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Sample records for paragonimus infested dogs

  1. Serial CT Findings of Paragonimus Infested Dogs and the Micro-CT Findings of the Worm Cysts

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chang Hyun; Goo, Jin Mo; Lee, Hyun Ju; Hong, Sung-Tae; Shen, Cheng Hua; Chung, Doo Hyun; Son, Kyu Ri; Chang, Jung Min; Eo, Hong

    2007-01-01

    Objective To investigate the serial CT findings of Paragonimus westermani infected dogs and the microscopic structures of the worm cysts using Micro-CT. Materials and Methods This study was approved by the committee on animal research at our institution. Fifteen dogs infected with P. westermani underwent serial contrast-enhanced CT scans at pre-infection, after 10 days of infection, and monthly thereafter until six months for determining the radiologic-pathologic correlation. Three dogs (one dog each time) were sacrificed at 1, 3 and 6 months, respectively. After fixation of the lungs, both multi-detector CT and Micro-CT were performed for examining the worm cysts. Results The initial findings were pleural effusion and/or subpleural ground-glass opacities or linear opacities at day 10. At day 30, subpleural and peribronchial nodules appeared with hydropneumothorax and abdominal or chest wall air bubbles. Cavitary change and bronchial dilatation began to be seen on CT scan at day 30 and this was mostly seen together with mediastinal lymphadenopathy at day 60. Thereafter, subpleural ground-glass opacities and nodules with or without cavitary changes were persistently observed until day 180. After cavitary change of the nodules, the migratory features of the subpleural or peribronchial nodules were seen on all the serial CT scans. Micro-CT showed that the cyst wall contained dilated interconnected tubular structures, which had communications with the cavity and the adjacent distal bronchus. Conclusion The CT findings of paragonimiasis depend on the migratory stage of the worms. The worm cyst can have numerous interconnected tubular channels within its own wall and these channels have connections with the cavity and the adjacent distal bronchus. PMID:17923779

  2. Ectopic (subcutaneous) Paragonimus miyazakii infection in a dog.

    PubMed

    Madarame, H; Suzuki, H; Saitoh, Y; Tachibana, M; Habe, S; Uchida, A; Sugiyama, H

    2009-09-01

    Ectopic infection with Paragonimus miyazakii was determined to be the cause of a subcutaneous inguinal mass in a 15-month-old, male, boar-hunting dog. On histologic examination, the mass comprised granulomatous panniculitis, intralesional adult trematodes and eggs, and lymphadenitis. Extrapulmonary paragonimosis in animals is rare. This appears to be the first report in a dog of ectopic P. miyazakii infection with mature trematodes and eggs that involved the inguinofemoral lymphocenter and surrounding subcutis.

  3. Paragonimus westermani and some rare intestinal trematodes recovered from raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides viverrinus) introduced recently on Yakushima Island, Japan.

    PubMed

    Sato, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Kazuo; Osanai, Arihiro; Aoki, Masanari

    2006-07-01

    Helminth parasites were collected from 9 raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides viverrinus) and 2 Japanese weasels (Mustela itatsi sho) on Yakushima Island, Japan. The former carnivore was introduced to this World Natural Heritage Area presumably within the last two decades, expanding its population thence, although detailed process(es) of the introduction is unknown. The collected trematodes from raccoon dogs included the triploid form of Paragonimus westermani, Brachylaima tokudai, Maritrema eroliae, and Pseudocryptotropa sp. Simultaneously, Paragonimus ohirai was found in one weasel killed by a traffic accident. Although the triploid form of P. westermani and P. ohirai are known to be distributed in some river-mouth areas of Yakushima Island based on previous surveys on crab hosts, natural infection was detected for the first time in wild final hosts. Particularly, the raccoon dog infected with P. westermani was caught in a mountainous area, distant from human residence or river-mouth areas. Although it is possible that the infected raccoon dog moved from a river-mouth area endemic with P. westermani after infection, the alternative scenario remains to be pursued; the endemic area of this zoonosis is expanding along with the recent expansion of raccoon dogs or feral cats (Felis catus), that became prevalent recently on this island including the mountainous areas. Maritrema eroliae taking a variety of shorebirds as its natural final hosts, and a minute trematode, Pseudocryptotropa sp., taking unknown natural final host(s) were recorded for the first time in raccoon dogs.

  4. Effectiveness of mefloquine against Clonorchis sinensis in rats and Paragonimus westermani in dogs.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Shu-hua; Xue, Jian; Li-li, Xu; Zhang, Yong-nian; Qiang, Hui-qing

    2010-11-01

    The aim of the study is to explore the effect of mefloquine against Clonorchis sinensis and Paragonimus westermani. For anti-C. sinensis study, a total of 71 rats were divided into four batches for oral infection of each rat with 50 C. sinensis metacercariae. Five to 7 weeks post-infection, groups of rats were treated orally with mefloquine at single doses or multiple daily doses while infected, but untreated rats served as control. All treated rats were euthanized 2 weeks post-treatment for assessment of efficacy. For anti-P. westermani study, two batches of eight and ten dogs were each infected intraperitoneally with 100 P. westermani metacercariae. Eighty-five to 96 days post-infection, groups of two or three dogs were treated orally with mefloquine and groups of two dogs were treated with praziquantel at a single dose or multiple doses. In each batch of test, three untreated but infected dogs served as control. All treated dogs were euthanized 26-30 days post-treatment for evaluation of efficacy. In rats infected with C. sinensis and treated orally with mefloquine at a single dose of 75 and 150 mg/kg, no effect against C. sinensis was observed. When the dose of mefloquine was increased to 250 mg/kg, one third (five out of 15) rats died 3-5 days post-treatment. Although the mean worm burden was lower than that of the control, the difference between the treated and control groups was not statistically significant (P>0.05) with worm burden reduction of 22.4%. Whereas, the group of infected rats received mefloquine at a daily dose of 100 mg/kg for 3 days, one out of five rats died after the last administration. The mean worm burden was significantly lower than that of the control with worm burden reduction of 67.6% (P<0.01). In the first test of mefloquine against P. westermani, three infected dogs received two oral doses of the drug, 50 mg/kg, given at a 4-h interval, the mean worm burden were similar to that of the control. While other two dogs were treated with

  5. Infection with Paragonimus westermani of boar-hunting dogs in Western Japan maintained via artificial feeding with wild boar meat by hunters.

    PubMed

    Irie, Takao; Yamaguchi, Yohei; Doanh, Pham Ngoc; Guo, Zhi Hong; Habe, Shigehisa; Horii, Yoichiro; Nonaka, Nariaki

    2017-08-18

    Infection of boar-hunting dogs with Paragonimus westermani was investigated in Western Japan. Blood and rectal feces were collected from 441 dogs in the three districts (205 in Kinki, 131 in Chugoku and 105 in Shikoku District). In a screening ELISA for serum antibody against P. westermani antigen, 195 dogs (44.2%) showed positive reaction. In the 195 dogs, 8 dogs were found excreting P. westermani eggs after molecular analysis of fecal eggs, and additional 7 were identified serologically for the parasite infection because of their stronger reactivity against P. westermani antigen than against antigens of other species of Paragonimus. A spatial analysis showed that all of the P. westermani infections were found in Kinki and Chugoku Districts. In this area, dogs' experience of being fed with raw boar meat showed high odds ratio (3.35) to the sero-positivity in the screening ELISA, and the frequency of such experiences was significantly higher in sero-positive dogs. While clear relationship was not obtained between predation of boars by dogs during hunting and their sero-positivity. Therefore, it is suggested that human activity of feeding with wild boar meat is the risk factor for P. westermani infection in boar-hunting dogs. Considering that hunting dogs could play as a major definitive host and maintain the present distribution of P. westermani in Western Japan, control measures for the infection in hunting dogs, such as prohibition of raw meat feeding and regular deworming, should be undertaken.

  6. Infection with Paragonimus westermani of boar-hunting dogs in Western Japan maintained via artificial feeding with wild boar meat by hunters

    PubMed Central

    IRIE, Takao; YAMAGUCHI, Yohei; DOANH, Pham Ngoc; GUO, Zhi Hong; HABE, Shigehisa; HORII, Yoichiro; NONAKA, Nariaki

    2017-01-01

    Infection of boar-hunting dogs with Paragonimus westermani was investigated in Western Japan. Blood and rectal feces were collected from 441 dogs in the three districts (205 in Kinki, 131 in Chugoku and 105 in Shikoku District). In a screening ELISA for serum antibody against P. westermani antigen, 195 dogs (44.2%) showed positive reaction. In the 195 dogs, 8 dogs were found excreting P. westermani eggs after molecular analysis of fecal eggs, and additional 7 were identified serologically for the parasite infection because of their stronger reactivity against P. westermani antigen than against antigens of other species of Paragonimus. A spatial analysis showed that all of the P. westermani infections were found in Kinki and Chugoku Districts. In this area, dogs’ experience of being fed with raw boar meat showed high odds ratio (3.35) to the sero-positivity in the screening ELISA, and the frequency of such experiences was significantly higher in sero-positive dogs. While clear relationship was not obtained between predation of boars by dogs during hunting and their sero-positivity. Therefore, it is suggested that human activity of feeding with wild boar meat is the risk factor for P. westermani infection in boar-hunting dogs. Considering that hunting dogs could play as a major definitive host and maintain the present distribution of P. westermani in Western Japan, control measures for the infection in hunting dogs, such as prohibition of raw meat feeding and regular deworming, should be undertaken. PMID:28717056

  7. Does hair coat length affect flea infestation in naturally infested dogs?

    PubMed

    Silva, Guilherme Araujo Collares da; Lins, Luciana Araujo; Irala, Márcio Josué Costa; Cárcamo, Marcial Corrêa; Ribeiro, Paulo Bretanha

    2016-01-01

    The Siphonaptera are parasitic insects of endothermic animals and Ctenocephalides felis and Pulex irritans are important parasites of dogs. This study evaluated the effect of hair coat length and time of year on the population size of C. felis and P. irritans in naturally infested dogs. Fleas were collected from 14 dogs on a monthly basis for a year (February 2015 to January 2016) at a rural property in Bagé, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The dogs were divided into two groups based on hair coat length: short coat (coat length < 5.0 cm, n= 7) and long coat (coat length > 5.0 cm, n= 7). In total, 2057 fleas were collected, 1541 of which were C. felis (74.91%) and 516 were P. irritans (25.08%). The number of C. felis and P. irritans individuals was significantly affected by hair coat length and time of year. The variation in flea numbers over the study months was higher in long-coated than in short-coated dogs for the two flea species and flea numbers increased with increasing mean monthly temperatures. The results provide a better understanding of behavioral aspects of flea communities in dogs and may help develop control strategies targeting these parasites.

  8. A survey of ectoparasites infesting urban and rural dogs of Maranhão state, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Costa, Andrea P; Silva, Arannadia B; Costa, Francisco B; Xavier, Gabriel S; Martins, Thiago F; Labruna, Marcelo B; Guerra, Rita M S N C

    2013-05-01

    This study evaluated for the first time, ectoparasite infestations on dogs from urban and rural areas of the continental land of the state of Maranhão, northeastern Brazil. In total, 622 dogs were examined for ectoparasite infestations. Overall, 392 (63.0%) were infested with ectoparasites, 154 (51.3%) of 300 urban dogs and 238 (73.9%) of 322 rural dogs. Five species of ectoparasites were found, three ticks [Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille), Amblyomma ovale Koch, and Amblyomma cajennense (F.)], one flea [Ctenocephalides felis (Bouché)], and one louse [(Heterodoxus spininger (Enderlein)]. The frequency of infestation by R. sanguineus tended to be higher in urban than in rural areas, whereas infestations by Amblyomma ticks and C. felis fleas tended to be higher among rural dogs. Louse (H. spininger) infestations were similarly low among all areas. Mixed infestations by at least two species of ectoparasites on the same dog were significantly more frequent on rural than on urban dogs. The most frequent mixed infestation was by R. sanguineus and C. felis, found on 11.4% of the dogs. Further studies are warranted to evaluate canine vector-borne agents in Maranhão, especially because most of the ectoparasites here reported are vectors of major vector-borne diseases, including zoonoses of continental importance.

  9. [Factors associated with Ehrlichia canis infection in dogs infested with ticks from Huanuco, Peru].

    PubMed

    Huerto-Medina, Edward; Dámaso-Mata, Bernardo

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the frequency and associated factors of Ehrlichia canis infection in dogs. Blood samples from 150 dogs infested with ticks in 10 veterinary clinics in the city of Huanuco in Peru were collected. The dogs were randomly selected without regard to breed, age or sex. Ehrlichia canis antibodies were detected by chromatographic immunoassay.51.3% of dogs were infected with Ehrlichia canis. In the multivariate analysis, factors associated with the presence of Ehrlichia canis were: poor health of the dog (p = 0.049), a higher average of tick infestation (p = 0.018), and adult dogs (p = 0.038). The frequency of Ehrlichia canis in dogs of this city is high. Control of the brown dog tick (Rhipicephalus sanguineus) vector of Ehrlichia canis is recommended.

  10. Elevated levels of thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC) in pleural effusion samples from patients infested with Paragonimus westermani

    PubMed Central

    Matsumoto, N; Mukae, H; Nakamura-Uchiyama, F; Ashitani, J-I; Abe, K; Katoh, S; Kohno, S; Nawa, Y; Matsukura, S

    2002-01-01

    To investigate the pathogenic mechanisms of eosinophilic pleural effusion in patients with paragonimiasis, we measured the levels of various chemokines including thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC), eotaxin, RANTES and IL-8 in pleural effusion samples. Samples were obtained from 11 patients with Paragonimus westermani infection, six patients with pleural transudate, eight with tuberculous pleurisy and five with empyema. High percentages of eosinophils were detected in pleural fluid (range 9–100%, median 81%) of patients with paragonimiasis. TARC concentrations in pleural effusions of paragonimiasis were markedly higher than those of other groups. Eotaxin levels were also higher in pleural effusions of paragonimiasis patients, although significant difference was noted only against transudate samples. There was a significant correlation between TARC concentrations and percentages of eosinophils, and between TARC and eotaxin concentrations in pleural effusion. There were also significant correlations between TARC concentration and the titre of anti-P. westermani IgG and between eotaxin concentration and the titre of anti-P. westermani IgG. Our findings suggest that TARC contributes to the pathogenesis of eosinophilic pleural effusion in paragonimiasis. PMID:12390321

  11. Efficacy of a new combination of fipronil and permethrin against Ctenocephalides felis flea infestation in dogs.

    PubMed

    Fankhauser, Becky; Dumont, Pascal; Halos, Lénaïg; Hunter, James S; Kunkle, Bruce; Everett, William R; Chester, Theodore S; Fourie, Josephus J; Soll, Mark D

    2015-01-29

    Five studies were conducted to evaluate the effect of a new combination of fipronil and permethrin on cat fleas, Ctenocephalides felis, when applied to dogs, including dogs that underwent water exposure or shampooing. In each study, 16 dogs were allocated to two groups. Each dog was infested with 100 unfed adult fleas on Days -1, 7, 14, 21 and 28. Eight dogs were treated with a new topical spot-on formulation containing 6.76% w/v fipronil + 50.48% w/v permethrinon Day 0; and eight dogs served as untreated controls. Twenty-four or 48 h after treatment or subsequent infestation, each dog was combed to remove and count live fleas. In addition, the dogs were subjected to different levels of water or shampoo exposure. In study 1, dogs were not subjected to any water exposure or shampooing; in study 2, dogs were water immersed twice during the month on Days 10 and 24; in study 3, dogs were water immersed three times on Days 10, 17 and 24; and in studies 4 and 5, dogs were shampooed once on Day 17. All groups of dogs administered a single topical treatment with a combination of fipronil and permethrin had significantly (p < 0.005) lower flea counts than untreated controls 24 h and 48 h post-treatment or post-infestation, regardless of whether they underwent water exposure/shampooing or not. The reductions in C. felis counts were between 98.4% and 100% at all time points in all studies. The new topical spot-on formulation of fipronil and permethrin maintains a high level of protection of dogs against C. felis flea infestations even when the dogs are exposed to environmental factors that are believed to adversely affect efficacy, such as water exposure or shampooing.

  12. Ectoparasite infestation patterns of domestic dogs in suburban and rural areas in Borneo.

    PubMed

    Wells, Konstans; Beaucournu, Jean-Claude; Durden, Lance A; Petney, Trevor N; Lakim, Maklarin B; O'Hara, Robert B

    2012-08-01

    Domestic dogs, Canis lupus, have been one of the longest companions of humans and have introduced their own menagerie of parasites and pathogens into this relationship. Here, we investigate the parasitic load of 212 domestic dogs with fleas (Siphonaptera) chewing lice (Phthiraptera), and ticks (Acarina) along a gradient from rural areas with near-natural forest cover to suburban areas in Northern Borneo (Sabah, Malaysia). We used a spatially-explicit hierarchical Bayesian model that allowed us to impute missing data and to consider spatial structure in modelling dog infestation probability and parasite density. We collected a total of 1,968 fleas of two species, Ctenocephalides orientis and Ctenocephalides felis felis, from 195 dogs (prevalence, 92 %). Flea density was higher on dogs residing in houses made of bamboo or corrugated metal (increase of 40 % from the average) compared to timber or stone/compound houses. Host-dependent and landscape-level environmental variables and spatial structure only had a weak explanatory power. We found adults of the invasive chewing louse Heterodoxus spiniger on 42 dogs (20 %). The effect of housing conditions was opposite to those for fleas; lice were only found on dogs residing in stone or timber houses. We found ticks of the species Rhipicephalus sanguineus as well as Haemaphysalis bispinosa gp., Haemaphysalis cornigera, Haemaphysalis koenigsbergi, and Haemaphysalis semermis on 36 dogs (17 %). The most common tick species was R. sanguineus, recorded from 23 dogs. Tick infestations were highest on dogs using both plantation and forest areas (282 % increase in overall tick density of dogs using all habitat types). The infestation probability of dogs with lice and ticks decreased with elevation, most infestations occurred below 800 m above sea level. However, the density of lice and ticks revealed no spatial structure; infestation probability of dogs with these two groups revealed considerable autocorrelation. Our study shows

  13. Flea species infesting dogs in Florida and Bartonella spp. prevalence rates.

    PubMed

    Yore, K; DiGangi, B; Brewer, M; Balakrishnan, N; Breitschwerdt, E B; Lappin, M

    2014-01-31

    Several Bartonella spp. associated with fleas can induce a variety of clinical syndromes in both dogs and humans. However, few studies have investigated the prevalence of Bartonella in the blood of dogs and their fleas. The objectives of this study were to determine the genera of fleas infesting shelter dogs in Florida, the prevalence of Bartonella spp. within the fleas, and the prevalence of Bartonella spp. within the blood of healthy dogs from which the fleas were collected. Fleas, serum, and EDTA-anti-coagulated whole blood were collected from 80 healthy dogs, and total DNA was extracted for PCR amplification of Bartonella spp. The genera of fleas infesting 43 of the dogs were determined phenotypically. PCR amplicons from blood and flea pools were sequenced to confirm the Bartonella species. Amplicons for which sequencing revealed homology to Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii (Bvb) underwent specific genotyping by targeting the 16S-23S intergenic spacer region. A total of 220 fleas were collected from 80 dogs and pooled by genus (43 dogs) and flea species. Bartonella spp. DNA was amplified from 14 of 80 dog blood samples (17.5%) and from 9 of 80 pooled fleas (11.3%). B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii DNA was amplified from nine dogs and five of the flea pools. Bartonella rochalimae (Br) DNA was amplified from six dogs and two flea pools. One of 14 dogs was co-infected with Bvb and Br. The dog was infested with Pulex spp. fleas containing Br DNA and a single Ctenocephalides felis flea. Of the Bvb bacteremic dogs, five and four were infected with genotypes II and I, respectively. Of the Bvb PCR positive flea pools, three were Bvb genotype II and two were Bvb genotype I. Amplification of Bvb DNA from Pulex spp. collected from domestic dogs, suggests that Pulex fleas may be a vector for dogs and a source for zoonotic transfer of this pathogen from dogs to people. The findings of this study provide evidence to support the hypothesis that flea-infested dogs may be a

  14. [Tick infestation and tick prophylaxis in dogs in the area of Berlin/Brandenburg--results of a questionnaire study].

    PubMed

    Beck, Stephanie; Schein, Eberhard; Baldermann, Claudia; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Georg; Kohn, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Ticks can transmit different pathogens to humans and animals. Dogs are frequently exposed to tick infestation, which underscores the importance of tick control measures. The objective of this study was to examine the awareness of dog owners regarding tick infestation and tick prophylaxis by a questionnaire survey. During the period from March to December 2010 a total of 616 owners of 670 dogs completed the questionnaire. According to the questionnaire results, 92% of the dogs were previously infested by ticks; 31% of these showed a moderate tick infestation (1-2 ticks a month), almost one in ten dogs was infested by eight or more ticks a month. 17% of the dogs were examined for ticks by the respective owner not at all or only at irregular intervals, 61% of the dogs were examined at least once a day. A tick prophylaxis was performed in 469 dogs (71%). In 353 dogs (53%), registered pharmaceutical products with appropriate label claims were employed. Spot-on products were used most frequently (93%), followed by collars (5%) and sprays (1%).These products were not used as recommended in 56% of the dogs. For further 33% of the dogs, it was not possible to decide if the products were used correctly or not. According to the dog owner statements, tick borne diseases were diagnosed in approximately 2% of the dogs. Dog specific characters, such as coat length, size, age, and walking habits were significant factors influencing the frequency of tick infestation. In summary it can be concluded that nearly every dog in the area of Berlin/Brandenburg is infested by ticks. In the majority of cases the prophylactic and/or therapeutic measures to prevent infestation are not performed correctly.

  15. Efficacy of afoxolaner in a clinical field study in dogs naturally infested with Sarcoptes scabiei.

    PubMed

    Beugnet, Frédéric; de Vos, Christa; Liebenberg, Julian; Halos, Lénaïg; Larsen, Diane; Fourie, Josephus

    2016-01-01

    The acaricidal efficacy of afoxolaner (NexGard(®), Merial) was evaluated against Sarcoptes scabiei var. canis in a field efficacy study, when administered orally at a minimum dose of 2.5 mg/kg to dogs naturally infested with the mites. Twenty mixed-breed dogs of either sex (6 males and 14 females), aged over 6 months and weighing 4-18 kg, were studied in this randomised controlled field efficacy trial. Dogs, naturally infested with Sarcoptes scabiei var. canis confirmed by skin scrapings collected prior to allocation, were randomly divided into two equal groups. Dogs in Group 1 were not treated. Dogs in Group 2 were treated on Days 0 and 28. On Days 0 (pre-treatment), 28 (pre-treatment) and 56, five skin scrapings of similar size were taken from different sites with lesions suggestive of sarcoptic mange. The extent of lesions was also recorded on Days 0, 28 and 56, and photographs were taken. Dogs treated orally with afoxolaner had significantly (p < 0.001) lower mite counts than untreated control animals at Days 28 and 56 with no mites recovered from treated dogs at these times (100% efficacy based on mite counts). In addition, dogs treated with NexGard had significantly (p < 0.05) better lesion resolution at Day 56 than Day 0; no treated dog showed pruritus compared to 7/10 dogs in the control group, 1/9 treated dogs had crusts compared to 5/10 controls and 8/9 dogs recovered 90% of hairs on lesions compared to 0/10 control dogs.

  16. Efficacy of afoxolaner in a clinical field study in dogs naturally infested with Sarcoptes scabiei

    PubMed Central

    Beugnet, Frédéric; de Vos, Christa; Liebenberg, Julian; Halos, Lénaïg; Larsen, Diane; Fourie, Josephus

    2016-01-01

    The acaricidal efficacy of afoxolaner (NexGard®, Merial) was evaluated against Sarcoptes scabiei var. canis in a field efficacy study, when administered orally at a minimum dose of 2.5 mg/kg to dogs naturally infested with the mites. Twenty mixed-breed dogs of either sex (6 males and 14 females), aged over 6 months and weighing 4–18 kg, were studied in this randomised controlled field efficacy trial. Dogs, naturally infested with Sarcoptes scabiei var. canis confirmed by skin scrapings collected prior to allocation, were randomly divided into two equal groups. Dogs in Group 1 were not treated. Dogs in Group 2 were treated on Days 0 and 28. On Days 0 (pre-treatment), 28 (pre-treatment) and 56, five skin scrapings of similar size were taken from different sites with lesions suggestive of sarcoptic mange. The extent of lesions was also recorded on Days 0, 28 and 56, and photographs were taken. Dogs treated orally with afoxolaner had significantly (p < 0.001) lower mite counts than untreated control animals at Days 28 and 56 with no mites recovered from treated dogs at these times (100% efficacy based on mite counts). In addition, dogs treated with NexGard had significantly (p < 0.05) better lesion resolution at Day 56 than Day 0; no treated dog showed pruritus compared to 7/10 dogs in the control group, 1/9 treated dogs had crusts compared to 5/10 controls and 8/9 dogs recovered 90% of hairs on lesions compared to 0/10 control dogs. PMID:27317462

  17. Lack of acquired resistance in dogs to successive infestations of Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks from Brazil and Argentina.

    PubMed

    Évora, Patricia Martinez; Sanches, Gustavo Seron; Jusi, Márcia Mariza Gomes; Alves, Lucas Bocchini Rodrigues; Machado, Rosangela Zacarias; Bechara, Gervásio Henrique

    2015-09-01

    Comparative studies between brown dog tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus populations from Brazil (Jaboticabal, São Paulo) and Argentina (Rafaela, Santa Fé) showed significant biological, morphological and genetic differences between them. This work aimed to study, in a comparative way, the acquisition of resistance in domestic dogs to R. sanguineus from Jaboticabal and Rafaela, after successive and controlled infestations. Ticks were kept in a BOD incubator under controlled conditions (27 °C, 80 % relative humidity, 12-h photoperiod). Ten dogs, Dachshund breed, males and females, 6 months old, short- or long-haired, without prior contact with ticks, were used as hosts. They were distributed into two experimental groups composed of five animals each: G1 infested with ten adult couples of R. sanguineus (Jaboticabal) per animal, and G2 infested with ten adult couples of R. sanguineus (Rafaela) per animal. Ticks' biological parameters and titration of antibodies from the dogs' sera by ELISA test were used for comparison between the strains. Results of the biological parameters showed that the dogs did not acquire immunity to either of the R. sanguineus strains after repeated infestations. The ELISA test showed low antibody titers in sera of dogs from G2, in successive infestations, and higher antibody responses post second and third infestations in G1. It also demonstrated cross-reactivity between sera of dogs infested with R. sanguineus (Jaboticabal) and antigens from R. sanguineus (Rafaela) and vice versa. We conclude that Dachshund dogs did not develop resistance against neither Jaboticabal nor Rafaela strains of R. sanguineus.

  18. Parasites and vector-borne diseases in client-owned dogs in Albania: infestation with arthropod ectoparasites.

    PubMed

    Shukullari, Enstela; Rapti, Dhimitër; Visser, Martin; Pfister, Kurt; Rehbein, Steffen

    2017-01-01

    To establish the diversity and seasonality of ectoparasite infestation in client-owned dogs in Albania, 602 dogs visiting four small animal clinics in Tirana from March 2010 to April 2011 inclusive were examined for ectoparasites by full body search and total body comb. In addition, ear swab specimens collected from all dogs and scrapings taken from skin lesions suspicious of mite infestation were examined for parasitic mites. Overall, 93 dogs (15.4 %, 95%CI 12.6-18.6) were demonstrated to be infested, and nine species of ectoparasites were identified: Ixodes ricinus, 0.8 %; Rhipicephalus sanguineus s. l., 8.1 %; Demodex canis, 0.2 %; Sarcoptes scabiei, 0.7 %; Otodectes cynotis, 2.8 %; Ctenocephalides canis, 4.8 %; Ctenocephalides felis, 3.0 %; Pulex irritans, 0.2 %; and Trichodectes canis, 0.2 %. Single and multiple infestations with up to four species of ectoparasites concurrently were recorded in 67 (11.1 %, 95%CI 8.7-13.9) and 26 dogs (4.3 %, 95%CI 2.8-6.3), respectively. On univariate analysis, the category of breed (pure breed dogs vs. mixed-breed dogs), the dog's purpose (pet, hunting dog, working dog), the housing environment (mainly indoors/indoors with regular outside walking vs. yard plus kennel/run), the history of ectoparasiticide treatment and the season of examination were identified as significant (p < 0.05) factors predisposing dogs to various ectoparasites, while the variables dog's age, gender, the dog's habitat (city, suburban, rural) and the presence/absence of other pets were not significant predictors. Multivariate logistic regression analysis for factors associated with overall ectoparasitism revealed that dogs treated with ectoparasiticides at least once per year (odds ratio [OR] = 0.24; p < 0.001) had a significantly lower risk of infestation compared with dogs not treated against ectoparasite infestation. Dogs examined during spring, summer and autumn (OR = 7.08, 7.43 and 2.48, respectively; all p < 0

  19. Biology and control of ticks infesting dogs and cats in North America.

    PubMed

    Dryden, Michael W; Payne, Patricia A

    2004-01-01

    At least 15 different infectious agents and diseases are transmitted or produced by ticks parasitizing dogs and cats in North America. Those infectious agents and diseases are distributed among eight different tick species that commonly infest dogs and cats. All but one of these species are hard ticks with a three-host development cycle in which each motile stage (larva, nymph, and adult) feeds on a different host after molting. Tick species, disease occurrence, and peak activity of each tick life stage can vary dramatically depending on geographic and climatic conditions. Gaining an understanding of tick distribution, tick ecology, and seasonal occurrence of different tick life stages can help with the management of tick infestations and reduce the incidence of tick-transmitted diseases in dogs and cats. Control should be based on an understanding and management of ecologic factors responsible for tick infestations and selection of appropriate acaricides. Occasionally, topical acaricides will appear not to have prevented tick infestations. This lack of control may be real or perceived based on reinfestation rates and/or pet owner expectations of product performance.

  20. Ultrasonographic, computed tomographic, and operative findings in dogs infested with giant kidney worms (Dioctophyme renale).

    PubMed

    Rahal, Sheila C; Mamprim, Maria J; Oliveira, Hugo S; Mesquita, Luciane R; Faria, Luis G; Takahira, Regina K; Matsubara, Lídia M; Agostinho, Felipe S

    2014-03-01

    OBJECTIVE--To compare ultrasonographic, CT, and surgical findings in dogs infested with giant kidney worms (Dioctophyme renale). DESIGN--Case series. ANIMALS--15 crossbred dogs infected with D renale. PROCEDURES--Immediately after ultrasonography was performed with dogs in dorsal recumbency, sequential transverse images of the abdomen were acquired with a helical CT scanner. After plain CT, contrast CT was performed with a nonionic iodinated contrast agent. Subsequently, exploratory celiotomy was performed. RESULTS--In the corticomedullary area of the right kidney of 12 dogs, ultrasonography revealed several ring-like structures with an echogenic wall and anechoic central area in the transverse plane and arrayed as bands in the longitudinal plane. Similar structures were observed in the abdominal cavity of 10 dogs. In 13 dogs, CT revealed loss of corticomedullary differentiation in the right kidney, with discrete uptake of contrast material in the periphery of the kidney, and several ring-like or elongated structures with a hyperdense wall and hypodense center. In 11 dogs, the same structures were observed free in the abdominal cavity. Surgery revealed that 13 dogs had a damaged right kidney that required nephrectomy. Parasites were found free in the abdominal cavity of 7 dogs. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE--Ultrasonography and CT were effective imaging methods for detecting D renale in the kidney and less effective for detecting parasites in the abdominal cavity. Care should be taken to avoid erroneously interpreting normal structures as parasites, especially in the abdominal cavity.

  1. Efficacy of fluralaner against Otodectes cynotis infestations in dogs and cats.

    PubMed

    Taenzler, Janina; de Vos, Christa; Roepke, Rainer K A; Frénais, Régis; Heckeroth, Anja R

    2017-01-16

    The efficacy of fluralaner for the treatment of Otodectes cynotis infestations in dogs and cats was evaluated after oral (dogs) or topical administration (dogs and cats). Twenty-four dogs and sixteen cats were experimentally infested with O. cynotis and randomly allocated to equal sized groups (n = 8/group). Dog groups were treated once, either orally with fluralaner at a minimum dose of 25 mg/kg body weight, topically with fluralaner at a dose of 25 mg/kg body weight or topically with saline solution (control). Cat groups were treated once, either topically with fluralaner at a dose of 40 mg/kg body weight or topically with saline solution. Ears of all animals were examined otoscopically for live visible mites and the amount of debris and cerumen before, and 14 and 28 days after treatment. Twenty-eight days after treatment, animals were sedated and both ears were flushed to obtain the total number of live mites per animal. The efficacy was calculated, based on the results of the ear flushing, by comparing mean live mite counts in the fluralaner treated groups versus the saline solution treated group. A single topical treatment of cats with fluralaner reduced the mean mite counts by 100% (P < 0.001) at 28 days after treatment. Similarly, a single oral or topical treatment of dogs with fluralaner reduced the mean mite counts by 99.8% (P < 0.001) at 28 days after treatment. Cats treated topically with fluralaner had no mites visible during otoscopic examination at either 14 or 28 days after treatment. All dogs treated orally or topically with fluralaner had no mites visible during otoscopic examination at 28 days after treatment. At 14 days after treatment, only 1-2 mites were visible in three dogs (oral treatment: 2 dogs, topical treatment: 1 dog). All fluralaner-treated animals showed improvement in the amount of cerumen exudation compared with observations performed before treatment. No treatment related adverse events were observed in any

  2. A Survey on Ectoparasite Infestations in Companion Dogs of Ahvaz District, South-west of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Mosallanejad, B; Alborzi, AR; Katvandi, N

    2012-01-01

    Background: The objective was to determine the prevalence of ectoparasite infestations in referred companion dogs to veterinary hospital of Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, from 2009 to 2010. Methods: A total of 126 dogs were sampled for ectoparasites and examined by parasitological methods. The studied animals were grouped based on the age (<1 year, 1–3 years and >3 years), sex, breed and region Results: Thirty six out of 126 referred dogs (28.57%) were positive for external ectoparasites. The most common ectoparasites were Heterodoxus spinigera, which were recorded on 11 dogs (8.73%). Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Sarcoptes scabiei, Otodectes cynotis, Xenopsylla cheopis, Cetenocephalides canis, Cetenocephalides felis, Hippobosca sp. and myiasis (L3 of Lucilia sp.) were identified on 9 (7.14%), 7 (5.56%), 6 (4.76%), 3 (2.38%), 3 (2.38%), 2 (1.59%), 2 (1.59%) and one (0.79%) of the studied dogs respectively. Mixed infestation with two species of ectoparasites was recorded on 8 (6.35%). Prevalence was higher in male dogs (35.82%; 24 out of 67) than females (20.34%; 12 out of 59), age above 3 years (31.81%; 7 out of 22) and in the season of winter (30.95%; 13 out of 42), but the difference was not significant regarding to host gender, age and season (P> 0.05). Conclusion: Apparently this is the first study conducted in companion dogs of Ahvaz District, South-west of Iran. Our results indicated that lice and ticks were the most common ectoparasites in dogs of this area. The zoonotic nature of some ectoparasites can be regard as a public health alert. PMID:23293781

  3. Brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato, infestation ofsusceptible dog hosts is reduced by slow release of semiochemicalsfrom a less susceptible host

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Domestic dog breeds are hosts for the tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato, but infestation levels vary among breeds. Beagles are less susceptible to tick infestations than English cocker spaniels due to enhanced production of 2-hexanone and benzaldehyde that act as tick repellents. We report th...

  4. [Studies on Paragonimus proliferus].

    PubMed

    Ben-jiang, Zhou

    2004-04-30

    To make identification between Paragonimus menglaensis and Paragonimus proliferus. Crabs were collected from same area where P. proliferus and P. menglaensi were reported, metacercariae and excysted metacercariae were separated. Adult worms were collected from experimental infection and identified. The metacercaria is large, with an average size of (1.23 +/- 0.087) mm x (1.10 +/- 0.073) mm, covered with a thin and fragile cyst wall; the size of excysted metacercariae is (2.01 +/- 0.71) mm x (0.62 +/- 0.12) mm, with irregular bough-like wrinkles excretory bladder resembling in front of ventral sucker, two pointed and slim distal ends of gut locate at 1/6 of the body from the tail end; the adult worm has large uterine mass, with an average length of 1/4.2 of the whole body. The natural definitive host for P. proliferus is not monkeys, dogs, and cats, but rats. The metacercaria of the reported P. menglaensis has been mixed up with that of P. microrchis from the same crab, excysted metacercaria has been same to that of P. proliferus, and an immature worm has been mistakenly identified as its adult worm. P. proliferu is a valid independent species, while P. menglaensis is a mis-identified, invalid one.

  5. Preventive efficacy of Frontline® Combo and Certifect® against Dipylidium caninum infestation of cats and dogs using a natural flea (Ctenocephalides felis) infestation model

    PubMed Central

    Beugnet, Frederic; Delport, Peet; Luus, Hermann; Crafford, Dione; Fourie, Josephus

    2013-01-01

    Two studies were performed to evaluate the effectiveness of two monthly topical anti-flea products for the prevention of Dipylidium caninum infestations in cats and dogs. A single treatment with Frontline® Combo spot-on for cats (fipronil-(S)-methoprene) and two successive monthly treatments of Certifect® for dogs (fipronil-amitraz-(S)-methoprene) were assessed for the prevention of D. caninum infestations following weekly challenges of treated cats or dogs with metacestode naturally-infected fleas. The rate of infestations using the model in cats versus dogs explains the choice of a 1-month trial in cats and a 2-month trial in dogs. The experimental flea-infection model resulted in a range of 22–53% of the fleas being infected by Dipylidium cysticercoids. The arithmetic mean flea counts recorded for the untreated cats ranged from 51.2 to 68. The geometric mean flea counts recorded for the Frontline Combo treated cats differed significantly (p < 0.05) from those of the untreated control cats on all assessment days. The arithmetic mean flea counts recorded for the untreated dogs ranged from 166.6 to 238.6. The geometric mean flea counts recorded for the Certifect treated dogs differed significantly (p < 0.001) from those of the untreated group on all assessment days. Frontline Combo treatment on cats provided ≥99.8% persistent anti-flea efficacy throughout the 30-day treatment period. In the dog study, the two Certifect treatments provided ≥97% persistent efficacy throughout the 60-day study. Based on the collection of expelled D. caninum proglottids by cats, 100% (6/6) of the control cats and 0% (0/6) of Frontline Combo treated cats were infested with D. caninum. Frontline Combo spot-on for cats was therefore 100% effective in preventing infection with D. caninum. In dogs, 7 out of the 8 control group dogs (87.5%) produced proglottids following infestation of infected fleas, whereas 0 out of 8 dogs (0%) in the treated group were infected. The infection

  6. Brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato, infestation of susceptible dog hosts is reduced by slow release of semiochemicals from a less susceptible host.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira Filho, Jaires Gomes; Ferreira, Lorena Lopes; Sarria, André Lucio Franceschini; Pickett, John A; Birkett, Michael A; Mascarin, Gabriel Moura; de León, Adalberto A Pérez; Borges, Lígia Miranda Ferreira

    2017-01-01

    Domestic dog breeds are hosts for the brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato, but infestation levels vary among breeds. Beagles are less susceptible to tick infestations than English cocker spaniels due to enhanced production of 2-hexanone and benzaldehyde that act as volatile tick repellents. We report the use of prototype slow-release formulations of these compounds to reduce the burden of R. sanguineus s. l. on English cocker spaniel dogs. Twelve dogs were randomly assigned to two groups with six dogs each. The treated group received collars with slow-release formulations of the compounds attached, while the control group received collars with clean formulations attached. Five environmental infestations were performed, with the number of ticks (at all stages) on the dogs being counted twice a day for 45days. The counts on the number of tick stages found per dog were individually fitted to linear mixed effects models with repeated measures and normal distribution for errors. The mean tick infestation in the treated group was significantly lower than in the control group. For larvae and nymphs, a decrease in tick infestation was observed at the fifth count, and for adults, lower average counts were observed in all counts. The compounds did not interfere with the distribution of the ticks on the body of the dogs, as a similar percentage of ticks was found on the anterior half of the dogs (54.5% for the control group and 56.2% for the treated group). The biological and reproductive parameters of the ticks were not affected by the repellents. This study highlights for the first time the potential use of a novel allomone (repellent)-based formulation for reduction of tick infestation on susceptible dogs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Efficacy of oral afoxolaner plus milbemycin oxime chewables against induced infestations with Dermacentor reticulatus in dogs.

    PubMed

    Rehbein, Steffen; Fourie, Josephus J; de Vos, Christa; Anderson, Andrew; Larsen, Diane L; Jeannin, Philippe

    2016-05-01

    The efficacy of afoxolaner plus milbemycin oxime (AFX + MO) combination chewables (NexGard Spectra®, Merial) and AFX single-entity chewables (NexGard®, Merial) against induced infestations with Dermacentor reticulatus ticks was evaluated in dogs. Thirty dogs were assigned to blocks of three animals each based on pre-allocation tick counts and were randomly allocated to one of three groups: untreated (control), treated with a combination of AFX + MO chewables to be as close as possible to the minimum effective dose of AFX + MO (2.5 + 0.5 mg per kg body weight), and treated with a combination of NexGard® chewables to be as close as possible to the minimum effective dose of AFX (2.5 mg per kg body weight). Treatments were administered orally once on day 0. Starting 2 days before treatment administration, each dog was infested with approximately 50 ticks weekly for six consecutive weeks. Live ticks were counted at ∼48 h post-treatment (removal count) and at ∼48 h (in situ counts) and ∼72 h (removal counts) following each post-treatment infestation. Treatment with both AFX + MO and NexGard® chewables rapidly eliminated the existing tick infestations (100 % efficacy) within 2 days following treatment administration. Weekly re-infestations were controlled for a minimum of 5 weeks with the efficacy ranging from 92.2 to 99.7 % based on ∼48 h post-treatment in situ counts and between 99.0 and 100 % based on ∼72 h post-treatment removal counts (p < 0.0001 at each occasion). This study demonstrated a high efficacy of both AFX + MO chewable and NexGard® chewable treatments against infestations of dogs with D. reticulatus ticks for at least 5 weeks. In addition, this study indicated no interference between the two compounds with respect to the acaricidal activity provided by AFX.

  8. Neem seed extract shampoo, Wash Away Louse, an effective plant agent against Sarcoptes scabiei mites infesting dogs in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Ghaffar, Fathy; Al-Quraishy, Saleh; Sobhy, Hassan; Semmler, Margit

    2008-12-01

    In the present study, the efficacy of water-free neem seed extract shampoo Wash Away Louse, provided by Alpha-Biocare GmbH, Düsseldorf (Germany), was investigated against Sarcoptes scabiei infesting dogs in Egypt. Ten naturally infested dogs were collected from different areas in the Nile delta. The occurrence of lesions, hair loss, and skin inflammation were regarded as signs of infestation and proved by detection of adult parasites and their developmental stages in scrapings of infested lesions. Adequate amount of the provided shampoo was applied topically and spread on the infested areas daily for 14 successive days. Scraping examinations were used to follow up the healing process. At day 7 of application, four dogs were completely free of mites as was proven by the disappearance of adults and/or any developmental stages of mites. The remaining six dogs showed a clear decrease in mite counts. By the end of the treatment (after 14 days), only a small number of mites were found in two dogs, while eight dogs were completely cured as was proven by mite counts and disappearance of clinical signs. No remarkable signs of side effects or adverse reactions were observed throughout the study.

  9. A field trial of spinosad for the treatment and prevention of flea infestation in shepherd dogs living in close proximity to flea-infested sheep.

    PubMed

    Saridomichelakis, Manolis N; Chatzis, Manolis K; Petanides, Theodoros; Papadopoulos, Elias

    2015-06-12

    Three flea species, Pulex irritans, Ctenocephalides canis and C. felis parasitize shepherd dogs living on sheep farms in Greece. The aim of this randomized, blinded, placebo-controlled trial was to examine the efficacy of spinosad, when administered three times every 4 weeks, as the only intervention to treat and prevent flea infestations in shepherd dogs living on sheep farms. Thirty dogs living on sheep farms and infested by at least 24 fleas were randomly allocated into equal groups. Group A dogs received spinosad (45-70 mg/kg body weight), every 4 weeks for three administrations, whereas Group B dogs were placebo-treated. Flea counting was performed at the beginning of the trial (day 0) and after 14, 28, 56 and 84 days. The first five fleas from each dog and 2-6 fleas collected from 5-11 sheep were used for species identification. The percentage of dogs with zero flea counts was significantly higher in group A than in group B at days 14, 28, 56 and 84 and flea counts were significantly lower in group A than in group B at days 14, 28, 56 and 84. In group A, flea counts were significantly lower at days 14, 28, 56 and 84 compared to day 0 whereas there were no changes in flea counts of group B dogs. The percent efficacy of spinosad for the treatment and prevention of flea infestation was higher than 98% (arithmetic means) or higher than 99% (geometric means) throughout the study. No adverse reactions were recorded. C. canis was the predominant flea species of dogs at day 0. In group A the relative abundance of C. felis increased at day14 whereas in group B the relative abundance of P. irritans increased at days 14, 28, 56 and 84. Spinosad is safe and effective for the treatment of C. canis and C. felis infestations and for the prevention of P. irritans, C. canis and C. felis infestations in shepherd dogs living in close proximity to sheep.

  10. Dermatoses caused by infestations of immature Ixodes spp. on dogs and cats in Sydney, Australia.

    PubMed

    Baxter, Cg; Vogelnest, Lj; Doggett, Sl

    2009-05-01

    Infestations of larval and nymphal Ixodes spp. were identified in 16 dogs and 16 cats from several small animal clinics in Sydney. Cases occurred in late summer or autumn, peaking in February, and were seasonally recurrent in some individuals. Clinical signs of infestation included a papular dermatitis and irritation or pruritus that ranged from severe to mild or absent. The distribution of tick attachment tended to be cranial and ventral, with the face, legs, axillae and ventrum the most commonly affected sites. The estimated number of ticks in each infestation varied from less than 10 to more than 100. Basic morphological examination of ticks collected from affected animals was performed by attending veterinarians using light microscopy, and larvae and nymphs belonging to the Ixodes genus were identified. Ticks collected from 17 animals and submitted to the Department of Medical Entomology, Westmead Hospital were putatively identified as I. trichosuri (57%) and I. holocyclus (25%) larvae. Histopathological samples of attachment sites collected from three dogs and one cat were characterised by ticks attached in well-demarcated invaginations of the skin ('tick craters') associated with variable epidermal and/or dermal necrosis, focal eosinophilic intraspinous pustules, mild to marked eosinophilic and neutrophilic, superficial to deep, dermal perivascular to interstitial inflammation, and moderate to marked superficial dermal oedema and red cell extravasation. A range of topical acaricidal preparations, including fipronil and synthetic pyrethroids, were used for treatment.

  11. Flea species infesting dogs in Spain: updated spatial and seasonal distribution patterns.

    PubMed

    Gálvez, R; Montoya, A; Checa, R; Martín, O; Marino, V; Miró, G

    2017-03-01

    This entomological survey examines the spatial and seasonal distribution patterns of flea species infesting dogs in Spain. Bioclimatic zones covering broad climate and vegetation ranges were surveyed according to size. In a cross-sectional spatial survey carried out from late May 2013 to mid-July 2015, 1084 dogs from 42 different locations were examined. A total of 3032 fleas were collected and identified as belonging to the following species: Ctenocephalides felis (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae) (81.7%, 2476 fleas); Ctenocephalides canis (11.4%, 347 fleas); Pulex irritans (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae) (6.9%, 208 fleas), and Echidnophaga gallinacea (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae) (0.03%, one flea). Variables observed to have effects on flea abundance were animal weight, sex, length of hair and habitat. In the seasonal survey conducted from June 2014 to June 2015, 1014 fleas were collected from 239 dogs at 30 veterinary practices across Spain. Peaks in C. felis abundance were observed in early summer and late autumn, whereas high numbers of P. irritans and C. canis were recorded in autumn. Numbers of fleas detected in winter were low overall. Based on these findings, the present study updates the spatial and seasonal distributions of flea species in Spain and assesses the impacts of host and habitat variables on flea infestation. © 2016 The Royal Entomological Society.

  12. Nasal infestation by Linguatula serrata in a dog in the UK: a case report.

    PubMed

    Villedieu, E; Sanchez, R F; Jepson, R E; Ter Haar, G

    2017-03-01

    A two-year-old, female neutered, cross-breed dog imported from Romania was diagnosed with nasal infestation of Linguatula serrata after she sneezed out an adult female. The dog was presented with mucopurulent/sanguinous nasal discharge, marked left-sided exophthalmia, conjunctival hyperaemia and chemosis. Computed tomography and left frontal sinusotomy revealed no further evidence of adult parasites. In addition, there was no evidence of egg shedding in the nasal secretions or faeces. Clinical signs resolved within 48 hours of sinusotomy, and with systemic broad-spectrum antibiotics and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Recommendations are given in this report regarding the management and follow-up of this important zoonotic disease.

  13. Efficacy of sarolaner, a novel oral isoxazoline, against two common mite infestations in dogs: Demodex spp. and Otodectes cynotis.

    PubMed

    Six, Robert H; Becskei, Csilla; Mazaleski, Mark M; Fourie, Josephus J; Mahabir, Sean P; Myers, Melanie R; Slootmans, Nathalie

    2016-05-30

    The efficacy of sarolaner (Simparica™, Zoetis) was evaluated against Demodex spp. in dogs with generalized demodicosis and against Otodectes cynotis (otodectic mange) in dogs with induced infestations. In the first study, 16 dogs with clinical signs of generalized demodicosis and positive for Demodex spp. mites were randomly assigned to treatment with either sarolaner (2mg/kg) orally on Days 0, 30 and 60, or topical imidacloprid (10mg/kg) plus moxidectin (2.5mg/kg) solution every 7 days from Day 0 to Day 81. For sarolaner-treated dogs, pretreatment mite counts were reduced by 97.1% at 14days and 99.8% by 29 days after the first dose, with no live mites detected thereafter. Weekly imidacloprid plus moxidectin resulted in 84.4 and 95.6% reduction at these two time points, respectively, with no mites detected from Day 74 on. All dogs in both groups showed marked improvement in the clinical signs of demodicosis. In the second study, 32 dogs with induced infestations of O. cynotis were randomly assigned (eight per group) to oral sarolaner (2mg/kg) as a single treatment on Day 0 or as a two dose regime (Days 0 and 30), or a placebo group for each of the dose regimes. Sarolaner administered at 2mg/kg as a single oral dose resulted in a 98.2% reduction at Day 30 and two doses of sarolaner, administered one month apart, resulted in a 99.5% reduction in ear mites at Day 60 compared to placebo controls. There were no treatment related adverse events in either study. In these studies, sarolaner at an oral dose of 2mg/kg was highly effective in reducing the live mite counts associated with a natural infestation of Demodex spp. and an induced infestation of O. cynotis. In addition, the Demodex-infested dogs showed a marked improvement in the clinical signs of generalized demodicosis.

  14. Species diversity of dermal microfilariae of the genus Cercopithifilaria infesting dogs in the Mediterranean region.

    PubMed

    Otranto, Domenico; Brianti, Emanuele; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Miró, Guadalupe; Latrofa, Maria Stefania; Mutafchiev, Yasen; Bain, Odile

    2013-01-01

    Following the recent description of microfilariae of a Cercopithifilaria sp. in a dog from Sicily, Italy, (herein after referred to as Cercopithifilaria sp. I), numerous skin samples were collected from dogs in the Mediterranean region. In addition to Cercopithifilaria sp. I (185·7 ± 7·2 μm long), microfilariae of 2 other species were identified, namely Cercopithifilaria grassii (651·7 ± 23·6 μm long) and a yet undescribed microfilaria, Cercopithifilaria sp. II (264·4 ± 20·2 μm long, with evident lateral alae). The morphological differentiation among the 3 species of dermal microfilariae was confirmed by differences in cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 and ribosomal 12S sequences examined (mean level of interspecific pairwise distance of 11·4%, and 17·7%, respectively). Phylogenetic analyses were concordant in clustering these with other sequences of Cercopithifilaria spp. to the exclusion of Dirofilaria spp., Onchocerca spp. and Acanthocheilonema spp. Dermal microfilariae collected (n = 132) were morphologically identified as Cercopithifilaria sp. I (n = 108, 81·8%), Cercopithifilaria sp. II (n = 17, 12·9%), whereas only 7 (5·3%) were identified as C. grassii. Mixed infestations were detected in all sites examined. The great diversity of these neglected filarioids in dogs is of biological interest, considering the complex interactions occurring among hosts, ticks and Cercopithifilaria spp. in different environments.

  15. Comparative speed of kill of sarolaner (Simparica) and afoxolaner (NexGard against induced infestations of Ixodes scapularis on dogs.

    PubMed

    Six, Robert H; Young, David R; Myers, Melanie R; Mahabir, Sean P

    2016-02-15

    The black-legged (or deer) tick, Ixodes scapularis, commonly infests dogs and cats in North America and is the main vector for the pathogen that causes Lyme disease in dogs and humans. The speed of kill of a parasiticide is critical to minimize the direct and deleterious effects of tick infestation and especially to reduce the risk of tick-borne pathogen transmission. In this study, speed of kill of a novel orally administered isoxazoline parasiticide, sarolaner chewable tablets (Simparica), against I. scapularis on dogs was evaluated and compared with afoxolaner (NexGard) for five weeks after a single oral dose. Twenty four dogs were randomly allocated to treatment with either placebo, sarolaner (2 to 4 mg/kg), or afoxolaner (2.5 to 6.8 mg/kg) based on pretreatment tick counts. Dogs were examined and live ticks counted at 8, 12, and 24 h after treatment and subsequent re-infestations on Days 7, 14, 21, 28 and 35. Efficacy was determined at each time point relative to counts for placebo dogs. A single oral dose of sarolaner provided >99% efficacy within 24 h of treatment and >95% against subsequent weekly re-infestations of ticks consistently to Day 35. For the earlier time points, sarolaner significantly reduced tick counts versus placebo from Day 0 to Day 21 at 8 and 12 h, and on Day 35 at 12 h (P ≤ 0.0174), while afoxolaner was only significantly lower at 8 h on Days 0 and 14 (P ≤ 0.0309), and at 12 h on Day 0 only (P < 0.0001). Significantly more live ticks were recovered from afoxolaner-treated dogs than from sarolaner-treated dogs at 24 h after infestation from Day 14 to Day 35 (P ≤ 0.0278). At 24 h, efficacy (based on geometric mean counts) of afoxolaner declined to less than 80% from Day 21 through the end of the study, while efficacy for sarolaner was >95% for 35 days. There were no adverse reactions to treatments. In this controlled laboratory evaluation, sarolaner had a faster speed of kill against I. scapularis than afoxolaner

  16. Efficacy of a fipronil bait in reducing the number of fleas (Oropsylla spp.) infesting wild black-tailed prairie dogs.

    PubMed

    Poché, David M; Hartman, Daniel; Polyakova, Larisa; Poché, Richard M

    2017-06-01

    Bubonic plague (Yersinia pestis) is a deadly zoonosis with black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) as a reservoir host in the United States. Systemic insecticides are a promising means of controlling the vectors, Oropsylla spp. fleas, infesting these prairie dogs, subsequently disrupting the Y. pestis cycle. The objective of this study was to conduct a field trial evaluating the efficacy of a grain rodent bait containing fipronil (0.005%) against fleas infesting prairie dogs. The study was performed in Larimer County, CO, where bait was applied to a treatment area containing a dense prairie dog population, three times over a three-week period. Prairie dogs were captured and combed for fleas during four study periods (pre-, mid-, 1(st) post-, and 2(nd) post-treatment). Results indicated the use of bait containing fipronil significantly reduced flea burden. The bait containing fipronil was determined to reduce the mean number of fleas per prairie dog >95% for a minimum of 52 days post-initial treatment application and 31 days post-final treatment application. These results suggest the potential for this form of treatment to reduce flea population density on prairie dogs, and subsequently plague transmission, among mammalian hosts across the United States and beyond. © 2017 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  17. Insecticide/acaricide resistance in fleas and ticks infesting dogs and cats

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    This review defines insecticide/acaricide resistance and describes the history, evolution, types, mechanisms, and detection of resistance as it applies to chemicals currently used against fleas and ticks of dogs and cats and summarizes resistance reported to date. We introduce the concept of refugia as it applies to flea and tick resistance and discuss strategies to minimize the impact and inevitable onset of resistance to newer classes of insecticides. Our purpose is to provide the veterinary practitioner with information needed to investigate suspected lack of efficacy, respond to lack of efficacy complaints from their clients, and evaluate the relative importance of resistance as they strive to relieve their patients and satisfy their clients when faced with flea and tick infestations that are difficult to resolve. We conclude that causality of suspected lack of insecticide/acaricide efficacy is most likely treatment deficiency, not resistance. PMID:24393426

  18. Modelling the current distribution and predicted spread of the flea species Ctenocephalides felis infesting outdoor dogs in Spain.

    PubMed

    Gálvez, Rosa; Musella, Vicenzo; Descalzo, Miguel A; Montoya, Ana; Checa, Rocío; Marino, Valentina; Martín, Oihane; Cringoli, Giuseppe; Rinaldi, Laura; Miró, Guadalupe

    2017-09-19

    The cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis, is the most prevalent flea species detected on dogs and cats in Europe and other world regions. The status of flea infestation today is an evident public health concern because of their cosmopolitan distribution and the flea-borne diseases transmission. This study determines the spatial distribution of the cat flea C. felis infesting dogs in Spain. Using geospatial tools, models were constructed based on entomological data collected from dogs during the period 2013-2015. Bioclimatic zones, covering broad climate and vegetation ranges, were surveyed in relation to their size. The models builded were obtained by negative binomial regression of several environmental variables to show impacts on C. felis infestation prevalence: land cover, bioclimatic zone, mean summer and autumn temperature, mean summer rainfall, distance to urban settlement and normalized difference vegetation index. In the face of climate change, we also simulated the future distributions of C. felis for the global climate model (GCM) "GFDL-CM3" and for the representative concentration pathway RCP45, which predicts their spread in the country. Predictive models for current climate conditions indicated the widespread distribution of C. felis throughout Spain, mainly across the central northernmost zone of the mainland. Under predicted conditions of climate change, the risk of spread was slightly greater, especially in the north and central peninsula, than for the current situation. The data provided will be useful for local veterinarians to design effective strategies against flea infestation and the pathogens transmitted by these arthropods.

  19. Efficacy of a novel topical combination of fipronil, amitraz and (S)-methoprene for treatment and control of induced infestations of brown dog ticks (Rhipicephalus sanguineus) on dogs.

    PubMed

    Hunter, James S; Baggott, Derek; Everett, William R; Fourie, Josephus J; Cramer, Luiz G; Yoon, Stephen S; Collidor, Nadia; Mallouk, Yasmina; Lee, Lorne; Blair, Jeffrey; Prullage, Joseph B

    2011-07-15

    Four laboratory studies were conducted to demonstrate that a single topical dose of a novel spot-on combination containing fipronil, amitraz and (S)-methoprene (CERTIFECT™, Merial Limited, GA, USA) is efficacious against the brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus. In each study, 6-8 male and 6-8 female purpose-bred, laboratory mongrels, terrier cross or Beagles were randomly assigned to one of two study groups (treated and untreated), based on pre-treatment parasite counts. Starting on the day before treatment, each dog was infested weekly with 50 ticks. Ticks were thumb counted at various time points after treatment and weekly infestations starting as early as 6h and continued at 12, 18 and 24h depending on the study. Ticks were removed and counted at 48 h after treatment and weekly infestations. CERTIFECT provided rapid and excellent control of pre-existing and newly acquired infestations of R. sanguineus with efficacy as high as 93% within the first 12h after a single topical treatment. Excellent control (>96%) of R. sanguineus as early as 18 h, following post treatment infestations was maintained for at least 35 days. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Evaluation of afoxolaner chewables to control flea populations in naturally infested dogs in private residences in Tampa FL, USA.

    PubMed

    Dryden, Michael W; Smith, Vicki; Chwala, Monica; Jones, Emery; Crevoiserat, Lisa; McGrady, Jennifer C; Foley, Kaitlin M; Patton, Paula R; Hawkins, Anthony; Carithers, Doug

    2015-05-24

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of afoxolaner chewables to control flea populations in naturally infested dogs in private residences in Tampa FL, USA. Evaluations of on-animal and premises flea burdens, flea sex structure and fed-unfed premises flea populations were conducted to more accurately assess flea population dynamics in households. Thirty seven naturally flea infested dogs in 23 homes in Tampa, FL were enrolled in the study and treated with afoxolaner chewables. Chewables (NexGard® Chewables; Merial) were administered according to label directions by study investigators on study day 0 and once again between study days 28 and 30. Flea infestations on pets were assessed using visual area thumb counts and premises flea infestations were assessed using intermittent-light flea traps on days 0, 7, 14, 21, and once between study days 28-30, 40-45, and 54-60. Within 7 days of administration of afoxolaner chewable tablets, flea counts on dogs were reduced by 99.3%. By one month post-treatment, total flea counts on dogs were reduced by 99.9%, with 97.3% (36/37) of the dogs being flea free. Following the second dosing on study day 28-30, total on-dog flea burden was reduced by 100% on days 40-45 and 54-60. On day 0, the traps collected a geometric mean of 18.2 fleas. Subsequent reductions in emerging flea populations were 97.7 and 100% by days 28-30 and 54-60, respectively. There were 515 total fleas (Ctenocephalides felis felis) collected in the intermittent light flea traps on day 0, and 40.4% of those fleas displayed visual evidence of having fed. Seven days after initial treatment, only 13.1% of the fleas contained blood and by day 14 only 4.9% of the fleas collected in traps displayed evidence of having fed. On day 0, prior to treatment, 60% of the unfed fleas collected in intermittent-light flea traps were females, but by days 28-30, unfed males accounted for 78% of the population. This in-home investigation conducted during the summer of

  1. Assessment of the onset of action of afoxolaner against existing adult flea (Ctenocephalides felis) infestations on dogs.

    PubMed

    Kunkle, Bruce N; Drag, Marlene D; Chester, Theodore S; Larsen, Diane L

    2014-04-02

    The speed of kill of afoxolaner against experimental infestations by Ctenocephalides felis was evaluated after oral administration of afoxolaner in a soft chew (NEXGARD(®)) at a dose to achieve 2.5mg/kg bodyweight. Forty beagles were allocated to two treatment groups. Dogs in Treatment Group 1 were untreated controls. Dogs in Treatment Group 2 were treated on Day-0 with afoxolaner, according to their pre-treatment bodyweight. All dogs were infested with approximately 100 C. felis on Day-1. Live fleas were counted upon removal at 5 time points after treatment (i.e., 2, 4, 8, 12 and 24h after treatment). For each time point, counts were performed on 4 dogs from each of the treated and the untreated groups. Early curative flea killing efficacy was evaluated with respect to the untreated control group. The afoxolaner treated group had significantly fewer fleas than the untreated control group at 8, 12, and 24h (p<0.001). The percent efficacies of orally administered afoxolaner were 15.0%, 87.8%, 99.5%, 100.0%, and 100.0% at 2, 4, 8, 12, and 24h, respectively. In this study, afoxolaner began killing fleas by 2h after treatment with increasing efficacy at subsequent time points and had >99.5% efficacy at 8, 12, and 24h after treatment demonstrating an early onset of action.

  2. Efficacy of selamectin against adult flea infestations (Ctenocephalides felis felis and Ctenocephalides canis) on dogs and cats.

    PubMed

    McTier, T L; Jones, R L; Holbert, M S; Murphy, M G; Watson, P; Sun, F; Smith, D G; Rowan, T G; Jernigan, A D

    2000-08-23

    Selamectin was evaluated in eight controlled studies (4 in dogs, 4 in cats) to determine the efficacy of a single topical unit dose providing the recommended minimum dosage of 6mgkg(-1) against Ctenocephalides felis felis and Ctenocephalides canis fleas on dogs and against C. felis on cats. In addition, the effect of bathing on the efficacy of selamectin against C. felis was evaluated. Identical studies were performed in Beagles and domestic shorthaired cats. For each study, animals were allocated randomly to treatments of 8-12 animals each. All studies (dog studies A, B, C, and D and cat studies A, B, C, and D) evaluated the efficacy of selamectin without bathing. In addition, study C in both dogs and cats evaluated efficacy with a shampoo bath at 24h after dosing, and study D evaluated the efficacy of selamectin with water soaking at 2h after dosing or with a shampoo bath at 2-6h after dosing. Dog study B evaluated efficacy against C. canis, whereas all other studies used C. felis. In each study, selamectin was administered on day 0 as a topical dose that was applied directly to the skin in a single spot at the base of the neck in front of the scapulae. Dogs and cats were infested with approximately 100 viable unfed C. felis or C. canis on days 4, 11, 18, and 27. On days 7, 14, 21, and 30, approximately 72h after infestation, a comb count of the number of viable fleas present on each animal was made. For C. felis and C. canis for dogs and cats, compared with controls, selamectin achieved significant reductions in geometric mean adult flea comb counts of > or =98.9% on days 7, 14, and 21 in all eight studies. On day 30, the reduction for C. felis remained at or above 98.0%. This included the dogs and cats that were soaked with water or bathed with shampoo at 2, 6, or 24h after treatment. There were no significant (P>0.05) differences between the flea counts from selamectin-treated animals in these studies, regardless of bathing status. On day 30, a significant

  3. First report of Neotrombicula autumnalis infestation in a cat and a dog from Corfu (Greece) and in a cat from Limassol (Cyprus).

    PubMed

    Giannoulopoulos, Giorgos D; Desilla, Lora J S; Desilla, Eleni S; Papadopoulos, Ilias; Saridomichelakis, Manolis N

    2012-12-01

    Neotrombicula autumnalis is the most common species of the family Trombiculidae that parasitizes dogs, cats, and humans in Europe. Besides the skin lesions it may cause, this mite is a possible vector of Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato. Two cases of N. autumnalis infestation in a cat and a dog in the island of Corfu, Greece, and 1 case of infestation in a cat living in Limassol, Cyprus, are presented. To the best or our knowledge, these are the first cases of feline and canine trombiculosis reported in both countries, and their appearance in islands points out to the possibility of introduction through importation of infested dogs and cats. For this reason, parasiticides that are effective for both the treatment and prevention of trombiculosis should be recommended for all dogs and cats that live in areas where the parasite is present as well as for all traveling pets.

  4. Evaluation of the speed of kill, effects on reproduction, and effectiveness in a simulated infested-home environment of sarolaner (Simparica™) against fleas on dogs.

    PubMed

    Six, Robert H; Becskei, Csilla; Carter, Lori; Gale, Boyd; Young, David R; Mahabir, Sean P; Chapin, Sara; Myers, Melanie R

    2016-05-30

    Four studies were conducted to evaluate the speed of kill, effect on egg production, and efficacy in a simulated infested-home environment of a novel isoxazoline, sarolaner (Simparica™, Zoetis), against fleas on dogs. Individually identified and housed, purpose-bred Beagles were used in each study and were allocated randomly to groups based on pretreatment parasite counts. In two speed of kill studies, groups of dogs infested with 100 fleas prior to treatment were treated orally with placebo or sarolaner tablets providing the minimum dose of 2mg/kg and then re-infested with fleas weekly for five weeks post-treatment. Comb counts were conducted to determine the numbers of viable fleas at one to three, four, eight and 12h after treatment and each subsequent infestation. In the egg production study, sarolaner- and placebo-treated dogs were similarly challenged with fleas and at 48h after each infestation the dogs were housed for 20h in cages allowing the collection and counting of all flea eggs produced during this period. Collected eggs were incubated to evaluate hatch and development to adults. The last study used dogs housed in a flea-infested simulated-home environment. Dogs were allocated to treatment with either placebo or sarolaner tablets providing a dose of 2mg/kg once a month for three treatments. Flea infestations were assessed by comb counts (fleas were replaced on the dogs) on Days 14, 30, 44, 60, 74 and 90. The speed of kill studies demonstrated that a single 2mg/kg oral dose of sarolaner started killing fleas within three to four hours after treatment or subsequent re-infestations for up to a month, and achieved ≥98% control of fleas by eight hours after treatment or re-infestation for 28 days. In the study to assess effects on flea reproduction, a single oral treatment of sarolaner resulted in the complete cessation of egg-laying for 35 days. This rapid kill of fleas and inhibition of reproduction were confirmed in a simulated-home environment

  5. Evaluation of the MGL method to detect Paragonimus eggs and its improvement.

    PubMed

    Irie, Takao; Yamaguchi, Yohei; Sumen, Asako; Habe, Shigehisa; Horii, Yoichiro; Nonaka, Nariaki

    2015-11-01

    Dog feces containing 500 Paragonimus westermani eggs per gram were examined by the Medical General Laboratory (MGL), the simple sedimentation (SS), and the Army Medical School III (AMS III) methods. The number of eggs per gram of feces (EPG) obtained by the MGL method was 17.2 and was significantly lower than those obtained by the SS method (324.0) and the AMS III method (505.6). When isolated P. westermani eggs were processed by the MGL method and four layers (ether, ether-fecal, formalin layers, and sediment) of the final centrifugation product were separately examined, almost 100% of eggs were found at the ether-fecal layer. Similarly, when fecal samples containing P. westermani, Paragonimus skrjabini miyazakii, Paragonimus ohirai, or Paragonimus harinasutai eggs were processed by the MGL method, more than 95% of the eggs were found in the supernatant layers. The formalin-ethyl acetate (FEA) method showed a similar tendency as the MGL method and over 90% of eggs remained in the supernatant layers. Contrary to Paragonimus eggs, 63 and 96% of Clonorchis and Metagonimus eggs were found in the sediment in the MGL method, respectively. When surfactant (Tween 80) was added to fecal solution, most of Paragonimus eggs spun down in the sediment in the MGL and FEA methods, suggesting that Paragonimus eggs have hydrophobic components on their surface. It is suggested that surfactant addition to the fecal solution should be considered when the MGL method is used for detection of Paragonimus eggs.

  6. Efficacy of Tagetes minuta (Asteraceae) essential oil against Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Acari: Ixodidae) on infested dogs and in vitro.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Elis Maressa Gonçalves; Rodrigues, Vinicius da Silva; Jorge, Jaciara de Oliveira; Osava, Carolina Fonseca; Szabó, Matias Pablo Juan; Garcia, Marcos Valério; Andreotti, Renato

    2016-12-01

    Ticks from Rhipicephalus sanguineus complex are widely distributed in the world and one species from this complex is the most common tick on dogs in Brazil, notably in urban areas. This tick is a vector of several diseases. Among others it transmits the agent of canine Ehrlichiosis, a major dog infectious disease and the agent of Rocky Mountain spotted fever. This tick can spread rapidly and develop intolerable infestations within no time. Currently tick control is done with acaricides and demand for such drugs has grown fast. However, R. sanguineus has already developed resistance to the main active compounds and the development of new acaricides is necessary. Many essential oils of plants have acaricidal effect and may be an important source of molecules for the synthesis of new acaricide products. In this study, we evaluated the effectiveness of a new herbal phytotherapic, consisting of the essential oil of Tagetes minuta L., against R. sanguineus in vitro and on dogs undergoing experimental infestations. The product displayed 100% efficacy against larvae, nymphs and adults of the tick on all tested conditions.

  7. Identification of Leishmania spp. promastigotes in the intestines, ovaries, and salivary glands of Rhipicephalus sanguineus actively infesting dogs.

    PubMed

    Viol, Milena Araúz; Guerrero, Felix D; de Oliveira, Bruno César Miranda; de Aquino, Monally Conceição Costa; Loiola, Saulo Hudson; de Melo, Guilherme Dias; de Souza Gomes, Aparecida Helena; Kanamura, Cristina Takami; Garcia, Marcos Valério; Andreotti, Renato; de Lima, Valéria Marçal Félix; Bresciani, Katia Denise Saraiva

    2016-09-01

    Sand flies are recognized as the major vector of canine visceral leishmaniasis. However, in some areas of Brazil where sand flies do not occur, this disease is found in humans and dogs. There has been speculation that ticks might play a role in transmission of canine visceral leishmaniasis and the DNA of Leishmania spp. has been reported in whole ticks. We investigated the presence of Leishmania spp. promastigotes in the intestines, ovaries, and salivary glands of Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks collected from tick-infested dogs in two cities of Brazil. We used 66 dogs that tested positive and 33 that tested negative for Leishmania spp. according to direct cytological examination assays. Ten ticks were collected from each dog and dissected to collect the intestines, ovaries, and salivary glands for immunohistochemistry (IHC) and diagnostic real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). IHC results showed Leishmania spp. in 98, 14, and 8 % of the intestines, ovaries, and salivary glands, respectively. Real-time PCR showed that 89, 41, and 33 % of the tick intestine, ovary, and salivary glands, respectively, were positive for Leishmania spp. The verification of promastigotes of Leishmania spp. by two independent techniques in ticks collected from these urban region dogs showed that there is need for clarification of the role of ticks in the transmission of canine visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil.

  8. A field trial of a fixed combination of permethrin and fipronil (Effitix(®)) for the treatment and prevention of flea infestation in dogs living with sheep.

    PubMed

    Chatzis, Manolis K; Psemmas, Dimitris; Papadopoulos, Elias; Navarro, Christelle; Saridomichelakis, Manolis N

    2017-04-28

    A large number of fleas parasitize dogs living with sheep in Greece. The primary aim of this randomized, blinded, placebo-controlled trial was to examine the efficacy of a permethrin-fipronil combination (Effitix(®)) for the treatment and prevention of flea infestation in dogs living with sheep and the secondary aim was to examine the efficacy of this intervention on flea infestation, pruritus and skin lesions of the people in contact with these dogs. Thirty dogs living with sheep and infested by at least 10 fleas and all 80 sheep living on the same premises were randomly allocated into equal groups. Group A dogs were treated three times, every 4 weeks, with a spot-on containing 54.5% permethrin and 6.1% fipronil, group A sheep were treated, on the same days, with a pour-on containing 1% deltamethrin, whereas group B dogs were sham-treated and group B sheep were placebo-treated. Flea counting was performed at the beginning of the trial (day 0) and after 14, 28, 56 and 84 days and the first five fleas from each animal were used for species identification. At the same time points, flea infestation, pruritus and skin lesions of the people in contact with the dogs were assessed. The percentage of dogs with zero flea counts was significantly higher in group A than in group B on days 14, 28, 56 and 84 and flea counts were significantly lower in group A dogs than in group B dogs at the same time points. The percent efficacy of the permethrin-fipronil combination was higher than 78% (arithmetic means) or than 96% (geometric means) throughout the study. No adverse reactions were recorded. Between the two flea species found on dogs, Ctenocephalides canis was predominant over C. felis. Flea-infected sheep were not found at the beginning or during the study and no significant changes in flea infestation, pruritus and skin lesions of the people in contact with the dogs were witnessed throughout the study. A spot-on solution containing 54.5% permethrin and 6.1% fipronil is

  9. Paragonimus & paragonimiasis in India

    PubMed Central

    Singh, T. Shantikumar; Sugiyama, Hiromu; Rangsiruji, Achariya

    2012-01-01

    Ever since the discovery of the first indigenous case in 1981, paragonimiasis has gained recognition as a significant food borne parasitic zoonosis in India. The data available on the occurrence of paragonimiasis, until today, may be just the tip of an iceberg as the study areas covered were restricted to Northeast Indian States. Nevertheless, the results of research on paragonimiasis in India have revealed valuable information in epidemiology, life cycle, pathobiology and speciation of Indian Paragonimus. Potamiscus manipurensis, Alcomon superciliosum and Maydelliathelphusa lugubris were identified as the crab hosts of Paragonimus. Paragonimus miyazakii manipurinus n. sub sp., P. hueit’ungensis, P. skrjabini, P. heterotremus, P. compactus, and P. westermani have been described from India. P. heterotremus was found as the causative agent of human paragonimiasis. Ingestion of undercooked crabs and raw crab extract was the major mode of infection. Pulmonary paragonimiasis was the commonest clinical manifestation while pleural effusion and subcutaneous nodules were the common extra-pulmonary forms. Clinico-radiological features of pulmonary paragonimiasis simulated pulmonary tuberculosis. Intradermal test, ELISA and Dot-immunogold filtration assay (DIGFA) were used for diagnosis and epidemiological survey of paragonimiasis. Phylogenitically, Indian Paragonimus species, although nested within the respective clade were distantly related to others within the clade. PMID:22960885

  10. Paragonimus & paragonimiasis in India.

    PubMed

    Singh, T Shantikumar; Sugiyama, Hiromu; Rangsiruji, Achariya

    2012-08-01

    Ever since the discovery of the first indigenous case in 1981, paragonimiasis has gained recognition as a significant food borne parasitic zoonosis in India. The data available on the occurrence of paragonimiasis, until today, may be just the tip of an iceberg as the study areas covered were restricted to Northeast Indian States. Nevertheless, the results of research on paragonimiasis in India have revealed valuable information in epidemiology, life cycle, pathobiology and speciation of Indian Paragonimus. Potamiscus manipurensis, Alcomon superciliosum and Maydelliathelphusa lugubris were identified as the crab hosts of Paragonimus. Paragonimus miyazakii manipurinus n. sub sp., P. hueit'ungensis, P. skrjabini, P. heterotremus, P. compactus, and P. westermani have been described from India. P. heterotremus was found as the causative agent of human paragonimiasis. Ingestion of undercooked crabs and raw crab extract was the major mode of infection. Pulmonary paragonimiasis was the commonest clinical manifestation while pleural effusion and subcutaneous nodules were the common extra-pulmonary forms. Clinico-radiological features of pulmonary paragonimiasis simulated pulmonary tuberculosis. Intradermal test, ELISA and Dot-immunogold filtration assay (DIGFA) were used for diagnosis and epidemiological survey of paragonimiasis. Phylogenitically, Indian Paragonimus species, although nested within the respective clade were distantly related to others within the clade.

