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Sample records for paragonimiasis

  1. Cerebral Paragonimiasis.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, I

    1975-01-01

    The first case of cerebral paragonimiasis was reported by Otani in Japan in 1887. This was nine years after Kerbert's discovery of the fluke in the lungs of Bengal tigers and seven years after a human pulmonary infection by the fluke was demonstrated by Baelz and Manson. The first case was a 26-year-old man who had been suffering from cough and hemosputum for one year. The patient developed convulsive seizures with subsequent coma and died. The postmortem examination showed cystic lesions in the right frontal and occipital lobes. An adult fluke was found in the occipital lesion and another was seen in a gross specimen of normal brain tissue around the affected occipital lobe. Two years after Otani's discovery, at autopsy a 29-year-old man with a history of Jacksonian seizure was reported as having cerebral paragonimiasis. Some time later, however, it was confirmed that the case was actually cerebral schistosomiasis japonica. Subsequently, cases of cerebral paragonimiasis were reported. However, the majority of these cases were not confirmed histologically. It was pointed out that some of these early cases were probably not Paragonimus infection. After World War II, reviews as well as case reports were published. Recently, investigations have been reported from Korea, with a clinicla study on 62 cases of cerebral paragonimiasis seen at the Neurology Department of the National Medical Center, Seoul, between 1958 and 1964. In 1971 Higashi described a statistical study on 105 cases of cerebral paragonimiasis that had been treated surgically in Japan.

  2. Paragonimus & paragonimiasis in India

    PubMed Central

    Singh, T. Shantikumar; Sugiyama, Hiromu; Rangsiruji, Achariya

    2012-01-01

    Ever since the discovery of the first indigenous case in 1981, paragonimiasis has gained recognition as a significant food borne parasitic zoonosis in India. The data available on the occurrence of paragonimiasis, until today, may be just the tip of an iceberg as the study areas covered were restricted to Northeast Indian States. Nevertheless, the results of research on paragonimiasis in India have revealed valuable information in epidemiology, life cycle, pathobiology and speciation of Indian Paragonimus. Potamiscus manipurensis, Alcomon superciliosum and Maydelliathelphusa lugubris were identified as the crab hosts of Paragonimus. Paragonimus miyazakii manipurinus n. sub sp., P. hueit’ungensis, P. skrjabini, P. heterotremus, P. compactus, and P. westermani have been described from India. P. heterotremus was found as the causative agent of human paragonimiasis. Ingestion of undercooked crabs and raw crab extract was the major mode of infection. Pulmonary paragonimiasis was the commonest clinical manifestation while pleural effusion and subcutaneous nodules were the common extra-pulmonary forms. Clinico-radiological features of pulmonary paragonimiasis simulated pulmonary tuberculosis. Intradermal test, ELISA and Dot-immunogold filtration assay (DIGFA) were used for diagnosis and epidemiological survey of paragonimiasis. Phylogenitically, Indian Paragonimus species, although nested within the respective clade were distantly related to others within the clade. PMID:22960885

  3. Paragonimus & paragonimiasis in India.

    PubMed

    Singh, T Shantikumar; Sugiyama, Hiromu; Rangsiruji, Achariya

    2012-08-01

    Ever since the discovery of the first indigenous case in 1981, paragonimiasis has gained recognition as a significant food borne parasitic zoonosis in India. The data available on the occurrence of paragonimiasis, until today, may be just the tip of an iceberg as the study areas covered were restricted to Northeast Indian States. Nevertheless, the results of research on paragonimiasis in India have revealed valuable information in epidemiology, life cycle, pathobiology and speciation of Indian Paragonimus. Potamiscus manipurensis, Alcomon superciliosum and Maydelliathelphusa lugubris were identified as the crab hosts of Paragonimus. Paragonimus miyazakii manipurinus n. sub sp., P. hueit'ungensis, P. skrjabini, P. heterotremus, P. compactus, and P. westermani have been described from India. P. heterotremus was found as the causative agent of human paragonimiasis. Ingestion of undercooked crabs and raw crab extract was the major mode of infection. Pulmonary paragonimiasis was the commonest clinical manifestation while pleural effusion and subcutaneous nodules were the common extra-pulmonary forms. Clinico-radiological features of pulmonary paragonimiasis simulated pulmonary tuberculosis. Intradermal test, ELISA and Dot-immunogold filtration assay (DIGFA) were used for diagnosis and epidemiological survey of paragonimiasis. Phylogenitically, Indian Paragonimus species, although nested within the respective clade were distantly related to others within the clade.

  4. Pulmonary Paragonimiasis Mimicking Tuberculous Pleuritis

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Jian; Wang, Mao-Yun; Liu, Dan; Zhu, Hui; Yang, Sai; Liang, Bin-Miao; Liang, Zong-An

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Pulmonary paragonimiasis is a food-borne zoonosis with a wide variety of radiologic findings, which sometimes can be confused with tuberculosis and carcinoma. Therefore, differential diagnosis is always warranted. A 43-year-old male farmer, with productive cough, blood-tinged sputum and chest pain, as well as patchy consolidation and pleural effusions in chest computer tomography, was misdiagnosed of community-acquired pneumonia and tuberculosis. Complete blood cell count, sputum smear and culture, chest computer tomography, thoracoscopy, and biopsy. The diagnosis of pulmonary paragonimiasis was established due to the finding of Charcot–Leyden crystals in the pleural necrosis, and antibodies against Paragonimus westermani in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Paragonimiasis should be considered as a possibility in the differential diagnosis of tuberculosis. Thoracoscopy is an effective and valuable technology that can help make an accurate diagnosis. PMID:27082624

  5. Paragonimiasis in a Child from Assam, India

    PubMed Central

    Das, Partha Pratim; Borah, Amrit Kr; Das, Jayanta Kr

    2016-01-01

    Paragonimiasis or lung fluke infection is one of the neglected tropical parasitic disease which is found worldwide. Several endemic foci have been discovered in the Northeast India. Pulmonary paragonimiasis presenting with haemoptysis is generally mistaken for pulmonary tuberculosis. Herein, we present a case of pulmonary paragonimiasis, which initially presented with haemoptysis and remained undiagnosed for two years. The patient was treated with Praziquantel 25mg/kg thrice daily for two days along with the supportive care. Subsequently, on follow up after three months the patient had improved with no fever and cough. PMID:27190807

  6. Pleuropulmonary paragonimiasis: mimicker of tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Lall, Mahima; Sahni, Ajay Kumar; Rajput, A K

    2013-01-01

    Infection caused by the lung fluke is endemic in north eastern parts of India. Paragonimus westermani and Paragonimus heterotremus are known to be endemic in eastern Indian states of Manipur and Nagaland. The infection is related to eating habits of the locals and is acquired by ingestion of raw, inadequately cooked crabs or crayfish containing encysted metacercariae which act as second intermediate hosts during the life cycle of the lung fluke. Diagnosis is generally delayed due to lack of suspicion and presentation similar to tuberculosis which is endemic in the population. We report pleuropulmonary paragonimiasis in a soldier from eastern India who presented with chest pain, haemoptysis, and eosinophilia. He gave history of consumption of raw crabs while on leave at his native village in Nagaland. Ova morphologically resembling Paragonimus heterotremus were detected in sputum and bronchoalveolar lavage specimen. Symptoms resolved with praziquantel treatment. PMID:23432864

  7. Chest CT Features of North American Paragonimiasis

    PubMed Central

    Henry, Travis S.; Lane, Michael A.; Weil, Gary J.; Bailey, Thomas C.; Bhalla, Sanjeev

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to characterize the chest CT findings of North American paragonimiasis due to Paragonimus kellicotti in the largest (to our knowledge) case series reported to date and to compare the findings with those reported for paragonimiasis infections in other regions. MATERIALS AND METHODS A retrospective review was performed of chest CT examinations of eight patients with North American paragonimiasis treated at our institution between 2006 and 2010. Findings were characterized by site of involvement, including lungs and pleura, heart and pericardium, lymph nodes, and upper abdomen. RESULTS The most common chest CT findings in this case series were pleural effusions and internal mammary and cardiophrenic lymphadenopathy. Pulmonary parenchymal findings included peripheral lung nodules of 1–3.5 cm in size with surrounding ground-glass opacity; many nodules had a linear track to the pleural surface that may correspond to the worm’s burrow tunnel. Pericardial involvement (5/8 patients) and omental inflammation (5/7 patients), which are uncommon in Asian paragonimiasis, were common in this series. CONCLUSION Pleural and pulmonary features of North American paragonimiasis are generally similar to those reported from Asia. The presence of a track between a pulmonary nodule and the pleura may help distinguish paragonimiasis from mimickers, including chronic eosinophilic pneumonia, tuberculosis, fungal infection, or malignancy. Pericarditis, lymphadenopathy, and omental inflammation were more common in our series than in reports on paragonimiasis from other regions. These differences may be related to the infecting parasite species or to the fact that radiologic examinations in the present series were performed relatively early in the course of infection. PMID:22528896

  8. Three Cases of Paragonimiasis in a Family

    PubMed Central

    Sohn, Byeong Seok; Bae, Yun-Jeong; Cho, You Sook; Moon, Hee-Bom

    2009-01-01

    Paragonimiasis typically results from the consumption of raw or improperly cooked crustacea, especially crabs and crayfish. Although previously endemic in Korea, the prevalence of this disease decreased in the early 1970s because of educational campaigns and fewer intermediate hosts as a result of ecological changes. Recently, we were presented with a family where all members were infected with Paragonimus after ingestion of Kejang (= drunken crab). The mother was hospitalized for general myalgia and weakness first, followed by the father, who was hospitalized for dyspnea 2 month later. After the parents were diagnosed with paragonimiasis, we recommended their daughter to visit our hospital for a checkup, because they all had eaten freshwater crabs soaked in soybean sauce. She complained of generalized myalgia, fever, and pleuritic pain, and was also diagnosed with paragonimiasis. Peripheral blood of the 3 patients revealed hypereosinophilia, and computed tomography (CT) scans of their chests showed pleural effusion. The results of antibody tests by ELISA were positive for paragonimiasis. We report here the case series of familial paragonimiasis in a modern urban city, rather than in a typical endemic area. PMID:19724703

  9. North American Paragonimiasis (Caused by Paragonimus kellicotti) in the Context of Global Paragonimiasis

    PubMed Central

    Procop, Gary W.

    2009-01-01

    Summary: Paragonimus species are highly evolved parasites with a complex life cycle that involves at least three different hosts, i.e., snails, crustaceans, and mammals. The adult forms of Paragonimus species reside and mate in the lungs of a variety of permissive mammalian hosts, including humans. Although human paragonimiasis is uncommonly encountered in North America, both autochthonous and imported disease may be encountered. Paragonimus kellicotti, the species endemic to North America, is a well-known pathogen in wild and domestic animals. Five patients with North American paragonimiasis have been reported in the recent medical literature. The biologic, clinical, radiologic, and laboratory features of paragonimiasis are reviewed, with emphasis on North American paragonimiasis whenever possible. PMID:19597007

  10. North American paragonimiasis (Caused by Paragonimus kellicotti) in the context of global paragonimiasis.

    PubMed

    Procop, Gary W

    2009-07-01

    Paragonimus species are highly evolved parasites with a complex life cycle that involves at least three different hosts, i.e., snails, crustaceans, and mammals. The adult forms of Paragonimus species reside and mate in the lungs of a variety of permissive mammalian hosts, including humans. Although human paragonimiasis is uncommonly encountered in North America, both autochthonous and imported disease may be encountered. Paragonimus kellicotti, the species endemic to North America, is a well-known pathogen in wild and domestic animals. Five patients with North American paragonimiasis have been reported in the recent medical literature. The biologic, clinical, radiologic, and laboratory features of paragonimiasis are reviewed, with emphasis on North American paragonimiasis whenever possible.

  11. Paragonimiasis in Chinese Children: 58 Cases Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Hong Zhen; Tang, Lan Fang; Zheng, Xiao Ping; Chen, Zhi Min

    2012-01-01

    Objective To analyze the clinical and radiological features of paragonimiasis in children and raise the awareness of this disease. Methods A total of 58 paragonimiasis patients were reviewed. They were 42 boys and 16 girls aged 2.0 to 15.3 years. Findings Among these patients, 20 were diagnosed in the recent 5 years, 46 with a history of raw water or food ingestion. Except 2 patients without any complaint, the most common features involved the systemic (41, 70.7%) and respiratory systems (43, 74.1%), followed by abdominal, cardiac and nervous systems, with rash and mass. Eosinophilia was noted in 46 (79.3%) patients, granulocytosis in 45 (77.6%), anemia in 14 (24.1%), and thrombocytopenia in 3. Imageology showed pneumonia in 26 (44.8%) patients, pleurisy in 28 (48.3%), hydropericardium in 17 (29.3%), ascites in 16 (27.6%), and celiac lymphadenitis in 13 (22.4%). Besides hepatomegaly and splenomegaly, calcification and multiple lamellar low echogenic areas in the liver were noted, each in one patient. Abnormal brain imaging was noted in 4 of 10 patients. Karyocyte hyperplasia with eosinophilia was noted in all the 19 patients who received bone marrow puncture. Conclusion Paragonimiasis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with multiple organs or system lesions, especially those with eosinophilia, serous cavity effusion, respiratory, cardiac, digestive system, nervous system abnormality, and/or mass. Healthy eating habit is helpful for paragonimiasis prevention. PMID:23430310

  12. Pulmonary paragonimiasis: clinical and experimental studies.

    PubMed

    Im, J G; Kong, Y; Shin, Y M; Yang, S O; Song, J G; Han, M C; Kim, C W; Cho, S Y; Ham, E K

    1993-05-01

    Pulmonary paragonimiasis is a disease caused by a lung fluke. It is endemic to East Asia, but there have been several case reports in North America. Human infestation occurs by ingestion of raw or incompletely cooked freshwater crab or crayfish infected with metacercaria. A retrospective study was performed with 78 patients who lived in South Korea and had chest radiographic findings of pleuropulmonary disease; it was subsequently shown that they had paragonimiasis. The diagnosis was based on positive results of serologic tests for Paragonimus-specific antibody or on the detection of eggs in sputum samples. Radiologic findings from these 78 patients were correlated with the pathologic and radiologic findings from a study of experimentally induced pulmonary paragonimiasis in 21 cats. Findings from the correlative study document that the typical radiologic manifestations of pulmonary paragonimiasis vary with the stage of the disease. Early findings include pneumothorax or hydropneumothorax, focal airspace consolidation, and linear opacities and are caused by the migration of juvenile worms. Later findings include thin-walled cysts, dense masslike consolidation, nodules, or bronchiectasis and are due to worm cysts.

  13. MRI findings of intraspinal extradural paragonimiasis granuloma in a child.

    PubMed

    Qin, Yong; Cai, Jinhua

    2012-10-01

    Spinal paragonimiasis is a rare entity. We present a unique case of paragonimiasis involving the extradural space. MR imaging of the thoracic spine showed a bean-shaped extradural mass that extended through the left intervertebral foramen to paravertebral thickened pleura. This finding offers imaging evidence to support the theory that larvae of Paragonimus migrate through perivascular or perineural tissues into the extradural space. Another MRI finding was the hemorrhagic foci in the mass, which occurs frequently in the intracranial paragonimiasis and could also be a feature of the intraspinal paragonimiasis granuloma.

  14. Paragonimus and Paragonimiasis in Vietnam: an Update

    PubMed Central

    Horii, Yoichiro; Nawa, Yukifumi

    2013-01-01

    Paragonimiasis is a food-borne parasitic zoonosis caused by infection with lung flukes of the genus Paragonimus. In Vietnam, research on Paragonimus and paragonimiasis has been conducted in northern and central regions of the country. Using a combination of morphological and molecular methods, 7 Paragonimus species, namely P. heterotremus, P. westermani, P. skrjabini, P. vietnamensis, P. proliferus, P. bangkokenis and P. harinasutai, have been identified in Vietnam. Of these, the first 3, P. heterotremus, P. westermani and P. skrjabini, are known to infect humans in other countries. However, in Vietnam, only P. heterotremus, found in some northern provinces, has been shown to infect humans. Even nowadays, local people in some northern provinces, such as Lai Chau and Yen Bai, are still suffering from P. heterotremus infection. In some provinces of central Vietnam, the prevalence and infection intensity of P. westermani metacercariae in freshwater crabs (the second intermediate hosts) are extremely high, but human cases have not been reported. Likewise, although P. skrjabini was found in Thanh Hoa Province, its pathogenicity to humans in Vietnam still remains uncertain. The results of molecular phylogenetic analyses of Vietnamese Paragonimus species provides new insights on the phylogeny and taxonomy of the genus Paragonimus. Comprehensive molecular epidemiological and geobiological studies on the genus in Vietnam and adjacent countries are needed to clarify the biodiversity and public health significance of the lung flukes. PMID:24516264

  15. Paragonimus and paragonimiasis in Vietnam: an update.

    PubMed

    Doanh, Pham Ngoc; Horii, Yoichiro; Nawa, Yukifumi

    2013-12-01

    Paragonimiasis is a food-borne parasitic zoonosis caused by infection with lung flukes of the genus Paragonimus. In Vietnam, research on Paragonimus and paragonimiasis has been conducted in northern and central regions of the country. Using a combination of morphological and molecular methods, 7 Paragonimus species, namely P. heterotremus, P. westermani, P. skrjabini, P. vietnamensis, P. proliferus, P. bangkokenis and P. harinasutai, have been identified in Vietnam. Of these, the first 3, P. heterotremus, P. westermani and P. skrjabini, are known to infect humans in other countries. However, in Vietnam, only P. heterotremus, found in some northern provinces, has been shown to infect humans. Even nowadays, local people in some northern provinces, such as Lai Chau and Yen Bai, are still suffering from P. heterotremus infection. In some provinces of central Vietnam, the prevalence and infection intensity of P. westermani metacercariae in freshwater crabs (the second intermediate hosts) are extremely high, but human cases have not been reported. Likewise, although P. skrjabini was found in Thanh Hoa Province, its pathogenicity to humans in Vietnam still remains uncertain. The results of molecular phylogenetic analyses of Vietnamese Paragonimus species provides new insights on the phylogeny and taxonomy of the genus Paragonimus. Comprehensive molecular epidemiological and geobiological studies on the genus in Vietnam and adjacent countries are needed to clarify the biodiversity and public health significance of the lung flukes.

  16. Pulmonary paragonimiasis and tuberculosis in Sorsogon, Philippines.

    PubMed

    Belizario, V; Guan, M; Borja, L; Ortega, A; Leonardia, W

    1997-01-01

    The clinical epidemiology of pulmonary paragonimiasis and tuberculosis was investigated in a known endemic municipality of Sorsogon, Philippines. Records of diagnosed tuberculosis patients on treatment and follow up at the local Rural Health Unit over a two year period from 1993 to 1994 were reviewed to provide an overview of pulmonary tuberculosis in the area, specifically to describe the population at risk, the basis for diagnosis and the proportion of case notification who were sputum negative. Patients from the same group of individuals as well as undiagnosed tuberculosis patients with productive cough, fever with chest and/or back pain, or hemoptysis were examined to look into clinical manifestations, duration of symptoms, history of crab-eating and sputum examination results for acid-fast bacilli and Paragonimus. There was difficulty in determining the number of non-responders as the records did not have any provision for the recording of such. Annual tuberculosis case notification rates for the two years (374 and 401 per 100,000 population) were higher than the national figure in 1991 (325 per 100,000 population) indicating that tuberculosis is still a major health problem in the area and tuberculosis control efforts may have to be more aggressive to better contain the disease. Twenty-six out of 160 individuals surveyed were sputum smear positive for Paragonimus. Paragonimiasis rates were not significantly different in the two groups (15.6% vs 16.9%, respectively) indicating that there is a need for routine sputum examination for Paragonimus which is not available at present. Only six patients surveyed were sputum smear positive for acid-fast bacilli. A high index of suspicion is necessary to diagnose paragonimiasis and to be able to differentiate it from tuberculosis. The diagnosis may be suggested by a patient's place of origin being a known endemic area, a long period of chronic cough and the habit of eating raw or insufficiently cooked crabs or crayfish

  17. Paragonimiasis in the abdominal cavity and subcutaneous tissue: report of 3 cases.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chang Ho; Kim, Jong Hun; Moon, Woo Sung; Lee, Min Ro

    2012-12-01

    Paragonimiasis is a parasitic disease caused by the lung fluke, Paragonimus spp. Lung flukes may be found in various organs, such as the brain, peritoneum, subcutaneous tissues, and retroperitoneum, other than the lungs. Abdominal paragonimiasis raises a considerable diagnostic challenge to clinicians, because it is uncommon and may be confused with other abdominopelvic inflammatory diseases, particularly peritoneal tuberculosis, and peritoneal carcinomatosis. Also, subcutaneous paragonimiasis does not easily bring up clinical suspicion, due to its rarity. We herein report 2 cases of abdominal paragonimiasis and 1 case of subcutaneous paragonimiasis in Korea.

  18. Paragonimiasis Acquired in the United States: Native and Nonnative Species

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Paragonimiasis is a parasitic lung infection caused by lung flukes of the genus Paragonimus, with most cases reported from Asia and caused by P. westermani following consumption of raw or undercooked crustaceans. With the exception of imported P. westermani cases in immigrants, in travelers returning from areas of disease endemicity, and in clusters of acquired cases following consumption of imported Asian crabs, human paragonimiasis caused by native lung flukes is rarely described in the United States, which has only one indigenous species of lung fluke, Paragonimus kellicotti. Clinicians should inquire about the consumption of raw or undercooked freshwater crabs by immigrants, expatriates, and returning travelers, and the consumption of raw or undercooked crayfish in U.S. freshwater river systems where P. kellicotti is endemic when evaluating patients presenting with unexplained fever, cough, rales, hemoptysis, pleural effusions, and peripheral eosinophilia. Diagnostic evaluation by specific parasitological, radiological, serological, and molecular methods will be required in order to differentiate paragonimiasis from tuberculosis, which is not uncommon in recent Asian immigrants. All cases of imported and locally acquired paragonimiasis will require treatment with oral praziquantel to avoid any potential pulmonary and cerebral complications of paragonimiasis, some of which may require surgical interventions. PMID:23824370

  19. Pulmonary Paragonimiasis Mimicking Tuberculous Pleuritis: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jian; Wang, Mao-Yun; Liu, Dan; Zhu, Hui; Yang, Sai; Liang, Bin-Miao; Liang, Zong-An

    2016-04-01

    Pulmonary paragonimiasis is a food-borne zoonosis with a wide variety of radiologic findings, which sometimes can be confused with tuberculosis and carcinoma. Therefore, differential diagnosis is always warranted. A 43-year-old male farmer, with productive cough, blood-tinged sputum and chest pain, as well as patchy consolidation and pleural effusions in chest computer tomography, was misdiagnosed of community-acquired pneumonia and tuberculosis. Complete blood cell count, sputum smear and culture, chest computer tomography, thoracoscopy, and biopsy. The diagnosis of pulmonary paragonimiasis was established due to the finding of Charcot-Leyden crystals in the pleural necrosis, and antibodies against Paragonimus westermani in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Paragonimiasis should be considered as a possibility in the differential diagnosis of tuberculosis. Thoracoscopy is an effective and valuable technology that can help make an accurate diagnosis.

