with deep brain stimulation (DBS) devices are restricted to undertake 1.5T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) according to the guideline. Nevertheless, we conducted an experiment to test pathological change near the leads in different field-strength MRI. Twenty-four male New Zealand rabbits were assigned to Group 1 (G1, n = 6, 7.0T, DBS), Group 2 (G2, n = 6, 3.0T, DBS), Group 3 (G3, n = 6, 1.5T, DBS), and Group 4 (G4, n = 6, 1.5T, paracentesis). DBS leads were implanted in G1, G2 and G3, targeting left nucleus ventralis posterior thalami. Paracentesis was performed in G4. 24 h after MRI scan, all animals were killed for examining pathological alternation (at different distance from lead) via transmission electron microscopy. Our results suggest that the severity of tissue injury correlates with the distance to electrode instead of field strength of MRI. Up to now, the reason for the restriction of MRI indicated no significantly different pathological change.
The only treatment for malignant ascites in patients with refractory cancer is paracentesis, a procedure to relieve symptoms. Catumaxomab, a monoclonal antibody, is now authorised in the European Union for intraperitoneal administration to patients with epithelial cancers that overexpress epithelial cellular adhesion molecule (EpCAM) and provoke ascites unresponsive to chemotherapy. Clinical evaluation of catumaxomab in this setting is based on a comparative, randomised but unblinded trial including 258 patients. Patients in the catumaxomab group had four paracenteses over a 10-day period, followed by a 6-hour intraperitoneal catumaxomab infusion, while patients in the control group had a single paracentesis. Catumaxomab did not extend median survival time, which was about two months. Methodological biases rule out any conclusions as to whether catumaxomab reduced the number of paracenteses needed during this short survival period. In this trial, 80% of patients treated with catumaxomab experienced serious adverse events, versus 29% of controls, resulting in hospitalisation in respectively about 29% versus 16% of patients. Two-thirds of patients had reactions linked to intraperitoneal catumaxomab infusion. Gastrointestinal disorders were frequent, and included abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting. Catumaxomab is hepatotoxic. In addition, most patients develop anti-catumaxomab antibodies, although the clinical consequences are unclear. Catumaxomab therapy is inconvenient: it lasts 10 days and requires 4 intraperitoneal infusions that last 6 hours each and require 24-hour monitoring. In practice, catumaxomab has more harms than benefits. It is better to focus on individually tailored palliative care for these terminally ill patients.
Kikolski, Steven G. Aryafar, Hamed Rose, Steven C.; Roberts, Anne C.; Kinney, Thomas B.
PurposeTo investigate the efficacy and safety of the use of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) creation to treat cirrhosis-related chylous collections (chylothorax and chylous ascites).MethodsWe retrospectively reviewed data from four patients treated for refractory cirrhosis-related chylous collections with TIPS at our institution over an 8 year period.ResultsOne patient had chylothorax, and three patients had concomitant chylothorax and chylous ascites. There were no major complications, and the only procedure-related complications occurred in two patients who had mild, treatable hepatic encephalopathy. All patients had improvement as defined by decreased need for thoracentesis or paracentesis, with postprocedure follow-up ranging from 19 to 491 days.ConclusionTIPS is a safe procedure that is effective in the treatment of cirrhosis-related chylous collections.
Narang, Subina; Kochhar, Suman; Gupta, Sonika; Gupta, Hemlata; Bansal, Rakesh; Sood, Sunandan
To report a case of bilateral simultaneous central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) following head injury in a young 29-year-old man. A 29-year-old man presented with head injury following road traffic accident. Posterior segment evaluation revealed CRAO in both eyes. The patient was treated for CRAO in the form of immediate ocular massage, paracentesis, intravenous mannitol and transdermal isosorbide dinitrate patch. Despite treatment the vision continued to be no perception of light. Systemic investigations were unremarkable. Color Doppler of carotid arteries showed plaque in left carotid bulb and thrombus in right internal carotid artery. Bilateral simultaneous CRAO following head trauma has not been reported earlier. Thorough ocular examination is recommended in all cases of head injury.
Blue, Robert; Uttamchandani, Deepak G.; Wilson, Clive G.
Ophthalmic drug research and ocular diagnostics is hampered by an inability to perform continuous sampling of the aqueous humor contained within the anterior chamber by paracentesis is technically problematic and is associated with the use of local or general anesthesia. Moreover, sampling by direct injection exposes the eye to the risk of infection. We report results obtained from an optical instrumentation technique which is concerned with the direct and non-invasive measurements of optical scattering, absorbance and fluorescence produced in the aqueous humor by various compounds, thus avoiding the need for direct sampling. Light scatter in the anterior chamber arises from particulate matter, such as cell debris and chemical precipitates following eye surgery. Absorbance is caused by the presence of materials such as haemoglobin, or results from the penetration of drugs such as hydroxyquinolines applied to the cornea. Fluorescence can be used to provide a sensitive measurements of fluoroquinolines in the anterior chamber.
Williet, Nicolas; Kassir, Radwan; Cuilleron, Muriel; Dumas, Olivier; Rinaldi, Leslie; Augeul-Meunier, Karine; Cottier, Michèle; Roblin, Xavier; Phelip, Jean-Marc
A 71-year-old man, with history of plasmacytoma in relapse since one year, was hospitalized for a initial presentation of acute pancreatitis and hepatitis. Although there was a heterogeneous infiltration around the pancreas head, the diagnosis of an extramedullary localization of his plasmacytoma was not made until later. This delayed diagnosis was due to the lack of specific radiologic features and the lack of dilatation of biliary ducts at the admission. A diagnosis was made with a simple ultrasound guided paracentesis of the low abundance ascites after a transjugular hepatic biopsy, an endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration of the pancreatic mass, and a failed attempt of biliary drainage through endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. In order to document the difficulty of this diagnosis, characteristics of 63 patients suffering from this condition and diagnosis were identified and discussed through a systematic literature search. PMID:28246589
Mirshahi, A; Scharioth, G B
To present a surgical technique for treatment of peripheral anterior synechiae (PAS or goniosynechiae) at the operative field during nonpenetrating glaucoma surgery. After usual preparation of a superficial and a deep scleral flap with externalization of the Schlemm's canal and peeling the juxtacanalicular trabecular meshwork, the goniosynechia is transected by a spatula introduced to the anterior chamber through a paracentesis. A Descemet's window provides full visual control at the peripheral cornea at the basis of the superficial scleral flap. With this surgical technique, selective treatment of goniosynechiae is possible exactly at the area where creation of low outflow resistance is intended by the surgeon during nonpenetrating glaucoma surgery. This technique enables the surgeon to perform nonpenetrating glaucoma surgery even in the presence of peripheral anterior synechiae.
Agrawal, Shefali; Vohra, Sandeep; Rawat, Sangeeta; Kashyap, Vikas
Eosinophilic gastroenteritis (EGE) is a rare condition characterized by eosinophilic infiltration of the gastrointestinal tract. Depending on the dominant layer of infiltration it is classified into three types namely, mucosal, muscularis and subserosal. The most uncommon variant is the subserosal type characterized by primarily subserosal disease, eosinophilic ascites and peripheral hypereosinophilia. The clinical features are non-specific with history of atopic predisposition and allergy. Endoscopic biopsy is frequently non-diagnostic due to an uninvolved gastrointestinal mucosa rendering its diagnosis a challenge. The mainstay of diagnosis is peripheral hypereosinophilia and eosinophil-rich ascitic fluid on diagnostic paracentesis. Oral steroid therapy is usually the first line of treatment with dramatic response. Due to a propensity for relapse, steroid-sparing therapy should be considered for relapses of EGE. We report a case of subserosal EGE with diagnostic clinical features and treatment response and review the current strategy in the management of eosinophilic ascites. PMID:27721930
Lerman, S.; Hockwin, O.
Twenty-eight fresh donor eyes (Georgia Lions Eye Bank) ranging in age from four months to 87 years were used for an in vitro study to determine the feasibility of obtaining accurate anterior chamber diameter measurements with our Scheimpflug ultraviolet-visible slitlamp densitography apparatus. The in vivo study was performed on 16 hybrid monkeys (of varying age). These data were within 0.1 mm of measurements obtained with a modified paracentesis needle specially designed to obtain such measurements. The results of the foregoing study demonstrate that the Scheimpflug slitlamp photographic analyses can provide an accurate measurement of the anterior chamber diameter without entering the globe surgically. This will enable the surgeon to determine the diameter and order an anterior chamber IOL of a specified size prior to surgery. The authors have devised an automated program to analyze the negatives and provide direct anterior chamber diameter measurements.
Vignoli, A; Cioni, G; Sardini, C; Tincani, E; Cristani, A; Ventura, E
The cases of two patients with liver cirrhosis HCV-related, admitted in our Department in consequence of the development of ascites, anemia and clinical deterioration, are reported. Both patients had all major risk factors for hepatocellular carcinoma and anamnestic and physical findings suggesting this diagnosis; nevertheless, the alpha-1-fetoprotein serum levels and the ultrasonographic findings were not diagnostic for primary hepatic neoplasm. Explorative paracentesis was diagnostic, demonstrating the presence of hemoperitoneum (the hematocrit ratio in the ascitic fluid was 12 and 10, respectively). Magnetic resonance revealed extensive diffuse hepatocellular carcinoma on both cases. Hemoperitoneum, in patients with liver cirrhosis, in face of non diagnostic levels of alpha-1-fetoprotein and ultrasonographic findings, can be indicative of the spontaneous rupture of a diffuse type of hepatocellular carcinoma.
Stirnimann, Guido; Banz, Vanessa; Storni, Federico; De Gottardi, Andrea
Cirrhotic patients with refractory ascites (RA) can be treated with repeated large volume paracentesis (LVP), with the insertion of a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) or with liver transplantation. However, side effects and complications of these therapeutic options, as well as organ shortage, warrant the development of novel treatments. The automated low-flow ascites pump (alfapump®) is a subcutaneously-implanted novel battery-driven device that pumps ascitic fluid from the peritoneal cavity into the urinary bladder. Ascites can therefore be aspirated in a time- and volume-controlled mode and evacuated by urination. Here we review the currently available data about patient selection, efficacy and safety of the alfapump and provide recommendations for the management of patients treated with this new method. PMID:28203285
Mazzaferro, Elisa M
The presentation of a patient with acute abdominal pain often is both a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge for the veterinary practitioner. Rapid physical examination and assessment of the patient's cardiovascular status are critical to initiating appropriate and often aggressive medical management as diagnostic tests are being performed. A number of diagnostic tests can be performed, including complete blood count, serum biochemistry profile, serum amylase and lipase, abdominal radiographs, abdominal ultrasound, abdominal paracentesis or diagnostic peritoneal lavage, cytology, and fluid analysis. In some cases, surgical exploration may be indicated, depending on each patient's clinical signs and response to therapy. Of the most important aspects of medical management of the patient with acute abdominal pain is to maintain oxygen delivery to tissues and to treat aggressively for pain or discomfort. The initial triage and approach to the patient with acute abdomen are discussed.
Meschino, Michael; García-Ochoa, Carlos
We present the rare case of a ruptured choledochal cyst (CC) in a young woman presenting with a two-day history of worsening upper abdominal pain. Imaging revealed a contracted gallbladder, dilated common bile duct (CBD), and a large amount of peritoneal fluid. Percutaneous paracentesis was performed, obtaining bilious fluid. Further imaging revealed cystic dilatation of the CBD and the diagnosis of rupture CC type I was made. The patient was initially managed conservatively with percutaneous drains, IV antibiotic therapy, and sphincterotomy through an ERCP. Elective cyst resection and Roux-en-Y hepatojejunostomy was performed 8 weeks later. It is important to differentiate a ruptured CC from other surgical emergencies without exploratory laparotomy. Initial conservative management could be considered, followed by elective resection once inflammation, infection, and other complications have resolved, avoiding the increased risk associated with an emergency operation or two-stage laparotomy. PMID:25713811
Williams, E. M.; Markey, C. M.; Johnson, A. M.; Morales-Ramirez, P. B.
Pelvic actinomycosis is an uncommon, slowly progressing granulomatous infection that has been associated with the presence of intrauterine devices. Due to its unspecific clinical and radiologic findings, it can mimic pelvic or intra-abdominal malignancy leading to mutilating surgery of high morbidity. Rarely, diagnosis is made preoperatively and in most cases surgical intervention is necessary. The patient in our case is a 42-year-old female with an IUD for 15 years diagnosed with pelvic actinomycosis. Patient was uniquely diagnosed preoperatively through paracentesis and treated conservatively with prolonged antibiotic therapy and without any type of surgical intervention. Follow-up at 1 year showed almost complete radiologic resolution of the inflammatory mass, nutritional recovery, and absence of symptoms. Pelvic actinomycosis can be successfully diagnosed and treated medically without surgical interventions. PMID:28299218
Stirnimann, Guido; Banz, Vanessa; Storni, Federico; De Gottardi, Andrea
Cirrhotic patients with refractory ascites (RA) can be treated with repeated large volume paracentesis (LVP), with the insertion of a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) or with liver transplantation. However, side effects and complications of these therapeutic options, as well as organ shortage, warrant the development of novel treatments. The automated low-flow ascites pump (alfapump(®)) is a subcutaneously-implanted novel battery-driven device that pumps ascitic fluid from the peritoneal cavity into the urinary bladder. Ascites can therefore be aspirated in a time- and volume-controlled mode and evacuated by urination. Here we review the currently available data about patient selection, efficacy and safety of the alfapump and provide recommendations for the management of patients treated with this new method.
Ozkan, Orhan; Akinci, Devrim Gocmen, Rahsan; Cil, Barbaros; Ozmen, Mustafa; Akhan, Okan
We report our experience with a radiologically placed peritoneal port-catheter in palliation of malignant ascites. Port-catheters were successfully placed under ultrasonographic and fluoroscopic guidance in seven patients (five women, two men) who had symptomatic malignant ascites. The long-term primary patency rate was 100%. The mean duration of catheter function was 148 days. Seven patients had a total of 1040 port-days. Two patients received intraperitoneal chemotherapy via the port-catheter. There were no procedure-related mortality and major complications. Minor complications such as ascitic fluid leakage from the peritoneal entry site, migration of the catheter tip to the right upper quadrant, and reversal of the port reservoir occurred in four patients. None of these complications affected the drainage and required port explantation. In patients with symptomatic malignant ascites, a peritoneal port-catheter can provide palliation and eliminate multiple hospital visits for repeated paracentesis with high patency and low complication rates.
Hussain, Fuad F. Meer, Ziad F.; Lopez, Anthony J.
Ascites often contributes to patient morbidity and discomfort. When refractory to medical management, it has been managed with repeated paracentesis, implantable ports for drainage, or diversion to the urinary bladder. Peritoneovenous shunt insertion has been a technique that was traditionally performed only by surgeons but is now within the realm of interventional radiologists. Its advantage is that protein-rich ascitic fluid is returned to the intravascular compartment. This retrospective study elaborates on the successes and problems encountered during shunt insertion in our first 13 patients. Two patients are well with a functioning shunt at 14 and 32 weeks. In 6 the shunt functioned until the patients' death from the underlying malignancy. Two required revision with variable success and in 2, shunt function could not be salvaged. There was one procedure-related mortality. Radiological insertion of these shunts is feasible and should be considered for selected patients. Options are available for assessment and salvaging of dysfunctional shunts.
Kovach, Jaclyn L; Mason, Brian
A 69-year-old woman presented with a "veil" over the left eye. Clinical examination demonstrated signs of central retinal artery occlusion. Visual acuity was compromised to 1/200 E in the left eye. Ocular massage and anterior chamber paracentesis failed to improve vision. An emergent intra-arterial catheterization with verapamil and alteplase infusion was performed less than 12 hours following symptom onset. Initial optical coherence tomography (OCT) showed inner retinal edema. One year later, OCT revealed relatively minor thinning, which could explain the patient's visual recovery to 20/40. This may be the first article to report OCT changes following this treatment for central retinal artery occlusion. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.
van den Horn, G J; Meenken, C; Troost, D
BACKGROUND: A patient with AIDS who developed the clinical picture of bilateral progressive outer retinal necrosis (PORN) in combination with varicella zoster encephalitis is described. The picture developed more than 2 years after an episode of ophthalmic zoster infection, and following intermittent exposure to oral acyclovir because of recurrent episodes of cutaneous herpes simplex infection. METHODS: Aqueous humour, obtained by paracentesis of the anterior chamber, was analysed using immunofluorescence and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Postmortem analysis of eye and brain tissue was performed by using conventional techniques and in situ hybridisation. RESULTS: While conventional techniques all failed to detect a causative agent, analysis of the aqueous humour using PCR, and histological examination of necropsy specimens from eyes and brain using in situ hybridisation were conclusive for the diagnosis varicella zoster virus (VZV) infection. CONCLUSION: This case documents the presumed association of PORN and VZV encephalitis in a severely immunocompromised AIDS patient. Images PMID:8976726
Manrique Lipa, R; González Sánchez, E; Asencio Duran, M; Gonzalez-Peramato, P; Fonseca Santodomingo, A
To report a case of iris abscess due to bacterial endocarditis. A 46-year-old male under diagnosis of promielocitic leukemia and endocarditis presented with decreased vision in left eye (OS). Ophthalmic exploration revealed iris abscess and hypopyon with fibrinous exudate in iris of the left eye and tyndall +1 in right eye (OD). Blood culture and anterior chamber paracentesis was positive for methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus and negative for blastic cells in citology. Treatment with systemic antibiotic was initiated with total resolution of inflammation. Iris abscess is an unusual septic focus in bacterial endocarditis. It is crucial to rule out an extramedullary metastasis in a patient with leukemia due to the general prognosis. Copyright © 2011 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Annamalai, Alagappan; Wisdom, Lauren; Herada, Megan; Nourredin, Mazen; Ayoub, Walid; Sundaram, Vinay; Klein, Andrew; Nissen, Nicholas
Cirrhosis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide with liver transplantations as it only possible cure. In the face of a significant organ shortage many patients die waiting. A major complication of cirrhosis is the development of portal hypertension and ascites. The management of ascites has barely evolved over the last hundred years and includes only a few milestones in our treatment approach, but has overall significantly improved patient morbidity and survival. Our mainstay to ascites management includes changes in diet, diuretics, shunt procedures, and large volume paracentesis. The understanding of the pathophysiology of cirrhosis and portal hypertension has significantly improved in the last couple of decades but the changes in ascites management have not seemed to mirror this newer knowledge. We herein review the history of ascites management and discuss some its current limitations. PMID:27729954
Zghal, I; Malek, I; Amel, C; Soumaya, O; Bouguila, H; Nacef, L
Necrotizing viral retinitis is associated with infection by the Herpes family of viruses, especially herpes simplex virus (HSV), varicella zoster virus (VZV) and occasionally cytomegalovirus (CMV). When the diagnosis is suspected clinically, antiviral therapy must be instituted immediately. We report the case of a patient presenting with necrotizing viral retinitis 3 months following intravitreal injection of triamcinolone acetonide for diabetic macular edema. Fluorescein angiography demonstrated a superior temporal occlusive vasculitis. A diagnostic anterior chamber paracentesis was performed to obtain deoxyribo-nucleic acid (DNA) for a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test for viral retinitis. PCR was positive for CMV. The patient was placed on intravenous ganciclovir. CMV retinitis is exceedingly rare in immunocompetent patients; however, it remains the most common cause of posterior uveitis in immunocompromised patients. The incidence of this entity remains unknown. Local immunosuppression, the dose and the frequency of injections may explain the occurrence of this severe retinitis.
Srinivasan, Sathish; Lyall, Douglas; Kiire, Christine
Fuchs heterochromic uveitis (FHU) in its classic presentation is a unilateral, chronic, low grade, often asymptomatic anterior uveitis. It is characterized by a classic triad of iris heterochromia, cataract and keratic precipitates. Neovascularization of the iris and the anterior chamber (AC) angle (radial and circumferential) occurs in 6–22% of cases. This angle and iris new vessels can sometimes lead to a characteristic filiform haemorrhage and formation of hyphaema after AC paracentesis and is a hallmark of FHU known as Amsler–Verrey sign. This haemorrhage has been previously associated with trivial trauma, mydriasis, applanation tonometry, gonioscopy, or it may occur spontaneously. In the setting of cataract surgery it has been previously reported with the use of a Honan balloon. We report a case of cataract and FHU where the Amsler–Verrey sign developed intraoperatively during a phacoemulsification procedure. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first documented report of this sign occurring intraoperatively during cataract surgery. PMID:22767537
Srinivasan, Sathish; Lyall, Douglas; Kiire, Christine
Fuchs heterochromic uveitis (FHU) in its classic presentation is a unilateral, chronic, low grade, often asymptomatic anterior uveitis. It is characterized by a classic triad of iris heterochromia, cataract and keratic precipitates. Neovascularization of the iris and the anterior chamber (AC) angle (radial and circumferential) occurs in 6-22% of cases. This angle and iris new vessels can sometimes lead to a characteristic filiform haemorrhage and formation of hyphaema after AC paracentesis and is a hallmark of FHU known as Amsler-Verrey sign. This haemorrhage has been previously associated with trivial trauma, mydriasis, applanation tonometry, gonioscopy, or it may occur spontaneously. In the setting of cataract surgery it has been previously reported with the use of a Honan balloon. We report a case of cataract and FHU where the Amsler-Verrey sign developed intraoperatively during a phacoemulsification procedure. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first documented report of this sign occurring intraoperatively during cataract surgery.
Nichols-Totten, Kysha; Pollema, Travis; Moncure, Michael
Pseudoaneurysm of the inferior epigastric artery (IEA) is a recognized complication of surgery; however, it is a very rare clinical occurrence. The anatomic position of the IEA subjects patients to possible IEA injury during abdominal wall procedures that are close to the artery, such as insertions of drains, Tenckhoff catheters, laparoscopic trocars, or paracentesis. Treatment options include open surgery, percutaneous coil embolization, embolization with N-butyl cyanoacrylate, sonographic-guided thrombin injection, or sonographic-guided compression. We report the first case of a pseudoaneurysm arising from the IEA after a laparoscopic ventral hernia repair. To our knowledge, 17 IEA pseudoaneurysms have been reported, only 3 of which were spontaneous. The pseudoaneurysm in our patient was successfully treated by percutaneous injection of thrombin by interventional radiology.
Graziosi, Luigina; Marino, Elisabetta; De Angelis, Verena; Rebonato, Alberto; Donini, Annibale
Malignant ascites is an abnormal accumulation of fluid in the peritoneal cavity of patients with intraperitoneal cancer dissemination. This clinical condition could represent the terminal evolution of a lethal disease and could influence the prognosis, severely impairing the patients' quality of life. Treatment options include a multitude of different procedures with limited efficacy and some degree of risk; diuretics, paracentesis, peritoneo-venous shunts and intraperitoneal biologic agents like anti-VEGF molecules, metalloproteinase inhibitors and immunomodulators are included. None of these approaches have been established as a standard of care because of their low efficacy or severe side effects. The last two decades saw the emergence of cytoreductive surgery with hyperthermic intraperitoneal perioperative chemotherapy (HIPEC) as a viable therapeutic approach resulting in an effective cure against refractory malignant ascites. The following describes our experiences with 3 cases together with a literature review.
Massive ascites of unknown origin is an uncommon condition, which represent a diagnostic challenge. Patients with delayed diagnosis and treatment may have a poor prognosis. A 22-year-old female was referred to this hospital due to a 4-year progressive abdominal distension with massive ascites of unknown origin. By thorough investigations, she was eventually diagnosed as chronic calcified constrictive pericarditis. She received pericardiectomy and had an uneventful postoperative course. With a few day paracentesis, ascites did not progress any more. She was doing well at 5-month follow-up and has returned to work. Extracardiac manifestations, such as massive ascites and liver cirrhosis, were rare in patients with constrictive pericarditis. Pericardiectomy can be a radical solution for the treatment of chronic constrictive pericarditis. In order to avoid delayed diagnosis and treatment, physicians have to bear in mind this rare manifestation of chronic calcified constrictive pericarditis. PMID:24600502
Kogiso, Tomomi; Hashimoto, Etsuko; Ito, Taito; Hara, Toshifumi; Ikarashi, Yuichi; Kodama, Kazuhisa; Taniai, Makiko; Torii, Nobuyuki; Yoshinaga, Kentaro; Morita, Satoru; Takahashi, Yutaka; Tanaka, Junji; Sakai, Shuji; Yamamoto, Masakazu; Tokushige, Katsutoshi
A 56-year-old man was diagnosed with aplastic anemia and paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria at 43 years of age and treatment with cyclosporin A was started. Liver cirrhosis, ascites, and thrombus in the hepatic veins were found at 56 years of age and Budd-Chiari syndrome (BCS) was diagnosed according to angiography findings. He was treated with diuretics and paracentesis was performed several times, but with limited efficacy. A DenverⓇ peritoneovenous shunt (PVS) was inserted into the right jugular vein; his ascites and renal function improved immediately and his general condition has remained good for 12 months since starting the above treatment regimen. A PVS is a treatment option for ascites due to BCS. PMID:27746432
Bayhan, Cihangül; Takcı, Şahin; Ciftçi, Türkmen Turan; Yurdakök, Murat
A preterm infant with isolated fetal ascites was admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit due to the appearance of respiratory distress at birth. An umbilical venous catheter (UVC) was inserted. Abdominal ultrasonography (US) showed localization of the catheter tip in the portal vein. It was removed and replaced with a newer one. UVC tip location was confirmed with X-ray. His condition had been improving until he worsened suddenly on the sixth day of life. US showed hepatic abscess and intraabdominal hemorrhage derived from the malpositioned UVC. A drainage catheter was inserted to the abscess and paracentesis was applied. Practitioners should be cautious about any signs of UVC complications, even if true localization of the catheter tip is proven at the first application. Furthermore, if it is difficult to decide whether the catheter tip is in the right location, confirmation with US can be considered.
Ricketts, R R
Fifty-one infants were treated surgically for necrotizing enterocolitis utilizing a uniform protocol from July 1980 through July 1983. The indications for surgery were pneumoperitoneum or a paracentesis indicative of bowel infarction. Segmental intestinal resection and exteriorization of the bowel ends through the upper abdominal transverse incision was the usual procedure. Intestinal continuity was reestablished when the patient reached 10 pounds, or sooner if he was failing to thrive with his ileostomy. The overall survival was 72.5%, and it was 82% for those patients have a definitive surgical procedure. This survival rate was not adversely affected by the patient's weight or age at the time of operation, nor by the presence of bowel perforation. The 37 survivors endured multiple postoperative complications. The most significant long-term sequela was short-gut syndrome, which occurred in 11% of survivors. PMID:6486914
Martínez, Javier; Albillos, Agustín
Ascites is a common complication of hepatic cirrhosis and portal hypertension. Patients present systemic and splanchnic circulation disorders, which cause central hypovolemia and arterial hypotension, with the subsequent activation of vasoconstrictor systems and increased renal reabsorption of sodium and water. Approximately 5%-10% of patients present refractory ascites. Refractory ascites is considered when it is not controllable with standard dietary (sodium restriction) and diuretic (furosemide up to 160 mg a day and spironolactone up to 400mg a day) treatment or when patients present adverse effects due to diuretics that impede their administration at optimum dosages. The current therapeutic options for these patients are repeated evacuative paracentesis and the percutaneous intrahepatic portosystemic shunt. Despite these treatments, refractory ascites has a poor prognosis; patients should therefore be assessed for liver transplantation.
Allen, H F; Grove, A S
Severe iritis which occurs within the first five days after cataract extraction may be categorized as (1) bacterial endophthalmitis, (2) toxic iritis, or (3) aseptic iritis. These entities can sometimes be distinguished because of their clinical features. If bacterial endophthalmitis is suspected, anterior chamber paracentesis should be considered and appropriate antibiotic treatment should be initiated. Acute iritis may result from the introduction of toxic agents into the eye, and may follow the use of products sterilized with ethylene oxide. Early acute aseptic iritis probably occurs more often than has previously been recognized. Response to intensive anti-inflammatory treatment is usually prompt and dramatic. The judicious use of cryoextraction and the careful manipulation of intraocular tissues may minimize the incidence and the severity of postoperative inflammation.
Beltrán, L M; García-Casasola, G
Ultrasonography in the hands of the internist can answer important clinical questions quickly at the point of patient care. This technique "enhances" the senses of the physicians and improves their ability to solve the problems of the patient. Point of care ultrasonography performed by clinicians has shown good accuracy in the diagnosis of diverse cardiac, abdominal and vascular pathologic conditions. It may also be useful for evaluation of thyroid, osteoarticular and soft tissue diseases. Furthermore, the use of ultrasound to guide invasive procedures (placement of venous catheters, thoracentesis, paracentesis) reduces the risk of complications. We present 5 cases to illustrate the usefulness of this technique in clinical practice: (i) peripartum cardiomyopathy; (ii) subclinical carotid artery atherosclerosis; (iii) asymptomatic abdominal aortic aneurysm; (iv) tendinitis of long head of biceps brachii and supraspinatus, and (v) spontaneous soleus muscle hematoma.