  11. Preventive efficacy of NexGard Spectra® against Dipylidium caninum infection in dogs using a natural flea (Ctenocephalides felis) infestation model

    PubMed Central

    Beugnet, Frédéric; Meyer, Leon; Fourie, Josephus; Larsen, Diane

    2017-01-01

    The efficacy of a monthly oral endectocide product, NexGard Spectra® (Merial), a combination of afoxolaner and milbemycin oxime, was evaluated in a flea (Ctenocephalides felis) challenge model for the prevention of Dipylidium caninum tapeworm infection in dogs. The efficacy of treatment with NexGard Spectra® was assessed in 10 dogs following weekly flea infestation with metacestode naturally infected fleas and compared with that in 10 untreated control dogs. The 100 fleas deposited weekly on each dog were not removed until Day 35, allowing enough time for their ingestion. The microscopical analysis of 30 fleas from the flea batches before each weekly challenge demonstrated that 10–33% of the fleas were infected by D. caninum cysticercoid larvae. The arithmetic mean flea count recorded was 47.7 for the 10 untreated dogs and 0 for the 10 treated dogs at Day 35. Based on the daily collection of expelled D. caninum proglottids by dogs during the 70 days of the study, 70% (7/10) of the control dogs and 0% (0/10) of the treated dogs were infected with D. caninum (p < 0.0031). Through its efficacy against fleas, NexGard Spectra® treatment provided indirect prevention of D. caninum infestation. No treatment-related adverse events were observed in dogs during this study. PMID:28497745

  12. Efficacy of a Novel Topical Combination of Fipronil 9.8% and (S)-Methoprene 8.8% against Ticks and Fleas in Naturally Infested Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Nambi, Ayyanampakkam Pandurangan; Rathi, Badal; S, Kavitha; Dudhatra, Ghanshyam; Yamini, Hamsa S.; Ali Bhat, Abid

    2016-01-01

    The efficacy of a novel topical combination of fipronil 9.8% (w/v) and (S)-methoprene 8.8% (w/v) (Fiprofort® Plus) was tested against ticks and fleas in naturally infested dogs. A total of fifty dogs were allocated in the study with ticks infestation (n = 35) and fleas infestation (n = 15). On day 0, thirty-five tick and fifteen flea infested dogs received the test formulation, a combination of fipronil 9.8% (w/v) and (S)-methoprene 8.8% (w/v) spot-on solution. Ticks and flea counts were taken on days 0 (pretreatment) and 3, 7, 14, 21, 28, and 35 after treatment. Blood samples were collected for evaluation of haematological parameters on days 0 (pretreatment) and 7, 21, and 35 after treatment. All the adult ticks and fleas collected were identified as Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Ctenocephalides felis, respectively. The efficacy of spot-on formulation against ticks was 34.00% (day 3), 53.14% (day 7), 62.71% (day 14), 65.48% (day 21), 59.80% (day 28), and 58.82% (day 35), whereas against fleas it was 38.00% (day 3), 64.34% (day 7), 89.67% (day 14), 95.40% (day 21), 100.00% (day 28), and 100.00% (day 35). Haematological parameters for ticks and fleas infested dogs were statistically nonsignificant as compared to control. The combination of fipronil and (S)-methoprene eliminated the existing ticks and fleas infestation and prevented the dogs from flea and tick infestation for four weeks. PMID:27190688

  13. Efficacy of a Novel Topical Combination of Fipronil 9.8% and (S)-Methoprene 8.8% against Ticks and Fleas in Naturally Infested Dogs.

    PubMed

    Nambi, Ayyanampakkam Pandurangan; Rathi, Badal; S, Kavitha; Dudhatra, Ghanshyam; Yamini, Hamsa S; Ali Bhat, Abid

    2016-01-01

    The efficacy of a novel topical combination of fipronil 9.8% (w/v) and (S)-methoprene 8.8% (w/v) (Fiprofort® Plus) was tested against ticks and fleas in naturally infested dogs. A total of fifty dogs were allocated in the study with ticks infestation (n = 35) and fleas infestation (n = 15). On day 0, thirty-five tick and fifteen flea infested dogs received the test formulation, a combination of fipronil 9.8% (w/v) and (S)-methoprene 8.8% (w/v) spot-on solution. Ticks and flea counts were taken on days 0 (pretreatment) and 3, 7, 14, 21, 28, and 35 after treatment. Blood samples were collected for evaluation of haematological parameters on days 0 (pretreatment) and 7, 21, and 35 after treatment. All the adult ticks and fleas collected were identified as Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Ctenocephalides felis, respectively. The efficacy of spot-on formulation against ticks was 34.00% (day 3), 53.14% (day 7), 62.71% (day 14), 65.48% (day 21), 59.80% (day 28), and 58.82% (day 35), whereas against fleas it was 38.00% (day 3), 64.34% (day 7), 89.67% (day 14), 95.40% (day 21), 100.00% (day 28), and 100.00% (day 35). Haematological parameters for ticks and fleas infested dogs were statistically nonsignificant as compared to control. The combination of fipronil and (S)-methoprene eliminated the existing ticks and fleas infestation and prevented the dogs from flea and tick infestation for four weeks.

  14. Efficacy and speed of kill of a topically applied formulation of dinotefuran-permethrin-pyriproxyfen against weekly tick infestations with Rhipicephalus sanguineus (sensu lato) on dogs.

    PubMed

    Blair, Jeffrey; Fourie, Josephus J; Varloud, Marie; Horak, Ivan G

    2016-05-16

    Rhipicephalus sanguineus (sensu lato) is a vector of canine babesiosis, anaplasmosis and ehrlichiosis. In order to reduce the chance of transmission of these diseases, an ectoparasiticide should rapidly repel or kill new infestations with this tick. The primary objective of the present study was to evaluate the treatment and preventive acaricidal efficacy of Vectra® 3D (54.45 mg/ml of dinotefuran, 396.88 mg/ml of permethrin and 4.84 mg/ml of pyriproxyfen) against R. sanguineus (s.l.) measured at 2, 8, and 48 h after treatment and weekly re-infestation. Twenty-four dogs were each infested with 50 adult R. sanguineus (s.l.) on Day -7 and allocated to three groups (n = 8) based on tick counts: an untreated control group (Group 1), and two groups (Groups 2 and 3) treated with Vectra®3D. The dogs in each group were infested with 50 ticks on Day -2. Vectra®3D was administered topically to the dogs on Day 0. Ticks were counted, in situ at 2 and 8 h after treatment on dogs in Groups 1 and 3. Group 3 was then withdrawn from the study and ticks were counted and removed from the dogs in Groups 1 and 2, 48 h after treatment. On Days 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 and 42, the dogs in Groups 1 and 2 were re-infested with 50 ticks, which were then counted in situ at 2 and 8 h, and counted and removed at 48 h after re-infestation. Ticks from the initial infestation were visually unaffected by 2 and 8 h after treatment. However, by 2 h after weekly re-infestation the arithmetic mean (AM) efficacy of Vectra® 3D from Days 7 through 28 ranged from 61.1 to 78.8 %, falling to 60.1 and 47.4 % on Days 35 and 42 respectively. By 8 h after weekly re-infestation, the AM efficacy ranged from 89.1 to 97.4 % falling to 81.4 and 69.8 % on Days 35 and 42 respectively. The AM efficacy 48 h after treatment after the initial infestation was 22.9 % but after weekly re-infestation the efficacy at 48 h ranged from 89.1 to 100.0 %, falling to 86.0 and 81.1 % on Days 35 and 42 respectively

  15. Seasonal and spatial distribution of ixodid tick species feeding on naturally infested dogs from Eastern Austria and the influence of acaricides/repellents on these parameters.

    PubMed

    Duscher, Georg G; Feiler, Andrea; Leschnik, Michael; Joachim, Anja

    2013-03-19

    Effective control of tick infestation and pathogen transmission requires profound knowledge of tick biology in view of their vector function. The particular time of the year when the different tick species start to quest and the favoured sites on the canine host are of major interest. The efficacy of acaricides/repellents to control ticks in the field requires observation. To address these issues, 90 dogs, grouped in "untreated", "acaricide/repellent" (permethrin) and "acaricide only" (fipronil) animals and subjected to tick infestation under natural conditions in Burgenland (Eastern Austria), were examined. The number and species of ticks occurring during and outside the protection time was evaluated during a period of 11 months and the biting location on the dogs' skin was recorded. Of the 700 ticks collected, the most common species in that particular walking area was Ixodes ricinus, followed by Dermacentor reticulatus and Haemaphysalis concinna. Regarding the on-host activity, D. reticulatus displayed more infestations in early spring and late autumn, whereas I. ricinus occurred almost one month later in spring and one month earlier in autumn. H. concinna followed a monophasic pattern of activity with a peak in summer. The preferred feeding sites of the ticks on the dogs were on the head, neck, shoulder and chest. This distribution over the dog's body was not influenced by the use of the drugs, although on the whole fewer ticks (22.5% of all ticks) were found during the protection time. Interestingly, differences occurred with the use of drugs compared to non-protected dogs with regard to the infestation over the year. Acaricide-treated dogs displayed a higher prevalence in April, May and September, whereas dogs of the acaricide/repellent group showed a higher infestation in March, July, October and November. The different tick species display different on-dog activity peaks over the year, during which particular canine diseases can be expected and predicted

  16. Prophylactic treatment of flea-infested dogs with an imidacloprid / flumethrin collar (Seresto®, Bayer) to preempt infection with Dipylidium caninum.

    PubMed

    Fourie, Josephus J; Crafford, Dionne; Horak, Ivan G; Stanneck, Dorothee

    2013-08-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the sustained effectiveness of 10 % imidacloprid and 4.5 % flumethrin, incorporated in a slow-release matrix collar, in preventing Dipylidium caninum infection in dogs after repeated laboratory infestations with fleas infected with metacestodes of this tapeworm. Efficacy against infection with D. caninum was evaluated by infesting 16 dogs with cat fleas (Ctenocephalides felis) on study days 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 and 42, from batches suitably infected with D. caninum metacestodes. Prior to each post-treatment infestation the D. caninum infection rate for the fleas was determined by microscopically examining 100 fleas for D. caninum metacestodes. The D. caninum prevalence in the fleas used for infestations ranged from 23 % to 52 %. Medicated collars were fitted to 8 of the dogs on study day 0. The weight of the IVP collars varied between 35.48 g and 38.48 g (average 37.16 g), whilst animal weight varied between 12.20 kg and 17.98 kg (treated group, n = 8, average 14.79 kg). Seven days later infestation of each of the 16 dogs with 250 fleas commenced. Infestations continued at weekly intervals until Day 42 with efficacy against fleas evaluated 24 hours after each infestation. From Days 21 to 74, infection of the dogs with D. caninum was verified (daily examination of faeces and cages for the presence of expelled proglottids). Calculation of prophylactic effectiveness of the collars in preventing infection with D. caninum was based on the difference in geometric mean numbers of scoleces between groups at necropsy on Day 75. Effective prevention of infection with D. caninum was found to be 96.6 %. Efficacy of the collars against fleas was ≥ 99.9 % for the duration of the assessment period. Newly acquired infestations of fleas are rapidly eliminated by the insecticidal components of the medicated collars over a period of several months. In the event of fleas being infected with metacestodes, with D. caninum can be prevented in

  17. A randomized, blinded, controlled and multi-centered field study comparing the efficacy and safety of Bravecto™ (fluralaner) against Frontline™ (fipronil) in flea- and tick-infested dogs

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Fluralaner, a new molecular entity of the isoxazoline class, has potent insecticidal and acaricidal activity and can be safely administered orally to dogs. Methods A randomized, investigator-blinded, multi-centered field study compared the flea- and tick-control efficacy for dogs over a 12-week period with either a single oral dose of Bravecto™ (fluralaner) formulated as a chewable tablet or with three sequential topical Frontline™ (fipronil) treatments. Individual dogs were the experimental unit for ticks and households were the experimental unit for fleas. A total of 108 tick-infested dogs were treated with Bravecto™ (fluralaner) and 54 tick-infested dogs were treated with Frontline™ (fipronil). Dogs in 115 flea-infested households received Bravecto™ (fluralaner) and dogs in 61 flea-infested households received Frontline™ (fipronil). Flea and tick counts were conducted on all dogs at weeks 2, 4, 8, and 12 following initial treatment and efficacy was calculated as the mean percent reduction in tick or flea count at each time point compared with the mean pretreatment initiation count for each treatment group. Additionally, the percentages of tick-free and flea-free households were determined. Results At weeks 2, 4, 8, and 12, Bravecto™ (fluralaner) flea-control efficacy in treated households was 99.2%, 99.8%, 99.8%, and 99.9% respectively, while Frontline™ (fipronil) efficacy was 94.1%, 93.0%, 96.0%, and 97.3%, respectively. Bravecto™ (fluralaner) tick-control efficacy on treated dogs at weeks 2, 4, 8, and 12 was 99.9%, 99.9%, 99.7%, and 100%, respectively, and Frontline™ (fipronil) tick efficacy was 97.6%, 93.8%, 100%, and 100%, respectively. Of dogs showing clinical flea allergy dermatitis (FAD) signs at the study start, 85.7% in the Bravecto™ (fluralaner)-treated group and 55.6% in the Frontline™ (fipronil)-treated group were evaluated at each time point as showing no clinical signs of FAD until study completion. Conclusions

  18. A randomized, blinded, controlled and multi-centered field study comparing the efficacy and safety of Bravecto (fluralaner) against Frontline (fipronil) in flea- and tick-infested dogs.

    PubMed

    Rohdich, Nadja; Roepke, Rainer K A; Zschiesche, Eva

    2014-03-04

    Fluralaner, a new molecular entity of the isoxazoline class, has potent insecticidal and acaricidal activity and can be safely administered orally to dogs. A randomized, investigator-blinded, multi-centered field study compared the flea- and tick-control efficacy for dogs over a 12-week period with either a single oral dose of Bravecto (fluralaner) formulated as a chewable tablet or with three sequential topical Frontline (fipronil) treatments. Individual dogs were the experimental unit for ticks and households were the experimental unit for fleas. A total of 108 tick-infested dogs were treated with Bravecto (fluralaner) and 54 tick-infested dogs were treated with Frontline (fipronil). Dogs in 115 flea-infested households received Bravecto (fluralaner) and dogs in 61 flea-infested households received Frontline (fipronil). Flea and tick counts were conducted on all dogs at weeks 2, 4, 8, and 12 following initial treatment and efficacy was calculated as the mean percent reduction in tick or flea count at each time point compared with the mean pretreatment initiation count for each treatment group. Additionally, the percentages of tick-free and flea-free households were determined. At weeks 2, 4, 8, and 12, Bravecto (fluralaner) flea-control efficacy in treated households was 99.2%, 99.8%, 99.8%, and 99.9% respectively, while Frontline (fipronil) efficacy was 94.1%, 93.0%, 96.0%, and 97.3%, respectively. Bravecto (fluralaner) tick-control efficacy on treated dogs at weeks 2, 4, 8, and 12 was 99.9%, 99.9%, 99.7%, and 100%, respectively, and Frontline (fipronil) tick efficacy was 97.6%, 93.8%, 100%, and 100%, respectively. Of dogs showing clinical flea allergy dermatitis (FAD) signs at the study start, 85.7% in the Bravecto™ (fluralaner)-treated group and 55.6% in the Frontline (fipronil)-treated group were evaluated at each time point as showing no clinical signs of FAD until study completion. Bravecto (fluralaner) administered once orally to dogs in a chewable

  19. Sustained speed of kill and repellency of a novel combination of fipronil and permethrin against Ctenocephalides canis flea infestations in dogs.

    PubMed

    Beugnet, Frederic; Soll, Mark; Bouhsira, Emilie; Franc, Michel

    2015-01-27

    Ctenocephalides canis is a major flea species in dogs in several European countries. The new topical combination of fipronil and permethrin (Frontline Tri-Act/Frontect, Merial) has been developed to control fleas, ticks, mosquitoes, sandflies and biting flies on dogs. Considering the repellent and insecticidal effects of permethrin and the insecticidal effect of fipronil, the efficacy of the combination against fleas including C. canis was expected to be rapid. The study was conducted to measure the 1-hour, 6-hour and 24-hour efficacy, as well as the repellent activity, of the fipronil-permethrin combination on treated versus untreated dogs. 12 Beagle dogs were randomly allocated to one of two groups based on pre-treatment live flea counts. Dogs in Group 1 remained untreated whereas dogs in Group 2 were treated once on Day 0. Each dog was infested with 100 unfed adult C. canis on Days 2, 7, 14, 21 and 28. Dogs were combed for fleas 1 and 6 h after each infestation. Following this examination, fleas remaining on the liner at the bottom of each cage were collected and counted. All live fleas were placed back on each dog after the 1- and 6-hour counts. A comb-count was performed at 24 h post infestation on all dogs. Treated dogs had significantly (p ≤ 0.01) lower flea counts than untreated dogs at every time point. The percent efficacy was ≥99.1% at 6 and 24 h after each weekly challenge up to the month. The 1-hour counts also showed good efficacy of 96.5%, 98.9%, 92.0%, 70.2% and 55.7% on Days 2, 7, 14, 21 and 28, respectively. The repellent efficacy, assessed on the liners at 1 h, was 86.5%, 94.9%, 79.5%, 58.4% and 43.9% on Days 2, 7, 14, 21 and 28, respectively. This study demonstrates the beneficial effect of the fipronil and permethrin combination against C. canis, providing both a repellent and insecticidal effect as early as 1 h post infestation, and >99.1% efficacy calculated at 6 h during a month.

  20. The dog factor in brown dog tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Acari: Ixodidae) infestations in and near human dwellings.

    PubMed

    Uspensky, Igor; Ioffe-Uspensky, Inna

    2002-06-01

    Three cases of the tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus infiltration in or near human dwellings caused by dogs, and their influence on epidemiological features of human habitats have been investigated. (a) The observation of dogs kept indoors proved that single tick females could engorge and oviposit inside apartments followed by the development of subadults. (b) Abundant micropopulations of ticks were formed in small yards or gardens near the dwellings where dogs lived in kennels. (c) A huge field population of R. sanguineus was observed on a farm where watchdogs constantly patrolled along the farm perimeter. Tick abundance near the kennels and in the permanent resting sites of the dogs reached more than 30 adults per 10 min of collecting, while the number of adults on a dog reached 100. Unfed adult females under conditions of constant dog availability had a larger scutal index than females collected in the control field site. On the basis of circumstantial evidence it is possible to conclude that under the above conditions tick development may change from the normal 3-host cycle to a 2-host cycle. Ticks in the field had one complete generation per year. Ticks on the farm, as well as ticks in kennels, developed faster and a significant part of their population had two complete generations per year. R. sanguineus is the main vector and reservoir of a pathogen from the Rickettsia conorii complex, the causative agent of Israeli tick typhus. The described conglomerations of R. sanguineus create a great risk to humans who can be attacked by infected ticks in and around their homes, even in large towns. Such a feature of the tick life history most likely exists not only in Israel but in other countries as well.

  1. Efficacy of a combination of 10% imidacloprid and 4.5% flumethrin (Seresto®) in slow release collars to control ticks and fleas in highly infested dog communities.

    PubMed

    Brianti, Emanuele; Falsone, Luigi; Napoli, Ettore; Prudente, Chiara; Gaglio, Gabriella; Giannetto, Salvatore

    2013-07-18

    Dog communities living in kennels are at high risk of being infected by ticks and fleas. In spite of the indubitable efficacy of several topical ectoparasiticides registered for the control of ectoparasites in dogs, the short period of action and the price of these products limit their use in dog communities. This paper reports on the efficacy of imidacloprid/flumethrin slow release collars to cure dogs highly infested with ectoparasites and to prevent infestations for 8 months in a refuge with a history of unsuccessful environmental treatments. A total of 82 dogs were collared with slow release collars containing a formulation of imidacloprid 10% / flumethrin 4.5%. Dogs were followed-up for ectoparasite presence after 2, 7 and 14 days and thereafter biweekly up to 90 days. Furthermore, dogs were examined for ectoparasites whilst replacing collars 8 months after their application. At the time of treatment 79 (96.3%) out of 82 included dogs were heavily infested by ticks and 53 (68.8%) out of the 77 combed dogs were infested by fleas. Tick infested dogs had an estimated mean intensity of 46.9 (± 65.7), while flea infested animals had a load between 20 and 50 fleas. In addition, some of the flea infested dogs (18.9%) were presenting signs of flea allergic dermatitis (FAD). Two days after treatment, 49 (60.5%) and 9 (11.7%) dogs were still infested by live ticks and fleas, respectively. However, the mean intensity of ticks decreased to 3.5 (± 4.3) with a reduction of 92.5%. Except for sporadic cases, no attached ectoparasites were found on dogs from the day 14 visit until the end of the investigation. Cases of FAD resolved without any other treatment within 30 days. Ticks and fleas represent a constant hazard for dog populations. Therefore, in particular settings, such as dog refuges, sustainable and long-term strategies to control ectoparasite infestations are needed. Based on the observed evidence of efficacy, long-term duration and safety, the imidacloprid

  2. Dynamics of distribution and efficacy of different spot-on permethrin formulations in dogs artificially infested with Dermacentor reticulatus

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Varying reports concerning the duration and reliability of different permethrin preparations' efficacy can be found in the literature. The aim of this study was to investigate the dynamics of the distribution and efficacy of four different spot-on formulations with permethrin as the active ingredient formulated with different solvents. To examine the influence of these solvents on the speed of distribution and the acaricidal activity of permethrin in the coat, an in vivo study under laboratory conditions was performed. Six dogs per test period were treated with the recommended dose and 1, 14 and 28 days after treatment dogs were infested with Dermacentor reticulatus ticks: a) on the back, near the application site, and b) on the hind leg, the greatest possible distance from the application site. Efficacies were determined 6 hours after tick infestation to examine the repellent effect and the speed of kill of the products which plays an important role in the context of tick transmitted diseases. Results After six hours of exposure, a significant acaricidal efficacy (p < 0.001) could be observed in all treated groups over the whole duration of the study, regardless of which product was used. While the arithmetic mean of attached ticks was < 3 on Day 1, numbers increased over the course of the study to a mean of > 9 on Day 28. However, most of these ticks were dead even 28 days after treatment, as the mean of live attached ticks was still < 2. Significant differences could neither be found between the different permethrin spot-on formulations, nor between the two parts of the body (p > 0.05). Conclusions All products were able to kill ticks within six hours following infestation from Day 1 to Day 28 after treatment. Additionally, no significant difference between the tick numbers on the back and the hind leg could be found at any time, which implies a homogenous distribution of permethrin over the body. The efficacy of all four products was comparable

  3. Comparative speed of kill of sarolaner (Simparica™ Chewables) and fluralaner (Bravecto(®)) against induced infestations of Amblyomma americanum on dogs.

    PubMed

    Six, Robert H; Young, David R; Myers, Melanie R; Mahabir, Sean P

    2016-07-18

    The lone star tick, Amblyomma americanum, infests dogs and cats in North America and transmits the pathogens Ehrlichia chaffeensis and Ehrlichia ewingii, which cause monocytic and granulocytic ehrlichiosis in dogs and humans, and Cytauxzoon felis which causes cytauxzoonosis in cats. A parasiticide's speed of kill is important to minimize the direct deleterious effects [related to blood-feeding] of tick infestation and reduce the risk of transmission of tick-borne pathogens. In this study the speed of kill of sarolaner (Simparica™ Chewables) administered monthly for 3 months against A. americanum on dogs was evaluated and compared with a single dose of fluralaner (Bravecto(®)) for 13 weeks. Based on pretreatment tick counts, 24 dogs were randomly allocated to treatment with placebo or sarolaner at the label rate (2 to 4 mg/kg) on Days 0, 30 and 60 or with fluralaner (25 to 56 mg/kg) once according to manufacturer's instructions on Day 0. Dogs were examined and live ticks counted at 8, 12, and 24 h after treatment and subsequent re-infestations on Days 14, 28, 42, 58, 76 and 90. Acaricidal efficacy was determined at each time point relative to counts for placebo dogs. Monthly oral doses of sarolaner provided > 95 % efficacy within 24 h of treatment, and consistently provided > 70 % efficacy against subsequent re-infestations with ticks within 24 h over the entire treatment period. Significantly more live ticks were recovered from fluralaner-treated dogs than from sarolaner-treated dogs at 24 h after re-infestation from Day 42 onwards. At 24 h, efficacy of fluralaner was ≤ 20 % from Day 42 to the end of the study on Day 90. There were no adverse reactions to treatment. In this controlled laboratory evaluation, monthly treatment with sarolaner provided consistent efficacy against A. americanum with > 70 % of ticks killed within 24 h after a single oral dose over the duration of the study. Monthly treatment with sarolaner consistently killed

  4. Evaluation of sarolaner and spinosad oral treatments to eliminate fleas, reduce dermatologic lesions and minimize pruritus in naturally infested dogs in west Central Florida, USA.

    PubMed

    Dryden, Michael W; Canfield, Michael S; Niedfeldt, Emily; Kinnon, Amanda; Kalosy, Kimberly; Smith, Amber; Foley, Kaitlin M; Smith, Vicki; Bress, Todd S; Smith, Nicole; Endrizzi, Mike; Login, Joyce

    2017-08-17

    An in-home investigation of naturally flea infested dogs was conducted in West Central Florida, USA to evaluate and compare the effectiveness of two different oral flea adulticides to control flea infestations, minimize dermatologic lesions and reduce pruritus over an 8-week period. Twenty-nine dogs living in 19 homes and another 26 dogs residing in 16 different homes were orally administered either a sarolaner or spinosad chewable, respectively on day 0 and once between days 28-30. Products were administered by study personnel according to label directions. Flea populations on dogs were estimated using visual area counts and flea infestations in the indoor premises were assessed using intermittent-light flea traps on days 0, 7, 14, 21 and once between days 28-30, 40-45, and 56-60. Assessments of dermatologic lesions were conducted monthly during the study and severity of pruritus was evaluated throughout the study on the same schedule as flea counts were conducted. Concurrent treatments for existing skin disease were not allowed. The administration of sarolaner or spinosad reduced flea populations on dogs by 99.0% and 97.3%, respectively within 7 days. Flea infestations on the sarolaner- and spinosad-treated dogs were reduced by > 99% at every counting period from day 14 post-treatment through the end of the 8-week study. At the end of the study 96.4 and 92.0% of the dogs treated with sarolaner and spinosad, respectively were flea-free. Flea populations in the indoor premises were also markedly reduced the end of the study, with 100 and 99.8% reductions in flea trap counts in the sarolaner and spinosad treatment groups, respectively. FAD lesion scores, atopic dermatitis lesions scores (CADESI-4) and pruritus severity scores were also markedly improved with both formulations. An in-home clinical field study conducted during the summer of 2016 in subtropical Florida demonstrated that two-monthly administrations of either sarolaner or spinosad chewables almost

  5. Comparison of the activity of selamectin, imidacloprid and fipronil for the treatment of dogs infested experimentally with Ctenocephalides canis and Ctenocephalides felis felis.

    PubMed

    Cadiergues, M C; Caubet, C; Franc, M

    2001-12-08

    Twenty-four beagles were randomly allocated into four groups of six and housed in separate cages. Each dog was infested with 25 Ctenocephalides canis and 25 Ctenocephalides felis felis and two days later (day 0) the dogs in groups 1, 2 and 3 received a spot-on application of selamectin (6 mg/kg), imidacloprid (10 mg/kg), or fipronil (6-7 mg/kg), respectively, while the dogs in group 4 were not treated. The dogs were combed 48 hours later, the fleas were removed, counted and their species were determined. All the dogs were reinfested with the same number of the two species of fleas on days 7, 14, 21, 28 and 35, and the efficacy of the treatments was calculated 48 hours after each infestation. The mean numbers of fleas on the control dogs were 19.8 C. canis and 14.7 C. felis felis. The three treatments were effective for the full 35 days of the trial; over the first 28 days, the efficacy of selamectin ranged from 81 to 100 and 92 to 99 per cent against C. felis felis and C canis, respectively, the efficacy of imidacloprid ranged from 98 to 100 per cent and the efficacy of fipronil was 100 per cent against both species. There were no significant differences between the three treatments.

  6. Therapeutic efficacy of milbemycin oxime/praziquantel oral formulation (Milbemax®) against Thelazia callipaeda in naturally infested dogs and cats.

    PubMed

    Motta, Bruna; Schnyder, Manuela; Basano, Fabrizio Solari; Nägeli, Fabio; Nägeli, Catherine; Schiessl, Brigitte; Mallia, Egidio; Lia, Riccardo P; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Otranto, Domenico

    2012-05-19

    Over the last few decades, canine and feline thelaziosis caused by Thelazia callipaeda eye worms has gained the attention of the veterinary community due to the spread of this ocular infestation in geographical areas previously regarded as non endemic. The therapeutic efficacy of milbemycin oxime/praziquantel tablets (Milbemax®) against T. callipaeda was tested in naturally infested dogs and cats. From January 2009 to July 2011 a placebo controlled and randomized field study was conducted in T. callipaeda endemic areas of Switzerland (CH) and Italy (ITA) involving client-owned animals. Dogs (n = 56) and cats (n = 31) were physically examined at enrolment Day 0 (D0) and twice afterwards (D7 and D14). Infested animals were orally treated with Milbemax® or with placebo tablets on D0 and, if an animal was found still infested with T. callipaeda, also on D7. On D14 nematodes were flushed from the conjunctiva, identified and counted. Out of 56 dogs, 43 were included in the statistical analysis, whereas 13 were excluded because the products under investigation were not administered with food, as required by the label. On D7 and D14, 72.7% and 90.9% of treated dogs were eye worm free, whereas in the placebo group 95.2% and 76.2% still harbored nematodes, resulting in a mean percentage worm count reduction for the Milbemax® group of 86.1% and 96.8%, respectively. Both results were significantly higher (p = 0.0001) than the placebo group. Out of the 31 cats included in the study at D7 and D14, 53.3% and 73.3% treated with Milbemax® were free of T. callipaeda, while 81.3% and 73.3 in the placebo group were still harbouring eye worms, resulting in a mean percentage worm count reduction for the treated group of 62.2% and 80.0%, respectively. Both results were significantly higher (p = 0.0106 and p = 0.0043) than the placebo group. The commercial formulation of milbemycin oxime at the minimal dose of 0.5 mg/kg and 2 mg/k in dogs and cats, respectively

  7. Therapeutic efficacy of milbemycin oxime/praziquantel oral formulation (Milbemax®) against Thelazia callipaeda in naturally infested dogs and cats

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Over the last few decades, canine and feline thelaziosis caused by Thelazia callipaeda eye worms has gained the attention of the veterinary community due to the spread of this ocular infestation in geographical areas previously regarded as non endemic. The therapeutic efficacy of milbemycin oxime/praziquantel tablets (Milbemax®) against T. callipaeda was tested in naturally infested dogs and cats. Methods From January 2009 to July 2011 a placebo controlled and randomized field study was conducted in T. callipaeda endemic areas of Switzerland (CH) and Italy (ITA) involving client-owned animals. Dogs (n = 56) and cats (n = 31) were physically examined at enrolment Day 0 (D0) and twice afterwards (D7 and D14). Infested animals were orally treated with Milbemax® or with placebo tablets on D0 and, if an animal was found still infested with T. callipaeda, also on D7. On D14 nematodes were flushed from the conjunctiva, identified and counted. Results Out of 56 dogs, 43 were included in the statistical analysis, whereas 13 were excluded because the products under investigation were not administered with food, as required by the label. On D7 and D14, 72.7% and 90.9% of treated dogs were eye worm free, whereas in the placebo group 95.2% and 76.2% still harbored nematodes, resulting in a mean percentage worm count reduction for the Milbemax® group of 86.1% and 96.8%, respectively. Both results were significantly higher (p = 0.0001) than the placebo group. Out of the 31 cats included in the study at D7 and D14, 53.3% and 73.3% treated with Milbemax® were free of T. callipaeda, while 81.3% and 73.3 in the placebo group were still harbouring eye worms, resulting in a mean percentage worm count reduction for the treated group of 62.2% and 80.0%, respectively. Both results were significantly higher (p = 0.0106 and p = 0.0043) than the placebo group. Conclusions The commercial formulation of milbemycin oxime at the minimal dose of 0.5 mg/kg and 2

  8. Evaluation of the curative and preventive efficacy of a single oral administration of afoxolaner against cat flea Ctenocephalides felis infestations on dogs.

    PubMed

    Hunter, James S; Dumont, Pascal; Chester, Theodore S; Young, David R; Fourie, Josephus J; Larsen, Diane L

    2014-04-02

    The efficacy of orally administered afoxolaner for treatment and prevention of repeated infestations with adult Ctenocephalides felis on dogs was evaluated in two studies after administration of a beef-flavored soft chew. In each study, 32 dogs were divided randomly into four equal groups. Dogs in Groups 1 and 3 were not treated and served as controls. Dogs in Groups 2 and 4 were treated on Day 0 with a combination of chewable tablets to be as close as possible to the minimum therapeutic dose of 2.5mg/kg. All animals were infested experimentally with unfed C. felis (100 ± 5) on Days -1, 7, 14, 21, 28 and 35. Flea killing efficacy was evaluated in both studies while, efficacy against flea egg production was assessed in Study 1. Live fleas were counted at 12 (Groups 1 and 2) and 24h (Groups 3 and 4), after treatment or after weekly infestations. In Study 1, flea eggs were collected and counted at either 12 or 24h after each flea infestation on Days 7, 14, 21, 28 and 35. The results of both studies demonstrate the long lasting and rapid efficacy of afoxolaner against C. felis, when administered as a single oral dose to dogs. For flea counts conducted 24h after treatment or infestation, efficacy was 100% for all time points up to Day 36 in both studies, except for one time point (99.9% on Day 22) for Study 2. For flea counts performed 12h after treatment or infestation, efficacy was ≥ 95.2% until Day 21 in both studies. Efficacy at 12h was ≥ 93.0% on Day 35 in Study 1 and ≥ 89.7% on Day 35 in Study 2. The treated groups had significantly fewer fleas than untreated control dogs in both studies for all flea counts (p=0.003 Study 1, p=0.0006 Study 2). In Study 1, for all egg counts performed at or beyond Day 7, efficacy in egg reduction was >99% for all time points between Days 7 and 35.

  9. Evaluation of fluralaner and afoxolaner treatments to control flea populations, reduce pruritus and minimize dermatologic lesions in naturally infested dogs in private residences in west central Florida USA.

    PubMed

    Dryden, Michael W; Canfield, Michael S; Kalosy, Kimberly; Smith, Amber; Crevoiserat, Lisa; McGrady, Jennifer C; Foley, Kaitlin M; Green, Kathryn; Tebaldi, Chantelle; Smith, Vicki; Bennett, Tashina; Heaney, Kathleen; Math, Lisa; Royal, Christine; Sun, Fangshi

    2016-06-28

    A study was conducted to evaluate and compare the effectiveness of two different oral flea and tick products to control flea infestations, reduce pruritus and minimize dermatologic lesions over a 12 week period on naturally infested dogs in west central FL USA. Thirty-four dogs with natural flea infestations living in 17 homes were treated once with a fluralaner chew on study day 0. Another 27 dogs living in 17 different homes were treated orally with an afoxolaner chewable on day 0, once between days 28-30 and once again between days 54-60. All products were administered according to label directions by study investigators. Flea populations on pets were assessed using visual area counts and premise flea infestations were assessed using intermittent-light flea traps on days 0, 7, 14, 21, and once between days 28-30, 40-45, 54-60 and 82-86. Dermatologic assessments were conducted on day 0 and once monthly. Pruritus assessments were conducted by owners throughout the study. No concurrent treatments for existing skin disease (antibiotics, anti-inflammatories, anti-fungals) were allowed. Following the first administration of fluralaner or afoxolaner, flea populations on pets were reduced by 99.0 % and 99.3 %, respectively within 7 days. Flea populations on the fluralaner treated dogs were 0 (100 % efficacy) on days 54-60 and 82-86 after the administration of a single dose on day 0. Administration of 3 monthly doses of afoxolaner reduced flea populations by 100 % on days 82-86. Flea numbers in indoor-premises were markedly reduced in both treatment groups by days 82-86, with 100 % and 98.9 % reductions in flea trap counts in the fluralaner and afoxolaner treatment groups, respectively. Marked improvement was observed in FAD lesion scoring, Atopic Dermatitis lesions scoring (CADESI-4) and pruritus scores with both formulations. In a clinical field investigation conducted during the summer of 2015 in subtropical Florida, a single administration of an oral

  10. The effect of water and shampooing on the efficacy of a pyriprole 12.5% topical solution against brown dog tick (Rhipicephalus sanguineus) and cat flea (Ctenocephalides felis) infestations on dogs.

    PubMed

    Schuele, G; Barnett, S; Bapst, B; Cavaliero, T; Luempert, L; Strehlau, G; Young, D R; Moran, C; Junquera, P

    2008-02-14

    The efficacy of a single treatment with a 12.5% pyriprole spot-on formulation against induced infestations with R. sanguineus ticks and cat fleas (C. felis) as well as its persistence after repeated washing and shampooing was investigated in four separate studies. In a first study on R. sanguineus involving 32 beagle dogs, the efficacy at various time-points during the 30 days that followed treatment assessed 48 h after re-infestation ranged from 100% to 99.3%. No engorged ticks, alive or dead, were found in the treated animals. Shampooing 2 days after treatment and weekly washings did not affect the efficacy. In a second study on R. sanguineus involving 32 beagle dogs, the efficacy at various time-points during the 30 days that followed treatment assessed 48 h after re-infestation ranged from 100% to 96.8%. Single washing 8h after treatment and single shampooing 24 h after treatment had no negative impact on the efficacy of the product. In a third study on C. felis involving 28 beagle dogs, the efficacy at various time-points during the 30 days that followed treatment assessed 48 h after re-infestation was always 100% and weekly washings did not diminish the efficacy. In a last study on C. felis involving 24 beagle dogs, the efficacy at various time-points during the 5 weeks that followed treatment assessed 48 h after re-infestation ranged from 100% to 99.8%, and shampooing 24 h after treatment did not reduce the efficacy. The product was well tolerated by the dogs.

  11. First report of amitraz and cypermethrin resistance in Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato infesting dogs in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Vivas, R I; Ojeda-Chi, M M; Trinidad-Martinez, I; Bolio-González, M E

    2017-03-01

    Engorged female Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (Ixodida: Ixodidae) were collected from dogs in the state of Yucatán, Mexico. Fourteen tick populations were collected from dogs at seven veterinary clinics, four residential homes and three cattle farms. The larval immersion test was used in the progeny of collected adult females to test susceptibility to amitraz and cypermethrin. Dose-mortality regressions, 50% lethal concentrations (LC50 ), confidence intervals and slope were estimated by probit analysis. For amitraz, 12 tick populations (85.7%) were classified as resistant and low inter-population variation in the phenotypic level of resistance was evident [resistance ratios (RRs) at LC50 : 1.0-13.0]. For cypermethrin, 12 tick populations (85.7%) were classified as resistant and substantial inter-population variation in the phenotypic level of resistance was evident (RRs at LC50 : 1.0-104.0). Thus, amitraz resistance in R. sanguineus s.l. is common, but generally occurs at low levels; however, alarmingly high levels of cypermethrin resistance are present in R. sanguineus s.l. populations in dogs in Yucatán, Mexico. The intensive use of both acaricides to control ectoparasites on dogs is likely to lead to more serious resistance problems that may cause high levels of control failure in the future.

  12. Knock-down and speed of kill of a combination of fipronil and permethrin for the prevention of Ctenocephalides felis flea infestation in dogs.

    PubMed

    Halos, Lénaïg; Fourie, Josephus J; Fankhauser, Becky; Beugnet, Frederic

    2016-02-02

    A topical combination of fipronil + permethrin (Frontline Tri-Act/Frontect, Merial) has recently been developed to control fleas, ticks, mosquitoes, sandflies and stable flies on dogs. Two studies were conducted to assess its speed of kill and knock-down effect on Ctenocephalides felis fleas. The combination was compared to either fipronil alone or to a combination of permethrin, dinotefuran, and pyriproxyfen, In each study, 18 dogs were randomly allocated to one of three groups: (Group 1: untreated dog; Group 2: treated once on D0 with the combination of fipronil and permethrin; Group 3: treated once on D0 either with fipronil alone (study 1) or with a combination of permethrin, dinetofuran and pyriproxyfen (study 2)). Each dog was infested with 100 unfed adult C. felis fleas on Days 2 (study 2), 7, 14, 21 and 28. Fleas were collected from dogs at 1 h and 12 h post- infestations (PI) (study 1) or at 2 h and 6 h PI (study 2) to assess efficacy and from collection pans underneath cages 1 h (study 1) or 5 min (study 2) PI to assess knock-down effect. All treated dogs had significantly (p ≤ 0.01) lower flea counts than untreated dogs at every time point in both studies. For a whole month, a significant knock-down effect against infesting fleas is obtained in five minutes PI with the combination of permethrin and fipronil. Complete efficacy (>95%) was achieved in 1 h (study 1) or 2 h (study 2) PI for 14 days and by 6 h PI for all challenges conducted throughout the month. Efficacy remains >85% at 2 h PI for the whole month. A significantly higher efficacy of the fipronil + permethrin combination compared to other treatments was demonstrated at the earliest time points for the month (1 h knock-down effect and insecticidal efficacy compared to fipronil alone; 5 min knock-down effect compared to the combination of permethrin + dinetofuran + pyriproxyfen). The rapid flea knock-down effect and speed of kill demonstrated by the spot on combination of

  13. The effect of water and shampooing on the efficacy of fluralaner spot-on solution against Ixodes ricinus and Ctenocephalides felis infestations in dogs.

    PubMed

    Taenzler, Janina; Gale, Boyd; Zschiesche, Eva; Roepke, Rainer K A; Heckeroth, Anja R

    2016-05-31

    Fluralaner spot-on solution provides immediate and persistent efficacy against tick and flea infestations in dogs and cats for 12-weeks following topical administration. The active ingredient fluralaner is distributed systemically following transdermal absorption. Therefore, this study tested the hypothesis whether water-immersion or shampooing of dogs following administration of fluralaner spot-on solution has an impact on subsequent tick and flea efficacy. Thirty-two Beagle dogs were allocated to four study groups of 8 dogs each. On day 0, dogs in the 2 treatment groups received topical administration of fluralaner (Bravecto™ spot-on solution) according to label instructions. Dogs in the 2 corresponding control groups remained untreated. On days 3, 21, 49, and 77 dogs in one treatment group and control group were water-immersed for 2-5 min, while dogs in the other treatment group and control group were shampooed 6-8 min with a commercial foaming micro-emulsion, unscented product. On days 4, 28, 56, and 84 all dogs were co-infested with 50 ± 2 female and 10 ± 2 male Ixodes ricinus and 100 ± 4 Ctenocephalides felis, with tick and flea removal and counts 48 ± 2 h post-infestation. Efficacy against ticks and fleas was calculated for each assessment time point. No treatment-related adverse event was observed in any of the 16 dogs treated with fluralaner spot-on solution during the study. Efficacy against ticks at each assessment time point was between 99.7 and 100 % in the water-immersed group and between 99.2 and 100 % in the shampooed group. Efficacy against fleas was 100 % at each assessment time point as well in the water-immersed as the shampooed group. Tick and flea reduction in both treatment groups was significant at all assessment time points (p < 0.0001). Neither water-immersion nor shampooing after single topical administration of fluralaner spot-on solution had an impact on the excellent tick and flea efficacy over the 12

  14. [Study of infestation of dogs with Echinococcus granulosus in the province of La Rioja, Argentina].

    PubMed

    Amaya, Juan C; Moreno, Nancy; Salmaso, Nancy; Bazan, Eduardo; Ricoy, Gerardo; Córdoba, Patricia; Santillan, Graciela I

    2016-01-01

    This work was conducted in the province of La Rioja, located in northwestern Argentina. The aim of this study was to estimate the percentage of dog feces showing the presence of antigens of Echinococcus sp. in different regions of the province. A total of 269 samples of dried canine stool were taken, which were analyzed by the copro-ELISA technique. The most affected area was zone IV, which had 30.5% of positive samples. Zone I corresponding to the Capital Department of the province had 12% of positivity. In other areas, the percentages ranged between 11.4% and 14.8%. This is the first study in the province of La Rioja on the existence of this disease in dogs. The lack of control strategies has allowed the spread of echinococcosis. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Frequency and Clinical Epidemiology of Canine Monocytic Ehrlichiosis in Dogs Infested with Ticks from Sinaloa, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Sosa-Gutierrez, Carolina Guadalupe; Quintero Martinez, Maria Teresa; Gaxiola Camacho, Soila Maribel; Esteve-Gassent, Maria D.; Gordillo-Pérez, María-Guadalupe

    2013-01-01

    Ehrlichia canis is a rickettsial intracellular obligate bacterial pathogen and agent of canine monocytic ehrlichiosis. The prevalence of this disease in veterinary medicine can vary depending on the diagnostic method used and the geographic location. One hundred and fifty-two canine blood samples from six veterinary clinics and two shelters from Sinaloa State (Mexico) were analyzed in this study. All animals were suspected of having Canine Monocytic Ehrlichiosis (CME). The diagnostic methods used were the ELISA (Snap4Dx, IDEXX) together with blood smear and platelet count. From all dogs blood samples analyzed, 74.3% were positive to E. canis by ELISA and 40.1% were positive by blood smear. The sensitivity and specificity observed in the ELISA test were 78.8% and 86.7%. In addition, thrombocytopenia was presented in 87.6% of positive dogs. The predominant clinical manifestations observed were fever, anorexia, depression, lethargy, and petechiae. Consequently, this is the first report in which the morulae were visualized in the blood samples, and E. canis-specific antibodies were detected in dogs from Sinaloa, Northwest of Mexico. PMID:26464910

  16. Frequency and Clinical Epidemiology of Canine Monocytic Ehrlichiosis in Dogs Infested with Ticks from Sinaloa, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Sosa-Gutierrez, Carolina Guadalupe; Quintero Martinez, Maria Teresa; Gaxiola Camacho, Soila Maribel; Cota Guajardo, Silvia; Esteve-Gassent, Maria D; Gordillo-Pérez, María-Guadalupe

    2013-01-01

    Ehrlichia canis is a rickettsial intracellular obligate bacterial pathogen and agent of canine monocytic ehrlichiosis. The prevalence of this disease in veterinary medicine can vary depending on the diagnostic method used and the geographic location. One hundred and fifty-two canine blood samples from six veterinary clinics and two shelters from Sinaloa State (Mexico) were analyzed in this study. All animals were suspected of having Canine Monocytic Ehrlichiosis (CME). The diagnostic methods used were the ELISA (Snap4Dx, IDEXX) together with blood smear and platelet count. From all dogs blood samples analyzed, 74.3% were positive to E. canis by ELISA and 40.1% were positive by blood smear. The sensitivity and specificity observed in the ELISA test were 78.8% and 86.7%. In addition, thrombocytopenia was presented in 87.6% of positive dogs. The predominant clinical manifestations observed were fever, anorexia, depression, lethargy, and petechiae. Consequently, this is the first report in which the morulae were visualized in the blood samples, and E. canis-specific antibodies were detected in dogs from Sinaloa, Northwest of Mexico.

  17. Efficacy and Safety of a Permethrin-Fipronil Spot-On Solution (Effitix®) in Dogs Naturally Infested by Ticks in Europe.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Christelle; Reymond, Nadège; Crastes, Nolwenn; Bonneau, Stéphane

    2016-01-01

    Effitix is a new broad spectrum product based on the combination of fipronil 6.1% and permethrin 54.5% in a solution for spot-on application. It has been shown to be safe and efficacious in dogs in controlling tick, flea, sandfly, and mosquito infestations in laboratory conditions. The aim of this controlled, randomised study was to assess its safety and efficacy against natural tick infestations in field conditions. One hundred eighty-two privately owned dogs were included in France and Germany: 123 dogs were treated on day 0 with the permethrin-fipronil combination (Effitix) and 59 with a permethrin-imidacloprid combination (Advantix®). Tick counts were conducted on days 0 (before treatment), 7, 14, 21, and 28. The percentages of efficacy on days 7, 14, 21, and 28 were, respectively, 91.2%, 97%, 98.3%, and 96.7% with Effitix and were 94.8%, 96.9%, 95.7%, and 94.6% with Advantix. Very few adverse events were reported. Most were not serious and/or not related to the treatment with pruritus being the most common. One administration of Effitix was highly effective and safe to treat and control tick infestations for four weeks in field conditions and had a similar efficacy as the permethrin-imidacloprid combination for all visits.

  18. Efficacy and Safety of a Permethrin-Fipronil Spot-On Solution (Effitix®) in Dogs Naturally Infested by Ticks in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Bonneau, Stéphane

    2016-01-01

    Effitix is a new broad spectrum product based on the combination of fipronil 6.1% and permethrin 54.5% in a solution for spot-on application. It has been shown to be safe and efficacious in dogs in controlling tick, flea, sandfly, and mosquito infestations in laboratory conditions. The aim of this controlled, randomised study was to assess its safety and efficacy against natural tick infestations in field conditions. One hundred eighty-two privately owned dogs were included in France and Germany: 123 dogs were treated on day 0 with the permethrin-fipronil combination (Effitix) and 59 with a permethrin-imidacloprid combination (Advantix®). Tick counts were conducted on days 0 (before treatment), 7, 14, 21, and 28. The percentages of efficacy on days 7, 14, 21, and 28 were, respectively, 91.2%, 97%, 98.3%, and 96.7% with Effitix and were 94.8%, 96.9%, 95.7%, and 94.6% with Advantix. Very few adverse events were reported. Most were not serious and/or not related to the treatment with pruritus being the most common. One administration of Effitix was highly effective and safe to treat and control tick infestations for four weeks in field conditions and had a similar efficacy as the permethrin-imidacloprid combination for all visits. PMID:27703984

  19. Natural hybridization between Paragonimus bangkokensis and Paragonimus harinasutai.

    PubMed

    Doanh, Pham Ngoc; Guo, Zhihong; Nonaka, Nariaki; Horii, Yoichiro; Nawa, Yukifumi

    2013-06-01

    Paragonimus bangkokensis and Paragonimus harinasutai, which are morphologically distinguishable species, often co-infect in the same crab intermediate hosts. Recent molecular phylogenetic analyses revealed that these two species are genetically close to each other and are considered as the sister species. While we have been studying Paragonimus adult worms obtained from the lungs of a cat experimentally infected with Paragonimus metacercariae which were morphologically identified as P. harinasutai collected from central Viet Nam, one out of 6 adult worms has grouped cuticular spines, which is a feature of P. bangkokensis. By molecular analyses, the CO1 sequence of this specimen was identical with that of P. bangkokensis, but the ITS2 and the D2 region of 28S rDNA sequences showed a two peak pattern. Then, PCR products of the ITS2 and the D2 region of 28S rDNA sequences were ligated to TOPO vector and subcloned to determine the heterozygosity. Two types of sequences were obtained from each ITS2 and D2 region of 28S; one was identical with P. harinasutai and the other with P. bangkokensis. Taking all these morphological and molecular data together, we identified this adult worm as a hybrid specimen of P. bangkokensis and P. harinasutai. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Impact of community-based vector control on house infestation and Trypanosoma cruzi infection in Triatoma infestans, dogs and cats in the Argentine Chaco

    PubMed Central

    CARDINAL, M.V.; LAURICELLA, M.A.; MARCET, P.L.; OROZCO, M.M.; KITRON, U.; GÜRTLER, R.E.

    2009-01-01

    The relative impact of two community-based vector control strategies on house infestation by Triatoma infestans and Trypanosoma cruzi infection in bugs, domestic dogs and cats was assessed in two neighboring rural areas comprising 40 small villages and 323 houses in one of the regions most endemic for Chagas disease in northern Argentina. The prevalence and abundance of domestic infestation were 1.5- and 6.5-fold higher, respectively, in the area under pulsed, non-supervised control actions operating under the guidelines of the National Vector Control Program (NCVP) than in the area under sustained, supervised surveillance carried out jointly by the UBA research team and NCVP. The prevalence of infestation and infection varied widely among village groups within each area. In the pulsed control area, the prevalence of infection in bugs, dogs and cats was two- to three-fold higher than in the area under sustained surveillance, most of the infected animals qualified as autochthonous cases, and evidence of recent transmission was observed. Infection was highly aggregated at the household level and fell close to the 80/20 rule. Using multiple logistic regression analysis clustered by household, infection in dogs was associated positively and significantly with variables reflecting local exposure to infected T. infestans, thus demonstrating weak performance of the vector surveillance system. For high-risk areas in the Gran Chaco region, interruption of vector-mediated domestic transmission of T. cruzi requires residual insecticide spraying that is more intense, of a higher quality and sustained in time, combined with community participation and environmental management measures. PMID:17686448

  1. Impact of community-based vector control on house infestation and Trypanosoma cruzi infection in Triatoma infestans, dogs and cats in the Argentine Chaco.

    PubMed

    Cardinal, M V; Lauricella, M A; Marcet, P L; Orozco, M M; Kitron, U; Gürtler, R E

    2007-09-01

    The relative impact of two community-based vector control strategies on house infestation by Triatoma infestans and Trypanosoma cruzi infection in bugs, domestic dogs and cats was assessed in two neighboring rural areas comprising 40 small villages and 323 houses in one of the regions most endemic for Chagas disease in northern Argentina. The prevalence and abundance of domestic infestation were 1.5- and 6.5-fold higher, respectively, in the area under pulsed, non-supervised control actions operating under the guidelines of the National Vector Control Program (NCVP) than in the area under sustained, supervised surveillance carried out jointly by the UBA research team and NCVP. The prevalence of infestation and infection varied widely among village groups within each area. In the pulsed control area, the prevalence of infection in bugs, dogs and cats was two- to three-fold higher than in the area under sustained surveillance, most of the infected animals qualified as autochthonous cases, and evidence of recent transmission was observed. Infection was highly aggregated at the household level and fell close to the 80/20 rule. Using multiple logistic regression analysis clustered by household, infection in dogs was associated positively and significantly with variables reflecting local exposure to infected T. infestans, thus demonstrating weak performance of the vector surveillance system. For high-risk areas in the Gran Chaco region, interruption of vector-mediated domestic transmission of T. cruzi requires residual insecticide spraying that is more intense, of a higher quality and sustained in time, combined with community participation and environmental management measures.

  2. Initial evaluations of the effectiveness of spinetoram as a long-acting, oral systemic pulicide for controlling cat flea (Ctenocephalides felis) infestations on dogs.

    PubMed

    White, W Hunter; Riggs, Kari L; Totten, Michelle L; Snyder, Daniel E; McCoy, Christine M; Young, David R

    2017-01-15

    Spinetoram is a semi-synthetic, spinosyn class natural product derived from fermentation by the actinomycete, Saccharopolyspora spinosa. Based on LD50 (50% lethal dose) values against adult cat fleas (Ctenocephalides felis) using an in vitro contact assay, spinetoram was approximately 4-fold more potent than spinosad. Subsequently, two parallel-arm, randomized block design laboratory studies were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of orally administered spinetoram against experimental C. felis infestations on dogs, when administered as a single dose or multiple doses over a 6-12h interval. In the first study, 16 mixed-breed dogs were allocated to two treatment groups of eight dogs each, based on pre-treatment flea retention rates: negative (placebo) control; and a single dose of spinetoram at 30mg/kg. In the second study, 32 mixed- and pure-breed dogs were allocated to four treatments groups of eight dogs each, based on pre-treatment flea retention rates: negative (placebo) control; a single dose of 60mg/kg; three sequential 20mg/kg oral doses evenly administered over a 6h period; and three sequential 20mg/kg oral doses evenly administered over a 12h period. In both studies, treatments were administered to dogs in a fed state in order to enhance absorption of spinetoram. Therapeutic efficacy was assessed 24h after treatment and persistent efficacy was assessed 48h after each subsequent flea infestation. The duration of effectiveness was assessed at approximate weekly intervals beginning on Day 5 through Day 56 in the first study, or through Day 105 in the second study. In both studies, treatment efficacy was ≥99% (geometric means) through 44 d, with ≥99% efficacy continuing through 72 d for all three treatments in the second study. Efficacy remained ≥90% for at least 8 weeks with a single 30mg/kg dose; through 13 weeks with three sequential 20mg/kg doses; and through 15 weeks with a single 60mg/kg dose. For all time points and in both studies, spinetoram

  3. Efficacy and safety of a novel oral isoxazoline, sarolaner (Simparica™) in the treatment of naturally occurring flea and tick infestations in dogs presented as veterinary patients in Europe.

    PubMed

    Becskei, Csilla; De Bock, Filip; Illambas, Joanna; Mahabir, Sean P; Farkas, Robert; Six, Robert H

    2016-05-30

    Two randomised, blinded, multi-centered field studies were conducted in Europe to demonstrate the efficacy and safety of three monthly oral doses of sarolaner (Simparica™, Zoetis) administered at a minimum dosage of 2.0mg/kg (range 2-4mg/kg) against natural flea or tick infestation of dogs presented as veterinary patients. In the flea study, the improvement in clinical signs associated with flea allergy dermatitis (FAD) was also investigated. The palatability of the sarolaner chewable tablet formulation was evaluated in both studies. Spinosad (Comfortis(®) Chewable Tablets, Elanco) and fipronil (Frontline(®) Spot on, Merial) were used as positive controls in the flea and tick study, respectively. Treatments were administered on Days 0, 30 and 60. Efficacy was calculated based on the mean percent reduction of live parasite counts on post-treatment days 14, 30, 60 and 90 versus the pre-treatment count on Day 0. Non-inferiority of sarolaner to the control products was assessed at each time-point using a margin of 15% at the one-sided 0.025 significance level. Dogs were enrolled in a 2:1 ratio (sarolaner:comparator); 285 flea- and 181 tick-infested dogs were assessed for efficacy and safety, and 137 and 48 dogs were assessed for safety only, in the flea and tick study, respectively. There were no treatment-related adverse events. Efficacy against fleas was 98.8%, 99.4%, >99.9% and >99.9% in the sarolaner-treated group and 98.9%, 93.7%, 96.8% and 95.1% in the spinosad-treated group on Days 14, 30, 60 and 90, respectively. Sarolaner was non-inferior to spinosad at all time-points and was superior on Day 30. For the 42 dogs identified as having FAD at enrolment, the clinical signs of FAD improved in all dogs and the incidence was markedly reduced by the end of the study. Efficacy against ticks was 97.4%, 97.6%, 99.8% and 100% in the sarolaner-treated group and 94.1%, 88.5%, 89.9% and 98.1% in the fipronil-treated group on Days 14, 30, 60 and 90, respectively

  4. Efficacy of a novel topical combination of fipronil, amitraz and (S)-methoprene for treatment and control of induced infestations with four North American tick species (Dermacentor variabilis, Ixodes scapularis, Amblyomma americanum and Amblyomma maculatum) on dogs.

    PubMed

    Baker, Christine F; Hunter, James S; McCall, John W; Young, David R; Hair, Jakie A; Everett, William R; Yoon, Stephen S; Irwin, Jennifer P; Young, Stephanie L; Cramer, Luiz G; Pollmeier, Matthias G; Prullage, Joseph B

    2011-07-15

    Five laboratory studies were conducted to confirm that a single topical dose of the novel combination of fipronil, amitraz and (S)-methoprene, CERTIFECT™ (Merial Limited, GA, USA), is efficacious for the rapid control of pre-existing infestations and the prevention of new infestations with Ixodes scapularis, Dermacentor variabilis, Amblyomma americanum and Amblyomma maculatum for at least 28 days on dogs. In each study, 8 male and 8 female purpose-bred, laboratory beagles were randomly assigned to one of two study groups (treated and untreated). Starting on the day before treatment, each dog was infested weekly with about 30 or 50 ticks, depending on the study. Treatment with the novel combination rapidly eliminated pre-existing infestations and controlled weekly re-infestations for at least 28 days. Pre-existing infestations with all four tick species were rapidly and effectively reduced, with post-treatment therapeutic efficacies ranging from 91.7 to 99.5% within 18-48 h post treatment. Amblyomma maculatum numbers were significantly (p<0.05) reduced on treated dogs from the first tick counts as early as 6h post-treatment. All subsequent infestations with each of the 4 tick species were quickly disrupted, with prophylactic efficacies greater than 90% within 18-48 h post-infestation for at least a full month. Because the combination of fipronil, amitraz and (S)-methoprene quickly starts disrupting and killing ixodid ticks within hours of treatment, with similar high levels of efficacy maintained for at least 28 days in these and other studies, the authors conclude that a single topical treatment with CERTIFECT may prevent the transmission of most infectious agents carried by ixodid ticks for at least one month. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Efficacy and safety of sarolaner (Simparica(®)) in the treatment and control of naturally occurring flea infestations in dogs presented as veterinary patients in Australia.

    PubMed

    Packianathan, Raj; Colgan, Sally; Hodge, Andrew; Davis, Kylie; Six, Robert H; Maeder, Steven

    2017-08-16

    The efficacy and safety of a novel isoxazoline compound, sarolaner (Simparica(®), Zoetis) and spinosad (Comfortis(®), Elanco) as a positive control were evaluated for the treatment and control of natural flea infestations on dogs in two randomised, blinded, multi-centric clinical trials conducted in 11 veterinary clinics in northeastern and southeastern states of Australia. A total of 162 client-owned dogs (80 in northern study and 82 in southern study) from 105 households were enrolled. Each household was randomly allocated to receive either sarolaner (Simparica(®), Zoetis) or spinosad (Comfortis(®), Elanco). Dogs were dosed on Days 0, 30 and 60 and physical examinations and flea counts were conducted on Days 0, 14, 30, 60 and 90. Efficacy assessments were based on the percentage reduction in live flea counts post-treatment compared to Day 0. In the northern study, at enrolment, primary dogs had flea counts ranging from 5 to 772. At the first efficacy assessment on Day 14, sarolaner resulted in 99.3% mean reduction in live flea counts relative to Day 0, compared to 94.6% in the spinosad group. On Day 30, the sarolaner-treated group had mean efficacy of 99.2% compared to 95.7% in the spinosad-treated group, and on days 60 and 90, both groups had mean efficacies of ≥ 98.8%. In the southern study, at enrolment, primary dogs had flea counts ranging from 5 to 156. Both sarolaner and spinosad resulted in ≥ 96.7% mean reduction in live flea counts on Day 14. On Day 30, the sarolaner-treated group had mean efficacy of 99.5% compared to 89.7% in the spinosad-treated group, and on days 60 and 90, both groups had mean efficacies of ≥ 98.6%. No treatment-related adverse events were observed in either study. A single monthly dose of sarolaner (Simparica(®)) administered orally at 2-4 mg/kg for three consecutive months was well tolerated and provided excellent efficacy against natural infestations of fleas under a range of Australian field conditions including

  6. Molecular identification of Paragonimus species by DNA pyrosequencing technology.

    PubMed

    Tantrawatpan, Chairat; Intapan, Pewpan M; Janwan, Penchom; Sanpool, Oranuch; Lulitanond, Viraphong; Srichantaratsamee, Chutatip; Anamnart, Witthaya; Maleewong, Wanchai

    2013-06-01

    DNA pyrosequencing for PCR amplicons is an attractive strategy for the identification of microorganisms because of its short time performance for large number of samples. In this study, the primers targeting the fragment of ITS2 region of nuclear ribosomal RNA gene were newly developed for pyrosequencing-based identification of 6 Paragonimus species, Paragonimus bangkokensis, Paragonimus harinasutai, Paragonimus heterotremus, Paragonimus macrorchis, Paragonimus siamensis and Paragonimus westermani. Pyrosequencing determination of 39 nucleotides of partial ITS2 region could discriminate 6 Paragonimus species, and could also detect intra-species genetic variation of P. macrorchis. This DNA pyrosequencing-based identification can be a valuable tool to improve species-level identification of Paragonimus in the endemic areas. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Field evaluation of the efficacy and safety of a combination of spinosad and milbemycin oxime in the treatment and prevention of naturally acquired flea infestations and treatment of intestinal nematode infections in dogs in Europe.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Brad; Schnitzler, Beate; Wiseman, Scott; Snyder, Daniel E

    2015-01-15

    Two separate randomised, blinded, multicentre field trials were conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a combination of spinosad and milbemycin oxime (MO) (Trifexis(®), Elanco Animal Health) in the treatment and prevention of naturally acquired flea infestations and intestinal nematode infections in European dogs. Treatments using Trifexis(®) and each control veterinary product (CVP) were administered once on Day 0 in both field studies. In the flea field trial, 11 veterinary clinics in France participated in the study. On Day 0, whole body flea comb counts were conducted on all dogs being evaluated for enrolment. Dogs with ≥7 fleas on Day 0 were enrolled, treated once on Day 0 with spinosad/MO or the CVP (Stronghold(®); selamectin) and then underwent post-treatment flea counts on Days 14 and 30. There were 150 spinosad/MO treated dogs and 71 CVP treated dogs included in the flea effectiveness population. Effectiveness against fleas (% reduction in geometric means; GM) was 98.97% and 97.37% for the spinosad/MO treated dogs, and 97.43% and 93.96% for the CVP dogs on Days 14 and 30, respectively, compared to the pre-treatment baseline flea counts. Of the spinosad/MO dogs, 89.3% and 80.0% had no live fleas on Days 14 and 30, compared to 77.5% and 70.4% of the CVP dogs, respectively. In the nematode field trial, data from 10 veterinary clinics in France and 19 in Ireland were pooled. Faecal samples from dogs at each clinic were analysed. A positive result at screening (parasite eggs from Toxocara canis, Toxascaris leonina, Trichuris vulpis or Ancylostoma caninum) allowed for enrolment. Dogs were randomised to spinosad/MO or the CVP (Milbemax(®); MO/praziquantel). On Day 8, a post-treatment faecal sample was taken and analysed. Of 2333 dogs screened for nematode eggs, 238 dogs were positive with one or more of these nematodes, and 229 were enrolled in the study. Of the 229 dogs, 151 were treated with a single dose of spinosad/MO, and 77 were treated with

  8. Discovery of Paragonimus skrjabini in Vietnam and its phylogenetic status in the Paragonimus skrjabini complex.

    PubMed

    Doanh, P N; Hien, H V; Nonaka, N; Horii, Y; Nawa, Y

    2013-12-01

    Two members of the Paragonimus skrjabini complex, P. skrjabini and P. miyazakii, are now considered as two sub-species, P. skrjabini skrjabini and P. skrjabini miyazakii. They are well known as important pathogens for human paragonimiasis in China and Japan. Recently, members of this species complex have been reported from India. Here we report the first discovery of P. skrjabini from freshwater crab hosts in Thanh Hoa province, Vietnam. For morphological and molecular phylogenetic studies, adult worms were obtained by experimental infection in cats and dogs. Molecular analyses of metacercariae and adults revealed that the P. skrjabini population from Thanh Hoa, Vietnam was almost completely identical with that from Yunnan province, China. Those populations from Thanh Hoa, Vietnam and Yunnan, China and those from Manipur, India were significantly different from P. skrjabini populations reported from other localities of China in cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (CO1) gene sequences, indicating considerable genetic variation within the P. skrjabini complex. Moreover, low bootstrap values in the CO1 tree suggested that more variant genotypes belonging to P. skrjabini complex may be found in other Asian countries in between Vietnam and India, such as Myanmar, Laos and Thailand. Since P. skrjabini is known as a pathogen for humans, paragonimiasis cases caused by P. skrjabini might be found in Vietnam and other Asian countries.

  9. Dogs

    MedlinePlus

    ... Patients Infants and Young Children Publications & Materials Announcements Dogs Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Overview Diseases ... and to prevent infectious diseases. Tips for preventing dog-associated diseases Before choosing a dog Certain types ...

  10. Identification of Leishmania spp. promastigotes in the intestines, ovaries and salivary glands of Rhipicephalus sanguineus actively infesting dogs

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sand flies are recognized as the major vector of canine visceral leishmaniasis. However, in some areas of Brazil where sand flies do not occur, this disease is found in humans and dogs. There has been speculation that ticks might play a role in transmission of canine visceral leishmaniasis and the D...

  11. Ultrastructure of Spermatogenesis in the Testis of Paragonimus heterotremus

    PubMed Central

    Uabundit, Nongnut; Kanla, Pipatphong; Puthiwat, Phongphithak; Arunyanart, Channarong; Chaiciwamongkol, Kowit; Maleewong, Wanchai; Intapan, Pewpan M.; Iamsaard, Sitthichai

    2013-01-01

    Lung fluke, Paragonimus heterotremus, is a flatworm causing pulmonary paragonimiasis in cats, dogs, and humans in Southeast Asia. We examined the ultrastructure of the testis of adult P. heterotremus with special attention to spermatogenesis and spermiogenesis using scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The full sequence of spermatogenesis and spermiogenesis, from the capsular basal lamina to the luminal surface, was demonstrated. The sequence comprises spermatogonia, spermatocytes with obvious nuclear synaptonemal complexes, spermatids, and eventual spermatozoa. Moreover, full steps of spermatid differentiation were shown which consisted of 1) early stage, 2) differentiation stage representing the flagella, intercentriolar body, basal body, striated rootlets, and electron dense nucleus of thread-like lamellar configuration, and 3) growing spermatid flagella. Detailed ultrastructure of 2 different types of spermatozoa was also shown in this study. PMID:24516272

  12. Ultrastructure of spermatogenesis in the testis of Paragonimus heterotremus.

    PubMed

    Uabundit, Nongnut; Kanla, Pipatphong; Puthiwat, Phongphithak; Arunyanart, Channarong; Chaiciwamongkol, Kowit; Maleewong, Wanchai; Intapan, Pewpan M; Iamsaard, Sitthichai; Hipkaeo, Wiphawi

    2013-12-01

    Lung fluke, Paragonimus heterotremus, is a flatworm causing pulmonary paragonimiasis in cats, dogs, and humans in Southeast Asia. We examined the ultrastructure of the testis of adult P. heterotremus with special attention to spermatogenesis and spermiogenesis using scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The full sequence of spermatogenesis and spermiogenesis, from the capsular basal lamina to the luminal surface, was demonstrated. The sequence comprises spermatogonia, spermatocytes with obvious nuclear synaptonemal complexes, spermatids, and eventual spermatozoa. Moreover, full steps of spermatid differentiation were shown which consisted of 1) early stage, 2) differentiation stage representing the flagella, intercentriolar body, basal body, striated rootlets, and electron dense nucleus of thread-like lamellar configuration, and 3) growing spermatid flagella. Detailed ultrastructure of 2 different types of spermatozoa was also shown in this study.

  13. Comparative efficacy on dogs of a single topical treatment with fipronil/(S)-methoprene or weekly physiological hygiene shampoos against Ctenocephalides felis in a simulated flea-infested environment.

    PubMed

    Beugnet, F; Fourie, J; Chalvet-Monfray, K

    2012-05-01

    Flea infestations of pets continue to persist due to the lack of knowledge of flea biology and ecology. It is not unusual that pet owners believe regular hygiene, such as shampooing their dogs can replace regular insecticidal treatment. The objective of this study was to compare in a flea simulated environment, modelling exposure similar to that found in a home, that the use of regular physiological shampoo does not control fleas adequately when compared to a long acting topical formulation. Three groups of six dogs were formed: one untreated control group, one group treated monthly with the topical formulation of fipronil/(S)-methoprene, and a third group treated weekly with a hygiene shampoo. All dogs were infested with adult unfed Ctenocephalides felis fleas (200±5) on Days -28 and -21. Each animal's sleeping box was fitted with a plastic cup mounted to the inside roof of the box. The sleeping bench of each animal was covered with a carpet to accommodate flea development. The dogs were maintained in their kennels throughout the study. In order to maintain the environmental flea challenge, C. felis pupae (100±5) were placed in the plastic cup in each animal's sleeping box on Days -14, -7, 0, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 and 42. The dogs were combed and fleas counted weekly on Days -1, 3, 10, 17, 24, 31, 38, 45, and 51. The fleas were placed immediately back on the dogs. On Day 60, fleas were counted and removed. Flea infestations in the untreated control group at each count averaged between 46.2 and 74.2 fleas throughout the study. The average number of fleas infesting dogs was significantly different (p<0.05) between the untreated and the two treatment groups and between the two treatment groups at all counts throughout the two months study (Days 3, 10, 17, 24, 31, 38, 45, 51 and 60). The efficacy was never below 99.1% in the fipronil/(S)-methoprene group, and efficacy in the shampoo group was never above 79.2%. Weekly shampooing in treatment group 3 was intentionally

  14. Paragonimus and Paragonimiasis in Vietnam: an Update

    PubMed Central

    Horii, Yoichiro; Nawa, Yukifumi

    2013-01-01

    Paragonimiasis is a food-borne parasitic zoonosis caused by infection with lung flukes of the genus Paragonimus. In Vietnam, research on Paragonimus and paragonimiasis has been conducted in northern and central regions of the country. Using a combination of morphological and molecular methods, 7 Paragonimus species, namely P. heterotremus, P. westermani, P. skrjabini, P. vietnamensis, P. proliferus, P. bangkokenis and P. harinasutai, have been identified in Vietnam. Of these, the first 3, P. heterotremus, P. westermani and P. skrjabini, are known to infect humans in other countries. However, in Vietnam, only P. heterotremus, found in some northern provinces, has been shown to infect humans. Even nowadays, local people in some northern provinces, such as Lai Chau and Yen Bai, are still suffering from P. heterotremus infection. In some provinces of central Vietnam, the prevalence and infection intensity of P. westermani metacercariae in freshwater crabs (the second intermediate hosts) are extremely high, but human cases have not been reported. Likewise, although P. skrjabini was found in Thanh Hoa Province, its pathogenicity to humans in Vietnam still remains uncertain. The results of molecular phylogenetic analyses of Vietnamese Paragonimus species provides new insights on the phylogeny and taxonomy of the genus Paragonimus. Comprehensive molecular epidemiological and geobiological studies on the genus in Vietnam and adjacent countries are needed to clarify the biodiversity and public health significance of the lung flukes. PMID:24516264

  15. Paragonimus and paragonimiasis in Vietnam: an update.

    PubMed

    Doanh, Pham Ngoc; Horii, Yoichiro; Nawa, Yukifumi

    2013-12-01

    Paragonimiasis is a food-borne parasitic zoonosis caused by infection with lung flukes of the genus Paragonimus. In Vietnam, research on Paragonimus and paragonimiasis has been conducted in northern and central regions of the country. Using a combination of morphological and molecular methods, 7 Paragonimus species, namely P. heterotremus, P. westermani, P. skrjabini, P. vietnamensis, P. proliferus, P. bangkokenis and P. harinasutai, have been identified in Vietnam. Of these, the first 3, P. heterotremus, P. westermani and P. skrjabini, are known to infect humans in other countries. However, in Vietnam, only P. heterotremus, found in some northern provinces, has been shown to infect humans. Even nowadays, local people in some northern provinces, such as Lai Chau and Yen Bai, are still suffering from P. heterotremus infection. In some provinces of central Vietnam, the prevalence and infection intensity of P. westermani metacercariae in freshwater crabs (the second intermediate hosts) are extremely high, but human cases have not been reported. Likewise, although P. skrjabini was found in Thanh Hoa Province, its pathogenicity to humans in Vietnam still remains uncertain. The results of molecular phylogenetic analyses of Vietnamese Paragonimus species provides new insights on the phylogeny and taxonomy of the genus Paragonimus. Comprehensive molecular epidemiological and geobiological studies on the genus in Vietnam and adjacent countries are needed to clarify the biodiversity and public health significance of the lung flukes.