  20. Familial Mediterranean Fever with Rheumatoid Arthritis Complicated by Pulmonary Paragonimiasis.

    PubMed

    Nureki, Shin-Ichi; Ishii, Koji; Fujisaki, Hideaki; Torigoe, Masataka; Maeshima, Keisuke; Shibata, Hirotaka; Miyazaki, Eishi; Kadota, Jun-Ichi

    A 42-year-old woman presented with an intermittent fever and chest and back pain, and an abnormal chest shadow was detected. She was diagnosed with paragonimiasis caused by Paragonimus westermani. Praziquantel therapy improved the abnormal chest shadow, but did not relieve her symptoms. She was also diagnosed with familial Mediterranean fever (FMF), and colchicine therapy resolved her symptoms. She subsequently developed arthralgia and morning stiffness in her hands. We also diagnosed the patient with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and corticosteroid and salazosulfapyridine therapy improved her symptoms. The existence of paragonimiasis complicated the diagnosis of FMF. The coexistence of FMF and RA is very rare, but does exist.

  1. Familial Mediterranean Fever with Rheumatoid Arthritis Complicated by Pulmonary Paragonimiasis

    PubMed Central

    Nureki, Shin-ichi; Ishii, Koji; Fujisaki, Hideaki; Torigoe, Masataka; Maeshima, Keisuke; Shibata, Hirotaka; Miyazaki, Eishi; Kadota, Jun-ichi

    2016-01-01

    A 42-year-old woman presented with an intermittent fever and chest and back pain, and an abnormal chest shadow was detected. She was diagnosed with paragonimiasis caused by Paragonimus westermani. Praziquantel therapy improved the abnormal chest shadow, but did not relieve her symptoms. She was also diagnosed with familial Mediterranean fever (FMF), and colchicine therapy resolved her symptoms. She subsequently developed arthralgia and morning stiffness in her hands. We also diagnosed the patient with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and corticosteroid and salazosulfapyridine therapy improved her symptoms. The existence of paragonimiasis complicated the diagnosis of FMF. The coexistence of FMF and RA is very rare, but does exist. PMID:27725555

  2. Paragonimiasis in tuberculosis patients in Nagaland, India

    PubMed Central

    Das, Mrinalini; Doleckova, Katerina; Shenoy, Rahul; Mahanta, Jagadish; Narain, Kanwar; Devi, K. Rekha; Konyak, Tongmeth; Mansoor, Homa; Isaakidis, Petros

    2016-01-01

    Background One of the infections that mimic tuberculosis (TB) is paragonimiasis (PRG), a foodborne parasitic disease caused by lung flukes of the genus Paragonimus. In the northeastern states of India, TB and PRG are endemic; however, PRG is rarely included in the differential diagnosis of TB. Objective To address limited evidence on the dual burden of TB and PRG in northeastern India, we aimed to document the prevalence of PRG among TB patients using sputum smear, stool examination for children <15 years and ELISA. Design A cross-sectional study of patients receiving TB treatment in the Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF)-supported TB programme in Mon district, in collaboration with the Regional Medical Research Centre (RMRC), Dibrugarh, Assam, between November 2012 and December 2013. Results Of 96 patients screened between November 2012 and December 2013, three (3%) had pulmonary PRG and were successfully treated with praziquantel. Conclusions PRG should be considered in the TB diagnostic algorithms in PRG–TB dual burden areas. In case of TB–PRG co-infection, it is preferable to treat PRG first followed by anti-TB treatment a few days later. PMID:27667815

  3. Pulmonary Paragonimiasis Diagnosed by Fine-Needle Aspiration Biopsy▿

    PubMed Central

    Zarrin-Khameh, Neda; Citron, Deborah R.; Stager, Charles E.; Laucirica, Rodolfo

    2008-01-01

    We report a case of paragonimiasis involving a 12-year-old Latin American boy. The diagnosis was made by fine-needle aspiration biopsy of a pulmonary nodule. Identification of the species by morphometric analysis of the eggs indicated that the infection was caused by Paragonimus mexicanus. PMID:18385444

  4. [Clinical, pathologic and radiologic analysis of paragonimiasis in children].

    PubMed

    Liu, Q; Zhang, H; Zhao, Y M; Zhou, L L; Gao, B H; Chen, Y P

    2017-02-08

    Objective: To analyze the clinical, pathological and radiological characteristics of paragonimiasis in children for accurate diagnosis and therapy. Methods: A total of 31 patients with paragonimiasis treated from 2002 to 2016 were selected, including 17 cases from migrant areas and 14 cases from Wenzhou area. Results: In migrant children group, the serum IgE was significantly higher than that in Wenzhou area group [(2 379±944) IU/mL∶(1 552±1 121) IU/mL, t=-2.23, P<0.05], and the duration of therapy was remarkable longer [(13.8±6.5) days∶(9.9±3.4) days, t=-2.15, P<0.05]. Among all cases, 10 showed polyserositis including pleural effusion, ascites and pericardial effusion at different degrees on chest CT scans. Five cases with cerebral paragonimiasis were confirmed by MR imaging. Most of the lesions were located in the parietal lobe with slight low signal on T1WI but high signal on T2WI surrounded by disproportionate edema. Annular enhancement was prominent by Gd-DTPA. Paragonimiasis serum antibody was positive in all cases by ELISA. Pathologic features included formation of irregular lacunae or sinus tracts, presence of paragonimus bodies, and eosinophilic infiltration in the adjacent tissues. Conclusions: Clinical manifestations of paragonimiasis are complex and non-specific in children.In migrant children group, clinical manifestations are diverse, more serious with more complications and difficulties in treatment, while patients in Wenzhou area group have favorable prognosis and less complicated treatment. The early diagnosis and timely treatment should be determined by patient's detailed history, eosinophilic count, radiologic findings and immunological test to avoid serious complications.

  5. Current status of Paragonimus and paragonimiasis in Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Calvopiña, Manuel; Romero, Daniel; Castañeda, Byron; Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa; Sugiyama, Hiromu

    2014-11-01

    A review of national and international publications on paragonimiasis in Ecuador, epidemiological records from the Ministry of Public Health and unpublished research data was conducted to summarise the current status of the parasite/disease. The purpose of the review is to educate physicians, policy-makers and health providers on the status of the disease and to stimulate scientific investigators to conduct further research. Paragonimiasis was first diagnosed in Ecuador 94 years ago and it is endemic to both tropical and subtropical regions in 19 of 24 provinces in the Pacific Coast and Amazon regions. Paragonimus mexicanus is the only known species in the country, with the mollusc Aroapyrgus colombiensis and the crabs Moreirocarcinus emarginatus, Hypolobocera chilensis and Hypolobocera aequatorialis being the primary and secondary intermediate hosts, respectively. Recent studies found P. mexicanus metacercariae in Trichodactylus faxoni crabs of the northern Amazon. Chronic pulmonary paragonimiasis is commonly misdiagnosed and treated as tuberculosis and although studies have demonstrated the efficacy of praziquantel and triclabendazole for the treatment of human infections, neither drug is available in Ecuador. Official data recorded from 1978-2007 indicate an annual incidence of 85.5 cases throughout the 19 provinces, with an estimated 17.2% of the population at risk of infection. There are no current data on the incidence/prevalence of infection, nor is there a national control programme.

  6. Current status of Paragonimus and paragonimiasis in Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    Calvopiña, Manuel; Romero, Daniel; Castañeda, Byron; Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa; Sugiyama, Hiromu

    2014-01-01

    A review of national and international publications on paragonimiasis in Ecuador, epidemiological records from the Ministry of Public Health and unpublished research data was conducted to summarise the current status of the parasite/disease. The purpose of the review is to educate physicians, policy-makers and health providers on the status of the disease and to stimulate scientific investigators to conduct further research. Paragonimiasis was first diagnosed in Ecuador 94 years ago and it is endemic to both tropical and subtropical regions in 19 of 24 provinces in the Pacific Coast and Amazon regions. Paragonimus mexicanus is the only known species in the country, with the mollusc Aroapyrgus colombiensis and the crabs Moreirocarcinus emarginatus, Hypolobocera chilensis and Hypolobocera aequatorialis being the primary and secondary intermediate hosts, respectively. Recent studies found P. mexicanus metacercariae in Trichodactylus faxoni crabs of the northern Amazon. Chronic pulmonary paragonimiasis is commonly misdiagnosed and treated as tuberculosis and although studies have demonstrated the efficacy of praziquantel and triclabendazole for the treatment of human infections, neither drug is available in Ecuador. Official data recorded from 1978-2007 indicate an annual incidence of 85.5 cases throughout the 19 provinces, with an estimated 17.2% of the population at risk of infection. There are no current data on the incidence/prevalence of infection, nor is there a national control programme. PMID:25410987

  7. Ziehl-Neelsen Staining Technique Can Diagnose Paragonimiasis

    PubMed Central

    Slesak, Günther; Inthalad, Saythong; Basy, Phadsana; Keomanivong, Dalaphone; Phoutsavath, Ounheaun; Khampoui, Somchaivang; Grosrenaud, Aude; Amstutz, Vincent; Barennes, Hubert; Buisson, Yves; Odermatt, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Background We evaluated the Ziehl-Neelsen staining (ZNS) technique for the diagnosis of paragonimiasis in Laos and compared different modifications of the ZNS techniques. Methodology We applied the following approach: We (1) examined a paragonimiasis index case's sputum with wet film direct examination (WF) and ZNS; (2) re-examined stored ZNS slides from two provinces; (3) compared prospectively WF, ZNS, and formalin-ether concentration technique (FECT) for sputum examination of patients with chronic cough; and (4) compared different ZNS procedures. Finally, we assessed excess direct costs associated with the use of different diagnostic techniques. Principal Findings Paragonimus eggs were clearly visible in WF and ZNS sputum samples of the index case. They appeared brownish-reddish in ZNS and were detected in 6 of 263 archived ZNS slides corresponding to 5 patients. One hundred sputum samples from 43 patients were examined with three techniques, which revealed that 6 patients had paragonimiasis (13 positive samples). Sensitivity per slide of the FECT, ZNS and the WF technique was 84.6 (p = 0.48), 76.9 (p = 0.25) and 61.5% (p = 0.07), respectively. Percentage of fragmented eggs was below 19% and did not differ between techniques (p = 0.13). Additional operational costs per slide were 0 (ZNS), 0.10 US$ (WF), and 0.79 US$ (FECT). ZNS heated for five minutes contained less eggs than briefly heated slides (29 eggs per slide [eps] vs. 42 eps, p = 0.01). Bloodstained sputum portions contained more eggs than unstained parts (3.3 eps vs. 0.7 eps, p = 0.016). Conclusions/Significance Paragonimus eggs can easily be detected in today's widely used ZNS of sputum slides. The ZNS technique appears superior to the standard WF sputum examination for paragonimiasis and eliminates the risk of tuberculosis transmission. Our findings suggest that ZNS sputum slides should also be examined routinely for Paragonimus eggs. ZNS technique has potential in

  8. [Cerebral paragonimiasis and Bo Sung Sim's hemispherectomy in Korea in 1950s-1960s].

    PubMed

    Park, Jiyoung; Miyagawa, Takuya; Hong, Jeonghwa; Kim, Ockjoo

    2011-06-30

    This paper deals with cerebral paragonimiasis and cerebral hemispherectomy conducted as a treatment of cerebral paragonimiasis by Bo Sung Sim in Korea in 1950s-1960s. He demonstrated that cerebral hemispherectomy could be used for unilateral diffuse cerebral paragonimiasis. Sim learned cerebral hemispherectomy from Dr. L. A. French. at the University of Minnesota from 1955 to 1957 in America. The authors argues that Bo Sung Sim's introduction of cerebral hemispherectomy to Korea was not a simple application of an advanced medical technology, but a complicated and active process in that Sim used the technique to intervene intractable complications from cerebral paragonimiasis such as generalized convulsions, spastic hemiplegia and mental deterioration. Bo Sung Sim, one of the neurosurgeons of the first generation in Korea, was trained in neurology, neuropathology, neuroradiology and animal experiments as well as in neurosurgery at the University of Minnesota. After returning to Korea, Sim faced parasitic diseases, one of the most serious public health problems at that time, which were far different from what he learned in America. As a neurosurgeon, Sim tackled with parasitic diseases of the central nervous system with various diagnostics and therapeutics. In 1950s, more than one million populations suffered from pulmonary paragonimiasis acquired by eating raw crabs or by feeding juice of crushed crayfish for the treatment of measles in Korea. About 26.6 percent of people with paragonimiasis had cerebral paragonimiasis. Before bithionol therapy was introduced in 1962, neurosurgery was the only available treatment to control increased intracranial pressures, intractable epilepsy, paralysis and mental deterioration. Between 1958 to 1962, Bo Sung Sim operated on 24 patients of cerebral paragonimiasis. In two of them, he performed cerebral hemispherectomy to control intractable convulsions when he found diffuse cerebral paragonimiasis and cerebral atrophy at the

  9. Paragonimus heterotremus infection in Nagaland: A new focus of Paragonimiasis in India.

    PubMed

    Singh, T S; Sugiyama, H; Umehara, A; Hiese, S; Khalo, K

    2009-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of paragonimiasis among the patients who were attending the tuberculosis (TB) clinics at the Community Health Centre, Pfutsero, Phek District, Nagaland. To determine the species of Paragonimus that cause infection in humans and the crustacean host that acts as the infectious source for humans. Sputum specimens were examined microscopically for Paragonimus eggs and acid fast bacilli. Blood samples were tested by microenzyme-linked immunosorbant assay for Paragonimus-specific immunoglobulin G antibodies. Crab extracts prepared by digestion with artificial gastric juice were examined for Paragonimus metacercariae under a stereoscopic microscope. The species identification of the parasite was based on morphological and molecular characterizations of eggs and metacercariae employing polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequencing. Seven out of the 14 patients tested seropositive for paragonimiasis and Paragonimus eggs were detected in sputum of two out of the seven seropositive patients, indicating a prevalence of 50% and an egg detection rate of 14%, respectively. The prevalence was highest in the 10-30 year age group. More males got the infection than females, the ratio being 5:2. P. heterotremus was identified as the causative agent of human paragonimiasis and Potamiscus manipurensis as the crab host. The study revealed that paragonimiasis has been endemic in Pfutsero, Nagaland, and half of the patients attending the TB clinic were actually suffering from pulmonary paragonimiasis. This is the first confirmed report of an endemic focus of paragonimasis and description of P. heterotremus as the causative agent in Nagaland, India.

  10. Integrated surveillance of pulmonary tuberculosis and paragonimiasis in Zamboanga del Norte, the Philippines

    PubMed Central

    Belizario, Vicente; Totanes, Francis Isidore; Asuncion, Camille Ann; Leon, Winifreda De; Jorge, Manuel; Ang, Concepcion; Naig, June Rose

    2014-01-01

    Background Pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) and paragonimiasis remain as health problems in certain areas in the Philippines. Both share similar clinical manifestations, which include chronic productive cough, hemoptysis, dyspnea, fever, weight loss, and night sweats. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of PTB, paragonimiasis, and co-infections in Zamboanga del Norte, Philippines. Methods This study was conducted in selected villages in two municipalities in Zamboanga del Norte. Patients with chronic cough were interviewed, examined, and requested to submit two sputum samples which were processed using Ziehl–Neelsen method to detect acid-fast bacilli (AFB), and NaOH concentration technique for the detection of Paragonimus ova. Results A total of 836 patients submitted sputum samples for examination. Prevalence was 6.7% (2.5–12.7%) for paragonimiasis and 1.9% (0.9–6.3%) for PTB. Co-infection rate was 0.3%, with two identified cases. Positivity rates for males and females were 9.6 and 5.8% for paragonimiasis and 3.4 and 1.2% for PTB. Conclusion Pulmonary tuberculosis and paragonimiasis are co-endemic in Zamboanga del Norte, suggesting the need to integrate surveillance and control efforts. Strengthening local health systems through collaboration between different sectors is recommended for effective disease control. Development of more sensitive diagnostic tests is important for more accurate disease surveillance. PMID:24601907

  11. Boil before eating: paragonimiasis after eating raw crayfish in the Mississippi River Basin.

    PubMed

    Diaz, James H

    2011-01-01

    Paragonimiasis is a parasitic infection of the lungs caused by zoonotic lung flukes of the genus Paragonimus. Most cases are reported from Asia and caused by P. westermani following consumption of raw crustaceans. With the exception of imported cases, human paragonimiasis was rarely described prior to 1984 in the United States (US), which has only one indigenous lung fluke species, P. kellicotti. Between 1984 and 2010, 15 cases of P. kellicotti paragonimiasis were reported in the United States. This study will analyze all US cases and compare an earlier series of six cases reported during the period 1984-2005 with a recently reported cluster of nine cases from Missouri during the period 2006-2010 in order to determine any significant behavioral and/ or recreational risk factors for paragonimiasis and to recommend early diagnostic, treatment and preventive strategies. Significant behavioral and recreational risk factors included eating raw crayfish while on canoeing trips on local rivers (p = 0.002), eating raw crayfish while on canoeing trips in Missouri (p = 0.002), and eating raw crayfish while intoxicated (p = 0.007). The male:female case ratio was 9.3:1.0 and more than 80% of cases presented with fever, cough, pleural effusions and peripheral eosinophilia. One patient developed cerebral paragonimiasis, and one patient died of pneumonic sepsis. Clinicians should inquire about consumption of raw or undercooked crayfish in all patients with unexplained fever, cough, eosinophilia and pleural effusions returning from camping or canoeing adventures in P. kellicotti-endemic areas of the Mississippi River Drainage Basin; institute diagnostic evaluation by specific parasitological and serological methods and treat all cases as soon as possible to avoid the pulmonary and cerebral complications of paragonimiasis.

  12. Preparation of Colloidal Gold Immunochromatographic Strip for Detection of Paragonimiasis skrjabini

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jianwei; Wang, Guangxi; Chen, Wenbi; Chen, Lin; Zhang, Xilin

    2014-01-01

    Background Paragonimiasis is a food-borne trematodiasis, a serious public health issue and a neglected tropical disease. Paragonimus skrjabini is a unique species found in China. Unlike paragonimiasis westermani, it is nearly impossible to make a definitive diagnosis for paragonimiasis skrjabini by finding eggs in sputum or feces. Immunodiagnosis is the best choice to detect paragonimiasis skrjabini. There is an urgent need to develop a novel, rapid and simple immunoassay for large-scale screening patients in endemic areas. Methodology/Principal Findings To develop a rapid, simple immunodiagnostic assay for paragonimiasis, rabbit anti-human IgG was conjugated to colloidal gold particles and used to detect antibodies in the sera of paragonimiasis patients. The synthesis and identification of colloidal gold particles and antibody-colloidal gold conjugates were performed. The size of colloidal gold particles was examined using a transmission electron microscope (TEM). The average diameter of colloidal gold particles was 17.46 nm with a range of 14.32–21.80 nm according to the TEM images. The formation of antibody-colloidal gold conjugates was monitored by UV/Vis spectroscopy. Excretory-secretory (ES) antigen of Paragonimus skrjabini was coated on nitrocellulose membrane as the capture line. Recombinant Staphylococcus protein A was used to prepare the control line. This rapid gold immunochromatographic strip was assembled in regular sequence through different accessories sticked on PVC board. The relative sensitivity and specificity of the strip was 94.4% (51/54) and 94.1% (32/34) respectively using ELISA as the standard method. Its stability and reproducibility were quite excellent after storage of the strip at 4°C for 6 months. Conclusions/Significance Immunochromatographic strip prepared in this study can be used in a rapid one-step immunochromatographic assay, which is instantaneous and convenient. PMID:24643068

  13. Preparation of colloidal gold immunochromatographic strip for detection of Paragonimiasis skrjabini.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Wang, Lifang; Zhang, Jianwei; Wang, Guangxi; Chen, Wenbi; Chen, Lin; Zhang, Xilin

    2014-01-01

    Paragonimiasis is a food-borne trematodiasis, a serious public health issue and a neglected tropical disease. Paragonimus skrjabini is a unique species found in China. Unlike paragonimiasis westermani, it is nearly impossible to make a definitive diagnosis for paragonimiasis skrjabini by finding eggs in sputum or feces. Immunodiagnosis is the best choice to detect paragonimiasis skrjabini. There is an urgent need to develop a novel, rapid and simple immunoassay for large-scale screening patients in endemic areas. To develop a rapid, simple immunodiagnostic assay for paragonimiasis, rabbit anti-human IgG was conjugated to colloidal gold particles and used to detect antibodies in the sera of paragonimiasis patients. The synthesis and identification of colloidal gold particles and antibody-colloidal gold conjugates were performed. The size of colloidal gold particles was examined using a transmission electron microscope (TEM). The average diameter of colloidal gold particles was 17.46 nm with a range of 14.32-21.80 nm according to the TEM images. The formation of antibody-colloidal gold conjugates was monitored by UV/Vis spectroscopy. Excretory-secretory (ES) antigen of Paragonimus skrjabini was coated on nitrocellulose membrane as the capture line. Recombinant Staphylococcus protein A was used to prepare the control line. This rapid gold immunochromatographic strip was assembled in regular sequence through different accessories sticked on PVC board. The relative sensitivity and specificity of the strip was 94.4% (51/54) and 94.1% (32/34) respectively using ELISA as the standard method. Its stability and reproducibility were quite excellent after storage of the strip at 4°C for 6 months. Immunochromatographic strip prepared in this study can be used in a rapid one-step immunochromatographic assay, which is instantaneous and convenient.

  14. Pulmonary paragonimiasis in Southeast Asians living in the central San Joaquin Valley.

    PubMed Central

    Yee, B.; Hsu, J. I.; Favour, C. B.; Lohne, E.