In most cases the outcome of impaction of the colon is favourable and with mild purging and lubrication, the mass can be broken down and the horse returned to normal health. It is important to reevaluate impaction cases which neither deteriorate or improve in a 24 hour period and to perform a paracentesis to evaluate the etiology and prognosis. A decision of euthanasia or surgical correction should be made as early as possible. Though initially stable, vital signs will deteriorate rapidly without warning. A critical evaluation of the client's farm management can prevent many impaction colics and the service practitioners provide is not complete unless the necessary changes are made. ImagesFigure 1.FIGURE 2.FIGURE 3. PMID:544003
Boey, Pui Yi; Singhal, Shweta; Perera, Shamira A; Aung, Tin
The management of acute primary angle closure is directed at lowering the intraocular pressure and relieving pupil block. Conventional treatment involves the use of medical treatment and laser peripheral iridotomy, respectively, as a means for achieving these aims. Newer therapeutic strategies have been described that are potentially useful adjuncts or alternatives to conventional treatment. Emerging strategies that lower intraocular pressure include anterior chamber paracentesis, as well as laser procedures such as iridoplasty and pupilloplasty. A possible alternative to relieving pupil block is lens extraction, and may be combined with adjunctive measures such as goniosynechiolysis and viscogoniosynechiolysis. Trabeculectomy has a limited role in the acute setting. This review paper reviews the current evidence regarding conventional and newer treatment modalities for acute primary angle closure. PMID:22536030
Lutz, Philipp; M´haimid, Mohamed; Pohlmann, Alessandra; Lehmann, Jennifer; Jansen, Christian; Schierwagen, Robert; Klein, Sabine; Strassburg, Christian P.; Spengler, Ulrich; Trebicka, Jonel
MircoRNA’s (miR) have been recognised as important modulators of gene expression and potential biomarkers. However, they have been rarely investigated in bio fluids apart from blood. We investigated the association of miR-125b and miR-155 with complications of cirrhosis. Ascites was prospectively collected from patients with cirrhosis undergoing paracentesis at our department. miR’s were determined in the supernatant using qPCR and normalized by SV-40. Clinical parameters were assessed at paracentesis and during follow-up. 76 specimens from 72 patients were analysed. MiR’s were not associated to age, sex or aetiology of cirrhosis. MiR-125b levels differed between patients with low and high MELD score, and miR-125b levels showed an inverse correlation to serum creatinine (r2 = −0.23; p = 0.05). MiR-155 was elevated in patients with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) (n = 10; p = 0.04). MiR-155 levels differed between patients with and without 30-day survival (p = 0.02). No association of ascites levels of investigated miR’s to size of varices, episodes of gastrointestinal bleeding or hepatorenal syndrome was observed. While miR-125b levels in ascites seem to be associated with liver and renal dysfunction, miR-155 might be implicated in local immune response in SBP. PMID:28074870
Nicoletto, Maria Ornella; Dalla Palma, Maurizia; Donach, Martin E; Gusella, Milena; Cappetta, Alessandro; Shams, Malihe; Marchet, Aberto; Nardin, Margherita; Pintacuda, Giovanna; Di Maggio, Antonio; Marchesi, Maddalena; Carli, Paolo; Fiduccia, Pasquale; Artioli, Grazia; Nitti, Donato
To assess feasibility and toxicity of intraperitoneal administration of cisplatin and paclitaxel, followed by intravenous chemotherapy in pretreated patients with suboptimal ovarian cancer (residuum >1 cm) or primary peritoneal tumor, and suffering from ascites and/or intestinal obstruction. Fourteen relapsed ovarian cancer patients, 5 of whom were platinum sensitive (platinum-free interval >6 mo), 7 platinum-resistant (platinum-free interval <6 mo), and 2 platinum-refractory, received one cycle of intraperitoneal cisplatin, 100 mg/m2 on day 1, and two cycles of intraperitoneal paclitaxel, 120 mg/m2 on days 8 and 14. Intravenous chemotherapy was administrated 4 weeks following the last intraperitoneal paclitaxel instillation. Blood and peritoneal fluid samples were harvested at 0, 1, 4 and 24 h after ending paclitaxel delivery to guarantee proper tumor exposure and patient safety. Intraperitoneal cisplatin determined 6 cases of vomiting grade 1-2 (40% of the morbidity). Intraperitoneal paclitaxel was associated with 6 events of grade 1-2 abdominal pain; the only grade 4 toxicity was one case of neutropenia and one of mucositis. Ascites decreased in 11 patients: the median time to first need for paracentesis was 5 months, compared to a median baseline paracentesis of 4 weeks. Three intestinal normalizations were obtained. The median overall survival was 10 months for our cohort of patients. Intraperitoneal paclitaxel clearance was significantly higher in patients with suboptimal tumor and symptomatic disease than in patients with smaller residual masses and without ascites (P = 0.004). Intraperitoneal treatment was feasible, and enhanced response to the following intravenous chemotherapy was seen in these patients.
Tandon, Puneeta; Tsuyuki, Ross T; Mitchell, Lesley; Hoskinson, Michael; Ma, Mang M; Wong, Winnie W; Mason, Andrew L; Gutfreund, Klaus; Bain, Vincent G
The pathogenesis of refractory ascites (RA) is linked to splanchnic vasodilation. We hypothesized that a combination of midodrine, octreotide long-acting release (LAR) and albumin would result in increased natriuresis, better control of ascites and an improvement in renal function in patients with RA+/-Type 2 hepatorenal syndrome. A prospective pilot study in patients with RA as defined by the International Ascites Club. Consecutive patients received an intramuscular injection of octreotide-LAR, 50 g of albumin three times per week and midodrine titrated to increase the systolic blood pressure for 1 month. Ten patients with RA were enrolled and eight with complete data to 1 month post-treatment were included in the analysis. There was no change in renal function but there was a trend towards a reduction in the volume of ascites removed by paracentesis (P=0.08) and a significant reduction in the plasma renin (P=0.01) and aldosterone concentrations (P=0.01). Interestingly, there was a transient worsening in the model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score (P=0.01). The deterioration in MELD was completely reversible after discontinuation of therapy. To our knowledge, this is the first study of prolonged midodrine, octreotide and albumin therapy in RA. We observed a significant reduction in the plasma renin and aldosterone concentrations and a trend towards a reduction in the volume of ascites removed by paracentesis without an effect on renal function. The beneficial effects are at the expense of a reversible deterioration in the MELD score. Large controlled trials are needed before this therapy can be routinely recommended.
Karwa, Rakhi; Woodis, C Brock
To review studies evaluating the use of midodrine and octreotide in hemodynamic complications of cirrhosis, including ascites and hepatorenal syndrome. Searches of MEDLINE (1966-September 2008) and EMBASE (1974-September 2008) were conducted using the terms midodrine, octreotide, hepatorenal syndrome, ascites, cirrhosis, and paracentesis-induced circulatory dysfunction. Literature review was limited to English-language, human studies. Studies identified from data sources were considered for review. Studies were excluded if primary therapy involved any of the following: transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt procedure, medications other than midodrine or octreotide, or patients included for treatment or prevention of portal hypertension and/or variceal bleeding. Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic studies and studies using retrospective data collection were excluded. Seven studies were included in this review. Midodrine and octreotide in combination or alone have shown conflicting results for systemic and renal hemodynamics and renal function in patients with cirrhosis-related complications. Patients with ascites being treated with midodrine, alone or in combination with octreotide, showed significant changes in systemic hemodynamics, without a correlating change in renal perfusion. Studies comparing the use of midodrine with use of albumin for the prevention of paracentesis-induced circulatory dysfunction (PICD) showed no incidence of PICD in either treatment group. In hepatorenal syndrome, patients using midodrine with octreotide showed significant changes in systemic hemodynamics and improvements in renal perfusion. This regimen's effect on survival is yet to be determined. Available evidence shows inconsistent results for the effectiveness and safety of midodrine and octreotide use in cirrhotic patients. Because of the contradictory results, longer treatment duration and increased number of study participants are necessary to determine the proper use of
Rozga, Jacek; Piątek, Tomasz; Małkowski, Piotr
Human serum albumin has been widely used in an array of clinical settings for nearly 7 decades. Although there is no evidence to support the use of albumin rather than crystalloid in acute volume resuscitation, many clinicians continue to use albumin because it has other important physiologic effects besides the oncotic function. In keeping with the improved understanding of albumin physiology and pathophysiology of many acute and chronic diseases, use of albumin for medical applications has increased in recent years. This, along with increased costs of manufacturing and lower production volume of medical-grade albumin, has lead to an ongoing shortage and rapid increase in albumin prices. This review is based on the analysis of major publications, related to albumin chemistry, physiology, and medical uses including guidelines developed by professional and governmental organizations. Results reflect current knowledge about the role of albumin in health and disease and relevance of albumin therapy in specific clinical settings. Albumin therapy is currently recommended in spontaneous bacterial peritonitis with ascites, refractory ascites not responsive to diuretics, large-volume paracentesis, post-paracentesis syndrome, and the treatment of hepatorenal syndrome as an adjunct to vasoconstrictors. New indications for albumin therapy are linked to the antioxidant activity of albumin and its effects on capillary integrity. In recent years, large-pore hemofiltration and albumin exchange have emerged as promising liver support therapies for liver failure and other toxic syndromes. They are designed to remove a broad range of blood-borne toxins and to restore normal functions of the circulating albumin by replacing defective forms of albumin and albumin molecules saturated with toxins with normal albumin. In view of the ongoing worldwide shortage and high cost of human albumin (native and recombinant), new usage criteria, protocols, and guidelines for appropriate utilization
Bellia, Chiara; Clemente, Giuseppe; Pecoraro, Rosaria; Maida, Carlo; Simonetta, Irene; Vassallo, Valerio; Di Bona, Danilo; Gulotta, Eliana; Ciaccio, Marcello; Pinto, Antonio
Introduction Patients with chronic liver diseases are usually thin as a result of hypermetabolism and malnutrition expressed by reduced levels of leptin and impairment of other adyponectins such as visfatin. Aims We evaluated the metabolic and inflammatory effects of intravenous high-dose furosemide plus hypertonic saline solutions (HSS) compared with repeated paracentesis and a standard oral diuretic schedule, in patients with cirrhosis and refractory ascites. Methods 59 consecutive cirrhotic patients with refractory ascites unresponsive to outpatient treatment. Enrolled subjects were randomized to treatment with intravenous infusion of furosemide (125–250mg⁄bid) plus small volumes of HSS from the first day after admission until 3 days before discharge (Group A, n:38), or repeated paracentesis from the first day after admission until 3 days before discharge (Group B, n: 21). Plasma levels of ANP, BNP, Leptin, visfatin, IL-1β, TNF-a, IL-6 were measured before and after the two type of treatment. Results Subjects in group A were observed to have a significant reduction of serum levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, ANP, BNP, and visfatin, thus regarding primary efficacy endpoints, in Group A vs. Group B we observed higher Δ-TNF-α, Δ-IL-1β, Δ-IL-6, Δ-ANP, Δ-BNP, Δ-visfatin, Δ-Leptin at discharge. Discussion Our findings underline the possible inflammatory and metabolic effect of saline overload correction in treatment of cirrhosis complications such as refractory ascites, suggesting a possible role of inflammatory and metabolic-nutritional variables as severity markers in these patients. PMID:27941973
Urrunaga, Nathalie H.; Singal, Amit G.; Cuthbert, Jennifer A.; Rockey, Don C.
Background & Aims Hemorrhagic ascites can pose diagnostic and therapeutic dilemmas in patients with cirrhosis. We aimed at exploring the characteristics and outcomes of patients with cirrhosis and hemorrhagic ascites. Methods The records of all patients with cirrhosis and ascites, who underwent paracentesis between 2003 and 2010 at Parkland Memorial Hospital, were retrospectively reviewed. Hemorrhagic ascites was defined as an ascitic fluid red blood cell (RBC) count ≥10,000/μl. We compared each patient with 3 age- and gender-matched controls (cirrhotic patients with ascites and an ascitic RBC count <10,000/μl). Survival curves were generated using Kaplan–Meier plots and compared using the log rank test. Results 1113 cirrhotic patients underwent paracentesis; 214 (19%) had hemorrhagic ascites. Patients with hemorrhagic ascites had higher rates of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (p <0.001), acute kidney injury (AKI, p <0.001), and were more likely to require intensive care unit (ICU)-level care (p = 0.01) compared to patients without hemorrhagic ascites. Patients with hemorrhagic ascites had a higher mortality than controls at one month (87% vs. 72%), 1 year (72% vs. 50%) and 3 years (61% vs. 41%). Using multivariate regression analysis, hemorrhagic ascites was also an independent predictor of mortality (HR 1.34, 95% CI 1.07–1.68) after adjusting for the model for end-stage liver disease score (HR 1.04, 1.03–1.05), ICU-level care (HR 2.02, 1.63–2.51) and presence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HR 2.27, 1.61–3.19). Conclusions Patients with hemorrhagic ascites had a significantly higher rate of ICU care, AKI, and mortality than patients with portal hypertension and ascites but without hemorrhagic ascites. We conclude that hemorrhagic ascites is a marker of advanced liver disease and poor outcome. PMID:23348236
Pericleous, Marinos; Sarnowski, Alexander; Moore, Alice; Fijten, Rik; Zaman, Murtaza
Several pathogenic processes have been implicated in the development of abdominal ascites. Portal hypertension, most usually in the context of liver cirrhosis, can explain about 75% of the cases, whereas infective, inflammatory and infiltrative aetiologies can account for the rest. In this article, we discuss the consensus best practice as published by three professional bodies for the management of ascites, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) and hepatorenal syndrome (HRS). The aim of this study was to compare available clinical guidelines and identify areas of agreement and conflict. We carried out a review of the guidance documentation published by three expert bodies including the British Society of Gastroenterology, the European Association for the Study of the Liver (EASL) and the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases (AASLD), as well as a wider literature search for ascites, SBP and HRS. Abdominal ultrasonography, diagnostic paracentesis and ascitic fluid cultures are recommended by all three guidelines, especially when there is strong clinical suspicion for infection. EASL and AASLD advocate the use of ascitic amylase and mycobacterial cultures/PCR when there is strong suspicion for tuberculosis and pancreatitis, respectively. Ascitic cytology can be useful when cancer is suspected and has a good diagnostic yield if performed correctly. EASL supports the use of urinary electrolytes for all patients; however, the British Society of Gastroenterology and AASLD only recommend their use for therapy monitoring. All three societies recommend cefotaxime as the antibiotic of choice for SBP and large-volume paracentesis for the management of ascites greater than 5 l in volume. For HRS, cautious diuresis, volume expansion with albumin and the use of vasoactive drugs are recommended. There appears to be good concordance between recommendations by the European, American and British guidelines for the management of ascites and the possible
Smolle, Elisabeth; Taucher, Valentin; Haybaeck, Johannes
Ovarian cancer (OC) is the eighth most lethal gynecological malignancy and the main cause of gynecological cancer death in industrialized countries. Malignant ascites is often found in OC, with about 10% of patients suffering from recurrent OC. Tumor cells in OC-associated malignant ascites promote disease recurrence and patient mortality is mainly associated with widespread metastasis to serosal surfaces and accompanying peritoneal effusions. Targeted therapies have recently been developed as novel therapeutic options for malignant ascites. The tri-functional anti-epithelial cell adhesion molecule and anti-cluster of differentiation 3 monoclonal antibody catumaxumab has been assessed in the therapy of malignant ascites, and proven to significantly reduce the ascitic flow rate when applied into the peritoneal cavity. The anti-angiogenic targeted agent bevacizumab has also shown good effects in the symptomatic treatment of malignant ascites, significantly prolonging the time until the next paracentesis. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) Trap, or aflibercept, is a fusion protein that inhibits VEGF-receptor binding. Aflibercept has proven to be effective in reduction of ascites, diminishing clinical symptoms of ascites and prolonging the time to next paracentesis. All three agents we review in the present article are effective in symptomatic control of ascites, leading to a rapid reduction of effusion and prolonging the time interval between paracenteses. However, no improvement in overall survival was observed in any of the clinical trials reported. We, thus, conclude that further investigations on larger patient series are needed to clarify whether the reduction of ascites by these targeted agents leads to a prolongation in tumor-related survival or not.
Macken, Lucia; Joshi, Deepak; Messenger, Jenny; Austin, Mark; Tibble, Jeremy; Mason, Louise; Verma, Sumita
Ascites, the commonest complication of cirrhosis, leads to frequent hospitalisations. Refractory ascites confers a median survival of 6 months without liver transplantation. In many, the management remains palliative (large-volume paracentesis). Despite calls for improvement, palliative and end-of-life care is not yet integrated into end-stage liver disease. Long-term abdominal drains are a palliative strategy in malignant ascites, but not end-stage liver disease. A retrospective, single centre, case series review was performed of patients undergoing long-term abdominal drain placement for refractory ascites secondary to end-stage liver disease at a large teaching hospital between August 2011 and March 2013. Case management: Patients with end-stage liver disease and refractory ascites, where liver transplantation was not an option, were considered for long-term abdominal drains. Seven patients underwent successful long-term abdominal drain insertion after multi-professional assessment. Case outcome: Following long-term abdominal drain insertion, mean hospital attendances reduced to 1 (0-4) from 9 (4-21), with none for ascites management. Median survival after long-term abdominal drain insertion was 29 days (8-219). The complication rate was low and none life threatening. Palliative and end-of-life care needs in end-stage liver disease remain under-addressed. Our data suggest that long-term abdominal drains may be a safe and effective palliative intervention in end-stage liver disease. Prospective randomised controlled trials comparing large-volume paracentesis versus long-term abdominal drains in refractory ascites secondary to end-stage liver disease are warranted.
De Biaggi, Christianni P; Barros, Paulo S M; Silva, Vanessa V; Brooks, Dennis E; Barros, Silvia B M
Phacoemulsification has been successfully employed in humans and animals for lens extraction. This ultrasonic extracapsular surgical technique induces hydroxyl radical formation in the anterior chamber, which accumulates despite irrigation and aspiration. In this paper we determined the total antioxidant status of aqueous humor after phacoemulsification by measuring aqueous humor ascorbic acid levels. Mixed-breed dogs (n = 11; weighing about 10 kg) with normal eyes as determined by slit-lamp biomicroscopy, applanation tonometry, and indirect ophthalmoscopy had phacoemulsification performed in one eye with the other eye used as a control. Samples of aqueous humor were obtained by anterior chamber paracentesis before surgery and at days 1, 2, 3, 7, and 15 after surgery. Total aqueous humor antioxidant status was inferred from the capacity of aqueous humor to inhibit free radical generation by 2,2-azobis (2-amidopropane) chlorine. Ascorbic acid concentrations were measured by high-pressure liquid chromatography with UV detection. Protein content was determined with the biuret reagent. Statistical analysis was performed by anova followed by the paired t-test. Total antioxidant capacity was reduced from 48 to 27 min during the first 24 h with a gradual increase thereafter, remaining statistically lower than the control eye until 7 days postoperatively. Reduced levels of ascorbic acid followed this reduction in antioxidant capacity (from 211 to 99 microm after 24 h), remaining lower than the control eye until 15 days postoperatively. Protein concentration in aqueous humor increased from 0.62 mg/mL to 30.8 mg/mL 24 h after surgery, remaining statistically lower than the control eye until 15 days postoperatively. Paracentesis alone did not significantly alter the parameters measured. These results indicate that after phacoemulsification, the aqueous humor ascorbic acid levels and antioxidant defenses in aqueous humor are reduced, indirectly corroborating free radical
Miller, Joe; Wilson, William S; Blue, Robert; Wilson, Clive G; Uttamchandani, Deepak
This paper describes in detail a novel optoelectronic system designed to measure drug absorption in the anterior segment of the eye following topical application of drug formulations. This minimally invasive measurement technique offers both a method for determining drug concentration in human eyes, and demonstrates an alternative to current testing processes in model animals, which require paracentesis of the anterior chamber of the eye. The optoelectronic technique can be used with formulations, which possess appropriate spectral characteristics, namely unique absorption or fluorescence spectra. Preliminary experiments using our measurement system have been performed in rabbit and man, where we have been successful in achieving the direct measurement of topically applied brimonidine, an alpha-2 agonist used in the treatment of glaucoma. This demonstrates the feasibility of performing real-time, in vivo testing of ophthalmic drug formulations in the eye of human test subjects. We further demonstrate the novel application of the optoelectronic system for detection of topically applied UV-absorbing compounds in rabbit cadaver eyes, with a view to evaluating potential ocular sunscreen formulations. In summary, this method can be applied for the rapid comparison of the penetration of different drug formulations into the anterior eye at greatly reduced cost and time.
Tran, T H C; Rozenberg, F; Cassoux, N; Rao, N A; LeHoang, P; Bodaghi, B
Aim: To evaluate the diagnostic value of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) performed on aqueous humour for the detection of viral DNA in patients with necrotising herpetic retinitis. Methods: The clinical features and laboratory results of 22 patients (29 eyes) presenting with necrotising herpetic retinitis between March 1999 and June 2001 were reviewed retrospectively. Aqueous humour was obtained after anterior chamber paracentesis and PCR was performed in all cases. Results: Viral DNA was detected in the aqueous humour of 19 patients (86.4%). Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) seroconversion was evidenced in one additional patient. In the acute retinal necrosis (ARN) group (n = 19), varicella zoster virus (VZV) DNA was identified in six patients, herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) DNA in two patients, herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) DNA in four patients, and cytomegalovirus (CMV) genome in four patients. In the progressive outer retinal necrosis (PORN) group (n = 3), VZV DNA was detected in all patients. No sample was positive for more than one virus. Conclusions: PCR analysis of aqueous humour in patients with clinical features of necrotising viral retinitis can provide specific aetiological orientation and the method appears to be safe and highly sensitive. PMID:12488268
Sajjad, Mohammad; Khan, Zard Ali; Khan, Mohammad Shoaib
To determine the frequency and compare the culture yield of bacterial isolation by conventional and blood culture BACTEC bottle techniques in cirrhotic patients with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP). Cross-sectional comparative study. Pathology Department, Bannu Medical College, Bannu, KPK, from January 2012 to December 2013. Paracentesis of 20 ml of ascitic fluid tapped from cirrhotic patients with SBPwas carried out by a single technologist. The analysis included differential leukocyte count (DLC), while 5 ml each of the fluid was inoculated into conventional culture media and BACTEC blood culture bottle. All the data were analysed on (SPSS) version 16 to determine frequencies with percentages and mean values with standard deviation. Chi-square test was used for comparing the yield of conventional and blood culture bottle methods. P-value was considered significant if < 0.05. In 105 cases of ascitic fluid analyses, 27 (25.72%) had positive ascitic fluid culture whereas 78 (74.28%) had negative ascitic fluid culture. Ascitic fluid culture was positive in 6 cases by conventional culture media and in 27 cases by BACTEC culture bottle media (p < 0.001). Bacterial isolation was obtained by both culture methods in 6 cases (p < 0.001). Direct bedside inoculation of ascitic fluid by BACTEC culture bottle method has better yield as compared to conventional culture method.
de Cleva, R; Silva, F P; Zilberstein, B; Machado, D J
We report on 4 cases of abdominal compartment syndrome complicated by acute renal failure that were promptly reversed by different abdominal decompression methods. Case 1: A 57-year-old obese woman in the post-operative period after giant incisional hernia correction with an intra-abdominal pressure of 24 mm Hg. She was sedated and curarized, and the intra-abdominal pressure fell to 15 mm Hg. Case 2: A 73-year-old woman with acute inflammatory abdomen was undergoing exploratory laparotomy when a hypertensive pneumoperitoneum was noticed. During the surgery, enhancement of urinary output was observed. Case 3: An 18-year-old man who underwent hepatectomy and developed coagulopathy and hepatic bleeding that required abdominal packing, developed oliguria with a transvesical intra-abdominal pressure of 22 mm Hg. During reoperation, the compresses were removed with a prompt improvement in urinary flow. Case 4: A 46-year-old man with hepatic cirrhosis was admitted after incisional hernia repair with intra-abdominal pressure of 16 mm Hg. After paracentesis, the intra-abdominal pressure fell to 11 mm Hg.
Abramov, Y; Schenker, J G; Lewin, A; Friedler, S; Nisman, B; Barak, V
The objective of this study was to follow the kinetics of four inflammatory cytokines in the plasma and ascitic fluid of seven patients who developed severe ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) after induction of ovulation for in-vitro fertilization. Blood samples were obtained from these patients at three different times: upon hospitalization; when significant clinical improvement was evident; and after complete resolution. Samples were analysed for interleukin-1 (IL-1), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-8 (IL-8) and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha). Ascitic fluid was obtained by therapeutic paracentesis from all study patients during the active phase and analysed for these cytokines. Two control groups were available: the first included 15 women undergoing controlled ovarian stimulation for in-vitro fertilization without developing OHSS, while the second consisted of 25 healthy women not undergoing ovulation induction or any other medical treatment. High concentrations of IL-1, IL-6 and TNF-alpha were detected in all individuals upon admission for severe OHSS. Concentrations dropped significantly along with clinical improvement, reaching normal values after complete resolution. A statistically significant correlation was found between plasma cytokine concentrations and certain biological characteristics of the syndrome such as leukocytosis, increased haematocrit, and elevated plasma 17-beta-oestradiol concentrations. Ascitic fluid obtained from the study patients contained high IL-6 and IL-8 concentrations, while other cytokines were unaltered. These results suggest close association between inflammatory cytokines and the pathophysiology of the ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome.
O'Neill, J A; Stahlman, M T; Meng, H C
Fifty-two premature, low birth weight infants presented mainly in the first week of life with sudden manifestations of intestinal ileus and an x-ray picture of pneumatosis intestinalis. Twenty-two of 32 patients treated with gastric decompression, antibiotics, intensive supportive therapy and intravenous hyperalimentation survived. Twenty other patients had progression of their disease and required operation. Twelve of these patients survived. Review of this material indicated that some medically treated patients might have survived if they had been operated upon. Indications for operation included free perforation and clinical signs of deterioration. Abdominal physical findings and x-rays were not reliable except as signs of far advanced pathology. Confirmation of ascites by paracentesis and gram stain of fluid was helpful when present. If patients were adequately treated and then developed sudden hyponatremia or progressive acidosis, they invariably had gangrenous bowel and required operation. The most striking finding was that a sudden, profound drop in the platelet count to levels below 100,000 reliably predicted the presence of gangrenous bowel and the need for operation. Other clotting studies indicated that disseminated intravascular coagulation is an important accompaniment of NNE with the complication of bowel gangrene prior to perforation. Gastrostomy and resection of involved bowel with staged anastomosis proved to be the most successful form of surgical management. Overall suvival was 66 per cent. Images Fig. 1. PMID:1164056
Parker, Matthew J; Guha, Neil; Stedman, Brian; Hacking, Nigel; Wright, Mark
Objective To assess the benefit of trans-jugular intrahepatic porto-systemic shunt (TIPS) placement for refractory ascites. Design A retrospective observational study of all patients undergoing TIPS for refractory ascites in our hospital between 2003 and 2012. Setting Secondary care. Patients Cirrhotic patients with refractory ascites. Main outcome measures We examined direct real-world (National Health Service) health related costs in the year before and after the TIPS procedure took place. Data were collected relating to the need for reintervention and hepatic encephalopathy. Results Data were available for 24 patients who underwent TIPS for refractory ascites (86% of eligible patients). TIPS was technically successful in all cases. Mean number of bed days in the year prior to TIPS was 30.3 and 14.3 in the year following (p=0.005). No patient had ascites at the end of the year after the TIPS with less requirement for paracentesis over the course of the year (p<0.001). Mean reduction in cost was £2759 per patient. TIPS was especially cost-effective in patients requiring between 6 and 12 drains per year with a mean saving of £9204 per patient. Conclusions TIPS is both a clinically effective and economically advantageous therapeutic option for selected patients with refractory ascites. PMID:28839725
Brydges, Ryan; Stroud, Lynfa; Wong, Brian M; Holmboe, Eric S; Imrie, Kevin; Hatala, Rose
Invasive bedside procedures are core competencies for internal medicine, yet no formal training guidelines exist. The authors conducted a scoping review and realist synthesis to characterize current training for lumbar puncture, arthrocentesis, paracentesis, thoracentesis, and central venous catheterization. They aimed to collate how educators justify using specific interventions, establish which interventions have the best evidence, and offer directions for future research and training. The authors systematically searched Medline, Embase, the Cochrane Library, and ERIC through April 2015. Studies were screened in three phases; all reviews were performed independently and in duplicate. The authors extracted information on learner and patient demographics, study design and methodological quality, and details of training interventions and measured outcomes. A three-step realist synthesis was performed to synthesize findings on each study's context, mechanism, and outcome, and to identify a foundational training model. From an initial 6,671 studies, 149 studies were further reduced to 67 (45%) reporting sufficient information for realist synthesis. Analysis yielded four types of procedural skills training interventions. There was relative consistency across contexts and significant differences in mechanisms and outcomes across the four intervention types. The medical procedural service was identified as an adaptable foundational training model. The observed heterogeneity in procedural skills training implies that programs are not consistently developing residents who are competent in core procedures. The findings suggest that researchers in education and quality improvement will need to collaborate to design training that develops a "competent core" of proceduralists using simulation and clinical rotations.
Nawrocki, Jerzy; Michalewska, Zofia; Michalewski, Janusz; Cisiecki, Sławomir
The aim of this paper is to present the use of bimanual phacoemulsification technique in combined phacoemulsification and vitrectomy surgery. Combined phacoemulsification and vitrectomy procedure was performed in 20 eyes. Phacoemulsification was performed through two paracenteses. Soft acrylic intraocular lenses were implanted into the capsular bag through a paracentesis 1.8 mm wide. Standard three-port pars plana vitrectomy followed. Indications for vitrectomy were diabetic retinopathy, retina detachment, uveitis, macula hole. All surgeries were performed as one-day surgeries. Follow-up lasted six months. Visual acuity improved in 19/20 eyes (95%). The achieved functional results were similar to that achieved in standard phacoemulsification combined with vitreoretinal surgery. Surgery time did not differ significantly from time needed to perform a standard procedure. The bimanual technique allowed the stablization of the anterior chamber during vitreoretinal surgery. No serious postoperative complications occurred. The presented method improves the quality of combined surgery, ensures stability of the anterior chamber, reduces postoperative astigmatism, lowers the risk of inflammation.
Moussa, Kareem; Doan, Thuy; Stewart, Jay M; Shantha, Jessica; Gonzales, John; Acharya, Nisha; Cunningham, Emmett T
To present a case of cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis associated with occlusive vasculopathy presenting as sudden unilateral loss of vision in a human immunodeficiency virus-negative elderly man. Clinical case report and literature review. An 84-year-old Chinese man with diabetes mellitus and primary open-angle glaucoma was seen in consultation by our uveitis service for evaluation of sudden vision loss in the right eye. Examination revealed an occlusive retinal vasculopathy. An extensive diagnostic workup was performed, including fluorescein angiography, serologic testing for infectious etiologies including syphilis and tuberculosis and a temporal artery biopsy. The patient was treated with high-dose oral prednisone, after which the biopsy returned negative for giant-cell arteritis. Three weeks after initial presentation, the patient was noted to have a new area of retinitis in the temporal periphery. An anterior chamber paracentesis was performed, and the fluid was sent for directed polymerase chain reaction testing, which returned positive for CMV. Human immunodeficiency virus testing was negative. He was treated with oral valganciclovir and intravitreal foscarnet injections and the infection subsequently resolved. Cytomegalovirus infection can be associated with occlusive vasculopathy in human immunodeficiency virus-negative individuals. The diagnosis of CMV retinitis should be considered in patients with human immunodeficiency virus-negative who have other conditions that may compromise immune function, particularly advanced age, diabetes mellitus, malignancy, or use of immunosuppressive agents.
Kay, Cynthia; Wozniak, Erica M; Szabo, Aniko; Jackson, Jeffrey L
Explore the performance patterns of invasive bedside procedures at an academic medical center, evaluate whether patient characteristics predict referral, and examine procedure outcomes. This was a prospective, observational, and retrospective chart review of adults admitted to a general medicine service who had a paracentesis, thoracentesis, or lumbar puncture between February 22, 2013 and February 21, 2014. Of a total of 399 procedures, 335 (84%) were referred to a service other than the primary team for completion. Patient characteristics did not predict referral status. Complication rates were low overall and did not differ, either by referral status or location of procedure. Model-based results showed a 41% increase in the average length of time until procedure completion for those referred to the hospital procedure service or radiology (7.9 vs 5.8 hours; P < 0.05) or done in radiology instead of at the bedside (9.0 vs 5.8 hours; P < 0.001). The average procedure cost increased 38% ($1489.70 vs $1023.30; P < 0.001) for referred procedures and 56% ($1625.77 vs $1150.98; P < 0.001) for radiology-performed procedures. Although referral often is the easier option, our study shows its shortcomings, specifically pertaining to cost and time until completion. Procedure performance remains an important skill for residents and hospitalists to learn and use as a part of patient care.