  16. Paragonimus paishuihoensis Metacercariae in Freshwater Crabs, Potamon lipkei, in Vientiane Province, Lao PDR

    PubMed Central

    Habe, Shigehisa; Doanh, Pham Ngoc; Yahiro, Shinichiro; Vannavong, Nanthasane; Barennes, Hubert; Odermatt, Peter; Dreyfuss, Gilles; Nawa, Yukifumi

    2013-01-01

    Among Paragonimus species, P. paishuihoensis is one of the most mysterious and poorly understood species. Metacercariae are characterized by having a unique dendritically branched excretory bladder. However, the morphology of the adult worm remains unknown. To date, metacercariae of this species have been reported only in China and Thailand. In this study, we first found P. paishuihoensis metacercariae in freshwater crabs, Potamon lipkei, in Hinheub District, Vientiane, Lao PDR, with a prevalence of 77.7% and the average intensity of 10.3 (range 1-28) metacercariae per crab. The molecular data based on ITS2 and CO1 markers indicated that P. paishuihoensis from Laos and Thailand were almost completely identical and were close to members of the Paragonimus bangkokensis/Paragonimus harinasutai complex. Attempts to infect experimental animals (cats, dogs, and rats) with P. paishuihoensis were unsuccessful, suggesting that these animals might be unsuitable definitive hosts for the species. Further studies are necessary to elucidate the taxonomic status and life cycle of P. paishuihoensis. PMID:24516274

  17. Paragonimus paishuihoensis metacercariae in freshwater crabs, Potamon lipkei, in Vientiane Province, Lao PDR.

    PubMed

    Habe, Shigehisa; Doanh, Pham Ngoc; Yahiro, Shinichiro; Vannavong, Nanthasane; Barennes, Hubert; Odermatt, Peter; Dreyfuss, Gilles; Horii, Yoichiro; Nawa, Yukifumi

    2013-12-01

    Among Paragonimus species, P. paishuihoensis is one of the most mysterious and poorly understood species. Metacercariae are characterized by having a unique dendritically branched excretory bladder. However, the morphology of the adult worm remains unknown. To date, metacercariae of this species have been reported only in China and Thailand. In this study, we first found P. paishuihoensis metacercariae in freshwater crabs, Potamon lipkei, in Hinheub District, Vientiane, Lao PDR, with a prevalence of 77.7% and the average intensity of 10.3 (range 1-28) metacercariae per crab. The molecular data based on ITS2 and CO1 markers indicated that P. paishuihoensis from Laos and Thailand were almost completely identical and were close to members of the Paragonimus bangkokensis/Paragonimus harinasutai complex. Attempts to infect experimental animals (cats, dogs, and rats) with P. paishuihoensis were unsuccessful, suggesting that these animals might be unsuitable definitive hosts for the species. Further studies are necessary to elucidate the taxonomic status and life cycle of P. paishuihoensis.

  18. Morphological and molecular identification of two Paragonimus spp., of which metacercariae concurrently found in a land crab, Potamiscus tannanti, collected in Yenbai Province, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Doanh, Pham Ngoc; Shinohara, Akio; Horii, Yoichiro; Habe, Shigehisa; Nawa, Yukifumi; The, Dang Tat; Le, Nguyen Thi

    2007-04-01

    Paragonimosis is an important food-borne zoonosis especially in Asian countries. Among Paragonimus species, Paragonimus westermani followed by P. skrjabini complex are the major pathogens for human paragonimosis in Asia. In addition, P. heterotremus is an important pathogen in southern China and the Indochina Peninsula and is the only proven species to cause human paragonimosis in Vietnam. During a recent survey in Yenbai Province in northern Vietnam, we found small and large types of Paragonimus metacercariae often concurrently in mountainous crabs, Potamiscus tannanti. Adult worms from those small and large metacercariae were obtained separately by experimental infection in dogs and cats. Morphological and molecular phylogenetic study based on sequences of ITS2 and a part of CO1 genes were performed for the identification of small and large metacercariae and their adults. The results showed that small metacercariae and their adults are completely identical with P. heterotremus in morphology and molecular genetic profiles. In contrast, large metacercariae and their adults have some morphological similarities with P. skrjabini and P. harinasutai, but are unidentifiable from each other by morphology alone. Molecular phylogenetic tree analyses on ITS2 and CO1 genes revealed that large metacercariae and their adults were grouped in the same clade and different from any known Paragonimus species. Although they share the same ancestor with P. skrjabini complex, their genetic distance was considerably different from two other known subspecies, P. skrjabini skrjabini and P. skrjabini miyazakii. Our results provide a new insight on the phylogeny of the genus Paragonimus.

  19. Comparative Efficacy of an Imidacloprid/Flumethrin Collar (Seresto®) and an Oral Afoxolaner Chewable (NexGard®) against Tick (Dermacentor variabilis and Amblyomma americanum) Infestations on Dogs: a Randomised Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Ohmes, Cameon M; Hostetler, Joe; Davis, Wendell L; Settje, Terry; Everett, William R

    2015-08-01

    This randomised controlled laboratory study demonstrated the residual speed of efficacy of an imidacloprid/flumethrin collar (Seresto(®), Bayer) for the control of ticks (Dermacentor variabilis, Amblyomma americanum) at 6 and 12 hours postinfestation on dogs when compared to oral afoxolaner (NexGard(®), Merial). Dogs were randomised by pre-treatment tick counts: Group 1) imidacloprid 10 % (w/w) / flumethrin 4.5 % (w/w) collar, 2) afoxolaner chewable (dosage 3.1 - 6.2 mg/kg), and 3) non-treated controls. Ticks (50/species/dog) were infested on days 3, 14, 21, and 28; live (attached and non-attached) and dead attached ticks were counted 6 and 12 hours later. Efficacy against live D. variabilis at 6 hours for Group 1 was 95 - 100 % and for Group 2 was 38 - 48 %; efficacy at 12 hours for Group 1 was 97 - 100 % and for Group 2 was 27 - 59 %. Efficacy against A. americanum at 6 hours for Group 1 was 94 - 100 % and for Group 2 was < 0 - 38 %; efficacy at 12 hours for Group 1 was 98 - 100 % and for Group 2 was 1 - 40 %. Live and total (total live and dead attached) tick counts in Group 1 against both tick species were significantly lower (p ≤ 0.05) than Group 2 and 3 at all time points. The number of live or total ticks on Group 2 dogs was never significantly lower when compared to the respective number of ticks on Group 3 (controls). This study demonstrated that an imidacloprid/flumethrin collar was highly efficacious (94 - 100 %) at repelling and killing ticks on dogs at 6 and 12 hours post-infestation and was more efficacious than afoxolaner on all challenge days.

  20. Delusional Infestation

    PubMed Central

    Laupland, Kevin B.; Valiquette, Louis

    2016-01-01

    Although the practice of infectious diseases involves a broad range of surgical and medical disciplines, interactions with psychiatry are infrequent. Delusional infestation is a condition where an individual has a firmly fixed false belief that they have an infection. Delusional infestation challenges the infectious diseases specialist who must diligently rule out the presence of a true infection. However, perhaps, more importantly, we may need to initiate therapy with neuroleptic medications for which we may have little specific knowledge and experience. In this note we review the diagnosis and management of patients with delusional infestation. PMID:27366186

  1. Comparative efficacy on dogs of a single topical treatment with fipronil/(S)-methoprene or weekly physiological hygiene shampoos against Ctenocephalides felis in a simulated flea-infested environment

    PubMed Central

    Beugnet, F.; Fourie, J.; Chalvet-Monfray, K.

    2012-01-01

    Flea infestations of pets continue to persist due to the lack of knowledge of flea biology and ecology. It is not unusual that pet owners believe regular hygiene, such as shampooing their dogs can replace regular insecticidal treatment. The objective of this study was to compare in a flea simulated environment, modelling exposure similar to that found in a home, that the use of regular physiological shampoo does not control fleas adequately when compared to a long acting topical formulation. Three groups of six dogs were formed: one untreated control group, one group treated monthly with the topical formulation of fipronil/(S)-methoprene, and a third group treated weekly with a hygiene shampoo. All dogs were infested with adult unfed Ctenocephalides felis fleas (200 ± 5) on Days -28 and -21. Each animal’s sleeping box was fitted with a plastic cup mounted to the inside roof of the box. The sleeping bench of each animal was covered with a carpet to accommodate flea development. The dogs were maintained in their kennels throughout the study. In order to maintain the environmental flea challenge, C. felis pupae (100 ± 5) were placed in the plastic cup in each animal’s sleeping box on Days -14, -7, 0, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 and 42. The dogs were combed and fleas counted weekly on Days -1, 3, 10, 17, 24, 31, 38, 45, and 51. The fleas were placed immediately back on the dogs. On Day 60, fleas were counted and removed. Flea infestations in the untreated control group at each count averaged between 46.2 and 74.2 fleas throughout the study. The average number of fleas infesting dogs was significantly different (p < 0.05) between the untreated and the two treatment groups and between the two treatment groups at all counts throughout the two months study (Days 3, 10, 17, 24, 31, 38, 45, 51 and 60). The efficacy was never below 99.1% in the fipronil/(S)-methoprene group, and efficacy in the shampoo group was never above 79.2%. Weekly shampooing in treatment group 3 was

  2. [Survey on the foci of Paragonimus in Youxi, Yongtai and Pinghe Counties of Fujian Province].

    PubMed

    Cheng, You-Zhu; Li, Li-Sha; Lin, Guo-Hua; Zhou, Pei-Cong; Jiang, Dian-Wei; Fang, Yan-Yan; Lin, Chen-Xin; Li, Yan-Rong

    2010-12-30

    To investigate the natural foci of paragonimiasis in Youxi, Yongtai and Pinghe Counties of Fujian Province. One village each from the three counties was selected according to reported paragonimiasis cases. Freshwater snails collected from fields were examined for cercariae. Freshwater crabs obtained in the fields were examined for metacercariae by washing filtration method or direct compression method. Feces of cats and dogs were collected for the detection of eggs by water precipitation. In order to identify the species of Paragonimus, 4 cats were orally fed with metacercariae. At the same time, the habitat of three survey sites was observed. Three fluke species, namely, P. skrjabini, P. westermani and P. cenocopiosus(Syn. Euparagonimus cenocopiosus) were found. In Banlin Village of Youxi County and Chishui Village of Yongtai County, the seropositive rate by IgG ELISA were 6.8% (21/309) and 6.8% (9/133), respectively. Four species of freshwater snails were found, two species of Tricula and one species of Pseudobythinella were newly identified first intermediate hosts of Paragonimus. Four species of freshwater carbs were found, one species of Nanhaipotamon served as a new second intermediate host of Paragonimus. In Youxi, the infection rate of P. skrjabini cercariae in snails and metacercariae in crabs was 2.1% (27/1 344) and 92.1% (58/63), respectively; the index of crab infection and the positive ratio of Paragonimus eggs in cat feces was 171.91 and 1/7, respectively. In Yongtai, the cercariae infection rate in Pseudobythinella and Tricula snails infected with P. skrjabini was 0.6% (4/690) and 0.1% (2/ 2330), respectively; the infection rate of P. skrjabini metacercariae in crabs was 18.2% (18/99); the index of crab infection was 9.12. In Pinghe, the infection rate of cercariae in Semisulcospira libertina and metacercariae in crabs was 03% (3/1092) and 44.9% (35/78), respectively; the index of crab infection was 616. Paragonimus skrjabini P. westermani and P

  3. World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (W.A.A.V.P.) second edition: guidelines for evaluating the efficacy of parasiticides for the treatment, prevention and control of flea and tick infestations on dogs and cats.

    PubMed

    Marchiondo, A A; Holdsworth, P A; Fourie, L J; Rugg, D; Hellmann, K; Snyder, D E; Dryden, M W

    2013-05-01

    These second edition guidelines, updated from the 2007 version (Marchiondo et al., 2007), are intended to assist the planning and conduct of laboratory and clinical studies to assess the efficacy of ectoparasiticides applied to dogs or cats for the purpose of treating, preventing and controlling flea and tick infestations. Major revisions to this second edition include guidelines on the assessment of systemic flea and tick products, an update of the geographical distribution of the common fleas and ticks species on dogs and cats, determination of flea and tick efficacy based on geometric versus arithmetic means with respect to geographic regulatory agencies, modification of tick categorization in the assessment of efficacy, expanded guidelines on repellency and anti-feeding effects, enhanced practical field study guidance, and considerations on the ranges of flea and ticks for infestations in laboratory studies. The term ectoparasiticide includes insecticidal and acaricidal compounds, as well as insect growth regulators. The range of biological activities from animal treatment that are considered include: repellency and anti-feeding effects, knockdown, speed of kill, immediate and persistent lethal effects, and interference with egg fertility and subsequent development of off-host life cycle stages. Information is provided on the selection of animals, dose determination, dose confirmation and field studies, record keeping, interpretation of results and animal welfare. These guidelines are also intended to assist regulatory authorities involved in the approval and registration of new topical or systemic ectoparasiticides, and to facilitate the worldwide adoption of harmonized procedures.

  4. Discovery of Paragonimus proliferus in Northern Vietnam and their molecular phylogenetic status among genus Paragonimus.

    PubMed

    Doanh, Pham Ngoc; Shinohara, Akio; Horii, Yoichiro; Habe, Shigehisa; Nawa, Yukifumi; Le, Nguyen Thi

    2008-03-01

    During an epidemiological survey for Paragonimus and paragonimosis in northern Vietnam, we found extremely large excysted metacercariae (2.50 +/- 0.14 mm in length and 0.72 +/- 0.08 mm in width; mean +/- standard deviation of 20 samples) in mountainous crabs, Potamiscus mieni. Adult worms were successfully obtained by intraperitoneal injection with those large excysted metacercariae in a cat. Morphological and morphometric data of those large excysted metacercariae and the adult worms derived from them are identical to those of Paragonimus proliferus found in Yunnan province, China. However, when second internal transcribed spacer region and cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 gene sequences of those metacercariae and adult worms were compared with those of known Paragonimus spp. deposited in the GenBank, they were almost completely identical to those of Paragonimus hokuoensis metacercariae in China, of which adult worms have never been reported. This is the first record of P. proliferus in Vietnam and the first record from outside of China. Phylogenetic relationship between P. proliferus and P. hokuoensis is discussed.

  5. [Geographic distribution and gene sequencing of Paragonimus westermani in some areas of Guangdong Province].

    PubMed

    Lu, Yu-Yun; Liu, Qiao; Tang, Gao-Xing; Shen, Hao-Xian; Zhong, Jian-Xin; Xie, Quan-Chao; Fu, Guang-Hua; Chen, Yu-Lian; Li, Hao-Bin; He, Hai-Feng

    2013-06-01

    To investigate the current distribution of Paragonimus westermani in Guangdong Province. Snails and crabs collected from mountain streams in regional survey sites were dissected to detect cercarial and metacercarial infections of P. westermani. Domestic cats and dogs artificially infected with the collected metacercariae were also dissected to detect adult worms of P. westermani. The COI and ITS2 gene sequences of those adult worms were compared with those of known Paragonimus specimen deposited in the GenBank. All of the first intermediate hosts in five survey sites of Liangkou, Nankun, Mountain, Dadong, Muxi, Guowu, were identified as Semisulcospira libertina, whose cercariae infection rates were 0.33%, 0.15%, 0.058%, 0.10%, and 0.05%, respectively; the second intermediate hosts in above five sites were all identified as Sinopotamon denticulatum, whose metacercariae infection rates were 100%, 100%, 38.09%, 55.36%, and 65.26%, respectively. The numbers of metacercariae in the five sites were 79.4, 105.66, 9.16, 16.18, and 15.6 per positive crab, respectively, and 11.12, 7.87, 0.58, 0.69, and 0.85 per gram of crab, respectively. All the metacercariae were identical to those of P. westermani. Adult worms and eggs of P. westermani were found in both reservoir hosts of domestic cats and dogs infected artificially. By comparing the COI genes of five representative samples from each survey site with that of Paragonimus #AF219379.21, AF540958.1 from GenBank, we found out the homology to be 99%, 99%, 99%, 98%, and 99%, respectively. In addition, a comparison of the ITS2 gene sequences between the above five samples and Paragonimus #DQ836243.1, DQ351845.1, AB354217.1 from GenBank revealed 98%, 99%, 98%, 98%, and 98% gene homology, respectively. Two ultra-high and three high endemic areas of P. westermani are discovered in Guangdong Province. No obvious differences were found among the types of P. westermani in the above five endemic areas.

  6. The first intermediate host of Paragonimus westermani in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Iwagami, Moritoshi; Rajapakse, R P V Jayanthe; Yatawara, Lalani; Kano, Shigeyuki; Agatsuma, Takeshi

    2009-01-01

    Freshwater snails (family Paludomidae, genus Paludomus) were collected from streams in Hedeniya and Peradeniya (the campus of Peradeniya University), Kandy district, Central Province, Sri Lanka, and found to harbor rediae and cercariae of a Paragonimus sp. These larvae were identified as Paragonimus westermani by using ITS2 DNA sequences. The infection rates of P. westermani in Paludomus sp. in Hedeniya and Peradeniya were 0.1% (one of 1014) and 0.2% (two of 1006), respectively. The snail has not been identified to species in the present study. This is the first report of the snail host of Paragonimus in Sri Lanka.

  7. Clinical evaluation of the safety and efficacy of 10% imidacloprid + 2.5% moxidectin topical solution for the treatment of ear mite (Otodectes cynotis) infestations in dogs.

    PubMed

    Arther, R G; Davis, W L; Jacobsen, J A; Lewis, V A; Settje, T L

    2015-05-30

    A clinical field investigation was conducted to evaluate the safety and efficacy of 10% imidacloprid/2.5% moxidectin for the treatment of ear mites (Otodectes cynotis) in dogs. The study was a multi-centered, blinded, positive controlled, randomized clinical trial conducted under field conditions with privately owned pets. A total of 17 veterinary clinics enrolled cases for the study. An otoscopic examination was performed to confirm the presence of O. cynotis residing in the ear of the dog prior to enrollment. A single-dog household was enrolled in the study if the dog had 5 or more ear mites and an acceptable physical examination. A multi-dog household was eligible if at least one dog in the household had 5 or more mites and all dogs in the household had acceptable physical exams and met the inclusion criteria. Qualified households were randomly assigned to treatments to receive either 10% imidacloprid+2.5% moxidectin topical solution or topical selamectin solution (positive control product) according to a pre-designated enrollment ratio of 2:1, respectively. If more than one dog in a multiple dog household had adequate numbers of ear mites, one dog was randomly selected to represent the household for efficacy evaluation prior to treatment. Treatments were administered twice per label and dose banding directions for each product approximately 28 days apart (Days 0 and 28), by the dog's owner at the study site. All dogs in a household were treated on the same day and with the same product. The owners completed a post-treatment observation form one day after each treatment. Post-treatment otoscopic examinations were performed by the investigators or attending veterinarian on Days 28 and 56. Physical examinations were performed on Days 0 and 56. One hundred and four (104) households were evaluated for efficacy on SD 28, and 102 households were evaluated for efficacy on SD 56. The dogs' ages ranged from 2 months to 16 years. A total of 247 dogs were evaluated for

  8. Molecular phylogenetic relationship of Paragonimus pseudoheterotremus.

    PubMed

    Thaenkham, Urusa; Waikagul, Jitra

    2008-03-01

    A part of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene and the nuclear ribosomal DNA second internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) of a newly described lung fluke, Paragonimus pseudoheterotremus, were sequenced and compared with P. heterotremus, the species with a similar morphology. Pairwise distance of COI sequences revealed a genetic difference between P. heterotremus and P pseudoheterotremus with a nucleotide difference of COI sequences between these two species of 10.6%. The constructed phylogenic tree with high bootstrap proportion suggested that P. pseudoheterotremus is a sister species of P. heterotremus.

  9. Field evaluation of the efficacy and the safety of a combination of oxantel/pyrantel/praziquantel in the treatment of naturally acquired gastrointestinal nematode and/or cestode infestations in dogs in Europe.

    PubMed

    Grandemange, E; Claerebout, E; Genchi, C; Franc, M

    2007-04-10

    In five multicentre field trials, the efficacy and safety of a combination of oxantel/pyrantel/praziquantel (Dolpac), Vetoquinol SA) in the treatment of naturally acquired gastrointestinal nematode and/or cestode infestation in dogs was evaluated in northern and southern Europe. Forty-eight investigators from France, Belgium, Germany, Italy and Spain enrolled 329 dogs to be treated with the tested combination; 235 of these dogs complied with the inclusion criteria of the protocol and had a tested helminth identified on Day 0. A pooled analysis was performed on each of the following helminth species: Toxocara canis, Ancylostoma caninum, Toxascaris leonina, Trichuris vulpis, Uncinaria stenocephala, Taenia spp. and Dipylidium caninum, which were isolated on Day 0. The main efficacy criterion was the egg per gram (epg) percent reduction of the nematodes and the absence of proglottids and or eggs for the cestodes. After treatment, dogs were examined on Day 7, Day 14 and Day 21. The efficacy of the combination against Toxocara canis was 99.1%, 98.8% and 98.9% on Day 7, Day 14 and Day 21, respectively. At the same occasions the efficacy was, respectively, 99.2%, 99.2% and 99.3% against Ancylostoma caninum, 97.3%, 97.2% and 98.4% against Trichuris vulpis, 98.4%, 98.8% and 98.8% against Uncinaria stenocephala, 98.9%, 99.5% and 99.9% against Toxascaris leonina, 97.1%, 100% and 100% against Dipylidium caninum and 100% against Taenia spp.

  10. World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (W.A.A.V.P.) guidelines for evaluating the efficacy of parasiticides for the treatment, prevention and control of flea and tick infestation on dogs and cats.

    PubMed

    Marchiondo, A A; Holdsworth, P A; Green, P; Blagburn, B L; Jacobs, D E

    2007-04-30

    These guidelines are intended to assist the planning and conduct of laboratory and clinical studies to assess the efficacy of ectoparasiticides applied to dogs or cats for the purpose of treating, preventing and controlling flea and tick infestations. The term ectoparasiticide includes insecticidal and acaricidal compounds, as well as insect growth regulators. The range of biological activities accruing from animal treatment that are considered include: repellency and anti-feeding effects, knockdown, speed of kill, immediate and persistent lethal effects, and interference with egg fertility and subsequent development of off-host life cycle stages. Information is provided on the selection of animals, dose determination, dose confirmation and field studies, record keeping, interpretation of results and animal welfare. These guidelines are also intended to assist registration authorities involved in the approval and registration of new parasiticides, and to facilitate the worldwide adoption of harmonized procedures.

  11. Eosinophilic Meningitis Due to Infection With Paragonimus kellicotti.

    PubMed

    Bahr, Nathan C; Trotman, Robin L; Samman, Hala; Jung, Richard S; Rosterman, Lee R; Weil, Gary J; Hinthorn, Daniel R

    2017-05-01

    Paragonimus kellicotti is an emerging pathogen in the United States with 19 previously reported cases, most in Missouri. Pulmonary symptoms with eosinophilia are most common, though 1 case did involve the central nervous system with few symptoms. We describe the first 2 cases of eosinophilic meningitis due to Paragonimus kellicotti. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. [Paragonimus skrjabini infection in animal reservoir hosts and questionnairing in residents at a village of Hubei Province].

    PubMed

    Xu, Zheng-Min; Li, Ling; Wu, Xiao-Ying; Zhao, Han-Fen; Du, Ai-Ping; Hu, Sheng-Mei; Tao, Yong-Ping; Sun, Li; Tang, Yu-Cheng; Li, Ming-Hua; Zhang, Zhi-Yong; Li, Zhi-Shan

    2008-02-28

    Freshwater crabs (Sinopotamon denticulatum) were examined for metacercariae. Cats and dogs were also examined for Paragonimus infection. Questionnairing was carried out on health knowledge and behaviors among local residents in a village of Baokang County, Hubei Province. Results showed that the infection rate of Paragonimus skrjabini metacercariae in Sinopotamon denticulatum was 20.5% (46/214), with 15.6% (20/128) in a mining area and 30.2% (26/86) for the non-mining area respectively (chi2 = 6.5, P < 0.05). The prevalence in cats and dogs was 25.0% (6/24) and 17.6% (6/34) respectively (chi2 = 0.46, P > 0.05). Questionnairing showed that dogs and cats were with the habit of foraging and defecating at streams and children had the habits of eating raw or under-cooked crabs. The natural and ecological environments are in favor of the life cycle of P. skrjabini.

  13. Bedbug infestation.

    PubMed

    Studdiford, James S; Conniff, Kathryn M; Trayes, Kathryn P; Tully, Amber S

    2012-10-01

    The significant resurgence of bedbugs in the past decade has been attributed to pesticide resistance, more frequent travel, lack of public awareness, and inadequate pest control programs. Bedbugs are obligate blood parasites (insect family Cimicidae). They can withstand a large range of temperatures but are attracted to warmth and carbon dioxide. They typically feed just before dawn. Cutaneous reactions to bedbug bites can include macules, papules, wheals, vesicles, bullae, and nodules. Bites may be confused with other skin conditions. Bedbug bite reactions are typically self-limited and resolve within one to two weeks without treatment. Bedbug infestation may cause significant psychological distress. The diagnosis of a bedbug infestation is based on history, appearance of bites, and inspection of sleeping quarters. Although there is no evidence that bedbugs transmit disease, systemic reactions may include asthma, angioedema, generalized urticaria, iron deficiency anemia, and, rarely, anaphylaxis. An integrated pest management strategy should be employed to eliminate infestation. Tactics include vacuuming, heat or cold treatment, trapping devices, and pesticides.

  14. Delusional infestation.

    PubMed

    Freudenmann, Roland W; Lepping, Peter

    2009-10-01

    This papers aims at familiarizing psychiatric and nonpsychiatric readers with delusional infestation (DI), also known as delusional parasitosis. It is characterized by the fixed belief of being infested with pathogens against all medical evidence. DI is no single disorder but can occur as a delusional disorder of the somatic type (primary DI) or secondary to numerous other conditions. A set of minimal diagnostic criteria and a classification are provided. Patients with DI pose a truly interdisciplinary problem to the medical system. They avoid psychiatrists and consult dermatologists, microbiologists, or general practitioners but often lose faith in professional medicine. Epidemiology and history suggest that the imaginary pathogens change constantly, while the delusional theme "infestation" is stable and ubiquitous. Patients with self-diagnosed "Morgellons disease" can be seen as a variation of this delusional theme. For clinicians, clinical pathways for efficient diagnostics and etiology-specific treatment are provided. Specialized outpatient clinics in dermatology with a liaison psychiatrist are theoretically best placed to provide care. The most intricate problem is to engage patients in psychiatric therapy. In primary DI, antipsychotics are the treatment of choice, according to limited but sufficient evidence. Pimozide is no longer the treatment of choice for reasons of drug safety. Future research should focus on pathophysiology and the neural basis of DI, as well as on conclusive clinical trials, which are widely lacking. Innovative approaches will be needed, since otherwise patients are unlikely to adhere to any study protocol.

  15. Dermatologic infestations.

    PubMed

    Shmidt, Eugenia; Levitt, Jacob

    2012-02-01

    Head lice are transmitted by head to head contact. Optimal therapy includes malathion lotion 0.5% repeated in one week left on for 30 minutes to 8 hours. Spinosad topical suspension 0.9% repeated in one week left on for 10 minutes is another option. Scabies is transmitted mainly by direct contact but also via heavily infested fomites due to crusted scabies. Permethrin 5% cream to the body repeated in four days is often sufficient; however, scalp treatment with malathion lotion 0.5% is helpful in crusted scabies and in infested children. Oral ivermectin 200 mcg/kg is another option, repeated in four days. For scabies more than lice, fomites should be placed in a drier at 60 °C for 10 minutes to kill the arthropods. Treatment of close contacts in both cases will control outbreaks and repeated infestations. Both have been associated with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection. Bed bugs are a common cause for papular urticaria. Identification of the insect in the mattress or bedding confirms the diagnosis. Prevention involves encasing the mattress in a sealed plastic cover and extermination. Delusions of parasitosis is a diagnosis of exclusion that is best treated with an antipsychotic.

  16. Paragonimus worm from a New Guinea native in 1926.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenlin; Blair, David; Min, Tian; Li, Fang; Wang, Dianhua

    2011-01-01

    To reobserve and research the specimen of Paragonimus worm found in the left lung of a New Guinea native in 1926, which was previously identified as Paragonimus westermani Kerbert or Paragonimus ringeri Cobbold. Using reconstructive software and microscopy to observe some organs of the worm, and compared with other species of paragonimus. The three dimensional (3D) views of ovary and two testes of New Guinea specimen showed that the ovary was clearly divided into six lobes. These two testes were situated oppositely in the body. One teste was divided into four branches, while another was divided into five. The cuticular spines were arranged in groups over the entire skin covered in a slide, each group was consisted of two to four single spine. Based on 3D views and measurements, we reclassified it as Paragonimus siamensis. This was also the first report of human case infected by Paragonimus siamensis. Copyright © 2011 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Taxonomic and Ecological Studies on the Lung Fluke, ’Paragonimus’ in Central and South America.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    In Tingo Maria, Peru, 25 crabs, Pseudothelphusa chilensis were examined for Paragonimus metacercariae with negative results. Five lung flukes were...minimus. These flukes belonged to the same species characterized by their extremely elongated body, and were named Paragonimus amazonicus sp. n. by...harbored 44 Paragonimus metacercariae in all. These larvae were divided into two species, five of them being identified as Paragonimus peruvianus and

  18. [Investigation on the hosts with natural Paragonimus infection and species identification in Jinhua Prefecture of Zhejiang Province].

    PubMed

    Lou, Hong-Qiang; Hu, Ye; Jin, Yao-Jian; Yu, Xin-Tu; Wang, Lan; He, Xu-Ying; Tu, Ping-Guang

    2011-10-01

    To investigate the natural hosts infected with Paragonimus sp. and identify the species of the parasite in selected counties/districts of Jinhua prefecture in Zhejiang Province. Three townships/towns were randomly sampled from each of the 9 counties/districts in Jinhua as pilot spots for the survey. Fresh-water snails were collected from the fields for examining cercariae. Crabs were collected and detected for metacercariae by routine technique and the metacercariae were fed to dogs purchased in areas free from paragonimiasis. Fecal materials of dogs and cats around the villages and streams where crabs were found infected were collected for examining eggs. The artificially infected dogs were sacrificed 55 d after infection to receive adult worms. The size of cercariae, metacercariae, eggs and adult worms was measured. After the DNA of the adult worm was extracted, PCR was used to amplify the COI gene and ITS2 gene of the mitochondria from the worms. Homology with relative strains/isolates was analyzed and phylogenetic tree constructed. The survey demonstrated that the snail Semisulcospira libertina and the crab Sinopotamon chekiangense served as the first and second intermediate hosts respectively. Natural infection was found in Wucheng District with an infection rate of 0.2% (2/1,088) in snails and 76.7% (46/60) in crabs in Shafan township, and an infection index (II) of 2.0 in crabs, 0.1% (1/1,683) in snails and 53.0% (46/60) in crabs with an II of 0.9 in Langya town. The infection rate was 0 (0/575) in snails and 30.0% (18/60) in crabs with an II of 0.1 in Baimu township of Wuyi County. Paragonimus eggs were detected in feces of stray cats with a positive rate of 8.3% (1/12) in Shafan and 0.6% (1/17) in Langya. The size and morphology of the cercariae, metacercariae, eggs and adult worms were similar to those of Paragonimus westermani. The sequences of the COI and ITS2 genes were with 390 bp and 363 bp respectively, indicating a homology of 88.2%-98.2% and 86

  19. Paragonimus kellicotti flukes in Missouri, USA.

    PubMed

    Lane, Michael A; Marcos, Luis A; Onen, Nur F; Demertzis, Lee M; Hayes, Ericka V; Davila, Samuel Z; Nurutdinova, Diana R; Bailey, Thomas C; Weil, Gary J

    2012-08-01

    Paragonimiasis is an infection caused by lung flukes of the genus Paragonimus. In Asia, P. westermani infections are relatively common because of dietary practices. However, in North America, cases of paragonimiasis, which are caused by P. kellicotti flukes, are rare. Only 7 autochthonous cases of paragonimiasis were reported during 1968-2008. In 2009, we reported 3 new case-patients with paragonimiasis who had been seen at our medical center over an 18-month period. Six additional case-patients were identified in St. Louis, Missouri, USA, and treated at Washington University-affiliated health centers in 2009-2010. We report detailed descriptions of these case-patients, which includes unusual clinical manifestations. We also describe public health interventions that were undertaken to inform the general public and physicians about the disease and its mode of transmission.

  20. Delusional Infestation

    PubMed Central

    Freudenmann, Roland W.; Lepping, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Summary: This papers aims at familiarizing psychiatric and nonpsychiatric readers with delusional infestation (DI), also known as delusional parasitosis. It is characterized by the fixed belief of being infested with pathogens against all medical evidence. DI is no single disorder but can occur as a delusional disorder of the somatic type (primary DI) or secondary to numerous other conditions. A set of minimal diagnostic criteria and a classification are provided. Patients with DI pose a truly interdisciplinary problem to the medical system. They avoid psychiatrists and consult dermatologists, microbiologists, or general practitioners but often lose faith in professional medicine. Epidemiology and history suggest that the imaginary pathogens change constantly, while the delusional theme “infestation” is stable and ubiquitous. Patients with self-diagnosed “Morgellons disease” can be seen as a variation of this delusional theme. For clinicians, clinical pathways for efficient diagnostics and etiology-specific treatment are provided. Specialized outpatient clinics in dermatology with a liaison psychiatrist are theoretically best placed to provide care. The most intricate problem is to engage patients in psychiatric therapy. In primary DI, antipsychotics are the treatment of choice, according to limited but sufficient evidence. Pimozide is no longer the treatment of choice for reasons of drug safety. Future research should focus on pathophysiology and the neural basis of DI, as well as on conclusive clinical trials, which are widely lacking. Innovative approaches will be needed, since otherwise patients are unlikely to adhere to any study protocol. PMID:19822895

  1. Occurrence of the lung fluke, Paragonimus heterotremus in Manipur, India.

    PubMed

    Singh, T Shantikumar

    2003-03-01

    To determine the natural crustacean host, the Paragonimus species, and to investigate the potential host-parasite relationship between Manipur Paragonimus and some of the laboratory animals. The laboratory animals such as puppies, albino rats and Swiss mice were infected orally with metacercariae isolated from the fresh water crabs, Potamiscus manipurensis. The fecal specimens of the experimentally infected animals were examined microscopically for Paragonimus eggs at regular intervals. The animals were autopsied on days 35 to approximately 328 after infection and the isolated worms were flattened between glass slides and fixed in 70% alcohol. The worms were stained with carmine and mounted with Canada balsam for morphological studies. The eggs were collected in 5% formol saline solution for microscopy. The flukes were classified into 4 developmental stages. A total of 11 worms, 5 mature, 5 immature and 1 pre-adult were recovered. The morphological features of the metacercariae, worms and eggs were similar to those of Paragonimus heterotremus. Manipur is one of the rare areas in the world where Paragonimus heterotremus is prevalent and the puppies are ideal experimental animal host. This species may be one of the important causes of paragonimiasis in animals and humans in Manipur.

  2. [Scanning electron microscopy of Paragonimus proliferus].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ben-jiang

    2005-10-30

    To identify the species of Paragonimus proliferus with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) based on the surface structure of excysted metacercariae, adult worms and eggs. Crabs were collected from the endemic area of P. proliferus and excysted metacercariae were separated. Adult worms at different ages and eggs were obtained from the experimentally infected rats. After being fixed by 2.5% glutardialdehyde and 1% osmic acid, alcohol dehydration, gilded by ion spatter, the specimens were observed under SEM by STEREOSCAN-100. The cuticular spines of excysted metacercariae distributed in single pattern, bayonet-shaped or scale-shaped. There were 6 dome-shape papillae around the rim of the ventral sucker symmetrically arranged. The cuticular spines of different age adult worms distributed in group pattern, relatively denser and more regularly arranged in the anterior part than the posterior part of the worm body. The shape and arrangement of the cuticular spines on adult worms at different ages were basically uniform. The surface of eggshell including the operculum was generally smooth. The shell rim joining the operculum was thick and prominent. A knot-like prominence was observed at the aboperculum end. The cuticular spines of both excysted metacercariae and adult worms of P. proliferus show its own characteristics, but the size and shape of the cuticular spines among individuals or different parts of the same specimen show certain differences.

  3. Venison, another source of Paragonimus westermani infection.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Ayako; Matsuo, Kayoko; Moribe, Junji; Tanaka, Ryusei; Kikuchi, Taisei; Nagayasu, Eiji; Misawa, Naoaki; Maruyama, Haruhiko

    2016-12-01

    Paragonimiasis is a typical food-borne parasitic disease, endemic in most parts of Asia, with sporadic case reports from American and African countries. The major source of infection is undercooked freshwater crab or crayfish, though consumption of wild boar meat is also responsible for the infection in Japan, because wild boar is a paratenic host for Paragonimus westermani. Recently, living juveniles of P. westermani were isolated from muscle of a sika deer, Cervus nippon, in Japan, raising the possibility that venison has been another source of infection. In order to clarify the potential contribution of venison consumption to the occurrence of paragonimiasis, we analysed dietary histories of those paragonimiasis patients in whose diagnoses we were involved between 2001 and 2015. Among 380 patients, freshwater crab had been consumed by 208 patients, wild boar meat by 190, and wild deer meat by 76 patients before the onset of the disease. Overall contribution of wild deer meat was estimated to be 6.8% to 20.0%, although in Oita and Gifu Prefectures, where a substantial proportion of patients had consumed raw venison, the contribution of venison consumption was much higher (27.5 to 62.1% and 42.1 to 78.9% in Oita and Gifu Prefectures, respectively). We demonstrated P. westermani-specific antibodies in the sera of 4 out of 160 sika deer from Gifu Prefecture, strongly suggesting that these deer were infected with P. westermani. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Paragonimus heterotremus Chen and Hsia (1964), in Vietnam: a molecular identification and relationships of isolates from different hosts and geographical origins.

    PubMed

    Le, Thanh H; Van De, Nguyen; Blair, David; McManus, Donald P; Kino, Hideto; Agatsuma, Takeshi

    2006-04-01

    Paragonimus heterotremus Chen and Hsia (1964), and paragonimiasis caused by this species is a newly detected disease in Vietnam. Twelve samples of Paragonimus (Platyhelminthes: Trematoda: Digenea: Paragonimidae) from different life-stages (eggs, miracidia, metacercariae, adults from natural and experimental hosts) and host species (crab, dog, cat and human) were collected in different geographical locations in Vietnam. DNA sequences were obtained from each for partial mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) (387 bp) and the entire second ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS-2) (361 bp). The ITS-2 sequences were identical among all specimens, including those previously reported in GenBank. For cox1, there were sequence differences between specimens from Vietnam (four provinces, different locations) and those from Guangxi (China) and Saraburi (Thailand). Phylogenetic trees inferred from cox1 and ITS-2 sequences using sequence data for 15 P. heterotremus and for other Paragonimus spp. revealed that all P. heterotremus originating from Vietnam, Thailand and China form a distinct group. This information also confirms the identity of the Vietnamese specimens as P. heterotremus.

  5. [Preliminary investigation on Paragonimus in Lvchun county of Yunnan province].

    PubMed

    Yang, Bin-Bin; Zhou, Ben-Jiang; Li, Ru-Qing; Bai, Zhong-Wen; Wu, Ou-Bao; Gao, Xiu-Fang

    2007-12-01

    69 crabs were collected from Daxing, Gekui and Niukong townships of Lvchun county, Yunnan Province in 2006 and excysted metacercariae were only obtained from crabs of Niukong. The infection rate was 27.6% (8/29) with an average metacercaria number of 2.25 each crab. No encysted metacercariae were found. The excysted metacercariae were morphologically identified as Paragonimus proliferus.

  6. Paragonimus kellicotti: A Lung Infection in Our Own Backyard.

    PubMed

    Johannesen, Eric; Nguyen, Van

    2016-01-01

    Paragonimiasis is an infection caused by the lung fluke of the genus Paragonimus. Within the United States, paragonimiasis has been commonly diagnosed in Southeast Asian immigrants infected with the Asian lung fluke Paragonimus westermani. Infections from the North American lung fluke, Paragonimus kellicotti, have been rare, although more infections have been seen in people in the Midwestern United States. A 29-year-old male with a history of pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma presented with hemoptysis. A CT scan showed a mass in the left upper lung lobe. A biopsy showed eosinophils and parasite eggs, some with a recognizable operculum. Further investigation revealed that he takes canoe trips on rivers within Missouri and would eat crayfish caught from these rivers. A blood sample was confirmed positive for Paragonimiasis serologically at the Center for Disease Control. Paragonimus kellicotti is found in rivers within the Mississippi basin. Infection occurs by consuming uncooked or undercooked crawfish. Microscopic identification of parasite eggs has been the gold standard. Serologic tests have been developed to aid in the diagnosis. Patients typically present with fever and hemoptysis. Common CT findings include pleural effusion, a mass, and lymphadenopathy. Awareness of P. kellicotti is important to guide appropriate diagnostic testing and ensuring proper treatment.

  7. Otitis media and a neck lump--current diagnostic challenges for Paragonimus-like trematode infections.

    PubMed

    Schuster, H; Agada, F O; Anderson, A R; Jackson, R S; Blair, D; McGann, H; Kelly, G

    2007-02-01

    A 29 year-old Nigerian studying in the UK presented with a neck lump and otitis media. Paragonimus-like trematode eggs were found in the neck lump aspirate. Morphologically these eggs resembled Paragonimus uterobilateralis or Achillurbainia congolensis. We favoured the diagnosis of achillurbainiasis over extrapulmonary paragonimiasis on the basis of clinical features and because we could not amplify DNA sequences using PCR primers specific for Paragonimus species. We discuss current diagnostic challenges for this rare parasitic infection.

  8. [Paragonimus westermani infection confirmed by the detection of Paragonimus ova in the sputum with bilateral pleural effusion].

    PubMed

    Tanijiri, Tsutomu; Yonezu, Seibun; Torii, Yoshitaro; Sugimoto, Hiroyuki; Yokoi, Takashi; Fukuhara, Shirou

    2009-12-01

    A 28-year-old man had a 1-year history of hemoptysis. Consequently, he underwent a medical examination. A right pleural effusion, left hydropneumothorax, and multiple pulmonary nodular shadows were found on chest radiography. During a detailed interview, he reported that the hemoptysis began after eating "kejang" (a raw crab preparation) with a friend a year previously. His peripheral blood eosinophil count and serum IgE level were elevated. In addition, ova were detected in the sputum and bilateral pleural effusion. Morphological examination of the ova and immunoserological examination led to the diagnosis of Paragonimus westermani infection. The pleural effusion could be partially drained, and his symptoms and radiographic results showed improvement after treatment with Praziquantel administered at a dose of 75 mg/(kg x day) for 3 days. After one month, he and his friend ate seasoned raw crabs, Paragonimus was diagnosed in his friend. This case suggests that on encountering a paragonimus infection, everyone who ate food prepared in the same kitchen should be contacted because of possible infection with paragonimus.

  9. Evaluation of the long-term efficacy and safety of an imidacloprid 10%/flumethrin 4.5% polymer matrix collar (Seresto®) in dogs and cats naturally infested with fleas and/or ticks in multicentre clinical field studies in Europe

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The objective of these two GCP multicentre European clinical field studies was to evaluate the long-term efficacy and safety of a new imidacloprid/flumethrin collar (Seresto®, Bayer AnimalHealth, Investigational Veterinary Product(IVP)) in dogs and cats naturally infested with fleas and/or ticks in comparison to a dimpylat collar ("Ungezieferband fuer Hunde/fuer Katzen", Beaphar, Control Product (CP)). Methods 232 (IVP) and 81 (CP) cats and 271(IVP) and 129 (CP) dogs were treated with either product according to label claims and formed the safety population. Flea and tick counts were conducted in monthly intervals for up to 8 months in the efficacy subpopulation consisting of 118 (IVP) + 47 (CP) cats and 197 (IVP) + 94 (CP) dogs. Efficacy was calculated as reduction of infestation rate within the same treatment group and statistically compared between the two treatment groups. Results Preventive efficacy against fleas in cats/dogs varied in the IVP group between 97.4%/94.1% and 100%/100% (overall mean: 98.3%/96.7%) throughout the 8 month period and in the CP group between 57.1%/28.2% and 96.1%/67.8% (overall mean: 79.3%/57.9%). Preventive efficacy against ticks in cats/dogs varied in the IVP group between 94.0%/91.2% and 100%/100% (overall mean: 98.4%/94.7%) throughout the 8 month period and in the CP group between 90.7%/79.9% and 100%/88.0% (overall mean: 96.9%/85.6%). The IVP group was statistically non-inferior to the CP group, and on various assessment days, statistical superiority was proven for flea and tick count reduction in dogs and cats. Both treatments proved to be safe in dogs and cats with mainly minor local observations at the application site. There was moreover, no incidence of any mechanical problem with the collar in dogs and cats during the entire study period. Conclusions The imidacloprid/flumethrin collar proved to reduce tick counts by at least 90% and flea counts by at least 95% for a period of at least 7-8 months in cats and dogs

  10. Indochinamon ou (Crustacea: Potamidae) as a new second intermediate host for Paragonimus harinasutai in Luang Prabang Province, Lao PDR.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Woon-Mok; Ryu, Jae-Sook; Min, Duk-Young; Song, Hyun-Ouk; Rim, Han-Jong; Vonghachack, Youthanavanh; Bouakhasith, Daluny; Banouvong, Virasack

    2009-03-01

    Paragonimus harinasutai metacercariae were found in a species of freshwater crab, Indochinamon ou, collected in a small stream of Namback District, Luang Prabang Province, Lao PDR. Adult flukes were recovered after experimental infection of the metacercariae to dogs. Metacercariae were round or slightly elliptical, 0.666 x 0.626 mm in average size, and had a thin cyst wall of about 20 microm in thickness, a black excretory bladder, convoluted ceca, and some pinkish materials in the body. Adults were somewhat elongated, 95.2 x 36.5 mm in average size, covered with single-tipped tegumental spines, had a smaller oral sucker than the ventral sucker, a moderately branched ovary, and 5-6 lobulated testes. Eggs were ovoid and bilaterally symmetrical in shape, 79 x 45 microm in average size, and had a uniformly thickened shell. By the present study, it has been confirmed that I. ou is a new second intermediate host for P. harinasutai.

  11. STUDIES ON THE LIFE-CYCLE OF PARAGONIMUS AND THE CONTROL OF PARAGONIMIASIS IN SHIKOKU AREA.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The life cycle, classification, pathology and control of the lung fluke, Paragonimus westermani, has been studied. Research is presented on the...paragonimiasis by partial research in the study area. It was clarified that this area is one of the highest infected areas with Paragonimus westermani in Japan.

  12. AN EPIDEMIOLOGIC SURVEY OF PARAGONIMUS WESTERMANI (KERBERT, 1878) AND RELATED SPECIES IN TAIPEI COUNTY, TAIWAN.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The distribution of the flukes of the genus Paragonimus in Taipei county, Taiwan, was made by random collection and examination of the crab hosts. A...total of 18,538 fresh- and brackish-water crabs including 16 species collected from 121 villages was examined. Two species of Paragonimus

  13. Identification and characterization of Paragonimus westermani leucine aminopeptidase.

    PubMed

    Song, Su-Min; Park, Joon-Hyung; Kim, Jin; Kim, Suk-Il; Hong, Yeon-Chul; Kong, Hyun-Hee; Chung, Dong-Il

    2008-09-01

    Paragonimus westermani is a tissue-invading trematode parasite that causes inflammatory lung disease as well as systemic infections including cerebral invasion in carnivorous mammals. While aminopeptidases play important roles in trematodes in the catabolism of host hemoglobin, an essential source of nutrient for the parasite, little is known about aminopeptidase in Paragonimus. Presently, we isolated a cDNA encoding a 58 kDa P. westermani leucine aminopeptidase (PwLAP). Deduced amino acid sequence of PwLAP exhibited significant sequence homology with LAP from Schistosoma spp. and Fasciola hepatica. Biochemical analysis of the recombinant PwLAP protein demonstrated preferential substrate specificity for Leu-NHMec and inhibition by EDTA, 1,10-phenanthroline, and bestatin, which are conserved characteristics of the M17 family of leucine aminopeptidase. PwLAP exhibited relatively higher enzyme activity in the presence of Mn2+ compared to Schistosoma mansoni LAP. Based on the biochemical properties and immunohistochemical analysis, PwLAP is concluded to represent a leucine aminopeptidase. The enzyme is most likely responsible for the catabolism of host hemoglobin, and, hence, represents a potential target of Paragonimus chemotherapy.

  14. Gene diversity and genetic variation in lung flukes (genus Paragonimus).

    PubMed

    Blair, David; Nawa, Yukifumi; Mitreva, Makedonka; Doanh, Pham Ngoc

    2016-01-01

    Paragonimiasis caused by lung flukes (genus Paragonimus) is a neglected disease occurring in Asia, Africa and the Americas. The genus is species-rich, ancient and widespread. Genetic diversity is likely to be considerable, but investigation of this remains confined to a few populations of a few species. In recent years, studies of genetic diversity have moved from isoenzyme analysis to molecular phylogenetic analysis based on selected DNA sequences. The former offered better resolution of questions relating to allelic diversity and gene flow, whereas the latter is more suitable for questions relating to molecular taxonomy and phylogeny. A picture is emerging of a highly diverse taxon of parasites, with the greatest diversity found in eastern and southern Asia where ongoing speciation might be indicated by the presence of several species complexes. Diversity of lung flukes in Africa and the Americas is very poorly sampled. Functional molecules that might be of value for immunodiagnosis, or as targets for medical intervention, are of great interest. Characterisation of these from Paragonimus species has been ongoing for a number of years. However, the imminent release of genomic and transcriptomic data for several species of Paragonimus will dramatically increase the rate of discovery of such molecules, and illuminate their diversity within and between species. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. First record of chewing louse Heterodoxus spiniger (Insecta, Phthiraptera, Boopidae) on stray dogs from northern region of Egypt.

    PubMed

    Sultan, K; Khalafalla, R E

    2014-06-01

    Heterodoxus spiniger is a rare chewing louse; infest dogs and occasionally cats with expanding geographical distribution. This preliminary report is aimed to record infestation of stray dogs in Kafr El-Sheikh city, Egypt by H. spiniger. Two dogs out of 10 were naturally infected with H. spiniger. This report is the first to demonstrate H. spiniger infestation on dogs in northern regions of Nile-delta of Egypt.

  16. [Distribution of Paragonimus (Digenea: Troglotrematidae) in Antioquia Province, Colombia, based on metacercariae counts in freshwater crabs].

    PubMed

    Uruburu, Mónica; Granada, Mabel; Velásquez, Luz Elena

    2008-12-01

    Paragonimosis or lung fluke disease courses with signs similar to those seen in tuberculosis. The causative agent is a parasite of the genus Paragonimus (Digenea: Troglotrematidae). People become infected by ingesting raw or partially cooked crabs containing metacercariae. The first focus of human paragonimosis in Colombia was recorded in the county of Urrao, where two species of crabs infected with Paragonimus were found. In 2005, crabs with Paragonimus' metacercariae were captured near Medellín, western Colombia. This prompted a search for the parasite in other locations through its presence in the crabs. To establish the distribution of Paragonimus in Antioquia, we evaluated the presence of metacercaria in freshwater brachyuran crabs. From 2005 to 2007, crabs were captured in 13 counties of Antioquia. The crabs were relaxed and dissected to determine presence of trematodes and then to make the taxonomic identifications. From 52 crabs captured in 9 counties, 42 (80.8%) were found with Paragonimus metacercariae. The crabs were identified as Pseudothelphusidae in 2 genera--Hypolobocera and Strengeriana--and were assigned to four species. Three of the species were recorded for the first time as hosts of Paragonimus. A Paragonimus' distribution map was constructed for Antioquia; for the first time urban zones were included. Because of the high rate of infection, the handling and consumption of raw and poorly cooked crabs pose risk factors for human infection. Because crabs are affordable and provide means of easy diagnosis, crabs are targeted as primary agents of and diagnostic tools for paragonmosis.

  17. First case of Paragonimus westermani infection in a female patient in India.

    PubMed

    Singh, T S; Hiromu, S; Devi, K R; Singh, W A

    2015-02-01

    Paragonimiasis is a foodborne parasitic zoonosis caused by lung fluke species of the genus Paragonimus. The Paragonimus westermani is the most common human pathogen in Asian countries. In northeast India, Paragonimus heterotremus has been documented as the only human pathogen in the earlier literature. In India, P. westermani infection in humans remained undetermined. Herein, we report a case of pulmonary paragonimiasis due to P. westermani in an adult female in Manipur. The diagnosis was made by morphological and molecular characterisation of the eggs in the sputum. This is the first confirmed case of paragonimiasis due to P. westermani in India.

  18. Taxonomic and Ecological Studies on the Lung Fluke, ’Paragonimus’ in Central and South America.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Ptychophallus montanus cocleensis and Ptychophallus exilepes. The latter two species were new hosts of Paragonimus . Fifty-two or 18% of 293 crabs were...infected with 105 Paragonimus metacercariae, which were separated into 13 A-forms, 91 B-forms and one C-form. The A-form was identified as... Paragonimus peruvianus Miyazaki et al., 1969, and the B-form as P. caliensis Little, 1968, but the C-form was unknown. P. exilipes harbored mainly B-form, and

  19. Paragonimus westermani infection in lung: A confounding diagnostic entity

    PubMed Central

    Kalhan, Shivani; Sharma, Pankaj; Sharma, Sonia; Kakria, Neha; Dudani, Sharmila; Gupta, Anshu

    2015-01-01

    Paragonimiasis is a food-borne parasitic zoonosis caused by the genus Paragonimus. Fresh water snails, crabs, and crayfish are the first and second intermediate hosts, respectively. Humans acquire this infection by ingesting uncooked/undercooked crustaceans. Laboratory diagnosis of Paragonimiasis is done by demonstration of ova in the sputum/feces/pleural fluid or by serology. A case of pulmonary Paragonimiasis is presented herewith; the patient having been diagnosed with pulmonary tuberculosis earlier. The aim of this presentation is to highlight this entity so that it is considered in the differential diagnosis in a case of hemoptysis. PMID:25983414

  20. Molecular identification of a case of Paragonimus pseudoheterotremus infection in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Intapan, Pewpan M; Sanpool, Oranuch; Thanchomnang, Tongjit; Imtawil, Kanokwan; Pongchaiyakul, Chatlert; Nawa, Yukifumi; Maleewong, Wanchai

    2012-10-01

    Paragonimiasis is an important food-borne parasitic zoonosis caused by infection with lung flukes of the genus Paragonimus. In Southeast Asia, Paragonimus heterotremus is the only proven causative pathogen. Recently, a new Paragonimus species, P. pseudoheterotremus, was found in Thailand. This species is genetically similar to P. heterotremus and is considered as a sister species. However, infectivity or pathogenicity of P. pseudoheterotremus to humans remains unclear. We report the first confirmed human pulmonary paragonimiasis case caused by P. pseudoheterotremus infection. After polymerase chain reaction/sequencing of the DNA extracted from Paragonimus eggs in the sputum of the patient, partial internal transcribed spacer 2 and cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 sequences were approximately identical (98-100%) with those of P. pseudoheterotremus. For P. heterotremus, the partial internal transcribed spacer 2 sequence was approximately identical (99-100%), but the partial mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 sequence showed a similarity of 90-95%.

  1. Molecular Identification of a Case of Paragonimus pseudoheterotremus Infection in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Intapan, Pewpan M.; Sanpool, Oranuch; Thanchomnang, Tongjit; Imtawil, Kanokwan; Pongchaiyakul, Chatlert; Nawa, Yukifumi; Maleewong, Wanchai

    2012-01-01

    Paragonimiasis is an important food-borne parasitic zoonosis caused by infection with lung flukes of the genus Paragonimus. In Southeast Asia, Paragonimus heterotremus is the only proven causative pathogen. Recently, a new Paragonimus species, P. pseudoheterotremus, was found in Thailand. This species is genetically similar to P. heterotremus and is considered as a sister species. However, infectivity or pathogenicity of P. pseudoheterotremus to humans remains unclear. We report the first confirmed human pulmonary paragonimiasis case caused by P. pseudoheterotremus infection. After polymerase chain reaction/sequencing of the DNA extracted from Paragonimus eggs in the sputum of the patient, partial internal transcribed spacer 2 and cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 sequences were approximately identical (98–100%) with those of P. pseudoheterotremus. For P. heterotremus, the partial internal transcribed spacer 2 sequence was approximately identical (99–100%), but the partial mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 sequence showed a similarity of 90–95%. PMID:22826489

  2. Unusual botfly skin infestation.

    PubMed

    Ono, Jill C; Navin, James J; Glamb, Roman W; Hardman, John M

    2004-03-01

    Myiasis, the infestation of humans and animals with fly larvae, is observed in tropical, lowland areas. Dermatobia hominis is a common cause of cutaneous human infestation in these areas. Patients often present with a furuncular lesion on the extremities, back, or scalp. We report a case of furuncular myiasis in a patient returning from a trip to South America. We will discuss the life-cycle of D. hominis and the clinical findings important in the diagnosis of myiasis.

  3. Morphological and molecular characterization of Paragonimus westermani in northeastern India.

    PubMed

    Devi, K Rekha; Narain, Kanwar; Agatsuma, Takeshi; Blair, David; Nagataki, Mitsuru; Wickramasinghe, S; Yatawara, L; Mahanta, Jagadish

    2010-10-01

    Evidence for the presence of lung flukes of the Paragonimus westermani in India remains scant. In particular, evidence based on morphology of adult worms is lacking. Metacercariae of the genus Paragonimus, recovered from crabs in two regions of northeastern India, were raised to adulthood in laboratory rats. Morphologically, these worms appear to be P. westermani. DNA sequences from the second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) and a portion of the ribosomal large subunit gene (28S) of the nuclear ribosomal RNA gene repeat, as well as fragments of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (nad1) genes, all supported this identification. Molecular phylogenetic methods were used for studying the relatedness of these Indian flukes with counterparts from southeast and far-east Asia. Molecular data showed that Indian representatives of the P. westermani complex represent a distinct lineage. It is unclear whether the Indian form can cause disease in humans as some members of the complex do elsewhere. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Paragonimus westermani infection mimicking recurrent lung cancer: A case report.

    PubMed

    Itoh, Naoya; Tsukahara, Mika; Yamasaki, Hiroshi; Morishima, Yasuyuki; Sugiyama, Hiromu; Kurai, Hanako

    2016-12-01

    Herein, we report a case of Paragonimus westermani infection, which required differentiation from recurrent lung cancer. A 66-year old Japanese man with a history of lung cancer who had undergone a lobectomy was referred to our clinic for treatment of cough, sputum, dyspnea, and a right pulmonary nodule. He had previously eaten seafood he visited China. P. westermani infection was confirmed by the presence of antibody against P. westermani antigen in the patient's serum and eggs in his sputum. Eventually, molecular identification by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis and sequencing confirmed that the patient was infected with triploid forms of P. westermani. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Species of flea (siphonaptera) infesting pets and hedgehogs in Germany.

    PubMed

    Visser, M; Rehbein, S; Wiedemann, C

    2001-04-01

    The species of flea infesting pets and hedgehogs in Germany were investigated through a survey of small animal practitioners throughout the country who were asked to collect specimens at their veterinary practices. A total of 625 veterinarians/veterinary practices responded and provided 2445 intact anti identifiable flea specimens. These fleas originated from 294 dogs (795 fleas), 334 cats (1152 fleas), 76 hedgehogs (481 fleas), five domestic rabbits (10 fleas), one golden hamster (four fleas) and one ferret (three fleas). Dogs were found to be infested with Archaeopsylla erinacei, Chaetopsylla globiceps, Ctenocephalides canis, Ctenocephalides felis, Hystrichopsylla talpae, Nosopsyllus fasciatus, Paraceras melis and Pulex irritans. From cats, Archaeopsylla erinacei, Ceratophyllus gallinae, Ceratophyllus garei, Ctenocephalides felis, Ctenophthalmus assimilis, Hystrichopsylla talpae, Monopsyllus sciurorum, Nosopsyllus fasciatus, Spilopsyllus cuniculi and Typhloceras poppei were collected. In both dogs and cats the most prevalent species were Ctenocephalides felis (78.9% and 91.6%, respectively) and Archaeopsylla erinacei (21.1% and 12.6%, respectively) followed by Ctenocephalides canis in dogs (5.8%) and Hystrichopsylla talpae in cats (1.2%). The fleas isolated from rabbits were Ctenocephalides felis, Hystrichopsylla talpae and Spilopsyllus cuniculi. Nosopsyllus fasciatus and Ctenocephalides felis were recovered from the golden hamster and the ferret, respectively. The hedgehogs were found to be infested with Archaeopsylla erinacei, Ceratophyllus gallinae and Ctenocephalides felis.

  6. Paragonimus heterotremus infection in Nagaland: A new focus of Paragonimiasis in India.

    PubMed

    Singh, T S; Sugiyama, H; Umehara, A; Hiese, S; Khalo, K

    2009-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of paragonimiasis among the patients who were attending the tuberculosis (TB) clinics at the Community Health Centre, Pfutsero, Phek District, Nagaland. To determine the species of Paragonimus that cause infection in humans and the crustacean host that acts as the infectious source for humans. Sputum specimens were examined microscopically for Paragonimus eggs and acid fast bacilli. Blood samples were tested by microenzyme-linked immunosorbant assay for Paragonimus-specific immunoglobulin G antibodies. Crab extracts prepared by digestion with artificial gastric juice were examined for Paragonimus metacercariae under a stereoscopic microscope. The species identification of the parasite was based on morphological and molecular characterizations of eggs and metacercariae employing polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequencing. Seven out of the 14 patients tested seropositive for paragonimiasis and Paragonimus eggs were detected in sputum of two out of the seven seropositive patients, indicating a prevalence of 50% and an egg detection rate of 14%, respectively. The prevalence was highest in the 10-30 year age group. More males got the infection than females, the ratio being 5:2. P. heterotremus was identified as the causative agent of human paragonimiasis and Potamiscus manipurensis as the crab host. The study revealed that paragonimiasis has been endemic in Pfutsero, Nagaland, and half of the patients attending the TB clinic were actually suffering from pulmonary paragonimiasis. This is the first confirmed report of an endemic focus of paragonimasis and description of P. heterotremus as the causative agent in Nagaland, India.

  7. Lung fluke (Paragonimus africanus) infects Nigerian red-capped mangabeys and causes respiratory disease

    PubMed Central

    Friant, Sagan; Brown, Kelsey; Saari, Mason T.; Segel, Nicholas H.; Slezak, Julia; Goldberg, Tony L.

    2015-01-01

    Eggs of the lung fluke genus Paragonimus were detected in red-capped mangabeys (Cercocebus torquatus) in Nigeria. We assess the role of these primates as potential sylvatic hosts and the clinical effects of the parasite on monkeys. DNA sequenced from eggs in feces were 100% identical in the ITS2 region to Paragonimus africanus sequences from humans in Cameroon. Paragonimus-positive monkeys coughed more than uninfected monkeys. Experimental de-worming led to reduction in parasite intensity and a corresponding reduction of coughing to baseline levels in infected monkeys. This report provides the first evidence of Paragonimus sp. in C. torquatus, of P. africanus in Nigerian wildlife, and the first molecular evidence of the parasite in African wildlife. Coughing, sometimes interpreted as a communication behavior in primates, can actually indicate infection with lung parasites. Observations of coughing in primates may, in turn, provide a useful mechanism for surveillance of Paragonimus spp, which are re-emerging human pathogens, in wildlife reservoirs. PMID:26543803

  8. Lung fluke (Paragonimus africanus) infects Nigerian red-capped mangabeys and causes respiratory disease.

    PubMed

    Friant, Sagan; Brown, Kelsey; Saari, Mason T; Segel, Nicholas H; Slezak, Julia; Goldberg, Tony L

    2015-12-01

    Eggs of the lung fluke genus Paragonimus were detected in red-capped mangabeys (Cercocebus torquatus) in Nigeria. We assess the role of these primates as potential sylvatic hosts and the clinical effects of the parasite on monkeys. DNA sequenced from eggs in feces were 100% identical in the ITS2 region to Paragonimus africanus sequences from humans in Cameroon. Paragonimus-positive monkeys coughed more than uninfected monkeys. Experimental de-worming led to reduction in parasite intensity and a corresponding reduction of coughing to baseline levels in infected monkeys. This report provides the first evidence of Paragonimus sp. in C. torquatus, of P. africanus in Nigerian wildlife, and the first molecular evidence of the parasite in African wildlife. Coughing, sometimes interpreted as a communication behavior in primates, can actually indicate infection with lung parasites. Observations of coughing in primates may, in turn, provide a useful mechanism for surveillance of Paragonimus spp, which are re-emerging human pathogens, in wildlife reservoirs.

  9. Indochinamon ou (Crustacea: Potamidae) as a New Second Intermediate Host for Paragonimus harinasutai in Luang Prabang Province, Lao PDR

    PubMed Central

    Sohn, Woon-Mok; Ryu, Jae-Sook; Song, Hyun-Ouk; Rim, Han-Jong; Vonghachack, Youthanavanh; Bouakhasith, Daluny; Banouvong, Virasack

    2009-01-01

    Paragonimus harinasutai metacercariae were found in a species of freshwater crab, Indochinamon ou, collected in a small stream of Namback District, Luang Prabang Province, Lao PDR. Adult flukes were recovered after experimental infection of the metacercariae to dogs. Metacercariae were round or slightly elliptical, 0.666 × 0.626 mm in average size, and had a thin cyst wall of about 20 µm in thickness, a black excretory bladder, convoluted ceca, and some pinkish materials in the body. Adults were somewhat elongated, 95.2 × 36.5 mm in average size, covered with single-tipped tegumental spines, had a smaller oral sucker than the ventral sucker, a moderately branched ovary, and 5-6 lobulated testes. Eggs were ovoid and bilaterally symmetrical in shape, 79 × 45 µm in average size, and had a uniformly thickened shell. By the present study, it has been confirmed that I. ou is a new second intermediate host for P. harinasutai. PMID:19290088

  10. North American Paragonimiasis (Caused by Paragonimus kellicotti) in the Context of Global Paragonimiasis

    PubMed Central

    Procop, Gary W.

    2009-01-01

    Summary: Paragonimus species are highly evolved parasites with a complex life cycle that involves at least three different hosts, i.e., snails, crustaceans, and mammals. The adult forms of Paragonimus species reside and mate in the lungs of a variety of permissive mammalian hosts, including humans. Although human paragonimiasis is uncommonly encountered in North America, both autochthonous and imported disease may be encountered. Paragonimus kellicotti, the species endemic to North America, is a well-known pathogen in wild and domestic animals. Five patients with North American paragonimiasis have been reported in the recent medical literature. The biologic, clinical, radiologic, and laboratory features of paragonimiasis are reviewed, with emphasis on North American paragonimiasis whenever possible. PMID:19597007

  11. North American paragonimiasis (Caused by Paragonimus kellicotti) in the context of global paragonimiasis.

    PubMed

    Procop, Gary W

    2009-07-01

    Paragonimus species are highly evolved parasites with a complex life cycle that involves at least three different hosts, i.e., snails, crustaceans, and mammals. The adult forms of Paragonimus species reside and mate in the lungs of a variety of permissive mammalian hosts, including humans. Although human paragonimiasis is uncommonly encountered in North America, both autochthonous and imported disease may be encountered. Paragonimus kellicotti, the species endemic to North America, is a well-known pathogen in wild and domestic animals. Five patients with North American paragonimiasis have been reported in the recent medical literature. The biologic, clinical, radiologic, and laboratory features of paragonimiasis are reviewed, with emphasis on North American paragonimiasis whenever possible.

  12. Intermediate hosts of Paragonimus in the eastern Amazonic region of Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Amunárriz, M

    1991-09-01

    A study was done to determine the intermediate hosts of Paragonimus mexicanus (P. peruvianus, P. ecuadoriensis) in the northeastern amazonic region of Ecuador. The first intermediate host belongs to the molluscan family Hydrobiidae, similar to the findings reported in other parts of Latin America. One of 2350 specimens of the hydrobiid snail Aroapyrgus colombiensis examined was found to be naturally infected with rediae containing microcercous cercariae of Paragonimus, this being the first naturally infected first intermediate host reported in Ecuador. The crustacean family, Trichodactylidae, was found as the second intermediate host of paragonimiasis, this being the first time reported in Ecuador. The freshwater crab Zilchiopsis ecuadoriensis was found to be heavily parasitized by Paragonimus metacercariae.

  13. Gastrointestinal parasite infestation.

    PubMed

    Abd El Bagi, Mohamed E; Sammak, Bassam M; Mohamed, Abdulrahman E; Al Karawi, Mohamed A; Al Shahed, Mona; Al Thagafi, Mohamed A

    2004-03-01

    Twenty-five percent of the world's population could be suffering parasitic infestation. Highest prevalence is in underdeveloped agricultural and rural areas in the tropical and subtropical regions. In some areas incidence may reach 90% of the population. In contrast, some major economic projects intended to promote local development have, paradoxically, caused parasitic proliferation, e.g. bilharziasis in Egypt and Sudan and Chagas disease in Brazil. The commonest cosmopolitan gastrointestinal parasite is Entamoeba histolytica. Some intestinal parasite are endemic in temperate climates, e.g. Entrobius vermicularis. The AIDS epidemic has increased the prevalence and severity of parasitic disease, particularly Strongyloides stercolaris. Tropical parasites are seen in Western people who travel to tropical countries. Radiology has acquired a major role in diagnosis and management of gastrointestinal parasite infestations and their complications.

  14. Prevalence and intensity of Paragonimus uterobilateralis infection among school children in Oban village, South Eastern, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ochigbo, S O; Ekanem, E E; Udo, J J

    2007-10-01

    A survey of Paragonimus infection among primary school children aged 6-10 years in Oban village, Akamkpa Local Government Area of Cross River State, Nigeria, was conducted. A total of 198 children were examined:112 (56.6%) were boys while 86 (43.4%) were girls. Eleven of the subjects were sputum positive for paragonimus eggs, giving an overall prevalence rate of 5.5%. The findings show that paragonimiasis is a significant health problem in South Eastern Nigeria; the risk of infection could be minimized by the proper cooking of fresh water crabs and crayfish before consumption.

  15. Molecular and biochemical characterization of Paragonimus westermani tyrosinase.

    PubMed

    Bae, Y-A; Kim, S-H; Ahn, C-S; Kim, J-G; Kong, Y

    2015-05-01

    Trematode tyrosinases (TYRs) play a major role in the tanning process during eggshell formation. We investigated the molecular and biochemical features of Paragonimus westermani TYR (PwTYR). The PwTYR cDNA was composed of 1568-bp encompassing a 1422-bp-long open reading frame (474-amino acid polypeptide). A strong phylogenetic relationship with Platyhelminthes and Deuterostomian orthologues was evident. The recombinant PwTYR expressed in prokaryotic cells promptly oxidized diphenol substrates, with a preferential affinity toward ortho-positioned hydroxyl groups. It demonstrated fairly weak activity for monophenol compounds. Diphenol oxidase activity was augmented with an increase of pH from 5.0 to 8.0, while monophenol oxidase activity was highest at an acidic pH and gradually decreased as pH increased. Transcription profile of PwTYR was temporally upregulated along with worm development. PwTYR was specifically localized in vitellocytes and eggs. The results suggested that conversion of tyrosine to L-dihydroxyphenylalanine by PwTYR monophenol oxidase activity might be rate-limiting step during the sclerotization process of P. westermani eggs. The pH-dependent pattern of monophenol and diphenol oxidase activity further proposes that the initial hydroxylation might slowly but steadily progress in acidic secreted vesicles of vitellocytes and the second oxidation process might be rapidly accelerated by neural or weak alkaline pH environments within the ootype.

  16. Dermal mast cell responses in Paragonimus westermani-infected mice.

    PubMed

    Shin, M H

    1997-12-01

    This study was carried out to determine whether dermal mast cell responses to Paragonimus westermani in an abnormal host, the mouse, were dependent on the site of metacercarial inoculation. In mice during subcutaneous infection, the number of dermal mast cells were increased significantly (p < 0.05) at the first week (38.3/mm2) and then persisted at a high level until the sixth week (45.2/mm2) of infection compared with PBS-injected (control) mice (range: 19.4-25.1/mm2). In mice during oral infection, the number of dermal mast cells were increased significantly (p < 0.05) at two weeks (33.5/mm2) after infection and remained at these levels thereafter compared with non-infected (control) mice (range: 17.4-22.3/mm2). In mice both during subcutaneous and oral infection, the recruited dermal mast cells showed extensive degranulation at the second week (68.4% and 60.7%, respectively), reached a peak at the third week (81.4%, and 92.1%, respectively) and then declined slightly thereafter. By contrast, in both control mice, about 10% of dermal mast cells were degranulated. In conclusion, this study suggests that dermal mast cell responses to P. westermani in mice are dependent on cutaneous sensitization by larval excretory-secretory antigens, irrespective of infection route.

  17. Current status of Paragonimus and paragonimiasis in Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Calvopiña, Manuel; Romero, Daniel; Castañeda, Byron; Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa; Sugiyama, Hiromu

    2014-11-01

    A review of national and international publications on paragonimiasis in Ecuador, epidemiological records from the Ministry of Public Health and unpublished research data was conducted to summarise the current status of the parasite/disease. The purpose of the review is to educate physicians, policy-makers and health providers on the status of the disease and to stimulate scientific investigators to conduct further research. Paragonimiasis was first diagnosed in Ecuador 94 years ago and it is endemic to both tropical and subtropical regions in 19 of 24 provinces in the Pacific Coast and Amazon regions. Paragonimus mexicanus is the only known species in the country, with the mollusc Aroapyrgus colombiensis and the crabs Moreirocarcinus emarginatus, Hypolobocera chilensis and Hypolobocera aequatorialis being the primary and secondary intermediate hosts, respectively. Recent studies found P. mexicanus metacercariae in Trichodactylus faxoni crabs of the northern Amazon. Chronic pulmonary paragonimiasis is commonly misdiagnosed and treated as tuberculosis and although studies have demonstrated the efficacy of praziquantel and triclabendazole for the treatment of human infections, neither drug is available in Ecuador. Official data recorded from 1978-2007 indicate an annual incidence of 85.5 cases throughout the 19 provinces, with an estimated 17.2% of the population at risk of infection. There are no current data on the incidence/prevalence of infection, nor is there a national control programme.