    1992-01-01

    We describe four cases of pulmonary paragonimiasis in Southeast Asians who emigrated to the central San Joaquin Valley of California. Physicians should be alerted to the possibility of this disease in Asian patients with hemoptysis and pulmonary infiltrates. Paragonimiasis can masquerade as pulmonary tuberculosis, especially in patients from areas that are endemic for both the parasite and the tubercle bacillus. The ease and safety with which this infection can be treated, in contrast to tuberculosis, reiterates the importance of diagnosing this lung fluke when it is present. Images PMID:1574893

  15. Intestinal paragonimiasis with colonic ulcer and hematochezia in an elderly Taiwanese woman.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chung-Te; Chen, Yen-Cheng; Chen, Tso-Hsiao; Barghouth, Ursula; Fan, Chia-Kwung

    2012-12-01

    A 94-year-old female with end-stage renal disease presents with fever, fatigue, and hematochezia. She had previously resided in Hunan Province, China, and Myanmar, and she immigrated to Taiwan 30 years ago. Colonoscopy revealed a colonic ulcer. Biopsy of the colonic ulcer showed ulceration of the colonic mucosa, and many Paragonimus westermani-like eggs were noted. Serum IgG antibody levels showed strong reactivity with P. westermani excretory-secretory antigens by ELISA. Intestinal paragonimiasis was thus diagnosed according to the morphology of the eggs and serologic finding. After treatment with praziquantel, hematochezia resolved. The present case illustrates the extreme manifestations encountered in severe intestinal paragonimiasis.

  16. STUDIES ON THE LIFE-CYCLE OF PARAGONIMUS AND THE CONTROL OF PARAGONIMIASIS IN SHIKOKU AREA.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The life cycle, classification, pathology and control of the lung fluke, Paragonimus westermani, has been studied. Research is presented on the...paragonimiasis by partial research in the study area. It was clarified that this area is one of the highest infected areas with Paragonimus westermani in Japan.

  17. Imaging manifestations and diagnosis of a case of adult cerebral paragonimiasis with the initial symptom of hemorrhagic stroke.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong; Shao, Bei

    2015-01-01

    This study is to investigate the clinical features, neuroimaging and diagnosis of adult cerebral paragonimiasis. One case of patient with cerebral paragonimiasis as retrospectively analyzed in this study. Analysis included medical history, clinical manifestations and neuroimaging. Blood test, body fluid examination, immunological test, stool examination and imaging examination were performed. Many symptoms such as headache, hemiplegia, chest pain, cough, and pleural effusion were detected in the patient. The features of "tunnel-like shape" and "ring-like shape", the intracranial hemorrhage and edema were shown by CT and MRI imaging. Chest CT examination revealed pleural effusion. Eosinophil count of peripheral blood and pleural effusion increased. Lung fluke ELISA test was positive and anti-parasitic treatment was effective. The typical clinical manifestations of MRI of cerebral paragonimiasis, such as the "tunnel-like shape" and "ring-like shape", were of high diagnostic value. And, blood eosinophil count examination and paragonimiasis antibody test could also help the diagnosis value.

  18. Declining prevalence of pulmonary paragonimiasis following treatment & community education in a remote tribal population of Arunachal Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Narain, Kanwar; Devi, K Rekha; Bhattacharya, S; Negmu, K; Rajguru, S K; Mahanta, Jagadish

    2015-05-01

    In India, human pulmonary paragonimiasis is an important public health problem in the northeastern (NE) region. In 2005 we reported a hyperendemic focus of paragonimiasis in a remote tribal village in the hills of Changlang district in Arunachal Pradesh. The community was made aware of the disease and all active cases were treated. This study was aimed to assess the decline in the prevelance of paragonimiasis in the same area after a re-survey done in 2011 after a gap of six years. Re-surveys were carried to determine the reduction in the prevalence of paragonimiasis. Community education was given to the villagers to raise their awareness about paragonimiasis. A total of 624 individuals including 301 children (age 15 yr) were included in the study. Sputum and stool samples were examined for eggs of lung flukes. Serum samples were screened for IgG antibodies against lung fluke antigen by ELISA. A significant (P<0.001) decline in the prevalence of paragonimiasis was found. There was decline in both ELISA positivity and egg positivity. Antibody positivity against excretory-secretary (ES) antigen in children (age 15 yr) fell down from earlier 51.7 to 15.9 per cent and in individuals 16 - 30 yr of age the serological prevalence fell down from 22.4 to 8.2 per cent and in individuals aged th > 31 yr, the decline in prevalence was from 15.3 to 3.7 per cent. Gender-wise analysis revealed that the decline in ELISA positivity was similar in both genders and fell down from 33.9 to 11.5 per cent in males and from 29.8 to 10.7 per cent in females. Similarly, there was a significant decline rate in egg positivity also. The strategy of hotspot targeted active paragonimiasis case detection and treatment of infected cases together with community education appears to be feasible methods to achieve control of paragonimiasis in this region.

  19. Serological studies of neurologic helminthic infections in rural areas of southwest cameroon: toxocariasis, cysticercosis and paragonimiasis.

    PubMed

    Nkouawa, Agathe; Sako, Yasuhito; Itoh, Sonoyo; Kouojip-Mabou, Alida; Nganou, Christ Nadège; Saijo, Yasuaki; Knapp, Jenny; Yamasaki, Hiroshi; Nakao, Minoru; Nakaya, Kazuhiro; Moyou-Somo, Roger; Ito, Akira

    2010-07-06

    Both epilepsy and paragonimiasis had been known to be endemic in Southwest Cameroon. A total of 188 people (168 and 20 with and without symptoms confirmed by clinicians, respectively, 84.6% under 20 years old) were selected on a voluntary basis. Among 14 people (8.3%) with history of epilepsy, only one suffered from paragonimiasis. Therefore, we challenged to check antibody responses to highly specific diagnostic recombinant antigens for two other helminthic diseases, cysticercosis and toxocariasis, expected to be involved in neurological diseases. Soil-transmitted helminthic infections were also examined. Fecal samples were collected exclusively from the 168 people. Eggs of Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworms were found from 56 (33.3%), 72 (42.8%), and 19 (11.3%) persons, respectively. Serology revealed that 61 (36.3%), 25 (14.9%) and 2 (1.2%) of 168 persons showed specific antibody responses to toxocariasis, paragonimiasis and cysticercosis, respectively. By contrast, 20 people without any symptoms as well as additional 20 people from Japan showed no antibody responses. Among the 14 persons with epilepsy, 5 persons were seropositive to the antigen specific to Toxocara, and one of them was simultaneously positive to the antigens of Paragonimus. The fact that 2 children with no history of epilepsy were serologically confirmed to have cysticercosis strongly suggests that serological survey for cysticercosis in children is expected to be useful for early detection of asymptomatic cysticercosis in endemic areas. Among persons surveyed, toxocariasis was more common than paragonimiasis, but cysticercosis was very rare. However, the fact that 2 children were serologically confirmed to have cysticercosis was very important, since it strongly suggests that serology for cysticercosis is useful and feasible for detection of asymptomatic cysticercotic children in endemic areas for the early treatment.

  20. Paragonimiasis mimicking chest cancer and abdominal wall metastaisis: A case report

    PubMed Central

    ZHOU, RONGXING; ZHANG, MINJIA; CHENG, NANSHENG; ZHOU, YONG

    2016-01-01

    Typical human paragonimiasis demonstrates an elevated eosinophil count, positive immunoblot, nodular shadows of the lung and pleural thickening with pleural effusion, and these symptoms may be confused with chest cancer. In the present case, a rare case of human paragonimiasis mimicking chest cancer and abdominal wall metastasis is described, the 39-year-old male patient was admitted in our hospital for cough, weight loss 5 kg and a firm mass in right upper abdominal wall. The laboratory test showed unremarkable hematology and biochemistry results. Chest X-ray, Plain computed tomography of the chest and abdomen showed right pleural effusion, several nodules in right lower lung and a mass in the right upper abdominal wall. The initial diagnosis was lung or chest cancer with abdominal wall metastasis, and the abdominal wall mass was resected for the final diagnosis. The biopsy revealed eosinophilic granuloma with Charcot-Leyden crystal formation infiltrated in the muscular fibers. Subsequent to assessment of the antibodies against parasites, the final diagnosis of paragonimiasis was made. PMID:27313691

  1. Persisting antibody reaction in paragonimiasis after praziquantel treatment is elicited mainly by egg antigens

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Yoon; Yun, Doo-Hee; Kang, Shin-Yong; Kim, Lee-Soo; Chung, Young-Bae; Yang, Hyun-Jong

    2000-01-01

    Antibody responses in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from patients with active and chronic paragonimiasis and in sera from patients on whom follow-up studies were done after praziquantel treatment were analyzed using antigens of Paragonimus westermani prepared from eggs, metacercariae, juveniles of 4- and 7-week old, adult worms and recombinant protein of 28 kDa cruzipain-like cysteine protease (rPw28CCP). The patient sera/CSFs of active and chronic paragonimiasis revealed strong antibody reactions against the crude extracts of 4- and 7-week old juveniles as well as against those from egg and adult. rPw28CCP also showed specific reaction to the sera with active paragonimiasis. After the treatment, levels of specific antibodies in the sera gradually decreased to negative range in most patients. In some cases with persisting high antibody levels, however, the reactions at 27 kDa egg protein were sustained throughout the observation period of 34 months. The reactions at 35 and 32 kDa in adult extract and rPw28CCP disappeared rapidly after the treatment. Persistent antibody reactions even after successful treatment are provoked by continuous antigenic challenge from eggs which were not resolved by treatment. PMID:10905068

  2. A Case of Pulmonary Paragonimiasis with Involvement of the Abdominal Muscle in a 9-Year-Old Girl

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Ah-Rum; Lee, Hae-Ran; Lee, Kwan-Sub; Lee, Sang-Eun

    2011-01-01

    In Korea, many people enjoy eating raw or underkooked freshwater crayfish and crabs which unfortunately may cause paragonimiasis. Here, we describe a case of pulmonary and abdominal paragonimiasis in a 9-year-old girl, who presented with a 1-month history of abdominal pain, especially in the right flank and the right inguinal area, with anorexia. A chest radiograph revealed pleural effusion in both lungs, and her abdominal sonography indicated an inflammatory lesion in the right psoas muscle. Peripheral blood analysis of the patient showed hypereosinophilia (66.0%) and an elevated total serum IgE level (>2,500 IU/ml). The pleural effusion tested by ELISA were also positive for antibodies against paragonimiasis. Her dietary history stated that she had ingested raw freshwater crab, 4 months previously. The diagnosis was pulmonary paragonimiasis accompanied by abdominal muscle involvement. She was improved after 5 cycles of praziquantel treatment and 2 times of pleural effusion drainage. In conclusion, herein, we report a case of pulmonary and abdominal paragonimiasis in a girl who presented with abdominal pain and tenderness in the inguinal area. PMID:22355209

  3. A paragonimiasis patient with allergic reaction to praziquantel and resistance to triclabendazole: successful treatment after desensitization to praziquantel.

    PubMed

    Kyung, Sun Young; Cho, Yong Kyun; Kim, Yu Jin; Park, Jeong-Woong; Jeong, Sung Hwan; Lee, Jae-Ik; Sung, Yon Mi; Lee, Sang Pyo

    2011-03-01

    Paragonimiasis is an infectious disease caused by trematodes of the genus Paragonimus. This trematode can be treated successfully with praziquantel in more than 90% of the cases. Although praziquantel is generally well tolerated, anaphylactic reactions to this drug have been reported in a few cases. We report here a 46-year-old Korean female with paragonimiasis, presumed to be due to Paragonimus westermani, who displayed an allergic reaction to praziquantel and resistance to triclabendazole treatment. The patient was successfully treated with praziquantel following a rapid desensitization procedure. Desensitization to praziquantel could be considered when no alternative drugs are available.

  4. An epidemiological study of pleuropulmonary paragonimiasis among pupils in the peri-urban zone of Kumba town, Meme Division, Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Moyou-Somo, Roger; Kefie-Arrey, Charles; Dreyfuss, Georges; Dumas, Michel

    2003-01-01

    Background Paragonimiasis have previously been reported in two zones of the Southwest Province of Cameroon including the Kupe mountain and Mundani foci. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence and epidemiology of paragonimiasis in the peri-urban zone of Kumba, Meme Division, located about 50 km away from the Kupe mountain focus. Methods Pupils of several government primary schools in 5 villages around Kumba underwent both parasitologic and clinical investigations in search of signs and symptoms of paragonimiasis. Mycobacterium tuberculosis was also searched for in the differential diagnosis.Freshwater crabs from neighbouring streams in the five villages were dissected in search of paragonimus metacercariae. Results Out of a total of 1482 pupils examined in all five villages, 309 individuals (147 males and 162 females) were recruited for this study based on the presence of one or more signs or symptoms of paragonimiasis. Eggs of Paragonimus africanus were found in stools and/or sputum of pupils from all five villages, giving an overall paragonimus prevalence of 2.56%. There was no significant difference in the disease prevalence between the villages (X2 = 8.36, P = 0.08). The prevalence of Paragonimus africanus eggs amongst pupils with symptoms of paragonimiasis was 12.3% (38 of 309). Males were infected more than females (17.0% versus 8.0%), but the difference was not significant (X2 = 5.76, P = 0.16). All the 38 paragonimus egg positive subjects presented with cough, 23 (60.53%) complained of chest pain while 16 (42.11%) had haemoptysis. Stool examinations also detected some intestinal parasites including Ascaris lumbricoides (29.45%), Trichuris trichiura (6.47%), Necator americanus (2.27%), Strongyloides stercoralis (1.62%), Enterobius vermicularis (0.65%), and Entamoeba histolytica (4.53%). No case of M. tuberculosis was noted. Out of a total of 85 dissected crabs (Sudanonautes africanus), 6.02 % were infected with paragonimus metacercariae

  5. An epidemiological study of pleuropulmonary paragonimiasis among pupils in the peri-urban zone of Kumba town, Meme Division, Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Moyou-Somo, Roger; Kefie-Arrey, Charles; Dreyfuss, Georges; Dumas, Michel

    2003-12-16

    Paragonimiasis have previously been reported in two zones of the Southwest Province of Cameroon including the Kupe mountain and Mundani foci. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence and epidemiology of paragonimiasis in the peri-urban zone of Kumba, Meme Division, located about 50 km away from the Kupe mountain focus. Pupils of several government primary schools in 5 villages around Kumba underwent both parasitologic and clinical investigations in search of signs and symptoms of paragonimiasis. Mycobacterium tuberculosis was also searched for in the differential diagnosis. Freshwater crabs from neighbouring streams in the five villages were dissected in search of paragonimus metacercariae. Out of a total of 1482 pupils examined in all five villages, 309 individuals (147 males and 162 females) were recruited for this study based on the presence of one or more signs or symptoms of paragonimiasis. Eggs of Paragonimus africanus were found in stools and/or sputum of pupils from all five villages, giving an overall paragonimus prevalence of 2.56%. There was no significant difference in the disease prevalence between the villages (Chi2 = 8.36, P = 0.08). The prevalence of Paragonimus africanus eggs amongst pupils with symptoms of paragonimiasis was 12.3% (38 of 309). Males were infected more than females (17.0% versus 8.0%), but the difference was not significant (Chi2 = 5.76, P = 0.16). All the 38 paragonimus egg positive subjects presented with cough, 23 (60.53%) complained of chest pain while 16 (42.11%) had haemoptysis. Stool examinations also detected some intestinal parasites including Ascaris lumbricoides (29.45%), Trichuris trichiura (6.47%), Necator americanus (2.27%), Strongyloides stercoralis (1.62%), Enterobius vermicularis (0.65%), and Entamoeba histolytica (4.53%). No case of M. tuberculosis was noted. Out of a total of 85 dissected crabs (Sudanonautes africanus), 6.02 % were infected with paragonimus metacercariae. In addition to the two

  6. A Paragonimiasis Patient with Allergic Reaction to Praziquantel and Resistance to Triclabendazole: Successful Treatment after Desensitization to Praziquantel

    PubMed Central

    Kyung, Sun Young; Cho, Yong Kyun; Kim, Yu Jin; Park, Jeong-Woong; Jeong, Sung Hwan; Lee, Jae-Ik; Sung, Yon Mi

    2011-01-01

    Paragonimiasis is an infectious disease caused by trematodes of the genus Paragonimus. This trematode can be treated successfully with praziquantel in more than 90% of the cases. Although praziquantel is generally well tolerated, anaphylactic reactions to this drug have been reported in a few cases. We report here a 46-year-old Korean female with paragonimiasis, presumed to be due to Paragonimus westermani, who displayed an allergic reaction to praziquantel and resistance to triclabendazole treatment. The patient was successfully treated with praziquantel following a rapid desensitization procedure. Desensitization to praziquantel could be considered when no alternative drugs are available. PMID:21461273

  7. Where are we after 60 years of paragonimiasis research? A bibliometric assessment.

    PubMed

    Culquichicón, Carlos; Hernández-Pacherres, Arturo; Labán-Seminario, L Max; Cardona-Ospina, Jaime A; Rodríguez-Morales, Alfonso J

    2017-06-01

    Paragonimiasis is highly prevalent endemic food-borne disease in Southeast Asia and Latin America, and constitutes a major public health concern. A bibliometric analysis was performed about the worldwide scientific production of paragonimiasis. We browsed in the Science Citation Index-Expanded (SCI-E) (1957-2015), Scopus (1976-2015), Medline/PubMed/GoPubMed® (1970-2015), ScIELO (1981-2014) and LILACS (1985-2011). All types of articles were included and categorized by year of publication, number, type of scientific article, city and institution of origin, international cooperation, scientific journal, impact factor, language of publication, authors and H index. In SCI-E, 1,028 manuscripts were recovered, while Japan (21.9%) and the USA (17.7%) were the countries with highest scientific production. In this database, Asian region studies received 5,454 citations (H index=32). In Scopus 2161 items were recovered, corresponding to 45.8% of Asian countries. Japan (18.2%) was the first with the University of Miyazaki (11.7% of the country); South Korea (9.5%) was second with the Seoul National University (11.2% of the country). In SciELO 29 items were found, with no contributions from the Asian region. In LILACS 1487 articles were found (22.9% covering Asia). Among the databases, the Journal of Parasitology (Impact factor=1.227) showed the highest number of manuscripts and "Agatsuma T", from Japan, was the author with most records. Japan and South Korea lead global scientific production on paragonimiasis. By contrast, in Latin America, production has been extremely low especially in the last five years.

  8. [Two cases of Paragonimiasis westermani in a Chinese family diagnosed with the Ouchterlony double diffusion method].

    PubMed

    Hoshina, Tokio; Tamura, Kumi; Kawano, Shinji; Kato, Tetsurou; Sato, Fumiya; Horino, Tetsuya; Nakazawa, Yasushi; Yosikawa, Kouji; Yoshida, Masaki; Kumagai, Masahiro; Hori, Seiji

    2014-11-01

    We report two cases of Paragonimus westermani infection in a Chinese family in Japan. A 41-year-old husband and his 40-year-old wife were infected with P. westermani after consuming a homemade Chinese traditional "Drunken Crab." They were a family with two children who had lived in Japan for 19 years. The crabs were Eriocheir japonica sent from the Kyusyu area that they had pickled at home with soy sauce and Chinese liquor for 5 days. Their children did not eat any of the crabs. One month after consuming the crabs, the husband came to our outpatient clinic with fever and chest pain and his wife also presented with a persistent cough. Both patients had a high peripheral blood eosinophil count (husband:18,900/μL, wife:10,600/μL) with pulmonary effusion, nodular shadow, and pneumothorax in chest X-ray findings. Paragonimiasis was suspected from the episode of consuming the crabs. No parasite eggs were seen in their sputum and stool samples. A multiple-dot ELISA was performed with the sera to screen for parasitic infections, but the result was only weakly positive for P. westermani antigen in the husband and a slightly positive reaction in the wife. The diagnosis of P. westermani was achieved with the double diffusion Ouchterlony method using P. westermani antigen and P. miyazakii antigen. Praziquantel administration for three days improved the symptoms in both patients. The Ouchterlony method proved useful in diagnosing paragonimiasis in these cases.

  9. Cutaneous paragonimiasis due to triploid Paragonimus westermani presenting as a non-migratory subcutaneous nodule: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Paragonimiasis is a food-borne infection caused by Paragonimus parasites. The lungs and pleura are the primary sites for the infection; however, ectopic infection can occur in other organs such as skin, liver and brain. It is difficult to make a diagnosis of ectopic paragonimiasis due to an ignorance of, and unfamiliarity with the disease. We report the case of a patient with subcutaneous paragonimiasis diagnosed by histopathological analysis and serological testing. Case presentation A 39-year-old Chinese immigrant woman presented with a subcutaneous nodule in her left lower back. The nodule was initially suspected of lipoma and she was followed up on without any treatment. However, it gradually indurated and the nodule was resected surgically. A magnetic resonance imaging scan revealed a polycystic lesion with inhomogeneous low or high intensity on T1- or T2-weighted images, respectively. The rim of the lesion was enhanced after contrast enhancement, but the inside did not show high-signal intensity. A histological analysis of the surgically resected specimen revealed variable-sized tubulo-cystic structures. The cyst wall showed a granulomatous change with scant eosinophilic infiltration. A number of parasite ova were observed in the necrotic tissue inside the cysts, and a parasite body with a presumed oral sucker and reproductive organ was also detected, suggesting a trematode infection. A subsequent serological examination showed a positive reaction of her serum to the Paragonimus westermani antigen. No abnormal findings were found on her chest computed tomography scan. The diagnosis of subcutaneous paragonimiasis caused by Paragonimus westermani was made. Conclusions We report a case presenting only as a non-migratory subcutaneous nodule without any pleuropulmonary lesion, which was initially suspected of lipoma but denied by magnetic resonance imaging scan results. The case was subsequently diagnosed as subcutaneous paragonimiasis from the

  10. Cutaneous paragonimiasis due to triploid Paragonimus westermani presenting as a non-migratory subcutaneous nodule: a case report.