Lenchus, Joshua; Issenberg, S Barry; Murphy, Daniel; Everett-Thomas, Ruth; Erben, Laura; Arheart, Kristopher; Birnbach, David J
This study assessed the impact of a blended, standardized curriculum for invasive bedside procedural training on medical knowledge and technical skills for Internal Medicine residents. The investigators developed a curriculum in procedural instruction and performance for Internal Medicine house staff, and implemented the program at a tertiary care academic medical center with a primary affiliation with a US medical school. The investigators chose procedures recommended for technical competence by the American Board of Internal Medicine: lumbar puncture, thoracentesis, paracentesis, central venous catheter insertion, and knee arthrocentesis. The program included: (1) assessment of baseline medical knowledge and technical proficiency on mannequins, (2) video instruction of procedure, (3) faculty-led discussion of critical concepts, (4) faculty demonstration of the procedure on mannequin, (5) individual practice on simulators, (6) post-intervention knowledge evaluation, and (7) post-intervention skills evaluation. The performance achieved during the initial skills evaluation on a mannequin was compared to the performance achieved on the first patient subsequent to the instructional portion. All participants with complete data demonstrated a statistically significant pre-intervention to post-intervention improvement (p < 0.05) in comprehensive medical knowledge and procedural skills. A blended, standardized curriculum in invasive bedside procedural instruction can significantly improve performance in participants' medical knowledge and technical skills.
Tang, Rui; Tian, Xiaodong; Xie, Xuehai; Yang, Yinmo
Abstract The clinical symptoms of pylephlebitis caused by acute appendicitis are varied and atypical, which leads to delayed diagnosis and poor outcomes. Here, we report a case of intestinal necrosis caused by thrombophlebitis of the portomesenteric veins as a complication of acute appendicitis after appendectomy. The patient had acute abdominal pain with tenderness and melena on the 3rd day after appendectomy for the treatment of gangrenous appendicitis. He was diagnosed with intestinal infarction caused by thrombophlebitis of the portomesenteric veins based on enhanced CT and diagnostic abdominal paracentesis. The patient was treated by bowel excision anastomosis and thrombectomy. After postoperative antibiotic and anticoagulation treatments, the patient recovered well and was discharged 22 days after the 2nd operation. A follow-up CT scan showed no recurrence of portomesenteric veins thrombosis 3 months later. Thrombophlebitis of the portomesenteric veins is a rare but fatal complication of acute appendicitis. For all the cases with acute abdominal pain, the possibility of thrombophlebitis should be considered as a differential diagnosis. Once pylephlebitis is suspected, enhanced CT scan is helpful for early diagnosis, and sufficient control of inflammation as well as anticoagulant therapy should be performed. PMID:26091450
FERNANDES, Flávia Fonseca; ALVES, Victor Oliveira; SÁNCHEZ, Tarquino Erastides Gavilanes; de PAULA, Wagner Diniz; SANTANA, Alfredo Nicodemos Cruz
SUMMARY A previously healthy, 52-year-old woman presented with a nine months history of low fever and weight loss (> 30 kg). Physical examination disclosed generalized lymphadenopathy, skin lesions, abdominal distension, mild tachypnea and a left breast mass. Laboratory tests showed anemia; (prerenal) kidney injury, low serum albumin level; and negative serology for HIV and viral hepatitis. Computed tomography (neck/chest/abdomen) showed generalized lymph node enlargement, splenomegaly, pleural effusion and ascites. We performed thoracocentesis and paracentesis, and the findings were consistent with chylothorax and chylous ascites (with no neoplastic cells). Biopsies of the breast mass, skin and lymph nodes were performed and all of them showed large round yeast cells with multiple narrow-based budding daughter cells, characteristic of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. Consequently, paracoccidioidomycosis was diagnosed, and liposomal amphotericin B was prescribed, as well as a high protein and low fat diet (supplemented with medium chain triglycerides). Even so, her clinical status worsened, requiring renal replacement therapy. She evolved with pneumonia, septic shock and respiratory failure and subsequently died. To our knowledge, this is the first description of a case with chylothorax and breast mass due to paracoccidioidomycosis. Additionally, we discuss: 1- the importance of the inclusion of this mycosis in the differential diagnosis of chylothorax and breast mass (breast cancer), especially in endemic areas; and 2- the possible mechanism involved in the development of chylous effusions. PMID:27410917
Tang, Rui; Tian, Xiaodong; Xie, Xuehai; Yang, Yinmo
The clinical symptoms of pylephlebitis caused by acute appendicitis are varied and atypical, which leads to delayed diagnosis and poor outcomes. Here, we report a case of intestinal necrosis caused by thrombophlebitis of the portomesenteric veins as a complication of acute appendicitis after appendectomy. The patient had acute abdominal pain with tenderness and melena on the 3rd day after appendectomy for the treatment of gangrenous appendicitis. He was diagnosed with intestinal infarction caused by thrombophlebitis of the portomesenteric veins based on enhanced CT and diagnostic abdominal paracentesis. The patient was treated by bowel excision anastomosis and thrombectomy. After postoperative antibiotic and anticoagulation treatments, the patient recovered well and was discharged 22 days after the 2nd operation. A follow-up CT scan showed no recurrence of portomesenteric veins thrombosis 3 months later. Thrombophlebitis of the portomesenteric veins is a rare but fatal complication of acute appendicitis. For all the cases with acute abdominal pain, the possibility of thrombophlebitis should be considered as a differential diagnosis. Once pylephlebitis is suspected, enhanced CT scan is helpful for early diagnosis, and sufficient control of inflammation as well as anticoagulant therapy should be performed.
Tsuchida, Junko; Fujita, Shouhei; Kawano, Fumihiro; Tsukamoto, Ryoichi; Honjo, Kunpei; Naito, Shigetoshi; Ishiyama, Shun; Miyano, Shozo; Machida, Michio; Kitabatake, Toshiaki; Fujisawa, Minoru; Kojima, Kuniaki; Ogura, Kanako; Matsumoto, Toshiharu
An 85-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital for steroid therapy for relapsing nephrotic syndrome. During hospitalization, she complained of sudden epigastric pain at night. Although there were signs of peritoneal irritation, CT showed a large amount of ascitic fluid, but no free intraperitoneal gas. Gram staining of ascitic fluid obtained by abdominal paracentesis showed Gram-negative rods, which raised a strong suspicion of gastrointestinal perforation and peritonitis. Therefore, emergency surgery was performed. Exploration of the colon showed multiple sigmoid diverticula, one of which was perforated. The patient underwent an emergency Hartmann's procedure. Imaging studies failed to reveal any evidence of gastrointestinal perforation, presenting a diagnostic challenge. However, a physician performed rapid Gram staining of ascitic fluid at night when laboratory technicians were absent, had a strong suspicion of gastrointestinal perforation, and performed emergency surgery. Gram staining is superior in rapidity, and ascitic fluid Gram staining can aid in diagnosis, suggesting that it should be actively performed. We report this case, with a review of the literature on the significance of rapid diagnosis by Gram staining.
Castillo, Octavio A; Borgna, Vincenzo
Chylous ascites and high-output chylous fistula are rare complications following abdominal or pelvic surgery. We report a series of five cases that occurred after pelvic lymph node dissection for urological cancer, in addition to their clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment. The series comprises five patients; four men in whom robotic radical prostatectomy and extended pelvic lymphadenectomy were performed, and one woman with an infiltrating bladder cancer that underwent robotic anterior pelvic exenteration and extended pelvic lymphadenectomy. The first four patients developed chylous ascites, and the female patient a high-output chylous fistula. In all cases, diagnosis of chylous ascites or chylous fistula was confirmed, and they were handled in varied ways, from observation to medical treatment, paracentesis, and surgery, according to their clinical presentation and evolution. We describe a simple treatment algorithm. This rare surgical complication requires a grade of suspicion and a defined treatment according to the probability of the medical compromise. Prevention is an important element. This series, according to our knowledge, is the first description in patients undergoing robotic extended pelvic lymphadenectomy.
Invasive procedures are an integral component of the time sensitive management of the acute and critically ill patients. Acute Care Nurse Practitioner (ACNP) students aspiring to be employed in their roles in the acute care settings cannot be autonomous in their practices unless they have a minimum level of proficiency to perform life sustaining invasive procedures. Offering additional level of benefits of safety and quality in healthcare, simulation as a teaching method has grown in popularity among various levels of education among variety of disciplines. Therefore, offering this opportunity to ACNP students in a controlled environment of simulation laboratory can be a win-win for the practitioner, the consumer as well as the health care industry at large. The purpose of this paper is to emphasize the importance of the role of simulation as a teaching method for invasive procedures such as Central Venous Catheterization (CVC), Arterial Catheters (AC), Thoracentesis, Paracentesis, Lumbar Puncture (LP), and Endotracheal intubation for ACNPs. One such simulation program was launched for teaching ACNP students the CVCs and ACs under ultrasound guidance. The launch of the program was overwhelmingly effective and the results of the survey of participating students showed significant improvement in their knowledge, skills and attitudes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Tran, T H C; Rozenberg, F; Cassoux, N; Rao, N A; LeHoang, P; Bodaghi, B
To evaluate the diagnostic value of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) performed on aqueous humour for the detection of viral DNA in patients with necrotising herpetic retinitis. The clinical features and laboratory results of 22 patients (29 eyes) presenting with necrotising herpetic retinitis between March 1999 and June 2001 were reviewed retrospectively. Aqueous humour was obtained after anterior chamber paracentesis and PCR was performed in all cases. Viral DNA was detected in the aqueous humour of 19 patients (86.4%). Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) seroconversion was evidenced in one additional patient. In the acute retinal necrosis (ARN) group (n = 19), varicella zoster virus (VZV) DNA was identified in six patients, herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) DNA in two patients, herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) DNA in four patients, and cytomegalovirus (CMV) genome in four patients. In the progressive outer retinal necrosis (PORN) group (n = 3), VZV DNA was detected in all patients. No sample was positive for more than one virus. PCR analysis of aqueous humour in patients with clinical features of necrotising viral retinitis can provide specific aetiological orientation and the method appears to be safe and highly sensitive.
Chawla, H B
To produce a flat retina after an operation demands an unrestricted view of the retina during the operation, and to achieve such a view most retinal surgeons would unhesitatingly recommend the binocular indirect ophthalmoscope and scleral depression. Once the retina and all its breaks are clearly in view, the keynote of the ensuing surgery should be simplicity and safety. The former requires that the intended operation should be the least complicated available, and, should the surgical intention be frustrated, that each step should blend with the next in orderly progression, the surgeon exhausting the possibility of one step before moving on to the next and being able to recognise when the possibilities are exhausted. The latter requires experience in deciding which is in fact the least complicated operation. In general the cavity of the globe should not be entered unless the eye stands to lose more than it gains by remaining inviolate. Paracentesis, fluid release, and intravitreal air all have their place, and to avoid them gains us nothing if the retina remains detached. PMID:7115648
Ehara, Takehito; Koyama, Makoto; Nakamura, Satoshi; Takeuchi, Daisuke; Muranaka, Futoshi; Kitazawa, Masato; Miyagawa, Shinichi
Pseudo-Meigs' syndrome is used to describe cases of ascites and/or pleural effusion associated with ovarian neoplasms other than benign tumors, which improve after removal of the ovarian lesion. We present three cases of pseudo-Meigs' syndrome secondary to ovarian metastasis from colorectal cancer. In case 1, the patient has severe dyspnea and hypoxia due to massive right pleural effusion; therefore preoperative thoracic drainage was needed. In case 2, the patient needed paracentesis every two or three days to improve abdominal distension. After two courses of 5-fluorouracil, levofolinate, and oxaliplatin (mFOLFOX6), her ascites could be controlled by diuretics without aspiration and her general condition improved. Then she underwent operation. In case 3, the patient developed a massive pleural effusion and ascites coincident with a rapid enlargement of ovarian tumor after resection and adjuvant chemotherapy for rectal cancer. In all cases, pleural effusions and/or ascites resolved and general conditions and daily activities of the patients improved after oophorectomy. They are all currently in good health without recurrence of pleural effusion or ascites. In patients with suspected pseudo-Meigs' syndrome secondary to ovarian metastasis of colorectal cancer, operation including oophorectomy may reduce pleural effusions and/or ascites and improve the general condition. PMID:28373923
Macrì, Angelo; Vagge, Aldo; Salis, Annalisa; Fucile, Carmen; Marini, Valeria; Martelli, Antonietta; Giuffrida, Sebastiano; Iester, Michele; Damonte, Gianluca; Mattioli, Francesca
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the aqueous humor concentrations of bromfenac ophthalmic solution 0.09 % in patients undergoing phacoemulsification. Patients requiring cataract extraction received one drop (50 µL) of bromfenac 0.09 % solution in the eye to be operated, before bedtime the day before surgery or the morning of the surgery. The last administration was recorded. At the time of paracentesis, an aqueous humor sample was collected with a 30-gauge needle attached to a TB syringe and was later analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography for drug concentration. 188 treated volunteers and 48 control, untreated, subjects were included in the study. The mean aqueous concentration of bromfenac in the treated group was 37.60 ± 68.86 and 0 nM (nmol/L) in the control group (p < 0.0001). Correlation coefficient in bromfenac group between time elapsed from instillation and drug concentration was -0.16 (p not significant). Bromfenac showed properties of good penetration and stable concentration in aqueous humor up to about 12 h after instillation.
Hospitalized patients with cirrhosis are at increased risk of developing bacterial infections, the most common being spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) and urinary tract infections. Independent predictors of the development of bacterial infections in hospitalized cirrhotic patients are poor liver synthetic function and admission for gastrointestinal hemorrhage. Short term (seven-day) prophylaxis with norfloxacin reduces the rate of infections and improves survival and should therefore be administered to all patients with cirrhosis and variceal hemorrhage. Cirrhotic patients who develop abdominal pain, tenderness, fever, renal failure or hepatic encephalopathy should undergo diagnostic paracentesis, and those who meet the criterion for SBP (eg, an ascites neutrophil count greater than 250/mm3) should receive antibiotics, preferably a third-generation cephalosporin. In addition to antibiotic therapy, albumin infusions have been shown to reduce the risk of renal failure and mortality in patients with SBP, particularly in those with renal dysfunction and hyperbilirubinemia at the time of diagnosis. Patients who recover from an episode of SBP should be given long term prophylaxis with norfloxacin and should be assessed for liver transplantation.
Cirrhotic ascites results from sinusoidal hypertension and sodium retention, which is secondary to a decreased effective arterial blood volume. Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) placement is currently indicated in cirrhotic patients with refractory ascites who require large-volume paracentesis (LVP) more than two or three times per month. TIPS placement is associated with normalization of sinusoidal pressure and a significant improvement in urinary sodium excretion that correlates with suppression of plasma renin activity, which is, itself, indicative of an improvement in effective arterial blood volume. Compared with serial LVP, placement of an uncovered TIPS stent is more effective at preventing ascites from recurring; however, increased incidence of hepatic encephalopathy and shunt dysfunction rates after TIPS placement are important issues that increase its cost. Although evidence suggests that TIPS placement might result in better patient survival, this needs to be confirmed, particularly in light of the development of polytetrafluoroethylene-covered stents. Favorable results apply to centers experienced in placing the TIPS, with the aim being to decrease the portosystemic gradient to <12 mmHg but >5 mmHg. This article reviews the pathophysiologic basis for the use of a TIPS in patients with refractory ascites, the results of controlled trials comparing TIPS placement (using uncovered stents) versus LVP, and a systematic review of predictors of death after TIPS placement for refractory ascites.
Sederberg-Olsen, J F; Sederberg-Olsen, A E; Jensen, A M
The incidence of recurrence of secretory middle ear conditions (SMEC) in the course of the first 3 months after extrusion of a grommet was evaluated in 172 tubulated patients in relation to a number of background variables in a stepwise logistic regression analysis. The background variables were: treatment period, 3-month period (season) of extrusion, sex, age, air volume in the middle ear, diagnosis (unilateral/bilateral, suppurative/non-suppurative and consequently antibiotics), other treatment apart from a grommet (paracentesis and/or adenoidectomy), and a history of allergy. There was a definite correlation between the incidence of recurrence and the air volume in the middle ear, as determined by physical volume test, after correction for age, recurrences being most common in ears with a small middle ear volume. In addition, there was a relationship, but not as marked, between the incidence of recurrence and age after correction for the middle ear volume, recurrences being less common in older patients. None of the other background variables played a statistically significant role when correction was made for age and middle ear volume. It is recommended to practise an expectant therapeutic strategy in SMEC in order to eliminate cases with spontaneous remission. In the event of recurrence, a more liberal reinsertion of grommets is recommended for patients with small middle ear volumes, while in those with larger volumes a different aetiology should possibly be considered.
Mahmood, Kashif; Zia, Khalid Mahmood; Zuber, Mohammad; Salman, Mahwish; Anjum, Muhammad Naveed
Turmeric (Curcuma longa) is a popular Indian spice that has been used for centuries in herbal medicines for the treatment of a variety of ailments such as rheumatism, diabetic ulcers, anorexia, cough and sinusitis. Curcumin (diferuloylmethane) is the main curcuminoid present in turmeric and responsible for its yellow color. Curcumin has been shown to possess significant anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, anti-carcinogenic, anti-mutagenic, anticoagulant and anti-infective effects. This review summarizes and discusses recently published papers on the key biomedical applications of curcumin based materials. The highlighted studies in the review provide evidence of the ability of curcumin to show the significant vitro antioxidant, diabetic complication, antimicrobial, neuroprotective, anti-cancer activities and detection of hypochlorous acid, wound healing, treatment of major depression, healing of paracentesis, and treatment of carcinoma and optical detection of pyrrole properties. Hydrophobic nature of this polyphenolic compound along with its rapid metabolism, physicochemical and biological instability contribute to its poor bioavailability. To redress these problems several approaches have been proposed like encapsulation of curcumin in liposomes and polymeric micelles, inclusion complex formation with cyclodextrin, formation of polymer-curcumin conjugates, etc. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Oey, R C; Kuiper, J J; van Buuren, H R; de Man, R A
The gold standard to diagnose spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) is a polymorphonuclear neutrophil count ≥ 250 cells/µl in ascitic fluid. This test is laborious and expensive. Urine reagent strips measuring leukocyte esterase activity have been proposed as a rapid and inexpensive alternative. The aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic accuracy of the Combur reagent strip for diagnosing SBP. Furthermore the possible advantage of a photospectrometer reading over visual reading of the strip was investigated. This prospective study includes all ascitic fluid samples of cirrhotic patients undergoing diagnostic or therapeutic paracentesis over a 12-month period. The samples were collected for the standard diagnostic work-up and in addition tested with a bedside Combur reagent strip. The strip was read visually and with an automated spectrometer. A total of 157 samples were obtained from 53 patients, and spontaneous bacterial peritonitis was diagnosed in 12 patients based on the ascitic polymorphonuclear neutrophil count. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of the reagent strip according to the photospectrometer were 100%, 93%, 55% and 100% respectively, and 75%, 99%, 82% and 98%, respectively, for visual interpretation. The diagnostic accuracy of the photospectrometer was found to be higher than visual interpretation (p = 0.007). The diagnostic accuracy of leucocyte esterase reagent strips read out by a photospectrometer was comparable with the gold standard test and was excellent for excluding SBP. Our results support implementation of reagent strips in the diagnostic work-up of ascitic fluid.
Buder, Robert; Kapun, Lisbeth; Voglmayr, Martin
Ascites and renal dysfunction are frequent complications experienced by patients with cirrhosis of the liver. Ascites is the pathologic accumulation of fluid in the peritoneal cavity, and is one of the cardinal signs of portal hypertension. The diagnostic evaluation of ascites involves assessment of its granulocyte count and protein concentration to exclude complications such as infection or malignoma and to allow risk stratification for the development of spontaneous peritonitis. Although sodium restriction and diuretics remain the cornerstone of the management of ascites, many patients require additional therapy when they become refractory to this treatment. In this situation, the treatment of choice is repeated large-volume paracentesis. Alteration in splanchnic hemodynamics is one of the most important changes underlying the development of ascites. Further splanchnic dilation leads to changes in systemic hemodynamics, activating vasopressor agents and leading to decreased renal perfusion. Small alterations in renal function influence the prognosis, which depends on the cause of renal failure. Prerenal failure is evident in about 70% of patients, whereas in about 30% of patients the cause is hepatorenal syndrome (HRS), which is associated with a worse prognosis. Therefore, effective therapy is of great clinical importance. Recent data indicate that use of the new definition of acute kidney injury facilitates the identification and treatment of patients with renal insufficiency more rapidly than use of the current criteria for HRS. In this review article, we evaluate approaches to the management of patients with ascites and HRS. PMID:25729433
The year 2000 marked the 300th anniversary of the birth of Gerard Van Swieten (1700-1772). He reformed medicine in Vienna, putting new emphasis on diagnosis based on clinical observation in combination with anatomical-pathological findings. This led to the introduction by Leopold Auenbrugger (1722-1809) of percussion in the examination of thoracic organs. However, further work by Joseph Skoda (1805-1881) was required to finally establish this method as a diagnostic tool for pathologies in the thorax. The surgeon Franz Schuh (1804-1865) carried out further basic research in respiratory physiology that cleared the way for the use of percussion and auscultation in thoracic surgery. He is also remembered for introducing experimental surgery in Austria, thus making surgery a science. This article aims to recall these men and their fundamental work behind early paracentesis of the thorax, and especially the first successful pericardiotomy by Schuh 160 years ago, which is also considered a milestone in cardiac surgery.
Parekh, Trisha M.; Qian, You-Wen; Elghetany, M. Tarek; Schnadig, Vicki; Nawgiri, Ranjina
Background Peripheral T-cell lymphoma, not otherwise specified (PTCL, NOS) is a rare neoplasm that typically presents as generalized lymphadenopathy. PTCL, NOS presenting as malignant ascites is rare. Methods A 61-year-old African-American man with past medical history of HCV, cryoglobulinemia, and cryptococcal pneumonia was admitted for dyspnea on exertion over a period of 1 month and new onset of abdominal distension. Results Ascites, splenomegaly, hepatomegaly and extensive lymphadenopathy were found by imaging. Paracentesis obtained 1.3 liter of abdominal fluid, the cytologic evaluation showed a monomorphic population of intermediate-sized lymphoid cells with irregular to convoluted nuclear contours. Fluid sent for flow cytometry showed an abnormal T-lymphocyte population expressing CD4, weak surface CD3 and absence of CD7. PCR studies of ascitic fluid detected a clonal T-lymphocyte population with T-cell receptor gamma gene rearrangement. Serologic testing for human T lymphotropic virus (HTLV) was positive for HTLV-II. Subsequent bone marrow biopsy revealed lymphomatous involvement. CD30 and ALK-1 immunostaining were negative. This case was classified as PTCL, NOS. Conclusions PTCL, NOS can have unusual clinical presentation such as ascites and pleural effusion, and may also occur as a complication of immunodeficiency state. Further studies are needed to determine if HCV or HTLV-II viral infection is associated with PTCL. PMID:27034820
Piano, Salvatore; Tonon, Marta; Angeli, Paolo
Ascites represents the most common decompensating event in patients with liver cirrhosis. The appearance of ascites is strongly related to portal hypertension, which leads to splanchnic arterial vasodilation, reduction of the effective circulating volume, activation of endogenous vasoconstrictor systems, and avid sodium and water retention in the kidneys. Bacterial translocation further worsens hemodynamic alterations of patients with cirrhosis and ascites. The first-line treatment of uncomplicated ascites is a moderate sodium-restricted diet combined with diuretic treatment. In patients who develop refractory ascites, paracentesis plus albumin represents the most feasible option. Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt placement is a good alternative for selected patients. Other treatments such as vasoconstrictors and automated low-flow pumps are two potential options still under investigations. Ascites is associated with a high risk of developing further complications of cirrhosis such as dilutional hyponatremia, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and/or other bacterial infections and acute kidney injury (AKI). Hepatorenal syndrome (HRS) is the most life-threatening type of AKI in patients with cirrhosis. The most appropriate medical treatment in patients with AKI-HRS is the administration of vasoconstrictors plus albumin. Finally, ascites impairs both the quality of life and survival in patients with cirrhosis. Thus, all patients with ascites should be evaluated for the eligibility for liver transplantation. The aim of this article is to review the management of patients with cirrhosis, ascites and HRS.
Senousy, Bahaa Eldeen; Draganov, Peter V
Some patients with ascites due to liver cirrhosis become no longer responsive to diuretics. Once other causes of ascites such as portal vein thrombosis, malignancy or infection and non-compliance with medications and low sodium diet have been excluded, the diagnosis of refractory ascites can be made based on strict criteria. Patients with refractory ascites have very poor prognosis and therefore referral for consideration for liver transplantation should be initiated. Search for reversible components of the underlying liver pathology should be undertaken and targeted therapy, when available, should be considered. Currently, serial large volume paracentesis (LVP) and transjugular intrahepatic portasystemic stent-shunt (TIPS) are the two mainstay treatment options for refractory ascites. Other treatment options are available but not widely used either because they carry high morbidity and mortality (most surgical options) rates, or are new interventions that have shown promise but still need further evaluation. In this comprehensive review, we describe the evaluation and management of patients with refractory ascites from the prospective of the practicing physician. PMID:19115470
Zapater, Pedro; Llanos, Lucia; Barquero, Claudia; Bellot, Pablo; Pascual, Sonia; Carnicer, Fernando; Palazón, Jose Maria; Gimenez, Paula; Esteban, Angel; Llorca, Lourdes; Francés, Ruben; Horga, Jose Francisco; Such, Jose
Use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in cirrhosis has been associated with impairment of renal function based on its ability to inhibit the renal production of prostaglandins. Renal effects of dipyrone in patients with cirrhosis have not been evaluated. We aimed to assess the renal effect of therapeutic doses of dipyrone used for short periods of time in patients with cirrhosis. Twenty-nine patients with cirrhosis were included in an observer-blind clinical trial. Patients were randomized to receive three times a day oral acetaminophen (500 mg; N = 15) or dipyrone (575 mg; N = 14) for 72 hr. Serum and urine samples were obtained at baseline, 48 and 72 hr, and cystatin C, creatinine, aldosterone, 6-keto-Prostaglandin-F1 alpha and prostaglandin E2 were measured. Cystatin C and creatinine levels remained comparable in patients treated with acetaminophen and dipyrone. Urine and serum prostaglandins concentrations were significantly decreased at 72 hr in patients treated with dipyrone regardless of the status of ascites. One patient with ascites treated with dipyrone required a paracentesis and developed renal insufficiency. We conclude that dipyrone and acetaminophen did not reduce renal function when used for short periods of time (up to 72 hr) in patients with cirrhosis. However, considering that dipyrone lowered renal vasodilator prostaglandins synthesis, acetaminophen appears as the safest choice with respect to kidney function in cirrhosis. © 2014 Nordic Association for the Publication of BCPT (former Nordic Pharmacological Society).
Verbrugge, Frederik H; Dupont, Matthias; Steels, Paul; Grieten, Lars; Malbrain, Manu; Tang, W H Wilson; Mullens, Wilfried
Current pathophysiological models of congestive heart failure unsatisfactorily explain the detrimental link between congestion and cardiorenal function. Abdominal congestion (i.e., splanchnic venous and interstitial congestion) manifests in a substantial number of patients with advanced congestive heart failure, yet is poorly defined. Compromised capacitance function of the splanchnic vasculature and deficient abdominal lymph flow resulting in interstitial edema might both be implied in the occurrence of increased cardiac filling pressures and renal dysfunction. Indeed, increased intra-abdominal pressure, as an extreme marker of abdominal congestion, is correlated with renal dysfunction in advanced congestive heart failure. Intriguing findings provide preliminary evidence that alterations in the liver and spleen contribute to systemic congestion in heart failure. Finally, gut-derived hormones might influence sodium homeostasis, whereas entrance of bowel toxins into the circulatory system, as a result of impaired intestinal barrier function secondary to congestion, might further depress cardiac as well as renal function. Those toxins are mainly produced by micro-organisms in the gut lumen, with presumably important alterations in advanced heart failure, especially when renal function is depressed. Therefore, in this state-of-the-art review, we explore the crosstalk between the abdomen, heart, and kidneys in congestive heart failure. This might offer new diagnostic opportunities as well as treatment strategies to achieve decongestion in heart failure, especially when abdominal congestion is present. Among those currently under investigation are paracentesis, ultrafiltration, peritoneal dialysis, oral sodium binders, vasodilator therapy, renal sympathetic denervation and agents targeting the gut microbiota.
Garcia-Martinez, Rita; Caraceni, Paolo; Bernardi, Mauro; Gines, Pere; Arroyo, Vicente; Jalan, Rajiv
Since the introduction of human serum albumin as a plasma expander in the 1940s, considerable research has allowed a better understanding of its biochemical properties and potential clinical benefits. Albumin has a complex structure, which is responsible for a variety of biological functions. In disease, the albumin molecule is susceptible to modifications that may alter its biological activity. During the last decades, different methods to measure albumin function have been developed. Recent studies have shown that not only albumin concentration but also albumin function is reduced in liver failure. This observation led to the concept of effective albumin concentration, which represents the fact that plasma albumin concentration does not reflect its function. Indeed, in liver disease albumin function is several times less than its concentration. In patients with cirrhosis, albumin infusion reduces mortality in patients with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and improves outcome following large volume paracentesis. In combination with vasoconstrictors, albumin is useful in the management of patients with hepatorenal syndrome. Its role is being investigated in a large number of indications, which rely on its volume and nonvolume expansion functions such as stroke, severe sepsis, Alzheimer's disease, malaria, burns, and ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. This review explores the above concepts, reviews the available evidence for the use of albumin in liver diseases, defines therapeutic limitations, and explores the challenges that should be addressed in future research.
Lee, June Sung
Albumin has been widely used in patients with cirrhosis in an attempt to improve circulatory and renal functions. The benefits of albumin infusions in preventing the deterioration in renal function associated with large-volume paracentesis, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, and established hepatorenal syndrome in conjunction with a vasoconstrictor are well established. While some of these indications are supported by the results of randomized studies, others are based only on clinical experience and have not been proved in prospective studies. The paucity of well-designed trials, the high cost of albumin, the lack of a clear-cut survival benefit, and fear of transmitting unknown infections make the use of albumin controversial. The recent development of the molecular adsorbent recirculating system, an albumin dialysis, is an example of the capacity of albumin to act by mechanisms other than its oncotic effect. Efforts should be made to define the indications for albumin use, the dose required, and predictors of response, so that patients gain the maximum benefit from its administration.
Khan, Muhammad S; Misra, Santosh K; Schwartz-Duval, Aaron S; Daza, Enrique; Ostadhossein, Fatemeh; Bowman, Matthew; Jain, Akshay; Taylor, Gina; McDonagh, Deana; Labriola, Leanne T; Pan, Dipanjan
Lack of current techniques for the early monitoring of bleb leaks and other post-traumatic or post-surgical ocular injury has posed an unmet clinical need for the development of new techniques. Present evaluation techniques use either subjective or nonquantitative approaches. At present, there are no FDA approved ocular devices that can directly measure ascorbic acid (AA) concentration levels for both tear film (TF) and aqueous humor (AH) at point-of-care (POC) level. Toward this aim, we present a novel POC quantitative assay, called the ocular biosensor device, which can be used to evaluate the integrity of the anterior surface of the eye by measuring the concentration of AA in TF and AH. Herein, we utilize a novel scientific engineering approach for the development of a disposable paper based POC ocular biosensor strip. A grafted poly(styrene)-block-poly(acrylic acid) (PS-b-PAA) and graphene platelet composite with contour based μ-electrodes design (CBμE) exhibit a highly sensitive platform to perform electrochemical immunosensing technique to study clinical samples that have small volumes like tear fluid. Samples used in this study were collected clinically from subjects undergoing therapeutic anterior chamber paracentesis. The proposed biosensor reports the level of AA concentration on an electronic screen, making the results easy to read, efficient, and reliable.