  18. Current status of Paragonimus and paragonimiasis in Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    Calvopiña, Manuel; Romero, Daniel; Castañeda, Byron; Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa; Sugiyama, Hiromu

    2014-01-01

    A review of national and international publications on paragonimiasis in Ecuador, epidemiological records from the Ministry of Public Health and unpublished research data was conducted to summarise the current status of the parasite/disease. The purpose of the review is to educate physicians, policy-makers and health providers on the status of the disease and to stimulate scientific investigators to conduct further research. Paragonimiasis was first diagnosed in Ecuador 94 years ago and it is endemic to both tropical and subtropical regions in 19 of 24 provinces in the Pacific Coast and Amazon regions. Paragonimus mexicanus is the only known species in the country, with the mollusc Aroapyrgus colombiensis and the crabs Moreirocarcinus emarginatus, Hypolobocera chilensis and Hypolobocera aequatorialis being the primary and secondary intermediate hosts, respectively. Recent studies found P. mexicanus metacercariae in Trichodactylus faxoni crabs of the northern Amazon. Chronic pulmonary paragonimiasis is commonly misdiagnosed and treated as tuberculosis and although studies have demonstrated the efficacy of praziquantel and triclabendazole for the treatment of human infections, neither drug is available in Ecuador. Official data recorded from 1978-2007 indicate an annual incidence of 85.5 cases throughout the 19 provinces, with an estimated 17.2% of the population at risk of infection. There are no current data on the incidence/prevalence of infection, nor is there a national control programme. PMID:25410987

  19. Conservation and diversification of the transcriptomes of adult Paragonimus westermani and P. skrjabini.

    PubMed

    Li, Ben-Wen; McNulty, Samantha N; Rosa, Bruce A; Tyagi, Rahul; Zeng, Qing Ren; Gu, Kong-Zhen; Weil, Gary J; Mitreva, Makedonka

    2016-09-13

    Paragonimiasis is an important and widespread neglected tropical disease. Fifteen Paragonimus species are human pathogens, but two of these, Paragonimus westermani and P. skrjabini, are responsible for the bulk of human disease. Despite their medical and economic significance, there is limited information on the gene content and expression of Paragonimus lung flukes. The transcriptomes of adult P. westermani and P. skrjabini were studied with deep sequencing technology. Approximately 30 million reads per species were assembled into 21,586 and 25,825 unigenes for P. westermani and P. skrjabini, respectively. Many unigenes showed homology with sequences from other food-borne trematodes, but 1,217 high-confidence Paragonimus-specific unigenes were identified. Analyses indicated that both species have the potential for aerobic and anaerobic metabolism but not de novo fatty acid biosynthesis and that they may interact with host signaling pathways. Some 12,432 P. westermani and P. skrjabini unigenes showed a clear correspondence in bi-directional sequence similarity matches. The expression of shared unigenes was mostly well correlated, but differentially expressed unigenes were identified and shown to be enriched for functions related to proteolysis for P. westermani and microtubule based motility for P. skrjabini. The assembled transcriptomes of P. westermani and P. skrjabini, inferred proteins, and extensive functional annotations generated for this project (including identified primary sequence similarities to various species, protein domains, biological pathways, predicted proteases, molecular mimics and secreted proteins, etc.) represent a valuable resource for hypothesis driven research on these medically and economically important species.

  20. Morphological and molecular identification of a lung fluke, Paragonimus macrorchis (Trematoda, Paragonimidae), found in central Lao PDR and its molecular phylogenetic status in the genus Paragonimus.

    PubMed

    Sanpool, Oranuch; Intapan, Pewpan Maleewong; Thanchomnang, Tongjit; Janwan, Penchom; Laymanivong, Sakhone; Sugiyama, Hiromu; Maleewong, Wanchai

    2015-12-01

    Paragonimus macrorchis is rather a rare species with sporadic discovery reports. To date, little is known about morphological features and the molecular phylogenetic status of P. macrorchis. Here we provide such information on P. macrorchis, of which metacercariae were collected from freshwater crabs in Khammouane Province, central Lao PDR. After morphological observation, metacercariae were excysted and were injected intra-peritoneally into Mongolian gerbils. Paragonimus adult worms were collected from the lungs of experimental gerbils 45 days after infection. A small piece of body tissue was cut at the posterior part of each adult worm for genomic DNA extraction. Then, the adult worms were stained and mounted for morphological identification. The second internal transcribed spacer region (ITS2) of rDNA and partial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene were amplified using PCR method and sequenced. The results of morphological identification of metacercariae and adult worms together with their DNA sequences of ITS2 and partial cox1 gene clearly show that the specimens we collected in the central Lao PDR were P. macrorchis. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that P. macrorchis forms an independent cluster from other Paragonimus species in Asia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A new species of Paragonimus (Trematoda: Troglotrematidae) from a cat infected with metacercariae from mountain crabs Larnaudia larnaudii.

    PubMed

    Waikagul, Jitra

    2007-12-01

    The identification of Paragonimus spp. lung flukes is based on the morphology of both the metacercaria and the adult. A very small Paragonimus sp. metacercaria was found in a freshwater crab caught in Kanchanaburi Province, West Thailand, an area where metacercariae of Paragonimus heterotremus had not been found. The metacercariae cysts were 180-204 microm in diameter, which was smaller than metacercariae of P. heterotremus. The coefficient of difference in body size between this metacercaria and P. heterotremus was 1.69, which was greater than a subspecific difference. Adults recovered from the lungs of a cat fed with the metacercariae were morphologically similar to, but smaller than, P. heterotremus dissected from the lungs of a feline experimental host. The tegumental spines of the worm in this study were singly spaced in arrangement, which is similar to, but larger than, the spines of P. heterotremus. Therefore, Paragonimus pseudoheterotremus is proposed as a new species.

  2. [Pinworm infestation of the appendix].

    PubMed

    Di Marco, L; Berghenti, M; Cocuzza, C; Manfredini, A; Sciascia, V; Salmi, R

    2006-01-01

    The Authors present 2 cases of enterobiasis of appendix observed on a total of 186 appendicectomies. Enterobius infestation is an uncommon cause of acute appendicitis. Preoperative diagnosis of pinworm infestation is almost impossible without clinical suspect. Parasites may produce symptoms which resemble acute appendicitis but parasitic infection rarely causes it. It is also important considered in the differential diagnosis cases that mimic Crohn's disease.

  3. Ocular leech infestation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yueh-Chang; Chiu, Cheng-Jen

    2015-01-01

    This case report describes a female toddler with manifestations of ocular leech infestation. A 2-year-old girl was brought to our outpatient clinic with a complaint of irritable crying after being taken to a stream in Hualien 1 day previous, where she played in the water. The parents noticed that she rubbed her right eye a lot. Upon examination, the girl had good fix and follow in either eye. Slit-lamp examination showed conjunctival injection with a moving dark black–brown foreign body partly attached in the lower conjunctiva. After applying topical anesthetics, the leech, measuring 1 cm in length, was extracted under a microscope. The patient began using topical antibiotic and corticosteroid agents. By 1 week after extraction, the patient had no obvious symptoms or signs, except for a limited subconjunctival hemorrhage, and no corneal/scleral involvement was observed. PMID:25784786

  4. Movement of Rhipicephalus sanguineus adults between co-housed dogs during active feeding.

    PubMed

    Little, Susan E; Hostetler, Joe; Kocan, Katherine M

    2007-11-30

    Adult male ticks have been shown capable of experimental acquisition and transmission of tick-borne pathogens without requiring a molt. To determine the ecological relevance of this intrastadial transmission route, we evaluated the extent to which actively feeding male Rhipicephalus sanguineus move naturally between co-housed infested dogs. Dogs (n=4) were infested with single color-coded ticks, individually housed in tick-confinement cages for 48 h while infestations established, and then each dog examined and the ticks present counted. Dogs were then co-housed in a large, group pen for an additional 7 (study 1) or 5 (study 2) days. In the first study, sex ratios were adjusted to encourage migration, with two dogs receiving predominantly female ticks and two dogs receiving all male ticks. In the second study, each dog received a ratio of ticks that parallels that found in natural infestations (4:1 male to female). Results showed that ticks readily migrated between infested, co-housed dogs. Rates of immigration, defined as the percentage of ticks previously attached to one dog that moved onto another dog, ranged from 0 to 46% (mean=31.1% study 1; 9.4% study 2). Emigration rates, defined as the number of ticks initially infesting one dog that moved to another dog, averaged 35.2% in study 1 and 10.8% in study 2 (3.6-67.6%). Movement of adult ticks between dogs represents a naturally occurring form of interrupted feeding, a strategy which has been shown to shorten the feeding time necessary to allow transmission of pathogens. In ticks that readily detach from one host and reattach to a second host to resume feeding, replication of any pathogens present has already been initiated and therefore the same delay in transmission seen in ticks attached to a host for the first time may not occur.

  5. [Dog bites].

    PubMed

    Horn, Benedikt

    2015-01-01

    In Switzerland 10'000 people are bitten by a dog annualy. Dog bites are notifiable incidents. Defensive and offensive aggression of dogs (why does a dog bite?), history, signs, treatment and prevention are discussed. Finally a short psychogram of dog owner and victim emphasizes the role of avoiding any escalation.

  6. No evidence of deer mouse involvement in plague (Yersinia pestis) epizootics in prairie dogs.

    PubMed

    Salkeld, Daniel J; Stapp, Paul

    2008-06-01

    Plague, the disease caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis, can have devastating impacts on black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus) colonies. One suggested mechanism behind sporadic prairie dog die-offs involves an alternative mammal host, such as the deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus), which often inhabits prairie dog colonies. We examined the flea populations of deer mice to investigate the potential of flea-borne transmission of plague between deer mice and prairie dogs in northern Colorado, where plague is active in prairie dog colonies. Deer mice were predominantly infested with the flea Aetheca wagneri, and were rarely infested with prairie dog fleas, Oropsylla hirsuta. Likelihood of flea infestation increased with average monthly temperature, and flea loads were higher in reproductive animals. These results suggest that the deer mouse is an unlikely maintenance host of plague in this region.

  7. Efficacy of selamectin against biting lice on dogs and cats.

    PubMed

    Shanks, D J; Gautier, P; McTier, T L; Evans, N A; Pengo, G; Rowan, T G

    2003-02-22

    The efficacy of selamectin was evaluated against naturally acquired Trichodectes canis infestations on dogs and against Felicola subrostratus infestations on cats. Twenty dogs and 18 cats were randomly allocated to treatment with either a placebo or selamectin (6 mg/kg), administered topically once only on day 0. The treatment had no adverse effects in either the dogs or the cats. Efficacy was assessed by counting the live lice (adults and nymphs) on each animal by using a coat-parting technique on days -3, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 and 42 for the dogs, and on days -1, 7, 21, 35 and 42 for the cats. On day 43, the number of live lice on each dog was also assessed by using a whole-body combing technique. Selamectin was 100 per cent effective in killing biting lice on the dogs and cats throughout the period of assessment; the louse counts on the treated dogs and cats were significantly lower than the pretreatment counts (P = 0.0001) and were also significantly lower than on the placebo-treated dogs (P < 0.05) and cats (P = 0.0001). There was a marked reduction in the prevalence of clinical signs associated with ectoparasite infestation in the treated dogs and no clinical signs were observed in any of the treated cats.

  8. Tungiasis infestation in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Mazigo, Humphrey D; Behamana, Emmanuel; Zinga, Maria; Heukelbach, Jorg

    2010-03-29

    Tungiasis is caused by the jigger flea Tunga penetrans. We describe a case of severe infestation from Kigoma region, Western Tanzania. A 19-year-old male with epilepsy and mental disability presented with ulcerated and inflamed toes. Clinical examination revealed the presence of approximately 810 embedded jigger fleas on the feet, and another 60 lesions on the hands. The patient presented with fissures on the feet, hands and soles. He had difficulty walking and erythematous, oedematous, ulcerated and inflamed skin around the feet. Living conditions were precarious. The patient was assisted to extract the embedded fleas and his feet were washed with disinfectants. Oral antibiotics were given. The case shows that the disease may reach high parasite loads in Tanzanian individuals, with consequently severe pathology. There have been single reports of returning tourists from Tanzania with tungiasis, but the epidemiological situation and the geographic occurrence of the disease in this country are not known. Systematic studies are needed to increase knowledge on the epidemiological situation of tungasis in Tanzania and to identify endemic areas.

  9. Prevalence of ectoparasites in owned dogs in Kerman city, southeast of Iran.

    PubMed

    Mirzaei, Mohammad; Khovand, Hosein; Akhtardanesh, Baharak

    2016-06-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the intensity and distribution of natural infestation of ectoparasites in owned dogs during June to November 2011 in Kerman city, southeast of Iran. One hundred two domestic dogs (63 males, 39 females) with age ranged between 45 days to 13 years were examined for ectoparasites infestation including (tick, lice, flea and mite) in Kerman city. Detailed questionnaire about grooming and bathing interval, keeping place (outdoor, indoor) and purpose of keeping were obtained from owners. After complete skin examination, animals hairs were combed and their skin rubbed with a piece of cotton soaked in alcohol to remove the ectoparasites in apparently normal cases, and deep skin scratching were prepared from all type of lesions in symptomatic dogs. A total number of 149 ectoparasites were collected. The most common ectoparasite was Rhipicephalus sanguineus tick, which infested 27 of the 102 dogs (26.47 %). Ctenocephalides canis was identified on two dogs (1.96 %) and 5 dogs infested with Hippobosca spp (4.9 %) that the highest infestation rate was seen in September (14.2 %). Studied samples were routinely checked for clinical symptoms. Itching and scratching lesions were the only reported signs which seen in flea infested dogs (6.4 %) and other infested dogs (93.5 %) had no clinical symptoms. Ectoparasites were significantly higher in outdoor dogs in compare with indoor group and the most tick infested location was ear (61.3 %) (P < 0.05).

  10. Co-existence of Paragonimus harinasutai and Paragonimus bangkokensis metacercariae in fresh water crab hosts in central Viet Nam with special emphasis on their close phylogenetic relationship.

    PubMed

    Doanh, Pham Ngoc; Hien, Hoang Van; Nonaka, Nariaki; Horii, Yoichiro; Nawa, Yukifumi

    2012-09-01

    During our epidemiological surveys for Paragonimus species in central Viet Nam, we found four morphologically different Paragonimus metacercariae in mountainous crabs. They were identified as metacercariae of Paragonimus westermani, P. bangkokensis, P. proliferus, and P. harinasutai in the order of their prevalence in crab hosts. This is the first discovery of P. harinasutai in Viet Nam, co-inhabiting with P. bangkokensis and other species. Metacercariae of P. harinasutai were given orally to a cat to obtain adult worms. Then, ITS2 and CO1 sequences of metacercariae and adults of P. harinasutai, and metacercariae of P. bangkokensis collected from the same place were determined for analyses of phylogenetic relationships to other P. harinasutai and P. bangkokensis populations as well as related species. The results of molecular analyses showed that P. harinasutai from Quang Binh province of central Viet Nam was almost completely identical with those from Vientiane, Lao PDR; P. bangkokensis from Quang Binh, Viet Nam was also almost completely identical with those from Lao PDR and from Quang Ninh province, Viet Nam. Except for one P. harinasutai isolate from China, all populations of P. harinasutai and P. bangkokensis from Thailand, Lao and Viet Nam make a single clade in both ITS2 and CO1 trees. In ITS2 sequences, AT deletion and ATC insertion were observed in some isolates of both species, indicating recent gene flow between P. harinasutai and P. bangkokensis. Moreover, because of their extremely high genetic similarities and their co-inhabitation in the same crab hosts found in Thailand, Lao PDR and Viet Nam, they should be considered as the sister species at the early stage of divergence. In addition, P. microrchis previously described from Yunnan, China should be placed as the synonym of P. harinasutai, because of their morphological and molecular similarities. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. [Sequence analysis of ITS2 and CO1 genes of Paragonimus harinasutai].

    PubMed

    Qian, Bao-zhen; Sugiyama, H; Waikagul, J; Zhu, Zhi-hang

    2006-04-30

    To identify Paragonimus harinasutai from Ninghai, Zhejiang Province, China. Metacercariae were collected from the crabs Sinopotamon chekiangenes in Xixi village of Ninghai County for ITS2 sequence analysis, CO1 sequence analysis and endonuclease BsaHI and StuI analysis by PCR-RFLP. Results The fingerprintings of PCR-RFLP were virtually same to the isolate from Thailand (Nakorn-nayok). The ITS2 sequence with 366 bp and CO1 sequence with 390 bp of the metacercariae collected from Ninghai revealed a nucleotide identity 95.6% and 89.5% respectively to the Thai isolate. The study confirmed that Paragonimus harinasutai is present in Ninghai, China, with certain variation on molecular biology in comparison to the Thai isolate.

  12. Paragonimus kellicotti Presenting With Hemoptysis and a Left Upper Lobe Mass.

    PubMed

    Horn, Christopher B; Patel, Nikhil R; Hawasli, Jennifer A; Edwards, Melanie A

    2016-11-01

    A 46-year-old man presented to the thoracic surgery clinic with a 6-month history of cough and hemoptysis refractory to treatment. Examination of specimens from repeated biopsies was nondiagnostic, so the patient underwent video-assisted thoracoscopic left upper lobe wedge resection. Pathologic examination revealed Paragonimus organisms, and the patient was prescribed praziquantel, with resolution of his symptoms. Although Paragonimus infections are common in Asia, they are rare in the United States despite P kellicotti being endemic. Clinicians should have a high index of suspicion for patients presenting with unusual lung symptoms in endemic areas to avoid prolonged evaluations with potentially unnecessary diagnostic modalities. Copyright © 2016 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Severe Pleuropulmonary Paragonimiasis Caused by Paragonimus mexicanus Treated as Tuberculosis in Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Calvopina, Manuel; Romero-Alvarez, Daniel; Macias, Rubén; Sugiyama, Hiromu

    2017-01-11

    A 30-year-old male, from a subtropical region of Ecuador, was hospitalized with a 5-year history of persistent cough with rusty brown sputum, chest pain, and progressive dyspnea. The patient underwent thoracic surgery 3 years ago for pleural effusion and subsequently received a 9-month regimen treatment of tuberculosis. However, there was no clinical resolution and symptoms became progressively worse. A chest radiograph and computerized tomography scan showed several small nodules in both lungs. Eggs of Paragonimus spp. were observed in sputum smears, but the smears were negative for acid-fast bacilli. Molecular characterization of eggs by the internal transcribed spacer-2 regions identified them as Paragonimus mexicanus The patient was treated with praziquantel and tested negative parasitologically for 12 months. There was clinical resolution of the cough and expectoration, but dyspnea and chest pain persisted. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  14. Zoonotic skin diseases of dogs and cats.

    PubMed

    Moriello, Karen A

    2003-12-01

    Although there are over 250 zoonotic diseases, only 30-40 of them involve dogs and cats. Transmission of zoonotic infections occurs via bites, scratches or touch; exposure to saliva, urine or feces; inhalation of particles or infectious aerosols; contact with a transport or intermediate host (e.g. ticks, fleas); or exposure to contaminated water, soil or vegetation. This paper summarizes the most important common zoonotic dermatological diseases of dogs and cats. The most common dermatological zoonoses are flea and tick infestations and the diseases they transmit; dermatophytosis; and mite infestations (Sarcoptes and Cheyletiella). Prevention of zoonotic infestations or infections can be accomplished easily by the use of routine flea and tick control, screening of new pets for dermatophytosis, and routine hand-washing.

  15. Taxonomical and Ecological Studies on the Lung Fluke, ’Paragonimus’ in the Pacific Area, with Special Reference to South-East Asia.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    from Aguaytia, an undescribed metacercaria of Paragonimus was found from one of 13 crabs, Pseudothelphusa chilensis collected in the university campus...be infected with Paragonimus metacercariae, which were separated into two species by their characteristics. The first species was identified as P.peruvianus, and the second one was presumed to belong to P.mexicanus. (Author)

  16. TAXONOMICAL AND ECOLOGICAL STUDIES ON THE LUNG FLUKE, PARAGONIMUS IN THE PACIFIC AREA, WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO SOUTH-EAST ASIA.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    In Japan, the cat was added to the list of natural host for Paragonimus sadoensis Miyazaki et al., 1968, and it was experimentally revealed that the...improvisa were added to the list of crab host for P. westermani (Kerbert, 1878). In Ceylon, four species of crabs were examined for Paragonimus

  17. Evaluation of risk factors for rural infestation by Triatoma pallidipennis (Hemiptera: Triatominae), a Mexican vector of Chagas disease.

    PubMed

    Enger, Kyle S; Ordoñez, Rosalinda; Wilson, Mark L; Ramsey, Janine M

    2004-07-01

    Control of Chagas disease requires control of its triatomine vectors, which requires an understanding of the determinants of infestation. Twenty-seven household environmental characteristics in the town of Chalcatzingo, Morelos, were analyzed for association with infestation by Triatoma pallidipennis, the predominant local vector. Data were obtained through timed household searches for triatomines and surveys that characterized intradomicile and peridomicile environments. Of the households surveyed, 28.4% were infested by T. pallidipennis. Cross-sectional multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed that regressed infestation on environmental variables. Of the 530 households in the town, 84% had sufficient data to be included. Adobe walls, agricultural products, junk piles, lack of bednets, and number of rabbits were significantly associated with intradomiciliary infestation. Junk piles and numbers of dogs, cats, and rabbits were significantly associated with peridomiciliary infestation. Junk piles, agricultural products, and numbers of cats, rabbits, and birds were significantly associated with overall infestation. Unexpectedly, presence of stone piles was not associated with infestation. The results of this study provide information for designing Chagas disease control programs in rural Mexican areas infested by T. pallidipennis.

  18. Morphological differences and molecular similarities between Paragonimus bangkokensis and P. harinasutai.

    PubMed

    Ngoc Doanh, Pham; Shinohara, Akio; Horii, Yoichiro; Yahiro, Shinichiro; Habe, Shigehisa; Vannavong, Nanthasane; Strobel, Michel; Nakamura, Satoshi; Nawa, Yukifumi

    2009-08-01

    Paragonimus bangkokensis and Paragonimus harinasutai were found one after another in the same crab host, Potamon smithianus, in Thailand in 1967 and 1968. Both species were also recently found in China and Lao People's Democratic Republic (PDR). Those two Paragonimus spp. are distinguishable from each other by morphological features of metacercariae and adults. However, recently, the DNA sequences of second internal transcribed spacer region (ITS2) and cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (CO1) genes of those two species in Thailand were reported to be highly similar to each other. In the present study, we collected P. bangkokensis in two provinces in Vietnam (the first record in Vietnam) and both P. bangkokensis and P. harinasutai in Lao PDR for the morphological and molecular phylogenetic analyses to clarify the mutual relationship between the two species. The results show that P. bangkokensis and P. harinasutai were distinguishable from each other by morphology such as the size of metacercariae and the arrangement of cuticular spines of adult worms. However, the molecular phylogenetic analyses of ITS2 and CO1 genes clearly indicate that P. bangkokensis and P. harinasutai make a monophyletic group.

  19. [Epidemiological observations on the first case of human paragonimiasis and potential intermediate hosts of Paragonimus sp. in Benin].

    PubMed

    Aka, N A; Allabi, A C; Dreyfuss, G; Kinde-Gazard, D; Tawo, L; Rondelaud, D; Bouteille, B; Avodé, G; Anagonou, S Y; Gninafon, M; Massougbodji, A; Dumas, M

    1999-07-01

    Parasitological investigations were carried out for four months in 1998 in two Beninese centres of pneumo-phtisiology (Akpakpa, at Cotonou, and Akron, at Porto-Novo) to detect the patients harbouring eggs of Paragonimus sp. amongst the persons consulting for tuberculosis and showing a broncho-pneumopathy without mycobacteria. Eggs of Paragonimus sp. were detected in the sputum of a single patient out of 369 persons examined (prevalence, 0.2%). This patient had eaten crabs in the months preceding the date of diagnosis. A treatment using praziquantel has improved clinical symptomatology and biological signs found in this patient. These studies have been completed by visiting markets located in the coastal plain of Benin to identify the crabs that were sold and to find metacercariae of Paragonimus sp. Negative results were obtained when 126 Cardisoma armatum ("hole crab") were dissected. In contrast, the dissection of 176 Callinectes marginatus ("swimming crab") was successful, with 5% of crabs harbouring metacercariae of probably Paragonimus sp. Further studies are necessary to confirm these first results and to determine the global prevalence of Paragonimus infection in these definitive and intermediary hosts.

  20. Metacercarial polymorphism and genetic variation of Paragonimus heterotremus (Digenea: Paragonimidae), and a re-appraisal of the taxonomic status of Paragonimus pseudoheterotremus.

    PubMed

    Doanh, P N; Thaenkham, U; An, P T; Hien, H V; Horii, Y; Nawa, Y

    2015-03-01

    Paragonimus heterotremus, which is an important pathogen for human paragonimiasis in Asia, is recognized as having the smallest metacercariae (maximum diameter < 300 μm) of any previously reported Paragonimus species. Recently, P. pseudoheterotremus has been described from Thailand as a new species having metacercariae (about 200 μm) slightly smaller than those of Thai P. heterotremus. In fact, the small size of P. pseudoheterotremus metacercariae is compatible with those of P. heterotremus from India and China. In this study in Vietnam, we found variably sized small metacercariae which are expected to consist of both P. heterotremus and P. pseudoheterotremus. Contrary to expectation, the adult flukes obtained by separate infection of experimental cats with different sized metacercariae were all identified as P. heterotremus, using both morphological and molecular characteristics. The molecular analyses of an extensive collection of P. heterotremus/P. pseudoheterotremus isolates from Asian countries also indicated that genetic distances between different populations of P. heterotremus are even larger than that between P. pseudoheterotremus and P. heterotremus. The haplotype network showed that all P. heterotremus and P. pseudoheterotremus isolates formed a P. heterotremus complex consisting of three groups with strong geographical origins. In addition, the Indian P. heterotremus group is the root of the other P. heterotremus and P. pseudoheterotremus populations. Based on the observed metacercarial polymorphisms and genetic variation in P. heterotremus, P. pseudoheterotremus should be considered a geographically isolated population of the P. heterotremus complex.

  1. Cockroach infestation on seagoing ships.

    PubMed

    Oldenburg, Marcus; Baur, Xaver

    2008-01-01

    Cockroaches are detected ashore worldwide. At present, little is known about cockroach infestation on ships. The authors' objective in this study was to assess the current prevalence of cockroach infestation on seagoing vessels. In August 2005, port officials investigated cockroach infestation on 59 ships in Hamburg's port via standardized procedures (ie, illuminating hiding places and using pyrethrum spray). About 3 minutes after illumination or chemical provocation, the inspectors counted the number of insects escaping from their hiding places. The examination revealed cockroach presence in the galley or mess room of 6 ships (10.2%). These ships were bigger than 10,000 gross register tons (GRT) and older than 7 years. Inspectors detected the cockroach species Blattella germanica on 5 ships and Blatta orientalis on 1 ship. The standardized use of pyrethrum spray more frequently detected cockroaches than did inspection or illumination of their hiding places.

  2. Human scrotal myiasis: botfly infestation.

    PubMed

    Massey, Robert L; Rodriguez, Gabriel

    2002-10-01

    Cutaneous infestation of the scrotum with botfly larva from the order Dioptera, family Cuterebridae, species Dermatobia hominis is extremely rare. The first reported case of scrotal myiasis in the United States of America is described here. There is increased potential for human infestation with botfly larva (Dermatobia hominis), due to a more affluent and mobile population traveling to tropical areas for exotic vacations where the botfly is endemic. Urology nurses in a clinical setting should be aware of patients with unusual clinical presentations involving the genitourinary system.

  3. Reseeding tarweed-infested ranges.

    Treesearch

    E.W. Stevenson

    1950-01-01

    Cluster tarweed(Madia glomerata) infests many livestock ranges in eastern Oregon, using soil moisture and nutrients that should be producing plants more valuable as forage and more effective in stabilizing watersheds. No completely satisfactory method of eliminating this obnoxious plant and replacing it, with forage has yet been found. Recent...

  4. Evaluation of praziquantel for treatment of experimentally induced paragonimiasis in dogs and cats.

    PubMed

    Bowman, D D; Frongillo, M K; Johnson, R C; Beck, K A; Hornbuckle, W E; Blue, J T

    1991-01-01

    Praziquantel was used successfully for treatment of a small number of dogs and 1 cat infected with Paragonimus kellicotti. To further evaluate the usefulness of this drug in treating such infections, 7 cats and 7 dogs were inoculated orally with metacercariae (12 and 20 to 22, respectively) obtained from crayfish, then were treated after the infections became patent; 2 cats and 2 dogs served as noninfected controls. Beginning 1 week before infection, and continuing weekly thereafter, physical, hematologic, and fecal examinations were performed on each animal; thoracic radiography was performed every other week. By postinoculation week 6, all dogs given metacercariae had patent infection diagnosed on the basis of positive results of fecal examination. By postinoculation week 7, 5 cats had confirmed patent infection, but 2 cats given metacercariae never had patent infection or had signs of infection. Clinical signs of infection were minor and included increased respiratory tract noise, slight inducible cough, or mild dyspnea. Transient eosinophilia was detected in dogs around postinoculation week 3. Pretreatment radiography revealed cavitated lesions in cats only; pleural lines and patchy infiltrates in cats and dogs; or pneumothorax in dogs only. The treatment regimen consisted of 23 mg of praziquantel/kg of body weight given every 8 hours for 3 days; 1 infected cat and dog were not treated. By 11 days after treatment, eggs had disappeared from the feces of infected animals, and marked resolution of lung lesions was evident radiographically.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Systems Biology Studies of Adult Paragonimus Lung Flukes Facilitate the Identification of Immunodominant Parasite Antigens

    PubMed Central

    McNulty, Samantha N.; Fischer, Peter U.; Townsend, R. Reid; Curtis, Kurt C.; Weil, Gary J.; Mitreva, Makedonka

    2014-01-01

    Background Paragonimiasis is a food-borne trematode infection acquired by eating raw or undercooked crustaceans. It is a major public health problem in the far East, but it also occurs in South Asia, Africa, and in the Americas. Paragonimus worms cause chronic lung disease with cough, fever and hemoptysis that can be confused with tuberculosis or other non-parasitic diseases. Treatment is straightforward, but diagnosis is often delayed due to a lack of reliable parasitological or serodiagnostic tests. Hence, the purpose of this study was to use a systems biology approach to identify key parasite proteins that may be useful for development of improved diagnostic tests. Methodology/Principal Findings The transcriptome of adult Paragonimus kellicotti was sequenced with Illumina technology. Raw reads were pre-processed and assembled into 78,674 unique transcripts derived from 54,622 genetic loci, and 77,123 unique protein translations were predicted. A total of 2,555 predicted proteins (from 1,863 genetic loci) were verified by mass spectrometric analysis of total worm homogenate, including 63 proteins lacking homology to previously characterized sequences. Parasite proteins encoded by 321 transcripts (227 genetic loci) were reactive with antibodies from infected patients, as demonstrated by immunoaffinity purification and high-resolution liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Serodiagnostic candidates were prioritized based on several criteria, especially low conservation with proteins in other trematodes. Cysteine proteases, MFP6 proteins and myoglobins were abundant among the immunoreactive proteins, and these warrant further study as diagnostic candidates. Conclusions The transcriptome, proteome and immunolome of adult P. kellicotti represent a major advance in the study of Paragonimus species. These data provide a powerful foundation for translational research to develop improved diagnostic tests. Similar integrated approaches may be useful for identifying novel

  6. Systems biology studies of adult paragonimus lung flukes facilitate the identification of immunodominant parasite antigens.

    PubMed

    McNulty, Samantha N; Fischer, Peter U; Townsend, R Reid; Curtis, Kurt C; Weil, Gary J; Mitreva, Makedonka

    2014-10-01

    Paragonimiasis is a food-borne trematode infection acquired by eating raw or undercooked crustaceans. It is a major public health problem in the far East, but it also occurs in South Asia, Africa, and in the Americas. Paragonimus worms cause chronic lung disease with cough, fever and hemoptysis that can be confused with tuberculosis or other non-parasitic diseases. Treatment is straightforward, but diagnosis is often delayed due to a lack of reliable parasitological or serodiagnostic tests. Hence, the purpose of this study was to use a systems biology approach to identify key parasite proteins that may be useful for development of improved diagnostic tests. The transcriptome of adult Paragonimus kellicotti was sequenced with Illumina technology. Raw reads were pre-processed and assembled into 78,674 unique transcripts derived from 54,622 genetic loci, and 77,123 unique protein translations were predicted. A total of 2,555 predicted proteins (from 1,863 genetic loci) were verified by mass spectrometric analysis of total worm homogenate, including 63 proteins lacking homology to previously characterized sequences. Parasite proteins encoded by 321 transcripts (227 genetic loci) were reactive with antibodies from infected patients, as demonstrated by immunoaffinity purification and high-resolution liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Serodiagnostic candidates were prioritized based on several criteria, especially low conservation with proteins in other trematodes. Cysteine proteases, MFP6 proteins and myoglobins were abundant among the immunoreactive proteins, and these warrant further study as diagnostic candidates. The transcriptome, proteome and immunolome of adult P. kellicotti represent a major advance in the study of Paragonimus species. These data provide a powerful foundation for translational research to develop improved diagnostic tests. Similar integrated approaches may be useful for identifying novel targets for drugs and vaccines in the future.

  7. [Changes of historical Paragonimus metacercaria infection rates of freshwater crabs in Yongjia County].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Teng-Jian; Chen, Hai-Qiang; Hong, Jia-Lin

    2013-12-01

    To understand the changes of Paragonimus metacercaria infection rates of freshwater crabs in Paragonimus endemic areas and explore the causes in Yongjia County, Zhejiang Province, China. A field investigation was carried out. The freshwater crabs were collected and the metacercaria were separated from the crabs. The infection rates, infectiosities and infection indexes were calculated and the results were vertically compared with the historical findings. The causes of the changes were discussed. Compared with those in 1980, the average infection rate in original endemic areas decreased from 59.71% to 21.50% (P < 0.05), while the infection density decreased from 1.09/g to 0.23/g (P < 0.05). The infection index decreased obviously. In Hesheng Village, it decreased from 4.05 to 0.01 (P < 0.01), in Wuchi Village, it was from 37.90 to 2.91 (P <0.01), and in Daruoyan Scinic area,it was from 5.85 to 0.03 (P < 0.01). Two endemic areas disappeared but two new endemic areas (Sihai Village and Sunshan Village) were found, and in Sunshan Village, the metacercaria infection rate was 100%, the infection density and infection index were 21.30/g and 3 402.68 respectively, which meant it was a super high endemic focus. The Paragonimus metacercaria infection rate in crabs is lower than before in Yongjia County, but some super high epidemic focus of paragonimiasis still exists. Therefore, we still should strengthen the control measures.

  8. Infection Status of Freshwater Crabs and Crayfish with Metacercariae of Paragonimus westermani in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eun-Min; Kim, Jae-Lip; Choi, Sung-Il; Lee, Soon-Hyung

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigated the infection status of Paragonimus westermani metacercariae in freshwater crabs (n = 363) and crayfish (n = 31) from October 2007 to October 2008 using the crush method. All of the freshwater crabs, Eriocheir japonicus, were negative for P. westermani metacercariae while 10 (32.3%) of the 31 examined crayfish were positive. The 10 positive crayfish were caught in Haenam, Jeollanam-do, and there were 8-59 (mean 28.4) metacrcariae per infected crayfish. These results suggest that P. westermani metacerariae are still transmitted by crayfish enzootically in southern Korea, and that freshwater crabs may transmit metacercariae only on rare occasions. PMID:19967096

  9. Detection of multiple species of human Paragonimus from Mexico using morphological data and molecular barcodes.

    PubMed

    López-Caballero, J; Oceguera-Figueroa, A; León-Règagnon, V

    2013-11-01

    Paragonimus mexicanus is the causal agent of human paragonimiasis in several countries of the Americas. It is considered to be the only species of the genus present in Mexico, where it is responsible for human infection. Through the investigation of P. mexicanus specimens from several places throughout Mexico, we provide morphological, molecular and geographical evidence that strongly suggests the presence of at least three species from this genus in Mexico. These results raise questions regarding the diagnosis, treatment, prophylaxis and control of human paragonimiasis in Mexico. We also provide a brief discussion regarding biodiversity inventories and the convenience of providing molecular and morphological information in biodiversity studies. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Phylogenetic relationship of ribosomal ITS2 and mitochondrial COI among diploid and triploid Paragonimus westermani isolates

    PubMed Central

    Im, Kyung-Il; Yong, Tai-Soon

    2003-01-01

    We compared patterns of intraspecific polymorphism of two markers with contrasting modes of evolution, nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA) and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), in the lung fluke, diploid and triploid Paragonimus westermani from three geographical regions of Korea. The genetic distances between three populations of Korean diploid and triploid P. westermani showed no significant difference in the nucleotide sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (mtCOI) and ribosomaal second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) genes. A highly resolved strict-consensus tree was obtained that illustrated phylogenetically useful information of the ITS2 and mtCOI sequences from diploid and triploid P. westermani. PMID:12666730

  11. Detection of Paragonimus mexicanus (Trematoda) metacercariae in crabs from Oaxaca, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Vargas-Arzola, Jaime; Segura-Salvador, Aristeo; Reyes-Velasco, Leobardo; Díaz-Chiguer, Dylan L; Márquez-Navarro, Adrián; León-Avila, Gloria; Ibañez-Cervantes, Gabriela; Camacho, Alejandro D; Sánchez-Manzano, Rosa Ma; Nogueda-Torres, Benjamín

    2014-09-01

    Metacercariae of Paragonimus mexicanus were collected in crabs Tehuana guerreroensis (Rathbun, 1933) in the municipality of Putla, Oaxaca, Mexico. Metacercariae were found in 20.8% of the crabs collected, with an average of 1.9 metacercarie per crab. Stained metacercariae showed the specific characteristics of P. mexicanus by morphology and sequencing a fragment of the 28S ribosomal gene obtained by PCR. These findings reveal that T. guerreroensis is an intermediate host for P. mexicanus; this new report is relevant considering the potential risk of transmission in the states of Oaxaca and Guerrero, Mexico.

  12. Suicide following an infestation of bed bugs

    PubMed Central

    Burrows, Stephanie; Perron, Stéphane; Susser, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    Patient: Male, 62 Final Diagnosis: Bipolar disorder Symptoms: Bordeline personality disorder Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Bed bug infestation Specialty: Psychiatry Objective: Unusual clinical course Background: In the past decade, bed bug infestations have been increasingly common in high income countries. Psychological consequences of these infestations are rarely examined in the scientific literature. Case Report: We present a case, based on a coroner’s investigation report, of a woman with previous psychiatric morbidity who jumped to her death following repeated bed bug infestations in her apartment. Our case report shows that the bed bug infestations were the likely trigger for the onset a negative psychological state that ultimately led to suicide. Conclusions: Given the recent surge in infestations, rapid action needs to be taken not only in an attempt to control and eradicate the bed bugs but also to adequately care for those infested by bed bugs. PMID:23826461

  13. Suicide following an infestation of bed bugs.

    PubMed

    Burrows, Stephanie; Perron, Stéphane; Susser, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    Male, 62. Bipolar disorder. Bordeline personality disorder. - Bed bug infestation. Psychiatry. Unusual clinical course. In the past decade, bed bug infestations have been increasingly common in high income countries. Psychological consequences of these infestations are rarely examined in the scientific literature. We present a case, based on a coroner's investigation report, of a woman with previous psychiatric morbidity who jumped to her death following repeated bed bug infestations in her apartment. Our case report shows that the bed bug infestations were the likely trigger for the onset a negative psychological state that ultimately led to suicide. Given the recent surge in infestations, rapid action needs to be taken not only in an attempt to control and eradicate the bed bugs but also to adequately care for those infested by bed bugs.

  14. Apparent tick paralysis by Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Acari: Ixodidae) in dogs.

    PubMed

    Otranto, Domenico; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Tarallo, Viviana Domenica; Ramos, Rafael Antonio do Nascimento; Stanneck, Dorothee; Baneth, Gad; de Caprariis, Donato

    2012-09-10

    Certain tick species including Ixodes holocyclus can inoculate neurotoxins that induce a rapid, ascending flaccid paralysis in animals. Rhipicephalus sanguineus, the most widespread tick of dogs, is recognized as a vector of several pathogens causing diseases in dogs and humans. A single report suggests its role as cause of paralysis in dogs. This study presents the clinical history of 14 young dogs heavily infested by R. sanguineus (intensity of infestation, 63-328) in an endemic area of southern Italy. During May to June of 2011, dogs were presented at the clinical examination with neurological signs of different degrees (e.g., hind limb ataxia, generalized lethargy, and difficulty in movements). All animals were treated with acaricides and by manual tick removal but ten of them died within a day, displaying neurological signs. The other 4 dogs recovered within 3 days with acaricidal and supportive treatment. Twelve dogs were positive by blood smear examination for Hepatozoon canis with a high parasitemia, two also for Babesia vogeli and two were negative for hemoparasites. Low-grade thrombocytopenia, hypoalbuminemia, and pancytopenia were the haematological alterations most frequently recorded. Other causes of neurological disease in dogs were excluded and the diagnosis of tick paralysis by R. sanguineus was confirmed (ex juvantibus) by early and complete recovery of 4 dogs following acaricidal treatment and tick removal.

  15. Prostatitis, steatitis, and diarrhea in a dog following presumptive flea-borne transmission of Bartonella henselae.

    PubMed

    Balakrishnan, Nandhakumar; Pritchard, Jessica; Ericson, Marna; Grindem, Carol; Phillips, Kathryn; Jennings, Samuel; Mathews, Kyle; Tran, Huy; Birkenheuer, Adam J; Breitschwerdt, Edward B

    2014-09-01

    Bartonella henselae is increasingly associated with a variety of pathological entities, which are often similar in dogs and human patients. Following an acute flea infestation, a dog developed an unusual clinical presentation for canine bartonellosis. Comprehensive medical, microbiological, and surgical interventions were required for diagnosis and to achieve a full recovery.

  16. Prostatitis, Steatitis, and Diarrhea in a Dog following Presumptive Flea-Borne Transmission of Bartonella henselae

    PubMed Central

    Balakrishnan, Nandhakumar; Pritchard, Jessica; Ericson, Marna; Grindem, Carol; Phillips, Kathryn; Jennings, Samuel; Mathews, Kyle; Tran, Huy; Birkenheuer, Adam J.

    2014-01-01

    Bartonella henselae is increasingly associated with a variety of pathological entities, which are often similar in dogs and human patients. Following an acute flea infestation, a dog developed an unusual clinical presentation for canine bartonellosis. Comprehensive medical, microbiological, and surgical interventions were required for diagnosis and to achieve a full recovery. PMID:24920774

  17. Morphological and molecular characterization of the metacercaria of Paragonimus caliensis, as a separate species from P. mexicanus in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Chea, Roderico; Jiménez-Rocha, Ana Eugenia; Castro, Ruth; Blair, David; Dolz, Gaby

    2017-04-01

    The trematode Paragonimus mexicanus is the etiological agent of paragonimiasis, a food-borne zoonotic disease in Latin America. This species, as well as Paragonimus caliensis, have been reported from Costa Rica, but it is not known if the two are synonymous. Two types of Paragonimus metacercariae from freshwater pseudothelphusid crabs from several localities in Costa Rica were recognized by light microscopy. Morphologically, these corresponded to descriptions of P. mexicanus and P. caliensis. Metacercariae of the former species lacked a membrane or cyst and their bodies were yellow in color. Those of P. caliensis were contained in a transparent thin cyst and were pink in color. Morphotypes of metacercariae were determined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Based on the number and distribution of papillae in the ventral sucker, three morphotypes were found for P. mexicanus and two for P. caliensis. Analysis of DNA sequences (nuclear ribosomal 28S and ITS2 genes, and partial mitochondrial cox1 gene) confirmed the presence of P. mexicanus and provided the first molecular data for P. caliensis. The two species are phylogenetically distinct from each other and distant from the Asian species. The confirmation of P. caliensis as a separate species from P. mexicanus raises several questions about the ecology, biological diversity, and epidemiology of the genus Paragonimus in Costa Rica.

  18. Associated Factors to Seroprevalence of Ehrlichia spp. in Dogs of Quintana Roo, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Vega, Pedro Pablo; Rodríguez-Vivas, Roger Iván; Pérez-Osorio, Carlos; Villegas-Perez, Sandra Luz; Sauri-Arceo, Carlos Humberto

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the seroprevalence to Ehrlichia spp. in dogs from Xcalak, Quintana Roo, Mexico, and the associated factors. Serum samples were obtained from 118 dogs and used in an indirect immunofluorescent assay test for the detection of antibodies against Ehrlichia spp. A questionnaire was used to obtain information about possible variables associated with seroprevalence. These variables were analyzed through Chi2 test and logistic regression. Dog seroprevalence of antibodies against Ehrlichia spp. was 64% (75/118). Fifty-two percent (61/118) of dogs had tick infestation which was identified as Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato. Anemia was observed in 36% of dogs. Leucopenia (2.5%), thrombocytopenia (70%), and hemorrhage (14%) were also observed. Thirty-one percent (23/75) of dogs with anemia, 4% (3/75) of dogs with leucopenia, 80% (60/75) of dogs with thrombocytopenia, 17% (13/75) of dogs with hemorrhages, and 59% (44/75) of dogs with ticks were positive for Ehrlichia spp. antibodies. The factors associated with seroprevalence were age (1–3 and >3 years old, OR = 7.77 and OR = 15.39, resp.), tick infestation (OR = 3.13), and thrombocytopenia (OR = 3.36). In conclusion, seroprevalence of Ehrlichia spp. was high in the community of Xcalak and its associated factors were age, tick infestation, and thrombocytopenia. PMID:28096818

  19. Comparative efficacy of the combination fipronil-(S)-methoprene and the combination permethrin-imidacloprid against Dermacentor reticulatus, the European dog tick, applied topically to dogs.

    PubMed

    Doyle, V; Beugnet, F; Carithers, D

    2005-01-01

    This study compared the efficacy of two of the most widely veterinary-dispensed topical products for control of ticks on dogs: fipronil-(S)-methoprene and imidacloprid-permethrin. Eighteen healthy beagle dogs of both sexes were divided into three groups of six dogs. Group 1 served as the untreated control. Dogs in group 2 were treated with fipronil 10% + (S)-methoprene 9% w/v applied once on day 0, and those in group 3 were treated with imidacloprid 8.8% and permethrin 44% w/v, applied once on day 0. All dogs were infested with approximately 50 unfed Dermacentor reticulatus ticks on days 1, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, and 42, and ticks remaining were counted and removed 48 hours after each infestation. The 48-hour efficacy of the fipronil-(S)-methoprene combination remained at 100% at all assessment points through and including day 37, declining to 95.30% on day 44. The 48-hour efficacy of the imidacloprid-permethrin combination peaked at 86.46% on day 9, decreased to 73.37% by the third week, and fell to 63.53% by the end of the study (day 44). Significantly (P < .05) fewer ticks were recovered from dogs treated with fipronil-(S)-methoprene or imidacloprid-permethrin than from untreated control dogs at each infestation. Notably, the dogs treated with fipronil-(S)-methoprene had significantly (P < .05) lower tick counts at every assessment than the dogs treated with imidacloprid-permethrin.

  20. Occurrence of ectoparasites on dogs in rural regions of the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Costa-Junior, Livio Martins; Rembeck, Karina; Mendonça, Filipe Lucas de Melo; Azevedo, Sandro Coelho; Passos, Lygia Maria Friche; Ribeiro, Mucio Flavio Barbosa

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined occurrences of ectoparasites and identified them on dogs in rural regions in Brazil, and assessed the influence of climate on these parasites. Ectoparasites were randomly collected from 194 dogs living on farms located in Lavras (n = 92) and Nanuque (n = 102) during the dry season. During the subsequent rainy season, the same dogs in Lavras (n = 71) and Nanuque (n = 66) were resampled. During the experiment, fleas, ticks, lice and fly larvae were collected. The flea species Ctenocephalides felis was the most common ectoparasite collected from these dogs. The main tick species that infested the dogs in rural areas of Nanuque and Lavras was Amblyomma cajennense. In Lavras, the dogs had high levels of flea infestation (80.4 and 88.7% in the dry and rainy seasons, respectively) and low levels of tick infestation (19.6 and 28.2% in the dry and rainy seasons, respectively), without any significant differences in infestation rates between the seasons. In Nanuque, moderate levels of flea infestation (68.6 and 43.9% in the dry and rainy seasons, respectively) and A. cajennense (65.7 and 47.0% in the dry and rainy seasons, respectively) were observed, with significantly lower prevalence in the rainy season (p < 0.05). The presence of ectoparasites was evident at both times of the year, but the different temperatures may have influenced the occurrences of parasites in Lavras and Nanuque.

  1. Presence of three distinct genotypes within the Paragonimus westermani complex in northeastern India.

    PubMed

    Rekha Devi, K; Narain, Kanwar; Mahanta, Jagadish; Nirmolia, Tulika; Blair, David; Saikia, Sidhartha P; Agatsuma, Takeshi

    2013-01-01

    The name Paragonimus westermani (Kerbert, 1878) is commonly applied to members of a species complex that includes the well-known Asian lung fluke of medical and veterinary importance. Unambiguous molecular and morphological evidence showing the presence of a member of the complex in India has recently been published. In the present study we report the occurrence of 2 more members of the P. westermani complex in northeastern (NE) India. Surveys of the freshwater crabs Maydelliatelphusa lugubris in NE India revealed 2 morphologically distinct types of lung fluke metacercariae. Phylogenetic analyses, using DNA sequences from ITS2, 28S and cox1 gene regions indicate that these lung metacercariae belong to P. westermani complex. Type 1 metacercariae have a more basal position within the complex whereas type 2 metacercariae are closely related to the relatively derived forms of P. westermani from NE Asia (Japan, Korea, China) and Vietnam. A third type of metacercaria (type 3), detected in another crab host, Sartoriana spinigera in Assam, was phylogenetically close to P. siamensis, also a member of the P. westermani group. Molecular evidence has demonstrated the existence of 3 genotypes of lung flukes within the Paragonimus westermani complex in NE India. Two of these were previously unknown.

  2. Two novel phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase genes of Paragonimus westermani induced by oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Kim, S-H; Cai, G-B; Bae, Y-A; Lee, E-G; Lee, Y-S; Kong, Y

    2009-04-01

    Phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase (PHGPx; GPx4) plays unique roles in the protection of cells against oxidative stress by catalysing reduction of lipid hydroperoxides. We characterized 2 novel GPx genes from a lung fluke, Paragonimus westermani (designated PwGPx1 and PwGPx2). These single copy genes spanned 6559 and 12 371 bp, respectively, and contained each of 5 intervening introns. The PwGPx2 harboured a codon for Sec and a Sec insertion sequence motif. Proteins encoded by the Paragonimus genes demonstrated a primary structure characteristic to the PHGPx family, including preservation of catalytic and glutathione-binding domains and absence of the subunit interaction domain. Expression of PwGPx1 increased gradually as the parasite matured, whereas that of PwGPx2 was temporally regulated. PwGPx2 was expressed at the basal level from the metacercariae to the 3-week-old juveniles; however, the expression was significantly induced in the 7-week-old immature worms and reached a plateau in the 12-week-old adults and eggs. PwGPx1 and PwGPx2 were largely localized in vitellocytes within vitelline glands and eggs. Oxidative stress-inducible paraquat, juglone and H2O2 substantially augmented the PwGPx1 and PwGPx2 expressions in viable worms by 1.5- to 11-fold. Our results strongly suggested that PwGPxs may actively participate in detoxification of oxidative hazards in P. westermani.

  3. Paragonimus westermani: identification and characterization of the fasciclin I domain-containing protein.

    PubMed

    Song, Su-Min; Shin, Jong-Won; de Guzman, Jefferson V; Kim, Jin; Yu, Hak-Sun; Jha, Bijay Kumar; Kong, Hyun-Hee; Hong, Yeonchul; Chung, Dong-Il

    2010-06-01

    Paragonimus westermani is a trematode parasite that causes inflammatory lung disease as well as systemic infections in carnivorous mammals. The interaction of the parasite with host cells and paired worms is initiated by adhesion and plays an important role in parasite proliferation and differentiation. In this study, we isolated a cDNA encoding a P. westermani fasciclin I domain-containing protein (Pwfas-I). The fasiclin-I domain is suggested to be involved in cell adhesion, migration, and differentiation. Immunohistochemical analysis of P. westermani adult worms with polyclonal anti-Pwfas-I serum revealed immunoreactivity in the egg shells and the cells lining the sub-tegumental layer of adult worm throughout the contact regions of the cyst wall and paired worms. Using cell adhesion and spreading assays, we showed that Pwfas-I supports cell adhesion and spreading. Furthermore, we determined that the alphanubeta5 integrin was a functional receptor for the Pwfas-I. Taken together, these results suggest that Pwfas-I may be functional for the modulation of cell adhesion via binding with alphanubeta5 integrin in the extracellular matrix of Paragonimus. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. A new record of Paragonimus other than P. westermani in southern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Rangsiruji, Achariya; Sugiyama, Hiromu; Morishima, Yasuyuki; Kameoka, Yosuke; Donsakul, Thawat; Binchai, Sutheewan; Ketudat, Punsin

    2006-01-01

    Field surveys of Paragonimus in Surat Thani Province, southern Thailand, revealed a new record of a lung fluke species other than P. westermani. The metacercariae were obtained from the crab, Ranguna smalleyi. The cysts of the metacercariae were spherical in shape and the larval body in the cysts contained pinkish granules. Fully mature adult worms were obtained from experimental infections with a rat and a ferret. The adult worms from the two host animals resembled each other, except for size, and had the anatomical characteristics of P. bangkokensis, ie the cuticular spines were arranged mainly in groups, the ovaries were highly branched, while the testes were more simply divided. Chromosomal preparations of the testes showed a haploid number of 11. As no sequence data of P. bangkokensis has been deposited in the GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ nucleotide database, the ITS2 region was sequenced using the metacercariae as starting material. A similarity search of P. bangkokensis ITS2 sequence using the BLAST program revealed that there was only one base difference between this population and P. harinasutai occurring in central Thailand. The result may suggest a close relationship between P. bangkokensis and P. harinasutai. This is the first description of Paragonimus species other than P. westermani occurring in southern Thailand.

  5. Serological diagnosis of North American Paragonimiasis by Western blot using Paragonimus kellicotti adult worm antigen.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Peter U; Curtis, Kurt C; Folk, Scott M; Wilkins, Patricia P; Marcos, Luis A; Weil, Gary J

    2013-06-01

    Abstract. We studied the value of an IgG Western blot (WB) with Paragonimus kellicotti (Pk) antigen for diagnosis of North American paragonimiasis. The test was evaluated with sera from patients with Pk and Paragonimus westermani infections, with control sera from patients with other helminth infections, and sera from healthy Americans. All 11 proven Pk infection sera and two samples from suspected cases that were negative by P. westermani WB at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) contained antibodies to antigens at 34 kDa and at 21/23 kDa. Seven of 7 P. westermani sera contained antibodies to the 34 kDa antigen, but only 2 recognized the 21/23 kDa doublet. No control samples were reactive with these antigens. Antibody reactivity declined after praziquantel treatment. Thus, the P. kellicotti WB appears to be superior to P. westermani WB for diagnosing Pk infections, and it may be useful for assessing responses to treatment.

  6. Discovery of Paragonimus westermani in Vietnam and its molecular phylogenetic status in P. westermani complex.

    PubMed

    Doanh, Pham Ngoc; Shinohara, Akio; Horii, Yoichiro; Habe, Shigehisa; Nawa, Yukifumi

    2009-04-01

    Paragonimus westermani is the most well-known species among the genus Paragonimus. It is widely distributed in Asia with considerable genetic diversity to form P. westermani species complex. While P. westermani distributed in Japan, Korea, China, and Taiwan are genetically homogeneous to form the East Asia group, those found in other geographic areas are heterogeneous and would be divided into several groups. Recent discoveries of P. westermani in India and Sri Lanka highlighted new insights on molecular phylogenetic relationship of geographic isolates of this species complex. Since Vietnam is located at the east end of Southeast Asia, the intermediate position between South and East Asia, it is of interest to see whether P. westermani is distributed in this country. Here, we report that P. westermani metacercariae were found in mountainous crabs, Potamiscus sp., collected in Quangtri province in the central Vietnam. Adult worms were successfully obtained by experimental infection in cats. Molecular phylogenetic analyses revealed that P. westermani of Vietnamese isolates have high similarities with those of East Asia group.

  7. Serological Diagnosis of North American Paragonimiasis by Western Blot Using Paragonimus kellicotti Adult Worm Antigen

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Peter U.; Curtis, Kurt C.; Folk, Scott M.; Wilkins, Patricia P.; Marcos, Luis A.; Weil, Gary J.

    2013-01-01

    We studied the value of an IgG Western blot (WB) with Paragonimus kellicotti (Pk) antigen for diagnosis of North American paragonimiasis. The test was evaluated with sera from patients with Pk and Paragonimus westermani infections, with control sera from patients with other helminth infections, and sera from healthy Americans. All 11 proven Pk infection sera and two samples from suspected cases that were negative by P. westermani WB at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) contained antibodies to antigens at 34 kDa and at 21/23 kDa. Seven of 7 P. westermani sera contained antibodies to the 34 kDa antigen, but only 2 recognized the 21/23 kDa doublet. No control samples were reactive with these antigens. Antibody reactivity declined after praziquantel treatment. Thus, the P. kellicotti WB appears to be superior to P. westermani WB for diagnosing Pk infections, and it may be useful for assessing responses to treatment. PMID:23589531

  8. Genetically variant populations of Paragonimus proliferus Hsia & Chen, 1964 from central Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Doanh, P N; Hien, H V; Nonaka, N; Horii, Y; Nawa, Y

    2013-06-01

    Among about 50 nominal Paragonimus species, Paragonimus proliferus is rather a rare species, found only in Yunnan province, China, until our recent discovery of this species in Lai Chau province, northern Vietnam close to Yunnan, China. Here we add Quang Binh province, central Vietnam as a new endemic area of P. proliferus. Large excysted metacercariae found in mountainous crabs, Potamiscus tannanti, were morphologically identified as P. proliferus, which was confirmed further by molecular analyses. Second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) sequences of the P. proliferus population in Quang Binh province were completely (100%) identical with those of P. proliferus populations in Lai Chau province, northern Vietnam and Yunnan province, China. However, cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (CO1) gene sequences of Quang Binh population were significantly different (5.6%) from that of previously reported northern Vietnam and Yunnan, China populations. A phylogenetic tree revealed that all CO1 sequences of P. proliferus Quang Binh population formed a distinct group, which was clustered with northern Vietnam and Yunnan, China populations with the bootstrap value of 75%. This is the first record of the genetically variant population of P. proliferus, distribution of which is geographically remote from the previously reported endemic areas in the border between northern Vietnam and Yunnan, China, suggesting that P. proliferus may be much more widely distributed in the Indochina peninsula (or South-East Asia) than expected.

  9. Delusional Infestation and Chronic Pruritus: A Review.

    PubMed

    Kimsey, Lynn S

    2016-03-01

    The literature on chronic pruritus, paresthesia and delusional infestation indicates that a wide variety of conditions ranging from AIDS to vitamin deficiencies may cause these symptoms. In many, or perhaps most of these cases, activation of itch pathways seems to be the underlying cause of the skin sensations and perhaps even the visual hallucinations characteristic of delusional infestation. The principle difference between diagnoses of chronic pruritus and delusional infestation appears to lie in the patient's interpretation of the cause of the symptoms, rather than underlying physiological differences. Delusional infestation, paresthesia and chronic pruritus must be considered symptoms of underlying conditions.

  10. Increasing bedbug, Cimex lectularius, infestations in Kuwait.

    PubMed

    El-Azazy, Osama M E; Al-Behbehani, Bahja; Abdou, Nadra-Elwgoud M I

    2013-08-01

    Bedbug, Cimex lectularius, human infestations were reported in the State of Kuwait in the last 2 years. Eleven separate infestations from different localities were received at the Veterinary Laboratories indicating that bedbug is widespread in the State of Kuwait. There was circumstantial evidence to suggest the transfer of bugs with recent immigrants or used furniture. The spread of infestation can be attributed to the increase in migrant labor and their mobility inside the country. The increase in reported cases appears also consistent with a worldwide increase in bedbug infestations.

  11. Efficacy of fipronil, amitraz and (S)-methoprene combination spot-on for dogs against adult dog fleas (Ctenocephalides canis, Curtis, 1826).

    PubMed

    Bouhsira, Emilie; Yoon, Stephen S; Roques, Martine; Manavella, Coralie; Vermot, Solange; Cramer, Luiz G; Ollagnier, Catherine; Franc, Michel

    2011-07-15

    A novel spot-on formulation combining fipronil, amitraz and (S)-methoprene (CERTIFECT™, Merial Limited, GA, USA) was evaluated in adult Beagle dogs in a study to determine its adulticidal efficacy against the dog flea (Ctenocephalides canis, Curtis, 1826). Sixteen dogs were randomly allocated to treatment groups: 8 dogs served as untreated controls, and 8 dogs were treated once. Treatment consisted of applying a new combination formulation to deliver at least 6.7mg fipronil/kg body weight (bw), 8.0mg amitraz/kg bw, and 6.0mg (S)-methoprene/kg bw. The combination was designed to enhance the efficacy against ticks of the original fipronil/(S)-methoprene combination. Each dog was infested with 100 adult unfed dog fleas within 24h prior to treatment and then at weekly intervals for 8 weeks after treatment. At 24h after treatment or after each subsequent infestation, each dog was combed thoroughly to remove live fleas to be counted. A single treatment with CERTIFECT provided excellent knock-down of fleas within 24h after treatment and controlled re-infestations for up to 7 weeks (efficacy ≥96.5%, p<0.05). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Tick infestation of the eyelid.

    PubMed

    Samaha, A; Green, W R; Traboulsi, E I; Ma'luf, R

    1998-02-01

    To report the rare occurrence of tick infestation of the eyelid margin. A 58-year-old woman was initially examined with a small yellow lesion of the left upper eyelid margin that appeared after she felt a sting near her eye. Close examination disclosed an insect body attached to the eyelid margin. En bloc excision of the insect with part of the eyelid was performed. Gross examination of the specimen identified the organism as the nymph stage of a bloated tick of the genus Hyalomma but of an uncertain species. Ticks (Hyalomma) can become embedded in the meibomian gland orifice and manifest as a mass at the eyelid margin.

  13. Afoxolaner against fleas: immediate efficacy and resultant mortality after short exposure on dogs

    PubMed Central

    Beugnet, Frédéric; deVos, Christa; Liebenberg, Julian; Halos, Lénaïg; Fourie, Josephus

    2014-01-01

    The speed of efficacy of afoxolaner (NexGard®) against Ctenocephalides felis fleas was evaluated in two studies. Study A assessed the efficacy against existing fleas whereas study B assessed the efficacy against new infesting fleas. In study A, 12 dogs were allocated to the untreated group and 20 dogs to the treated group. All dogs were infested by 100 fleas each at Day −1, treated at Day 0 and flea combed at 2 h or at 6 h post treatment. In study B, 6 dogs were allocated to the untreated group and 10 to the treated group. They were infested with 100 fleas each on Days 2, 7, 14, 21 and 28. Fleas were removed and counted at 6 h post-infestation. Immediate and persistent efficacies were evaluated by counting fleas on the dogs. To evaluate induced mortality after exposure on dogs, fleas collected alive were placed in an insectarium for 24 h and assessed for viability. The immediate efficacy on dogs was significant at 6 h with 100%. The induced death of the fleas collected live from dogs 2 h after exposure was 99.7%. Concerning new infesting fleas, the observed efficacy at 6 h and the induced mortality were significantly different (p < 0.05) from the control at all time-points. At 6 h, the prophylactic efficacy was > 97% at Day 2 and Day 8 and > 90% at Day 14. The induced mortality after 6 h of exposure on dogs varied between 73.3% and 100% for the whole study. PMID:25148564

  14. Afoxolaner against fleas: immediate efficacy and resultant mortality after short exposure on dogs.

    PubMed

    Beugnet, Frédéric; deVos, Christa; Liebenberg, Julian; Halos, Lénaïg; Fourie, Josephus

    2014-01-01

    The speed of efficacy of afoxolaner (NexGard) against Ctenocephalides felis fleas was evaluated in two studies. Study A assessed the efficacy against existing fleas whereas study B assessed the efficacy against new infesting fleas. In study A, 12 dogs were allocated to the untreated group and 20 dogs to the treated group. All dogs were infested by 100 fleas each at Day -1, treated at Day 0 and flea combed at 2 h or at 6 h post treatment. In study B, 6 dogs were allocated to the untreated group and 10 to the treated group. They were infested with 100 fleas each on Days 2, 7, 14, 21 and 28. Fleas were removed and counted at 6 h post-infestation. Immediate and persistent efficacies were evaluated by counting fleas on the dogs. To evaluate induced mortality after exposure on dogs, fleas collected alive were placed in an insectarium for 24 h and assessed for viability. The immediate efficacy on dogs was significant at 6 h with 100%. The induced death of the fleas collected live from dogs 2 h after exposure was 99.7%. Concerning new infesting fleas, the observed efficacy at 6 h and the induced mortality were significantly different (p < 0.05) from the control at all time-points. At 6 h, the prophylactic efficacy was > 97% at Day 2 and Day 8 and > 90% at Day 14. The induced mortality after 6 h of exposure on dogs varied between 73.3% and 100% for the whole study.

  15. The curative and antioxidative efficiency of ivermectin and ivermectin + vitamin E-selenium treatment on canine Sarcoptes scabiei infestation.

    PubMed

    Behera, Suvendu Kumar; Dimri, Umesh; Singh, Shanker Kumar; Mohanta, Ranjan Kumar

    2011-04-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the curative and antioxidative efficacy of ivermectin and ivermectin + vitamin E-selenium, and the influence of these agents on oxidative stress parameters in canines infested by Sarcoptes scabiei. Twenty two sarcoptic mites infested dogs and nine healthy dogs of 6 months to 2 years of age were divided into three groups. Group I comprised of healthy dogs (n=9) whereas animals in group II (n=11) and III (n=11) were positive for scabies. Group II animals were treated with only 1% ivermectin @ 0.2 mg/kg SC whereas group III were additionally treated with Vitamin E and selenium (tocopherol 50 mg + Se 1.5 mg/ml) @ 0.5 ml/20 kg IM at weekly intervals for three times. Blood samples were collected on day 0 and 28 post therapy. The values for hemato-biochemical parameters and activities of antioxidant enzymes were significantly decreased (P<0.05) whereas level of lipid peroxidation was significantly increased in all the infested dogs in comparison to the healthy dogs on day 0 which approached normalcy by day 28 post therapy. The dogs of group III showed better clinical recovery in comparison to group II at the end of therapy. Thus, administration of vitamin E and selenium in addition to standard therapy can alleviate these alterations hastening the clinical recovery of diseased dogs and can be recommended as an adjunct therapy with miticides for canine sarcoptic mange. © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

  16. Divergent long-terminal-repeat retrotransposon families in the genome of Paragonimus westermani

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Young-An

    2003-01-01

    To gain information on retrotransposons in the genome of Paragonimus westermani, PCR was carried out with degenerate primers, specific to protease and reverse transcriptase (rt) genes of long-terminal-repeat (LTR) retrotransposons. The PCR products were cloned and sequenced, after which 12 different retrotransposon-related sequences were isolated from the trematode genome. These showed various degrees of identity to the polyprotein of divergent retrotransposon families. A phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that these sequences could be classified into three different families of LTR retrotransposons, namely, Xena, Bel, and Gypsy families. Of these, two mRNA transcripts were detected by reverse transcriptase-PCR, showing that these two elements preserved their mobile activities. The genomic distributions of these two sequences were found to be highly repetitive. These results suggest that there are diverse retrotransposons including the ancient Xena family in the genome of P. westermani, which may have been involved in the evolution of the host genome. PMID:14699263

  17. [Epidemiological investigation on the intermediate hosts of Paragonimus in Ninghai County of Zhejiang Province].

    PubMed

    Liu, Jian-Fa; Wu, Yan; Tang, Zhi-Yuan; Meng, Dan; Yang, Shu-Juan; Jiang, Wen-Wen

    2009-08-01

    Freshwater crabs and snails were collected from Ninghai County in Zhejiang Province, and examined respectively for Paragonimus metacercariae and cercariae. Among 97 freshwater crabs found, the prevalence was 11.3% (11/97) with a mean intensity of 1 metacercariae per crab. It was 10.2% (5/49) and 20.2% (4/20) in the groups weighted 5-15 g and 15-25 g respectively, with an average intensity of 1, and no metacercariae were found in weight group of 25-35 g. Two positive crabs were found from 20 crabs with a low weight (< 5 g). Male to female crabs ratio was 2.5:1, and there was no significant difference in prevalence between males [12.7%(7/55)] and females [9.1% (2/22)]. No cercariae or metacercariae were found in 200 snails (Semisulcospira libertino).

  18. Excretory bladder: the source of cysteine proteases in Paragonimus westermani metacercariae

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hyun-Jong; Kang, Shin-Yong; Kong, Yoon; Cho, Seung-Yull

    2002-01-01

    The cysteine proteases of Paragonimus westermani metacercariae are involved in metacercarial excystment, host immune modulation, and possibly in tissue penetration. In order to clarify the origin of the enzymes, 28 and 27 kDa cysteine proteases in metacercarial excretory-secretory products were purified through the FPLC system using Mono Q column chromatography. The polyclonal antibodies to the enzymes were produced in BALB/c mice. Immunolocalization studies revealed that both cysteine proteases were distributed at the linings of excretory bladder and excretory concretions of the metacercariae. It was suggested that the excretory epithelium of P. westermani undertake the secretory function of metacercarial cysteine proteases, in addition to its role as a route for eliminating waste products. PMID:12073734

  19. Bed Bug Infestations in an Urban Environment

    PubMed Central

    Svoboda, Tomislav J.; De Jong, Iain J.; Kabasele, Karl J.; Gogosis, Evie

    2005-01-01

    Until recently, bed bugs have been considered uncommon in the industrialized world. This study determined the extent of reemerging bed bug infestations in homeless shelters and other locations in Toronto, Canada. Toronto Public Health documented complaints of bed bug infestations from 46 locations in 2003, most commonly apartments (63%), shelters (15%), and rooming houses (11%). Pest control operators in Toronto (N = 34) reported treating bed bug infestations at 847 locations in 2003, most commonly single-family dwellings (70%), apartments (18%), and shelters (8%). Bed bug infestations were reported at 20 (31%) of 65 homeless shelters. At 1 affected shelter, 4% of residents reported having bed bug bites. Bed bug infestations can have an adverse effect on health and quality of life in the general population, particularly among homeless persons living in shelters. PMID:15829190

  20. Expression characteristics and specific antibody reactivity of diverse cathepsin F members of Paragonimus westermani.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Chun-Seob; Na, Byoung-Kuk; Chung, Dong-Ll; Kim, Jeong-Geun; Kim, Jin-Taek; Kong, Yoon

    2015-02-01

    Paragonimiasis, caused by the lung fluke Paragonimus, is a major food-borne helminthic disease. Differential diagnosis of paragonimiasis from tuberculosis and other infectious granulomas in the lung is a prerequisite to proper management of patients. Cysteine proteases of Paragonimus westermani (PwCPs) invoke specific antibody responses against patient sera, while antibody capturing activity of different PwCPs has not been comparatively analyzed. In this study, we observed the expressional regulation of 11 species of different PwCPs (PwCP1-11). We expressed recombinant PwCPs and assessed diagnostic reliability employing sera from patients with P. westermani (n=138), other trematodiases (n=80), cestodiases (n=60) and pulmonary tuberculosis (n=20), and those of normal controls (n=20). PwCPs formed a monophyletic clade into cathepsin F and showed differential expression patterns along with developmental stages of worm. Bacterially expressed recombinant PwCPs (rPwCPs) exhibited variable sensitivity of 38.4-84.5% and specificity of 87.2-100% in diagnosing homologous infection. rPwCPs recognized specific antibodies of experimental cat sera as early as 3 or 6weeks after infection. Patient sera of fascioliasis, Schistosomiasis japonicum and clonorchiasis demonstrated weak cross-reactions. Our results demonstrate that diverse PwCPs of the cathepsin F family participate in inducing specific antibody responses. Most P. westermani cathepsin F, except for PwCP2 (AAF21461), which showed negligible antibody responses, might be applicable for paragonimiasis serodiagnosis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Negative feedbacks on bark beetle outbreaks: widespread and severe spruce beetle infestation restricts subsequent infestation.

    PubMed

    Hart, Sarah J; Veblen, Thomas T; Mietkiewicz, Nathan; Kulakowski, Dominik

    2015-01-01

    Understanding disturbance interactions and their ecological consequences remains a major challenge for research on the response of forests to a changing climate. When, where, and how one disturbance may alter the severity, extent, or occurrence probability of a subsequent disturbance is encapsulated by the concept of linked disturbances. Here, we evaluated 1) how climate and forest habitat variables, including disturbance history, interact to drive 2000s spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis) infestation of Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii) across the Southern Rocky Mountains; and 2) how previous spruce beetle infestation affects subsequent infestation across the Flat Tops Wilderness in northwestern Colorado, which experienced a severe landscape-scale spruce beetle infestation in the 1940s. We hypothesized that drought and warm temperatures would promote infestation, whereas small diameter and non-host trees, which may reflect past disturbance by spruce beetles, would inhibit infestation. Across the Southern Rocky Mountains, we found that climate and forest structure interacted to drive the 2000s infestation. Within the Flat Tops study area we found that stands infested in the 1940s were composed of higher proportions of small diameter and non-host trees ca. 60 years later. In this area, the 2000s infestation was constrained by a paucity of large diameter host trees (> 23 cm at diameter breast height), not climate. This suggests that there has not been sufficient time for trees to grow large enough to become susceptible to infestation. Concordantly, we found no overlap between areas affected by the 1940s infestation and the current infestation. These results show a severe spruce beetle infestation, which results in the depletion of susceptible hosts, can create a landscape template reducing the potential for future infestations.

  2. Negative Feedbacks on Bark Beetle Outbreaks: Widespread and Severe Spruce Beetle Infestation Restricts Subsequent Infestation

    PubMed Central

    Hart, Sarah J.; Veblen, Thomas T.; Mietkiewicz, Nathan; Kulakowski, Dominik

    2015-01-01

    Understanding disturbance interactions and their ecological consequences remains a major challenge for research on the response of forests to a changing climate. When, where, and how one disturbance may alter the severity, extent, or occurrence probability of a subsequent disturbance is encapsulated by the concept of linked disturbances. Here, we evaluated 1) how climate and forest habitat variables, including disturbance history, interact to drive 2000s spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis) infestation of Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii) across the Southern Rocky Mountains; and 2) how previous spruce beetle infestation affects subsequent infestation across the Flat Tops Wilderness in northwestern Colorado, which experienced a severe landscape-scale spruce beetle infestation in the 1940s. We hypothesized that drought and warm temperatures would promote infestation, whereas small diameter and non-host trees, which may reflect past disturbance by spruce beetles, would inhibit infestation. Across the Southern Rocky Mountains, we found that climate and forest structure interacted to drive the 2000s infestation. Within the Flat Tops study area we found that stands infested in the 1940s were composed of higher proportions of small diameter and non-host trees ca. 60 years later. In this area, the 2000s infestation was constrained by a paucity of large diameter host trees (> 23 cm at diameter breast height), not climate. This suggests that there has not been sufficient time for trees to grow large enough to become susceptible to infestation. Concordantly, we found no overlap between areas affected by the 1940s infestation and the current infestation. These results show a severe spruce beetle infestation, which results in the depletion of susceptible hosts, can create a landscape template reducing the potential for future infestations. PMID:26000906

  3. Genomic characterization of lung flukes, Paragonimus heterotremus, P. siamensis, P. harinasutai, P. westermani and P. bangkokensis by RAPD markers.