    PubMed

    Kodama, Makoto; Akaki, Mayumi; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Maruyama, Haruhiko; Nagayasu, Eiji; Yokouchi, Tetsuhiro; Arimura, Yasuji; Kataoka, Hiroaki

    2014-10-16

    Paragonimiasis is a food-borne infection caused by Paragonimus parasites. The lungs and pleura are the primary sites for the infection; however, ectopic infection can occur in other organs such as skin, liver and brain. It is difficult to make a diagnosis of ectopic paragonimiasis due to an ignorance of, and unfamiliarity with the disease. We report the case of a patient with subcutaneous paragonimiasis diagnosed by histopathological analysis and serological testing. A 39-year-old Chinese immigrant woman presented with a subcutaneous nodule in her left lower back. The nodule was initially suspected of lipoma and she was followed up on without any treatment. However, it gradually indurated and the nodule was resected surgically. A magnetic resonance imaging scan revealed a polycystic lesion with inhomogeneous low or high intensity on T1- or T2-weighted images, respectively. The rim of the lesion was enhanced after contrast enhancement, but the inside did not show high-signal intensity. A histological analysis of the surgically resected specimen revealed variable-sized tubulo-cystic structures. The cyst wall showed a granulomatous change with scant eosinophilic infiltration. A number of parasite ova were observed in the necrotic tissue inside the cysts, and a parasite body with a presumed oral sucker and reproductive organ was also detected, suggesting a trematode infection. A subsequent serological examination showed a positive reaction of her serum to the Paragonimus westermani antigen. No abnormal findings were found on her chest computed tomography scan. The diagnosis of subcutaneous paragonimiasis caused by Paragonimus westermani was made. We report a case presenting only as a non-migratory subcutaneous nodule without any pleuropulmonary lesion, which was initially suspected of lipoma but denied by magnetic resonance imaging scan results. The case was subsequently diagnosed as subcutaneous paragonimiasis from the results of histopathological analysis and

  11. Skin Test for Paragonimiasis among Schoolchildren and Villagers in Namback District, Luangprabang Province, Lao PDR

    PubMed Central

    Song, Hyun-Ouk; Rim, Han-Jong; Youthanavanh, Vonghachack; Daluny, Bouakhasith; Sengdara, Vongsouvan; Virasack, Banouvong; Bounlay, Phommasak

    2008-01-01

    As a part of a broader effort to determine the status of Paragonimus species infection in Lao PDR, an epidemiological survey was conducted on villagers and schoolchildren in Namback District between 2003 and 2005. Among 308 villagers and 633 primary and secondary schoolchildren, 156 villagers and 92 children evidenced a positive reaction on a Paragonimus skin test. Only 4 schoolchildren out of 128 skin test-positive cases had Paragonimus sp. eggs in their sputum, all of which was collected on 1 day. Several types of crabs, which were identified as the second intermediate host of the Paragonimus species, were collected from markets and streams in a paragonimiasis endemic area for the inspection of metacercariae. Among the examined crabs, only "rock crabs" (Indochinamon ou) harbored Paragonimus sp. metacercariae, and it is speculated that the life cycle of Paragonimus sp. was maintained via rock crabs in Namback District, Lao PDR. PMID:18830059

  12. Extra-pulmonary paragonimiasis with unusual arthritis and cutaneous features among a tourist returning from Gabon.

    PubMed

    Malvy, D; Ezzedine, K H; Receveur, M C; Pistone, T; Mercié, P; Longy-Boursier, M

    2006-12-01

    Paragonimiasis is a helminthic disease that affect accidentally man after consumption of raw or poorly cooked crustacean dishes. The clinical feature is represented mainly by pulmonary signs. Extra-pulmonary manifestations including arthritic and skin attempt remain less frequent. The case is described of a young white French woman who become infected with Paragonimus while travelling to Gabon for a tourist trip. Clinical presentation accounted for extensive recurrent pruritic urticarian subcutaneous induration, permanent assymetrical pauciarthritis associated with joint swelling, and marked eosinophilia. Diagnosis was reached using serological testing showing seroconversion for specific antibodies. The patient was cured with a single oral dose of praziquantel. Even if the condition is rare among tourists to endemic zones, it must be considered when hypereosinophilia occurs in the returning traveller and migrant.

  13. Serological diagnosis of North American Paragonimiasis by Western blot using Paragonimus kellicotti adult worm antigen.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Peter U; Curtis, Kurt C; Folk, Scott M; Wilkins, Patricia P; Marcos, Luis A; Weil, Gary J

    2013-06-01

    Abstract. We studied the value of an IgG Western blot (WB) with Paragonimus kellicotti (Pk) antigen for diagnosis of North American paragonimiasis. The test was evaluated with sera from patients with Pk and Paragonimus westermani infections, with control sera from patients with other helminth infections, and sera from healthy Americans. All 11 proven Pk infection sera and two samples from suspected cases that were negative by P. westermani WB at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) contained antibodies to antigens at 34 kDa and at 21/23 kDa. Seven of 7 P. westermani sera contained antibodies to the 34 kDa antigen, but only 2 recognized the 21/23 kDa doublet. No control samples were reactive with these antigens. Antibody reactivity declined after praziquantel treatment. Thus, the P. kellicotti WB appears to be superior to P. westermani WB for diagnosing Pk infections, and it may be useful for assessing responses to treatment.

  14. Serological Diagnosis of North American Paragonimiasis by Western Blot Using Paragonimus kellicotti Adult Worm Antigen

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Peter U.; Curtis, Kurt C.; Folk, Scott M.; Wilkins, Patricia P.; Marcos, Luis A.; Weil, Gary J.

    2013-01-01

    We studied the value of an IgG Western blot (WB) with Paragonimus kellicotti (Pk) antigen for diagnosis of North American paragonimiasis. The test was evaluated with sera from patients with Pk and Paragonimus westermani infections, with control sera from patients with other helminth infections, and sera from healthy Americans. All 11 proven Pk infection sera and two samples from suspected cases that were negative by P. westermani WB at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) contained antibodies to antigens at 34 kDa and at 21/23 kDa. Seven of 7 P. westermani sera contained antibodies to the 34 kDa antigen, but only 2 recognized the 21/23 kDa doublet. No control samples were reactive with these antigens. Antibody reactivity declined after praziquantel treatment. Thus, the P. kellicotti WB appears to be superior to P. westermani WB for diagnosing Pk infections, and it may be useful for assessing responses to treatment. PMID:23589531

  15. Pleuropulmonary paragonimiasis due to Paragonimus heterotremus: molecular diagnosis, prevalence of infection and clinicoradiological features in an endemic area of northeastern India.

    PubMed

    Devi, K Rekha; Narain, Kanwar; Bhattacharya, S; Negmu, K; Agatsuma, Takeshi; Blair, David; Wickramashinghe, S; Mahanta, J

    2007-08-01

    In the northeastern region of India, paragonimiasis is emerging as an important public health problem. However, until now the identity of the species causing human infection has been uncertain and there has been little information on the prevalence and clinicoradiological features of infection in the community. Parasitological and immunological surveys revealed that paragonimiasis was hyperendemic in parts of Arunachal Pradesh. Egg positivity in the sputum was 20.9% and 4.1% in children (age 15 years), respectively. Antibody positivity against excretory-secretory antigen of the adult worm in children and adults was 51.7% and 18.7%, respectively. Chronic cough (97.2%) and haemoptysis (83.3%) were common respiratory symptoms among egg-positive cases. Chest radiography (n=68) images from egg-positive cases showed that air space consolidation (75%), cavitary lesions (14.7%) and mediastinal adenopathy (11.8%) were very frequent. Less frequent findings were nodular lesions, bronchiectasis, mediastinal adenopathy, pleural thickening and pleural effusion. DNA extracted from eggs from the sputum of patients from Arunachal Pradesh was sequenced. Analyses of the second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) of nuclear rDNA revealed that the species responsible is Paragonimus heterotremus.

  16. Induced paragonimiasis in cats: clinical signs and diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Dubey, J P; Stromberg, P C; Toussant, M J; Hoover, E A; Pechman, R D

    1978-09-15

    Twenty-eight specific-pathogen-free cats were inoculated with 14 to 50 metacercariae of Paragonimus kellicotti obtained from the hearts of naturally infected crayfish. Young flukes excysted in the intestine of cats and appeared in the peritoneal cavity from 1 to 14 days after inoculation (DAI) and in the pleural cavity from 5 to 23 DAI. Flukes penetrated the pulmonary parenchyma and formed hemorrhagic subpleural lesions within 5 weeks after inoculation. Marked eosinophilia developed between 2 and 12 weeks after inoculation. Fluke-containing pulmonary lesions were detected by radiography 3 to 4 weeks after inoculation. Lesions developed most frequently in the right caudal lung lobe. Clinical signs were mild and did not appear until 4 weeks after inoculation. Thereafter, cats appeared dull and coughed intermittently. One cat became dyspneic due to pneumothorax. Paragonimus eggs were first detected at the 34th DAI, using a fecal sedimentation technique.

  17. Severe Pleuropulmonary Paragonimiasis Caused by Paragonimus mexicanus Treated as Tuberculosis in Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Calvopina, Manuel; Romero-Alvarez, Daniel; Macias, Rubén; Sugiyama, Hiromu

    2017-01-11

    A 30-year-old male, from a subtropical region of Ecuador, was hospitalized with a 5-year history of persistent cough with rusty brown sputum, chest pain, and progressive dyspnea. The patient underwent thoracic surgery 3 years ago for pleural effusion and subsequently received a 9-month regimen treatment of tuberculosis. However, there was no clinical resolution and symptoms became progressively worse. A chest radiograph and computerized tomography scan showed several small nodules in both lungs. Eggs of Paragonimus spp. were observed in sputum smears, but the smears were negative for acid-fast bacilli. Molecular characterization of eggs by the internal transcribed spacer-2 regions identified them as Paragonimus mexicanus The patient was treated with praziquantel and tested negative parasitologically for 12 months. There was clinical resolution of the cough and expectoration, but dyspnea and chest pain persisted. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  18. Evaluation of praziquantel for treatment of experimentally induced paragonimiasis in dogs and cats.

    PubMed

    Bowman, D D; Frongillo, M K; Johnson, R C; Beck, K A; Hornbuckle, W E; Blue, J T

    1991-01-01

    Praziquantel was used successfully for treatment of a small number of dogs and 1 cat infected with Paragonimus kellicotti. To further evaluate the usefulness of this drug in treating such infections, 7 cats and 7 dogs were inoculated orally with metacercariae (12 and 20 to 22, respectively) obtained from crayfish, then were treated after the infections became patent; 2 cats and 2 dogs served as noninfected controls. Beginning 1 week before infection, and continuing weekly thereafter, physical, hematologic, and fecal examinations were performed on each animal; thoracic radiography was performed every other week. By postinoculation week 6, all dogs given metacercariae had patent infection diagnosed on the basis of positive results of fecal examination. By postinoculation week 7, 5 cats had confirmed patent infection, but 2 cats given metacercariae never had patent infection or had signs of infection. Clinical signs of infection were minor and included increased respiratory tract noise, slight inducible cough, or mild dyspnea. Transient eosinophilia was detected in dogs around postinoculation week 3. Pretreatment radiography revealed cavitated lesions in cats only; pleural lines and patchy infiltrates in cats and dogs; or pneumothorax in dogs only. The treatment regimen consisted of 23 mg of praziquantel/kg of body weight given every 8 hours for 3 days; 1 infected cat and dog were not treated. By 11 days after treatment, eggs had disappeared from the feces of infected animals, and marked resolution of lung lesions was evident radiographically.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. [Epidemiological observations on the first case of human paragonimiasis and potential intermediate hosts of Paragonimus sp. in Benin].

    PubMed

    Aka, N A; Allabi, A C; Dreyfuss, G; Kinde-Gazard, D; Tawo, L; Rondelaud, D; Bouteille, B; Avodé, G; Anagonou, S Y; Gninafon, M; Massougbodji, A; Dumas, M

    1999-07-01

    Parasitological investigations were carried out for four months in 1998 in two Beninese centres of pneumo-phtisiology (Akpakpa, at Cotonou, and Akron, at Porto-Novo) to detect the patients harbouring eggs of Paragonimus sp. amongst the persons consulting for tuberculosis and showing a broncho-pneumopathy without mycobacteria. Eggs of Paragonimus sp. were detected in the sputum of a single patient out of 369 persons examined (prevalence, 0.2%). This patient had eaten crabs in the months preceding the date of diagnosis. A treatment using praziquantel has improved clinical symptomatology and biological signs found in this patient. These studies have been completed by visiting markets located in the coastal plain of Benin to identify the crabs that were sold and to find metacercariae of Paragonimus sp. Negative results were obtained when 126 Cardisoma armatum ("hole crab") were dissected. In contrast, the dissection of 176 Callinectes marginatus ("swimming crab") was successful, with 5% of crabs harbouring metacercariae of probably Paragonimus sp. Further studies are necessary to confirm these first results and to determine the global prevalence of Paragonimus infection in these definitive and intermediary hosts.

  20. First case of Paragonimus westermani infection in a female patient in India.

    PubMed

    Singh, T S; Hiromu, S; Devi, K R; Singh, W A

    2015-02-01

    Paragonimiasis is a foodborne parasitic zoonosis caused by lung fluke species of the genus Paragonimus. The Paragonimus westermani is the most common human pathogen in Asian countries. In northeast India, Paragonimus heterotremus has been documented as the only human pathogen in the earlier literature. In India, P. westermani infection in humans remained undetermined. Herein, we report a case of pulmonary paragonimiasis due to P. westermani in an adult female in Manipur. The diagnosis was made by morphological and molecular characterisation of the eggs in the sputum. This is the first confirmed case of paragonimiasis due to P. westermani in India.

  1. Paragonimus westermani infection in lung: A confounding diagnostic entity

    PubMed Central

    Kalhan, Shivani; Sharma, Pankaj; Sharma, Sonia; Kakria, Neha; Dudani, Sharmila; Gupta, Anshu

    2015-01-01

    Paragonimiasis is a food-borne parasitic zoonosis caused by the genus Paragonimus. Fresh water snails, crabs, and crayfish are the first and second intermediate hosts, respectively. Humans acquire this infection by ingesting uncooked/undercooked crustaceans. Laboratory diagnosis of Paragonimiasis is done by demonstration of ova in the sputum/feces/pleural fluid or by serology. A case of pulmonary Paragonimiasis is presented herewith; the patient having been diagnosed with pulmonary tuberculosis earlier. The aim of this presentation is to highlight this entity so that it is considered in the differential diagnosis in a case of hemoptysis. PMID:25983414

  2. Paragonimus kellicotti flukes in Missouri, USA.

    PubMed

    Lane, Michael A; Marcos, Luis A; Onen, Nur F; Demertzis, Lee M; Hayes, Ericka V; Davila, Samuel Z; Nurutdinova, Diana R; Bailey, Thomas C; Weil, Gary J

    2012-08-01

    Paragonimiasis is an infection caused by lung flukes of the genus Paragonimus. In Asia, P. westermani infections are relatively common because of dietary practices. However, in North America, cases of paragonimiasis, which are caused by P. kellicotti flukes, are rare. Only 7 autochthonous cases of paragonimiasis were reported during 1968-2008. In 2009, we reported 3 new case-patients with paragonimiasis who had been seen at our medical center over an 18-month period. Six additional case-patients were identified in St. Louis, Missouri, USA, and treated at Washington University-affiliated health centers in 2009-2010. We report detailed descriptions of these case-patients, which includes unusual clinical manifestations. We also describe public health interventions that were undertaken to inform the general public and physicians about the disease and its mode of transmission.

  3. Elevated levels of thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC) in pleural effusion samples from patients infested with Paragonimus westermani

    PubMed Central

    Matsumoto, N; Mukae, H; Nakamura-Uchiyama, F; Ashitani, J-I; Abe, K; Katoh, S; Kohno, S; Nawa, Y; Matsukura, S

    2002-01-01

    To investigate the pathogenic mechanisms of eosinophilic pleural effusion in patients with paragonimiasis, we measured the levels of various chemokines including thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC), eotaxin, RANTES and IL-8 in pleural effusion samples. Samples were obtained from 11 patients with Paragonimus westermani infection, six patients with pleural transudate, eight with tuberculous pleurisy and five with empyema. High percentages of eosinophils were detected in pleural fluid (range 9–100%, median 81%) of patients with paragonimiasis. TARC concentrations in pleural effusions of paragonimiasis were markedly higher than those of other groups. Eotaxin levels were also higher in pleural effusions of paragonimiasis patients, although significant difference was noted only against transudate samples. There was a significant correlation between TARC concentrations and percentages of eosinophils, and between TARC and eotaxin concentrations in pleural effusion. There were also significant correlations between TARC concentration and the titre of anti-P. westermani IgG and between eotaxin concentration and the titre of anti-P. westermani IgG. Our findings suggest that TARC contributes to the pathogenesis of eosinophilic pleural effusion in paragonimiasis. PMID:12390321

  4. Detection of multiple species of human Paragonimus from Mexico using morphological data and molecular barcodes.

    PubMed

    López-Caballero, J; Oceguera-Figueroa, A; León-Règagnon, V

    2013-11-01

    Paragonimus mexicanus is the causal agent of human paragonimiasis in several countries of the Americas. It is considered to be the only species of the genus present in Mexico, where it is responsible for human infection. Through the investigation of P. mexicanus specimens from several places throughout Mexico, we provide morphological, molecular and geographical evidence that strongly suggests the presence of at least three species from this genus in Mexico. These results raise questions regarding the diagnosis, treatment, prophylaxis and control of human paragonimiasis in Mexico. We also provide a brief discussion regarding biodiversity inventories and the convenience of providing molecular and morphological information in biodiversity studies. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Molecular Characterization of the North American Lung Fluke Paragonimus kellicotti in Missouri and its Development in Mongolian Gerbils

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Peter U.; Curtis, Kurt C.; Marcos, Luis A.; Weil, Gary J.

    2011-01-01

    Human paragonimiasis is an emerging disease in Missouri. To characterize local parasites, we examined crayfish from three rivers. Metacercaeriae consistent with Paragonimus kellicotti were detected in 69%, 67%, and 37% of crayfish from the Big Piney, Huzzah, and Black Rivers, respectively. Sequencing of the second internal transcribed spacer and other DNA markers confirmed the species identification and the presence of identical parasite sequences in clinical specimens from two human cases. Mongolian gerbils were infected by intraperitoneal injection with 3–8 metacercariae. Most gerbils died 15–49 days post-infection. Necropsies showed pulmonary hemorrhage with necrosis, and flukes as long as 8 mm were recovered from intrathoracic tissues. Western blot analysis using P. kellicotti antigen showed a strong antibody response in gerbils 39 days post-infection. These results demonstrate that P. kellicotti is common in Missouri crayfish. The gerbil model may be useful for research on the pathogenesis, immunology, and treatment of paragonimiasis. PMID:21633042

  6. Molecular identification of a case of Paragonimus pseudoheterotremus infection in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Intapan, Pewpan M; Sanpool, Oranuch; Thanchomnang, Tongjit; Imtawil, Kanokwan; Pongchaiyakul, Chatlert; Nawa, Yukifumi; Maleewong, Wanchai

    2012-10-01

    Paragonimiasis is an important food-borne parasitic zoonosis caused by infection with lung flukes of the genus Paragonimus. In Southeast Asia, Paragonimus heterotremus is the only proven causative pathogen. Recently, a new Paragonimus species, P. pseudoheterotremus, was found in Thailand. This species is genetically similar to P. heterotremus and is considered as a sister species. However, infectivity or pathogenicity of P. pseudoheterotremus to humans remains unclear. We report the first confirmed human pulmonary paragonimiasis case caused by P. pseudoheterotremus infection. After polymerase chain reaction/sequencing of the DNA extracted from Paragonimus eggs in the sputum of the patient, partial internal transcribed spacer 2 and cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 sequences were approximately identical (98-100%) with those of P. pseudoheterotremus. For P. heterotremus, the partial internal transcribed spacer 2 sequence was approximately identical (99-100%), but the partial mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 sequence showed a similarity of 90-95%.

  7. Molecular characterization of the North American lung fluke Paragonimus kellicotti in Missouri and its development in Mongolian gerbils.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Peter U; Curtis, Kurt C; Marcos, Luis A; Weil, Gary J

    2011-06-01

    Human paragonimiasis is an emerging disease in Missouri. To characterize local parasites, we examined crayfish from three rivers. Metacercaeriae consistent with Paragonimus kellicotti were detected in 69%, 67%, and 37% of crayfish from the Big Piney, Huzzah, and Black Rivers, respectively. Sequencing of the second internal transcribed spacer and other DNA markers confirmed the species identification and the presence of identical parasite sequences in clinical specimens from two human cases. Mongolian gerbils were infected by intraperitoneal injection with 3-8 metacercariae. Most gerbils died 15-49 days post-infection. Necropsies showed pulmonary hemorrhage with necrosis, and flukes as long as 8 mm were recovered from intrathoracic tissues. Western blot analysis using P. kellicotti antigen showed a strong antibody response in gerbils 39 days post-infection. These results demonstrate that P. kellicotti is common in Missouri crayfish. The gerbil model may be useful for research on the pathogenesis, immunology, and treatment of paragonimiasis.

  8. Molecular Identification of a Case of Paragonimus pseudoheterotremus Infection in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Intapan, Pewpan M.; Sanpool, Oranuch; Thanchomnang, Tongjit; Imtawil, Kanokwan; Pongchaiyakul, Chatlert; Nawa, Yukifumi; Maleewong, Wanchai

    2012-01-01

    Paragonimiasis is an important food-borne parasitic zoonosis caused by infection with lung flukes of the genus Paragonimus. In Southeast Asia, Paragonimus heterotremus is the only proven causative pathogen. Recently, a new Paragonimus species, P. pseudoheterotremus, was found in Thailand. This species is genetically similar to P. heterotremus and is considered as a sister species. However, infectivity or pathogenicity of P. pseudoheterotremus to humans remains unclear. We report the first confirmed human pulmonary paragonimiasis case caused by P. pseudoheterotremus infection. After polymerase chain reaction/sequencing of the DNA extracted from Paragonimus eggs in the sputum of the patient, partial internal transcribed spacer 2 and cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 sequences were approximately identical (98–100%) with those of P. pseudoheterotremus. For P. heterotremus, the partial internal transcribed spacer 2 sequence was approximately identical (99–100%), but the partial mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 sequence showed a similarity of 90–95%. PMID:22826489

  9. Parasitic diseases as the cause of death of prisoners of war during the Korean War (1950-1953).

    PubMed

    Huh, Sun

    2014-06-01

    To determine the cause of death of prisoners of war during the Korean War (1950-1953), death certificates or medical records were analyzed. Out of 7,614 deaths, 5,013 (65.8%) were due to infectious diseases. Although dysentery and tuberculosis were the most common infectious diseases, parasitic diseases had caused 14 deaths: paragonimiasis in 5, malaria in 3, amoebiasis in 2, intestinal parasitosis in 2, ascariasis in 1, and schistosomiasis in 1. These results showed that paragonimiasis, malaria, and amoebiasis were the most fatal parasitic diseases during the early 1950s in the Korean Peninsula. Since schistosomiasis is not endemic to Korea, it is likely that the infected private soldier moved from China or Japan to Korea.