Background Renal cysts are common in old patients, and usually remain untreated. Giant renal cyst measuring more than 15 cm in diameter and containing more than 1500 mls of serous fluid are rarely seen. We report a case of a 75-year-old man with a giant right renal cyst. Case presentation A 75-year-old man presented with a five years history of suprapubic pain, abdominal distension. He had no urological symptoms. Physical examination revealed a distended abdomen with shifting dullness. Routine hematology, biochemistry, and serum tumor markers were within normal limits. Erroneously diagnosed as ascites on ultrasonographic examination. Abdominal paracentesis of supposed ascites was performed. The diagnosis of giant renal cyst was finally made by Computed tomography (CT) and patient underwent continuous percutaneous catheter drainage with negative pressure, whereby 8 liters of fluid were removed with negative cytology. Subsequent Computed tomography after 6 months revealed disparition of the cysts, and the patient remained asymptomatic. Conclusion Giant renal cysts are uncommon; we conclude that the CT remains the best exam in patients evaluated for giant renal cyst. This to the best of our knowledge is the largest renal cyst in the medical literature. Studies are needed with particular attention to the factors associated with renal cyst enlargement. PMID:24428865
Sanders, Vicki L; Flanagan, Jennifer
The purpose of the literature review was to assess the origins of radiology physician extenders and examine the current roles found in the literature of advanced practice physician extenders within medical imaging. Twenty-six articles relating to physician assistants (PAs), nurse practitioners (NPs), radiologist assistants (RAs), and nuclear medicine advanced associates (NMAAs) were reviewed to discern similarities and differences in history, scope of practice, and roles in the medical imaging field. The literature showed PAs and NPs are working mostly in interventional radiology. PAs, NPs, and RAs perform similar tasks in radiology, including history and physicals, evaluation and management, preprocedure work-up, obtaining informed consent, initial observations/reports, and post-procedure follow-up. NPs and PAs perform a variety of procedures but most commonly vascular access, paracentesis, and thoracentesis. RAs perform gastrointestinal, genitourinary, nonvascular invasive fluoroscopy procedures, and vascular access procedures. The review revealed NMAAs are working in an advanced role, but no specific performances of procedures was found in the literature, only suggested tasks and clinical competencies. PAs, NPs, and RAs are currently the three main midlevel providers used in medical imaging. These midlevel providers are being used in a variety of ways to increase the efficiency of the radiologist and provide diagnostic and therapeutic radiologic procedures to patients. NMAAs are being used in medical imaging but little literature is available on current roles in clinical practice. More research is needed to assess the exact procedures and duties being performed by these medical imaging physician extenders.
Solà, Elsa; Solé, Cristina; Ginès, Pere
Ascites is the most frequent complication of patients with cirrhosis. Ascites is related to increased renal sodium retention as a result of increased activity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system in response to marked vasodilation of the splanchnic circulation. Management of uncomplicated ascites is based on a low-sodium diet and diuretics. However, approximately 10% of patients develop refractory ascites during follow-up, which is associated with a poor prognosis. The treatment of choice in patients with refractory ascites is large-volume paracentesis associated with intravenous albumin. Moreover, patients who develop refractory ascites should be considered as candidates for liver transplantation. Patients with ascites are all at risk of developing spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP). SBP is a common infection in patients with cirrhosis with a risk of mortality of 20%. Empirical antibiotics are the treatment of choice in patients with SBP but differ depending on the acquisition site of infection, because nosocomial infections have a higher risk of being caused by multiresistant bacteria. In addition to antibiotic treatment, all patients with SBP should also receive intravenous albumin. This review summarizes the management of uninfected ascites and SBP in cirrhosis. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Nitta, Hidetoshi; Beppu, Toru; Itoyama, Akari; Higashi, Takaaki; Sakamoto, Keita; Nakagawa, Shigeki; Mima, Kosuke; Okabe, Hirohisa; Imai, Katsunori; Hayashi, Hiromitsu; Hashimoto, Daisuke; Chikamoto, Akira; Ishiko, Takatoshi; Baba, Hideo
This study was designed to investigate the association between infectious ascites, clinical parameters and treatment outcomes after hepatectomy. Of 891 patients who underwent hepatectomy between 2006 and 2013, 74 who underwent paracentesis for bacterial cultivation of postoperative ascites after hepatectomy were analyzed. Of the 74 patients, 42 had positive bacterial cultures (positive group) and 32 patients had negative cultures (negative group). Hospital mortality was significantly higher in the positive group than in the negative group [9/42 (21.4%) vs. 2/32 (6.3%); P = 0.035]. Hospital mortality associated with each bacterial strain was as follows: methicillin-resistant staphylococci (MRS) (5/13, 38.5%), staphylococci (2/11, 18.2%), enterococci (2/12, 16.7%), Enterobacter (0/3, 0%), Klebsiella (0/2, 0%), and others (0/1, 0%). Cox proportional multivariate analysis revealed that MRS infection in ascites was the only risk factor of hospital death (HR = 5.08, P = 0.041) and MRS wound infection was the only risk factor to predict MRS infection in ascites (HR = 5.67, P = 0.015). Postoperative MRS infection in postoperative ascites after hepatectomy is a potentially fatal complication; therefore, the prevention of MRS wound infection is critical to decrease postoperative hospital mortality. © 2014 Japanese Society of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery.
Ma, Irene W Y; Arishenkoff, Shane; Wiseman, Jeffrey; Desy, Janeve; Ailon, Jonathan; Martin, Leslie; Otremba, Mirek; Halman, Samantha; Willemot, Patrick; Blouw, Marcus
Bedside point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) is increasingly used to assess medical patients. At present, no consensus exists for what POCUS curriculum is appropriate for internal medicine residency training programs. This document details the consensus-based recommendations by the Canadian Internal Medicine Ultrasound (CIMUS) group, comprising 39 members, representing 14 institutions across Canada. Guiding principles for selecting curricular content were determined a priori. Consensus was defined as agreement by at least 80% of the members on POCUS applications deemed appropriate for teaching and assessment of trainees in the core (internal medicine postgraduate years [PGY] 1-3) and expanded (general internal medicine PGY 4-5) training programs. We recommend four POCUS applications for the core PGY 1-3 curriculum (inferior vena cava, lung B lines, pleural effusion, and abdominal free fluid) and three ultrasound-guided procedures (central venous catheterization, thoracentesis, and paracentesis). For the expanded PGY 4-5 curriculum, we recommend an additional seven applications (internal jugular vein, lung consolidation, pneumothorax, knee effusion, gross left ventricular systolic function, pericardial effusion, and right ventricular strain) and four ultrasound-guided procedures (knee arthrocentesis, arterial line insertion, arterial blood gas sampling, and peripheral venous catheterization). These recommendations will provide a framework for training programs at a national level.
Ward, B.; Mather, S.; Shepherd, J.; Crowther, M.; Hawkins, L.; Britton, K.; Slevin, M. L.
Seven patients with small volume ovarian carcinoma, remaining after conventional therapy with surgery and a platinum containing chemotherapy regimen, were treated with intraperitoneal monoclonal antibody guided radiotherapy. 100 mCi131I conjugated to 10 mg of monoclonal antibody were injected i.p. in 2,000 ml peritoneal dialysis fluid. Patients were evaluated 3 months later; 3 had clinical progressive disease while third look laparotomy demonstrated progressive disease in 3 of the remaining 4 patients. The seventh patient did not have a third look laparotomy and is currently inevaluable for response. Five patients with recurrent malignant ascites not controlled by diuretics or repeated paracentesis were similarly treated with 75-170 mCi131I conjugated to 10 mg monoclonal antibody. In three patients the ascites was controlled for a mean of 4 months. One patient died too early to assess the control of his ascites but tumour cells disappeared from the ascitic fluid after therapy. In the patient whose ascites were not controlled, a subpopulation of antigen-negative tumour cells was demonstrated. This study was unable to demonstrate a therapeutic benefit for i.p. injected monoclonal antibody guided radiotherapy for solid intraperitoneal tumour but suggests that it may be capable of controlling the accumulation of antigen positive malignant ascites. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:3219277
Gartia, Manas R.; Misra, Santosh K.; Ye, Mao; Schwartz-Duval, Aaron; Plucinski, Lisa; Zhou, Xiangfei; Kellner, David; Labriola, Leanne T.; Pan, Dipanjan
Limited training, high cost, and low equipment mobility leads to inaccuracies in decision making and is concerning with serious ocular injuries such as suspected ruptured globe or post-operative infections. Here, we present a novel point-of-service (POS) quantitative ascorbic acid (AA) assay with use of the OcuCheck Biosensor. The present work describes the development and clinical testing of the paper-based biosensor that measures the changes in electrical resistance of the enzyme-plated interdigitated electrodes to quantify the level of AA present in ocular fluid. We have demonstrated the proof-of-concept of the biosensor testing 16 clinical samples collected from aqueous humor of patients undergoing therapeutic anterior chamber paracentesis. Comparing with gold standard colorimetric assay for AA concentration, OcuCheck showed accuracy of >80%, sensitivity of >88% and specificity of >71%. At present, there are no FDA-approved POS tests that can directly measures AA concentration levels in ocular fluid. We envisage that the device can be realized as a handheld, battery powered instrument that will have high impact on glaucoma care and point-of-care diagnostics of penetrating ocular globe injuries.
Sangisetty, Suma L; Miner, Thomas J
Malignant ascites indicates the presence of malignant cells in the peritoneal cavity and is a grave prognostic sign. While survival in this patient population is poor, averaging about 20 wk from time of diagnosis, quality of life can be improved through palliative procedures. Selecting the appropriate treatment modality remains a careful process, which should take into account potential risks and benefits and the life expectancy of the patient. Traditional therapies, including paracentesis, peritoneovenous shunt placement and diuretics, are successful and effective in varying degrees. After careful review of the patient’s primary tumor origin, tumor biology, tumor stage, patient performance status and comorbidities, surgical debulking and intraperitoneal chemotherapy should be considered if the benefit of therapy outweighs the risk of operation because survival curves can be extended and palliation of symptomatic malignant ascites can be achieved in select patients. In patients with peritoneal carcinomatosis who do not qualify for surgical cytoreduction but suffer from the effects of malignant ascites, intraperitoneal chemotherapy can be safely and effectively administered via laparoscopic techniques. Short operative times, short hospital stays, low complication rates and ultimately symptomatic relief are the advantages of laparoscopically administering heated intraperitoneal chemotherapy, making it not only a valuable treatment modality but also the most successful treatment modality for achieving palliative cure of malignant ascites. PMID:22590662
Davis, Kyshia; Carter, Renee; Tully, Thomas; Negulescu, Ioan; Storey, Eric
To evaluate aqueous humor viscosity in the raptor, dog, cat, and horse, with a primary focus on the barred owl (Strix varia). Twenty-six raptors, ten dogs, three cats, and one horse. Animals were euthanized for reasons unrelated to this study. Immediately, after horizontal and vertical corneal dimensions were measured, and anterior chamber paracentesis was performed to quantify anterior chamber volume and obtain aqueous humor samples for viscosity analysis. Dynamic aqueous humor viscosity was measured using a dynamic shear rheometer (AR 1000 TA Instruments, New Castle, DE, USA) at 20 °C. Statistical analysis included descriptive statistics, unpaired t-tests, and Tukey's test to evaluate the mean ± standard deviation for corneal diameter, anterior chamber volume, and aqueous humor viscosity amongst groups and calculation of Spearman's coefficient for correlation analyses. The mean aqueous humor viscosity in the barred owl was 14.1 centipoise (cP) ± 9, cat 4.4 cP ± 0.2, and dog 2.9 cP ± 1.3. The aqueous humor viscosity for the horse was 1 cP. Of the animals evaluated in this study, the raptor aqueous humor was the most viscous. The aqueous humor of the barred owl is significantly more viscous than the dog (P < 0.0001). The aqueous humor viscosity of the raptor, dog, cat, and horse can be successfully determined using a dynamic shear rheometer. © 2014 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.
Gartia, Manas R.; Misra, Santosh K.; Ye, Mao; Schwartz-Duval, Aaron; Plucinski, Lisa; Zhou, Xiangfei; Kellner, David; Labriola, Leanne T.; Pan, Dipanjan
Limited training, high cost, and low equipment mobility leads to inaccuracies in decision making and is concerning with serious ocular injuries such as suspected ruptured globe or post-operative infections. Here, we present a novel point-of-service (POS) quantitative ascorbic acid (AA) assay with use of the OcuCheck Biosensor. The present work describes the development and clinical testing of the paper-based biosensor that measures the changes in electrical resistance of the enzyme-plated interdigitated electrodes to quantify the level of AA present in ocular fluid. We have demonstrated the proof-of-concept of the biosensor testing 16 clinical samples collected from aqueous humor of patients undergoing therapeutic anterior chamber paracentesis. Comparing with gold standard colorimetric assay for AA concentration, OcuCheck showed accuracy of >80%, sensitivity of >88% and specificity of >71%. At present, there are no FDA-approved POS tests that can directly measures AA concentration levels in ocular fluid. We envisage that the device can be realized as a handheld, battery powered instrument that will have high impact on glaucoma care and point-of-care diagnostics of penetrating ocular globe injuries. PMID:26525715
Gartia, Manas R; Misra, Santosh K; Ye, Mao; Schwartz-Duval, Aaron; Plucinski, Lisa; Zhou, Xiangfei; Kellner, David; Labriola, Leanne T; Pan, Dipanjan
Limited training, high cost, and low equipment mobility leads to inaccuracies in decision making and is concerning with serious ocular injuries such as suspected ruptured globe or post-operative infections. Here, we present a novel point-of-service (POS) quantitative ascorbic acid (AA) assay with use of the OcuCheck Biosensor. The present work describes the development and clinical testing of the paper-based biosensor that measures the changes in electrical resistance of the enzyme-plated interdigitated electrodes to quantify the level of AA present in ocular fluid. We have demonstrated the proof-of-concept of the biosensor testing 16 clinical samples collected from aqueous humor of patients undergoing therapeutic anterior chamber paracentesis. Comparing with gold standard colorimetric assay for AA concentration, OcuCheck showed accuracy of >80%, sensitivity of >88% and specificity of >71%. At present, there are no FDA-approved POS tests that can directly measures AA concentration levels in ocular fluid. We envisage that the device can be realized as a handheld, battery powered instrument that will have high impact on glaucoma care and point-of-care diagnostics of penetrating ocular globe injuries.
Pérez-Cambrodí, Rafael J; Ascaso, Francisco J; Diab, Fathi; Alzamora-Rodríguez, Antonio; Grzybowski, Andrzej
The dislocation of the crystalline lens or couching technique was the predominant procedure to surgically remove cataracts until the 18th century A.D. However, in the Middle Ages, some Arab physicians tried to aspirate the opaque lens by means of a glass tube following a paracentesis. Some literary sources attributed the origins of this technique to Antyllus of Alexandria, a Greek surgeon who lived in the 2nd century A.D. in the Roman Empire. Nevertheless, this statement remains unclear and is probably the consequence of posterior interpretations or incorrect translations of the manuscripts. In recent years, the discovery of the hollow needles from Montbellet (France) and Viladamat (Spain), in archaeological settlements dated between the 1st century and 3rd century A.D., has reopened the possibility of cataract extraction as an option in the surgical management of soft cataracts in the antiquity. In any case, these findings are exceptional, and thus, probably this technique was not widely practised and very likely disparaged by the medical community.
Mao, Xiaohui; Cheng, Xuefeng; Zhang, Zheng; Wang, Zhaoyan; Wang, Zhentao
The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of ethosomes encapsulated with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in treatment of laryngotracheal stenosis in rabbit models. The 5-FU ethosome was prepared by the thin film hydration method, and the amorphous, size distribution and the encapsulation efficiency was investigated. The tracheal mucosa were scraped about 0.5 cm with a nylon brush to induce the scar in airway grow, then models were divided into three groups: 5-FU ethosome group, 5-FU group and saline group, drug were injected into scar of every group by paracentesis guided under endoscope, respectively. The stenosis states were observed under laryngo fiberscope immediate, 7, 14 and 21 days after administrated. Airway stenosis of 5-FU ethosome group has no significant difference when compared with 5-FU group at 7 days after administration, but 5-FU ethosome significantly reduced the airway stenosis after 21-day administration when compared with 5-FU group again and has no restenosis during the period under observation. The fact that ethosomes encapsulated with 5-FU were effective for laryngotracheal stenosis suggests that it has potential as a new method for ameliorating airway stenosis originating from granulation tissue.
Meyer, Carsten H; Krohne, Tim U; Charbel Issa, Peter; Liu, Zengping; Holz, Frank G
The advantage of intravitreal injections is an immediate and increased therapeutic effect in the intended retinal tissue. The accuracy, precision and reproducibility of the delivered volume depend on the size of the syringe and the physician's manual experience. The eyelids and eyelashes are usually disinfected using a povidone-iodine solution (10%); a sterile speculum is placed and drops of povidone-iodine (5%) are applied. The use of adequate anesthetic topical lidocaine 2% is required. The injection site should be located 3.5-4 mm posterior to the limbus. The angle of the incision through the sclera may be directed in an oblique fashion of 30°. The diameter of the needle should be smaller than 25 G, and the injected volume should be limited to 0.15 ml without a routine paracentesis. The incidence of lens injury is 0.006% (2/32,318) and 0.013% (5/35,942) for rhegmatogenous retinal detachments. The rate of suspected endophthalmitis is 0.018% after bevacizumab and 0.027% after ranibizumab injections. Sterile inflammations have been observed after Avastin injections. The concentrations of vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitors decline in a monoexponential fashion. The half-life of unbound bevacizumab is 9.82 days and that of ranibizumab 7.19 days.
Ito, Tetsuya; Hanafusa, Norio
A standard strategy against ascites, a common symptom observed in cirrhotic and cancer patients, includes restriction of sodium intake and use of a diuretic. Paracentesis is a widely applied method against refractory ascites that do not react to such treatment. However, emerging fatigue and hemodynamic instability are possibly attributable to a loss of protein included in ascites. Cell-free and Concentrated Ascites Reinfusion Therapy (CART) is also applied against refractory ascites. CART comprises three processes. After ascites is first filtered to remove cell components, it is concentrated to reduce its volume. Fluid obtained through these processes, including useful proteins such as albumin and globulin, is finally reinfused intravenously. CART was reported first in the 1970s. Since then, it has been applied mainly against cirrhotic ascites with a thinner cell component. Now, its indication is expanding to include malignancy-related ascites. Additionally, CART can be applied safely against malignancy-related ascites. Its favorable effects on control of patients' symptoms are anticipated, especially on fatigue. Although related evidence has not been established, CART can be anticipated for use as a strategy against refractory ascites. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ito, Tetsuya; Hanafusa, Norio; Iwase, Satoru; Noiri, Eisei; Nangaku, Masaomi; Nakagawa, Keiichi; Miyagawa, Kiyoshi
It is expected that cell-free and concentrated ascites reinfusion therapy (CART) will relieve the symptoms caused by ascites. To date, however, no report of objective changes in patients' symptoms has been published. We have therefore evaluated symptom management by CART. From April 2011 to July 2012, 37 patients at our hospital, most of whom had malignancies, received CART. Symptom severity was evaluated in each patient 24 h before and after the first CART procedure using a numerical rating scale for abdominal tension and the Japanese version of the M. D. Anderson Symptom Inventory (MDASI-J) for various symptoms. CART significantly improved the scores for abdominal tension and the symptom and interference scores of the MDASI-J within 24 h of the procedure. The abdominal tension scores decreased from 7.19 to 3.81 (p < 0.001), the symptom scores of the MDASI-J decreased from 4.73 to 2.75 and the interference scores of the MDASI-J decreased from 7.05 to 5.12. Detailed investigation revealed many symptoms, including fatigue and gastric symptoms, which are the usual targets of paracentesis, as well as general symptoms. No significant correlation between improved scores and the amount of reinfused protein or ascites removed was observed. Patients experienced no severe adverse event. Among the 37 patients receiving CART, various symptoms related to malignant ascites, especially fatigue, improved within the 24-h period following CART. Factors that ameliorate these symptoms remain to be elucidated.
Hodjatjalali, Kamran; Riazi, Mohammad; Faghihi, Hooshang; Khorami, Azita
To study the existence of vitreous incarceration by ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM) at the pars plana after direct intravitreal injection of triamcinolone acetonide ± bevacizumab without anterior chamber paracentesis. Interventional case series. Patients undergoing intravitreal injection of triamcinolone acetonide with or without intravitreal bevacizumab. In 21 eyes, the existence of vitreous incarceration at the pars plana site of intravitreal injection of 0.05 mL of drug was studied by UBM (50 MHz probe of the VUmax, Sonomed, NY), the day after surgery, by 1 technician. The reason for injection was diabetic retinopathy in 12 (57.1%) eyes; age-related macular degeneration in 6 (28.6%) eyes; branch retinal vein occlusion in 2 (9.5%) eyes; and choroiditis in 1 eye (4.8%). In 1 eye, only triamcinolone acetonide was injected, and in the other eyes, bevacizumab mixed with triamcinolone acetonide was injected. We studied 21 eyes in 13 patients. Of the subjects, 61.5% were male. The mean age of the patients was 62.2 years. On the day after intravitreal injection of the drug, vitreous incarceration into the pars plana site was detected by UBM in 42.9% of the eyes. Vitreous incarceration exists after intravitreal injection of drug, but its clinical importance is still unknown. Further long-term prospective studies are recommended. Copyright © 2012 Canadian Ophthalmological Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Rodríguez-Hurtado, F J; Garrido Collado, M P; César Delgado Ceballos, V
To determine whether intravitreal injection of autologous plasmin enzyme (APE) is effective in vitreomacular traction syndrome (VMTS) by improving visual acuity and restoring macular morphology. A prospective study of 11 consecutive patients diagnosed with VMTS in the Ophthalmology Department from January to May, 2011. best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) less than 0.5, and vitreomacular attachment in foveal area resulting in macular thickness>250 microns diagnosed by optical coherence tomography (Cirrus OCT, Carl Zeiss Meditec, Inc, Oberkochen, Germany). active proliferative diabetic retinopathy, axial myopia>26mm, vitrectomy, glaucoma, previous intravitreal injections and previous rhegmatogenous detachment. One to 3 monthly intravitreal injections of 0.2ml of APE were applied, interrupting if posterior vitreous detachment was attained. Wilcoxon's test was used for statistical analysis. A total of 12 eyes of 11 patients were treated. A complete posterior vitreous detachment was achieved in 4 (33%) eyes at the end of the study, 2 of them with one injection, and 2 with 3 monthly injections. Improvement of BCVA was statistically significant (P=.017) and the decrease in central macular thickness also was statistically significant (P=.016). There was only one complication: intraocular hypertension after injection that subsided with a new paracentesis. Intravitreal APE injections avoided vitrectomy in VMTS in one in every 3 patients. Copyright © 2011 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Vasey, J R
In 15 horses with acute abdominal disease, a diagnosis of incarceration of small intestine through the epiploic foramen was made, either at the time of exploratory celiotomy or at necropsy.The horses exhibited signs of moderate to severe abdominal pain and were suffering from hypovolaemic and/or endotoxic shock. Nasogastric intubation produced either gas or fluid, the pH of which was in the range of 5 to 7.2, indicating reflux of small intestinal content into the stomach. Consistent physical findings included absence of gut sounds on auscultation, dilated small intestine palpable on rectal examination, and serosanguineous or xanthochromic fluid from abdominal paracentesis.A ventral midline laparotomy was performed on 11 horses. The incarcerated bowel, which involved the distal jejunum and ileum in 14 horses and jejunum in one horse, varied in length from 26 cm to 13 meters. Reduction of the incarceration was accomplished by gentle traction of the efferent and/or afferent intestine. Infarcted segments of the small intestine were exteriorized, resected, and an end-to-end jejunal anastomosis or an end-to-side jejunocecal anastomosis was performed. A successful postoperative recovery was achieved in three horses.
Castañón-González, Jorge Alberto; Amézquita-Landeros, Jorge Antonio; Velasco-Ortega, Erich Carlos; Deseano-Estudillo, José Luis; León-Gutiérrez, Marco Antonio
Symptoms of constrictive pericarditis may be nonspecific, misleading and may delay or lead to an incorrect diagnosis. We present the case of a 28-year-old male who was admitted to the hospital with progressive dyspnea, thoracic pain and a history of 25 kg of weight gain during the last 2 years. He was evaluated at another facility and his clinical presentation led to an erroneous diagnosis of primary hepatic disease (cirrhosis and portal hypertension). Physical examination showed that he was dyspneic, emaciated, had marked distention of his frontal cranial veins, diminished heart sounds, massive ascites and leg edema. Laboratory tests reported abnormal liver function tests and abdominal paracentesis chylous ascites. Electrocardiogram showed sinus rhythm with generalized low voltage and nonspecific repolarization changes. Heart size was normal on chest radiography. Doppler echocardiography reported bilateral atrial dilatation, a thickened pericardium and a short deceleration time of transmitral flow. A thickened and calcified pericardium was seen on CT scan. Pericardiectomy was performed. Spontaneous polyuria was observed during and after surgery with subsequent improvement of ascites and edema. The pericardium was found to be grossly thickened and inflamed. Clinician must be aware of the slow and progressive course of right ventricular failure, as well as to recognize constrictive pericarditis as a cause of chronic ascites.The hemodynamic aspects of the disease are of paramount importance for early diagnosis and opportune treatment.
Stofer, Fernanda; Barretto, Maria Fernanda; Gouvea, Ana Luisa; Ribeiro, Mario; Neves, Marcio; Gismondi, Ronaldo Altenburg; Mocarzel, Luís Otavio
Patient: Male, 65 Final Diagnosis: Peritoneal amyloidosis Symptoms: Anasarca • Dyspnea • Orthopnea Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Paracentesis and peritoneal biopsy Specialty: Gastroenterology and Hepatology Objective: Unusual clinical course Background: The clinical manifestations of amyloidosis depend on the type of insoluble protein as well as the location of amyloid deposits in tissues or organs. In the gastrointestinal tract, the small intestine is the most common site of amyloid deposits, whereas peritoneal involvement and ascites are rare. Case Report: We report on a case of ascites due to peritoneal amyloidosis. A 65-year-old patient was admitted to our institution due to anasarca and pulmonary congestion, mimicking heart failure. We started the patient on diuretics and vasodilators. Despite improvement in pulmonary congestion and peripheral edema, his ascites was not reduced. Echocardiogram revealed restrictive cardiomyopathy and a speckle-tracking pattern suggestive of cardiac amyloidosis. Subcutaneous and peritoneal biopsies revealed amyloidosis. Conclusions: Amyloidosis is rare in the peritoneum and is usually asymptomatic. Ascites occurs in only 20% of patients with peritoneal amyloidosis. We searched PubMed using “ascites” and “amyloidosis” and identified only eight case reports of amyloidosis with ascites. Physicians should be particularly careful in heart failure and anasarca cases when ascites is disproportional or not responsive to diuretic treatment. To date, there is no specific treatment for peritoneal amyloidosis. PMID:27353538
Nohuz, Erdogan; Alaboud, Maher; El-Drayi, Bilal; Tamburro, Stefano; Kachkach, Said; Varga, Janos
The Demons-Meigs syndrome should usually be evoked in case of presence of a typical triad: abdominopelvic mass, ascites and hydrothorax. Its diagnosis appears crucial to prevent the realization of unnecessary surgical procedures. A 32-year-old woman presented in April 2012 to the emergency department of our maternity unit (General Hospital, Thiers, France) with an abdominal distension mimicking the symptoms of a pregnancy at term. Physical examination revealed a voluminous painful abdominopelvic mass, extended from the pelvis to the upper abdomen with a large right pleural effusion. Ultrasound and computed tomography showed it was a tumor measuring more than 300 mm in diameter with a right hydrothorax. Serum CA-125 level was 289 U/ml. Cytologic analysis of the pleural effusion didn't show any malignant cells. In this study, Demons-Meigs syndrome was recognized. A laparoscopico-laparotomic management permitted an aspiration of 23 liters of a brownish liquid and an unilateral adnexectomy after pleural paracentesis was performed. Frozen section demonstrated benign mucinous cystadenoma. The final histologic findings objectified intracystic intestinal type ovarian mucinous borderline tumor. After multidisciplinary consultation, the patient was re-operated one month later. The exploration didn't reveal any suspected lesions and appendectomy and omentectomy were performed. The postoperative course was uneventful. Serum CA-125 level was normal at the time of the reoperation and 24 months after the initial surgery. The preoperative recognition of a Demons-Meigs syndrome or a Demons' pseudosyndrome is essential to avoid useless surgical procedures.
Lucas, Brian P; Asbury, Joseph K; Wang, Yue; Lee, Kuenok; Kumapley, Rudolf; Mba, Benjamin; Borkowsky, Shane; Asmar, Abdo
Procedure services may improve the training of bedside procedures. However, little is known about how procedure services may affect the demand for and success of procedures performed on general medicine inpatients. Determine whether a procedure service affects the number and success of 4 bedside procedures (paracentesis, thoracentesis, lumbar puncture, and central venous catheterization) attempted on general medicine inpatients. Prospective cohort study. Large public teaching hospital. Nineteen hundred and forty-one consecutive admissions to the general medicine service. A bedside procedure service was offered to physicians from 1 of 3 firms for 4 weeks. This service then crossed over to physicians from the other 2 firms for another 4 weeks. Data on all procedure attempts were collected daily from physicians. We examined whether the number of attempts and the proportion of successful attempts differed based on whether firms were offered the beside procedure service. The number of procedure attempts was 48% higher in firms offered the service (90 versus 61 per 1000 admissions; RR 1.48, 95% CI 1.06-2.10; P = .030). More than 85% of the observed increase was a result of procedures with therapeutic indications. There were no differences between firms in the proportions of successful attempts or major complications. The availability of a procedure service may increase the overall demand for bedside procedures. Further studies should refine the indications for and anticipated benefits from these commonly performed invasive procedures. (c) 2007 Society of Hospital Medicine.
Agarwal, Nitin; Gala, Nihar B; Baumrind, Benjamin; Hansberry, David R; Thabet, Ahmad M; Gandhi, Chirag D; Prestigiacomo, Charles J
Central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) is an ophthalmologic emergency due to the sudden cessation of circulation to the inner retinal layer. Without immediate treatment, permanent blindness may ensue. Several treatment options exist, ranging from noninvasive medical management to thrombolysis. Nonetheless, ongoing debate exists regarding the best therapeutic strategy. The authors present the case of a 78-year-old woman with a medical history of hypercholesterolemia and rheumatoid arthritis who experienced complete loss of vision in her left eye. Following ophthalmologic evaluation demonstrating left CRAO, anterior chamber paracentesis was performed. Endovascular intervention was performed via local intra-arterial fibrinolysis with alteplase. Her vision returned to 20/20 following the procedure. In general, conventional therapies have not significantly improved patient outcomes. Several management options exist for CRAO. In general, conservative measures have not been reported to yield better patient outcomes as compared to the natural history of this medical emergency. Endovascular approaches are another option as observed with this case reported. In cases of CRAO, therapeutic strategies such as intra-arterial fibrinolysis utilize a local infusion of reactive tissue plasminogen activator directly at the site of occlusion via catheterization of the ophthalmic artery. Although several case series do show promising results after treating CRAO with intra-arterial fibrinolysis, further studies are required given the reports of complications.