    PubMed

    Intapan, P M; Kosuwan, T; Wongkham, C; Maleewong, W

    2004-09-20

    Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers were assayed in an attempt to discriminate among five species of Paragonimus. Genomic DNAs of two strains of Paragonimus heterotremus from two provinces in Thailand, Saraburi and Phitsanulok, as well as of P. siamensis, P. harinasutai, P. westermani and P. bangkokensis were extracted and amplified by an arbitrary primer, namely P2 (5-GTTTCGCTCC-3). RAPD patterns showed that those five species were genetically distinct, although they shared genomic DNA to some extent. This primer could also distinguish between two strains of P. heterotremus. The polymorphism observed allowed to construct a relationship dendrogram. The phylogenetic dendrogram showed that the P. heterotremus strains were closest to P. harinasutai, followed by P. siamensis, P. bangkokensis and P. westermani.

  4. [Two new species of freshwater crabs (Decapoda: Potamidae) serving as intermediate hosts of Paragonimus in Fujian, China].

    PubMed

    Cheng, You-zhu; Lin, Guo-hua; Li, You-song

    2010-08-01

    To investigate the natural resources of the freshwater crab which can serve as the intermediate hosts of Paragonimus in Pinghe and Youxi of Fujian Province. Freshwater crabs were collected. The morphological characteristics of the crabs and the habitats were observed. The crabs were dissected and examined for the presence of Paragonimus metacercariae. Two new species of crabs were described, named as Sinopotamon zhangzhouense sp. nov. and Bottapotamon youxiense sp. nov.. S. zhangzhouense sp. nov., holotype: male, carapace length 35.9 mm, breadth 42.8 mm, thickness 18.6 mm, collected from Pinghe County in southwest of Fujian. (24 degrees 14.206' N, 117 degrees 12.594' E). Distal segment of the first pleopod of male tended flattish, and showed palm nest-shaped concave, which divided into two point leafs, and longitudinal crack clearly identified in back. The end half of distal segment reversed to ventral outwardly. This species usually lived in the sluggish stream. The infection rate of Paragonimus westermani and P. cenocopiosus in S. zhangzhouense sp. nov. was 44.9% (35/78). B. youxiense sp. nov., holotype: male, carapace length 13.35 mm, breadth 16.63 mm, thickness 7.20 mm, collected from Youxi County in central Fujian (26 degrees 10.558' N, 118 degrees 22.012' E). The first pleopod of male was in slightly flat shape, ample and developed, as bow-like uplift. This species usually lived in the relatively flat terrain of stream. The infection rate of P. skrjabini metacercariae in B. youxiense sp. nov. was 92.1% (58/63). Two new species of freshwater crabs (S. zhangzhouense sp nov. and Ryouxiense sp. nov.) serving as the intermediate hosts of Paragonimus have been described.

  5. Comparative activity in dogs of deltamethrin- and diazinon-impregnated collars against Ctenocephalides felis.

    PubMed

    Franc, M; Cadiergues, M C

    1998-01-01

    To compare effectiveness of deltamethrin- and diazinon-impregnated collars against fleas (Ctenocephalides felis) in an experimental infestation. 30 Beagles. Dogs were housed in separate cages. Dogs were infested with 50 fleas each, and fleas were counted 24 hours later. Dogs were then fitted with a collar containing 4% deltamethrin (group 1) or 15% diazinon (group 2). Dogs in group 3 were controls. Fleas were counted 24 and 48 hours after collars were applied, and fleas were then removed. Dogs were reinfested with fleas on days 7, 14, 28, 60, 90, 120, 150, and 210. Fleas were counted 24 and 48 hours after each reinfestation. 48 hours after applying collars, flea counts were not notably decreased. Effectiveness in groups 1 and 2 was 24 and 29%, respectively. Infestation on day 7 was controlled, to a comparable extent, by both insecticides (effectiveness approx 85%). Effectiveness > 97% was obtained after collars had been worn for 14 days. Between days 14 and 91, both collars had comparable effectiveness (> 93%) that did not differ significantly. After day 91, effectiveness of the collar containing diazinon decreased sharply, whereas that of the collar containing deltamethrin remained > 90% until day 152. The collar containing deltamethrin controlled flea populations on dogs beginning 14 days after application and continuing until day 150. The collar containing diazinon controlled infestation for 90 days. Deltamethrin-impregnated collars are a new formulation that can be introduced into a program to easily control fleas.

  6. Ectoparasites of Stray Dogs in Mazandaran, Gilan and Qazvin Provinces, North and Center of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahimzade, Elahe; Fattahi, Roohollah; Ahoo, Mohammad Bagher

    2016-01-01

    Background: The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of ectoparasite infestations in stray dogs in Mazandaran, Gilan and Qazvin Provinces in fall and winter in 2013(December to March). Methods: Seventy dogs in 2013, from these Provinces were examined for ectoparasite infestation and diagnosis of them based on parasitological methods and identification keys was done. Results: The rate of infestation in these areas was 100%, 68.5% and 93.3% respectively. Fleas were the most common ectoparasites on dogs in this study followed by lice, ticks, flies and mites respectively. The isolated arthropods were fleas in 77.5%, lice in 50%, ticks in 8.6%, flies in 6.8% and mites in 5.1% of infested dogs. The ectoparasite of the dogs included 4 flea species: Ctenocephalides canis (29.8%), C. felis (19.9%), Pulex iritans (2.9%) and Xenopsiella cheopis (0.7%), 1 louse species: Trichodectes canis (41.3%), 1 tick species: Rhipicephalus sanguinus (0.7%), 1 fly species: Hippobosca sp. (1.1%) and 1 mite species: Sarcoptes scabiei (3.6%). Conclusion: Fleas and lice were the most common ectoparasites in stray dogs of the studied area. Some ectoparasites transmit important human disease, therefore regular monitoring of them is a major concern to control the arthropods and arthropods-borne diseases. PMID:27308294

  7. [A new species of the genus Nanhaipotamon (Decapoda:Potamidae) serving as intermediate host of Paragonimus skrjabini].

    PubMed

    Lin, Guo-Hua; Cheng, You-Zhu; Chen, Shao-Hong

    2013-02-01

    To describe a new species of the genus Nanhaipotamon. Freshwater crabs were collected in the counties of Yongtai, Minqing, Youxi, Songxi, Zhenghe and Shouning, Fujian Province. The morphological characteristics of the crabs were described. The habitats were observed and crabs examined for the presence of Paragonimus metacerariae. A new species of freshwater crabs named as Nanhaipotamon fujianense sp. nov. was described: holotype (FJ6132-1): male, carapace length 18.44 mm, breadth 23.64 mm, thickness 12.61 mm; allotype (FJ6132-2): female, length 18.76 mm, breadth 25.25 mm, thicknes 14.31 mm, collected from Yongtai County in the middle of Fujian (N 25 degrees 44,778'; E118 degrees 32,278', and 232 m above sea lever). Distal segment of the first male pleopod with triangle convex inner-distal angle, and the axe-like expanded out-distal angle. The out-lateral border slightly sloped downwards. The segment length is 2.1 times as long as the subdistal segment. The crabs usually lived in the crevice of small stream. Paragonimus metacerariae were found in the crabs collected from Yongtai, Minqing, Youxi, Songxi and Zhenghe Counties. A new species of freshwater crab (Nanhaipotamon fujianense sp. nov.) has been recorded which serves as the intermediate hosts of Paragonimus skrjabini.

  8. Detection of Paragonimus heterotremus eggs in experimentally infected cats by a polymerase chain reaction-based method.

    PubMed

    Intapan, Pewpan M; Wongkham, Chaisiri; Imtawil, Kanokwan J; Pumidonming, Wilawan; Prasongdee, Thidarat K; Miwa, Masanao; Maleewong, Wanchai

    2005-02-01

    A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) procedure for the detection of Paragonimus heterotremus eggs in stool samples was developed and compared with Stoll's egg count method. The primers were designed on the basis of a previously constructed pPH-13-specific DNA probe, which produced an approximate 0.5-kb amplified product. This PCR method could detect as few as 5 eggs in 0.6 g of artificially inoculated feces of a healthy control cat or as little as 1 x 10(-4) ng of P. heterotremus genomic DNA. The assay had 100% sensitivity in all infected cats. The method did not yield an approximate 0.5-kb product with DNA from other parasites such as Gnathostoma spinigerum, Trichinella spiralis, Fasciola gigantica, Echinostoma malayanum, Opisthorchis viverrini, Dirofilaria immitis, and Taenia saginata; exceptions were Paragonimus siamensis and Paragonimus westermani. In addition, no genomic DNA from Escherichia coli, Burkholderia pseudomallei, Acinetobacter anitratus, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Staphylococcus aureus, beta-Streptococcus grA, and Proteus mirabilis or from the vertebrate and invertebrate hosts of P. heterotremus was amplified in the PCR assay. This assay has great potential for application in clinical epidemiological studies.

  9. Paragonimus westermani possesses aerobic and anaerobic mitochondria in different tissues, adapting to fluctuating oxygen tension in microaerobic habitats.

    PubMed

    Takamiya, Shinzaburo; Fukuda, Koich; Nakamura, Takeshi; Aoki, Takashi; Sugiyama, Hiromu

    2010-12-01

    We previously showed that adult Paragonimus westermani, the causative agent of paragonimiasis and whose habitat is the host lung, possesses both aerobic and anaerobic respiratory chains, i.e., cyanide-sensitive succinate oxidase and NADH-fumarate reductase systems, in isolated mitochondria (Takamiya et al., 1994). This finding raises the intriguing question as to whether adult Paragonimus worms possess two different populations of mitochondria, one having an aerobic succinate oxidase system and the other an anaerobic fumarate reductase system, or whether the worms possess a single population of mitochondria possessing both respiratory chains (i.e., mixed-functional mitochondria). Staining of trematode tissues for cytochrome c oxidase activity showed three types of mitochondrial populations: small, strongly stained mitochondria with many cristae, localised in the tegument and tegumental cells; and two larger parenchymal cell mitochondria, one with developed cristae and the other with few cristae. The tegumental and parenchymal mitochondria could be separated by isopycnic density-gradient centrifugation and showed different morphological characteristics and respiratory activities, with low-density tegumental mitochondria having cytochrome c oxidase activity and high-density parenchymal mitochondria having fumarate reductase activity. These results indicate that Paragonimus worms possess three different populations of mitochondria, which are distributed throughout trematode tissues and function facultatively, rather than having mixed-functional mitochondria.

  10. Molecular identification of the trematode Paragonimus in faecal samples from the wild cat Prionailurus bengalensis in the Da Krong Nature Reserve, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Doanh, P N; Hien, H V; Tu, L A; Nonaka, N; Horii, Y; Nawa, Y

    2016-11-01

    Conventional identification of Paragonimus species and their natural definitive hosts is based on the morphological features of adult parasites isolated from the lungs of wild mammalian hosts. However, wild animals are protected by strict regulations and sampling is not always possible. Recently, molecular techniques have been developed to identify the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences of Paragonimus eggs in faeces/sputum of human patients. Also, mammalian hosts can be identified using the D-loop sequence of mitochondrial DNA in faecal samples. In this study, we used molecular techniques on faeces from wild animals collected in Da Krong Nature Reserve, Quang Tri province, central Vietnam, where Paragonimus metacercariae are highly prevalent in mountain crabs, to identify Paragonimus species and their natural definitive hosts. The results indicated that wild cats, Prionailurus bengalensis, were infected with at least three different Paragonimus species, P. westermani, P. skrjabini and P. heterotremus. Because all of these species can infect humans in Asian countries, human paragonimiasis should be considered in this area.

  11. Disease control through fertility control: Secondary benefits of animal birth control in Indian street dogs.

    PubMed

    Yoak, Andrew J; Reece, John F; Gehrt, Stanley D; Hamilton, Ian M

    2014-01-01

    We sought to (1) survey sexually intact street dogs for a wide range of diseases in three cities in Rajasthan, India and (2) evaluate links between the health of non-treated dogs and both the presence and duration of animal birth control (ABC) programs. ABC regimes sterilize and vaccinate stray dogs in an attempt to control their population and the spread of rabies. They are commonly suggested to improve the health of those dogs they serve, but here we provide evidence that these benefits also extend to untreated dogs in the community. Viral and bacterial disease seroprevalences were assessed in 240 sexually intact street dogs from Jaipur, Jodhpur, and Sawai Madhopur cities in October and September 2011. Those individuals and 50 additional dogs were assessed for the presence of ticks, fleas, fight wounds, and given body condition scores. Dogs in cities with an ABC program had with significantly (p<0.05) higher overall body condition scores, lower prevalence of open wounds likely caused by fighting, flea infestations, infectious canine hepatitis, Ehrlichia canis, Leptospira interrogans serovars, and canine distemper virus antibodies. However, those same dogs in cities with ABC programs had significantly higher prevalence of Brown Dog Tick (Rhipicephalus sanguineus) infestations. Canine parvovirus and Brucella canis prevalences were not significantly different between cities. This study is the first to demonstrate the health benefits of ABC on non-vaccinated diseases and non-treated individuals. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Persistent Pediatric Gastro-Intestinal Myiasis: A Case Report of Fly Larval Infestation with Musca Domestica with Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Kandi, Venkataramana; Lal, Sandeep Kumar; Akhila; Shruthi; Sandhya, K.; Simar, Harender; Pranuthi, Mispah; Kumar, Moses Vinay; Anand, Kalaskar; Rao, Sanjeev D.

    2013-01-01

    The occurrence of dipterous fly larvae in human is termed as human myiasis. Human myiasis can be classified based on clinical condition it causes like cutaneous myiasis, ocular myiasis, urogenital myiasis and intestinal myiasis. Based on the need for a particular host, myiasis can be divided as specific myiasis, semi-specific myiasis. Accidental myiasis results when the fly larvae are deposited/ingested by human resulting in infestation, which is also called as pseudomyiasis. Fly larvae may be present on the dead and decaying organic matter and domestic animals like dog and cats which are naturally infested with fly larvae and can be source for infection in children. Very few cases have been retrieved from literature on the occurrence of intestinal myiasis in children throughout the world. We report a case of two siblings in the same family infested with dipterous fly larvae. PMID:24049366

  13. Controlling zebra mussel infestations at hydroelectric plants

    SciTech Connect

    Sblendorio, R.P.; Malinchock, J.C. ); Claudi, R. )

    1991-07-01

    U.S. and Canadian utilities in the great lakes area have adopted techniques to temporarily prevent infestation of the zebra mussel in their hydro facilities, but are still looking for more permanent solutions.

  14. Distribution of phytopathogenic bacteria in infested seeds

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Populations of phytopathogenic bacteria representing five host-pathogen combinations were assessed to determine if there was a mathematical relationship common across seedborne bacterial diseases. Bacterial populations were estimated from naturally-infested seeds of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), peppe...

  15. Effects of gentiana scabra bage on expression of hepatic type I, III collagen proteins in Paragonimus skrjabini rats with liver fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Qu, Zhao-Xia; Li, Fang; Ma, Chao-Dong; Liu, Jun; Li, Shu-De; Wang, Wen-Lin

    2015-01-01

    To explore the effects of gentiana scabra bage on the expression of hepatic collagen proteins in Paragonimus skrjabini rats with liver fibrosis. Immunohistochemical technique was used to observe the changes of content of hepatic type I, III collagen proteins in Paragonimus skrjabini rats with liver fibrosis before and after the gentiana scabra bage treatmeat. Comparing with the model group, changes of hepatic type I and type III collagen proteins in gentiana scabra bage treated group were significantly weakened. Gentiana scabra bage treatment can reduce the content of hepatic type III and type I collagen protein significantly in Paragonimus skrjabini rats with liver fibrosis, thereby, playing the role against hepatic fibrosis. Copyright © 2015 Hainan Medical College. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Bedbugs: Helping your patient through an infestation.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Omer; Syed, Usama Mohammad; Tomecki, Kenneth J

    2017-03-01

    Bedbugs--hematophagous parasitic arthropods of the genus Cimex--have been unwelcome bedfellows for humans for thousands of years. With increases in population density, ease of travel, and insecticide resistance, bedbugs have reemerged. As a result, physicians are often at the forefront in the diagnosis and treatment of bedbug infestation. This review summarizes the biology and epidemiology of bedbugs and provides details on the diagnosis and treatment of bedbug infestation.

  17. Tick Infestation of Eyelid: Two Case Reports

    PubMed Central

    Uzun, Aslıhan; Gök, Mustafa; İşcanlı, Murat Doğan

    2016-01-01

    Tick infestation of the eyelid is a rare but serious condition that can lead to Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever. In this report, we describe two cases who presented with tick infestation of the eyelid. Neither patient developed systemic disease or adverse sequelae after tick extraction. Complete mechanical removal of ticks located on the eyelid with blunt forceps is a safe and effective treatment method. PMID:28058170

  18. Helminth and protozoan parasites in dogs and cats in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Vanparijs, O; Hermans, L; van der Flaes, L

    1991-01-01

    This study investigates the level of helminthic and protozoal infestation over the last 10 years in strays, well-cared-for dogs and cats. Determination of the prevalence of infections was based either on faecal examination or on worm counts at necropsy. Of 2324 faecal flotations (NaCl sp.gr. 1.20) of stray dogs, 34.2% had eggs or proglottids of one or more worm species consisting of Toxocara canis (17.4%), Toxascaris leonina (10.1%), Uncinaria stenocephala (11.4%), Trichuris vulpis (7.0%) and cestodes (2.1%). Isospora oocysts were observed in 5.2% of the dogs. The data on the distribution of the various worm species in the positive dogs indicate that T. canis eggs were by far the most common (50.9%). Necropsy data from 212 infected dogs indicate that 38.9% were infected with T. canis and 33.7% with T. leonina. The overall prevalence of worm infestation of 246 well-cared-for kennel dogs, based on worm egg counts by the McMaster technique, was 36.1%. Of 30 feline faecal samples examined by flotation, 83.3% were positive for parasites, including Toxocara cati (60%), Ancylostoma tubaeformae (36.6%), Taenia (Hydatigera) taeniaeformis (20%) and coccidia (30%). Toxocara cati was the most frequently found worm species at the necropsy of 25 cats (52%). Toxoplasma was not observed.

  19. "Rickettsia amblyommii" and R. montanensis infection in dogs following natural exposure to ticks.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Anne; Little, Susan E; Shaw, Edward

    2014-01-01

    To determine the risk of canine infection with spotted fever group (SFG) Rickettsia spp. following natural tick exposure, 10 dogs determined to be free of evidence of exposure to or infection with tick-borne disease agents were exposed to ticks via weekly walks in a wooded area in north-central Oklahoma. After each walk, dogs were examined and the number and species of ticks present were recorded. The dogs were then returned to outdoor kennels to allow the infestations and subsequent transmission of any pathogens to proceed. Serum samples and whole blood were collected from each dog twice weekly for 121 days and evaluated via indirect fluorescence antibody (IFA) for antibodies reactive to Rickettsia rickettsii, R. montanensis, and "R. amblyommii," and by PCR for evidence of Rickettsia spp. Dogs became infested with a total of 57-108 ticks over the entire 8-week infestation period (weekly average tick infestation=12.0±4.1). The great majority of the ticks present were Amblyomma americanum (90.5%), with a small number of Dermacentor variabilis and A. maculatum also identified. All (10/10) dogs seroconverted to R. rickettsii, R. montanensis, and "R. amblyommii," with mean maximum inverse titers of 1176, 1448, and 6654, respectively, for all dogs in the study. Maximum inverse titers to "R. amblyommii" ranged from 4096 to 16,384 and were higher in 9/10 dogs than maximum inverse titers to R. rickettsii or R. montanensis. Sequence-confirmed SFG Rickettsia spp. (R. montanensis and "R. amblyommii") were occasionally, but not consistently, identified from whole blood by PCR. Taken together, our data suggest that, in areas where A. americanum is common, antibodies reactive to R. rickettsii in dogs may be due instead to infection with "R. amblyommii" or other, closely related SFG Rickettsia spp.

  20. CHEMOTHERAPY WITH BITHIONOL-S-OXIDE IN ANIMALS INFECTED WITH PARAGONIMUS WESTERMANI.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    TREMATODES, CHEMOTHERAPY), (*PARASITIC DISEASES, CHEMOTHERAPEUTIC AGENTS), (*CHEMOTHERAPEUTIC AGENTS, PARASITIC DISEASES), EGGS, MORPHOLOGY(BIOLOGY), DOSAGE, MEDICAL EXAMINATION, HISTOLOGY, PATHOLOGY, DOGS , CATS , MONKEYS, TAIWAN

  1. Babesiosis in an Egyptian boy aquired from pet dog, and a general review.

    PubMed

    El-Bahnasawy, Mamdouh M; Khalil, Hazem H M; Morsy, Tosson A

    2011-04-01

    Human babesiosis has been documented in many countries. It is a zoonotic protozoan disease of medical, veterinary and economic importance. In this study, a twelve years old boy was referred to the hospital with intermittent fever of unknown origin. On clinical, parasitological and serological bases the case proved to be babesiosis. The boy acquired the infection from his pet dog which was heavily infested with Rhipicephalus sanguineus and suffered a mild feature of animal babesiosis. The patient was successfully treated with Atovaquone plus Azithromycin without relapse for one month follow up. The pet dog was sent to Governmental Veterinary Hospital at Abbassia for treatment from babesiosis and tick infestation.

  2. Exposure to vector-borne pathogens in privately owned dogs living in different socioeconomic settings in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Figueredo, Luciana Aguiar; Sales, Kamila Gaudêncio da Silva; Deuster, Katrin; Pollmeier, Matthias; Otranto, Domenico; Dantas-Torres, Filipe

    2017-08-30

    This survey was conducted in four Brazilian cities, from three federative units (Pernambuco, Minas Gerais, and Federal District), representing different socioeconomic settings, to determine the presence of antibodies to or antigens and DNA of selected pathogens in privately owned dogs. From January to April 2015, blood and serum samples were collected and assayed using different tests. In particular, antibodies to Anaplasma spp., Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, and Ehrlichia spp., and antigens of Dirofilaria immitis were detected using a rapid enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, whereas antibodies to Babesia spp. were detected by an immunofluorescence antibody assay. Moreover, the presence of Leishmania DNA in blood samples was assessed by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Overall, 208 (69.3%) out of 300 dogs were positive for at least one tested pathogen (intended here as antibodies, antigen or DNA, as abovementioned), with 139 (66.8%) of them being positive to two or more pathogens. No dog presented antibodies to B. burgdorferi s.l., and D. immitis antigens were detected exclusively in dogs from Pernambuco. Among positive dogs, the most common clinical signs were lymphadenomegaly (45.2%), onychogryphosis (41.3%), dermatitis (34.1%), pale mucous membranes (19.7%), weight loss (14.9%), fever (12.5%), alopecia (11.1%), and lethargy (4.8%). Tick and flea infestations were recorded in 41.7% and 29.3% of the dogs, respectively, with 49 (16.3%) dogs being co-infested by both ticks and fleas. Most of the tick- and flea-infested dogs presented high level of infestation (>10 ticks and >20 fleas). The level of tick infestation varied significantly among federative units, being highest in Minas Gerais (68.0%), followed by Pernambuco (36.0%) and Federal District (21.0%). On the other hand, the level of flea infestation was higher in Pernambuco (50.0%), followed by Minas Gerais (29.0%) and Federal District (9.0%). The number of dog owners reporting the use of

  3. Infection status of Paragonimus westermani metacercariae in crayfish (Cambaroides similis) collected from Bogildo (Islet), Wando-gun, Chollanam-do, Korea

    PubMed Central

    Min, Duk-Young

    1999-01-01

    During the period from October 1996 to November 1998, the infection status of Paragonimus westermani metacercariae in freshwater crayfish (Cambaroides similis) collected from Bogildo (islet), Wando-gun, Chollanam-do, which is known for an endemic area of P. westermani in Korea, were examined. The average infection rate of Paragonimus metacercariae in crayfish was 88.6%, and mean number of metacercariae per infected crayfish was 30.2. This metacercarial density was the highest in the group of weight in 7.1-9.0 g. These results suggest that the natural life cycle of P. westermani is still well-preserved in Bogildo. PMID:10188385

  4. Eco-Bio-Social Determinants for House Infestation by Non-domiciliated Triatoma dimidiata in the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Dumonteil, Eric; Nouvellet, Pierre; Rosecrans, Kathryn; Ramirez-Sierra, Maria Jesus; Gamboa-León, Rubi; Cruz-Chan, Vladimir; Rosado-Vallado, Miguel; Gourbière, Sébastien

    2013-01-01

    Background Chagas disease is a vector-borne disease of major importance in the Americas. Disease prevention is mostly limited to vector control. Integrated interventions targeting ecological, biological and social determinants of vector-borne diseases are increasingly used for improved control. Methodology/principal findings We investigated key factors associated with transient house infestation by T. dimidiata in rural villages in Yucatan, Mexico, using a mixed modeling approach based on initial null-hypothesis testing followed by multimodel inference and averaging on data from 308 houses from three villages. We found that the presence of dogs, chickens and potential refuges, such as rock piles, in the peridomicile as well as the proximity of houses to vegetation at the periphery of the village and to public light sources are major risk factors for infestation. These factors explain most of the intra-village variations in infestation. Conclusions/significance These results underline a process of infestation distinct from that of domiciliated triatomines and may be used for risk stratification of houses for both vector surveillance and control. Combined integrated vector interventions, informed by an Ecohealth perspective, should aim at targeting several of these factors to effectively reduce infestation and provide sustainable vector control. PMID:24086790

  5. Eco-bio-social determinants for house infestation by non-domiciliated Triatoma dimidiata in the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Dumonteil, Eric; Nouvellet, Pierre; Rosecrans, Kathryn; Ramirez-Sierra, Maria Jesus; Gamboa-León, Rubi; Cruz-Chan, Vladimir; Rosado-Vallado, Miguel; Gourbière, Sébastien

    2013-01-01

    Chagas disease is a vector-borne disease of major importance in the Americas. Disease prevention is mostly limited to vector control. Integrated interventions targeting ecological, biological and social determinants of vector-borne diseases are increasingly used for improved control. We investigated key factors associated with transient house infestation by T. dimidiata in rural villages in Yucatan, Mexico, using a mixed modeling approach based on initial null-hypothesis testing followed by multimodel inference and averaging on data from 308 houses from three villages. We found that the presence of dogs, chickens and potential refuges, such as rock piles, in the peridomicile as well as the proximity of houses to vegetation at the periphery of the village and to public light sources are major risk factors for infestation. These factors explain most of the intra-village variations in infestation. These results underline a process of infestation distinct from that of domiciliated triatomines and may be used for risk stratification of houses for both vector surveillance and control. Combined integrated vector interventions, informed by an Ecohealth perspective, should aim at targeting several of these factors to effectively reduce infestation and provide sustainable vector control.

  6. Molecular cloning and characterization of copper/zinc-superoxide dismutase of Paragonimus westermani.

    PubMed

    Li, Ai-Hua; Na, Byoung-Kuk; Kong, Yoon; Cho, Shin-Hyeong; Zhao, Qin-Ping; Kim, Tong-Soo

    2005-04-01

    Superoxide dismutases (SODs; EC 1.15.1.1) play important roles in the protection of the parasites against cellular oxygen-mediated killing of the hosts. A copper/zinc-containing SOD (Cu/Zn-SOD) was identified previously from lung fluke, Paragonimus westermani. To expand our understanding of P. westermani SOD, we isolated a complementary DNA encoding a Cu/Zn-SOD, expressed the active enzyme in Escherichia coli, and characterized its biochemical properties. The deduced amino acid (aa) sequence of the gene shared up to 73.7% identities with Cu/Zn-SODs of other helminths and shared well-conserved characteristic motifs and essential aa residues involved in coordinating copper and zinc enzymatic functions. Recombinant Cu/ Zn-SOD exhibited comparable biochemical properties with that of the native enzyme, including pH optima and potassium cyanide-and hydrogen peroxide-sensitive inhibition profiles. The active enzyme consisted of 2 identical subunits covalently linked by disulfide bonds. The enzyme was constitutively expressed throughout various developmental stages of the parasite. The levels increased as P. westermani matured and plateaued in adult stage. Our result suggests the enzyme might play an important role for parasites to survive in the hosts through its superoxide anion-detoxifying function.

  7. Molecular discrimination between individual metacercariae of Paragonimus heterotremus and P. westermani occurring in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, Hiromu; Morishima, Yasuyuki; Rangsiruji, Achariya; Binchai, Sutheewan; Ketudat, Punsin; Kameoka, Yosuke; Kawanaka, Masanori

    2005-01-01

    To accurately discriminate between individual metacercariae of Paragonimus heterotremus and P. westermani occurring in Thailand, polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based molecular methods were established and subjected to an evaluation. We first amplified and sequenced the second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) region of the nuclear ribosomal DNA of the two species. Based on their nucleotide differences, P. heterotremus and P. westermani were unequivocally discriminated from each other. These nucleotide differences were further utilized to select the ApaL1 endonuclease site for PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analyses and to design species-specific primers for multiplex PCR reactions. Both PCR-RFLP and multiplex PCR methods allowed a more rapid and labor-effective species discrimination. Furthermore, the multiplex PCR method enabled the most efficient discrimination because species identification involved a single round of PCR in a single tube. In Thailand, P. heterotremus is the only species affecting humans. Thus, the methods established in the present study can be used as reliable tools to identify the lung fluke metacercariae that cause human disease.

  8. Experimental infection with Paragonimus heterotremus metacercariae in laboratory animals in Manipur, India.

    PubMed

    Singh, T Shantikumar; Sugiyama, Hiromu; Devi, K Ranjana; Singh, L Deben; Binchai, Sutheewan; Rangsiruji, Achariya

    2011-01-01

    This study was aimed to find out the host-parasite relationship between Paragonimus heterotremus isolated as metacercariae from mountain crabs, Indochinamon manipurensis, in Manipur, India and laboratory animals such as puppies, albino rats, Swiss mice, guinea pigs, and rabbits, as experimental animals. The animals were fed with the metacercariae. Infected animals were sacrificed 35 to 430 days after feeding to recover worms, which were used to determine the developmental stages. Adult worms (n = 14) were recovered from 3 puppies > or = 70 days after feeding and immature worms (n = 25) were recovered from 2 other puppies 35 or 43 days after infection. The infection rate in puppies was 100%. Juvenile worms were recovered from 3 of 13 rats: 1 of 11 rats whose viscera and cavities were examined and both of two rats whose muscles were examined. Rats were not a suitable animal model for pulmonary infection with P. heterotremus. Mice, guinea pigs, and rabbits were also found to be insusceptible to pulmonary infection with P. heterotremus.

  9. Cysteine Protease Secreted by Paragonimus westermani Attenuates Effector Functions of Human Eosinophils Stimulated with Immunoglobulin G

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Myeong Heon; Kita, Hirohito; Park, Hae Young; Seoh, Ju Young

    2001-01-01

    An immunoglobulin G (IgG)-coated surface, such as that found on helminth parasites, is one of the most effective physiologic stimuli for eosinophil activation. The cysteine proteases secreted by tissue-invasive helminth larvae play an important role in evasion of the immune response by degrading the host immunoglobulins. In this study, we investigated whether cysteine proteases in the excretory-secretory product (ESP) produced by Paragonimus westermani newly excysted metacercariae (PwNEM), which cause pulmonary or extrapulmonary paragonimiasis in human beings, could modify effector functions of human eosinophils stimulated with IgG. We coated 96-well plates with human IgG in the absence or presence of the ESP produced by PwNEM. When eosinophils were incubated in the wells coated with IgG in the presence of the ESP, eosinophil degranulation and superoxide production were significantly reduced compared with results for cells incubated in wells coated with IgG alone. This inhibitory effect of the ESP on IgG-induced superoxide production was dose dependent and was significantly abolished by pretreatment of the ESP with heat. These findings suggest that the cysteine proteases secreted by PwNEM attenuate both activation and degranulation of eosinophils stimulated with IgG. Thus, the cysteine proteases produced by tissue-invasive helminth larvae play crucial roles in evasion of IgG-dependent eosinophil helminthotoxicity and in reduction of eosinophil-associated tissue inflammation during the migratory period. PMID:11179333

  10. Changes of splenocyte IFN-γ mRNA synthesis in rats infected with Paragonimus westermani

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Jun Kyong; Kwon, Hye Soo; Joo, Kyoung Hwan; Lee, Joon Sang

    1999-01-01

    Changes in the expression level of splenocyte IFN-γ mRNA of Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats infected with Paragonimus westermani were analyzed by competitive reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) followed by southern blot. The template RNA was extracted from the splenocytes of rats infected with 20 metacercariae of P. westermani. The products of competitive RT-PCR were subjected to southern blot and enhanced chemiluminescence (ECL), and analyzed with a densitometer. In comparison with that of uninfected control rat splenocytes (value of 1), the levels of mRNA expression of IFN-γ had changed to 0.747 at 1 week post infection (PI), 0.00175 at 2 week PI, 0.0217 at 3 week PI, 0.194 at 4 week PI and then to 0.537 at 5 week PI. The level at 7 week PI had returned to 1.25, comparable with that of uninfected rats. These results show that, when infected with P. westermani, the levels of IFN-γ mRNA of SD rat splenocytes were remarkably reduced by more than 500 times at 2 week PI and restored to normal level at 7 week PI. PMID:10634046

  11. Excretory-secretory product of newly excysted metacercariae of Paragonimus westermani directly induces eosinophil apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    2000-01-01

    Eosinophils are important effector cells in host defense against parasites. Excretory-secretory product (ESP) produced by helminthic worms plays important roles in the uptake of nutrients, migration in the host tissue, and in immune modulation. However, little is known about the ability of the ESP to directly trigger eosinophil apoptosis. This study investigated whether the ESP of newly excysted metacercariae of Paragonimus westermani could induce apoptosis in human eosinophils. Apoptosis was assayed by staining the cells with FITC-annexin V, and the cells were analyzed by flow cytometry. It was found that the ESP of newly excysted metacercariae of P. westermani induced a direct time- and concentration-dependent increase in the rate of constitutive apoptosis in mature human eosinophils. Eosinophil apoptosis was first apparent 3 hr after treatment with the ESP and continued to increase after 6 hr of incubation with respect to the cells cultured in the absence of the ESP. While only 2.8% of the eosinophils incubated in the medium for 3 hr were apoptotic, 7.6%, 10.9% and 22.6% of the eosinophils treated with 10, 30 and 100 µg/ml ESP were apoptotic, respectively. This result suggests that the ESP of newly excysted metacercariae of P. westermani directly induce eosinophil apoptosis, which may be important for the survival of the parasites and the reduction of eosinophilic inflammation in vivo. PMID:10743354

  12. Immunoelectron microscopic localization of partially purified antigens in adult Paragonimus iloktsuenensis

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Pyung-Rim

    2001-01-01

    An immunoelectron microscopy employing immunogold labeling method was performed to detect tissue origin of D1 fraction (D1A) among 5 antigenic protein fractions partially purified by DEAE-anion exchange chromatography from water-soluble crude antigen (PIWA) of adult Paragonimus iloktsuenensis. Immune reactions of adult worm tissues with rabbit serum immunoglobulin immunized with crude antigen (PI-Ig) and D1 antigen (D1-Ig), as well as rat serum immunoglobulin infected with P. iloktsuenensis were observed. D1A showed strong antigenicity in the intestinal epithelium of the worms during the early infection period of 2-4 weeks after infection. The vitellaria also showed stronger antigenicity than the other tissue sites in immune reaction of tissues against all immunoglobulins from 4 to 33 weeks after vitelline development. Therefore, it is suggested that D1A was mainly originated from the intestinal epithelial tissues before the development of vitelline gland of the parasites. Immuno-reactivity of two immunoglobulins (PI-Ig, D1-Ig) was significantly different in intestinal epithelial cytoplasmic protrusions (CP) and intestinal epithelial secretory granules (SG). In the experimental group with D1-Ig, gold particles were labeled significantly in CP than in SG when compared to the PI-Ig group. Thus, the major antigenic materials in D1 antigen having a strong antigenicity in the early infection period was considered to be originated from the intestinal epithelial tissue. PMID:11441499

  13. Inactivation of Paragonimus westermani metacercariae in soy sauce-marinated and frozen freshwater crabs.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae Im; Oh, Se-Ra; Dai, Fuhong; Yang, Hyun-Jong; Ha, Sang-Do; Hong, Sung-Jong

    2017-03-01

    Soy sauce-marinated freshwater crabs (Eriocheir japonicus) are a source of human paragonimiasis. The viability of Paragonimus westermani metacercariae (PwMc) in marinated crabs was investigated in an experimental setting. The PwMc collected from freshwater crayfish were inoculated into freshwater crabs, which were then frozen or marinated in soy sauce. All PwMc in the freshwater crabs were inactivated after freezing for 48 h at -20 °C and after freezing for 12 h at -40 °C. After marinating for 32 days, the survival rate of PwMc in 5% NaCl soy sauce was 50%, in 7.5% NaCl soy sauce it was 33.3%, and in 10.0% NaCl soy sauce it was 31.3%. When marinated for 64 days, all PwMc were inactivated in all experimental groups. These results revealed that freezing and soy sauce marination were detrimental to the survival of PwMc in freshwater crabs. Specifically, freezing crabs for more than 48 h or soaking them in soy sauce containing at least 5.0% NaCl for 64 days can inactivate PwMc. These results can inform the production of the traditional Korean soy sauce-marinated freshwater crabs known as gejang.

  14. Molecular and biochemical characterization of hemoglobinase, a cysteine proteinase, in Paragonimus westermani

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Joon-Hyuck; Lee, Jae-Hyuk; Yu, Hak-Sun; Jeong, Hae-Jin; Kim, Jin; Hong, Yeon-Chul; Chung, Dong-Il

    2006-01-01

    The mammalian trematode Paragonimus westermani is a typical digenetic parasite, which can cause paragonimiasis in humans. Host tissues and blood cells are important sources of nutrients for development, growth and reproduction of P. westermani. In this study, a cDNA clone encoding a 47 kDa hemoglobinase of P. westermani was characterized by sequencing analysis, and its localization was investigated immunohistochemically. The phylogenetic tree prepared based on the hemoglobinase gene showed high homology with hemoglobinases of Fasciola hepatica and Schistosoma spp. Moreover, recombinant P. westermani hemoglobinase degradaded human hemoglobin at acidic pH (from 3.0 to 5.5) and its activity was almost completely inhibited by E-64, a cysteine proteinase inhibitor. Immunohistochemical studies showed that P. westermani hemoglobinase was localized in the epithelium of the adult worm intestine implying that the protein has a specific function. These observations suggest that hemoglobinase may act as a digestive enzyme for acquisition of nutrients from host hemoglobin. Further investigations may provide insights into hemoglobin catabolism in P. westermani. PMID:16969056

  15. Excretory-secretory antigenic components of Paragonimus heterotremus recognized by infected human sera.

    PubMed Central

    Maleewong, W; Wongkham, C; Intapan, P; Pariyanonda, S; Morakote, N

    1992-01-01

    Antigenic components of Paragonimus heterotremus metabolic products were revealed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and immunoblot analysis of sera from patients with P. heterotremus infection, from patients with other illnesses, and from healthy adults. By SDS-PAGE, it was found that the metabolic products comprised more than eight major polypeptides. Immunoblot analysis revealed 11 components which were strongly recognized by paragonimiasis antisera. These antigenic components had molecular masses ranging from less than 12.3 kDa to 144 kDa. One antigenic band of 31.5 kDa was found to give a consistent reaction with paragonimiasis antisera (97% sensitivity). Of the other patient sera, only sera from patients with Fasciola sp. infection reacted with antigenic bands of 56, 38, and 18.5 kDa. The present findings suggest that the 31.5-kDa component is sensitive and specific for the diagnosis of human P. heterotremus paragonimiasis. Images PMID:1500515

  16. Comparative speed of efficacy against Ctenocephalides felis of two oral treatments for dogs containing either afoxolaner or fluralaner.

    PubMed

    Beugnet, Frederic; Liebenberg, Julian; Halos, Lenaïg

    2015-01-30

    A study was designed to compare the efficacy of NexGard(®) and Bravecto™, 2 recently introduced oral ectoparasiticides containing isoxazolines, against fleas (Ctenocephalides felis) on dogs. Twenty-four healthy dogs, weighing 9.2 kg to 28.6 kg, were included in this parallel group design, randomized, and controlled efficacy study. On Day -1, the 24 dogs were allocated to 3 study groups: untreated control; Nexgard(®) treated and Bravecto™ treated. The treatments were administered on Days 0, 28 and 56 for Nexgard(®) (labelled for monthly administration), and once on Day 0 for Bravecto™ (labelled for a 12 week use). Flea infestations were performed weekly with 100 adult unfed C. felis on each dog from Days 42 to 84. Fleas were counted and re-applied at 6 and 12 h post-infestation and removed and counted 24 h post-infestation. The arithmetic mean flea count for the untreated group ranged from 62.9 to 77.6 at 24 h post-infestation, indicating vigorous flea challenges on all assessment days. Both the Nexgard(®) and Bravecto™ treated groups had statistically significantly (p<0.05) less fleas compared to the untreated group on all assessment time points and days. Significantly fewer fleas were recorded for NexGard(®) treated dogs compared to Bravecto™ treated dogs at 6 h post-infestation on Day 56, 63, 70, 77 and 84 and at 12 h post-infestation on Days 70 and 84. No statistically significant (p<0.05) differences were recorded between the treated groups at 24 h post-infestation. Efficacies recorded 6 h post-infestation for Nexgard(®) ranged from 62.8% (Day 49) to 97.3% (Day 56), and efficacies ranged from 94.1% (Day 49) to 100% (Days 42, 56, 70 and 84) at 12 h post-infestation. Efficacies recorded for Bravecto™ ranged from 45.1% (Day 84) to 97.8% (Day 42) at 6 h post-infestation, and from 64.7% (Day 84) to 100% (Days 42 and 56) at 12 h post-infestation. Efficacies observed at 24 h were 100% for both products during the study except 99.6% on Day 84 for

  17. Seroprevalence and Risk Factors of Ehrlichia canis Infection among Companion Dogs of Mashhad, North East of Iran, 2009-2010.

    PubMed

    Ansari-Mood, Maneli; Khoshnegah, Javad; Mohri, Mehrdad; Rajaei, Seyed Mehdi

    2015-12-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the seroprevalence of canine ehrlichiosis and risk factors of this disease in companion dogs' population of Mashhad, North East of Iran. Canine Monocytic Ehrlichiosis (CME) is a zoonotic disease transmitted by ticks, Rhipicephalus sanguineus, and caused by an obligate intracellular bacterium, Ehrlichia canis. During September 2009 until November 2010, 250 companion dogs from Mashhad, North-East of Iran, were examined for serum antibody detection against E. canis by means of immunofluorescence assay test (IFAT) and factors associated with a positive antibody response. There was a very low prevalence of anti-E. canis antibodies (0.8%, 2/250) among studied dogs. The antibody titers for two seropositive dogs were 1:80 and 1:160, respectively. One (0.4%) of seropositive dogs was infested with, R. sanguineus. In blood smears from one of infested dogs (0.4%), typical morulae of E. canis was observed in lymphocytes. The results confirm that the lowest occurrence of reactive dogs indoors probably related to low tick infestion. This is the first report that describes serological evidences of canine monocytic ehrlichiosis in North-East of Iran. Results suggested that E. canis infection in owned pet dogs from North of Khorasan was not endemic from 2009 to 2010. Additional molecular studies are necessary to confirm E. canis infection and to identify the local strains of the organism.

  18. Cutaneous paragonimiasis due to triploid Paragonimus westermani presenting as a non-migratory subcutaneous nodule: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Paragonimiasis is a food-borne infection caused by Paragonimus parasites. The lungs and pleura are the primary sites for the infection; however, ectopic infection can occur in other organs such as skin, liver and brain. It is difficult to make a diagnosis of ectopic paragonimiasis due to an ignorance of, and unfamiliarity with the disease. We report the case of a patient with subcutaneous paragonimiasis diagnosed by histopathological analysis and serological testing. Case presentation A 39-year-old Chinese immigrant woman presented with a subcutaneous nodule in her left lower back. The nodule was initially suspected of lipoma and she was followed up on without any treatment. However, it gradually indurated and the nodule was resected surgically. A magnetic resonance imaging scan revealed a polycystic lesion with inhomogeneous low or high intensity on T1- or T2-weighted images, respectively. The rim of the lesion was enhanced after contrast enhancement, but the inside did not show high-signal intensity. A histological analysis of the surgically resected specimen revealed variable-sized tubulo-cystic structures. The cyst wall showed a granulomatous change with scant eosinophilic infiltration. A number of parasite ova were observed in the necrotic tissue inside the cysts, and a parasite body with a presumed oral sucker and reproductive organ was also detected, suggesting a trematode infection. A subsequent serological examination showed a positive reaction of her serum to the Paragonimus westermani antigen. No abnormal findings were found on her chest computed tomography scan. The diagnosis of subcutaneous paragonimiasis caused by Paragonimus westermani was made. Conclusions We report a case presenting only as a non-migratory subcutaneous nodule without any pleuropulmonary lesion, which was initially suspected of lipoma but denied by magnetic resonance imaging scan results. The case was subsequently diagnosed as subcutaneous paragonimiasis from the

  19. Cutaneous paragonimiasis due to triploid Paragonimus westermani presenting as a non-migratory subcutaneous nodule: a case report.

    PubMed

    Kodama, Makoto; Akaki, Mayumi; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Maruyama, Haruhiko; Nagayasu, Eiji; Yokouchi, Tetsuhiro; Arimura, Yasuji; Kataoka, Hiroaki

    2014-10-16

    Paragonimiasis is a food-borne infection caused by Paragonimus parasites. The lungs and pleura are the primary sites for the infection; however, ectopic infection can occur in other organs such as skin, liver and brain. It is difficult to make a diagnosis of ectopic paragonimiasis due to an ignorance of, and unfamiliarity with the disease. We report the case of a patient with subcutaneous paragonimiasis diagnosed by histopathological analysis and serological testing. A 39-year-old Chinese immigrant woman presented with a subcutaneous nodule in her left lower back. The nodule was initially suspected of lipoma and she was followed up on without any treatment. However, it gradually indurated and the nodule was resected surgically. A magnetic resonance imaging scan revealed a polycystic lesion with inhomogeneous low or high intensity on T1- or T2-weighted images, respectively. The rim of the lesion was enhanced after contrast enhancement, but the inside did not show high-signal intensity. A histological analysis of the surgically resected specimen revealed variable-sized tubulo-cystic structures. The cyst wall showed a granulomatous change with scant eosinophilic infiltration. A number of parasite ova were observed in the necrotic tissue inside the cysts, and a parasite body with a presumed oral sucker and reproductive organ was also detected, suggesting a trematode infection. A subsequent serological examination showed a positive reaction of her serum to the Paragonimus westermani antigen. No abnormal findings were found on her chest computed tomography scan. The diagnosis of subcutaneous paragonimiasis caused by Paragonimus westermani was made. We report a case presenting only as a non-migratory subcutaneous nodule without any pleuropulmonary lesion, which was initially suspected of lipoma but denied by magnetic resonance imaging scan results. The case was subsequently diagnosed as subcutaneous paragonimiasis from the results of histopathological analysis and

  20. Delusional infestation: are you being bugged?

    PubMed Central

    Thakkar, Angeli; Ooi, Kenneth GJ; Assaad, Nagi; Coroneo, Minas

    2015-01-01

    This case report documents a 58-year-old male who presented to the clinic with a 12-month history of a burrowing sensation in his eyelids that he attributed to a parasitic infestation. After being extensively investigated and reviewed by relevant specialties, no evidence of parasitic infestation was found. He was diagnosed with and treated for blepharitis. Psychiatric referral for presumed delusional infestation (DI) was recommended. Despite this, he remained insistent in his belief of infestation, and was inevitably lost to follow-up. DI, previously known as delusional parasitosis, is a rare delusional disorder where affected individuals have a fixed, false belief that they have a parasitic infestation. Diagnosis can be challenging. Practitioners need to evaluate between primary and secondary DI carefully, as management differs depending on the etiology. Despite this, patients diagnosed with primary DI tend to be resistant to psychiatric referral. This report aims to optimize management by giving the reader a guideline for appropriate investigations and advice on patient approach. It is important to recognize hallmark features of DI to minimize self-inflicted trauma and associated psychosocial consequences. Effective treatment for DI is available, and devastating consequences, including blindness, can be avoided. PMID:26082608

  1. The prevention of transmission of Babesia canis canis by Dermacentor reticulatus ticks to dogs using a novel combination of fipronil, amitraz and (S)-methoprene.

    PubMed

    Jongejan, Frans; Fourie, Josephus J; Chester, S Theodore; Manavella, Coralie; Mallouk, Yasmina; Pollmeier, Matthias G; Baggott, Derek

    2011-07-15

    Four groups of seven dogs were treated topically with a novel combination of fipronil, amitraz and (S)-methoprene in a spot-on formulation (CERTIFECT™, Merial Limited, GA, USA) on 28, 21, 14 and 7 days prior to tick infestation, respectively and acaricidal efficacy and transmission blocking compared with an untreated control group (seven dogs). All dogs were infested with adult Dermacentor reticulatus ticks harbouring Babesia canis canis. Babesia canis canis was transmitted by D. reticulatus to all seven untreated control dogs, confirmed following demonstration of clinical signs, by the detection of B. canis parasites in thin blood smears and B. canis canis PCR-RLB DNA assay on blood and the development of B. canis canis antibody titres by 14-21 days after tick infestation. The majority of treated dogs remained sero-negative for 42 days after infestation. Therefore, the treatment of dogs with CERTIFECT applied up to 28 days prior to infestation with D. reticulatus harbouring B. canis canis, successfully prevented the development of clinical signs of canine babesiosis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. One-month comparative efficacy of three topical ectoparasiticides against adult brown dog ticks (Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato) on mixed-bred dogs in controlled environment.

    PubMed

    Varloud, Marie; Fourie, Josephus J

    2015-05-01

    This study was designed to compare the therapeutic and residual efficacy for 1 month of three topical ectoparasiticides on mixed-bred dogs against the brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus. Adult dogs (n = 32, 10.8-18.4 kg BW) were allocated to 4 groups (n = 8) and infested with 50 adult ticks on days -8, -2, 7, 14, 21, and 28. Within each group, dogs were treated topically on day 0 with a control solution (CS), Vectra 3D (DPP), Frontline Plus (FM), or K9 Advantix (IP). Ticks were enumerated on dogs 24 h after treatment and each subsequent tick infestation by in situ thumb count assessment without removal and at 48 h by combing and removal. Acaricidal efficacy was calculated using arithmetic means for all 24 and 48 h tick count assessments. From 42 to 56% of the total, infested ticks were found on dogs 48 h post-challenge in the CS group. Therapeutic efficacy for all treatments ranged from 45.5 to 64.6% after 48 h of infestation. Residual efficacy after FM treatment was consistently lower compared to DPP or IP treatments at the 24 h assessments on days 8, 22, 23, and 29. Residual efficacy measured at this last time point was 94.8% for DPP, 83.1% for IP, and 46.9% for FM. This study demonstrates that permethrin-based formulations (DPP and IP) provided a quicker onset of residual protection against brown dog ticks compared to FM. Although DPP and IP are both permethrin-based formulations, DPP exhibited consistently higher residual acaricidal efficacies and was the only treatment that provided >90% protection for 1 month at 24 h post challenge.

  3. Dog Fights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Kelley R.

    2010-01-01

    Bringing service animals into schools raises serious questions about how to meet one student's special needs while ensuring the educational well-being of all. This article discusses how schools grapple with the practical and legal questions involved in allowing service dogs on campus. The author cites a case in 2009 called "Kalbfleisch v. Columbia…

  4. Dog Fights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Kelley R.

    2010-01-01

    Bringing service animals into schools raises serious questions about how to meet one student's special needs while ensuring the educational well-being of all. This article discusses how schools grapple with the practical and legal questions involved in allowing service dogs on campus. The author cites a case in 2009 called "Kalbfleisch v. Columbia…

  5. Sequence analyses of ITS2 and CO1 genes of Paragonimus proliferus obtained in Yunnan province, China and their similarities with those of P. hokuoensis.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ben-Jiang; Yang, Bin-Bin; Doanh, Pham Ngoc; Yang, Zhao-Qing; Xiang, Zheng; Li, Cui-Ying; Shinohara, Akio; Horii, Yoichiro; Nawa, Yukifumi

    2008-05-01

    Among about 50 Paragonimus species, Paragonimus proliferus is a rare species characterized by extremely large metacercariae, most of which are present excysted in the crab hosts. Recently, this species was discovered by us in northern Vietnam as the first record outside of China. DNA sequences of both second internal transcribed spacer region (ITS2) and cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 gene (CO1) genes of the metacercariae and adult worms of P. proliferus of the Vietnamese isolates were identical with those of Paragonimus hokuoensis in the DNA database of the GenBank. To confirm those observations and to clarify the molecular phylogenetic status of P. proliferus, we determined the ITS2 and CO1 sequences of the metacercariae of P. proliferus obtained in Yunnan province, China where the original specimen was discovered. The results show that both ITS2 and CO1 sequences of P. proliferus of the Chinese isolates are identical with those of P. proliferus of the Vietnamese isolates and are also identical with those of P. hokuoensis that appeared in the DNA database (obtained in Yunnan province), suggesting the synonymy of P. hokuoensis with P. proliferus. By phylogenetic tree analyses, all samples of P. proliferus from China and Vietnam together with P. hokuoensis constructed a distinct group within, or very close to, Paragonimus skrjabini complex in both trees.

  6. TAXONOMICAL AND ECOLOGICAL STUDIES ON THE LUNG FLUKE, PARAGONIMUS IN THE PACIFIC AREA, WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO SOUTH-EAST ASIA.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    brown rat, Rattus norvegicus and the wild boar, Sus scrofa leucomystax were revealed to be the final host of P. miyazakii. (3) P. sadoensis was found...8) In Mexico , two species of Paragonimus were recognized, and one was most probably a new species and the other was similar to the new fluke found in Colombia. (Author)

  7. Serological and molecular detection of spotted fever group Rickettsia in a group of pet dogs from Luanda, Angola.

    PubMed

    Barradas, Patrícia F; Vilhena, Hugo; Oliveira, Ana Cristina; Granada, Sara; Amorim, Irina; Ferreira, Paula; Cardoso, Luís; Gärtner, Fátima; de Sousa, Rita

    2017-05-31

    Infections with tick-borne rickettsiae can cause diseases well known in humans but still not so well characterized in dogs. Susceptibility to infection depends on the virulence of Rickettsia spp. and only a few of them have been described to cause disease in dogs. The aim of this study was to investigate the exposure to Rickettsia spp. among a group of pet dogs from Luanda, Angola. Out of 103 dogs included in the study, 62 (60.2%) were infested with ticks. Plasma specimens tested for serology by an immunofluorescence assay (IFA) revealed that six (5.8%) dogs had detectable immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies to spotted fever group Rickettsia (SFGR), with endpoint titers of 64 for two dogs, 128 for three dogs and 1024 for one dog. From the seropositive group of dogs, five (83%) of them were males, with their age ranging from 1 to 8 years old. Among the seropositive dogs, four (66.7%) were parasitized with ticks and no breed (or cross) was found to be associated with specific antibodies. Rickettsia spp. DNA was detected by nested-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in two (1.9%) dogs that were found to be seronegative. Seroprevalence and molecular detection of Rickettsia spp. infection in this group of pet dogs from Luanda is low compared with other studies performed in the same type of hosts in other areas. Although many dogs were parasitized with ticks, a low prevalence of Rickettsia spp. could be related with the hypothesis of a low rickettsial prevalence in the infesting ticks. This study provides evidence that dogs in Luanda are exposed to Rickettsia spp., but further studies are needed to better characterize the bacterial infections in dogs and in their ectoparasites.

  8. Epidermolysis bullosa pruriginosa triggered by scabies infestation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jaehwan; Loh, Chee Hoou; Murrell, Dedee F

    2013-07-01

    Epidermolysis bullosa pruriginosa (EB-Pr) is an unusual variant of dystrophic EB. Potential genetic disease modifiers and metabolic factors have been investigated, but thus far no specific insight into this phenotype has emerged. We report an in-depth description of three patients diagnosed as having EB-Pr in whom this particular phenotype developed after scabies infestation and dramatically improved after full treatment. This short communication suggests that scabies infestation could be one of the important triggering factors for the development of the EB-Pr phenotype. © 2013 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  9. Parasites of sheep herding dogs in central Germany.

    PubMed

    Rehbein, Steffen; Kaulfuß, Karl-heinz; Visser, Martin; Sommer, Maria Franziska; Grimm, Felix; Silaghi, Cornelia

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on endoparasite infections diagnosed in 2012 by standard coproscopical techniques and coproantigen Giardia ELISA in 165 dogs used for sheep herding in 36 farms in central Germany. The overall prevalence of dogs with evidence of endoparasite infections was 27.3% (95% CI 20.6-34.7). The most frequently identified faecal forms were those of ascarids (Toxocara, 6.7%; Toxascaris 3.6%), hookworms (5.5%) and taeniid cestodes (4.2%), followed by those of Trichuris whipworms (3.0%), Capillaria aerophila (1.8%), Angiostrongylus and Crenosoma lungworms (1.2% each) and Cystoisospora canis coccidians (0.6%). Molecular identification demonstrated the seven dogs shedding taeniid eggs positive for Taenia (T.) species tapeworms (five, T. hydatigena; one, T. ovis; one Taenia sp.). Screening of the faeces with the coproantigen ELISA revealed Giardia specific antigen in 5.5% of the samples. The majority of the dogs had evidence of single endoparasite infections (22.4%) while evidence for infection with two or three parasites concurrently was found in six (3.6%) and two (1.2%) of the dogs, respectively. Dogs ≤ 1 year (n = 19) were parasitized more frequently (p < 0.05) with overall gastrointestinal parasites (63.2% vs. 20.5%), ascarids (36.8% vs. 6.8%) and Giardia spp. (21.1% vs. 3.4%) than older dogs (n = 146). Dogs which had been wormed within six months of examination tested less frequently positive for gastrointestinal helminths compared to dogs not wormed (11.1% vs. 25.0%; p = 0.0567). In addition, ear swabs taken from 43 sheep dogs in 2012 were examined, and Otodectes cynotis mites were extracted from one dog. Identification of ectoparasites collected by full body search and combing from 113 sheep dogs in the years 2011 to 2013 revealed infestation of fleas and ticks (each up to five specimens per dog) on 13 and 108 dogs, respectively, with nine dogs carrying both fleas and ticks. Archaeopsylla erinacei, Ctenocephalides (C) canis, C. felis and Pulex irritans

  10. Emerald ash borer infestation rates in Michigan, Ohio, and Indiana.

    Treesearch

    Eric L. Smith; Andrew J. Storer; Bryan K. Roosien

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this study was to obtain an estimate of the infestation rate of ash trees with emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis, Fairmaire; Coleoptera; Buprestidae), across its primary infestation zone of...

  11. Dog Bite Emergencies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Emergency Care Animal Welfare Veterinary Careers Public Health Dog bite emergencies What do I do if I’ ... vaccination records. What do I do if my dog bites someone? Dog bites are scary for everyone ...

  12. [Paragonimus sp. in crabs and awareness of the educational community to aquatic ecosystems in La Miel and La Clara, Caldas, Antioquia].

    PubMed

    Arias, Sandra Milena; Salazar, Lina Marcela; Casas, Eudoro; Henao, Alexandra; Velásquez, Luz Elena

    2011-06-01

    Previous research has demonstrated the presence of Paragonimus spp. in crabs of three municipalities located in the Medellín river basin. To design a plan for the control and prevention of paragonimosis, parasite presence must be demonstrated in the upper area of the river, and an awareness campaign of its risks must involve the participation of the educational community in focusing attention on the local aquatic resources. The presence of Paragonimus spp. metarcercariae was established in freshwater crabs from La Miel and La Clara streams, and an awareness campaign created public awareness to management of the aquatic ecosystems for risk reduction. Nine crabs were collected from streams of La Miel and La Clara villages in 2007 and 2008. The crabs were indentified, sacrificed in the laboratory and examined for presence of Paragonimus spp. metacercariae. Five workshops were conducted with students of educational institutions of the two villages to improve the student perception of paragonimosis risks associated with the local streams. The crabs were identified as Hypolobocera bouvieri. One crab was found with Paragonimus spp. in La Miel. A mollusk, Aroapyrgus colombiensis, another host of the parasite was found in La Clara. That aquatic ecosystems are a great attraction for the local was well established. Foci of Paragonimus spp. flatworms are present in the upper area of Medellín river which includes Caldas. However, local school children were uninformed about the risk of paragonimosis associated with the local aquatic ecosystem. Therefore this province must be included in programs for prevention and control of paragonimosis. The prevalence of this disease recommends educational programs that promote awareness of local aquatic ecosystems and their parasitic inhabitants.

  13. Description of a new lung fluke species, Paragonimus vietnamensis sp. nov. (Trematoda, Paragonimidae), found in northern Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Doanh, Pham Ngoc; Shinohara, Akio; Horii, Yoichiro; Habe, Shigehisa; Nawa, Yukifumi; Le, Nguyen Thi

    2007-11-01

    Based on morphology of metacercariae and adult worms together with molecular data from our previous study, we describe herein a new lung fluke species named Paragonimus vietnamensis sp. nov. Metacercariae of this new species is round and extremely large in size (nearly 800 mum in diameter) having a fragile outer cyst of variable thickness and a thin fragile inner cyst. There are little or no space between metacercaria and the inner cyst wall. These and other morphological features of metacercariae of P. vietnamensis sp. nov. are not completely identical with but have some similarities with those of P. microrchis, P. proliferus, or P. menglaensis. On the other hand, adult worms obtained by experimental infection of these large metacercariae are oval in shape, having a ventral sucker slightly larger than the oral one, and having singly arranged relatively short cuticular spines. These morphological features of adult worms are partly similar to but not identical with those of P. microrchis, P. skrjabini, P. yunnanenis, P. xiangshanensis, or P. harinasutai. Taken these morphological data and our previous molecular phylogenetic analyses of ITS2 and CO1 sequences of metacercariae and adult worms together, P. vietnamensis sp. nov. is different from any other known Paragonimus spp.

  14. Molecular variation in the Paragonimus heterotremus complex in Thailand and Myanmar.

    PubMed

    Sanpool, Oranuch; Intapan, Pewpan M; Thanchomnang, Tongjit; Janwan, Penchom; Nawa, Yukifumi; Blair, David; Maleewong, Wanchai

    2013-12-01

    Paragonimiasis is an important food-borne parasitic zoonosis caused by infection with lung flukes of the genus Paragonimus. Of the 7 members of the genus known in Thailand until recently, only P. heterotremus has been confirmed as causing human disease. An 8th species, P. pseudoheterotremus, has recently been proposed from Thailand, and has been found in humans. Molecular data place this species as a sister species to P. heterotremus, and it is likely that P. pseudoheterotremus is not specifically distinct from P. heterotremus. In this study, we collected metacercariae of both nominal species (identification based on metacercarial morphology) from freshwater crabs from Phetchabun Province in northern Thailand, Saraburi Province in central Thailand, and Surat Thani Province in southern Thailand. In addition, we purchased freshwater crabs imported from Myanmar at Myawaddy Province, western Thailand, close to the Myanmar-Thailand border. The DNAs extracted from excysted metacercariae were PCR-amplified and sequenced for ITS2 and cox1 genes. The ITS2 sequences were nearly identical among all samples (99-100%). Phylogenies inferred from all available partial cox1 sequences contained several clusters. Sequences from Indian P. heterotremus formed a sister group to sequences from P. pseudoheterotremus-type metacercariae. Sequences of P. heterotremus from Thailand, Vietnam, and China formed a separate distinct clade. One metacercaria from Phitsanulok Province was distinct from all others. There is clearly considerable genetic variation in the P. heterotremus complex in Thailand and the form referred to as P. pseudoheterotremus is widely distributed in Thailand and the Thai-Myanmar border region.

  15. Molecular Variation in the Paragonimus heterotremus Complex in Thailand and Myanmar

    PubMed Central

    Sanpool, Oranuch; Thanchomnang, Tongjit; Janwan, Penchom; Nawa, Yukifumi; Blair, David; Maleewong, Wanchai

    2013-01-01

    Paragonimiasis is an important food-borne parasitic zoonosis caused by infection with lung flukes of the genus Paragonimus. Of the 7 members of the genus known in Thailand until recently, only P. heterotremus has been confirmed as causing human disease. An 8th species, P. pseudoheterotremus, has recently been proposed from Thailand, and has been found in humans. Molecular data place this species as a sister species to P. heterotremus, and it is likely that P. pseudoheterotremus is not specifically distinct from P. heterotremus. In this study, we collected metacercariae of both nominal species (identification based on metacercarial morphology) from freshwater crabs from Phetchabun Province in northern Thailand, Saraburi Province in central Thailand, and Surat Thani Province in southern Thailand. In addition, we purchased freshwater crabs imported from Myanmar at Myawaddy Province, western Thailand, close to the Myanmar-Thailand border. The DNAs extracted from excysted metacercariae were PCR-amplified and sequenced for ITS2 and cox1 genes. The ITS2 sequences were nearly identical among all samples (99-100%). Phylogenies inferred from all available partial cox1 sequences contained several clusters. Sequences from Indian P. heterotremus formed a sister group to sequences from P. pseudoheterotremus-type metacercariae. Sequences of P. heterotremus from Thailand, Vietnam, and China formed a separate distinct clade. One metacercaria from Phitsanulok Province was distinct from all others. There is clearly considerable genetic variation in the P. heterotremus complex in Thailand and the form referred to as P. pseudoheterotremus is widely distributed in Thailand and the Thai-Myanmar border region. PMID:24516273

  16. Molecular and immunological characterization of cathepsin L-like cysteine protease of Paragonimus pseudoheterotremus.

    PubMed

    Yoonuan, Tippayarat; Nuamtanong, Supaporn; Dekumyoy, Paron; Phuphisut, Orawan; Adisakwattana, Poom

    2016-12-01

    Cathepsin L is a cysteine protease belonging to the papain family. In parasitic trematodes, cathepsin L plays essential roles in parasite survival and host-parasite interactions. In this study, cathepsin L of the lung fluke Paragonimus pseudoheterotremus (PpsCatL) was identified and its molecular biological and immunological features characterized. A sequence analysis of PpsCatL showed that the gene encodes a 325-amino-acid protein that is most similar to P. westermani cathepsin L. The in silico three-dimensional structure suggests that PpsCatL is a pro-enzyme that becomes active when the propeptide is cleaved. A recombinant pro-PpsCatL lacking the signal peptide (rPpsCatL), with a molecular weight of 35 kDa, was expressed in E. coli and reacted with P. pseudoheterotremus-infected rat sera. The native protein was detected in crude worm antigens and excretory-secretory products and was localized in the cecum and in the lamellae along the intestinal tract of the adult parasite. Enzymatic activity of rPpsCatL showed that the protein could cleave the fluorogenic substrate Z-Phe-Arg-AMC after autocatalysis but was inhibited with E64. The immunodiagnostic potential of the recombinant protein was evaluated with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and suggested that rPpsCatL can detect paragonimiasis with high sensitivity and specificity (100 and 95.6 %, respectively). This supports the further development of an rPpsCatL-ELISA as an immunodiagnostic tool.

  17. Laboratory and field evaluation of brown dog tick behavioral responses to potential semiochemicals

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille), is a pest that can be found worldwide. This tick poses unique difficulties in management because it can complete its entire life cycle indoors and has demonstrated acaricide resistance, resulting in infestations in residential areas and kenne...

  18. Responses of the brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus, to semiochemicals in a Y-tube olfactometer

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus, is a pest that can be found worldwide. This tick poses unique difficulties in management because it can complete its entire life cycle indoors, resulting in infestations in residential areas. Topical and residual acaricide treatments can be costly and ...

  19. Evaluation of four bed bug traps for surveillances of brown dog ticks (Acari: Ixodidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The brown dog tick can be a serious residential pest due to its unique ability, among ticks, to complete its lifecycle indoors. A single engorged and fertilized female tick can oviposit around 4,000 eggs, allowing indoor establishment to be rapid and easy to miss in early-stage infestations. Acari...

  20. Domestic dogs and cats as sources of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in rural northwestern Argentina

    PubMed Central

    GÜRTLER, R. E.; CECERE, M. C.; LAURICELLA, M. A.; CARDINAL, M. V.; KITRON, U.; COHEN, J. E.

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY The reservoir capacity of domestic cats and dogs for Trypanosoma cruzi infection and the host-feeding patterns of domestic Triatoma infestans were assessed longitudinally in 2 infested rural villages in north-western Argentina. A total of 86 dogs and 38 cats was repeatedly examined for T. cruzi infection by serology and/or xenodiagnosis. The composite prevalence of infection in dogs (60%), but not in cats, increased significantly with age and with the domiciliary density of infected T. infestans. Dogs and cats had similarly high forces of infection, prevalence of infectious hosts (41–42%), and infectiousness to bugs at a wide range of infected bug densities. The infectiousness to bugs of seropositive dogs declined significantly with increasing dog age and was highly aggregated. Individual dog infectiousness to bugs was significantly autocorrelated over time. Domestic T. infestans fed on dogs showed higher infection prevalence (49%) than those fed on cats (39%), humans (38%) or chickens (29%) among 1085 bugs examined. The basic reproduction number of T. cruzi in dogs was at least 8·2. Both cats and dogs are epidemiologically important sources of infection for bugs and householders, dogs nearly 3 times more than cats. PMID:17032467

  1. Domestic dogs and cats as sources of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in rural northwestern Argentina.

    PubMed

    Gürtler, R E; Cecere, M C; Lauricella, M A; Cardinal, M V; Kitron, U; Cohen, J E

    2007-01-01

    The reservoir capacity of domestic cats and dogs for Trypanosoma cruzi infection and the host-feeding patterns of domestic Triatoma infestans were assessed longitudinally in 2 infested rural villages in north-western Argentina. A total of 86 dogs and 38 cats was repeatedly examined for T. cruzi infection by serology and/or xenodiagnosis. The composite prevalence of infection in dogs (60%), but not in cats, increased significantly with age and with the domiciliary density of infected T. infestans. Dogs and cats had similarly high forces of infection, prevalence of infectious hosts (41-42%), and infectiousness to bugs at a wide range of infected bug densities. The infectiousness to bugs of seropositive dogs declined significantly with increasing dog age and was highly aggregated. Individual dog infectiousness to bugs was significantly autocorrelated over time. Domestic T. infestans fed on dogs showed higher infection prevalence (49%) than those fed on cats (39%), humans (38%) or chickens (29%) among 1085 bugs examined. The basic reproduction number of T. cruzi in dogs was at least 8.2. Both cats and dogs are epidemiologically important sources of infection for bugs and householders, dogs nearly 3 times more than cats.

  2. [Head lice infestation in the Cottbus district].

    PubMed

    Volcsik, R; Preuss, P; Knaus, B

    1990-11-01

    670 children of infant-schools and 109 children of schools were examined for head-lice. Also the existence of nits was valued. The identified infestation of 9.9% is to stimulate examinations in other districts of GDR and measures to form the search and the control of these ectoparasites with more effects.

  3. Bedbug infestations recorded in Central Italy.

    PubMed

    Masetti, Massimo; Bruschi, Fabrizio

    2007-03-01

    In summer 2003 two separate infestations due to the common bedbug (Cimex lectularius) occurred in Pisa, Italy. Cutaneous reaction was evident and one patient developed a severe bullous eruption. In both cases there was circumstantial evidence for association with international travel.

  4. [Infestation with Enterobius vermicularis mimicking appendicitis].

    PubMed

    Levens, Afra M A; Schurink, Maarten; Koetse, Harma A; van Baren, Robertine

    2014-01-01

    Gastrointestinal infestation with the parasite Enterobius vermicularis is common in humans and is usually harmless. Anal pruritus is the most characteristic symptom, but the parasites can cause severe abdominal pain mimicking appendicitis. Early recognition can prevent an unnecessary appendectomy. A six-year-old girl reported to the accident and emergency department with pain in the lower right abdominal region. She was admitted and treated for suspected perforated appendix, following physical examination supplemented with an abdominal CT scan. After antibiotic treatment the symptoms disappeared as did the abscess, apart from a minor amount of residual infiltrate. She was then readmitted twice with recurrent abdominal pain without radiological evidence of an abdominal focus. We decided to conduct a diagnostic laparoscopy and an elective appendectomy à froid. During this procedure living worms were found in the appendix. Treatment with the anthelminthicum mebendazol was effective. Gastro-intestinal infestation with E. vermicularis is very common, especially in young children. This infestation is usually harmless, but can mimic appendicitis. This infestation is easily treatable with mebendazol.

  5. Rehabilitation of cheatgrass-infested rangelands: management

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This is the final part of a three part series specifically addressing lessons learned concerning the management of rehabilitated cheatgrass-infested rangelands. Steve Novak and Richard Mack reported in 2003 that they found no evidence of outcrossing in 2,000 cheatgrass seedlings from 60 North Americ...

  6. On a Cercopithifilaria sp. transmitted by Rhipicephalus sanguineus: a neglected, but widespread filarioid of dogs

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background This study was aimed at investigating the distribution of a Cercopithifilaria sp. sensu Otranto et al., 2011 with dermal microfilariae recently identified in a dog from Sicily (Italy). A large epidemiological survey was conducted by examining skin samples (n = 917) and ticks (n = 890) collected from dogs at different time points in Italy, central Spain and eastern Greece. Results The overall prevalence of Cercopithifilaria sp. in the sampled animal populations was 13.9% and 10.5% by microscopy of skin sediments and by PCR on skin samples, respectively. Up to 21.6% and 45.5% of dogs in Spain were positive by microscopical examination and by PCR. Cumulative incidence rates ranging from 7.7% to 13.9% were estimated in dogs from two sites in Italy. A low level of agreement between the two diagnostic tests (microscopical examination and PCR) was recorded in sites where samples were processed in parallel. Infestation rate as determined by tick dissection (from 5.2% to 16.7%) was higher than that detected by PCR (from 0% to 3.9%); tick infestation was significantly associated with Cercopithifilaria sp. infestation in dogs from two out of four sites. Developing larvae found in ticks were morphometrically studied and as many as 1469 larvae were found in a single tick. Conclusions Our data suggest that, in addition to the most common species of filarioids known to infest dogs (i.e., Dirofilaria immitis, Dirofilaria repens and Acanthocheilonema reconditum), Cercopithifilaria sp. with dermal microfilariae should be considered due to its widespread distribution in southern Europe and high frequency in tick-exposed dogs. PMID:22212459

  7. Seroprevalence and Risk Factors of Ehrlichia canis Infection among Companion Dogs of Mashhad, North East of Iran, 2009–2010

    PubMed Central

    Ansari-Mood, Maneli; Khoshnegah, Javad; Mohri, Mehrdad; Rajaei, Seyed Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Background: The aims of this study were to determine the seroprevalence of canine ehrlichiosis and risk factors of this disease in companion dogs’ population of Mashhad, North East of Iran. Canine Monocytic Ehrlichiosis (CME) is a zoonotic disease transmitted by ticks, Rhipicephalus sanguineus, and caused by an obligate intracellular bacterium, Ehrlichia canis. Methods: During September 2009 until November 2010, 250 companion dogs from Mashhad, North-East of Iran, were examined for serum antibody detection against E. canis by means of immunofluorescence assay test (IFAT) and factors associated with a positive antibody response. Results: There was a very low prevalence of anti-E. canis antibodies (0.8%, 2/250) among studied dogs. The antibody titers for two seropositive dogs were 1:80 and 1:160, respectively. One (0.4%) of seropositive dogs was infested with, R. sanguineus. In blood smears from one of infested dogs (0.4%), typical morulae of E. canis was observed in lymphocytes. The results confirm that the lowest occurrence of reactive dogs indoors probably related to low tick infestion. Conclusion: This is the first report that describes serological evidences of canine monocytic ehrlichiosis in North-East of Iran. Results suggested that E. canis infection in owned pet dogs from North of Khorasan was not endemic from 2009 to 2010. Additional molecular studies are necessary to confirm E. canis infection and to identify the local strains of the organism. PMID:26623430

  8. Molecular characterization of Hepatozoon canis in dogs from Colombia.

    PubMed

    Vargas-Hernandez, Giovanni; André, Marcos R; Munhoz, Thiago D; Faria, Joice M L; Machado, Rosangela Z; Tinucci-Costa, Mirela

    2012-01-01

    Hepatozoonosis is a tick-borne disease whose transmission to dogs occurs by ingestion of oocysts infected ticks or feeding on preys infested by infected ticks. Until now, there is no previous report of molecular characterization of Hepatozoon sp. in dogs from Colombia. EDTA blood samples were collected from 91 dogs from central-western region of Colombia (Bogotá, Bucaramanga, and Villavicencio cities) and submitted to 18S rRNA Hepatozoon sp. PCR and blood smears confection. Phylogenetic analysis was used to access the identity of Hepatozoon species found in sampled dogs. From 91 sampled dogs, 29 (31.8%) were positive to Hepatozoon sp. (25 dogs were only positive in PCR, 1 was positive only in blood smears, and 3 were positive in both blood smears and PCR). After sequencing, the found Hepatozoon sp. DNA showed 100% of identity with Hepatozoon canis DNA isolates. The phylogenetic tree supported the identity of the found Hepatozoon sp. DNA, showing that the isolates from Colombia were placed in the same clade than other H. canis isolates from Venezuela, Spain, and Taiwan. This is the first molecular detection of H. canis in dogs from Colombia.