  10. Otitis media and a neck lump--current diagnostic challenges for Paragonimus-like trematode infections.

    PubMed

    Schuster, H; Agada, F O; Anderson, A R; Jackson, R S; Blair, D; McGann, H; Kelly, G

    2007-02-01

    A 29 year-old Nigerian studying in the UK presented with a neck lump and otitis media. Paragonimus-like trematode eggs were found in the neck lump aspirate. Morphologically these eggs resembled Paragonimus uterobilateralis or Achillurbainia congolensis. We favoured the diagnosis of achillurbainiasis over extrapulmonary paragonimiasis on the basis of clinical features and because we could not amplify DNA sequences using PCR primers specific for Paragonimus species. We discuss current diagnostic challenges for this rare parasitic infection.

  11. Paragonimus kellicotti: A Lung Infection in Our Own Backyard.

    PubMed

    Johannesen, Eric; Nguyen, Van

    2016-01-01

    Paragonimiasis is an infection caused by the lung fluke of the genus Paragonimus. Within the United States, paragonimiasis has been commonly diagnosed in Southeast Asian immigrants infected with the Asian lung fluke Paragonimus westermani. Infections from the North American lung fluke, Paragonimus kellicotti, have been rare, although more infections have been seen in people in the Midwestern United States. A 29-year-old male with a history of pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma presented with hemoptysis. A CT scan showed a mass in the left upper lung lobe. A biopsy showed eosinophils and parasite eggs, some with a recognizable operculum. Further investigation revealed that he takes canoe trips on rivers within Missouri and would eat crayfish caught from these rivers. A blood sample was confirmed positive for Paragonimiasis serologically at the Center for Disease Control. Paragonimus kellicotti is found in rivers within the Mississippi basin. Infection occurs by consuming uncooked or undercooked crawfish. Microscopic identification of parasite eggs has been the gold standard. Serologic tests have been developed to aid in the diagnosis. Patients typically present with fever and hemoptysis. Common CT findings include pleural effusion, a mass, and lymphadenopathy. Awareness of P. kellicotti is important to guide appropriate diagnostic testing and ensuring proper treatment.

  12. Venison, another source of Paragonimus westermani infection.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Ayako; Matsuo, Kayoko; Moribe, Junji; Tanaka, Ryusei; Kikuchi, Taisei; Nagayasu, Eiji; Misawa, Naoaki; Maruyama, Haruhiko

    2016-12-01

    Paragonimiasis is a typical food-borne parasitic disease, endemic in most parts of Asia, with sporadic case reports from American and African countries. The major source of infection is undercooked freshwater crab or crayfish, though consumption of wild boar meat is also responsible for the infection in Japan, because wild boar is a paratenic host for Paragonimus westermani. Recently, living juveniles of P. westermani were isolated from muscle of a sika deer, Cervus nippon, in Japan, raising the possibility that venison has been another source of infection. In order to clarify the potential contribution of venison consumption to the occurrence of paragonimiasis, we analysed dietary histories of those paragonimiasis patients in whose diagnoses we were involved between 2001 and 2015. Among 380 patients, freshwater crab had been consumed by 208 patients, wild boar meat by 190, and wild deer meat by 76 patients before the onset of the disease. Overall contribution of wild deer meat was estimated to be 6.8% to 20.0%, although in Oita and Gifu Prefectures, where a substantial proportion of patients had consumed raw venison, the contribution of venison consumption was much higher (27.5 to 62.1% and 42.1 to 78.9% in Oita and Gifu Prefectures, respectively). We demonstrated P. westermani-specific antibodies in the sera of 4 out of 160 sika deer from Gifu Prefecture, strongly suggesting that these deer were infected with P. westermani. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Excretory-secretory antigenic components of Paragonimus heterotremus recognized by infected human sera.

    PubMed Central

    Maleewong, W; Wongkham, C; Intapan, P; Pariyanonda, S; Morakote, N

    1992-01-01

    Antigenic components of Paragonimus heterotremus metabolic products were revealed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and immunoblot analysis of sera from patients with P. heterotremus infection, from patients with other illnesses, and from healthy adults. By SDS-PAGE, it was found that the metabolic products comprised more than eight major polypeptides. Immunoblot analysis revealed 11 components which were strongly recognized by paragonimiasis antisera. These antigenic components had molecular masses ranging from less than 12.3 kDa to 144 kDa. One antigenic band of 31.5 kDa was found to give a consistent reaction with paragonimiasis antisera (97% sensitivity). Of the other patient sera, only sera from patients with Fasciola sp. infection reacted with antigenic bands of 56, 38, and 18.5 kDa. The present findings suggest that the 31.5-kDa component is sensitive and specific for the diagnosis of human P. heterotremus paragonimiasis. Images PMID:1500515

  14. [Research on endemic diseases and Japanese colonial rule: focusing on the emetine poisoning accident in Yeongheung and Haenam counties in 1927].

    PubMed

    Sihn, Kyu-Hwan

    2009-12-01

    This paper aims to examine the spread of paragonimiasis and the Japanese colonial government's response to it. To consolidate colonial rule, the Japanese colonial government needed medications to cure paragonimiasis. When Dr. Ikeda Masakata invented acid emetine to cure paragonimiasis in Manchuria in 1915, emetine treatment carried the risk of emetine poisoning such as fatigue, inappetence, heart failure, and death. Nonetheless, Japanese authorities forced clinical trials on human patients in colonial Korea during the 1910s and 1920s. The emetine poisoning accident in Yeongheung and Haenam counties in 1927 occurred in this context. The Japanese government concentrated on terminating an intermediary host instead of injecting emetine to repress endemic disease in Japan. However, the Japanese colonial government pushed ahead with emetine injections for healthy men through the Preliminary Bureau of Land Research in colonial Korea in 1917. This clinical trial simultaneously presented the effects and the side effects of emetine injection. Because of the danger emetine injections posed, the colonial government investigated only the actual condition of paragonimiasis, delaying the use of emetine injection. Kobayashi Harujiro(1884-1969), a leading zoologist and researcher of endemic disease for three decades in the Government General Hospital and Keijo Imperial University in colonial Korea, had used emetine while researching paragonimiasis, but he did not play a leading role in clinical trials with emetine injections, perhaps because he mainly researched the intermediary host. Government General Hospital and Keijo Imperial University therefore faced limitations that kept them from leading the research on endemic disease. As the health administration shifted the central colonial government to local colonial government, the local colonial government pressed ahead with emetine injections for Korean patients. Emetine poisoning had something to do with medical power

  15. Analysis of parasitic diseases diagnosed by tissue biopsy specimens at KyungHee Medical Center (1984-2005) in Seoul, Korea.

    PubMed

    Choi, Won-Hyung; Chu, Jong-Phil; Jiang, Meihua; Lee, Yun-Sik; Kim, Bum-Shik; Kim, Deog-Gon; Park, Yong-Koo

    2010-03-01

    We analyzed parasitic diseases diagnosed by tissue biopsy specimens at KyungHee Medical Center (KMC) from 1984 to 2005. The total number of parasite infection cases was 150 (0.07%) out of the total 211,859 biopsy specimens submitted for histopathological examinations. They consisted of 62 cysticercosis, 23 sparganosis, 16 paragonimiasis, 15 amebiasis, 11 anisakiasis, 11 clonorchiasis, 3 ascariasis, 2 scabies, 2 enterobiasis, 2 trichuriasis, 1 leishmaniasis, 1 taeniasis, and 1 thelaziasis. Out of 62 cysticercosis cases, 55 were detected in subcutaneous tissues or the central nerve system. Eighteen out of 23 sparganosis cases were involved in muscular and subcutaneous tissues. In most anisakiasis cases, the involved organ was the stomach. The lung and the pleura were the most common site of paragonimiasis. The incidence of parasitic diseases during the first 5 years (1984-1988) was the highest of all observed periods. After 1989, similar incidences were shown throughout the period. Whereas cysticercosis was diagnosed in 34 cases during 1984-1988, no case has been diagnosed since 2000. In the case of sparganosis, the chronological incidence was almost uniform throughout the period 1984-2005. Paragonimiasis showed a similar tendency to cysticercosis. In gender and age distribution of parasitic diseases, men showed higher incidence rates than females, and the age groups of the 40s or older indicated higher infection frequencies than other age groups. Therefore, these results are a significant report to appear the tendency of human parasitic disease diagnosed by tissue biopsy in association with parasitosis at KMC in Seoul.

  16. Expression characteristics and specific antibody reactivity of diverse cathepsin F members of Paragonimus westermani.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Chun-Seob; Na, Byoung-Kuk; Chung, Dong-Ll; Kim, Jeong-Geun; Kim, Jin-Taek; Kong, Yoon

    2015-02-01

    Paragonimiasis, caused by the lung fluke Paragonimus, is a major food-borne helminthic disease. Differential diagnosis of paragonimiasis from tuberculosis and other infectious granulomas in the lung is a prerequisite to proper management of patients. Cysteine proteases of Paragonimus westermani (PwCPs) invoke specific antibody responses against patient sera, while antibody capturing activity of different PwCPs has not been comparatively analyzed. In this study, we observed the expressional regulation of 11 species of different PwCPs (PwCP1-11). We expressed recombinant PwCPs and assessed diagnostic reliability employing sera from patients with P. westermani (n=138), other trematodiases (n=80), cestodiases (n=60) and pulmonary tuberculosis (n=20), and those of normal controls (n=20). PwCPs formed a monophyletic clade into cathepsin F and showed differential expression patterns along with developmental stages of worm. Bacterially expressed recombinant PwCPs (rPwCPs) exhibited variable sensitivity of 38.4-84.5% and specificity of 87.2-100% in diagnosing homologous infection. rPwCPs recognized specific antibodies of experimental cat sera as early as 3 or 6weeks after infection. Patient sera of fascioliasis, Schistosomiasis japonicum and clonorchiasis demonstrated weak cross-reactions. Our results demonstrate that diverse PwCPs of the cathepsin F family participate in inducing specific antibody responses. Most P. westermani cathepsin F, except for PwCP2 (AAF21461), which showed negligible antibody responses, might be applicable for paragonimiasis serodiagnosis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Prevalence and intensity of Paragonimus uterobilateralis infection among school children in Oban village, South Eastern, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ochigbo, S O; Ekanem, E E; Udo, J J

    2007-10-01

    A survey of Paragonimus infection among primary school children aged 6-10 years in Oban village, Akamkpa Local Government Area of Cross River State, Nigeria, was conducted. A total of 198 children were examined:112 (56.6%) were boys while 86 (43.4%) were girls. Eleven of the subjects were sputum positive for paragonimus eggs, giving an overall prevalence rate of 5.5%. The findings show that paragonimiasis is a significant health problem in South Eastern Nigeria; the risk of infection could be minimized by the proper cooking of fresh water crabs and crayfish before consumption.

  18. Sensitive and rapid detection of Paragonimus westermani infection in humans and animals by loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP).

    PubMed

    Chen, M X; Ai, L; Zhang, R L; Xia, J J; Wang, K; Chen, S H; Zhang, Y N; Xu, M J; Li, X; Zhu, X Q; Chen, J X

    2011-05-01

    In the present study, a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay was developed and validated for the detection of Paragonimus westermani adults, metacercariae, and eggs in human and animal samples. The LAMP amplification can be finished in 45 min under isothermal condition at 60°C by employing a set of four species-specific primer mixtures and the results can be checked by naked-eye visualization. No amplification products were detected with deoxyribunucleic acid (DNA) of related trematode species including Fasciola hepatica, Fasciola gigantica, Clonorchis sinensis, Opisthorchis viverrini, Schistosoma mansoni, and Schistosoma japonicum. The method was further validated by examining P. westermani DNA in intermediate hosts including freshwater crabs and crayfish, as well as in sputum and pleural fluid samples from patients of paragonimiasis. These results indicated that the LAMP assay was highly specific, sensitive, and rapid, and it was approximately 100 times more sensitive than conventional specific PCR. The LAMP assay established in this study provides a rapid and sensitive tool for the detection of P. westermani DNA in freshwater crabs, crayfish, sputum, and pleural fluid samples, which has important implications for effective control of human paragonimiasis.

  19. Discovery of Paragonimus skrjabini in Vietnam and its phylogenetic status in the Paragonimus skrjabini complex.

    PubMed

    Doanh, P N; Hien, H V; Nonaka, N; Horii, Y; Nawa, Y

    2013-12-01

    Two members of the Paragonimus skrjabini complex, P. skrjabini and P. miyazakii, are now considered as two sub-species, P. skrjabini skrjabini and P. skrjabini miyazakii. They are well known as important pathogens for human paragonimiasis in China and Japan. Recently, members of this species complex have been reported from India. Here we report the first discovery of P. skrjabini from freshwater crab hosts in Thanh Hoa province, Vietnam. For morphological and molecular phylogenetic studies, adult worms were obtained by experimental infection in cats and dogs. Molecular analyses of metacercariae and adults revealed that the P. skrjabini population from Thanh Hoa, Vietnam was almost completely identical with that from Yunnan province, China. Those populations from Thanh Hoa, Vietnam and Yunnan, China and those from Manipur, India were significantly different from P. skrjabini populations reported from other localities of China in cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (CO1) gene sequences, indicating considerable genetic variation within the P. skrjabini complex. Moreover, low bootstrap values in the CO1 tree suggested that more variant genotypes belonging to P. skrjabini complex may be found in other Asian countries in between Vietnam and India, such as Myanmar, Laos and Thailand. Since P. skrjabini is known as a pathogen for humans, paragonimiasis cases caused by P. skrjabini might be found in Vietnam and other Asian countries.

  20. No Paragonimus in high-risk groups in Côte d'Ivoire, but considerable prevalence of helminths and intestinal protozoon infections

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Paragonimiasis is a neglected tropical disease caused by an infection with lung flukes that is transmitted through the consumption of undercooked crabs. The disease is often confused with tuberculosis. Paragonimiasis is thought to be endemic in south-western Côte d'Ivoire. Methods Two cross-sectional surveys were carried out in the first half of 2009 in patients attending two tuberculosis centres of Abidjan. A third cross-sectional survey was conducted in May 2010 in children of two primary schools in Dabou, where crabs are frequently consumed. Patients with chronic cough provided three sputum samples plus one stool sample. Sputum samples were examined for tuberculosis with an auramine staining technique and for Paragonimus eggs using a concentration technique. Stool samples were subjected to the Ritchie technique. Schoolchildren provided a single stool sample, and samples were subjected to the Kato-Katz and an ether-concentration technique. A pre-tested questionnaire was administered to patients and schoolchildren to investigate food consumption habits. Additionally, between June 2009 and August 2010, shellfish were purchased from markets in Abidjan and Dabou and examined for metacercariae. Results No human case of paragonimiasis was diagnosed. However, trematode infections were seen in 32 of the 272 shellfish examined (11.8%). Questionnaire results revealed that crab and pig meat is well cooked before consumption. Among the 278 patients with complete data records, 62 had tuberculosis, with a higher prevalence in males than females (28.8% vs. 13.9%, χ2 = 8.79, p = 0.003). The prevalence of helminths and intestinal protozoa was 4.6% and 16.9%, respectively. In the school survey, among 166 children with complete data records, the prevalence of helminths and intestinal protozoa was 22.3% and 48.8%, respectively. Boys had significantly higher prevalences of helminths and intestinal protozoa than girls. Hookworm was the predominant helminth species and

  1. An imported case of echinococcosis of the liver in a Korean who traveled to western and central Europe.

    PubMed

    Byun, Sun-Ju; Moon, Kyung Chul; Suh, Kyung-Suk; Han, Joon Koo; Chai, Jong-Yil

    2010-06-01

    Echinococcus granulosus, an intestinal tapeworm of dogs and other canids, infects humans in its larval stage and causes human echinococcosis or hydatid disease. In the Republic of Korea, 31 parasite-proven human echinococcosis cases have been reported, most of which were imported from the Middle East. We recently examined a 61-year-old Korean man who had a large cystic mass in his liver. ELISA was negative for tissue parasitic infections, including echinococcosis, cysticercosis, paragonimiasis, and sparganosis. The patient underwent surgery to remove the cyst, and the resected cyst was processed histopathologically for microscopic examinations. In sectioned cyst tissue, necrotizing protoscolices with disintegrated hooklets of E. granulosus were found. In some areas, only freed, fragmented hooklets were detected. The patient had traveled to western and central Europe in 1996, and had no other history of overseas travel. We report our patient as a hepatic echinococcosis case which was probably imported from Europe.

  2. Guillain-Barré Syndrome in a Boy With Lung Fluke Infection: Case Report and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Yang, Cui-Wei; Gao, Feng; Xia, Zhe-Zhi

    2015-08-01

    Guillain-Barré syndrome is the most common acute peripheral neuropathy in children in most countries. The cause and pathogenesis of the disease have yet to be clarified. There have been only a few reports of Guillain-Barré syndrome resulting from parasite infections worldwide, no cases of Guillain-Barré syndrome after lung fluke infection have been reported. We report a case of an 8-year-old male patient with Guillain-Barré syndrome after lung fluke infection. The child had a history of consumption of undercooked crabs. He was diagnosed with paragonimiasis. The patient experienced paralysis of and pain in the lower limbs about 3 weeks after symptom onset. Neurologic and electrophysiologic examination findings supported the diagnosis of Guillain-Barré syndrome. Parasitic infections should also be considered when determining which antecedent infection is associated with Guillain-Barré syndrome.

  3. Ultrastructure of Spermatogenesis in the Testis of Paragonimus heterotremus

    PubMed Central

    Uabundit, Nongnut; Kanla, Pipatphong; Puthiwat, Phongphithak; Arunyanart, Channarong; Chaiciwamongkol, Kowit; Maleewong, Wanchai; Intapan, Pewpan M.; Iamsaard, Sitthichai

    2013-01-01

    Lung fluke, Paragonimus heterotremus, is a flatworm causing pulmonary paragonimiasis in cats, dogs, and humans in Southeast Asia. We examined the ultrastructure of the testis of adult P. heterotremus with special attention to spermatogenesis and spermiogenesis using scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The full sequence of spermatogenesis and spermiogenesis, from the capsular basal lamina to the luminal surface, was demonstrated. The sequence comprises spermatogonia, spermatocytes with obvious nuclear synaptonemal complexes, spermatids, and eventual spermatozoa. Moreover, full steps of spermatid differentiation were shown which consisted of 1) early stage, 2) differentiation stage representing the flagella, intercentriolar body, basal body, striated rootlets, and electron dense nucleus of thread-like lamellar configuration, and 3) growing spermatid flagella. Detailed ultrastructure of 2 different types of spermatozoa was also shown in this study. PMID:24516272

  4. Ultrastructure of spermatogenesis in the testis of Paragonimus heterotremus.

    PubMed

    Uabundit, Nongnut; Kanla, Pipatphong; Puthiwat, Phongphithak; Arunyanart, Channarong; Chaiciwamongkol, Kowit; Maleewong, Wanchai; Intapan, Pewpan M; Iamsaard, Sitthichai; Hipkaeo, Wiphawi

    2013-12-01

    Lung fluke, Paragonimus heterotremus, is a flatworm causing pulmonary paragonimiasis in cats, dogs, and humans in Southeast Asia. We examined the ultrastructure of the testis of adult P. heterotremus with special attention to spermatogenesis and spermiogenesis using scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The full sequence of spermatogenesis and spermiogenesis, from the capsular basal lamina to the luminal surface, was demonstrated. The sequence comprises spermatogonia, spermatocytes with obvious nuclear synaptonemal complexes, spermatids, and eventual spermatozoa. Moreover, full steps of spermatid differentiation were shown which consisted of 1) early stage, 2) differentiation stage representing the flagella, intercentriolar body, basal body, striated rootlets, and electron dense nucleus of thread-like lamellar configuration, and 3) growing spermatid flagella. Detailed ultrastructure of 2 different types of spermatozoa was also shown in this study.

  5. Mucocutaneous manifestations of helminth infections: Nematodes.

    PubMed

    Lupi, Omar; Downing, Christopher; Lee, Michael; Pino, Livia; Bravo, Francisco; Giglio, Patricia; Sethi, Aisha; Klaus, Sidney; Sangueza, Omar P; Fuller, Claire; Mendoza, Natalia; Ladizinski, Barry; Woc-Colburn, Laila; Tyring, Stephen K

    2015-12-01

    In the 21st century, despite increased globalization through international travel for business, medical volunteerism, pleasure, and immigration/refugees into the United States, there is little published in the dermatology literature regarding the cutaneous manifestations of helminth infections. Approximately 17% of travelers seek medical care because of cutaneous disorders, many related to infectious etiologies. This review will focus on the cutaneous manifestations of helminth infections and is divided into 2 parts: part I focuses on nematode infections, and part II focuses on trematode and cestode infections. This review highlights the clinical manifestations, transmission, diagnosis, and treatment of helminth infections. Nematodes are roundworms that cause diseases with cutaneous manifestations, such as cutaneous larval migrans, onchocerciasis, filariasis, gnathostomiasis, loiasis, dracunculiasis, strongyloidiasis, ascariasis, streptocerciasis, dirofilariasis, and trichinosis. Tremadotes, also known as flukes, cause schistosomiasis, paragonimiasis, and fascioliasis. Cestodes (tapeworms) are flat, hermaphroditic parasites that cause diseases such as sparganosis, cysticercosis, and echinococcus.