Fukui, Hiroshi; Saito, Hidetsugu; Ueno, Yoshiyuki; Uto, Hirofumi; Obara, Katsutoshi; Sakaida, Isao; Shibuya, Akitaka; Seike, Masataka; Nagoshi, Sumiko; Segawa, Makoto; Tsubouchi, Hirohito; Moriwaki, Hisataka; Kato, Akinobu; Hashimoto, Etsuko; Michitaka, Kojiro; Murawaki, Toshikazu; Sugano, Kentaro; Watanabe, Mamoru; Shimosegawa, Tooru
The Japanese Society of Gastroenterology revised the evidence-based clinical practice guidelines for liver cirrhosis in 2015. Eighty-three clinical questions were selected, and a literature search was performed for the clinical questions with use of the MEDLINE, Cochrane, and Igaku Chuo Zasshi databases for the period between 1983 and June 2012. Manual searching of the latest important literature was added until August 2015. The guidelines were developed with use of the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) system. This digest version in English introduces selected clinical questions and statements related to the management of liver cirrhosis and its complications. Branched-chain amino acids relieve hypoalbuminemia and hepatic encephalopathy and improve quality of life. Nucleoside analogues and peginterferon plus ribavirin combination therapy improve the prognosis of patients with hepatitis B virus related liver cirrhosis and hepatitis C related compensated liver cirrhosis, respectively, although the latter therapy may be replaced by direct-acting antivirals. For liver cirrhosis caused by primary biliary cirrhosis and active autoimmune hepatitis, urosodeoxycholic acid and steroid are recommended, respectively. The most adequate modalities for the management of variceal bleeding are the endoscopic injection sclerotherapy for esophageal varices and the balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration following endoscopic obturation with cyanoacrylate for gastric varices. Beta-blockers are useful for primary prophylaxis of esophageal variceal bleeding. The V2 receptor antagonist tolvaptan is a useful add-on therapy in careful diuretic therapy for ascites. Albumin infusion is useful for the prevention of paracentesis-induced circulatory disturbance and renal failure. In addition to disaccharides, the nonabsorbable antibiotic rifaximin is useful for the management of encephalopathy. Anticoagulation therapy is proposed for
Sharma, Charu; Biswas, Nihar R; Ojha, Shreesh; Velpandian, Thirumurthy
Objective Corneal permeability of drugs is an important factor used to assess the efficacy of topical preparations. Transcorneal penetration of drugs from aqueous formulation is governed by various physiological, physiochemical, and formulation factors. In the present study, we investigated the effect of formulation factors like concentration, pH, and volume of instillation across the cornea using cassette dosing technique for ophthalmic fluoroquinolones (FQs). Materials and methods Sterile cocktail formulations were prepared using four congeneric ophthalmic FQs (ofloxacin, sparfloxacin, pefloxacin mesylate, and gatifloxacin) at concentrations of 0.025%, 0.5%, and 0.1%. Each formulation was adjusted to different pH ranges (4.5, 7.0, and 8.0) and assessed for transcorneal penetration in vivo in rabbit’s cornea (n=4 eyes) at three different volumes (12.5, 25, and 50 μL). Aqueous humor was aspirated through paracentesis after applying local anesthesia at 0, 5, 15, 30, 60, 120, and 240 minutes postdosing. The biosamples collected from a total of 27 groups were analyzed using liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectroscopy to determine transcorneal permeability of all four FQs individually. Results Increase in concentration showed an increase in penetration up to 0.05%; thereafter, the effect of concentration was found to be dependent on volume of instillation as we observed a decrease in transcorneal penetration. The highest transcorneal penetration of all FQs was observed at pH 7.0 at concentration 0.05% followed by 0.025% at pH 4.5. Lastly, increasing the volume of instillation from 12.5 to 50 μL showed a significant fall in transcorneal penetration. Conclusion The study concludes that formulation factors showed discernible effect on transcorneal permeation; therefore, due emphasis should be given on drug development and design of ophthalmic formulation. PMID:26955263
Sharma, Charu; Biswas, Nihar R; Ojha, Shreesh; Velpandian, Thirumurthy
Corneal permeability of drugs is an important factor used to assess the efficacy of topical preparations. Transcorneal penetration of drugs from aqueous formulation is governed by various physiological, physiochemical, and formulation factors. In the present study, we investigated the effect of formulation factors like concentration, pH, and volume of instillation across the cornea using cassette dosing technique for ophthalmic fluoroquinolones (FQs). Sterile cocktail formulations were prepared using four congeneric ophthalmic FQs (ofloxacin, sparfloxacin, pefloxacin mesylate, and gatifloxacin) at concentrations of 0.025%, 0.5%, and 0.1%. Each formulation was adjusted to different pH ranges (4.5, 7.0, and 8.0) and assessed for transcorneal penetration in vivo in rabbit's cornea (n=4 eyes) at three different volumes (12.5, 25, and 50 μL). Aqueous humor was aspirated through paracentesis after applying local anesthesia at 0, 5, 15, 30, 60, 120, and 240 minutes postdosing. The biosamples collected from a total of 27 groups were analyzed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy to determine transcorneal permeability of all four FQs individually. Increase in concentration showed an increase in penetration up to 0.05%; thereafter, the effect of concentration was found to be dependent on volume of instillation as we observed a decrease in transcorneal penetration. The highest transcorneal penetration of all FQs was observed at pH 7.0 at concentration 0.05% followed by 0.025% at pH 4.5. Lastly, increasing the volume of instillation from 12.5 to 50 μL showed a significant fall in transcorneal penetration. The study concludes that formulation factors showed discernible effect on transcorneal permeation; therefore, due emphasis should be given on drug development and design of ophthalmic formulation.
Nohuz, Erdogan; Alaboud, Maher; El-Drayi, Bilal; Tamburro, Stefano; Kachkach, Said; Varga, Janos
Background The Demons-Meigs syndrome should usually be evoked in case of presence of a typical triad: abdominopelvic mass, ascites and hydrothorax. Its diagnosis appears crucial to prevent the realization of unnecessary surgical procedures. Case Presentation A 32-year-old woman presented in April 2012 to the emergency department of our maternity unit (General Hospital, Thiers, France) with an abdominal distension mimicking the symptoms of a pregnancy at term. Physical examination revealed a voluminous painful abdominopelvic mass, extended from the pelvis to the upper abdomen with a large right pleural effusion. Ultrasound and computed tomography showed it was a tumor measuring more than 300 mm in diameter with a right hydrothorax. Serum CA-125 level was 289 U/ml. Cytologic analysis of the pleural effusion didn't show any malignant cells. In this study, Demons-Meigs syndrome was recognized. A laparoscopico-laparotomic management permitted an aspiration of 23 liters of a brownish liquid and an unilateral adnexectomy after pleural paracentesis was performed. Frozen section demonstrated benign mucinous cystadenoma. The final histologic findings objectified intracystic intestinal type ovarian mucinous borderline tumor. After multidisciplinary consultation, the patient was re-operated one month later. The exploration didn't reveal any suspected lesions and appendectomy and omentectomy were performed. The postoperative course was uneventful. Serum CA-125 level was normal at the time of the reoperation and 24 months after the initial surgery. Conclusion The preoperative recognition of a Demons-Meigs syndrome or a Demons’ pseudosyndrome is essential to avoid useless surgical procedures. PMID:25469326
Raak, Peter; Ponto, Katharina; Stoffelns, Bernhard; Lorenz, Katrin; Scharioth, Gábor B.
Purpose. To report one-year results of phacoemulsification combined with deep sclerectomy and goniosynechiolysis ab interno for chronic glaucoma associated with peripheral anterior synechiae (PAS). Methods. We retrospectively analyzed medical charts of 16 patients (20 eyes) treated by one-site combined phacoemulsification and deep sclerectomy with goniosynechiolysis ab interno. PAS were transected by a spatula introduced into the anterior chamber through a paracentesis. To account for the correlation of right and left eyes a linear mixed model with unstructured covariance structure was calculated. Results. The mean preoperative intraocular pressure (IOP) was 20.3 ± 5.2 mmHg with 2.4 ± 1.0 medications. One year postoperatively, the mean IOP was 15.3 ± 3.3 mmHg (P = 0.004, paired t-test) with 0.6 ± 1.0 medications. A postoperative IOP of ≤21 mmHg without medication was achieved in 17 of 19 eyes (89.5%) and in 12/19 eyes (63.2%) at 3 and 12 months after surgery, respectively. In the remaining eyes (10.5% at 3 months and 36.8% at 12 months), additional medication led to an IOP ≤21 mmHg or the target pressure. No case required further glaucoma surgery. In one eye, conversion of the surgery to trabeculectomy was necessary due to Descemet's window rupture. Conclusions. With goniosynechiolysis ab interno, effective and safe nonpenetrating glaucoma surgery is possible in presence of PAS. PMID:26199738
Hanafy, Amr S; Hassaneen, Ahmad M
The occurrence of refractory ascites in nearly 17% of patients with decompensated cirrhosis is an unresolved issue. Advanced liver disease, functional renal impairment, and vascular insensitivity to vasopressors are the main causes of its refractoriness. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the impact on diuresis, weight loss, and short-term survival if midodrine and rifaximin were added to the diuretic therapy (DT). The study evaluated the eligibility of 650 patients with cirrhosis and refractory ascites who were selected during the period from November 2011 to May 2015. A total of 50 patients were excluded and finally 600 were selected and divided into the following groups: patients exposed to DT (n=200) as a control group, or DT with midodrine and rifaximin group (n=400). Body weight, mean arterial pressure, and glomerular filtration rate were determined. Plasma renin and aldosterone were also determined. Follow-up was performed after 2, 6, and 12 weeks, and then every 2 months for 24 months. The mean arterial pressure was significantly higher in the midodrine and rifaximin group (P=0.000), and there was a highly significant weight loss after 12 weeks (12.5 kg) (P=0.000), a highly significant increase in serum sodium, urine output, and urinary sodium excretion (P=0.000), and creatinine clearance was more reduced in the control group. With rifaximin and midodrine, a complete response occurred in 310 (78%) patients, a partial response in 72 (18%), and no response in 18 (4%) versus 30 (15%), 110 (55%), and 60 (30%) in the control group, respectively (P=0.000). Midodrine and rifaximin significantly reduced paracentesis needs when compared with the controls (18 study patients vs. 75 DT-only patients, P=0.000). Adding rifaximin and midodrine to DT enhanced diuresis in refractory ascites with improved systemic, renal hemodynamics and short-term survival.
Abdelkader, Ehab; Yip, Kay P; Cornish, Kurt Spiteri
To evaluate the outcomes of pneumatic displacement of submacular hemorrhage secondary to choroidal neovascular membrane (CNV) (n = 9) and retinal arterial macroaneurysm (RAM) (n = 3). This is a retrospective case series study of 12 eyes from 12 patients in Aberdeen Royal Infirmary, Aberdeen, UK. The mean duration of visual loss was 10.8 ± 4.11 days. All cases received intravitreal injection of expansile gas within 24 h of presentation (C3F8 in 11 cases and SF6 in one case) and postured face down for five days. Anterior chamber paracentesis was done right after gas injection. Intravitreal anti-VEGF was injected at the same time in cases with CNV. Further anti-VEGF injections were done in CNV cases as needed afterwards. Cases were followed up for 6 months. The submacular hemorrhage was successfully displaced from underneath the fovea in all but one case. The bleeding disappeared totally in 44% of cases and was inferiorly displaced in 56%. VA improvement at 6 months was statistically significantly higher than baseline VA. All cases but 2 (one because of subfoveal fibrosis and one because of late presentation) experienced improved VA. The mean VA improved from 1.37 ± 0.18 logMAR at baseline to 0.83 ± 0.26 logMAR at 6 months. No complication related to the procedure was reported. Pneumatic displacement of submacular hemorrhage appears to be a safe and effective technique to treat the condition. It is an easy procedure that can be done in outpatient setting. Further studies are needed to validate our results.
Mourad, Michelle; Ranji, Sumant; Sliwka, Diane
Introduction Academic medical centers must provide safe inpatient procedures while balancing resident autonomy and education. We performed a randomized, controlled trial to evaluate the effect of a 2-week hospitalist procedure service (HPS) rotation on interns' self-perceived procedure ability, knowledge, and autonomy versus the standard curriculum. Methods We randomly selected 16 of 57 internal medicine interns (28%) to participate in the intervention group rotation, with 29 interns in the control group. All interns were surveyed before the start of residency and at the end of the postgraduate year-1 (PGY-1) and PGY-2 years to evaluate self-reported knowledge and ability to (1) safely perform procedures, (2) supervise procedures, and (3) use bedside ultrasound. Results Ninety-four percent of HPS interns (15/16) and 71% of control interns (29/41) completed all surveys. Baseline knowledge and experience did not differ significantly between the groups. The intervention group performed significantly more paracentesis (9 versus 4; P < .001), thoracentesis (6 versus 2; P < .001), and lumbar puncture (4 versus 3; P < .001) procedures than did the control group. After their first year, residents who completed the HPS rotation rated their ability to safely perform and supervise all of the assessed procedures as higher (P < .05 for all procedures) and were more likely to rate self-perceived knowledge as very good or excellent in all surveyed aspects of procedure performance (P < .05). Discussion A 2-week hospitalist-supervised procedure service rotation substantially improved residents' experience, confidence, and knowledge in performing bedside procedures early in their training, with this effect sustained through the PGY-2 year. Standardized procedure service rotations are a viable solution for programs seeking to improve their procedure-based education. PMID:23730437
Valerio, Christopher; Theocharidou, Eleni; Davenport, Andrew; Agarwal, Banwari
To provide an overview of the properties of human serum albumin (HSA), and to review the evidence for the use of human albumin solution (HAS) in critical illness, sepsis and cirrhosis. A MEDLINE search was performed using the terms “human albumin”, “critical illness”, “sepsis” and “cirrhosis”. The references of retrieved articles were reviewed manually. Studies published between 1980 and 2014 were selected based on quality criteria. Data extraction was performed by all authors. HSA is the main plasma protein contributing greatly to its oncotic pressure. HSA demonstrates important binding properties for endogenous and exogenous toxins, drugs and drug metabolites that account for its anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. In disease states, hypoalbuminaemia is secondary to decreased HSA production, increased loss or transcapillary leakage into the interstitial space. HSA function can be also altered in disease with reduced albumin binding capacity and increased production of modified isoforms. HAS has been used as volume expander in critical illness, but received criticism due to cost and concerns regarding safety. More recent studies confirmed the safety of HAS, but failed to show any survival benefit compared to the cheaper crystalloid fluids, therefore limiting its use. On the contrary, in cirrhosis there is robust data to support the efficacy of HAS for the prevention of circulatory dysfunction post-large volume paracentesis and in the context of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, and for the treatment of hepato-renal syndrome and hypervolaemic hyponatraemia. It is likely that not only the oncotic properties of HAS are beneficial in cirrhosis, but also its functional properties, as HAS replaces the dysfunctional HSA. The role of HAS as the resuscitation fluid of choice in critically ill patients with cirrhosis, beyond the established indications for HAS use, should be addressed in future studies. PMID:26981172
Moriwaki, Yoshihiro; Otani, Jun; Okuda, Junzo; Niwano, Toshiyuki; Sawada, Yoshiyuki; Nitta, Tachiko; Ohshima, Chiaki
Although massive cirrhotic ascites is generally considered a contraindication for the placement of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG), such patients are usually poorly nourished. Preceding paracentesis of ascites is one method for controlling ascites and allowing the safe placement of PEG, but it often results in overuse of albumin. Preceding peritoneal-venous (P-V) shunting can avoid excessive use of albumin, but this introduces the risk of infectious contamination. We encountered an 88-y-old woman with massive cirrhotic ascites, a giant esophageal hernia with dislocation of the proximal stomach into the mediastinum, hypertrophy of the lateral segment of the liver, and malnutrition who had suffered from appetite loss and a swallowing disorder for 4 mo. She underwent PEG using a staged sequential introduction method using a Funada-style gastric wall fixation kit as follows: 1) full stretching and pushing out of the stomach from the mediastinum into the peritoneal cavity by deep insertion and a turning-over procedure of the endoscope, 2) full distention by air to adhere the gastric wall to the peritoneal wall without migration of the colon, 3) four-point square fixation under gastroenterological endoscopy without migration of the visceral organ, and 4) puncture of the needle introducer of the PEG tube in the center of the fixations under repeated gastroenterological endoscopy 3 d after the fixation. She underwent P-V shunting under local anesthesia on the 28th day after placement of PEG and enteral nutrition. Her case shows that we can achieve proper enteral nutritional support even for patients with massive cirrhotic ascites.
Ilgner, Justus; Park, Jonas Jae-Hyun; Westhofen, Martin
Introduction: The master plan for innovative medical education established at RWTH Aachen Medical Faculty helped to set up an inter-disciplinary, interactive teaching environment for undergraduate medical students during their clinical course. This study presents our first experience with teaching microsurgery to medical students by means of highdefinition stereo video monitoring. Material and methods: A plastic model created for ear inspection with a handheld otoscope was modified with an exchangeable membrane resembling an eardrum plus a model of the human cochlea. We attached a 1280×1024 HD stereo camera to an operating microscope, whose images were processed online by a PC workstation. The live image was displayed by two LCD projectors @ 1280×720 pixels on a 1,25m rear-projection screen by polarized filters. Each medical student was asked to perform standard otosurgical procedures (paracentesis and insertion of grommets; insertion of a cochlear implant electrode) being guided by the HD stereoscopic video image. Results: Students quickly adopted this method of training, as all attendants shared the same high-definition stereoscopic image. The learning process of coordinating hand movement with visual feedback was regarded being challenging as well as instructive by all students. Watching the same image facilitated valuable feedback from the audience for each student performing his tasks. All students noted that this course made them feel more confident in their manual skills and that they would consider a career in a microsurgical specialty. Conclusion: High definition stereoscopy provides an easy access to microsurgical techniques for undergraduate medical students. This access not only bears the potential to compress the learning curve for junior doctors during their clinical training but also helps to attract medical students to a career in a microsurgical specialty.
A 48 year old patient with dilated cardiomyopathy and chronic acne inversa underwent implantation of a LVAD system (Heartmate II, Thoratec, USA) March 2011. During 2011 and 2012 the patient was repeatedly readmitted for treatment of driveline infection with MRSA. Colonization was controlled with Linezolid and Rifampicin however reoccurred after discontinuation. In August 2012 the LVAD-system was exchanged due to pump dysfunction (HVAD, HeartWare Inc., USA). Postoperatively, the patient presented with ascites which secreted through the driveline exit. Consequently, the abdominal wall was surgically corrected to prevent exit of peritoneal fluid through the driveline, and the patient was discharged with sterile wound swabs. However 6 weeks after discharge the driveline exit wound started secreting pus showing abundant growth of multi resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). With clinical signs of increasing liver failure with regular need for paracentesis, and clinical signs of local infection, a CT scan of the abdomen was performed revealing an enrichment of contrast medium along the driveline and an abscess-like formation on the abdominal wall. Patient was admitted receiving regular dose Daptomycin and Rifampicin. The latter was discontinued after ten days. The abscess, surrounding driveline exit and abdominal wall cavity was excised and vacuum treatment initiated. Total duration of Daptomycin therapy was 3 weeks. While first week skin and wound swabs were still positive for MRSA, all samples were sterile after the second week. Inflammation was monitored by leucocyte count and IL6. The secretion of pus along the driveline ceased, the wound cavity was closed subsequently. After discharge and stop of antibiotics skin and driveline swabs remained negative for MRSA (10 weeks). PMID:24685284
Capristo, Esmeralda; Spuntarelli, Valerio; Treglia, Giorgio; Arena, Vincenzo; Giordano, Alessandro; Mingrone, Geltrude
We described the case of a highly aggressive antral gastric carcinoma with a scarce symptomatology, in a patient undergone Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass (RYGB) for obesity. A 61 year-old white man in apparent good health, who underwent laparoscopic RYGB for obesity 18 months earlier, with a loss of 30kg, reported a sudden abdominal distension and breath shortness with a weight gain of 5kg in few days. Endoscopy of both upper gastro-intestinal tract and the colon were performed along with CT-scan and positron-emission tomography (PET) CT- scan. A biopsy of the palpable lymph node in the left supraclavicular fossa was taken for analysis. Abdominal paracentesis produced milky fluid, while citrine pleural fluid was aspirated by thoracentesis. Immunochemistry studies of the lymph node biopsy revealed tumor cells positive for cytokeratin (CK)7 and CK20, CDX2 and CAM 5.2 and negative for HER2 and TTF1 suggesting colon cancer. The colon and upper gastro-intestinal endoscopy were normal. A CT-scan and positron-emission tomography (PET) with 2-[fluorine-18]fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose (FDG) showed an intense FDG-uptake in the gastric antrum and in the lymph nodal chains. Given these findings, a diagnosis of poorly differentiated antral gastric carcinoma with multiple lymph node metastases was raised.The patients died 4 months after diagnosis. RYGB is a widely performed bariatric operation and no data are reported on the risk of developing gastric cancer in the excluded stomach. This case report suggests that great attention should be devoted to post-RYGB patients for an early diagnosis of malignant gastric cancer. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Afanas, Nelea; Carvalho, Marisa; Almeida, Marta; Costa, Vitor; Silva, Isabel; Oliva, Tereza
Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) is a highly aggressive B-cell neoplasm characterized by the translocation and deregulation of the c-myc gene on chromosome 8. Three distinct clinical forms of BL are recognized: endemic, sporadic, and human immunodeficiency-associated. BL is a rapidly growing neoplasm requiring immediate diagnosis and treatment. We described and analyzed our experience with Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) diagnosis, treatment and outcome, during ten years. Retrospective study; clinical records of all children admitted with BL between 1st January 1998 and 31st December 2008 were analyzed. The following data were collected: age at admission, gender, clinical presentation, and time elapsed from initial complaints until diagnosis, disease localization, treatment and evolution. During the time period 21 children were admitted (19 boys), seven (33.3%) of which were diagnosed in 2008. The median age at diagnosis was seven years with a mean delay to diagnosis of 20,8 days (range 2-125 days). The most frequent site of primitive tumour was the abdomen (13), followed by tonsils (three), orbit (one), central nervous system CNS (two), tongue (one) and nasopharynx (one). The majority of patients in our study were presenting with a painfull abdominal mass. Diagnosis was established through tumour biopsy in 17 children, three by paracentesis or toracocentesis and one case was diagnosed only by genetic tests to the bone marrow. Genetic tests were positive in 11 patients. According to the Murphy classification, there were three stage II, 12 stage III and six stage IV tumours; 29% and 19% had bone marrow and central nervous system involvement, respectively. One child relapsed and was successfully treated with Rituximab® and autologous stem cell transplantation. The overall survival rate was 100%.
Guardino, Jason M; Proctor, Deborah D; Lopez, Rocio; Carey, William
The gastroenterology core curriculum (GCC) represents the knowledge/skills desired at the completion of fellowship training. The hepatology subset (H-GCC) is the focus of this research. The aims were to measure adherence of the H-GCC within gastrointestinal training programs, compare the perceptions of the H-GCC compliance by fellows and program directors, and provide comparative information to improve gastrointestinal training programs. A questionnaire was designed to assess the general and hepatology components of the GCC. Fellows and program directors were invited to participate by means of 3 sequential mailings. Pearson chi(2) and Fisher exact tests were used for statistics. Of 971 potential respondents, the questionnaire was returned by 42% of program directors and 33% of fellows. There was <70% agreement by either fellows or program directors for minimum > or =18 months of clinical training (minimum > or =30% hepatology), and minimum > or =20 paracentesis/liver biopsies. Most prescribed hepatology core topics were covered; however, >10% of fellows claimed deficiency in physiology, pregnancy issues, angiography, immunosuppressant use, and congenital disorders. Fellows in non-liver transplant institutions more often reported lack of training in fulminant disease, transplant patient selection, and diagnosis/management of rejection (P < .001). (1) Fellow and program director assessments were highly concordant, with most H-GCC criteria being met. (2) Attention is required to provide adequate time for clinical training and prescribed procedures. (3) Improved instruction in several hepatology topics seems warranted. (4) A nonevaluative questionnaire is a practical means to measure compliance. Future studies measuring compliance with other components of the GCC by using this methodology seem feasible.
Association of the G-protein and α2-adrenergic receptor gene and plasma norepinephrine level with clonidine improvement of the effects of diuretics in patients with cirrhosis with refractory ascites: a randomised clinical trial.
Yang, Y Y; Lin, H C; Lee, W P; Chu, C J; Lin, M W; Lee, F Y; Hou, M C; Jap, J S; Lee, S D
Clonidine is an α(2)-adrenoceptor agonist which, by coupling with G-protein, has been proposed as an alternative treatment for refractory ascites of patients with cirrhosis for several years. Genetic polymorphisms of β-adrenoceptor and angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockers have been reported to affect drug response in patients with cirrhosis. This study evaluated the clonidine-diuretic response rate, favourable predictors and genetic components of the clonidine-diuretic response in patients with cirrhosis with refractory ascites. 270 patients with cirrhosis with refractory ascites were randomised equally into two treatment groups to receive diuretics alone or the clonidine-diuretics association. The primary end point was clonidine-diuretic response rate. Secondary end points were mean daily dose of diuretics, times of paracentesis, ascites-related readmission and 1-year survival rate. Good clonidine responders had better natriuresis and diuresis as well as a significant decrease in abdominal circumference, plasma renin, aldosterone and norepinephrine levels. The overall clonidine-diuretics response rate was 55-60%. In patients with cirrhosis, the prevalence of ARDA(2)C WD/DD and GNB3 CT/TT genotypes was 71% and 77%, respectively. Among the responders, 71% of patients with cirrhosis had the ARDA(2)C WD/DD genotype and 67% has the GNB3 CT/TT genotype. Besides higher baseline norepinephrine levels, the presence of both ARDA(2)C WD/DD and GNB3 CT/TT genotypes showed a positive predictive value of 82% and a negative predictive value of 79% for good clonidine response. These results suggest that neurohormonal and genetic testing may be used as predictive factors for the additive effects of clonidine on the diuresis and natriuresis effects of diuretics in patients with cirrhosis with refractory ascites.
Parthasarathy, Anand; Por, Yong Ming; Tan, Donald T H
Purpose To describe a quick and simple “small‐bubble” technique to immediately determine the success of attaining complete Descemet's membrane (DM) separation from corneal stroma through Anwar's “big‐bubble” technique of deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty (DALK) for complete stromal removal. Methods A partial trephination was followed by a lamellar dissection of the anterior stroma. Deep stromal air injection was then attempted to achieve the big bubble to help separate the stroma from the DM. To confirm that a big bubble had been achieved, a small air bubble was injected into the anterior chamber (AC) through a limbal paracentesis. If the small bubble is then seen at the corneal periphery, it confirms that the big‐bubble separation of DM was successful because the convex nature of the bubble will cause it to protrude posteriorly, forcing the small AC bubble to the periphery. If the small AC bubble is not seen in the corneal periphery, this means that it is present in the centre, beneath the opaque corneal stroma, and therefore the big bubble has not been achieved. Results We used the small‐bubble technique to confirm the presence of the big bubble in three (one keratoconus, one interstitial keratitis and one dense corneal scar) out of 41 patients who underwent DALK. The small‐bubble technique confirmed that the big bubble was achieved in the eye of all three patients. Complete stromal removal with baring of the DM was achieved, and postoperatively all three eyes achieved best corrected vision of 6/6. Conclusion The small‐bubble technique can be a useful surgical tool for corneal surgeons attempting lamellar keratoplasty using the big‐bubble technique. It helps in confirming the separation of DM from the deep stroma, which is important in achieving total stromal replacement. It will help to make the transition to lamellar keratoplasty smoother, enhance corneal graft success and improve visual outcomes in patients. PMID:17895417
Tang, Chun Xiang; Yang, Gui Fen; Schoepf, U Joseph; Han, Zong Hong; Qi, Li; Zhao, Yan E; Wu, Jiang; Zhou, Chang Sheng; Zhu, Hong; Stubenrauch, Andrew C; Mangold, Stefanie; Zhang, Long Jiang; Lu, Guang Ming
To compare diagnostic accuracy between dual-energy CT lung perfused blood volume (Lung PBV) imaging and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in detecting chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) with histopathological results as reference standard in a canine model. Eighteen CTEPH canines were included into this experimental study. All procedures including paracentesis, embolization, scanning, pressure measurement and feeding medicine were repeated each two weeks, until systolic/diastolic pressure in canines was ≥ 30/15 mm Hg or mean pulmonary artery pressure ≥ 20 mm Hg, and then sacrificed for histopathology examination. Two radiologists (readers 1 and 2) and two nuclear radiologists (readers 3 and 4) analyzed images of conventional CT pulmonary angiography in dual-energy CT mode, Lung PBV imaging and SPECT, respectively. The presence, numbers, and locations of pulmonary emboli (PE) were recorded on a per-lobe basis. Pathological examination was served as reference standard. Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of Lung PBV and SPECT were calculated. Kappa statistics were used to quantify inter-reader agreement. With histopathological results as reference standard, the sensitivities of 72.2%, 78.8%, 81.2%, specificities of 75.9%, 87.5%, 84.8%, accuracies of 73.8%, 83.1%, 83.1%, for readers 1, 2 and both with Lung PBV, respectively. Readers 3, 4 and both had sensitivities of 14.3%, 25.7%, 33.3%, specificities of 90.0%, 86.7%, 93.3%, accuracies of 49.2%, 53.8%, 60.0% with SPECT for detecting CTEPH. Inter-reader agreements were good for dual-energy CT (kappa=0.662) and SPECT (k=0.706) for detecting CTEPH. Dual-energy CT had a higher accuracy to detect CTEPH than SPECT in this canine model study. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Acevedo, Juan G; Cramp, Matthew E
Hepatorenal syndrome (HRS) is a manifestation of extreme circulatory dysfunction and entails high morbidity and mortality. A new definition has been recently recommended by the International Club of Ascites, according to which HRS diagnosis relies in serum creatinine changes instead that on a fixed high value. Moreover, new data on urinary biomarkers has been recently published. In this sense, the use of urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin seems useful to identify patients with acute tubular necrosis and should be employed in the diagnostic algorithm. Treatment with terlipressin and albumin is the current standard of care. Recent data show that terlipressin in intravenous continuous infusion is better tolerated than intravenous boluses and has the same efficacy. Terlipressin is effective in reversing HRS in only 40%-50% of patients. Serum bilirubin and creatinine levels along with the increase in blood pressure and the presence of systemic inflammatory response syndrome have been identified as predictors of response. Clearly, there is a need for further research in novel treatments. Other treatments have been assessed such as noradrenaline, dopamine, transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt, renal and liver replacement therapy, etc. Among all of them, liver transplant is the only curative option and should be considered in all patients. HRS can be prevented with volume expansion with albumin during spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and after post large volume paracentesis, and with antibiotic prophylaxis in patients with advanced cirrhosis and low proteins in the ascitic fluid. This manuscript reviews the recent advances in the diagnosis and management of this life-threatening condition. PMID:28293378
Zosmer, N; Bajoria, R; Weiner, E; Rigby, M; Vaughan, J; Fisk, N M
OBJECTIVE--Fetal twin-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS) presenting in the second trimester has been associated with almost no perinatal survival until recently, when serial drainage of amniotic fluid has improved the prognosis to 70%-80%. Most recipient twins now survive but develop cardiac dysfunction. The study was undertaken to evaluate the abnormal echocardiographic features and clinical complications of cardiac disease in the recipient twin of TTTS. DESIGN--Antenatal and postnatal echocardiographic and clinical observational study. SETTING--Antenatal studies in a tertiary referral centre. Postnatal management and follow up were performed by the same paediatric cardiologist, either at the obstetric hospital or at the regional referral centre. PATIENTS--Twin pregnancies complicated by TTTS with severe polyhydramnios diagnosed earlier than 25 weeks that proceeded until viability (n = 5). INTERVENTION--Serial fetal echocardiography with colour Doppler. Postnatal echocardiography in the first week and between two and seven months. Serial amnioreduction was performed in all pregnancies. Digoxin treatment, pericardiocentesis, paracentesis, or laser ablation of placental anastomoses was undertaken when there was hydrops. RESULTS--Increased cardiothoracic ratio and tricuspid regurgitation were seen in all recipient twins. High pulmonary artery velocities developed in three. One recipient twin died a week after delivery of endocardial fibroelastosis and infundibular pulmonary stenosis. Two other had balloon dilatation for pulmonary stenosis, one shortly after birth and one at four months. A further twin has apical thickening of the right ventricle at six months. The remaining recipient twin had normal echocardiographic findings at follow up. CONCLUSION--This report characterises for the first time a cardiac disease acquired in utero in the recipient twin in pregnancies complicated by TTTS. Clinical manifestations in utero range from mild to critical pulmonary stenosis or
Nirmal, J; Singh, S B; Biswas, N R; Thavaraj, V; Azad, R V; Velpandian, T
Purpose We hypothesize organic cation transporters (OCT) may have a potential role in determining the pharmacokinetics and toxicity of organic cation drugs applied topically. Hence, in the present in vivo study, we attempted to evaluate the role of OCT in modulating the transport of its substrates after topical application. Methods New Zealand albino rabbits of either sex were used. Transcorneal penetration of OCT substrates tetraethylammonium and metformin after single instillation was evaluated in the absence and presence of OCT blockers (quinidine and atropine). Aqueous humor (AH) samples were collected through paracentesis amounting to 70–100 μl under topical anesthesia at various time intervals. The samples were subjected for estimation of both substrate as well as blocker concentrations using liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. Results Topical pre-treatment (30 min before substrate) of OCT blockers significantly decreased the transcorneal penetration of OCT substrates after single topical administration. The levels of blockers reaching AH in the presence of substrates were also modulated at 60 min after its administration as compared with its control. Conclusion OCT are functionally active in the uptake of their substrates from tear to AH. Therefore, OCT in the corneal epithelium may be positioned from apical to basolateral. When administering their substrates/blockers topically, both may be competing for OCT for their uptake across the cornea, thereby decreasing the corneal penetration. Hence OCT can have a potential pharmacokinetic role in modulating the ocular bioavailability of their substrates administered topically, which are used as ocular therapeutics. PMID:23846373
Siegfried, Carla J.; Shui, Ying-Bo; Bai, Fang; Beebe, David C.