  9. Bartonella henselae infections in an owner and two Papillon dogs exposed to tropical rat mites (Ornithonyssus bacoti).

    PubMed

    Bradley, Julie M; Mascarelli, Patricia E; Trull, Chelsea L; Maggi, Ricardo G; Breitschwerdt, Edward B

    2014-10-01

    After raccoons were trapped and removed from under a house in New York, the owner and her two Papillon dogs became infested with numerous rat mites (Ornithonyssus bacoti). Two weeks later, both dogs developed pruritus, progressively severe vesicular lesions, focal areas of skin exfoliation, swelling of the vulva or prepuce, abdominal pain, and behavioral changes. Two months after the mite infestation, the owner was hospitalized because of lethargy, fatigue, uncontrollable panic attacks, depression, headaches, chills, swollen neck lymph nodes, and vesicular lesions at the mite bite sites. Due to ongoing illness, 3 months after the mite infestation, alcohol-stored mites and blood and serum from both dogs and the owner were submitted for Bartonella serology and Bartonella alpha Proteobacteria growth medium (BAPGM) enrichment blood culture/PCR. Bartonella henselae DNA was amplified and sequenced from blood or culture specimens derived from both dogs, the owner, and pooled rat mites. Following repeated treatments with doxycycline, both dogs eventually became B. henselae seronegative and blood culture negative and clinical signs resolved. In contrast, the woman was never B. henselae seroreactive, but was again PCR positive for B. henselae 20 months after the mite infestation, despite prior treatment with doxycycline. Clinicians and vector biologists should consider the possibility that rat mites may play a role in Bartonella spp. transmission.

  10. Flea (Pulex simulans) infestation in captive giant anteaters (Myrmecophaga tridactyla).

    PubMed

    Mutlow, Adrian G; Dryden, Michael W; Payne, Patricia A

    2006-09-01

    A pair of captive adult giant anteaters (Myrmecophaga tridactyla) presented heavily infested with a flea species (Pulex simulans) commonly found on Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana) and raccoons (Procyon lotor) in the central United States. In this case, the flea was demonstrated to have completed its entire life cycle with the anteaters as the host. A single treatment of topical imidacloprid, coupled with removal and replacement of infested bedding, was rapidly effective at controlling the infestation and no adverse effects of the drug were noted. Control of the anteater infestation also removed the flea infestation of aardvarks in the same building.

  11. Myiasis in Dogs in the Greater Accra Region of Ghana.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Sherry A M; Gakuya, Daniel W; Mbuthia, Paul G; Mande, John D; Afakye, Kofi; Maingi, Ndichu

    2016-01-01

    Myiasis is the infestation of tissues of live vertebrate animals and humans with dipterous larvae. In sub-Saharan Africa, Cordylobia anthropohaga and Cordylobia rodhaini are known to be responsible for cutaneous myiasis in animals and humans. Human cases of myiasis, purportedly acquired in Ghana but diagnosed in other countries, have been reported; however, published data on its occurrence in animals in Ghana is unavailable. This study assessed the prevalence of canine myiasis among owned dogs in the Greater Accra region (GAR) of Ghana. A cross-sectional study was conducted in the Greater Accra region of Ghana, selected for being the region with the highest estimated population density of owned dogs. Physical examination and demographic characteristics of the study dogs were assessed. Management of the dogs was assessed through a questionnaire administered to the dog owners. A total of 392 owned dogs were sampled. Twenty-nine (7.4%) had cutaneous myiasis caused by C. rodhaini. In addition, one (0.2%) of the dogs had intestinal myiasis, with Dermatobia hominis as the offending larvae. Among the breeds of dogs with myiasis, the mongrel was most affected, with 24 (82.8%) out of the 29 cases. The mongrels, majority of which (24; 82.8%) were males, were left to roam freely in the community. Results from this study demonstrate that C. rodhaini and D. hominis are important causes of myiasis in owned dogs in the GAR of Ghana. Dogs could play a role in the spread of myiasis to humans, with its attendant public health implications.

  12. Application of Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy in Early Detection of Red Palm Weevil: (Rhynchophorus ferrugineus) Infestation in Date Palm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    A. Farooq, W.; G. Rasool, K.; Walid, Tawfik; S. Aldawood, A.

    2015-11-01

    The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is one of the leading date producing countries. Unfortunately, this important fruit crop is under great threat from the red palm weevil (RPW) (Rhynchophorus ferrugineus), which is a highly invasive pest. Several techniques, including visual inspection, acoustic sensors, sniffer dogs, and pheromone traps have been tried to detect the early stages of a RPW infestation; however, each method has suffered certain logistical and implementation issues. We have applied laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) for the early detection of RPW infestation. Through the analysis of the observed LIBS spectra of different infested and healthy samples, we have found presence of Ca, Mg, Na, C, K elements and OH, CN molecules. The spectra also reveal that with the population growth of the pest, the intensity of Mg and Ca atomic lines in LIBS spectra increases rapidly. Similar behavior is observed in the molecular lines of LIBS spectra. The obtained results indicate that the LIBS technique can be used for the early detection of RPW infestation without damaging the date palms.

  13. Selecting shelter dogs for service dog training.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Emily

    2002-01-01

    Service dogs are an essential aid to persons with disabilities, providing independence, mobility, and improved self-esteem. Because of these proven benefits, the growing se of service dogs is creating a demand and supply crisis. One major cause is the 50% verage dropout rate for dogs selected for training. Weiss and Greenber (1997) re-cently found that a dog, successful on the most commonly used selection test items, was as likely to be either a poor or a good candidate for service work. The experiment presented here evaluated test items developed by the author in 15 years of experience with dogs. The test items were administered to 75 dogs from the Kansas Humane So-ciety. Once tested, the dogs received obedience and retrieval training. The experiment assessed each dog on behavior over 5 weeks of training versus performance on each selection test item. A subset of the selection items, combined in a regression analysis, accounted for 36.4% of the variance with R = 0.603. This research also revealed a reli-able test for dog aggression without risking injury to dog or tester. Items for testing in-cluded fear, motivation, and submission. Another set of selection items reliably pre-dicted the trait of "high energy" commonly described as "high strung." Future research should involve investigating the effectiveness of both cortisol levels and blood pressure in predicting traits to help strengthen the predictive value of the tool and then testing on dogs trained to be full service dogs.

  14. Prevalence of Helminths in Dogs and Owners' Awareness of Zoonotic Diseases in Mampong, Ashanti, Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Amissah-Reynolds, Papa Kofi; Monney, Isaac; Adowah, Lucy Mawusi; Agyemang, Samuel Opoku

    2016-01-01

    Dogs are popular pets that live closely with humans. However, this cohabitation allows for the transmission of zoonotic parasites to humans. In Ghana, very little is known about zoonotic parasites in dogs. We examined excrements of 154 dogs for intestinal helminthes using saturated sodium chloride as a floatation medium and further interviewed 100 dog owners regarding knowledge on zoonosis and pet management practices. Thirteen parasite species were identified, with an overall prevalence of 52.6%. Nematodes were more common than cestodes, with Toxocara canis being the most prevalent helminth (18.8%). Age (p = 0.011; χ 2 = 9.034) and location (p = 0.02; χ 2 = 12.323) of dogs were significant risk factors of helminthic infections, while mode of housing, function, and gender of dogs were not. Knowledge on zoonosis and pet management practices were poor, including irregular deworming and feeding of animals off the bare ground. Dogs may play an active role in the transmission of zoonotic diseases in the area, given the cohabitation of infected dogs with humans; irregular deworming pattern of dogs; and rampant excretion of helminth-infested dog excreta into the environment. PMID:26941994

  15. Ability of an oral formulation of afoxolaner to protect dogs from Borrelia burgdorferi infection transmitted by wild Ixodes scapularis ticks.

    PubMed

    Baker, C F; McCall, J W; McCall, S D; Drag, M D; Mitchell, E B; Chester, S T; Larsen, D

    2016-12-01

    A randomized, blinded, negative controlled study was conducted to determine whether treatment with afoxolaner (NexGard(®), Merial, Inc.) would prevent the transmission of Borrelia burgdorferi to dogs by wild caught Ixodes scapularis ticks. Twenty healthy dogs were randomly assigned to two groups of ten dogs each. Ten dogs were treated orally on Day 0 at a dose near the minimum recommended dose of afoxolaner of 2.5mg/kg (actual doses 2.5-3.1mg/kg) and ten control dogs were not treated. On Day 28, each dog was infested with approximately 50 adult unfed wild caught I. scapularis that had a 67% B. burgdorferi infection rate (determined by polymerase chain reaction). On Day 33, live ticks were counted and removed. No ticks were found on treated dogs while control dogs had an average of 21.4 ticks. To detect infection, the B. burgdorferi-specific C6 antibody SNAP(®) 4Dx(®) test (IDEXX) was performed on serum collected before infestation (all dogs seronegative on Days -6 and 27) and on Days 48, 63, 77 and 92. The ten treated dogs remained seronegative through the end of the study (Day 92), while nine out of the ten control dogs were infected, as demonstrated by their seroconversion to being positive for the presence of the B. burgdorferi-specific C6 antibody starting on Day 48. In this study, all dogs treated with NexGard(®) 28days prior to challenge with wild caught I. scapularis ticks were protected from B. burgdorferi infection, while nine out of the ten untreated control dogs were infected.

  16. Delusional Infestation: State of the Art.

    PubMed

    Vulink, Nienke C

    2016-08-23

    Patients with a delusional infestation (DI) have an overwhelming conviction that they are being infested with (non) pathogens without any medical proof. The patients need a systematic psychiatric and dermatological evaluation to assess any possible underlying cause that could be treated. Because they avoid psychiatrists, a close collaboration of dermatologists and psychiatrists, who examine the patient together, seems to be a promising solution. It helps to start a trustful doctor-patient relationship and motivates the patient for psychiatric treatment. We here review diagnostic criteria, classification of symptoms, pathophysiology and treatment options of DI. Antipsychotic medication is the treatment of choice when any other underlying cause or disorder is excluded. Further research is needed to assess the pathophysiology, and other treatment options for patients with DI.

  17. A rare manifestation of cysticercosis infestation.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Sanjeev; Gupta, Sunita; Mittal, Amit; Mahendra, Aneet; Aggarwal, Anshu; Batra, Rohit; Jindal, Nidhi

    2014-01-01

    There are many causes of urticaria, which may vary from infections to malignancy. Among the infections, infestations by cysticercosis (larval stage of the tapeworm called Taenia solium) is an important cause. The present report is of forty four years old female who presented with urticaria and swelling on face. The swelling was later diagnosed as cysticercosis by noninvasive ultrasonography. The urticaria subsided after the treatment of cysticercosis. We report this case for rarity of its presentation.

  18. Botfly infestation (myiasis) masquerading as furunculosis.

    PubMed

    Gewirtzman, A; Rabinovitz, H

    1999-02-01

    With air travel so prevalent, diseases endemic to certain regions may appear anywhere. The botfly (Dermatobia hominis) is not native to North America. We describe a case of a young boy and his father who presented with furunculosis secondary to infestation with the botfly. The infected patients live in South Florida and had been vacationing in Central America. Standard surgical treatment as well as multiple native remedies are described.

  19. Spatial scaling of mountain pine beetle infestations.

    PubMed

    Gamarra, J G P; He, F

    2008-07-01

    1. The relationship between occupancy and spatial contagion during the spread of eruptive and invasive species demands greater study, as it could lead to improved prediction of ecosystem damage. 2. We applied a recently developed model that links occupancy and its fractal dimension to model the spatial distribution of mountain pine beetle infestations in British Columbia, Canada. We showed that the distribution of infestation was scale-invariant in at least 24 out of 37 years (mostly in epidemic years), and presented some degree of scale-invariance in the rest. There was a general logarithmic relationship between fractal dimension and infestation occupancy. Based on the scale-invariance assumption, we further assessed the interrelationships for several landscape metrics, such as correlation length, maximum cluster size, total edge length and total number of clusters. 3. The scale-invariance assumption allows fitting the above metrics, and provides a framework to establish the scaling relationship between occupancy and spatial contagion. 4. We concluded that scale-invariance dominates the spread of mountain pine beetle. In this context, spatial aggregation can be predicted from occupancy, hence occupancy is the only variable one needs to know in order to predict the spatial distributions of populations. This supports the hypothesis that fractal dispersal kernels may be abundant among outbreaks of pests and invasive species.

  20. First molecular detection of tick-borne pathogens in dogs from Jiangxi, China

    PubMed Central

    ZHENG, Weiqing; LIU, Mingming; MOUMOUNI, Paul Franck Adjou; LIU, Xiaoqing; EFSTRATIOU, Artemis; LIU, Zhanbin; LIU, Yangqing; TAO, Huiying; GUO, Huanping; WANG, Guanbo; GAO, Yang; LI, Zifen; RINGO, Aaron Edmund; JIRAPATTHARASATE, Charoonluk; CHEN, Haiying; XUAN, Xuenan

    2016-01-01

    In this study, blood samples obtained from 162 dogs in Jiangxi, China, were employed in molecular screening of canine tick-borne pathogens by PCR and sequencing. Babesia spp. gene fragment was detected in 12 (7.41%) dogs. All samples were negative for Hepatozoon spp., Ehrlichia canis, Coxiella spp., Borrelia spp., Rickettsia spp. and Anaplasma platys. Species-specific PCR analysis further confirmed that 8 (4.94%) and 4 (2.47%) dogs were infected by Babesia canis vogeli and Babesia gibsoni, respectively. Based on our analyses, Babesia spp. infection in Jiangxi appeared not related to age, gender, breed, usage, activity and health status or tick infestation history of the dogs. This is the first molecular report of Babesia canis vogeli and Babesia gibsoni in dogs from Jiangxi, China. PMID:27890889

  1. Oral hirudiniasis in a stray dog, first report in Italy

    PubMed Central

    RAELE, Donato Antonio; GALANTE, Domenico; CAFIERO, Maria Assunta

    2015-01-01

    In June 2014, a male stray dog was recovered at Ente Nazionale di Protezione Animali (ENPA) kennel of Manfredonia, Apulia region, showing oral bleeding and physical prostration. The dog fell in a water canal and was trapped. During the clinical examination, a specimen of leech was revealed into its oral cavity. The parasite, probably entered by drinking unfiltered and contaminated water, has been identified as an adult of aquatic leech Limnatis nilotica. Leeches could overrun wide variety of animals, and few reports about blood sucking leech infestations in mammals are available in literature. This paper describes here the first oral hirudiniasis in a dog in Italy and highlights the possibility of human nasopharyngeal leech-related infection in Apulia region. PMID:26004432

  2. Molecular Characterization of the North American Lung Fluke Paragonimus kellicotti in Missouri and its Development in Mongolian Gerbils

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Peter U.; Curtis, Kurt C.; Marcos, Luis A.; Weil, Gary J.

    2011-01-01

    Human paragonimiasis is an emerging disease in Missouri. To characterize local parasites, we examined crayfish from three rivers. Metacercaeriae consistent with Paragonimus kellicotti were detected in 69%, 67%, and 37% of crayfish from the Big Piney, Huzzah, and Black Rivers, respectively. Sequencing of the second internal transcribed spacer and other DNA markers confirmed the species identification and the presence of identical parasite sequences in clinical specimens from two human cases. Mongolian gerbils were infected by intraperitoneal injection with 3–8 metacercariae. Most gerbils died 15–49 days post-infection. Necropsies showed pulmonary hemorrhage with necrosis, and flukes as long as 8 mm were recovered from intrathoracic tissues. Western blot analysis using P. kellicotti antigen showed a strong antibody response in gerbils 39 days post-infection. These results demonstrate that P. kellicotti is common in Missouri crayfish. The gerbil model may be useful for research on the pathogenesis, immunology, and treatment of paragonimiasis. PMID:21633042

  3. Molecular characterization of the North American lung fluke Paragonimus kellicotti in Missouri and its development in Mongolian gerbils.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Peter U; Curtis, Kurt C; Marcos, Luis A; Weil, Gary J

    2011-06-01

    Human paragonimiasis is an emerging disease in Missouri. To characterize local parasites, we examined crayfish from three rivers. Metacercaeriae consistent with Paragonimus kellicotti were detected in 69%, 67%, and 37% of crayfish from the Big Piney, Huzzah, and Black Rivers, respectively. Sequencing of the second internal transcribed spacer and other DNA markers confirmed the species identification and the presence of identical parasite sequences in clinical specimens from two human cases. Mongolian gerbils were infected by intraperitoneal injection with 3-8 metacercariae. Most gerbils died 15-49 days post-infection. Necropsies showed pulmonary hemorrhage with necrosis, and flukes as long as 8 mm were recovered from intrathoracic tissues. Western blot analysis using P. kellicotti antigen showed a strong antibody response in gerbils 39 days post-infection. These results demonstrate that P. kellicotti is common in Missouri crayfish. The gerbil model may be useful for research on the pathogenesis, immunology, and treatment of paragonimiasis.

  4. Efficacy of an imidacloprid/flumethrin collar against fleas, ticks and tick-borne pathogens in dogs.

    PubMed

    Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Capelli, Gioia; Giannelli, Alessio; Ramos, Rafael Antonio Nascimento; Lia, Riccardo Paolo; Cantacessi, Cinzia; de Caprariis, Donato; De Tommasi, Anna Sara; Latrofa, Maria Stefania; Lacasella, Vita; Tarallo, Viviana Domenica; Di Paola, Giancarlo; Qurollo, Barbara; Breitschwerdt, Edward; Stanneck, Dorothee; Otranto, Domenico

    2013-08-23

    Tick-borne diseases comprise a group of maladies that are of substantial medical and veterinary significance. A range of tick-borne pathogens, including diverse species of bacteria and protozoa, can infect both dogs and humans. Hence, the control of tick infestations is pivotal to decrease or prevent tick-borne pathogen transmission. Therefore, different commercial products with insecticidal, repellent or both properties have been developed for use on dogs. Recently, a collar containing a combination of imidacloprid 10% and flumethrin 4.5% has proven effective to prevent tick and flea infestations in dogs under field conditions and the infection by some vector-borne pathogens they transmit under laboratory-controlled conditions. From March 2011 to April 2012, a field study was conducted in a private shelter in southern Italy to assess the efficacy of the imidacloprid/flumethrin collar against tick and flea infestations and to determine if this strategy would decrease tick-borne pathogen transmission in young dogs. A total of 122 animals were enrolled in the study and randomly assigned to group A (n = 64; collared) or group B (n = 58; untreated controls). Dogs were examined monthly for ticks and fleas and systematically tested for selected tick-borne pathogens. Compared to controls, the collar provided overall efficacies of 99.7% and 100% against tick and flea infestation, respectively. The overall efficacy for the prevention of tick-borne pathogens (i.e., Anaplasma platys and Babesia vogeli) was 91.6%. This study demonstrates that the imidacloprid/flumethrin collar is efficacious against flea and tick infestation as well as tick-borne pathogen transmission to dogs under field conditions.

  5. Demodex musculi Infestation in Genetically Immunomodulated Mice

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Peter C; Zeiss, Caroline J; Beck, Amanda P; Scholz, Jodi A

    2016-01-01

    Demodex musculi, a prostigmatid mite that has been reported infrequently in laboratory mice, has been identified with increasing frequency in contemporary colonies of immunodeficient mice. Here we describe 2 episodes of D. musculi infestation with associated clinical signs in various genetically engineered mouse strains, as well as treatment strategies and an investigation into transmissibility and host susceptibility. The first case involved D. musculi associated with clinical signs and pathologic lesions in BALB/c-Tg(DO11.10)Il13tm mice, which have a defect in type 2 helper T cell (Th2) immunity. Subsequent investigation revealed mite transmission to both parental strains (BALB/c-Tg[DO11.10] and BALB/c-Il13tm), BALB/c-Il13/Il4tm, and wild-type BALB/c. All Tg(DO11.10)Il13tm mice remained infested throughout the investigation, and D. musculi were recovered from all strains when they were cohoused with BALB/c-Tg(DO11.10)Il13tm index mice. However, only Il13tm and Il13/Il4tm mice demonstrated persistent infestation after index mice were removed. Only BALB/c-Tg(DO11.10)Il13tm showed clinical signs, suggesting that the phenotypic dysfunction of Th2 immunity is sufficient for persistent infestation, whereas clinical disease associated with D. musculi appears to be genotype-specific. This pattern was further exemplified in the second case, which involved NOD.Cg-PrkdcscidIl2rgtm1Wjl/SzJ (NSG) and C;129S4 Rag2tm1.1Flv Il2rgtm1.1Flv/J mice with varying degrees of blepharitis, conjunctivitis, and facial pruritis. Topical amitraz decreased mite burden but did not eliminate infestation or markedly ameliorate clinical signs. Furthermore, mite burden began to increase by 1 mo posttreatment, suggesting that topical amitraz is an ineffective treatment for D. musculi. These experiences illustrate the need for vigilance regarding opportunistic and uncommon pathogens in rodent colonies, especially among mice with immunologic deficits. PMID:27538858

  6. Demodex musculi Infestation in Genetically Immunomodulated Mice.

    PubMed

    Smith, Peter C; Zeiss, Caroline J; Beck, Amanda P; Scholz, Jodi A

    2016-01-01

    Demodex musculi, a prostigmatid mite that has been reported infrequently in laboratory mice, has been identified with increasing frequency in contemporary colonies of immunodeficient mice. Here we describe 2 episodes of D. musculi infestation with associated clinical signs in various genetically engineered mouse strains, as well as treatment strategies and an investigation into transmissibility and host susceptibility. The first case involved D. musculi associated with clinical signs and pathologic lesions in BALB/c-Tg(DO11.10)Il13(tm) mice, which have a defect in type 2 helper T cell (Th2) immunity. Subsequent investigation revealed mite transmission to both parental strains (BALB/c-Tg[DO11.10] and BALB/c-Il13(tm)), BALB/c-Il13/Il4(tm), and wild-type BALB/c. All Tg(DO11.10)Il13(tm) mice remained infested throughout the investigation, and D. musculi were recovered from all strains when they were cohoused with BALB/c-Tg(DO11.10)Il13(tm) index mice. However, only Il13(tm) and Il13/Il4(tm) mice demonstrated persistent infestation after index mice were removed. Only BALB/c-Tg(DO11.10)Il13(tm) showed clinical signs, suggesting that the phenotypic dysfunction of Th2 immunity is sufficient for persistent infestation, whereas clinical disease associated with D. musculi appears to be genotype-specific. This pattern was further exemplified in the second case, which involved NOD.Cg-Prkdc(scid)Il2r(tm1Wjl)/SzJ (NSG) and C;129S4 Rag2(tm1.1Flv) Il2rg(tm1.1Flv)/J mice with varying degrees of blepharitis, conjunctivitis, and facial pruritis. Topical amitraz decreased mite burden but did not eliminate infestation or markedly ameliorate clinical signs. Furthermore, mite burden began to increase by 1 mo posttreatment, suggesting that topical amitraz is an ineffective treatment for D. musculi. These experiences illustrate the need for vigilance regarding opportunistic and uncommon pathogens in rodent colonies, especially among mice with immunologic deficits.

  7. Pleuropulmonary infection by Paragonimus westermani in the United States: a rare cause of Eosinophilic pneumonia after ingestion of live crabs.

    PubMed

    Boland, Jennifer M; Vaszar, Laszlo T; Jones, Jeffrey L; Mathison, Blaine A; Rovzar, Michael A; Colby, Thomas V; Leslie, Kevin O; Tazelaar, Henry D

    2011-05-01

    Infections caused by the parasite Paragonimus westermani are endemic to Southeast Asia. Most infections reported in the United States are among immigrants who acquired the disease abroad. Due to the nonspecific nature of its presentation and rarity in the United States, the diagnosis may first be suggested by the pathologist on biopsy review. Definitive diagnosis may need serologic testing for confirmation. We report 4 cases of pleuropulmonary disease caused by United States-acquired P. westermani, which were identified in the consultation files of the authors. Patients (3 men and 1 woman; aged, 20 to 66 y) presented with pulmonary complaints and chest imaging abnormalities including cavitary infiltrates (2), lung mass (1), pleural effusion (1), and pneumothorax (1). Biopsies showed chronic eosinophilic pneumonia and organizing pneumonia in all cases. Other pathologic findings included granulomatous inflammation with geographic necrosis (3), vasculitis (3), and pleuritis (3). Paragonimus organisms and/or eggs were identified in 2 cases. Serologic studies were positive for P. westermani in 3 cases (2 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and 1 immunoblot). Three patients ate live crabs at sushi bars (including crabs in martinis, a previously unreported mechanism for infection). In 1 patient, the source of infection was uncertain. Paragonimiasis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with eosinophilic pleuropulmonary disease in the United States. Although eosinophilic pneumonia was a consistent finding, the biopsies may be nonspecific as the organisms and/or eggs are not always visualized. Unusual features include marked pleuritis, foci of geographic necrosis and granulomatous vasculitis. A history of ingestion and targeted serologies are the keys to diagnosis.

  8. Assessing invasive plant infestation in freshwater wetlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torbick, Nathan M.

    Recent shifts in wetland ecosystem management goals have directed efforts toward measuring ecological integrity, rather than only using physical and chemical measures of ecosystems as health indicators. Invasive species pose one of the largest threats to wetlands integrity. Resource managers can benefit from improved methods for identifying invasive plant species, assessing infestation, and monitoring control measures. The utilization of advanced remote sensing tools for species-level mapping has been increasing and techniques need to be explored for identifying species of interest and characterizing infestation. The overarching goal of this research was to develop monitoring technologies to map invasive plants and quantify wetland infestation. The first field-level objective was to characterize absorption and reflectance features and assess processing techniques for separating wetland species. The second field-level objective was to evaluate the abilities of a shape filter to identify wetland invasive plant species. The first landscape-level objective was to classify hyperspectral imagery in order to identify invasives of interest. The second landscape-level objective was to quantify infestation within the study area. Field-level hyperspectral data (350-2500nm) were collected for twenty-two wetland plant species in a wetland located in the lower Muskegon River watershed in Michigan, USA. The Jeffries-Matusita distance measure, continuum removal, and a shape-filter were applied to hyperspectral species reflectance data to characterize spectral features. Generally, continuum removal decreased separation distance for the invasive species of interest. Using the shape-filter, Lythrum salicaria, Phragmites australis, and Typha latifolia possessed maximum separation (distinguished from other species) at the near-infrared edge (700nm) and water absorption region (1350nm), the near-infrared down slope (1000 and 1100nm), and the visible/chlorophyll absorption region (500nm

  9. Evaluation of the efficacy of afoxolaner against two European dog tick species: Dermacentor reticulatus and Ixodes ricinus.

    PubMed

    Dumont, Pascal; Blair, Jeffrey; Fourie, Josephus J; Chester, Theodore S; Larsen, Diane L

    2014-04-02

    The acaricidal efficacy of a novel oral formulation of afoxolaner (NEXGARD(®), Merial) against two European tick species was assessed in dogs experimentally infested with Ixodes ricinus and Dermacentor reticulatus. Three studies, each characterized by a negative controlled randomized block design, were conducted with a total of 52 beagle or mongrel dogs of both sexes. Starting 2 days before treatment, each dog was infested weekly with approximately 50 ticks. The number of live ticks was counted at 48 h post-treatment (Day 2) as well as 48 h following each infestation on Days 9, 16, 23, and 30. Afoxolaner, administered at an average dose of 2.7 mg/kg bodyweight (range 2.5-2.9 mg/kg), rapidly eliminated the pre-existing tick infestations with over 99% acaricidal efficacy and controlled the weekly re-infestations for up to 30 days post treatment with over 96% efficacy on both tick species. Afoxolaner provides excellent acaricidal efficacy against these two major European tick species using the oral route of administration.

  10. Prevalence and clustering of louse infestation in Queensland sheep flocks.

    PubMed

    Ward, M P; Armstrong, R T

    1999-04-12

    Information provided by wool growers in Queensland, Australia between 1995 and 1997 was used to assess the prevalence and spatial distribution of louse (Bovicola ovis) infestation in sheep flocks. The estimated prevalence of louse-infested flocks was 40% (95% confidence interval, 35-46%). Although the prevalence of infestation was higher in western regions (41-50%) compared to the south region of Queensland (31%), the difference was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). Significant (P = 0.02) clustering of infested flocks was detected in the south region where two foci were apparent. We conclude that Queensland sheep flocks have a moderate prevalence of louse infestation, and that clustering of infestation is not strong. The control of lice is an industry-wide issue that needs to be addressed by most wool growers in Queensland.

  11. Surface fine topography and PCR-based determination of metacercaria of Paragonimus sp. from edible crabs in Arunachal Pradesh, Northeast India.

    PubMed

    Tandon, V; Prasad, P K; Chatterjee, A; Bhutia, P T

    2007-12-01

    In several mountainous regions of Northeastern India, foci of Paragonimus infection reportedly involving species that are known to prevail in China have been identified. The present study was undertaken to demonstrate the surface fine topography and sequence analysis of the ribosomal deoxyribonucleic acid (rDNA; second internal transcribed spacer, ITS2) of the metacercarial stages of the lung fluke collected from a mountain stream of the area (Miao, Changlang District in Arunachal Pradesh). The encysted metacercariae were oval in shape and had a smooth surface. The newly excysted metacercaria had a ventral sucker larger than the oral; the body surface was covered with numerous single-pointed and thorn-like tegumentary spines, of which those on the anterior part of the body were bigger in size and showed a gradual reduction in length and number towards the posterior end; dome-shaped papillae in variable numbers were seen around the rim of the oral sucker and were sparsely distributed all over the body surface. The polymerase chain reaction-amplified rDNA ITS2 sequences of the metacercariae were aligned with known sequences for the various species of Paragonimus, and the expectation value was found to be most significant with P. westermani, revealing an absolute match. The surface topography including the number and distribution of papillae and spination patterns and the ITS2 sequences of the metacercariae strongly suggest that the Paragonimus species, prevalent in the region of India, is in fact P. westermani.

  12. Molecular and morphological variation of Paragonimus westermani in Vietnam with records of new second intermediate crab hosts and a new locality in a northern province.

    PubMed

    Doanh, N Pham; Tu, A Luu; Bui, T Dung; Loan, T Ho; Nonaka, Nariaki; Horii, Yoichiro; Blair, David; Nawa, Yukifumi

    2016-10-01

    Paragonimus westermani is one of the most medically important lung flukes and is widely distributed in Asia. It exhibits considerable variation in morphological, genetic and biological features. In central provinces of Vietnam, a high prevalence of metacercariae of this species has been reported from the crab intermediate host, Vietopotamon aluoiense. In this study, we detected P. westermani metacercariae in two additional crab hosts, Donopotamon haii in Quang Tri Province, central Vietnam and Indochinamon tannanti in Yen Bai Province in the north. The latter is a new locality for P. westermani in a northern region of Vietnam where P. heterotremus is the only species currently known to cause human paragonimiasis. Paragonimus westermani metacercariae found in Vietnam showed considerable morphological variation but slight genetic variation based on DNA sequences from the nuclear ribosomal ITS2 region and the mitochondrial 16S gene. Co-infection of the same individual crabs with P. westermani and P. heterotremus and/or some other Paragonimus species was found frequently, suggesting potential for co-infection in humans. The findings of the present study emphasize the need for highly specific molecular and immunodiagnostic methods to differentially diagnose between P. westermani and P. heterotremus infections.

  13. Intron sequence of the taurocyamine kinase gene as a marker to investigate genetic variation of Paragonimus species in Japan and the origins of triploidy in P. westermani.

    PubMed

    Saijuntha, Weerachai; Tantrawatpan, Chairat; Jarilla, Blanca R; Agatsuma, Takeshi; Andrews, Ross H; Petney, Trevor N

    2016-01-01

    Paragonimiasis is a foodborne parasitic infection caused by lung flukes of the genus Paragonimus. Several species of Paragonimus are endemic in Japan: P. westermani (diploid and triploid) P. miyazakii, P. ohirai and P. iloktsuenensis. The taxonomic status and genetic variability of these lung flukes remains poorly understood. The second intron of domain 1 of the taurocyamine kinase gene (TKD1int2) region was used to explore genetic variation and differentiation of diploid and triploid P. westermani, as well as P. miyazakii, P. ohirai and P. iloktsuenensis originating from Japan. We found high levels of intraspecific variation in P. westermani, but only low levels of variation within the other species studied. Haplotype network and phylogenetic tree analyses demonstrated the sister-group relationship of P. ohirai and P. iloktsuenensis and the phylogenetically distant relationship of P. westermani with the other species. All individuals except for triploid P. westermani were homozygous. Each triploid contained at least one allele similar to that seen in most diploids from Chiba and one allele resembling that seen in diploids from Oita. One triploid contained three different sequences. Our findings suggested that the TKD1int2 region is a suitable marker for use in studying the genetic variation and phylogenetics of Paragonimus species, as well as providing clues to the origins of triploidy in P. westermani. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Ethylene production and peroxidase activity in aphid-infested barley.

    PubMed

    Argandoña, V H; Chaman, M; Cardemil, L; Muñoz, O; Zúñiga, G E; Corcuera, L J

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to investigate whether ethylene is involved in the oxidative and defensive responses of barley to the aphids Schizaphis graminum (biotype C) and Rhopalophum padi. The effect of aphid infestation on ethylene production was measured in two barley cultivars (Frontera and Aramir) that differ in their susceptibility to aphids. Ethylene evolution was higher in plants infested for 16 hr than in plants infested for 4 hr in both cultivars. Under aphid infestation, the production of ethylene was higher in cv. Frontera than in Aramir, the more aphid susceptible cultivar. Ethylene production also increases with the degree of infestation. Maximum ethylene evolution was detected after 16 hr when plants were infested with 10 or more aphids. Comparing the two species of aphids, Schizaphis graminum induced more ethylene evolution than Rhopalosiphum padi. Infestation with S. graminum increased hydrogen peroxide content and total soluble peroxidase activity in cv. Frontera, with a maximum level of H2O2 observed after 20 min of infestation and the maximum in soluble peroxidase activity after 30 min of infestation. When noninfested barley seedlings from cv. Frontera were exposed to ethylene, an increase in hydrogen peroxide and in total peroxidase activity was detected at levels similar to those of infested plants from cv. Frontera. When noninfested plants were treated with 40 ppm of ethylene, the maximum levels of H2O2 and soluble peroxidase activity were at 10 and 40 min, respectively. Ethylene also increased the activity of both cell-wall-bound peroxidases types (ionically and covalently bound), comparable with infestation. These results suggest that ethylene is involved in the oxidative responses of barley plants induced by infestation.

  15. Infestation of people with lice in Kathmandu and Pokhara, Nepal.

    PubMed

    Poudel, S K S; Barker, S C

    2004-06-01

    The prevalence of infestation with head lice and body lice, Pediculus spp. (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae) and pubic (crab) lice Pthirus pubis (L.) (Phthiraptera: Pthiridae), was recorded from 484 people in Nepal. The prevalence of head lice varied from 16% in a sample of people aged 10-39 years of age, to 59% in street children. Simultaneous infestations with head and body lice (double infestations) varied from 18% in slum children to 59% in street children.

  16. Response of Grape Leaf Spectra to Phylloxera Infestation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Lee F.

    1999-01-01

    During the 1993 growing season, leaf reflectance and chlorophyll concentrations were monitored with respect to phylloxera (root-louse) infestation in a Napa Valley (California) vineyard. Study plots were established in areas of severely infested, mildly infested, and uninfested sections of the vineyard. A handheld chlorophyll meter, measuring leaf transmittance of near-infrared and red light, confirmed that reduced foliar chlorophyll concentrations were symptomatic of phylloxera stress in the sample vines. Bidirectional reflectance measurements of green and near-infrared light, taken on fresh leaves with a laboratory spectrophotometer, were related to chlorophyll concentration but did not allow discrimination of mildly infested from uninfested vines.

  17. First Case of Ascaris lumbricoides Infestation Complicated with Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis.

    PubMed

    Bayhan, Gülsüm İclal; Çenesiz, Funda; Tanır, Gönül; Taylan Özkan, Ayşegül; Çınar, Gökçe

    2015-06-01

    Ascariasis is a common soil-transmitted helminth infestation worldwide. Ascaris lumbricoides infestation is generally asymptomatic or cause nonspecific signs and symptoms. We report a 5-year-old male with hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis associated with A. lumbricoides infestation. The presented patient recovered completely after defecating an A. lumbricoides following intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) and mebendazole treatment. We wanted to emphasize that because helminth infestation is easily overlooked, the diagnosis of ascariasis should be considered in patients who live in endemic areas and treated timely to prevent severe complications.

  18. Comparative efficacy of two oral treatments for dogs containing either afoxolaner or fluralaner against Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato and Dermacentor reticulatus.

    PubMed

    Beugnet, Frederic; Liebenberg, Julian; Halos, Lenaïg

    2015-04-15

    The present study compares the efficacy of two recent oral ectoparasiticides containing isoxazolines (NexGard(®), containing afoxolaner and administered at a monthly regimen, and Bravecto™ containing fluralaner and administered at a tri-monthly regimen) against Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato and Dermacentor reticulatus ticks on dogs. 24 dogs were randomly allocated to untreated control, NexGard(®) treated, and Bravecto™ treated groups. The treatments were administered on Days 0, 28 and 56 for afoxolaner and on Day 0 for fluralaner. Tick infestations were performed weekly with 50 unfed adult ticks per each species on each dog from Days 30 to 84 (with the exception of R. sanguineus on Day 63). Ticks were counted at 24h post-infestation. The dogs from both treated groups had statistically significantly (p<0.05) less R. sanguineus and D. reticulatus ticks compared to the untreated dogs on all assessment days. Percent efficacy against R. sanguineus ranged from 86.4% to 99.5% at 24h post-infestation for NexGard(®) and from 65.7% to 100% for Bravecto™. Statistically significantly (p<0.05) less R. sanguineus ticks were recorded for NexGard(®) treated dogs compared to Bravecto™ treated dogs on Day 78. Percent efficacy against D. reticulatus ranged from 85.2% to 99.6% at 24h post-infestation for NexGard(®) and from 63.4% to 99.1% for Bravecto™. Statistically significantly (p<0.05) less D. reticulatus ticks were recorded for NexGard(®) treated dogs compared to Bravecto™ treated dogs on Days 71, 78 and 85.

  19. Imidacloprid plus moxidectin topical solution for the prevention of heartworm disease (Dirofiloria immitis) in dogs.

    PubMed

    Arther, R G; Bowman, D D; Slone, R L; Travis, L E

    2005-10-01

    A topically applied formulation containing 10% imidacloprid+2.5% moxidectin (Advocate/Advantage multi) has been developed for monthly application to dogs for the prevention of canine heartworm (HW) disease caused by Dirofilaria immitis; and for the treatment and control of flea infestations, mite infestations, and intestinal nematode infections. The efficacy of this formulation to prevent canine HW disease was confirmed at three study locations which included the use of 88 purpose-bred beagles 6-8 months of age. Two of these studies also evaluated the effects of post-treatment water exposure or shampooing on product performance. Each dog was infected with 50 third-stage D. immitis larvae on test days -30 to -45. Dogs were blocked according to gender and body weight on test day -1. Topically applied test articles were administered once on test day 0 as follows: 10% imidacloprid+2.5% moxidectin (52 dogs); 2.5% moxidectin mono solution (eight dogs); 10% imidacloprid mono solution (16 dogs); and placebo solution (12 dogs). Treatment dosages were applied to provide a minimum of 10 mg/kg imidacloprid and/or 2.5 mg/kg moxidectin. Subgroups of dogs were exposed to water to simulate swimming/rain exposure at designated post-treatment intervals. Additional dogs were shampooed at 90 min, 4 h, or 24 h post-treatment. All dogs were necropsied 110-119 days post-treatment for recovery of adult D. immitis. No adult D. immitis were recovered at necropsy from any of the dogs receiving 10% imidacloprid+2.5% moxidectin or 2.5% moxidectin mono solution, demonstrating 100% efficacy for prevention of D. immitis infection. A total of 701 adult D. immitis were recovered at necropsy from dogs receiving 10% imidacloprid mono solution or placebo (range of 11-40 D. immitis/dog). The efficacy of 10% imidacloprid+2.5% moxidectin treatment for the prevention of HW disease was not decreased when dogs were shampooed as early as 90 min post-treatment, or when dogs immersed in water 5 times post

  20. Parasitic Infestation and Choice of Reproductive Regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sousa, A. O.; de Oliveira, S. Moss; Sá Martins, J. S.

    The Penna model is used to simulate the competition between an asexual parthenogenetic and asexual population inhabiting the same environment represented by a square lattice. With a small probability, a newborn from the sexual population mutates into an asexual one and vice versa. Then, the asexual population rapidly dominates the sexual one, which all but disappears. However, when an infestation by mutating genetically coupled parasites, that mimic trematodes that feed on gonads, is introduced, the outcome may be one in which both populations coevolve or one in which one of the populations overcomes the other, depending on the density of parasites on the lattice.

  1. Ticks infesting humans in Northern Misiones, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Lamattina, Daniela; Nava, Santiago

    2016-01-01

    This work presents records of ticks infesting humans in northern Misiones Province, Argentina. Also, notes on potential transmission of tick-borne pathogens are included. A total of 282 ticks attached to researchers were collected and identified by their morphological characters. Eight tick species were found: Amblyomma brasiliense, Amblyomma coelebs, Amblyomma dubitatum, Amblyomma incisum, Amblyomma ovale, Haemaphysalis juxtakochi, Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Rhipicephalus microplus. Some of these species as A. dubitatum, A. ovale and R. sanguineus have been found infected with spotted fever group rickettsiae pathogenic to humans in Brazil and Argentina. The potential role as vectors of humans pathogens of the ticks found attached to humans in this study is discussed.

  2. Prevention of transmission of Babesia canis by Dermacentor reticulatus ticks to dogs after topical administration of fluralaner spot-on solution.

    PubMed

    Taenzler, Janina; Liebenberg, Julian; Roepke, Rainer K A; Heckeroth, Anja R

    2016-05-31

    The preventive effect of fluralaner spot-on solution against transmission of Babesia canis by Dermacentor reticulatus ticks was evaluated. Sixteen dogs, tested negative for B. canis by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and immunofluorescence assay test (IFAT), were allocated to two study groups. On day 0, dogs in one group (n = 8) were treated once topically with fluralaner spot-on solution (Bravecto™ Spot-on Solution) according to label recommendations and dogs in the control group (n = 8) remained untreated. On days 2, 28, 56, 70 and 84, all dogs were infested with 50 (±4) D. reticulatus ticks harbouring B. canis, with tick in situ thumb counts 48 ± 4 h after each infestation. On day 90, ticks were removed from all dogs and counted. Prior to each infestation, the presence of B. canis in the respective tick batch was confirmed by PCR, and 12-16 % of ticks were found to be infected with B. canis. Efficacy against ticks was 99.5 and 99.3 % on days 4 and 58 after treatment, respectively and 100 % on all other days. Replacement dogs were included for any B. canis infected control dog (in total 19). All control dogs (n = 27) became infected with B. canis, as confirmed by PCR, performed every 7 days, and by IFAT, performed every 14 days after treatment. None of the eight treated dogs became infected with B. canis, as they were tested negative by PCR and IFAT throughout the study until day 112. By comparing infected dogs in the treated group with infected dogs in the untreated control group, a 100 % preventive effect against B. canis transmission was demonstrated. A single topical administration of fluralaner spot-on solution effectively prevented the transmission of B. canis by infected D. reticulatus ticks over a 12-week period.

  3. Occurrence of Dipylidium caninum in fleas from client-owned cats and dogs in Europe using a new PCR detection assay.

    PubMed

    Beugnet, Frédéric; Labuschagne, Michel; Fourie, Josephus; Jacques, Guillot; Farkas, Robert; Cozma, Vasile; Halos, Lénaïg; Hellmann, Klaus; Knaus, Martin; Rehbein, Steffen

    2014-09-15

    Ctenocephalides fleas are not only the most prevalent ectoparasites of dogs and cats but also the intermediate host of the cestode Dipylidium caninum. Due to the poor sensitivity of coproscopy to diagnose cat and dog infestation by Dipylidium, few epidemiological data are available on its prevalence among pet populations. A new PCR method was developed to specifically identify D. caninum rDNA inside single fleas. The PCR test was then applied to 5529 fleas of Ctenocephalides genus, 2701 Ctenocephalides felis fleas (1969 collected on 435 cats and 732 on 178 dogs) and 2828 Ctenocephalides canis fleas collected from 396 dogs. Precisely, 4.37% of cats were infested by a flea population infected with D. caninum. Out of the 1969 C. felis from cats, 2.23% were found to be infected with Dipylidium. From the 396 dogs infested with C. canis, 9.1%% were infested with the Dipylidium infected fleas, which is significantly higher than the observation made in cats (p=0.03). Moreover, 3.1% of the C. canis fleas were found to be infected with Dipylidium, which is not significantly different than in C. felis. Looking at the number of infected fleas in the positive samples (at least one PCR positive flea in a sample), the infestation rate in samples was varied from 3 to 100% with an average of 19.7% which is in favour of easy and regular Dipylidium reinfestations of both cats and dogs in households. For the first time, the spread of D. caninum between fleas and dogs and cats is confirmed throughout Europe. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Phylogenetic reconstruction using secondary structures and sequence motifs of ITS2 rDNA of Paragonimus westermani (Kerbert, 1878) Braun, 1899 (Digenea: Paragonimidae) and related species

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Most phylogenetic studies using current methods have focused on primary DNA sequence information. However, RNA secondary structures are particularly useful in systematics because they include characteristics that give "morphological" information, not found in the primary sequence. In several mountainous regions of Northeastern India, foci of Paragonimus (lung fluke) infection reportedly involve species that are known to prevail in neighbouring countries. The present study was undertaken to demonstrate the sequence analysis of the ribosomal DNA (ITS2) of the infective (metacercarial) stage of the lung fluke collected from the edible crab hosts that are abundant in a mountain stream of the area (Miao, Changlang District in Arunachal Pradesh) and to construct its phylogeny. Using the approach of molecular morphometrics that is based on ITS2 secondary structure homologies, phylogenetic relationships of the various isolates of Paragonimus species that are prevalent in the neighbouring Near-eastern countries have been discussed. Results Initially, ten predicted RNA secondary structures were reconstructed and the topology based only on the predicted RNA secondary structure of the ITS2 region resolved most relationships among the species studied. We obtained three similar topologies for seven species of the genus Paragonimus on the basis of traditional primary sequence analysis using MEGA and a Bayesian analysis of the combined data. The latter approach allowed us to include both primary sequence and RNA molecular morphometrics; each data partition was allowed to have a different evolution rate. Paragonimus westermani was found to group with P. siamensis of Thailand; this was best supported by both the molecular morphometrics and combined analyses. P. heterotremus, P. proliferus, P. skrjabini, P. bangkokensis and P. harinasutai formed a separate clade in the molecular phylogenies, and were reciprocally monophyletic with respect to other species. ITS2 sequence

  5. Phylogenetic reconstruction using secondary structures and sequence motifs of ITS2 rDNA of Paragonimus westermani (Kerbert, 1878) Braun, 1899 (Digenea: Paragonimidae) and related species.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Pramod Kumar; Tandon, Veena; Biswal, Devendra Kumar; Goswami, Lalit Mohan; Chatterjee, Anupam

    2009-12-03

    Most phylogenetic studies using current methods have focused on primary DNA sequence information. However, RNA secondary structures are particularly useful in systematics because they include characteristics that give "morphological" information, not found in the primary sequence. In several mountainous regions of Northeastern India, foci of Paragonimus (lung fluke) infection reportedly involve species that are known to prevail in neighbouring countries. The present study was undertaken to demonstrate the sequence analysis of the ribosomal DNA (ITS2) of the infective (metacercarial) stage of the lung fluke collected from the edible crab hosts that are abundant in a mountain stream of the area (Miao, Changlang District in Arunachal Pradesh) and to construct its phylogeny. Using the approach of molecular morphometrics that is based on ITS2 secondary structure homologies, phylogenetic relationships of the various isolates of Paragonimus species that are prevalent in the neighbouring Near-eastern countries have been discussed. Initially, ten predicted RNA secondary structures were reconstructed and the topology based only on the predicted RNA secondary structure of the ITS2 region resolved most relationships among the species studied. We obtained three similar topologies for seven species of the genus Paragonimus on the basis of traditional primary sequence analysis using MEGA and a Bayesian analysis of the combined data. The latter approach allowed us to include both primary sequence and RNA molecular morphometrics; each data partition was allowed to have a different evolution rate. Paragonimus westermani was found to group with P. siamensis of Thailand; this was best supported by both the molecular morphometrics and combined analyses. P. heterotremus, P. proliferus, P. skrjabini, P. bangkokensis and P. harinasutai formed a separate clade in the molecular phylogenies, and were reciprocally monophyletic with respect to other species. ITS2 sequence motifs allowed an

  6. Evaluation of the efficacy of sarolaner (Simparica®) in the prevention of babesiosis in dogs.

    PubMed

    Geurden, Thomas; Six, Robert; Becskei, Csilla; Maeder, Steven; Lloyd, Anne; Mahabir, Sean; Fourie, Josephus; Liebenberg, Julian

    2017-09-06

    Canine babesiosis is a clinically significant emerging vector-borne disease caused among others by the protozoan Babesia canis. The efficacy of sarolaner (Simparica®; Zoetis; at the minimum recommended label dose of 2.0 mg per kg bodyweight) in the prevention of babesiosis was evaluated in twenty-four dogs randomly allocated to either a placebo-treated group or one of two sarolaner-treated groups. At 21 or 28 days after treatment administration, dogs were infested with 50 ± 4 Dermacentor reticulatus ticks of which 25% were confirmed to be infected with Babesia canis. Blood samples were collected from each dog prior to tick infestation and weekly thereafter until 49 days after infestation. The blood was assayed for B. canis antibodies using an indirect immunofluorescence test (IFAT) and for B. canis DNA by PCR assay. A dog was a priori defined as B. canis-positive if it tested positive by both IFAT and PCR at any time during the study. No treatment-related adverse reactions were recorded during the study. All placebo-treated animals displayed clinical signs due to babesiosis and tested positive on both IFAT and PCR. None of the sarolaner-treated animals displayed any clinical symptoms or tested positive on both IFAT and PCR, resulting in a 100% efficacy in the prevention of canine babesiosis (P = 0.0002). When given 21 or 28 days before tick infestation, a single treatment with sarolaner at the minimum recommended label dose of 2.0 mg per kg body weight prevented the transmission of B. canis by D. reticulatus to dogs.

  7. Circovirus in Dogs FAQ

    MedlinePlus

    ... Reports Tools for K-12 Educators Circovirus in Dogs FAQ November 22, 2013 Update November 22, 2013: ... information. Canine circovirus infections have been documented in dogs with vomiting and diarrhea. The distribution of the ...

  8. The efficacy of a topically applied combination of cyphenothrin and pyriproxyfen against the southern African yellow dog tick, Haemaphysalis elliptica, and the cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis, on dogs.

    PubMed

    Fourie, J J; Fourie, L J; Horak, I G; Snyman, M G

    2010-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the therapeutic and residual efficacy of a topically applied combination of cyphenothrin (40%) and pyriproxyfen (2%) against the tick Haemaphysalis elliptica and the flea Ctenocephalides felis on dogs. Twelve dogs were infested with 50 ticks 2 days before they were treated and with approximately 100 fleas 6 days before treatment and again 2 days before treatment and with 50 ticks and approximately 100 fleas at weekly intervals thereafter. They were ranked according to their flea counts and sex 5 days before treatment and randomly allocated to an untreated control group of 6 dogs and a treated group of 6 dogs. Ticks and fleas were collected from the dogs 48 h after treatment and 48 h after each infestation and live and dead ticks and live fleas were counted. The counts of ticks and fleas were transformed to geometric means, and efficacy was calculated by comparing these means. The product had a therapeutic efficacy of 83.1% against H. elliptica and 97.5% against C. felis 2 days after treatment. The residual period of protection during which efficacy was > or = 90% was 5 weeks for both H. elliptica and C. felis.

  9. Bartonella infection in shelter cats and dogs and their ectoparasites.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Yi-Lun; Lin, Chao-Chen; Chomel, Bruno B; Chuang, Shih-Te; Tsai, Kun-Hsien; Wu, Wen-Jer; Huang, Chin-Gi; Yu, Jiann-Chung; Sung, Min-Hua; Kass, Philip H; Chang, Chao-Chin

    2011-08-01

    Mainly through vector transmission, domestic cats and dogs are infected by several Bartonella spp. and represent a large reservoir for human infections. This study investigated the relationship of prevalences of Bartonella infection in shelter dogs and cats and various ectoparasite species infesting them (fleas, ticks, and lice). Moreover, relationships between Bartonella infection and animal gender and age and presence of ectoparasites were analyzed. Blood samples were collected from 120 dogs and 103 cats. There were 386 ticks and 36 fleas harvested on these dogs, and 141 fleas, 4 ticks, and 2 lice harvested on these cats. Isolation/detection of Bartonella sp. was performed by culture, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and partial sequencing. Bartonella was isolated from 21 (20.4%) cats and detected by PCR from 20 (19.4%) cats, 2 (1.7%) dogs, 55 (39%) fleas collected from cats, 28 (10%) ticks DNA samples, and 1 (2.8%) flea collected from dogs. When combining culture and PCR data, 27 cats and 55 fleas collected on cats were positive for Bartonella henselae or Bartonella clarridgeiae, but none were coinfected. Approximately half of the B. henselae isolates from 21 cats were B. henselae type I. Moreover, B. henselae, Bartonella phoceensis, Bartonella queenslandensis, Bartonella rattimassiliensis, Bartonella elizabethae DNA was detected in ticks collected from dogs and one flea was B. clarridgeiae PCR positive. This is the first report of such a wide variety of Bartonella spp. detected in Rhipicephalus sanguineus. Further studies are required to understand the relative importance of these ectoparasites to transmit Bartonella spp. in dogs and cats.

  10. Prevalence of vector-borne pathogens in dogs from Haiti.

    PubMed

    Starkey, Lindsay A; Newton, Kassie; Brunker, Jill; Crowdis, Kelly; Edourad, Emile Jean Pierre; Meneus, Pedro; Little, Susan E

    2016-07-15

    Canine vector-borne pathogens are common on some Caribbean islands, but survey data in Haiti are lacking. To determine the prevalence of selected vector-borne pathogens in dogs from Haiti, we tested blood samples collected from 210 owned dogs, 28 (13.3%) of which were infested with Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks at the time of blood collection. No other tick species were identified on these dogs. A commercially available ELISA identified antibodies to Ehrlichia spp. in 69 (32.9%), antibodies to Anaplasma spp. in 37 (17.6%), and antigen of Dirofilaria immitis in 55 (26.2%); antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi were not detected in any sample. Molecular assays of whole blood from 207 of the dogs confirmed infection with Ehrlichia canis (15; 7.2%), Anaplasma platys (13; 6.3%), D. immitis (46; 22.2%), Wolbachia spp. (45; 21.7%), Babesia vogeli (16; 7.7%), and Hepatozoon canis (40; 19.3%), but Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Babesia canis, Babesia rossi, Babesia gibsoni, Ehrlichia chaffeensis, Ehrlichia ewingii, or Hepatozoon americanum were not detected. Co-infection with two or more vector-borne pathogens was detected by serology in 42 (20.0%) dogs and by molecular assays in 22 (10.6%) dogs; one dog was co-infected with B. vogeli and E. canis as detected by PCR with D. immitis detected by serology (antigen). Overall, evidence of past or current infection with at least one vector-borne pathogen was identified in 142/210 (67.6%) dogs in this study, underscoring the common nature of these pathogens, some of which are zoonotic, in Haiti. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Triatomine infestation and vector-borne transmission of Chagas disease in northwest and central Parana, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Falavigna-Guilherme, Ana Lucia; Santana, Rosângela; Pavanelli, Gilberto Cezar; Lorosa, Elias Seixas; Araújo, Silvana Marques de

    2004-01-01

    Triatomine infestation, prevalence of T. cruzi antibodies in humans and domestic animals, and variables potentially associated with the presence of triatomines in a rural domiciliary unit (DU) were investigated in nine municipalities and one district of Parana, Brazil, from June 1996 to February 2000. DUs were defined as all houses and annexes on a given piece of property. Blood samples from human volunteers, dogs, and cats were submitted to indirect immunofluorescence. An epidemiological form was completed for each DU. A logistic model was adopted in order to identify associations. Seven out of nine municipalities were positive for triatomines. T. infestans was not captured, but T. sordida, P. megistus, and R. neglectus were. Different variables were considered decisive for the presence of triatomines across the municipalities: proximity to residual wooded areas, i.e. either scrub forest (capoeira) or islands of residual forest (slightly dense vegetation), longer time of residence, existence of inhabited houses, and past DU infestation. In order to ensure proper continuation of the recommended Chagas disease control program, entomo-epidemiological surveillance measures need to be maintained.

  12. Impregnated Netting Slows Infestation by Triatoma infestans

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Michael Z.; Quíspe-Machaca, Victor R.; Ylla-Velasquez, Jose L.; Waller, Lance A.; Richards, Jean M.; Rath, Bruno; Borrini-Mayori, Katty; del Carpio, Juan G. Cornejo; Cordova-Benzaquen, Eleazar; McKenzie, F. Ellis; Wirtz, Robert A.; Maguire, James H.; Gilman, Robert H.; Bern, Caryn

    2008-01-01

    We used sentinel animal enclosures to measure the rate of infestation by the Chagas disease vector, Triatoma infestans, in an urban community of Arequipa, Peru, and to evaluate the effect of deltamethrin-impregnated netting on that rate. Impregnated netting decreased the rate of infestation of sentinel enclosures (rate ratio, 0.23; 95% confidence interval, 0.13–0.38; P < 0.001), controlling for the density of surrounding vector populations and the distance of these to the sentinel enclosures. Most migrant insects were early-stage nymphs, which are less likely to carry the parasitic agent of Chagas disease, Trypanosoma cruzi. Spread of the vector in the city therefore likely precedes spread of the parasite. Netting was particularly effective against adult insects and late-stage nymphs; taking into account population structure, netting decreased the reproductive value of migrant populations from 443.6 to 40.5. Impregnated netting can slow the spread of T. infestans and is a potentially valuable tool in the control of Chagas disease. PMID:18840739

  13. Impregnated netting slows infestation by Triatoma infestans.

    PubMed

    Levy, Michael Z; Quíspe-Machaca, Victor R; Ylla-Velasquez, Jose L; Waller, Lance A; Richards, Jean M; Rath, Bruno; Borrini-Mayori, Katty; del Carpio, Juan G Cornejo; Cordova-Benzaquen, Eleazar; McKenzie, F Ellis; Wirtz, Robert A; Maguire, James H; Gilman, Robert H; Bern, Caryn

    2008-10-01

    We used sentinel animal enclosures to measure the rate of infestation by the Chagas disease vector, Triatoma infestans, in an urban community of Arequipa, Peru, and to evaluate the effect of deltamethrin-impregnated netting on that rate. Impregnated netting decreased the rate of infestation of sentinel enclosures (rate ratio, 0.23; 95% confidence interval, 0.13-0.38; P < 0.001), controlling for the density of surrounding vector populations and the distance of these to the sentinel enclosures. Most migrant insects were early-stage nymphs, which are less likely to carry the parasitic agent of Chagas disease, Trypanosoma cruzi. Spread of the vector in the city therefore likely precedes spread of the parasite. Netting was particularly effective against adult insects and late-stage nymphs; taking into account population structure, netting decreased the reproductive value of migrant populations from 443.6 to 40.5. Impregnated netting can slow the spread of T. infestans and is a potentially valuable tool in the control of Chagas disease.

  14. Vector-borne helminths of dogs and humans in Europe

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Presently, 45% of the total human population of Europe, as well as their domestic and companion animals, are exposed to the risk of vector-borne helminths (VBH) causing diseases. A plethora of intrinsic biological and extrinsic factors affect the relationship among helminths, vectors and animal hosts, in a constantly changing environment. Although canine dirofilarioses by Dirofilaria immitis and Dirofilaria repens are key examples of the success of VBH spreading into non-endemic areas, another example is represented by Thelazia callipaeda eyeworm, an emergent pathogen of dogs, cats and humans in several regions of Europe. The recent finding of Onchocerca lupi causing canine and human infestation in Europe and overseas renders the picture of VBH even more complicated. Similarly, tick-transmitted filarioids of the genus Cercopithifilaria infesting the skin of dogs were recently shown to be widespread in Europe. Although for most of the VBH above there is an increasing accumulation of research data on their distribution at national level, the overall impact of the diseases they cause in dogs and humans is not fully recognised in many aspects. This review investigates the reasons underlying the increasing trend in distribution of VBH in Europe and discusses the diagnostic and control strategies currently available. In addition, this article provides the authors’ opinion on some topics related to VBH that would deserve further scientific investigation. PMID:23324440

  15. Vector-borne helminths of dogs and humans in Europe.

    PubMed

    Otranto, Domenico; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Brianti, Emanuele; Traversa, Donato; Petrić, Dusan; Genchi, Claudio; Capelli, Gioia

    2013-01-16

    Presently, 45% of the total human population of Europe, as well as their domestic and companion animals, are exposed to the risk of vector-borne helminths (VBH) causing diseases. A plethora of intrinsic biological and extrinsic factors affect the relationship among helminths, vectors and animal hosts, in a constantly changing environment. Although canine dirofilarioses by Dirofilaria immitis and Dirofilaria repens are key examples of the success of VBH spreading into non-endemic areas, another example is represented by Thelazia callipaeda eyeworm, an emergent pathogen of dogs, cats and humans in several regions of Europe. The recent finding of Onchocerca lupi causing canine and human infestation in Europe and overseas renders the picture of VBH even more complicated. Similarly, tick-transmitted filarioids of the genus Cercopithifilaria infesting the skin of dogs were recently shown to be widespread in Europe. Although for most of the VBH above there is an increasing accumulation of research data on their distribution at national level, the overall impact of the diseases they cause in dogs and humans is not fully recognised in many aspects. This review investigates the reasons underlying the increasing trend in distribution of VBH in Europe and discusses the diagnostic and control strategies currently available. In addition, this article provides the authors' opinion on some topics related to VBH that would deserve further scientific investigation.

  16. Dietary hyperthyroidism in dogs.

    PubMed

    Köhler, B; Stengel, C; Neiger, R

    2012-03-01

    Evaluation of dogs with elevated plasma thyroxine concentration fed raw food before and after changing the diet. Between 2006 and 2011 all dogs presented with an elevated plasma thyroxine concentration and a dietary history of feeding raw food were included. Thyroxine (reference interval: 19·3 to 51·5 nmol/L) and in many cases also thyroid-stimulating hormone concentrations (reference interval: <0·30 ng/mL) were measured initially and after changing the diet. Twelve dogs were presented with a median age of five years. The median plasma thyroxine concentration was 156·1 (range of 79·7 to 391·9) nmol/L; in six dogs, thyroid-stimulating hormone concentration was measured and was <0·03 ng/mL in five dogs and 0·05 ng/mL in one dog. Six dogs showed clinical signs such as weight loss, aggressiveness, tachycardia, panting and restlessness while six dogs had no clinical signs. After changing the diet eight dogs were examined: thyroxine concentration normalised in all dogs and clinical signs resolved. Dietary hyperthyroidism can be seen in dogs on a raw meat diet or fed fresh or dried gullets. Increased plasma thyroxine concentration in a dog, either with or without signs of hyperthyroidism, should prompt the veterinarian to obtain a thorough dietary history. © 2012 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  17. Prevention of transmission of Babesia canis by Dermacentor reticulatus ticks to dogs treated orally with fluralaner chewable tablets (Bravecto™).

    PubMed

    Taenzler, Janina; Liebenberg, Julian; Roepke, Rainer K A; Heckeroth, Anja R

    2015-06-04

    The preventive effect of fluralaner chewable tablets (Bravecto™) against transmission of Babesia canis by Dermacentor reticulatus ticks was evaluated. Sixteen dogs, tested negative for B. canis by PCR and IFAT, were allocated to two study groups. On day 0, dogs in one group (n = 8) were treated once orally with a fluralaner chewable tablet according to label recommendations and dogs in the control group (n = 8) remained untreated. On days 2, 28, 56, 70 and 84, dogs were infested with 50 (±4) B. canis infected D. reticulatus ticks with tick in situ thumb counts 48 ± 4 h post-infestation. Prior to each infestation, the D. reticulatus ticks were confirmed to harbour B. canis by PCR analysis. On day 90, ticks were counted and removed from all dogs. Efficacy against ticks was calculated for each assessment time point. After treatment, all dogs were physically examined in conjunction with blood collection for PCR every 7 days, blood samples for IFAT were collected every 14 days and the dog's rectal body temperature was measured thrice weekly. From dogs displaying symptoms of babesiosis or were PCR positive, a blood smear was taken, and, if positive, dogs were rescue treated and replaced with a replacement dog. The preventive effect was evaluated by comparing infected dogs in the treated group with infected dogs in the untreated control group. All control dogs became infected with B. canis, as confirmed by PCR and IFAT. None of the 8 treated dogs became infected with B. canis, as IFAT and PCR were negative throughout the study until day 112. Fluralaner chewable tablet was 100 % effective against ticks on days 4, 30, 58, and 90 and an efficacy of 99.6 % and 99.2 % was achieved on day 72 and day 86 after treatment, respectively. Over the 12-week study duration, a 100 % preventive effect against B. canis transmission was demonstrated. A single oral administration of fluralaner chewable tablets effectively prevented the transmission of B. canis by infected

  18. Monoterpene emissions from bark beetle infested Engelmann spruce trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amin, Hardik S.; Russo, Rachel S.; Sive, Barkley; Richard Hoebeke, E.; Dodson, Craig; McCubbin, Ian B.; Gannet Hallar, A.; Huff Hartz, Kara E.

    2013-06-01

    Bark beetle infestation impacts the health of coniferous forests, which are an important source of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to the atmosphere. The types and amounts of VOCs emitted from forests can influence secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation and impact overall air quality. In this initial work, the impact of bark beetle infestation on SOA precursors from Engelmann spruce is assessed. The VOCs emitted from the trunk of infested and healthy spruce trees were sampled using both sorbent traps and evacuated canisters that were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy. The samples from the infested spruce tree suggest a nine-fold enhancement in the total VOC emissions. The dominant VOCs in the infested spruce trees were 3-carene, β-pinene, and α-pinene. The increase observed in VOCs sampled at the trunk of the infested spruce was consistent with increases observed at infested lodgepole pine trunks. However, the types and amounts of VOCs emitted from Engelmann spruce and lodgepole pine are different, which suggests that additional measures of VOC emissions are needed to characterize the impact of bark beetle infestation on VOC emissions and SOA precursors.

  19. 7 CFR 301.45-3 - Generally infested areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Generally infested areas. 301.45-3 Section 301.45-3 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth § 301.45-3 Generally infested...

  20. 7 CFR 301.45-3 - Generally infested areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Generally infested areas. 301.45-3 Section 301.45-3 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth § 301.45-3 Generally infested...

  1. 7 CFR 301.45-3 - Generally infested areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Generally infested areas. 301.45-3 Section 301.45-3 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth § 301.45-3 Generally infested...

  2. 7 CFR 301.45-3 - Generally infested areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Generally infested areas. 301.45-3 Section 301.45-3 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth § 301.45-3 Generally infested...

  3. 7 CFR 301.45-3 - Generally infested areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Generally infested areas. 301.45-3 Section 301.45-3 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth § 301.45-3 Generally infested...

  4. Delusional infestation: an Australian multicentre study of 23 consecutive cases.

    PubMed

    Tran, M M A; Iredell, J R; Packham, D R; O'Sullivan, M V N; Hudson, B J

    2015-04-01

    Delusional infestation remains a debilitating condition that is therapeutically challenging for clinicians. This case series identifies 23 patients with delusional infestation in an Australian setting. The majority of patients are women and unlikely to have a psychiatric comorbid background. The use of unnecessary anti-parasitic medication is prevalent. © 2015 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  5. Mountain pine beetle infestations in relation to lodgepole pine diameters

    Treesearch

    Walter E. Cole; Gene D. Amman

    1969-01-01

    Tree losses resulting from infestation by the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) were measured in two stands of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl.) where the beetle population had previously been epidemic. Measurement data showed that larger diameter trees were infested and killed first. Tree losses...

  6. Relationship between horn fly infestation and polymorphisms in cytochrome

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Individual animal variation occurs regarding external parasite infestation in beef cattle. Our objective was to determine if horn flies infestations present on beef cattle are associated with the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP; T-318C) in the cytochrome P450 gene (CYP3A28) and the prolactin (PR...

  7. Aboveground insect infestation attenuates belowground Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation.

    PubMed

    Song, Geun Cheol; Lee, Soohyun; Hong, Jaehwa; Choi, Hye Kyung; Hong, Gun Hyong; Bae, Dong-Won; Mysore, Kirankumar S; Park, Yong-Soon; Ryu, Choong-Min

    2015-07-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens causes crown gall disease. Although Agrobacterium can be popularly used for genetic engineering, the influence of aboveground insect infestation on Agrobacterium induced gall formation has not been investigated. Nicotiana benthamiana leaves were exposed to a sucking insect (whitefly) infestation and benzothiadiazole (BTH) for 7 d, and these exposed plants were inoculated with a tumorigenic Agrobacterium strain. We evaluated, both in planta and in vitro, how whitefly infestation affects crown gall disease. Whitefly-infested plants exhibited at least a two-fold reduction in gall formation on both stem and crown root. Silencing of isochorismate synthase 1 (ICS1), required for salicylic acid (SA) synthesis, compromised gall formation indicating an involvement of SA in whitefly-derived plant defence against Agrobacterium. Endogenous SA content was augmented in whitefly-infested plants upon Agrobacterium inoculation. In addition, SA concentration was three times higher in root exudates from whitefly-infested plants. As a consequence, Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of roots of whitefly-infested plants was clearly inhibited when compared to control plants. These results suggest that aboveground whitefly infestation elicits systemic defence responses throughout the plant. Our findings provide new insights into insect-mediated leaf-root intra-communication and a framework to understand interactions between three organisms: whitefly, N. benthamiana and Agrobacterium. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  8. Postharvest quarantine treatments for Diaphorina citri on infested curry leaves

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Studies were conducted to evaluate treatments that reduce survival and attachment of Diaphorina citri nymphs on infested curry leaves (Bergera koenigii). Decontamination of curry leaves infested with D. citri in relation to disinfectant (none or Pro-San), temperature (0, 40, and 50°C), and treatment...

  9. Diagnosis of Hepatozoon canis in young dogs by cytology and PCR

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Hepatozoon canis is a widespread tick-borne protozoan affecting dogs. The diagnosis of H. canis infection is usually performed by cytology of blood or buffy coat smears, but this method may not be sensitive. Our study aimed to evaluate the best method to achieve a parasitological diagnosis of H. canis infection in a population of receptive young dogs, previously negative by cytology and exposed to tick infestation for one summer season. Results A total of 73 mongrel dogs and ten beagles younger than 18 months of age, living in an animal shelter in southern Italy where dogs are highly infested by Rhipicephalus sanguineus, were included in this study. In March-April 2009 and in October 2009, blood and bone marrow were sampled from each dog. Blood, buffy coat and bone marrow were examined by cytology only (at the first sampling) and also by PCR for H. canis (second sampling). In March-April 2009, only one dog was positive for H. canis by cytological examination, whereas in October 2009 (after the summer season), the overall incidence of H. canis infection by cytological examinations was 43.9%. Molecular tests carried out on samples taken in October 2009 showed a considerably higher number of dogs positive by PCR (from 27.7% up to 51.2% on skin and buffy coat tissues, respectively), with an overall positivity of 57.8%. All animals, but one, which were positive by cytology were also PCR-positive. PCR on blood or buffy coat detected the highest number of H. canis-positive dogs displaying a sensitivity of 85.7% for both tissues that increased up to 98% when used in parallel. Twenty-six (74.8%) out of the 28 H. canis-positive dogs presented hematological abnormalities, eosinophilia being the commonest alteration observed. Conclusions The results suggest that PCR on buffy coat and blood is the best diagnostic assay for detecting H. canis infection in dogs, although when PCR is not available, cytology on buffy coat should be preferred to blood smear evaluation

  10. Ditylenchus dipsaci Infestation of Trifolium repens. II. Dynamics of Infestation Development

    PubMed Central

    Griffith, G. S.; Cook, R.; Mizen, K. A.

    1997-01-01

    Trifolium repens (white clover) stolons were inoculated with Ditylenchus dipsaci (stem nematode), and the development of resulting infestations was monitored. Nematodes initially remained confined to superficial locations, concentrating in petiole axils near inoculation points. They were able to migrate slowly from the inidal inoculation points and infest adjacent axils, especially in regions near the stolon tip. As time progressed, in some axils, nematodes migrated through the stolon epidermis and colonized slowly expanding subepidermal pockets of host tissue (ca. 0.2-mm length of stolon/day). In these loci nematodes established exponentially increasing populations, but the rates of locus expansion remained constant, indicating that locus expansion was limited by unidentified host-dependent factors. As a result of increasing population pressure within subepidermal loci, J4 entered a "diapause" state and the rate of egg production by adults declined, thereby reducing rate of population growth to more sustainable levels. Typically, these populations peaked at ca. 10,000 individuals in ca. 160 days occupying 3-cm lengths of stolon. Thereafter, heavily infested regions of stolons started to die, leading to the formation of longitudinal splits in their epidermis. In other axils, nematodes did not migrate into the stolons but remained confined to axils. Some of these populations increased a hundred-fold in 95 days, with population growth ending when petioles started to die. Host plant stolon morphology was affected only when subepidermal stolon populations developed high population levels (>100 nematodes) within close proximity (<2 cm) to active terminal meristems. This occurred either when axillary buds became active on previously infested nodes or when nematodes established endoparasitic populations at locations near the stolon tip during winter and spring, when the rate of stolon extension was limited by low light intensity. Affected stolon tips could "escape" from

  11. Effects of weather and plague-induced die-offs of prairie dogs on the fleas of northern grasshopper mice.

    PubMed

    Salkeld, Daniel J; Stapp, Paul

    2009-05-01

    Plague, the disease caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis, can have devastating impacts on black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus Ord). Other mammal hosts living on prairie dog colonies may be important in the transmission and maintenance of plague. We examined the flea populations of northern grasshopper mice (Onychomys leucogaster Wied) before, during, and after plague epizootics in northern Colorado and studied the influence of host and environmental factors on flea abundance patterns. Grasshopper mice were frequently infested with high numbers of fleas, most commonly Pleochaetis exilis Jordan and Thrassis fotus Jordan. Flea loads changed in response to both environmental temperature and rainfall. After plague-induced prairie dog die-offs, flea loads and likelihood of infestation were unchanged for P. exilis, but T. fotus loads declined.

  12. [Delusional parasitic infestation and folie à deux: case report].