  6. Parasitic diseases of zoonotic importance in humans of northeast India, with special reference to ocular involvement

    PubMed Central

    Das, Dipankar; Islam, Saidul; Bhattacharjee, Harsha; Deka, Angshuman; Yambem, Dinakumar; Tahiliani, Prerana Sushil; Deka, Panna; Bhattacharyya, Pankaj; Deka, Satyen; Das, Kalyan; Bharali, Gayatri; Deka, Apurba; Paul, Rajashree

    2014-01-01

    Parasitic zoonotic diseases are prevalent in India, including the northeastern states. Proper epidemiological data are lacking from this part of the country on zoonotic parasitic diseases, and newer diseases are emerging in the current scenario. Systemic manifestation of such diseases as cysticercosis, paragonimiasis, hydatidosis, and toxoplasmosis are fairly common. The incidence of acquired toxoplasmal infection is showing an increasing trend in association with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Among the ocular parasitic diseases, toxoplasmosis, cysticercosis, toxocariasis, dirofilariasis, gnathostomiasis, hydatidosis, amebiasis, giardiasis, etc, are the real problems that are seen in this subset of the population. Therefore, proper coordination between various medical specialities, including veterinary science and other governing bodies, is needed for better and more effective strategic planning to control zoonoses. PMID:28539786

  7. Parasitic diseases of the pleura.

    PubMed

    Lal, Chitra; Huggins, John Terrill; Sahn, Steven A

    2013-05-01

    Parasitic infections are prevalent in certain parts of the world and may cause pleural involvement, which often goes unrecognized. Common parasites involving the pleura include Entamoeba histolytica, Echinococcus granulosus and Paragonimus westermani. Amebiasis can cause empyema with "anchovy sauce" pus, reactive pleural effusions and bronchopleural fistula with hydropneumothorax. Echinococcosis may result in pleural thickening, pneumothorax, secondary pleural hydatidosis and pleural effusions. Paragonimiasis may cause chylous and cholesterol pleural effusions, pleural thickening and pneumothorax. Less commonly, pulmonary eosinophilia, or Loeffler's syndrome, caused by Ascaris lumbricoides, Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus and tropical pulmonary eosinophilia caused by Wuchereria bancrofti and Brugia malayi may involve the pleura. This article provides a comprehensive review of parasitic infections involving the pleura. A high index of suspicion in the appropriate clinical setting is required to facilitate prompt diagnosis and treatment of these diseases.

  8. Intermediate hosts of Paragonimus in the eastern Amazonic region of Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Amunárriz, M

    1991-09-01

    A study was done to determine the intermediate hosts of Paragonimus mexicanus (P. peruvianus, P. ecuadoriensis) in the northeastern amazonic region of Ecuador. The first intermediate host belongs to the molluscan family Hydrobiidae, similar to the findings reported in other parts of Latin America. One of 2350 specimens of the hydrobiid snail Aroapyrgus colombiensis examined was found to be naturally infected with rediae containing microcercous cercariae of Paragonimus, this being the first naturally infected first intermediate host reported in Ecuador. The crustacean family, Trichodactylidae, was found as the second intermediate host of paragonimiasis, this being the first time reported in Ecuador. The freshwater crab Zilchiopsis ecuadoriensis was found to be heavily parasitized by Paragonimus metacercariae.

  9. [Cloning, expression and immunodiagnostic analysis of Schistosoma japonicum calcium-binding EF-hand domain containing protein].

    PubMed

    Lu, Yan; Xu, Bin; Ju, Chuan; Mo, Xiao-Jin; Chen, Shen-Bo; Feng, Zheng; Wang, Xiao-Ning; Hu, Wei

    2012-06-30

    To clone and expression Schistosoma japonicum calcium-binding EF-hand domain containing protein (SjEFCAB), purify the expressed protein, and evaluate its antigenicity and diagnostic value. The positive clone screened from egg cDNA library was used as template to amplify the SjEFCAB gene by PCR. The target fragment was cloned into prokaryotic expression vector pGEX-4T-1. The positive recombinant plasmids were transformed into E.coli BL21 and induced by IPTG for expression of the protein. The recombinant protein was purified with GST-tag affinity chromatography. Western blotting was used to analyze the antigenicity. The purified protein was used as coating antigen for indirect ELISA to evaluate its diagnostic effect. Serum samples from patients with schistosomiasis japonica (78 cases), clonorchiasis sinensis (5 cases), cysticercosis (10 cases), paragonimiasis westermani (6 cases), trichinosis (9 cases) and healthy persons (50 cases) were examined. The recombinant plasmid pGEX-4T-1-SjEFCAB was constructed and the SjEFCAB recombinant protein (Mr 8 200) was expressed in E. coli. The soluble fusion protein was purified with affinity chromatography. Western blotting analysis showed that the recombinant protein was recognized by sera of infected rabbits and pooled sera of schistosomiasis japonica patients. The sensitivity and specificity of ELISA for diagnosis of schistosomiasis japonica were 82.1% (64/78) and 95.0% (76/80), respectively. The cross reaction with sera of clonorchiasis sinensis, cysticercosis, and trichinosis patients were 1/5, 1/10, and 1/9, respectively. There was no cross reaction with sera of paragonimiasis westermani patients. The recombinant SjEFCAB antigen has potential diagnostic value for schistosomiasis japonica.

  10. Triclabendazole Sulfoxide Causes Stage-Dependent Embryolethality in Zebrafish and Mouse In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Boix, Nuria; Teixido, Elisabet; Vila-Cejudo, Marta; Ortiz, Pedro; Ibáñez, Elena; Llobet, Juan M.; Barenys, Marta

    2015-01-01

    Background Fascioliasis and paragonimiasis are widespread foodborne trematode diseases, affecting millions of people in more than 75 countries. The treatment of choice for these parasitic diseases is based on triclabendazole, a benzimidazole derivative which has been suggested as a promising drug to treat pregnant women and children. However, at the moment, this drug is not approved for human use in most countries. Its potential adverse effects on embryonic development have been scarcely studied, and it has not been assigned a pregnancy category by the FDA. Thus, to help in the process of risk-benefit decision making upon triclabendazole treatment during pregnancy, a better characterization of its risks during gestation is needed. Methodology The zebrafish embryo test, a preimplantation and a postimplantation rodent whole embryo culture were used to investigate the potential embryotoxicity/teratogenicity of triclabendazole and its first metabolite triclabendazole sulfoxide. Albendazole and albendazole sulfoxide were included as positive controls. Principal Findings Triclabendazole was between 10 and 250 times less potent than albendazole in inducing dysmorphogenic effects in zebrafish or postimplantation rodent embryos, respectively. However, during the preimplantation period, both compounds, triclabendazole and triclabendazole sulfoxide, induced a dose-dependent embryolethal effect after only 24 h of exposure in rodent embryos and zebrafish (lowest observed adverse effect concentrations = 10 μM). Conclusions/Significance In humans, after ingestion of the recommended doses of triclabendazole to treat fascioliasis and paragonimiasis (10 mg/kg), the main compound found in plasma is triclabendazole sulfoxide (maximum concentration 38.6 μM), while triclabendazole concentrations are approximately 30 times lower (1.16 μM). From our results it can be concluded that triclabendazole, at concentrations of the same order of magnitude as the clinically relevant ones, does

  11. [Survey on the foci of Paragonimus in Youxi, Yongtai and Pinghe Counties of Fujian Province].

    PubMed

    Cheng, You-Zhu; Li, Li-Sha; Lin, Guo-Hua; Zhou, Pei-Cong; Jiang, Dian-Wei; Fang, Yan-Yan; Lin, Chen-Xin; Li, Yan-Rong

    2010-12-30

    To investigate the natural foci of paragonimiasis in Youxi, Yongtai and Pinghe Counties of Fujian Province. One village each from the three counties was selected according to reported paragonimiasis cases. Freshwater snails collected from fields were examined for cercariae. Freshwater crabs obtained in the fields were examined for metacercariae by washing filtration method or direct compression method. Feces of cats and dogs were collected for the detection of eggs by water precipitation. In order to identify the species of Paragonimus, 4 cats were orally fed with metacercariae. At the same time, the habitat of three survey sites was observed. Three fluke species, namely, P. skrjabini, P. westermani and P. cenocopiosus(Syn. Euparagonimus cenocopiosus) were found. In Banlin Village of Youxi County and Chishui Village of Yongtai County, the seropositive rate by IgG ELISA were 6.8% (21/309) and 6.8% (9/133), respectively. Four species of freshwater snails were found, two species of Tricula and one species of Pseudobythinella were newly identified first intermediate hosts of Paragonimus. Four species of freshwater carbs were found, one species of Nanhaipotamon served as a new second intermediate host of Paragonimus. In Youxi, the infection rate of P. skrjabini cercariae in snails and metacercariae in crabs was 2.1% (27/1 344) and 92.1% (58/63), respectively; the index of crab infection and the positive ratio of Paragonimus eggs in cat feces was 171.91 and 1/7, respectively. In Yongtai, the cercariae infection rate in Pseudobythinella and Tricula snails infected with P. skrjabini was 0.6% (4/690) and 0.1% (2/ 2330), respectively; the infection rate of P. skrjabini metacercariae in crabs was 18.2% (18/99); the index of crab infection was 9.12. In Pinghe, the infection rate of cercariae in Semisulcospira libertina and metacercariae in crabs was 03% (3/1092) and 44.9% (35/78), respectively; the index of crab infection was 616. Paragonimus skrjabini P. westermani and P

  12. History of Human Parasitology

    PubMed Central

    Cox, F. E. G.

    2002-01-01

    Humans are hosts to nearly 300 species of parasitic worms and over 70 species of protozoa, some derived from our primate ancestors and some acquired from the animals we have domesticated or come in contact with during our relatively short history on Earth. Our knowledge of parasitic infections extends into antiquity, and descriptions of parasites and parasitic infections are found in the earliest writings and have been confirmed by the finding of parasites in archaeological material. The systematic study of parasites began with the rejection of the theory of spontaneous generation and the promulgation of the germ theory. Thereafter, the history of human parasitology proceeded along two lines, the discovery of a parasite and its subsequent association with disease and the recognition of a disease and the subsequent discovery that it was caused by a parasite. This review is concerned with the major helminth and protozoan infections of humans: ascariasis, trichinosis, strongyloidiasis, dracunculiasis, lymphatic filariasis, loasis, onchocerciasis, schistosomiasis, cestodiasis, paragonimiasis, clonorchiasis, opisthorchiasis, amoebiasis, giardiasis, African trypanosomiasis, South American trypanosomiasis, leishmaniasis, malaria, toxoplasmosis, cryptosporidiosis, cyclosporiasis, and microsporidiosis. PMID:12364371

  13. Conservation and diversification of the transcriptomes of adult Paragonimus westermani and P. skrjabini.

    PubMed

    Li, Ben-Wen; McNulty, Samantha N; Rosa, Bruce A; Tyagi, Rahul; Zeng, Qing Ren; Gu, Kong-Zhen; Weil, Gary J; Mitreva, Makedonka

    2016-09-13

    Paragonimiasis is an important and widespread neglected tropical disease. Fifteen Paragonimus species are human pathogens, but two of these, Paragonimus westermani and P. skrjabini, are responsible for the bulk of human disease. Despite their medical and economic significance, there is limited information on the gene content and expression of Paragonimus lung flukes. The transcriptomes of adult P. westermani and P. skrjabini were studied with deep sequencing technology. Approximately 30 million reads per species were assembled into 21,586 and 25,825 unigenes for P. westermani and P. skrjabini, respectively. Many unigenes showed homology with sequences from other food-borne trematodes, but 1,217 high-confidence Paragonimus-specific unigenes were identified. Analyses indicated that both species have the potential for aerobic and anaerobic metabolism but not de novo fatty acid biosynthesis and that they may interact with host signaling pathways. Some 12,432 P. westermani and P. skrjabini unigenes showed a clear correspondence in bi-directional sequence similarity matches. The expression of shared unigenes was mostly well correlated, but differentially expressed unigenes were identified and shown to be enriched for functions related to proteolysis for P. westermani and microtubule based motility for P. skrjabini. The assembled transcriptomes of P. westermani and P. skrjabini, inferred proteins, and extensive functional annotations generated for this project (including identified primary sequence similarities to various species, protein domains, biological pathways, predicted proteases, molecular mimics and secreted proteins, etc.) represent a valuable resource for hypothesis driven research on these medically and economically important species.

  14. Fifty years of the Korean Society for Parasitology.

    PubMed

    Cho, Seung-Yull

    2009-10-01

    In 1959, the Korean Society for Parasitology was founded by clinical scientists, specialists of public health, and 5 core parasitologists with experience in American science and medicine. The Society this year celebrates its 50th anniversary. Due to public health importance at the time of foundation, medical parasitology was the main stream for next 3 decades. Domestic problems of niche parasitic diseases, unlisted in 6 tropical diseases of major importance, had been studied by own efforts. To cope with the demand of parasite control, evaluation system for control activity was built up. Control activity against soil-transmitted nematodes, conducted for almost 3 decades, was evaluated as a success. Evaluation of praziquantel efficacy for clonorchiasis, paragonimiasis, and neurocysticercosis, population dynamics of Ascaris lumbricoides infection in a situation of continuous reinfections, diagnostic modalities of antibody tests combined with brain imaging developed for helminthiasis of the central nervous system and researches on intestinal trematodes were achievements in the first 30 years. During the recent 2 decades, science researches, such as cell and molecular biology of parasites and immunology of parasitic infections have been studied especially on parasitic allergens and proteolytic and anti-oxidant enzymes. Experiences of international cooperation for world health have been accumulated and would be expanded in the future.

  15. Occurrence of the lung fluke, Paragonimus heterotremus in Manipur, India.

    PubMed

    Singh, T Shantikumar

    2003-03-01

    To determine the natural crustacean host, the Paragonimus species, and to investigate the potential host-parasite relationship between Manipur Paragonimus and some of the laboratory animals. The laboratory animals such as puppies, albino rats and Swiss mice were infected orally with metacercariae isolated from the fresh water crabs, Potamiscus manipurensis. The fecal specimens of the experimentally infected animals were examined microscopically for Paragonimus eggs at regular intervals. The animals were autopsied on days 35 to approximately 328 after infection and the isolated worms were flattened between glass slides and fixed in 70% alcohol. The worms were stained with carmine and mounted with Canada balsam for morphological studies. The eggs were collected in 5% formol saline solution for microscopy. The flukes were classified into 4 developmental stages. A total of 11 worms, 5 mature, 5 immature and 1 pre-adult were recovered. The morphological features of the metacercariae, worms and eggs were similar to those of Paragonimus heterotremus. Manipur is one of the rare areas in the world where Paragonimus heterotremus is prevalent and the puppies are ideal experimental animal host. This species may be one of the important causes of paragonimiasis in animals and humans in Manipur.

  16. Gene diversity and genetic variation in lung flukes (genus Paragonimus).

    PubMed

    Blair, David; Nawa, Yukifumi; Mitreva, Makedonka; Doanh, Pham Ngoc

    2016-01-01

    Paragonimiasis caused by lung flukes (genus Paragonimus) is a neglected disease occurring in Asia, Africa and the Americas. The genus is species-rich, ancient and widespread. Genetic diversity is likely to be considerable, but investigation of this remains confined to a few populations of a few species. In recent years, studies of genetic diversity have moved from isoenzyme analysis to molecular phylogenetic analysis based on selected DNA sequences. The former offered better resolution of questions relating to allelic diversity and gene flow, whereas the latter is more suitable for questions relating to molecular taxonomy and phylogeny. A picture is emerging of a highly diverse taxon of parasites, with the greatest diversity found in eastern and southern Asia where ongoing speciation might be indicated by the presence of several species complexes. Diversity of lung flukes in Africa and the Americas is very poorly sampled. Functional molecules that might be of value for immunodiagnosis, or as targets for medical intervention, are of great interest. Characterisation of these from Paragonimus species has been ongoing for a number of years. However, the imminent release of genomic and transcriptomic data for several species of Paragonimus will dramatically increase the rate of discovery of such molecules, and illuminate their diversity within and between species. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Paragonimus heterotremus Chen and Hsia (1964), in Vietnam: a molecular identification and relationships of isolates from different hosts and geographical origins.

    PubMed

    Le, Thanh H; Van De, Nguyen; Blair, David; McManus, Donald P; Kino, Hideto; Agatsuma, Takeshi

    2006-04-01

    Paragonimus heterotremus Chen and Hsia (1964), and paragonimiasis caused by this species is a newly detected disease in Vietnam. Twelve samples of Paragonimus (Platyhelminthes: Trematoda: Digenea: Paragonimidae) from different life-stages (eggs, miracidia, metacercariae, adults from natural and experimental hosts) and host species (crab, dog, cat and human) were collected in different geographical locations in Vietnam. DNA sequences were obtained from each for partial mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) (387 bp) and the entire second ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS-2) (361 bp). The ITS-2 sequences were identical among all specimens, including those previously reported in GenBank. For cox1, there were sequence differences between specimens from Vietnam (four provinces, different locations) and those from Guangxi (China) and Saraburi (Thailand). Phylogenetic trees inferred from cox1 and ITS-2 sequences using sequence data for 15 P. heterotremus and for other Paragonimus spp. revealed that all P. heterotremus originating from Vietnam, Thailand and China form a distinct group. This information also confirms the identity of the Vietnamese specimens as P. heterotremus.

  18. Cysteine Protease Secreted by Paragonimus westermani Attenuates Effector Functions of Human Eosinophils Stimulated with Immunoglobulin G

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Myeong Heon; Kita, Hirohito; Park, Hae Young; Seoh, Ju Young

    2001-01-01

    An immunoglobulin G (IgG)-coated surface, such as that found on helminth parasites, is one of the most effective physiologic stimuli for eosinophil activation. The cysteine proteases secreted by tissue-invasive helminth larvae play an important role in evasion of the immune response by degrading the host immunoglobulins. In this study, we investigated whether cysteine proteases in the excretory-secretory product (ESP) produced by Paragonimus westermani newly excysted metacercariae (PwNEM), which cause pulmonary or extrapulmonary paragonimiasis in human beings, could modify effector functions of human eosinophils stimulated with IgG. We coated 96-well plates with human IgG in the absence or presence of the ESP produced by PwNEM. When eosinophils were incubated in the wells coated with IgG in the presence of the ESP, eosinophil degranulation and superoxide production were significantly reduced compared with results for cells incubated in wells coated with IgG alone. This inhibitory effect of the ESP on IgG-induced superoxide production was dose dependent and was significantly abolished by pretreatment of the ESP with heat. These findings suggest that the cysteine proteases secreted by PwNEM attenuate both activation and degranulation of eosinophils stimulated with IgG. Thus, the cysteine proteases produced by tissue-invasive helminth larvae play crucial roles in evasion of IgG-dependent eosinophil helminthotoxicity and in reduction of eosinophil-associated tissue inflammation during the migratory period. PMID:11179333

  19. Structural and Immunological Characteristics of a 28-Kilodalton Cruzipain-Like Cysteine Protease of Paragonimus westermani Expressed in the Definitive Host Stage

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Doo-Hee; Chung, Joon-Yong; Chung, Young-Bae; Bahk, Young-Yil; Kang, Shin-Yong; Kong, Yoon; Cho, Seung-Yull

    2000-01-01

    A complete cDNA sequence encoding a 28-kDa cruzipain-like cysteine protease of adult Paragonimus westermani, termed Pw28CCP, was isolated from an adult cDNA library. The cDNA contained a single open reading frame of 975 bp encoding 325 amino acids, which exhibited the structural motif and domain organization characteristic of cysteine proteases of non-cathepsin Bs including a hydrophobic signal sequence, an ERFNIN motif, and essential cysteine residues as well as active sites in the mature catalytic region. Analysis of its phylogenetic position revealed that this novel enzyme belonged to the cruzipain-like cysteine proteases. The sequence of the first 13 amino acids predicted from the mature domain of Pw28CCP was in accord with that determined from the native 28-kDa enzyme purified from the adult worm. Expression of Pw28CCP was observed specifically in juvenile and adult worms, with a location in the intestinal epithelium, suggesting that this enzyme could be secreted and involved in nutrient uptake and immune modulation. The recombinant protein expressed in Escherichia coli was used to assess antigenicity by immunoblotting with sera from patients with active paragonimiasis and from those with other parasitic infections. The resulting sensitivity of 86.2% (56 of 65 samples) and specificity of 98% (147 of 150 samples) suggest its potential as an antigen for use in immunodiagnosis. PMID:11063501

  20. Excretory-secretory product of Paragonimus westermani newly excysted metacercariae inhibits superoxide production of granulocytes stimulated with IgG

    PubMed Central

    2000-01-01

    It is well known that the cysteine proteases in excretory-secretory product (ESP) of Paragonimus westermani newly excysted metacercariae (PwNEM) are capable of degrading IgG in vitro. Recent evidence suggests that the IgG-coated surface, such as found on parasites, is one of the most effective physiologic stimuli for granulocyte activation. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate the effect of excretory-secretory product (ESP) of PwNEM on superoxide production of granulocytes stimulated with IgG. The 96-well plates were coated with human IgG (0, 10, 30, 100 µg/ml) in the absence or presence of ESP. When granulocytes were incubated in the wells coated with human IgG in the presence of ESP, the level of superoxide production of granulocytes was reduced to about 90% when compared to the cells incubated in the wells coated with IgG alone. This inhibitory effect of the ESP on IgG-induced superoxide production of granulocytes was concentration-dependent. These results suggest that ESP secreted by PwNEM may be important in the control of effector functions of granulocytes stimulated with IgG in human paragonimiasis. PMID:10905073

  1. Molecular identification of the trematode Paragonimus in faecal samples from the wild cat Prionailurus bengalensis in the Da Krong Nature Reserve, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Doanh, P N; Hien, H V; Tu, L A; Nonaka, N; Horii, Y; Nawa, Y

    2016-11-01

    Conventional identification of Paragonimus species and their natural definitive hosts is based on the morphological features of adult parasites isolated from the lungs of wild mammalian hosts. However, wild animals are protected by strict regulations and sampling is not always possible. Recently, molecular techniques have been developed to identify the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences of Paragonimus eggs in faeces/sputum of human patients. Also, mammalian hosts can be identified using the D-loop sequence of mitochondrial DNA in faecal samples. In this study, we used molecular techniques on faeces from wild animals collected in Da Krong Nature Reserve, Quang Tri province, central Vietnam, where Paragonimus metacercariae are highly prevalent in mountain crabs, to identify Paragonimus species and their natural definitive hosts. The results indicated that wild cats, Prionailurus bengalensis, were infected with at least three different Paragonimus species, P. westermani, P. skrjabini and P. heterotremus. Because all of these species can infect humans in Asian countries, human paragonimiasis should be considered in this area.

  2. Molecular and morphological variation of Paragonimus westermani in Vietnam with records of new second intermediate crab hosts and a new locality in a northern province.

    PubMed

    Doanh, N Pham; Tu, A Luu; Bui, T Dung; Loan, T Ho; Nonaka, Nariaki; Horii, Yoichiro; Blair, David; Nawa, Yukifumi

    2016-10-01

    Paragonimus westermani is one of the most medically important lung flukes and is widely distributed in Asia. It exhibits considerable variation in morphological, genetic and biological features. In central provinces of Vietnam, a high prevalence of metacercariae of this species has been reported from the crab intermediate host, Vietopotamon aluoiense. In this study, we detected P. westermani metacercariae in two additional crab hosts, Donopotamon haii in Quang Tri Province, central Vietnam and Indochinamon tannanti in Yen Bai Province in the north. The latter is a new locality for P. westermani in a northern region of Vietnam where P. heterotremus is the only species currently known to cause human paragonimiasis. Paragonimus westermani metacercariae found in Vietnam showed considerable morphological variation but slight genetic variation based on DNA sequences from the nuclear ribosomal ITS2 region and the mitochondrial 16S gene. Co-infection of the same individual crabs with P. westermani and P. heterotremus and/or some other Paragonimus species was found frequently, suggesting potential for co-infection in humans. The findings of the present study emphasize the need for highly specific molecular and immunodiagnostic methods to differentially diagnose between P. westermani and P. heterotremus infections.