Purpose To measure oxygen (pO2) in eyes of patients undergoing intraocular surgery and identify correlations with central corneal thickness (CCT). Design Prospective, cross-sectional study Methods Setting: Institutional Patient Population: 124 patients undergoing cataract and/or glaucoma surgery Observation Procedure: Prior to surgery, an oxygen sensor was introduced into the anterior chamber (AC) via peripheral corneal paracentesis. The tip of the flexible fiberoptic probe was positioned for three measurements in all patients: (1) near central corneal endothelium, (2) in mid-AC and (3) in AC angle. In patients undergoing cataract extraction, additional measurements were taken (4) at the anterior lens surface and (5) in the posterior chamber. Main Outcome Measures: pO2 measurements at five locations within the eye were compared to central corneal thickness measurements by multivariate regression analyses. Results There was a statistically significant inverse correlation between CCT and pO2 in the anterior chamber angle (p=0.048). pO2 was not significantly related to CCT at any other location, including beneath the central cornea. Regression analysis relating CCT to age, race and oxygen levels in all five locations in the anterior segment revealed an association of a thinner cornea with increasing age (p=0.007). Conclusions Physiologic correlations with central corneal thickness may provide clues to understanding why a thinner cornea increases the risk of open glaucoma. Associations between glaucoma risk, CCT and pO2 in the AC angle suggest that exposure of the outflow system to increased oxygen or oxygen metabolites may increase oxidative damage to the trabecular meshwork cells, resulting in elevation of intraocular pressure. PMID:25461296
Christensen, Lars; Wildgaard, Lorna; Wildgaard, Kim
Management of refractory ascites traditionally includes medical treatment with diuretics or intermittent paracentesis. Patients with recurrent ascites may benefit from the use of permanent intra-abdominal catheters with more frequent drainage without hospitalization. The objective was to systematically asses the methodology of factors and endpoints reported in studies investigating permanent catheters for recurrent ascites treatment. Using a systematic search strategy, we critically assessed the methodology when treating refractory ascites using a permanent catheter. Studies critically assessed included both retro- and prospective studies. A total of 715 unique articles were found via PubMed, The Cochrane Library and Embase. Twenty-nine studies (tunnelled catheter = 12, peritoneal ports = 6 and peritoneovenous shunts = 11) with three distinct types of permanent catheters fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Only three studies reported technical success less than 100 %. Data on complications and treatment were not available in all papers; peritonitis (48 %), cellulitis (41 %), prophylactic antibiotics (48 %) and complications to catheter insertion were difficult to distinguish from advanced co-morbidity of patients. Thirteen studies (45 %) reported some type of evaluating patient experience or functional outcome, but only three studies used validated reproducible scales when assessing outcomes. Fifteen of the 29 studies included 30 patients or less. Knowledge is limited because complications and outcomes are poorly defined. The expected increase in catheter treatment of refractory ascites necessitates comparative studies, using validated patient-related outcomes, and the reporting of unambiguous complications. A proposal of variables to include in future studies is presented.
LeVeen, H.H.; Piccone, V.A.; Hutto, R.B.
Hydrothorax occurs in 5.3 percent of ascitic patients. Experience with 22 cases forms the basis of this report. Of the 22 cases, 21 were spontaneous and 1 was due to transdiaphragmatic incision. Usually fluid enters the chest through tiny defects in the diaphragm. These defects are often covered by pleuroperitoneum, but the high abdominal pressure raises a bleb on the superior surface of the diaphragm. Rupture produces hydrothorax. The ascites is often relieved with the onset of the hydrothorax. Blockage of the thoracic duct has produced chylous ascites. The thoracoabdominal communication is immediately confirmed by a scan of the chest and abdomen after intraperitoneal injection of technetium-99 colloid. The rate at which the technetium-99 enters the chest is related to the size of the defect in the diaphragm. A significant transfer should occur within 12 hours. Immediate transfer occurs with large defects. The ruptured blister on the diaphragm forms a one-way valve. Intrathoracic injection does not migrate into the peritoneal cavity. The valvular characteristics of the leak force ascitic fluid into the thorax because the differential pressure between the abdominal and pleural cavities is intensified by inspiration. If tension hydrothorax has occurred, urgent thoracocentesis and paracentesis may be required. A chest tube should not be introduced. The main principle of surgery is to supply a low resistance pathway for the return of fluid to the venous system and to eliminate the diaphragmatic defect by obliteration of the pleural space. A LeVeen peritoneovenous shunt is performed after emptying the abdomen of its fluid load. After completion of the shunt operation, the chest is emptied of fluid, and a sclerosing agent (tetracycline or nitrogen mustard) is injected into the pleural cavity. With this regime, the defect closed or was rendered insignificant in 18 of 22 patients.
Pereira, Keith; Salsamendi, Jason; Fan, Ji
Recipients of liver transplant are surviving longer as both the surgical procedure and postsurgical care have improved. Despite improvements, serious complications from the procedure remain that significantly affect patient outcome and may result in retransplant. Refractory ascites is one complication, occurring in about 5.6% of transplant recipients. Management of refractory ascites after liver transplant presents a challenge to the multidisciplinary team caring for these patients. We discuss approaches to the diagnosis and treatment of refractory ascites after liver transplant, based on a literature review, with a primary focus on vascular causes. These approaches are illustrated by case examples highlighting our experiences at an academic tertiary medical center. We propose a clinical practice algorithm for optimal endovascular treatment of refractory ascites after liver transplant. The cornerstone of refractory ascites care is diagnosis and treatment of the cause. Vascular causes are not infrequently encountered and, if not treated early, are associated with graft loss and high morbidity and mortality and are major indications for retransplant. For patients with recurrent disease or graft rejection needing large volume paracentesis, the use of a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt may serve as a bridge to more definitive treatment (retransplant), although it may not be as effective for managing ascites as splenic artery embolization, arguably underused, which is emerging as a potential alternative treatment option. A multidisciplinary strategy for the diagnosis and care of patients with refractory ascites after liver transplant is crucial, with endovascular treatment playing an important role. The aim is for this document to serve as a concise and informative reference to be used by those who may care for patients with this rare yet serious diagnosis.
Wada, Ikuo; Matsushita, Hirokazu; Noji, Shuichi; Mori, Kazuhiko; Yamashita, Hiroharu; Nomura, Sachiyo; Shimizu, Nobuyuki; Seto, Yasuyuki; Kakimi, Kazuhiro
Malignant ascites caused by peritoneal dissemination of gastric cancer is chemotherapy-resistant and associated with poor prognosis. We conducted a pilot study to evaluate the safety of weekly intraperitoneal injections of in vitro expanded Vγ9Vδ2 T cells together with zoledronate for the treatment of such malignant ascites. Patient peripheral blood mononuclear cells were stimulated with zoledronate (5 μmol/L) and interleukin-2 (1000 IU/mL). After 14 days culture, Vγ9Vδ2 T-cells were harvested and administered intraperitoneally in four weekly infusions. The day before T-cell injection, patients received zoledronate (1 mg) to sensitize their tumor cells to Vγ9Vδ2 T-cell recognition. Seven patients were enrolled in this study. The number of Vγ9Vδ2 T-cells in each injection ranged from 0.6 to 69.8 × 108 (median 59.0 × 108). There were no severe adverse events related to the therapy. Intraperitoneal injection of Vγ9Vδ2 T cells allows them access to the tumor cells in the peritoneal cavity. The number of tumor cells in the ascites was significantly reduced even after the first round of therapy and remained substantially lower over the course of treatment. IFN-γ was detected in the ascites on treatment. Computed tomography revealed a significant reduction in volume of ascites in two of seven patients. Thus, injection of these antitumor Vγ9Vδ2 T-cells can result in local control of malignant ascites in patients for whom no standard therapy apart from paracentesis is available. Adoptively transferred Vγ9Vδ2 T-cells do indeed recognize tumor cells and exert antitumor effector activity in vivo, when they access to the tumor cells. PMID:24515916
Stukan, Maciej; Leśniewski-Kmak, Krzysztof; Wróblewska, Magdalena; Dudziak, Mirosław
Malignant ascites (MA) can be managed with paracentesis, diuretics, shunt-systems, chemotherapy, and targeted therapies. Some treatments are ineffective; others are associated with complications, involve inpatient procedures, or are not cost-effective. Postoperative lymphocysts (LCs) are managed with inpatient drainage and sclerotherapy or surgery. We tested the use of a vascular catheter in the management of symptomatic MA and LC. Fifty-five patients with primary or recurrent cancers with ascites or LCs were managed for symptom relief. A central venous 14-Ga 16-cm catheter (Arrow) was inserted into the abdominal cavity or LC, followed by drainage. The catheter was safely inserted with ultrasound guidance in 43 patients with MA (39 with ovarian cancer: 9 before primary cytoreduction, 30 with recurrence; 4 non-gynecological cancers), and 12 patients with LCs (10 retroperitoneal, 2 bilateral inguinal). All procedures were performed in the outpatient department under local anesthesia, without insertion-related complications. Within a mean of 30 days after catheter placement (range: 7-90 days), no grade 3 infection, peri-drain leakage, or self-removal was noted. In three patients with recurrent ovarian mucinous ascites and one patient with an inguinal LC, some drain obstruction was noted. In cases before primary cytoreduction for ovarian cancer, drainage enabled better nutritional and anesthiological outcomes. Patients with chronic ascites were able to self-monitor the amount of evacuated fluid. Twelve patients whose ascites were drained had chemotherapy at the time, and they reported better well-being, and we estimated better performance status. LC drainage followed by sclerotherapy enabled symptom control and LC radical treatment. The use of the vascular catheter is safe, easy, and cost-effective in the management of symptomatic MA and LC. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Groth, Sylvia L; Greider, Kelsi L
ABSTRACT Objective: To assess the utility of viscoelastic injection to induce bleb expansion and decrease intraocular pressure (IOP) in eyes with encapsulated glaucoma tube shunt blebs. Design: Case series. Subjects and participants: Forty-three glaucomatous eyes, including 13 eyes with congenital, 13 uveitic, 5 neovascular, 5 open angle, 4 narrow angle and 3 traumatic glaucomas. Methods, interventions or testing: All patients underwent viscoelastic flush procedure. A pre-bent 27 or 30-gauge cannula was passed through a 25-gauge paracentesis, advanced over the iris across the anterior chamber, and insinuated into the tube shunt lumen. Once the cannula was firmly lodged in position, 0.45 to 0.85 ml of viscoelastic was injected to hyperinflate the bleb. Main outcome measures: Paired t-tests were performed comparing preoperative IOP and number of medications used preoperatively vs levels measured at 1, 6, 12, 18 and 24 months. Results: Intraocular pressure was reduced from a mean preoperative level of 26.0 ± 1.2 (sem) mm Hg to 15.8 ± 1.0 at 1 month, remaining stable thereafter at each 6-month interval with 15.1 ± 1.1 mm Hg at 24 months (p < 0.0001). Medication use did not vary significantly from baseline. Pressure remained < 21 mm Hg after 2 years in 85% of eyes cannulated within 1 year of primary tube shunt implantation (n = 23), and in 62% of eyes cannulated more than 1 year after tube shunt placement (n = 20). Conclusion: Tube shunt expansion with bolus viscoelastic flush successfully restored encapsulated bleb function, providing a substantial (~10 mm Hg) IOP decrease into the mid-normal pressure range. This persisted in the majority of treated eyes for the entire study period. How to cite this article: Groth SL, Greider KL, Sponsel WE. Utility of Operative Glaucoma Tube Shunt Viscoelastic Bolus Flush. J Curr Glaucoma Pract 2015;9(3):73-76. PMID:26997840
Shah, Apurva; Amarapurkar, Deepak; Dharod, Mrudul; Chandnani, Madhuri; Baijal, Rajiv; Kumar, Praveen; Jain, Mayank; Patel, Nikhil; Kamani, Praful; Gautam, Sonali; Shah, Nimish; Kulkarni, Sandeep; Doshi, Soham
Conventional tests of coagulation which only measure procoagulant factors do not correctly estimate the actual in vivo hemostatic balance in cirrhosis. This prospective multicenter study was conducted to evaluate safety of various invasive procedures in the presence of abnormal coagulation tests and to correlate conventional coagulation parameters with clinically significant bleeding in cirrhotics. Three hundred and eighty patients (median age 54 years, 287 males) enrolled in the study were divided into two groups (A and B), according to the presence or absence of abnormal coagulation parameters (defined as INR ≥1.5 and/or platelet count ≤50,000/cum). One hundred and twenty-eight patients (33.68%) were qualified in group A. Alcohol was the predominant etiology of cirrhosis (40% and 32% in groups A and B, respectively). The two groups were similar in baseline characteristics other than tests of coagulation and severity of liver disease. Low risk procedures (abdominal paracentesis most common) were carried out in 47% and 53% patients in two groups, respectively. None of the patients in either group had clinically significant bleeding. Similarly, high risk procedures (central vein cannulation, liver biopsy, etc.) were carried out in 14% and 10%, respectively, in two groups. Three patients in group A developed clinically significant bleeding, however, the difference was statistically nonsignificant (p=0.061). None of our patients received periprocedural correction of abnormal coagulation parameters with plasma/platelet concentrate. Deranged conventional coagulation parameters did not predict clinically significant bleeding in cirrhosis. Whenever indicated, any invasive procedure could be safely carried out in patients with cirrhosis without prior correction of coagulation abnormalities.
Cell-free and concentrated ascites reinfusion therapy (CART) for management of massive malignant ascites in gastric cancer patients with peritoneal metastasis treated with intravenous and intraperitoneal paclitaxel with oral S-1.
Yamaguchi, H; Kitayama, J; Emoto, S; Ishigami, H; Ito, T; Hanafusa, N; Watanabe, T
Massive malignant ascites originating from peritoneal metastasis of gastric cancer is difficult to control and resistant to chemotherapy. Cell-free and Concentrated Ascites Reinfusion Therapy (CART) is one of the types of apheresis therapy, by which filtered and concentrated ascites containing albumin and globulin is reinfused intravenously to patients. We retrospectively studied the feasibility of intraperitoneal (IP) chemotherapy combined with CART in gastric cancer patients with massive malignant ascites. Paclitaxel (PTX) was administered via an IP access port implanted in the subcutaneous space. If patient had massive ascites at the start of treatment, paracentesis was performed through a percutaneous IP catheter and then CART was performed. PTX was administered through the catheter until the ascites diminished. A total of 127 CART procedures in 30 patients were analyzed. The average volume of processed ascites was 3.1 L, which was concentrated to 0.33 L containing 85.5 g protein on average. Significant increases in urine volume, serum total protein and albumin level were found after the CART. Increase in body temperature (0.3°C), decrease in platelet count (3.8 × 10(4)/μl), and changes in blood pressure (2 mm Hg) were found after the CART procedure, but no clinically significant adverse event was experienced. The median survival time and 1-year survival of 30 patients who received IP chemotherapy combined with the CART procedure was 10.2 months and 43.3% respectively. IP chemotherapy combined with CART might be a promising strategy for patients with massive malignant ascites originating from peritoneal metastasis of gastric cancer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lutz, Philipp; Parcina, Marijo; Bekeredjian-Ding, Isabelle; Nischalke, Hans Dieter; Nattermann, Jacob; Sauerbruch, Tilman; Hoerauf, Achim; Strassburg, Christian P; Spengler, Ulrich
Rifaximin is a non-absorbable antibiotic used to prevent relapses of hepatic encephalopathy which may also be a candidate for prophylaxis of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP). To detect the impact of rifaximin on the occurrence and characteristics of SBP. We prospectively studied all hospitalized patients that underwent a diagnostic paracentesis in our department from March 2012 to April 2013 for SBP and recorded all clinical data including type of SBP prophylaxis, prior use of rifaximin, concomitant complications of cirrhosis, as well as laboratory results and bacteriological findings. Patients were divided into the following three groups: no antibiotic prophylaxis, prophylaxis with rifaximin or with systemically absorbed antibiotic prophylaxis. Our study cohort comprised 152 patients with advanced liver cirrhosis, 32 of whom developed SBP during the study period. As expected, our study groups differed regarding a history of hepatic encephalopathy and SBP before inclusion into the study. None of the 17 patients on systemic antibiotic prophylaxis developed SBP while 8/27 patients on rifaximin and 24/108 without prophylaxis had SBP (p = 0.02 and p = 0.04 versus systemic antibiotics, respectively). In general, episodes of SBP were similar for patients treated with rifaximin and those without any prophylaxis. However, Escherichia coli and enterococci were dominant in the ascites of patients without any prophylaxis, while mostly klebsiella species were recovered from the ascites samples in the rifaximin group. Rifaximin pretreatment did not lead to a reduction of SBP occurrence in hospitalized patients with advanced liver disease. However, the bacterial species causing SBP were changed by rifaximin.
Lutz, Philipp; Parcina, Marijo; Bekeredjian-Ding, Isabelle; Nischalke, Hans Dieter; Nattermann, Jacob; Sauerbruch, Tilman; Hoerauf, Achim; Strassburg, Christian P.; Spengler, Ulrich
Background Rifaximin is a non-absorbable antibiotic used to prevent relapses of hepatic encephalopathy which may also be a candidate for prophylaxis of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP). Aim To detect the impact of rifaximin on the occurrence and characteristics of SBP. Methods We prospectively studied all hospitalized patients that underwent a diagnostic paracentesis in our department from March 2012 to April 2013 for SBP and recorded all clinical data including type of SBP prophylaxis, prior use of rifaximin, concomitant complications of cirrhosis, as well as laboratory results and bacteriological findings. Patients were divided into the following three groups: no antibiotic prophylaxis, prophylaxis with rifaximin or with systemically absorbed antibiotic prophylaxis. Results Our study cohort comprised 152 patients with advanced liver cirrhosis, 32 of whom developed SBP during the study period. As expected, our study groups differed regarding a history of hepatic encephalopathy and SBP before inclusion into the study. None of the 17 patients on systemic antibiotic prophylaxis developed SBP while 8/27 patients on rifaximin and 24/108 without prophylaxis had SBP (p = 0.02 and p = 0.04 versus systemic antibiotics, respectively). In general, episodes of SBP were similar for patients treated with rifaximin and those without any prophylaxis. However, Escherichia coli and enterococci were dominant in the ascites of patients without any prophylaxis, while mostly klebsiella species were recovered from the ascites samples in the rifaximin group. Conclusion Rifaximin pretreatment did not lead to a reduction of SBP occurrence in hospitalized patients with advanced liver disease. However, the bacterial species causing SBP were changed by rifaximin. PMID:24714550
Lawrence, P F; Alexander, R H; Bell, R M; Folse, R; Guy, J R; Haynes, J L; Lauby, V W; Stillman, R M; Cockayne, T W
The purpose of undergraduate surgical education is to prepare the student for both the residency and eventual practice of medicine. To help determine the surgical knowledge and skills that would eventually the useful to the student, we conducted a survey of residents in training, physicians in practice, and surgical educators (department chairpersons and clerkship directors). Members of the Curriculum Committee of the Association for Surgical Education developed a questionnaire in which the respondents were asked to grade the functional importance of 84 areas of knowledge and 46 skills (0 = unnecessary, 3 = proficiency necessary). Using a modified Delphi technique to collect information, we sent the questionnaire to eight medical school graduation classes of 1975 (730 persons) and 1980 (776 persons) and all department chairpersons and/or clerkship directors (179). The results of the survey (46% response) revealed considerable agreement about the importance of certain skills and areas of knowledge, enabling us to rank order skills and knowledge based on mean responses (0.0 to 3.0). Physicians in practice, residents, and educators believed that certain areas of knowledge (e.g., acute abdominal problems, appendicitis, shock, cancer of the breasts) and skills (e.g., history taking and physical examination, gowning, suture removal) were very important (greater than 2.250, while other areas of knowledge (e.g., transplantation, liver abscess, soft tissue sarcomas) and skills (e.g., insertion of Swan-Ganz catheter, abdominal paracentesis, cricothyroidotomy) were less important (less than 1.3). This approach allows us to assign priorities to areas of knowledge and skills when determining curriculum content and to include functional criteria when developing educational objectives.
Joy, Praisy; Prithishkumar, Ivan James; Isaac, Bina
INTRODUCTION: Injury to the inferior epigastric artery (IEA) has been reported following lower abdominal wall surgical incisions, abdominal peritoneocentesis and trocar placements at laparoscopic port sites, resulting in the formation of abdominal wall haematomas that may expand considerably due to lack of tissue resistance. The aim of this study was to localise its course in relation to standard anatomic landmarks and suggest safe areas for performance of invasive procedures. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty IEAs of 30 adult cadavers (male = 19; female = 11) were dissected and the course of the IEA noted in relation to the mid-inguinal point, anterior superior iliac spine (ASIS) and umbilicus. RESULTS: The mean distance of the IEA from the midline was 4.45 ± 1.42 cm at the level of the mid-inguinal point, 4.10 ± 1.15 cm at the level of ASIS and 4.49 ± 1.15 cm at the level of umbilicus. There was an average of 3.3 branches per IEA with more branches arising from its lateral aspect. The IEA was situated within one-third (32%) of the distance between the midline and the sagittal plane through ASIS at all levels. CONCLUSION: To avoid injury to IEA, trocars can be safely inserted 5.5 cm [mean + 1 standard deviation (SD)] away from the midline (or) slightly more than one-third of the distance between the midline and a sagittal plane running through ASIS. These findings may be useful not only for laparoscopic procedures but also for image-guided biopsy, abdominal paracentesis, and placement of abdominal drains. PMID:27251822
Walters, Tom; Raizman, Michael; Ernest, Paul; Gayton, Johnny; Lehmann, Robert
To evaluate the aqueous humor concentrations and cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitory activities of nepafenac, amfenac, ketorolac, and bromfenac after topical ocular administration of Nevanac (nepafenac 0.1%), Acular LS (ketorolac 0.4%), or Xibrom (bromfenac 0.09%). Five private ophthalmology practices throughout the United States. Patients requiring cataract extraction were randomized to 1 of 3 treatment groups: Nevanac, Acular LS, or Xibrom. Patients were administered 1 drop of the test drug 30, 60, 120, 180, or 240 minutes before cataract surgery. At the time of paracentesis, an aqueous humor sample was collected and later analyzed for drug concentration. In addition, COX-1 (homeostatic) and COX-2 (inducible) inhibitory activities of nepafenac, amfenac, ketorolac, and bromfenac were determined via the in vitro measurement of prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) inhibition. Seventy-five patients participated in the study. The prodrug nepafenac had the shortest time to peak concentration and the greatest peak aqueous humor concentration (C(max)). The C(max) of nepafenac was significantly higher than that of the other drugs (P<.05), including the higher-concentration ketorolac (0.4%). The area under the curve (AUC) of nepafenac was significantly higher (P<.05) than the AUCs of amfenac, ketorolac, and bromfenac. The combined AUCs of nepafenac and amfenac were the highest of all drugs tested (P<.05). Ketorolac showed the most potent COX-1 inhibition, whereas amfenac was the most potent COX-2 inhibitor. The PGE(2) aqueous humor levels of each study medication were highly variable; as a result, meaningful interpretation of the data was not possible. Nepafenac showed significantly greater ocular bioavailability and amfenac demonstrated greater potency at COX-2 inhibition than ketorolac or bromfenac.
Torre Delgadillo, Aldo
Ascites is the most common complication of cirrhosis and is associated with 50% mortality at 2 years if patients do not receive orthotopic liver transplantation. Recently the International Ascites Club defined ascites into three groups: In grade I ascites fluid is detected only by ultrasound; in grade II, ascites is moderate with symmetrical distention of the abdomen; and in Grade 3 ascites is large or tense with marked abdominal distention. About 10% of patients with ascites are refractory to treatment with diuretics. In refractory ascites, patients do not respond to highest doses of diuretics (spironolactone 400 mg/day and furosemide 160 mg/ day) or develop side effects (hyperkalemia, hyponatremia, hepatic encephalopathy, or renal failure) that prohibit their use. Patients may be treated either by repeated large volume paracentesis plus albumin or transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunts (TIPS). Dilutional hyponatremia in cirrhotic patients is defined as serum sodium < or = 130 mEq/L in the presence of an expanded extracellular fluid volume, as indicated by the presence of ascites and/or edema. This complication of cirrhotic patients with ascites has recently gained attention given that several reports indicate that when serum sodium concentration is combined with the Model for End-Stage liver disease (MELD) it improves the prognostic accuracy of MELD score in patients awaiting orthotopic liver transplant (OLT). The first step in the management of dilutional hyponatremia is fluid restriction and discontinuation of diuretics. Water restriction at 1,000 mL/day helps prevent the progressive decrease in serum sodium concentration but usually does not correct hyponatremia in most cases. Actually are developing drugs that are active orally and act by selectively antagonizing the specific receptors (V2 receptor) of arginine vasopressin. These agents act in the distal collecting ducts of the kidneys, by increasing solute free water excretion and, thus, improving
Ensaroğlu, Fatih; Korkmaz, Murat; Geçkil, Ali Ümit; Öcal, Serkan; Koç, Bengisu; Yıldız, Özgün; Atalay, Fatma Büşra; Taş, Emine Gül; Haberal, Mehmet
Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, unless originating from surgery or an intra-abdominal source, is an infection diagnosed by neutrophil counts greater than 250/mm³ in ascites. Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis is the most common infection among patients hospitalized with cirrhosis, with a prevalence of 9% and a risk of development among all patients with cirrhosis within 1 year of 10%. No valid parameters have been defined to predict the mortality related to spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. Unless it is treated, the mortality rate as a result of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis is 50%, and serious complications may arise. Medical records from 29 patients on the deceased-donor transplant waiting list and receiving treatment at the Başkent University Hospital Gastroenterology Clinic for cirrhotic ascites infection between 1996 and 2013 were analyzed. Demographic information, paracentesis findings, clinical follow-up, and treatment results were reviewed and collected from patient medical records, with data recorded to the research form. In our patient group, 72.4% were men and the average age was 46.6 years. Most of our patients were at advanced stage, with 55.2% having a Child-Pugh score of C and an average Model for End-Stage Liver Disease score of 17 ± 4.1. We found that 34.5% of the patients received prophylactic treatment for spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, 72.4% received a proton pump inhibitor, and 82.8% had treatment with intravenous albumin support at the time of diagnosis. Albumin treatment showed no effect on mortality. Mortality rate among patients with Child-Pugh score of C was 81.3%. Existence of chronic renal failure, liver graft surgery, and hepatocellular cancer did not seem to have a significant effect on patient mortality. The albumin treatment protocol showed no significant difference despite common belief among physicians.
Ghanem, Ramon C; Ghanem, Marcielle A
To evaluate an innovative technique for intrastromal air injection to achieve deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty (DALK) with bare Descemet membrane (DM). Thirty-four eyes with anterior corneal pathology, including 27 with keratoconus, underwent DALK. After 400 μm trephination with a suction trephine, ultrasound pachymetry was performed 0.8 mm internally from the trephination groove in the 11 to 1 o'clock position. In this area, a 2-mm incision was created, parallel to the groove, with a micrometer diamond knife calibrated to 90% depth of the thinnest measurement. A cannula was inserted through the incision and 0.5 mL of air was injected to dissect the DM from the stroma. After peripheral paracentesis, anterior keratectomy was carried out to bare the DM. A 0.25-mm oversized graft was sutured in place. Overall, 94.1% of eyes achieved DALK. Bare DM was achieved in 30 eyes, and a pre-DM dissection was performed in 2 eyes. Air injection was successful in detaching the DM (achieving the big bubble) in 88.2% of the eyes. In keratoconus eyes, the rate was 88.9%. All cases but one required a single air injection to achieve DM detachment. Microperforations occurred in 5 cases: 3 during manual layer-by-layer dissection after air injection failed to detach the DM, 1 during removal of the residual stroma after big-bubble formation, and 1 during the diamond knife incision. Two cases (5.9%) were converted to penetrating keratoplasty because of macroperforations. The technique was reproducible, safe, and highly effective in promoting DALK with bare DM.