    PubMed

    Cordeiro, Quirino; Corbett, Carlos Eduardo Pereira; Cordeiro Jr, Quirino

    2003-09-01

    Shared psychiatric disorder (folie deux) is a rare condition. But its prevalence can be 5-25% in patients with delusional parasitic infestation. We report the a case of a 62 years-old female with psychotic symptoms. For 15 years, she has lived with her younger sister. Since the patient was well-controled, her sister interrupted her antipsychotic drug administration. So, the patient initiated delusional parasitic infestation accompanied by visual hallucinations. Her sister, who did not have psychiatric history, initiated to believe that the patient was really infested. Moreover, she started to believe that was infested by the patient. This case report aims to discuss the relation between folie deux and delusional parasitic infestation.

  13. Prevalence of keds on city dogs in central Poland.

    PubMed

    Sokół, R; Gałęcki, R

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the species of ked infesting dogs in the cities of central Poland. A total of 510 dogs were observed between June and September 2015. The presence of keds was noted in 182 (35.7%) animals. Keds were more prevalent in female (38.0%) than in male (33.2%) dogs, and were more frequently found in animals younger than 1 year (46.2%) and in long-haired dogs (36.6%). The body areas most heavily colonized by keds were the groin (35.4%) and neck (21.4%). A total of 904 keds were isolated from dogs, including Hippobosca equina (Diptera: Hippoboscidae) (17.2%), Lipoptena cervi (Diptera: Hippoboscidae) (32.0%), and two species not previously encountered in Poland: Hippobosca longipennis (45.0%) and Lipoptena fortisetosa (5.9%). Hippoboscidae may act as vectors of pathogens and any shifts in their geographic range may lead to the spread of new diseases affecting animals.

  14. The peri-urban interface and house infestation with Triatoma infestans in the Argentine Chaco: an underreported process?

    PubMed

    Provecho, Yael M; Gaspe, M Sol; del Pilar Fernández, M; Enriquez, Gustavo F; Weinberg, Diego; Gürtler, Ricardo E

    2014-11-01

    Peri-urban infestations with triatomine bugs, their sources and their dynamics have rarely been investigated. Here, we corroborated the reported occurrence of Triatoma infestans in a peri-urban area and in neighbouring rural houses in Pampa del Indio, in the Argentine Chaco, and identified its putative sources using spatial analysis and demographic questionnaires. Peri-urban householders reported that 10% of their premises had triatomines, whereas T. infestans was collected by timed manual searches or community-based surveillance in only nine (3%) houses. Trypanosoma cruzi-infected T. infestans and Triatoma sordida were collected indoors only in peri-urban houses and were infected with TcV and TcI, respectively. The triatomines fed on chickens, cats and humans. Peri-urban infestations were most frequent in a squatter settlement and particularly within the recently built mud houses of rural immigrants, with large-sized households, more dogs and cats and more crowding. Several of the observed infestations were most likely associated with passive bug transport from other sources and with active bug dispersal from neighbouring foci. Thus, the households in the squatter settlement were at a greater risk of bug invasion and colonisation. In sum, the incipient process of domestic colonisation and transmission, along with persistent rural-to-urban migratory flows and unplanned urbanisation, indicate the need for active vector surveillance and control actions at the peri-urban interface of the Gran Chaco.

  15. The peri-urban interface and house infestation with Triatoma infestans in the Argentine Chaco: an underreported process?

    PubMed Central

    Provecho, Yael M; Gaspe, M Sol; del Pilar Fernández, M; Enriquez, Gustavo F; Weinberg, Diego; Gürtler, Ricardo E

    2014-01-01

    Peri-urban infestations with triatomine bugs, their sources and their dynamics have rarely been investigated. Here, we corroborated the reported occurrence of Triatoma infestans in a peri-urban area and in neighbouring rural houses in Pampa del Indio, in the Argentine Chaco, and identified its putative sources using spatial analysis and demographic questionnaires. Peri-urban householders reported that 10% of their premises had triatomines, whereas T. infestans was collected by timed manual searches or community-based surveillance in only nine (3%) houses. Trypanosoma cruzi-infected T. infestans and Triatoma sordida were collected indoors only in peri-urban houses and were infected with TcV and TcI, respectively. The triatomines fed on chickens, cats and humans. Peri-urban infestations were most frequent in a squatter settlement and particularly within the recently built mud houses of rural immigrants, with large-sized households, more dogs and cats and more crowding. Several of the observed infestations were most likely associated with passive bug transport from other sources and with active bug dispersal from neighbouring foci. Thus, the households in the squatter settlement were at a greater risk of bug invasion and colonisation. In sum, the incipient process of domestic colonisation and transmission, along with persistent rural-to-urban migratory flows and unplanned urbanisation, indicate the need for active vector surveillance and control actions at the peri-urban interface of the Gran Chaco. PMID:25410997

  16. A Focus of Dogs and Rickettsia massiliae–Infected Rhipicephalus sanguineus in California

    PubMed Central

    Beeler, Emily; Abramowicz, Kyle F.; Zambrano, Maria L.; Sturgeon, Michele M.; Khalaf, Nada; Hu, Renjie; Dasch, Gregory A.; Eremeeva, Marina E.

    2011-01-01

    A recurrent focus of Rhipicephalus sanguineus infestation was investigated in a suburban area of southern California after reports of suspected Rocky Mountain spotted fever in two dogs on the same property. Abundant quantities of Rh. sanguineus were collected on the property and repeatedly from each dog, and Rickettsia massiliae DNA was detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Whole blood and serum samples from four dogs were tested by using PCR and microimmunofluorescent assay for antibodies against spotted fever group rickettsiae. Serum samples from all four dogs contained antibodies reactive with R. massiliae, R. rhipicephali, R. rickettsii, and 364D Rickettsia but no rickettsial DNA was detected by PCR of blood samples. Serum cross-absorption and Western blot assays implicated R. massiliae as the most likely spotted fever group rickettsiae responsible for seropositivity. To our knowledge, this is the first detection of R. massiliae in ticks in California. PMID:21292893

  17. Activity of a deltamethrin shampoo against Ctenocephalides felis and Rhipicephalus sanguineus in dogs.

    PubMed

    Franc, M; Cadiergues, M C

    1999-03-15

    A controlled clinical trial was undertaken to assess the efficacy of an application of a 0.07% deltamethrin shampoo against fleas and ticks in dogs. Twenty beagles, housed in separate cages, were randomly allocated into two groups of 10. The dogs were infested with 50 Ctenocephalides felis and 50 Rhipicephalus sanguineus each, and parasites were counted 24 h (fleas) and 72 h (ticks) later (Day 0). Dogs, when state, were then treated with 25 ml of a shampoo containing 0.07% deltamethrin (Group 1). Dogs in Group 2 were the controls. Fleas and ticks were counted 24 h (Day 1) and 48 h (Day 2) after the shampoo was applied, and the parasites were then removed. All the dogs were reinfested with fleas and ticks on Days 2, 7, 9, 14, 16 and 20. Parasites were counted 24 and 48 h after each reinfestation. Effectiveness against fleas was calculated 24 h after infestation, and against ticks 48 h after infestation. This study showed that the application of 25 ml of shampoo containing 0.07% deltamethrin to beagle dogs weighing between 10.2 and 12 kg was very well tolerated. It controlled the parasites present on the animals at the time of application: with an efficacy of 100% against fleas 24 h after treatment and an efficacy of 95% against ticks 48 h after treatment. The treatment protected against flea reinfestations with an efficacy of 100% during the first week, >98% in the second week and >95% in the third week. It also gave >99% protection against tick reinfestations in the first week and >96% in the second week.

  18. Experimental infection of dogs with a Brazilian strain of Rickettsia rickettsii: clinical and laboratory findings.

    PubMed

    Piranda, Eliane M; Faccini, João Luis H; Pinter, Adriano; Saito, Tais B; Pacheco, Richard C; Hagiwara, Mitika K; Labruna, Marcelo B

    2008-11-01

    The bacterium Rickettsia rickettsii is the etiological agent of an acute, severe disease called Rocky Mountain spotted fever in the United States or Brazilian spotted fever (BSF) in Brazil. In addition to these two countries, the disease has also been reported to affect humans in Mexico, Costa Rica, Panama, Colombia and Argentina. Like humans, dogs are also susceptible to R. rickettsii infection. However, despite the wide distribution of R. rickettsii in the Western Hemisphere, reports of R. rickettsii-induced illness in dogs has been restricted to the United States. The present study evaluated the pathogenicity for dogs of a South American strain of R. rickettsii. Three groups of dogs were evaluated: group 1 (G1) was inoculated ip with R. rickettsii; group 2 (G2) was infested by R. rickettsii-infected ticks; and the control group (G3) was infested by uninfected ticks. During the study, no clinical abnormalities, Rickettsia DNA or R. rickettsii-reactive antibodies were detected in G3. In contrast, all G1 and G2 dogs developed signs of rickettsial infection, i.e., fever, lethargy, anorexia, ocular lesions, thrombocytopenia, anemia and detectable levels of Rickettsia DNA and R. rickettsii-reactive antibodies in their blood. Rickettsemia started 3-8 days after inoculation or tick infestation and lasted for 3-13 days. Our results indicate that a Brazilian strain of R. rickettsii is pathogenic for dogs, suggesting that canine clinical illness due to R. rickettsii has been unreported in Brazil and possibly in the other South American countries where BSF has been reported among humans.

  19. Dogs catch human yawns.

    PubMed

    Joly-Mascheroni, Ramiro M; Senju, Atsushi; Shepherd, Alex J

    2008-10-23

    This study is the first to demonstrate that human yawns are possibly contagious to domestic dogs (Canis familiaris). Twenty-nine dogs observed a human yawning or making control mouth movements. Twenty-one dogs yawned when they observed a human yawning, but control mouth movements did not elicit yawning from any of them. The presence of contagious yawning in dogs suggests that this phenomenon is not specific to primate species and may indicate that dogs possess the capacity for a rudimentary form of empathy. Since yawning is known to modulate the levels of arousal, yawn contagion may help coordinate dog-human interaction and communication. Understanding the mechanism as well as the function of contagious yawning between humans and dogs requires more detailed investigation.

  20. Insects and Spiders: Infestations and Bites

    PubMed Central

    Turgeon, E.W.T.

    1987-01-01

    Despite successful eradication techniques and specific effective therapies, insect bites and infestations remain a source of great human misery. The current scabies pandemic shows no signs of abating. Bed bugs, which through the ages have been second only to the malarial mosquito as an insect vector of fatal infection, have now been implicated in the transmission of Hepatitis B and possibly African acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). The incidence of head- and pubic lice is on the rise, the latter paralleling, and often co-existing with, other sexually transmitted diseases. Black widow spiders are native to many populous areas in southern Canada, and the brown recluse spider's range now encompasses Canada, thanks to moving vans and central heating. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6 PMID:21263961

  1. Dogs recognize dog and human emotions.

    PubMed

    Albuquerque, Natalia; Guo, Kun; Wilkinson, Anna; Savalli, Carine; Otta, Emma; Mills, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The perception of emotional expressions allows animals to evaluate the social intentions and motivations of each other. This usually takes place within species; however, in the case of domestic dogs, it might be advantageous to recognize the emotions of humans as well as other dogs. In this sense, the combination of visual and auditory cues to categorize others' emotions facilitates the information processing and indicates high-level cognitive representations. Using a cross-modal preferential looking paradigm, we presented dogs with either human or dog faces with different emotional valences (happy/playful versus angry/aggressive) paired with a single vocalization from the same individual with either a positive or negative valence or Brownian noise. Dogs looked significantly longer at the face whose expression was congruent to the valence of vocalization, for both conspecifics and heterospecifics, an ability previously known only in humans. These results demonstrate that dogs can extract and integrate bimodal sensory emotional information, and discriminate between positive and negative emotions from both humans and dogs. © 2016 The Author(s).

  2. Serology, molecular detection and risk factors of Ehrlichia canis infection in dogs in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Barrantes-González, Alexander V; Jiménez-Rocha, Ana E; Romero-Zuñiga, Juan José; Dolz, Gaby

    2016-10-01

    A cross-sectional study combining different serological and molecular techniques for the detection of Ehrlichia species in dogs and their ticks was carried out with data from all regions of Costa Rica. A seroprevalence of 32.1% (131/408), and infection with E. canis of 3.2% (13/407) was found, whereas 6.9% (9/130) of ticks attached to the dogs were PCR positive to E. canis. Higher prevalences were found outside the Greater Metropolitan Area (GMA). Risk factors associated with E. canis seropositivity were age, between 2 and 7 years (RR: 1.6, 95% CI: 1.2-2.2) and 8-15 years (RR: 1.8, 95% CI: 1.2-3.0), number of dogs/total of households [Dogs per Household Ratio (DHR) ≥3.1 (RR: 2.0; 95% CI: 1.4-3.0)], number of dogs infested with at least one tick/total of dogs sampled [Tick Infestation Prevalence (TIP)≥31% (RR: 2.1; 95% CI:1.3-3.3)] and living outside the GMA (RR: 1.7; 95% CI: 1.2-2.4) and being a mixed-breed dog (RR: 1.5; 95% CI: 1.1-2.1). Risk factors for E. canis PCR positive dogs were a depressive attitude (OR: 11.2; 95% CI: 1.1-115.9), fever (OR:4.8; 95% CI:1.2-19.3), DHR≥3.1 (OR: 5.7; 95% CI:1.7-19.2)], number of ticks/total of dogs sampled [Tick Distribution Ratio (TDR) ≥2.1 (OR: 6.5; 95% CI: 1.3-31.8)], and TIP≥40% (OR: 5.7; 95% CI: 1.7-19.2). This paper describes E. canis seroprevalence, PCR prevalence and tick analysis in dogs from Costa Rica, with associated clinical signs and owner perceptions. In summary, most of the E. canis infections in dogs in our country seemed to pass unnoticed by owners. Since most of the seropositive dogs (97.7%, 131/134) were negative for E. canis DNA in their blood, it is important to determine in future studies if these dogs recovered from the E. canis infection without any medication, or are persistently infected, and will develop chronic disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Fleas and Flea-Associated Bartonella Species in Dogs and Cats from Peru.

    PubMed

    Rizzo, M F; Billeter, S A; Osikowicz, L; Luna-Caipo, D V; Cáceres, A G; Kosoy, M

    2015-11-01

    In the present study, we investigated 238 fleas collected from cats and dogs in three regions of Peru (Ancash, Cajamarca, and Lima) for the presence of Bartonella DNA. Bartonella spp. were detected by amplification of the citrate synthase gene (16.4%) and the 16S-23S intergenic spacer region (20.6%). Bartonella rochalimae was the most common species detected followed by Bartonella clarridgeiae and Bartonella henselae. Our results demonstrate that dogs and cats in Peru are infested with fleas harboring zoonotic Bartonella spp. and these infected fleas could pose a disease risk for humans.

  4. Delusional infestations: case series, differential diagnoses, and management strategies.

    PubMed

    Diaz, James H; Nesbitt, Lee T

    2014-01-01

    Physicians are not infrequently consulted by distraught patients with delusions of infestation who believe that they are infested with external or internal parasites and describe a crawling sensation of bugs or worms on or under their skin. Internet search engines were queried with the keywords as search terms to examine the latest articles on delusional infestations in order to describe presenting manifestations, differential diagnoses, and effective management strategies. The demographic and behavioral features of delusional infestations have remained constant and include: (1) onset in well-educated, middle-aged adults who are pet owners; (2) production of purported specimens of causative parasites; (3) pesticide overtreatment of themselves, their households, and pets; (4) excessive cleaning or vacuuming of households; (5) intense anger and resentment directed at physicians failing to confirm their self-diagnoses; and (6) sharing delusional symptoms with spouses or relatives. Although some reports have suggested that cases of delusional infestation are increasing today in the tropics, most studies have confirmed a stable incidence over time and similar disorder demographics worldwide. However, management strategies for delusional infestations have changed significantly over time with second generation, atypical antipsychotics offering safer adverse effect profiles and better prognoses than earlier therapies with first generation, typical antipsychotics. The most effective management strategies for delusional infestations include empathetic history-taking and active listening to the patient, careful exclusion of true parasitoses, and a therapeutic regimen that includes a second generation neuroleptic agent.

  5. Ticks infesting bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) in the Brazilian Pantanal.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Leal, Sebastián; Eriksson, Alan; Santos, Carolina Ferreira; Fischer, Erich; de Almeida, Juliana Cardoso; Luz, Hermes R; Labruna, Marcelo B

    2016-05-01

    Ticks associated with bats have been poorly documented in the Neotropical Zoogeographical Region. In this study, a total of 1028 bats were sampled for tick infestations in the southern portion of the Brazilian Pantanal. A total of 368 ticks, morphologically identified as Ornithodoros hasei (n = 364) and O. mimon (n = 4), were collected from the following bat species: Artibeus planirostris, Platyrrhinus lineatus, Phyllostomus hastatus, Mimon crenulatum and Noctilio albiventris. Morphological identification of O. hasei was confirmed by molecular analysis. Regarding the most abundant bat species, only 40 (6.2%) out of 650 A. planirostris were infested by O. hasei, with a mean intensity of 7.2 ticks per infested bat, or a mean abundance of 0.44 ticks per sampled bat. Noteworthy, one single P. hastatus was infested by 55 O. hasei larvae, in contrast to the 2.5-7.2 range of mean intensity values for the whole study. As a complement to the present study, a total of 8 museum bat specimens (6 Noctilio albiventris and 2 N. leporinus), collected in the northern region of Pantanal, were examined for tick infestations. These bats contained 176 ticks, which were all morphologically identified as O. hasei larvae. Mean intensity of infestation was 22, with a range of 1-46 ticks per infested bat. Our results suggest that A. planirostris might play an important role in the natural life cycle of O. hasei in the Pantanal.

  6. Sensitive and rapid detection of Paragonimus westermani infection in humans and animals by loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP).

    PubMed

    Chen, M X; Ai, L; Zhang, R L; Xia, J J; Wang, K; Chen, S H; Zhang, Y N; Xu, M J; Li, X; Zhu, X Q; Chen, J X

    2011-05-01

    In the present study, a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay was developed and validated for the detection of Paragonimus westermani adults, metacercariae, and eggs in human and animal samples. The LAMP amplification can be finished in 45 min under isothermal condition at 60°C by employing a set of four species-specific primer mixtures and the results can be checked by naked-eye visualization. No amplification products were detected with deoxyribunucleic acid (DNA) of related trematode species including Fasciola hepatica, Fasciola gigantica, Clonorchis sinensis, Opisthorchis viverrini, Schistosoma mansoni, and Schistosoma japonicum. The method was further validated by examining P. westermani DNA in intermediate hosts including freshwater crabs and crayfish, as well as in sputum and pleural fluid samples from patients of paragonimiasis. These results indicated that the LAMP assay was highly specific, sensitive, and rapid, and it was approximately 100 times more sensitive than conventional specific PCR. The LAMP assay established in this study provides a rapid and sensitive tool for the detection of P. westermani DNA in freshwater crabs, crayfish, sputum, and pleural fluid samples, which has important implications for effective control of human paragonimiasis.

  7. Excretory-secretory product of Paragonimus westermani newly excysted metacercariae inhibits superoxide production of granulocytes stimulated with IgG

    PubMed Central

    2000-01-01

    It is well known that the cysteine proteases in excretory-secretory product (ESP) of Paragonimus westermani newly excysted metacercariae (PwNEM) are capable of degrading IgG in vitro. Recent evidence suggests that the IgG-coated surface, such as found on parasites, is one of the most effective physiologic stimuli for granulocyte activation. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate the effect of excretory-secretory product (ESP) of PwNEM on superoxide production of granulocytes stimulated with IgG. The 96-well plates were coated with human IgG (0, 10, 30, 100 µg/ml) in the absence or presence of ESP. When granulocytes were incubated in the wells coated with human IgG in the presence of ESP, the level of superoxide production of granulocytes was reduced to about 90% when compared to the cells incubated in the wells coated with IgG alone. This inhibitory effect of the ESP on IgG-induced superoxide production of granulocytes was concentration-dependent. These results suggest that ESP secreted by PwNEM may be important in the control of effector functions of granulocytes stimulated with IgG in human paragonimiasis. PMID:10905073

  8. Excretory-secretory products from Paragonimus westermani increase nitric oxide production in microglia in PKC-dependent and -independent manners.

    PubMed

    Jin, Youngnam; Choi, In Young; Kim, Chunsook; Hong, Suyoung; Kim, Won-Ki

    2009-10-01

    Excretory-secretory products (ESP) from helminthic parasites may play pivotal roles in the immune regulation in hosts. Previously, we reported that ESP produced from Paragonimus westermani induced morphological activation of microglial cells and markedly stimulated nitric oxide (NO) production via activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). In the present study, we investigated the role of protein kinase C and protein kinase A in MAPKs-dependent NO production by ESP. We found that treatment with protein kinase C inhibitor Go6976 strongly inhibited the phosphorylation of p38 and JNK, but not ERK, of MAPKs and decreased the production of NO in ESP-stimulated microglial cells. Inhibition of ERK, p38 or PKC decreased the ESP-induced activation of NF-kappaB, an important transcription factor for iNOS expression. Furthermore, ESP increased the level of p-CREB in microglial cells. However, adenylyl cyclase activator (forskolin), adenylyl cyclase inhibitor (SQ22536), cAMP analogue (db-cAMP) or protein kinase A inhibitor (H89) was not able to change iNOS expression and NO production in ESP-treated microglial cells. It implies that the cAMP-PKA-CREB pathway is not implicated in the ESP-evoked NO production in microglial cells. Thus, our results indicate that ESP stimulates microglial expression of iNOS via both PKC-dependent and -independent MAPKs phosphorylation and NF-kappaB activation.

  9. Aboveground Whitefly Infestation-Mediated Reshaping of the Root Microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Hyun G.; Kim, Byung K.; Song, Geun C.; Lee, Soohyun; Ryu, Choong-Min

    2016-01-01

    Plants respond to various types of herbivore and pathogen attack using well-developed defensive machinery designed for self-protection. Infestation from phloem-sucking insects such as whitefly and aphid on plant leaves was previously shown to influence both the saprophytic and pathogenic bacterial community in the plant rhizosphere. However, the modulation of the root microbial community by plants following insect infestation has been largely unexplored. Only limited studies of culture-dependent bacterial diversity caused by whitefly and aphid have been conducted. In this study, to obtain a complete picture of the belowground microbiome community, we performed high-speed and high-throughput next-generation sequencing. We sampled the rhizosphere soils of pepper seedlings at 0, 1, and 2 weeks after whitefly infestation versus the water control. We amplified a partial 16S ribosomal RNA gene (V1–V3 region) by polymerase chain reaction with specific primers. Our analysis revealed that whitefly infestation reshaped the overall microbiota structure compared to that of the control rhizosphere, even after 1 week of infestation. Examination of the relative abundance distributions of microbes demonstrated that whitefly infestation shifted the proteobacterial groups at week 2. Intriguingly, the population of Pseudomonadales of the class Gammaproteobacteria significantly increased after 2 weeks of whitefly infestation, and the fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. recruited to the rhizosphere were confirmed to exhibit insect-killing capacity. Additionally, three taxa, including Caulobacteraceae, Enterobacteriaceae, and Flavobacteriaceae, and three genera, including Achromobacter, Janthinobacterium, and Stenotrophomonas, were the most abundant bacterial groups in the whitefly infested plant rhizosphere. Our results indicate that whitefly infestation leads to the recruitment of specific groups of rhizosphere bacteria by the plant, which confer beneficial traits to the host plant. This

  10. Tick infestation of small mammals in an English woodland.

    PubMed

    Cull, Benjamin; Vaux, Alexander G C; Ottowell, Lisa J; Gillingham, Emma L; Medlock, Jolyon M

    2017-06-01

    Tick infestations on small mammals were studied from April to November, 2010, in deciduous woodland in southern England in order to determine whether co-infestations with tick stages occurred on small mammals, a key requirement for endemic transmission of tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV). A total of 217 small mammals was trapped over 1,760 trap nights. Yellow-necked mice (Apodemus flavicollis) made up the majority (52.5%) of animals, followed by wood mice (A. sylvaticus) 35.5% and bank voles (Myodes glareolus) 12%. A total of 970 ticks was collected from 169 infested animals; 96% of ticks were Ixodes ricinus and 3% I. trianguliceps. Over 98% of ticks were larval stages. Mean infestation intensities of I. ricinus were significantly higher on A. flavicollis (6.53 ± 0.67) than on A. sylvaticus (4.96 ± 0.92) and M. glareolus (3.25 ± 0.53). Infestations with I. ricinus were significantly higher in August than in any other month. Co-infestations with I. ricinus nymphs and larvae were observed on six (3.6%) infested individuals, and fifteen small mammals (8.9%) supported I. ricinus - I. trianguliceps co-infestations. This work contributes further to our understanding of European small mammal hosts that maintain tick populations and their associated pathogens, and indicates that co-infestation of larvae and nymph ticks does occur in lowland UK. The possible implications for transmission of tick-borne encephalitis virus between UK ticks and small mammals are discussed. © 2017 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  11. Zebra mussel infestation of unionid bivalves (Unionidae) in North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schloesser, Don W.; Nalepa, Thomas F.; Mackie, Gerald L.

    1996-01-01

    In 1989, zebra mussels received national attention in North America when they reached densities exceeding 750,000/m2 in a water withdrawal facility along the shore of western Lake Erie of the Laurentian Great Lakes. Although water withdrawal problems caused by zebra mussels have been of immediate concern, ecological impacts attributed to mussels are likely to be the more important long-term issue for surface waters in North America. To date, the epizoic colonization (i.e., infestation) of unionid bivalve mollusks by zebra mussels has caused the most direct and severe ecological impact. Infestation of and resulting impacts caused by zebra mussels on unionids in the Great Lakes began in 1988. By 1990, mortality of unionids was occurring at some locations; by 1991, extant populations of unionids in western Lake Erie were nearly extirpated; by 1992, unionid populations in the southern half of Lake St. Clair were extirpated; by 1993, unionids in widely separated geographic areas of the Great Lakes and the Mississippi River showed high mortality due to mussel infestation. All infested unionid species in the Great Lakes (23) have become infested and exhibited mortality within two to four years after heavy infestation began. Data indicate that mean zebra mussel densities >5,000–6,000/m2 and infestation intensities >100-200/unionid in the presence of heavy zebra mussel recruitment results in near total mortality of unionids. At present, all unionid species in rivers, streams, and akes that sympatrically occur with zebra mussels have been infested and, in many locations, negatively impacted by zebra mussels. We do not know the potential consequences of infestation on the 297 unionid species found in North America, but believe zebra mussels pose an immediate threat to the abundance and diversity of unionids.

  12. Seroprevalence and risk factors to Ehrlichia spp. and Rickettsia spp. in dogs from the Pantanal Region of Mato Grosso State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Melo, Andréia L T; Martins, Thiago F; Horta, Maurício C; Moraes-Filho, Jonas; Pacheco, Richard C; Labruna, Marcelo B; Aguiar, Daniel M

    2011-12-01

    Sera of 320 dogs from urban and rural areas of a Pantanal region of Brazil were evaluated for rickettsial (Rickettsia rickettsii, R. parkeri, R. amblyommii, R. rhipicephali, R. felis, and R. bellii) and ehrlichial (Ehrlichia canis) infection by the immunofluorescence assay (IFA). Risk factors for ehrlichiosis or rickettsiosis were also evaluated. Positive reaction against Ehrlichia spp. was detected in 227 (70.9%) dogs, 119 (74.3%) from an urban area and 108 (67.5%) from rural areas (P>0.05). For Rickettsia spp., 152 (47.5%) dogs were positive, 31 (19.3%) from urban and 121 (75.6%) from rural areas (P<0.05). Highest anti-Rickettsia spp. endpoint titers were observed for R. amblyommii, suggesting homologous reactions to this agent or a very closely related organism. While most of the urban dogs were found parasitized by the tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus, infestations on rural dogs were predominated by Amblyomma cajenennse. Rickettsial infection was significantly higher (P<0.05) in rural dogs, in dogs with hunting practice, or in A. cajennense-infested dogs.

  13. Zoonotic enteric parasites transmitted from dogs in Egypt with special concern to Toxocara canis infection.

    PubMed

    Awadallah, Maysa A I; Salem, Lobna M A

    2015-08-01

    This work aimed to study the role played by dogs in transmitting zoonotic enteric parasites to humans in Egypt and to analyze the risk factors associated with the occurrence of such infection in dogs. Serodiagnosis of anti-Toxocara immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies among human beings as well as analyzing risk factors predispose to Toxocara canis infection in human beings are another objectives of this study. From June to December 2013, a total of 130 fecal samples from 4 dog populations (Military, nomadic and domiciled dogs from rural and high standard districts) and 150 stool samples of 6 occupational groups were examined for the presence of enteric parasitic infection. Moreover, 150 serum samples were collected from humans from whom stool samples were collected and examined for the presence of anti-T. canis antibodies. Enteric parasites were detected in 30% of fecal samples from 4 dog populations in Egypt. High infectivity had been reported in nomadic dogs (63.33%) (Crude odds ratios [COR]=67.36, 95% confidence interval [CI]=8.09-560.8, p<0.000), followed by domiciled dogs from rural areas (40%) (COR=26, 95% CI=3.14-215.54, p=0.003), domiciled dogs from high standard areas (23.33%) (COR=11.87, 95% CI=1.37-102.69, p=0.025) and military dogs (2.5%). Twelve species of enteric parasites were identified, Ancylostomatidae (6.15%), T. canis and Cryptosporidium spp. (5.38%, each), Heterophyes spp. (3.85%), Toxocara leonina and Blastocystis spp. (3.07%), Taenidae eggs (2.31%), Hymenolepis diminuta (1.54%) and Entamoeba canis, Cyclospora cayetanensis, and Paragonimus spp. (0.77%, each). Univariate logestic regression revealed significant association of age (COR=4.73, 95% CI=2.13-10.53, p<0.000), gender (COR=2.63, 95% CI=1.22-5.68, p<0.014), housing system (COR=5.10, 95% CI=2.04-12.75), p<0.000) with enteric parasitic infection in dogs. However, breeds (COR=6.91, 95% CI=0.88-54.52, p=0.067) and type of feeding (COR ranged from 3.5 to 7.62, p>0.05) did not seem to have a

  14. Zoonotic enteric parasites transmitted from dogs in Egypt with special concern to Toxocara canis infection

    PubMed Central

    Awadallah, Maysa A. I.; Salem, Lobna M. A.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: This work aimed to study the role played by dogs in transmitting zoonotic enteric parasites to humans in Egypt and to analyze the risk factors associated with the occurrence of such infection in dogs. Serodiagnosis of anti-Toxocara immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies among human beings as well as analyzing risk factors predispose to Toxocara canis infection in human beings are another objectives of this study. Materials and Methods: From June to December 2013, a total of 130 fecal samples from 4 dog populations (Military, nomadic and domiciled dogs from rural and high standard districts) and 150 stool samples of 6 occupational groups were examined for the presence of enteric parasitic infection. Moreover, 150 serum samples were collected from humans from whom stool samples were collected and examined for the presence of anti-T. canis antibodies. Results: Enteric parasites were detected in 30% of fecal samples from 4 dog populations in Egypt. High infectivity had been reported in nomadic dogs (63.33%) (Crude odds ratios [COR]=67.36, 95% confidence interval [CI]=8.09-560.8, p<0.000), followed by domiciled dogs from rural areas (40%) (COR=26, 95% CI=3.14-215.54, p=0.003), domiciled dogs from high standard areas (23.33%) (COR=11.87, 95% CI=1.37-102.69, p=0.025) and military dogs (2.5%). Twelve species of enteric parasites were identified, Ancylostomatidae (6.15%), T. canis and Cryptosporidium spp. (5.38%, each), Heterophyes spp. (3.85%), Toxocara leonina and Blastocystis spp. (3.07%), Taenidae eggs (2.31%), Hymenolepis diminuta (1.54%) and Entamoeba canis, Cyclospora cayetanensis, and Paragonimus spp. (0.77%, each). Univariate logestic regression revealed significant association of age (COR=4.73, 95% CI=2.13-10.53, p<0.000), gender (COR=2.63, 95% CI=1.22-5.68, p<0.014), housing system (COR=5.10, 95% CI=2.04-12.75), p<0.000) with enteric parasitic infection in dogs. However, breeds (COR=6.91, 95% CI=0.88-54.52, p=0.067) and type of feeding (COR ranged from 3.5 to 7

  15. Molecular Detection and Prevalence of Hepatozoon canis in Dogs from Punjab (Pakistan) and Hematological Profile of Infected Dogs.

    PubMed

    Qamar, Muhammad; Malik, Muhammad Irfan; Latif, Muhammad; Ain, Qurat Ul; Aktas, Munir; Shaikh, Rehan Sadiq; Iqbal, Furhan

    2017-03-01

    The intraleukocytic parasite, Hepatozoon canis, causes the sometimes fatal tick borne disease canine hepatozoonosis. In this study, dogs from Islamabad, Lahore, and Multan Districts of the Punjab region of Pakistan were surveyed to investigate the presence and prevalence of H. canis infection and to determine the effects of the parasite on hematological parameters. Blood samples were collected from 151 domestic dogs (149 pet, 2 stray) of both sexes and varying ages. Data on sex, age, tick infestation, and clinical factors (body temperature, mucous membrane status, and presence of hematuria and vomiting) were collected. Using PCR, 18 dogs (11.9%) were found positive for the presence of H. canis DNA. Partial sequences of the 18S rRNA gene shared 99-100% similarity with the corresponding H. canis isolates. This epidemiological survey revealed higher prevalence of H. canis in Islamabad (11/49, 22.4%) compared to Lahore (3/52, 5.8%) and Multan (4/50, 8%) in Pakistan. No investigated epidemiological or clinical factors were found to be associated with the presence of H. canis (p > 0.05) in dogs. H. canis positive dogs exhibited higher minimum inhibitory dilution (p = 0.04), mixed inclusion (p = 0.008) and relative distribution width of red blood cells (p = 0.02), and lower hematocrit (p = 0.03) and mean hemoglobin content (p = 0.03) than did dogs in which H. canis was not detected. We are recommending this PCR-based protocol to the veterinary practitioners for the detection and/or confirmation of H. canis in dogs suspected for hepatozoonosis to improve their health status.

  16. Increased numbers of peripheral blood CD34+ cells in dogs with canine atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Bruet, Vincent; Lieubeau, Blandine; Herve, Julie; Roussel, Anne; Imparato, Laëtitia; Desfontis, Jean-Claude; Bourdeau, Patrick

    2015-06-01

    The bone marrow may be involved in human atopic diseases, as shown by the release of CD34+ cells into the peripheral blood. The aim was to determine the numbers of CD34+ cells in atopic dogs. The following three groups of dogs were studied: 27 dogs with nonfood-induced atopic dermatitis (NFICAD); 16 dogs with nonallergic inflammatory diseases; and 13 healthy control dogs. Dogs with NFICAD were selected after fulfilment of Favrot's criteria and exclusion of other pruritic dermatoses, including flea infestation and adverse reaction to foods. The Canine Atopic Dermatitis Extent and Severity Index (CADESI)-03 and a Visual Analog Scale (VAS) score for pruritus were used to quantify clinical signs. A phycoerythrin-conjugated anticanine CD34 antibody was used to stain peripheral blood CD34+ cells, and these were enumerated using a flow cytometer. The CD34+ cell counts were compared between groups and tested (in the NFICAD group) for correlation with the severity of clinical signs. The numbers of peripheral CD34+ cells in dogs with NFICAD (median 1.7) were statistically higher than in dogs with other nonallergic inflammatory diseases (median 1.0; P = 0.01) and healthy control dogs (median 0.9; P = 0.009). In dogs with NFICAD, there was no correlation between CD34+ cell numbers and CADESI-03 scores or owner-assessed pruritus (VAS score). The results of this study suggest the possible involvement of CD34+ cells in dogs with NFICAD. The role of CD34+ cells in the aetiopathogenesis of canine atopic dermatitis remains to be determined. © 2014 ESVD and ACVD.

  17. Assessment of the efficacy of a topical combination of fipronil-permethrin (Frontline Tri-Act(®)/Frontect(®)) against egg laying and adult emergence of the cat flea (Ctenocephalides felis) in dogs.

    PubMed

    Beugnet, Frédéric; Halos, Lénaïg; Lebon, Wilfried; Liebenberg, Julian

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to assess the prevention of egg laying and the inhibition of the emergence of the cat flea (Ctenocephalides felis) resulting from the application of a combination of fipronil and permethrin (Frontline Tri-Act(®)/Frontect(®), Merial) on dogs. Sixteen healthy dogs were included after pre-treatment live flea counts and randomly allocated to two groups. Eight dogs served as untreated controls and 8 dogs were treated on Day 0 and Day 30 with topical application of fipronil/permethrin at the minimum dose of 6.76 mg/kg fipronil and 50.48 mg/kg permethrin. On days -2, 7, 21, 28, 42 and 56, each dog was infested with 100 fleas. Flea eggs were collected from each dog in individual trays from 12 to 36 h after treatment or each flea re-infestation. All fleas were removed by combing and counted 36 h after treatment or infestations. The collected eggs were counted and incubated for 28 days for larval development and adult emergence assessment. The curative efficacy of Frontline Tri-Act(®)/Frontect(®) against adult fleas 36 h after treatment was 95.3% and the efficacy remained 100% after subsequent flea infestations for 8 weeks. Compared to the control group, the treatment reduced egg laying by 84.5% within 36 h after first treatment and was 99.9%, 100%, 100%, 100%, 100% on collection days 7, 21, 29, 43 and 57, respectively. Frontline Tri-Act(®)/Frontect(®) reduced by 28.7% the emergence of new adult fleas from eggs laid during the 48 h of pre-treatment infestation. The inhibition of adult emergence from incubated flea eggs could not be assessed after flea re-infestation in the treated group as no eggs were collected. © F. Beugnet et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2016.

  18. Assessment of the efficacy of a topical combination of fipronil-permethrin (Frontline Tri-Act®/Frontect®) against egg laying and adult emergence of the cat flea (Ctenocephalides felis) in dogs

    PubMed Central

    Beugnet, Frédéric; Halos, Lénaïg; Lebon, Wilfried; Liebenberg, Julian

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to assess the prevention of egg laying and the inhibition of the emergence of the cat flea (Ctenocephalides felis) resulting from the application of a combination of fipronil and permethrin (Frontline Tri-Act®/Frontect®, Merial) on dogs. Sixteen healthy dogs were included after pre-treatment live flea counts and randomly allocated to two groups. Eight dogs served as untreated controls and 8 dogs were treated on Day 0 and Day 30 with topical application of fipronil/permethrin at the minimum dose of 6.76 mg/kg fipronil and 50.48 mg/kg permethrin. On days −2, 7, 21, 28, 42 and 56, each dog was infested with 100 fleas. Flea eggs were collected from each dog in individual trays from 12 to 36 h after treatment or each flea re-infestation. All fleas were removed by combing and counted 36 h after treatment or infestations. The collected eggs were counted and incubated for 28 days for larval development and adult emergence assessment. The curative efficacy of Frontline Tri-Act®/Frontect® against adult fleas 36 h after treatment was 95.3% and the efficacy remained 100% after subsequent flea infestations for 8 weeks. Compared to the control group, the treatment reduced egg laying by 84.5% within 36 h after first treatment and was 99.9%, 100%, 100%, 100%, 100% on collection days 7, 21, 29, 43 and 57, respectively. Frontline Tri-Act®/Frontect® reduced by 28.7% the emergence of new adult fleas from eggs laid during the 48 h of pre-treatment infestation. The inhibition of adult emergence from incubated flea eggs could not be assessed after flea re-infestation in the treated group as no eggs were collected. PMID:27991415

  19. Disease Precautions for Dog Walkers

    MedlinePlus

    ... Tools for K-12 Educators Disease Precautions for Dog Walkers CC by Tomwsulcer Whether you’re walking ... routes or durations may need to be altered. Dog bites Always be careful when walking a dog ...

  20. Design and synthesis of sarolaner, a novel, once-a-month, oral isoxazoline for the control of fleas and ticks on dogs.

    PubMed

    Curtis, Michael P; Vaillancourt, Valerie; Goodwin, Richard M; Chubb, Nathan A L; Howson, William; McTier, Tom L; Pullins, Aleah; Zinser, Erich W; Meeus, Patrick F M; Woods, Debra J; Hedges, Laura; Stuk, Tim; Price, Jeffrey E; Koch, Jason D; Menon, Sanjay R

    2016-04-01

    Over the last decade, the isoxazoline motif has become the intense focus of crop protection and animal health companies in their search for novel pesticides and ectoparasiticides. Herein we report the discovery of sarolaner, a proprietary, optimized-for-animal health use isoxazoline, for once-a-month oral treatment of flea and tick infestation on dogs.

  1. [Alimentary thyrotoxcicosis in two dogs].

    PubMed

    Kempker, Karsten; Güssow, Arne; Cook, Andrea M; Rick, Markus; Neiger, Reto

    2017-06-20

    Two dogs with increased thyroxin concentrations compatible with hyperthyroidism were referred for further examinations. One dog displayed clinical signs of hyperthyroidism. Based on history, clinical examination, laboratory evaluation and scintigraphy an alimentary thyrotoxicosis was identified. It was caused by feeding a BARF diet containing thyroidal tissue in one dog and by conventional dog food in the other patient. After changing the diet the clinical signs resolved in the affected dog. A control examination revealed thyroxin concentrations within the reference range in both dogs.

  2. Tularaemia in Norwegian dogs.

    PubMed

    Nordstoga, Anne; Handeland, Kjell; Johansen, Tone Bjordal; Iversen, Lena; Gavier-Widén, Dolores; Mattsson, Roland; Wik-Larssen, Kjersti; Afset, Jan Egil; Næverdal, Rune; Lund, Arve

    2014-10-10

    We describe tularaemia in a Norwegian dog caused by Francisella tularensis subspecies holarctica. A Hamilton Hound and his owner developed tulaeremia after hunting an infected mountain hare (Lepus timidus). The dog showed signs of lethargy, anorexia and fever during a period two to four days after hunting and thereafter fully recovered. Its antibody titers increased 32-fold from one to three weeks post exposure. Thereafter, the titer declined and leveled off at moderate positive values up to one year after exposure (end of study). This is believed to be the first case report of clinical F. tularensis subspecies holarctica infection in a European dog. In 2011, enormous numbers of Norway lemmings (Lemmus lemmus) occurred in Finnmark, the northernmost county of Norway and many dogs caught and swallowed lemmings. Some of these dogs developed non-specific signs of disease and the owners consulted a veterinary surgeon, who suspected tularaemia. In order to investigate this hypothesis, serum samples from 33 dogs were examined for antibodies to F. tularensis. The dogs were allocated into three groups: Dogs from Finnmark that became sick (Group 1) or remained healthy following contact with lemmings (Group 2), and healthy control dogs from Oslo without known contact with lemmings (Group 3). All the serum samples were analyzed with a tube agglutination assay. Among dogs exposed to lemmings, 10/11 and 3/12 were antibody positive in Group 1 and Group 2, respectively, whereas none of the control dogs (n=10) were positive for antibodies against F. tularensis. These results strongly indicate that the non-specific disease seen in the dogs in Finnmark was linked to F. tularensis infection acquired through contact with lemmings. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Molecular detection of zoonotic bartonellae (B. henselae, B. elizabethae and B. rochalimae) in fleas collected from dogs in Israel.

    PubMed

    Sofer, S; Gutiérrez, R; Morick, D; Mumcuoglu, K Y; Harrus, S

    2015-09-01

    Fleas represent an acknowledged burden on dogs worldwide. The characterization of flea species infesting kennel dogs from two localities in Israel (Rehovot and Jerusalem) and their molecular screening for Bartonella species (Rhizobiales: Bartonellaceae) was investigated. A total of 355 fleas were collected from 107 dogs. The fleas were morphologically classified and molecularly screened targeting the Bartonella 16S-23S internal transcribed spacer (ITS). Of the 107 dogs examined, 80 (74.8%) were infested with Ctenocephalides canis (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae), 68 (63.6%) with Ctenocephalides felis, 15 (14.0%) with Pulex irritans (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae) and one (0.9%) with Xenopsylla cheopis (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae). Fleas were grouped into 166 pools (one to nine fleas per pool) according to species and host. Thirteen of the 166 flea pools (7.8%) were found to be positive for Bartonella DNA. Detected ITS sequences were 99-100% similar to those of four Bartonella species: Bartonella henselae (six pools); Bartonella elizabethae (five pools); Bartonella rochalimae (one pool), and Bartonella bovis (one pool). The present study indicates the occurrence of a variety of flea species in dogs in Israel; these flea species are, in turn, carriers of several zoonotic Bartonella species. Physicians, veterinarians and public health workers should be aware of the presence of these pathogens in dog fleas in Israel and preventive measures should be implemented.

  4. The enigma of the dog mummy from Ancient Egypt and the origin of ‘Rhipicephalus sanguineus’

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Ticks belonging to the Rhipicephalus sanguineus group are amongst the most important vectors of pathogenic microorganisms to dogs and humans. However, the taxonomy of this species group is still the subject of debate, especially because there is no type specimen or reliable morphological description for Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu stricto. Recently, a comprehensive morphological and genetic study on representative tick specimens from Europe, Africa, Americas, and Oceania, revealed the existence of at least four morphologically and genetically distinct species under the name ‘R. sanguineus’ infesting dogs from different countries. Methods Herein, we examined morphologically tick specimens retrieved on a dog mummy from Ancient Egypt (ca. 1st century – 4th century A.D.). The dog mummy and associated ticks were found during an archaeological expedition conducted in El Deir. Results Scanning electron micrographs allowed us to assess their identity as belonging to the R. sanguineus group. In addition on the basis of the scutal punctation pattern, spiracular plates, width of dorsal tail of spiracular plates relative to the adjacent festoon, female genital aperture, male adanal plates and accessory shields, these ticks were tentatively identified as Rhipicephalus sp. II (=temperate species). Conclusions It can be concluded that R. sanguineus group ticks have infested dogs living in the Mediterranean region since ancient times. This finding represents the oldest record of ticks on any animal species and adds a new piece in the complex puzzle regarding tick parasitism on dogs and humans and their role as vectors of pathogens. PMID:24438558

  5. Epidemiological survey of ticks and tick-borne pathogens in pet dogs in south-eastern China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianwei; Liu, Qingbiao; Wang, Demou; Li, Wanmeng; Beugnet, Frédéric; Zhou, Jinlin

    2017-01-01

    To understand the epidemiology of tick infestation and tick-borne diseases in pet dogs in south-eastern China and to develop a reference for their prevention and treatment, we collected 1550 ticks parasitizing 562 dogs in 122 veterinary clinics from 20 cities of south-eastern China. Dogs were tested for common tick-borne pathogens; collected ticks were identified and processed for the detection of tick-borne pathogens. The use of an in vitro ELISA diagnostic kit for antibody detection (SNAP®4Dx® Plus) on dog sera found the infection rates with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Ehrlichia canis, and Anaplasma spp. to be 0.4%, 1.3% and 2.7%, respectively. By using a specific ELISA method, the infection rate with Babesia gibsoni was 3.9%. Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato, Haemaphysalis longicornis and Rhipicephalus haemaphysaloides were the major tick species identified on pet dogs. PCR tests were conducted to detect five tick-borne pathogens in 617 ticks. The infection rate was 10.2% for E. canis, 3.4% for Anaplasma platys, 2.3% for B. gibsoni, 0.3% for B. burgdorferi s.l. and 0% for Babesia canis. Some ticks were co-infected with two (1.46%) or three pathogens (0.16%). These results indicate the infestation of pet dogs by ticks infected with tick-borne pathogens in south-eastern China, and the need for effective treatment and routine prevention of tick infestations in dogs. © J. Zhang et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2017.

  6. NT-proBNP and cardiac troponin I concentrations in dogs with tick paralysis caused by Ixodes holocyclus.

    PubMed

    Nicolson, G P; McGrath, Alh; Webster, R A; Li, J; Kaye, S; Malik, R; Beijerink, N J

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine through measurement of cardiac biomarkers whether there was cardiac involvement in dogs infested with Ixodes holocyclus. Dogs with tick paralysis and no-mild (group 1; n = 44) or moderate-severe respiratory compromise (group 2; n = 36) and a control group of dogs (n = 31) were enrolled. Plasma N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), serum cardiac troponin I (cTnI) and serum creatinine concentrations were determined. For most of the affected dogs SpO2 was determined. SpO2 readings did not differ between groups 1 and 2. Three animals in group 2 had an SpO2 reading <90%. NT-proBNP concentrations were lower in both groups 1 and 2 compared with the control group. There was no difference in cTnI concentrations among groups, although they were elevated in four dogs, including the three dogs in group 2 with SpO2 readings <90%. Creatinine concentrations were within the reference interval for all dogs, but did differ among the groups, with control dogs having the highest values, followed by group 1 and then group 2. This study did not detect significant cardiac involvement in dogs with tick paralysis induced by I. holocyclus. Evidence for reduced preload in dogs with tick paralysis was provided by lower NT-proBNP concentrations compared with control dogs. Severe hypoxaemia may not be a significant component of the clinical picture in many of the dogs presenting with tick paralysis. Dogs with severe hypoxaemia may have loss of cardiomyocyte integrity, reflected by elevated cTnI concentrations. © 2016 Australian Veterinary Association.

  7. Severe cat flea infestation of dairy calves in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Araújo, F R; Silva, M P; Lopes, A A; Ribeiro, O C; Pires, P P; Carvalho, C M; Balbuena, C B; Villas, A A; Ramos, J K

    1998-12-15

    An investigation was conducted into a severe flea infestation on dairy calves. Inspection of the dairy revealed a high infestation of Ctenocephalides felis felis on four calves and thousands of fleas in the stable where cows and calves were brought in for milking. A 3-month-old female calf was highly infested with fleas. The animal showed an evident lethargy, weight loss, as well as pale mucous membranes and dehydration. Hematological analysis revealed anemia, with 10% packed cell volume and a 1.72 x 10(6) microl(-1) erythrocyte count. Blood transfusions were performed and the flea infestation was controlled with 1% fipronil pour-on (1 ml/10 kg). The farmer was advised to treat the other calves with fipronil, remove the manure from the stable and spread 1% propoxur powder (100 g/m2) onto the floor of the stable.

  8. A review of the off-label use of selamectin (Stronghold®/Revolution®) in dogs and cats

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Maggie A; Shanks, David J

    2008-01-01

    Since its introduction approximately seven years ago, selamectin (Stronghold®/Revolution®, Pfizer Inc.) has been used off-label to treat a number of ecto- and endoparasite conditions in dogs and cats. It has been used as a successful prophylactic against Dirofilaria repens and as a treatment for Aelurostrongylus abstrusus in cats. It has also been used to treat notoedric mange, infestation with the nasal mite Pneumonyssoides caninum, Cheyletiella spp. and Neotrombicula autumnalis infestations and larval Cordylobia anthropophaga infection. However, to date attempts to treat generalised canine demodicosis have not been successful. In all cases, treatment was apparently well tolerated by the host. PMID:19032763

  9. Service dogs. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2012-09-05

    The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) amends its regulations concerning veterans in need of service dogs. Under this final rule, VA will provide to veterans with visual, hearing, or mobility impairments benefits to support the use of a service dog as part of the management of such impairments. The benefits include assistance with veterinary care, travel benefits associated with obtaining and training a dog, and the provision, maintenance, and replacement of hardware required for the dog to perform the tasks necessary to assist such veterans.

  10. Intestinal Infestations in Under-Five Children in Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Mwale, Kamukwamba; Siziya, Seter

    2015-01-01

    Background: Intestinal infestations are of considerable public health importance in Zambia and elsewhere in Africa. Children aged less than 5 years are at the highest risk of infection. Interventions for prevention and control of these infestations require identification of their determinants. This study investigates the determinants of intestinal infestations in children below 5 years of age admitted to a children’s hospital and assesses the most prevalent of the helminthes. Methods: This was a hospital based cross-sectional study conducted at Arthur Davison Children’s Hospital, Ndola, Zambia. Socio-demographic data of study participants and possible determinants for occurrence of intestinal infestations were collected using structured questionnaires. Stool samples were collected and examined for presence of parasites using direct techniques. The Pearson’s Chi-square and Fisher’s exact tests were used to establish associations. Results: Present study had 148 participants out of the expected 165, making a respondent rate of 89.7%. Over half of the participants were male (50.6%), and 68.9% were above the age of 2 years. Prevalence of intestinal infestations was 19.6%, and the most prevalent parasite was Ascaris lumbricoides. Factors independently associated with worm infestation were father’s employment (AOR = 0.41; 95 % CI [0.19, 0.90]) and history of prior worm infestation (AOR = 6.54; 95 % CI [3.28, 13.03]). Conclusion: Intestinal infestations particularly Ascaris lumbricoides were more prevalent in this study. There should be policy towards countrywide deworming programs and enhanced hygiene. PMID:27622006

  11. Cat flea infestation in a hospital: a case report.

    PubMed

    Leelavathi, Muthupalaniappen; Norhayati, Moktar; Lee, Yin Yin

    2012-03-01

    Cat flea bite in humans results in extremely pruritic skin lesions. It has been reported to occur among those living in domiciliary accommodation. However, nosocomial infestation with cat flea has not been reported. We hereby report a case of nosocomial infestation of cat flea in a hospital facility. Identification of the parasite, its appropriate eradication, and adequate medical management of the patients resulted in a satisfactory outcome.

  12. Cat Flea Infestation in a Hospital: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Norhayati, Moktar; Lee, Yin Yin

    2012-01-01

    Cat flea bite in humans results in extremely pruritic skin lesions. It has been reported to occur among those living in domiciliary accommodation. However, nosocomial infestation with cat flea has not been reported. We hereby report a case of nosocomial infestation of cat flea in a hospital facility. Identification of the parasite, its appropriate eradication, and adequate medical management of the patients resulted in a satisfactory outcome. PMID:22451739

  13. Risk factors associated with Trypanosoma cruzi exposure in domestic dogs from a rural community in Panama

    PubMed Central

    Saldaña, Azael; Calzada, José E; Pineda, Vanessa; Perea, Milixa; Rigg, Chystrie; González, Kadir; Santamaria, Ana Maria; Gottdenker, Nicole L; Chaves, Luis F

    2015-01-01

    Chagas disease, caused by Trypanosoma cruzi infection, is a zoonosis of humans, wild and domestic mammals, including dogs. In Panama, the main T. cruzi vector is hodnius pallescens, a triatomine bug whose main natural habitat is the royal palm, Attalea butyracea. In this paper, we present results from three T. cruzi serological tests (immunochromatographic dipstick, indirect immunofluorescence and ELISA) performed in 51 dogs from 24 houses in Trinidad de Las Minas, western Panama. We found that nine dogs were seropositive (17.6% prevalence). Dogs were 1.6 times more likely to become T. cruzi seropositive with each year of age and 11.6 times if royal palms where present in the peridomiciliary area of the dog's household or its two nearest neighbours. Mouse-baited-adhesive traps were employed to evaluate 12 peridomestic royal palms. All palms were found infested with R. pallescens with an average of 25.50 triatomines captured per palm. Of 35 adult bugs analysed, 88.6% showed protozoa flagellates in their intestinal contents. In addition, dogs were five times more likely to be infected by the presence of an additional domestic animal species in the dog's peridomiciliary environment. Our results suggest that interventions focused on royal palms might reduce the exposure to T. cruzi infection. PMID:26560985

  14. Risk factors associated with Trypanosoma cruzi exposure in domestic dogs from a rural community in Panama.

    PubMed

    Saldaña, Azael; Calzada, José E; Pineda, Vanessa; Perea, Milixa; Rigg, Chystrie; González, Kadir; Santamaria, Ana Maria; Gottdenker, Nicole L; Chaves, Luis F

    2015-11-01

    Chagas disease, caused by Trypanosoma cruzi infection, is a zoonosis of humans, wild and domestic mammals, including dogs. In Panama, the main T. cruzi vector is Rhodnius pallescens, a triatomine bug whose main natural habitat is the royal palm, Attalea butyracea. In this paper, we present results from three T. cruzi serological tests (immunochromatographic dipstick, indirect immunofluorescence and ELISA) performed in 51 dogs from 24 houses in Trinidad de Las Minas, western Panama. We found that nine dogs were seropositive (17.6% prevalence). Dogs were 1.6 times more likely to become T. cruzi seropositive with each year of age and 11.6 times if royal palms where present in the peridomiciliary area of the dog's household or its two nearest neighbours. Mouse-baited-adhesive traps were employed to evaluate 12 peridomestic royal palms. All palms were found infested with R. pallescens with an average of 25.50 triatomines captured per palm. Of 35 adult bugs analysed, 88.6% showed protozoa flagellates in their intestinal contents. In addition, dogs were five times more likely to be infected by the presence of an additional domestic animal species in the dog's peridomiciliary environment. Our results suggest that interventions focused on royal palms might reduce the exposure to T. cruzi infection.

  15. Infestation patterns of microphallid trematodes in Corophium volutator (Amphipoda)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meißner, Karin

    2001-05-01

    Infestation patterns of digenetic trematodes in Corophium volutator (Pallas, 1766) were studied in a shallow-water area of the southern Baltic Sea. The amphipod C. volutator is the most common second intermediate host of microphallid trematodes, in particular Maritrema subdolum, in this area. Seasonal and interannual alterations in infestation among the amphipod population are described. The general trend of infestation followed a relatively invariable seasonal pattern. Lowest prevalences were generally observed in spring and early summer, when juvenile amphipods predominated. Increasing prevalences and relative infestation intensities were recorded over the summer, with the highest values in late summer and autumn. These observations are mainly explained by the population dynamics of C. volutator and the infection dynamics of the first intermediate hosts, mudsnails of the genus Hydrobia. Exceptionally high infestation rates in summer 1997 may have been triggered by the earlier appearance of high cercaria densities in the field compared to 1996. The coincidence of the infection dynamics of the first intermediate host with the population dynamics of C. volutator was apparently important. Parasite infestation, in turn, obviously induced mortality of the crustacean host, but conclusive evidence could not be provided based on the analysis of the parasite dispersion patterns in C. volutator.

  16. Development of antibodies to and PCR detection of Ehrlichia spp. in dogs following natural tick exposure.

    PubMed

    Starkey, Lindsay A; Barrett, Anne W; Chandrashekar, Ramaswamy; Stillman, Brett A; Tyrrell, Phyllis; Thatcher, Brendon; Beall, Melissa J; Gruntmeir, Jeff M; Meinkoth, James H; Little, Susan E

    2014-10-10

    Dogs exposed to ticks in the southern US may become infected with multiple species of Ehrlichia. To better define infection risk, blood samples collected from 10 dogs infested with ticks via a natural infestation model were evaluated by blood smear examination, PCR, patient-side ELISAs (SNAP® 4Dx® and SNAP® 4Dx® Plus), IFA, and peptide based ELISA for evidence of infection with Ehrlichia canis, E. chaffeensis, and/or E. ewingii. Although morulae were rarely identified in blood smears, every dog (10/10) became infected with Ehrlichia spp. as evidenced by nested PCR detection of E. chaffeensis (7/10) and E. ewingii DNA (10/10); real-time PCR detection of E. chaffeensis (0/10) and E. ewingii (9/10); seroconversion on two different patient-side ELISAs (4/10 or 10/10); seroconversion on IFA to E. canis (10/10, maximum inverse titer=128-4096, GMTMAX=548.7) and E. chaffeensis (10/10, maximum inverse titer=1024-32,768, GMTMAX=4096); and seroconversion on peptide specific ELISA to E. chaffeensis VLPT (7/10) and E. ewingii p28 (9/10). Rickettsemia with E. chaffeensis and E. ewingii, as determined by nested PCR, persisted in dogs for an average of 3.2 or 30.5 days, respectively. Ehrlichia canis was not detected in any dog by any method, and no dogs developed signs of clinical disease. Our data suggest that in areas where ticks are common, dogs are at high risk of infection with Ehrlichia spp., particularly E. ewingii and E. chaffeensis, and can serve as a sentinel for monitoring for the presence of these zoonotic pathogens.

  17. Efficacy of sarolaner in the prevention of Borrelia burgdorferi and Anaplasma phagocytophilum transmission from infected Ixodes scapularis to dogs.

    PubMed

    Honsberger, Nicole A; Six, Robert H; Heinz, Thomas J; Weber, Angela; Mahabir, Sean P; Berg, Thomas C

    2016-05-30

    The efficacy of sarolaner (Simparica™, Zoetis) to prevent transmission primarily of Borrelia burgdorferi and secondarily of Anaplasma phagocytophilum from infected wild-caught Ixodes scapularis to dogs was evaluated in a placebo-controlled laboratory study. Twenty-four purpose-bred laboratory Beagles seronegative for B. burgdorferi and A. phagocytophilum antibodies were allocated randomly to one of three treatment groups: placebo administered orally on Days 0 and 7, or sarolaner at 2mg/kg administered orally on Day 0 (28 days prior to tick infestation) or on Day 7 (21 days prior to tick infestation). On Day 28, each dog was infested with approximately 25 female and 25 male wild caught adult I. scapularis that were determined to have prevalence of 57% for B. burgdorferi and 6.7% for A. phagocytophilum by PCR. In situ tick counts were conducted on Days 29 and 30. On Day 33, all ticks were counted and removed. Acaricidal efficacy was calculated based on the reduction of geometric mean live tick counts in the sarolaner-treated groups compared to the placebo-treated group for each tick count. Blood samples collected from each dog on Days 27, 49, 63, 77, 91 and 104 were tested for the presence of B. burgdorferi and A. phagocytophilum antibodies using the SNAP(®) 4Dx(®) Plus Test, and quantitatively assayed for B. burgdorferi antibodies using an ELISA test. Skin biopsies collected on Day 104 were tested for the presence of B. burgdorferi by bacterial culture and PCR. Geometric mean live tick counts for placebo-treated dogs were 14.8, 12.8, and 19.1 on Days 29, 30, and 33, respectively. The percent reductions in mean live tick counts at 1, 2, and 5 days after infestation were 86.3%, 100%, and 100% for the group treated with sarolaner 21 days prior to infestation, and 90.9%, 97.1%, and 100% for the group treated with sarolaner 28 days prior to infestation. Geometric mean live tick counts for both sarolaner-treated groups were significantly lower than those for the

  18. Efficacy of an imidacloprid/flumethrin collar against fleas, ticks, mites and lice on dogs

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The studies reported here were conducted to ascertain the efficacy of imidacloprid/flumethrin incorporated in a slow-release matrix collar, against infestations of dogs by fleas, ticks, mites and lice. Efficacy was evaluated against the flea Ctenocephalides felis felis, the ticks Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Ixodes ricinus, Ixodes scapularis, Dermacentor reticulatus and Dermacentor variabilis, the mite Sarcoptes scabiei and the biting louse Trichodectes canis. Methods Groups of collar-treated dogs (n = 7–10) were infested with fleas and/or ticks at monthly intervals at least, over a period of up to 8 months. Efficacy against fleas was evaluated 24 to 48 h after treatment and 24 h after each re-infestation. Efficacy against ticks was evaluated at 48 h (acaricidal), 6 h (repellent) and 48 h (sustained) after infestation. The effect of regular shampooing or immersion in water on the efficacy of the collars was also tested. Efficacy against flea larvae was assessed by incubating blanket samples after dog contact with viable flea eggs. Effectiveness against lice and mites was evaluated after treatment of naturally infested animals. With the exception of the mites, efficacy was calculated by comparison with untreated negative control groups. Results Efficacy against fleas (24 h) generally exceeded 95%, and against flea larvae it exceeded 99% for 8 months. Sustained acaricidal (48 h) efficacy, covering a period of 8 months was 100% against I. ricinus, starting 2 days after treatment (in vivo), and 100% against I. scapularis (in vitro), above 97% against R. sanguineus, generally above 97% against D. reticulatus and above 90% for D. variabilis. Repellent (6 h) efficacy 2 days after treatment and continuing for 8 months was consistently 100% against I. ricinus, and above 90% against R. sanguineus. Regular shampooing affected efficacy against fleas and ticks to a lesser extent than regular immersion in water. The collars eliminated

  19. Efficacy of an imidacloprid/flumethrin collar against fleas, ticks, mites and lice on dogs.

    PubMed

    Stanneck, Dorothee; Kruedewagen, Eva M; Fourie, Josephus J; Horak, Ivan G; Davis, Wendell; Krieger, Klemens J

    2012-05-30

    The studies reported here were conducted to ascertain the efficacy of imidacloprid/flumethrin incorporated in a slow-release matrix collar, against infestations of dogs by fleas, ticks, mites and lice. Efficacy was evaluated against the flea Ctenocephalides felis felis, the ticks Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Ixodes ricinus, Ixodes scapularis, Dermacentor reticulatus and Dermacentor variabilis, the mite Sarcoptes scabiei and the biting louse Trichodectes canis. Groups of collar-treated dogs (n = 7-10) were infested with fleas and/or ticks at monthly intervals at least, over a period of up to 8 months. Efficacy against fleas was evaluated 24 to 48 h after treatment and 24 h after each re-infestation. Efficacy against ticks was evaluated at 48 h (acaricidal), 6 h (repellent) and 48 h (sustained) after infestation. The effect of regular shampooing or immersion in water on the efficacy of the collars was also tested. Efficacy against flea larvae was assessed by incubating blanket samples after dog contact with viable flea eggs. Effectiveness against lice and mites was evaluated after treatment of naturally infested animals. With the exception of the mites, efficacy was calculated by comparison with untreated negative control groups. Efficacy against fleas (24 h) generally exceeded 95%, and against flea larvae it exceeded 99% for 8 months. Sustained acaricidal (48 h) efficacy, covering a period of 8 months was 100% against I. ricinus, starting 2 days after treatment (in vivo), and 100% against I. scapularis (in vitro), above 97% against R. sanguineus, generally above 97% against D. reticulatus and above 90% for D. variabilis.Repellent (6 h) efficacy 2 days after treatment and continuing for 8 months was consistently 100% against I. ricinus, and above 90% against R. sanguineus.Regular shampooing affected efficacy against fleas and ticks to a lesser extent than regular immersion in water.The collars eliminated Trichodectes canis within 2 days and Sarcoptes scabiei within 3

  20. High detection rate of dog circovirus in diarrheal dogs.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Han-Siang; Lin, Ting-Han; Wu, Hung-Yi; Lin, Lee-Shuan; Chung, Cheng-Shu; Chiou, Ming-Tang; Lin, Chao-Nan

    2016-06-17

    Diarrhea is one of the most common clinical symptoms reported in companion animal clinics. Dog circovirus (DogCV) is a new mammalian circovirus that is considered to be a cause of alimentary syndromes such as diarrhea, vomiting and hemorrhagic enteritis. DogCV has previously only been identified in the United States, Italy, Germany (GeneBank accession number: KF887949) and China (GeneBank accession number: KT946839). Therefore, the aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of DogCV in Taiwan and to explore the correlation between diarrhea and DogCV infection. Clinical specimens were collected between 2012 and 2014 from 207 dogs suffering from diarrhea and 160 healthy dogs. In this study, we developed a sensitive and specific SYBR Green-based real-time PCR assays to detected DogCV in naturally infected animals. Of the analyzed fecal samples from diarrheal dogs and health dogs, 58 (28.0 %) and 19 (11.9 %), respectively, were DogCV positive. The difference in DogCV prevalence was highly significant (P = 0.0002755) in diarrheal dogs. This is the first study to reveal that DogCV is currently circulating in domestic dogs in Taiwan and to demonstrate its high detection rate in dogs with diarrhea.

  1. Cellular responses to Rhipicephalus microplus infestations in pre-sensitised cattle with differing phenotypes of infestation.

    PubMed

    Marufu, Munyaradzi C; Dzama, Kennedy; Chimonyo, Michael

    2014-02-01

    The blue tick, Rhipicephalus microplus, threatens cattle production in most tropical and subtropical areas of the world. Delayed skin hypersensitivity reactions are thought to cause Nguni cattle to be more resistant to R. microplus than Bonsmara cattle yet the cellular mechanisms responsible for these differences have not been classified. Tick counts and inflammatory cell infiltrates in skin biopsies from feeding sites of adult R. microplus ticks were determined in 9-month-old Nguni and Bonsmara heifers to determine the cellular mechanisms responsible for tick immunity. Nguni heifers (1.7 ± 0.03) had lower (P < 0.05) tick counts than the Bonsmaras (2.0 ± 0.03). Parasitized sites in Nguni heifers had higher counts of basophils, mast and mononuclear cells than those in the Bonsmara heifers. Conversely, parasitized sites in Nguni heifers had lower neutrophil and eosinophil counts than those in the Bonsmara heifers. Tick count was negatively correlated with basophil and mast cell counts and positively correlated with eosinophil counts in both breeds. In the Bonsmara breed, tick count was positively correlated with mononuclear cell counts. Cellular responses to adult R. microplus infestations were different and correlated with differences in tick resistance in Nguni and Bonsmara cattle breeds. It is essential to further characterise the molecular composition of the inflammatory infiltrate elicited by adult R. microplus infestation to fully comprehend immunity to ticks in cattle.

  2. Do Dogs Know Bifurcations?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minton, Roland; Pennings, Timothy J.

    2007-01-01

    When a dog (in this case, Tim Pennings' dog Elvis) is in the water and a ball is thrown downshore, it must choose to swim directly to the ball or first swim to shore. The mathematical analysis of this problem leads to the computation of bifurcation points at which the optimal strategy changes.

  3. Do Dogs Know Bifurcations?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minton, Roland; Pennings, Timothy J.

    2007-01-01

    When a dog (in this case, Tim Pennings' dog Elvis) is in the water and a ball is thrown downshore, it must choose to swim directly to the ball or first swim to shore. The mathematical analysis of this problem leads to the computation of bifurcation points at which the optimal strategy changes.

  4. Ticks on dogs and cats: a pet owner-based survey in a rural town in northeastern Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Eichenberger, Ramon Marc; Deplazes, Peter; Mathis, Alexander

    2015-04-01

    Changes in the endemic foci of tick populations and invasions of tick species to new areas have become evident in Europe, leading to changes in the epidemiology of tick-transmitted diseases. However, data about tick infestations of pet animals are limited. Following the recent identification of a new focus of canine babesiosis in northeastern Switzerland, we investigated the occurrence of tick vectors in this region by using a pet owner-based sampling strategy. All dog owners in a rural town were sent postal requests to send ticks from their dogs and cats over two consecutive years, beginning in April 2012. In total 3003 ticks were submitted for identification from 249 dogs (approximately 20% of the resident dog population) and from 117 cats. Ixodes ricinus was the most abundant species identified in 96.8% (n=2124) and 74.3% (n=601) of the individual samples submitted from dogs and cats, respectively. Two other tick species, I. hexagonus and Dermacentor reticulatus, were recorded on both host species, with host infestation prevalences below 2%. On cats (but not on dogs), as many as 24.0% (n=194) of the specimens were identified as a fourth tick species, I. trianguliceps. Overall, 93.5% of the ticks were adults (93.8% and 93.0% in dogs and cats), 4.4% nymphs (5.7% in dogs and 1% in cats) and 2% larvae (0.5% and 6.0% in dogs and cats), respectively. The highest infestation intensity was 49 I. ricinus ticks from an individual dog. However, 55.6% of the submissions from dogs and 24.8% from cats contained only one tick. This survey demonstrated that pet owners can contribute to a cost-effective tick surveillance and identified a new tick focus of D. reticulatus. The finding of I. trianguliceps exclusively on cats might be related to behavioural traits of the cats or to a more readily detection of these very small ticks during petting by their owners. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. Spinosad for treatment of head lice infestation.

    PubMed

    Cole, Sabrina W; Lundquist, Lisa M

    2011-07-01

    To review the pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, clinical trials, and safety profile of spinosad 0.9% topical lotion, a recently approved pediculicide for treatment of head lice infestation. English-language articles indexed in MEDLINE (1948-May 2011), Toxline, Google Scholar, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts (1970-May 2011), and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (1981-May 2011) were identified, using the search terms spinosad, head lice, and pediculosis capitis. Available English-language articles were reviewed. In the studies that were reviewed, the percentage of patients who were lice free 14 days after the last treatment was significantly higher in the spinosad groups compared to the permethrin groups (84.6% vs 44.9% and 86.7% vs 42.9%, respectively; p < 0.001 for both studies). Additionally, the proportion of all primary and nonprimary participants determined to be lice free following only 1 treatment with the study medication was higher among patients in the spinosad groups compared with those in the permethrin groups. Application-site erythema was observed in patients in both treatment groups; however, it was more common in patients in the permethrin groups compared with those receiving spinosad (6.8% vs 3.1%, respectively; p = 0.007). No serious adverse effects were reported by patients receiving spinosad. Adherence was higher in the spinosad groups compared with the permethrin groups, although adherence overall was high in both studies. These data suggest that spinosad is a safe and effective treatment for the eradication of head lice, and the ease of administration and improved adherence with spinosad could offer an advantage over currently available treatment options. Because of its established efficacy, favorable safety profile, and ease of application, spinosad can be considered a convenient and effective treatment for head lice in patients aged 4 years and older.

  6. Vector-borne pathogens in dogs from Costa Rica: first molecular description of Babesia vogeli and Hepatozoon canis infections with a high prevalence of monocytic ehrlichiosis and the manifestations of co-infection.

    PubMed

    Rojas, Alicia; Rojas, Diana; Montenegro, Víctor; Gutiérrez, Ricardo; Yasur-Landau, Daniel; Baneth, Gad

    2014-01-31

    Infection with canine vector-borne pathogens was evaluated in dogs from four different regions of Costa Rica by PCR. Demographic data, clinical signs, packed cell volume values, and the presence of tick infestation were recorded for each dog. Forty seven percent (69/146) of the dogs were infected with at least one pathogen and 12% were co-infected with two pathogens. Ehrlichia canis was detected in 34%, Anaplasma platys in 10%, Babesia vogeli in 8%, and Hepatozoon canis in 7.5% of the blood samples. No infection was detected with Leishmania spp. in blood, skin scrapings or conjunctival swabs. Thirty percent of the dogs presented at least one clinical sign compatible with vector-borne disease, and of those, 66% were infected with a pathogen. Subclinical infections were determined in 58% of the infected dogs including 82% (9/11), 58% (29/50), 42% (5/12) and 36% (5/14) of the dogs with H. canis, E. canis, B. vogeli and A. platys infections, respectively. A distinct relationship was found between infection and anemia. The mean PCV values were 34.4% in dogs with no infection, 31.5% in those who had a single infection and 23% in those with co-infection. Co-infected dogs had significantly lower PCV values compared to non-infected and single-infected dogs (p<0.0001). Thirty five percent (51/146) of the dogs were infested with ticks, 82% of them were infested with Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato and 18% with Amblyomma ovale. Dogs infected with A. platys, B. vogeli, or E. canis were significantly associated with R. sanguineus s.l. infestation (p<0.029). This is the first description of infections with B. vogeli and H. canis in Costa Rica as well as in Central America. The results of this study indicate that multiple vector-borne pathogens responsible for severe diseases infect dogs in Costa Rica and therefore, increased owner and veterinarian awareness are needed. Moreover, prevention of tick infestation is recommended to decrease the threat of these diseases to the

  7. Monogenean infestations and mortality in wild and cultured Red Sea fishes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paperna, I.; Diamant, A.; Overstreet, R. M.

    1984-03-01

    Hyperinfection by the gill-infesting monogenean Allobivagina sp. (Microcotylea) caused mass mortalities in juveniles of Siganus luridus cultured in seawater earthen ponds and holding tanks in Eilat (Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea). Other species of Siganus and adults of S. luridus cultured in the same systems acquired a low intensity of infestation. Most hyperinfected fish were emaciated and anaemic with hematocrit values below 10 %. Skin and mouth infestations by the monogenean Benedenia monticelli (Capsaloidea) caused mass mortalities in grey mullets (Mugilidae). These mortalities occurred in large individuals in wild populations of Liza carinata from lagoonal habitats in the Gulf of Suez and in most species of grey mullets cultured in Eilat. The intensity of infestation correlated positively with severity of infestation, and the common sites of infestation corresponded with areas of severe pathological alterations. Spontaneous recovery followed the climax of an epizootic, both for infested S. luridus and infested grey mullets. Decline in infestation coincided with remission of the pathological signs.