  3. Inactivation of Paragonimus westermani metacercariae in soy sauce-marinated and frozen freshwater crabs.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae Im; Oh, Se-Ra; Dai, Fuhong; Yang, Hyun-Jong; Ha, Sang-Do; Hong, Sung-Jong

    2017-03-01

    Soy sauce-marinated freshwater crabs (Eriocheir japonicus) are a source of human paragonimiasis. The viability of Paragonimus westermani metacercariae (PwMc) in marinated crabs was investigated in an experimental setting. The PwMc collected from freshwater crayfish were inoculated into freshwater crabs, which were then frozen or marinated in soy sauce. All PwMc in the freshwater crabs were inactivated after freezing for 48 h at -20 °C and after freezing for 12 h at -40 °C. After marinating for 32 days, the survival rate of PwMc in 5% NaCl soy sauce was 50%, in 7.5% NaCl soy sauce it was 33.3%, and in 10.0% NaCl soy sauce it was 31.3%. When marinated for 64 days, all PwMc were inactivated in all experimental groups. These results revealed that freezing and soy sauce marination were detrimental to the survival of PwMc in freshwater crabs. Specifically, freezing crabs for more than 48 h or soaking them in soy sauce containing at least 5.0% NaCl for 64 days can inactivate PwMc. These results can inform the production of the traditional Korean soy sauce-marinated freshwater crabs known as gejang.

  4. Development of an immunodiagnosis method using recombinant PsCP for detection of Paragonimus skrjabini infection in human.

    PubMed

    Yu, Shasha; Zhang, Xilin; Chen, Wenbi; Zheng, Hong; Ai, Guoping; Ye, Nan; Wang, Ying

    2017-01-01

    Paragonimiasis skrjabini is a kind of zoonosis and prevalent in 16 provinces in China, such as Chongqing, Fujian, Sichuan, and Yunnan. However, sensitive and efficient diagnostic methods for the infection are limited. In order to provide a more convenient and simple method for serologic diagnosis, the recombinant P. skrjabini cysteine protease (PsCP) was expressed, purified, and then used to develop an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detecting anti-PsCP antibodies in human. Given the positive/negative cutoff value as 0.606, the maximum dilution of human sera in which anti-PsCP antibodies could be detected was 1:12,800. In addition, the coefficients of variation (CVs) of inter-assay and intra-assay experiments were both below 10 %. Furthermore, the sensitivity of the PsCP-based ELISA was 95.5 %, and the indirect ELISA displays no cross-reactivity with human antisera against Echinococcus granulosus, Taenia solium, Schistosoma japonicum, and Trichinella spiralis, either. In conclusion, recombinant PsCP was readily produced and used to establish a simple PsCP-based ELISA that provided a highly specific and sensitive method for analysis of clinical samples. Besides, the method can also probably be used to diagnose P. skrjabini infection in animals.

  5. Molecular and biochemical characterization of hemoglobinase, a cysteine proteinase, in Paragonimus westermani

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Joon-Hyuck; Lee, Jae-Hyuk; Yu, Hak-Sun; Jeong, Hae-Jin; Kim, Jin; Hong, Yeon-Chul; Chung, Dong-Il

    2006-01-01

    The mammalian trematode Paragonimus westermani is a typical digenetic parasite, which can cause paragonimiasis in humans. Host tissues and blood cells are important sources of nutrients for development, growth and reproduction of P. westermani. In this study, a cDNA clone encoding a 47 kDa hemoglobinase of P. westermani was characterized by sequencing analysis, and its localization was investigated immunohistochemically. The phylogenetic tree prepared based on the hemoglobinase gene showed high homology with hemoglobinases of Fasciola hepatica and Schistosoma spp. Moreover, recombinant P. westermani hemoglobinase degradaded human hemoglobin at acidic pH (from 3.0 to 5.5) and its activity was almost completely inhibited by E-64, a cysteine proteinase inhibitor. Immunohistochemical studies showed that P. westermani hemoglobinase was localized in the epithelium of the adult worm intestine implying that the protein has a specific function. These observations suggest that hemoglobinase may act as a digestive enzyme for acquisition of nutrients from host hemoglobin. Further investigations may provide insights into hemoglobin catabolism in P. westermani. PMID:16969056

  6. Intron sequence of the taurocyamine kinase gene as a marker to investigate genetic variation of Paragonimus species in Japan and the origins of triploidy in P. westermani.

    PubMed

    Saijuntha, Weerachai; Tantrawatpan, Chairat; Jarilla, Blanca R; Agatsuma, Takeshi; Andrews, Ross H; Petney, Trevor N

    2016-01-01

    Paragonimiasis is a foodborne parasitic infection caused by lung flukes of the genus Paragonimus. Several species of Paragonimus are endemic in Japan: P. westermani (diploid and triploid) P. miyazakii, P. ohirai and P. iloktsuenensis. The taxonomic status and genetic variability of these lung flukes remains poorly understood. The second intron of domain 1 of the taurocyamine kinase gene (TKD1int2) region was used to explore genetic variation and differentiation of diploid and triploid P. westermani, as well as P. miyazakii, P. ohirai and P. iloktsuenensis originating from Japan. We found high levels of intraspecific variation in P. westermani, but only low levels of variation within the other species studied. Haplotype network and phylogenetic tree analyses demonstrated the sister-group relationship of P. ohirai and P. iloktsuenensis and the phylogenetically distant relationship of P. westermani with the other species. All individuals except for triploid P. westermani were homozygous. Each triploid contained at least one allele similar to that seen in most diploids from Chiba and one allele resembling that seen in diploids from Oita. One triploid contained three different sequences. Our findings suggested that the TKD1int2 region is a suitable marker for use in studying the genetic variation and phylogenetics of Paragonimus species, as well as providing clues to the origins of triploidy in P. westermani. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Metacercarial polymorphism and genetic variation of Paragonimus heterotremus (Digenea: Paragonimidae), and a re-appraisal of the taxonomic status of Paragonimus pseudoheterotremus.

    PubMed

    Doanh, P N; Thaenkham, U; An, P T; Hien, H V; Horii, Y; Nawa, Y

    2015-03-01

    Paragonimus heterotremus, which is an important pathogen for human paragonimiasis in Asia, is recognized as having the smallest metacercariae (maximum diameter < 300 μm) of any previously reported Paragonimus species. Recently, P. pseudoheterotremus has been described from Thailand as a new species having metacercariae (about 200 μm) slightly smaller than those of Thai P. heterotremus. In fact, the small size of P. pseudoheterotremus metacercariae is compatible with those of P. heterotremus from India and China. In this study in Vietnam, we found variably sized small metacercariae which are expected to consist of both P. heterotremus and P. pseudoheterotremus. Contrary to expectation, the adult flukes obtained by separate infection of experimental cats with different sized metacercariae were all identified as P. heterotremus, using both morphological and molecular characteristics. The molecular analyses of an extensive collection of P. heterotremus/P. pseudoheterotremus isolates from Asian countries also indicated that genetic distances between different populations of P. heterotremus are even larger than that between P. pseudoheterotremus and P. heterotremus. The haplotype network showed that all P. heterotremus and P. pseudoheterotremus isolates formed a P. heterotremus complex consisting of three groups with strong geographical origins. In addition, the Indian P. heterotremus group is the root of the other P. heterotremus and P. pseudoheterotremus populations. Based on the observed metacercarial polymorphisms and genetic variation in P. heterotremus, P. pseudoheterotremus should be considered a geographically isolated population of the P. heterotremus complex.

  8. Paragonimus westermani possesses aerobic and anaerobic mitochondria in different tissues, adapting to fluctuating oxygen tension in microaerobic habitats.

    PubMed

    Takamiya, Shinzaburo; Fukuda, Koich; Nakamura, Takeshi; Aoki, Takashi; Sugiyama, Hiromu

    2010-12-01

    We previously showed that adult Paragonimus westermani, the causative agent of paragonimiasis and whose habitat is the host lung, possesses both aerobic and anaerobic respiratory chains, i.e., cyanide-sensitive succinate oxidase and NADH-fumarate reductase systems, in isolated mitochondria (Takamiya et al., 1994). This finding raises the intriguing question as to whether adult Paragonimus worms possess two different populations of mitochondria, one having an aerobic succinate oxidase system and the other an anaerobic fumarate reductase system, or whether the worms possess a single population of mitochondria possessing both respiratory chains (i.e., mixed-functional mitochondria). Staining of trematode tissues for cytochrome c oxidase activity showed three types of mitochondrial populations: small, strongly stained mitochondria with many cristae, localised in the tegument and tegumental cells; and two larger parenchymal cell mitochondria, one with developed cristae and the other with few cristae. The tegumental and parenchymal mitochondria could be separated by isopycnic density-gradient centrifugation and showed different morphological characteristics and respiratory activities, with low-density tegumental mitochondria having cytochrome c oxidase activity and high-density parenchymal mitochondria having fumarate reductase activity. These results indicate that Paragonimus worms possess three different populations of mitochondria, which are distributed throughout trematode tissues and function facultatively, rather than having mixed-functional mitochondria.

  9. Application of a real-time fluorescence resonance energy transfer polymerase chain reaction assay with melting curve analysis for the detection of Paragonimus heterotremus eggs in the feces of experimentally infected cats.

    PubMed

    Tantrawatpan, Chairat; Intapan, Pewpan M; Thanchomnang, Tongjit; Sanpool, Oranuch; Janwan, Penchom; Lulitanond, Viraphong; Anamnart, Witthaya; Maleewong, Wanchai

    2013-09-01

    Paragonimus heterotremus is a medically important lung fluke that causes human and animal paragonimiasis in Southeast Asia, including Thailand. In the current study, a real-time fluorescence resonance energy transfer polymerase chain reaction (real-time FRET PCR) with melting curve analysis was developed and evaluated to detect P. heterotremus eggs in the feces of experimentally infected cats. The detection limit of this method for the P. heterotremus DNA sequence was 3 × 10(2) copies of the positive control plasmid and 10(-3) ng of P. heterotremus genomic DNA. The assay system could detect 10 eggs of P. heterotremus per gram of cat feces. No fluorescence signal was observed when DNA purified from 16 other organisms or genomic DNA from cats and human beings were tested. Real-time FRET PCR yielded positive results for all fecal samples from 17 P. heterotremus-infected cats and showed a negative relationship (r = -0.852, P < 0.001) between the number of parasite eggs in feces and the number of PCR cycles. The assay could detect genomic DNA from P. heterotremus, P. westermani, P. macrorchis, P. siamensis, P. harinasutai, and P. bangkokensis and can differentiate P. heterotremus from the other 5 species. The 6 Paragonimus species examined were divided into 4 groups by melting peak analysis. This assay can be useful for the detection of, and epidemiological studies on, P. heterotremus infection in endemic areas.

  10. Differential diagnosis of CNS angiostrongyliasis: a short review.

    PubMed

    Senthong, Vichai; Chindaprasirt, Jarin; Sawanyawisuth, Kittisak

    2013-06-01

    The diagnostic criterion for eosinophilic meningitis (EOM) is the identification of an absolute count of 10 eosinophils per ml or more than 10% of the total white blood cells in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the proper clinical context. The most common cause of EOM is Angiostrongylus cantonensis infection, termed meningitic angiostrongyliasis (MA). Neurognathostomiasis (NG) is the main parasitic disease in the differential diagnosis of meningitic angiostrongyliasis. This short review is based on articles published on Medline between 2000 and 2012 related to EOM. There are three main approaches that can be used to differentiate between MA and NG, involving clinical factors, history of larval exposure, and serological tests. MA patients presented with acute severe headache but without neurological deficit, combined with a history of eating uncooked snails or slugs. NG patients always presented with motor weakness, migratory swelling, radicular pain and had history of eating uncooked poultry or fish. Specific antigenic bands in immunoblot tests are helpful tools to differentiate the two diseases. Other causes of eosinophilic meningitis are neurocysticercosis, cerebral paragonimiasis, Toxoplasma canis, Baylisascaris, tuberculous meningitis, and cryptococcal meningitis.

  11. Morphological and molecular characterization of the metacercaria of Paragonimus caliensis, as a separate species from P. mexicanus in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Chea, Roderico; Jiménez-Rocha, Ana Eugenia; Castro, Ruth; Blair, David; Dolz, Gaby

    2017-04-01

    The trematode Paragonimus mexicanus is the etiological agent of paragonimiasis, a food-borne zoonotic disease in Latin America. This species, as well as Paragonimus caliensis, have been reported from Costa Rica, but it is not known if the two are synonymous. Two types of Paragonimus metacercariae from freshwater pseudothelphusid crabs from several localities in Costa Rica were recognized by light microscopy. Morphologically, these corresponded to descriptions of P. mexicanus and P. caliensis. Metacercariae of the former species lacked a membrane or cyst and their bodies were yellow in color. Those of P. caliensis were contained in a transparent thin cyst and were pink in color. Morphotypes of metacercariae were determined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Based on the number and distribution of papillae in the ventral sucker, three morphotypes were found for P. mexicanus and two for P. caliensis. Analysis of DNA sequences (nuclear ribosomal 28S and ITS2 genes, and partial mitochondrial cox1 gene) confirmed the presence of P. mexicanus and provided the first molecular data for P. caliensis. The two species are phylogenetically distinct from each other and distant from the Asian species. The confirmation of P. caliensis as a separate species from P. mexicanus raises several questions about the ecology, biological diversity, and epidemiology of the genus Paragonimus in Costa Rica.

  12. Praziquantel Treatment in Trematode and Cestode Infections: An Update

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Status and emerging issues in the use of praziquantel for treatment of human trematode and cestode infections are briefly reviewed. Since praziquantel was first introduced as a broadspectrum anthelmintic in 1975, innumerable articles describing its successful use in the treatment of the majority of human-infecting trematodes and cestodes have been published. The target trematode and cestode diseases include schistosomiasis, clonorchiasis and opisthorchiasis, paragonimiasis, heterophyidiasis, echinostomiasis, fasciolopsiasis, neodiplostomiasis, gymnophalloidiasis, taeniases, diphyllobothriasis, hymenolepiasis, and cysticercosis. However, Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica infections are refractory to praziquantel, for which triclabendazole, an alternative drug, is necessary. In addition, larval cestode infections, particularly hydatid disease and sparganosis, are not successfully treated by praziquantel. The precise mechanism of action of praziquantel is still poorly understood. There are also emerging problems with praziquantel treatment, which include the appearance of drug resistance in the treatment of Schistosoma mansoni and possibly Schistosoma japonicum, along with allergic or hypersensitivity reactions against praziquantel treatment. To cope with and overcome these problems, combined use of drugs, i.e., praziquantel and other newly introduced compounds such as triclabendazole, artemisinins, and tribendimidine, is being tried. PMID:24265948

  13. Fifty Years of the Korean Society for Parasitology

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    In 1959, the Korean Society for Parasitology was founded by clinical scientists, specialists of public health, and 5 core parasitologists with experience in American science and medicine. The Society this year celebrates its 50th anniversary. Due to public health importance at the time of foundation, medical parasitology was the main stream for next 3 decades. Domestic problems of niche parasitic diseases, unlisted in 6 tropical diseases of major importance, had been studied by own efforts. To cope with the demand of parasite control, evaluation system for control activity was built up. Control activity against soil-transmitted nematodes, conducted for almost 3 decades, was evaluated as a success. Evaluation of praziquantel efficacy for clonorchiasis, paragonimiasis, and neurocysticercosis, population dynamics of Ascaris lumbricoides infection in a situation of continuous reinfections, diagnostic modalities of antibody tests combined with brain imaging developed for helminthiasis of the central nervous system and researches on intestinal trematodes were achievements in the first 30 years. During the recent 2 decades, science researches, such as cell and molecular biology of parasites and immunology of parasitic infections have been studied especially on parasitic allergens and proteolytic and anti-oxidant enzymes. Experiences of international cooperation for world health have been accumulated and would be expanded in the future. PMID:19885338

  14. Parasitic Infections Based on 320 Clinical Samples Submitted to Hanyang University, Korea (2004-2011)

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Sung-Chul; Lee, Soo-Young; Song, Hyun-Ouk; Ryu, Jae-Sook

    2014-01-01

    We analyzed 320 clinical samples of parasitic infections submitted to the Department of Environmental Biology and Medical Parasitology, Hanyang University from January 2004 to June 2011. They consisted of 211 nematode infections, 64 trematode or cestode infections, 32 protozoan infections, and 13 infections with arthropods. The nematode infections included 67 cases of trichuriasis, 62 of anisakiasis (Anisakis sp. and Pseudoterranova decipiens), 40 of enterobiasis, and 24 of ascariasis, as well as other infections including strongyloidiasis, thelaziasis, loiasis, and hookworm infecions. Among the cestode or trematode infections, we observed 27 cases of diphyllobothriasis, 14 of sparganosis, 9 of clonorchiasis, and 5 of paragonimiasis together with a few cases of taeniasis saginata, cysticercosis cellulosae, hymenolepiasis, and echinostomiasis. The protozoan infections included 14 cases of malaria, 4 of cryptosporidiosis, and 3 of trichomoniasis, in addition to infections with Entamoeba histolytica, Entamoeba dispar, Entamoeba coli, Endolimax nana, Giardia lamblia, and Toxoplasma gondii. Among the arthropods, we detected 6 cases of Ixodes sp., 5 of Phthirus pubis, 1 of Sarcoptes scabiei, and 1 of fly larva. The results revealed that trichuriasis, anisakiasis, enterobiasis, and diphyllobothriasis were the most frequently found parasitosis among the clinical samples. PMID:24850969

  15. Immunoproteomic Analysis of the Excretory-Secretory Proteins from Spirometra mansoni Sparganum

    PubMed Central

    HU, Dan Dan; CUI, Jing; WANG, Li; LIU, Li Na; WEI, Tong; WANG, Zhong Quan

    2013-01-01

    Background Sparganosis is caused by the invasion of Spirometra sparganum into various tissues/organs. Subcutaneous sparganosis can be diagnosed by biopsy, while visceral/cerebral sparganosis is not easy to be diagnosed. The diagnosis depends largely on the detection of specific anti-sparganum antibodies. The specificity of the ELISA could be increased by using S. mansoni sparganum excretory–secretory (ES) antigens, but it also had the cross-reactions with sera of patients with cysticercosis or paragonimiasis. The aim of this study was to identify early specific diagnostic antigens in S. mansoni sparganum ES proteins. Methods The sparganum ES proteins were analyzed by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and Western blot probed with early sera from infected mice at 14 days post-infection. The immunoreactive protein spots were characterized by MALDI-TOF/ TOF-MS. Results A total of approximately 149 proteins spots were detected with isoelectric point (pI) varying from 3 to 7.5 and molecular weight from 20 to 115 kDa and seven protein spots with molecular weight of 23-31 kDa were recognized by the infection sera. Three of seven spots were successfully identified and characterized as the same S. mansoni protein (cysteine protease), and the proteins of other 4 spots were not included in the databases. Conclusion The cysteine protease from S. mansoni ES proteins recognized by early infection sera might be the early diagnostic antigens for sparganosis. PMID:24454434

  16. Update on pathology of ocular parasitic disease

    PubMed Central

    Das, Dipankar; Ramachandra, Varsha; Islam, Saidul; Bhattacharjee, Harsha; Biswas, Jyotirmay; Koul, Akanksha; Deka, Panna; Deka, Apurba

    2016-01-01

    Parasites are a group of eukaryotic organisms that may be free-living or form a symbiotic or parasitic relationship with the hosts. Consisting of over 800,000 recognized species, parasites may be unicellular (Protozoa) or multicellular (helminths and arthropods). The association of parasites with human population started long before the emergence of civilization. Parasitic zoonotic diseases are prevalent worldwide including India. Appropriate epidemiological data are lacking on existing zoonotic parasitic diseases, and newer diseases are emerging in our scenario. Systemic diseases such as cysticercosis, paragonimiasis, hydatidosis, and toxoplasmosis are fairly common. Acquired Toxoplasma infections are rising in immune-deficient individuals. Amongst the ocular parasitic diseases, various protozoas such as Cystoidea, trematodes, tissue flagellates, sporozoas etc. affect humans in general and eyes in particular, in different parts of the world. These zoonoses seem to be a real health related problem globally. Recent intensification of research throughout the world has led to specialization in biological fields, creating a conducive situation for researchers interested in this subject. The basics of parasitology lie in morphology, pathology, and with recent updates in molecular parasitology, the scope has extended further. The current review is to address the recent update in ophthalmic parasites with special reference to pathology and give a glimpse of further research in this field. PMID:27958200

  17. Update on Eosinophilic Meningoencephalitis and Its Clinical Relevance

    PubMed Central

    Graeff-Teixeira, Carlos; da Silva, Ana Cristina Arámburu; Yoshimura, Kentaro

    2009-01-01

    Summary: Eosinophilic meningoencephalitis is caused by a variety of helminthic infections. These worm-specific infections are named after the causative worm genera, the most common being angiostrongyliasis, gnathostomiasis, toxocariasis, cysticercosis, schistosomiasis, baylisascariasis, and paragonimiasis. Worm parasites enter an organism through ingestion of contaminated water or an intermediate host and can eventually affect the central nervous system (CNS). These infections are potentially serious events leading to sequelae or death, and diagnosis depends on currently limited molecular methods. Identification of parasites in fluids and tissues is rarely possible, while images and clinical examinations do not lead to a definitive diagnosis. Treatment usually requires the concomitant administration of corticoids and anthelminthic drugs, yet new compounds and their extensive and detailed clinical evaluation are much needed. Eosinophilia in fluids may be detected in other infectious and noninfectious conditions, such as neoplastic disease, drug use, and prosthesis reactions. Thus, distinctive identification of eosinophils in fluids is a necessary component in the etiologic diagnosis of CNS infections. PMID:19366917

  18. Pathology of CNS parasitic infections.

    PubMed

    Pittella, José Eymard Homem

    2013-01-01

    Parasitic infections of the central nervous system (CNS) include two broad categories of infectious organisms: single-celled protozoa and multicellular metazoa. The protozoal infections include malaria, American trypanosomiasis, human African trypanosomiasis, toxoplasmosis, amebiasis, microsporidiasis, and leishmaniasis. The metazoal infections are grouped into flatworms, which include trematoda and cestoda, and roundworms or nematoda. Trematoda infections include schistosomiasis and paragonimiasis. Cestoda infections include cysticercosis, coenurosis, hydatidosis, and sparganosis. Nematoda infections include gnathostomiasis, angiostrongyliasis, toxocariasis, strongyloidiasis, filariasis, baylisascariasis, dracunculiasis, micronemiasis, and lagochilascariasis. The most common route of CNS invasion is through the blood. In some cases, the parasite invades the olfactory neuroepithelium in the nasal mucosa and penetrates the brain via the subarachnoid space or reaches the CNS through neural foramina of the skull base around the cranial nerves or vessels. The neuropathological changes vary greatly, depending on the type and size of the parasite, geographical strain variations in parasitic virulence, immune evasion by the parasite, and differences in host immune response. Congestion of the leptomeninges, cerebral edema, hemorrhage, thrombosis, vasculitis, necrosis, calcification, abscesses, meningeal and perivascular polymorphonuclear and mononuclear inflammatory infiltrate, microglial nodules, gliosis, granulomas, and fibrosis can be found affecting isolated or multiple regions of the CNS, or even diffusely spread. Some infections may be present as an expanding mass lesion. The parasites can be identified by conventional histology, immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization, and PCR. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Molecular variation in the Paragonimus heterotremus complex in Thailand and Myanmar.