Rauck, Britta M; Friberg, Thomas R; Medina Mendez, Carlos A; Park, Daewon; Shah, Veeral; Bilonick, Richard A; Wang, Yadong
We assessed the in vivo release profile of bevacizumab from and biocompatibility of poly(ethylene glycol)-poly-(serinol hexamethylene urethane), or ESHU, a thermoresponsive hydrogel administered intravitreally for drug delivery. The technical feasibility of injection was assessed quantitatively via mechanical testing. For in vivo studies, New Zealand White rabbit eyes were injected intravitreally with 0.05 mL of either: ESHU dissolved in 25 mg/mL bevacizumab, ESHU dissolved in PBS, or 25 mg/mL bevacizumab. Clinical examination included IOP measurements and examination with indirect ophthalmoscopy for signs of inflammation. Additionally, eyes were examined histologically following euthanasia. To quantify bevacizumab release, aqueous humor samples were obtained via anterior chamber paracentesis and ELISA was used to determine the concentration of drug weekly. In vitro cytotoxicity testing also was performed using bovine corneal endothelial cells. The ESHU was injected easily through a 31-gauge needle, was well tolerated in vivo, and caused minimal cell death in vitro when compared to other common materials, such as silicone oil. The long-term presence of the gel did not affect IOP, and there was no evidence of inflammation histologically or through indirect observation. The ESHU sustained the release of bevacizumab for over 9 weeks and maintained a drug concentration that averaged 4.7 times higher than eyes receiving bolus bevacizumab injections. To our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating sustained bevacizumab release in vivo from an intravitreally injected hydrogel formulation, suggesting that this delivery system may be a promising candidate for ocular drug delivery.
Kameda, Toru; Taniguchi, Nobuyuki
Point-of-care abdominal ultrasound (US), which is performed by clinicians at bedside, is increasingly being used to evaluate clinical manifestations, to facilitate accurate diagnoses, and to assist procedures in emergency and critical care. Methods for the assessment of acute abdominal pain with point-of-care US must be developed according to accumulated evidence in each abdominal region. To detect hemoperitoneum, the methodology of a focused assessment with sonography for a trauma examination may also be an option in non-trauma patients. For the assessment of systemic hypoperfusion and renal dysfunction, point-of-care renal Doppler US may be an option. Utilization of point-of-care US is also considered in order to detect abdominal and pelvic lesions. It is particularly useful for the detection of gallstones and the diagnosis of acute cholecystitis. Point-of-case US is justified as the initial imaging modality for the diagnosis of ureterolithiasis and the assessment of pyelonephritis. It can be used with great accuracy to detect the presence of abdominal aortic aneurysm in symptomatic patients. It may also be useful for the diagnoses of digestive tract diseases such as appendicitis, small bowel obstruction, and gastrointestinal perforation. Additionally, point-of-care US can be a modality for assisting procedures. Paracentesis under US guidance has been shown to improve patient care. US appears to be a potential modality to verify the placement of the gastric tube. The estimation of the amount of urine with bladder US can lead to an increased success rate in small children. US-guided catheterization with transrectal pressure appears to be useful in some male patients in whom standard urethral catheterization is difficult. Although a greater accumulation of evidences is needed in some fields, point-of-care abdominal US is a promising modality to improve patient care in emergency and critical care settings.
Cohen, Elaine R; Barsuk, Jeffrey H; Moazed, Farzad; Caprio, Timothy; Didwania, Aashish; McGaghie, William C; Wayne, Diane B
Patient care quality worsens during academic year turnover. Incoming interns' uneven clinical skills likely contribute to this phenomenon, known as the "July effect." The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of a simulation-based mastery learning (SBML) boot camp on internal medicine interns' clinical skills. This was a cohort study of an SBML intervention at Northwestern University. In 2011, 47 interns completed boot camp; 109 interns (from 2009 and 2010) who did not participate in boot camp were historical controls. Boot-camp-trained interns participated in three days of small-group teaching sessions, deliberate practice, and individualized feedback. Primary outcome measures were performance of boot-camp-trained interns and historical controls on five parts of a clinical skills examination (CSE). Assessments included recognition of physical examination findings (cardiac auscultation), performance of procedures (paracentesis and lumbar puncture), management of critically ill patients (intensive care unit skills), and communication with patients (code status discussion). Boot camp participants were required to meet or exceed a minimum passing standard (MPS) before beginning their internship. Boot-camp-trained interns all eventually met or exceeded the MPS and performed significantly better than historical control interns on all skills (P < .01), even after controlling for age, gender, and USMLE Step 1 and 2 scores (P < .001). The authors detected no relationship between CSE scores and age, gender, prior experience, self-confidence, or USMLE Step 1 and 2 scores. An SBML boot camp allows for individualized training, assessment, and documentation of competence before interns begin providing medical care.
Mueller, Arthur J; Neubauer, Aljoscha S; Schaller, Ulrich; Kampik, Anselm
To determine the effect of commonly used minimally invasive treatments for clinically complete nonarteritic central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) and design a prospective randomized trial to evaluate selective intra-arterial lysis for this condition. In this retrospective noncomparative case series, all medical records of patients with a diagnosis of CRAO treated at the Department of Ophthalmology, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, Munich, Germany, from 1994 through 1999 were reviewed for treatments administered and course of visual acuity. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) at initial and last visit. We identified 102 patient medical records; 71 were suitable for further analysis. Forty-four (62%) of the 71 patients included were treated with oral acetylsalicylate; 44 (62%), with oral acetazolamide; 32 (45%), with ocular massage; 22 (31%), with isovolemic hemodilution; 19 (27%), with oral pentoxifylline; 8 (11%), with topical beta-blocker; 6 (8%), with paracentesis of the anterior chamber; 4 (6%), with subcutaneous heparin. A mean +/- SD number of treatments of 2.5 +/- 1.4 was administered per patient, and BCVA increased by a mean +/- SD number of Snellen lines of 0.7 +/- 2.8. The BCVA in 11 patients (15%) increased by 3 or more lines. Multivariate stepwise regression did not reveal any single or combination treatment as a significant factor for improvement in BCVA. Patient age and duration of visual impairment before initial examination were not significant predictors of final BCVA. Commonly used minimally invasive treatments of CRAO do not improve the natural course of the disease. A prospective trial by the European Assessment Group for Lysis in the Eye is under way to evaluate selective intra-arterial lysis, and in this trial some of these minimally invasive treatments are used in the control group.
Velpandian, Thirumurthy; Gupta, Pankaj; Ravi, Alok Kumar; Sharma, Hanuman Prasad; Biswas, Nihar Ranjan
The polyherbal eye drop (Itone™) is a mixture of aqueous distillates of nineteen traditionally used ingredients that sum up to impart potency to the formulation and make it a useful adjunct in various ocular pathologies. However, as there have been no controlled experimental studies accounting to the above claim, therefore, the present study was designed to evaluate the polyherbal formulation (PHF) for antiangiogenic, anti-inflammatory, anticataract, antioxidant and cytotoxicity in addition to the evaluation of intraocular penetration of PHF in rabbit eyes using LC-MS/MS. Antiangiogenic activity of the PHF was evaluated using in ovo chick chorio-allantoic membrane (CAM) assay and in vivo cautery induced corneal neovascularization assay in rats. Anticataract potential was evaluated using steroid induced cataract in developing chick embryos, sodium selenite induced cataract in rat pups and galactose induced cataract in rats. The antioxidant activity was evaluated using di-phenyl picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay. Anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated in vitro using inhibition of LTB4 formation in human WBCs and in vivo using carrageenan induced paw edema assay in rats. The cytotoxicity was evaluated against HeLa cancer cell lines using (3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Furthermore evaluation of the intraocular penetration of the PHF was carried out in rabbit eyes via aqueous humor paracentesis and further analysis using LC-MS/MS. PHF significantly inhibited VEGF induced proliferation of new blood vessels in CAM assay and inhibited the cautery induced corneal neovascularization in rats. Additionally, PHF showed noticeable delay in the progression of cataract in the selenite and galactose induced cataract models whereby the PHF treated lenses were graded for stages II and III respectively. However, the PHF did not show any anticataract activity in the hydrocortisone induced cataract model. Moreover, PHF
Coffman, J R
Initial examination and therapy, and the avoidance of maltreatment are emphasized. Gastric decompression is of prime importance, after which no compound should be administered via stomach tube. Where large amounts of high starch grains are fed, primary acute gastric dilatation must be differentiated from that secondary to small bowel dilatation, by immediate gastric intubation and irrigation of the cardia with lidocaine. If cessation of pain and improvement of peristalsis and general attitude follow, the former state may be assumed. If pain persists and peristalsis does not improve markedly, one should assume small bowel displacement. Rectal examination is helpful in initial evaluation: impactions, inguinal herniation and ileocaecal intussusception may be diagnosed and small bowel displacement suspected. Palpation of one or more distended loops of bowel in the ventral middle third of the abdomen indicates small bowel displacement or ileus and flaccid distension. Distinction by rectal palpation alone is difficult. Palpation of the gas-distended apex of the caecum in the middle third of the abdomen is virtually pathognomonic for 180 degrees rotation of the large bowel. Abdominal paracentesis yielding true sanguineous effusion indicates a necrotizing segment of the bowel. If negative, such a segment is absent, or there is an infarcted segment, not yet damaged to the point of leaching whole blood, or the necrotizing segment is outside the peritoneal cavity, i.e., in the thorax, intussuscepted into the caecum, or herniated into the inguinal canal. Recurrent colics frequently may be due to verminous arteritis but the relationship to diet should be investigated. Recurrent colics after grain ingestion with occult blood in the faeces may be due to ulcers; such cases respond well to grain withdrawal. The advantages and disadvantages of phenothiazine-derived tranquillizers are discussed. They are contra-indicated if there is any evidence of circulating volume insufficiency
Wilhelm, Thomas; Stelzer, Tim; Wiegand, Susanne; Güldner, Christian; Teymoortash, Afshin; Günzel, Thomas; Hagen, Rudolf
Viral infections of the upper respiratory airways can lead to a delayed viral otitis media (VOM) caused by a diffusion of viruses/virus particles through the round window membrane and resulting in sensorineural hearing loss. The treatment of choice is immediate paracentesis, evacuation of all fluids from the middle ear cavity, and haemorrheological infusions. However, in some cases, persistent symptoms may be an indication for a surgical approach using mastoidectomy. In high-resolution computed tomography, an extended small-sized pneumatisation of the mastoid cells with complete shading was found in these non-responsive cases. Therefore, a direct means of inner ear affliction through weak parts of the labyrinthine bone may be hypothesised. Patients suffering from a toxic inner ear lesion (TIEL) following a common cold, treated over a 10-year period in a Tertiary Care Centre (N = 52, 57 ears), were identified and the morphological characteristics of the temporal bones of affected patients were examined by means of high-resolution computed tomography (hrCT). The findings were compared with a matched control group of 64 normal ears (CONT). Measurements included the grade of pneumatisation, distances within the temporal bones and Hounsfield units (HU) at defined anatomical structures. In the TIEL group, we found a small-sized pneumatisation in 79.4 % and a medium-sized pneumatisation in 10.9 %, thus differing from the CONT group and the literature data. Thickness of the bone wall of the lateral semicircular canal (LSC) and distances within the aditus ad antrum were significantly reduced in the TIEL group. HU's were markedly lower in the TIEL group at the precochlea, the LSC, and dorsolateral to the promentia of the LSC. There was a correlation between the HU's at the prominentia of the LSC and the hearing loss (p = 0.002). Persisting interosseous globuli, as described in 1897 by Paul Manasse, form an osseochondral network within the otic capsule and may be responsible
Wilhelm, Thomas; Stelzer, Tim; Hagen, Rudolf
Involvement of the middle ear after viral infections of the upper airways may lead to serous otitis media with effusion in the absence of bacterial infection. This can be accompanied by a concomitant shading of the mastoid air cells, which could manifest as a reduced opacity on computed tomography (CT) in the absence of a history of chronic mastoiditis or acute inflammatory signs. This can lead to a subsequent impairment of inner ear function. CT scans reveal an extended pneumatization of the temporal bones in affected patients. Inner ear hearing impairment can probably be attributed to a concomitant labyrinthine reaction-the so-called toxic inner ear lesion. If no remission occurs within 5 days after initial conservative treatment (paracentesis or hemorrheologic infusions), surgical treatment with a mastoidectomy can accelerate hearing restoration. We conducted a retrospective, nonrandomized study of short- and long-term hearing outcomes in patients with a toxic inner ear lesion who had been treated with conservative measures alone (CONS group) or with surgery (SURG group) in a tertiary care referral center. Our study group was made up of 52 consecutively presenting patients (57 ears) who had been seen over a 10-year period; there were 20 patients (21 ears) in the CONS group and 32 patients (36 ears) in the SURG group. Initially, 15 CONS patients (75%) and 18 SURG patients (56%) complained of dizziness or a balance disorder. The initial averaged sensorineural hearing loss (over 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0 kHz) was 32.4 ± 15.6 dB in the CONS group and 35.4 ± 12.0 dB in the SURG group. At follow-up (mean: 31.7 mo), the SURG group experienced a significantly greater improvement in hearing (p = 0.025). We conclude that patients with viral otitis media and concomitant noninflammatory mastoiditis with impairment of inner ear function (sensorineural hearing loss) experience a better hearing outcome when a mastoidectomy is performed during primary treatment.
Chebli, Julio Maria Fonseca; Gaburri, Pedro Duarte; de Souza, Aécio Flávio Meirelles; Ornellas, Adilton Toledo; Martins Junior, Elson Vidal; Chebli, Liliana Andrade; Felga, Guilherme Eduardo Gonçalves; Pinto, Janine Radd Ferreira
Internal pancreatic fistulas (IPF) are an uncommon but well-recognized complication of chronic pancreatitis (CP) that are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Because of their low incidence, management is still controversial. The aims of this study are to report the 8-year experience with IPF management in a Brazil University-affiliated hospital and to propose a management algorithm. A centralized diagnostic index was used to retrospectively identify all patients with IPF admitted to a teaching hospital from 1995 to 2003. The patient's medical records were reviewed for clinical features, diagnostic work-up, treatment strategies, response to therapy, and the length of hospital stay. All patients underwent contrast-enhanced computed tomography of the abdomen and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, to guide the therapeutic modality to be offered. Conservative therapy included withholding of oral feedings in conjunction with total parenteral nutrition, octreotide subcutaneously, and multiple paracentesis or thoracentesis. Interventional therapy was either endoscopic or surgical. IPF was identified in 11 (7.3%) of 150 patients with CP. They ranged in age from 24 to 47 years (mean 36.1), with a male to female ratio of 10:1. All patients had underlying alcoholic CP. The presentation was pancreatic ascites in 9 patients and pleural effusion in 2 cases. Five patients were undergoing the conservative treatment, all presenting main pancreatic duct (MPD) dilatation; endoscopic placement of transpapillary pancreatic duct stent was performed in 4 patients who presented partial MPD stricture or disruption; surgical therapy was performed in 2 patients exhibiting complete MPD obstruction or disruption. Stents were removed 3 to 6 weeks after initial placement. IPF resolved in 10 of 11 patients (90.9%) within 6 weeks. The resolution of IPF was faster (13 +/- 5 vs. 25 +/- 13 days, P < 0.01) and the length of hospital stay was significantly shorter (17
De Pietri, Lesley; Bianchini, Marcello; Montalti, Roberto; De Maria, Nicola; Di Maira, Tommaso; Begliomini, Bruno; Gerunda, Giorgio Enrico; di Benedetto, Fabrizio; Garcia-Tsao, Guadalupe; Villa, Erica
Bleeding is a feared complication of invasive procedures in patients with cirrhosis and significant coagulopathy (as defined by routine coagulation tests) and is used to justify preprocedure use of fresh frozen plasma (FFP) and/or platelets (PLT). Thromboelastography (TEG) provides a more comprehensive global coagulation assessment than routine tests (international normalized ratio [INR] and platelet count), and its use may avoid unnecessary blood product transfusion in patients with cirrhosis and significant coagulopathy (defined in this study as INR >1.8 and/or platelet count <50 × 10(9) /L) who will be undergoing an invasive procedure. Sixty patients were randomly allocated to TEG-guided transfusion strategy or standard of care (SOC; 1:1 TEG:SOC). The TEG group would receive FFP if the reaction time (r) was >40 min and/or PLT if maximum amplitude (MA) was <30 mm. All SOC patients received FFP and/or PLT per hospital guidelines. Endpoints were blood product use and bleeding complications. Baseline characteristics of the two groups were similar. Per protocol, all subjects in the SOC group received blood product transfusions versus 5 in the TEG group (100% vs. 16.7%; P < 0.0001). Sixteen SOC (53.3%) received FFP, 10 (33.3%) PLT, and 4 (13.3%) both FFP and PLT. In the TEG group, none received FFP alone (P < 0.0001 vs. SOC), 2 received PLT (6.7%; P = 0.009 vs. SOC), and 3 both FFP and PLT (not significant). Postprocedure bleeding occurred in only 1 patient (SOC group) after large-volume paracentesis. In patients with cirrhosis and significant coagulopathy before invasive procedures, TEG-guided transfusion strategy leads to a significantly lower use of blood products compared to SOC (transfusion guided by INR and platelet count), without an increase in bleeding complications. Remarkably, even in patients with significant coagulopathy, postprocedure bleeding was rare, indicating that TEG thresholds should be reevaluated. © 2015 by the American Association for the
Dumitrascu, Oana M; Shen, Joanne F; Kurli, Madhavi; Aguilar, Maria I; Marks, Lisa A; Demaerschalk, Bart M; Wingerchuk, Dean M; O'Carroll, Cumara B
Central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) is a neurological and ophthalmologic emergency associated with poor visual recovery. There is a dilemma regarding the appropriate treatment, as formal guidelines are lacking. Despite being considered an ocular equivalent of cerebral infarction, the time window of intravenous (IV) thrombolysis administration for maximum efficacy and safety in CRAO remains uncertain. To critically assess the current evidence regarding the safety and effectiveness of IV thrombolysis in the treatment of patients with CRAO. The objective was addressed through the development of a critically appraised topic that included a clinical scenario, structured question, literature search strategy, critical appraisal, assessment of results, evidence summary, commentary, and bottom-line conclusions. Participants included consultant and resident neurologists, a medical librarian, and content experts in the fields of vascular neurology and ophthalmology. A recent patient-level meta-analysis was selected for critical appraisal. The study compared the visual recovery rates after IV thrombolysis in CRAO against the natural history of this illness and conservative therapies (ocular massage, anterior chamber paracentesis, and/or hemodilution). Time to thrombolytic therapy administration had a significant impact on visual recovery in CRAO (P<0.001). IV thrombolysis within the first 4.5 hours after symptom onset resulted in recovery of vision in 50.0% of the patients [95% confidence interval (CI), 32.4%-67.6%]. The rate of visual recovery was nearly 3 times higher than in the natural history cohort [odds ratio, 4.7 (95% CI, 2.3-9.6); P<0.001], with a 32.3% absolute risk reduction and a number needed to treat of 4.0 (95% CI, 2.6-6.6). There was no significant difference in the recovery rate after thrombolysis compared with the natural history cohort for those patients treated after 4.5 hours. No major hemorrhages occurred after alteplase administration in this meta
Keen, Alison; Fitzgerald, Debbie; Bryant, Andrew; Dickinson, Heather O
Background Most patients with advanced ovarian cancer and some patients with advanced endometrial cancer need repeated drainage for malignant ascites. Guidelines to advise those involved in the drainage of ascites are usually produced locally and are generally not evidence-based but mainly based on clinicians’ anecdotal evidence and experience. To discover whether there are ways of managing drains that have been demonstrated to improve the efficacy and quality of the procedure is key in making recommendations which could improve the quality of life (QOL) for women at this critical period of their lives. Objectives To evaluate the benefit and harms of different practices in the management of drains for malignant ascites in the care of women with advanced or recurrent gynaecological cancer. The review aimed to evaluate the evidence regarding the following questions; How long should the drain stay in place? Should the volume of fluid drained be replaced intravenously? Should the drain be clamped to regulate the drainage of fluid? Should any particular vital observations be regularly recorded? Search methods We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) Issue 1, 2009, Cochrane Gynaecological Cancer Group Trials Register, MEDLINE1950 to February Week 3 2009, Embase 1980 to 2009 Week 8 2009. We also searched registers of clinical trials, abstracts of scientific meetings, reference lists of review articles and contacted experts in the field. Selection criteria We searched for randomised controlled trials (RCTs), quasi-RCTs and non-randomised studies that compared a range of interventions for management of multiple paracentesis in women with malignant ascites who had a confirmed histological diagnosis of gynaecological cancer. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently assessed whether potentially relevant studies met the inclusion criteria. No trials were found and therefore no data were analysed. Main results The search
Chappell, Nicole P; Miller, Caela R; Fielden, Aaron D; Barnett, Jason C
Although the Food and Drug Administration has approved incorporation of bevacizumab (BEV) into the treatment of platinum-resistant ovarian cancer (PROC), cost-value measures are an essential consideration, as evidenced by the recent ASCO Value Framework initiative. We assessed the cost-effectiveness and reviewed the net health benefit (NHB) of this expensive treatment. A cost-effectiveness decision model was constructed using results from a phase III trial comparing BEV plus cytotoxic chemotherapy with chemotherapy alone in patients with PROC. The Avastin Use in Platinum-Resistant Epithelial Ovarian Cancer (AURELIA) trial demonstrated improvement in progression-free survival and quality of life in patients receiving BEV. Costs, paracentesis rates, and adverse events were incorporated, including subgroup analysis of different partner chemotherapy agents. Inclusion of BEV in the treatment of platinum-resistant recurrent ovarian cancer meets the common willingness-to-pay incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) threshold of $100,000 per progression-free life-year saved (LYS) for 15-mg/kg dosing and approaches this threshold for 10-mg/kg dosing, with an ICER of $160,000. In sensitivity analysis, reducing the cost of BEV by 13% (from $9,338 to $8,100 per cycle) allows 10-mg/kg dosing to reach a $100,000 ICER. Exploratory analysis of different BEV chemotherapy partners showed an ICER of $76,000 per progression-free LYS (6.5-month progression-free survival improvement) and $54,000 per LYS (9.1-month overall survival improvement) for the addition of BEV to paclitaxel once per week. Using the ASCO framework for value assessment, the NHB score for BEV plus paclitaxel once per week is 48. Using a willingness-to-pay threshold of $100,000 ICER, the addition of BEV to chemotherapy either demonstrates or approaches cost-effectiveness and NHB when added to the treatment of patients with PROC. Copyright © 2016 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.
Pose, Elisa; Cardenas, Andres
Ascites is the most common complication associated with cirrhosis resulting in poor quality of life, high risk of development of other complications of cirrhosis, increased morbidity and mortality associated with surgical interventions, and poor long-term outcome. Patients with cirrhosis and a first onset of ascites, have a probability of survival of 85% during the first year and 56% at 5 years without liver transplantation. Ascites is caused due to increased renal sodium retention as a result of increased activity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system in response to marked vasodilation of the splanchnic circulation. The practical management of ascites involves the proper evaluation of a patient with a thorough history and physical exam. In addition, complete laboratory, ascitic fluid, and radiological tests should be performed. One of the most important steps in the initial assessment of patients with ascites is to refer the appropriate candidates for liver transplantation, as it offers a definitive cure for cirrhosis and its complications. While the initial management of uncomplicated ascites with low sodium diet and diuretic treatment is straightforward in a majority of patients, approximately 10% of patients fail to respond to diuretics and become a real therapeutic challenge. The initial treatment of choice in patients with refractory ascites is large-volume paracentesis (LVP) associated with intravenous albumin; some patients also benefit from transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunts (TIPS). When repeated LVP or TIPS cannot be performed, other approaches using vasoconstrictors such as midodrine can be considered although data are scarce. A newly designed automated low flow pump system (Alfapump), which is designed to move ascites from the peritoneal cavity to the urinary bladder where it is eliminated spontaneously through diuresis is promising, but the data are also limited and safety is still a matter of concern. This article focuses on the
Background The polyherbal eye drop (Itone™) is a mixture of aqueous distillates of nineteen traditionally used ingredients that sum up to impart potency to the formulation and make it a useful adjunct in various ocular pathologies. However, as there have been no controlled experimental studies accounting to the above claim, therefore, the present study was designed to evaluate the polyherbal formulation (PHF) for antiangiogenic, anti-inflammatory, anticataract, antioxidant and cytotoxicity in addition to the evaluation of intraocular penetration of PHF in rabbit eyes using LC-MS/MS. Materials and methods Antiangiogenic activity of the PHF was evaluated using in ovo chick chorio-allantoic membrane (CAM) assay and in vivo cautery induced corneal neovascularization assay in rats. Anticataract potential was evaluated using steroid induced cataract in developing chick embryos, sodium selenite induced cataract in rat pups and galactose induced cataract in rats. The antioxidant activity was evaluated using di-phenyl picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay. Anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated in vitro using inhibition of LTB4 formation in human WBCs and in vivo using carrageenan induced paw edema assay in rats. The cytotoxicity was evaluated against HeLa cancer cell lines using (3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Furthermore evaluation of the intraocular penetration of the PHF was carried out in rabbit eyes via aqueous humor paracentesis and further analysis using LC-MS/MS. Results PHF significantly inhibited VEGF induced proliferation of new blood vessels in CAM assay and inhibited the cautery induced corneal neovascularization in rats. Additionally, PHF showed noticeable delay in the progression of cataract in the selenite and galactose induced cataract models whereby the PHF treated lenses were graded for stages II and III respectively. However, the PHF did not show any anticataract activity in the hydrocortisone
Sheng, Qingfeng; Lv, Zhibao; Xu, Weijue; Liu, Jiangbin; Wu, Yibo; Shi, Jingyi; Xi, Zhengjun
Abstract The purpose of this study was to analyze the nature of the disease, the surgical procedures, complications, and survival of preterm infants with necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) at our institution. Medical records of 34 preterm (gestational age <37 weeks) infants with surgical NEC were retrospectively analyzed from January 2010 to December 2014. Patients were divided into 2 groups: low birth weight (LBW, <2500 g, n = 27) and normal birth weight (NBW, ≥2500 g, n = 7). The LBW and NBW groups differed dramatically in gestational age (31.2 ± 2.2 vs. 36.3 ± 0.5 weeks), and respiratory support (55.5% vs. 0%). The median age of NEC onset was 12 and 5 postnatal days respectively. There was an inverse association between gestational age and day of NEC onset (r = −0.470). Pneumoperitoneum, positive paracentesis, and progressive clinical deterioration were the indications for laparotomy. There was no difference in the extent of disease, in the bowel involvement, in the surgical procedures, and in the postoperative complication rates between the 2 groups. The choice of procedure has often depended upon the extent of disease (enterostomy was performed in most localized and multifocal infants, simple drainage was used in 83.3% pan-intestinal patients, P < 0.001). Postoperative complications occurred in 70.5% patients. The most common complications were sepsis, intestinal stricture, and short bowel syndrome. The median hospital stay was significantly longer in the LBW group (65 vs. 19 days, P = 0.004). The overall postoperative 180-day survival rate was 70.6% (70.4% vs. 71.5%, P = 0.890, log rank test). The severity of illness was the main risk factor for mortality (8.3% in localized, 18.7% in multifocal, and 100% in pan-intestinal, P < 0.001). The short-term outcomes for surgical NEC are grave. The high mortality and postoperative complications in this study mandate urgent improvements in early recognition, expeditious
Piano, Salvatore; Fasolato, Silvano; Salinas, Freddy; Romano, Antonietta; Tonon, Marta; Morando, Filippo; Cavallin, Marta; Gola, Elisabetta; Sticca, Antonietta; Loregian, Arianna; Palù, Giorgio; Zanus, Giacomo; Senzolo, Marco; Burra, Patrizia; Cillo, Umberto; Angeli, Paolo
Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) is a common, life-threatening complication of liver cirrhosis. Third-generation cephalosporins have been considered the first-line treatment of SBP. In 2014, a panel of experts suggested a broader spectrum antibiotic regimen for nosocomial SBP, according to the high rate of bacteria resistant to third-generation cephalosporins found in these patients. However, a broader-spectrum antibiotic regimen has never been compared to third-generation cephalosporins in the treatment of nosocomial SBP. The aim of our study was to compare meropenem plus daptomycin versus ceftazidime in the treatment of nosocomial SBP. Patients with cirrhosis and nosocomial SBP were randomized to receive meropenem (1 g/8 hours) plus daptomycin (6 mg/kg/day) or ceftazidime (2 g/8 hours). A paracentesis was performed after 48 hours of treatment. A reduction in ascitic fluid neutrophil count <25% of pretreatment value was considered a treatment failure. The primary outcome was the efficacy of treatment defined by the resolution of SBP after 7 days of treatment. Thirty-two patients were randomized and 31 were analyzed. The combination of meropenem plus daptomycin was significantly more effective than ceftazidime in the treatment of nosocomial SBP (86.7 vs. 25%; P < 0.001). Ninety-day transplant-free survival (TFS) was not significantly different between the two groups. In the multivariate analysis, ineffective response to first-line treatment (hazard ratio [HR]: 20.6; P = 0.01), development of acute kidney injury during hospitalization (HR: 23.2; P = 0.01), and baseline mean arterial pressure (HR: 0.92; P = 0.01) were found to be independent predictors of 90-day TFS. The combination of meropenem plus daptomycin is more effective than ceftazidime as empirical antibiotic treatment of nosocomial SBP. Efficacy of the empirical antibiotic treatment is a strong predictor of 90-day survival in patients with nosocomial SBP. © 2015 by the American
Skeens, Micah A; McArthur, Jennifer; Cheifetz, Ira M; Duncan, Christine; Randolph, Adrienne G; Stanek, Joseph; Lehman, Leslie; Bajwa, Rajinder
Veno-occlusive disease (VOD) is a potentially fatal complication of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Patients with VOD are often critically ill and require close collaboration between transplant physicians and intensivists. We surveyed members of a consortium of pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) and transplant physicians to assess variability in the self-reported approach to the diagnosis and management of VOD. An internet-based self-administered survey was sent to pediatric HSCT and PICU providers from September 2014 to February 2015. The survey contained questions relating to the diagnosis and treatment of VOD. The response rate was 41% of 382 providers surveyed. We found significant variability in the diagnostic and management approaches to VOD in children. Even though ultrasound is not part of the diagnostic criteria, providers reported using reversal of portal venous flow seen on abdominal ultrasound in addition to Seattle criteria (70%) or Baltimore criteria to make the diagnosis of VOD. Almost 40% of respondents did not diagnose VOD in anicteric patients (bilirubin < 2 mg/dL). Most providers (75%) initiated treatment with defibrotide at the time of diagnosis, but 14%, 7%, and 6% of the providers waited for reversal of portal venous flow, renal dysfunction, or pulmonary dysfunction, respectively, to develop before initiating therapy. Only 50% of the providers restricted fluids to 75% of the daily maintenance, whereas 21% did not restrict fluids at all. Albumin with diuretics was used by 95% of respondents. Platelets counts were maintained at 20,000 to 50,000/mm(3) and 10,000 to 20,000/mm(3) by 64% and 20% of the respondents, respectively. Paracentesis was generally initiated in the setting of oliguria or hypoxia, and nearly 50% of the providers used continuous drainage to gravity, whereas the remainder used an intermittent drainage approach. Nearly 73% of the transplant providers used VOD prophylaxis, whereas the remainder did not use any
Yıldız, Hakan; Akdoğan, Meral; Suna, Nuretdin; Öztaş, Erkin; Kuzu, Ufuk B; Bilge, Zülfükar; Aydınlı, Onur; Taşkıran, İsmail
Hemorrhagic ascites in patients with cirrhosis is described as a RBC (Red Blood cell) > 50,000/mm³ and leads to increased morbidity and mortality. Positive red blood cells at a level of less than 50,000/mm³ (10,000-50,000) may be encountered in the ascites but it is not known whether this is clinically significant or not. This study aimed to examine the outcome of hemorrhagic ascites in patients with advanced cirrhosis. Data from 329 cirrhotic patients with ascites who received paracentesis at least once due to ascites was retrospectively analyzed from the period of 2007-2013 from the Türkiye Yüksek İhtisas Hospital, Department of Gastroenterology. Patients were divided according to the number of RBC, with greater than 10,000/mm³ being described as hemorrhagic ascites, and less than 10,000/mm³ described as the normal or control group. Patient data included: number of accepted intensive unit service stays, acute kidney injury (AKI), hepatic encephalopathy (HES), model for end-liver disease (MELD) score, Child Pugh score (CPS), degree of esophageal varices, spleen size and mortality rates. Patients were defined as having hemorrhagic ascites with a RBC count greater than 10,000/mm³ in 118 (35.9%) patients and as a non-hemorrhagic ascites group with less than 10,000/mm³ in 211 (64.1%) patients. The hemorrhagic ascites group had advanced liver disease symptoms compared to the control group. Meld score in the hemorrhagic group was statistically higher than in the control group (21.5±8.3 vs. 17.3±6.6; p value: 0.001). The median value of bilirubin was 5.9 (0.45-33) in the hemorrhagic ascites group and 4.01 (0.39-33) in the non-hemorrhagic group (p value: 0.001). Using multivariate logistic regression analysis, hemorrhagic ascites was also an independent predictor of mortality (HR 2.7 1.4-6.3), with other mortality indicators being HCC (HR 3.1 1.5-6.4) and HRS (HR 2.6 1.2-5.5). Patients with hemorrhagic ascites had higher HRS, SBP and admissions to the intensive
Catania, Vincenzo Davide; Muru, Alessia; Pellegrino, Marcella; Marco, Erika Adalgisa De; Paradiso, Filomena Valentina; Manzoni, Carlo; Nanni, Lorenzo; Masini, Lucia
Introduction Prenatal detection of isolated ascites is a rare finding on ultrasound, usually suggestive of an underlying pathology that may negatively impact on the pregnancy and neonatal outcome. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the outcome of primary isolated ascites in relation to gestational age (GA) at diagnosis. Materials and Methods Data were prospectively collected for fetuses with ascites that have been followed in our center of prenatal diagnosis and therapy from 2004 to 2014. Patients have been divided in group I when ascites was detected before the 24th week of GA and group II if it was noticed later. Prenatal workup included detailed ultrasound, maternal blood group and presence of antibodies, maternal infection screening, fetal karyotyping, and if needed fetal paracentesis. Postnatal data included GA at birth, mode of delivery, weight at birth, neonatal and surgical outcome. Results During the study period, 51 fetuses were included. Among them, 28 in group I and 23 in group II. An associated anomaly was prenatally identified in 84% of the fetuses. Prenatal demise occurred only in patients belonging to group I for an overall incidence of 10%. An associated disease was confirmed after birth in 61% of cases in group I and in 74% in group II (p = ns). There was a higher incidence of gastrointestinal pathology in group II than in group I (47 vs. 10%, p = 0.004); with a significant prevalence of meconium peritonitis (32 vs. 4%, p = 0.016). Nine patients (17.6%) died after birth, all in group I, because of major systemic malformations. Overall, the postnatal outcome was good in 63% (n = 32) of the cases, and more than half of them belonged to group II (p = 0.003). Conclusion A wide range of etiologies have been found to be associated with isolated fetal ascites. A systematic diagnostic workup and multidisciplinary prenatal counseling can improve the accuracy of prenatal identification of associated pathologies. The
Dănulescu, Răzvana Munteanu; Stanciu, Carol; Trifan, Anca
Mortality in spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) decreased significantly from 90% in 1970 to 10-30% today, but SBP still remains a complication with a poor prognosis. Although there are new preventive measures, such as early diagnosis and treatment with albumin, the introduction of new antibiotics, the prognosis of patients with decompensated cirrhosis and SBP remains poor, with a mortality rate of 20-40%. The installation of an episode of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis reduces the survival rate at 1 year to 30% and to 20% at 2 years. In this context, the identification of patients with increased risk of death is extremely important in order to improve prognosis. The prospective study included 153 patients with cirrhosis admitted to the Institute of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Iaşi from 1 January to 31 December 2010, reevaluated during 2 years. Criteria for the diagnosis of SBP were the presence of a number > 250 PMN / mmc. The presence of ascites and/or upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGB) marks the decompensated cirrhosis. To assess the severity of cirrhosis, there were used Child-Pugh and MELD scores. Diagnostic paracentesis and ascites fluid cultures were performed in all hospitalized patients with ascites and also in case of signs and symptoms of SBP, before and after antibiotic treatment. Lack of response to empirical therapy was considered in those cases with a decrease in the number of neutrophils < 25% from baseline. Identification of patients with increased risk of death is extremely important to improve prognosis. In peripheral leukocytosis and in the ascites fluid, low hemoglobin can be considered predictors of mortality in patients with PBS. Child-Pugh score, increased levels of bilirubin and creatinine and hyponatremia are independent risk factors of mortality in patients with SBP. Bacteremia and lack of therapeutic response are independent risk factors of mortality associated with SBP. Recent history of variceal bleeding, severity of
Hanafy, Amr S
Serum-ascites albumin gradient (SAAG) has been used in the classification of ascites for the last 20 years but it has some drawbacks. This study searches for possible correlations between ascitic fluid viscosity and the etiology of ascites, renal impairment, and length of ICU stay. The study was conducted in Zagazig University Hospital, Egypt. It included 240 patients with ascites due to various causes. The patients were divided into two groups: the cirrhotic ascites group, which included 120 patients, and the noncirrhotic ascites group, which included 120 patients. Ascitic patients on medical management with diuretics, antibiotics, paracentesis, and infusion of plasma or albumin were excluded.The laboratory analysis included routine investigations to detect the cause of ascites as well as specific investigations such as ascitic fluid viscosity using a falling ball viscosimeter (microviscosimeter) at 37°C. The mean ascitic viscosity of patients with SAAG at least 1.1 was 1.16±0.56, which was associated with serum creatinine 1.35±0.52 mg/dl and ICU stay of 3.3±1.2 days. In patients with SAAG less than 1.1 g/dl, the mean ascitic viscosity was 2.98±0.87, with serum creatinine 2.1±0.56 mg/dl and ICU stay of 7.1±1.3 days. Ascitic viscosity can discriminate ascites due to portal hypertension from those associated with nonportal hypertension at a cut-off value of 1.65; it can predict renal impairment in hepatic patients at a cut-off of 1.35 and long ICU stay at a cut-off of 1.995 using receiver operating characteristic analysis. Ascitic viscosity measurement is rapid, inexpensive, and requires small sample volumes. Ascitic viscosity can discriminate ascites due to portal hypertension from those associated with nonportal hypertension at a cut-off value of 1.65. It can predict renal impairment in hepatic patients at a cut-off of 1.35 and long ICU stay at a cut-off of 1.995.