  8. Stray dog population health in Jodhpur, India in the wake of an animal birth control (ABC) program.

    PubMed

    Totton, Sarah C; Wandeler, Alex I; Ribble, Carl S; Rosatte, Rick C; McEwen, Scott A

    2011-02-01

    Our objectives were to (1) estimate the prevalence of various health indices in the stray dog population in Jodhpur, India and (2) determine if there was an association between an animal birth control (ABC) program and the prevalence of these health indices in this population. A prevalence survey of 323 sexually intact stray dogs >3 months caught from the streets of Jodhpur from September to November, 2005 indicated that low body condition score (70%), skin conditions (69%) and tick infestation (68%) were the most common health problems in this population. An observational study of 888 stray dogs on the streets of Jodhpur from March to April, 2006 revealed that sterilized dogs were more likely to have a higher body condition score (BCS) than sexually intact dogs when controlling for age, based on a multinomial regression model. However, sterilized dogs were more likely to have a skin condition than sexually intact dogs, based on a logistic regression model. Our observations of the surgical/kennel facility indicated that an effective tick control program was needed. Additionally, the current parasite control protocol at the kennel/shelter facility was inadequate to treat mange, a contact-transmitted skin disease. This is the first study to evaluate the associations between an ABC program and stray dog health, apart from rabies. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Discrete typing units of Trypanosoma cruzi identified in rural dogs and cats in the humid Argentinean Chaco.

    PubMed

    Enriquez, G F; Cardinal, M V; Orozco, M M; Lanati, L; Schijman, A G; Gürtler, R E

    2013-03-01

    The discrete typing units (DTUs) of Trypanosoma cruzi that infect domestic dogs and cats have rarely been studied. With this purpose we conducted a cross-sectional xenodiagnostic survey of dog and cat populations residing in 2 infested rural villages in Pampa del Indio, in the humid Argentine Chaco. Parasites were isolated by culture from 44 dogs and 12 cats with a positive xenodiagnosis. DTUs were identified from parasite culture samples using a strategy based on multiple polymerase-chain reactions. TcVI was identified in 37 of 44 dogs and in 10 of 12 cats, whereas TcV was identified in 5 dogs and in 2 cats -a new finding for cats. No mixed infections were detected. The occurrence of 2 dogs infected with TcIII -classically found in armadillos- suggests a probable link with the local sylvatic transmission cycle involving Dasypus novemcinctus armadillos and a potential risk of human infection with TcIII. Our study reinforces the importance of dogs and cats as domestic reservoir hosts and sources of various DTUs infecting humans, and suggests a link between dogs and the sylvatic transmission cycle of TcIII.

  10. Discrete typing units of Trypanosoma cruzi identified in rural dogs and cats in the humid Argentinean Chaco

    PubMed Central

    ENRIQUEZ, G.F.; CARDINAL, M.V.; OROZCO, M.M.; LANATI, L.; SCHIJMAN, A.G.; GÜRTLER, R.E.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY The discrete typing units (DTUs) of Trypanosoma cruzi that infect domestic dogs and cats have rarely been studied. With this purpose we conducted a cross-sectional xenodiagnostic survey of dog and cat populations residing in two infested rural villages in Pampa del Indio, in the humid Argentine Chaco. Parasites were isolated by culture from 44 dogs and 12 cats with a positive xenodiagnosis. DTUs were identified from parasite culture samples using a strategy based on multiple polymerase-chain reactions. TcVI was identified in 37 of 44 dogs and in 10 of 12 cats, whereas TcV was identified in five dogs and in two cats –a new finding for cats. No mixed infections were detected. The occurrence of two dogs infected with TcIII –classically found in armadillos– suggests a probable link with the local sylvatic transmission cycle involving Dasypus novemcinctus armadillos and a potential risk of human infection with TcIII. Our study reinforces the importance of dogs and cats as domestic reservoir hosts and sources of various DTUs infecting humans, and suggests a link between dogs and the sylvatic transmission cycle of TcIII. PMID:23058180

  11. Control of subterranean termites (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) infesting power poles.

    PubMed

    Horwood, Martin A; Westlake, Terry; Kathuria, Amrit

    2010-12-01

    A trial was conducted to determine the efficacy of termiticidal dusts (arsenic trioxide, triflumuron, and Metarhizium anisopliae), a timber fumigant (dazomet) and liquid termiticides (bifenthrin, chlorfenapyr, chlorpyrifos, fipronil, and imidacloprid) for controlling subterranean termites (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) infesting in-service power poles in New South Wales, Australia. Dusts were applied to parts of the pole where termites were present. Fumigant was inserted into holes drilled into the base of the pole. Liquid termiticides were mixed with soil around the base of the pole and injected into internal voids if present. Poles were inspected for up to 5 yr, and the time taken for reinfestation to occur was recorded. Before the start of the trial, the major Australian pole owners were surveyed to obtain an estimate of the annual national cost of termite infestation to the power supply industry. The annual costs of termite treatment and replacing damaged poles were estimated at AU$2 million and AU$13 million, respectively. Infestation rates were lower for all treatments compared with controls within the first 12 mo of the study. Dazomet, arsenic trioxide, fipronil, and chlorpyrifos were the most efficacious treatments. Efficacy was positively related to the amount of termiticide applied and negatively related to the infestation severity but was unaffected by geographical location. Survival curves were calculated of the time elapsed before the recurrence of termite infestations (survival absence of reinfestation). Survival was highest for poles treated with liquid termiticides.

  12. Hookworm infestation in a 3-month old female.

    PubMed

    Otaigbe, B E; Eneh, A U; Oruamabo, B

    2005-01-01

    Intestinal helminthiasis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in infants and children particularly in the tropics and subtropics. This report highlights the possibility of hookworm infestation in infancy. A case report of hookworm infestation in a three-month old infant who was managed in the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Port Harcourt in May 2001 for failure to thrive and recurrent severe anaemia. The patient was admitted in the children's emergency ward with passage of dark watery stools, fever, excessive crying and severe anemia and was transfused twice. Stool microscopy revealed numerous ova of hookworm and she was treated with albendazole. Three days after administration of anti-helminthic, stools became formed with normal colour and temperature was normal. She gained weight before discharge home. Hookworm infestation should be suspected as a cause of severe anaemia in infants in communities with a high risk of infestation such as fishing port communities. To the best of my knowledge, symptomatic hookworm infestation in the first year of life has not been previously documented in Nigeria.

  13. Different clinical allergological features of Taenia solium infestation.

    PubMed

    Minciullo, Paola Lucia; Cascio, Antonio; Isola, Stefania; Gangemi, Sebastiano

    2016-01-01

    The tapeworm Taenia (T.) solium can be responsible for two different conditions: taeniasis and cysticercosis. Helminth infections in human host cause an immune response associated with elevated levels of IgE, tissue eosinophilia and mastocytosis, and with the presence of CD4+ T cells that preferentially produce IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13. Individuals exposed to helminth infections may have allergic inflammatory responses to parasites and parasite antigens. PubMed search of human cases of allergic reactions occurring during T. solium infestation was performed combining the terms (allergy, urticaria, angioedema, asthma, anaphylaxis) with T. solium. A study was considered eligible for inclusion in the review if it reported data on patients with T. solium infestation who had signs or symptoms of allergy. In literature we found six articles reporting the association between an allergic reaction and T. solium infestation: two cases of urticaria, two cases of relapsing angioedema, one case of asthma and two cases of anaphylaxis. Despite the large diffusion of T. solium infestation, we found only a few cases of concomitant allergic reaction and the presence of Taenia in the host. The association between T. solium infestation and allergic manifestations has never been clearly demonstrated, and in absence of a well-documented causality the hypotheses are merely speculative. Therefore, the association between Taenia infection and allergy needs to be thoroughly studied to better clarify if this association may really exist and which is the pathogenetic mechanism supported.

  14. Mountain pine beetle infestation impacted by water availability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaiser, K. E.; McGlynn, B.; Emanuel, R.

    2012-04-01

    Vegetation pattern and landscape structure intersect to exert strong control over ecohydrological dynamics at the watershed scale. The hydrologic implications of vegetation disturbance (e.g. fire, disease etc.) depend on the spatial pattern and form of environmental change. Here we investigate this intersection at Tenderfoot Creek Experimental Forest (TCEF), Montana with a focus on the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) epidemic currently affecting the Rocky Mountains. We calibrated QuickBird remote sensing imagery with a leaf-level spectral library of local vegetation. We used this spectral library to determine optimal vegetation indices for differentiating stages of beetle infestation within the 37 km2 TCEF watershed. These indices formed the basis of a three-component mixing model to quantify the extent and magnitude of beetle infestation across the TCEF watershed. We compared disturbance patterns to spatially distributed topography and vegetation variables derived from a LiDAR-based digital elevation model (DEM) of TCEF. We determined that certain landscape characteristics (low vegetation density, south facing slopes, steep slopes, locations with small contributing areas, and locations with lower values of the topographic wetness index (TWI)) were significantly more likely to exhibit the effects of beetle infestation. Our efforts to monitor vegetation mortality across space and time provide a context for assessing landscape susceptibility to initial mountain pine beetle infestation via feedbacks between biodiversity and hydrological patterns and further research into understanding how outbreak (i.e. landscape scale infestation) patterns may affect watershed ecohydrology via altered water and biogeochemical cycles.

  15. Parasitic Infestation in Pediatric and Adolescent Appendicitis: A Local Experience

    PubMed Central

    Zakaria, Ossama M.; Zakaria, Hazem M.; Daoud, Mohamed Yasser; Al Wadaani, Hamed; Al Buali, Waleed; Al-Mohammed, Hamdan; Al Mulhim, Abdulrahman S.; Zaki, Wafaa

    2013-01-01

    Objective The relationship between parasites and pediatric appendicitis is a highly debatable issue. This study aims to investigate the role of parasitic infestation in the etiology of acute pediatric appendicitis. Methods A retrospective study including 1600 pediatric and adolescent patients who had undergone surgical therapy for a diagnosis of acute appendicitis over a period of ten years from Jan 2001 to Dec 2010. Demographic data were retrieved including the patient's age, sex, clinical data, clinical presentations, laboratory investigations, operative data and pathological findings to identify the presence and type of parasites. Patients were divided into two groups according to the presence or absence of parasites in the appendix lumen. In group I (n: 88), parasitic infestation was observed, whereas in group II (n: 1502), no parasitic infestation was present. Results Parasites were present in 5.5% (88 patients), and of those 88 parasitic infestations, 45 (51.1%) were Enterobaisis, 8 (9.1%) were Schistosomiasis, 23 (26.1%) were Ascariasis, 7 (8%) Trichuriasis, and 5 (5.7%) were Teania Saginata. The percentage of patients with suppurative, gangrenous or perforated appendicitis was similar in both groups with no statistical significance, irrespective of the presence or absence of parasitic infestation. Conclusion The low prevalence of parasites among the appendectomy specimens did not support the notion that parasites were a major cause of appendicitis in pediatric patients. PMID:23599875

  16. Head lice infestation in some urban localities of NWFP, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Suleman, M; Jabeen, N

    1989-10-01

    The prevalence of head lice infestation was estimated among the general population of four urban localities in the North West Frontier Province of Pakistan during 1986. Altogether 1002 persons (656 females, 346 males) were screened by visual inspection and combing of the head. The overall infestation rate was 36.7%, with females showing a higher prevalence (41.5%) than males (27.7%). The prevalence did not differ significantly with locality, and exhibited only a slight seasonal variation. Pediculosis was high in the five to 19 year old age-group, beyond which it decreased, gradually in females and abruptly in males. Higher rate of infestation in females could be attributed to their long hair. A significant negative association between pediculosis and dandruff was noticed in males but not in females. Crowding and low level of education, which reflect poor socio-economic status, apparently contributed to higher rate of infestation. Prevalence was directly related to the number of children per family, suggesting that school children perhaps play an important role in the distribution of lice. Intensity of infestation, like prevalence, was higher in females than males, and decreased with age in both sexes.

  17. BigDog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Playter, R.; Buehler, M.; Raibert, M.

    2006-05-01

    BigDog's goal is to be the world's most advanced quadruped robot for outdoor applications. BigDog is aimed at the mission of a mechanical mule - a category with few competitors to date: power autonomous quadrupeds capable of carrying significant payloads, operating outdoors, with static and dynamic mobility, and fully integrated sensing. BigDog is about 1 m tall, 1 m long and 0.3 m wide, and weighs about 90 kg. BigDog has demonstrated walking and trotting gaits, as well as standing up and sitting down. Since its creation in the fall of 2004, BigDog has logged tens of hours of walking, climbing and running time. It has walked up and down 25 & 35 degree inclines and trotted at speeds up to 1.8 m/s. BigDog has walked at 0.7 m/s over loose rock beds and carried over 50 kg of payload. We are currently working to expand BigDog's rough terrain mobility through the creation of robust locomotion strategies and terrain sensing capabilities.

  18. Glomerular Lipidosis in Dogs.

    PubMed

    Kohnken, Rebecca A; Amerman, Hayley; Brown, Cathy A; Furrow, Eva; Lees, George E; Cianciolo, Rachel E

    2017-09-01

    Glomerular lipidosis (GL) is characterized by dilated glomerular capillary loops containing lipid-laden cells (foam cells). Previously, GL was considered to be an incidental finding because affected dogs were typically not azotemic. However, the International Renal Interest Society staging system for canine chronic kidney disease has increased the awareness of other clinical parameters (eg, proteinuria and hypertension) that should be included in the assessment of renal function. As such, the aim of this study was to determine clinical abnormalities and concurrent renal lesions in dogs with GL. GL was identified in renal biopsies from 46 dogs evaluated by the International Veterinary Renal Pathology Service. GL was the sole diagnosis in 5 of 46 cases (11%), all of which were proteinuric. All 5 dogs had at least 1 additional clinicopathologic abnormality consistent with renal disease, including hypertension (4), azotemia (3), and/or hypoalbuminemia (2). The remaining 41 dogs had GL in combination with other glomerular lesions, the most common being focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (16, 35%), lesions consistent with juvenile nephropathy (8, 17%), and glomerular amyloidosis (5, 11%). Overall, dogs with severe GL were younger than were those with mild GL ( P < .001). The percentage of glomeruli affected by GL differed by concurrent diagnoses ( P = .034), with the highest percentage of affected glomeruli in dogs with GL alone or those with concurrent juvenile nephropathy. These findings suggest that GL should be a recognized histologic phenotype of glomerular injury associated with clinical renal dysfunction and/or juvenile nephropathies.

  19. Dogs Discriminate Identical Twins

    PubMed Central

    Pinc, Ludvík; Bartoš, Luděk; Reslová, Alice; Kotrba, Radim

    2011-01-01

    Earlier studies have shown variation among experimental attempts to establish whether human monozygotic twins that are genetically identical also have identical individual scents. In none of the cases were the dogs able to distinguish all the individual scents of monozygotic twins living in the same environment if the scents were presented to them separately. Ten specially trained police German Shepherd dogs of three Czech Republic Police Regional Headquarters were used for scent identification in our study. The dogs were supposed to match scents of two monozygotic pairs (5 and 7 years old) and two dizygotic twin pairs (8 and 13 years old). Scents were collected on cotton squares stored in glass jars. Dog handlers were blind to the experiment details. In each trial (line-up), one scent was used as a starting scent and the dog was then sent to determine if any of the 7 presented glass jars contained a matching scent. Scents of children of similar ages were used as distractors. In the matching procedure, the dogs matched correctly the scent of one twin with the other, as well as two scents collected from every single identical and non-identical twin to prove their efficacy and likewise, the presence of the matching twin scent in any given glass jar. All dogs in all trials distinguished correctly the scents of identical as well as non-identical twins. All dogs similarly matched positively two scents collected from the same individuals. Our findings indicated that specially trained German Shepherd dogs are able to distinguish individual scents of identical twins despite the fact that they live in the same environment, eat the same food and even if the scents are not presented to them simultaneously. PMID:21698282

  20. Factors Affecting Infestation by Triatoma infestans in a Rural Area of the Humid Chaco in Argentina: A Multi-Model Inference Approach

    PubMed Central

    Gurevitz, Juan M.; Ceballos, Leonardo A.; Gaspe, María Sol; Alvarado-Otegui, Julián A.; Enríquez, Gustavo F.; Kitron, Uriel; Gürtler, Ricardo E.

    2011-01-01

    Background Transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi by Triatoma infestans remains a major public health problem in the Gran Chaco ecoregion, where understanding of the determinants of house infestation is limited. We conducted a cross-sectional study to model factors affecting bug presence and abundance at sites within house compounds in a well-defined rural area in the humid Argentine Chaco. Methodology/Principal Findings Triatoma infestans bugs were found in 45.9% of 327 inhabited house compounds but only in 7.4% of the 2,584 sites inspected systematically on these compounds, even though the last insecticide spraying campaign was conducted 12 years before. Infested sites were significantly aggregated at distances of 0.8–2.5 km. The most frequently infested ecotopes were domiciles, kitchens, storerooms, chicken coops and nests; corrals were rarely infested. Domiciles with mud walls and roofs of thatch or corrugated tarred cardboard were more often infested (32.2%) than domiciles with brick-and-cement walls and corrugated metal-sheet roofs (15.1%). A multi-model inference approach using Akaike's information criterion was applied to assess the relative importance of each variable by running all possible (17,406) models resulting from all combinations of variables. Availability of refuges for bugs, construction with tarred cardboard, and host abundance (humans, dogs, cats, and poultry) per site were positively associated with infestation and abundance, whereas reported insecticide use showed a negative association. Ethnic background (Creole or Toba) adjusted for other factors showed little or no association. Conclusions/Significance Promotion and effective implementation of housing improvement (including key peridomestic structures) combined with appropriate insecticide use and host management practices are needed to eliminate infestations. Fewer refuges are likely to result in fewer residual foci after insecticide spraying, and will facilitate community-based vector

  1. High prevalence of intestinal infections and ectoparasites in dogs, Minas Gerais State (southeast Brazil).

    PubMed

    Heukelbach, Jörg; Frank, Raphael; Ariza, Liana; de Sousa Lopes, Iris; de Assis E Silva, Alcides; Borges, Ana Cláudia; Limongi, Jean Ezequiel; de Alencar, Carlos Henrique Morais; Klimpel, Sven

    2012-11-01

    In the present study, 155 dogs euthanized by the Zoonotic Disease Unit of Uberlândia in Minas Gerais State (Southeast Brazil) were autopsied. Ectoparasites were collected, and the intestinal content of dogs was systematically examined for the presence of helminthic parasites. In total, we isolated 5,155 metazoan parasites of eight species (three intestinal helminth species, five ectoparasite species). The cestode Dipylidium caninum was present in 57 dogs (36.8 %), the nematodes Ancylostoma caninum in 30 (19.4 %) and Toxocara canis in 24 (15.5 %), respectively. Among the ectoparasites, 139 (89.7 %) dogs were infested with Rhipicephalus sanguineus, 115 (74.2 %) with Ctenocephalides felis, 5 (3.2 %) with Tunga penetrans and one specimen (0.7 %) with Amblyomma cajennense, while myiasis was found in one dog (0.7 %). In logistic regression analysis, young age (adjusted odds ratio 5.74; 95 % confidence interval 1.18-27.85) and male sex (3.60; 1.24-10.40) were significantly associated with toxocariasis, and crossbreed dogs (8.20; 1.52-44.31), with dipylidiasis. Male (2.23; 1.12-4.43) and crossbreed dogs (5.17; 1.17-22.83) had also a significant higher number of concomitant parasitoses. Spatial distribution of dogs by neighbourhood identified high-risk areas. Our systematic study shows that dogs in Uberlândia carry a high number of parasites which may cause zoonotic diseases in humans; therefore, further specific evidence-based intervention measures are needed.

  2. Five-month comparative efficacy evaluation of three ectoparasiticides against adult cat fleas (Ctenocephalides felis), flea egg hatch and emergence, and adult brown dog ticks (Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato) on dogs housed outdoors.

    PubMed

    Varloud, Marie; Hodgkins, Elizabeth

    2015-03-01

    This study was designed to compare the efficacy of three topical combinations on dogs in outdoor conditions against adult cat fleas (Ctenocephalides felis), flea egg hatch and emergence, and against adult brown dog ticks (Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato). Treatment was performed on day 0 with a placebo; dinotefuran, pyriproxifen and permethrin (DPP); fipronil and (S)-methoprene (FM) or imidacloprid and permethrin (IP). Dogs (n = 32), housed outdoors for 7 months, were treated monthly for four consecutive months (on days 0, 30, 60 and 90) and infested with ~100 unfed adult fleas on days 14, 55, 74, 115 and 150 and with ~50 unfed adult ticks on days 28, 44, 88 and 104. Adult fleas were counted and removed 24 h after infestation. Immediately after flea removal, dogs were reinfested with ~100 new adult fleas 72 h prior to egg collection for up to 48 h. Flea eggs were incubated for 32 days, and newly emerged adults were counted. Ticks were counted and removed 48 h after each infestation. FM had >90 % efficacy against fleas at each time point and variable efficacy against ticks (38.0-99.6 %). Efficacy of IP was <90 % against fleas at day 64 and against ticks at day 30 of the first post-treatment. No flea eggs were laid in the treated groups until infestation was carried out >60 days after the last treatment. Despite challenging weather conditions, DPP was highly effective, providing >90 % efficacy against adult ticks as well as adult and immature fleas at every time point of the study.

  3. A plague epizootic in the black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus).

    PubMed

    Pauli, Jonathan N; Buskirk, Steven W; Williams, Elizabeth S; Edwards, William H

    2006-01-01

    Plague is the primary cause for the rangewide decline in prairie dog (Cynomys spp.) distribution and abundance, yet our knowledge of plague dynamics in prairie dog populations is limited. Our understanding of the effects of plague on the most widespread species, the black-tailed prairie dog (C. ludovicianus), is particularly weak. During a study on the population biology of black-tailed prairie dogs in Wyoming, USA, plague was detected in a colony under intensive monitoring, providing a unique opportunity to quantify various consequences of plague. The epizootic reduced juvenile abundance by 96% and adult abundance by 95%. Of the survivors, eight of nine adults and one of eight juveniles developed antibodies to Yersinia pestis. Demographic groups appeared equally susceptible to infection, and age structure was unaffected. Survivors occupied three small coteries and exhibited improved body condition, but increased flea infestation compared to a neighboring, uninfected colony. Black-tailed prairie dogs are capable of surviving a plague epizootic and reorganizing into apparently functional coteries. Surviving prairie dogs may be critical in the repopulation of plague-decimated colonies and, ultimately, the evolution of plague resistance.

  4. Flea abundance on black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) increases during plague epizootics.

    PubMed

    Tripp, Daniel W; Gage, Kenneth L; Montenieri, John A; Antolin, Michael F

    2009-06-01

    Black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) on the Great Plains of the United States are highly susceptible to plague, caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis, with mortality on towns during plague epizootics often approaching 100%. The ability of flea-borne transmission to sustain disease spread has been questioned because of inefficiency of flea vectors. However, even with low individual efficiency, overall transmission can be increased if flea abundance (the number of fleas on hosts) increases. Changes in flea abundance on hosts during plague outbreaks were recorded during a large-scale study of plague outbreaks in prairie dogs in north central Colorado during 3 years (2004-2007). Fleas were collected from live-trapped black-tailed prairie dogs before and during plague epizootics and tested by PCR for the presence of Y. pestis. The predominant fleas were two prairie dog specialists (Oropsylla hirsuta and Oropsylla tuberculata cynomuris), and a generalist flea species (Pulex simulans) was also recorded from numerous mammals in the area. The three species differ in seasonal abundance, with greatest abundance in spring (February and March) and fall (September and October). Flea abundance and infestation intensity increased during epizootics and were highest on prairie dogs with Y. pestis-infected fleas. Seasonal occurrence of epizootics among black-tailed prairie dogs was found to coincide with seasonal peaks in flea abundance. Concentration of infected fleas on surviving animals may account for rapid spread of plague during epizootics. In particular, the role of the generalist flea P. simulans was previously underappreciated.

  5. Leech infestation and its association with water drinking habits.

    PubMed

    Raza, Syed Nusrat; Shabbir, Syed Muhammad Asad

    2006-03-01

    To assess the common presentations of leech infestation in leech endemic areas of Pakistan and to establish its association with unsafe water drinking habits of the individual. A cohort study. CMH, Kohat, between 1st February 1997 and 30th April 2002. Fourteen patients with leech infestation who reported to ENT department of CMH, Kohat, during the above period were selected for study. A specific comparison of their water drinking habits was made with a control group of 42 normal individuals who had come from the same leech endemic area as the first group and belonged to the same socioeconomic class. Twelve cases (83.4%) in the first group had unsafe water drinking habit i.e. they drank water directly from marshes without seeing its contents substituting cupped palm of hand for a drinking cup. This was in contrast to the control group where only 6 individuals (14%) gave a history of unsafe water drinking habits. Nose was the most common ENT site of leech infestation (71%) with epistaxis being the most prominent symptom. Other sites included hypopharynx (14%), nasopharynx (7 %) and oropharynx (7 %). All the 14 cases with leech infestation were males, 26.09 years being the mean age. The association between patient s unsafe water drinking habits and leech infestation in ENT region was statistically proved with odds ratio being 36. Epistaxis or any other related symptom must be taken with suspicion in leech endemic area. This condition is closely related to unsafe water drinking habits, therefore, the incidence of this infestation can be significantly reduced by educating the individuals to adopt safe water drinking habits.

  6. Associations between Demodex species infestation and various types of cancer.

    PubMed

    Sönmez, Özlem Uysal; Yalçın, Zeliha Gülter; Karakeçe, Engin; Çiftci, İhsan Hakkı; Erdem, Teoman

    2013-12-01

    Tumor-associated immune system cells secrete protease and cytokines that can inhibit the immune response. In particular, T-cell effector functions could be inhibited, potentially causing an increase in parasitic infestations. Demodex species are common inhabitants of normal hair follicles. Humans are the specific host for two species Demodex folliculorum and D. brevis. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence and infestation of D. folliculorum and D. brevis in patients with cancer. In the present study, 101 patients with cancer were selected from among patients who were diagnosed and treated for cancer. The cancer patients were divided into four groups according to cancer type. Slides were examined for parasites using light microscopy at magnifications of ×40 and ×100. Infestation was defined as having at least five living parasites/cm(2) of skin. The ages of the patients with cancer ranged between 38 and 82 years, with a mean of 65.5±10.1 years. It was determined that 77 of the 101 (76.2%) cancer patients were positive for Demodex species. Infestation was positive in 18 (47.4%) of the 38 cases in the breast cancer group, 7 (29.2%) of the 24 cases in the lung cancer group, 5 (18.5%) of the 27 cases in the gastrointestinal system cancer group, and 2 (16.7%) of the 12 cases in the urogenital system cancer group. Results showed that the rate of Demodex species infestation was higher in patients with breast cancer. Thus, cancer - and particularly breast cancer - is a risk factor for Demodex species infestation.

  7. Dog and owner demographic characteristics and dog personality trait associations.

    PubMed

    Kubinyi, Eniko; Turcsán, Borbála; Miklósi, Adám

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the relationships between four personality traits (calmness, trainability, dog sociability and boldness) of dogs (Canis familiaris) and dog and owner demographics on a large sample size with 14,004 individuals. German speaking dog owners could characterize their dog by filling out a form on the Internet. There were five demographic variables for dogs and nine for owners. Two statistical methods were used for investigating the associations between personality and demographic traits: the more traditional general linear methods and regression trees that are ideal for analyzing non-linear relationships in the structure of the data. The results showed that calmness is influenced primarily by the dog's age, the neutered status, the number of different types of professional training courses (e.g. obedience, agility) the dog had experienced and the age of acquisition. The least calm dogs were less than 2.5 years old, neutered and acquired after the first 12 weeks of age, while the calmest dogs were older than 6.9 years. Trainability was affected primarily by the training experiences, the dog's age, and the purpose of keeping the dog. The least trainable dogs had not received professional training at all and were older than 3 years. The most trainable dogs were those who participated in three or more types of professional training. Sociability toward conspecifics was mainly determined by the age, sex, training experience and time spent together. The least sociable dogs were older than 4.8 years and the owners spent less than 3h with the dog daily. The most sociable dogs were less than 1.5 years old. Males were less sociable toward their conspecifics than females. Boldness was affected by the sex and age of the dog and the age of acquisition. The least bold were females acquired after the age of 1 year or bred by the owner. The boldest dogs were males, acquired before the age of 12 weeks, and were younger than 2 years old. Other variables

  8. The mitochondrial genome of Paragonimus westermani (Kerbert, 1878), the Indian isolate of the lung fluke representative of the family Paragonimidae (Trematoda).

    PubMed

    Biswal, Devendra K; Chatterjee, Anupam; Bhattacharya, Alok; Tandon, Veena

    2014-01-01

    Among helminth parasites, Paragonimus (zoonotic lung fluke) gains considerable importance from veterinary and medical points of view because of its diversified effect on its host. Nearly fifty species of Paragonimus have been described across the globe. It is estimated that more than 20 million people are infected worldwide and the best known species is Paragonimus westermani, whose type locality is probably India and which infects millions of people in Asia causing disease symptoms that mimic tuberculosis. Human infections occur through eating raw crustaceans containing metacercarie or ingestion of uncooked meat of paratenic hosts such as pigs. Though the fluke is known to parasitize a wide range of mammalian hosts representing as many as eleven families, the status of its prevalence, host range, pathogenic manifestations and its possible survivors in nature from where the human beings contract the infection is not well documented in India. We took advantage of the whole genome sequence data for P. westermani, generated by Next Generation Sequencing, and its comparison with the existing data for the P. westermani for comparative mt DNA phylogenomic analyses. Specific primers were designed for the 12 protein coding genes with the aid of existing P. westermani mtDNA as the reference. The Ion torrent next generation sequencing platform was harnessed to completely sequence the mitochondrial genome, and applied innovative approaches to bioinformatically assemble and annotate it. A strategic PCR primer design utilizing the whole genome sequence data from P. westermani enabled us to design specific primers capable of amplifying all regions of the mitochondrial genome from P. westermani. Assembly of NGS data from libraries enriched in mtDNA sequence by PCR gave rise to a total of 11 contigs spanning the entire 14.7 kb mt DNA sequence of P. westermani available at NCBI. We conducted gap-filling by traditional Sanger sequencing to fill in the gaps. Annotation of non

  9. The mitochondrial genome of Paragonimus westermani (Kerbert, 1878), the Indian isolate of the lung fluke representative of the family Paragonimidae (Trematoda)

    PubMed Central

    Biswal, Devendra K.; Chatterjee, Anupam

    2014-01-01

    Among helminth parasites, Paragonimus (zoonotic lung fluke) gains considerable importance from veterinary and medical points of view because of its diversified effect on its host. Nearly fifty species of Paragonimus have been described across the globe. It is estimated that more than 20 million people are infected worldwide and the best known species is Paragonimus westermani, whose type locality is probably India and which infects millions of people in Asia causing disease symptoms that mimic tuberculosis. Human infections occur through eating raw crustaceans containing metacercarie or ingestion of uncooked meat of paratenic hosts such as pigs. Though the fluke is known to parasitize a wide range of mammalian hosts representing as many as eleven families, the status of its prevalence, host range, pathogenic manifestations and its possible survivors in nature from where the human beings contract the infection is not well documented in India. We took advantage of the whole genome sequence data for P. westermani, generated by Next Generation Sequencing, and its comparison with the existing data for the P. westermani for comparative mt DNA phylogenomic analyses. Specific primers were designed for the 12 protein coding genes with the aid of existing P. westermani mtDNA as the reference. The Ion torrent next generation sequencing platform was harnessed to completely sequence the mitochondrial genome, and applied innovative approaches to bioinformatically assemble and annotate it. A strategic PCR primer design utilizing the whole genome sequence data from P. westermani enabled us to design specific primers capable of amplifying all regions of the mitochondrial genome from P. westermani. Assembly of NGS data from libraries enriched in mtDNA sequence by PCR gave rise to a total of 11 contigs spanning the entire 14.7 kb mt DNA sequence of P. westermani available at NCBI. We conducted gap-filling by traditional Sanger sequencing to fill in the gaps. Annotation of non

  10. Expellency, anti-feeding and speed of kill of a dinotefuran-permethrin-pyriproxyfen spot-on (Vectra®3D) in dogs weekly challenged with adult fleas (Ctenocephalides felis) for 1 month-comparison to a spinosad tablet (Comfortis®).

    PubMed

    Varloud, Marie; Fourie, Josephus J; Blagburn, Byron L; Deflandre, Audrey

    2015-07-01

    This study was designed to compare the efficacy of two ectoparasiticides against adult fleas on dogs: a topical (DPP, dinotefuran-permethrin-pyriproxyfen) and a systemic (S, spinosad). Dogs (n = 48; 10.21-22.86 kg BW) were allocated to six groups of eight dogs each (C1, C4, DPP1, DPP4, S1, S4). Dogs in the treated groups were administered a topical (3.6 mL of DPP) or a tablet (665 or 1040 mg of S) on day 0. Infestations with 100 unfed fleas (Ctenocephalides felis) occurred on days -6, -1, 2, 7, 14, 21 and 28. An additional untreated group (QC, n = 6) was involved to evaluate the flea-anti-feeding efficacy. These dogs were infested once with 150 fleas prior to combing of at least 50 live fleas from each dog 5 or 10 min after infestation. In the treated group, dislodged dead and moribund fleas were collected from dogs 5, 10, 15 and 60 min (DPP1, S1) or 5, 10, 30 and 240 min (DPP4, S4) post-treatment and subsequent flea infestations on pans placed underneath the cages. Fleas were counted and removed from dogs by combing 1 (C1, DPP1, S1) or 4 h (C4, DPP4, S4) post-treatment and subsequent infestations. Quantitative PCR analysis of the canine cytochrome b gene was conducted on dislodged fleas collected from treated and control (QC) dogs 5 and 10 min after post-treatment infestations. The number of gene copies was used as a marker of blood volume ingested by fleas. Dislodgeability and insecticidal efficacy were calculated using arithmetic means. A rapid onset of killing was observed for DPP with 12.7 % of dead and moribund fleas being dislodged in average from dogs as soon as 5 min after infestation. DPP exhibited a significantly higher and sustained speed of kill than S. The average insecticidal efficacy was 86 ± 8.8 and 95.3 ± 2.1 % with DPP, whereas it was only 33.7 ± 19.9 and 57.6 ± 18.6 % with S at respectively 1 and 4 h after weekly reinfestations. The DPP combination significantly inhibited the feeding of fleas (89

  11. Enterobius vermicularis infestation masquerading as cervical carcinoma: A cytological diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Raju, Kalyani; Verappa, Seema; Venkataramappa, Srinivas Murthy

    2015-01-01

    Although prevalence of Enterobius vermicularis (EV) infestation in Intestines ranges from 35% to 70%, its prevalence in female genital tract is not known despite several incidental findings. Acute inflammatory cells in the background of cervical Pap smear indicate infestation and should not be neglected as contamination. A 40-year-woman presented with white vaginal discharge persistent for past 1 year. Local examination showed hypertrophied cervix with eversion of both lips and hard consistency of the anterior lip of cervix. A clinical diagnosis of cervical carcinoma was made. However, cervical Pap smear indicated EV eggs in an inflammatory background, treatment to which resulted in completely recovery. PMID:26283859

  12. An overview of head lice infestation in neurosurgical patients.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Divyesh; Kaliaperumal, Chandrasekaran; Choudhari, Kishor A

    Head lice or pediculosis is recognized as an increasing problem in medical practice (Down et al, 1999). Secondary bacterial infections can occur in patients with infestation. In neurosurgical patients, head lice infestation may be a potential risk factor for peri-operative complications. Secondary infection could further complicate neurosurgical wounds with subsequent complications. The authors discuss epidemiology, pathogenesis of potential peri-operative complications resulting from pediculosis and methodology of treatment of this common condition. The importance of early recognition and prompt treatment in patients with neurological diseases is highlighted. A simple algorithm to treat scalp pediculosis is suggested.

  13. Enterobius vermicularis infestation masquerading as cervical carcinoma: A cytological diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Raju, Kalyani; Verappa, Seema; Venkataramappa, Srinivas Murthy

    2015-01-01

    Although prevalence of Enterobius vermicularis (EV) infestation in Intestines ranges from 35% to 70%, its prevalence in female genital tract is not known despite several incidental findings. Acute inflammatory cells in the background of cervical Pap smear indicate infestation and should not be neglected as contamination. A 40-year-woman presented with white vaginal discharge persistent for past 1 year. Local examination showed hypertrophied cervix with eversion of both lips and hard consistency of the anterior lip of cervix. A clinical diagnosis of cervical carcinoma was made. However, cervical Pap smear indicated EV eggs in an inflammatory background, treatment to which resulted in completely recovery.

  14. Cutaneous furuncular myiasis: Human infestation by the botfly.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Bryan; Brown, David L

    2006-01-01

    Dermatobia hominis, the botfly, is indigenous to Central and South America. Its usual host is a mammal, often a horse or cow. Cutaneous furuncular myiasis, human infestation by the botfly, has rarely been reported. Symptoms of infestation include a locally painful, firm furuncular lesion, often with a centrally located pore. Due to their infrequent occurrence, these lesions are often misdiagnosed as cellulitis, leishmaniasis, furunculosis, staphylococcal boil, insect bite or sebaceous cyst - conditions with similar presentations. The present case reiterates the need to think of 'zebras' when hearing 'hoof beats' that may have originated in a different land.

  15. Cutaneous furuncular myiasis: Human infestation by the botfly

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, Bryan; Brown, David L

    2006-01-01

    Dermatobia hominis, the botfly, is indigenous to Central and South America. Its usual host is a mammal, often a horse or cow. Cutaneous furuncular myiasis, human infestation by the botfly, has rarely been reported. Symptoms of infestation include a locally painful, firm furuncular lesion, often with a centrally located pore. Due to their infrequent occurrence, these lesions are often misdiagnosed as cellulitis, leishmaniasis, furunculosis, staphylococcal boil, insect bite or sebaceous cyst – conditions with similar presentations. The present case reiterates the need to think of ‘zebras’ when hearing ‘hoof beats’ that may have originated in a different land. PMID:19554228

  16. Dog Bite Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    IF YOU are bitten • If your own dog bit you, confine it immediately and call your veterinarian to check your dog’s vaccination records. Consult with your veterinarian about your dog’s aggressive ...

  17. How dogs drink water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gart, Sean; Socha, Jake; Vlachos, Pavlos; Jung, Sunghwan

    2014-11-01

    Animals with incomplete cheeks (i.e. dogs and cats) need to move fluid against gravity into the body by means other than suction. They do this by lapping fluid with their tongue. When a dog drinks, it curls its tongue posteriorly while plunging it into the fluid and then quickly withdraws its tongue back into the mouth. During this fast retraction fluid sticks to the ventral part of the curled tongue and is drawn into the mouth due to inertia. We show several variations of this drinking behavior among many dog breeds, specifically, the relationship between tongue dynamics and geometry, lapping frequency, and dog weight. We also compare the results with the physical experiment of a rounded rod impact onto a fluid surface. Supported by NSF PoLS #1205642.

  18. Jealousy in Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Christine R.; Prouvost, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    It is commonly assumed that jealousy is unique to humans, partially because of the complex cognitions often involved in this emotion. However, from a functional perspective, one might expect that an emotion that evolved to protect social bonds from interlopers might exist in other social species, particularly one as cognitively sophisticated as the dog. The current experiment adapted a paradigm from human infant studies to examine jealousy in domestic dogs. We found that dogs exhibited significantly more jealous behaviors (e.g., snapping, getting between the owner and object, pushing/touching the object/owner) when their owners displayed affectionate behaviors towards what appeared to be another dog as compared to nonsocial objects. These results lend support to the hypothesis that jealousy has some “primordial” form that exists in human infants and in at least one other social species besides humans. PMID:25054800

  19. Jealousy in dogs.

    PubMed

    Harris, Christine R; Prouvost, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    It is commonly assumed that jealousy is unique to humans, partially because of the complex cognitions often involved in this emotion. However, from a functional perspective, one might expect that an emotion that evolved to protect social bonds from interlopers might exist in other social species, particularly one as cognitively sophisticated as the dog. The current experiment adapted a paradigm from human infant studies to examine jealousy in domestic dogs. We found that dogs exhibited significantly more jealous behaviors (e.g., snapping, getting between the owner and object, pushing/touching the object/owner) when their owners displayed affectionate behaviors towards what appeared to be another dog as compared to nonsocial objects. These results lend support to the hypothesis that jealousy has some "primordial" form that exists in human infants and in at least one other social species besides humans.

  20. Hybrid vigour in dogs?

    PubMed

    Nicholas, Frank W; Arnott, Elizabeth R; McGreevy, Paul D

    2016-08-01

    Evidence from other species justifies the hypotheses that useful hybrid vigour occurs in dogs and that it can be exploited for improved health, welfare and fitness for purpose. Unfortunately, most of the relevant published canine studies do not provide estimates of actual hybrid vigour because of inadequate specification of the parentage of mixed-bred dogs. To our knowledge, only three published studies have shed any light on actual hybrid vigour in dogs. There are two reports of actual hybrid vigour between Labrador and Golden retrievers, the first ranging from +2.5% to -6.0% for components of a standardised applied-stimulus behavioural test, and the second being at least +12.4% for chance of graduating as a guide dog. The third study provides a minimum estimate of negative actual hybrid vigour: crossbreds between Labrador retrievers and poodles had a higher prevalence of multifocal retinal dysplasia than the average prevalence in their purebred parent breeds. The lack of estimates of actual hybrid vigour can be overcome by including the exact nature of the cross (e.g. F1, F2 or backcross) and their purebred parental breeds in the specification of mixed-bred dogs. Even if only F1 crossbreds can be categorised, this change would enable researchers to conduct substantial investigations to determine whether hybrid vigour has any utility for dog breeding. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Fungal rhinitis in dogs.

    PubMed

    Ostrzeszewicz, M; Sapierzyński, R

    2015-01-01

    Fungal rhinitis and sinusitis in dogs are quite common reasons of chronic nasal discharge and rhinoscopy in such cases is commonly suggested. Forty three dogs were examined using rhinoscopy because of the presence of chronic airway symptoms. Clinical examination, routine hematology and serum biochemistry profiles, nasal and frontal sinus radiographs were made in all animals. Additionally, computed tomography in one dog was performed. Samples for histopathology were taken from 9 patients during rhinoscopy, additionally, from 8 of these patients samples for cytopathology were collected by blind nasal swab technique. In 9 of 43 dogs (20,5%), all males aged 1 to 13 years, examinations led to a diagnosis of fungal rhinitis. In 2 cases a diagnosis of fungal rhinitis was obtained based solely on cytopathology, while in 7 cases - mycosis of nasal mucosa was confirmed by histopathology. The present study revealed that cytopathological examination of nasal swabs has a low diagnostic value in the case of nasal infections in dogs. Although, in some dogs cytopathology, together with other widely available diagnostic techniques was sufficient to reliably diagnose fungal rhinitis, histopathology of samples collected during rhinoscopy is still the gold standard in such cases.

  2. [Prevalence of Dog circovirus in healthy and diarrhoeic dogs].

    PubMed

    Gentil, Michaela; Gruber, Achim D; Müller, Elisabeth

    2017-04-19

    In 2012, a Dog circovirus (DogCV) was discovered in the USA, which was followed by further descriptions of the virus in the USA, Italy and Germany. The present study is the first to examine the prevalence of DogCV in faeces of dogs from Germany and other European countries. Faecal samples from 184 dogs with diarrhoea and from 82 clinically healthy dogs (control group) were analysed for the presence of DogCV by PCR. Furthermore, the detection of parvovirus, coronavirus, Giardia and Cryptosporidium was performed in all samples. In the group of dogs with diarrhoea the prevalence of DogCV was 20.1% (37/184), in the healthy control group it was 7.3% (6/82). Therefore, the virus could be detected significantly more frequently in dogs with diarrhoea. The detection frequency of DogCV is comparable with those of the other tested pathogens. In approximately 50% of the DogCV-positive dogs, infections with other enteropathogenic organisms were diagnosed. The role of co-infection in the pathogenesis of the disease remains unclear, but there appears to be an association between co-infection and disease severity. Evidence of DogCV in clinically healthy dogs appears important for the epidemiology and raises questions about its pathogenicity. Further studies are needed to clarify questions regarding the pathogenesis, causal relevance and possible interference by other diarrhoeal pathogens. Nevertheless, the results of this study are an important indication that DogCV should be considered as a differential diagnosis in dogs with diarrhoea.

  3. Onset of efficacy and residual speed of kill over one month of a topical dinotefuran-permethrin-pyriproxyfen combination (Vectra ® 3D) against the adult cat flea (Ctenocephalides felis felis) on dogs.

    PubMed

    Varloud, Marie; Fourie, Josephus J

    2015-06-30

    This study was designed to assess the onset of therapeutic and residual insecticidal efficacy of a topical ectoparasiticide (Vectra(®)3D, DPP) on dogs over one month against the cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis felis. Adult dogs (n=32, 11.0-18.7 kg) were infested with 100 adult fleas on days -6, -2, 7, 14, 21 and 28. Based on flea retention, the dogs were allocated in two groups and were treated topically on day 0 with a control solution (CS) or DPP. Each group was divided in two subgroups in which live fleas were counted by combing the dogs 2 or 6h after treatment and at each re-infestation. The insecticidal efficacy was calculated using arithmetic and geometric means at each time point. The flea retention rate ranged from 64.0 to 86.5% in the CS group throughout the study. Based on arithmetic means, the therapeutic efficacy was 96.4% 6h post-treatment and residual efficacies ranged from 96.8 to 99.9% 2h after each re-infestation. The residual speed of killing effectiveness, >96% at 2h, persisted for one month after treatment. DPP administration was well tolerated. This study confirms that DPP starts killing fleas within 2h after treatment and reaches efficacy levels >95% at 6h. We have shown that DPP kills >96.8% of fleas for one month after treatment within 2h after infestation.

  4. [Exaggerated breed characteristics in dogs].

    PubMed

    Wilting, M M; Endenburg, N

    2012-01-01

    Dutch dog owners seem to be aware of bad dog breeding practices with regard to exaggerated breed characteristics that are detrimental to the dog's welfare. Yet they do not always look for these features when buying a dog. Most dog owners think that veterinarians could have an important role in preventing these exaggerated physical traits, by providing information about these traits and taking action in their capacity as veterinarian. Articles 36 and 55 of the Dutch GWWD (animal health and welfare law) provide opportunities to act against the breeding of dogs with exaggerated genetic traits.

  5. Familial anthropophobia in pointer dogs?

    PubMed

    Dykman, R A; Murphree, O D; Reese, W G

    1979-08-01

    This article assesses a dog model in terms of a proposed cross-species definition of phobia, the model referring to a strain of unstable dogs that has been produced by selection and inbreeding. The unstable dogs are contrasted with a strain of stable dogs. New findings are presented on approach and activity behavior toward three stimulus objects (man, another dog, and a sheet-covered chair) in a naturalistic setting. The fear response of unstable dogs to objects other than man habituates gradually, whereas the fear response to the sight of man is far more enduring, suggesting a relatively specific fear of man.

  6. Parasites in the fossil record: a Cretaceous fauna with isopod-infested decapod crustaceans, infestation patterns through time, and a new ichnotaxon.

    PubMed

    Klompmaker, Adiël A; Artal, Pedro; van Bakel, Barry W M; Fraaije, René H B; Jagt, John W M

    2014-01-01

    Parasites are common in modern ecosystems and are also known from the fossil record. One of the best preserved and easily recognisable examples of parasitism in the fossil record concerns isopod-induced swellings in the branchial chamber of marine decapod crustaceans. However, very limited quantitative data on the variability of infestation percentages at the species, genus, and family levels are available. Here we provide this type of data for a mid-Cretaceous (upper Lower Cretaceous, upper Albian) reef setting at Koskobilo, northern Spain, on the basis of 874 specimens of anomurans and brachyurans. Thirty-seven specimens (4.2%), arranged in ten species, are infested. Anomurans are more heavily infested than brachyurans, variability can be high within genera, and a relationship may exist between the number of specimens and infestation percentage per taxon, possibly suggesting host-specificity. We have also investigated quantitative patterns of infestation through geological time based on 88 infested species (25 anomurans, 55 brachyurans, seven lobsters, and one shrimp), to show that the highest number of infested species can be found in the Late Jurassic, also when corrected for the unequal duration of epochs. The same Late Jurassic peak is observed for the percentage of infested decapod species per epoch. This acme is caused entirely by infested anomurans and brachyurans. Biases (taphonomic and otherwise) and causes of variability with regard to the Koskobilo assemblage and infestation patterns through time are discussed. Finally, a new ichnogenus and -species, Kanthyloma crusta, are erected to accommodate such swellings or embedment structures (bioclaustrations).

  7. The prevalence of Anaplasma platys and a potential novel Anaplasma species exceed that of Ehrlichia canis in asymptomatic dogs and Rhipicephalus sanguineus in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Yuasa, Yumi; Tsai, Yi-Lun; Chang, Chao-Chin; Hsu, Tien-Huan; Chou, Chi-Chung

    2017-09-12

    Canine anaplasmosis is regarded as an infection by Anaplasma platys rather than zoonotic Anaplasma phagocytophilum in subtropical areas based on the assumption that the common dog tick species is Rhipicephalus sanguineus, which transmits E. canis and presumably A. platys. We investigated asymptomatic dogs and dog ticks from 16 communities in Nantou County, Taiwan to identify common dog tick species and to determine the prevalence of Anaplasma and Ehrlichia spp. Of total 175 canine blood samples and 315 ticks, including 306 R. sanguineus and 9 Haemaphysalis hystricis, 15 dogs and 3 R. sanguineus ticks were positive for E. canis, while 47 dogs and 71 R. sanguineus ticks were positive for A. platys, via nested PCR for 16S rDNA and DNA sequencing of selected positive amplicons. However, among the dogs and ticks that were positive to A. platys 16S rDNA, only 20 dogs and 11 ticks were positive to nested PCR for A. platys groEL gene. These results revealed the importance of searching for novel Anaplasma spp. closely related to A. platys in dogs and ticks. Seropositivity to a commercial immunochromatographic test SNAP 4Dx Anaplasma sp. was not significantly associated with PCR positivity for A. platys but with infestation by ticks carrying A. platys (P<0.05). Accordingly, R. sanguineus may be involved in transmission of A. platys but may not act as a reservoir of E. canis and PCR results for 16S rDNA could be a problematic diagnostic index for A. platys infection.

  8. Ticks (Acari: Ixodida: Argasidae, Ixodidae) infesting humans in Northwestern Cordoba Province, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Nava, Santiago; Caparrós, José A; Mangold, Atilio J; Guglielmone, Alberto A

    2006-01-01

    Ticks infesting humans were collected from September 2004 to August 2005 in Northwestern Córdoba in an area with a southern limit in the locality of Dean Funes (30 degrees 25'S 64 degrees 20'W) and San José de las Salinas (30 degrees 00'S 64 degrees 37'W) in the North. The collections consisted in ticks found attached on man obtained from three sources: 1) specimens fixed on two workers during two successive days per month of field work in the northern part of the area which belongs to Western Chaco district of the phytogeographical Chaco domain, 2) ticks attached to a man working in a farm close to Dean Funes in the Chaco Serrano district of the Chaco domain and, 3) ticks collected from a collaborator visiting daily a suburban property with dogs in the vicinities of Dean Funes. Most ticks collected were larvae, nymphs and adults of Amblyomma neumanni from the Chaco Serrano district where a nymph of Otobius megnini was also found on man. Adults of Amblyomma parvum and Amblyomma tigrinum were detected feeding on humans in the Western Chaco district and in the property close to Dean Funes, respectively. Amblyomma neumanni was absent on man from December to April while most specimens of A. parvum and A. tigrinum were collected during summer. Their role as potential vector of tick-transmitted diseases in the area is unknown.

  9. Community-based control of the brown dog tick in a region with high rates of Rocky Mountain spotted fever, 2012-2013.

    PubMed

    Drexler, Naomi; Miller, Mark; Gerding, Justin; Todd, Suzanne; Adams, Laura; Dahlgren, F Scott; Bryant, Nelva; Weis, Erica; Herrick, Kristen; Francies, Jessica; Komatsu, Kenneth; Piontkowski, Stephen; Velascosoltero, Jose; Shelhamer, Timothy; Hamilton, Brian; Eribes, Carmen; Brock, Anita; Sneezy, Patsy; Goseyun, Cye; Bendle, Harty; Hovet, Regina; Williams, Velda; Massung, Robert; McQuiston, Jennifer H

    2014-01-01

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) transmitted by the brown dog tick (Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato) has emerged as a significant public health risk on American Indian reservations in eastern Arizona. During 2003-2012, more than 250 RMSF cases and 19 deaths were documented among Arizona's American Indian population. The high case fatality rate makes community-level interventions aimed at rapid and sustained reduction of ticks urgent. Beginning in 2012, a two year pilot integrated tick prevention campaign called the RMSF Rodeo was launched in a ∼ 600-home tribal community with high rates of RMSF. During year one, long-acting tick collars were placed on all dogs in the community, environmental acaricides were applied to yards monthly, and animal care practices such as spay and neuter and proper tethering procedures were encouraged. Tick levels, indicated by visible inspection of dogs, tick traps and homeowner reports were used to monitor tick presence and evaluate the efficacy of interventions throughout the project. By the end of year one, <1% of dogs in the RMSF Rodeo community had visible tick infestations five months after the project was started, compared to 64% of dogs in Non-Rodeo communities, and environmental tick levels were reduced below detectable levels. The second year of the project focused on use of the long-acting collar alone and achieved sustained tick control with fewer than 3% of dogs in the RMSF Rodeo community with visible tick infestations by the end of the second year. Homeowner reports of tick activity in the domestic and peridomestic setting showed similar decreases in tick activity compared to the non-project communities. Expansion of this successful project to other areas with Rhipicephalus-transmitted RMSF has the potential to reduce brown dog tick infestations and save human lives.

  10. Community-Based Control of the Brown Dog Tick in a Region with High Rates of Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever, 2012–2013

    PubMed Central

    Drexler, Naomi; Miller, Mark; Gerding, Justin; Todd, Suzanne; Adams, Laura; Dahlgren, F. Scott; Bryant, Nelva; Weis, Erica; Herrick, Kristen; Francies, Jessica; Komatsu, Kenneth; Piontkowski, Stephen; Velascosoltero, Jose; Shelhamer, Timothy; Hamilton, Brian; Eribes, Carmen; Brock, Anita; Sneezy, Patsy; Goseyun, Cye; Bendle, Harty; Hovet, Regina; Williams, Velda; Massung, Robert; McQuiston, Jennifer H.

    2014-01-01

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) transmitted by the brown dog tick (Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato) has emerged as a significant public health risk on American Indian reservations in eastern Arizona. During 2003–2012, more than 250 RMSF cases and 19 deaths were documented among Arizona's American Indian population. The high case fatality rate makes community-level interventions aimed at rapid and sustained reduction of ticks urgent. Beginning in 2012, a two year pilot integrated tick prevention campaign called the RMSF Rodeo was launched in a ∼600-home tribal community with high rates of RMSF. During year one, long-acting tick collars were placed on all dogs in the community, environmental acaricides were applied to yards monthly, and animal care practices such as spay and neuter and proper tethering procedures were encouraged. Tick levels, indicated by visible inspection of dogs, tick traps and homeowner reports were used to monitor tick presence and evaluate the efficacy of interventions throughout the project. By the end of year one, <1% of dogs in the RMSF Rodeo community had visible tick infestations five months after the project was started, compared to 64% of dogs in Non-Rodeo communities, and environmental tick levels were reduced below detectable levels. The second year of the project focused on use of the long-acting collar alone and achieved sustained tick control with fewer than 3% of dogs in the RMSF Rodeo community with visible tick infestations by the end of the second year. Homeowner reports of tick activity in the domestic and peridomestic setting showed similar decreases in tick activity compared to the non-project communities. Expansion of this successful project to other areas with Rhipicephalus-transmitted RMSF has the potential to reduce brown dog tick infestations and save human lives. PMID:25479289

  11. Experimental examinations concerning the problem of deformed emerging bees after infestation with Varroa jacobsoni.

    PubMed

    Koch, W; Ritter, W

    1991-07-01

    The deformations of bees occurring in connection with varroatosis was examined both in case of natural and artificial infestation. Under both conditions, the number of bees showing wing deformations increased with the degree of mite infestation. Shortened abdomina, however, only appeared in the case of natural infestation. Inadequate brood care in colonies severely infested by Varroa mites is supposed to be responsible. Wing deformations could be produced by experimental haemolymph extraction.

  12. Efficacy and safety of a novel oral isoxazoline, sarolaner (Simparica™), for the treatment of sarcoptic mange in dogs.

    PubMed

    Becskei, Csilla; De Bock, Filip; Illambas, Joanna; Cherni, Judith A; Fourie, Josephus J; Lane, Melanie; Mahabir, Sean P; Six, Robert H

    2016-05-30

    The efficacy of the novel isoxazoline, sarolaner (Simparica™) was investigated in dogs with clinical signs consistent with sarcoptic mange and harbouring natural infestations of Sarcoptes scabiei. One placebo-controlled laboratory study and one multi-centred field study with a commercial comparator containing imidacloprid/moxidectin (Advocate(®) spot-on) were conducted. Oral or topical treatments were administered on Days 0 and 30. Up to 10 skin scrapings were taken for the assessment of S. scabiei infestations from each dog before treatment and on Days 14, 30, 44 and 60 in the laboratory study, and on Days 30 and 60 in the field study. In the laboratory study, efficacy was calculated based on the percent reduction of mean live mite counts compared to the placebo group. In the field study parasitological cure rate (% dogs free of mites) was determined and non-inferiority of sarolaner to the control product was assessed. In the laboratory study 44 mixed breed dogs were enrolled in four batches. Due to decreasing mite counts in the placebo treated dogs, immunosuppression with dexamethasone (0.4mg/kg three times per week for two weeks) was initiated in all dogs on study at that time (n=6) and those subsequently enrolled (n=14). In the field study, dogs were enrolled in a 2:1 ratio (sarolaner:comparator); 79 dogs were assessed for efficacy and safety, and an additional 45 dogs were assessed for safety only. There were no treatment related adverse events in either study. In the laboratory study, no mites were found on any sarolaner-treated dogs 14 days after the first treatment except for one dog that had a single mite on Day 44. In the field study, the parasitological cure rate was 88.7% and 100% in the sarolaner group and 84.6% and 96.0% in the imidacloprid/moxidectin group, on Days 30 and 60, respectively. Statistical analysis showed that sarolaner was non-inferior to imidacloprid/moxidectin at both time points. The clinical signs of sarcoptic mange, including

  13. Molecular epidemiology of the emerging zoonosis agent Anaplasma phagocytophilum (Foggie, 1949) in dogs and ixodid ticks in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Anaplasma phagocytophilum is an emerging pathogen of humans, dogs and other animals, and it is transmitted by ixodid ticks. The objective of the current study was a) detect A. phagocytophilum in dogs and ixodid ticks using real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction (qPCR); and b) Determine important variables associated to host, environment and potential tick vectors that are related to the presence of A. phagocytophilum in dogs domiciled in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Methods We tested blood samples from 398 dogs and samples from 235 ticks, including 194 Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato, 15 Amblyomma cajennense, 8 Amblyomma ovale and 18 pools of Amblyomma sp. nymphs. A semi-structured questionnaire was applied by interviewing each dog owner. Deoxyribonucleic acid obtained from ticks and dog buffy coat samples were amplified by qPCR (msp2 gene). The sequencing of 16S rRNA and groESL heat shock operon genes and a phylogenetic analysis was performed. The multiple logistic regression model was created as a function of testing positive dogs for A. phagocytophilum. Results Among the 398 blood samples from dogs, 6.03% were positive for A. phagocytophilum. Anaplasma phagocytophilum was detected in one A. cajennense female tick and in five R. sanguineus sensu lato ticks (four males and one female). The partial sequences of the 16S rRNA, and groESL genes obtained were highly similar to strains of A. phagocytophilum isolated from wild birds from Brazil and human pathogenic strains. The tick species collected in positive dogs were R. sanguineus sensu lato and A. cajennense, with A.cajennense being predominant. Tick infestation history (OR = 2.86, CI = 1.98-14.87), dog size (OR = 2.41, IC: 1.51-12.67), the access to forest areas (OR = 3:51, CI: 1.52-16.32), hygiene conditions of the environment in which the dogs lived (OR = 4.35, CI: 1.86-18.63) and Amblyomma sp. infestation (OR = 6.12; CI: 2.11-28.15) were associated with A. phagocytophilum

  14. Molecular epidemiology of the emerging zoonosis agent Anaplasma phagocytophilum (Foggie, 1949) in dogs and ixodid ticks in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Santos, Huarrisson A; Thomé, Sandra M G; Baldani, Cristiane D; Silva, Claudia B; Peixoto, Maristela P; Pires, Marcus S; Vitari, Gabriela L V; Costa, Renata L; Santos, Tiago M; Angelo, Isabele C; Santos, Leandro A; Faccini, João L H; Massard, Carlos L

    2013-12-11

    Anaplasma phagocytophilum is an emerging pathogen of humans, dogs and other animals, and it is transmitted by ixodid ticks. The objective of the current study was a) detect A. phagocytophilum in dogs and ixodid ticks using real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction (qPCR); and b) Determine important variables associated to host, environment and potential tick vectors that are related to the presence of A. phagocytophilum in dogs domiciled in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. We tested blood samples from 398 dogs and samples from 235 ticks, including 194 Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato, 15 Amblyomma cajennense, 8 Amblyomma ovale and 18 pools of Amblyomma sp. nymphs. A semi-structured questionnaire was applied by interviewing each dog owner. Deoxyribonucleic acid obtained from ticks and dog buffy coat samples were amplified by qPCR (msp2 gene). The sequencing of 16S rRNA and groESL heat shock operon genes and a phylogenetic analysis was performed. The multiple logistic regression model was created as a function of testing positive dogs for A. phagocytophilum. Among the 398 blood samples from dogs, 6.03% were positive for A. phagocytophilum. Anaplasma phagocytophilum was detected in one A. cajennense female tick and in five R. sanguineus sensu lato ticks (four males and one female). The partial sequences of the 16S rRNA, and groESL genes obtained were highly similar to strains of A. phagocytophilum isolated from wild birds from Brazil and human pathogenic strains. The tick species collected in positive dogs were R. sanguineus sensu lato and A. cajennense, with A.cajennense being predominant. Tick infestation history (OR = 2.86, CI = 1.98-14.87), dog size (OR = 2.41, IC: 1.51-12.67), the access to forest areas (OR = 3:51, CI: 1.52-16.32), hygiene conditions of the environment in which the dogs lived (OR = 4.35, CI: 1.86-18.63) and Amblyomma sp. infestation (OR = 6.12; CI: 2.11-28.15) were associated with A. phagocytophilum infection in dogs. This is the

  15. Gene structure of the two-domain taurocyamine kinase from Paragonimus westermani: evidence for a distinct lineage of trematode phosphagen kinases.

    PubMed

    Jarilla, Blanca R; Tokuhiro, Shinji; Nagataki, Mitsuru; Uda, Kouji; Suzuki, Tomohiko; Acosta, Luz P; Agatsuma, Takeshi

    2013-07-11

    Taurocyamine kinase (TK) is an enzyme that catalyzes the reversible transfer of a phosphate between ATP and taurocyamine. Annelid TKs were suggested to have evolved from a CK ancestor. However, TKs from the lung fluke Paragonimus westermani comprised another lineage. Construction of phylogenetic tree and comparison of exon/intron organization showed that P. westermani TK and other trematode TKs evolved from a molluscan arginine kinase (AK) gene. Exon shuffling probably caused the changes in amino acid sequence thereby changing the affinity from AK to TK. The present study provides new insights on the evolution of phosphagen kinases found in trematodes. Copyright © 2013 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of blockers of Ca2+ channels and other ion channels on in vitro excystment of Paragonimus ohirai metacercariae induced by sodium cholate.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Teruaki

    2004-11-01

    The inhibitory effects of various ion channel blockers were examined on in vitro excystment of Paragonimus ohirai metacercariae induced by a bile salt, sodium cholate. At a concentration of 10 microM, bepridil, a non-selective Ca(2+) channel blocker, completely inhibited in vitro excystment, whereas TEA, lidocaine, and R(+)-IAA-94, channel blockers against K(+), Na(+) and Cl(-) ions, respectively, benzamil, an Na(+)/H(+) and Na(+)/Ca(2+) ion exchanger blocker, and R(+)-DIOA, a [K(+), Cl(-)] cotransporter inhibitor, did not. Considering the previous result that Ca(2+) ionophores are also efficient inducing factors for in vitro excystment of P. ohirai metacercariae and the present result, bile salts appear to induce the excystment of P. ohirai metacercariae through evoking the Ca(2+) channels of target cells within the metacercarial juveniles.

  17. 9 CFR 72.12 - Cattle; exposure to tick infestation after treatment or inspection prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cattle; exposure to tick infestation... (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.12 Cattle; exposure to tick infestation after treatment or inspection prohibited. The cattle shall not be exposed to tick infestation...

  18. 9 CFR 72.12 - Cattle; exposure to tick infestation after treatment or inspection prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cattle; exposure to tick infestation... (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.12 Cattle; exposure to tick infestation after treatment or inspection prohibited. The cattle shall not be exposed to tick infestation...

  19. 9 CFR 72.12 - Cattle; exposure to tick infestation after treatment or inspection prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cattle; exposure to tick infestation... (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS BOVINE BABESIOSIS § 72.12 Cattle; exposure to tick infestation after treatment or inspection prohibited. The cattle shall not be exposed to tick infestation after treatment and...

  20. 9 CFR 72.12 - Cattle; exposure to tick infestation after treatment or inspection prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cattle; exposure to tick infestation... (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.12 Cattle; exposure to tick infestation after treatment or inspection prohibited. The cattle shall not be exposed to tick infestation...

  1. 9 CFR 72.12 - Cattle; exposure to tick infestation after treatment or inspection prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cattle; exposure to tick infestation... (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.12 Cattle; exposure to tick infestation after treatment or inspection prohibited. The cattle shall not be exposed to tick infestation...

  2. 78 FR 24665 - Gypsy Moth Generally Infested Areas; Additions in Wisconsin

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-26

    ... Inspection Service 7 CFR Part 301 Gypsy Moth Generally Infested Areas; Additions in Wisconsin AGENCY: Animal... are amending the gypsy moth regulations by adding areas in Wisconsin to the list of generally infested areas based on the detection of infestations of gypsy moth in those areas. As a result of this action...

  3. Tropilaelaps mercedesae and Varroa destructor: prevalence and reproduction in concurrently infested Apis mellifera colonies

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The prevalence of Tropilaelaps mercedesae and Varroa destructor in concurrently infested A. mellifera colonies in Thailand was monitored. We also assessed the reproductive ability of T. mercedesae and V. destructor in naturally infested brood and in brood cells deliberately infested with both mite g...

  4. Prevalence and reproduction of Tropilaelaps mercedesae and Varroa destructor in concurrently infested Apis mellifera colonies

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The prevalence of Tropilaelaps mercedesae and Varroa destructor in concurrently infested A. mellifera colonies in Thailand was monitored. We also assessed the fecundity of T. mercedesae and V. destructor in naturally infested brood and in brood cells deliberately infested with both mite genera. Resu...

  5. Detection and prediction of Sitophilus oryzae infestations in triticale via near infrared spectral signature

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The goal of this research was to detect and predict degree of triticale seed infestation with rice weevils using near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy. Groups of seeds at 11 different levels (degrees) of infestation were tested by combining mixtures of infested and uninfested seeds at different ratios. S...

  6. Determination of degree of infestation of triticale seed using NIR spectroscopy

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Insect infestation of seeds of the triticale hybrid, Triticosecale, causes extraordinary storage losses as a consequence of vulnerability of triticale seed to insect infestation and its soft coat. Rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae (L.), is a common insect that causes infestation in Florida, which was t...

  7. Infestation Trends of Balsam Woolly Aphid in an Abies Alba Plantation in North Carolina

    Treesearch

    Gene D. Amman; Gerhard F. Fedde

    1971-01-01

    Infestations of the balsam woolly aphid, Adelges piceae (Ratz.), on European silver fir trees in a plantation were observed over a 7-year period. Infestations were usually light, but occasionally increased to heavy. Heavy infestations declined within 1 or 2 years without killing the trees or causing them apparent damage.

  8. Reducing costly zebra mussel infestations at power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Smythe, G.

    1994-10-01

    The fast-spreading-zebra mussel has significant potential to foul intakes and other water systems at North American hydro projects. Chemical controls can be effective in reducing infestations, but most have environmental and other drawbacks. Several non-chemical methods promise to help project operators reduce problems associated with the mussels.

  9. Remote sensing for detecting and mapping whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) infestations

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Remote sensing technology has long been used for detecting insect infestations on agricultural crops. With recent advances in remote sensing sensors and other spatial information technologies such as Global Position Systems (GPS) and Geographic Information Systems (GIS), remote sensing is finding mo...

  10. Concurrent puerperal hysterectomy with Ascaris lumbricoides infestation: coincidence or consequence?

    PubMed

    Zapardiel, Ignacio; Peiretti, Michele; Godoy-Tundidor, Sonia

    2010-04-01

    The most common etiology of postpartum hemorrhage is uterine atony, although hematologic disorders may be present. A 36-year-old nulliparous woman underwent puerperal hysterectomy caused by uncontrolled postpartum hemorrhage. One day after discharge, she vomited in the emergency room a 24-cm long Ascaris lumbricoides. Infestation during gestation may cause hematologic disorders that could complicate pregnancy outcome.

  11. Coping with the gypsy moth on new frontiers of infestation

    Treesearch

    David A. Gansner; Owen W. Herrick; Garland N. Mason; Kurt W. Gottschalk

    1987-01-01

    Forest managers on new frontiers of infestation are searching for better ways to cope with the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar). Presented herea are information and guidelines for remedial action to minimize future losses. Methods for assessing potential stand defoliation (susceptibility) and mortality (vulnerability), monitoring insect populations, and...

  12. Detection of internally infested popcorn using electrically conductive roller mills

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    To detect popcorn kernels infested by the internal feeding stored-product insect pest Sitophilus zeamais, maize weevil, a laboratory roller mill was modified so that the electrical conductivity of the grain is measured while the kernels are milled between the rolls. When a kernel with a S. zeamais l...

  13. Charring does not affect wood infestation by subterranean termites

    Treesearch

    C.J. Peterson; P.D. Gerard; T.L. Wagner

    2007-01-01

    Fire is an important part of forest ecosystems, as is the insect fauna. Changes in wood brought aboutby fire may alter the ability of termites to use the wood, interrupting the decay cycle of woody debris.The ability of termites to find, infest, and feed upon wood after it had been charred was evaluated in

  14. Parental attitudes towards head lice infestation in Greece.

    PubMed

    Doulgeraki, Artemis; Valari, Manthoula

    2011-06-01

    Pediculosis capitis constitutes a growing problem worldwide and is usually considered as an inconvenience. Parents often handle this infestation on their own initiative. We conducted a survey in order to depict the parental attitudes towards head lice infestation in Greece. Parents of children aged 3-14 years, attending a dermatology outpatient clinic at a children's hospital, were given a questionnaire regarding head lice. Demographic data, management, and prevention strategies were included in the questionnaire. Three-hundred and seventy-two complete questionnaires were analyzed (response rate: 89%). Pediculosis capitis was more prevalent in the age groups 3-5 years and 6-8 years. The percentage of parents of infested children who sought advice on treatment from the pharmacist was 73%, and only 15% consulted their doctor. Chemical agents to treat head lice were used by 59% of them, products containing natural oils by 38%, and wet combing in parallel was employed by 79% of them. Preventive measures were employed by 66% of the respondents, and 54% applied botanical and synthetic products commercially available for this purpose. There is a trend towards the use of natural oils for either prevention or treatment. More needs to be done to promote public education and rational use of either pediculicides or non-pharmacological agents for pediculosis capitis infestation. © 2011 The International Society of Dermatology.

  15. Rehabilitation of cheatgrass-infested rangelands: applications and practices

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The challenges that land owners and resource managers face when trying to attempt applications and practices when attempting to rehabilitate rangelands infested with cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) are over-whelming. Simply purchasing seed and spreading it throughout the rangelands is doomed for failu...

  16. Does the removal of mite-infested brood facilitate grooming?

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The relationship between the removal of mite-infested brood and mite drop was compared using Russian (RHB, n = 9) and Italian (IHB, n = 9) honey bee colonies. A cloake board was used to isolate test brood frame on the top hive body and the metal sheet served as a varroa trap. Inoculum mites were col...

  17. Cases of bed bug (Cimex lectularius) infestations in Northwest Italy.

    PubMed

    Giorda, Federica; Guardone, Lisa; Mancini, Marialetizia; Accorsi, Annalisa; Macchioni, Fabio; Mignone, Walter

    2013-01-01

    CBed bugs (Cimex lectularius) have been a common problem for humans for at least 3,500 years and in Europe their presence was endemic until the end of World War II, when infestations began to decrease. However, since the beginning of the 21st century new cases of infestations have been reported in developed countries. Many theories have been put forward to explain this change of direction, but none has been scientifically proven. The aim of this study is to provide some reports of bed bug infestations in Northern Italy (Liguria, Piedmont and Aosta valley regions) and a brief summary about their identification, clinical significance, bioecology and control. From 2008 to date, 17 bed bug infestations were identified in Northwest Italy. Knowledge about the presence and distribution of bed bugs in Italy is scanty, prior to this work only 2 studies reported the comeback of these arthropods in the Italian territory; further investigations would be necessary to better understand the current situation.

  18. Oxidative enzyme changes in sorghum infested by shoot fly.

    PubMed

    Padmaja, P G; Shwetha, B L; Swetha, G; Patil, J V

    2014-01-01

    This research investigated the role of oxidative enzymes in the defense response of sorghum, Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench (Poales: Poaceae), to the sorghum shoot fly, Atherigona soccata Rondani (Diptera: Muscidae). Changes in polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase activity and total protein content were observed in resistant and susceptible sorghum genotypes in response to A. soccata feeding. Resistant plants exhibited higher levels of peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase activities and total protein content compared with susceptible plants. Peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase activities and total protein content in the infested resistant and susceptible genotypes were higher when compared with their control plants, respectively. These findings suggest that resistant genotypes may be able to tolerate shoot fly feeding by increasing their peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase activities. Among the enzymes examined, differences in isozyme profiles for peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase were detected between control and infested IS 18551, M35-1, 296B, SSV 84, and DJ 6514 plants. Differences in protein profiles were observed between A. soccata infested and their respective uninfested controls of all the genotypes. In conclusion, this study revealed that these defense enzymes and proteins might attribute to the resistance mechanisms in sorghum plants against A. soccata infestation.

  19. Susceptibility of pear to European pear sawfly fruit infestation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The European pear sawfly, Hoplocampa brevis (Klug), is a relatively new pest in the Mid-Atlantic fruit production region. A plot containing twelve Pyrus communis pear cultivars and one breeder’s selection in a randomized block design was surveyed for fruit damage. Infestation frequency ranged from...

  20. Kraft pulp from budworm-infested jack pine

    Treesearch

    J. Y. Zhu; Gary C. Myers

    2006-01-01

    This study evaluated the quality of kraft pulp from bud-worm-infested jack pine. The logs were classified as merchantable live, suspect, or merchantable dead. Raw materials were evaluated through visual inspection, analysis of the chemical composition, SilviScan measurement of the density, and measurement of the tracheid length. Unbleached pulps were then refined using...

  1. INTEGRATED MANAGEMENT OF LEAFY SPURGE-INFESTED RANGELAND

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Leafy spurge is an invasive Eurasian weed on pastures and rangeland in North America where it reduces grass forage production. Our objective was to determine the effects of multispecies grazing combined with Aphthona 'ea beetles on leafy spurge-infested rangeland. On two western North Dakota sites d...

  2. Infestation of grasses by eriophyoid mites (Acari: Eriophyoidea) in Turkey

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Despite the economic importance of eriophyoid mites as agricultural pests, especially of cereal crops, knowledge of the eriophyoid fauna in Turkey remains inc