    PubMed

    Sanpool, Oranuch; Intapan, Pewpan M; Thanchomnang, Tongjit; Janwan, Penchom; Nawa, Yukifumi; Blair, David; Maleewong, Wanchai

    2013-12-01

    Paragonimiasis is an important food-borne parasitic zoonosis caused by infection with lung flukes of the genus Paragonimus. Of the 7 members of the genus known in Thailand until recently, only P. heterotremus has been confirmed as causing human disease. An 8th species, P. pseudoheterotremus, has recently been proposed from Thailand, and has been found in humans. Molecular data place this species as a sister species to P. heterotremus, and it is likely that P. pseudoheterotremus is not specifically distinct from P. heterotremus. In this study, we collected metacercariae of both nominal species (identification based on metacercarial morphology) from freshwater crabs from Phetchabun Province in northern Thailand, Saraburi Province in central Thailand, and Surat Thani Province in southern Thailand. In addition, we purchased freshwater crabs imported from Myanmar at Myawaddy Province, western Thailand, close to the Myanmar-Thailand border. The DNAs extracted from excysted metacercariae were PCR-amplified and sequenced for ITS2 and cox1 genes. The ITS2 sequences were nearly identical among all samples (99-100%). Phylogenies inferred from all available partial cox1 sequences contained several clusters. Sequences from Indian P. heterotremus formed a sister group to sequences from P. pseudoheterotremus-type metacercariae. Sequences of P. heterotremus from Thailand, Vietnam, and China formed a separate distinct clade. One metacercaria from Phitsanulok Province was distinct from all others. There is clearly considerable genetic variation in the P. heterotremus complex in Thailand and the form referred to as P. pseudoheterotremus is widely distributed in Thailand and the Thai-Myanmar border region.

  20. Molecular Variation in the Paragonimus heterotremus Complex in Thailand and Myanmar

    PubMed Central

    Sanpool, Oranuch; Thanchomnang, Tongjit; Janwan, Penchom; Nawa, Yukifumi; Blair, David; Maleewong, Wanchai

    2013-01-01

    Paragonimiasis is an important food-borne parasitic zoonosis caused by infection with lung flukes of the genus Paragonimus. Of the 7 members of the genus known in Thailand until recently, only P. heterotremus has been confirmed as causing human disease. An 8th species, P. pseudoheterotremus, has recently been proposed from Thailand, and has been found in humans. Molecular data place this species as a sister species to P. heterotremus, and it is likely that P. pseudoheterotremus is not specifically distinct from P. heterotremus. In this study, we collected metacercariae of both nominal species (identification based on metacercarial morphology) from freshwater crabs from Phetchabun Province in northern Thailand, Saraburi Province in central Thailand, and Surat Thani Province in southern Thailand. In addition, we purchased freshwater crabs imported from Myanmar at Myawaddy Province, western Thailand, close to the Myanmar-Thailand border. The DNAs extracted from excysted metacercariae were PCR-amplified and sequenced for ITS2 and cox1 genes. The ITS2 sequences were nearly identical among all samples (99-100%). Phylogenies inferred from all available partial cox1 sequences contained several clusters. Sequences from Indian P. heterotremus formed a sister group to sequences from P. pseudoheterotremus-type metacercariae. Sequences of P. heterotremus from Thailand, Vietnam, and China formed a separate distinct clade. One metacercaria from Phitsanulok Province was distinct from all others. There is clearly considerable genetic variation in the P. heterotremus complex in Thailand and the form referred to as P. pseudoheterotremus is widely distributed in Thailand and the Thai-Myanmar border region. PMID:24516273

  1. Serial CT Findings of Paragonimus Infested Dogs and the Micro-CT Findings of the Worm Cysts

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chang Hyun; Goo, Jin Mo; Lee, Hyun Ju; Hong, Sung-Tae; Shen, Cheng Hua; Chung, Doo Hyun; Son, Kyu Ri; Chang, Jung Min; Eo, Hong

    2007-01-01

    Objective To investigate the serial CT findings of Paragonimus westermani infected dogs and the microscopic structures of the worm cysts using Micro-CT. Materials and Methods This study was approved by the committee on animal research at our institution. Fifteen dogs infected with P. westermani underwent serial contrast-enhanced CT scans at pre-infection, after 10 days of infection, and monthly thereafter until six months for determining the radiologic-pathologic correlation. Three dogs (one dog each time) were sacrificed at 1, 3 and 6 months, respectively. After fixation of the lungs, both multi-detector CT and Micro-CT were performed for examining the worm cysts. Results The initial findings were pleural effusion and/or subpleural ground-glass opacities or linear opacities at day 10. At day 30, subpleural and peribronchial nodules appeared with hydropneumothorax and abdominal or chest wall air bubbles. Cavitary change and bronchial dilatation began to be seen on CT scan at day 30 and this was mostly seen together with mediastinal lymphadenopathy at day 60. Thereafter, subpleural ground-glass opacities and nodules with or without cavitary changes were persistently observed until day 180. After cavitary change of the nodules, the migratory features of the subpleural or peribronchial nodules were seen on all the serial CT scans. Micro-CT showed that the cyst wall contained dilated interconnected tubular structures, which had communications with the cavity and the adjacent distal bronchus. Conclusion The CT findings of paragonimiasis depend on the migratory stage of the worms. The worm cyst can have numerous interconnected tubular channels within its own wall and these channels have connections with the cavity and the adjacent distal bronchus. PMID:17923779

  2. Systems Biology Studies of Adult Paragonimus Lung Flukes Facilitate the Identification of Immunodominant Parasite Antigens

    PubMed Central

    McNulty, Samantha N.; Fischer, Peter U.; Townsend, R. Reid; Curtis, Kurt C.; Weil, Gary J.; Mitreva, Makedonka

    2014-01-01

    Background Paragonimiasis is a food-borne trematode infection acquired by eating raw or undercooked crustaceans. It is a major public health problem in the far East, but it also occurs in South Asia, Africa, and in the Americas. Paragonimus worms cause chronic lung disease with cough, fever and hemoptysis that can be confused with tuberculosis or other non-parasitic diseases. Treatment is straightforward, but diagnosis is often delayed due to a lack of reliable parasitological or serodiagnostic tests. Hence, the purpose of this study was to use a systems biology approach to identify key parasite proteins that may be useful for development of improved diagnostic tests. Methodology/Principal Findings The transcriptome of adult Paragonimus kellicotti was sequenced with Illumina technology. Raw reads were pre-processed and assembled into 78,674 unique transcripts derived from 54,622 genetic loci, and 77,123 unique protein translations were predicted. A total of 2,555 predicted proteins (from 1,863 genetic loci) were verified by mass spectrometric analysis of total worm homogenate, including 63 proteins lacking homology to previously characterized sequences. Parasite proteins encoded by 321 transcripts (227 genetic loci) were reactive with antibodies from infected patients, as demonstrated by immunoaffinity purification and high-resolution liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Serodiagnostic candidates were prioritized based on several criteria, especially low conservation with proteins in other trematodes. Cysteine proteases, MFP6 proteins and myoglobins were abundant among the immunoreactive proteins, and these warrant further study as diagnostic candidates. Conclusions The transcriptome, proteome and immunolome of adult P. kellicotti represent a major advance in the study of Paragonimus species. These data provide a powerful foundation for translational research to develop improved diagnostic tests. Similar integrated approaches may be useful for identifying novel

  3. Molecular and immunological characterization of cathepsin L-like cysteine protease of Paragonimus pseudoheterotremus.

    PubMed

    Yoonuan, Tippayarat; Nuamtanong, Supaporn; Dekumyoy, Paron; Phuphisut, Orawan; Adisakwattana, Poom

    2016-12-01

    Cathepsin L is a cysteine protease belonging to the papain family. In parasitic trematodes, cathepsin L plays essential roles in parasite survival and host-parasite interactions. In this study, cathepsin L of the lung fluke Paragonimus pseudoheterotremus (PpsCatL) was identified and its molecular biological and immunological features characterized. A sequence analysis of PpsCatL showed that the gene encodes a 325-amino-acid protein that is most similar to P. westermani cathepsin L. The in silico three-dimensional structure suggests that PpsCatL is a pro-enzyme that becomes active when the propeptide is cleaved. A recombinant pro-PpsCatL lacking the signal peptide (rPpsCatL), with a molecular weight of 35 kDa, was expressed in E. coli and reacted with P. pseudoheterotremus-infected rat sera. The native protein was detected in crude worm antigens and excretory-secretory products and was localized in the cecum and in the lamellae along the intestinal tract of the adult parasite. Enzymatic activity of rPpsCatL showed that the protein could cleave the fluorogenic substrate Z-Phe-Arg-AMC after autocatalysis but was inhibited with E64. The immunodiagnostic potential of the recombinant protein was evaluated with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and suggested that rPpsCatL can detect paragonimiasis with high sensitivity and specificity (100 and 95.6 %, respectively). This supports the further development of an rPpsCatL-ELISA as an immunodiagnostic tool.

  4. Systems biology studies of adult paragonimus lung flukes facilitate the identification of immunodominant parasite antigens.

    PubMed

    McNulty, Samantha N; Fischer, Peter U; Townsend, R Reid; Curtis, Kurt C; Weil, Gary J; Mitreva, Makedonka

    2014-10-01

    Paragonimiasis is a food-borne trematode infection acquired by eating raw or undercooked crustaceans. It is a major public health problem in the far East, but it also occurs in South Asia, Africa, and in the Americas. Paragonimus worms cause chronic lung disease with cough, fever and hemoptysis that can be confused with tuberculosis or other non-parasitic diseases. Treatment is straightforward, but diagnosis is often delayed due to a lack of reliable parasitological or serodiagnostic tests. Hence, the purpose of this study was to use a systems biology approach to identify key parasite proteins that may be useful for development of improved diagnostic tests. The transcriptome of adult Paragonimus kellicotti was sequenced with Illumina technology. Raw reads were pre-processed and assembled into 78,674 unique transcripts derived from 54,622 genetic loci, and 77,123 unique protein translations were predicted. A total of 2,555 predicted proteins (from 1,863 genetic loci) were verified by mass spectrometric analysis of total worm homogenate, including 63 proteins lacking homology to previously characterized sequences. Parasite proteins encoded by 321 transcripts (227 genetic loci) were reactive with antibodies from infected patients, as demonstrated by immunoaffinity purification and high-resolution liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Serodiagnostic candidates were prioritized based on several criteria, especially low conservation with proteins in other trematodes. Cysteine proteases, MFP6 proteins and myoglobins were abundant among the immunoreactive proteins, and these warrant further study as diagnostic candidates. The transcriptome, proteome and immunolome of adult P. kellicotti represent a major advance in the study of Paragonimus species. These data provide a powerful foundation for translational research to develop improved diagnostic tests. Similar integrated approaches may be useful for identifying novel targets for drugs and vaccines in the future.

  5. [Changes of historical Paragonimus metacercaria infection rates of freshwater crabs in Yongjia County].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Teng-Jian; Chen, Hai-Qiang; Hong, Jia-Lin

    2013-12-01

    To understand the changes of Paragonimus metacercaria infection rates of freshwater crabs in Paragonimus endemic areas and explore the causes in Yongjia County, Zhejiang Province, China. A field investigation was carried out. The freshwater crabs were collected and the metacercaria were separated from the crabs. The infection rates, infectiosities and infection indexes were calculated and the results were vertically compared with the historical findings. The causes of the changes were discussed. Compared with those in 1980, the average infection rate in original endemic areas decreased from 59.71% to 21.50% (P < 0.05), while the infection density decreased from 1.09/g to 0.23/g (P < 0.05). The infection index decreased obviously. In Hesheng Village, it decreased from 4.05 to 0.01 (P < 0.01), in Wuchi Village, it was from 37.90 to 2.91 (P <0.01), and in Daruoyan Scinic area,it was from 5.85 to 0.03 (P < 0.01). Two endemic areas disappeared but two new endemic areas (Sihai Village and Sunshan Village) were found, and in Sunshan Village, the metacercaria infection rate was 100%, the infection density and infection index were 21.30/g and 3 402.68 respectively, which meant it was a super high endemic focus. The Paragonimus metacercaria infection rate in crabs is lower than before in Yongjia County, but some super high epidemic focus of paragonimiasis still exists. Therefore, we still should strengthen the control measures.

  6. Pleuropulmonary infection by Paragonimus westermani in the United States: a rare cause of Eosinophilic pneumonia after ingestion of live crabs.

    PubMed

    Boland, Jennifer M; Vaszar, Laszlo T; Jones, Jeffrey L; Mathison, Blaine A; Rovzar, Michael A; Colby, Thomas V; Leslie, Kevin O; Tazelaar, Henry D

    2011-05-01

    Infections caused by the parasite Paragonimus westermani are endemic to Southeast Asia. Most infections reported in the United States are among immigrants who acquired the disease abroad. Due to the nonspecific nature of its presentation and rarity in the United States, the diagnosis may first be suggested by the pathologist on biopsy review. Definitive diagnosis may need serologic testing for confirmation. We report 4 cases of pleuropulmonary disease caused by United States-acquired P. westermani, which were identified in the consultation files of the authors. Patients (3 men and 1 woman; aged, 20 to 66 y) presented with pulmonary complaints and chest imaging abnormalities including cavitary infiltrates (2), lung mass (1), pleural effusion (1), and pneumothorax (1). Biopsies showed chronic eosinophilic pneumonia and organizing pneumonia in all cases. Other pathologic findings included granulomatous inflammation with geographic necrosis (3), vasculitis (3), and pleuritis (3). Paragonimus organisms and/or eggs were identified in 2 cases. Serologic studies were positive for P. westermani in 3 cases (2 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and 1 immunoblot). Three patients ate live crabs at sushi bars (including crabs in martinis, a previously unreported mechanism for infection). In 1 patient, the source of infection was uncertain. Paragonimiasis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with eosinophilic pleuropulmonary disease in the United States. Although eosinophilic pneumonia was a consistent finding, the biopsies may be nonspecific as the organisms and/or eggs are not always visualized. Unusual features include marked pleuritis, foci of geographic necrosis and granulomatous vasculitis. A history of ingestion and targeted serologies are the keys to diagnosis.

  7. Development of a rapid dipstick with latex immunochromatographic assay (DLIA) for diagnosis of schistosomiasis japonica

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Schistosomiasis japonica (schistosomiasis) is a zoonosis that can seriously affect human health. At present, the immunodiagnostic assays for schistosomiasis detection are time-consuming and require well-trained personnel and special instruments, which can limit their use in the field. Thus, there is a pressing need for a simple and rapid immunoassay to screen patients on a large scale. In this study, we developed a novel rapid dipstick with latex immunochromatographic assay (DLIA) to detect anti-Schisaosoma japonicum antibodies in human serum. Results Using latex microspheres as a color probe, DLIA was established to test standard positive and negative sera, in comparison with the classical enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The sensitivity and specificity of DLIA were 95.10% (97/102) and 94.91% (261/275), respectively. The cross-reaction rates with clonorchiosis, intestinal nematodes, Angiostrongylus cantonensis and paragonimiasis were 0, 0, 0 and 42.11% respectively. All the results showed no significant difference to the ELISA. In field tests, 333 human serum samples from an endemic area were tested with DLIA, and compared with ELISA and Kato-Katz method. There was no significant difference between DLIA and ELISA on positive and negative rates of detection; however, significant differences existed between DLIA and Kato-Katz method, and between ELISA and Kato-Katz method. The kappa value between DLIA and ELISA was 0.90. Conclusions This is the first study in which DLIA was used to detect anti-Schistosoma japonicum antibody. The results show that DLIA is a simple, rapid, convenient, sensitive and specific assay for the diagnosis of schistosomiasis and is therefore very suitable for large-scale field applications and clinical detection. PMID:21824443

  8. Development of a Highly Specific Recombinant Toxocara canis Second-Stage Larva Excretory-Secretory Antigen for Immunodiagnosis of Human Toxocariasis

    PubMed Central

    Yamasaki, Hiroshi; Araki, Kunioki; Lim, Patricia Kim Chooi; Zasmy, Ngah; Mak, Joon Wah; Taib, Radzan; Aoki, Takashi

    2000-01-01

    The specificity of the recombinant Toxocara canis antigen developed for the immunodiagnosis of human toxocariasis was compared with that of the excretory-secretory antigen from T. canis second-stage larvae (TES) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. A total of 153 human serum samples from patients infected with 20 different helminths, including 11 cases of toxocariasis, were examined. No false-negative reactions were observed for the toxocariasis cases. When the TES was used at concentrations of 0.5 and 0.125 μg/ml, cross-reactions were observed in 79 (55.6%) and 61 (43.0%) of 142 cases, respectively. In contrast, when the recombinant antigen was tested at a concentration of 0.5 μg/ml, cross-reactions were observed in 19 (13.4%) of 142 cases. At a concentration of 0.125 μg/ml, however, the cross-reaction rate decreased sharply to only 2.1%, corresponding to 3 of 142 cases. The cross-reactions occurred with one case each of gnathostomiasis, paragonimiasis with Paragonimus miyazakii, and spirometriasis, in which high antibody titers were detected. In addition, the recombinant antigen showed negative reactions with serum samples from patients infected with Ascaris and hookworms, which are the most common parasites in the world. These findings are also supported by experiments with animals infected with Ascaris and hookworm. From these results, the recombinant antigen is highly specific for toxocariasis and may provide more reliable diagnostic results than other methods. PMID:10747116

  9. The mitochondrial genome of Paragonimus westermani (Kerbert, 1878), the Indian isolate of the lung fluke representative of the family Paragonimidae (Trematoda).

    PubMed

    Biswal, Devendra K; Chatterjee, Anupam; Bhattacharya, Alok; Tandon, Veena

    2014-01-01

    -protein coding genes successfully identified tRNA regions for the 24 tRNAs coded in mtDNA and 12 protein coding genes. Bayesian phylogenetic analyses of the concatenated protein coding genes placed P. westermani within the family Opisthorchida. The complete mtDNA sequence of P. westermani is 15,004 base pairs long; the lung fluke is the major etiological agent of paragonimiasis and the first Indian representative for the family Paragonimidae to be fully sequenced that provides important genetic markers for ecological, population and biogeographical studies and molecular diagnostic of digeneans that cause trematodiases.

  10. [Investigation on the hosts with natural Paragonimus infection and species identification in Jinhua Prefecture of Zhejiang Province].

    PubMed

    Lou, Hong-Qiang; Hu, Ye; Jin, Yao-Jian; Yu, Xin-Tu; Wang, Lan; He, Xu-Ying; Tu, Ping-Guang

    2011-10-01

    To investigate the natural hosts infected with Paragonimus sp. and identify the species of the parasite in selected counties/districts of Jinhua prefecture in Zhejiang Province. Three townships/towns were randomly sampled from each of the 9 counties/districts in Jinhua as pilot spots for the survey. Fresh-water snails were collected from the fields for examining cercariae. Crabs were collected and detected for metacercariae by routine technique and the metacercariae were fed to dogs purchased in areas free from paragonimiasis. Fecal materials of dogs and cats around the villages and streams where crabs were found infected were collected for examining eggs. The artificially infected dogs were sacrificed 55 d after infection to receive adult worms. The size of cercariae, metacercariae, eggs and adult worms was measured. After the DNA of the adult worm was extracted, PCR was used to amplify the COI gene and ITS2 gene of the mitochondria from the worms. Homology with relative strains/isolates was analyzed and phylogenetic tree constructed. The survey demonstrated that the snail Semisulcospira libertina and the crab Sinopotamon chekiangense served as the first and second intermediate hosts respectively. Natural infection was found in Wucheng District with an infection rate of 0.2% (2/1,088) in snails and 76.7% (46/60) in crabs in Shafan township, and an infection index (II) of 2.0 in crabs, 0.1% (1/1,683) in snails and 53.0% (46/60) in crabs with an II of 0.9 in Langya town. The infection rate was 0 (0/575) in snails and 30.0% (18/60) in crabs with an II of 0.1 in Baimu township of Wuyi County. Paragonimus eggs were detected in feces of stray cats with a positive rate of 8.3% (1/12) in Shafan and 0.6% (1/17) in Langya. The size and morphology of the cercariae, metacercariae, eggs and adult worms were similar to those of Paragonimus westermani. The sequences of the COI and ITS2 genes were with 390 bp and 363 bp respectively, indicating a homology of 88.2%-98.2% and 86

  11. The mitochondrial genome of Paragonimus westermani (Kerbert, 1878), the Indian isolate of the lung fluke representative of the family Paragonimidae (Trematoda)

    PubMed Central

    Biswal, Devendra K.; Chatterjee, Anupam

    2014-01-01

    -protein coding genes successfully identified tRNA regions for the 24 tRNAs coded in mtDNA and 12 protein coding genes. Bayesian phylogenetic analyses of the concatenated protein coding genes placed P. westermani within the family Opisthorchida. The complete mtDNA sequence of P. westermani is 15,004 base pairs long; the lung fluke is the major etiological agent of paragonimiasis and the first Indian representative for the family Paragonimidae to be fully sequenced that provides important genetic markers for ecological, population and biogeographical studies and molecular diagnostic of digeneans that cause trematodiases. PMID:25165620