Kedarisetty, Chandan Kumar; Anand, Lovkesh; Bhardwaj, Ankit; Bhadoria, Ajeet Singh; Kumar, Guresh; Vyas, Ashish Kumar; David, Paul; Trehanpati, Nirupama; Rastogi, Archana; Bihari, Chhagan; Maiwall, Rakhi; Garg, Hitendra Kumar; Vashishtha, Chitranshu; Kumar, Manoj; Bhatia, Vikram; Sarin, Shiv Kumar
Patients with decompensated cirrhosis have significantly reduced survival without liver transplantation. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) has been shown to increase survival in patients with acute-on-chronic liver failure, and erythropoietin promoted hepatic regeneration in animal studies. We performed a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial to determine whether co-administration of these growth factors improved outcomes for patients with advanced cirrhosis. In a prospective study, consecutive patients with decompensated cirrhosis seen at the Institute of Liver and Biliary Sciences, New Delhi (from May 2011 through June 2012) were randomly assigned to groups given subcutaneous G-CSF (5 μg/kg/d) for 5 days and then every third day (12 total doses), along with subcutaneous darbopoietin α(40 mcg/wk) for 4 weeks (GDP group, n = 29), or only placebos (control group, n = 26). All patients also received standard medical therapy and were followed for 12 months. Histology was performed on liver biopsies. The primary end point was survival at 12 months. Baseline characteristics of patients were comparable; alcohol intake was the most common etiology of cirrhosis. A higher proportion of patients in the GDP group than controls survived until 12 months (68.6% vs 26.9%; P = .003). At 12 months, Child-Turcotte Pugh scores were reduced by 48.6% in the GDP group and 39.1% in the control group, from baseline (P = .001); Model for End Stage Liver Disease scores were reduced by 40.4% and 33%, respectively (P = .03). The need for large-volume paracentesis was significantly reduced in GDP group, compared with controls (P < .05). A lower proportion of patients in the GDP group developed septic shock (6.9%) during follow-up compared with controls (38.5%; P = .005). No major adverse events were observed in either group. In a single-center randomized trial, a significantly larger proportion of patients with decompensated cirrhosis given a combination of G-CSF and
Sheng, Qingfeng; Lv, Zhibao; Xu, Weijue; Liu, Jiangbin; Wu, Yibo; Shi, Jingyi; Xi, Zhengjun
The purpose of this study was to analyze the nature of the disease, the surgical procedures, complications, and survival of preterm infants with necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) at our institution.Medical records of 34 preterm (gestational age <37 weeks) infants with surgical NEC were retrospectively analyzed from January 2010 to December 2014. Patients were divided into 2 groups: low birth weight (LBW, <2500 g, n = 27) and normal birth weight (NBW, ≥2500 g, n = 7).The LBW and NBW groups differed dramatically in gestational age (31.2 ± 2.2 vs. 36.3 ± 0.5 weeks), and respiratory support (55.5% vs. 0%). The median age of NEC onset was 12 and 5 postnatal days respectively. There was an inverse association between gestational age and day of NEC onset (r = -0.470). Pneumoperitoneum, positive paracentesis, and progressive clinical deterioration were the indications for laparotomy. There was no difference in the extent of disease, in the bowel involvement, in the surgical procedures, and in the postoperative complication rates between the 2 groups. The choice of procedure has often depended upon the extent of disease (enterostomy was performed in most localized and multifocal infants, simple drainage was used in 83.3% pan-intestinal patients, P < 0.001). Postoperative complications occurred in 70.5% patients. The most common complications were sepsis, intestinal stricture, and short bowel syndrome. The median hospital stay was significantly longer in the LBW group (65 vs. 19 days, P = 0.004). The overall postoperative 180-day survival rate was 70.6% (70.4% vs. 71.5%, P = 0.890, log rank test). The severity of illness was the main risk factor for mortality (8.3% in localized, 18.7% in multifocal, and 100% in pan-intestinal, P < 0.001).The short-term outcomes for surgical NEC are grave. The high mortality and postoperative complications in this study mandate urgent improvements in early recognition, expeditious operation, and
Schenker, Yael; Wang, Frances; Selig, Sarah Jane; Ng, Rita
BACKGROUND Informed consent is legally and ethically required before invasive non-emergent procedures. Language barriers make obtaining informed consent more complex. OBJECTIVE Determine the impact of language barriers on documentation of informed consent among patients in a teaching hospital with on-site interpreter services. DESIGN Matched retrospective chart review study. SUBJECTS Eligible Chinese- and Spanish-speaking patients with limited English proficiency (LEP) who received a thoracentesis, paracentesis, or lumbar puncture were matched with eligible English-speaking patients by procedure, hospital service, and date of procedure. MEASUREMENTS Charts were reviewed for documentation of informed consent (IC), including a procedure note documenting an IC discussion and a signed consent form. For LEP patients, full documentation of informed consent also included evidence of interpretation, or a consent form in the patient’s primary language. RESULTS Seventy-four procedures in LEP patients were matched with 74 procedures in English speakers. Charts of English-speaking patients were more likely than those of LEP patients to contain full documentation of informed consent (53% vs 28%; odds ratio (OR): 2.81; 95% CI, 1.42–5.56; p = 0.003). Upon multivariate analysis adjusting for patient and service factors, English speakers remained more likely than LEP patients to have full documentation of informed consent (Adj OR: 3.10; 95% CI, 1.49–6.47; p = 0.003). When examining the components of informed consent, charts of English-speaking and LEP patients were similar in the proportion documenting a consent discussion; however, charts of English speakers were more likely to contain a signed consent form in any language (85% vs 70%, p = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS Despite the availability of on-site professional interpreter services, hospitalized patients who do not speak English are less likely to have documentation of informed consent for common invasive procedures
Ibrahim, El-Sayed; Alsebaey, Ayman; Zaghla, Hassan; Moawad Abdelmageed, Sabry; Gameel, Khalid; Abdelsameea, Eman
Hepatorenal syndrome (HRS) is a severe complication of liver cirrhosis, with poor survival. Rifaximin is a gut-selective broad-spectrum antibiotic. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of rifaximin as a primary prevention of HRS. Eighty patients with liver cirrhosis and ascites were enrolled. They were randomized into two groups: control (n=40) and rifaximin group (n=40). Baseline liver function tests, renal function tests, complete blood count, international normalized ratio, urine analysis, and abdominal ultrasonography were carried out. Rifaximin 550 mg was administered twice daily for 12 weeks. Renal functions were measured every 4 weeks with monitoring of HRS occurrence and possible precipitating factor. Both groups were matched for age, sex, virology, serum bilirubin, serum albumin, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, hemoglobin, white blood cells, platelets, international normalized ratio, potassium, and Child-Pugh score. In contrast to the rifaximin group, the control group showed statistically significant serial blood urea nitrogen (18.84±7.17, 19.85±6.10, 21.54±4.79, and 22.96±5.82 mg/dl; P=0.001) and serum creatinine (0.94±0.25, 1.02±0.24, 1.12±0.16, and 1.21±0.17 mg/dl; P=0.001) levels. The overall blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine change was statistically higher in the control group than the rifaximin group (20.8 vs. 18.24 mg/dl and 1.07 vs. 0.99 mg/dl, respectively). HRS developed more in the control group than the rifaximin group [9 (22.5%) vs. 2 (5%); P=0.048]. In both groups, HRS was precipitated by spontaneous bacterial peritonitis mainly and large volume paracentesis. The Child-Pugh score, control group, baseline serum sodium, and creatinine were predictors of HRS. Rifaximin may be useful as a primary prevention of HRS.
Biermann, Julia; van Oterendorp, Christian; Stoykow, Christian; Volz, Cornelia; Jehle, Thomas; Boehringer, Daniel; Lagrèze, Wolf Alexander
The main drawbacks of currently described pressure induced glaucoma animal models are, that intraocular pressure (IOP) either rises slowly, leading to a heterogeneous onset of glaucoma in the treated animals or that IOP normalizes before significant damage occurs, necessitating re-treatment. Furthermore, a variable magnitude of IOP increase often results when particles are introduced into the anterior chamber. In order to develop a simple and reproducible rat glaucoma model with sustained IOP elevation after a single treatment we induced occlusion of the chamber angle by anterior chamber paracentesis and subsequent laser coagulation of the limbal area with 35, 40 or 45 laser burns. Right eyes served as controls. IOP was measured three times weekly using TonoLab rebound tonometry in awake animals. After four weeks, retinal tissue was harvested and processed for whole mount preparation. The number of prelabeled, fluorogold-positive retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) was analyzed under a fluorescence microscope. The eyes were further analyzed histologically. Results are expressed as means and standard deviation. Amplitude and duration of the IOP elevation increased with the number of laser burns. Two weeks after 35, 40 or 45 translimbal laser burns the IOP difference between treated and control eye was 7.5 ± 5, 14 ± 8 or 19 ± 9 mmHg, respectively; the RGC density/mm(2) 28 days after treatment was 1488 ± 238 for control eyes (n = 31) and 1514 ± 287 (n = 10), 955 ± 378 (n = 10) or 447 ± 350 (n = 11) for the respective laser groups. Mean IOP of all control eyes over the observation period was 12.4 ± 0.8 mmHg. The chamber angle showed pigment accumulation in the trabecular meshwork of all laser groups and confluent peripheral anterior synechia after 40 and 45 laser burns. Histologic examination of the retina revealed increasing glia activation in a pressure dependant manner. In this study, >91% of laser treated rats developed secondary glaucoma with sustained IOP
de Silva, S R; Bindra, M S
PurposeAcute submacular haemorrhage secondary to wet age-related macular degeneration (AMD) has a poor prognosis for which there is currently no 'gold standard' treatment. We evaluated the efficacy of early treatment using intravitreal triple therapy of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), expansile gas, and an anti-VEGF agent.MethodsThis retrospective case series included eight patients presenting with acute submacular haemorrhage involving the fovea. All patients received treatment with 50 μg (0.05 ml) tPA, 0.3 ml 100% perfluoropropane (C3F8), and an anti-VEGF agent (0.05 mg Ranibizumab or 1.25 mg Bevacizumab in 0.05 ml) administered via intravitreal injection. An anterior chamber paracentesis post injection or vitreous tap was performed before injection to prevent retinal vascular occlusion secondary to raised intra-ocular pressure. Outcomes assessed were visual acuity, change in macular morphology, and complications.ResultsPatients presented promptly with delay between symptom onset and clinic review being 1.9±0.6 days (mean±SD). Treatment was delivered quickly with interval from presentation to treatment being 1.1±1.2 days. Symptom onset to treatment was 3.0±1.0 days. Subfoveal haemorrhage was effectively displaced in all patients. LogMAR visual acuity improved from 1.67±0.47 at presentation to 0.63±0.33 at final follow-up (P<0.0001), a mean of 7.9±4.8 months after treatment. Central retinal thickness improved from 658.1±174.2 μm at presentation to 316.6±142.4 μm at final follow-up (P=0.0028).ConclusionsEarly treatment of submacular haemorrhage using intravitreal tPA, C3F8, and anti-VEGF was effective in significantly improving visual acuity in this series of patients who presented soon after symptom onset. Treatment was well tolerated in this group of elderly and potentially frail patients.
Gokturk, Huseyin Savas; Demir, Mehmet; Ozturk, Nevin Akcaer; Unler, Gulhan Kanat; Kulaksizoglu, Sevsen; Kozanoglu, Ilknur; Serin, Ender; Yilmaz, Ugur
BACKGROUND: Ascites is defined as the pathological accumulation of fluid in the peritoneal cavity. It is the most common complication of cirrhosis, which is also the most common cause of ascites. Viscosity is a measure of the resistance of a fluid to deform under shear stress. Plasma viscosity is influenced by the concentration of plasma proteins and lipoproteins, with the major contribution from fibrinogen. To our knowledge, the viscosity of ascitic fluid has not yet been studied. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the role of ascitic fluid viscosity in discriminating between ascites due to portal hypertension-related and nonportal hypertension-related causes, and to compare results with the serum-ascites albumin gradient (SAAG). METHODS: The present study involved 142 patients with ascites presenting with diverse medical problems. Serum total protein, albumin, glucose, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels and complete blood count were obtained for all subjects. Paracentesis was performed routinely on admission and all ascitic fluid samples were evaluated by manual cell count with differential, ascitic fluid culture and biochemistry (total protein, albumin, glucose and LDH). Cultures of ascitic fluid were performed at bedside in all patients using blood culture bottles. Ascitic fluid viscosity was measured in a commercially available cone and plate viscometer. RESULTS: Of the 142 patients studied, 34 (24%) had an SAAG of 11 g/L or less, whereas 108 (76%) had an SAAG of greater than 11 g/L. Sex and mean age did not differ significantly between the two groups (P>0.05). Serum total protein, albumin, glucose, LDH levels, leukocyte count, ascitic fluid glucose levels and ascitic fluid leukocyte counts were similar in both groups, with no statistically significant relationship detected (P>0.05). However, the mean (±SD) ascitic fluid total protein (0.0172±0.1104 g/L versus 0.043±0.011 g/L), albumin (0.0104±0.0064 g/L versus 0.0276±0.0069 g/L) and LDH (102.76±80.95 U/L versus 885
El-Shabrawi, Mortada H F; Kamal, Naglaa M
Treatment of the causes of many chronic liver diseases (CLDs) may not be possible. In this case, complications must be anticipated, prevented or at least controlled by the best available therapeutic modalities. There are three main goals for the management of portal hypertension: (i) prevention of the first episode of variceal bleeding largely by non-selective β-adrenoceptor antagonists, which is not generally recommended in children; (ii) control of bleeding by using a stepwise approach from the least to most invasive strategies; (iii) and prevention of re-bleeding using bypass operations, with particular enthusiasm for the use of meso-Rex bypass in the pediatric population. Hepatic encephalopathy management also consists of three main aspects: (i) ruling out other causes of encephalopathy; (ii) identifying and treating precipitating factors; and (iii) starting empiric treatment with drugs such as lactulose, rifaximin, sodium benzoate, and flumazenil. Treatment of mild ascites and peripheral edema should begin with the restriction of sodium and water, followed by careful diuresis, then large-volume paracentesis associated with colloid volume expansion in severe cases. Empiric broad spectrum antimicrobial therapy should be used for the treatment of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, bacterial and fungal sepsis, and cholangitis, after taking appropriate cultures, with appropriate changes in therapy after sensitivity testing. Empirical therapies continue to be the standard practice for pruritus; these consist of bile acid binding agents, phenobarbital (phenobarbitone), ursodeoxycholic acid, antihistamines, rifampin (rifampicin), and carbamazepine. Partial external biliary diversion can be used in refractory cases. Once hepatorenal syndrome is suspected, treatment should be initiated early in order to prevent the progression of renal failure; approaches consist of general supportive measures, management of concomitant complications, screening for sepsis, treatment
[Comparison of human chorionic gonadotropin (Pregnyl 10 000 IU i.m.) versus GnRH agonist (triptorelin 0,2 mg s.c.) for final oocytes maturation in the same egg donors--clinical and embryological characteristics].
Streda, R; Mardesic, T; Sobotka, V; Koryntová, D; Hybnerová, L; Jindra, M; Paseková, V; Slámová, J; Stevíková, M; Voboril, J; Jelínková, L; Vilímová, S; Ichová, J; Mádrová, J; Tersová, H; Masata, M; Sobotková, J
subsequent embryonic cleavage is comparable to standard hCG treatment. There are no differences in clinical and embryological characteristics in both groups. Only one patient with administration of Pregnyl 10 000 IU i.m. was treated for OHSS grade II by vaginal paracentesis. Administration of triptorelin 0.2 mg s.c. is a safe and effective approach to achieve mature oocytes in egg donation programme, where we do not take care of implantation, which has got some limitations based on several studies.
Badawy, Ahmed Abouelkhair; Zaher, Tarik Ibrahim; Sharaf, Samar Mahmoud; Emara, Mohamed Hassan; Shaheen, Noha Elsaid; Aly, Talaat Fathy
To evaluate effective alternative antibiotics in treatment of cefotaxime-resistant spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. One hundred cirrhotic patients with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis [ascitic fluid polymorphonuclear cell count (PMNLs) ≥ 250 cells/mm(3) at admission] were empirically treated with cefotaxime sodium 2 g/12 h and volume expansion by intravenous human albumin. All patients were subjected to history taking, complete examination, laboratory tests (including a complete blood cell count, prothrombin time, biochemical tests of liver and kidney function, and fresh urine sediment), chest X-ray, a diagnostic abdominal paracentesis, and the sample subjected to total and differential cell count, chemical examination, aerobic and anaerobic cultures. Patients were divided after 2 d by a second ascitic PMNL count into group I; patients sensitive to cefotaxime (n = 81), group II (n = 19); cases resistant to cefotaxime (less than 25% decrease in ascitic PMNL count). Patients of group II were randomly assigned into meropenem (n = 11) or levofloxacin (n = 8) subgroups. All patients performed an end of treatment ascitic PMNL count. Patients were considered improved when: PMNLs decreased to < 250 cells/mm(3), no growth in previously positive culture cases, and improved clinical manifestations with at least 5 d of antibiotic therapy. Age, sex, and Child classes showed no significant difference between group I and group II. Fever and abdominal pain were the most frequent manifestations and were reported in 82.7% and 80.2% of patients in group I and in 94.7% and 84.2% of patients in group II, respectively. Patients in group II had a more severe ascitic inflammatory response than group I and this was demonstrated by more ascitic lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) [median: 540 IU/L (range: 150-1200 IU/L) vs median: 240 IU/L (range: 180-500 IU/L), P = 0.000] and PMNL [median: 15,000 cell/mm(3) (range: 957-23,822 cell/mm(3)) vs 3400 cell/mm(3) (range: 695-26,400 cell/mm(3)), P
Badawy, Ahmed Abouelkhair; Zaher, Tarik Ibrahim; Sharaf, Samar Mahmoud; Emara, Mohamed Hassan; Shaheen, Noha Elsaid; Aly, Talaat Fathy
AIM: To evaluate effective alternative antibiotics in treatment of cefotaxime-resistant spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. METHODS: One hundred cirrhotic patients with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis [ascitic fluid polymorphonuclear cell count (PMNLs) ≥ 250 cells/mm3 at admission] were empirically treated with cefotaxime sodium 2 g/12 h and volume expansion by intravenous human albumin. All patients were subjected to history taking, complete examination, laboratory tests (including a complete blood cell count, prothrombin time, biochemical tests of liver and kidney function, and fresh urine sediment), chest X-ray, a diagnostic abdominal paracentesis, and the sample subjected to total and differential cell count, chemical examination, aerobic and anaerobic cultures. Patients were divided after 2 d by a second ascitic PMNL count into group I; patients sensitive to cefotaxime (n = 81), group II (n = 19); cases resistant to cefotaxime (less than 25% decrease in ascitic PMNL count). Patients of group II were randomly assigned into meropenem (n = 11) or levofloxacin (n = 8) subgroups. All patients performed an end of treatment ascitic PMNL count. Patients were considered improved when: PMNLs decreased to < 250 cells/mm3, no growth in previously positive culture cases, and improved clinical manifestations with at least 5 d of antibiotic therapy. RESULTS: Age, sex, and Child classes showed no significant difference between group I and group II. Fever and abdominal pain were the most frequent manifestations and were reported in 82.7% and 80.2% of patients in group I and in 94.7% and 84.2% of patients in group II, respectively. Patients in group II had a more severe ascitic inflammatory response than group I and this was demonstrated by more ascitic lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) [median: 540 IU/L (range: 150-1200 IU/L) vs median: 240 IU/L (range: 180-500 IU/L), P = 0.000] and PMNL [median: 15 000 cell/mm3 (range: 957-23 822 cell/mm3) vs 3400 cell
Spremo, S; Markić, Z; Kurbalija
shown in Table 3. Exudate in the middle ear and type B tympanogram were found in 86 ears, while in other patients dysfunction of the Eustachian tube and type C1 and C2 tympanograms were found. After 6 weeks the exudate disappeared in 16 ears and tympanogram converted in type A and type C2, while the initially found C1 tympanogram was transformed in type A in 5 of 13 ears. After 12 weeks the tympanogram type B was found in 46 ears, while in 40 ears (47%) the tympanogram was changed in type A and type C2. After 6 and 12 weeks of therapy tympanometric types were statistically examined by chi 2 test. We have found a significant difference in tympanometric types and prevalence of type A and C1 tympanograms. Paracentesis and insertion of ventilating tubes were done in 46 ears with the remaining exudate. We have found mucous exudate in 35 (76%) ears associated with retraction and scars of tympanic membrane (Table 4), what indicated that the longer duration of mucous exudate caused degenerative changes in the middle ear. Serous exudate, found in 9 ears (24%), did not affect the color and integrity of the tympanic membrane. Sensitivity of tympanometry in detection of exudate in the middle ear was 96%. Secretory otitis media is a frequent disease in childhood, that could cause functional and morphological sequelae in the middle ear. As for now, there is no unique concept of diagnosis and treatment of the disease, and it is still a current problem. We suggest a three-month evaluation of tympanometric and audiometric patterns, repeated every three weeks, in children suspected of having exudate in the middle ear. There is a large trend of spontaneous disappearance of exudate in the middle ear and changing of tympanogram type. Such children should be evaluated over the period of one year, and if there is no relapse additional treatment should not be carried out. If exudate in the middle ear persists for three months and type of the tympanogram is unchanged, myringotomy and insert
Burri, Emanuel; Schulte, Felix; Muser, Jürgen; Meier, Rémy; Beglinger, Christoph
To evaluate the diagnostic capability of calprotectin in ascitic fluid for detecting a polymorphonuclear (PMN) cell count > 250/μL ascites. In this prospective observational study, a total of 130 ascites samples were analysed from 71 consecutive patients referred for paracentesis. Total and differential leukocyte cell counts were determined manually with a Neubauer chamber and gentian-violet stain. Calprotectin was measured in 1 mL ascetic fluid by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and a point-of-care (POC) lateral flow assay with the Quantum Blue(®) Reader (Bühlmann Laboratories). All measurements were carried out in a central laboratory by senior personnel blinded to patient history. A PMN count > 250/μL was the primary endpoint of the study. The diagnostic value of ascitic calprotectin measurement was assessed by comparing to the final diagnosis of each patient that had been adjudicated by investigators blinded to calprotectin values. The PMN count was > 250/μL in 19 samples (14.6%) from 15 patients (21.1%) and varied widely among the study population (range 10-19 800/mL and 1-17 820/mL, respectively). Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) was the final diagnosis in four patients (5.6%). All patients with PMN ≤ 250/μL had negative bacterial culture. PMN count was elevated in five patients with peritoneal carcinomatosis, three with lymphoma, one with neuroendocrine carcinoma, and two with secondary peritonitis due to abdominal perforation. PMN cell counts correlated with ascitic calprotectin values (Spearman's rho; r = 0.457 for ELISA, r = 0.473 for POC). A considerable range of ascitic calprotectin concentrations was detected by ELISA [median 0.43 μg/mL, interquartile range (IQR) 0.23-1.23 (range 0.10-14.93)] and POC [median 0.38 μg/mL, IQR 0.38-0.56 (range 0.38-13.31)]. Ascitic calprotectin levels were higher in samples with PMN > 250/μL, by both ELISA [median (IQR) 2.48 μg/mL (1.61-3.65) vs 0.10 μg/mL (0.10-0.36), P < 0.001] and POC